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Sample records for diagnostic delay broadly

  1. Reasons for diagnostic delay in gynecological malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandborg, Mai Partridge; Christensen, René dePont Christensen; Kragstrup, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    (≤ or > 60 years), performance of gynecological examination by the GP and notification of cancer suspicion on first referral from GP’s on the diagnostic delay (short delay ≤90 days and long delay >90 days). Results Across cancer type a median total delay of 101 days was observed. The 10% of women......Aim The primary aim of this study was to identify and describe different delay types in women with gynecologic cancer, and to analyze the relationship between diagnostic delay and a number of characteristics for patients, cancers and the health care system. Setting A cohort study of women newly......) and The Danish Gynecological Cancer Database (DGCD). 161 women were included; ovarian cancer: 63, endometrial cancer: 50, cervical cancer: 34 and vulvar cancer: 14. Outcome measures were different delay types counted in days and the influence of four clinical important variables: Presence of alarm symptoms, age...

  2. Diagnostic Delay in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbaek, Karen; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim; Primdahl, Jette

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To prevent joint damage among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), there is a need to minimize delays from the onset of symptoms until the initiation of appropriate therapy. The present study explored the factors that have an impact on the time it takes for Danish patients with RA...

  3. Factors associated with long diagnostic delay in celiac disease.

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    Fuchs, Valma; Kurppa, Kalle; Huhtala, Heini; Collin, Pekka; Mäki, Markku; Kaukinen, Katri

    2014-11-01

    Here, we investigated the factors associated with long diagnostic delay in celiac disease and the impact of the national Current Care Guidelines in reducing the delay. This population-based study involved 825 adult celiac disease patients. The diagnosis was considered delayed when the interval between first symptoms and diagnosis was >10 years. The patients were asked about the duration and type of symptoms before diagnosis, time and site (tertiary, secondary, or primary care) of the diagnosis, family history of the disease, and presence of significant comorbidities. Analysis was performed by binary logistic regression. Altogether, 261 (32%) out of 825 participants reported a diagnostic delay of >10 years. Female gender, neurological or musculoskeletal disorders and presence of diarrhea, abdominal pain, and malabsorption were associated with prolonged delay. Male gender, diagnosis after the introduction of the first Current Care Guidelines in 1997, and being detected by serological screening, and family history of celiac disease were associated with a lower risk of delayed diagnosis. Factors not associated with the delay were site of diagnosis, age, and presence of dermatitis herpetiformis, type 1 diabetes, or thyroidal disease. The number of long diagnostic delays in celiac disease has decreased over the past decades. The shift of diagnostics from secondary and tertiary care to primary care has not been detrimental. National guidelines together with increased awareness and active screening in at-risk groups of celiac disease are important in these circumstances.

  4. Graduated diagnostics required. Broad spectrum of differential diagnoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auer, I.O.

    1997-01-01

    The time lapse between initial symptoms and secured diagnosis of colitis ulcerosa still is 6-8 weeks, in case of M. Crohn even about 30 weeks. A graduated diagnostic approach is required: phase 1 relies on non-invasive methods such as anamnesis, physical examination, examination of stools, blood chemistry and sonography of the abdomen; phase 2 ecompasses endoscopy and radiological techniques, phase 3 computed tomography and MRI for detection of complications. The results of the leucodiagnosis by scintiscanning, for detection of inflammations of and out of the intestine, offer a still inhomogenous picture in terms of sensitivity and specificity. (orig./MG) [de

  5. A new method for analyzing diagnostic delay in gynecological cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandborg, Mai Partridge; Edwards, Kasper; Kragtrup, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    AND METHODS: Six women with a diagnostic delay of 6 weeks or more before treatment of gynecological cancer at a specialized regional department (the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Odense University Hospital, Denmark) were included in the study. Maps of existing processes were performed for each...

  6. A New Method for Analyzing Diagnostic Delay in Gynecological Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandborg, Mai Partridge; Edwards, Kasper; Kragstrup, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    AND METHODS: Six women with a diagnostic delay of 6 weeks or more before treatment of gynecological cancer at a specialized regional department (the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Odense University Hospital, Denmark) were included in the study. Maps of existing processes were performed for each...

  7. Factors affecting the diagnostic delay in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellura, Eleonora; Spataro, Rossella; Taiello, Alfonsa Claudia; La Bella, Vincenzo

    2012-07-01

    Although amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a relentlessly progressive disorder, early diagnosis allows a prompt start with the specific drug riluzole and an accurate palliative care planning. ALS at onset may however mimic several disorders, some of them treatable (e.g., multifocal motor neuropathy) or epidemiologically more frequent (e.g., cervical myelopathy). To study the delay from onset to diagnosis in a cohort of ALS patients and to the variables that may affect it. We performed a retrospective analysis of the diagnostic delays in a cohort of 260 patients affected by ALS (M/F = 1.32) followed at our tertiary referral ALS Center between 2000 and 2007. The median time from onset to diagnosis was 11 months (range: 6-21) for the whole ALS cohort, 10 months (range: 6-15) in bulbar-onset (n = 65) and 12 months (range: 7-23) in spinal-onset (n = 195) patients (p = 0.3). 31.1% of patients received other diagnoses before ALS and this led to a significant delay of the correct diagnosis in this group (other diagnoses before ALS, n = 81: median delay, 15 months [9.75-24.25] vs ALS, n = 179, median delay, 9 months [6-15.25], p heuristics might represent an important contributing factor. Furthermore, the length of the differential diagnosis from other disorders and delays in referral to the neurologist seems to be positively associated with the delay in diagnosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. GRB 110530A: Peculiar Broad Bump and Delayed Plateau in Early Optical Afterglows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shu-Qing; Xin, Li-Ping; Liang, En-Wei; Wei, Jian-Yan; Urata, Yuji; Huang, Kui-Yun; Qiu, Yu-Lei; Deng, Can-Min; Wang, Yuan-Zhu; Deng, Jin-Song

    2016-11-01

    We report our very early optical observations of GRB 110530A and investigate its jet properties together with its X-ray afterglow data. A peculiar broad onset bump followed by a plateau is observed in its early R band afterglow light curve. The optical data in the other bands and the X-ray data are well consistent with the temporal feature of the R band light curve. Our joint spectral fits of the optical and X-ray data show that they are in the same regime, with a photon index of ∼1.70. The optical and X-ray afterglow light curves are well fitted with the standard external shock model by considering a delayed energy injection component. Based on our modeling results, we find that the radiative efficiency of the gamma-ray burst jet is ∼ 1 % and the magnetization parameter of the afterglow jet is \\lt 0.04 with a derived extremely low {ε }B (the ratio of shock energy to the magnetic field) of (1.64+/- 0.25)× {10}-6. These results indicate that the jet may be matter dominated. A discussion on delayed energy injection from the accretion of the late fall-back material of its pre-supernova star is also presented.

  9. Diagnostic Delays in Spasmodic Dysphonia: A Call for Clinician Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, Francis X; Hapner, Edie; Klein, Adam; Rosen, Ami; Jinnah, Hyder A; Johns, Michael M

    2015-09-01

    Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is a rare but often debilitating disease. Due to lack of awareness among practitioners and lack of well-defined diagnostic criteria, it can be difficult for patients with SD to receive a diagnosis and subsequent treatment. There is currently no literature documenting the efficacy of the medical community in recognizing and diagnosing this disorder. We aimed to quantify the patients' experiences with obtaining a diagnosis of SD. One hundred seven consecutive patients with SD completed questionnaires about their experiences with SD. Patients were recruited either during outpatient laryngology visits or during participation in a National Institutes of Health funded study investigating SD. It took patients an average of 4.43 years (53.21 months) to be diagnosed with SD after first going to a physician with vocal symptoms. Patients had to see an average of 3.95 physicians to receive a diagnosis of SD. Patients (31.4%) had been prescribed medications other than botulinum toxin to treat their symptoms. Patients (30%) attempted alternative therapies for treatment of SD, such as chiropractor or dietary modification. Despite advances in diagnostic modalities in medicine, the diagnosis of SD still remains elusive. Objective criteria for the diagnosis of SD and increased clinician education are warranted to address this diagnostic delay. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Delayed Diagnoses: Nonspecific Findings and Diagnostic Challenges in Eating Disorders

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    Dan Schwarz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Eating disorders commonly present with nonspecific findings, masquerading as other, more common etiologies of malnutrition and wasting. In low-prevalence populations, these ambiguities can complicate clinicians’ diagnostic reasoning, resulting in delayed or missed diagnoses. Method. We report the atypical case of a 51-year-old male with a five-year history of unexplained weight loss despite extensive past medical evaluation. Previous documentation of profound lymphopenia and bone marrow atrophy had not been linked to a known association with eating disorders. Results. Evaluation for medical etiologies of wasting was negative. Following psychiatric evaluation, the patient was diagnosed with an eating disorder, not otherwise specified, and admitted to a specialized nutritional rehabilitation program. Conclusion. The nonspecific clinical history, physical exam, and laboratory abnormalities of eating disorders can make these diagnoses challenging and delay appropriate treatment. Clinicians should consider eating disorders in patients with malnutrition, severe lymphopenias, and gelatinous marrow transformation early in their workup, so as to avoid potentially negative outcomes.

  11. Diagnostic delay, quality of life and patient satisfaction among women diagnosed with endometrial or ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Kirstine M; Christensen, Karl Bang; Ottesen, Bent

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the association between diagnostic delay (total delay), quality of life (QoL) and patient satisfaction, and the associations between QoL and patient satisfaction scores and survival for women diagnosed with ovarian or endometrial cancer....

  12. Leapfrog diagnostics: Demonstration of a broad spectrum pathogen identification platform in a resource-limited setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leski Tomasz A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resource-limited tropical countries are home to numerous infectious pathogens of both human and zoonotic origin. A capability for early detection to allow rapid outbreak containment and prevent spread to non-endemic regions is severely impaired by inadequate diagnostic laboratory capacity, the absence of a “cold chain” and the lack of highly trained personnel. Building up detection capacity in these countries by direct replication of the systems existing in developed countries is not a feasible approach and instead requires “leapfrogging” to the deployment of the newest diagnostic systems that do not have the infrastructure requirements of systems used in developed countries. Methods A laboratory for molecular diagnostics of infectious agents was established in Bo, Sierra Leone with a hybrid solar/diesel/battery system to ensure stable power supply and a satellite modem to enable efficient communication. An array of room temperature stabilization and refrigeration technologies for reliable transport and storage of reagents and biological samples were also tested to ensure sustainable laboratory supplies for diagnostic assays. Results The laboratory demonstrated its operational proficiency by conducting an investigation of a suspected avian influenza outbreak at a commercial poultry farm at Bo using broad range resequencing microarrays and real time RT-PCR. The results of the investigation excluded influenza viruses as a possible cause of the outbreak and indicated a link between the outbreak and the presence of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Conclusions This study demonstrated that by application of a carefully selected set of technologies and sufficient personnel training, it is feasible to deploy and effectively use a broad-range infectious pathogen detection technology in a severely resource-limited setting.

  13. [Analysis of characteristics and influence factors of diagnostic delay of endometriosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, X T; Guo, H Y; Kong, D L; Han, J S; Zhang, L F

    2018-02-25

    Objective: To access the influence factors of diagnostic delay of endometriosis. Methods: We designed a questionnaire of diagnostic delay of endometriosis. From February 2014 to February 2016, 400 patients who had dysmenorrhea and diagnosed with endometriosis by surgery in Peking University Third Hospital were surveyed retrospectively. Time and risk factors of diagnostic delay were analyzed. Results: The diagnostic delay of 400 patients was 13.0 years (0.2-43.0 years), 78.5%(314/400) patients thought pain was a normal phenomenon and didn't see the doctor. Patients who suffered dysmenorrhea at menarche experienced longer diagnostic delay than those who had dysmenorrhea after menarche (18.0 vs 4.5 years; Z= 191.800, Pendometriosis (DIE) , family history of dysmenorrhea or endometriosis, previous surgical history of endometriosis, high stage, with infertility, adenomyoma or other symptoms, could help to shorten diagnostic delay with no significant difference ( P> 0.05) . By multiple logistic regression analysis, the results shown that whether have dysmenorrhea at menarche and clinical diagnosis time were the independent factors affecting delayed diagnosis ( Pendometriosis is common and the mean delay time is 13.0 years mainly due to the unawareness of dysmenorrhea. Dysmenorrhea at menarche, clinical diagnosis time and dysmenorrhea intensity are the factors affecting time of diagnostic delay.

  14. Implementation of broad screening with Ebola rapid diagnostic tests in Forécariah, Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantz Jean Louis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laboratory-enhanced surveillance is critical for rapidly detecting the potential re-emergence of Ebola virus disease. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT for Ebola antigens could expand diagnostic capacity for Ebola virus disease. Objectives: The Guinean National Coordination for Ebola Response conducted a pilot implementation to determine the feasibility of broad screening of patients and corpses with the OraQuick® Ebola RDT. Methods: The implementation team developed protocols and trained healthcare workers to screen patients and corpses in Forécariah prefecture, Guinea, from 15 October to 30 November 2015. Data collected included number of consultations, number of fevers reported or measured, number of tests performed for patients or corpses and results of confirmatory RT-PCR testing. Data on malaria RDT results were collected for comparison. Feedback from Ebola RDT users was collected informally during supervision visits and forums. Results: There were 3738 consultations at the 15 selected healthcare facilities; 74.6% of consultations were for febrile illness. Among 2787 eligible febrile patients, 2633 were tested for malaria and 1628 OraQuick® Ebola RDTs were performed. A total of 322 OraQuick® Ebola RDTs were conducted on corpses. All Ebola tests on eligible patients were negative. Conclusions: Access to Ebola testing was expanded by the implementation of RDTs in an emergency situation. Feedback from Ebola RDT users and lessons learned will contribute to improving quality for RDT expansion.

  15. High mortality during tuberculosis treatment does not indicate long diagnostic delays in Vietnam: a cohort study

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    Sy Dinh N

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delay in tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment initiation may increase disease severity and mortality. In evaluations of tuberculosis control programmes high fatality rates during tuberculosis treatment, are used as an indicator of long delays in low HIV-prevalence settings. However, data for this presumed association between delay and fatality are lacking. We assessed the association between diagnostic delay and mortality of new smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Vietnam. Methods Follow-up of a patient cohort included in a survey of diagnostic delay in 70 randomly selected districts. Data on diagnosis and treatment were extracted from routine registers. Patients who had died during the course of treatment were compared to those with reported cure, completed treatment or failure (survivors. Results Complete data were available for 1881/2093 (89.9% patients, of whom 82 (4.4% had died. Fatality was 4.5% for patients with ≤ 4 weeks delay, 5.0% for 5- ≤ 8 weeks delay (aOR 1.11, 95%CI 0.67–1.84 and 3.2% for > 9 weeks delay (aOR 0.69, 95%CI 0.37–1.30. Fatality tended to decline with increasing delay but this was not significant. Fatality was not associated with median diagnostic delay at district level (Spearman's rho = -0.08, P = 0.5. Conclusion Diagnostic delay is not associated with treatment mortality in Vietnam at individual nor district level, suggesting that high case fatality should not be used as an indicator of long diagnostic delay in national tuberculosis programmes.

  16. A Diagnostic Marker to Discriminate Childhood Apraxia of Speech from Speech Delay: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Strand, Edythe A.; Fourakis, Marios; Jakielski, Kathy J.; Hall, Sheryl D.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Mabie, Heather L.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Tilkens, Christie M.; Wilson, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this article is to introduce the pause marker (PM), a single-sign diagnostic marker proposed to discriminate early or persistent childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) from speech delay.

  17. Epidemiology, diagnostic delay and outcome of tuberculosis in North Jutland, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rosa M Ø; Bjørn-Præst, Simon O; Oren Gradel, Kim

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of tuberculosis (TB) with regards to epidemiology, symptoms, delay, diagnostics, use of HIV-test, treatment, treatment outcome and mortality in the North Jutland Region from 2000 through 2008.......The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of tuberculosis (TB) with regards to epidemiology, symptoms, delay, diagnostics, use of HIV-test, treatment, treatment outcome and mortality in the North Jutland Region from 2000 through 2008....

  18. Ophthalmic diagnostic tests, orbital anatomy, and adnexal histology of the broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris).

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    Oriá, Arianne P; Oliveira, Alberto Vinícius D; Pinna, Melissa H; Martins Filho, Emanoel F; Estrela-Lima, Alessandra; Peixoto, Tiago C; Silva, Renata Maria M da; Santana, Fernanda O; Meneses, Íris Daniela S; Requião, Kátia G; Ofri, Ron

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish normal ophthalmic parameters for selected diagnostic tests, and to describe the orbital anatomy and adnexal histology of the broad-snouted caiman. A total of 35 Caiman latirostris that were free of obvious ocular diseases were used to measure the parameters in this investigation. Ages ranged from 5 to 15 years. Ophthalmic diagnostic tests were conducted, including evaluation of tear production with Schirmer Tear test-1 (STT1), culture of the conjunctival bacterial flora, applanation tonometry, conjunctival cytology, nictiating membrane incursion frequency test (NMIFT), endodontic absorbent paper point tear test (EAPPTT), palpebral fissure length measurement (PFL) and B-mode ultrasonography. Adnexal histology and skull samples were studied. Mean (±SD) STT1 was 3.4 ± 3.6 mm/min (95% confidence interval of 2.01-4.78 mm/min), intraocular pressure (IOP) was 12.9 ± 6.2 mmHg, NMIFT was 6.0 ± 3.5, EAPPTT was 17.1 ± 2.5 mm/min, PFL was 28.9 ± 3.0 mm, anterior chamber depth was 3.1 ± 0.3 mm, lens axial length was 8.4 ± 0.6 mm, vitreous chamber depth was 7.9 ± 0.7 mm and axial globe length was 19.9 ± 1.3 mm. For all animals evaluated, Bacillus sp., Diphteroids and Staphylococcus sp. were predominant. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  19. Mechanisms of Broad-Spectrum Antiemetic Efficacy of Cannabinoids against Chemotherapy-Induced Acute and Delayed Vomiting

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    Nissar A. Darmani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV is a complex pathophysiological condition and consists of two phases. The conventional CINV neurotransmitter hypothesis suggests that the immediate phase is mainly due to release of serotonin (5-HT from the enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT, while the delayed phase is a consequence of release of substance P (SP in the brainstem. However, more recent findings argue against this simplistic neurotransmitter and anatomical view of CINV. Revision of the hypothesis advocates a more complex, differential and overlapping involvement of several emetic neurotransmitters/modulators (e.g. dopamine, serotonin, substance P, prostaglandins and related arachidonic acid derived metabolites in both phases of emesis occurring concomitantly in the brainstem and in the GIT enteric nervous system (ENS [1]. No single antiemetic is currently available to completely prevent both phases of CINV. The standard antiemetic regimens include a 5-HT3 antagonist plus dexamethasone for the prevention of acute emetic phase, combined with an NK1 receptor antagonist (e.g. aprepitant for the delayed phase. Although NK1 antagonists behave in animals as broad-spectrum antiemetics against different emetogens including cisplatin-induced acute and delayed vomiting, by themselves they are not very effective against CINV in cancer patients. Cannabinoids such as D9-THC also behave as broad-spectrum antiemetics against diverse emetic stimuli as well as being effective against both phases of CINV in animals and patients. Potential side effects may limit the clinical utility of direct-acting cannabinoid agonists which could be avoided by the use of corresponding indirect-acting agonists. Cannabinoids (both phyto-derived and synthetic behave as agonist antiemetics via the activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors in both the brainstem and the ENS emetic loci. An endocannabinoid antiemetic tone may exist since inverse CB1

  20. Diagnostic delay experienced among gynecological cancer patients: a nationwide survey in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Kirstine M; Ottesen, Bent; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine diagnostic delay among gynecological cancer patients. DESIGN: Nationwide study. SETTING: The cohort comprised all women receiving their first treatment for cervical, endometrial, or ovarian cancer between 1 October 2006 and 1 December 2007 in four of the five centers...... for gynecological cancer surgery in Denmark. SAMPLE: Of the 911 women alive, 648 participated, resulting in a response rate of 71.1%; of these, 30.1% were diagnosed with cervical cancer, 31.0% with endometrial cancer, and 38.9% with ovarian cancer. METHODS: Questionnaire survey. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Diagnostic...... experiencing very long delays. Ovarian cancer patients experienced significantly shorter delays compared with other gynecological cancer patients in all parts of the health care system. CONCLUSIONS: Delays occur in all parts of the diagnostic process, suggesting that a multifaceted approach should be adopted...

  1. Hearing impairment and language delay in infants: Diagnostics and genetics

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    Lang-Roth, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    This overview study provides information on important phoniatric and audiological aspects of early childhood hearing and language development with the aim of presenting diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. The article first addresses the universal newborn hearing screening that has been implemented in Germany for all infants since January 2009. The process of newborn hearing screening from the maternity ward to confirmation diagnostics is presented in accordance with a decision by the Federal Joint Committee (G-BA). The second topic is pediatric audiology diagnostics. Following confirmation of a permanent early childhood hearing disorder, the search for the cause plays an important role. Hereditary hearing disorders and intrauterine cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, probably the most common cause of an acquired hearing disorder, are discussed and compared with the most common temporary hearing disorder, otitis media with effusion, which in some cases is severe enough to be relevant for hearing and language development and therefore requires treatment. The third topic covered in this article is speech and language development in the first 3 years of life, which is known today to be crucial for later language development and learning to read and write. There is a short overview and introduction to modern terminology, followed by the abnormalities and diagnostics of early speech and language development. Only some aspects of early hearing and language development are addressed here. Important areas such as the indication for a cochlear implant in the first year of life or because of unilateral deafness are not included due to their complexity. PMID:25587365

  2. Diagnostic delays in children with early-onset epilepsy: impact, reasons, and opportunities to improve care

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    Berg, Anne T.; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Baca, Christine B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Delayed diagnosis of early-onset epilepsy is a potentially important and avoidable complication in epilepsy care. We examined the frequency of diagnostic delays in young children with newly presenting epilepsy, their developmental impact, and reasons for delays. Methods Children who developed epilepsy before their third birthday were identified in a prospective community-based cohort. An interval ≥1 month from second seizure to diagnosis was considered a delay. Testing of development at baseline and for up to three years after and of IQ 8–9 years later was performed. Detailed parental baseline interview accounts and medical records were reviewed to identify potential reasons for delays. Factors associated with delays included the parent, child, pediatrician, neurologist, and scheduling. Results Diagnostic delays occurred in 70/172 (41%) children. Delays occurred less often if children had received medical attention for the first seizure (p<0.0001), previously had neonatal or febrile seizures (p=0.02), had only convulsions before diagnosis (p=0.005) or had a college-educated parent (p=0.01). A ≥1 month diagnostic delay was associated with an average 7.4 point drop (p=0.02) in the Vineland Scales of Adaptive Behavior motor score. The effect was present at diagnosis, persisted for at least three years, and was also apparent in IQ scores 8–9 years later which were lower in association with a diagnostic delay by 8.4 points (p=0.06) for processing speed up to 14.5 points (p=0.004) for full scale IQ, after adjustment for parental education and other epilepsy-related clinical factors. Factors associated with delayed diagnosis included parents not recognizing events as seizures (N=47), pediatricians missing or deferring diagnosis (N=15), neurologists deferring diagnosis (N=7), and scheduling problems (N=11). Significance Diagnostic delays occur in many young children with epilepsy. They are associated with substantial decrements in development and IQ later

  3. Compounding diagnostic delays: a qualitative study of point-of-care testing in South Africa.

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    Engel, Nora; Davids, Malika; Blankvoort, Nadine; Pai, Nitika Pant; Dheda, Keertan; Pai, Madhukar

    2015-04-01

    Successful point-of-care (POC) testing (completion of test-and-treat cycle in one patient encounter) has immense potential to reduce diagnostic and treatment delays, and improve patient and public health outcomes. We explored what tests are done and how in public/private, rural/urban hospitals and clinics in South Africa and whether they can ensure successful POC testing. This qualitative research study examined POC testing across major diseases in Cape Town, Durban and Eastern Cape. We conducted 101 semi-structured interviews and seven focus group discussions with doctors, nurses, community health workers, patients, laboratory technicians, policymakers, hospital managers and diagnostic manufacturers. In South Africa, diagnostics are characterised by a centralised system. Most tests conducted on the spot can be made to work successfully as POC tests. The majority of public/private clinics and smaller hospitals send samples via couriers to centralised laboratories and retrieve results the same way, via internet, fax or phone. The main challenge to POC testing lies in transporting samples and results, while delays risk patient loss from diagnostic/treatment pathways. Strategies to deal with associated delays create new problems, such as artificially prolonged turnaround times, strains on human resources and quality of testing, compounding additional diagnostic and treatment delays. For POC testing to succeed, particular characteristics of diagnostic ecosystems and adaptations of professional practices to overcome associated challenges must be taken into account. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Unexpected findings at diagnostic laparoscopy: caecal incarceration with concurrent appendicitis in a patient with bilateral broad ligament defects

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    Onida, S; Lynes, K; Whitehouse, PA

    2010-01-01

    Internal herniations through broad ligament defects are very rare. We present the first report of the triad of broad ligament defect, internal herniation of the caecum and appendicitis. A 36-year-old woman with phocomelia presented with right iliac fossa pain and vomiting. The patient had no previous history of trauma or surgery. Abdominal ultrasound showed a small amount of free fluid. At laparoscopy, bilateral broad ligament defects were found, with herniation of the caecum and an inflamed appendix through the right-sided defect. A laparoscopic salpingo-oophorectomy was required for reduction of the herniated bowel, and an appendicectomy was performed. Broad ligament defects may be congenital or acquired. In this case, in light of the limb abnormality and absence of previous surgery, a congenital aetiology is more likely. Ultrasound scan is not reliable and, although computed tomography may be of help, a diagnostic laparoscopy is the best investigation. PMID:20566032

  5. Theoretical Study of Radiation from a Broad Range of Impurity Ions for Magnetic Fusion Diagnostics

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    Safronova, Alla [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-03-14

    Spectroscopy of radiation emitted by impurities plays an important role in the study of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. The measurements of these impurities are crucial for the control of the general machine conditions, for the monitoring of the impurity levels, and for the detection of various possible fault conditions. Low-Z impurities, typically present in concentrations of 1%, are lithium, beryllium, boron, carbon, and oxygen. Some of the common medium-Z impurities are metals such as iron, nickel, and copper, and high-Z impurities, such as tungsten, are present in smaller concentrations of 0.1% or less. Despite the relatively small concentration numbers, the aforementioned impurities might make a substantial contribution to radiated power, and also influence both plasma conditions and instruments. A detailed theoretical study of line radiation from impurities that covers a very broad spectral range from less than 1 Å to more than 1000 Å has been accomplished and the results were applied to the LLNL Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) and the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) and to the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at Princeton. Though low- and medium-Z impurities were also studied, the main emphasis was made on the comprehensive theoretical study of radiation from tungsten using different state-of-the-art atomic structure codes such as Relativistic Many-Body Perturbation Theory (RMBPT). The important component of this research was a comparison of the results from the RMBPT code with other codes such as the Multiconfigurational Hartree–Fock developed by Cowan (COWAN code) and the Multiconfiguration Relativistic Hebrew University Lawrence Atomic Code (HULLAC code), and estimation of accuracy of calculations. We also have studied dielectronic recombination, an important recombination process for fusion plasma, for variety of highly and low charged tungsten ions using COWAN and HULLAC codes. Accurate DR rate coefficients are needed for

  6. Diagnostic and treatment delay among pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Ethiopia: a cross sectional study

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    Yimer Solomon

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delayed diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis (TB results in severe disease and a higher mortality. It also leads to an increased period of infectivity in the community. The objective of this study was to determine the length of delays, and analyze the factors affecting the delay from onset of symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB until the commencement of treatment. Methods In randomly selected TB management units (TBMUs, i.e. government health institutions which have diagnosing and treatment facilities for TB in Amhara Region, we conducted a cross sectional study from September 1-December 31/2003. Delay was analyzed from two perspectives, 1. Period between onset of TB symptoms to first visit to any health provider (health seeking period, and from the first health provider visit to initiation of treatment (health providers' delay, and 2. Period between onset of TB symptoms to first visit to a medical provider (patients' delay, and from this visit to commencement of anti-TB treatment (health systems' delay. Patients were interviewed on the same date of diagnosis using a semi-structured questionnaire. Logistics regression analysis was applied to analyze the risk factors of delays. Results A total of 384 new smear positive PTB patients participated in the study. The median total delay was 80 days. The median health-seeking period and health providers' delays were 15 and 61 days, respectively. Conversely, the median patients' and health systems' delays were 30 and 21 days, respectively. Taking medical providers as a reference point, we found that forty eight percent of the subjects delayed for more than one month. Patients' delays were strongly associated with first visit to non-formal health providers and self treatment (P Conclusion Delay in the diagnosis and treatment of PTB is unacceptably high in Amhara region. Health providers' and health systems' delays represent the major portion of the total delay. Accessing a

  7. Clinical Factors and Disease Course Related to Diagnostic Delay in Korean Crohn's Disease Patients: Results from the CONNECT Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Mo Moon

    Full Text Available Diagnostic delay frequently occurs in Crohn's disease (CD patients because of diagnostic limitations. However, diagnostic delay and its related factors remain poorly defined. Therefore, we aimed to identify the predictors associated with diagnostic delay and to evaluate the impact of diagnostic delay on clinical course in a Korean CD patient cohort. We performed a multicenter retrospective analysis of 1,047 CD patients registered in the Crohn's Disease Clinical Network and Cohort study in Korea. The mean interval of diagnostic delay was 16.0 ± 33.1 months. Multivariate analysis showed that older age at diagnosis (≥40 years (p = 0.014, concomitant upper gastrointestinal (UGI disease (p = 0.012 and penetrating disease behavior at diagnosis (p = 0.001 were positively associated with long diagnostic delay (≥18 months. During the longitudinal follow-up, long diagnostic delay was independently predictive of further development of intestinal stenosis (hazard ratio [HR], 1.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-1.93; p = 0.017, internal fistulas (HR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.12-2.33; p = 0.011, and perianal fistulas (HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.06-1.80; p = 0.016. However, as for the risk of abscess formation, bowel perforation, and CD-related abdominal surgery, no significant association with diagnostic delay was observed. Older age at diagnosis, UGI involvement, and penetrating behavior are associated with long diagnostic delay in Korean CD patients. Moreover, diagnostic delay is associated with an increased risk of CD-related complications such as intestinal stenosis, internal fistulas, and perianal fistulas.

  8. Genetic utility of broadly defined bipolar schizoaffective disorder as a diagnostic concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamshere, M. L.; Green, E. K.; Jones, I. R.; Jones, L.; Moskvina, V.; Kirov, G.; Grozeva, D.; Nikolov, I.; Vukcevic, D.; Caesar, S.; Gordon-Smith, K.; Fraser, C.; Russell, E.; Breen, G.; St Clair, D.; Collier, D. A.; Young, A. H.; Ferrier, I. N.; Farmer, A.; McGuffin, P.; Holmans, P. A.; Owen, M. J.; O’Donovan, M. C.; Craddock, N.

    2009-01-01

    Background Psychiatric phenotypes are currently defined according to sets of descriptive criteria. Although many of these phenotypes are heritable, it would be useful to know whether any of the various diagnostic categories in current use identify cases that are particularly helpful for biological–genetic research. Aims To use genome-wide genetic association data to explore the relative genetic utility of seven different descriptive operational diagnostic categories relevant to bipolar illness within a large UK case–control bipolar disorder sample. Method We analysed our previously published Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC) bipolar disorder genome-wide association data-set, comprising 1868 individuals with bipolar disorder and 2938 controls genotyped for 276 122 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that met stringent criteria for genotype quality. For each SNP we performed a test of association (bipolar disorder group v. control group) and used the number of associated independent SNPs statistically significant at Pschizoaffective disorder, bipolar type; DSM–IV: bipolar I disorder; bipolar II disorder; schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type. Results The RDC schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type (v. controls) stood out from the other diagnostic subsets as having a significant excess of independent association signals (Pschizoaffective features have either a particularly strong genetic contribution or that, as a group, are genetically more homogeneous than the other phenotypes tested. The results point to the importance of using diagnostic approaches that recognise this group of individuals. Our approach can be applied to similar data-sets for other psychiatric and non-psychiatric phenotypes. PMID:19567891

  9. Turning the Page: Advancing Paper-Based Microfluidics for Broad Diagnostic Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Max M; Sinton, David

    2017-06-28

    Infectious diseases are a major global health issue. Diagnosis is a critical first step in effectively managing their spread. Paper-based microfluidic diagnostics first emerged in 2007 as a low-cost alternative to conventional laboratory testing, with the goal of improving accessibility to medical diagnostics in developing countries. In this review, we examine the advances in paper-based microfluidic diagnostics for medical diagnosis in the context of global health from 2007 to 2016. The theory of fluid transport in paper is first presented. The next section examines the strategies that have been employed to control fluid and analyte transport in paper-based assays. Tasks such as mixing, timing, and sequential fluid delivery have been achieved in paper and have enabled analytical capabilities comparable to those of conventional laboratory methods. The following section examines paper-based sample processing and analysis. The most impactful advancement here has been the translation of nucleic acid analysis to a paper-based format. Smartphone-based analysis is another exciting development with potential for wide dissemination. The last core section of the review highlights emerging health applications, such as male fertility testing and wearable diagnostics. We conclude the review with the future outlook, remaining challenges, and emerging opportunities.

  10. Dissolvable fluidic time delays for programming multi-step assays in instrument-free paper diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Barry; Liang, Tinny; Fu, Elain; Ramachandran, Sujatha; Kauffman, Peter; Yager, Paul

    2013-07-21

    Lateral flow tests (LFTs) are an ingenious format for rapid and easy-to-use diagnostics, but they are fundamentally limited to assay chemistries that can be reduced to a single chemical step. In contrast, most laboratory diagnostic assays rely on multiple timed steps carried out by a human or a machine. Here, we use dissolvable sugar applied to paper to create programmable flow delays and present a paper network topology that uses these time delays to program automated multi-step fluidic protocols. Solutions of sucrose at different concentrations (10-70% of saturation) were added to paper strips and dried to create fluidic time delays spanning minutes to nearly an hour. A simple folding card format employing sugar delays was shown to automate a four-step fluidic process initiated by a single user activation step (folding the card); this device was used to perform a signal-amplified sandwich immunoassay for a diagnostic biomarker for malaria. The cards are capable of automating multi-step assay protocols normally used in laboratories, but in a rapid, low-cost, and easy-to-use format.

  11. The structure of the broad-line region in active galactic nuclei. I. Reconstructed velocity-delay maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grier, C.J.; Peterson, B.M.; Pogge, R.W.

    2013-01-01

    We present velocity-resolved reverberation results for five active galactic nuclei. We recovered velocity-delay maps using the maximum entropy method for four objects: Mrk 335, Mrk 1501, 3C 120, and PG 2130+099. For the fifth, Mrk 6, we were only able to measure mean time delays in different velo...

  12. Diagnostic outcome following routine genetics clinic referral for the assessment of global developmental delay.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shahdadpuri, R

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the diagnostic yield following a routine genetics clinic referral for the assessment of global developmental delay. Detailed retrospective review of 119 complete consecutive case notes of patients referred to one single clinical geneticist over a 14 month time period was undertaken (n = 119; 54 males, 65 females). The age at initial review ranged from 2 months to 37 years 3 months (mean 8 y 3 mo [SD 7 y 10 mo]). We made a diagnosis in 36\\/119 (30%); 21\\/36 were new diagnoses and 15\\/36 were confirmations of diagnoses. We removed a wrong diagnostic label in 8\\/119 (7%). In 3\\/8 we were able to achieve a diagnosis but in 5\\/8 no alternative diagnosis was reached. We had a better diagnostic rate where the patients were dysmorphic (odds ratio [OR] 1.825; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.065 to 3.128, p = 0.044). In the majority, the diagnosis was made by clinical examination only. Molecular diagnosis was reached in seven cases. Five cases were confirmed by cytogenetic analysis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a diagnosis in three cases. This study confirms the importance of a clinical genetics assessment in the investigation of global developmental delay.

  13. Accuracy of different diagnostic tests for early, delayed and late prosthetic joint infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Sampedro, M; Fariñas-Alvarez, C; Garces-Zarzalejo, C; Alonso-Aguirre, M A; Salas-Venero, C; Martínez-Martínez, L; Fariñas, M C

    2017-08-25

    A combination of laboratory, histopathological and microbiological tests for diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) have been strongly recommended. This study aims to characterize the accuracy of individual or group tests, such as culture of sonicate fluid, synovial fluid and peri-implant tissue, C-reactive protein (CRP) and histopathology for detection of early, delayed and late PJI. A prospective study of patients undergoing hip or knee arthroplasty from February 2009 to February 2014 was performed in a Spanish tertiary health care hospital. The diagnostic accuracy of the different methods was evaluated constructing receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curve areas. One hundred thirty consecutive patients were included: 18 (13.8%) early PJI, 35 (27%) delayed PJI and 77 (59.2%) late PJI. For individual parameters, the area under the ROC curve for peri-implant tissue culture was larger for early (0.917) than for delayed (0.829) and late PJI (0.778), p = 0.033. There was a significantly larger difference for ROC area in the synovial fluid culture for delayed (0.803) than for early (0.781) and late infections (0.679), p = 0.039. The comparison of the areas under the ROC curves for the two microbiological tests showed that sonicate fluid was significantly different from peri-implant tissue in delayed (0.951 vs 0.829, p = 0.005) and late PJI (0.901 vs 0.778, p = 0.000). The conjunction of preoperative parameters, synovial fluid culture and CRP, improved the accuracy for late PJI (p = 0.01). The conjunction of histopathology and sonicate fluid culture increased the area under ROC curve of sonication in early (0.917 vs 1.000); p = 0.06 and late cases (0.901 vs 0.999); p < 0.001. For early PJI, sonicate fluid and peri-implant tissue cultures achieve the same best sensitivity. For delayed and late PJI, sonicate fluid culture is the most sensitive individual diagnostic method. By combining histopathology and peri-implant tissue, all early, 97% of

  14. Diagnostic delay amongst tuberculosis patients in Jogjakarta Province, Indonesia is related to the quality of services in DOTS facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Riris Andono; Mahendradhata, Yodi; Utarini, Adi; de Vlas, Sake J

    2011-04-01

    To understand determinants of care-seeking patterns and diagnostic delay amongst tuberculosis (TB) patients diagnosed at direct observed treatment short course (DOTS) facilities in Jogjakarta, Indonesia. Cross-sectional survey amongst newly diagnosed TB patients in 89 DOTS facilities whose history of care-seeking was reconstructed through retrospective interviews gathering data on socio-demographic determinants, onset of TB symptoms, type of health facilities visited, duration of each care-seeking action were recorded. Two hundred and fifty-three TB patients were included in the study whose median duration of patients' delay was 1 week and whose total duration of diagnostic delay was 5.4 weeks. The median number of visits was 4. Many of the patients' socio-demographic determinants were not associated with the care-seeking patterns, and no socio-demographic determinants were associated with the duration of diagnostic delay. More than 60% of TB patients started their care-seeking processes outside DOTS facilities, but the number of visits in DOTS facilities was greater during the overall care-seeking process. Surprisingly, patient's immediate visits to a DOTS facility did not correspond to shorter diagnostic delay. Diagnostic delay in Jogjakarta province was not associated with patients' socio demographic factors, but rather with the health system providing DOTS services. This suggests that strengthening the health system and improving diagnostic quality within DOTS services is now a more rational strategy than expanding the TB programme to engage more providers. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Impact of delay in clinical presentation on the diagnostic management and prognosis of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Exter, Paul L.; Van Es, Josien; Erkens, Petra M.G.; Van Roosmalen, Mark J.G.; Van Den Hoven, Pim; Hovens, Marcel M.C.; Kamphuisen, Pieter W.; Klok, Frederikus A.; Huisman, Menno V.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: The nonspecific clinical presentation of pulmonary embolism (PE) frequently leads to delay in its diagnosis. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the impact of delay in presentation on the diagnostic management and clinical outcome of patients with suspected PE. Methods: In 4,044

  16. Impact of delay in clinical presentation on the diagnostic management and prognosis of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Exter, P. L.; Van Es, J.; Erkens, P. G. M.; Roosmalen, M.; Hoven, P.; Hovens, M.; Kamphuisen, P. W.; Klok, F. A.; Huisman, M.

    Background: The non-specific clinical presentation of pulmonary embolism (PE) frequently leads to delay in its diagnosis. Aims: To assess the impact of delay in presentation on the diagnostic management and clinical outcome of patients with suspected PE. Methods: For this post-hoc analysis, we used

  17. THE STRUCTURE OF THE BROAD-LINE REGION IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. I. RECONSTRUCTED VELOCITY-DELAY MAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grier, C. J.; Peterson, B. M.; Pogge, R. W.; De Rosa, G.; Martini, Paul; Kochanek, C. S.; Zu, Y.; Shappee, B.; Beatty, T. G.; Salvo, C. Araya; Bird, J. C.; Horne, Keith; Bentz, M. C.; Denney, K. D.; Siverd, R.; Sergeev, S. G.; Borman, G. A.; Kaspi, S.; Bord, D. J.; Che, X.

    2013-01-01

    We present velocity-resolved reverberation results for five active galactic nuclei. We recovered velocity-delay maps using the maximum entropy method for four objects: Mrk 335, Mrk 1501, 3C 120, and PG 2130+099. For the fifth, Mrk 6, we were only able to measure mean time delays in different velocity bins of the Hβ emission line. The four velocity-delay maps show unique dynamical signatures for each object. For 3C 120, the Balmer lines show kinematic signatures consistent with both an inclined disk and infalling gas, but the He II λ4686 emission line is suggestive only of inflow. The Balmer lines in Mrk 335, Mrk 1501, and PG 2130+099 show signs of infalling gas, but the He II emission in Mrk 335 is consistent with an inclined disk. We also see tentative evidence of combined virial motion and infalling gas from the velocity-binned analysis of Mrk 6. The maps for 3C 120 and Mrk 335 are two of the most clearly defined velocity-delay maps to date. These maps constitute a large increase in the number of objects for which we have resolved velocity-delay maps and provide evidence supporting the reliability of reverberation-based black hole mass measurements.

  18. THE STRUCTURE OF THE BROAD-LINE REGION IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. I. RECONSTRUCTED VELOCITY-DELAY MAPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grier, C. J.; Peterson, B. M.; Pogge, R. W.; De Rosa, G.; Martini, Paul; Kochanek, C. S.; Zu, Y.; Shappee, B.; Beatty, T. G.; Salvo, C. Araya; Bird, J. C. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 W 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Horne, Keith [SUPA Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, Fife, KY16 9SS Scotland (United Kingdom); Bentz, M. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Astronomy Offices, One Park Place South SE, Suite 700, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Denney, K. D. [Marie Curie Fellow at the Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Siverd, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, 5301 Stevenson Center, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Sergeev, S. G.; Borman, G. A. [Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, P/O Nauchny Crimea 98409 (Ukraine); Kaspi, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Bord, D. J. [Department of Natural Sciences, The University of Michigan - Dearborn, 4901 Evergreen Rd, Dearborn, MI 48128 (United States); Che, X. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 41809 (United States); and others

    2013-02-10

    We present velocity-resolved reverberation results for five active galactic nuclei. We recovered velocity-delay maps using the maximum entropy method for four objects: Mrk 335, Mrk 1501, 3C 120, and PG 2130+099. For the fifth, Mrk 6, we were only able to measure mean time delays in different velocity bins of the H{beta} emission line. The four velocity-delay maps show unique dynamical signatures for each object. For 3C 120, the Balmer lines show kinematic signatures consistent with both an inclined disk and infalling gas, but the He II {lambda}4686 emission line is suggestive only of inflow. The Balmer lines in Mrk 335, Mrk 1501, and PG 2130+099 show signs of infalling gas, but the He II emission in Mrk 335 is consistent with an inclined disk. We also see tentative evidence of combined virial motion and infalling gas from the velocity-binned analysis of Mrk 6. The maps for 3C 120 and Mrk 335 are two of the most clearly defined velocity-delay maps to date. These maps constitute a large increase in the number of objects for which we have resolved velocity-delay maps and provide evidence supporting the reliability of reverberation-based black hole mass measurements.

  19. Analysis of the diagnostic pathway and delay in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in the Valencian Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Costa, J F; Martínez-Molina, M; Fernández-Polo, M; Fornés-Ferrer, V; Frasquet-Carrera, M; Sevilla-Mantecón, T

    2018-06-11

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an insidious, clinically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disease associated with a diagnostic delay of approximately 12 months. No study conducted to date has analysed the diagnostic pathway in Spain. We gathered data on variables related to the diagnostic pathway and delay for patients diagnosed with ALS between October 2013 and July 2017. The study included 143 patients with ALS (57% men; 68% spinal onset). Patients were diagnosed in public centres in 86% of cases and in private centres in 14%.The mean diagnostic delay was 13.1 months (median 11.7). Patients were examined by neurologists a mean time of 7.9 months after symptom onset, with diagnosis being made 5.2 months later. Half of all patients underwent unnecessary diagnostic tests and multiple electrophysiological studies before diagnosis was established. Diagnostic delay was longer in cases of spinal onset (P = .008) due to onset of the disease in the lower limbs. No differences were found between the public and private healthcare systems (P = .897). The diagnostic delay in ALS in Spain is similar to that of neighboring countries and seems to depend on disease-related factors, not on the healthcare system. Patients with lower-limb onset ALS constitute the greatest diagnostic challenge. Misdiagnosis is frequent, and partly attributable to an incorrect approach or erroneous interpretation of electrophysiological studies. Specific training programmes for neurologists and general neurophysiologists and early referral to reference centers may help to reduce diagnostic delay. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Fast track diagnosis as a means of reducing diagnostic delay in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Bach; Vedsted, Peter; Olesen, Frede

    of cancer and expanded services to the general practitioners. Objective: To investigate the diagnostic delay of cancer, patient and provider satisfaction and health economic aspects in two Danish regions with special emphasis on the possible benefits of fast track diagnosis. Methods: The study......Background: Denmark has the highest morbidity and mortality from cancer in Western Europe, and studies suggest that Danish cancer patients are diagnosed at a later stage than patients in the other Nordic countries. To address this issue a Danish hospital has introduced fast track diagnosis...... will be designed as a cross-sectional study with the construction of a clinical database of all incident cancers in two Danish regions within a year (12,000 patients). Data will be collected from general practitioners, patients and national registers. In the first part of the analysis the general variation...

  1. Array CGH Analysis and Developmental Delay: A Diagnostic Tool for Neurologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, F; Xu, J; Jung, J; Prasad, C

    2013-11-01

    Developmental delay occurs in 1-3% of the population, with unknown etiology in approximately 50% of cases. Initial genetic work up for developmental delay previously included chromosome analysis and subtelomeric FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization). Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH) has emerged as a tool to detect genetic copy number changes and uniparental disomy and is the most sensitive test in providing etiological diagnosis in developmental delay. aCGH allows for the provision of prognosis and recurrence risks, improves access to resources, helps limit further investigations and may alter medical management in many cases. aCGH has led to the delineation of novel genetic syndromes associated with developmental delay. An illustrative case of a 31-year-old man with long standing global developmental delay and recently diagnosed 4q21 deletion syndrome with a deletion of 20.8 Mb genomic interval is provided. aCGH is now recommended as a first line test in children and adults with undiagnosed developmental delay and congenital anomalies. Puce d'hybridation génomique comparative et retard de développement : un outil diagnostic pour les neurologues. Le retard de développement survient chez 1 à 3% de la population et son étiologie est inconnue chez à peu près 50% des cas. L'évaluation génétique initiale pour un retard de développement incluait antérieurement une analyse chromosomique et une analyse par FISH (hybridation in situ en fluorescence) de régions subtélomériques. La puce d'hybridation génomique comparative (CGHa) est devenue un outil de détection des changements du nombre de copies géniques ainsi que de la disomie uniparentale et elle est le test le plus sensible pour fournir un diagnostic étiologique dans le retard de développement. Le CGHa permet d'offrir un pronostic et un risque de récurrence, améliore l'accès aux ressources, aide à limiter les évaluations et peut modifier le traitement médical dans bien des cas

  2. Peers without fears? Barriers to effective communication among primary care physicians and oncologists about diagnostic delays in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipitz-Snyderman, Allison; Kale, Minal; Robbins, Laura; Pfister, David; Fortier, Elizabeth; Pocus, Valerie; Chimonas, Susan; Weingart, Saul N

    2017-11-01

    Relatively little attention has been devoted to the role of communication between physicians as a mechanism for individual and organisational learning about diagnostic delays. This study's objective was to elicit physicians' perceptions about and experiences with communication among physicians regarding diagnostic delays in cancer. Qualitative analysis based on seven focus groups. Fifty-one physicians affiliated with three New York-based academic medical centres participated, with six to nine subjects per group. We used content analysis to identify commonalities among primary care physicians and specialists (ie, medical and surgical oncologists). Perceptions and experiences with physician-to-physician communication about delays in cancer diagnosis. Our analysis identified five major themes: openness to communication, benefits of communication, fears about giving and receiving feedback, infrastructure barriers to communication and overcoming barriers to communication. Subjects valued communication about cancer diagnostic delays, but they had many concerns and fears about providing and receiving feedback in practice. Subjects expressed reluctance to communicate if there was insufficient information to attribute responsibility, if it would have no direct benefit or if it would jeopardise their existing relationships. They supported sensitive approaches to conveying information, as they feared eliciting or being subject to feelings of incompetence or shame. Subjects also cited organisational barriers. They offered suggestions that might facilitate communication about delays. Addressing the barriers to communication among physicians about diagnostic delays is needed to promote a culture of learning across specialties and institutions. Supporting open and honest discussions about diagnostic delays may help build safer health systems. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use

  3. Socio-economic, gender and health services factors affecting diagnostic delay for tuberculosis patients in urban Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, D M; Foster, S D; Tomlinson, G; Godfrey-Faussett, P

    2001-04-01

    In-depth interviews regarding health seeking behaviour were conducted with 202 adults registered with pulmonary tuberculosis at the centralized Chest Clinic in Lusaka, Zambia. The median (mean) diagnostic delay was 8.6 (9) weeks, and was significantly associated with the following factors: female sex, lower education, more than six instances of health-seeking encounters, outpatient diagnosis of tuberculosis, and visiting a private doctor or traditional healer. More effective tuberculosis control interventions require novel methods of accessing women and less educated people. Decentralization of public tuberculosis care and improved integration with private sector health providers may also reduce diagnostic delay.

  4. Differential diagnosis between adrenal adenomas and non-adenomas with gadolinium MR in delayed scans: another diagnostic possibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondello, Eduardo J.; Eyheremendy, Eduardo P.; Stoisa, Daniela

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the value of measuring delayed post gadolinium signal intensity by displaying a curve, to make the differential diagnosis between adrenal adenomas and non-adenomas, and compare it to chemical shift MR imaging and unenhanced/delayed contrast enhanced CT. Material and methods: Nine adrenal masses have been evaluated by unenhanced/delayed contrast enhanced CT, chemical shift MR imaging and Dynamic Scan at 5, 15, 30 minutes or more, with measurement curves. The 'in phase' imaging have been compared to the 'out phase' ones. Results: Adenomas have shown drop of the curve at 30 minutes of the contrast injection. Non-adenomas have conserved an ascending curve with the same delay. Conclusion: Gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging at delayed scans can characterize adrenal masses as adenomas or non-adenomas. This technique could be considered as a new complementary diagnostic method. (author)

  5. Clinical review: Distinguishing constitutional delay of growth and puberty from isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: critical appraisal of available diagnostic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Jennifer; Palmert, Mark R

    2012-09-01

    Determining the etiology of delayed puberty during initial evaluation can be challenging. Specifically, clinicians often cannot distinguish constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP) from isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH), with definitive diagnosis of IHH awaiting lack of spontaneous puberty by age 18 yr. However, the ability to make a timely, correct diagnosis has important clinical implications. The aim was to describe and evaluate the literature regarding the ability of diagnostic tests to distinguish CDGP from IHH. A PubMed search was performed using key words "puberty, delayed" and "hypogonadotropic hypogonadism," and citations within retrieved articles were reviewed to identify studies that assessed the utility of basal and stimulation tests in the diagnosis of delayed puberty. Emphasis was given to a test's ability to distinguish prepubertal adolescents with CDGP from those with IHH. Basal gonadotropin and GnRH stimulation tests have limited diagnostic specificity, with overlap in gonadotropin levels between adolescents with CDGP and IHH. Stimulation tests using more potent GnRH agonists and/or human chorionic gonadotropin may have better discriminatory value, but small study size, lack of replication of diagnostic thresholds, and prolonged protocols limit clinical application. A single inhibin B level in two recent studies demonstrated good differentiation between groups. Distinguishing IHH from CDGP is an important clinical issue. Basal inhibin B may offer a simple, discriminatory test if results from recent studies are replicated. However, current literature does not allow for recommendation of any diagnostic test for routine clinical use, making this an important area for future investigation.

