WorldWideScience

Sample records for diabetic male rats

  1. Melatonin improves spatial navigation memory in male diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrin Babaei-Balderlou

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of melatonin as an antioxidant on spatial navigation memory in male diabetic rats. Thirty-two male white Wistar rats weighing 200 ± 20 g were divided into four groups, randomly: control, melatonin, diabetic and melatonin-treated diabetic. Experimental diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg kg-1 streptozotocin. Melatonin was injected (10 mg kg-1 day-1, ip for 2 weeks after 21 days of diabetes induction. At the end of administration period, the spatial navigation memory of rats was evaluated by cross-arm maze. In this study lipid peroxidation levels, glutathione-peroxidase and catalase activities were measured in hippocampus. Diabetes caused to significant decrease in alternation percent in the cross-arm maze, as a spatial memory index, compared to the control group (p < 0.05, whereas administration of melatonin prevented the spatial memory deficit in diabetic rats. Also melatonin injection significantly increased the spatial memory in intact animals compared to the control group (p < 0.05. Assessment of hippocampus homogenates indicated an increase in lipid peroxidation levels and a decrease in GSH-Px and CAT activities in the diabetic group compared to the control animals, while melatonin administration ameliorated these indices in diabetic rats. In conclusion, diabetes induction leads to debilitation of spatial navigation memory in rats, and the melatonin treatment improves the memory presumably through the reduction of oxidative stress in hippocampus of diabetic rats.

  2. Effect of Acute Administration of loganin on Spatial Memory in Diabetic Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gisou Mohaddes; Saeideh Hasani Azami; Shirin Babri

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Diabetes is associated with memory and learning disorder. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of acute oral administration of loganin on memory in diabetic male rats. Methods: 42 male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were divided into six groups: Control, Diabetic (1 week), Diabetic (12 weeks), Loganin, Diabetic (1 week) + Loganin, Diabetic (12 weeks) + Loganin. Diabetes was induced by IP injection of Streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). Loganin (40 mg/kg, po) was administrate...

  3. Effect Of Boswellia Carterii Birdw On Carbohydrate Metabolism In Diabetic Male Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Eman G. E. Helal*, Ashraf M. Mostafa**, Fawzy A. Ashour

    2005-01-01

    In the current study, thirty male adult albino rats were used to investigate the effect of Boswellia Carterii Birdw (BCB) on carbohydrate metabolism in alloxan-induced diabetes. Rats were divided into three equal groups, control, diabetic non treated and diabetic BCB treated groups. After thirty days of treatment five rats of each group were sacrificed and the others were left without any additional treatment for another 15 days (recovery period) then were sacrificed. The body weight of each ...

  4. Effect of Kaempferia parviflora on sexual performance in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lert-Amornpat, T; Maketon, C; Fungfuang, W

    2017-03-10

    Kaempferia parviflora Wall. Ex.Baker or Krachidum (KP) has been used locally in medicine and food. It has been claimed that KP has aphrodisia properties; however, no scientific data in support of this function in diabetic model have been reported. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of KP on sexual behaviour and sperm parameter in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male rats. Diabetes was induced in twenty male rats by STZ and divided into four groups: diabetic control group, and 3 treatment groups where KP was dose at 140, 280 and 420 mg/kg orally once a day for 6 weeks. Five normal control rats were treated with vehicle. The body weight, blood glucose, food intake, epididymal sperm parameter, sexual behaviour and serum testosterone level were evaluated. The results showed that KP treatment has no effect on the body weight, blood glucose and food intake in diabetic rats. A significant increase in sperm density in diabetic rats was observed (p < .05) at highest dose of KP. Furthermore, KP treatment demonstrated a significant recovery of sexual behaviour and serum testosterone levels in diabetic rats. These results confirm that KP exhibits aphrodisiac properties that improve the sperm density, testosterone level and sexual performance of STZ-induced diabetic rats. © 2017 The Authors. Andrologia Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Effects of sesame oil on the reproductive parameters of diabetes mellitus-induced male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Zahra; Tabatabaei, Seyed Reza Fatemi; Mazaheri, Yazdan; Barati, Farid; Morovvati, Hasan

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of sesame oil on the reproductive parameters of diabetic male Wistar rats. The adult male rats in a split plot design were divided into normal (n=10), normal 5% (n=5; 5% sesame oil enriched diet), diabetic (Streptozocin induced diabetes; n=9), diabetic 5% (n=9; 5% sesame oil enriched diet), and diabetic 10% (n=9; 10% sesame oil enriched diet) groups. Diet supplementation continued for 56 days. Sesame oil supplementation did not reduce the plasma glucose concentration of rats in the diabetic groups (p>0.05). The total spermatogonia, spermatocytes, Leydig cells/tubule, and the germ cell to Sertoli cell ratio were lower in the diabetic rats than the normal ones (psesame oil to the diet (psesame oil supplementation did not improve them. Incorporation of sesame oil into the diet improved the plasma testosterone concentration of the diabetic rats in a dose-dependent manner (psesame oil supplementation improved the reproductive parameters of diabetic rats at the levels of the testicular microstructure and function, but was not effective in protecting the epididymal sperm.