  6. A Diagnostic Marker to Discriminate Childhood Apraxia of Speech from Speech Delay: I. Development and Description of the Pause Marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Strand, Edythe A.; Fourakis, Marios; Jakielski, Kathy J.; Hall, Sheryl D.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Mabie, Heather L.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Tilkens, Christie M.; Wilson, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this article (PM I) is to describe the rationale for and development of the Pause Marker (PM), a single-sign diagnostic marker proposed to discriminate early or persistent childhood apraxia of speech from speech delay. Method: The authors describe and prioritize 7 criteria with which to evaluate the research and clinical…

  7. Economic evaluation of spondyloarthritis: economic impact of diagnostic delay in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennini, Francesco S; Viti, Raffaella; Marcellusi, Andrea; Sciattella, Paolo; Viapiana, Ombretta; Rossini, Maurizio

    2018-01-01

    Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a disease that normally affects the axial skeleton. It progressively leads to overall stiffness up to severe postural deformity of rachis and functional impotence. The objective of the study was to quantify, through an economic model, the impact of specialized testing and pharmacological treatments carried out by the National Health Service (NHS) in normal clinical practice, before the patient is diagnosed with SpA in Italy. In line with the analysis objective, the chosen perspective is that of the NHS. The study was conducted by analyzing the Health Search Database - IMS Health Longitudinal Patient Database, from which newly diagnosed SpA patients were identified over the period 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2013. The use of specialist health care services and pharmacological treatments provided to the patients before the final SpA diagnosis were estimated. Through a retrospective analysis of the Health Search Database, 1,084 subjects (aged 25-45 years) were identified. These patients produced an expense of approximately €153,000 in the 3 years prior to a confirmed SpA diagnosis, in terms of specialist check-ups and drugs, presumably not appropriately used due to a lack of diagnosis. If we assume that the Health Search Database is a representative sample of the Italian population, it may be estimated that, in the 3 years prior to SpA diagnosis, over €5.4 million was largely unduly spent in Italy to examine and manage 38,232 newly diagnosed SpA patients, between 2010 and 2013. The costs due to the delay in SpA diagnosis were quantified for the first time in Italy. For this reason, this work represents a contribution for national and regional decision makers to understand the current clinical practice and the economic consequences of a diagnostic delay in the short and medium term.

  8. [Diagnostic evaluation of the developmental level in children identified at risk of delay through the Child Development Evaluation Test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzoli-Córdoba, Antonio; Campos-Maldonado, Martha Carmen; Vélez-Andrade, Víctor Hugo; Delgado-Ginebra, Ismael; Baqueiro-Hernández, César Iván; Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia; Ojeda-Lara, Lucía; Davis-Martínez, Erika Berenice; O'Shea-Cuevas, Gabriel; Aceves-Villagrán, Daniel; Carrasco-Mendoza, Joaquín; Villagrán-Muñoz, Víctor Manuel; Halley-Castillo, Elizabeth; Sidonio-Aguayo, Beatriz; Palma-Tavera, Josuha Alexander; Muñoz-Hernández, Onofre

    The Child Development Evaluation (or CDE Test) was developed in Mexico as a screening tool for child developmental problems. It yields three possible results: normal, slow development or risk of delay. The modified version was elaborated using the information obtained during the validation study but its properties according to the base population are not known. The objective of this work was to establish diagnostic confirmation of developmental delay in children 16- to 59-months of age previously identified as having risk of delay through the CDE Test in primary care facilities. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in one Mexican state. CDE test was administered to 11,455 children 16- to 59-months of age from December/2013 to March/2014. The eligible population represented the 6.2% of the children (n=714) who were identified at risk of delay through the CDE Test. For inclusion in the study, a block randomization stratified by sex and age group was performed. Each participant included in the study had a diagnostic evaluation using the Battelle Development Inventory, 2 nd edition. From the 355 participants included with risk of delay, 65.9% were male and 80.2% were from rural areas; 6.5% were false positives (Total Development Quotient ˃90) and 6.8% did not have any domain with delay (Domain Developmental Quotient <80). The proportion of delay for each domain was as follows: communication 82.5%; cognitive 80.8%; social-personal 33.8%; motor 55.5%; and adaptive 41.7%. There were significant differences in the percentages of delay both by age and by domain/subdomain evaluated. In 93.2% of the participants, developmental delay was corroborated in at least one domain evaluated. Copyright © 2015 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  9. Continuous electroencephalography predicts delayed cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage: A prospective study of diagnostic accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Eric S; Biswal, Siddharth; Zafar, Sahar F; O'Connor, Kathryn L; Bechek, Sophia; Shenoy, Apeksha V; Boyle, Emily J; Shafi, Mouhsin M; Gilmore, Emily J; Foreman, Brandon P; Gaspard, Nicolas; Leslie-Mazwi, Thabele M; Rosand, Jonathan; Hoch, Daniel B; Ayata, Cenk; Cash, Sydney S; Cole, Andrew J; Patel, Aman B; Westover, M Brandon

    2018-04-16

    Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is a common, disabling complication of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Preventing DCI is a key focus of neurocritical care, but interventions carry risk and cannot be applied indiscriminately. Although retrospective studies have identified continuous electroencephalographic (cEEG) measures associated with DCI, no study has characterized the accuracy of cEEG with sufficient rigor to justify using it to triage patients to interventions or clinical trials. We therefore prospectively assessed the accuracy of cEEG for predicting DCI, following the Standards for Reporting Diagnostic Accuracy Studies. We prospectively performed cEEG in nontraumatic, high-grade SAH patients at a single institution. The index test consisted of clinical neurophysiologists prospectively reporting prespecified EEG alarms: (1) decreasing relative alpha variability, (2) decreasing alpha-delta ratio, (3) worsening focal slowing, or (4) late appearing epileptiform abnormalities. The diagnostic reference standard was DCI determined by blinded, adjudicated review. Primary outcome measures were sensitivity and specificity of cEEG for subsequent DCI, determined by multistate survival analysis, adjusted for baseline risk. One hundred three of 227 consecutive patients were eligible and underwent cEEG monitoring (7.7-day mean duration). EEG alarms occurred in 96.2% of patients with and 19.6% without subsequent DCI (1.9-day median latency, interquartile range = 0.9-4.1). Among alarm subtypes, late onset epileptiform abnormalities had the highest predictive value. Prespecified EEG findings predicted DCI among patients with low (91% sensitivity, 83% specificity) and high (95% sensitivity, 77% specificity) baseline risk. cEEG accurately predicts DCI following SAH and may help target therapies to patients at highest risk of secondary brain injury. Ann Neurol 2018. © 2018 American Neurological Association.

  10. Impact of delay in clinical presentation on the diagnostic management and prognosis of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Exter, Paul L; van Es, Josien; Erkens, Petra M G; van Roosmalen, Mark J G; van den Hoven, Pim; Hovens, Marcel M C; Kamphuisen, Pieter W; Klok, Frederikus A; Huisman, Menno V

    2013-06-15

    The nonspecific clinical presentation of pulmonary embolism (PE) frequently leads to delay in its diagnosis. This study aimed to assess the impact of delay in presentation on the diagnostic management and clinical outcome of patients with suspected PE. In 4,044 consecutive patients with suspected PE, patients presenting more than 7 days from the onset of symptoms were contrasted with those presenting within 7 days as regards the safety of excluding PE on the basis of a clinical decision rule combined with D-dimer testing. Patients were followed for 3 months to assess the rates of recurrent venous thromboembolism and mortality. A delayed presentation (presentation >7 d) was present in 754 (18.6%) of the patients. The failure rate of an unlikely clinical probability and normal D-dimer test was 0.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01-2.7) for patients with and 0.5% (95% CI, 0.2-1.2) for those without diagnostic delay. D-dimer testing yielded a sensitivity of 99% (95% CI, 96-99%) and 98% (95% CI, 97-99%) in these groups, respectively. Patients with PE with diagnostic delay more frequently had centrally located PE (41% vs. 26%; P presentation. PE can be safely excluded based on a clinical decision rule and D-dimer testing in patients with a delayed clinical presentation. A delayed presentation for patients who survived acute PE was associated with a more central PE location, although this did not affect the clinical outcome at 3 months.

  11. Diagnostic delay in malignant pleural mesothelioma due to physicians fixation on history with non-exposure to asbestos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Poul Henning; Laursen, Christian B.; Davidsen, Jesper Rømhild

    2013-01-01

    To establish the diagnosis of virtually any disease, the clinician must combine a variety of information. Often emphasised in this context is thorough medical history-taking including information on exposure to factors leading to or being associated with the disease in question. Continuous...... assessment of all available information is of utmost importance, as fixation on single details can be misguiding with inappropriate consequences in both the diagnostic and therapeutic approach. This case report presents how an atypical medical history led to a delay in the diagnosis of malignant pleural...... mesothelioma due to a low a priori likelihood of the disease because of non-exposure to asbestos. We highlight the fact that postrationalisation and attempts to renew a diagnostic approach must be carried out each time diagnostic dilemmas emerge, and when some or all diagnostic clues disagree....

  12. Low Group Delay Dispersion Optical Coating for Broad Bandwidth High Reflection at 45° Incidence, P Polarization of Femtosecond Pulses with 900 nm Center Wavelength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Bellum

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe an optical coating design suitable for broad bandwidth high reflection (BBHR at 45° angle of incidence (AOI, P polarization (Ppol of femtosecond (fs laser pulses whose wavelengths range from 800 to 1000 nm. Our design process is guided by quarter-wave HR coating properties. The design must afford low group delay dispersion (GDD for reflected light over the broad, 200 nm bandwidth in order to minimize temporal broadening of the fs pulses due to dispersive alteration of relative phases between their frequency components. The design should also be favorable to high laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT. We base the coating on TiO2/SiO2 layer pairs produced by means of e-beam evaporation with ion-assisted deposition, and use OptiLayer Thin Film Software to explore designs starting with TiO2/SiO2 layers having thicknesses in a reverse chirped arrangement. This approach led to a design with R > 99% from 800 to 1000 nm and GDD < 20 fs2 from 843 to 949 nm (45° AOI, Ppol. The design’s GDD behaves in a smooth way, suitable for GDD compensation techniques, and its electric field intensities show promise for high LIDTs. Reflectivity and GDD measurements for the initial test coating indicate good performance of the BBHR design. Subsequent coating runs with improved process calibration produced two coatings whose HR bands satisfactorily meet the design goals. For the sake of completeness, we summarize our previously reported transmission spectra and LIDT test results with 800 ps, 8 ps and 675 fs pulses for these two coatings, and present a table of the LIDT results we have for all of our TiO2/SiO2 BBHR coatings, showing the trends with test laser pulse duration from the ns to sub-ps regimes.

  13. Diagnostic yield of the comprehensive assessment of developmental delay/mental retardation in an institute of child neuropsychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, A; Bianchini, E; Carey, J C

    1999-01-01

    The Consensus Conference of the American College of Medical Genetics has established guidelines regarding the evaluation of patients with mental retardation (MR) [Curry et al., Am. J. Med. Genet. 72:468-477, 1997]. They emphasized the high diagnostic utility of cytogenetic studies and of neuroimaging in certain clinical settings. However, data on the diagnostic yield of these studies in well-characterized populations of individuals with MR are scant. Majnemer and Shevell [J. Pediatr. 127:193-199, 1995] attained a diagnostic yield of 63%. However, this study included only 60 patients and the classification included pathogenetic and causal groups. The Stella Maris Institute has evaluated systematically patients with developmental delay (DD)/MR and performed various laboratory studies and neuroimaging in almost all patients. We report a retrospective analysis of the diagnostic yield of 120 consecutive patients observed at our Institute during the first 6 months of 1996. There were 77 males and 43 females; 47 were mildly delayed (IQ 70-50), 31 were moderately delayed (IQ 50-35), and 42 were severely delayed (IQ 35-20). Diagnostic studies (history, physical examination, standard cytogenetics, fragile X testing, molecular studies, electroencephalography, electromyography, nerve conduction studies, neuroimaging, and metabolic screening tests) yielded a causal diagnosis in 50 (41.6%) and a pathogenetic diagnosis in 47 (39.2%) of the 120 patients. Causal categories included chromosomal abnormalities (14), Fra(X) syndromes (4), known MCA/MR syndromes (19), fetal environmental syndromes (1), neurometabolic (3) disorders, neurocutaneous (3) disorders, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (3), other encephalopathies (1), and congenital bilateral perisylvian syndrome (2). Pathogenetic categories included idiopathic MCA/MR syndromes (35), epileptic syndromes (10), and isolated lissencephaly sequence (2). Diagnostic yield did not differ across categories and degree of DD. Our results

  14. A Broad-Spectrum Infection Diagnostic that Detects Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs in Whole Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Cartwright

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: The FcMBL ELLecSA-based PAMP assay offers a rapid, simple, sensitive and specific method for diagnosing infections, even when blood cultures are negative and antibiotic therapy has been initiated. It may help to triage patients with suspected systemic infections, and serve as a companion diagnostic to guide administration of emerging dialysis-like sepsis therapies.

  15. Auditory Brainstem Response Wave Amplitude Characteristics as a Diagnostic Tool in Children with Speech Delay with Unknown Causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Abadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Speech delay with an unknown cause is a problem among children. This diagnosis is the last differential diagnosis after observing normal findings in routine hearing tests. The present study was undertaken to determine whether auditory brainstem responses to click stimuli are different between normally developing children and children suffering from delayed speech with unknown causes. In this cross-sectional study, we compared click auditory brainstem responses between 261 children who were clinically diagnosed with delayed speech with unknown causes based on normal routine auditory test findings and neurological examinations and had >12 months of speech delay (case group and 261 age- and sex-matched normally developing children (control group. Our results indicated that the case group exhibited significantly higher wave amplitude responses to click stimuli (waves I, III, and V than did the control group (P=0.001. These amplitudes were significantly reduced after 1 year (P=0.001; however, they were still significantly higher than those of the control group (P=0.001. The significant differences were seen regardless of the age and the sex of the participants. There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups considering the latency of waves I, III, and V. In conclusion, the higher amplitudes of waves I, III, and V, which were observed in the auditory brainstem responses to click stimuli among the patients with speech delay with unknown causes, might be used as a diagnostic tool to track patients’ improvement after treatment.

  16. A Broad-Spectrum Infection Diagnostic that Detects Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) in Whole Blood

    OpenAIRE

    Cartwright, Mark; Rottman, Martin; Shapiro, Nathan I.; Seiler, Benjamin; Lombardo, Patrick; Gamini, Nazita; Tomolonis, Julie; Watters, Alexander L.; Waterhouse, Anna; Leslie, Dan; Bolgen, Dana; Graveline, Amanda; Kang, Joo H.; Didar, Tohid; Dimitrakakis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Background: Blood cultures, and molecular diagnostic tests that directly detect pathogen DNA in blood, fail to detect bloodstream infections in most infected patients. Thus, there is a need for a rapid test that can diagnose the presence of infection to triage patients, guide therapy, and decrease the incidence of sepsis. Methods: An Enzyme-Linked Lectin-Sorbent Assay (ELLecSA) that uses magnetic microbeads coated with an engineered version of the human opsonin, Mannose Binding Lectin, contai...

  17. EMISSION SIGNATURES FROM SUB-PARSEC BINARY SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES. I. DIAGNOSTIC POWER OF BROAD EMISSION LINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Khai; Bogdanović, Tamara [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta GA 30332 (United States)

    2016-09-10

    Motivated by advances in observational searches for sub-parsec supermassive black hole binaries (SBHBs) made in the past few years, we develop a semi-analytic model to describe spectral emission-line signatures of these systems. The goal of this study is to aid the interpretation of spectroscopic searches for binaries and to help test one of the leading models of binary accretion flows in the literature: SBHB in a circumbinary disk. In this work, we present the methodology and a comparison of the preliminary model with the data. We model SBHB accretion flows as a set of three accretion disks: two mini-disks that are gravitationally bound to the individual black holes and a circumbinary disk. Given a physically motivated parameter space occupied by sub-parsec SBHBs, we calculate a synthetic database of nearly 15 million broad optical emission-line profiles and explore the dependence of the profile shapes on characteristic properties of SBHBs. We find that the modeled profiles show distinct statistical properties as a function of the semimajor axis, mass ratio, eccentricity of the binary, and the degree of alignment of the triple disk system. This suggests that the broad emission-line profiles from SBHB systems can in principle be used to infer the distribution of these parameters and as such merit further investigation. Calculated profiles are more morphologically heterogeneous than the broad emission lines in observed SBHB candidates and we discuss improved treatment of radiative transfer effects, which will allow a direct statistical comparison of the two groups.

  18. EMISSION SIGNATURES FROM SUB-PARSEC BINARY SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES. I. DIAGNOSTIC POWER OF BROAD EMISSION LINES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Khai; Bogdanović, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by advances in observational searches for sub-parsec supermassive black hole binaries (SBHBs) made in the past few years, we develop a semi-analytic model to describe spectral emission-line signatures of these systems. The goal of this study is to aid the interpretation of spectroscopic searches for binaries and to help test one of the leading models of binary accretion flows in the literature: SBHB in a circumbinary disk. In this work, we present the methodology and a comparison of the preliminary model with the data. We model SBHB accretion flows as a set of three accretion disks: two mini-disks that are gravitationally bound to the individual black holes and a circumbinary disk. Given a physically motivated parameter space occupied by sub-parsec SBHBs, we calculate a synthetic database of nearly 15 million broad optical emission-line profiles and explore the dependence of the profile shapes on characteristic properties of SBHBs. We find that the modeled profiles show distinct statistical properties as a function of the semimajor axis, mass ratio, eccentricity of the binary, and the degree of alignment of the triple disk system. This suggests that the broad emission-line profiles from SBHB systems can in principle be used to infer the distribution of these parameters and as such merit further investigation. Calculated profiles are more morphologically heterogeneous than the broad emission lines in observed SBHB candidates and we discuss improved treatment of radiative transfer effects, which will allow a direct statistical comparison of the two groups.

  19. A Broad-Spectrum Infection Diagnostic that Detects Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) in Whole Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Mark; Rottman, Martin; Shapiro, Nathan I; Seiler, Benjamin; Lombardo, Patrick; Gamini, Nazita; Tomolonis, Julie; Watters, Alexander L; Waterhouse, Anna; Leslie, Dan; Bolgen, Dana; Graveline, Amanda; Kang, Joo H; Didar, Tohid; Dimitrakakis, Nikolaos; Cartwright, David; Super, Michael; Ingber, Donald E

    2016-07-01

    Blood cultures, and molecular diagnostic tests that directly detect pathogen DNA in blood, fail to detect bloodstream infections in most infected patients. Thus, there is a need for a rapid test that can diagnose the presence of infection to triage patients, guide therapy, and decrease the incidence of sepsis. An Enzyme-Linked Lectin-Sorbent Assay (ELLecSA) that uses magnetic microbeads coated with an engineered version of the human opsonin, Mannose Binding Lectin, containing the Fc immunoglobulin domain linked to its carbohydrate recognition domain (FcMBL) was developed to quantify pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) in whole blood. This assay was tested in rats and pigs to explore whether it can detect infections and monitor disease progression, and in prospectively enrolled, emergency room patients with suspected sepsis. These results were also compared with data obtained from non-infected patients with or without traumatic injuries. The FcMBL ELLecSA was able to detect PAMPS present on, or released by, 85% of clinical isolates representing 47 of 55 different pathogen species, including the most common causes of sepsis. The PAMP assay rapidly (animals, even when blood cultures were negative and bacteriocidal antibiotics were administered. In patients with suspected sepsis, the FcMBL ELLecSA detected infection in 55 of 67 patients with high sensitivity (>81%), specificity (>89%), and diagnostic accuracy of 0·87. It also distinguished infection from trauma-related inflammation in the same patient cohorts with a higher specificity than the clinical sepsis biomarker, C-reactive Protein. The FcMBL ELLecSA-based PAMP assay offers a rapid, simple, sensitive and specific method for diagnosing infections, even when blood cultures are negative and antibiotic therapy has been initiated. It may help to triage patients with suspected systemic infections, and serve as a companion diagnostic to guide administration of emerging dialysis-like sepsis therapies

  20. Diagnostic Delay among Adults with Pulmonary Tuberculosis in a High Gross Domestic Product Per Capita Country: Reasons and Magnitude of the Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Wanis H; Alousi, Faraj H; Al-Khal, Abdulatif; Bener, Abdulbari; AlSalman, Ahmed; Aamer, Aaiza; Khaled, Ahmed; Raza, Tasleem

    2016-01-01

    To determine the mean and median delays in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) diagnosis among adults in one of the world's highest gross domestic product per capita countries and identify patient and health system-related reasons for these delays. This is a cross-sectional, face-to-face, prospective study of 100 subjects with confirmed PTB, conducted at main tuberculosis (TB) admitting facilities in Qatar. The mean and median diagnostic delays were measured. The Chi-square test with two-sided P factors and diagnostic delay. The mean and median total diagnostic delays of PTB were 53 (95% confidence interval [CI] 42.61-63.59) and 30 (interquartile range; Q1-Q3, 15-60) days, respectively. The mean patient factor delay was 45.7 (95% CI 28.1-63.4) days, and the median was 30 (interquartile range; Q1-Q3, 15-60) days. The mean health system factor delay was 46.3 (95% CI 35.46-57.06) days, and the median was 30 (interquartile range; Q1-Q3, 18-60) days. The most common cause of patient factor delay was neglect of TB symptoms by patients (in 39% of cases), and for health-care system factor delay was a failure (mostly at general and private care levels) to suspect PTB by doctors (in 57% of cases). There were no significant associations between the presence of language barrier, patient occupation or nationality, and diagnostic delay. Despite a favorable comparison to other countries, there is a substantial delay in the diagnosis of PTB in Qatar. Relevant actions including health education on TB are required to minimize this delay.

  1. Diagnostic Dilemma in a Young Woman with Acute Headache: Delayed Diagnosis of Third Ventricular Colloid Cyst with Hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasem Y. Al-Hashel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To highlight the importance of early diagnosis of colloid cyst of the third ventricle and its early management. Clinical Presentation and Intervention. This is a young lady who presented with sudden onset headache. She attended a local clinic and also her area hospital. Her diagnosis was delayed several hours due to a diagnostic dilemma initially. No surgical intervention was tried since the patient developed early signs of brainstem coning by the time she was seen by neurosurgeon. Patient died after few days in spite of intensive ICU measures. Conclusion. Sudden onset headache in young adults should be looked at carefully. Early imaging is mandatory to prevent mortality.

  2. Chlorpyrifos-Induced Delayed Neurotoxicity with A Rare Presentation of Flaccid Quadriplegia: A Diagnostic Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Afonso Mendes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphate compound recognized as causing acute toxicity. However, organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP, although rare, has also been described. We describe an unusual presentation of OPIDP with flaccid quadriplegia progressing to a locked-in-like syndrome, 30 days after a 60-year-old man voluntarily ingested chlorpyrifos. In the absence of specific treatment, the patient only recovered partial motor responses and the ability to communicate. The authors present this report in order to highlight a form of OPIDP which can hinder diagnosis due to its atypia and the delay in the onset of symptoms from initial contact with the toxicant.

  3. CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF THE UNIVERSE AT 0.7 < z < 1.6 DERIVED FROM ABUNDANCE DIAGNOSTICS OF THE BROAD-LINE REGION OF QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sameshima, H. [Laboratory of Infrared High-resolution Spectroscopy, Koyama Astronomical Observatory, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Yoshii, Y.; Kawara, K., E-mail: sameshima@cc.kyoto-su.ac.jp [Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan)

    2017-01-10

    We present an analysis of Mg ii λ 2798 and Fe ii UV emission lines for archival Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars to explore the diagnostics of the magnesium-to-iron abundance ratio in a broad-line region cloud. Our sample consists of 17,432 quasars selected from the SDSS Data Release 7 with a redshift range of 0.72 <  z  < 1.63. A strong anticorrelation between the Mg ii equivalent width (EW) and the Eddington ratio is found, while only a weak positive correlation is found between the Fe ii EW and the Eddington ratio. To investigate the origin of these differing behaviors of Mg ii and Fe ii emission lines, we perform photoionization calculations using the Cloudy code, where constraints from recent reverberation mapping studies are considered. We find from calculations that (1) Mg ii and Fe ii emission lines are created at different regions in a photoionized cloud, and (2) their EW correlations with the Eddington ratio can be explained by just changing the cloud gas density. These results indicate that the Mg ii/Fe ii flux ratio, which has been used as a first-order proxy for the Mg/Fe abundance ratio in chemical evolution studies with quasar emission lines, depends largely on the cloud gas density. By correcting this density dependence, we propose new diagnostics of the Mg/Fe abundance ratio for a broad-line region cloud. In comparing the derived Mg/Fe abundance ratios with chemical evolution models, we suggest that α -enrichment by mass loss from metal-poor intermediate-mass stars occurred at z  ∼ 2 or earlier.

  4. Diagnostic performance and system delay using telemedicine for prehospital diagnosis in triaging and teatment of STEMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Martin Bøhme; Frost, Lars; Stengaard, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    diagnoses established by telemedicine confirmed on hospital arrival, and we determined system delay in patients diagnosed before hospital arrival and triaged directly to the catheterisation laboratory. Methods: Design: Population-based follow-up study. Setting: Central Denmark Region. Participants: 15 992...... patients diagnosed using telemedicine. Results: During the study period, a tentative diagnosis of STEMI was established in 1061 patients, of whom 919 were triaged directly to the PCI centre. In 771 (84%) patients, a diagnosis of STEMI was confirmed. Patients transported ... living telemedicine for prehospital diagnosis and triage of patients directly to the catheter laboratory is feasible and allows 89% of patients living up to 95 km from the invasive centre to be treated...

  5. Proximal femoral osteosarcoma: Diagnostic challenges translate into delayed and inappropriate management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, M; Anract, P; Babinet, A; Larousserie, F; Biau, D

    2017-11-01

    The proximal femuris is an uncommon site of osteosarcoma. The unusual manifestations at this site may lead to diagnostic and therapeutic mistakes. We therefore performed a retrospective study to estimate the proportions of patients with imaging study findings and/or clinical manifestations typical for osteosarcoma and/or inappropriate treatment decisions. Proximal femoral osteosarcoma often produces atypical clinical and radiological presentations. Consecutive patients who underwent surgery at our center to treat proximal femoral osteosarcoma were included. For each patient, we collected the epidemiological characteristics, clinical symptoms, imaging study findings, treatment, and tumor outcome. Proportions were computed with their confidence intervals. Twelve patients had surgery for proximal femoral osteosarcoma between 1986 and 2015. Imaging findings were typical in 1 (8%) patient; they consisted of ill-defined osteolysis in 11/12 (92%) patients, a periosteal reaction in 1/12 (8%) patient, soft tissue involvement in 7/12 (58%) patients, and immature osteoid matrix in 11/12 (92%) patients. No patient had the typical combination of pain with a soft tissue swelling. Management was inappropriate in 2/12 (17%) patients, who did not undergo all the recommended imaging studies before surgery and were treated in another center before the correct diagnosis was established. At last follow-up, 4 patients had died (after a mean of 7 years) and 8 were alive (after a mean of 4 years). Proximal femoral osteosarcoma is uncommon and rarely produces the typical clinical and imaging study findings. The atypical presentation often results in diagnostic errors and inappropriate treatments. Ill-defined osteolysis on standard radiographs should prompt computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging of the proximal femur. Treatment in a specialized center is imperative. IV, retrospective study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical profile, diagnostic delay, and genetic make-up of cystic fibrosis in Kashmir, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasaduq Ahmad Mir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This observational study was done to describe the clinical profile, and delays in diagnosing cystic fibrosis (CF disease in Kashmir, India. Materials and Methods : A total of 6758 patients between the ages of 0 and 19 years were registered over a period of 1 year. Out of these, 150 patients suspected of having CF, on clinical grounds, were subjected to pilocarpine iontophoresis, and later on genetic evaluation. Apart from these specific tests, these patients were subjected to laboratory tests like blood counts, blood sugar, KFT, LFT, pancreatic function test, serum electrolytes, and chloride, urine, throat swab, blood culture, ABG analysis, chest and paranasal X-rays. In addition, sonographic evaluation of abdominal organs was carried out to know the status of internal organs. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based test was used for the identification of CF mutation. Results: CF was diagnosed in three (0.8% patients. Median age of presentation of CF was 78 months. Family history suggestive of CF was present in one (33.3% and consanguinity in three (100% patients. Common clinical manifestations at the time of presentation included recurrent pneumonia in three (100%, failure to thrive in three (100%, recurrent diarrhea in one (33.3% patients. General physical examination showed pallor in three (100%, malnutrition in three (100%, and clubbing in two (66.7% patients. Examination of respiratory tract revealed hyperinflation in two (66.7%, rhinitis in two (66.7%, and creptations in two (66.7% patients. Sonography of abdominal organs revealed pancreatic cysts in one (33.3%, hyperechoeic and increased liver span in two (66.7%, and small gallbladder in one (33.3%. Staphylococcus aureus was cultured from sputum in one (33.3%, pseudomonas aeruginosa in one (33.3% patients. Delta F508 mutation was present in one (33.3% patient. Conclusion: CF may be more common in Kashmir and other parts of Asia, than indicated by our study; diagnosis is often

  7. First results of the delayed fluorescence velocimetry as applied to diesel spray diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megahed, M.; Roosen, P.

    1993-08-01

    One of the main parameters governing diesel spray formation is the fuel's velocity just beneath the nozzle. The high density of the injected liquid within the first few millimeters under the injector prohibits accurate measurements of this velocity. The liquid's velocity in this region has been mainly measured using intrusive methods and has been numerically calculated without considering the complex flow fields in the nozzle. A new optical method based on laser induced delayed fluorescence allowing the measurement of the fuel's velocity close to the nozzle is reported. The results are accurate to about 14% and represent the velocities of heavy oils within the first 2 - 5 mm beneath the nozzle. The development of the velocity over the injection period showed a drastic deceleration of the fuel within the first 3 mm beneath the nozzle. This is assumed to be due to the complex interaction of cavitation in the injection hole and pressure waves in the injection system which causes the start of atomization in the nozzle hole.

  8. Ciprofloxacin prophylaxis delays initiation of broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy and reduces the overall use of antimicrobial agents during induction therapy for acute leukaemia: A single-centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallböök, Helene; Lidström, Anna-Karin; Pauksens, Karlis

    2016-01-01

    Due to an outbreak of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, the routine use of fluoroquinolone prophylaxis was questioned. As a result, this study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the impact of ciprofloxacin-prophylaxis on the use of broad-spectrum antibioctics and anti-mycotics. A cohort of 139 consecutive patients with acute leukaemia treated with remission-inducing induction chemotherapy between 2004-2012 at the Department of Haematology in Uppsala University Hospital was analysed. Fifty-three patients (38%) received broad-spectrum antibiotics at the initiation of chemotherapy and were not eligible for prophylaxis. Of the remaining patients, the initiation of broad-spectrum antibiotics was delayed by 3 days in those receiving ciprofloxacin prophylaxis (n = 47) compared with those receiving no prophylaxis (n = 39). The median duration of systemic antibiotic treatment was 6 days shorter in patients receiving ciprofloxacin prophylaxis (12 vs 18 days; p = 0.0005) and the cumulative (total) median days on systemic antibiotic treatment was shortened by 8 days (15 vs 23 days, p = 0.0008). Piperacillin/tazobactam (p = 0.02), carbapenems (p = 0.05) and empiric broad-spectrum antifungals (p antibiotic use in this study. These benefits must be evaluated vs the risks of development of resistant bacterial strains, making fluoroquinolone prophylaxis an open question for debate.

  9. Impact of diagnostic ECG to wire delay in STEMI patients treated with primary PCI - a DANAMI-3 substudy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nepper-Christensen, Lars; Lønborg, Jacob; Høfsten, Dan Eik

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: We evaluated the impact of delay from diagnostic pre-hospital electrocardiogram (ECG) to wiring of the infarct related vessel (ECG-to-wire) >120 minutes on cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) markers of reperfusion success and clinical outcome in patients with ST-segment elevation...... myocardial infarction (STEMI). METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 1492 patients in the analyses of clinical outcome. CMR was performed in 748 patients to evaluate infarct size and myocardial salvage. In total, 304 patients (20%) had ECG-to-wire >120 minutes, which was associated with larger acute infarct size...... (18% [interquartile range (IQR), 10-28] vs. 15% [8-24]; p=0.022) and smaller myocardial salvage (0.42 [IQR 0.28-0.57] vs. 0.50 [IQR 0.34-0.70]; p=0.002). However, 33% of the patients with ECG-to-wire >120 minutes still had a substantial myocardial salvage of more than 0.50. In a multivariable analysis...

  10. Multilayer optics for monochromatic high-resolution X-ray imaging diagnostic in a broad photon energy range from 2 keV to 22 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troussel, Ph.; Dennetiere, D.; Maroni, R.; Høghøj, P.; Hedacq, S.; Cibik, L.; Krumrey, M.

    2014-01-01

    The “Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives” (CEA) studies and designs advanced X-ray diagnostics to probe dense plasmas produced at the future Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) facility. Mainly for X-ray imaging with high spatial resolution, different types of multilayer mirrors were developed to provide broadband X-ray reflectance at grazing incidence. These coatings are deposited on two toroidal mirror substrates that are then mounted into a Wolter-type geometry (working at a grazing angle of 0.45°) to realize an X-ray microscope. Non-periodic (depth graded) W/Si multilayer can be used in the broad photon energy range from 2 keV to 22 keV. A third flat mirror can be added for the spectral selection of the microscope. This mirror is coated with a Mo/Si multilayer for which the d-spacing varies in the longitudinal direction to satisfy the Bragg condition within the angular acceptance of the microscope and also to compensate the angular dispersion due to the field of the microscope. We present a study of such a so-called Göbel mirror which was optimized for photon energy of 10.35 keV. The three mirrors were coated using magnetron sputtering technology by Xenocs SA. The reflectance in the entire photon energy range was determined in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II in Berlin

  11. Multilayer optics for monochromatic high-resolution X-ray imaging diagnostic in a broad photon energy range from 2 keV to 22 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troussel, Ph., E-mail: philippe.troussel@cea.fr [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Dennetiere, D. [Synchrotron Soleil, L’orme des Merisiers, 91190 Saint-Aubin (France); Maroni, R. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Høghøj, P.; Hedacq, S. [Xenocs SA, 19, rue François Blumet, F-38360 Sassenage (France); Cibik, L.; Krumrey, M. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-12-11

    The “Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives” (CEA) studies and designs advanced X-ray diagnostics to probe dense plasmas produced at the future Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) facility. Mainly for X-ray imaging with high spatial resolution, different types of multilayer mirrors were developed to provide broadband X-ray reflectance at grazing incidence. These coatings are deposited on two toroidal mirror substrates that are then mounted into a Wolter-type geometry (working at a grazing angle of 0.45°) to realize an X-ray microscope. Non-periodic (depth graded) W/Si multilayer can be used in the broad photon energy range from 2 keV to 22 keV. A third flat mirror can be added for the spectral selection of the microscope. This mirror is coated with a Mo/Si multilayer for which the d-spacing varies in the longitudinal direction to satisfy the Bragg condition within the angular acceptance of the microscope and also to compensate the angular dispersion due to the field of the microscope. We present a study of such a so-called Göbel mirror which was optimized for photon energy of 10.35 keV. The three mirrors were coated using magnetron sputtering technology by Xenocs SA. The reflectance in the entire photon energy range was determined in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II in Berlin.

  12. Multilayer optics for monochromatic high-resolution X-ray imaging diagnostic in a broad photon energy range from 2 keV to 22 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troussel, Ph.; Dennetiere, D.; Maroni, R.; Høghøj, P.; Hedacq, S.; Cibik, L.; Krumrey, M.

    2014-12-01

    The "Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives" (CEA) studies and designs advanced X-ray diagnostics to probe dense plasmas produced at the future Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) facility. Mainly for X-ray imaging with high spatial resolution, different types of multilayer mirrors were developed to provide broadband X-ray reflectance at grazing incidence. These coatings are deposited on two toroidal mirror substrates that are then mounted into a Wolter-type geometry (working at a grazing angle of 0.45°) to realize an X-ray microscope. Non-periodic (depth graded) W/Si multilayer can be used in the broad photon energy range from 2 keV to 22 keV. A third flat mirror can be added for the spectral selection of the microscope. This mirror is coated with a Mo/Si multilayer for which the d-spacing varies in the longitudinal direction to satisfy the Bragg condition within the angular acceptance of the microscope and also to compensate the angular dispersion due to the field of the microscope. We present a study of such a so-called Göbel mirror which was optimized for photon energy of 10.35 keV. The three mirrors were coated using magnetron sputtering technology by Xenocs SA. The reflectance in the entire photon energy range was determined in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II in Berlin.

  13. Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donné, A.J.H.; Costley, A.E.; Barnsley, R.

    2007-01-01

    of the measurements—time and spatial resolutions, etc—will in some cases be more stringent. Many of the measurements will be used in the real time control of the plasma driving a requirement for very high reliability in the systems (diagnostics) that provide the measurements. The implementation of diagnostic systems...... on ITER is a substantial challenge. Because of the harsh environment (high levels of neutron and gamma fluxes, neutron heating, particle bombardment) diagnostic system selection and design has to cope with a range of phenomena not previously encountered in diagnostic design. Extensive design and R......&D is needed to prepare the systems. In some cases the environmental difficulties are so severe that new diagnostic techniques are required. The starting point in the development of diagnostics for ITER is to define the measurement requirements and develop their justification. It is necessary to include all...

  14. The diagnostic value of adding dynamic scintigraphy to standard delayed planar imaging for sentinel node identification in melanoma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marie Kristina Rue; Chakera, Annette H; Hesse, Birger

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare early dynamic imaging combined with delayed static imaging and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT with delayed, planar, static imaging alone for sentinel node (SN) identification in melanoma patients.......The aim of this study was to compare early dynamic imaging combined with delayed static imaging and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT with delayed, planar, static imaging alone for sentinel node (SN) identification in melanoma patients....

  15. Impact of gender, work, and clinical presentation on diagnostic delay in Italian patients with primary ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandinelli, F; Salvadorini, G; Delle Sedie, A; Riente, L; Bombardieri, S; Matucci-Cerinic, M

    2016-02-01

    The variability of demographic, social, genetic, and clinical factors might influence the time between the onset of symptoms and the diagnosis [diagnostic delay (DD)] of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in different geographic areas. Different clinical manifestations in men and women affected by AS might indicate a possible role of gender in DD. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of demographic, social, genetic, and clinical factors on DD and the differences of DD between men and women related to the presence of different demographic, social, clinical, and genetic parameters in an Italian cohort of primary AS patients. A total of 135 Italian primary AS patients (45 female and 90 male, 27.9 ± 0.89 years old at onset) were studied. The DD, gender, education and work (manual or non-manual) levels, and type of first clinical presentation (inflammatory back pain, arthritis, enthesitis) at onset, family history of AS, and HLA B27 presence were analyzed. The DD (8.744 mean ±0.6869) was significantly higher in men (p = 0.0023), in axial presentation (p = 0.0021), and in manual work (even if with low significance, p = 0.047). The lower DD in women in comparison to that in men was likely related to higher education (p = 0.0045) and work (p = 0.0186) levels, peripheral involvement (p = 0.0009), and HLA B27 positivity (p = 0.0231). DD was higher in AS patients: male, employed in manual jobs, and with axial symptoms at onset. In men, DD seemed to be negatively influenced by lower level of education and work, axial clinical presentation, and HLA B27.

  16. A novel ABCD1 mutation detected by next generation sequencing in presumed hereditary spastic paraplegia: A 30-year diagnostic delay caused by misleading biochemical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsis, Georgios; Lynch, David S; Tucci, Arianna; Houlden, Henry; Karadima, Georgia; Panas, Marios

    2015-08-15

    To present a Greek family in which 5 male and 2 female members developed progressive spastic paraplegia. Plasma very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) were reportedly normal at first testing in an affected male and for over 30 years the presumed diagnosis was hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). Targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) was used as a further diagnostic tool. Targeted exome sequencing in the proband, followed by Sanger sequencing confirmation; mutation segregation testing in multiple family members and plasma VLCFA measurement in the proband. NGS of the proband revealed a novel frameshift mutation in ABCD1 (c.1174_1178del, p.Leu392Serfs*7), bringing an end to diagnostic uncertainty by establishing the diagnosis of adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN), the myelopathic phenotype of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD). The mutation segregated in all family members and the diagnosis of AMN/ALD was confirmed by plasma VLCFA measurement. Confounding factors that delayed the diagnosis are presented. This report highlights the diagnostic utility of NGS in patients with undiagnosed spastic paraplegia, establishing a molecular diagnosis of AMN, allowing proper genetic counseling and management, and overcoming the diagnostic delay that can be rarely caused by false negative VLCFA analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Factors Responsible for the Diagnostic Delay in Oral Cancer Patients: A Hospital Based Sociodemographic Study in Kolkata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramitasri Bhattacharyya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Oral cancer is a challenging health problem globally. Delay in diagnosis is an important factor in determining the outcome of the disease. It is a major determinant of mortality and morbidity of oral cancer patients. Present observational study was conducted with the objective of finding the factors responsible for delay in diagnosis of oral cancer in patients. Materials and Methods Hospital based observational study where patient register was used as data source from 15th Nov, 2013-15th Jan, 2014. Results Among the causes for delay in reporting to hospital, financial constraint (84% and illiteracy (56.5% have been found to contribute the most. The risk of primary delay is 3.53 times more among illiterate in comparison with literate. Age, gender, stage of cancer, religion, caste, tobacco use and delayed referral from the first physician were the other factors found to be significant in relation to primary delay. Discussion Early diagnosis is a major factor for favorable outcome of a disease and several factors hinder early diagnosis. Some of these factors can be easily modified through Information, Education and Communication (IEC. Conclusion Some important factors that lead to delay are identified and some of them are preventable. So, IEC regarding cancer among general population will not only provide knowledge to them, but also will break myths regarding cancer and reduce the burden of disease. These identified predictors of delay may be used for designing an educational intervention program for patients with oral cancers.

  18. The Diagnostic Yield of Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization Is High Regardless of Severity of Intellectual Disability/Developmental Delay in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arrigo, Stefano; Gavazzi, Francesco; Alfei, Enrico; Zuffardi, Orsetta; Montomoli, Cristina; Corso, Barbara; Buzzi, Erika; Sciacca, Francesca L; Bulgheroni, Sara; Riva, Daria; Pantaleoni, Chiara

    2016-05-01

    Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization is a method of molecular analysis that identifies chromosomal anomalies (or copy number variants) that correlate with clinical phenotypes. The aim of the present study was to apply a clinical score previously designated by de Vries to 329 patients with intellectual disability/developmental disorder (intellectual disability/developmental delay) referred to our tertiary center and to see whether the clinical factors are associated with a positive outcome of aCGH analyses. Another goal was to test the association between a positive microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization result and the severity of intellectual disability/developmental delay. Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization identified structural chromosomal alterations responsible for the intellectual disability/developmental delay phenotype in 16% of our sample. Our study showed that causative copy number variants are frequently found even in cases of mild intellectual disability (30.77%). We want to emphasize the need to conduct microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization on all individuals with intellectual disability/developmental delay, regardless of the severity, because the degree of intellectual disability/developmental delay does not predict the diagnostic yield of microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. The diagnostic value of adding dynamic scintigraphy to standard delayed planar imaging for sentinel node identification in melanoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Kristina Rue; Nielsen, Michael B.; Chakera, Annette H.; Hesse, Birger; Oturai, Peter S.; Scolyer, Richard A.; Stretch, Jonathan F.; Thompson, John F.; Uren, Roger F.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare early dynamic imaging combined with delayed static imaging and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT with delayed, planar, static imaging alone for sentinel node (SN) identification in melanoma patients. Three hundred and seven consecutive melanoma patients referred for SN biopsy (SNB) were examined using combined imaging. Secondary interpretation of only the delayed static images was subsequently performed. In 220 patients (72%), complete surgical and pathological information relating to the SNB was available. The number of SNs identified and number of patients with positive SNs were compared between the two interpretations of the imaging studies and, when available, related to pathology data. A slightly higher number of SNs (mean 0.12/patient) was identified when interpreting only delayed static images compared to combined imaging. In a direct patient-to-patient comparison, the number of SN(s) identified on the combined vs static images only showed moderate agreement (kappa value 0.56). In 38 patients (17%), positive SNs were identified by the combined procedure compared to 35 (16%) by static imaging only. Thus by static imaging only, tumour-positive SNs were not identified in 3 of 38 patients (8%). For SN identification in melanoma patients, dynamic imaging combined with delayed static imaging and SPECT/CT is superior to delayed static imaging only because the latter is more likely to fail to identify SNs containing metastases. (orig.)

  20. Radiation protection clothing in X-ray diagnostics. Comparison of attenuation equivalents in narrow beam and inverse broad-beam geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichler, Thomas; Schoepf, T.; Ennemoser, O.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Standard DIN EN 61 331-1 for attenuation measurements in the narrow and broad beam as well as DIN 6857-1 for the determination of shielding properties in the inverse broad-beam geometry are available for testing the attenuation of protection clothing. The attenuation measurements in the narrow beam don't consider scattered radiation and fluorescence due to the arrangement. This leads to the fact that the protective effect of lead-free materials will be misestimated when compared to lead. Therefore, the differences in attenuation equivalents, determined by both test methods for topical radiation protection aprons, were examined. Materials and Methods: The attenuations in inverse broad-beam geometry according to DIN 6857-1 and in the narrow beam according to DIN EN 61 331-1 were measured using commercially available aprons. They were made of lead, lead-reduced and lead-free materials. For determination of the attenuation equivalents, certificated lead-foils with high purity and a precise thickness of 0.1 to 1.25 mm were used. Results: The measurements in the narrow beam according to DIN EN 61 331-1 showed that nearly all aprons reach the required lead equivalent at mid-range tube voltages of 100 kV. At higher and lower tube voltages, the requirements of DIN EN 61 331-3 were largely not met. In contrast, the testing of the same aprons in inverse broad-beam geometry according to DIN 6857-1 showed that only a few aprons meet the requirements for being classified in the nominal protection class. Conclusion: The measurements suggest that testing method DIN 6857-1 has yet to prevail and that manufacturers are just beginning to develop the appropriate protective materials. (orig.)

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain in the diagnostic evaluation of developmental delay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbruggen, Krijn T.; Meiners, Linda C.; Sijens, Paul E.; Lunsing, Roelineke J.; van Spronsen, Francjan J.; Brouwer, Oebele F.

    Aim: To assess the contribution of MRI and proton spectroscopy (1HMRS) in establishing an etiological diagnosis in children with developmental delay (DD) and to assess whether the chance of finding specific abnormalities correlates with the presence of neurological signs and/or abnormal head

  2. A Diagnostic Marker to Discriminate Childhood Apraxia of Speech from Speech Delay: IV. the Pause Marker Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Strand, Edythe A.; Fourakis, Marios; Jakielski, Kathy J.; Hall, Sheryl D.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Mabie, Heather L.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Tilkens, Christie M.; Wilson, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Three previous articles provided rationale, methods, and several forms of validity support for a diagnostic marker of childhood apraxia of speech (CAS), termed the pause marker (PM). Goals of the present article were to assess the validity and stability of the PM Index (PMI) to scale CAS severity. Method: PM scores and speech, prosody,…

  3. A Diagnostic Marker to Discriminate Childhood Apraxia of Speech from Speech Delay: II. Validity Studies of the Pause Marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Strand, Edythe A.; Fourakis, Marios; Jakielski, Kathy J.; Hall, Sheryl D.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Mabie, Heather L.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Tilkens, Christie M.; Wilson, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this 2nd article in this supplement is to report validity support findings for the Pause Marker (PM), a proposed single-sign diagnostic marker of childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Method: PM scores and additional perceptual and acoustic measures were obtained from 296 participants in cohorts with idiopathic and…

  4. Diagnostic and therapeutic delay of rheumatoid arthritis and its relationship with health care devices in Catalonia. The AUDIT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas, Hèctor; Narváez, Javier; Díaz-Torné, César; Salvador, Georgina; Gomez-Caballero, María Eugenia; de la Fuente, Diana; Campoy, Ester; Roig-Vilaseca, Daniel; Clavaguera, Teresa; Morlà, Rosa; Torrente-Segarra, Vicenç; Arasa, Xavier; Gomez-Puerta, José Alfredo; Möller, Ingrid; Alegre, Cayetano; Graell, Eduard; Ponce, Andrés; Lisbona, María Pilar; Pérez-Garcia, Carolina; Fíguls, Ramon; Sirvent, Elena; Poca, Violan; Sanmartí, Raimon

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis and therapy of patients with early onset rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is influenced by accessibility to specialized care devices. We attempted to analyze the impact of their availability. We analyzed time related to diagnosis delay measuring: 1) Time from first clinical symptoms to the first visit with the Rheumatologist; 2) Time from referral to the first visit of Rheumatology; 3) Time between first symptom until final diagnosis; 4) time between first symptom until the initiation of the first disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD). The presence of these 6 rheumatology devices was defined: 1) early arthritis monographic clinics, 2) RA monographic clinics, 3) Mechanisms for fast programming, 4) Algorithms for referral from primary care (PC), 5) rheumatology consultation services in PC and 6) consulting services in PC. The mean time from onset of symptoms to diagnosis or the establishment of a DMARD in RA patients in Catalonia is very long (11 months). Patients seen in rheumatology devices such as RA monographic clinics, rheumatology consultation in PC and specially in early arthritis clinics are treated early with DMARDs. the existence of monographic clinics or consulting in primary care centers is essential to improve early care of RA patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  5. [Blunt force injuries due to martial arts in children--a diagnostic problem? Delayed diagnosis of an infected hematoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruppa, C; Goericke, S L; Matheney, T; Ozokyay, L; Schildhauer, T A; Muhr, G; Dudda, M

    2010-10-01

    Blunt force injuries in martial arts occur frequently but isolated hematoma of muscles in the extremities is rare. Even minor trauma of the lower extremities due to throwing techniques in judo and other forms of Asian martial arts can lead to major pathologies. A 9-year-old girl presented with an unclear swelling and soreness of the calf muscle. The patient could not remember an obvious traumatic event. She was admitted 4 days later because of increased swelling, pain and erythema. The parents reported a minor trauma at judo training 1 week ago. Further investigation was performed with MRI and confirmed a massive hematoma much greater than previously shown by sonography. Histologic and microbiologic evaluation demonstrated florid inflammation and proof of Staphylococcus aureus was found intra-operatively. The diagnosis of blunt force injuries due to martial arts is difficult in childhood because often children do not remember a traumatic event. Therefore, it is important to obtain a thorough history from caregivers. Because sonography depends highly on the experience of the investigator MRI is considered to be a better diagnostic modality to diagnose and guide treatment in this age group.

  6. Role of basal and provocative serum prolactin in differentiating idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and constitutional delayed puberty--a diagnostic dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Liaqat; Adeel, Afrose

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of Idiopathic Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism (IHH) is approximately 1 in 10,000 men. Objectives of this study were to evaluate the role of basal and stimulated serum prolactin in differentiating Constitutional Delayed Puberty (CDP) from IHH. This cross-sectional study was carried out at the Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Military Hospital, Rawalpindi. A total of 20 male patients presenting with provisional diagnosis of IHH/CDP were enrolled in the study. Patients with known diseases were excluded from the study. Baseline FSH, LH, testosterone, and prolactin were estimated and the patients were subjected to provocative prolactin stimulation by Thyrotropin releasing hormone stimulation (TRH) test and chlorpromazine challenge. At each 6 monthly follow-up visit for 4 years, the patients were evaluated for adrenarche, pubarche and other secondary sexual characters. Tanner scale was taken as standards for comparing stage of puberty at a particular age. No treatment was given to both groups for 2 years. At the end of 2 years IHH patients with failed puberty or progression of puberty and CDP who lagged behind by more than 2 years by Tanner scale or 4 years per bone age with compelling psychosocial or psychosexual reasons at school or at home were given short courses of 50 mg injection testosterone in an attempt to expedite the onset or progression of puberty. Patients from either group with failed puberty after low dose testosterone were managed with high dose testosterone therapy to induce secondary sexual characters. Twenty patients enrolled in the study were provisionally divided into 2 groups called IHH (n = 9), and CDP (n = 11) based on high basal and provocative serum prolactin levels in CDP group. Two patients from CDP group were lost in the follow-up leaving 9 patients in each group. A total of 10 (56%) patients, 3 (17%) from IHH group and 7 (39%) from CDP group achieved grade 4 puberty without any treatment. Remaining 8 (44%) patients, 6

  7. Diagnostic delay among adults with pulmonary tuberculosis in a high gross domestic product per capita country: Reasons and magnitude of the problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanis H Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Despite a favorable comparison to other countries, there is a substantial delay in the diagnosis of PTB in Qatar. Relevant actions including health education on TB are required to minimize this delay.

  8. The 2010 Broad Prize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2011

    2011-01-01

    A new data analysis, based on data collected as part of The Broad Prize process, provides insights into which large urban school districts in the United States are doing the best job of educating traditionally disadvantaged groups: African-American, Hispanics, and low-income students. Since 2002, The Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation has awarded The…

  9. Incidence, prevalence, diagnostic delay, morbidity, mortality and socioeconomic status in males with 46,XX disorders of sex development: a nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, A; Johannsen, T H; Stochholm, K; Aksglaede, L; Fedder, J; Viuff, M H; Main, K M; Gravholt, C H

    2017-08-01

    What is the epidemiology and trajectory of health and socioeconomic status in males with 46,XX disorders of sex development (DSD)? 46,XX DSD males had an increased overall morbidity compared to male background population controls, and the socioeconomic status was inferior on outcome parameters such as education and long-term income. 46,XX DSD males are rare and estimates of prevalence and incidence are limited. An increased morbidity and mortality as well as a negatively affected socioeconomic status are described in males with Klinefelter Syndrome. However, this has never been systematically studied in 46,XX DSD males. In this nationwide registry study including 44 males with a verified diagnosis of 46,XX DSD we aimed to estimate incidence, prevalence and diagnostic delay. Further, we aimed to study morbidity, mortality and socioeconomic outcome parameters using the Danish registries. The socioeconomic outcome parameters were education, income, retirement, parenthood and cohabitation. 46,XX DSD males were born during 1908-2012 and follow-up started at birth or at start of registration and ended in 2014. Potential cases (n = 69) were identified in the Danish Cytogenetic Central Registry and the diagnosis was verified by medical record evaluation (n = 44). A randomly selected age-matched control group of 100 males and 100 females per case was identified by Statistics Denmark. Among newborn males the prevalence of diagnosed 46,XX DSD males was 3.5-4.7 per 100 000. Median age at diagnosis was 17.0 years (range: 0.0-62.8). Overall morbidity was increased compared to male controls (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.8-3.3) but not when excluding endocrine and urogenital diseases as well as congenital malformations (HR = 1.2, 95% CI: 0.8-1.6). Mortality was not increased (HR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.2-2.5) compared to male controls. 46,XX DSD males had poorer education (HR = 0.1, 95% CI: 0.0-0.9) and fewer fatherhoods (HR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.7) than male controls

  10. A Diagnostic Marker to Discriminate Childhood Apraxia of Speech from Speech Delay: III. Theoretical Coherence of the Pause Marker with Speech Processing Deficits in Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Strand, Edythe A.; Fourakis, Marios; Jakielski, Kathy J.; Hall, Sheryl D.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Mabie, Heather L.; McSweeny, Jane L.; Tilkens, Christie M.; Wilson, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Previous articles in this supplement described rationale for and development of the pause marker (PM), a diagnostic marker of childhood apraxia of speech (CAS), and studies supporting its validity and reliability. The present article assesses the theoretical coherence of the PM with speech processing deficits in CAS. Method: PM and other…

  11. Ultraviolet-Visible and Fluorescence Spectroscopy Techniques Are Important Diagnostic Tools during the Progression of Atherosclerosis: Diet Zinc Supplementation Retarded or Delayed Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhalim, Mohamed Anwar K.; Moussa, Sherif A. Abdelmottaleb; AL-Mohy, Yanallah Hussain

    2013-01-01

    Background. In this study, we examined whether UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy techniques detect the progression of atherosclerosis in serum of rabbits fed on high-cholesterol diet (HCD) and HCD supplemented with zinc (HCD + Zn) compared with the control. Methods. The control rabbits group was fed on 100 g/day of normal diet. The HCD group was fed on Purina Certified Rabbit Chow supplemented with 1.0% cholesterol plus 1.0% olive oil (100 g/day) for the same period. The HCD + Zn group was fed on normal Purina Certified Rabbit Chow plus 1.0% cholesterol and 1.0% olive oil supplemented with 470 ppm Zn for the same feeding period. UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy and biochemistry in Rabbit's blood serum and blood hematology were measured in Rabbit's blood. Results. We found that the fluorescent peak of HCD shifted toward UV-visible wavelength compared with the control using fluorescent excitation of serum at 192 nm. In addition, they showed that supplementation of zinc (350 ppm) restored the fluorescent peak closely to the control. By using UV-visible spectroscopy approach, we found that the peak absorbance of HCD (about 280 nm) was higher than that of control and that zinc supplementation seemed to decrease the absorbance. Conclusions. This study demonstrates that ultraviolet-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy techniques can be applied as noninvasive techniques on a sample blood serum for diagnosing or detecting the progression of atherosclerosis. The Zn supplementation to rabbits fed on HCD delays or retards the progression of atherosclerosis. Inducing anemia in rabbits fed on HCD delays the progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:24350281

  12. Delayed fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatsukawa, Yuichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-07-01

    Delayed fission is a nuclear decay process that couples {beta} decay and fission. In the delayed fission process, a parent nucleus undergoes {beta} decay and thereby populates excited states in the daughter. If these states are of energies comparable to or greater than the fission barrier of the daughter, then fission may compete with other decay modes of the excited states in the daughter. In this paper, mechanism and some experiments of the delayed fission will be discussed. (author)

  13. Broad spectrum bioactive sunscreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Sarruf, Fernanda Daud; Salgado-Santos, Idalina Maria Nunes; Haroutiounian-Filho, Carlos Alberto; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Baby, André Rolim

    2008-11-03

    The development of sunscreens containing reduced concentration of chemical UV filters, even though, possessing broad spectrum effectiveness with the use of natural raw materials that improve and infer UV absorption is of great interest. Due to the structural similarities between polyphenolic compounds and organic UV filters, they might exert photoprotection activity. The objective of the present research work was to develop bioactive sunscreen delivery systems containing rutin, Passiflora incarnata L. and Plantago lanceolata extracts associated or not with organic and inorganic UV filters. UV transmission of the sunscreen delivery system films was performed by using diffuse transmittance measurements coupling to an integrating sphere. In vitro photoprotection efficacy was evaluated according to the following parameters: estimated sun protection factor (SPF); Boot's Star Rating category; UVA/UVB ratio; and critical wavelength (lambda(c)). Sunscreen delivery systems obtained SPF values ranging from 0.972+/-0.004 to 28.064+/-2.429 and bioactive compounds interacted with the UV filters positive and negatively. This behavior may be attributed to: the composition of the delivery system; the presence of inorganic UV filter and quantitative composition of the organic UV filters; and the phytochemical composition of the P. incarnata L. and P. lanceolata extracts. Among all associations of bioactive compounds and UV filters, we found that the broad spectrum sunscreen was accomplished when 1.68% (w/w) P. incarnata L. dry extract was in the presence of 7.0% (w/w) ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, 2.0% (w/w) benzophenone-3 and 2.0% (w/w) TiO(2). It was demonstrated that this association generated estimated SPF of 20.072+/-0.906 and it has improved the protective defense against UVA radiation accompanying augmentation of the UVA/UVB ratio from 0.49 to 0.52 and lambda(c) from 364 to 368.6nm.

  14. Anion gap as bio-diagnostic index in prediction of dystocia, retained placenta and delayed uterine involution of Baladi goat (Field study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El-Raey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the anion gap (AG validity in prediction the goat's fertility before parturition.Methods: This study was carried out on two groups (20/20, aged 4–6 years and weighted 30–43 kg of pluriparous pregnant Baladi goats. Animals were subjected to clinical examination, blood sampling to assess serum biochemical parameters in correlation with utrasonographic assessment of uterine horn involution (UTI and placental dropping time after kidding. Unpaired student t–test was used to detect the significance of differences (P<0.05. Correlation coefficient was used to study the relationships among the different assessed parameters, analysis (r was assigned at P<0.05 using the same statistics program.Results: Results revealed that there were highly significant differences (P<0.05 between normally and abnormally parturated goats concerning Cl-, K+, Na+, P, Mg2+, Total/Ca2+, albumin, glucose and AG. Goats suffered from dystocia having high levels of HCO3-, cortisol and lactate. Additionally, there were significant differences (P<0.05 between normally and abnormally parturated goat does regarding the process of UTI starting from 3rd to 10th wk after parturition. Furthermore, there was a highly significant difference (P<0.05 between normally and abnormally parturated goat does concerning their placental dropping time; where, distressed/ abnormally parturated goat having the longest time. Furthermore, there were highly strong correlation coefficient between Mg2+, K+, Na+, HCO3-, glucose, albumin, AG and corrected AG concentrations during goat's prepartum period and UTI, placental dropping time.Conclusions: Reporting serum bio-chemical changes and AG during goat's prepartum period could be used as diagnostic tool to judge the normality of parturition process, placental dropping, UTI and genital health, in other word, could be used as predictor for goat's fertility prior to parturition.

  15. Delayed Ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cases, it is due to a combination of physical and psychological concerns. Psychological causes of delayed ejaculation include: Depression, anxiety or other mental health conditions Relationship problems due to stress, poor communication ...

  16. Delayed growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Slow rate of growth; Retarded growth and development; Growth delay Images Toddler development References Cooke DW, Divall SA, Radovick S. Normal and aberrant growth in children. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, ...

  17. Developmental delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrition support is essential for the care of the child with developmental delay. After a thorough evaluation, an individualized intervention plan that accounts for the child’s nutrition status, feeding ability, and medical condition may be determined. Nutrition assessments may be performed at leas...

  18. Diagnostic Utility of Broad Range Bacterial 16S rRNA Gene PCR with Degradation of Human and Free Bacterial DNA in Bloodstream Infection Is More Sensitive Than an In-House Developed PCR without Degradation of Human and Free Bacterial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Rogina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared a commercial broad range 16S rRNA gene PCR assay (SepsiTest to an in-house developed assay (IHP. We assessed whether CD64 index, a biomarker of bacterial infection, can be used to exclude patients with a low probability of systemic bacterial infection. From January to March 2010, 23 patients with suspected sepsis were enrolled. CD64 index, procalcitonin, and C-reactive protein were measured on admission. Broad range 16S rRNA gene PCR was performed from whole blood (SepsiTest or blood plasma (IHP and compared to blood culture results. Blood samples spiked with Staphylococcus aureus were used to assess sensitivity of the molecular assays in vitro. CD64 index was lower in patients where possible sepsis was excluded than in patients with microbiologically confirmed sepsis (P=0.004. SepsiTest identified more relevant pathogens than blood cultures (P=0.008; in three patients (13% results from blood culture and SepsiTest were congruent, whereas in four cases (17.4% relevant pathogens were detected by SepsiTest only. In vitro spiking experiments suggested equal sensitivity of SepsiTest and IHP. A diagnostic algorithm using CD64 index as a decision maker to perform SepsiTest shows improved detection of pathogens in patients with suspected blood stream infection and may enable earlier targeted antibiotic therapy.

  19. Broad band exciplex dye lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dienes, A.; Shank, C.V.; Trozzolo, A.M.

    1975-01-01

    The disclosure is concerned with exciplex dye lasers, i.e., lasers in which the emitting species is a complex formed only from a constituent in an electronically excited state. Noting that an exciplex laser, favorable from the standpoint of broad tunability, results from a broad shift in the peak emission wavelength for the exciplex relative to the unreacted species, a desirable class resulting in such broad shift is described. Preferred classes of laser media utilizing specified resonant molecules are set forth. (auth)

  20. Deconstructing delayed posttraumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, G

    2011-01-01

    According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, delayed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) must be diagnosed in individuals fulfilling criteria for PTSD if the onset of symptoms is at least six months after the trauma. The purpose of this thesis was to establish the

  1. A broad diagnostic framework to simplify the approach to mental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A key barrier to mental health assessment at the primary care level is ... served as a deterrent to carrying out any mental health assessment at .... refusal to attend school. • constantly ... It is vital in children to always consider medical conditions,.

  2. A broad diagnostic framework to simplify the approach to mental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with additional emphasis on anxiety disorders, which have been identified as being highly ... Identify and treat the underlying condition. Drug and alcohol use .... in the specific phobias. • anxiety or panic in social situations in social phobia.

  3. Delayed Puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolby, Nanna; Busch, Alexander Siegfried; Juul, Anders

    2017-01-01

    . The underlying reasons for the large variation in the age at pubertal onset are not fully established; however, nutritional status and socioeconomic and environmental factors are known to be influencing, and a significant amount of influencing genetic factors have also been identified. The challenges...... optimal in discriminating especially CDGP from HH. Management of the delayed puberty depends on the etiology. For boys with CDGP an observational period will often reveal imminent puberty. If puberty is not progressing spontaneously, sex steroid replacement is effective in stimulating the development...

  4. Flowfield modeling and diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.K.; Lilley, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    This textbook is devoted solely to flowfield modeling and diagnostics; their practical use, recent and current research, and projected developments and trends. It provides an account of the use of a broad range of techniques in industrial and research practice, both with and without combustion. Application ideas are complemented by details about experimental and modeling techniques

  5. Delays in the management of retroperitoneal sarcomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seinen, Jojanneke; Almquist, Martin; Styring, Emelie

    2010-01-01

    Retroperitoneal sarcomas are rare and treatment should optimally be centralized. Despite successful centralization with 90% of the patients referred prior to surgery, delays occur, which led us to assess lead times in a population-based series. Method. Patients diagnosed with retroperitoneal...... sarcoma in the southern Sweden health care region 2003-2009 were eligible for the study. Data on referrals and diagnostic investigations were collected from clinical files from primary health care, local hospitals, and from the sarcoma centre. Lead times were divided into patient delays and health care...... delays caused by primary health care, local hospitals, or procedures at the sarcoma centre. Results. Complete data were available from 33 patients and demonstrated a median patient delay of 23¿days (0-17¿months) and median health care delay of 94¿days (1-40¿months) with delays of median 15¿days...

  6. Terminology and details of the diagnostic process for testis cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Connolly, Stephen S

    2011-03-01

    We examined the process and causes of diagnostic delay, defined as the interval from symptom onset to diagnosis, for testis (germ cell) cancer and the change with time. Diagnostic delay influences disease burden and may be subdivided into symptomatic interval, defined as symptom onset to first presentation, and diagnostic interval, defined as first presentation to diagnosis.

  7. Delayed puberty in girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sexual development - girls; Pubertal delay - girls; Constitutional delayed puberty ... In most cases of delayed puberty, growth changes just begin later than usual, sometimes called a late bloomer. Once puberty begins, it progresses normally. This pattern runs ...

  8. Delayed Puberty (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Delayed Puberty KidsHealth / For Teens / Delayed Puberty What's in this ... wonder if there's anything wrong. What Is Delayed Puberty? Puberty is the time when your body grows ...

  9. Diagnosis delay in tuberculosis and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habibullah, S.; Sheikh, M.A.; Sadiq, A.; Anwar, T.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To find out the average duration from onset of symptoms to the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis, reasons for diagnostic delay, its consequences, association of variables and formulation of recommendations. Results: In this study it was found that average time from onset of initial symptoms to diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis was 120 days. In 64% of the patients medical practitioners were responsible for delaying the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Loss of weight in 40% and haemoptysis is 21% were the consequences of diagnostic delay of tuberculosis. Delay in the diagnosis of tuberculosis was statistically significant in those patients who consulted private practitioners, and consequences of tuberculosis were severe in those patients who consulted late. (author)

  10. Speech and Language Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OTC Relief for Diarrhea Home Diseases and Conditions Speech and Language Delay Condition Speech and Language Delay Share Print Table of Contents1. ... Treatment6. Everyday Life7. Questions8. Resources What is a speech and language delay? A speech and language delay ...

  11. Broad-Application Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motloch, C.G.

    1992-05-01

    This report is about a new, safe, and operationally efficient DOE reactor of nuclear research and testing proposed for the early to mid- 21st Century. Dubbed the Broad-Application Test Reactor (BATR), the proposed facility incorporates a multiple-application, multiple-mission design to support DOE programs such as naval reactors and space power and propulsion, as well as research in medical, science, isotope, and electronics arenas. DOE research reactors are aging, and implementing major replacement projects requires long lead times. Primary design drivers include safety, low risk, minimum operation cost, mission flexibility, waste minimization, and long life. Scientists and engineers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory are evaluating possible fuel forms, structural materials, reactor geometries, coolants, and moderators

  12. Broad-band beam buncher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, D.A.; Flood, W.S.; Arthur, A.A.; Voelker, F.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a broad-band beam buncher. This beam buncher consists of: a housing adapted to be eacuated, an electron gun in the housing for producing a beam of electrons, buncher means in the housing forming a buncher cavity which has an entrance opening for receiving the electron beam and an exit opening through which the electron beam passes out of the buncher cavity, a drift tube electrode in the buncher cavity and disposed between the entrance opening and the exit opening with first and second gaps between the drift tube electrode and the entrance and exit openings, the drift tube electrode which has a first drift space through which the electron beam passes in traveling between the entrance and exit openings, modulating means for supplying an ultrahigh frequeny modulating signal to the drift tube electrode for producing velocity modulation of the electrons in the electron beam as the electrons pass through the buncher cavity and the drift tube electrode between the entrance opening and the exit opening, drift space means in the housing forming a second drift space for receiving the velocity modulated electron beam from the exit opening, the velocity modulated electron beam being bunched as it passes along the second drift space, the drift space means has a discharge opening through which the electron beam is discharged from the second drift space after being bunched therein, the modulating means containing a signal source for producing an ultrahigh frequency signal, a transmission line connected between the signal source and the drift tube electrode, and terminating means connected to the drift tube electrode for terminating the transmission line in approximately its characteristic impedance to afford a broad response band with minimum 6 variations therein

  13. Discrete-time BAM neural networks with variable delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin-Ge; Tang, Mei-Lan; Martin, Ralph; Liu, Xin-Bi

    2007-07-01

    This Letter deals with the global exponential stability of discrete-time bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with variable delays. Using a Lyapunov functional, and linear matrix inequality techniques (LMI), we derive a new delay-dependent exponential stability criterion for BAM neural networks with variable delays. As this criterion has no extra constraints on the variable delay functions, it can be applied to quite general BAM neural networks with a broad range of time delay functions. It is also easy to use in practice. An example is provided to illustrate the theoretical development.

  14. Discrete-time BAM neural networks with variable delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinge; Tang Meilan; Martin, Ralph; Liu Xinbi

    2007-01-01

    This Letter deals with the global exponential stability of discrete-time bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with variable delays. Using a Lyapunov functional, and linear matrix inequality techniques (LMI), we derive a new delay-dependent exponential stability criterion for BAM neural networks with variable delays. As this criterion has no extra constraints on the variable delay functions, it can be applied to quite general BAM neural networks with a broad range of time delay functions. It is also easy to use in practice. An example is provided to illustrate the theoretical development

  15. Ares I-X Ground Diagnostic Prototype

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The automation of pre-launch diagnostics for launch vehicles offers three potential benefits: improving safety, reducing cost, and reducing launch delays. The Ares...

  16. UAVs and Control Delays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de Vries, S. C

    2005-01-01

    .... Delays of about 250-300 ms often lead to unacceptable airplane handling qualities. Techniques such as filtering and predictive displays may extend the range of acceptable delays up to about 400 ms...

  17. Delayed puberty in boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007695.htm Delayed puberty in boys To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Delayed puberty in boys is when puberty does not begin ...

  18. 78 FR 20119 - Broad Stakeholder Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY [Docket No. DHS-2012-0042] Broad Stakeholder Survey AGENCY... concerning the Broad Stakeholder Survey. DHS previously published this ICR in the Federal Register on August... across the Nation. The Broad Stakeholder Survey is designed to gather stakeholder feedback on the...

  19. System delays in breast cancer | Dalwai | South African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Centralised multidisciplinary management of breast cancer occurs in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, and requires a diagnostic and staging pathway at the referring hospital. Delays in this pathway are unknown. This study, conducted at a referring hospital, R K Khan (RKK), quantifies and analyses these delays.

  20. Delayed Orgasm and Anorgasmia

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Lawrence C.; Mulhall, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Delayed orgasm/anorgasmia defined as the persistent or recurrent difficulty, delay in, or absence of attaining orgasm after sufficient sexual stimulation, which causes personal distress. Delayed orgasm and anorgasmia are associated with significant sexual dissatisfaction. A focused medical history can shed light on the potential etiologies; which include: medications, penile sensation loss, endocrinopathies, penile hyperstimulation and psychological etiologies, amongst others. Unfortunately, ...

  1. [Delayed rupture of the spleen in a multiply injured patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lică, I; Venter, M D; Mehic, R; Marian, R; Ionescu, G

    1997-01-01

    The authors present a case of delayed rupture of the spleen in a polytraumatised patient. This entity was defined as a late occurrence of signs and symptoms attributed to splenic injury not detected by diagnostic computed tomographic scanning during the initial examination. The mechanisms in which the delayed rupture of the spleen occurs are discussed and the conclusion is that the delayed rupture of the spleen represent a real clinical entity.

  2. Diagnostic Error in Stroke-Reasons and Proposed Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakradze, Ekaterina; Liberman, Ava L

    2018-02-13

    We discuss the frequency of stroke misdiagnosis and identify subgroups of stroke at high risk for specific diagnostic errors. In addition, we review common reasons for misdiagnosis and propose solutions to decrease error. According to a recent report by the National Academy of Medicine, most people in the USA are likely to experience a diagnostic error during their lifetimes. Nearly half of such errors result in serious disability and death. Stroke misdiagnosis is a major health care concern, with initial misdiagnosis estimated to occur in 9% of all stroke patients in the emergency setting. Under- or missed diagnosis (false negative) of stroke can result in adverse patient outcomes due to the preclusion of acute treatments and failure to initiate secondary prevention strategies. On the other hand, the overdiagnosis of stroke can result in inappropriate treatment, delayed identification of actual underlying disease, and increased health care costs. Young patients, women, minorities, and patients presenting with non-specific, transient, or posterior circulation stroke symptoms are at increased risk of misdiagnosis. Strategies to decrease diagnostic error in stroke have largely focused on early stroke detection via bedside examination strategies and a clinical decision rules. Targeted interventions to improve the diagnostic accuracy of stroke diagnosis among high-risk groups as well as symptom-specific clinical decision supports are needed. There are a number of open questions in the study of stroke misdiagnosis. To improve patient outcomes, existing strategies to improve stroke diagnostic accuracy should be more broadly adopted and novel interventions devised and tested to reduce diagnostic errors.

  3. Lichtheimia Infection in a Lymphoma Patient: Case Report and a Brief Review of the Available Diagnostic Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerli, Stefan; Bialek, Ralf; Blau, Igor W; Christe, Andreas; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Presterl, Elisabeth

    2016-08-01

    We describe the case of a patient with a T-lymphoblastic lymphoma whose disseminated mucormycosis was diagnosed with delay, and we address the diagnostic and therapeutic decision-making process and review the diagnostic workup of patients with potential IFD. The diagnosis was delayed despite a suggestive radiological presentation of the patient's pulmonary lesion. The uncommon risk profile (T-lymphoblastic lymphoma, short neutropenic phases) wrongly led to a low level of suspicion. The diagnosis was also hampered by the lack of indirect markers for infections caused by Mucorales, the low sensitivity of both fungal culture and panfungal PCR, and the limited availability of species-specific PCR. A high level of suspicion of IFD is needed, and aggressive diagnostic procedures should be promptly initiated even in apparently low-risk patients with uncommon presentations. The extent of the analytical workup should be decided on a case-by-case base. Diagnostic tests such as the galactomannan and β-D-glucan test and/or PCR on biological material followed by sequencing should be chosen according to their availability and after evaluation of their specificity and sensitivity. In high-risk patients, preemptive therapy with a broad-spectrum mould-active antifungal agent should be started before definitive diagnostic findings become available.

  4. System Realization of Broad Band Digital Beam Forming for Digital Array Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Feng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Broad band Digital Beam Forming (DBF is the key technique for the realization of Digital Array Radar (DAR. We propose the method of combination realization of the channel equalization and DBF time delay filter function by using adaptive Sample Matrix Inversion algorithm. The broad band DBF function is realized on a new DBF module based on parallel fiber optic engines and Field Program Gate Array (FPGA. Good performance is achieved when it is used to some radar products.

  5. Delay generation methods with reduced memory requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2003-01-01

    Modern diagnostic ultrasound beamformers require delay information for each sample along the image lines. In order to avoid storing large amounts of focusing data, delay generation techniques have to be used. In connection with developing a compact beamformer architecture, recursive algorithms were......) For the best parametric approach, the gate count was 2095, the maximum operation speed was 131.9 MHz, the power consumption at 40 MHz was 10.6 mW, and it requires 4 12-bit words for each image line and channel. 2) For the piecewise-linear approximation, the corresponding numbers are 1125 gates, 184.9 MHz, 7...

  6. Molecular Diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Choe, Hyonmin; Deirmengian, Carl A.; Hickok, Noreen J.; Morrison, Tiffany N.; Tuan, Rocky S.

    2015-01-01

    Orthopaedic infections are complex conditions that require immediate diagnosis and accurate identification of the causative organisms to facilitate appropriate management. Conventional methodologies for diagnosis of these infections sometimes lack accuracy or sufficient rapidity. Current molecular diagnostics are an emerging area of bench-to-bedside research in orthopaedic infections. Examples of promising molecular diagnostics include measurement of a specific biomarker in the synovial fluid...

  7. Delayed orgasm and anorgasmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Lawrence C; Mulhall, John P

    2015-11-01

    Delayed orgasm/anorgasmia defined as the persistent or recurrent difficulty, delay in, or absence of attaining orgasm after sufficient sexual stimulation, which causes personal distress. Delayed orgasm and anorgasmia are associated with significant sexual dissatisfaction. A focused medical history can shed light on the potential etiologies, which include medications, penile sensation loss, endocrinopathies, penile hyperstimulation, and psychological etiologies. Unfortunately, there are no excellent pharmacotherapies for delayed orgasm/anorgasmia, and treatment revolves largely around addressing potential causative factors and psychotherapy. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence and determinants of delay in diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in Darjeeling district of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibasis Das

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Delayed diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB is a significant problem both in individual as well as community level. Different studies around globe revealed that these diagnostic delays are attributed to both patient delay and health system-related delay. Aims: This study aims to assess the magnitude of delay in diagnosis and the association with sociodemographic profile among new sputum-positive pulmonary TB patients in Darjeeling district. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 374 TB patients from October 2011 to March 2012 using a predesigned pretested schedule by face-to-face interview. Statistical Analysis: Logistic regression analysis, odds ratios (OR, adjusted ORs. Results: Patient delay, health system delay and total diagnostic delay were 27 days, 20.1 days, and 20.6 days; mean delays were 23.64, 5.71, and 29.46 days, and median delays were 25, 5, and 32 days, respectively. Risk factors associated with patient delay were female gender, rural residence, illiteracy, smoking, alcohol consumption, taking two, or more alternate treatments; for health system delay were female sex, rural residence, time to reach health facility, time spent per visit; and for total diagnostic delay were female sex, alcoholism, and seeking more than two alternate treatment. Conclusions: The risk factors for delay identified may be the subject of future interventions.

  9. Delay time and tunneling transient phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Calderon, Gaston; Villavicencio, Jorge

    2002-01-01

    Analytic solutions to the time-dependent Schroedinger equation for cutoff wave initial conditions are used to investigate the time evolution of the transmitted probability density for tunneling. For a broad range of values of the potential barrier opacity α, we find that the probability density exhibits two evolving structures. One refers to the propagation of a forerunner related to a time domain resonance [Phys. Rev. A 64, 0121907 (2001)], while the other consists of a semiclassical propagating wave front. We find a regime where the forerunners are absent, corresponding to positive time delays, and show that this regime is characterized by opacities α c . The critical opacity α c is derived from the analytical expression for the delay time, which reflects a link between transient effects in tunneling and the delay time

  10. A genome-wide association analysis of a broad psychosis phenotype identifies three loci for further investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Bramon, Elvira; Pirinen, Matti; Strange, Amy; Lin, Kuang; Freeman, Colin; Bellenguez, Céline; Su, Zhan; Band, Gavin; Pearson, Richard; Vukcevic, Damjan; Langford, Cordelia; Deloukas, Panos; Hunt, Sarah; Gray, Emma; Dronov, Serge

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several loci associated with schizophrenia and/or bipolar disorder. We performed a GWAS of psychosis as a broad syndrome rather than within specific diagnostic categories.

  11. Diagnostic Imaging in Snakes and Lizards

    OpenAIRE

    Banzato , Tommaso

    2013-01-01

    The increasing popularity of snakes and lizards as pets has led to an increasing demand of specialised veterinary duties in these animals. Diagnostic imaging is often a fundamental step of the clinical investigation. The interpretation of diagnostic images is complex and requires a broad knowledge of anatomy, physiology and pathology of the species object of the clinical investigation. Moreover, in order to achieve a correct diagnosis, the comparison between normal and abnormal diagnostic im...

  12. Broad Prize: Do the Successes Spread?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    When the Broad Prize for Urban Education was created in 2002, billionaire philanthropist Eli Broad said he hoped the awards, in addition to rewarding high-performing school districts, would foster healthy competition; boost the prestige of urban education, long viewed as dysfunctional; and showcase best practices. Over the 10 years the prize has…

  13. 77 FR 50144 - Broad Stakeholder Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY [Docket No. DHS-2012-0042] Broad Stakeholder Survey AGENCY... Information Collection Request: 1670-NEW. SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), National... (Pub. L. 104-13, 44 U.S.C. Chapter 35). NPPD is soliciting comments concerning the Broad Stakeholder...

  14. 76 FR 34087 - Broad Stakeholder Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY [Docket No. DHS-2011-0027] Broad Stakeholder Survey AGENCY... Information Collection Request: 1670-NEW. SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), National... (Pub. L. 104-13, 44 U.S.C. Chapter 35). NPPD is soliciting comments concerning the Broad Stakeholder...

  15. American Dream Delayed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorunzhina, Natalia; Miller, Robert A.

    This paper investigates the delay in homeownership and a subsequent reduction in homeownership rate observed over the past decades. We focus on the delay in giving birth to children and increased labor market participation as contributing factors to homeownership dynamics for prime-age female hou...

  16. Broad spectrum microarray for fingerprint-based bacterial species identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frey Jürg E

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarrays are powerful tools for DNA-based molecular diagnostics and identification of pathogens. Most target a limited range of organisms and are based on only one or a very few genes for specific identification. Such microarrays are limited to organisms for which specific probes are available, and often have difficulty discriminating closely related taxa. We have developed an alternative broad-spectrum microarray that employs hybridisation fingerprints generated by high-density anonymous markers distributed over the entire genome for identification based on comparison to a reference database. Results A high-density microarray carrying 95,000 unique 13-mer probes was designed. Optimized methods were developed to deliver reproducible hybridisation patterns that enabled confident discrimination of bacteria at the species, subspecies, and strain levels. High correlation coefficients were achieved between replicates. A sub-selection of 12,071 probes, determined by ANOVA and class prediction analysis, enabled the discrimination of all samples in our panel. Mismatch probe hybridisation was observed but was found to have no effect on the discriminatory capacity of our system. Conclusions These results indicate the potential of our genome chip for reliable identification of a wide range of bacterial taxa at the subspecies level without laborious prior sequencing and probe design. With its high resolution capacity, our proof-of-principle chip demonstrates great potential as a tool for molecular diagnostics of broad taxonomic groups.

  17. An Examination of The Transdiagnostic Role of Delay Discounting in Psychological Inflexibility and Mental Health Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Michael; Haeger, Jack; Ong, Clarissa W.; Twohig, Michael P.

    2018-01-01

    Delay discounting is a basic behavioral process that has been found to predict addictive behaviors, and more recently, other mental health problems. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), is a transdiagnostic treatment that appears to alter delay discounting, possibly through reducing psychological inflexibility. The current study sought to further bridge research on delay discounting and ACT by examining the relation of delay discounting to a broad range of selfreported mental health probl...

  18. Companion diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Trøst; Hersom, Maria

    2016-01-01

    of disease mechanisms, things are slowly changing. Within the last few years, we have seen an increasing number of predictive biomarker assays being developed to guide the use of targeted cancer drugs. This type of assay is called companion diagnostics and is developed in parallel to the drug using the drug-diagnostic...... co-development model. The development of companion diagnostics is a relatively new discipline and in this review, different aspects will be discussed including clinical and regulatory issues. Furthermore, examples of drugs, such as the ALK and PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors, that have been approved recently....... Despite having discussed personalized medicine for more than a decade, we still see that most drug prescriptions for severe chronic diseases are largely based on 'trial and error' and not on solid biomarker data. However, with the advance of molecular diagnostics and a subsequent increased understanding...

  19. Delays in the management of retroperitoneal sarcomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seinen, Jojanneke; Almquist, Martin; Styring, Emelie

    2010-01-01

    Retroperitoneal sarcomas are rare and treatment should optimally be centralized. Despite successful centralization with 90% of the patients referred prior to surgery, delays occur, which led us to assess lead times in a population-based series. Method. Patients diagnosed with retroperitoneal...... sarcoma in the southern Sweden health care region 2003-2009 were eligible for the study. Data on referrals and diagnostic investigations were collected from clinical files from primary health care, local hospitals, and from the sarcoma centre. Lead times were divided into patient delays and health care...... at the general practitioner, 36 days at local hospitals, and 55 days at the sarcoma centre. Conclusion. Centralization per se is not sufficient for optimized and efficient management. Our findings suggest that delays can be minimized by direct referral of patients from primary health care to sarcoma centers...

  20. Broad spectrum antiangiogenic treatment for ocular neovascular diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofra Benny

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Pathological neovascularization is a hallmark of late stage neovascular (wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD and the leading cause of blindness in people over the age of 50 in the western world. The treatments focus on suppression of choroidal neovascularization (CNV, while current approved therapies are limited to inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF exclusively. However, this treatment does not address the underlying cause of AMD, and the loss of VEGF's neuroprotective can be a potential side effect. Therapy which targets the key processes in AMD, the pathological neovascularization, vessel leakage and inflammation could bring a major shift in the approach to disease treatment and prevention. In this study we have demonstrated the efficacy of such broad spectrum antiangiogenic therapy on mouse model of AMD.Lodamin, a polymeric formulation of TNP-470, is a potent broad-spectrum antiangiogenic drug. Lodamin significantly reduced key processes involved in AMD progression as demonstrated in mice and rats. Its suppressive effects on angiogenesis, vascular leakage and inflammation were studied in a wide array of assays including; a Matrigel, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH, Miles assay, laser-induced CNV and corneal micropocket assay. Lodamin significantly suppressed the secretion of various pro-inflammatory cytokines in the CNV lesion including monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1/Ccl2. Importantly, Lodamin was found to regress established CNV lesions, unlike soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlk-1. The drug was found to be safe in mice and have little toxicity as demonstrated by electroretinography (ERG assessing retinal and by histology.Lodamin, a polymer formulation of TNP-470, was identified as a first in its class, broad-spectrum antiangiogenic drug that can be administered orally or locally to treat corneal and retinal neovascularization. Several unique properties make Lodamin especially beneficial for ophthalmic

  1. Interstitial lung disease: Diagnostic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kaushik Saha

    2014-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a final common pathway of a broad heterogeneous group of parenchymal lung disorders. It is characterized by progressive fibrosis of the lung leading to restriction and diminished oxygen transfer. Clinically, the presenting symptoms of ILD are non-specific (cough and progressive dyspnea on exertion) and are often attributed to other diseases, thus delaying diagnosis and timely therapy. Clues from the medical history along with the clinical context and radiolo...

  2. Delayed power analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamovich, L.A.; Azarov, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    Time dependent core power behavior in a nuclear reactor is described with well-known neutron kinetics equations. At the same time, two portions are distinguished in energy released from uranium nuclei fission; one released directly at fission and another delayed (residual) portion produced during radioactive decay of fission products. While prompt power is definitely described with kinetics equations, the delayed power presentation still remains outstanding. Since in operation the delayed power part is relatively small (about 6%) operation, it can be neglected for small reactivity disturbances assuming that entire power obeys neutron kinetics equations. In case of a high negative reactivity rapidly inserted in core (e.g. reactor scram initiation) the prompt and delayed components can be calculated separately with practically no impact on each other, employing kinetics equations for prompt power and known approximation formulas for delayed portion, named residual in this specific case. Under substantial disturbances the prompt component in the dynamic process becomes commensurable with delayed portion, thus making necessary to take into account their cross impact. A system of differential equations to describe time-dependent behavior of delayed power is presented. Specific NPP analysis shows a way to significantly simplify the task formulation. (author)

  3. Treatment delay and radiological errors in patients with bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichinohe, K.; Takahashi, M.; Tooyama, N.

    2003-01-01

    During routine investigations, we are surprised to find that therapy for bone metastases is sometimes delayed for a considerable period of time. To determine the extent of this delay and its causes, we reviewed the medical records of symptomatic patients seen at our hospital who had been recently diagnosed as having bone metastases for the last four years. The treatment delay was defined as the interval between presentation with symptoms and definitive treatment for bone metastases. The diagnostic delay was defined as the interval between presentation with symptoms and diagnosis of bone metastases. The results of diagnostic radiological examinations were also reviewed for errors. The study population included 76 males and 34 females with a median age of 66 years. Most bone metastases were diagnosed radiologically. Over 75% of patients were treated with radiotherapy. The treatment delay ranged from 2 to 307 days, with a mean of 53.3 days. In 490 radiological studies reviewed, we identified 166 (33.9%) errors concerning 62 (56.4%) patients. The diagnostic delay was significantly longer for patients with radiological errors than for patients without radiological errors (P < 0.001), and much of it was due to radiological errors. In conclusion, the treatment delay in patients with symptomatic bone metastases was much longer than expected, and much of it was caused by radiological errors. Considerable efforts should therefore be made to more carefully examine the radiological studies in order to ensure prompt treatment of bone metastases. (author)

  4. Understanding the delayed-keyword effect on metacomprehension accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiede, Keith W; Dunlosky, John; Griffin, Thomas D; Wiley, Jennifer

    2005-11-01

    The typical finding from research on metacomprehension is that accuracy is quite low. However, recent studies have shown robust accuracy improvements when judgments follow certain generation tasks (summarizing or keyword listing) but only when these tasks are performed at a delay rather than immediately after reading (K. W. Thiede & M. C. M. Anderson, 2003; K. W. Thiede, M. C. M. Anderson, & D. Therriault, 2003). The delayed and immediate conditions in these studies confounded the delay between reading and generation tasks with other task lags, including the lag between multiple generation tasks and the lag between generation tasks and judgments. The first 2 experiments disentangle these confounded manipulations and provide clear evidence that the delay between reading and keyword generation is the only lag critical to improving metacomprehension accuracy. The 3rd and 4th experiments show that not all delayed tasks produce improvements and suggest that delayed generative tasks provide necessary diagnostic cues about comprehension for improving metacomprehension accuracy.

  5. Plasma Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaveryaev, V [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); others, and

    2012-09-15

    The success in achieving peaceful fusion power depends on the ability to control a high temperature plasma, which is an object with unique properties, possibly the most complicated object created by humans. Over years of fusion research a new branch of science has been created, namely plasma diagnostics, which involves knowledge of almost all fields of physics, from electromagnetism to nuclear physics, and up-to-date progress in engineering and technology (materials, electronics, mathematical methods of data treatment). Historically, work on controlled fusion started with pulsed systems and accordingly the methods of plasma parameter measurement were first developed for short lived and dense plasmas. Magnetically confined hot plasmas require the creation of special experimental techniques for diagnostics. The diagnostic set is the most scientifically intensive part of a plasma device. During many years of research operation some scientific tasks have been solved while new ones arose. New tasks often require significant changes in the diagnostic system, which is thus a very flexible part of plasma machines. Diagnostic systems are designed to solve several tasks. As an example here are the diagnostic tasks for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - ITER: (1) Measurements for machine protection and basic control; (2) Measurements for advanced control; (3) Additional measurements for performance evaluation and physics. Every new plasma machine is a further step along the path to the main goal - controlled fusion - and nobody knows in advance what new phenomena will be met on the way. So in the planning of diagnostic construction we should keep in mind further system upgrading to meet possible new scientific and technical challenges. (author)

  6. Neutron delayed choice experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    Delayed choice experiments for neutrons can help extend the interpretation of quantum mechanical phenomena. They may also rule out alternative explanations which static interference experiments allow. A simple example of a feasible neutron test is presented and discussed. (orig.)

  7. Quad nanosecond delay module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, R.J.; Hunter, J.B.; Wozniak, G.J.

    1986-04-01

    Four nanosecond (ns) delay units have been designed to fit in a single-width NIM module. This module is particularly suited for use in conjunction with quad constant fraction timing discriminators (CFTDs) since it has four delay units that can be placed adjacent to the four units of the CFTD. A series of different length cables connected via DIP toggle switches provide delays of 0.60 ns in 4 ns increments. Thus, the CFTD delay can be optimized for pulses of different rise times from approx.10-100 ns. Design work for the PC board and silkscreening of the front panel were done with the MacDraw program on the Apple Mackintosh computer and printed with the Lasewriter printer. 6 refs

  8. Delayed rule following

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, David R.

    2001-01-01

    Although the elements of a fully stated rule (discriminative stimulus [SD], some behavior, and a consequence) can occur nearly contemporaneously with the statement of the rule, there is often a delay between the rule statement and the SD. The effects of this delay on rule following have not been studied in behavior analysis, but they have been investigated in rule-like settings in the areas of prospective memory (remembering to do something in the future) and goal pursuit. Discriminative even...

  9. Vernier Delay Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, W.B.

    1984-10-01

    This module will accept differential ECL pulses from the auxiliary rear panel or NIM level pulses from the front panel. The pulses are produced at the output with a fixed delay that is software programmable in steps of 0.1 ns over the range of 0.1 to 10.5 ns. Multiple outputs are available at the front panel. Minimum delay through the module is 9 ns

  10. Quad precision delay generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, Shanti; Gopalakrishnan, K.R.; Marballi, K.R.

    1997-01-01

    A Quad Precision Delay Generator delays a digital edge by a programmed amount of time, varying from nanoseconds to microseconds. The output of this generator has an amplitude of the order of tens of volts and rise time of the order of nanoseconds. This was specifically designed and developed to meet the stringent requirements of the plasma focus experiments. Plasma focus is a laboratory device for producing and studying nuclear fusion reactions in hot deuterium plasma. 3 figs

  11. Modelling delays in pharmacokinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooqi, Z.H.; Lambrecht, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Linear system analysis has come to form the backbone of pharmacokinetics. Natural systems usually involve time delays, thus models incorporating them would be an order closer approximation to the real world compared to those that do not. Delays may be modelled in several ways. The approach considered in this study is to have a discrete-time delay dependent rate with the delay respresenting the duration between the entry of a drug into a compartment and its release in some form (may be as a metabolite) from the compartment. Such a delay may be because of one or more of several physiological reasons, like, formation of a reservoir, slow metabolism, or receptor binding. The mathematical structure this gives rise to is a system of delay-differential equations. Examples are given of simple one and two compartment systems with drugs like bumetanide, carbamazepine, and quinolone-caffeine interaction. In these examples generally a good fit is obtained and the suggested models form a good approximation. 21 refs., 6 figs

  12. Assessment of Confounding in Studies of Delay and Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Marie Louise; Vedsted, Peter; Frydenberg, Morten

    BACKGROUND: Whether longer time to diagnosis (diagnostic delay) in patients with cancer symptoms is directly and independently associated with poor prognosis cannot be determined in randomised controlled trials. Analysis of observational data is therefore necessary. Many previous studies of the i......BACKGROUND: Whether longer time to diagnosis (diagnostic delay) in patients with cancer symptoms is directly and independently associated with poor prognosis cannot be determined in randomised controlled trials. Analysis of observational data is therefore necessary. Many previous studies......) Clarify which factors are considered confounders or intermediate variables in the literature. 2) Assess how and to what extent these factors bias survival estimates. CONSIDERATIONS: As illustrated in Figure 1, symptoms of cancer may alert patients, GP's, and hospital doctors differently and influence both...... delay and survival time in different ways. We therefore assume that the impact of confounding factors depends on the type of delay studied (e.g., patient delay, GP delay, referral delay, or treatment delay). MATERIALS & METHODS: The project includes systematic review and methodological developments...

  13. Diagnostic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, C.F.; Brisson, D.A.; Greco, S.E.

    1978-01-01

    During the past year the far-infrared or submillimeter diagnostic research program resulted in three major developments: (1) an optically pumped 0.385-μm D 2 O-laser oscillator-amplifier system was operated at a power level of 1 MW with a line width of less than 50 MHz; (2) a conical Pyrex submillimeter laser beam dump with a retention efficiency greater than 10 4 was developed for the ion temperature Thompson scattering experiment; and (3) a new diagnostic technique was developed that makes use of the Faraday rotation of a modulated submillimeter laser beam to determine plasma current profile. Measurements of the asymmetric distortion of the H/sub α/ (6563 A) spectral line profile show that the effective toroidal drift velocity, dv/sub two vertical bars i/dT/sub i/, may be used as an indicator of plasma quality and as a complement to other ion temperature diagnostics

  14. The sleepy teenager - diagnostic challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Anne-Marie eLandtblom; Anne-Marie eLandtblom; Anne-Marie eLandtblom; Anne-Marie eLandtblom; Maria eEngström

    2014-01-01

    The sleepy teenager is a diagnostic challenge because the problems may be physiological or pathological, with behavioural, social and pychological expressions. It is of great importance that health staff that encounter young people with sleep disturbance have good knowledge about the diseases that must be excluded. Narcolepsy, periodic hypersomnia like Kleine Levin syndrome, delayed sleep phase syndrome and obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, depression and substance use as well as fatigue f...

  15. Delay-Dependent Guaranteed Cost Control of an Interval System with Interval Time-Varying Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Min

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the problem of the delay-dependent robust stability and guaranteed cost control for an interval system with time-varying delay. The interval system with matrix factorization is provided and leads to less conservative conclusions than solving a square root. The time-varying delay is assumed to belong to an interval and the derivative of the interval time-varying delay is not a restriction, which allows a fast time-varying delay; also its applicability is broad. Based on the Lyapunov-Ktasovskii approach, a delay-dependent criterion for the existence of a state feedback controller, which guarantees the closed-loop system stability, the upper bound of cost function, and disturbance attenuation lever for all admissible uncertainties as well as out perturbation, is proposed in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. The criterion is derived by free weighting matrices that can reduce the conservatism. The effectiveness has been verified in a number example and the compute results are presented to validate the proposed design method.

  16. Diagnostic dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Dobrovolny, Robert; Nazarenko, Irina

    2011-01-01

    Fabry disease, an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder, results from the deficient activity of a-galactosidase A (a-Gal A). In affected males, the clinical diagnosis is confirmed by the markedly decreased a-Gal A activity. However, in female heterozygotes, the a-Gal A activity can range from low t...... on enzyme replacement therapy. Thus, gene dosage analyses can detect large deletions (>50bp) in suspect heterozygotes for X-linked and autosomal dominant diseases that are "sequencing cryptic," resolving molecular diagnostic dilemmas....... to normal due to random X-chromosomal inactivation, and diagnostic confirmation requires identification of the family's a-Gal A gene mutation. In a young female who had occasional acroparesthesias, corneal opacities, and 15 to 50% of the lower limit of normal leukocyte a-Gal A activity, a-Gal A sequencing...... in two expert laboratories did not identify a confirmatory mutation, presenting a diagnostic dilemma. A renal biopsy proved diagnostic and renewed efforts to detect an a-Gal A mutation. Subsequent gene dosage analyses identified a large a-Gal A deletion confirming her heterozygosity, and she was started...

  17. Embedded esophageal foreign body. A diagnostic challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, Venkatraman S.; AlSaadi, Khalid A.; Bessiouni, Ibrahim E.; Tuffaha, Amjad S.

    2009-01-01

    Esophageal foreign body (EFB) ingestion is of ubiquitous occurrence in pediatric population. Diagnosis and precise localization of non-radio opaque FB poses considerable challenge. Delayed presentation, poor history, and inconclusive esophagoscopic findings often lead to diagnostic delay. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) could be a great option in these situations. We present a case of EFB in a child who presented with failure to thrive, had negative fibreoptic endoscopy, ultimately diagnosed conclusively on MDCT examination. (author)

  18. Delay in the histopathologic diagnosis of mycosis fungoides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldhammer Skov, Anne; Gniadecki, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of mycosis fungoides (MF) is difficult in early stages and is based on a combination of clinical findings and histopathologic criteria. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic delay in MF and to investigate the rationale for multiple biopsies in a single-centre, retrospec......The diagnosis of mycosis fungoides (MF) is difficult in early stages and is based on a combination of clinical findings and histopathologic criteria. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic delay in MF and to investigate the rationale for multiple biopsies in a single...

  19. Optimal Joint Expected Delay Forwarding in Delay Tolerant Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jia Xu; Xin Feng; Wen Jun Yang; Ru Chuan Wang; Bing Qing Han

    2013-01-01

    Multicopy forwarding schemes have been employed in delay tolerant network (DTN) to improve the delivery delay and delivery rate. Much effort has been focused on reducing the routing cost while retaining high performance. This paper aims to provide an optimal joint expected delay forwarding (OJEDF) protocol which minimizes the expected delay while satisfying a certain constant on the number of forwardings per message. We propose a comprehensive forwarding metric called joint expected delay (JE...

  20. Considerable delay in diagnosis and acute management of subarachnoid haemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Carl Christian; Eskesen, Vagn; Hauerberg, John

    2010-01-01

    Rebleeding from subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) usually occurs within the first six hours after the initial bleeding. Rebleeding can be prevented effectively with tranexamic acid (TXA). Although a broad consensus has evolved that SAH should be treated as an emergency, it is likely that delays do...

  1. Evidence for a Broad Autism Phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. de Groot (Kristel); J.W. van Strien (Jan)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe broad autism phenotype implies the existence of a continuum ranging from individuals displaying almost no autistic traits to severely impaired diagnosed individuals. Recent studies have linked this variation in autistic traits to several domains of functioning. However, studies

  2. 33 CFR 117.921 - Broad River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.921 Broad River. (a) The draw of the S170 bridge, mile 14.0 near Beaufort, shall open on signal if at least 24 hours notice is given. (b) The draw...

  3. Education and Broad Concepts of Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winch, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on recent debates about the relationship between propositional and practical knowledge, this article is concerned with broad concepts of agency. Specifically, it is concerned with agency that involves the forming and putting into effect of intentions over relatively extended periods, particularly in work contexts (called, for want of a…

  4. Assessing delay discounting in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Suzanne H.

    2014-01-01

    Delay discounting (also intertemporal choice or impulsive choice) is the process by which delayed outcomes, such as delayed food delivery, are valued less than the same outcomes delivered immediately or with a shorter delay. This process is of interest because many psychopathologies, including substance dependence, pathological gambling, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder, are characterized by heightened levels of delay discounting. Some of these disorders are herit...

  5. Estimating Delays In ASIC's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Gary; Nesheiwat, Jeffrey; Su, Ling

    1994-01-01

    Verification is important aspect of process of designing application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC). Design must not only be functionally accurate, but must also maintain correct timing. IFA, Intelligent Front Annotation program, assists in verifying timing of ASIC early in design process. This program speeds design-and-verification cycle by estimating delays before layouts completed. Written in C language.

  6. Permissible Delay in Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Fu Huang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper wants to investigate the optimal retailer's lot-sizing policy with two warehouses under partially permissible delay in payments within the economic order quantity (EOQ framework. In this paper, we want to extend that fully permissible delay in payments to the supplier would offer the retailer partially permissible delay in payments. That is, the retailer must make a partial payment to the supplier when the order is received. Then the retailer must pay off the remaining balance at the end of the permissible delay period. In addition, we want to add the assumption that the retailer's storage space is limited. That is, the retailer will rent the warehouse to store these exceeding items when the order quantity is larger than retailer's storage space. Under these conditions, we model the retailer's inventory system as a cost minimization problem to determine the retailer's optimal cycle time and optimal order quantity. Three theorems are developed to efficiently determine the optimal replenishment policy for the retailer. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate these theorems and obtained a lot of managerial insights.

  7. Delayed neutrons in ANSTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, T.

    1988-01-01

    Delayed neutron analysis carried out at the Australian Nuclear Scientific and Technology Organization facilities, provides a fast, high sensitivity, low cost, reliable method, particularly suitable for large batches of samples, and for non destructive analysis of a range of materials. While its main use has been in uranium exploration, other applications include archeological investigations, agriculture, oceanography and biology

  8. Molecular diagnosis of patients with epilepsy and developmental delay using a customized panel of epilepsy genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ortega-Moreno

    Full Text Available Pediatric epilepsies are a group of disorders with a broad phenotypic spectrum that are associated with great genetic heterogeneity, thus making sequential single-gene testing an impractical basis for diagnostic strategy. The advent of next-generation sequencing has increased the success rate of epilepsy diagnosis, and targeted resequencing using genetic panels is the a most cost-effective choice. We report the results found in a group of 87 patients with epilepsy and developmental delay using targeted next generation sequencing (custom-designed Haloplex panel. Using this gene panel, we were able to identify disease-causing variants in 17 out of 87 (19.5% analyzed patients, all found in known epilepsy-associated genes (KCNQ2, CDKL5, STXBP1, SCN1A, PCDH19, POLG, SLC2A1, ARX, ALG13, CHD2, SYNGAP1, and GRIN1. Twelve of 18 variants arose de novo and 6 were novel. The highest yield was found in patients with onset in the first years of life, especially in patients classified as having early-onset epileptic encephalopathy. Knowledge of the underlying genetic cause provides essential information on prognosis and could be used to avoid unnecessary studies, which may result in a greater diagnostic cost-effectiveness.

  9. Reflectometry diagnostics on TCV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina Cabrera, Pedro; Coda, Stefano; Porte, Laurie; Offeddu, Nicola; Tcv Team

    2017-10-01

    Both profile reflectometer and Doppler back-scattering (DBS) diagnostics are being developed for the TCV Tokamak using a steerable quasi-optical launcher and universal polarizers. First results will be presented. A pulse reflectometer is being developed to complement Thomson Scattering measurements of electron density, greatly increasing temporal resolution and also effectively enabling fluctuation measurements. Pulse reflectometry consists of sending short pulses of varying frequency and measuring the roundtrip group-delay with precise chronometers. A fast arbitrary waveform generator is used as a pulse source feeding frequency multipliers that bring the pulses to V-band. A DBS diagnostic is currently operational in TCV. DBS may be used to infer the perpendicular velocity and wave number spectrum of electron density fluctuations in the 3-15 cm-1 wave-number range. Off-the-shelf transceiver modules, originally used for VNA measurements, are being used in a Doppler radar configuration. See author list of S. Coda et al., 2017 Nucl. Fusion 57 102011.

  10. Broad line regions in Seyfert-1 galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groningen, E. van.

    1984-01-01

    To reproduce observed emission profiles of Seyfert galaxies, rotation in an accretion disk has been proposed. In this thesis, the profiles emitted by such an accretion disk are investigated. Detailed comparison with the observed profiles yields that a considerable fraction can be fitted with a power-law function, as predicted by the model. The author analyzes a series of high quality spectra of Seyfert galaxies, obtained with the 2.5m telescope at Las Campanas. He presents detailed analyses of two objects: Mkn335 and Akn120. In both cases, strong evidence is presented for the presence of two separate broad line zones. These zones are identified with an accretion disk and an outflowing wind. The disk contains gas with very high densities and emits predominantly the lower ionization lines. He reports on the discovery of very broad wings beneath the strong forbidden line 5007. (Auth.)

  11. Fourier evaluation of broad Moessbauer spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincze, I.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown by the Fourier analysis of broad Moessbauer spectra that the even part of the distribution of the dominant hyperfine interaction (hyperfine field or quadrupole splitting) can be obtained directly without using least-square fitting procedures. Also the odd part of this distribution correlated with other hyperfine parameters (e.g. isomer shift) can be directly determined. Examples for amorphous magnetic and paramagnetic iron-based alloys are presented. (author)

  12. Fourier evaluation of broad Moessbauer spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincze, I.

    1981-09-01

    It is shown by the Fourier analysis of broad Moessbauer spectra that the even part of the distribution of the dominant hyperfine interaction (hyperfine field or quadrupole splitting) can be obtained directly without using least-square fitting procedures. Also the odd part of this distribution correlated with other hyperfine parameters (e.g. isomer shift) can be directly determined. Examples covering the case of amorphous magnetic and paramagnetic iron-based alloys are presented. (author)

  13. Delay in the diagnosis of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rikke Pilegaard

    for a detailed description of the patients' diagnostic pathways, allowing the researchers to draw the time line from symptom onset to treatment start, and to describe the characteristics of the patients and the GPs. Existing scales were used whenever possible; otherwise, ad hoc questions were constructed....... Chaper 1 introduces the concept of delay in the diagnosis of cancer. The chapter aims to provide insight into the time interval from symptom to treatment and into the patient and GP characteristics that potentially influence this interval. In addition, the chapter gives a brief overview of cancer...