  6. Effect of Acute Administration of loganin on Spatial Memory in Diabetic Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisou Mohaddes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Diabetes is associated with memory and learning disorder. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of acute oral administration of loganin on memory in diabetic male rats. Methods: 42 male Wistar rats (250-300 g were divided into six groups: Control, Diabetic (1 week, Diabetic (12 weeks, Loganin, Diabetic (1 week + Loganin, Diabetic (12 weeks + Loganin. Diabetes was induced by IP injection of Streptozotocin (60 mg/kg. Loganin (40 mg/kg, po was administrated 1 hour before test. Then, spatial memory was compared between groups with Morris Water Maze tests. Results: Administration of loganin during acquisition, significantly (p<0.05 decreased both escape latency and traveled distance to find hidden platform in 1 and 12 weeks diabetic rats. In evaluation of recall phase of memory, loganin significantly (p<0.05 increased time and distance spent in the target quadrant in 1 and 12 weeks diabetic rats. Conclusion: Acute administration of loganin could improve spatial memory in diabetic rats.

  7. Antioxidant and androgenic effects of dietary ginger on reproductive function of male diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghlissi, Zohra; Atheymen, Rim; Boujbiha, Mouhamed Ali; Sahnoun, Zouheir; Makni Ayedi, Fatma; Zeghal, Khaled; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Hakim, Ahmed

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluated the antioxidant and androgenic properties of ginger roots on the reproductive function of male diabetic rats. Animals were divided into three groups; the control (Control), diabetic (Diab) and diabetic fed with dietary ginger for 30 d (Diab + Z). Thereafter, blood samples were collected and reproductive organs (testis, epididymis, prostate and seminal vesicle) were removed for determination of sperm parameters, malondialdehyde (MDA) level, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate and lactate aminotransferase (AST and ALT) activities. Dietary ginger decreased blood glucose and MDA level, increased reproductive organ weights and testosterone level, improved semen quantity and motility, and ameliorated the SOD, CAT and GPx activities as well as testis AST, ALT, LDH and ALP activities. Intake of ginger roots improves the antioxidant and androgenic reproductive function of male diabetic rats in addition to its antidiabetic property.

  8. The Antidiabetic Activity of Nigella sativa and Propolis on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes and Diabetic Nephropathy in Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Seeni, Madeha N.; Bakhashwain, Amal S.

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the ameliorative effect of Nigella sativa and propolis methanol extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats and treating diabetic nephropathy. Forty male Albino rats were divided into four groups; the first group was the negative control fed standard diet. The other 30 rats were injected with streptozotocin to induce diabetes by a single intravenous injection and then divided equally into three groups; the second group was the positive diabetic control; the third and the fourth groups were treated orally with 20% w/w Nigella sativa seeds methanol extract and propolis methanol extract (20% w/w), respectively. The rats of the second group showed increased glucose levels and lipid peroxide accompanied with reduction in superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione-S-transferase enzyme activities compared with the negative control. Carboxymethyl lysine, interleukin-6, and immunoglobulins were also increased as a result of diabetes. Kidney function parameters were also elevated, while potassium and sodium levels were decreased. Moreover, tissues of kidney and pancreas showed severe histopathological changes. Treating the diabetic rats with Nigella sativa and propolis methanol extract in the third and fourth groups, respectively, ameliorated all altered biochemical and pathological examinations approaching the negative control. Propolis was more effective than Nigella sativa. PMID:28298934

  9. Hypoglycemic effect of Brassica juncea (seeds) on streptozotocin induced diabetic male albino rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T Thirumalai; S Viviyan Therasa; EK Elumalai; E David

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of Brassica juncea (seeds) on streptozotocin induced diabetic male albino rats. Methods: Hypoglycemic activity of Brassica juncea (seeds) aqueous extract at a dose of 250, 350 and 450 mg/kg body weight was evaluated. Adult male Swiss albino rats of six numbers in each group was undertaken for study and evaluated. Results: The serum insulin levels were recorded a significant depletion in all groups, short term as well as long term diabetic animals, when compared to that of normal animals. A significant dosage dependent augmenting effect of the seed extract on the serum insulin was recorded in both short term as well as long term groups. Conclusions: The aqueous seed extract of Brassica juncea has potent hypoglycemic activity in male albino rat.