  14. Plain radiographic findings of lung cancer with delayed diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Kyu Ok; Chung, Jin Ill

    1994-01-01

    In Korea, Lung cancer is the Second most common prevailing malignancy among male population next to stomach cancer. Although CT scan and MRI is widely used in the staging of lung cancer, plain chest x-ray still plays an important role in screening and diagnosis. Our intention was to review the confusing radiographic features which result in delayed diagnosis of lung cancer. Of the 160 patients with lung cancer evaluated by us, 62 patients(39%) with delayed diagnosis and average diagnostic duration of 5.1 months compared with 2.1 months for those without delay. We reviewed the plain chest x-ray findings of those 62 patients. The diagnosis of lung cancer was delayed more than half of the cases under the impression of intrathoracic tuberculosis. Upon reviewing the roentgenologic findings in patients with diagnostic delay, central type appeared as a small hilar or mediastinal mass with or without obstructive pneumonia. Peripheral type appeared as an ill-defined pulmonary module, a nodule hidden by overlapping structures, or as a lung cancer associated with pulmonary tuberculosis. Some cases were misinterpreted as extranodal spread of malignancy. To solve above mentioned problems, we recommend proper understanding of natural history of lung cancer, incorporation of high kVp technique in chest radiographs, routine acquisition of lateral chest radiograph to increase diagnostic accuracy, and appropriate use of CT scan in cases of difficult diagnosis

  15. Modelling biochemical networks with intrinsic time delays: a hybrid semi-parametric approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Rui

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents a method for modelling dynamical biochemical networks with intrinsic time delays. Since the fundamental mechanisms leading to such delays are many times unknown, non conventional modelling approaches become necessary. Herein, a hybrid semi-parametric identification methodology is proposed in which discrete time series are incorporated into fundamental material balance models. This integration results in hybrid delay differential equations which can be applied to identify unknown cellular dynamics. Results The proposed hybrid modelling methodology was evaluated using two case studies. The first of these deals with dynamic modelling of transcriptional factor A in mammalian cells. The protein transport from the cytosol to the nucleus introduced a delay that was accounted for by discrete time series formulation. The second case study focused on a simple network with distributed time delays that demonstrated that the discrete time delay formalism has broad applicability to both discrete and distributed delay problems. Conclusions Significantly better prediction qualities of the novel hybrid model were obtained when compared to dynamical structures without time delays, being the more distinctive the more significant the underlying system delay is. The identification of the system delays by studies of different discrete modelling delays was enabled by the proposed structure. Further, it was shown that the hybrid discrete delay methodology is not limited to discrete delay systems. The proposed method is a powerful tool to identify time delays in ill-defined biochemical networks.

  16. Thyroid diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scriba, P C; Boerner, W; Emrich, S; Gutekunst, R; Herrmann, J; Horn, K; Klett, M; Krueskemper, H L; Pfannenstiel, P; Pickardt, C R

    1985-03-01

    None of the in-vitro and in-vivo methods listed permits on unambiguous diagnosis when applied alone, owing to the fact that similar or even identical findings are obtained for various individual parameters in different thyroid diseases. Further, especially the in-vitro tests are also subject to extrathyroidal effects which may mask the typical findings. The limited and varying specificity and sensitivity of the tests applied, as well as the falsification of results caused by the patients' idiosyncracies and the methodology, make it necessary to interpret and evaluate the in-vivo and in-vitro findings only if the clinical situation (anamnesis and physical examination) is known. For maximum diagnostic quality of the tests, the initial probability of the assumed type of thyroid disease must be increased (formulation of the clinical problem). The concepts of exclusion diagnosis and identification must be distinguished as well as the diagnosis of functional disturbances on the one hand and of thyroid diseases on the other. Both of this requires a qualified, specific and detailed anamnesis and examination procedure, and the clinical examination remains the obligatory basis of clinical diagnostics. In case of inexplicable discrepancies between the clinical manifestations and the findings obtained with specific methods, or between the findings obtained with a specific method, the patient should be referred to an expert institution, or the expert institution should be consulted.

  17. Thyroid diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scriba, P.C.; Boerner, W.; Emrich, S.; Gutekunst, R.; Herrmann, J.; Horn, K.; Klett, M.; Krueskemper, H.L.; Pfannenstiel, P.; Pickardt, C.R.; Reiners, C.; Reinwein, D.; Schleusener, H.

    1985-01-01

    None of the in-vitro and in-vivo methods listed permits on unambiguous diagnosis when applied alone, owing to the fact that similar or even identical findings are obtained for various individual parameters in different thyroid diseases. Further, especially the in-vitro tests are also subject to extrathyroidal effects which may mask the typical findings. The limited and varying specificity and sensitivity of the tests applied, as well as the falsification of results caused by the patients' idiosyncracies and the methodology, make it necessary to interpret and evaluate the in-vivo and in-vitro findings only if the clinical situation (anamnesis and physical examination) is known. For maximum diagnostic quality of the tests, the initial probability of the assumed type of thyroid disease must be increased (formulation of the clinical problem). The concepts of exclusion diagnosis and identification must be distinguished as well as the diagnosis of functional disturbances on the one hand and of thyroid diseases on the other. Both of this requires a qualified, specific and detailed anamnesis and examination procedure, and the clinical examination remains the obligatory basis of clinical diagnostics. In case of inexplicable discrepancies between the clinical manifestations and the findings obtained with specific methods, or between the findings obtained with a specific method, the patient should be referred to an expert institution, or the expert institution should be consulted. (orig./MG) [de

  18. Ambient diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Part I. FundamentalsIntroductionWhat is Ambient Diagnostics?Diagnostic ModelsMultimedia IntelligenceCrowd SourcingSoft SensorsScience of SimplicityPersonal DiagnosesBasic AlgorithmsBasic ToolsSummaryProblemsTransformationEarly Discoveries of Heartbeat PatternsTransforms, Features, and AttributesSequential FeaturesSpatiotemporal FeaturesShape FeaturesImagery FeaturesFrequency Domain FeaturesMulti-Resolution FeaturesSummaryProblemsPattern RecognitionSimilarities and DistancesClustering MethodsClassification MethodsClassifier Accuracy MeasuresSummaryProblemsPart II. Multimedia IntelligenceSound RecognitionMicrophone AppsModern Acoustic Transducers (Microphones)Frequency Response CharacteristicsDigital Audio File FormatsHeart Sound SensingLung Sound SensingSnore MeterSpectrogram (STFT)Ambient Sound AnalysisSound RecognitionRecognizing Asthma SoundPeak ShiftFeature CompressionRegroupingNoise IssuesFuture ApplicationsSummaryProblemsColor SensorsColor SensingHuman Color VisionColor SensorsColor Matching ExperimentsC...

  19. Encyclopedia of diagnostic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baert, A.L.

    2008-01-01

    The simple A to Z format provides easy access to relevant information in the field of imaging. Extensive cross references between keywords and related articles enable efficient searches in a user-friendly manner. Fully searchable and hyperlinked electronic online edition. The aim of this comprehensive encyclopedia is to provide detailed information on diagnostic radiology contributing to the broad field of imaging. The wide range of entries are written by leading experts. They will provide basic and clinical scientists in academia, practice and industry with valuable information about the field of diagnostic imaging. Those in related fields, students, teachers, and interested laypeople will also benefit from the important and relevant information on the most recent developments. Please note that this publication is available as print only or online only or print + online set. Save 75% of the online list price when purchasing the bundle. For more information on the online version please type the publication title into the search box above, then click on the eReference version in the results list. (orig.)

  20. Topological Acoustic Delay Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiwang; Tian, Ye; Cheng, Ying; Wei, Qi; Liu, Xiaojun; Christensen, Johan

    2018-03-01

    Topological protected wave engineering in artificially structured media is at the frontier of ongoing metamaterials research that is inspired by quantum mechanics. Acoustic analogues of electronic topological insulators have recently led to a wealth of new opportunities in manipulating sound propagation with strikingly unconventional acoustic edge modes immune to backscattering. Earlier fabrications of topological insulators are characterized by an unreconfigurable geometry and a very narrow frequency response, which severely hinders the exploration and design of useful devices. Here we establish topologically protected sound in reconfigurable phononic crystals that can be switched on and off simply by rotating its three-legged "atoms" without altering the lattice structure. In particular, we engineer robust phase delay defects that take advantage of the ultrabroadband reflection-free sound propagation. Such topological delay lines serve as a paradigm in compact acoustic devices, interconnects, and electroacoustic integrated circuits.

  1. Delayed traumatic intracranial hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Hiroki

    1984-01-01

    CT was performed serially within 24 hours after head injury in 64 patients having Glasgow Coma Scale of 14 or less or cranial fracture shown on roentgenogram. Delayed traumatic extradural hematoma was observed within 7-12 hours after head injury in 6 cases (9.4%). This was prominent in the frontal and occipital regions (67%). Good recovery was seen in 83.3%. Delayed traumatic intracerebral hematoma was observed within 6-24 hours after head injury in 17 cases (26.6%). This higher incidence was related to contre coup injury. Conservative treatment was possible in 14 of the 17 patients (82.4%), showing good recovery in 70%. (Namekawa, K.)

  2. Fatores associados a atraso no diagnóstico da síndrome de Turner Investigación de factores asociados a retraso en el diagnóstico del síndrome de Turner Variables associated with diagnostic delay in Turner syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Miguel Neto

    2011-03-01

    transversal con obtención de datos de los prontuarios de 29 pacientes diagnosticadas con ST mayores de 2 años de edad entre 2004 y 2007. Se compararon antecedentes personales y familiares y datos de examen físico de las pacientes diagnosticadas a una edad menor de 13 años (límite a partir del cual se puede caracterizar retraso puberal en niñas con los de aquellas diagnosticadas después de los 13 años mediante las pruebas t y chi-cuadrado. RESULTADOS: No hubo diferencias significativas respecto a la estatura materna y de la paciente misma, historial de afecciones asociadas (consideradas individualmente, escolaridad de los padres; recurrencia familiar de baja estatura, presencia de cada señal dismórfica aislada y total de señales observadas. Los dos grupos difirieron respecto a la presencia de al menos una afección sugestiva de ese síndrome (asociada al diagnóstico más temprano y al número de hermanos (mayor en el diagnóstico tardío y asociado a la menor escolaridad materna. CONCLUSIONES: El diagnóstico temprano se relacionó más a la presencia de alguna de las afecciones asociadas al ST (posiblemente determinando encaminamiento a servicios de mayor complejidad que a señales dismórficas. Hay indicaciones de que déficit de crecimiento menos evidente, dificultades de los médicos en reconocer anomalías sugestivas de ese síndrome y factores socioeconómicos contribuyan para el retraso en el diagnóstico. Es necesario enfatizar en la formación pediátrica el reconocimiento del espectro clínico de ese síndrome y ampliar los servicios públicos de genética.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible reasons for diagnostic delay in Turner syndrome (TS, i.e., a diagnosis made after the age when pubertal delay may be established. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with data obtained from the records of 29 TS patients aged more than two years who were diagnosed between 2004 and 2007. Data on personal and family history and physical examination from patients diagnosed

  3. Time-Delay Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Tinto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Equal-arm detectors of gravitational radiation allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the intrinsic phase stability of the laser injecting light into their arms. This is because the noise in the laser light is common to both arms, experiencing exactly the same delay, and thus cancels when it is differenced at the photo detector. In this situation, much lower level secondary noises then set the overall performance. If, however, the two arms have different lengths (as will necessarily be the case with space-borne interferometers, the laser noise experiences different delays in the two arms and will hence not directly cancel at the detector. In order to solve this problem, a technique involving heterodyne interferometry with unequal arm lengths and independent phase-difference readouts has been proposed. It relies on properly time-shifting and linearly combining independent Doppler measurements, and for this reason it has been called time-delay interferometry (TDI. This article provides an overview of the theory, mathematical foundations, and experimental aspects associated with the implementation of TDI. Although emphasis on the application of TDI to the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA mission appears throughout this article, TDI can be incorporated into the design of any future space-based mission aiming to search for gravitational waves via interferometric measurements. We have purposely left out all theoretical aspects that data analysts will need to account for when analyzing the TDI data combinations.

  4. Factors associated with delayed tuberculosis test-seeking behavior in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Carolyn M; Bayer, Angela M; Gilman, Robert H; Onifade, Dami; Acosta, Colleen; Cabrera, Lilia; Vidal, Carlos; Evans, Carlton A

    2009-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the psychosocial factors associated with delayed test-seeking among tuberculosis patients. The duration of symptoms before seeking medical care was assessed by interview for 108 newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients in the city of Iquitos in the Peruvian Amazon, which has high tuberculosis incidence. Beliefs associated with test-seeking behavior and delay was assessed in these patients. The median delay from symptom onset to seeking diagnostic testing was 61 days (inter-quartile range 30-91 days). The belief that tuberculosis is curable was associated with a 100% longer test-seeking delay; the perception that tuberculosis was common was associated with a 57% longer delay; male gender was associated with a 48% longer delay; and education less than complete secondary schooling was associated with a 44% longer delay. In conclusion, current health promotion activities that emphasize tuberculosis curability and high prevalence may paradoxically increase test-seeking delay and therefore require prospective evaluation.

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of organ electrodermal diagnostics | Szopinski ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To estimate the diagnostic accuracy as well as the scope of utilisation of a new bio-electronic method of organ diagnostics. Design. Double-blind comparative study of the diagnostic results obtained by means of organ electrodermal diagnostics (OED) and clinical diagnoses, as a criterion standard. Setting.

  6. Chronic Meningitis: Simplifying a Diagnostic Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Kelly; Whiting, Chris

    2016-03-01

    Chronic meningitis can be a diagnostic dilemma for even the most experienced clinician. Many times, the differential diagnosis is broad and encompasses autoimmune, neoplastic, and infectious etiologies. This review will focus on a general approach to chronic meningitis to simplify the diagnostic challenges many clinicians face. The article will also review the most common etiologies of chronic meningitis in some detail including clinical presentation, diagnostic testing, treatment, and outcomes. By using a case-based approach, we will focus on the key elements of clinical presentation and laboratory analysis that will yield the most rapid and accurate diagnosis in these complicated cases.

  7. SNS Diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shea, T.J.; Cameron, P.; Doolittle, L.; Power, J.

    2000-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Project is a collaborative effort to build the next generation neutron science facility at Oak Ridge, TN. The facility will deliver a 2 MW proton beam to a liquid mercury target. Neutrons from this target will be moderated and sent to several state-of-the-art instruments. Six national laboratories are involved in SNS construction. Berkeley (LBNL) will build the front end that produces a 2.5 MeV, 52 mA H-beam. Los Alamos (LANL) is responsible for the 1 GeV linac with a superconducting section provided by Thomas Jefferson (JLab). Brookhaven (BNL) is building the transfer lines and accumulator ring. Oak Ridge (ORNL) and Argonne (ANL) have responsibility for the target and instruments. All activities are coordinated by the SNS project office at Oak Ridge. The high beam power, a desired availability of 95%, and an aggressive commissioning schedule lead to some interesting challenges in beam diagnostics

  8. The broad utility of Trizac diamond tile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, John I.; Romero, Vincent D.; Sventek, Bruce; Zu, Lijun

    2017-10-01

    Sample finishing data from a broad range of materials — glasses, sapphire, silicon carbide, silicon, zirconium oxide, lithium tantalate, and flooring materials — are shown effectively processed with Trizact™ Diamond Tile (TDT). This data should provide the reader with an understanding of what to expect when using TDT on hard to grind or brittle materials. Keys to maintaining effective TDT pad wear rates, and therefore cost effect and stable processes, are described as managing 1) the proper lubricant flow rate for glasses and silicon-type materials and 2) the conditioning particle concentration for harder-to-grind materials

  9. Delayed child-bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jo-Ann; Tough, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    To provide an overview of delayed child-bearing and to describe the implications for women and health care providers. Delayed child-bearing, which has increased greatly in recent decades, is associated with an increased risk of infertility, pregnancy complications, and adverse pregnancy outcome. This guideline provides information that will optimize the counselling and care of Canadian women with respect to their reproductive choices. Maternal age is the most important determinant of fertility, and obstetric and perinatal risks increase with maternal age. Many women are unaware of the success rates or limitations of assisted reproductive technology and of the increased medical risks of delayed child-bearing, including multiple births, preterm delivery, stillbirth, and Caesarean section. This guideline provides a framework to address these issues. Studies published between 2000 and August 2010 were retrieved through searches of PubMed and the Cochrane Library using appropriate key words (delayed child-bearing, deferred pregnancy, maternal age, assisted reproductive technology, infertility, and multiple births) and MeSH terms (maternal age, reproductive behaviour, fertility). The Internet was also searched using similar key words, and national and international medical specialty societies were searched for clinical practice guidelines and position statements. Data were extracted based on the aims, sample, authors, year, and results. The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. RECOMMENDATIONS 1. Women who delay child-bearing are at increased risk of infertility. Prospective parents, especially women, should know that their fecundity and fertility begin to decline significantly after 32 years of age. Prospective parents should know that assisted reproductive technologies cannot guarantee a live birth or completely

  10. SKS splitting observed at Romanian broad-band seismic network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan, Marian; Popa, Mihaela; Ghica, Daniela

    2008-12-01

    Shear-wave splitting results are presented for the broad-band stations of the Romanian seismic network. For stations BUC1 and CRAR (located in Moesian Platform), IAS (in East-European Platform), TIRR and CVD (in Central Dobrudja-Black Sea microplate), TIM and DRGR (in Dacia-Tisza plate, including Apuseni Mts.), BURAR, BZS and GZR (in, or very close to the Carpathian Arc), the fast directions ( φ) are around 135°. The mean delay values ( δt) of the slow wave are slightly greater for the stations placed in platform areas ( δt ~ 1.5 s) than for the stations situated in the (proximity) of Carpathians ( δt ~ 1.2 s). For the MLR station located in the South-Western part of Vrancea area, at the Carpathian Bend, the fast direction is 48°, similar to VOIR station (located in Southern Carpathians, 70 km West of MLR). At VRI and PLOR, located in the North-Eastern part of Vrancea, the fast axis is oriented approximately on North-South direction, with a possible dependence of the splitting parameters with back azimuth. At least for some stations, the splitting results are not consistent with vertical coherent lithospheric anisotropy.

  11. Delaying information search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaniv Shani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In three studies, we examined factors that may temporarily attenuate information search. People are generally curious and dislike uncertainty, which typically encourages them to look for relevant information. Despite these strong forces that promote information search, people sometimes deliberately delay obtaining valuable information. We find they may do so when they are concerned that the information might interfere with future pleasurable activities. Interestingly, the decision to search or to postpone searching for information is influenced not only by the value and importance of the information itself but also by well-being maintenance goals related to possible detrimental effects that negative knowledge may have on unrelated future plans.

  12. Vehicle barrier with access delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swahlan, David J; Wilke, Jason

    2013-09-03

    An access delay vehicle barrier for stopping unauthorized entry into secure areas by a vehicle ramming attack includes access delay features for preventing and/or delaying an adversary from defeating or compromising the barrier. A horizontally deployed barrier member can include an exterior steel casing, an interior steel reinforcing member and access delay members disposed within the casing and between the casing and the interior reinforcing member. Access delay members can include wooden structural lumber, concrete and/or polymeric members that in combination with the exterior casing and interior reinforcing member act cooperatively to impair an adversarial attach by thermal, mechanical and/or explosive tools.

  13. Broad Categories for the Diagnosis of Eating Disorders (BCD-ED): An Alternative System for Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, B. Timothy; Sysko, Robyn

    2009-01-01

    Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS), a residual category in DSM-IV, is the most commonly used eating disorder diagnosis in clinical settings. However, the features of individuals with EDNOS are heterogeneous and difficult to characterize. A diagnostic scheme, termed Broad Categories for the Diagnosis of Eating Disorders (BCD-ED), is proposed to diminish use of the EDNOS category markedly while preserving the existing eating disorder categories. The BCD-ED scheme consists of three ...

  14. Delayed somatic effects following extended radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slanina, J

    1977-10-27

    A group of 135 patients was investigated, who suffered from Hodgkin's disease with long-term remission following radiotherapy. By restricting the investigations to the patient group with long-term remission and correlative examinations, differentiation was made between exclusive or principal delayed radiation effects and delayed effects due to other factors. The study reports the most significant results obtained in the fields of catamnesis, laboratory diagnostics, hematology, pulmology, cardiology, thyroid function tests, neurology, andrology and dermatology. Due to the numerous detectable delayed effects the group of patients with long-term remission receives a special status. Although those effects are in no proportion to the deletary risks of an untreated Hodgkin's disease and though they are consequently tolerable in the present state of the therapeutic development, they must initiate the completion of the therapeutic concept including performance of radiotherapy and aftercare, because only then the risk for the patient provoked by these effects, which ranges beyond the malignity of this disease can be reduced or prevented.

  15. Delay and Secrecy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Grimpe, Christoph; Toole, Andrew A.

    2015-01-01

    examines the relationship between industry sponsorship and restrictions on disclosure using individual-level data on German academic researchers. Accounting for self-selection into extramural sponsorship, our evidence strongly supports the perspective that industry sponsorship jeopardizes public disclosure......The viability of modern open science norms and practices depend on public disclosure of new knowledge, methods, and materials. Aggregate data from the OECD show a broad shift in the institutional financing structure that supports academic research from public to private sponsorship. This article...

  16. Delay and Secrecy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Grimpe, Christoph; Toole, Andrew A.

    examines the relationship between industry sponsorship and restrictions on disclosure using individual-level data on German academic researchers. Accounting for self-selection into extramural sponsorship, our evidence strongly supports the perspective that industry sponsorship jeopardizes public disclosure......The viability of modern open science norms and practices depend on public disclosure of new knowledge, methods, and materials. Aggregate data from the OECD show a broad shift in the institutional financing structure that supports academic research from public to private sponsorship. This paper...

  17. Broad ion beam serial section tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winiarski, B., E-mail: b.winiarski@manchester.ac.uk [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Materials Division, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Gholinia, A. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Mingard, K.; Gee, M. [Materials Division, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Thompson, G.E.; Withers, P.J. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-15

    Here we examine the potential of serial Broad Ion Beam (BIB) Ar{sup +} ion polishing as an advanced serial section tomography (SST) technique for destructive 3D material characterisation for collecting data from volumes with lateral dimensions significantly greater than 100 µm and potentially over millimetre sized areas. Further, the associated low level of damage introduced makes BIB milling very well suited to 3D EBSD acquisition with very high indexing rates. Block face serial sectioning data registration schemes usually assume that the data comprises a series of parallel, planar slices. We quantify the variations in slice thickness and parallelity which can arise when using BIB systems comparing Gatan PECS and Ilion BIB systems for large volume serial sectioning and 3D-EBSD data acquisition. As a test case we obtain 3D morphologies and grain orientations for both phases of a WC-11%wt. Co hardmetal. In our case we have carried out the data acquisition through the manual transfer of the sample between SEM and BIB which is a very slow process (1–2 slice per day), however forthcoming automated procedures will markedly speed up the process. We show that irrespective of the sectioning method raw large area 2D-EBSD maps are affected by distortions and artefacts which affect 3D-EBSD such that quantitative analyses and visualisation can give misleading and erroneous results. Addressing and correcting these issues will offer real benefits when large area (millimetre sized) automated serial section BIBS is developed. - Highlights: • In this work we examine how microstructures can be reconstructed in three-dimensions (3D) by serial argon broad ion beam (BIB) milling, enabling much larger volumes (>250×250×100µm{sup 3}) to be acquired than by serial section focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM). • The associated low level of damage introduced makes BIB milling very well suited to 3D-EBSD acquisition with very high indexing rates. • We explore

  18. Diagnostic thoracoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plavec Goran

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic thoracoscopy in patients with pleural effusion of unclear origin mostly provides the correct diagnosis. Results from published reports of previous researches are not uniform. In 47 male and 20 female patients with pleural effusion of unknown etiology, after receiving negative results obtained from cytological finding of pleural effusion and percutaneous needle biopsy, thoracoscopy with biopsy of one or both pleurae was performed. Procedure was done in local anesthesia using Stortz rigid thoracoscope. In 37 patients with malignant disease (primary or metastatic diagnosis was confirmed histopathologically in 31 patient (81.12%. In 27 patients with inflammatory pleural disease diagnosis was confirmed histopathologically in 22 patients (81.4%. Among 11 patients with specific pleural effusions, tuberculosis was confirmed in 10 (90.91%. Normal finding in cases of spontaneous pneumothorax and pulmonary embolism was taken as a positive result. Total number of positive findings was 55 (82.10%. In one patient, the third spontaneous pneumothorax was the indication for thoracoscopy, and after numerous bullae were seen during the procedure, talcum powder pleurodesis was done. In four patients low intensity subcutaneous emphysema occurred one day after thoracoscopy. It can be concluded that thoracoscopy in local anesthesia out of the operating room is good and practical method for solving the unclear pleural effusions, with neglectable rate of complications.

  19. Mitigation diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, S.T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that experience in the remediation of schools and other large buildings has shown the importance of the effects of both the location of geologic sources and HVAC-induced distribution of indoor radon. In general, elevated radon in areas of schools with evenly distributed HVAC pressures are correlated with maximum soil radon emanations. However, strong or unequal HVAC effects can redistribute indoor radon to areas away from the direct source. Effective remediation required a complete understanding of both contributions. In some schools, highest indoor radon levels were located near large return ducts and were attributed to proximity to negative HVAC pressure. Successful sub-slab depressurization systems were installed, however, in rooms with lower indoor but greatest sub-slab radon levels, closest to the source. This shows the inadequacy of using indoor radon levels alone as a basis for remediation. Wings of two other schools with radon problems have equivalent window fan coil units in rooms of equal size and no central HVAC system. Highest indoor radon levels correlated well with highest sub-slab radon levels due to the equivalent effects of the window units. Diagnostic tests in other schools have revealed: blockwall radon transport to upper floors; high blockwall radon adjacent to sub-slab sources; and elevated indoor radon over crawlspace being drawn upward by HVAC-induced negative pressure, determined from indoor to outdoor micromanometer measurements

  20. Intellectual property considerations for molecular diagnostic development with emphasis on companion diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorikian, Harry; Warburg, Richard Jeremy; Moore, Kelly; Malinowski, Jennifer

    2018-02-01

    The development of molecular diagnostics is a complex endeavor, with multiple regulatory pathways to consider and numerous approaches to development and commercialization. Companion diagnostics, devices which are "essential for the safe and effective use of a corresponding drug or diagnostic product" (see U.S. Food & Drug Administration, In Vitro Diagnostics - Companion Diagnostics, U.S. Dept. of Health & Human Services(2016), available at https://www.fda.gov/medicaldevices/productsandmedicalprocedures/invitrodiagnostics/ucm407297.htm ) and complementary diagnostics, which are more broadly associated with a class of drug, are becoming increasingly important as integral components of the implementation of precision medicine. Areas covered: The following article will highlight the intellectual property ('IP') considerations pertinent to molecular diagnostics development with special emphasis on companion diagnostics. Expert opinion/commentary Summary: For all molecular diagnostics, intellectual property (IP) concerns are of paramount concern, whether the device will be marketed only in the United States or abroad. Taking steps to protect IP at each stage of product development is critical to optimize profitability of a diagnostic product. Also the legal framework around IP protection of diagnostic technologies has been changing over the previous few years and can be expected to continue to change in the foreseeable near future, thus, a comprehensive IP strategy should take into account the fact that changes in the law can be expected.

  1. Delayed rule following.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, D R

    2001-01-01

    Although the elements of a fully stated rule (discriminative stimulus [S(D)], some behavior, and a consequence) can occur nearly contemporaneously with the statement of the rule, there is often a delay between the rule statement and the S(D). The effects of this delay on rule following have not been studied in behavior analysis, but they have been investigated in rule-like settings in the areas of prospective memory (remembering to do something in the future) and goal pursuit. Discriminative events for some behavior can be event based (a specific setting stimulus) or time based. The latter are more demanding with respect to intention following and show age-related deficits. Studies suggest that the specificity with which the components of a rule (termed intention) are stated has a substantial effect on intention following, with more detailed specifications increasing following. Reminders of an intention, too, are most effective when they refer specifically to both the behavior and its occasion. Covert review and written notes are two effective strategies for remembering everyday intentions, but people who use notes appear not to be able to switch quickly to covert review. By focusing on aspects of the setting and rule structure, research on prospective memory and goal pursuit expands the agenda for a more complete explanation of rule effects.

  2. Pseudotumoral delayed cerebral radionecrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciaudo-Lacroix, C.; Lapresle, J.

    1985-01-01

    A 60 year-old woman with a scalp epithelioma underwent radiotherapy, the dose being 57 Gray. A first epileptic seizure occurred twenty months later. Neurological examination revealed signs of left hemisphere involvement. γEG, angiography, CT scans, demonstrated a pseudotumoral avascular process. On account of the localisation, the patient being right-handed, no surgical procedure was performed. In spite of corticotherapy and anticonvulsive treatment, seizures recurred and neurological signs slowly progressed. The patient died, 22 months after the first seizure, of an associated disseminated carcinoma with cachexia. Neuropathological examination showed a massive lesion presenting all the features of delayed radionecrosis in the left hemisphere: situated mainly in the white matter; numerous vascular abnormalities; wide-spread demyelination; disappearance of oligoglial cells. The Authors recall the clinical and anatomical aspects of this condition for which the only successful treatment is surgical removal when location and size of the lesion permit. Finally, the mechanisms which have been proposed to explain this delayed cerebral radionecrosis are discussed [fr

  3. Pseudotumoral delayed cerebral radionecrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciaudo-Lacroix, C; Lapresle, J [Centre Hospitalier de Bicetre, 94 - Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France)

    1985-01-01

    A 60 year-old woman with a scalp epithelioma underwent radiotherapy, the dose being 57 Gray. A first epileptic seizure occurred twenty months later. Neurological examination revealed signs of left hemisphere involvement. ..gamma..EG, angiography, CT scans, demonstrated a pseudotumoral avascular process. On account of the localisation, the patient being right-handed, no surgical procedure was performed. In spite of corticotherapy and anticonvulsive treatment, seizures recurred and neurological signs slowly progressed. The patient died, 22 months after the first seizure, of an associated disseminated carcinoma with cachexia. Neuropathological examination showed a massive lesion presenting all the features of delayed radionecrosis in the left hemisphere: situated mainly in the white matter; numerous vascular abnormalities; wide-spread demyelination; disappearance of oligoglial cells. The Authors recall the clinical and anatomical aspects of this condition for which the only successful treatment is surgical removal when location and size of the lesion permit. Finally, the mechanisms which have been proposed to explain this delayed cerebral radionecrosis are discussed.

  4. Spectrophotometry of six broad absorption line QSOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junkkarinen, Vesa T.; Burbidge, E. Margaret; Smith, Harding E.

    1987-01-01

    Spectrophotometric observations of six broad absorption-line QSOs (BALQSOs) are presented. The continua and emission lines are compared with those in the spectra of QSOs without BALs. A statistically significant difference is found in the emission-line intensity ratio for (N V 1240-A)/(C IV 1549-A). The median value of (N V)/(C IV) for the BALQSOs is two to three times the median for QSOs without BALs. The absorption features of the BALQSOs are described, and the column densities and limits on the ionization structure of the BAL region are discussed. If the dominant ionization mechanism is photoionization, then it is likely that either the ionizing spectrum is steep or the abundances are considerably different from solar. Collisional ionization may be a significant factor, but it cannot totally dominate the ionization rate.

  5. Study on broad beam heavy ion CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Yumiko; Kohno, Toshiyuki; Sasaki, Hitomi; Nanbu, S.; Kanai, Tatsuaki

    2003-01-01

    To achieve the heavy ion radiotherapy more precisely, it is important to know the distribution of the electron density in a human body, which is highly related to the range of charged particles. From a heavy ion CT image, we can directly obtain the 2-D distribution of the electron density in a sample. For this purpose, we have developed a broad beam heavy ion CT system. The electron density was obtained using some kinds of solutions targets. Also the dependence of the spatial resolution on the target size and the kinds of beams was estimated in this work using cylinders targets of 40, 60 and 80 mm in diameter, each of them has a hole of 10 mm in diameter at the center of it. (author)

  6. Broad Ligament Haematoma Following Normal Vaginal Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrar, Faiza; Awan, Azra Saeed; Fatima, Touseef; Tabassum, Hina

    2017-01-01

    A 37-year-old, patient presented in emergency with history of normal vaginal delivery followed by development of abdominal distention, vomiting, constipation for last 3 days. She was para 4 and had normal vaginal delivery by traditional birth attendant at peripheral hospital 3 days back. Imaging study revealed a heterogeneous complex mass, ascites, pleural effusion, air fluid levels with dilatation gut loops. Based upon pelvic examination by senior gynaecologist in combination with ultrasound; a clinical diagnosis of broad ligament haematoma was made. However, vomiting and abdominal distention raised suspicion of intestinal obstruction. Due to worsening abdominal distention exploratory laparotomy was carried out. It was pseudo colonic obstruction and caecostomy was done. Timely intervention by multidisciplinary approach saved patient life with minimal morbidity.

  7. A broad view of model validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, C.F.

    1989-10-01

    The safety assessment of a nuclear waste repository requires the use of models. Such models need to be validated to ensure, as much as possible, that they are a good representation of the actual processes occurring in the real system. In this paper we attempt to take a broad view by reviewing step by step the modeling process and bringing out the need to validating every step of this process. This model validation includes not only comparison of modeling results with data from selected experiments, but also evaluation of procedures for the construction of conceptual models and calculational models as well as methodologies for studying data and parameter correlation. The need for advancing basic scientific knowledge in related fields, for multiple assessment groups, and for presenting our modeling efforts in open literature to public scrutiny is also emphasized. 16 refs

  8. Diagnostic errors in pediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, George A.; Voss, Stephan D.; Melvin, Patrice R.; Graham, Dionne A.

    2011-01-01

    Little information is known about the frequency, types and causes of diagnostic errors in imaging children. Our goals were to describe the patterns and potential etiologies of diagnostic error in our subspecialty. We reviewed 265 cases with clinically significant diagnostic errors identified during a 10-year period. Errors were defined as a diagnosis that was delayed, wrong or missed; they were classified as perceptual, cognitive, system-related or unavoidable; and they were evaluated by imaging modality and level of training of the physician involved. We identified 484 specific errors in the 265 cases reviewed (mean:1.8 errors/case). Most discrepancies involved staff (45.5%). Two hundred fifty-eight individual cognitive errors were identified in 151 cases (mean = 1.7 errors/case). Of these, 83 cases (55%) had additional perceptual or system-related errors. One hundred sixty-five perceptual errors were identified in 165 cases. Of these, 68 cases (41%) also had cognitive or system-related errors. Fifty-four system-related errors were identified in 46 cases (mean = 1.2 errors/case) of which all were multi-factorial. Seven cases were unavoidable. Our study defines a taxonomy of diagnostic errors in a large academic pediatric radiology practice and suggests that most are multi-factorial in etiology. Further study is needed to define effective strategies for improvement. (orig.)

  9. Stability and delay sensitivity of neutral fractional-delay systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qi; Shi, Min; Wang, Zaihua

    2016-08-01

    This paper generalizes the stability test method via integral estimation for integer-order neutral time-delay systems to neutral fractional-delay systems. The key step in stability test is the calculation of the number of unstable characteristic roots that is described by a definite integral over an interval from zero to a sufficient large upper limit. Algorithms for correctly estimating the upper limits of the integral are given in two concise ways, parameter dependent or independent. A special feature of the proposed method is that it judges the stability of fractional-delay systems simply by using rough integral estimation. Meanwhile, the paper shows that for some neutral fractional-delay systems, the stability is extremely sensitive to the change of time delays. Examples are given for demonstrating the proposed method as well as the delay sensitivity.

  10. Application of broad-spectrum resequencing microarray for genotyping rhabdoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacheux, Laurent; Berthet, Nicolas; Dissard, Gabriel; Holmes, Edward C; Delmas, Olivier; Larrous, Florence; Guigon, Ghislaine; Dickinson, Philip; Faye, Ousmane; Sall, Amadou A; Old, Iain G; Kong, Katherine; Kennedy, Giulia C; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Cole, Stewart T; Caro, Valérie; Gessain, Antoine; Bourhy, Hervé

    2010-09-01

    The rapid and accurate identification of pathogens is critical in the control of infectious disease. To this end, we analyzed the capacity for viral detection and identification of a newly described high-density resequencing microarray (RMA), termed PathogenID, which was designed for multiple pathogen detection using database similarity searching. We focused on one of the largest and most diverse viral families described to date, the family Rhabdoviridae. We demonstrate that this approach has the potential to identify both known and related viruses for which precise sequence information is unavailable. In particular, we demonstrate that a strategy based on consensus sequence determination for analysis of RMA output data enabled successful detection of viruses exhibiting up to 26% nucleotide divergence with the closest sequence tiled on the array. Using clinical specimens obtained from rabid patients and animals, this method also shows a high species level concordance with standard reference assays, indicating that it is amenable for the development of diagnostic assays. Finally, 12 animal rhabdoviruses which were currently unclassified, unassigned, or assigned as tentative species within the family Rhabdoviridae were successfully detected. These new data allowed an unprecedented phylogenetic analysis of 106 rhabdoviruses and further suggest that the principles and methodology developed here may be used for the broad-spectrum surveillance and the broader-scale investigation of biodiversity in the viral world.

  11. Application of Broad-Spectrum Resequencing Microarray for Genotyping Rhabdoviruses▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacheux, Laurent; Berthet, Nicolas; Dissard, Gabriel; Holmes, Edward C.; Delmas, Olivier; Larrous, Florence; Guigon, Ghislaine; Dickinson, Philip; Faye, Ousmane; Sall, Amadou A.; Old, Iain G.; Kong, Katherine; Kennedy, Giulia C.; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Cole, Stewart T.; Caro, Valérie; Gessain, Antoine; Bourhy, Hervé

    2010-01-01

    The rapid and accurate identification of pathogens is critical in the control of infectious disease. To this end, we analyzed the capacity for viral detection and identification of a newly described high-density resequencing microarray (RMA), termed PathogenID, which was designed for multiple pathogen detection using database similarity searching. We focused on one of the largest and most diverse viral families described to date, the family Rhabdoviridae. We demonstrate that this approach has the potential to identify both known and related viruses for which precise sequence information is unavailable. In particular, we demonstrate that a strategy based on consensus sequence determination for analysis of RMA output data enabled successful detection of viruses exhibiting up to 26% nucleotide divergence with the closest sequence tiled on the array. Using clinical specimens obtained from rabid patients and animals, this method also shows a high species level concordance with standard reference assays, indicating that it is amenable for the development of diagnostic assays. Finally, 12 animal rhabdoviruses which were currently unclassified, unassigned, or assigned as tentative species within the family Rhabdoviridae were successfully detected. These new data allowed an unprecedented phylogenetic analysis of 106 rhabdoviruses and further suggest that the principles and methodology developed here may be used for the broad-spectrum surveillance and the broader-scale investigation of biodiversity in the viral world. PMID:20610710

  12. Delays in early neuropsychic development: Approaches to diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Zavadenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The population frequency of neuropsychic developmental delays in infants is estimated at nearly 10%; that of global intellectual disability (mental retardation is at 1-3%. Delayed development is denned as a substantial retardation as compared to the standard indicators in any of the basic spheres: motor, communicative, cognitive, adaptive-behavioral, and socioemotional ones. Global developmental delay is characterized by a significant lag in two or more spheres. The use of current diagnostic techniques, such as the Bayley or Griffiths scales, can provide an objective quantitative assessment of both an infant's overall development and indicators in individual spheres. At the preliminary examination stage, it is expedient to carry out a Denver developmental screening test that may be directly used in a doctor's consulting room. The causes of global developmental delay/intellectual disability in infants may be perinatal central nervous system (CNS lesions; brain malformations; intrauterine infections; intrauterine intoxications; early-onset psychoneurological diseases (neuroinfections, CNS injuries, epilepsies, autism spectrum disorders, etc.; congenital hypothyroidism; genetic diseases. Among all genetic causes of global developmental delay/intellectual disability, there are chromosomal anomalies (25-30%, monogenic diseases (metabolic diseases, neuroectodermal syndromes, diseases with predominant grey and white matter involvement. The diagnostic possibilities of current genetic methods are considered.

  13. Delayed breast implant reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Gitte B.; Hölmich, Lisbet R.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the association between radiation therapy and severe capsular contracture or reoperation after 717 delayed breast implant reconstruction procedures (288 1- and 429 2-stage procedures) identified in the prospective database of the Danish Registry for Plastic Surgery of the Breast during...... of radiation therapy was associated with a non-significantly increased risk of reoperation after both 1-stage (HR = 1.4; 95% CI: 0.7-2.5) and 2-stage (HR = 1.6; 95% CI: 0.9-3.1) procedures. Reconstruction failure was highest (13.2%) in the 2-stage procedures with a history of radiation therapy. Breast...... reconstruction approaches other than implants should be seriously considered among women who have received radiation therapy....

  14. Delay tolerant networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Longxiang; Luan, Tom H

    2015-01-01

    This brief presents emerging and promising communication methods for network reliability via delay tolerant networks (DTNs). Different from traditional networks, DTNs possess unique features, such as long latency and unstable network topology. As a result, DTNs can be widely applied to critical applications, such as space communications, disaster rescue, and battlefield communications. The brief provides a complete investigation of DTNs and their current applications, from an overview to the latest development in the area. The core issue of data forward in DTNs is tackled, including the importance of social characteristics, which is an essential feature if the mobile devices are used for human communication. Security and privacy issues in DTNs are discussed, and future work is also discussed.

  15. Location Estimation using Delayed Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Martin; Larsen, Thomas Dall; Nørgård, Peter Magnus

    1998-01-01

    When combining data from various sensors it is vital to acknowledge possible measurement delays. Furthermore, the sensor fusion algorithm, often a Kalman filter, should be modified in order to handle the delay. The paper examines different possibilities for handling delays and applies a new techn...... technique to a sensor fusion system for estimating the location of an autonomous guided vehicle. The system fuses encoder and vision measurements in an extended Kalman filter. Results from experiments in a real environment are reported...

  16. Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovsing, Louise; Clokie, Samuel; Bustos, Diego M

    2011-01-01

    Cone-rod homeobox (Crx) encodes Crx, a transcription factor expressed selectively in retinal photoreceptors and pinealocytes, the major cell type of the pineal gland. In this study, the influence of Crx on the mammalian pineal gland was studied by light and electron microscopy and by use of micro......Cone-rod homeobox (Crx) encodes Crx, a transcription factor expressed selectively in retinal photoreceptors and pinealocytes, the major cell type of the pineal gland. In this study, the influence of Crx on the mammalian pineal gland was studied by light and electron microscopy and by use......-type animals; only eight of these were also day/night expressed in the Crx-/- pineal gland. However, in the Crx-/- pineal gland 41 genes exhibited differential night/day expression that was not seen in wild-type animals. These findings indicate that Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome and also...... influences differential night/day gene expression in this tissue. Some effects of Crx deletion on the pineal transcriptome might be mediated by Hoxc4 up-regulation....

  17. Modeling delay in genetic networks: from delay birth-death processes to delay stochastic differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Azencott, Robert; Bennett, Matthew R; Josić, Krešimir; Ott, William

    2014-05-28

    Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here, we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove a quantitative bound on the error between the pathwise realizations of these two processes. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, cross-correlations between nodes in a network, and spatial and temporal information in two commonly studied motifs of metastability in biochemical systems. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay.

  18. Modeling delay in genetic networks: From delay birth-death processes to delay stochastic differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Azencott, Robert; Ott, William [Department of Mathematics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77004 (United States); Bennett, Matthew R. [Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77204, USA and Institute of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Josić, Krešimir [Department of Mathematics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77004 (United States); Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States)

    2014-05-28

    Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here, we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove a quantitative bound on the error between the pathwise realizations of these two processes. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, cross-correlations between nodes in a network, and spatial and temporal information in two commonly studied motifs of metastability in biochemical systems. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay.

  19. Modeling delay in genetic networks: From delay birth-death processes to delay stochastic differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Azencott, Robert; Ott, William; Bennett, Matthew R.; Josić, Krešimir

    2014-01-01

    Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here, we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove a quantitative bound on the error between the pathwise realizations of these two processes. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, cross-correlations between nodes in a network, and spatial and temporal information in two commonly studied motifs of metastability in biochemical systems. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay

  20. Lectures in plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, I.H.

    1990-06-01

    This paper discusses the following topics on plasma diagnostics: Electric probes in flowing and magnetized plasmas; Electron cyclotron emission absorption; Magnetic diagnostics; Spectroscopy; and Thomson Scattering

  1. Systematic of delayed neutron parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaev, S.G.; Piksaikin, V.M.

    2000-01-01

    The experimental studies of the energy dependence of the delayed neutron (DN) parameters for various fission systems has shown that the behaviour of a some combination of delayed neutron parameters has a similar features. On the basis of this findings the systematics of delayed neutron experimental data for thorium, uranium, plutonium and americium isotopes have been investigated with the purpose to find a correlation of DN parameters with characteristics of fissioning system as well as a correlation between the delayed neutron parameters themselves. It was presented the preliminary results which were obtained during study the physics interpretation of the results [ru

  2. Time Delay of CGM Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzeisen-Redeker, Günther; Schoemaker, Michael; Kirchsteiger, Harald; Freckmann, Guido; Heinemann, Lutz; del Re, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is a powerful tool to support the optimization of glucose control of patients with diabetes. However, CGM systems measure glucose in interstitial fluid but not in blood. Rapid changes in one compartment are not accompanied by similar changes in the other, but follow with some delay. Such time delays hamper detection of, for example, hypoglycemic events. Our aim is to discuss the causes and extent of time delays and approaches to compensate for these. Methods: CGM data were obtained in a clinical study with 37 patients with a prototype glucose sensor. The study was divided into 5 phases over 2 years. In all, 8 patients participated in 2 phases separated by 8 months. A total number of 108 CGM data sets including raw signals were used for data analysis and were processed by statistical methods to obtain estimates of the time delay. Results: Overall mean (SD) time delay of the raw signals with respect to blood glucose was 9.5 (3.7) min, median was 9 min (interquartile range 4 min). Analysis of time delays observed in the same patients separated by 8 months suggests a patient dependent delay. No significant correlation was observed between delay and anamnestic or anthropometric data. The use of a prediction algorithm reduced the delay by 4 minutes on average. Conclusions: Prediction algorithms should be used to provide real-time CGM readings more consistent with simultaneous measurements by SMBG. Patient specificity may play an important role in improving prediction quality. PMID:26243773

  3. A genome-wide association analysis of a broad psychosis phenotype identifies three loci for further investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bramon, Elvira; Pirinen, Matti; Strange, Amy; Lin, Kuang; Freeman, Colin; Bellenguez, Céline; Su, Zhan; Band, Gavin; Pearson, Richard; Vukcevic, Damjan; Langford, Cordelia; Deloukas, Panos; Hunt, Sarah; Gray, Emma; Dronov, Serge; Potter, Simon C.; Tashakkori-Ghanbaria, Avazeh; Edkins, Sarah; Bumpstead, Suzannah J.; Arranz, Maria J.; Bakker, Steven; Bender, Stephan; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; Chandler, David; Collier, David A.; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Dazzan, Paola; de Haan, Lieuwe; Di Forti, Marta; Dragović, Milan; Giegling, Ina; Hall, Jeremy; Iyegbe, Conrad; Jablensky, Assen; Kahn, René S.; Kalaydjieva, Luba; Kravariti, Eugenia; Lawrie, Stephen; Linszen, Don H.; Mata, Ignacio; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Ophoff, Roel A.; Pariante, Carmine M.; Paunio, Tiina; Picchioni, Marco; Ripke, Stephan; Rujescu, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several loci associated with schizophrenia and/or bipolar disorder. We performed a GWAS of psychosis as a broad syndrome rather than within specific diagnostic categories. 1239 cases with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or psychotic

  4. A Genome-wide Association Analysis of a Broad Psychosis Phenotype Identifies Three Loci for Further Investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bramon, Elvira; Pirinen, Matti; Strange, Amy; Lin, Kuang; Freeman, Colin; Bellenguez, Celine; Su, Zhan; Band, Gavin; Pearson, Richard; Vukcevic, Damjan; Langford, Cordelia; Deloukas, Panos; Hunt, Sarah; Gray, Emma; Dronov, Serge; Potter, Simon C.; Tashakkori-Ghanbaria, Avazeh; Edkins, Sarah; Bumpstead, Suzannah J.; Arranz, Maria J.; Bakker, Steven; Bender, Stephan; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; Chandler, David; Collier, David A.; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Dazzan, Paola; de Haan, Lieuwe; di Forti, Marta; Dragovic, Milan; Giegling, Ina; Hall, Jeremy; Iyegbe, Conrad; Jablensky, Assen; Kahn, Rene S.; Kalaydjieva, Luba; Kravariti, Eugenia; Lawrie, Stephen; Lins-Zen, Don H.; Mata, Ignacio; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Ophoff, Roel A.; Pariante, Carmine M.; Paunio, Tiina; Picchioni, Marco; Ripke, Stephan; Wiersma, Durk

    2014-01-01

    Background: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several loci associated with schizophrenia and/or bipolar disorder. We performed a GWAS of psychosis as a broad syndrome rather than within specific diagnostic categories. Methods: 1239 cases with schizophrenia, schizoaffective

  5. Isolated neurodevelopmental delay in childhood: clinicoradiological correlation in 170 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaerel, P. (Department of Neuroradiology, Hospital for Sick Children, London (United Kingdom)); Kingsley, D.P.E. (Department of Neuroradiology, Hospital for Sick Children, London (United Kingdom)); Kendall, B.E. (Department of Neuroradiology, Hospital for Sick Children, London (United Kingdom))

    1993-03-01

    CT findings on 170 patients presenting with isolated moderate to severe neurodevelopmental delay have been compared with the final diagnosis. MRI was undertaken in 29 patients. Eighty per cent of the patients remained undiagnosed, and although the MRI findings were abnormal in 65.5% compared with only 30% of the CT examinations, imaging uncommonly suggested a specific diagnosis. Biochemical and chromosomal investigations were significantly more diagnostic. The results of these studies should restrict the number of non-contributory neuroradiological examinations. The superior intrinsic contrast of MRI will detect more lesions, particularly in white matter, but these are rarely diagnostic and where access to MRI is limited, CT is usually adequate. (orig.)

  6. Isolated neurodevelopmental delay in childhood: clinicoradiological correlation in 170 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demaerel, P.; Kingsley, D.P.E.; Kendall, B.E.

    1993-01-01

    CT findings on 170 patients presenting with isolated moderate to severe neurodevelopmental delay have been compared with the final diagnosis. MRI was undertaken in 29 patients. Eighty per cent of the patients remained undiagnosed, and although the MRI findings were abnormal in 65.5% compared with only 30% of the CT examinations, imaging uncommonly suggested a specific diagnosis. Biochemical and chromosomal investigations were significantly more diagnostic. The results of these studies should restrict the number of non-contributory neuroradiological examinations. The superior intrinsic contrast of MRI will detect more lesions, particularly in white matter, but these are rarely diagnostic and where access to MRI is limited, CT is usually adequate. (orig.)

  7. Delay-Dependent Guaranteed Cost H∞ Control of an Interval System with Interval Time-Varying Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongke Shi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the problem of the delay-dependent robust stability and guaranteed cost H∞ control for an interval system with time-varying delay. The interval system with matrix factorization is provided and leads to less conservative conclusions than solving a square root. The time-varying delay is assumed to belong to an interval and the derivative of the interval time-varying delay is not a restriction, which allows a fast time-varying delay; also its applicability is broad. Based on the Lyapunov-Ktasovskii approach, a delay-dependent criterion for the existence of a state feedback controller, which guarantees the closed-loop system stability, the upper bound of cost function, and disturbance attenuation lever for all admissible uncertainties as well as out perturbation, is proposed in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. The criterion is derived by free weighting matrices that can reduce the conservatism. The effectiveness has been verified in a number example and the compute results are presented to validate the proposed design method.

  8. Patterns of anaphylaxis after diagnostic workup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oropeza, Athamaica Ruiz; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Broesby-Olsen, Sigurd

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most published studies on anaphylaxis are retrospective or register based. Data on subsequent diagnostic work-up are sparse. We aimed to characterize patients seen with suspected anaphylaxis at the emergency care setting (ECS), after subsequent diagnostic work-up at our Allergy Center...... (AC). METHODS: Prospective study including patients from the ECS, Odense University Hospital, during May 2013-April 2014. Possible anaphylaxis cases were daily identified based on a broad search profile including history and symptoms in patient records, diagnostic codes and pharmacological treatments....... At the AC, all patients were evaluated according to international guidelines. RESULTS: Among 226 patients with suspected anaphylaxis, the diagnosis was confirmed in 124 (54.9%) after diagnostic work-up; 118 of the 124 fulfilled WAO/EAACI criteria of anaphylaxis at the ECS, while 6 were found among 46...

  9. MICROLENSING OF QUASAR BROAD EMISSION LINES: CONSTRAINTS ON BROAD LINE REGION SIZE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerras, E.; Mediavilla, E. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Via Lactea S/N, La Laguna E-38200, Tenerife (Spain); Jimenez-Vicente, J. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, Campus de Fuentenueva, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Kochanek, C. S. [Department of Astronomy and the Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, The Ohio State University, 4055 McPherson Lab, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43221 (United States); Munoz, J. A. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad de Valencia, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Falco, E. [Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Motta, V. [Departamento de Fisica y Astronomia, Universidad de Valparaiso, Avda. Gran Bretana 1111, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2013-02-20

    We measure the differential microlensing of the broad emission lines between 18 quasar image pairs in 16 gravitational lenses. We find that the broad emission lines are in general weakly microlensed. The results show, at a modest level of confidence (1.8{sigma}), that high ionization lines such as C IV are more strongly microlensed than low ionization lines such as H{beta}, indicating that the high ionization line emission regions are more compact. If we statistically model the distribution of microlensing magnifications, we obtain estimates for the broad line region size of r{sub s} = 24{sup +22} {sub -15} and r{sub s} = 55{sup +150} {sub -35} lt-day (90% confidence) for the high and low ionization lines, respectively. When the samples are divided into higher and lower luminosity quasars, we find that the line emission regions of more luminous quasars are larger, with a slope consistent with the expected scaling from photoionization models. Our estimates also agree well with the results from local reveberation mapping studies.

  10. Evaluation of 451 Danish Boys With Delayed Puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawaetz, Jacob Gerner; P. Hagen, Casper; Mieritz, Mikkel Grunnet

    2015-01-01

    Context: Few data exist on the diagnostic criteria, and on the effects of puberty induction, in boyswith constitutional delay in growth and puberty (CDGP). Objective: To develop puberty nomograms based on Danish boys with normal pubertal development.To evaluate the different diagnostic criteria...... and the effect of oral testosterone undecanoate(TU) in boys with CDGP. Design: A cross-sectional and longitudinal study of Danish boys with normal pubertal development(COPENHAGEN puberty study). A retrospective observational study of 451 boys evaluated fordelayed puberty between 1990 and 2013. Setting: Tertiary...... by the puberty nomogram(genital stage 2 SD for age) versus the classical criteria (genital stage 1 at 14 years). The effectof one year of oral TU treatment on pubertal progression, circulating hormones, height, andpredicted adult height (PAH). Results: Seventy-eight (27%) of the 287 boys had delayed pubertal...

  11. Delayed Auditory Feedback and Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfordresher, Peter Q.; Dalla Bella, Simone

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that timing of rhythm production is disrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF), and that disruption varies with delay length. We tested the hypothesis that disruption depends on the state of the movement trajectory at the onset of DAF. Participants tapped isochronous rhythms at a rate specified by a metronome while hearing DAF…

  12. #FakeNobelDelayReasons

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Tuesday’s hour-long delay of the Nobel Prize in Physics announcement was (and still is) quite the cause for speculation. But on the Twittersphere, it was simply the catalyst for some fantastic puns, so-bad-they're-good physics jokes and other shenanigans. Here are some of our favourite #FakeNobelDelayReasons.    

  13. Picosecond resolution programmable delay line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchenek, Mariusz

    2009-01-01

    The note presents implementation of a programmable delay line for digital signals. The tested circuit has a subnanosecond delay range programmable with a resolution of picoseconds. Implementation of the circuit was based on low-cost components, easily available on the market. (technical design note)

  14. Validation, automatic generation and use of broad phonetic transcriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bael, Cristophe Patrick Jan Van

    2007-01-01

    Broad phonetic transcriptions represent the pronunciation of words as strings of characters from specifically designed symbol sets. In everyday life, broad phonetic transcriptions are often used as aids to pronounce (foreign) words. In addition, broad phonetic transcriptions are often used for

  15. Project delay analysis of HRSG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvianita; Novega, A. S.; Rosyid, D. M.; Suntoyo

    2017-08-01

    Completion of HRSG (Heat Recovery Steam Generator) fabrication project sometimes is not sufficient with the targeted time written on the contract. The delay on fabrication process can cause some disadvantages for fabricator, including forfeit payment, delay on HRSG construction process up until HRSG trials delay. In this paper, the author is using semi quantitative on HRSG pressure part fabrication delay with configuration plant 1 GT (Gas Turbine) + 1 HRSG + 1 STG (Steam Turbine Generator) using bow-tie analysis method. Bow-tie analysis method is a combination from FTA (Fault tree analysis) and ETA (Event tree analysis) to develop the risk matrix of HRSG. The result from FTA analysis is use as a threat for preventive measure. The result from ETA analysis is use as impact from fabrication delay.

  16. Manta A New BroadBand OBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hello, Y.; Yegikyan, M.; Charvis, P.; Philippe, O.

    2017-12-01

    Manta is a new BroadBand OBS developed at Geoazur and commercialized by Osean. The design is inspired by 3-years autonomy MUG-OBS a Multiparameter Ocean Bottom System which carry a lot of sort of sensor types. As Mug-OBS, Manta-OBS rated 6000m is designed to resist a trawling. All the components are non corrosive such polyethylene, titanium and buoyancy is ensured by syntactic foam. Equipped in standard version with a Trillium compact OBS Manta has an autonomy of 18 months, but can accept on its 4 input channels any kind of signal as low as from an hydrophone or larger from other type of a seismometer or accelerometer. Tri-axial geophones unit (2 Hz or 4.5 Hz ) can replace the seismometer and will expend the lifespan for the instrument. The seismometer is encapsulated in a central well established by four panels of the main structure to protect it from sea current convection and is decoupled from main chassis. An health bulletin is recoverable by acoustic any time to facilitate the installation and during a visit when instrument is deployed. Main parameters for acquisition can be changed by acoustics command from surface at any time. Once at the bottom, release for the main sensor installation is programmed on a timer but controlled by the tilt of the OBS. If the tilt is too important based on programmed limits, sensor will not released automatically, but this can be forced by acoustic command after returning the tilt informations to the boat operator. Manta is equipped with flash light and AIS system for easy location at recovery, and can also send it's position by Iridium satellite in case of an unexpected ascent such caused by a possible trawling if deployed in shallow water. Clock drift calculation is automatically made against GPS time signal once the OBS return at the surface. The recovery of the OBS is initiated by an acoustic command. These new features made Manta a very versatile instrument for monitoring earthquakes.

  17. Different CT perfusion algorithms in the detection of delayed cerebral ischemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremers, Charlotte H P; Dankbaar, Jan Willem; Vergouwen, Mervyn D I; Vos, Pieter C; Bennink, Edwin; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Velthuis, Birgitta K; van der Schaaf, Irene C

    2015-05-01

    Tracer delay-sensitive perfusion algorithms in CT perfusion (CTP) result in an overestimation of the extent of ischemia in thromboembolic stroke. In diagnosing delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), delayed arrival of contrast due to vasospasm may also overestimate the extent of ischemia. We investigated the diagnostic accuracy of tracer delay-sensitive and tracer delay-insensitive algorithms for detecting DCI. From a prospectively collected series of aSAH patients admitted between 2007-2011, we included patients with any clinical deterioration other than rebleeding within 21 days after SAH who underwent NCCT/CTP/CTA imaging. Causes of clinical deterioration were categorized into DCI and no DCI. CTP maps were calculated with tracer delay-sensitive and tracer delay-insensitive algorithms and were visually assessed for the presence of perfusion deficits by two independent observers with different levels of experience. The diagnostic value of both algorithms was calculated for both observers. Seventy-one patients were included. For the experienced observer, the positive predictive values (PPVs) were 0.67 for the delay-sensitive and 0.66 for the delay-insensitive algorithm, and the negative predictive values (NPVs) were 0.73 and 0.74. For the less experienced observer, PPVs were 0.60 for both algorithms, and NPVs were 0.66 for the delay-sensitive and 0.63 for the delay-insensitive algorithm. Test characteristics are comparable for tracer delay-sensitive and tracer delay-insensitive algorithms for the visual assessment of CTP in diagnosing DCI. This indicates that both algorithms can be used for this purpose.

  18. Delayed radiation neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagashima, T.; Miyamoto, K.; Beppu, H.; Hirose, K.; Yamada, K. (Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital (Japan))

    1981-07-01

    A case of cervical plexus neuropathy was reported in association with chronic radio-dermatitis, myxedema with thyroid adenoma and epiglottic tumor. A 38-year-old man has noticed muscle weakness and wasting of the right shoulder girdle since age 33. A detailed history taking revealed a previous irradiation to the neck because of the cervical lymphadenopathy at age 10 (X-ray 3,000 rads), keroid skin change at age 19, obesity and edema since 26, and hoarseness at 34. Laryngoscopic examination revealed a tumor on the right vocal cord, diagnosed as benign papilloma by histological study. In addition, there were chronic radio-dermatitis around the neck, primary hypothyroidism with a benign functioning adenoma on the right lobe of the thyroid, the right phrenic nerve palsy and the right recurrent nerve palsy. All these lesions were considered to be the late sequellae of radiation to the neck in childhood. Other neurological signs were weakness and amyotrophy of the right shoulder girdle with patchy sensory loss, and areflexia of the right arm. Gross power was fairly well preserved in the right hand. EMG showed neurogenic changes in the tested muscles, suggesting a peripheral nerve lesion. Nerve conduction velocities were normal. No abnormal findings were revealed by myelography and spinal CT. The neurological findings of the patient were compatible with the diagnosis of middle cervical plexus palsy apparently due to late radiation effect. In the literature eight cases of post-radiation neuropathy with a long latency have been reported. The present case with the longest latency after the radiation should be included in the series of the reported cases of ''delayed radiation neuropathy.'' (author).

  19. Delayed radiation neuropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, Toshiko; Miyamoto, Kazuto; Beppu, Hirokuni; Hirose, Kazuhiko; Yamada, Katsuhiro

    1981-01-01

    A case of cervical plexus neuropathy was reported in association with chronic radio-dermatitis, myxedema with thyroid adenoma and epiglottic tumor. A 38-year-old man has noticed muscle weakness and wasting of the right shoulder girdle since age 33. A detailed history taking revealed a previous irradiation to the neck because of the cervical lymphadenopathy at age 10 (X-ray 3,000 rads), keroid skin change at age 19, obesity and edema since 26, and hoarseness at 34. Laryngoscopic examination revealed a tumor on the right vocal cord, diagnosed as benign papilloma by histological study. In addition, there were chronic radio-dermatitis around the neck, primary hypothyroidism with a benign functioning adenoma on the right lobe of the thyroid, the right phrenic nerve palsy and the right recurrent nerve palsy. All these lesions were considered to be the late sequellae of radiation to the neck in childhood. Other neurological signs were weakness and amyotrophy of the right shoulder girdle with patchy sensory loss, and areflexia of the right arm. Gross power was fairly well preserved in the right hand. EMG showed neurogenic changes in the tested muscles, suggesting a peripheral nerve lesion. Nerve conduction velocities were normal. No abnormal findings were revealed by myelography and spinal CT. The neurological findings of the patient were compatible with the diagnosis of middle cervical plexus palsy apparently due to late radiation effect. In the literature eight cases of post-radiation neuropathy with a long latency have been reported. The present case with the longest latency after the radiation should be included in the series of the reported cases of ''delayed radiation neuropathy.'' (author)

  20. Diagnostic interventions in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrall, J.H.; Swanson, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnostic interventions in nuclear medicine may be defined as the coadministration of a nonradioactive drug or application of a physical stimulus or physiologic maneuver to enhance the diagnostic utility of a nuclear medicine test. The rationale for each interventional maneuver follows from the physiology or metabolism of the particular organ or organ system under evaluation. Diagnostic inference is drawn from the pattern of change in the biodistribution of the tracer in response to the intervention-induced change in metabolism or function. In current practice, the most commonly performed interventional maneuvers are aimed at studies of the heart, genitourinary system, hepatobiliary system, and gastrointestinal tract. The single most commonly performed interventional study in the United States is the stress Thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scan aimed at the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. The stress portion of the study is accomplished with dynamic leg exercise on a treadmill and is aimed at increasing myocardial oxygen demands. Areas of myocardium distal to hemodynamically significant lesions in the coronary arteries become ischemic at peak stress due to the inability of the stenotic vessel to respond to the oxygen demand/blood flow needs of the myocardium. Ischemic areas are readily recognized as photopenic defects on scans obtained immediately after exercise, with normalization upon delayed imaging. Diuresis renography is aimed at the differential diagnosis of hydroureteronephrosis. By challenging the urinary tract collecting structures with an augmented urine flow, dilated, unobstructed systems can be differentiated from systems with significant mechanical obstruction. 137 references

  1. Delayed ethylene glycol poisoning presenting with abdominal pain and multiple cranial and peripheral neuropathies: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sran Hersharan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Ethylene glycol poisoning may pose diagnostic difficulties if the history of ingestion is not volunteered, or if the presentation is delayed. This is because the biochemical features of high anion-gap metabolic acidosis and an osmolar gap resolve within 24 to 72 hours as the ethylene glycol is metabolized to toxic metabolites. This case illustrates the less well-known clinical features of delayed ethylene glycol poisoning, including multiple cranial and peripheral neuropathies, and the clinical findings which may point towards this diagnosis in the absence of a history of ingestion. Case presentation A 53-year-old Afro-Caribbean man presented with vomiting, abdominal pain and oliguria, and was found to have acute renal failure requiring emergency hemofiltration, and raised inflammatory markers. Computed tomography imaging of the abdomen revealed the appearance of bilateral pyelonephritis, however he failed to improve with broad-spectrum antibiotics, and subsequently developed multiple cranial neuropathies and increasing obtundation, necessitating intubation and ventilation. Computed tomography of the brain showed no focal lesions, and a lumbar puncture revealed a raised cerebrospinal fluid opening pressure and cyto-albuminological dissociation. Nerve conduction studies revealed a sensorimotor radiculoneuropathy mimicking a Guillain-Barre type lesion with an atypical distribution. It was only about two weeks after presentation that the history of ethylene glycol ingestion one week before presentation was confirmed. He had a slow recovery on the intensive care unit, requiring renal replacement therapy for eight weeks, and complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome, neuropathic pain and a slow neurological recovery requiring prolonged rehabilitation. Conclusions Although neuropathy as a result of ethylene glycol poisoning has been described in a few case reports, all of these were in the context of a known history of

  2. Diagnostic reasoning strategies and diagnostic success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderre, S; Mandin, H; Harasym, P H; Fick, G H

    2003-08-01

    Cognitive psychology research supports the notion that experts use mental frameworks or "schemes", both to organize knowledge in memory and to solve clinical problems. The central purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between problem-solving strategies and the likelihood of diagnostic success. Think-aloud protocols were collected to determine the diagnostic reasoning used by experts and non-experts when attempting to diagnose clinical presentations in gastroenterology. Using logistic regression analysis, the study found that there is a relationship between diagnostic reasoning strategy and the likelihood of diagnostic success. Compared to hypothetico-deductive reasoning, the odds of diagnostic success were significantly greater when subjects used the diagnostic strategies of pattern recognition and scheme-inductive reasoning. Two other factors emerged as independent determinants of diagnostic success: expertise and clinical presentation. Not surprisingly, experts outperformed novices, while the content area of the clinical cases in each of the four clinical presentations demonstrated varying degrees of difficulty and thus diagnostic success. These findings have significant implications for medical educators. It supports the introduction of "schemes" as a means of enhancing memory organization and improving diagnostic success.

  3. Reducing Delay in Diagnosis: Multistage Recommendation Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandtke, Ben; Gallagher, Sarah

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a multistage tracking system could improve communication between health care providers, reducing the risk of delay in diagnosis related to inconsistent communication and tracking of radiology follow-up recommendations. Unconditional recommendations for imaging follow-up of all diagnostic imaging modalities excluding mammography (n = 589) were entered into a database and tracked through a multistage tracking system for 13 months. Tracking interventions were performed for patients for whom completion of recommended follow-up imaging could not be identified 1 month after the recommendation due date. Postintervention compliance with the follow-up recommendation required examination completion or clinical closure (i.e., biopsy, limited life expectancy or death, or subspecialist referral). Baseline radiology information system checks performed 1 month after the recommendation due date revealed timely completion of 43.1% of recommended imaging studies at our institution before intervention. Three separate tracking interventions were studied, showing effectiveness between 29.0% and 57.8%. The multistage tracking system increased the examination completion rate to 70.5% (a 52% increase) and reduced the rate of unknown follow-up compliance and the associated risk of delay in diagnosis to 13.9% (a 74% decrease). Examinations completed after tracking intervention generated revenue of 4.1 times greater than the labor cost. Performing sequential radiology recommendation tracking interventions can substantially reduce the rate of unknown follow-up compliance and add value to the health system. Unknown follow-up compliance is a risk factor for delay in diagnosis, a form of preventable medical error commonly identified in malpractice claims involving radiologists and office-based practitioners.

  4. Attosecond Delays in Molecular Photoionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, Martin; Jordan, Inga; Baykusheva, Denitsa; von Conta, Aaron; Wörner, Hans Jakob

    2016-08-26

    We report measurements of energy-dependent photoionization delays between the two outermost valence shells of N_{2}O and H_{2}O. The combination of single-shot signal referencing with the use of different metal foils to filter the attosecond pulse train enables us to extract delays from congested spectra. Remarkably large delays up to 160 as are observed in N_{2}O, whereas the delays in H_{2}O are all smaller than 50 as in the photon-energy range of 20-40 eV. These results are interpreted by developing a theory of molecular photoionization delays. The long delays measured in N_{2}O are shown to reflect the population of molecular shape resonances that trap the photoelectron for a duration of up to ∼110 as. The unstructured continua of H_{2}O result in much smaller delays at the same photon energies. Our experimental and theoretical methods make the study of molecular attosecond photoionization dynamics accessible.

  5. Delays and networked control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hetel, Laurentiu; Daafouz, Jamal; Johansson, Karl

    2016-01-01

    This edited monograph includes state-of-the-art contributions on continuous time dynamical networks with delays. The book is divided into four parts. The first part presents tools and methods for the analysis of time-delay systems with a particular attention on control problems of large scale or infinite-dimensional systems with delays. The second part of the book is dedicated to the use of time-delay models for the analysis and design of Networked Control Systems. The third part of the book focuses on the analysis and design of systems with asynchronous sampling intervals which occur in Networked Control Systems. The last part of the book exposes several contributions dealing with the design of cooperative control and observation laws for networked control systems. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field of control theory, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students. .

  6. Linear rotary optical delay lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerboukha, Hichem; Qu, Hang; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2016-03-01

    We present a semi-analytical solution for the design of a high-speed rotary optical delay line that use a combination of two rotating curvilinear reflectors. We demonstrate that it is possible to design an infinite variety of the optical delay lines featuring linear dependence of the optical delay on the rotation angle. This is achieved via shape optimization of the rotating reflector surfaces. Moreover, a convenient spatial separation of the incoming and outgoing beams is possible. For the sake of example, we present blades that fit into a circle of 10cm diameter. Finally, a prototype of a rotary delay line is fabricated using CNC machining, and its optical properties are characterized.

  7. Does delay in diagnosing colorectal cancer in symptomatic patients affect tumor stage and survival? A population-based observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visser Otto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosing colorectal cancer (CRC at an early stage improves survival. To what extent any delay affects outcome once patients are symptomatic is still unclear. Our objectives were to evaluate the association between diagnostic delay and survival in symptomatic patients with early stage CRC and late stage CRC. Methods Prospective population-based observational study evaluating daily clinical practice in Northern Holland. Diagnostic delay was determined through questionnaire-interviews. Dukes' stage was classified into two groups: early stage (Dukes A or B and late stage (Dukes C or D cancer. Patients were followed up for 3.5 years after diagnosis. Results In total, 272 patients were available for analysis. Early stage CRC was present in 136 patients while 136 patients had late stage CRC. The mean total diagnostic delay (SE was 31 (1.5 weeks in all CRC patients. No significant difference was observed in the mean total diagnostic delay in early versus late stage CRC (p = 0.27. In early stage CRC, no difference in survival was observed between patients with total diagnostic delay shorter and longer than the median (Kaplan-Meier, log-rank p = 0.93. In late stage CRC, patients with a diagnostic delay shorter than the median had a shorter survival than patients with a diagnostic delay longer than the median (log-rank p = 0.01. In the multivariate Cox regression model with survival as dependent variable and median delay, age, open access endoscopy, number and type of symptoms as independent variables, the odd's ratio for survival in patients with long delay (>median versus short delay (≤median was 1.8 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.1 to 3.0; p = 0.01. Tumor-site was not associated with patient survival. When separating late stage CRC in Dukes C and Dukes D tumors, a shorter delay was associated with a shorter survival in Dukes D tumors only and not in Dukes C tumors. Conclusion In symptomatic CRC patients, a longer diagnostic and

  8. Systematics in delayed neutron yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohsawa, Takaaki [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Inst.

    1998-03-01

    An attempt was made to reproduce the systematic trend observed in the delayed neutron yields for actinides on the basis of the five-Gaussian representation of the fission yield together with available data sets for delayed neutron emission probability. It was found that systematic decrease in DNY for heavier actinides is mainly due to decrease of fission yields of precursors in the lighter side of the light fragment region. (author)

  9. Analytical applications for delayed neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eccleston, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    Analytical formulations that describe the time dependence of neutron populations in nuclear materials contain delayed-neutron dependent terms. These terms are important because the delayed neutrons, even though their yields in fission are small, permit control of the fission chain reaction process. Analytical applications that use delayed neutrons range from simple problems that can be solved with the point reactor kinetics equations to complex problems that can only be solved with large codes that couple fluid calculations with the neutron dynamics. Reactor safety codes, such as SIMMER, model transients of the entire reactor core using coupled space-time neutronics and comprehensive thermal-fluid dynamics. Nondestructive delayed-neutron assay instruments are designed and modeled using a three-dimensional continuous-energy Monte Carlo code. Calculations on high-burnup spent fuels and other materials that contain a mix of uranium and plutonium isotopes require accurate and complete information on the delayed-neutron periods, yields, and energy spectra. A continuing need exists for delayed-neutron parameters for all the fissioning isotopes

  10. Delays in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in Coahuila, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, J; Calvillo, S; Caylà, J; Nedel, F B; Martín, M; Navarro, A

    2012-09-01

    To determine diagnostic delay in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases and analyse associated factors. New PTB cases were studied in Coahuila, Northern Mexico, between 2008 and 2009. We obtained census data and data on residential address, symptoms and diagnosis from the national patient database; sociodemographic variables were obtained during home visits. Bivariate analyses used the Kaplan-Meier method; multivariate analysis consisted of modelling survival. We studied 458 subjects (median age 48 years), who were predominantly males (56.1%); the median years of schooling was 6.0 years, 83.4% were urban residents, 50.3% were unemployed, and 87.7% suffered from food poverty. The median delay between the onset of symptoms and the first medical consultation was 53.5 days. Lack of formal education (P = 0.050) and living ≥5 km from a health unit (P = 0.034) were associated with longer delays and consequently with severe symptoms (cough ≥2 weeks, P = 0.001; chest pain, P = 0.032; malnutrition, P = 0.003). Mean health system delay (between first consultation and smear test result) was 18.5 days, and was significantly longer when the first consultation was with a private physician (P < 0.001) and when patient age was ≥46 years (P = 0.001). In Coahuila, lack of formal education, living ≥5 km from a health unit, first consultation with a private physician, and being aged ≥46 years contributed to delays in PTB diagnosis.

  11. The sleepy teenager - diagnostic challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie eLandtblom

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The sleepy teenager is a diagnostic challenge because the problems may be physiological or pathological, with behavioural, social and pychological expressions. It is of great importance that health staff that encounter young people with sleep disturbance have good knowledge about the diseases that must be excluded. Narcolepsy, periodic hypersomnia like Kleine Levin syndrome, delayed sleep phase syndrome and obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, depression and substance use as well as fatigue from chronic disease like multiple sclerosis should be investigated. Clinical assessment, neurophysiological and laboratory investigations constitute important support in these investigations. Functional methods, for example fMRI, are being developed. The role of computer gaming and use of social media in the night is discussed in relation to these diseases. Cognitive dysfunction may develop with several of the conditions. There is need for increased awareness of how to investigate sleep disturbance in children and young people.

  12. Diagnostics of septic arthritis in the sternoclavicular region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodker, Tina; Tottrup, Mikkel; Petersen, Klaus Kjaer

    2013-01-01

    diagnosed with septic arthritis whereas CT in five patients led to the diagnosis in only one. Three were subsequently diagnosed by MRI, but delayed more than 2.5 weeks, and one was diagnosed by surgery. The median time to diagnosis was 1.5 weeks. The delay caused by imaging was 0 days to 11.5 weeks (median...... 0 days). By re-evaluation overlooked complications included mediastinitis in seven patients (three diffuse, four localized), and abscesses and pleuritis each in four patients. Conclusion: Awareness of infection in the SC region is important to avoid diagnostic delay. MRI is proposed as the initial...

  13. Procedures in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, T.; Hare, W.S.C.; Thomson, K.; Tess, B.

    1989-01-01

    This book outlines the various procedures necessary for the successful practice of diagnostic radiology. Topics covered are: general principles, imaging of the urinary and gastrointestinal tracts, vascular radiology, arthrography, and miscellaneous diagnostic radiologic procedures

  14. Diagnostic Algorithm Benchmarking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poll, Scott

    2011-01-01

    A poster for the NASA Aviation Safety Program Annual Technical Meeting. It describes empirical benchmarking on diagnostic algorithms using data from the ADAPT Electrical Power System testbed and a diagnostic software framework.

  15. The current and future state of companion diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Amit; Ressler, Dan; Snyder, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Companion diagnostics are an indispensable part of personalized medicine and will likely continue to rapidly increase in number and application to disease areas. The first companion diagnostics were launched in the 1980s and in the face of significant initial skepticism from drug developers as to whether segmenting a drug’s market through a diagnostic was advisable. The commercial success of drugs such as Herceptin® (trastuzumab) and Gleevec® (imatinib), which both require testing with companion diagnostics before they can be prescribed, has moved the entire companion diagnostic field forward. From an initial start of a handful of oncology drugs with corresponding diagnostics, the field has expanded to include multiple therapeutic areas, and the number of combinations has grown by 12-fold. Based on drugs in clinical trials, the rapid growth will likely continue for the foreseeable future. This expansion of companion diagnostics will also have a global component as markets in Europe will evolve in a similar but not identical pattern as the US. One of the greatest challenges to future growth in companion diagnostics is aligning the incentives of all stakeholders. A major driver of growth will continue to be the economic incentives for drug developers to pair their products with diagnostics. However, diagnostic companies are caught between the conflicting demands of two major stakeholders, pharmaceutical companies on one hand and payers/providers on the other. Regulators are also becoming more demanding in aligning development time lines between drugs and diagnostics. In order to survive and prosper, diagnostic companies will need to think more broadly about companion diagnostics than the historical match between a specific drug and a single diagnostic. They will also have to continue the process of consolidation and global expansion that the industry has already begun. Despite these potential obstacles, companion diagnostics have become one of the hottest areas

  16. An Intrinsic Baldwin Effect in the H Beta Broad Emission Line in the Spectrum of NGC 5548

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Karoline M.; Peterson, Bradley M.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of an intrinsic Baldwin effect (i.e., nonlinear emission-line response to continuum variations) in the broad HP emission line of the active galaxy NGC 5548 using crosscorrelation techniques to remove light-travel time effects from the data. We find a nonlinear relationship between the HP emission line and continuum fluxes that is in good agreement with theoretical predictions. We suggest that similar analysis of multiple lines might provide a useful diagnostic of physical conditions in the broad-line region.

  17. Two weeks delayed bleeding in blunt liver injury: case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chulsky Alexander

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Most cases of blunt hepatic trauma are treated nowadays non-operatively. This type of conservative treatment has resulted in increased complication rate. Delayed complications occur in cases that didn't require surgical intervention during the first 24 hours. The most common late complication is hemorrhage. We report a case of two weeks delayed hemorrhage after blunt hepatic trauma in an adult. We describe the diagnostic procedures, the surgical treatment and review the relevant literature.

  18. Veterinary Molecular Diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, H.I.J.; Engelsma, M.Y.; Weesendorp, E.; Bossers, A.; Elbers, A.R.W.

    2017-01-01

    In veterinary molecular diagnostics, samples originating from animals are tested. Developments in the farm animals sector and in our societal attitude towards pet animals have resulted in an increased demand for fast and reliable diagnostic techniques. Molecular diagnostics perfectly matches this

  19. Delays before Diagnosis and Initiation of Treatment in Patients Presenting to Mental Health Services with Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rashmi; Shetty, Hitesh; Jackson, Richard; Broadbent, Matthew; Stewart, Robert; Boydell, Jane; McGuire, Philip; Taylor, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Although existing treatments are effective, there is often a substantial delay before diagnosis and treatment initiation. We sought to investigate factors associated with the delay before diagnosis of bipolar disorder and the onset of treatment in secondary mental healthcare. Retrospective cohort study using anonymised electronic mental health record data from the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust (SLaM) Biomedical Research Centre (BRC) Case Register on 1364 adults diagnosed with bipolar disorder between 2007 and 2012. The following predictor variables were analysed in a multivariable Cox regression analysis: age, gender, ethnicity, compulsory admission to hospital under the UK Mental Health Act, marital status and other diagnoses prior to bipolar disorder. The outcomes were time to recorded diagnosis from first presentation to specialist mental health services (the diagnostic delay), and time to the start of appropriate therapy (treatment delay). The median diagnostic delay was 62 days (interquartile range: 17-243) and median treatment delay was 31 days (4-122). Compulsory hospital admission was associated with a significant reduction in both diagnostic delay (hazard ratio 2.58, 95% CI 2.18-3.06) and treatment delay (4.40, 3.63-5.62). Prior diagnoses of other psychiatric disorders were associated with increased diagnostic delay, particularly alcohol (0.48, 0.33-0.41) and substance misuse disorders (0.44, 0.31-0.61). Prior diagnosis of schizophrenia and psychotic depression were associated with reduced treatment delay. Some individuals experience a significant delay in diagnosis and treatment of bipolar disorder after initiation of specialist mental healthcare, particularly those who have prior diagnoses of alcohol and substance misuse disorders. These findings highlight a need for further study on strategies to better identify underlying symptoms and offer appropriate treatment sooner

  20. Delays before Diagnosis and Initiation of Treatment in Patients Presenting to Mental Health Services with Bipolar Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Patel

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Although existing treatments are effective, there is often a substantial delay before diagnosis and treatment initiation. We sought to investigate factors associated with the delay before diagnosis of bipolar disorder and the onset of treatment in secondary mental healthcare.Retrospective cohort study using anonymised electronic mental health record data from the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust (SLaM Biomedical Research Centre (BRC Case Register on 1364 adults diagnosed with bipolar disorder between 2007 and 2012. The following predictor variables were analysed in a multivariable Cox regression analysis: age, gender, ethnicity, compulsory admission to hospital under the UK Mental Health Act, marital status and other diagnoses prior to bipolar disorder. The outcomes were time to recorded diagnosis from first presentation to specialist mental health services (the diagnostic delay, and time to the start of appropriate therapy (treatment delay.The median diagnostic delay was 62 days (interquartile range: 17-243 and median treatment delay was 31 days (4-122. Compulsory hospital admission was associated with a significant reduction in both diagnostic delay (hazard ratio 2.58, 95% CI 2.18-3.06 and treatment delay (4.40, 3.63-5.62. Prior diagnoses of other psychiatric disorders were associated with increased diagnostic delay, particularly alcohol (0.48, 0.33-0.41 and substance misuse disorders (0.44, 0.31-0.61. Prior diagnosis of schizophrenia and psychotic depression were associated with reduced treatment delay.Some individuals experience a significant delay in diagnosis and treatment of bipolar disorder after initiation of specialist mental healthcare, particularly those who have prior diagnoses of alcohol and substance misuse disorders. These findings highlight a need for further study on strategies to better identify underlying symptoms and offer appropriate treatment

  1. UWB delay and multiply receiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dallum, Gregory E.; Pratt, Garth C.; Haugen, Peter C.; Romero, Carlos E.

    2013-09-10

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) delay and multiply receiver is formed of a receive antenna; a variable gain attenuator connected to the receive antenna; a signal splitter connected to the variable gain attenuator; a multiplier having one input connected to an undelayed signal from the signal splitter and another input connected to a delayed signal from the signal splitter, the delay between the splitter signals being equal to the spacing between pulses from a transmitter whose pulses are being received by the receive antenna; a peak detection circuit connected to the output of the multiplier and connected to the variable gain attenuator to control the variable gain attenuator to maintain a constant amplitude output from the multiplier; and a digital output circuit connected to the output of the multiplier.

  2. Progress in diagnostics of the COMPASS tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinzettl, V.; Adamek, J.; Berta, M.; Bilkova, P.; Bogar, O.; Bohm, P.; Cavalier, J.; Dejarnac, R.; Dimitrova, M.; Ficker, O.; Fridrich, D.; Grover, O.; Hacek, P.; Havlicek, J.; Havranek, A.; Horacek, J.; Hron, M.; Imrisek, M.; Komm, M.; Kovarik, K.; Krbec, J.; Markovic, T.; Matveeva, E.; Mitosinkova, K.; Mlynar, J.; Naydenkova, D.; Panek, R.; Paprok, R.; Peterka, M.; Podolnik, A.; Seidl, J.; Sos, M.; Stockel, J.; Tomes, M.; Varavin, M.; Varju, J.; Vlainic, M.; Vondracek, P.; Zajac, J.; Zacek, F.; Stano, M.; Anda, G.; Dunai, D.; Krizsanoczi, T.; Refy, D.; Zoletnik, S.; Silva, A.; Gomes, R.; Pereira, T.; Popov, Tsv.; Sarychev, D.; Ermak, G. P.; Zebrowski, J.; Jakubowski, M.; Rabinski, M.; Malinowski, K.; Nanobashvili, S.; Spolaore, M.; Vianello, N.; Gauthier, E.; Gunn, J. P.; Devitre, A.

    2017-12-01

    The COMPASS tokamak at IPP Prague is a small-size device with an ITER-relevant plasma geometry and operating in both the Ohmic as well as neutral beam assisted H-modes since 2012. A basic set of diagnostics installed at the beginning of the COMPASS operation has been gradually broadened in type of diagnostics, extended in number of detectors and collected channels and improved by an increased data acquisition speed. In recent years, a significant progress in diagnostic development has been motivated by the improved COMPASS plasma performance and broadening of its scientific programme (L-H transition and pedestal scaling studies, magnetic perturbations, runaway electron control and mitigation, plasma-surface interaction and corresponding heat fluxes, Alfvenic and edge localized mode observations, disruptions, etc.). In this contribution, we describe major upgrades of a broad spectrum of the COMPASS diagnostics and discuss their potential for physical studies. In particular, scrape-off layer plasma diagnostics will be represented by a new concept for microsecond electron temperature and heat flux measurements - we introduce a new set of divertor Langmuir and ball-pen probe arrays, newly constructed probe heads for reciprocating manipulators as well as several types of standalone probes. Among optical tools, an upgraded high-resolution edge Thomson scattering diagnostic for pedestal studies and a set of new visible light and infrared (plasma-surface interaction investigations) cameras will be described. Particle and beam diagnostics will be covered by a neutral particle analyzer, diagnostics on a lithium beam, Cherenkov detectors (for a direct detection of runaway electrons) and neutron detectors. We also present new modifications of the microwave reflectometer for fast edge density profile measurements.

  3. Chaos in the delay logistic equation with discontinuous delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Ayan; Mukherjee, Debasis

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes a delay logistic equation which models a feedback control problem. Interval map associated to the system is derived. By calculating Lyapunov exponent, we indicate stable orbit and chaotic phenomenon respectively. The results are verified through computer simulation. We identify the parameter which controls the dynamics.

  4. Postraumatic delayed loss of vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partington, C.R.; Graves, V.B.; Ruetenacht, D.A.; Weinstein, J.M.; Strother, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    The imaging studies and clinical findings in 10 patients who suffered delayed vision loss beginning 1 day to 13 years after head trauma have been reviewed. Two different primary lesions could be identified: pseudoaneurysm of the internal carotid artery and carotid cavernous fistula. The pathologic changes associated with pseudoaneurysm included compression of the optic nerves and/or chiasm by arterial aneurysm and intracranial hematoma. Carotid cavernous fistula caused delayed vision loss by compression of the optic nerves and chiasm by saccular dilatation of the cavernous sinus and by abnormal orbital venous drainage with retinal venous stasis, retinal edema, and glaucoma

  5. Time delayed Ensemble Nudging Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Zhe; Abarbanel, Henry

    Optimal nudging method based on time delayed embedding theory has shows potentials on analyzing and data assimilation in previous literatures. To extend the application and promote the practical implementation, new nudging assimilation method based on the time delayed embedding space is presented and the connection with other standard assimilation methods are studied. Results shows the incorporating information from the time series of data can reduce the sufficient observation needed to preserve the quality of numerical prediction, making it a potential alternative in the field of data assimilation of large geophysical models.

  6. Generalized trust predicts young children's willingness to delay gratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fengling; Chen, Biyun; Xu, Fen; Lee, Kang; Heyman, Gail D

    2018-05-01

    Young children's willingness to delay gratification by forgoing an immediate reward to obtain a more desirable one in the future predicts a wide range of positive social, cognitive, and health outcomes. Standard accounts of this phenomenon have focused on individual differences in cognitive control skills that allow children to engage in goal-oriented behavior, but recent findings suggest that person-specific trust is also important, with children showing a stronger tendency to delay gratification if they have reason to trust the individual who is promising the future reward. The current research builds on those findings by examining generalized trust, which refers to the extent to which others are generally viewed as trustworthy. A total of 150 3- to 5-year-olds in China were tested. Participants were given the opportunity to obtain one sticker immediately, or wait for 15 min for two stickers. Results showed that participants with high levels of generalized trust waited longer even after controlling for age and level of executive function. These results suggest that trust plays a role in delaying gratification even when children have no information about the individual who is promising the future reward. More broadly, the findings build on recent evidence that there is more to delay of gratification than cognitive capacity, and they suggest that there are individual differences in whether children consider sacrificing for a future outcome to be worth the risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 49 CFR 236.563 - Delay time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delay time. 236.563 Section 236.563 Transportation... Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.563 Delay time. Delay time of automatic... requirements of § 236.24 shall take into consideration the delay time. ...

  8. Diagnostic Stability in Very Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Jamie M.; Ventola, Pamela E.; Pandey, Juhi; Verbalis, Alyssa D.; Barton, Marianne; Hodgson, Sarah; Green, James; Dumont-Mathieu, Thyde; Robins, Diana L.; Fein, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) diagnosis in very young children may be delayed due to doubts about validity. In this study, 77 children received a diagnostic and developmental evaluation between 16 and 35 months and also between 42 and 82 months. Diagnoses based on clinical judgment, Childhood Autism Rating Scale, and the Autism Diagnostic…

  9. Delay in diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis: a survey in the Lazio region, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizio Pezzotti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate patient and health care delays in the diagnosis of PTB and to evaluate associated factors.METHODS: PTB incident cases ≥18 years diagnosed between September 2010 and September 2011 in the Lazio region; information on symptoms and date of onset, health professionals contacts, diagnostic exams performed, and drugs prescribed before diagnosis were collected through a standardized questionnaire. The total delay (TD was divided into patient delay (PD: from symptoms onset to first contact with healthcare services and health system delay (HSD: from first contact to diagnosis.RESULTS: 278 cases were evaluated. Median PD,HSD, and TD, were 31, 15, and 77.5 days, respectively. The median PD, HSD, and TD were significantly lower in foreign born patients (26, 10.5, 63.5, vs. 45, 36, 100 days, respectively. Other factors independently associated with longer delay were: absence of fever and presence of weight loss for PD; prior unspecific treatment, absence of cough, consult with a general practitioner, visit to an outpatient clinic, and a PD <30 days for HSD.CONCLUSIONS: In Italy, the delay in TB diagnosis is similar to that estimated in other European countries. Results indicate that actions aimed to reduce diagnostic delay should be primarily addressed to Italian patients.

  10. Evaluation of delayed contrast-enhanced CT scan in diagnosing hilar cholangiocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianding; Liang Chenyang; Zhang Hua; Zhang Yuezhen; Li Rui

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To assess the diagnostic value of delayed CT contrast enhancement patterns in hilar cholangiocarcinoma based on two-phased dynamic incremental CT scanning. Methods: Fifty-two patients with suspected hilar tumor and bile duct obstruction underwent spiral CT scan. The scan time for one revolution of the X-ray tube was 1 second. To elucidate the delay time for optimal imaging, all proved cholangiocarcinoma with delayed (6, 8, 10, 15, 20, 30 minutes) post-equilibrium-phase contrast-enhanced CT scans were acquired with unenhanced, dynamic contrast-enhanced, and delayed images. Degree of delayed enhancement was compared with that of surrounding liver parenchyma. Results: (1) 8-15 minutes after IV injection of contrast material was the delay time for optimal imaging. (2) Of 29 cholangiocarcinomas, the early CT showed hypo-attenuating (lower than that of liver parenchyma) in 23 tumors, iso-attenuating (equal to that of the liver) in 4 tumors, and hyper-attenuating (higher than that of liver) in 2 tumors. The delayed CT scan showed iso-attenuating in 8 tumors, hyper-attenuating in 21 tumors, and no hypo-attenuating. Most of delay imaging of hilar cholangiocarcinoma may appear hyper-attenuating (U = -4.3073, P 2 = 9.09, P < 0.01). Conclusion: When assessing hilar tumor, delayed CT contrast enhancement patterns based on two-phase dynamic incremental CT scans is useful in the detection and characterization of hilar cholangiocarcinoma

  11. The influence of delaying judgments of learning on metacognitive accuracy: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Matthew G; Tauber, Sarah K

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have examined the accuracy of predictions of future memory performance solicited through judgments of learning (JOLs). Among the most robust findings in this literature is that delaying predictions serves to substantially increase the relative accuracy of JOLs compared with soliciting JOLs immediately after study, a finding termed the delayed JOL effect. The meta-analyses reported in the current study examined the predominant theoretical accounts as well as potential moderators of the delayed JOL effect. The first meta-analysis examined the relative accuracy of delayed compared with immediate JOLs across 4,554 participants (112 effect sizes) through gamma correlations between JOLs and memory accuracy. Those data showed that delaying JOLs leads to robust benefits to relative accuracy (g = 0.93). The second meta-analysis examined memory performance for delayed compared with immediate JOLs across 3,807 participants (98 effect sizes). Those data showed that delayed JOLs result in a modest but reliable benefit for memory performance relative to immediate JOLs (g = 0.08). Findings from these meta-analyses are well accommodated by theories suggesting that delayed JOL accuracy reflects access to more diagnostic information from long-term memory rather than being a by-product of a retrieval opportunity. However, these data also suggest that theories proposing that the delayed JOL effect results from a memorial benefit or the match between the cues available for JOLs and those available at test may also provide viable explanatory mechanisms necessary for a comprehensive account.

  12. A genome-wide association analysis of a broad psychosis phenotype identifies three loci for further investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Psychosis Endophenotypes International Consortium; Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium; Bramon, E.; Pirinen, M.; Strange, A.; Lin, K.; Freeman, C.; Bellenguez, C.; Su, Z.; Band, G.; Pearson, R.; Vukcevic, D.; Langford, C.; Deloukas, P.; Hunt, S.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several loci associated with schizophrenia and/or bipolar disorder. We performed a GWAS of psychosis as a broad syndrome rather than within specific diagnostic categories. METHODS: 1239 cases with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or psychotic bipolar disorder; 857 of their unaffected relatives, and 2739 healthy controls were genotyped with the Affymetrix 6.0 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. Analyses of 69...

  13. A Genome-wide Association Analysis of a Broad Psychosis Phenotype Identifies Three Loci for Further Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Tosato, Sarah; Myin-germeys, Inez; Barroso, Ines; Bender, Stephan; Giegling, Ina; Arranz, Maria J.; Donnelly, Peter; Bellenguez, Celine; Brown, Matthew A.; Lawrie, Stephen; Kalaydjieva, Luba; Vukcevic, Damjan; Kahn, Rene S.; Dronov, Serge; Walshe, Muriel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several loci associated with schizophrenia and/or bipolar disorder. We performed a GWAS of psychosis as a broad syndrome rather than within specific diagnostic categories.Methods: 1239 cases with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or psychotic bipolar disorder; 857 of their unaffected relatives, and 2739 healthy controls were genotyped with the Affymetrix 6.0 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. Analyses of 695,19...

  14. Lactic acid delays the inflammatory response of human monocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, Katrin, E-mail: katrin.peter@ukr.de [Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauß-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); Rehli, Michael, E-mail: michael.rehli@ukr.de [Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauß-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); RCI Regensburg Center for Interventional Immunology, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauß-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); Singer, Katrin, E-mail: katrin.singer@ukr.de [Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauß-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); Renner-Sattler, Kathrin, E-mail: kathrin.renner-sattler@ukr.de [Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauß-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); Kreutz, Marina, E-mail: marina.kreutz@ukr.de [Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauß-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); RCI Regensburg Center for Interventional Immunology, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauß-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany)

    2015-02-13

    Lactic acid (LA) accumulates under inflammatory conditions, e.g. in wounds or tumors, and influences local immune cell functions. We previously noted inhibitory effects of LA on glycolysis and TNF secretion of human LPS-stimulated monocytes. Here, we globally analyze the influence of LA on gene expression during monocyte activation. To separate LA-specific from lactate- or pH-effects, monocytes were treated for one or four hours with LPS in the presence of physiological concentrations of LA, sodium lactate (NaL) or acidic pH. Analyses of global gene expression profiles revealed striking effects of LA during the early stimulation phase. Up-regulation of most LPS-induced genes was significantly delayed in the presence of LA, while this inhibitory effect was attenuated in acidified samples and not detected after incubation with NaL. LA targets included genes encoding for important monocyte effector proteins like cytokines (e.g. TNF and IL-23) or chemokines (e.g. CCL2 and CCL7). LA effects were validated for several targets by quantitative RT-PCR and/or ELISA. Further analysis of LPS-signaling pathways revealed that LA delayed the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) as well as the degradation of IκBα. Consistently, the LPS-induced nuclear accumulation of NFκB was also diminished in response to LA. These results indicate that the broad effect of LA on gene expression and function of human monocytes is at least partially caused by its interference with immediate signal transduction events after activation. This mechanism might contribute to monocyte suppression in the tumor environment. - Highlights: • Lactic acid broadly delays LPS-induced gene expression in human monocytes. • Expression of important monocyte effector molecules is affected by lactic acid. • Interference of lactic acid with TLR signaling causes the delayed gene expression. • The profound effect of lactic acid might contribute to immune suppression in tumors.

  15. Lactic acid delays the inflammatory response of human monocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, Katrin; Rehli, Michael; Singer, Katrin; Renner-Sattler, Kathrin; Kreutz, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid (LA) accumulates under inflammatory conditions, e.g. in wounds or tumors, and influences local immune cell functions. We previously noted inhibitory effects of LA on glycolysis and TNF secretion of human LPS-stimulated monocytes. Here, we globally analyze the influence of LA on gene expression during monocyte activation. To separate LA-specific from lactate- or pH-effects, monocytes were treated for one or four hours with LPS in the presence of physiological concentrations of LA, sodium lactate (NaL) or acidic pH. Analyses of global gene expression profiles revealed striking effects of LA during the early stimulation phase. Up-regulation of most LPS-induced genes was significantly delayed in the presence of LA, while this inhibitory effect was attenuated in acidified samples and not detected after incubation with NaL. LA targets included genes encoding for important monocyte effector proteins like cytokines (e.g. TNF and IL-23) or chemokines (e.g. CCL2 and CCL7). LA effects were validated for several targets by quantitative RT-PCR and/or ELISA. Further analysis of LPS-signaling pathways revealed that LA delayed the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) as well as the degradation of IκBα. Consistently, the LPS-induced nuclear accumulation of NFκB was also diminished in response to LA. These results indicate that the broad effect of LA on gene expression and function of human monocytes is at least partially caused by its interference with immediate signal transduction events after activation. This mechanism might contribute to monocyte suppression in the tumor environment. - Highlights: • Lactic acid broadly delays LPS-induced gene expression in human monocytes. • Expression of important monocyte effector molecules is affected by lactic acid. • Interference of lactic acid with TLR signaling causes the delayed gene expression. • The profound effect of lactic acid might contribute to immune suppression in tumors

  16. Delayed hepatobiliary imaging in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.; Ma, Z.; Tang, Z.

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, the use of ultrasonography (US), X-CT and MRI has reduced the employment of isotopic explorations in the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). But sometime the results of US, X-CT or MRI were different and diagnosis was very difficult. This present investigation was aimed to assess the usefulness of delayed hepatobiliary imaging in the diagnosis of HCC in these patients. Forty-eight patients consisting of 33 males and 15 females were entered into the research protocol. The mean age was 46 yr old (range 12-71 yr old). All of the patients were performed by surgery and verified histologically after nuclear examination. The subject was in a supine position under a gamma camera (Elscint, Apex Ap-6) and 555 MBq of Tc-99m-PMT were injected intravenously. The initial scinphotos obtained within 1 min after injection were used to image the blood pool phase. Subsequently, hepatic scans were obtained at 5 min, 1,2 and 5 hr. Anterior, right lateral and posterior hepatic images were recorded. According to the radioactive uptake by the lesion in delayed phase, the negative (no or minor uptake), positive (equal or greater uptake) or very strong positive (almost equal to the activity, of gallbladder) were judged. The positive were considered as diagnostic of HCC. And the very strong positive, were considered as diagnostic of benign hepatoma, such as adenoma or FNH. Thirty-seven of the forty-eight patients were HCC based on histology. Delayed imaging revealed increased or equilibrated uptake of radioactivity by the tumors in 22 of 37 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The sensitivity was 59.5%. One patient final diagnosis based on histology was focal nodular regenerative hyperplasia, and only the diagnosis with delayed hepatobiliary imaging before surgery was correct. Compared with US, X-CT and MRI, delayed hepatobiliary imaging had the highest specificity for diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. In recent group, the specificity of Tc-99m-PMT delayed

  17. Subwavelength grating enabled on-chip ultra-compact optical true time delay line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjia; Ashrafi, Reza; Adams, Rhys; Glesk, Ivan; Gasulla, Ivana; Capmany, José; Chen, Lawrence R

    2016-07-26

    An optical true time delay line (OTTDL) is a basic photonic building block that enables many microwave photonic and optical processing operations. The conventional design for an integrated OTTDL that is based on spatial diversity uses a length-variable waveguide array to create the optical time delays, which can introduce complexities in the integrated circuit design. Here we report the first ever demonstration of an integrated index-variable OTTDL that exploits spatial diversity in an equal length waveguide array. The approach uses subwavelength grating waveguides in silicon-on-insulator (SOI), which enables the realization of OTTDLs having a simple geometry and that occupy a compact chip area. Moreover, compared to conventional wavelength-variable delay lines with a few THz operation bandwidth, our index-variable OTTDL has an extremely broad operation bandwidth practically exceeding several tens of THz, which supports operation for various input optical signals with broad ranges of central wavelength and bandwidth.

  18. Early-delayed radiation rhombencephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nightingale, S.; Dawes, P.J.D.K.; Cartlidge, N.E.F.; Newcastle upon Tyne Univ.

    1982-01-01

    A 37-year-old woman developed an early-delayed rhombencephalopathy 7 weeks after completing a course of radiotherapy to a glomus jugulare tumour. The clinical features, comprising nystagmus, skew strabismus, unilateral facial weakness, dysarthria and ataxia, are compared with four previously reported patients with this syndrome. (author)

  19. Another definition for time delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narnhofer, H.

    1980-01-01

    Time delay is defined by geometrical considerations which work in classical as well as in quantum mechanics, and its connection with the S-matrix and the virial is proven for potentials with V(x vector) and x vector V(x vector) vanishing as rsup(-1-epsilon) for r -> infinity. (Author)

  20. Weather delay costs to trucking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Estimates of the nations freight sector of transportation range to upwards of $600 billion of total gross domestic product with 70 percent of total value and 60 percent of total weight moving by truck. Weather-related delays can add significantly ...

  1. Design flaw could delay collider

    CERN Multimedia

    Cho, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    "A magnet for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) failed during a key test at the European particle physics laboratory CERN last week. Physicists and engineers will have to repair the damaged magnet and retrofit others to correct the underlynig design flaw, which could delay the start-up of the mammouth subterranean machine." (1,5 page)

  2. Concurrent Delay in Construction Disputes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaleri, Sylvie Cécile

    the delay is contractually defined as a contractor's risk, the contractor is liable to pay liquidated damages to the employer; if it is not, the contractor can under certain circumstances claim an extension of time and in some cases also economic compensation from the employer. The situation where a given...

  3. Livermore blasted for project delay

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    In a 12 page report issued last week, a review committee set up by the University of California has concluded that mismanagement and poor planning are to blame for significant cost overruns and delays in the construction of NIF, the worlds largest laser (1 page).

  4. Providing delay guarantees in Bluetooth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ait Yaiz, R.; Heijenk, Geert; Titsworth, F.

    2003-01-01

    Bluetooth polling, also referred to as Bluetooth MAC scheduling or intra-piconet scheduling, is the mechanism that schedules the traffic between the participants in a Bluetooth network. Hence, this mechanism is highly determining with respect to the delay packets experience in a Bluetooth network.

  5. Characterization of Dosimetry of the BMRR Horizontal Thimble Tubes and Broad Beam Facility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu,J.P.; Reciniello, R.N.; Holden, N.E.

    2008-05-05

    The Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor was a 5 mega-watt, light-water cooled and heavy-graphite moderated research facility. It has two shutter-equipped treatment rooms, three horizontally extended thimble tubes, and an ex-core broad beam facility. The three experimental thimbles, or activation ports, external to the reactor tank were designed for several uses, including the investigations on diagnostic and therapeutic methods using radioactive isotopes of very short half-life, the analysis of radiation exposure on tissue-equivalent materials using a collimated neutron beam, and the evaluation of dose effects on biological cells to improve medical treatment. At the broad beam facility where the distribution of thermal neutrons was essential uniform, a wide variety of mammalian whole-body exposures were studied using animals such as burros or mice. Also studied at the broad beam were whole-body phantom experiments, involving the use of a neutron or photon beam streaming through a screen to obtain the flux spectrum suitable for dose analysis on the sugar-urea-water mixture, a tissue-equivalent material. Calculations of the flux and the dose at beam ports based on Monte Carlo particle-transport code were performed, and measurements conducted at the same tally locations were made using bare or cadmium-covered gold foils. Analytical results, which show good agreement with measurement data, are presented in the paper.