  10. Anti-diabetic effects of hydroalcohlic juglans regia male flower extract on blood glucose level and on liver enzymes activity in intact and diabetogenized adult male rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Ebrahim Hosseini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder resulting from defects in insulin secretion or function. Walnut is a nutrient used in traditional medicine to treat diabetes. In the current study, anti-diabetic effects of the Hydroalcoholic extract of walnut male flowers on diabetogenized rats by using Streptozocin were evaluated.   Materials and Methods: Seventy two adult male Wistar rats weighing 200-225 g each were randomly selected and divided into three main groups, i.e. control, diabetic, and non-diabetic(intact The control group included 8 rats (n=8. The diabetic and non-diabetic groups covered 32 rats each. Each of these groups were divided into four 8 rats including the control, diabetic, experimental 1, 2, and 3 which received 2, 4, or 6 g/kg of the extract per day for 15 days ,respectively. The three diabetic groups were each treated with the above doses of the extract, and the fourth group received no treatment. Diabetes was induced in diabetic rats through intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg of Streptozotocin. At the end, blood samples were taken from the experimental and control groups and the serum levels of insulin and glucose were measured.   Results: A significant reduction in blood sugar and increase of insulin in diabetics receiving Hydroalcoholic extract of male flowers walnut was observed compared with non-diabetic ones.   Conclusion: Hydroalcoholic extract of male Walnut flowers, due to increasing insulin, causes reduction of blood sugar.

  11. Effects of Atrazine on Reproductive Health of Nondiabetic and Diabetic Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Jestadi, Dinesh Babu; Phaniendra, Alugoju; Babji, Undru; Shanmuganathan, Bhavatharini; Periyasamy, Latha

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of low dose of atrazine on reproductive system of male Wistar rats. 16 rats were divided into four groups of four animals each. Group I (nondiabetic) and group III (diabetic) animals served as controls that received safflower oil (300 μL/kg bw/day), respectively. Group II (nondiabetic) and group IV (diabetic) animals received atrazine (300 μg/kg bw/day). Nonsignificant decrease in the activities of antioxidant and steroidogenic enzym...

  12. The effect of Nigella sativa on learning and memory in male diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad reza Jalali nodoushan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract   Introduction: Diabetes mellitus accompanies with disturbances in learning, memory, and cognitive skills in the human society and experimental animals. Considering the beneficial antidiabetic potential of Nigella sativum (NS , this research study was conducted to evaluate the effect of chronic consumption of NS on learning and memory in diabetic rats using passive avoidance and Y-maze tests. Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, NS-treated control, diabetic, and NS-treated diabetic groups. NS treatment continued for 1 month. For induction of diabetes, streptozotocin was injected i.p. at a single dose of 60 mg/kg. For evaluation of learning and memory, initial latency (IL and step-through latency (STL were determined at the end of study using passive avoidance test. Meanwhile, alternation behavior percentage was determined using Y maze. Results: There was a significant increase (p<0.05 in IL in diabetic and NS-treated diabetic groups after 4 weeks as compared to control group. In this respect, there was no significant difference between diabetic and NS-treated diabetic groups. On the other hand, STL significantly decreased (p<0.05 in diabetic group and significantly increased (p<0.01 in NS-treated diabetic group as compared to control group at the end of study. In addition, results of Y-maze test showed that there is a significant difference between diabetic and NS-treated diabetic groups (p<0.05 regarding alternation behavior. Discussion: In summary, chronic oral administration of NS could enhance the consolidation and recall capability of stored information and spatial memory in diabetic animals.  

  13. Combination of Vildagliptin and Pioglitazone in Experimental Type 2 Diabetes in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refaat, Rowaida; Sakr, Ahmed; Salama, Mona; El Sarha, Ashgan

    2016-09-01

    Preclinical Research The majority of studies on vildagliptin and pioglitazone have focused on their combination in glycemic control. The aim of the present study was to investigate their effects in combination on (i) hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and inflammation and (ii) on organs involved in the pathophysiology of diabetes, pancreas, kidney and liver. Type 2 diabetes was induced using low-dose streptozotocin in male Wistar rats. Diabetic rats were treated for 4 weeks, with vildagliptin (10 mg/kg/day), pioglitazone (10 mg/kg/day) and their combination. Diabetic rats showed elevated fasting serum glucose, fasting serum insulin, serum transaminases together with a deleterious lipid profile and elevated serum creatinine and urea concentrations. Serum levels of the inflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nitrite/nitrate were also elevated compared to normal rats. Oxidative stress was manifested by lowered hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Pancreatic sections from diabetic rats showed degenerated islets with poorly maintained architecture that was prevented by drug treatment. Pioglitazone was generally more effective than vildagliptin in the studied parameters except for the lipid profile where the effect of both drugs was comparable and for the liver enzymes and renal parameters where vildagliptin was more effective. The combination of vildagliptin and pioglitazone produced superior effects than either drug alone. Drug Dev Res 77 : 251-257, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A protective role of arecoline hydrobromide in experimentally induced male diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Indraneel; Das, Joydeep; Maiti, Biswaranjan; Chatterji, Urmi

    2015-01-01

    Arecoline, the most potent and abundant alkaloid of betel nut, causes elevation of serum testosterone and androgen receptor expression in rat prostate, in addition to increase in serum insulin levels in rats, leading to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes-like conditions. This study investigated the role of arecoline on the reproductive status of experimentally induced type 1 diabetic rats. Changes in the cellular architecture were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Blood glucose, serum insulin, testosterone, FSH, and LH were assayed. Fructose content of the coagulating gland and sialic acid content of the seminal vesicles were also analyzed. Arecoline treatment for 10 days at a dose of 10 mg/kg of body weight markedly facilitated β-cell regeneration and reversed testicular and sex accessory dysfunctions by increasing the levels of serum insulin and gonadotropins in type 1 diabetic rats. Critical genes related to β-cell regeneration, such as pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (pdx-1) and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT-2), were found to be activated by arecoline at the protein level. It can thus be suggested that arecoline is effective in ameliorating the detrimental effects caused by insulin deficiency on gonadal and male sex accessories in rats with type 1 diabetes.

  15. A Protective Role of Arecoline Hydrobromide in Experimentally Induced Male Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indraneel Saha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Arecoline, the most potent and abundant alkaloid of betel nut, causes elevation of serum testosterone and androgen receptor expression in rat prostate, in addition to increase in serum insulin levels in rats, leading to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes-like conditions. This study investigated the role of arecoline on the reproductive status of experimentally induced type 1 diabetic rats. Methods. Changes in the cellular architecture were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Blood glucose, serum insulin, testosterone, FSH, and LH were assayed. Fructose content of the coagulating gland and sialic acid content of the seminal vesicles were also analyzed. Results. Arecoline treatment for 10 days at a dose of 10 mg/kg of body weight markedly facilitated β-cell regeneration and reversed testicular and sex accessory dysfunctions by increasing the levels of serum insulin and gonadotropins in type 1 diabetic rats. Critical genes related to β-cell regeneration, such as pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (pdx-1 and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT-2, were found to be activated by arecoline at the protein level. Conclusion. It can thus be suggested that arecoline is effective in ameliorating the detrimental effects caused by insulin deficiency on gonadal and male sex accessories in rats with type 1 diabetes.

  16. Hepatocellular adenoma with severe fatty change in a male Spontaneously Diabetic Torii rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniai-Riya, Eriko; Miyajima, Katsuhiro; Kakimoto, Kochi; Ohta, Takeshi; Yasui, Yuzo; Kemmochi, Yusuke; Anagawa-Nakamura, Akiko; Toyoda, Kaoru; Takahashi, Akemi; Shoda, Toshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    The Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) rat is a rat model of nonobese type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hepatocellular adenomas have not been reported in this model. We report a hepatocellular adenoma with severe fatty change in a male 42-week-old SDT rat fed a high-fat diet. At necropsy, the animal had a whitish nodular mass of approximately 2 cm in diameter in the right medial lobe. Histologically, the mass was well demarcated from the surrounding tissues, slightly compressing the adjacent hepatic parenchyma and widely compartmented by fibrous connective tissues. The mass consisted of vacuolated tumor cells resembling hepatocytes with a solid and occasionally trabecular growth pattern. Abundant neutral lipids, which were positive for fat with Oil Red O stain and which ultrastructurally had moderately dense material, were contained within the vacuoles of the tumor cells. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells showed an increase in immunoreactivity or number for Cytokeratin 8/18 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen but were negative for mesenchymal markers. From these findings, the mass could be distinguished from hepatocellular hyperplasia and was diagnosed as hepatocellular adenoma. In rats, hepatocellular adenoma accompanied by severe fatty change is rare, and this is the first report of a hepatocellular tumor with severe fatty change in a SDT rat.