  6. A novel approach for characterizing broad-band radio spectral energy distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, V. M.; Franzen, T.; Morgan, J.; Seymour, N.

    2018-05-01

    We present a new broad-band radio frequency catalogue across 0.12 GHz ≤ ν ≤ 20 GHz created by combining data from the Murchison Widefield Array Commissioning Survey, the Australia Telescope 20 GHz survey, and the literature. Our catalogue consists of 1285 sources limited by S20 GHz > 40 mJy at 5σ, and contains flux density measurements (or estimates) and uncertainties at 0.074, 0.080, 0.119, 0.150, 0.180, 0.408, 0.843, 1.4, 4.8, 8.6, and 20 GHz. We fit a second-order polynomial in log-log space to the spectral energy distributions of all these sources in order to characterize their broad-band emission. For the 994 sources that are well described by a linear or quadratic model we present a new diagnostic plot arranging sources by the linear and curvature terms. We demonstrate the advantages of such a plot over the traditional radio colour-colour diagram. We also present astrophysical descriptions of the sources found in each segment of this new parameter space and discuss the utility of these plots in the upcoming era of large area, deep, broad-band radio surveys.

  7. Unproven diagnostic procedures in IgE-mediated allergic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niggemann, B; Grüber, C

    2004-08-01

    A considerable body of literature on therapeutic aspects of complementary and alternative medicine has been published in recent years, but little is known on diagnostic procedures. This short review lists complementary and alternative diagnostic procedures for the diagnosis of allergic diseases and presents an assessment of their usefulness for the daily practice. The review of the literature revealed that neither the determination of specific immunoglobulin G-antibodies in serum, the hair-analysis, the cytotoxic test, kinesiology, iridology, or electrodermal testing represent useful tests for the daily practice. To date, no complementary or alternative diagnostic procedure can be recommended as a meaningful element in the diagnostic work-up of allergic diseases. This is especially true for food allergy: properly performed oral food challenges still represent the gold standard for implementing specific diets in food allergic individuals. Ineffective diagnostic approaches may be costly for the consumer and delay appropriate therapy.

  8. Diagnostic Development on NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A.L. Roquemore; D. Johnson; R. Kaita; et al

    1999-01-01

    Diagnostics are described which are currently installed or under active development for the newly commissioned NSTX device. The low aspect ratio (R/a less than or equal to 1.3) and low toroidal field (0.1-0.3T) used in this device dictate adaptations in many standard diagnostic techniques. Technical summaries of each diagnostic are given, and adaptations, where significant, are highlighted

  9. TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.; Persons, R.

    1981-01-01

    The TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller (DVC) provides in conjunction with the Central Instrumentation Control and Data Acquisition System (CICADA), control and monitoring for the pumps, valves and gauges associated with each individual diagnostic vacuum system. There will be approximately 50 systems on TFTR. Two standard versions of the controller (A and B) wil be provided in order to meet the requirements of two diagnostic manifold arrangements. All pump and valve sequencing, as well as protection features, will be implemented by the controller

  10. Can and should value-based pricing be applied to molecular diagnostics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garau, Martina; Towse, Adrian; Garrison, Louis; Housman, Laura; Ossa, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Current pricing and reimbursement systems for diagnostics are not efficient. Prices for diagnostics are often driven by administrative practices and expected production cost. The purpose of the paper is to discuss how a value-based pricing framework being used to ensure efficient use and price of medicines could also be applied to diagnostics. Diagnostics not only facilitates health gain and cost savings, but also information to guide patients' decisions on interventions and their future 'behaviors'. For value assessment processes we recommend a two-part approach. Companion diagnostics introduced at the launch of the drug should be assessed through new drug assessment processes considering a broad range of value elements and a balanced analysis of diagnostic impacts. A separate diagnostic-dedicated committee using value-based pricing principles should review other diagnostics lying outside the companion diagnostics-and-drug 'at-launch' situation.

  11. Test and Diagnosis for Small-Delay Defects

    CERN Document Server

    Tehranipoor, Mohammad; Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    2012-01-01

    This book introduces new techniques for detecting and diagnosing small-delay defects (SDD) in integrated circuits. Although this sort of timing defect is commonly found in integrated circuits manufactured with nanometer technology, this will be the first book to introduce effective and scalable methodologies for screening and diagnosing small-delay defects, including important parameters such as process variations, crosstalk, and power supply noise. This book presents new techniques and methodologies to improve overall SDD detection with very small pattern sets. These methods can result in pattern counts as low as a traditional 1-detect pattern set and long path sensitization and SDD detection similar to or even better than n-detect or timing-aware pattern sets. The important design parameters and pattern-induced noises such as process variations,power supply noise (PSN) and crosstalk are taken into account in the methodologies presented. A diagnostic flow is also presented to identify whether the failure is ...

  12. Broad Spectrum Sanitizing Wipes with Food Additives, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcide proposes to develop novel multipurpose non-toxic sanitizing wipes that are aqueous based, have shelf life of 3-5 years, have broad spectrum microbicidal...

  13. Broadly Applicable Nanowafer Drug Delivery System for Treating Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Systems in Systemic , Dermal, Transdermal , and Ocular Drug Delivery . Crit. Rev. Ther. Drug 2008, 25, 545–584. 14. Choy, Y. B.; Park, J.-H.; McCarey, B...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0146 TITLE: Broadly Applicable Nanowafer Drug Delivery System for Treating Eye Injuries PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr...Broadly Applicable Nanowafer Drug Delivery System for Treating Eye Injuries” 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0146 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  14. The broad line region of AGN: Kinematics and physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović L.Č.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a discussion of kinematics and physics of the Broad Line Region (BLR is given. The possible physical conditions in the BLR and problems in determination of the physical parameters (electron temperature and density are considered. Moreover, one analyses the geometry of the BLR and the probability that (at least a fraction of the radiation in the Broad Emission Lines (BELs originates from a relativistic accretion disk.

  15. Analysis of a first-order delay differential-delay equation containing two delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, C.; Vallée, R.; Delisle, C.

    1989-09-01

    An experimental and numerical analysis of the behavior of a two-delay differential equation is presented. It is shown that much of the system's behavior can be related to the stability behavior of the underlying linearized modes. A new phenomenon, mode crossing, is explored.

  16. Development and evaluation of a novel fast broad-range 16S ribosomal DNA PCR and sequencing assay for diagnosis of bacterial infective endocarditis: multi-year experience in a large Canadian healthcare zone and a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert J H; Chow, Barbara; Pillai, Dylan; Church, Deirdre

    2016-04-12

    The study aimed to explore the sensitivity and specificity of a novel fast 16S rDNA PCR and sequencing assay for the improved diagnosis of infective endocarditis (IE) in patients with suspected native or prosthetic heart valve (HV) infection over a multi-year period at our cardiovascular center. Sixty-eight patients were prospectively enrolled who underwent HV replacement for suspected or confirmed IE between February 1, 2009 and September 1, 2014. Patient demographics, medical co-morbidities, Duke's criteria, culture results, and antibiotic therapy were collected by detailed chart reviews. Dual-priming oligonucleotide primers targeted to 500 bps of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene were used to perform fast broad-range 16S rDNA PCR and Sanger sequencing on ribosomal DNA extracted from HV tissues. The performance/diagnostic efficiency of the molecular test was evaluated against blood cultures and Gram stain and culture of HV tissue in patients' with definite IE according to Duke's criteria. Fifty patients (73.5%) had definite IE and another 8 (11.8%) had possible IE according to Duke's criteria. Cardiac surgery was delayed an average of 15.4 days from the time of the patient's last positive blood culture, and appropriate antibiotic therapy was given in the pre-operative period. While 44/50 (88%) patients had a positive blood culture, HV tissue culture was only positive in 23 (46%) of them. Molecular testing of all HV tissues had sensitivity, specificity, NPV and PPV of 92, 77.8, 77.8 and 92% compared to 44, 100, 39.1 and 100% respectively for culture for diagnosis of definite IE. For prosthetic HV tissue, 16S rDNA PCR had sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 83% compared to 35 and 100% respectively for culture. A literature review showed that the diagnostic accuracy of our novel fast broad-range 16S rDNA PCR assay was similar or better than that of previously published studies. This novel fast broad-range 16S rDNA PCR/sequencing test had superior sensitivity

  17. Rational Chebyshev spectral transform for the dynamics of broad-area laser diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javaloyes, J.; Balle, S.

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript details the use of the rational Chebyshev transform for describing the transverse dynamics of broad-area laser diodes and amplifiers. This spectral method can be used in combination with the delay algebraic equations approach developed in [1], which substantially reduces the computation time. The theory is presented in such a way that it encompasses the case of the Fourier spectral transform presented in [2] as a particular case. It is also extended to the consideration of index guiding with an arbitrary transverse profile. Because their domain of definition is infinite, the convergence properties of the Chebyshev rational functions allow handling the boundary conditions with higher accuracy than with the previously studied Fourier transform method. As practical examples, we solve the beam propagation problem with and without index guiding: we obtain excellent results and an improvement of the integration time between one and two orders of magnitude as compared with a fully distributed two dimensional model

  18. Tandem bispecific broadly neutralizing antibody - a novel approach to HIV-1 treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Guido

    2018-04-23

    The last decade has led to a significant advance in our knowledge of HIV-1 latency and immunity. However, we are still not close to finding a cure for HIV-1. Although combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has led to increased survival, almost close to that of the general population, it is still not curative. In the current issue of the JCI, Wu et al. studied the prophylactic and therapeutic potential of an engineered tandem bispecific broadly neutralizing antibody (bs-bnAb), BiIA-SG. This bnAb's breadth and potency were highly effective in protection and treatment settings, as measured by complete viremia control following direct infusion, as well as elimination of infected cells and delay in viral rebound when delivered with a recombinant vector. These observations underscore the need for the clinical development of BiIA-SG for the prevention of HIV-1.

  19. Psychologists' diagnostic processes during a diagnostic interview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenier, Marleen; Beerthuis, Vos R.J.; Pieters, Julius Marie; Witteman, C.L.M.; Witteman, Cilia L.M.; Swinkels, Jan A.

    2011-01-01

    In mental health care, psychologists assess clients’ complaints, analyze underlying problems, and identify causes for these problems, to make treatment decisions. We present a study on psychologists’ diagnostic processes, in which a mixed-method approach was employed. We aimed to identify a common

  20. Study of LEO-SAT microwave link for broad-band mobile satellite communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujise, Masayuki; Chujo, Wataru; Chiba, Isamu; Furuhama, Yoji; Kawabata, Kazuaki; Konishi, Yoshihiko

    1993-01-01

    In the field of mobile satellite communications, a system based on low-earth-orbit satellites (LEO-SAT's) such as the Iridium system has been proposed. The LEO-SAT system is able to offer mobile telecommunication services in high-latitude areas. Rain degradation, fading and shadowing are also expected to be decreased when the system is operated at a high elevation angle. Furthermore, the propagation delay generated in the LEO-SAT system is less pronounced than that in the geostationary orbit satellite (GEO-SAT) system and, in voice services, the effect of the delay is almost negligible. We proposed a concept of a broad-band mobile satellite communication system with LEO-SAT's and Optical ISL. In that system, a fixed L-band (1.6/1.5 GHz) multibeam is used to offer narrow band service to the mobile terminals in the entire area covered by a LEO-SAT and steerable Ka-band (30/20 GHz) spot beams are used for the wide band service. In this paper, we present results of a study of LEO-SAT microwave link between a satellite and a mobile terminal for a broad-band mobile satellite communication system. First, the results of link budget calculations are presented and the antennas mounted on satellites are shown. For a future mobile antenna technology, we also show digital beamforming (DBF) techniques. DBF, together with modulation and/or demodulation, is becoming a key technique for mobile antennas with advanced functions such as antenna pattern calibration, correction, and radio interference suppression. In this paper, efficient DBF techniques for transmitting and receiving are presented. Furthermore, an adaptive array antenna system suitable for this LEO-SAT is presented.

  1. Clinical and diagnostic aspects of lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keo, Hong H; Gretener, Silvia B; Staub, Daniel

    2017-07-01

    Lymphedema is a chronic, progressive, and common but often unrecognized condition. The diagnosis of lymphatic disease on clinical grounds alone remains a challenge. Without proper diagnosis, therapy is often delayed, allowing disease progression. There is a need for a practical diagnostic algorithm and its imaging technique to guide clinical decision-making. The aim of this topical review is to provide a practical approach for assessing patients with suspected lymphedema and to give a critical appraisal of currently available imaging modalities that are applied in clinical practice to diagnose and map lymphatic disease.

  2. Diagnostic nerve ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeumer, T.; Grimm, A.; Schelle, T.

    2017-01-01

    For the diagnostics of nerve lesions an imaging method is necessary to visualize peripheral nerves and their surrounding structures for an etiological classification. Clinical neurological and electrophysiological investigations provide functional information about nerve lesions. The information provided by a standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination is inadequate for peripheral nerve diagnostics; however, MRI neurography is suitable but on the other hand a resource and time-consuming method. Using ultrasonography for peripheral nerve diagnostics. With ultrasonography reliable diagnostics of entrapment neuropathies and traumatic nerve lesions are possible. The use of ultrasonography for neuropathies shows that a differentiation between different forms is possible. Nerve ultrasonography is an established diagnostic tool. In addition to the clinical examination and clinical electrophysiology, structural information can be obtained, which results in a clear improvement in the diagnostics. Ultrasonography has become an integral part of the diagnostic work-up of peripheral nerve lesions in neurophysiological departments. Nerve ultrasonography is recommended for the diagnostic work-up of peripheral nerve lesions in addition to clinical and electrophysiological investigations. It should be used in the clinical work-up of entrapment neuropathies, traumatic nerve lesions and spacy-occupying lesions of nerves. (orig.) [de

  3. Ongoing experiments: diagnostics requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerman, C.E.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reviews the fuel motion diagnostics needs for ongoing LMFBR safety experiments over approximately the next five years, with the discussion centered on TREAT. Brief comments on the direction in which clad motion diagnostics requirements are expected to develop are also presented

  4. Clinical diagnostic ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, E.; Morley, P.

    1986-01-01

    This textbook on diagnostic ultrasound covers the main systems, with emphasis being placed on the clinical application of diagnostic ultrasound in everyday practice. It provides not only a textbook for postgraduates (particularly FRCR candidates), but also a reference work for practitioners of clinical ultrasound and clinicians generally

  5. Gearbox vibration diagnostic analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Gearbox Vibration Diagnostic Analyzer installed in the NASA Lewis Research Center's 500 HP Helicopter Transmission Test Stand to monitor gearbox testing. The vibration of the gearbox is analyzed using diagnostic algorithms to calculate a parameter indicating damaged components.

  6. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-11-09

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  7. Depressive illness delayed Hamlet's revenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, A B; Pickering, Neil

    2002-12-01

    If Hamlet had not delayed his revenge there would have been no play. Many explanations of the delay have been offered in the last four centuries. None is convincing. The interpretation which best fits the evidence best is that Hamlet was suffering from an acute depressive illness, with some obsessional features. He could not make a firm resolve to act. In Shakespeare's time there was no concept of acute depressive illness, although melancholy was well known. Melancholy, however, would have been seen as a character defect. In the tragic model the hero brings himself and others to ruin because of a character defect. Thus, at the time, the play conformed to the tragic model. With today's knowledge, it does not. This analysis adds to, but does not replace, other insights into the play.

  8. Air congestion delay: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alberto Pamplona

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is a literature review of the air congestion delay and its costs. Air congestion is a worldwide problem. Its existence brings costs for airlines and discomfort for passengers. With the increasing demand for air transport, the study of air congestion has attracted the attention of many researchers around the world. The cause for the delays is erroneously attributed only to the lack of infrastructure investments. The literature review shows that other factors such as population growth, increasing standards of living, lack of operational planning and environmental issues exercise decisive influence. Several studies have been conducted in order to analyze and propose solutions to this problem that affects society as a whole.

  9. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-01-08

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  10. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong; Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh

    2017-01-01

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  11. Teriparatide Induced Delayed Persistent Hypercalcemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirosshan Thiruchelvam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Teriparatide, a recombinant PTH, is an anabolic treatment for osteoporosis that increases bone density. Transient hypercalcemia is a reported side effect of teriparatide that is seen few hours following administration of teriparatide and resolves usually within 16 hours of drug administration. Persistent hypercalcemia, although not observed in clinical trials, is rarely reported. The current case describes a rare complication of teriparatide induced delayed persistent hypercalcemia.

  12. Assembly delay line pulse generators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1971-01-01

    Assembly of six of the ten delay line pulse generators that will power the ten kicker magnet modules. One modulator part contains two pulse generators. Capacitors, inductances, and voltage dividers are in the oil tank on the left. Triggered high-pressure spark gap switches are on the platforms on the right. High voltage pulse cables to the kicker magnet emerge under the spark gaps. In the centre background are the assembled master gaps.

  13. Molecular diagnostic testing for primary biliary cholangitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatselis, Nikolaos K; Dalekos, George N

    2016-09-01

    A reliable liver autoimmune serology for the diagnosis of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is of particular importance. Recognition of patients at early stages and prompt treatment initiation may alter the outcome, slow progression, delays liver failure, and improves survival. In this review, we summarize and discuss the published data obtained from literature searches from PubMed and The National Library of Medicine (USA) and our own experience on the current and potential molecular based approaches to the diagnosis of PBC. Expert commentary: Standardization of liver diagnostic serology and clinical governance are two major points as antimitochondrial antibodies are the diagnostic hallmark of the disease and PBC-specific antinuclear antibodies could assist in the diagnosis and estimation of prognosis. New biomarkers such as novel autoantibodies, genetic polymorphisms, metabolomic profiling, micro-RNA and epigenetics may assist to the understanding, diagnosis and management of the disease.

  14. [To delay may be wise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melfa, G; Bernardi, L; Tettamanti, M; Mangano, S

    2004-01-01

    We report a case of acute renal failure, quickly evolved, in which the coexistence of parenchimal nephropaty and renal mass, have induced not a common diagnostic and therapeutic approach, finalized to optimize the interventional nephrology procedures, with the use of various imaging procedures. It is followed a multidisciplinar therapeutic approach, with the employment of dialysis, steroid therapy and surgical treatment.

  15. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-05-14

    This thesis presents a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves, at some unknown time, differently than the “background” motion, which can be induced from camera motion. The goal of proposed method is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Since motion estimation can be unreliable between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Observing more frames before declaring a detection may lead to a more accurate detection and segmentation, since more motion may be observed leading to a stronger motion cue. However, this leads to greater delay. The proposed method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms, defined as declarations of detection before the object moves or incorrect or inaccurate segmentation at the detection time. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  16. Development of delayed radiation necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, ShigFeki; Takagi, Terumasa; Shibata, Taichiro; Nagai, Hajime.

    1983-01-01

    The authors discussed the developing process of delayed radiation necrosis of the brain from the case of a 42-year-old female who developed intracranial hypertension and left hemiparesis 5 and a half years after radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma. The initial sign of radiation necrosis was from a CT scan taken 3 and a half years after radiotherapy showing an irregular low density lesion in the right temporal lobe. CT scan 2 years later demonstrated displacement of the midline structures to the left and a larger low density lesion with partially high density in the right MCA territory that was enhanced with intravenous contrast medium. Recovery after a right temporal lobectomy and administration of steroid hormone were uneventful. Eight months later there were no signs of raised intracranial pressure nor of neurological deficits. Tissues obtained from the right temporal lobe at lobectomy revealed the characteristic changes of delayed radiation necrosis; a mixture of fresh, recent, and old vascular lesions in the same specimen. From these findings, it was speculated that delayed radiation necrosis might initially occur within several years after radiotherapy and might gradually take a progressive and extended course, even in cases whose clinical symptoms develop much later. (author)

  17. Factors associated with delays in treatment initiation after tuberculosis diagnosis in two districts of India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durba Paul

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Excessive time between diagnosis and initiation of tuberculosis (TB treatment contributes to ongoing TB transmission and should be minimized. In India, Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP focuses on indicator start of treatment within 7 days of diagnosis for patients with sputum smear-positive PTB for monitoring DOTS implementation. OBJECTIVES: To determine length of time between diagnosis and initiation of treatment and factors associated with delays of more than 7 days in smear-positive pulmonary TB. METHODS: Using existing programme records such as the TB Register, treatment cards, and the laboratory register, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of all patients with smear-positive pulmonary TB registered from July-September 2010 in two districts in India. A random sample of patients with pulmonary TB who experienced treatment delay of more than 7 days was interviewed using structured questionnaire. RESULTS: 2027 of 3411 patients registered with pulmonary TB were smear-positive. 711(35% patients had >7 days between diagnosis and treatment and 262(13% had delays >15 days. Mean duration between TB diagnosis and treatment initiation was 8 days (range = 0-128 days. Odds of treatment delay >7 days was 1.8 times more likely among those who had been previously treated (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-2.3 and 1.6 (95% CI 1.3-1.8 times more likely among those diagnosed in health facilities without microscopy centers. The main factors associated with a delay >7 days were: patient reluctance to start a re-treatment regimen, patients seeking second opinions, delay in transportation of drugs to the DOT centers and delay in initial home visits. To conclude, treatment delay >7 days was associated with a number of factors that included history of previous treatment and absence of TB diagnostic services in the local health facility. Decentralized diagnostic facilities and improved referral procedures may reduce such treatment

  18. Target diagnostic system for the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeper, R.J.; Chandler, G.A.; Cooper, G.W.; Derzon, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    A review of recent progress on the design of a diagnostic system proposed for ignition target experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will be presented. This diagnostic package contains an extensive suite of optical, x-ray, gamma-ray, and neutron diagnostics that enable measurements of the performance of both direct and indirect driven NIF targets. The philosophy used in designing all of the diagnostics in the set has emphasized redundant and independent measurement of fundamental physical quantities relevant to the operation of the NIF target. A unique feature of these diagnostics is that they are being designed to be capable of operating, in the high radiation, EMP, and debris backgrounds expected on the NIF facility. The diagnostic system proposed can be categorized into three broad areas: laser characterization, hohlraum characterization, and capsule performance diagnostics. The operating principles of a representative instrument from each class of diagnostic employed in this package will be summarized and illustrated with data obtained in recent prototype diagnostic tests

  19. Delayed traumatic hematomas of the brain: the early manifestations of CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shuyan; Tang Guangjian; Fu Jiazhen; Xu Bing; Yin Yanyu

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the CT manifestations of delayed traumatic hematomas of the brain and evaluate their diagnostic significance in predicting the delayed traumatic brain hematoma. Methods: The manifestations of initial CT studies and follow-up CT examinations of 31 delayed traumatic brain hematomas were analyzed. Another 50 CT studies of head trauma without delayed brain hematomas were included randomly as control. Results: The abnormal findings of CT studies of the 31 delayed traumatic brain hematomas included: (1) Decreased density of the local brain parenchyma and disappeared difference between gray and white matter of the same area in 18 cases; (2) Local subarachnoid space hemorrhage in 24 cases; (3) Slight mass effect of local brain parenchyma in 16 cases. (4) Subdural hematoma in 9 cases. The locations of the abnormalities were roughly the same with the delayed hematoma except one local subarachnoid space hemorrhage, which was in the opposite of the delayed hematoma. The appearing rate of those abnormal findings in the control group was low and the difference was statistically significant. Conclusion: The decrease of density of local brain parenchyma, the disappeared difference between the gray and white matter, local subarachnoid space hemorrhage, and local swollen of brain presented in the initial CT study of the patient with heat trauma should be taken as indicators of delayed hemorrhage of the same area of brain, and it is necessary to do follow-up CT studies to exclude it

  20. Deriving cochlear delays in humans using otoacoustic emissions and auditory evoked potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pigasse, Gilles

    A great deal of the processing of incoming sounds to the auditory system occurs within the cochlear. The organ of Corti within the cochlea has differing mechanical properties along its length that broadly gives rise to frequency selectivity. Its stiffness is at maximum at the base and decreases...... relation between frequency and travel time in the cochlea defines the cochlear delay. This delay is directly associated with the signal analysis occurring in the inner ear and is therefore of primary interest to get a better knowledge of this organ. It is possible to estimate the cochlear delay by direct...... and invasive techniques, but these disrupt the normal functioning of the cochlea and are usually conducted in animals. In order to obtain an estimate of the cochlear delay that is closer to the normally functioning human cochlea, the present project investigates non-invasive methods in normal hearing adults...

  1. Ares I-X Ground Diagnostic Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabacher, Mark A.; Martin, Rodney Alexander; Waterman, Robert D.; Oostdyk, Rebecca Lynn; Ossenfort, John P.; Matthews, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    The automation of pre-launch diagnostics for launch vehicles offers three potential benefits: improving safety, reducing cost, and reducing launch delays. The Ares I-X Ground Diagnostic Prototype demonstrated anomaly detection, fault detection, fault isolation, and diagnostics for the Ares I-X first-stage Thrust Vector Control and for the associated ground hydraulics while the vehicle was in the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and while it was on the launch pad. The prototype combines three existing tools. The first tool, TEAMS (Testability Engineering and Maintenance System), is a model-based tool from Qualtech Systems Inc. for fault isolation and diagnostics. The second tool, SHINE (Spacecraft Health Inference Engine), is a rule-based expert system that was developed at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. We developed SHINE rules for fault detection and mode identification, and used the outputs of SHINE as inputs to TEAMS. The third tool, IMS (Inductive Monitoring System), is an anomaly detection tool that was developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The three tools were integrated and deployed to KSC, where they were interfaced with live data. This paper describes how the prototype performed during the period of time before the launch, including accuracy and computer resource usage. The paper concludes with some of the lessons that we learned from the experience of developing and deploying the prototype.

  2. The diverse broad-band light-curves of Swift GRBs reproduced with the cannonball model

    CERN Document Server

    Dado, Shlomo; De Rújula, A

    2009-01-01

    Two radiation mechanisms, inverse Compton scattering (ICS) and synchrotron radiation (SR), suffice within the cannonball (CB) model of long gamma ray bursts (LGRBs) and X-ray flashes (XRFs) to provide a very simple and accurate description of their observed prompt emission and afterglows. Simple as they are, the two mechanisms and the burst environment generate the rich structure of the light curves at all frequencies and times. This is demonstrated for 33 selected Swift LGRBs and XRFs, which are well sampled from early time until late time and well represent the entire diversity of the broad band light curves of Swift LGRBs and XRFs. Their prompt gamma-ray and X-ray emission is dominated by ICS of glory light. During their fast decline phase, ICS is taken over by SR which dominates their broad band afterglow. The pulse shape and spectral evolution of the gamma-ray peaks and the early-time X-ray flares, and even the delayed optical `humps' in XRFs, are correctly predicted. The canonical and non-canonical X-ra...

  3. Antiviral Therapy by HIV-1 Broadly Neutralizing and Inhibitory Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqing Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS, a global epidemic for more than three decades. HIV-1 replication is primarily controlled through antiretroviral therapy (ART but this treatment does not cure HIV-1 infection. Furthermore, there is increasing viral resistance to ART, and side effects associated with long-term therapy. Consequently, there is a need of alternative candidates for HIV-1 prevention and therapy. Recent advances have discovered multiple broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1. In this review, we describe the key epitopes on the HIV-1 Env protein and the reciprocal broadly neutralizing antibodies, and discuss the ongoing clinical trials of broadly neutralizing and inhibitory antibody therapy as well as antibody combinations, bispecific antibodies, and methods that improve therapeutic efficacy by combining broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs with latency reversing agents. Compared with ART, HIV-1 therapeutics that incorporate these broadly neutralizing and inhibitory antibodies offer the advantage of decreasing virus load and clearing infected cells, which is a promising prospect in HIV-1 prevention and treatment.

  4. Broad-range PCR: past, present, or future of bacteriology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renvoisé, A; Brossier, F; Sougakoff, W; Jarlier, V; Aubry, A

    2013-08-01

    PCR targeting the gene encoding 16S ribosomal RNA (commonly named broad-range PCR or 16S PCR) has been used for 20 years as a polyvalent tool to study prokaryotes. Broad-range PCR was first used as a taxonomic tool, then in clinical microbiology. We will describe the use of broad-range PCR in clinical microbiology. The first application was identification of bacterial strains obtained by culture but whose phenotypic or proteomic identification remained difficult or impossible. This changed bacterial taxonomy and allowed discovering many new species. The second application of broad-range PCR in clinical microbiology is the detection of bacterial DNA from clinical samples; we will review the clinical settings in which the technique proved useful (such as endocarditis) and those in which it did not (such as characterization of bacteria in ascites, in cirrhotic patients). This technique allowed identifying the etiological agents for several diseases, such as Whipple disease. This review is a synthesis of data concerning the applications, assets, and drawbacks of broad-range PCR in clinical microbiology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Synchronization in networks with heterogeneous coupling delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Andreas; Radons, Günter; Bachrathy, Dániel; Orosz, Gábor

    2018-01-01

    Synchronization in networks of identical oscillators with heterogeneous coupling delays is studied. A decomposition of the network dynamics is obtained by block diagonalizing a newly introduced adjacency lag operator which contains the topology of the network as well as the corresponding coupling delays. This generalizes the master stability function approach, which was developed for homogenous delays. As a result the network dynamics can be analyzed by delay differential equations with distributed delay, where different delay distributions emerge for different network modes. Frequency domain methods are used for the stability analysis of synchronized equilibria and synchronized periodic orbits. As an example, the synchronization behavior in a system of delay-coupled Hodgkin-Huxley neurons is investigated. It is shown that the parameter regions where synchronized periodic spiking is unstable expand when increasing the delay heterogeneity.

  6. Every-other-day feeding extends lifespan but fails to delay many symptoms of aging in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Kan; Neff, Frauke; Markert, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    that every-other-day feeding-induced longevity is sufficiently explained by delays in life-limiting neoplastic disorders and is not associated with a more general slowing of the aging process in mice.Dietary restriction can extend the life of various model organisms. Here, Xie et al. show that intermittent...... periods of fasting achieved through every-other-day feeding protect mice against neoplastic disease but do not broadly delay organismal aging in animals....

  7. Advanced Light Source beam diagnostics systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkson, J.

    1993-10-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), a third-generation synchrotron light source, has been recently commissioned. Beam diagnostics were very important to the success of the operation. Each diagnostic system is described in this paper along with detailed discussion of its performance. Some of the systems have been in operation for two years. Others, in the storage ring, have not yet been fully commissioned. These systems were, however, working well enough to provide the essential information needed to store beam. The devices described in this paper include wall current monitors, a beam charge monitor, a 50 ohm Faraday cup, DC current transformers, broad-hand striplines, fluorescence screens, beam collimators and scrapers, and beam position monitors. Also, the means by which waveforms are digitized and displayed in the control room is discussed

  8. Temperature diagnostic line ratios of Fe XVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, J.C.; Smith, B.W.; Los Alamos National Lab., NM)

    1986-01-01

    Based on extensive calculations of the excitation rates of Fe XVII, four temperature-sensitive line ratios are investigated, paying special attention to the contribution of resonances to the excitation rates and to the contributions of dielectronic recombination satellites to the observed line intensities. The predictions are compared to FPCS observations of Puppis A and to Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and SOLEX observations of the sun. Temperature-sensitive line ratios are also computed for emitting gas covering a broad temperature range. It is found that each ratio yields a differently weighted average for the temperature and that this accounts for some apparent discrepancies between the theoretical ratios and solar observations. The effects of this weighting on the Fe XVII temperature diagnostics and on the analogous Fe XXIV/Fe XXV satellite line temperature diagnostics are discussed. 27 references

  9. Diagnostics on Z (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, T. J.; Derzon, M. S.; Chandler, G. A.; Fehl, D. L.; Leeper, R. J.; Porter, J. L.; Spielman, R. B.; Ruiz, C.; Cooper, G.; McGurn, J.

    2001-01-01

    The 100 ns, 20 MA pinch-driver Z is surrounded by an extensive set of diagnostics. There are nine radial lines of sight set at 12 o above horizontal and each of these may be equipped with up to five diagnostic ports. Instruments routinely fielded viewing the pinch from the side with these ports include x-ray diode arrays, photoconducting detector arrays, bolometers, transmission grating spectrometers, time-resolved x-ray pinhole cameras, x-ray crystal spectrometers, calorimeters, silicon photodiodes, and neutron detectors. A diagnostic package fielded on axis for viewing internal pinch radiation consists of nine lines of sight. This package accommodates virtually the same diagnostics as the radial ports. Other diagnostics not fielded on the axial or radial ports include current B-dot monitors, filtered x-ray scintillators coupled by fiber optics to streak cameras, streaked visible spectroscopy, velocity interferometric system for any reflector, bremsstrahlung cameras, and active shock breakout measurement of hohlraum temperature. The data acquisition system is capable of recording up to 500 channels and the data from each shot is available on the Internet. A major new diagnostic presently under construction is the BEAMLET backlighter. We will briefly describe each of these diagnostics and present some of the highest-quality data from them

  10. Acid-fast Smear and Histopathology Results Provide Guidance for the Appropriate Use of Broad-Range Polymerase Chain Reaction and Sequencing for Mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kennon; Harrington, Susan M; Procop, Gary W

    2015-08-01

    New molecular diagnostic tests are attractive because of the potential they hold for improving diagnostics in microbiology. The value of these tests, which is often assumed, should be investigated to determine the best use of these potentially powerful tools. To investigate the usefulness of broad-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR), followed by sequencing, in mycobacterial infections. We reviewed the test performance of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) PCR and traditional diagnostic methods (histopathology, AFB smear, and culture). We assessed the diagnostic effect and cost of the unrestricted ordering of broad-range PCR for the detection and identification of mycobacteria in clinical specimens. The AFB PCR was less sensitive than culture and histopathology and was less specific than culture, AFB smear, and histopathology. During 18 months, $93 063 was spent on 183 patient specimens for broad-range PCR and DNA sequencing for mycobacteria to confirm one culture-proven Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection that was also known to be positive by AFB smear and histopathology. In this cohort, there was a false-negative AFB PCR for M tuberculosis and a false-positive AFB PCR for Mycobacterium lentiflavum . Testing of AFB smear-negative specimens from patients without an inflammatory response supportive of a mycobacterial infection is costly and has not been proven to improve patient care. Traditional diagnostics (histopathology, AFB smear, and culture) should remain the primary methods for the detection of mycobacteria in clinical specimens.

  11. Clinical implications of early differential diagnostic between Language Delay (LD and Specific Language Impairment (SLI [mplicaciones clínicas del diagnóstico diferencial temprano entre Retraso de Lenguaje (RL y Trastorno Específico del Lenguaje (TEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Acosta Rodríguez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the differences between Language Delay (LD and Specific Language Impairment (SLI concepts from a clinical point of view. The selected sample consisted of 6 LD and 6 SLI individuals, who were chosen with standarized tools and qualitative tasks. LD children had not any treatment, meanwhile SLI children underwent an intervention program which pursued two aims: on one hand, to improve the development of linguistic comprehension and production and on the other hand, to encourage the progress of basic skills for literacy, focusing on narrative development and phonological processing. The contents of the program have been sequenced in increasing order of cognitive complexity. The U of Mann-Whitney was used to check the similarities and differences of the children´ linguistic development according to their diagnosis. Results show important differences between both groups. A positive progress of LD children stand outs, although they didn´t undergo an intervention program. Meanwhile, just the opposite happens with SLI children. These data make us think that there is not an obligatory sequence from LD to SLI children. Therefore, we regard them as different categories.

  12. Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartlein, R.A.; Hampton, R.N.

    2010-12-30

    This report summarizes an extensive effort made to understand how to effectively use the various diagnostic technologies to establish the condition of medium voltage underground cable circuits. These circuits make up an extensive portion of the electric delivery infrastructure in the United States. Much of this infrastructure is old and experiencing unacceptable failure rates. By deploying efficient diagnostic testing programs, electric utilities can replace or repair circuits that are about to fail, providing an optimal approach to improving electric system reliability. This is an intrinsically complex topic. Underground cable systems are not homogeneous. Cable circuits often contain multiple branches with different cable designs and a range of insulation materials. In addition, each insulation material ages differently as a function of time, temperature and operating environment. To complicate matters further, there are a wide variety of diagnostic technologies available for assessing the condition of cable circuits with a diversity of claims about the effectiveness of each approach. As a result, the benefits of deploying cable diagnostic testing programs have been difficult to establish, leading many utilities to avoid the their use altogether. This project was designed to help address these issues. The information provided is the result of a collaborative effort between Georgia Tech NEETRAC staff, Georgia Tech academic faculty, electric utility industry participants, as well as cable system diagnostic testing service providers and test equipment providers. Report topics include: •How cable systems age and fail, •The various technologies available for detecting potential failure sites, •The advantages and disadvantages of different diagnostic technologies, •Different approaches for utilities to employ cable system diagnostics. The primary deliverables of this project are this report, a Cable Diagnostic Handbook (a subset of this report) and an online

  13. Formation of broad Balmer wings in symbiotic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Seok-Jun; Heo, Jeong-Eun; Hong, Chae-Lin; Lee, Hee-Won

    2016-01-01

    Symbiotic stars are binary systems composed of a hot white dwarf and a mass losing giant. In addition to many prominent emission lines symbiotic stars exhibit Raman scattered O VI features at 6825 and 7088 Å. Another notable feature present in the spectra of many symbiotics is the broad wings around Balmer lines. Astrophysical mechanisms that can produce broad wings include Thomson scattering by free electrons and Raman scattering of Ly,β and higher series by neutral hydrogen. In this poster presentation we produce broad wings around Hα and H,β adopting a Monte Carlo techinique in order to make a quantitative comparison of these two mechanisms. Thomson wings are characterized by the exponential cutoff given by the termal width whereas the Raman wings are dependent on the column density and continuum shape in the far UV region. A brief discussion is provided. (paper)

  14. Synchronization analysis of coloured delayed networks under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper investigates synchronization of coloured delayed networks under decentralized pinning intermittent control. To begin with, the time delays are taken into account in the coloured networks. In addition, we propose a decentralized pinning intermittent control for coloured delayed networks, which is different from that ...

  15. Plasma diagnostic reflectometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.I.; Afeyan, B.B.; Garrison, J.C.; Kaiser, T.B.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Domier, C.W.; Chou, A.E.; Baang, S.

    1996-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies of plasma diagnostic reflectometry have been undertaken as a collaborative research project between the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the University of California Department of Applied Science Plasma Diagnostics Group under the auspices of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at LLNL. Theoretical analyses have explored the basic principles of reflectometry to understand its limitations, to address specific gaps in the understanding of reflectometry measurements in laboratory experiments, and to explore extensions of reflectometry such as ultra-short-pulse reflectometry. The theory has supported basic laboratory reflectometry experiments where reflectometry measurements can be corroborated by independent diagnostic measurements

  16. Social Pharmacy Research in Copenhagen—Maintaining a Broad Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Kälvemark Sporrong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Social Pharmacy (SP is a multidisciplinary field to promote the adequate use of medicine. The field of SP is increasingly important due to a numbers of new trends all posing challenges to society. The SP group at the University of Copenhagen has for several years used a broad approach to SP teaching and research, often illustrated by the four levels: individual, group, organizational, and societal. In this paper the relevance of maintaining a broad approach to SP research is argued for and examples of the importance of such type of research is presented.

  17. A broadly tunable autocorrelator for ultra-short, ultra-high power infrared optical pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szarmes, E.B.; Madey, J.M.J. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    We describe the design of a crossed-beam, optical autocorrelator that uses an uncoated, birefringent beamsplitter to split a linearly polarized incident pulse into two orthogonally polarized pulses, and a Type II, SHG crystal to generate the intensity autocorrelation function. The uncoated beamsplitter accommodates extremely broad tunability while precluding any temporal distortion of ultrashort optical pulses at the dielectric interface, and the specific design provides efficient operation between 1 {mu}m and 4 {mu}m. Furthermore, the use of Type II SHG completely eliminates any single-beam doubling, so the autocorrelator can be operated at very shallow crossed-beam angles without generating a background pedestal. The autocorrelator has been constructed and installed in the Mark III laboratory at Duke University as a broadband diagnostic for ongoing compression experiments on the chirped-pulse FEL.

  18. Early detection of communication delays with the PEDS tools in at-risk South African infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannie van der Linde

    2016-04-01

    Method: A comparative study design evaluated the accuracy of the PEDS tools to detect communication delays, using an internationally accepted diagnostic assessment tool, the Rossetti Infant-Toddler Language Scale (RITLS. A convenience sample of 201 infants was selected at primary healthcare clinics. Results: Expressive and receptive language sensitivity scores were low across all three screens(ranging between 14% and 44%. The PEDS tools had high sensitivity (71% and specificity (73% ratings for the receptive and expressive language and socio-emotional domain in combination. Conclusion: In the sample population, the PEDS tools did not accurately detect receptive and expressive language delays; however, communication delays in general were identified. Future research determining accuracy of the PEDS, PEDS-Developmental Milestones and PEDS tools for children aged 2–5 years in detecting communication delays should be prioritised.

  19. Assessment of service delays and impact on bed utilisation in a major teaching hospital.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Conway, R

    2010-12-14

    BACKGROUND: Increasing economic pressures coupled with an expanding and ageing population and a hostile economic climate have led to growing interest in the optimisation of bed usage within hospitals. There are many causes for delay in a patient\\'s discharge. METHODS: This prospective observational study assessed consecutive patients admitted and discharged from hospital within a 52-day period for waiting times in the provision of requested diagnostic tests and services. RESULTS: Seventy patients were included in the study. There were median delays of 2 and 3 days for an MRI and colonoscopy, a delay of 3 days for a Holter monitor report, and 9 days for an occupational therapy referral. The median wait for consults was 1 day across all three services. CONCLUSIONS: Significant remediable delays exist during the course of many acute medical admissions. Addressing these factors will enable the provision of a faster and more cost-efficient service.

  20. Delayed fixation of displaced bilateral, atraumatic, femoral neck fractures in a patient with pregnancy related osteomalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docker, Charles; Starks, Ian; Wade, Roger; Wynn-Jones, Charles

    2011-06-01

    We present the case of a woman diagnosed with simultaneous displaced intracapsular femoral neck fractures following the birth of her second child. No traumatic event was identified. Diagnosis was delayed as the cause of her pain was thought to be non-skeletal in origin. Radiological and serological investigations were diagnostic of osteomalacia. Surgical fixation of her fractures was further delayed due to profound hypocalcaemia. Despite the delays, fixation with bilateral dynamic hip screws resulted in union with no evidence of avascular necrosis at 2 years follow-up. We believe this to be the first report of atraumatic bilateral femoral neck fractures and it shows that a good result can be achieved even in the presence of delayed fixation.

  1. Development and validation of a parent-report measure for detection of cognitive delay in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Graham; Genesoni, Lucia; Boden, Greg; Doll, Helen; Jones, Rosamond A K; Gray, Ron; Adams, Eleri; Jefferson, Ros

    2014-12-01

    To develop a brief, parent-completed instrument (ERIC - Early Report by Infant Caregivers) for detection of cognitive delay in 10- to 24-month-olds born preterm, or of low birthweight, or with perinatal complications, and to establish ERIC's diagnostic properties. Scores for ERIC were collected from the parents of 317 children meeting ≥inclusion criterion (birthweight Toddler Development-III cognitive scale. Items were retained according to their individual associations with delay. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were estimated and a truncated ERIC was developed for use in children cognitive delay in 10- to 24-month-old preterm infants and as a screen for cognitive delay. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  2. Equipment for radiation diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschunt, E.; Platz, W.

    1976-01-01

    The invention relates to an improvement of the line type of the plotter in an X-ray diagnostics apparatus enabling the production of distinguishable recordings by means of a single plot type. The construction is described explicitly. (UWI) [de

  3. National Convective Weather Diagnostic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current convective hazards identified by the National Convective Weather Detection algorithm. The National Convective Weather Diagnostic (NCWD) is an automatically...

  4. Diagnostic radiology: I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter describes the historic development of diagnostic equipment for radiology. The problems associated with fluoroscope design are detailed and the current uses of updated technology, particularly digitization, are considered. Numerous historical photographs are included. 13 refs

  5. Prenatal Genetic Diagnostic Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are available for many inherited disorders. The main disadvantage is that diagnostic testing carries a very small ... chromosomes, arranged in order of size. Microarray: A technology that examines all of a person’s genes to ...

  6. A Polynomial Estimate of Railway Line Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerreto, Fabrizio; Harrod, Steven; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2017-01-01

    Railway service may be measured by the aggregate delay over a time horizon or due to an event. Timetables for railway service may dampen aggregate delay by addition of additional process time, either supplement time or buffer time. The evaluation of these variables has previously been performed...... by numerical analysis with simulation. This paper proposes an analytical estimate of aggregate delay with a polynomial form. The function returns the aggregate delay of a railway line resulting from an initial, primary, delay. Analysis of the function demonstrates that there should be a balance between the two...

  7. Delay Variation Model with Two Service Queues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Rezac

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Delay in VoIP technology is very unpleasant issue and therefore a voice packets prioritization must be ensured. To maintain the high call quality a maximum information delivery time from the sender to the recipient is set to 150 ms. This paper focuses on the design of a mathematical model of end-to-end delay of a VoIP connection, in particular on a delay variation. It describes all partial delay components and mechanisms, their generation, facilities and mathematical formulations. A new approach to the delay variation model is presented and its validation has been done by experimention.

  8. Molecular diagnostics of periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Izabela Korona-Głowniak; Radosław Siwiec; Marcin Berger; Anna Malm; Jolanta Szymańska

    2017-01-01

    The microorganisms that form dental plaque are the main cause of periodontitis. Their identification and the understanding of the complex relationships and interactions that involve these microorganisms, environmental factors and the host’s health status enable improvement in diagnostics and targeted therapy in patients with periodontitis. To this end, molecular diagnostics techniques (both techniques based on the polymerase chain reaction and those involving nucleic acid analysis via hybridi...

  9. Fuzzy delay model based fault simulator for crosstalk delay fault test ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, a fuzzy delay model based crosstalk delay fault simulator is proposed. As design trends move towards nanometer technologies, more number of new parameters affects the delay of the component. Fuzzy delay models are ideal for modelling the uncertainty found in the design and manufacturing steps.

  10. Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory supports graduate instruction in optics, optical and laser diagnostics and electro-optics. The optics laboratory provides...

  11. Delay in the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis in Uzbekistan: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkina, Tatiana V; Khojiev, Doniyor S; Tillyashaykhov, Mirzagaleb N; Tigay, Zinaida N; Kudenov, Marat U; Tebbens, Jurjen Duintjer; Vlcek, Jiri

    2014-11-25

    Early diagnosis and prompt effective therapy are crucial for the prevention of tuberculosis (TB) transmission, particularly in regions with high levels of multi-drug resistant TB. This study aimed to evaluate the extent of delay in diagnosis and treatment of TB in Uzbekistan and identify associated risk factors. A cross-sectional study was performed on hospital patients with newly diagnosed TB. The time between the onset of respiratory symptoms and initiation of anti-TB treatment was assessed and delays were divided into patient, health system and total delays. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate determinants of diagnostic and treatment delay. Among 538 patients enrolled, the median delay from onset of symptoms until treatment with anti-TB drugs was 50 days. Analysis of the factors affecting health-seeking behaviour and timely treatment showed the presence of the patient factor. Self-medication was the first health-seeking action for 231 (43%) patients and proved to be a significant predictor of delay (p = 0.005), as well as coughing (p = 0.009), loss of weight (p = 0.001), and visiting private and primary healthcare facilities (p = 0.03 and p = 0.02, respectively). TB diagnostic and treatment delay was mainly contributed to by patient delay and should be reduced through increasing public awareness of TB symptoms and improving public health-seeking behaviour for timely initiation of anti-TB treatment. Efforts should be made to minimise irrational use of antibiotics and support interventions to restrict over-the-counter availability of antibiotics.

  12. Delayed radiographic diagnosis of osteoid osteoma in the lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louis-Ugbo, J.; Reddy, A.S.; Heller, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    Study design: Case report and literature review. Objectives: Describe a case of delayed diagnosis of osteoid osteoma of the spine due to misinterpretation of initial imaging studies within two months of onset of pain, and discuss the relevant imaging characteristics and their pitfalls. Summary of background data. Several cases of delayed diagnosis have been previously reported. Only one false negative bone scan has been reported; however other imaging modalities established the diagnosis. In our patient, all of the imaging modalities were initially interpreted as negative hence the delay in diagnosis. Methods: History, physical examination and imaging studies (x-rays, bone scan, MRI) of the patient were employed to evaluate the differential diagnosis of low back pain and sciatica in a 16 yr old. Repeat bone scan and CT scan were done six months after onset of symptoms because of persistent clinical suspicion of osteoid osteoma. Results: The repeat bone scan and CT scan confirmed-the diagnosis missed, during the first round of imaging. An osteoid osteoma of the L5 pedicle was removed without incident. Conclusion: Technetium bone scans remain the main stay of early diagnosis of osteoid osteoma when plain films and other imaging modalities are normal. However, when faced with persistent unexplained musculoskeletal pain in an adolescent, further follow-up and diagnostic efforts are indicated; possibly repeating a bone scan if initially interpreted as negative. (author)

  13. Silver Nanoparticles with Broad Multiband Linear Optical Absorption

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Osman M.

    2009-07-06

    A simple one-pot method produces silver nanoparticles coated with aryl thiols that show intense, broad nonplasmonic optical properties. The synthesis works with many aryl-thiol capping ligands, including water-soluble 4-mercaptobenzoic acid. The nanoparticles produced show linear absorption that is broader, stronger, and more structured than most conventional organic and inorganic dyes.

  14. 78 FR 67084 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Broad Creek, Laurel, DE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ...-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Broad Creek, Laurel, DE AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice....25, both at Laurel, DE. The proposed new rule would change the current regulation by requiring a..., mile 8.2, all at Laurel, shall open on signal if at least 48 hours notice is given. Previous regulation...

  15. Silver Nanoparticles with Broad Multiband Linear Optical Absorption

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Osman M.; Amendola, Vincenzo; Aikens, Christine M.; Wenseleers, Wim; Li, Rui; Dal Negro, Luca; Schatz, George C.; Stellacci, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    A simple one-pot method produces silver nanoparticles coated with aryl thiols that show intense, broad nonplasmonic optical properties. The synthesis works with many aryl-thiol capping ligands, including water-soluble 4-mercaptobenzoic acid. The nanoparticles produced show linear absorption that is broader, stronger, and more structured than most conventional organic and inorganic dyes.

  16. Extra Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma in the Broad Ligament ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The embryonic remnants of the gonadal ridge and the genital duct apparatus, the Mullerian apparatus, remain atretic throughout the life of a woman. The definitive organs arising from these, the Ovary, Fallopian tubes, Uterus, Cervix and the Broad ligaments share common coelomic origin. Epithelial metaplasia in any of ...

  17. Broad economic benefits of freight transportation infrastructure improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This project strives to introduce a novel way to quantify the broad re-organization benefits associated with an : improvement in the freight infrastructure. Using the approach based on 1) the technique known as Field of Influence, and : 2) RAS adjust...

  18. Three Broad Parental Feeding Styles and Young Children's Snack Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boots, Samantha B.; Tiggemann, Marika; Corsini, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify broad overarching feeding styles that parents may use and their effects on pre-school-aged children's healthy and unhealthy snack intake. Design: Cross sectional study Methods: Mothers (n = 611) of children aged 2-7 years (mean age 3.9 years) completed an online survey assessing parent-feeding…

  19. Children and trauma : a broad perspective on exposure and recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alisic, E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to generate a broad overview of children’s exposure to and recovery from trauma in order to promote theory building and the design of prevention and intervention activities. First, a general population study was conducted in 1770 primary school children. They

  20. Argument for a non-standard broad-line region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collin, S.

    1987-01-01

    The region emitting the broad lines (BLR) in quasars and AGN has a ''Standard Status''. It is shown that this status raises strong problems concerning the energetic budget and the thermal state of the BLR. A possible solution is proposed [fr

  1. Socioeconomic evaluation of broad-scale land management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa K. Crone; Richard W. Haynes

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the socioeconomic effects of alternative management strategies for Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management lands in the interior Columbia basin. From a broad-scale perspective, there is little impact or variation between alternatives in terms of changes in total economic activity or social conditions in the region. However, adopting a finer...

  2. Broad-Band Spectroscopy of Hercules X-1 with Suzaku

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asami, Fumi; Enoto, Teruaki; Iwakiri, Wataru; Yamada, Shin'ya; Tamagawa, Toru; Mihara, Tatehiro; Nagase, Fumiaki

    2014-01-01

    Hercules X-1 was observed with Suzaku in the main-on state from 2005 to 2010. The 0.4- 100 keV wide-band spectra obtained in four observations showed a broad hump around 4-9 keV in addition to narrow Fe lines at 6.4 and 6.7 keV. The hump was seen in all the four observations regardless of the selection of the continuum models. Thus it is considered a stable and intrinsic spectral feature in Her X-1. The broad hump lacked a sharp structure like an absorption edge. Thus it was represented by two different spectral models: an ionized partial covering or an additional broad line at 6.5 keV. The former required a persistently existing ionized absorber, whose origin was unclear. In the latter case, the Gaussian fitting of the 6.5-keV line needs a large width of sigma = 1.0-1.5 keV and a large equivalent width of 400-900 eV. If the broad line originates from Fe fluorescence of accreting matter, its large width may be explained by the Doppler broadening in the accretion flow. However, the large equivalent width may be inconsistent with a simple accretion geometry.

  3. Document understanding for a broad class of documents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiello, Marco; Monz, Christof; Todoran, Leon; Worring, Marcel

    2002-01-01

    We present a document analysis system able to assign logical labels and extract the reading order in a broad set of documents. All information sources, from geometric features and spatial relations to the textual features and content are employed in the analysis. To deal effectively with these

  4. Long-throated flumes and broad-crested weirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    Vital for water management are structures that can measure the flow in a wide variety of channels. Chapter 1 introduces the long-throated flume and the broad-crested weir; it explains why this family of structures can meet the boundary conditions and hydraulic demands of most measuring

  5. African Journals Online: General Science (broad subject range)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 86 of 86 ... The Journal of Science and Technology (JUST) aims principally at publishing articles ... basic sciences, public health, social medicine and medical politics. .... The SWJ is a peer review on-line international journal of broad ...

  6. Precise delay measurement through combinatorial logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Gary R. (Inventor); Chen, Yuan (Inventor); Sheldon, Douglas J. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A high resolution circuit and method for facilitating precise measurement of on-chip delays for FPGAs for reliability studies. The circuit embeds a pulse generator on an FPGA chip having one or more groups of LUTS (the "LUT delay chain"), also on-chip. The circuit also embeds a pulse width measurement circuit on-chip, and measures the duration of the generated pulse through the delay chain. The pulse width of the output pulse represents the delay through the delay chain without any I/O delay. The pulse width measurement circuit uses an additional asynchronous clock autonomous from the main clock and the FPGA propagation delay can be displayed on a hex display continuously for testing purposes.

  7. Temperature Dependent Wire Delay Estimation in Floorplanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Andreas Thor; Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Due to large variations in temperature in VLSI circuits and the linear relationship between metal resistance and temperature, the delay through wires of the same length can be different. Traditional thermal aware floorplanning algorithms use wirelength to estimate delay and routability. In this w......Due to large variations in temperature in VLSI circuits and the linear relationship between metal resistance and temperature, the delay through wires of the same length can be different. Traditional thermal aware floorplanning algorithms use wirelength to estimate delay and routability....... In this work, we show that using wirelength as the evaluation metric does not always produce a floorplan with the shortest delay. We propose a temperature dependent wire delay estimation method for thermal aware floorplanning algorithms, which takes into account the thermal effect on wire delay. The experiment...

  8. Elite athletes and pubertal delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapczuk, Karina

    2017-10-01

    Intensive physical training and participation in competitive sports during childhood and early adolescence may affect athletes' pubertal development. On the other hand, pubertal timing, early or late, may impact on an athlete selection for a particular sport. Genetic predisposition, training load, nutritional status and psychological stress determine athletes' pubertal timing. Athletes that practice esthetic sports, especially gymnasts, are predisposed to a delay in pubertal development. The growing evidence indicates that energy deficiency, not a systemic training per se, plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of functional hypothalamic hypogonadism in female athletes. Metabolic and psychologic stress activate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and suppress hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Female athletes who do not begin secondary sexual development by the age of 14 or menstruation by the age of 16 warrant a comprehensive evaluation and a targeted treatment. Somatic growth and sexual maturation of elite female athletes are largely sport-specific since each sport favors a particular somatotype and requires a specific training. Chronic negative energy balance resulting from a systemic physical training and inadequate energy intake may delay pubertal development in elite athletes. Youth athletes, especially those engaged in competitive sports that emphasize prepubertal or lean appearance, are at risk of developing relative energy deficiency in sport associated with disordered eating or eating disorders. Management strategies should address the complex conditions underlying functional hypothalamic hypogonadism.

  9. Delayed recombination and cosmic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galli, Silvia; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Bean, Rachel; Silk, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Current cosmological constraints from cosmic microwave background anisotropies are typically derived assuming a standard recombination scheme, however additional resonance and ionizing radiation sources can delay recombination, altering the cosmic ionization history and the cosmological inferences drawn from the cosmic microwave background data. We show that for recent observations of the cosmic microwave background anisotropy, from the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe satellite mission (WMAP) 5-year survey and from the arcminute cosmology bolometer array receiver experiment, additional resonance radiation is nearly degenerate with variations in the spectral index, n s , and has a marked effect on uncertainties in constraints on the Hubble constant, age of the universe, curvature and the upper bound on the neutrino mass. When a modified recombination scheme is considered, the redshift of recombination is constrained to z * =1078±11, with uncertainties in the measurement weaker by 1 order of magnitude than those obtained under the assumption of standard recombination while constraints on the shift parameter are shifted by 1σ to R=1.734±0.028. From the WMAP5 data we obtain the following constraints on the resonance and ionization sources parameters: ε α i <0.058 at 95% c.l.. Although delayed recombination limits the precision of parameter estimation from the WMAP satellite, we demonstrate that this should not be the case for future, smaller angular scales measurements, such as those by the Planck satellite mission.

  10. Asymptotic Delay Analysis for Cross-Layer Delay-Based Routing in Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Jacquet

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of the evaluation of the delay distribution via analytical means in IEEE 802.11 wireless ad hoc networks. We show that the asymptotic delay distribution can be expressed as a power law. Based on the latter result, we present a cross-layer delay estimation protocol and we derive new delay-distribution-based routing algorithms, which are well adapted to the QoS requirements of real-time multimedia applications. In fact, multimedia services are not sensitive to average delays, but rather to the asymptotic delay distributions. Indeed, video streaming applications drop frames when they are received beyond a delay threshold, determined by the buffer size. Although delay-distribution-based routing is an NP-hard problem, we show that it can be solved in polynomial time when the delay threshold is large, because of the asymptotic power law distribution of the link delays.

  11. Identification of factors associated with diagnostic error in primary care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Missed, delayed or incorrect diagnoses are considered to be diagnostic errors. The aim of this paper is to describe the methodology of a study to analyse cognitive aspects of the process by which primary care (PC) physicians diagnose dyspnoea. It examines the possible links between the use of heuristics, suboptimal cognitive acts and diagnostic errors, using Reason’s taxonomy of human error (slips, lapses, mistakes and violations). The influence of situational factors (professional experience, perceived overwork and fatigue) is also analysed. Methods Cohort study of new episodes of dyspnoea in patients receiving care from family physicians and residents at PC centres in Granada (Spain). With an initial expected diagnostic error rate of 20%, and a sampling error of 3%, 384 episodes of dyspnoea are calculated to be required. In addition to filling out the electronic medical record of the patients attended, each physician fills out 2 specially designed questionnaires about the diagnostic process performed in each case of dyspnoea. The first questionnaire includes questions on the physician’s initial diagnostic impression, the 3 most likely diagnoses (in order of likelihood), and the diagnosis reached after the initial medical history and physical examination. It also includes items on the physicians’ perceived overwork and fatigue during patient care. The second questionnaire records the confirmed diagnosis once it is reached. The complete diagnostic process is peer-reviewed to identify and classify the diagnostic errors. The possible use of heuristics of representativeness, availability, and anchoring and adjustment in each diagnostic process is also analysed. Each audit is reviewed with the physician responsible for the diagnostic process. Finally, logistic regression models are used to determine if there are differences in the diagnostic error variables based on the heuristics identified. Discussion This work sets out a new approach to studying the

  12. Identification of factors associated with diagnostic error in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minué, Sergio; Bermúdez-Tamayo, Clara; Fernández, Alberto; Martín-Martín, José Jesús; Benítez, Vivian; Melguizo, Miguel; Caro, Araceli; Orgaz, María José; Prados, Miguel Angel; Díaz, José Enrique; Montoro, Rafael

    2014-05-12

    Missed, delayed or incorrect diagnoses are considered to be diagnostic errors. The aim of this paper is to describe the methodology of a study to analyse cognitive aspects of the process by which primary care (PC) physicians diagnose dyspnoea. It examines the possible links between the use of heuristics, suboptimal cognitive acts and diagnostic errors, using Reason's taxonomy of human error (slips, lapses, mistakes and violations). The influence of situational factors (professional experience, perceived overwork and fatigue) is also analysed. Cohort study of new episodes of dyspnoea in patients receiving care from family physicians and residents at PC centres in Granada (Spain). With an initial expected diagnostic error rate of 20%, and a sampling error of 3%, 384 episodes of dyspnoea are calculated to be required. In addition to filling out the electronic medical record of the patients attended, each physician fills out 2 specially designed questionnaires about the diagnostic process performed in each case of dyspnoea. The first questionnaire includes questions on the physician's initial diagnostic impression, the 3 most likely diagnoses (in order of likelihood), and the diagnosis reached after the initial medical history and physical examination. It also includes items on the physicians' perceived overwork and fatigue during patient care. The second questionnaire records the confirmed diagnosis once it is reached. The complete diagnostic process is peer-reviewed to identify and classify the diagnostic errors. The possible use of heuristics of representativeness, availability, and anchoring and adjustment in each diagnostic process is also analysed. Each audit is reviewed with the physician responsible for the diagnostic process. Finally, logistic regression models are used to determine if there are differences in the diagnostic error variables based on the heuristics identified. This work sets out a new approach to studying the diagnostic decision-making process

  13. Simulation of path delay multiplexing-based Fourier transform spectrometer for fiber Bragg grating interrogation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelliah, Pandian; Sahoo, Trilochan; Singh, Sheela; Sujatha, Annie

    2015-10-20

    A Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) used for interrogating a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) consists of a scanning-type interferometer. The FTS has a broad wavelength range of operation and good multiplexing capability. However, it has poor wavelength resolution and interrogation speed. We propose a modification to the FTS using path delay multiplexing to improve the same. Using this method, spatial resolution and interrogation time can be improved by n times by using n path delays. In this paper, simulation results for n=2, 5 are shown.

  14. A rare presentation of ruptured interstitial ectopic pregnancy with broad ligament hematoma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Abbas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic pregnancy is a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in the first trimester. Interstitial type is the most dangerous variety with a high risk of life-threatening internal hemorrhage. Obstetricians need a high index of suspicion to diagnose such rare type. We are reporting a rare case of ruptured interstitial ectopic pregnancy presented with a large broad ligament hematoma early in the first trimester. A 25-year-old woman was presented with gradual onset of increasing abdominal pain after 6 weeks of amenorrhea. She had a positive urinary pregnancy test. Abdominal ultrasound revealed bulky empty uterus and ill-defined mass at the right side of the uterus. On exploration, incision and drainage of broad ligament hematoma were performed in addition to right salpingectomy. Interstitial ectopic pregnancy represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge and frequently constitutes an obstetrical emergency. Its rupture early in the first trimester should be expected. Early diagnosis and proper management are the most important issues to avoid its catastrophic consequences.

  15. Broad Categories for the Diagnosis of Eating Disorders (BCD-ED): An Alternative System for Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, B. Timothy; Sysko, Robyn

    2009-01-01

    Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS), a residual category in DSM-IV, is the most commonly used eating disorder diagnosis in clinical settings. However, the features of individuals with EDNOS are heterogeneous and difficult to characterize. A diagnostic scheme, termed Broad Categories for the Diagnosis of Eating Disorders (BCD-ED), is proposed to diminish use of the EDNOS category markedly while preserving the existing eating disorder categories. The BCD-ED scheme consists of three broad categories, in a hierarchical relationship, consisting of: Anorexia Nervosa and Behaviorally Similar disorders, Bulimia Nervosa and Behaviorally Similar Disorders, Binge Eating Disorder and Behaviorally Similar Disorders, and a residual category of EDNOS. The advantages and disadvantages of adopting this scheme for DSM-V are considered, and issues relevant to BCD-ED are discussed. Specifically, we review the proportion of individuals with DSM-IV EDNOS that would be re-classified under the BCD-ED system, support for the hierarchy of the three categories, and the potential risk of “overdiagnosis.” PMID:19650083

  16. Hidden Broad-line Regions in Seyfert 2 Galaxies: From the Spectropolarimetric Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Pu; Wang, Jian-Min; Zhang, Zhi-Xiang

    2017-01-01

    The hidden broad-line regions (BLRs) in Seyfert 2 galaxies, which display broad emission lines (BELs) in their polarized spectra, are a key piece of evidence in support of the unified model for active galactic nuclei (AGNs). However, the detailed kinematics and geometry of hidden BLRs are still not fully understood. The virial factor obtained from reverberation mapping of type 1 AGNs may be a useful diagnostic of the nature of hidden BLRs in type 2 objects. In order to understand the hidden BLRs, we compile six type 2 objects from the literature with polarized BELs and dynamical measurements of black hole masses. All of them contain pseudobulges. We estimate their virial factors, and find the average value is 0.60 and the standard deviation is 0.69, which agree well with the value of type 1 AGNs with pseudobulges. This study demonstrates that (1) the geometry and kinematics of BLR are similar in type 1 and type 2 AGNs of the same bulge type (pseudobulges), and (2) the small values of virial factors in Seyfert 2 galaxies suggest that, similar to type 1 AGNs, BLRs tend to be very thick disks in type 2 objects.

  17. Nanomedicine for Infectious Disease Applications: Innovation towards Broad-Spectrum Treatment of Viral Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Joshua A; Lee, Jaywon; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-03-02

    Nanomedicine enables unique diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities to tackle problems in clinical medicine. As multifunctional agents with programmable properties, nanomedicines are poised to revolutionize treatment strategies. This promise is especially evident for infectious disease applications, for which the continual emergence, re-emergence, and evolution of pathogens has proven difficult to counter by conventional approaches. Herein, a conceptual framework is presented that envisions possible routes for the development of nanomedicines as superior broad-spectrum antiviral agents against enveloped viruses. With lipid membranes playing a critical role in the life cycle of medically important enveloped viruses including HIV, influenza, and Ebola, cellular and viral membrane interfaces are ideal elements to incorporate into broad-spectrum antiviral strategies. Examples are presented that demonstrate how nanomedicine strategies inspired by lipid membranes enable a wide range of targeting opportunities to gain control of critical stages in the virus life cycle through either direct or indirect approaches involving membrane interfaces. The capabilities can be realized by enabling new inhibitory functions or improving the function of existing drugs through nanotechnology-enabled solutions. With these exciting opportunities, due attention is also given to the clinical translation of nanomedicines for infectious disease applications, especially as pharmaceutical drug-discovery pipelines demand new routes of innovation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Delay in seeking care for tuberculosis symptoms among adults newly diagnosed with HIV in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwira, L G; Dowdy, D W; Khundi, M; Barnes, G L; Nkhoma, A; Choko, A T; Murowa, M; Chaisson, R E; Corbett, E L; Fielding, K

    2018-03-01

    Ten primary health clinics in rural Thyolo District, Malawi. Tuberculosis (TB) is a common initial presentation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We investigated the time from TB symptom onset to HIV diagnosis to describe TB health-seeking behaviour in adults newly diagnosed with HIV. We asked adults (18 years) about the presence and duration of TB symptoms at the time of receiving a new HIV diagnosis. Associations with delayed health seeking (defined as >30 and >90 days from the onset of TB symptoms) were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression. TB symptoms were reported by 416 of 1265 participants (33%), of whom 36% (150/416) had been symptomatic for >30 days before HIV testing. Most participants (260/416, 63%) were below the poverty line (US$0.41 per household member per day). Patients who first sought care from informal providers had an increased odds of delay of >30 days (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.6, 95%CI 0.9-2.8) or 90 days (aOR 2.0, 95%CI 1.1-3.8). Delayed health seeking for TB-related symptoms was common. Poverty was ubiquitous, but had no clear relationship to diagnostic delay. HIV-positive individuals who first sought care from informal providers were more likely to experience diagnostic delays for TB symptoms.

  19. Clinical significance of segmental parenchymal excretion delay on Tc-99m DISIDA hepatobiliary scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, D. Y.; Ryu, J. S.; Moon, D. H.; Lee, S. K.; Kim, M. H.; Lee, H. K.

    1998-01-01

    Segmental parenchymal excretion delay on Tc-99m DISIDA scan in caused by intrahepatic bile duct obstruction. However, the diagnostic value for intrahepatic bile duct obstruction is unknown. We conducted this study to assess the positive predictive value of segmental excretion delay for the diagnosis of intrahepatic bile duct obstruction, and additional benefit over other noninvasive radiologic studies. The study population consisted of 43 patients (48 scans) who showed segmental parenchymal excretion delay on Tc-99m DISIDA scan. The results of abdominal CT or ultrasonography, which was done within 1 month of Tc-99m DISIDA scan, were compared with scintigraphic findings. The etiology of segmental parenchymal excretion delay was determined by ERC or PTC in 31 scans, and follow-up studies in 13 scans. No causes were identified in 4 scans. The positive predictive value of segmental parenchymal excretion delay for intrahepatic bile duct obstruction was 92% (44/48). On the other hand, 13% (5/38) of CT and 28% (5/18) of ultrasonography were normal. In 18% *7/38) of CT and 17% (3/18) of ultrasonography, only intrahepatic bile duct dilatation was noted without any diagnostic findings of intrahepatic bile duct obstruction. Segmental parenchymal excretion delay on Tc-99m DISIDA scan had a high positive predictive value for the diagnosis of intrahepatic bile duct obstruction. Tc-99m DISIDA scan may be useful for the diagnosis of intrahepatic bile duct obstruction, especially in patients with nondiagnostic CT or ultrasonography. The diagnostic usefulness need to be confirmed by further prospective studies

  20. LHD neutron diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobe, M.; Ogawa, K.; Kobuchi, T.

    2015-01-01

    The Large Helical Device (LHD) project will step into a next stage, i.e. experiment by using deuterium gases after two years of preparation. A comprehensive set of neutron and γ-ray diagnostics is going to be installed on the LHD towards extension of energetic-particle (EP) physics research in heliotron plasmas. Conceptual design of fusion products diagnostics for the LHD was made in late 1990s. After conclusion of agreements for the LHD deuterium experiment with local government bodies, development of FPs diagnostics has begun lately. Because there are a lot of tasks to do, all Japan fusion neutron and γ-ray diagnostics team has been organized in the collaboration framework of National Institute for Fusion Science. FPs diagnostics system on the LHD will consist of 1) wide dynamic range neutron flux monitor (NFM), 2) neutron activation system (NAS), 3) vertical neutron camera (VNC). In addition to these, we are developing a directional scintillating fiber detector, an artificial diamond detector and a γ-ray scintillation detector for confinement study of MeV ions. A neutron energy spectrometer prototype is also being developed and tested in KSTAR. In this paper, roles of NFM, NAS and VNC and current status of implementation onto the LHD are briefly described. (author)

  1. Pitfalls in diagnostic radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peh, Wilfred C.G. (ed.) [Khoo Teck Puat Hospital (Singapore). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    2015-04-01

    Only textbook to focus primarily on the topic of pitfalls in diagnostic radiology. Highlights the pitfalls in a comprehensive and systematic manner. Written by experts in different imaging modalities and subspecialties from reputable centers across the world. The practice of diagnostic radiology has become increasingly complex, with the use of numerous imaging modalities and division into many subspecialty areas. It is becoming ever more difficult for subspecialist radiologists, general radiologists, and residents to keep up with the advances that are occurring year on year, and this is particularly true for less familiar topics. Failure to appreciate imaging pitfalls often leads to diagnostic error and misinterpretation, and potential medicolegal problems. Diagnostic errors may be due to various factors such as inadequate imaging technique, imaging artifacts, failure to recognize normal structures or variants, lack of correlation with clinical and other imaging findings, and poor training or inexperience. Many, if not most, of these factors are potentially recognizable, preventable, or correctable. This textbook, written by experts from reputable centers across the world, systematically and comprehensively highlights the pitfalls that may occur in diagnostic radiology. Both pitfalls specific to different modalities and techniques and those specific to particular organ systems are described with the help of numerous high-quality illustrations. Recognition of these pitfalls is crucial in helping the practicing radiologist to achieve a more accurate diagnosis.

  2. Pitfalls in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peh, Wilfred C.G.

    2015-01-01

    Only textbook to focus primarily on the topic of pitfalls in diagnostic radiology. Highlights the pitfalls in a comprehensive and systematic manner. Written by experts in different imaging modalities and subspecialties from reputable centers across the world. The practice of diagnostic radiology has become increasingly complex, with the use of numerous imaging modalities and division into many subspecialty areas. It is becoming ever more difficult for subspecialist radiologists, general radiologists, and residents to keep up with the advances that are occurring year on year, and this is particularly true for less familiar topics. Failure to appreciate imaging pitfalls often leads to diagnostic error and misinterpretation, and potential medicolegal problems. Diagnostic errors may be due to various factors such as inadequate imaging technique, imaging artifacts, failure to recognize normal structures or variants, lack of correlation with clinical and other imaging findings, and poor training or inexperience. Many, if not most, of these factors are potentially recognizable, preventable, or correctable. This textbook, written by experts from reputable centers across the world, systematically and comprehensively highlights the pitfalls that may occur in diagnostic radiology. Both pitfalls specific to different modalities and techniques and those specific to particular organ systems are described with the help of numerous high-quality illustrations. Recognition of these pitfalls is crucial in helping the practicing radiologist to achieve a more accurate diagnosis.

  3. Delay to first treatment contact for alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Cath; Slade, Tim; Hunt, Caroline; Teesson, Maree

    2015-02-01

    This study explored the patterns and correlates of time to first treatment contact among people with alcohol use disorder (AUD) in Australia. Specifically it examined the relationship between sex, birth cohort, onset of AUD symptoms, severity, comorbidity, symptom type and time to first treatment contact (treatment delay) among those with alcohol abuse and dependence in a large population sample. Data came from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing (N=8841). A modified version of the World Health Organization's Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to determine the presence and age of onset of DSM-IV AUD and other mental disorders and the age at which respondents first sought treatment for alcohol or other drug-related problems. Median time to first treatment contact for an AUD was 18 years (14 years dependence, 23 years abuse). Projected lifetime treatment rates were 78.1% for alcohol dependence and 27.5% for abuse. Those with earlier onset and from older cohorts reported longer delay and were less likely to ever seek treatment compared to those with later onset or from more recent cohorts. Those with comorbid anxiety but not mood disorder, or who reported alcohol-related role disruption or recurrent interpersonal problems were more likely to ever seek treatment and reported shorter delay compared to those who did not report these symptoms. Treatment delay for alcohol use disorder in Australia is substantial. Those with earlier onset and those with comorbid mood disorder should be a target for earlier treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Visual attention spreads broadly but selects information locally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shioiri, Satoshi; Honjyo, Hajime; Kashiwase, Yoshiyuki; Matsumiya, Kazumichi; Kuriki, Ichiro

    2016-10-19

    Visual attention spreads over a range around the focus as the spotlight metaphor describes. Spatial spread of attentional enhancement and local selection/inhibition are crucial factors determining the profile of the spatial attention. Enhancement and ignorance/suppression are opposite effects of attention, and appeared to be mutually exclusive. Yet, no unified view of the factors has been provided despite their necessity for understanding the functions of spatial attention. This report provides electroencephalographic and behavioral evidence for the attentional spread at an early stage and selection/inhibition at a later stage of visual processing. Steady state visual evoked potential showed broad spatial tuning whereas the P3 component of the event related potential showed local selection or inhibition of the adjacent areas. Based on these results, we propose a two-stage model of spatial attention with broad spread at an early stage and local selection at a later stage.

  5. Flow characteristics at trapezoidal broad-crested side weir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Říha Jaromír

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Broad-crested side weirs have been the subject of numerous hydraulic studies; however, the flow field at the weir crest and in front of the weir in the approach channel still has not been fully described. Also, the discharge coefficient of broad-crested side weirs, whether slightly inclined towards the stream or lateral, still has yet to be clearly determined. Experimental research was carried out to describe the flow characteristics at low Froude numbers in the approach flow channel for various combinations of in- and overflow discharges. Three side weir types with different oblique angles were studied. Their flow characteristics and discharge coefficients were analyzed and assessed based on the results obtained from extensive measurements performed on a hydraulic model. The empirical relation between the angle of side weir obliqueness, Froude numbers in the up- and downstream channels, and the coefficient of obliqueness was derived.

  6. The precipitation synthesis of broad-spectrum UV absorber nanoceria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurhasanah, Iis; Sutanto, Heri; Puspaningrum, Nurul Wahyu

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the possibility of nanoceria as broad-spectrum UV absorber was evaluated. Nanoceria were synthesized by precipitation process from cerium nitrate solution and ammonium hydroxide as precipitant agent. Isopropanol was mixed with water as solvent to prevent hard agglomeration. The structure of resulting nanoceria was characterized by x-ray diffractometer (XRD). The transparency in the visible light and efficiency of protection in UV A region were studied using ultraviolet-visible (UV - Vis) spectrophotometer. The results show that nanoceria possess good tranparency in visible light and high UV light absorption. The critical absorption wavelenght of 368 nm was obtained which is desirable for excellent broad-spectrum protection absorbers. Moreover, analysis of photodegradation nanoceria to methylene blue solution shows poor photocatalytic activity. It indicates that nanoceria suitable for used as UV absorber in personal care products

  7. Shareholder, stakeholder-owner or broad stakeholder maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Niels

    2004-01-01

    With reference to the discussion about shareholder versus stakeholder maximization it is argued that the normal type of maximization is in fact stakeholder-owner maxi-mization. This means maximization of the sum of the value of the shares and stake-holder benefits belonging to the dominating...... including the shareholders of a company. Although it may be the ultimate goal for Corporate Social Responsibility to achieve this kind of maximization, broad stakeholder maximization is quite difficult to give a precise definition. There is no one-dimensional measure to add different stakeholder benefits...... not traded on the mar-ket, and therefore there is no possibility for practical application. Broad stakeholder maximization instead in practical applications becomes satisfying certain stakeholder demands, so that the practical application will be stakeholder-owner maximization un-der constraints defined...

  8. Clues to Quasar Broad Line Region Geometry and Kinematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne; Wilkes, B. J.; Barthel, P. D.

    2000-01-01

    width to show significant inverse correlations with the fractional radio core-flux density, R, the radio axis inclination indicator. Highly inclined systems have broader line wings, consistent with a high-velocity field perpendicular to the radio axis. By contrast, the narrow line-core shows...... no such relation with R, so the lowest velocity CIV-emitting gas has an inclination independent velocity field. We propose that this low-velocity gas is located at higher disk-altitudes than the high-velocity gas. A planar origin of the high-velocity CIV-emission is consistent with the current results...... and with an accretion disk-wind emitting the broad lines. A spherical distribution of randomly orbiting broad-line clouds and a polar high-ionization outflow are ruled out....

  9. Broad-band hard X-ray reflectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, K.D.; Gorenstein, P.; Hoghoj, P.

    1997-01-01

    Interest in optics for hard X-ray broad-band application is growing. In this paper, we compare the hard X-ray (20-100 keV) reflectivity obtained with an energy-dispersive reflectometer, of a standard commercial gold thin-film with that of a 600 bilayer W/Si X-ray supermirror. The reflectivity...... of the multilayer is found to agree extraordinarily well with theory (assuming an interface roughness of 4.5 Angstrom), while the agreement for the gold film is less, The overall performance of the supermirror is superior to that of gold, extending the band of reflection at least a factor of 2.8 beyond...... that of the gold, Various other design options are discussed, and we conclude that continued interest in the X-ray supermirror for broad-band hard X-ray applications is warranted....

  10. Polychromatic holographic plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhiglinskij, A.G.; Morozov, A.O.

    1992-01-01

    Review of holographic interferometry properties is performed and advantages of this method by plasma diagnostics are indicated. Main results obtained by the method of holographic interferometry in studies of various-type plasmas are considered. Special attention is paid to multiwave plasma diagnostics, the necessity of which is related as a rule to multicomponent composition of plasma. The eight laser and gas-discharge sources and holographic schemes, which make it possible to realize plasma polychromatic and holographic interferometry, are considered. The advantages of the method are demonstrated by examples of polychromatic holographic diagnostics of arc discharge and discharge in a hollow cathode. Review of theoretical works determining the applicability area of resonance polychromatic interferometry is carried out

  11. Reversed field pinch diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, P.G.

    1986-01-01

    The Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) is a toroidal, axisymmetric magnetic confinement configuration characterized by a magnetic field configuration in which the toroidal magnetic field is of similar strength to the poloidal field, and is reversed at the edge compared to the center. The RFP routinely operates at high beta, and is a strong candidate for a compact fusion device. Relevant attributes of the configuration will be presented, together with an overview of present and planned experiments and their diagnostics. RFP diagnostics are in many ways similar to those of other magnetic confinement devices (such as tokamaks); these lectures will point out pertinent differences, and will present some diagnostics which provide special insights into unique attributes of the RFP

  12. Metabolomics for laboratory diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujak, Renata; Struck-Lewicka, Wiktoria; Markuszewski, Michał J; Kaliszan, Roman

    2015-09-10

    Metabolomics is an emerging approach in a systems biology field. Due to continuous development in advanced analytical techniques and in bioinformatics, metabolomics has been extensively applied as a novel, holistic diagnostic tool in clinical and biomedical studies. Metabolome's measurement, as a chemical reflection of a current phenotype of a particular biological system, is nowadays frequently implemented to understand pathophysiological processes involved in disease progression as well as to search for new diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers of various organism's disorders. In this review, we discussed the research strategies and analytical platforms commonly applied in the metabolomics studies. The applications of the metabolomics in laboratory diagnostics in the last 5 years were also reviewed according to the type of biological sample used in the metabolome's analysis. We also discussed some limitations and further improvements which should be considered taking in mind potential applications of metabolomic research and practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Corpuscular plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afrosimov, V.; Petrov, M.

    1984-01-01

    An elementary explanation is presented of the physical principles and important methods of corpuscular plasma diagnostics. The invaluable role of corpuscular methods for measuring the hot plasma ion component in thermonuclear facilities, especially hydrogen ions in tokamaks, is emphasized. All corpuscular methods employ analysis of fast neutral atoms and therefore the mechanism of their creation inside a hot plasma is explained first. The ammount of information obtainable from spectra of fast neutrals is discussed. Multichannel analyzers developed at the FTI A.F. Ioffe in Leningrad are described in detail. Classical passive corpuscular diagnostics are examined as are active methods using artifitial beams of hydrogen atoms. The method used for obtaining local values of ion temperature and density is explained. Corpuscular spectroscopic diagnostics and its application for measuring impurities is mentioned. (J.U.)

  14. [Cytology in uropathological diagnostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaisa, N T; Lindemann-Docter, K

    2015-11-01

    Cytology in uropathological diagnostics is mainly performed for oncological purposes. The assessment of malignancy by urothelial cell morphology is therefore decisive; however, cytology is only sensitive enough to detect high-grade tumor cells and the different low-grade tumors cannot be reliably diagnosed. Thus, the four-tier classification system of cytological findings (i.e. negative, atypical cells but significance uncertain, suspicious and positive) refers to high-grade tumor cells only. Furthermore, for valid cytological diagnostics not only the cytological specimen but also clinical information on cystoscopy findings and, if applicable, a biopsy should be evaluated together. In difficult differential diagnostic settings, e.g. differentiation between reactive versus neoplastic atypia or difficult to access lesions in the upper urinary tract, additional fluorescence in situ hybridization of cytological preparations might be helpful. At the moment there are no indications for further immunocytology or additional biomarker tests.

  15. ORION laser target diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, C. D.; Edwards, R. D.; Andrew, J. E.; James, S. F.; Gardner, M. D.; Comley, A. J.; Vaughan, K.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Rothman, S. D.; Daykin, S.; Masoero, S. J.; Palmer, J. B.; Meadowcroft, A. L.; Williams, B. M.; Gumbrell, E. T.; Fyrth, J. D.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M. P.; Oades, K.

    2012-01-01

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  16. ORION laser target diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, C D; Edwards, R D; Andrew, J E; James, S F; Gardner, M D; Comley, A J; Vaughan, K; Horsfield, C J; Rubery, M S; Rothman, S D; Daykin, S; Masoero, S J; Palmer, J B; Meadowcroft, A L; Williams, B M; Gumbrell, E T; Fyrth, J D; Brown, C R D; Hill, M P; Oades, K; Wright, M J; Hood, B A; Kemshall, P

    2012-10-01

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  17. Nova diagnostics summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slivinsky, V.W.; Drake, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    The authors intend that Nova be the best diagnosed ICF research facility in operation today. The authors experience in providing advanced diagnostics for previous laser systems will be extended at Nova, and will be challenged by the development of new instrumentation to diagnose the more advanced targets made possible by this powerful laser. Previous experience has shown that to understand target performance, the authors must have as complete a set of diagnostics as possible. The Nova diagnostics are divided into two sets: the basic set required for the initial Nova experiments and the more advanced set for later, generally more complex, experiments. The basic set will be operational for the first Nova shots; it was a Nova line item funded with Nova construction money. This basic set is presented in a table

  18. Angiography - interventional diagnostic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schild, H.

    1994-01-01

    The angiography system is very different from the other systems used in diagnostic radiology. The invasivity of angiography requires special, high standards in theoretical and practical training and experience both of beginners and experienced personnel. This textbook fully meets the demand for in-depth and exhaustive information, as it presents: - The fundamentals and techniques of angiography, the vascular anatomy, and many hints and tips of great help in practice. - A comprehensive survey of diagnostic problems and examination approaches, including neuro-angiography, with 221 reproductions of original angiographs, and additional schematic representations. - A special chapter devoted to indication and relevant techniques for the major vascular interventional examinations. - A great number of tables explain at a glance standard examination techniques, indications and diagnostic criteria. (orig./CB) [de

  19. Identifying efficiency trends for Queensland broad-acre beef enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Gregg, Daniel; Rolfe, John

    2010-01-01

    Productivity and efficiency improvements in agriculture have recently been targeted as Federal Government priorities in Australia. This research examined a dataset of 116 broad-acre beef enterprises from Queensland who participated in a program, Profit Probe, developed to improve management and profitability of enterprises. The aim of this research was to identify the sources, if any, of productivity growth for this sample of enterprises. Two potential sources of productivity growth were iden...

  20. Flow structure in front of the broad-crested weir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachoval Zbyněk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with research focused on description of flow structure in front of broad-crested weir. Based on experimental measurement, the flow structure in front of the weir (the recirculation zone of flow and tornado vortices and flow structure on the weir crest has been described. The determined flow character has been simulated using numerical model and based on comparing results the suitable model of turbulence has been recommended.

  1. Broad Absorption Line Quasar catalogues with Supervised Neural Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaringi, Simone; Knigge, Christian; Cottis, Christopher E.; Goad, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    We have applied a Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) algorithm to SDSS DR5 quasar spectra in order to create a large catalogue of broad absorption line quasars (BALQSOs). We first discuss the problems with BALQSO catalogues constructed using the conventional balnicity and/or absorption indices (BI and AI), and then describe the supervised LVQ network we have trained to recognise BALQSOs. The resulting BALQSO catalogue should be substantially more robust and complete than BI-or AI-based ones.

  2. Broad beam X-rays attenuation in silicum glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risticj, Dj.; Vukovicj, S.; Markovicj, P.

    1987-01-01

    Using broad beam geometry the attenuation for domestic silicum glass have been studied for constant X-ray potentials from 50 to 150 kV. The density of the silicium glass was 2,5x10 3 kg/m 3 . From the attenuation curves the half value layers were obtained. The use of this glass as the biological shield is pointed out. (author). 2 refs.; 2 tabs.; 2 figs

  3. Reducing Cognitive Skill Decay and Diagnostic Error: Theory-Based Practices for Continuing Education in Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Sallie J.; Newman-Toker, David E.; Rosen, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Missed, delayed, or wrong diagnoses can have a severe impact on patients, providers, and the entire health care system. One mechanism implicated in such diagnostic errors is the deterioration of cognitive diagnostic skills that are used rarely or not at all over a prolonged period of time. Existing evidence regarding maintenance of effective…

  4. Dynamics of Nonlinear Time-Delay Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lakshmanan, Muthusamy

    2010-01-01

    Synchronization of chaotic systems, a patently nonlinear phenomenon, has emerged as a highly active interdisciplinary research topic at the interface of physics, biology, applied mathematics and engineering sciences. In this connection, time-delay systems described by delay differential equations have developed as particularly suitable tools for modeling specific dynamical systems. Indeed, time-delay is ubiquitous in many physical systems, for example due to finite switching speeds of amplifiers in electronic circuits, finite lengths of vehicles in traffic flows, finite signal propagation times in biological networks and circuits, and quite generally whenever memory effects are relevant. This monograph presents the basics of chaotic time-delay systems and their synchronization with an emphasis on the effects of time-delay feedback which give rise to new collective dynamics. Special attention is devoted to scalar chaotic/hyperchaotic time-delay systems, and some higher order models, occurring in different bran...

  5. Group Delay of High Q Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahramzy, Pevand; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2013-01-01

    Group Delay variations versus frequency is an essential factor which can cause distortion and degradation in the signals. Usually this is an issue in wideband communication systems, such as satellite communication systems, which are used for transmitting wideband data. However, group delay can also...... become an issue, when working with high Q antennas, because of the steep phase shift over the frequency. In this paper, it is measured how large group delay variations can become, when going from a low Q antenna to a high Q antenna. The group delay of a low Q antenna is shown to be around 1.3 ns, whereas...... a high Q antenna has group delay of around 22 ns. It is due to this huge group delay variation characteristics of high Q antennas, that signal distortion might occur in the radio system with high Q antennas....

  6. Permutation entropy with vector embedding delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Douglas J.; Kane, Deb M.

    2017-12-01

    Permutation entropy (PE) is a statistic used widely for the detection of structure within a time series. Embedding delay times at which the PE is reduced are characteristic timescales for which such structure exists. Here, a generalized scheme is investigated where embedding delays are represented by vectors rather than scalars, permitting PE to be calculated over a (D -1 ) -dimensional space, where D is the embedding dimension. This scheme is applied to numerically generated noise, sine wave and logistic map series, and experimental data sets taken from a vertical-cavity surface emitting laser exhibiting temporally localized pulse structures within the round-trip time of the laser cavity. Results are visualized as PE maps as a function of embedding delay, with low PE values indicating combinations of embedding delays where correlation structure is present. It is demonstrated that vector embedding delays enable identification of structure that is ambiguous or masked, when the embedding delay is constrained to scalar form.

  7. Time Delay Estimation Algoritms for Echo Cancellation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill Sakhnov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The following case study describes how to eliminate echo in a VoIP network using delay estimation algorithms. It is known that echo with long transmission delays becomes more noticeable to users. Thus, time delay estimation, as a part of echo cancellation, is an important topic during transmission of voice signals over packetswitching telecommunication systems. An echo delay problem associated with IP-based transport networks is discussed in the following text. The paper introduces the comparative study of time delay estimation algorithm, used for estimation of the true time delay between two speech signals. Experimental results of MATLab simulations that describe the performance of several methods based on cross-correlation, normalized crosscorrelation and generalized cross-correlation are also presented in the paper.

  8. CGI delay compensation. [Computer Generated Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcfarland, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Computer-generated graphics in real-time helicopter simulation produces objectionable scene-presentation time delays. In the flight simulation laboratory at Ames Research Center, it has been determined that these delays have an adverse influence on pilot performance during agressive tasks such as nap of the earth (NOE) maneuvers. Using contemporary equipment, computer generated image (CGI) time delays are an unavoidable consequence of the operations required for scene generation. However, providing that magnitude distortions at higher frequencies are tolerable, delay compensation is possible over a restricted frequency range. This range, assumed to have an upper limit of perhaps 10 or 15 rad/sec, conforms approximately to the bandwidth associated with helicopter handling qualities research. A compensation algorithm is introduced here and evaluated in terms of tradeoffs in frequency responses. The algorithm has a discrete basis and accommodates both a large, constant transport delay interval and a periodic delay interval, as associated with asynchronous operations.

  9. Memorized discrete systems and time-delay

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert C J

    2017-01-01

    This book examines discrete dynamical systems with memory—nonlinear systems that exist extensively in biological organisms and financial and economic organizations, and time-delay systems that can be discretized into the memorized, discrete dynamical systems. It book further discusses stability and bifurcations of time-delay dynamical systems that can be investigated through memorized dynamical systems as well as bifurcations of memorized nonlinear dynamical systems, discretization methods of time-delay systems, and periodic motions to chaos in nonlinear time-delay systems. The book helps readers find analytical solutions of MDS, change traditional perturbation analysis in time-delay systems, detect motion complexity and singularity in MDS; and determine stability, bifurcation, and chaos in any time-delay system.

  10. Broad Halpha Wing Formation in the Planetary Nebula IC 4997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee; Hyung

    2000-02-10

    The young and compact planetary nebula IC 4997 is known to exhibit very broad wings with a width exceeding 5000 km s-1 around Halpha. We propose that the broad wings are formed through Rayleigh-Raman scattering that involves atomic hydrogen, by which Lybeta photons with a velocity width of a few 102 km s-1 are converted to optical photons and fill the Halpha broad wing region. The conversion efficiency reaches 0.6 near the line center, where the scattering optical depth is much larger than 1, and rapidly decreases in the far wings. Assuming that close to the central star there exists an unresolved inner compact core of high density, nH approximately 109-1010 cm-3, we use the photoionization code "CLOUDY" to show that sufficient Lybeta photons for scattering are produced. Using a top-hat-incident profile for the Lybeta flux and a scattering region with a H i column density NHi=2x1020 cm-2 and a substantial covering factor, we perform a profile-fitting analysis in order to obtain a satisfactory fit to the observed flux. We briefly discuss the astrophysical implications of the Rayleigh-Raman processes in planetary nebulae and other emission objects.

  11. Extreme Variability in a Broad Absorption Line Quasar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, Daniel; Jun, Hyunsung D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 169-221, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Graham, Matthew J.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Donalek, Ciro; Drake, Andrew J.; Mahabal, Ashish A.; Steidel, Charles C. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Arav, Nahum; Chamberlain, Carter [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Barth, Aaron J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Glikman, Eilat, E-mail: daniel.k.stern@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, VT 05753 (United States)

    2017-04-20

    CRTS J084133.15+200525.8 is an optically bright quasar at z = 2.345 that has shown extreme spectral variability over the past decade. Photometrically, the source had a visual magnitude of V ∼ 17.3 between 2002 and 2008. Then, over the following five years, the source slowly brightened by approximately one magnitude, to V ∼ 16.2. Only ∼1 in 10,000 quasars show such extreme variability, as quantified by the extreme parameters derived for this quasar assuming a damped random walk model. A combination of archival and newly acquired spectra reveal the source to be an iron low-ionization broad absorption line quasar with extreme changes in its absorption spectrum. Some absorption features completely disappear over the 9 years of optical spectra, while other features remain essentially unchanged. We report the first definitive redshift for this source, based on the detection of broad H α in a Keck/MOSFIRE spectrum. Absorption systems separated by several 1000 km s{sup −1} in velocity show coordinated weakening in the depths of their troughs as the continuum flux increases. We interpret the broad absorption line variability to be due to changes in photoionization, rather than due to motion of material along our line of sight. This source highlights one sort of rare transition object that astronomy will now be finding through dedicated time-domain surveys.

  12. Broad beam ion sources and some surface processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, H.; Scholze, F.; Tarz, M.; Schindler, A.; Wiese, R.; Nestler, M.; Blum, T.

    2005-01-01

    Modern broad-beam multi-aperture ion sources are widely used in material and surface technology applications. Customizing the generated ion beam properties (i. e. the ion current density profile) for specific demands of the application is a main challenge in the improvement of the ion beam technologies. First we introduce ion sources based on different plasma excitation principles shortly. An overview of source plasma and ion beam measurement methods deliver input data for modelling methods. This beam profile modelling using numerical trajectory codes and the validation of the results by Faraday cup measurements as a basis for ion beam profile design are described. Furthermore possibilities for ex situ and in situ beam profile control are demonstrated, like a special method for in situ control of a linear ion source beam profile, a grid modification for circular beam profile design and a cluster principle for broad beam sources. By means of these methods, the beam shape may be adapted to specific technological demands. Examples of broad beam source application in ion beam figuring of optical surfaces, modification of stainless steel, photo voltaic processes and deposition of EUVL-multilayer stacks are finally presented. (Author)

  13. Broad-Band Analysis of Polar Motion Excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.

    2016-12-01

    Earth rotational changes, i.e. polar motion and length-of-day (LOD), are driven by two types of geophysical excitations: 1) mass redistribution within the Earth system, and 2) angular momentum exchange between the solid Earth (more precisely the crust) and other components of the Earth system. Accurate quantification of Earth rotational excitations has been difficult, due to the lack of global-scale observations of mass redistribution and angular momentum exchange. The over 14-years time-variable gravity measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) have provided a unique means for quantifying Earth rotational excitations from mass redistribution in different components of the climate system. Comparisons between observed Earth rotational changes and geophysical excitations estimated from GRACE, satellite laser ranging (SLR) and climate models show that GRACE-derived excitations agree remarkably well with polar motion observations over a broad-band of frequencies. GRACE estimates also suggest that accelerated polar region ice melting in recent years and corresponding sea level rise have played an important role in driving long-term polar motion as well. With several estimates of polar motion excitations, it is possible to estimate broad-band noise variance and noise power spectra in each, given reasonable assumptions about noise independence. Results based on GRACE CSR RL05 solutions clearly outperform other estimates with the lowest noise levels over a broad band of frequencies.

  14. Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Strehl, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This treatise covers all aspects of the design and the daily operations of a beam diagnostic system for a large particle accelerator. A very interdisciplinary field, it involves contributions from physicists, electrical and mechanical engineers and computer experts alike so as to satisfy the ever-increasing demands for beam parameter variability for a vast range of operation modi and particles. The author draws upon 40 years of research and work, most of them spent as the head of the beam diagnostics group at GSI. He has illustrated the more theoretical aspects with many real-life examples that will provide beam instrumentation designers with ideas and tools for their work.

  15. Diagnostic Imaging Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sociedad Argentina de Fisica Medica

    2012-01-01

    The American Association of Physicist in Medicine (AAPM), the International Organization for Medical Physics (IOMP) and the Argentina Society of Medical Physics (SAFIM) was organized the Diagnostic Imaging Workshop 2012, in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. This workshop was an oriented training and scientific exchange between professionals and technicians who work in medical physics, especially in the areas of diagnostic imaging, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy, with special emphasis on the use of multimodal imaging for radiation treatment, planning as well of quality assurance associates.

  16. Magnetic pulse sharpener and delay-line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jin; Dai Guangsen; Xia Liansheng

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a method to achieve short rise time pulse which has been delayed with a delay-line and magnetic pulse sharpener. A delay-line and two shock-lines are designed to carry pulsed signal with a maximum voltage magnitude up to 80 kV. A pulse of High voltage with arise time of 48 ns at a level of 0.1%-0.9% were achieved, and the attenuation in the line is very small

  17. Does Bilingualism Delay the Development of Dementia?

    OpenAIRE

    Amy L Atkinson

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that bilingualism (where individuals speak two languages) may delay the development of dementia. However, much of the research is inconclusive. Some researchers have reported that bilingualism delays the onset and diagnosis of dementia, whilst other studies have found weak or even detrimental effects. This paper reviews a series of nine empirical studies, published up until March 2016, which investigated whether bilingualism significantly delays the onset of dementia. Th...

  18. Delayed enhanced MRI in intraparenchymal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eguchi, Takahiko; Morimoto, Tetsuya; Takeshima, Toshikazu

    1991-01-01

    Delayed enhanced MRI was performed on 20 intraparenchymal tumors, and these findings were compared with those of early enhanced MRI. Using the spin-echo technique (SE: 400-500/20 msec), early scans were obtained 5 minutes, and delayed scans were obtained 60 minutes, after the intravenous injection of 0.1 nmol of gadolinium-DTPA/Kg. We discussed the changes in the delayed scan with regard to the change in the pattern of enhancement and the boundary of enhancement. In these twenty intraparenchymal tumors, there were three low-grade astrocytomas, two anaplastic astrocytomas, seven glioblastomas, and eight metastatic tumors. The changes in the enhanced pattern showed three types as follows: Type I: heterogeneous enhancement in both early and delayed scans; Type II: heterogeneous enhancement in early scan and homogeneous enhancement in delayed scan; Type III: homogeneous enhancement in both early and delayed scans. Most malignant tumors, such as glioblastomas (6/8), anaplastic astrocytomas (2/2), and metastatic tumors (7/8), revealed Type I, although low-grade astrocytomas showed Type II (3/2) and Type III (1/3). The heterogeneous enhancement in delayed scan was found in malignant tumors and in low-grade astrocytoma; even if the early scan revealed heterogeneous enhancement, the delayed scan showed homogeneous enhancement. In the delayed scan, most enhanced boundaries spread out of the boundaries in the early scan. Glioblastomas spread markedly in the delayed scan, although none of the low-grade astrocytomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, or metastases revealed marked spreading. We called these marked increases in the delayed scan a 'spreading sign' and thought that this sign was specific to glioblastomas. Recently some authors have emphasized the usefulness of serial scans. Delayed enhanced MRI 60 minutes after the administration of a contrast medium was here found also to be useful for the accurate diagnosis for brain tumors. (author)

  19. Delayed Interval Delivery in Triplet Pregnancy: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Karalök

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of triplet gestation delivered at 22 weeks with an interval of 48 days. We performed immediately a McDonald’s cerclage after the first triplet’s delivery and used intravenous beta-mimetic and broad-spectrum antibiotics for 14 days. In the literature whereas delaying the delivery of remaining fetuses improves their prognosis, there is no consensus about optimal management for these patients.

  20. Corporate Attributes and Audit Delay in Emerging Markets: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afensimi Elijah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The broad objective of the study was to examine the determinants of audit report lag in the Nigerian context. Specifically, the study examined the effects of the following factors on Audit fees; Audit firm type, Leverage, Return on equity, Firm size, subsidiaries and Year-end. The panel research design was used for the study. The data was sourced from the annual reports of all financial companies quoted on the floor of the Nigerian stock exchange. The method of data analysis utilized in the study is the panel data estimation techniques (pooled, fixed and random effects regression. In line with the study objectives, the finding reveals that (i Company size has no significant positive impact on audit delay. (ii Firm’s financial performance has a significant impact on Audit delay. (iii Audit firm type (big 4 and non-big 4 has a significant impact on Audit delay. (iv Leverage has no significant impact on Audit delay and (v Number of subsidiaries has a significant impact on Audit delay and (vi Financial year end has no significant impact on Audit delay. The recommendation is that in achieving the objective of making the financial statements readily available for making timely decisions, the Nigerian stock exchange, Securities and Exchange Commission, the Financial Reporting Council, the Central Bank of Nigeria and other regulatory bodies should put in place measures to ensure strict compliance with 3 months window for financial reports preparation and presentation.

  1. Neutron stochastic transport theory with delayed neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz-Cobo, J.L.; Verdu, G.

    1987-01-01

    From the stochastic transport theory with delayed neutrons, the Boltzmann transport equation with delayed neutrons for the average flux emerges in a natural way without recourse to any approximation. From this theory a general expression is obtained for the Feynman Y-function when delayed neutrons are included. The single mode approximation for the particular case of a subcritical assembly is developed, and it is shown that Y-function reduces to the familiar expression quoted in many books, when delayed neutrons are not considered, and spatial and source effects are not included. (author)

  2. Overexpression of NPR1 in Brassica juncea Confers Broad Spectrum Resistance to Fungal Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Ali

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Brassica juncea (Indian mustard is a commercially important oil seed crop, which is highly affected by many biotic stresses. Among them, Alternaria leaf blight and powdery mildew are the most devastating diseases leading to huge yield losses in B. juncea around the world. In this regard, genetic engineering is a promising tool that may possibly allow us to enhance the B. juncea disease resistance against these pathogens. NPR1 (non-expressor of pathogen-related gene 1 is a bonafide receptor of salicylic acid (SA which modulates multiple immune responses in plants especially activation of induced and systemic acquired resistance (SAR. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of new NPR1 homolog (BjNPR1 from B. juncea. The phylogenetic tree constructed based on the deduced sequence of BjNPR1 with homologs from other species revealed that BjNPR1 grouped together with other known NPR1 proteins of Cruciferae family, and was nearest to B. napus. Furthermore, expression analysis showed that BjNPR1 was upregulated after SA treatment and fungal infection but not by jasmonic acid or abscisic acid. To understand the defensive role of this gene, we generated B. juncea transgenic lines overexpressing BjNPR1, and further confirmed by PCR and Southern blotting. The transgenic lines showed no phenotypic abnormalities, and constitutive expression of BjNPR1 activates defense signaling pathways by priming the expression of antifungal PR genes. Moreover, BjNPR1 transgenic lines showed enhanced resistance to Alternaria brassicae and Erysiphe cruciferarum as there was delay in symptoms and reduced disease severity than non-transgenic plants. In addition, the rate of disease spreading to uninfected or distal parts was also delayed in transgenic plants thus suggesting the activation of SAR. Altogether, the present study suggests that BjNPR1 is involved in broad spectrum of disease resistance against fungal pathogens.

  3. Enabling Equal Access to Molecular Diagnostics: What Are the Implications for Policy and Health Technology Assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plun-Favreau, Juliette; Immonen-Charalambous, Kaisa; Steuten, Lotte; Strootker, Anja; Rouzier, Roman; Horgan, Denis; Lawler, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Molecular diagnostics can offer important benefits to patients and are a key enabler of the integration of personalised medicine into health care systems. However, despite their promise, few molecular diagnostics are embedded into clinical practice (especially in Europe) and access to these technologies remains unequal across countries and sometimes even within individual countries. If research translation and the regulatory environments have proven to be more challenging than expected, reimbursement and value assessment remain the main barriers to providing patients with equal access to molecular diagnostics. Unclear or non-existent reimbursement pathways, together with the lack of clear evidence requirements, have led to significant delays in the assessment of molecular diagnostics technologies in certain countries. Additionally, the lack of dedicated diagnostics budgets and the siloed nature of resource allocation within certain health care systems have significantly delayed diagnostics commissioning. This article will consider the perspectives of different stakeholders (patients, health care payers, health care professionals, and manufacturers) on the provision of a research-enabled, patient-focused molecular diagnostics platform that supports optimal patient care. Through the discussion of specific case studies, and building on the experience from countries that have successfully integrated molecular diagnostics into clinical practice, this article will discuss the necessary evolutions in policy and health technology assessment to ensure that patients can have equal access to appropriate molecular diagnostics. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Democratizing molecular diagnostics for the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Tayoun, Ahmad N; Burchard, Paul R; Malik, Imran; Scherer, Axel; Tsongalis, Gregory J

    2014-01-01

    Infectious diseases that are largely treatable continue to pose a tremendous burden on the developing world despite the availability of highly potent drugs. The high mortality and morbidity rates of these diseases are largely due to a lack of affordable diagnostics that are accessible to resource-limited areas and that can deliver high-quality results. In fact, modified molecular diagnostics for infectious diseases were rated as the top biotechnology to improve health in developing countries. In this review, we describe the characteristics of accessible molecular diagnostic tools and discuss the challenges associated with implementing such tools at low infrastructure sites. We highlight our experience as part of the "Grand Challenge" project supported by the Gates Foundation for addressing global health inequities and describe issues and solutions associated with developing adequate technologies or molecular assays needed for broad access in the developing world. We believe that sharing this knowledge will facilitate the development of new molecular technologies that are extremely valuable for improving global health.

  5. Common diagnostic flowcharts in infective endocarditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iung, B.; Erba, P. A.; Lazzeri, E.; Petrosillo, N.

    2014-01-01

    The presentation of infective endocarditis (IE) has changed over time and its diagnosis remains difficult since it relies on the conjunction of a number of criteria which have their own limitations. The Duke classification allows for a standardized approach and is now recognized as the reference method for the diagnosis of IE. The diagnostic value of the different criteria of the Duke classification can be improved by the use of transoesophageal echocardiography for the detection of endocardial involvement and the use of non-cardiac imaging for the detection of embolic events. The number of cases of IE without identified causative microorganism can be reduced due to serological analyses and broad-range polymerase chain reaction on explanted valves. Radionuclide imaging techniques are useful when the diagnosis of IE remains uncertain. [18F]FDG PET/CT can be used for the diagnosis of cardiac infection and for the detection of embolic events or metastatic infection, keeping in mind the possibility of false positive diagnosis due to its high sensitivity. Radiolabelled-leukocytes scintigraphy is more specific than [18F]FDG PET/CT and can differentiate between septic and sterile vegetations. Diagnostic flowcharts are proposed to combine the Duke classification and recent imaging techniques for the diagnostic workup of IE.

  6. Electron beam diagnostics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garganne, P.

    1989-08-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a study on beam diagnostics, using carbon wire scanners and optical transition radiation (DTR) monitors. The main consideration consists in the material selection, taking their thermal properties and their effect on the beam into account [fr

  7. Molecular Beacons in Diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Tyagi, Sanjay; Kramer, Fred Russell

    2012-01-01

    Recent technical advances have begun to realize the potential of molecular beacons to test for diverse infections in clinical diagnostic laboratories. These include the ability to test for, and quantify, multiple pathogens in the same clinical sample, and to detect antibiotic resistant strains within hours. The design principles of molecular beacons have also spawned a variety of allied technologies.

  8. Diagnostic radiation and pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, L.; Fitzgerald, P.

    1983-01-01

    Accidental irradiation of the embryo or fetus in the first trimester is a problem which will occasionally occur. The value of a proper estimation of the radiation dose is emphasised. Very rarely does a single diagnostic procedure result in a uterine dose as high as 50 mGy. An accidental irradiation should rarely be cause for termination of a pregnancy

  9. Diagnostic imaging of craniopharyngioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gradzki, J.; Nowak, S.; Paprzycki, W.

    1993-01-01

    40 patients have been examined with operational and histological confirmation of craniopharyngioma. CT image and X-ray plane of skull were performed in case all of these patients. TMR was conformed to examine 4 patients. X-ray planes was compared to CT. CT permits tumor cyst detection. The efficacy of mentioned above diagnostic techniques was compared with surgical findings. (author)

  10. Diagnostics for induction accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1996-04-01

    The induction accelerator was conceived by N. C. Christofilos and first realized as the Astron accelerator that operated at LLNL from the early 1960's to the end of 1975. This accelerator generated electron beams at energies near 6 MeV with typical currents of 600 Amperes in 400 ns pulses. The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) built at Livermore's Site 300 produced 10,000 Ampere beams with pulse widths of 70 ns at energies approaching 50 MeV. Several other electron and ion induction accelerators have been fabricated at LLNL and LBNL. This paper reviews the principal diagnostics developed through efforts by scientists at both laboratories for measuring the current, position, energy, and emittance of beams generated by these high current, short pulse accelerators. Many of these diagnostics are closely related to those developed for other accelerators. However, the very fast and intense current pulses often require special diagnostic techniques and considerations. The physics and design of the more unique diagnostics developed for electron induction accelerators are presented and discussed in detail

  11. Diagnostic studies in amyloidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazenberg, Bouke Pier Cornelis

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis two diagnostic techniques are studied in amyloidosis. Systemic amyloidosis is characterized by deposition of amyloid fibrils (tiny fibres) throughout the body resulting in damage of vital organs. Amyloid can be detected in a tissue specimen stained with Congo red: red-stained amyloid

  12. 1968 Prototype Diagnostic Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veterans Administration Hospital, Bedford, MA.

    This true-false diagnostic test was used for pretesting of employees at a Veterans Administration Hospital. The test is comprised of 20 items. An alternate test--Classification Questionnaire--was used for testing after remedial training. (For related document, see TM 002 334.) (DB)

  13. Diagnostics for induction accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    The induction accelerator was conceived by N. C. Christofilos and first realized as the Astron accelerator that operated at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) from the early 1960s to the end of 1975. This accelerator generated electron beams at energies near 6 MeV with typical currents of 600 Amperes in 400-ns pulses. The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) built at Livermore close-quote s Site 300 produced 10,000-Ampere beams with pulse widths of 70 ns at energies approaching 50 MeV. Several other electron and ion induction accelerators have been fabricated at LLNL and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). This paper reviews the principal diagnostics developed through efforts by scientists at both laboratories for measuring the current, position, energy, and emittance of beams generated by these high-current, short-pulse accelerators. Many of these diagnostics are closely related to those developed for other accelerators. However, the very fast and intense current pulses often require special diagnostic techniques and considerations. The physics and design of the more unique diagnostics developed for electron induction accelerators are presented and discussed in detail. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  14. It's diagnostics, stupid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernards, René

    2010-04-02

    To stem the spiraling cost of cancer treatment, a concerted effort is urgently needed to develop molecular diagnostics to better identify the patients that respond to expensive targeted therapies. Opportunities and obstacles in the development of such drug response biomarkers are discussed here. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Diagnostics for pellet experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.R.

    1978-01-01

    The target diagnostics which are being used and planned in current laser driven ICF Experiments are described. Most of these diagnostics can be easily applied to future ion-beam fusion experiments. The status of laser fusion diagnostics has been much improved in the last 5 years and further improvements can be expected and should be available when the first ICF experiments using ion beams are performed. As an example, x-ray temporal and spatial resolutions are now approximately 5 psec and 3 μm, which is approximately a factor of 4 better than the resolution reported in the first implosion experiments. As one plans ahead for ion-beam fusion experiments it should be emphasized that high yield experiments are easier to diagnose provided adequate shielding is employed. However, in the event that the first high yield experiments fail it will be necessary to have diagnostics available to determine where the problems lie. In laser fusion it is interesting to note that higher laser powers are required now for breakeven experiments than first anticipated, mainly because some aspects of the laser-interaction physics were not recognized until the experiments were carefully diagnosed. Thus as has been pointed out, it may be necessary to increase the energy of the ion-beam driver to enable us to do breakeven experiments with high confidence

  16. Serbia : Systematic Country Diagnostic

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This Systematic Country Diagnostic (SCD) aims to identify the major constraints on and opportunities for sustaining poverty reduction and shared prosperity in Serbia. The SCD serves as the analytic foundation on which the World Bank Group and the Government of Serbia will define a new Country Partnership Framework for FY2016 to FY2020. It is based on the best possible analysis, drawing on ...

  17. Diagnostic and interventional radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, Thomas J. [Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Reith, Wolfgang [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie; Rummeny, Ernst J. (ed.) [Technische Univ. Muenchen Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    2016-08-01

    This exceptional book covers all aspects of diagnostic and interventional radiology within one volume, at a level appropriate for the specialist. From the basics through diagnosis to intervention: the reader will find a complete overview of all areas of radiology. The clear, uniform structure, with chapters organized according to organ system, facilitates the rapid retrieval of information. Features include: Presentation of the normal radiological anatomy Classification of the different imaging procedures according to their diagnostic relevance Imaging diagnosis with many reference images Precise description of the interventional options The inclusion of many instructive aids will be of particular value to novices in decision making: Important take home messages and summaries of key radiological findings smooth the path through the jungle of facts Numerous tables on differential diagnosis and typical findings in the most common diseases offer a rapid overview and orientation Diagnostic flow charts outline the sequence of diagnostic evaluation All standard procedures within the field of interventional radiology are presented in a clinically relevant and readily understandable way, with an abundance of illustrations. This is a textbook, atlas, and reference in one: with more than 2500 images for comparison with the reader's own findings. This comprehensive and totally up-to-date book provides a superb overview of everything that the radiology specialist of today needs to know.

  18. Diagnostic challenges in celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Haghighat

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available   1-The most important challenge in diagnosis of celiac disease is not- performing the diagnostic tests in suspected persons. Because of multi-organ damage and multiple manifestations of disease, diagnosis of celiac disease may be delayed. It seems general physicians should be awared about uncommon presentations of disease and indications of celiac tests 2-The second most important challenge is in patients with suspected disease but negative serologic tests. In these cases evaluating of HLA can be useful. 3- The third challenge is in cases with positive serologic tests but negative histopathological findings. There may be false positive serologic response or consumption of gluten before testing. We recommend introduction of gluten for at least 3 mo and re- endoscopy and if diagnosis is equivocal HLA-typing  for DQ8 and  DQ2 should be done. 4-The forth challenge is about performing endoscopy. Based on guideline from ESPGHAN if there are typical clinical manifestations of celiac disease, Anti-TTG more than ten times UPN , positive Anti-EMA and HLA DQ2, performing endoscopy may not be necessary, but many physicians don’t agree with this idea. 5-In people who are genetically predisposed to celiac disease antibody levels may be fluctuating thus endoscopy with biopsy should be done in these patients. 6-In children lower than 2years, Anti- TTG and Anti –EMA have low sensitivity. we recommend Anti-TTG and Anti-DGP in these patients. 7-Resolution of symptoms after gluten free diet is not necessarily a feature of celiac disease. This condition may be seen in patients with IBS or non-celiac gluten sensitivity.  

  19. Tune-Based Halo Diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Tune-based halo diagnostics can be divided into two categories -- diagnostics for halo prevention, and diagnostics for halo measurement. Diagnostics for halo prevention are standard fare in accumulators, synchrotrons, and storage rings, and again can be divided into two categories -- diagnostics to measure the tune distribution (primarily to avoid resonances), and diagnostics to identify instabilities (which will not be discussed here). These diagnostic systems include kicked (coherent) tune measurement, phase-locked loop (PLL) tune measurement, Schottky tune measurement, beam transfer function (BTF) measurements, and measurement of transverse quadrupole mode envelope oscillations. We refer briefly to tune diagnostics used at RHIC and intended for the SNS, and then present experimental results. Tune-based diagnostics for halo measurement (as opposed to prevention) are considerably more difficult. We present one brief example of tune-based halo measurement

  20. Delayed habituation in Behcet's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulturk, Sefa; Akyol, Melih; Kececi, Hulusi; Ozcelik, Sedat; Cinar, Ziynet; Demirkazik, Ayse

    2008-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system in Behcet's patients may be affected due to various reasons. This entity may be detected with the measurement of the electrodermal activities, heart rate variability and pupillometric methods. Habituation is one of the implicit forms of learning and memory and the loss of habituation can reveal pathological changes in the synaptic regions. To determine whether there is a functional decrease in the synaptic effectiveness (habituation) of the pathways to sympathetic neurons that had been repeatedly activated in Behcet's. Twelve patients with Behcet's disease and 12 healthy controls were included in the study. Sympathetic skin potential (SSP) records were taken at normal room temperature in a quiet place within a Faraday cage. Sixteen square wave single shock impulses (duration: 1200 ms, strength: 5 mA) were applied on each case. After the 1st stimulus, the SSP amplitudes were lower in the patients compared to the controls (P0.05). Whereas there was no significant differences among the SSP amplitudes after the 9th impulse in the controls (P>0.05). The habituation rate of the SSP after consecutive impulses was slowest in the patients compared to controls (P<0.001, t value=12.39). There is a delayed habituation in Behcet's disease and that may due to pathologic changes with vasculitis through their peripheral nerves.

  1. New focal plane detector system for the broad range spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoreen, T.P.

    1984-01-01

    A focal plane detector system consisting of a vertical drift chamber, parallel plate avalanche counters, and an ionization chamber with segmented anodes has been installed in the Broad Range Spectrometer at the Holifield Facility at Oak Ridge. The system, which has been designed for use with light-heavy ions with energies ranging from 10 to 25 MeV/amu, has a position resolution of approx. 0.1 mm, a scattering angle resolution of approx. 3 mrad, and a mass resolution of approx. 1/60

  2. Essential tension: specialization with broad and general training in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael C

    2006-11-01

    The practice fields of psychology develop through specialization in training and education. The recognized specialties play a major role in developing new opportunities for professional psychology and providing quality services for the public. The essential tension comes from the balance of innovation and tradition and, in professional psychology, from the balance of fragmentation and unification. As an example, specialization in clinical child psychology is integrated within the broad and general traditions. The greater degree of focused science and practice in a specialty is the logical consequence of advances of the discipline and profession of psychology. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Broad-band spectrophotometry of HAT-P-32 b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mallonn, M.; Bernt, I.; Herrero, E.

    2016-01-01

    Multicolour broad-band transit observations offer the opportunity to characterize the atmosphere of an extrasolar planet with small- to medium-sized telescopes. One of the most favourable targets is the hot Jupiter HAT-P-32 b. We combined 21 new transit observations of this planet with 36 previou...... makes a recent tentative detection of a scattering feature less likely. Instead, the available spectral measurements of HAT-P-32 b favour a completely flat spectrum from the near-UV to the near-IR. A plausible interpretation is a thick cloud cover at high altitudes....

  4. Report on broad reconsiderations. Part 1. Energy and Climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-04-01

    In twenty policy areas various working groups have studied variants that can lead to a 20% budget cut in the government budgets of the Netherlands, which must be realized in 2015. The aim of the reconsiderations is to use less government means to realize the same results, or even better results if possible. The broad reconsideration in the field of energy and climate focuses on the expenditure for renewable energy and energy efficiency, mitigating (inter)national climate policy and fiscal benefits. This report addresses six policy variants. [nl

  5. Time delays, population, and economic development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Luca; Guerrini, Luca; Sodini, Mauro

    2018-05-01

    This research develops an augmented Solow model with population dynamics and time delays. The model produces either a single stationary state or multiple stationary states (able to characterise different development regimes). The existence of time delays may cause persistent fluctuations in both economic and demographic variables. In addition, the work identifies in a simple way the reasons why economics affects demographics and vice versa.

  6. On Delay and Security in Network Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikaliotis, Theodoros K.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, delay and security issues in network coding are considered. First, we study the delay incurred in the transmission of a fixed number of packets through acyclic networks comprised of erasure links. The two transmission schemes studied are routing with hop-by-hop retransmissions, where every node in the network simply stores and…

  7. Delaying Developmental Mathematics: The Characteristics and Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marianne; Kuennen, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates which students delay taking a required developmental mathematics course and the impact of delay on student performance in introductory microeconomics. Analysis of a sample of 1462 students at a large Midwestern university revealed that, although developmental-level mathematics students did not reach the same level of…

  8. ANALYSING SURFACE MOVEMENT DELAYS IN AN AIRPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kharchenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Queuing effect can be in the different components of ground operations. Causes of surface – movement delays are long taxi – in and taxi – out operations during departure and arrival of aircraft. Surface movement delays in an airport are analyzed

  9. Analyzing delay causes in Egyptian construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Marzouk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction delays are common problems in civil engineering projects in Egypt. These problems occur frequently during project life-time leading to disputes and litigation. Therefore, it is essential to study and analyze causes of construction delays. This research presents a list of construction delay causes retrieved from literature. The feedback of construction experts was obtained through interviews. Subsequently, a questionnaire survey was prepared. The questionnaire survey was distributed to thirty-three construction experts who represent owners, consultants, and contractor’s organizations. Frequency Index, Severity Index, and Importance Index are calculated and according to the highest values of them the top ten delay causes of construction projects in Egypt are determined. A case study is analyzed and compared to the most important delay causes in the research. Statistical analysis is carried out using analysis of variance ANOVA method to test delay causes, obtained from the survey. The test results reveal good correlation between groups while there is significant difference between them for some delay causes and finally roadmap for prioritizing delay causes groups is presented.

  10. Algebraic entropy for differential-delay equations

    OpenAIRE

    Viallet, Claude M.

    2014-01-01

    We extend the definition of algebraic entropy to a class of differential-delay equations. The vanishing of the entropy, as a structural property of an equation, signals its integrability. We suggest a simple way to produce differential-delay equations with vanishing entropy from known integrable differential-difference equations.

  11. A Polynomial Estimate of Railway Line Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerreto, Fabrizio; Harrod, Steven; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2017-01-01

    Railway service may be measured by the aggregate delay over a time horizon or due to an event. Timetables for railway service may dampen aggregate delay by addition of additional process time, either supplement time or buffer time. The evaluation of these variables has previously been performed...

  12. Test Anxiety and Academic Delay of Gratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bembenutty, Hefer

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between college students' willingness to delay gratification, motivation, self-regulation of learning, and their level of test anxiety (N = 364). Academic delay of gratification refers to students' postponement of immediately available opportunities to satisfy impulses in favor of pursuing academic…

  13. Delaying gratification depends on social trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelson, Laura; de la Vega, Alejandro; Chatham, Christopher H.; Munakata, Yuko

    2013-01-01

    Delaying gratification is hard, yet predictive of important life outcomes, such as academic achievement and physical health. Prominent theories focus on the role of self-control, hypersensitivity to immediate rewards, and the cost of time spent waiting. However, delaying gratification may also require trust in people delivering future rewards as promised. To test the role of social trust, participants were presented with character vignettes and faces that varied in trustworthiness, and then choose between hypothetical smaller immediate or larger delayed rewards from those characters. Across two experiments, participants were less willing to wait for delayed rewards from less trustworthy characters, and perceived trustworthiness predicted willingness to delay gratification. These findings provide the first demonstration of a causal role for social trust in willingness to delay gratification, independent of other relevant factors, such as self-control or reward history. Thus, delaying gratification requires choosing not only a later reward, but a reward that is potentially less likely to be delivered, when there is doubt about the person promising it. Implications of this work include the need to revise prominent theories of delay of gratification, and new directions for interventions with populations characterized by impulsivity. PMID:23801977

  14. Delaying gratification depends on social trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eMichaelson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Delaying gratification is hard, yet predictive of important life outcomes, such as academic achievement and physical health. Prominent theories focus on the role of self-control, hypersensitivity to immediate rewards, and the cost of time spent waiting. However, delaying gratification may also require trust in people delivering future rewards as promised. To test the role of social trust, participants were presented with character vignettes and faces that varied in trustworthiness, and then chose between hypothetical smaller immediate or larger delayed rewards from those characters. Across two experiments, participants were less willing to wait for delayed rewards from less trustworthy characters, and perceived trustworthiness predicted willingness to delay gratification. These findings provide the first demonstration of a causal role for social trust in willingness to delay gratification, independent of other relevant factors, such as self-control or reward history. Thus, delaying gratification requires choosing not only a later reward, but a reward that is potentially less likely to be delivered, when there is doubt about the person promising it. Implications of this work include the need to revise prominent theories of delay of gratification, and new directions for interventions with populations characterized by impulsivity.

  15. Beta delayed particle emission in light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riisager, K.; Gabelmann, H.

    1991-01-01

    A short discussion of theoretical treatments of beta delayed particle emission is followed by a presentation of data on the newly found beta delayed deuteron decay of 6 He. This decay cannot be described properly with existing theories. (author) 8 refs.; 3 figs

  16. Allee effects on population dynamics with delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celik, C.; Merdan, H.; Duman, O.; Akin, O.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we study the stability analysis of equilibrium points of population dynamics with delay when the Allee effect occurs at low population density. Mainly, our mathematical results and numerical simulations point to the stabilizing effect of the Allee effects on population dynamics with delay

  17. Nonlinear delay monopoly with bounded rationality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Akio; Szidarovszky, Ferenc

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the dynamics of a monopolistic firm in a continuous-time framework. The firm is assumed to be boundedly rational and to experience time delays in obtaining and implementing information on output. The dynamic adjustment process is based on the gradient of the expected profit. The paper is divided into three parts: we examine delay effects on dynamics caused by one-time delay and two-time delays in the first two parts. Global dynamics and analytical results on local dynamics are numerically confirmed in the third part. Four main results are demonstrated. First, the stability switch from stability to instability occurs only once in the case of a single delay. Second, the alternation of stability and instability can continue if two time delays are involved. Third, the occurence of Hopf bifurcation is analytically shown if stability is lost. Finally, in a bifurcation process, there are a period-doubling cascade to chaos and a period-halving cascade to the equilibrium point in the case of two time delays if the difference between the two delays is large.

  18. Beyond Diagnostic Accuracy: The Clinical Utility of Diagnostic Tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Linnet, Kristian; Moons, Karel G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Like any other medical technology or intervention, diagnostic tests should be thoroughly evaluated before their introduction into daily practice. Increasingly, decision makers, physicians, and other users of diagnostic tests request more than simple measures of a test's analytical or technical

  19. Fuzzy delay model based fault simulator for crosstalk delay fault test ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, a fuzzy delay model based crosstalk delay fault simulator is proposed. As design .... To find the quality of non-robust tests, a fuzzy delay ..... Dubois D and Prade H 1989 Processing Fuzzy temporal knowledge. IEEE Transactions ...

  20. Delay-dependent exponential stability of cellular neural networks with time-varying delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qiang; Wei Xiaopeng; Xu Jin

    2005-01-01

    The global exponential stability of cellular neural networks (CNNs) with time-varying delays is analyzed. Two new sufficient conditions ensuring global exponential stability for delayed CNNs are obtained. The conditions presented here are related to the size of delay. The stability results improve the earlier publications. Two examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the obtained results

  1. Synchronization of delayed systems in the presence of delay time modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kye, Won-Ho; Choi, Muhan; Kim, Myung-Woon; Lee, Soo-Young; Rim, Sunghwan; Kim, Chil-Min; Park, Young-Jai

    2004-01-01

    We investigate synchronization in the presence of delay time modulation for application to communication. We have observed that the robust synchronization is established by a common delay signal and its threshold is presented using Lyapunov exponents analysis. The influence of the delay time modulation in chaotic oscillators is also discussed

  2. Parallel processing using an optical delay-based reservoir computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Sande, Guy; Nguimdo, Romain Modeste; Verschaffelt, Guy

    2016-04-01

    Delay systems subject to delayed optical feedback have recently shown great potential in solving computationally hard tasks. By implementing a neuro-inspired computational scheme relying on the transient response to optical data injection, high processing speeds have been demonstrated. However, reservoir computing systems based on delay dynamics discussed in the literature are designed by coupling many different stand-alone components which lead to bulky, lack of long-term stability, non-monolithic systems. Here we numerically investigate the possibility of implementing reservoir computing schemes based on semiconductor ring lasers. Semiconductor ring lasers are semiconductor lasers where the laser cavity consists of a ring-shaped waveguide. SRLs are highly integrable and scalable, making them ideal candidates for key components in photonic integrated circuits. SRLs can generate light in two counterpropagating directions between which bistability has been demonstrated. We demonstrate that two independent machine learning tasks , even with different nature of inputs with different input data signals can be simultaneously computed using a single photonic nonlinear node relying on the parallelism offered by photonics. We illustrate the performance on simultaneous chaotic time series prediction and a classification of the Nonlinear Channel Equalization. We take advantage of different directional modes to process individual tasks. Each directional mode processes one individual task to mitigate possible crosstalk between the tasks. Our results indicate that prediction/classification with errors comparable to the state-of-the-art performance can be obtained even with noise despite the two tasks being computed simultaneously. We also find that a good performance is obtained for both tasks for a broad range of the parameters. The results are discussed in detail in [Nguimdo et al., IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. Learn. Syst. 26, pp. 3301-3307, 2015

  3. Gravitational Lens Time Delays Using Polarization Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Biggs

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Gravitational lens time delays provide a means of measuring the expansion of the Universe at high redshift (and therefore in the ‘Hubble flow’ that is independent of local calibrations. It was hoped that many of the radio lenses found in the JVAS/CLASS survey would yield time delays as these were selected to have flat spectra and are dominated by multiple compact components. However, despite extensive monitoring with the Very Large Array (VLA, time delays have only been measured for three of these systems (out of 22. We have begun a programme to reanalyse the existing VLA monitoring data with the goal of producing light curves in polarized flux and polarization position angle, either to improve delay measurements or to find delays for new sources. Here, we present preliminary results on the lens system B1600+434 which demonstrate the presence of correlated and substantial polarization variability in each image.

  4. Controllability of nonlinear delay oscillating systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengbin Liang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the controllability of a system governed by second order delay differential equations. We introduce a delay Gramian matrix involving the delayed matrix sine, which is used to establish sufficient and necessary conditions of controllability for the linear problem. In addition, we also construct a specific control function for controllability. For the nonlinear problem, we construct a control function and transfer the controllability problem to a fixed point problem for a suitable operator. We give a sufficient condition to guarantee the nonlinear delay system is controllable. Two examples are given to illustrate our theoretical results by calculating a specific control function and inverse of a delay Gramian matrix.

  5. Dynamics of microbubble oscillators with delay coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, C. R.; Sah, S. M.; Rand, R. H.

    2010-10-01

    We investigate the stability of the in-phase mode in a system of two delay-coupled bubble oscillators. The bubble oscillator model is based on a 1956 paper by Keller and Kolodner. Delay coupling is due to the time it takes for a signal to travel from one bubble to another through the liquid medium that surrounds them. Using techniques from the theory of differential-delay equations as well as perturbation theory, we show that the equilibrium of the in-phase mode can be made unstable if the delay is long enough and if the coupling strength is large enough, resulting in a Hopf bifurcation. We then employ Lindstedt's method to compute the amplitude of the limit cycle as a function of the time delay. This work is motivated by medical applications involving noninvasive localized drug delivery via microbubbles.

  6. Probabilistic induction of delayed health hazards in occupational radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, M.H.M.; Abdel-Ghani, A.H.

    2003-01-01

    Occupational radiation workers are periodically monitored for their personal occupational dose. Various types of radiation measurement devices are used, mostly film badges and thermoluminescent dosimeters. Several thousand occupational radiation workers were monitored over a period of seven years (jan. 1995- Dec. 2001). These included atomic energy personnel, nuclear materials personnel, staff of mediology departments (diagnostic, therapeutic and nuclear medicine) and industrial occupational workers handling industrial radiography equipment besides other applications of radiation sources in industry. The probably of induction of health hazards in these radiation workers was assessed using the nominal probability coefficient adopted by the ICRP (1991) for both hereditary effects and cancer induction. In this treatise, data procured are presented and discussed inthe light of basic postulations of probabilistic occurrence of radiation induced delayed health effects

  7. All delays before radiotherapy risk progression of Merkel cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, G.; O'Brien, P.; Robertson, R.; Hamilton, C.; Wratten, C.; Denham, J.

    2004-01-01

    Prolonged waiting times for radiotherapy have resulted in many centres assigning priorities to various patient or diagnostic groups. A high risk of progression on a waiting list is one factor that would reasonably influence the priority. The present descriptive study of 27 patients with Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) found that a median wait of 24 days for radiotherapy is associated with a high risk of progression. Eleven (41%) of 27 patients developed progressive disease, including five (45%) of 11 patients waiting for adjuvant radiotherapy. Patients treated adjuvantly also had longer waiting times prior to their initial radiotherapy consultation (median 41 days), which may have contributed to the rate of progression. Merkel cell carcinoma is an aggressive but curable malignancy and appropriate management should include efforts to minimize all potential delays prior to the commencement of radiotherapy. Copyright (2004) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  8. Delayed presentation of a sigmoid colon injury following blunt abdominal trauma: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ertugrul, Gokhan; Coskun, Murat; Sevinc, Mahsuni; Ertugrul, Fisun; Toydemir, Toygar

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The low incidence of colon injury due to blunt abdominal trauma and the lack of a definitive diagnostic method for the same can lead to delays in diagnosis and treatment, subsequently resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Case presentation A 66-year-old woman with sigmoid colon injury was admitted to our emergency department after sustaining blunt abdominal trauma. Her physical examination findings and laboratory results led to a decision to perform a laparotomy; ex...

  9. Cognitive balanced model: a conceptual scheme of diagnostic decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchiari, Claudio; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2012-02-01

    Diagnostic reasoning is a critical aspect of clinical performance, having a high impact on quality and safety of care. Although diagnosis is fundamental in medicine, we still have a poor understanding of the factors that determine its course. According to traditional understanding, all information used in diagnostic reasoning is objective and logically driven. However, these conditions are not always met. Although we would be less likely to make an inaccurate diagnosis when following rational decision making, as described by normative models, the real diagnostic process works in a different way. Recent work has described the major cognitive biases in medicine as well as a number of strategies for reducing them, collectively called debiasing techniques. However, advances have encountered obstacles in achieving implementation into clinical practice. While traditional understanding of clinical reasoning has failed to consider contextual factors, most debiasing techniques seem to fail in raising sound and safer medical praxis. Technological solutions, being data driven, are fundamental in increasing care safety, but they need to consider human factors. Thus, balanced models, cognitive driven and technology based, are needed in day-to-day applications to actually improve the diagnostic process. The purpose of this article, then, is to provide insight into cognitive influences that have resulted in wrong, delayed or missed diagnosis. Using a cognitive approach, we describe the basis of medical error, with particular emphasis on diagnostic error. We then propose a conceptual scheme of the diagnostic process by the use of fuzzy cognitive maps. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Quasar outflow energetics from broad absorption line variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, S. M.; Shields, J. C.; Hamann, F. W.; Capellupo, D. M.; Herbst, H.

    2018-03-01

    Quasar outflows have long been recognized as potential contributors to the co-evolution between supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their host galaxies. The role of outflows in active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback processes can be better understood by placing observational constraints on wind locations and kinetic energies. We utilize broad absorption line (BAL) variability to investigate the properties of a sample of 71 BAL quasars with P V broad absorption. The presence of P V BALs indicates that other BALs like C IV are saturated, such that variability in those lines favours clouds crossing the line of sight. We use these constraints with measurements of BAL variability to estimate outflow locations and energetics. Our data set consists of multiple-epoch spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and MDM Observatory. We detect significant (4σ) BAL variations from 10 quasars in our sample over rest-frame time-scales between ≤0.2-3.8 yr. Our derived distances for the 10 variable outflows are nominally ≲ 1-10 pc from the SMBH using the transverse-motion scenario, and ≲ 100-1000 pc from the central source using ionization-change considerations. These distances, in combination with the estimated high outflow column densities (i.e. NH ≳ 1022 cm-2), yield outflow kinetic luminosities between ˜ 0.001 and 1 times the bolometric luminosity of the quasar, indicating that many absorber energies within our sample are viable for AGN feedback.

  11. An intellectual property sharing initiative in agricultural biotechnology: development of broadly accessible technologies for plant transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi-Ham, Cecilia L; Boettiger, Sara; Figueroa-Balderas, Rosa; Bird, Sara; Geoola, Josef N; Zamora, Pablo; Alandete-Saez, Monica; Bennett, Alan B

    2012-06-01

    The Public Intellectual Property Resource for Agriculture (PIPRA) was founded in 2004 by the Rockefeller Foundation in response to concerns that public investments in agricultural biotechnology benefiting developing countries were facing delays, high transaction costs and lack of access to important technologies due to intellectual property right (IPR) issues. From its inception, PIPRA has worked broadly to support a wide range of research in the public sector, in specialty and minor acreage crops as well as crops important to food security in developing countries. In this paper, we review PIPRA's work, discussing the failures, successes, and lessons learned during its years of operation. To address public sector's limited freedom-to-operate, or legal access to third-party rights, in the area of plant transformation, we describe PIPRA's patent 'pool' approach to develop open-access technologies for plant transformation which consolidate patent and tangible property rights in marker-free vector systems. The plant transformation system has been licensed and deployed for both commercial and humanitarian applications in the United States (US) and Africa, respectively. © 2012 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Broadly neutralizing antibodies for treatment and prevention of HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Yehuda Z; Caskey, Marina

    2018-04-24

    Several anti-HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) with exceptional breadth and potency that target different HIV-1 envelope epitopes have been identified. bNAbs are an attractive new strategy for HIV-1 prevention and therapy, and potentially, for long-term remission or cure. Here, we discuss findings from early clinical studies that have evaluated these novel bNAbs. Phase 1 studies of bNAbs targeting two distinct HIV-1 envelope epitopes have demonstrated their favorable safety and pharmacokinetic profile. Single bNAb infusions led to significant, but transient, decline in viremia with selection of escape variants. A single bNAb also delayed viral rebound in ART-treated participants who discontinued ART. Importantly, in-vivo efficacy was related to antibody potency and to the level of preexisting resistance. Studies in animal models showed that bNAbs can clear HIV-infected cells and modulate host immune responses. These findings suggest that bNAbs may target the latent HIV reservoir in humans and could contribute to long-term remission of HIV-1 infection. bNAbs may offer advantages over traditional ART for both the prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection. In addition, bNAbs may target the latent viral reservoir. bNAb combinations and bNAbs engineered for prolonged half-life and increased potency are currently undergoing clinical evaluation.

  13. STARD-BLCM: Standards for the Reporting of Diagnostic accuracy studies that use Bayesian Latent Class Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostoulas, Polychronis; Nielsen, Søren S.; Branscum, Adam J.

    2017-01-01

    The Standards for the Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) statement, which was recently updated to the STARD2015 statement, was developed to encourage complete and transparent reporting of test accuracy studies. Although STARD principles apply broadly, the checklist is limited to studies......-BLCM (Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic accuracy studies that use Bayesian Latent Class Models), will facilitate improved quality of reporting on the design, conduct and results of diagnostic accuracy studies that use Bayesian latent class models....

  14. EULAR points to consider in the development of classification and diagnostic criteria in systemic vasculitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basu, Neil; Watts, Richard; Bajema, Ingeborg

    2010-01-01

    The systemic vasculitides are multiorgan diseases where early diagnosis and treatment can significantly improve outcomes. Robust nomenclature reduces diagnostic delay. However, key aspects of current nomenclature are widely perceived to be out of date, these include disease definitions, classific......, classification and diagnostic criteria. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to identify deficiencies and provide contemporary points to consider for the development of future definitions and criteria in systemic vasculitis....

  15. Emerging diagnostic tests for vitreoretinal lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Abby C; Williams, Keryn A; Appukuttan, Binoy; Smith, Justine R

    2018-04-19

    Vitreoretinal lymphoma, which most commonly is diffuse large B cell non-Hodgkin in type, is a rare cancer with high morbidity and high mortality. Making a tissue diagnosis of vitreoretinal lymphoma is a major challenge for clinicians due to biological and technical factors. Yet, the delay in start of treatment may have vision- and life- threatening consequences, and there is considerable interest in the application of molecular assays to improve the accuracy of the diagnostic process: detection of a clonal immunoglobulin heavy chain rearrangements in lymphoma cells by polymerase chain reaction; measurement of vitreous or aqueous interleukin-10 protein levels in ocular fluids; and identification of mutations in the myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 in tumour cells. In this article, we review the historical development and current application of each of these molecular methods. We also discuss future opportunities for the molecular diagnosis of vitreoretinal lymphoma through next generation sequencing technologies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Microscopic Control Delay Modeling at Signalized Arterials Using Bluetooth Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Rajasekhar, Lakshmi

    2011-01-01

    Real-time control delay estimation is an important performance measure for any intersection to improve the signal timing plans dynamically in real-time and hence improve the overall system performance. Control delay estimates helps to determine the level-of-service (LOS) characteristics of various approaches at an intersection and takes into account deceleration delay, stopped delay and acceleration delay. All kinds of traffic delay calculation especially control delay calculation has always ...

  17. Cancer pancreatis, diagnostic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graadal, Oe.; Schlichting, E.; Aasen, A.O.; Stadaas, J.O.

    1990-01-01

    151 patients treated for carcinoma of the pancreas at Ullevaal Hospital (Oslo University) during the period 1980-89 were studied. The most common initial symptom was abdominal pain. Other frequent debut symptoms were loss of weight and jaundice. ERCP and PTC were found to be the best diagnostic procedures. CT or ultrasonography were normal in 10-20% of the patients. Nearly all tumors of the pancreas were found by the ERCP procedure. Also angiography was used to evaluate operability of the pancreas tumor, but was found to be a very uncertain diagnostic method. This method will not be used in the future evaluation of patients with cancer of the pancreas. 13 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  18. Inertial confinement fusion diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, L.W.

    1986-10-01

    The concept and goals of ICF will be briefly reviewed and the new 100 kJ class Nova laser facility will be described. Experimental results obtained to date with Nova will be summarized, and the discussions of diagnostics will use examples on the present capabilities of Nova and new developments that are underway. The classes of diagnostic systems to be discussed fall into three basic categories: optical, x-ray, and particle. Examples of highly space resolved, time resolved, and spectrally resolved techniques as well as schemes involving combinations of these capabilities will be presented. A brief summary of the sophisticated acquisition and analysis system in use for Nova data will be provided

  19. Nanodevices in diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ye; Fine, Daniel H.; Tasciotti, Ennio; Bouamrani, Ali; Ferrari, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    The real-time, personalized and highly sensitive early-stage diagnosis of disease remains an important challenge in modern medicine. With the ability to interact with matter at the nanoscale, the development of nanotechnology architectures and materials could potentially extend subcellular and molecular detection beyond the limits of conventional diagnostic modalities. At the very least, nanotechnology should be able to dramatically accelerate biomarker discovery, as well as facilitate disease monitoring, especially of maladies presenting a high degree of molecular and compositional heterogeneity. This article gives an overview of several of the most promising nanodevices and nanomaterials along with their applications in clinical practice. Significant work to adapt nanoscale materials and devices to clinical applications involving large interdisciplinary collaborations is already underway with the potential for nanotechnology to become an important enabling diagnostic technology. PMID:20229595

  20. Nanobiosensors in diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Chamorro-Garcia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Medical diagnosis has been greatly improved thanks to the development of new techniques capable of performing very sensitive detection and quantifying certain parameters. These parameters can be correlated with the presence of specific molecules and their quantity. Unfortunately, these techniques are demanding, expensive, and often complicated. On the other side, progress in other fields of science and technology has contributed to the rapid growth of nanotechnology. Although being an emerging discipline, nanotechnology has raised huge interest and expectations. Most of the enthusiasm comes from new possibilities and properties of nanomaterials. Biosensors (simple, robust, sensitive, cost-effective combined with nanomaterials, also called nanobiosensors, are serving as bridge between advanced detection/diagnostics and daily/routine tests. Here we review some of the latest applications of nanobiosensors in diagnostics field.

  1. Diagnostic radiation risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, T [Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (UK)

    1980-04-01

    A brief discussion on diagnostic radiation risks is given. First some fundamental facts on the concepts and units of radiation measurement are clarified. Medical diagnostic radiation doses are also compared to the radiation doses received annually by man from natural background radiation. The controversy concerning the '10-day rule' in X-raying women of child-bearing age is discussed; it would appear that the risk of malformation in an unborn child due to X-radiation is very much less than the natural level of risk of malformation. The differences in the radiographic techniques and thus the different X-ray doses needed to make adequate X-ray images of different parts of the body are considered. The radiation burden of nuclear medicine investigations compared to X-ray procedures is also discussed. Finally, the problems of using volunteers in radiation research are aired.

  2. Diagnostics and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vial, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The structure of prominences and the diagnostic techniques used to evaluate their physical parameters are discussed. These include electron temperature, various densities (n sub p, n sub e, n sub l), ionization degree, velocities, and magnetic field vector. UV and radio measurements have already evidenced the existence of different temperature regions, corresponding to different geometrical locations, e.g., the so called Prominence-Corona (P-C) interface. Velocity measurements are important for considering formation and mass balance of prominences but there are conflicting velocity measurements which have led to the basic question: what structure is actually observed at a given wavelength; what averaging is performed within the projected slit area during the exposure time? In optically thick lines, the question of the formation region of the radiation along the line of sight is also not a trivial one. The same is true for low resolution measurements of the magnetic field. Coupling diagnostics with structure is now a general preoccupation

  3. FEL components and diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, R.

    1997-01-01

    FEL hardware includes undulators, alignment systems, electron beam diagnostics, and mechanical and vacuum systems. While most FEL close-quote s employ conventional undulators, there is some interest in novel types, particularly where conventional designs cannot be used, as at very short periods and high fields. For these areas, superconducting technology is indicated. The most serious issue facing long FEL undulators is that of alignment; mechanical techniques may not be accurate enough, and beam-based strategies must be considered. To maintain alignment and control the electron trajectory, beam position monitors with micron precision are required. Beam size monitors are also required to assure control of emittance. The talks given in the working group sessions touch on undulators, alignment, and electron beam diagnostics, and they are summarized here. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  4. Litigations in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, Ranjit

    2014-01-01

    There are various regulatory bodies at the international and national level, which lay down norms for radiation protection. These are the International Commission for Radiation Protection (ICRP) the National Commission for Radiation Protection (NCRP) in America, and the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) in India. These bodies recommend norms on various radiation issues. Radiography and radiology are two key tools for diagnosing and treating diseases. Recently there are concerns about the effect of ionizing radiation on man and the frequent use of diagnostic radiographs. The professionals are expected to conduct their actions according to guidelines which reflect new information and changing technology in diagnostic radiography. Failure to do so may have severe legal consequences. Patient protection is a matter of normal course but knowledge and awareness of the legal issues is important to avoid legal hassles. Implications of the radiation protection guidelines are discussed. (author)

  5. REVERBERATION AND PHOTOIONIZATION ESTIMATES OF THE BROAD-LINE REGION RADIUS IN LOW-z QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negrete, C. Alenka [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (Mexico); Dultzin, Deborah [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Marziani, Paola [INAF, Astronomical Observatory of Padova, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Sulentic, Jack W., E-mail: cnegrete@inaoep.mx, E-mail: deborah@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: paola.marziani@oapd.inaf.it, E-mail: sulentic@iaa.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, E-18008 Granada (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    Black hole mass estimation in quasars, especially at high redshift, involves the use of single-epoch spectra with signal-to-noise ratio and resolution that permit accurate measurement of the width of a broad line assumed to be a reliable virial estimator. Coupled with an estimate of the radius of the broad-line region (BLR) this yields the black hole mass M{sub BH}. The radius of the BLR may be inferred from an extrapolation of the correlation between source luminosity and reverberation-derived r{sub BLR} measures (the so-called Kaspi relation involving about 60 low-z sources). We are exploring a different method for estimating r{sub BLR} directly from inferred physical conditions in the BLR of each source. We report here on a comparison of r{sub BLR} estimates that come from our method and from reverberation mapping. Our ''photoionization'' method employs diagnostic line intensity ratios in the rest-frame range 1400-2000 A (Al III {lambda}1860/Si III] {lambda}1892, C IV {lambda}1549/Al III {lambda}1860) that enable derivation of the product of density and ionization parameter with the BLR distance derived from the definition of the ionization parameter. We find good agreement between our estimates of the density, ionization parameter, and r{sub BLR} and those from reverberation mapping. We suggest empirical corrections to improve the agreement between individual photoionization-derived r{sub BLR} values and those obtained from reverberation mapping. The results in this paper can be exploited to estimate M{sub BH} for large samples of high-z quasars using an appropriate virial broadening estimator. We show that the width of the UV intermediate emission lines are consistent with the width of H{beta}, thereby providing a reliable virial broadening estimator that can be measured in large samples of high-z quasars.

  6. THE ANXIETY SPECTRUM AND THE REFLEX PHYSIOLOGY OF DEFENSE: FROM CIRCUMSCRIBED FEAR TO BROAD DISTRESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTeague, Lisa M.; Lang, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Guided by the diagnostic nosology, anxiety patients are expected to show defensive hyperarousal during affective challenge, irrespective of the principal phenotype. In the current study, patients representing the whole spectrum of anxiety disorders (i.e., specific phobia, social phobia, panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), posttraumatic stress disorder(PTSD)), and healthy community control participants, completed an imagery-based fear elicitation paradigm paralleling conventional intervention techniques. Participants imagined threatening and neutral narratives as physiological responses were recorded. Clear evidence emerged for exaggerated reactivity to clinically relevant imagery—most pronounced in startle reflex responding. However, defensive propensity varied across principal anxiety disorders. Disorders characterized by focal fear and impairment (e.g., specific phobia) showed robust fear potentiation. Conversely, for disorders of long-enduring, pervasive apprehension and avoidance with broad anxiety and depression comorbidity (e.g., PTSD secondary to cumulative trauma, GAD), startle responses were paradoxically diminished to all aversive contents. Patients whose expressed symptom profiles were intermediate between focal fearfulness and broad anxious-misery in both severity and chronicity exhibited a still heightened but more generalized physiological propensity to respond defensively. Importantly, this defensive physiological gradient—the inverse of self-reported distress—was evident not only between but also within disorders. These results highlight that fear circuitry could be dysregulated in chronic, pervasive anxiety, and preliminary functional neuroimaging findings suggest that deficient amygdala recruitment could underlie attenuated reflex responding. In summary, adaptive defensive engagement during imagery may be compromised by long-term dysphoria and stress—a phenomenon

  7. STELLA Experiment - Microbunch Diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, P.; Liu, Y.; Cline, D. B.; Babzien, M.; Gallardo, J. C.; Kusche, K. P.; Pogorelsky, I. V.; Skaritka, J.; van Steenbergen, A.; Yakimenko, V.; Kimura, W. D.

    1998-07-01

    A microbunch diagnostic system is built at the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) of Brookhaven National Laboratory for monitoring microbunches (10-fs bunch length) produced by the Inverse Free Electron Laser accelerator in Staged Electron Laser Acceleration experiment. It is similar to one already demonstrated at the ATF. With greatly improved beam optics conditions higher order harmonic coherent transition radiation will be measurable to determine the microbunch length and shape.

  8. Advanced diagnostic graphics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, M.A.; Petersen, R.J.; Clark, M.T.; Gertman, D.I.

    1981-01-01

    This paper reports US NRC-sponsored research at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) involving evaluation of computer-based diagnostic graphics. The specific targets of current evaluations are multivariate data display formats which may be used in Safety Parameter Display Systems (SPDS) being developed for nuclear power plant control rooms. The purpose of the work is to provide a basis for NRC action in regulating licensee SPDSs or later computer/cathode ray tube (CRT) applications in nuclear control rooms

  9. Molecular diagnostics in endodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Rechenberg, Dan-Krister; Zehnder, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Recent systematic reviews have substantiated the fact that current testing methods to assess the inflammatory state of the pulp and the periapical tissues are of limited value. Consequently, it may be time to search for alternative routes in endodontic diagnostics. Molecular assessment methods could be the future. However, in the field of endodontics, the research in that direction is only about to evolve. Because pulpal and periradicular diseases are related to opportunistic infections, diag...

  10. Molecular Diagnostics of ?-Thalassemia

    OpenAIRE

    Atanasovska, B; Bozhinovski, G; Chakalova, L; Kocheva, S; Karanfilski, O; Plaseska-Karanfiska, D

    2012-01-01

    A high-quality hemoglobinopathy diagnosis is based on the results of a number of tests including assays for molecular identification of causative mutations. We describe the current diagnostic strategy for the identification of ?-thalassemias and hemoglobin (Hb) variants at the International Reference Laboratory for Haemoglobinopathies, Research Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (RCGEB) ?Georgi D. Efremov,? Skopje, Republic of Macedonia. Our overall approach and most of the meth...

  11. Equipment for isotope diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platz, W.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns an improvement of equipment for isotope diagnostics allowing to mark special intensity ranges of the recorded measurements by means of different colors. For undisturbed operation it is of advantage to avoid electric circuits between movable and unmovable parts of the color recorder. According to the invention, long gear wheels of glass fiber-reinforced polyamide are used for these connections. (ORU) [de

  12. RFQ1 diagnostic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidley, B.G.; Arbique, G.M.; de Jong, M.S.; McMichael, G.E.; Michel, W.L.; Smith, B.H.

    1991-01-01

    The diagnostic devices in use on RFQ1 will be described. They consist of a double-slit emittance-measuring unit, a 45 degree deflection energy-analysis magnet, parametric current transformers, optical beam sensors, beam-stop current monitors, and an x-ray end-point analyzer. All of these devices are able to operate up to the full output current of RFQ1 (75 mA cw at 0.6 MeV)

  13. Idiopathic chondrolysis - diagnostic difficulties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, K.; Scougall, J.; Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children, Sydney

    1984-01-01

    Four cases of idiopathic chondrolysis of the hip in three white girls and one Maori girl are reported. The authors stress the causes why a disease with characteristic clinical and radiographic appearances and normal biochemical findings presents diagnostic difficulties. It is suspected that idiopathic chondrolysis is a metabolic disorder of chondrocytes, triggered by environment circumstances in susceptible individuals. Idiopathic chondrolysis is probably one of the most common causes of coxarthrosis in women. (orig.)

  14. Radiological diagnostics in hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moedder, U.; Kuhn, F.P.; Gruetzner, G.

    1991-01-01

    The most important radiologically detectable effects of the primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism of the skeletal system and the periarticular soft tissue structures are presented. In the following sensitivity and specificity of radiological imaging - sonography, scintigraphy, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, arteriography and selective venous sampling - in the preoperative diagnostic of the parathyroid adenomas are discussed. Therefore, radiological imaging can be omitted before primary surgery. It was only in secondary surgery that radiological process proved useful and a guide during surgical intervention. (orig.) [de

  15. Thioaptamer Diagnostic System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AM Biotechnologies (AM) will develop a diagnostic system in response to SBIR Topic X10.01 Reusable Diagnostic Lab Technology that will simultaneously detect and...

  16. Molecular diagnostics of periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korona-Głowniak, Izabela; Siwiec, Radosław; Berger, Marcin; Malm, Anna; Szymańska, Jolanta

    2017-01-28

    The microorganisms that form dental plaque are the main cause of periodontitis. Their identification and the understanding of the complex relationships and interactions that involve these microorganisms, environmental factors and the host's health status enable improvement in diagnostics and targeted therapy in patients with periodontitis. To this end, molecular diagnostics techniques (both techniques based on the polymerase chain reaction and those involving nucleic acid analysis via hybridization) come increasingly into use. On the basis of a literature review, the following methods are presented: polymerase chain reaction (PCR), real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR), 16S rRNA-encoding gene sequencing, checkerboard and reverse-capture checkerboard hybridization, microarrays, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE), as well as terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) and next generation sequencing (NGS). The advantages and drawbacks of each method in the examination of periopathogens are indicated. The techniques listed above allow fast detection of even small quantities of pathogen present in diagnostic material and prove particularly useful to detect microorganisms that are difficult or impossible to grow in a laboratory.

  17. Molecular diagnostics of periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Korona-Głowniak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The microorganisms that form dental plaque are the main cause of periodontitis. Their identification and the understanding of the complex relationships and interactions that involve these microorganisms, environmental factors and the host’s health status enable improvement in diagnostics and targeted therapy in patients with periodontitis. To this end, molecular diagnostics techniques (both techniques based on the polymerase chain reaction and those involving nucleic acid analysis via hybridization come increasingly into use. On the basis of a literature review, the following methods are presented: polymerase chain reaction (PCR, real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR, 16S rRNA-encoding gene sequencing, checkerboard and reverse-capture checkerboard hybridization, microarrays, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE, temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE, as well as terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP and next generation sequencing (NGS. The advantages and drawbacks of each method in the examination of periopathogens are indicated. The techniques listed above allow fast detection of even small quantities of pathogen present in diagnostic material and prove particularly useful to detect microorganisms that are difficult or impossible to grow in a laboratory.

  18. XML Diagnostics Description Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neto, A.; Fernandes, H.; Varandas, C.; Lister, J.; Yonekawa, I.

    2006-01-01

    A standard for the self-description of fusion plasma diagnostics will be presented, based on the Extensible Markup Language (XML). The motivation is to maintain and organise the information on all the components of a laboratory experiment, from the hardware to the access security, to save time and money when problems arises. Since there is no existing standard to organise this kind of information, every Association stores and organises each experiment in different ways. This can lead to severe problems when the organisation schema is poorly documented or written in national languages. The exchange of scientists, researchers and engineers between laboratories is a common practice nowadays. Sometimes they have to install new diagnostics or to update existing ones and frequently they lose a great deal of time trying to understand the currently installed system. The most common problems are: no documentation available; the person who understands it has left; documentation written in the national language. Standardisation is the key to solving all the problems mentioned. From the commercial information on the diagnostic (component supplier; component price) to the hardware description (component specifications; drawings) to the operation of the equipment (finite state machines) through change control (who changed what and when) and internationalisation (information at least in the native language and in English), a common XML schema will be proposed. This paper will also discuss an extension of these ideas to the self-description of ITER plant systems, since the problems will be identical. (author)

  19. SNS Diagnostics Timing Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Cary D; Murphy, Darryl J; Pogge, James; Purcell, John D; Sundaram, Madhan

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator systems will deliver a 1.0 GeV, 1.4 MW proton beam to a liquid mercury target for neutron scattering research. The accelerator complex consists of a 1 GeV linear accelerator, an accumulator ring and associated transport lines. The SNS diagnostics platform is PC-based running Windows XP Embedded for its OS and LabVIEW as its programming language. Coordinating timing among the various diagnostics instruments with the generation of the beam pulse is a challenging task that we have chosen to divide into three phases. First, timing was derived from VME based systems. In the second phase, described in this paper, timing pulses are generated by an in house designed PCI timing card installed in ten diagnostics PCs. Using fan-out modules, enough triggers were generated for all instruments. This paper describes how the Timing NAD (Network Attached Device) was rapidly developed using our NAD template, LabVIEW's PCI driver wizard, and LabVIEW Channel Access library. The NAD...

  20. On the cost/delay tradeoff of wireless delay tolerant geographic routing

    OpenAIRE

    Tasiopoulos, Argyrios; Tsiaras, Christos; Toumpis, Stavros

    2012-01-01

    In Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs), there is a fundamental tradeoff between the aggregate transport cost of a packet and the delay in its delivery. We study this tradeoff in the context of geographical routing in wireless DTNs.We ?rst specify the optimal cost/delay tradeoff, i.e., the tradeoff under optimal network operation, using a dynamic network construction termed the Cost/Delay Evolving Graph (C/DEG) and the Optimal Cost/Delay Curve (OC/DC), a function that gives the minimum possible agg...