  17. Hepatocellular adenoma with severe fatty change in a male Spontaneously Diabetic Torii rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniai-Riya, Eriko; Miyajima, Katsuhiro; Kakimoto, Kochi; Ohta, Takeshi; Yasui, Yuzo; Kemmochi, Yusuke; Anagawa-Nakamura, Akiko; Toyoda, Kaoru; Takahashi, Akemi; Shoda, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) rat is a rat model of nonobese type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hepatocellular adenomas have not been reported in this model. We report a hepatocellular adenoma with severe fatty change in a male 42-week-old SDT rat fed a high-fat diet. At necropsy, the animal had a whitish nodular mass of approximately 2 cm in diameter in the right medial lobe. Histologically, the mass was well demarcated from the surrounding tissues, slightly compressing the adjacent hepatic parenchyma and widely compartmented by fibrous connective tissues. The mass consisted of vacuolated tumor cells resembling hepatocytes with a solid and occasionally trabecular growth pattern. Abundant neutral lipids, which were positive for fat with Oil Red O stain and which ultrastructurally had moderately dense material, were contained within the vacuoles of the tumor cells. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells showed an increase in immunoreactivity or number for Cytokeratin 8/18 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen but were negative for mesenchymal markers. From these findings, the mass could be distinguished from hepatocellular hyperplasia and was diagnosed as hepatocellular adenoma. In rats, hepatocellular adenoma accompanied by severe fatty change is rare, and this is the first report of a hepatocellular tumor with severe fatty change in a SDT rat. PMID:28190927

  18. Hepatoprotective, Antihyperlipidemic, and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Moringa oleifera in Diabetic-induced Damage in Male Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omodanisi, Elizabeth I.; Aboua, Yapo G.; Chegou, Novel N.; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The number of individuals with diabetes is increasing daily, and diabetes is presently estimated to affect about 422 million adults worldwide. Conventional drugs used to treat diabetes are not without severe side effects, accessibility, and affordability. This study elucidates the potential effects of Moringa oleifera (MO) leaves extract to manage and treat diabetes induced in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 12/group): NC – nondiabetic rats (positive control), MO – nondiabetic-treated rats, DM – diabetic rats (negative control), DM + MO – diabetic-treated rats. Hepatic enzymes and biochemical parameters as well as antioxidant capacity and inflammatory cytokine levels were assessed. Levels of low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol were evaluated. Results: Oral administration of methanolic extract of MO (250 mg/kg) to diabetic rats for 42 days showed a significant reduction in hepatic enzyme markers and normalized lipid profile parameters in the serum compared to normal control group. Treatment also increased the level of antioxidant capacity and alleviated inflammatory biomarkers of the liver. Histology sections of the liver tissue showed protective effect of MO in treated rats. Conclusions: MO showed hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and lipid-lowering effects against streptozotocin-induced hepatotoxicity. Histological section demonstrated specific alterations in the liver of the diabetic and nondiabetic male Wistar rats while MO treatment revealed improvement in liver alterations. Abbreviations Used: IL 1: Interleukin 1, IL 6: Interleukin 16, MCP-1: Monocyte chemotactic protein, TNF-α: Tumor Necrotic factor alpha, ROS: Reactive oxygen species, MO: Moringa oleifera, STZ: Streptozotocin, SRC: Standard rat chow, ALP: Alkaline phosphatase, AST: Aspartate aminotransferase, ALT: Alanine aminotransferase, ORAC: Oxygen radical absorbance

  19. Effect of Amonium Vanadate Nano-Particles on Experimental Diabetes and Biochemical Factors in Male Spargue-Dawly Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Negar Keyshams; S. Reza Fatemi; Hossein Najafzadehvarzi; Ali Ashrafi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Vanadium compounds have antidiabetic, but there is no study about the antidiabetic effects of ammonium monovanadate nono-particles. In this study, antidiabetic effect of ammonium monovanadate was compared with its nonoparticles.Materials and Methods: In this experimental and animal modeling study, 42 male Sprague Dawley rats were divided in 6 groups (each group 7 rats). Diabetes was induced by IP injection of 60 mg/kg streptozicin to five groups. One normal group and one diabetic ...

  20. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of guar gum on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarghandian Saeed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Herbal medicine is widely used in the treatment of diseases like diabetes mellitus. We investigated the effects of guar gum in diabetic rats for the reduction of the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Dietary pattern emphasizing foods high in complex carbohydrates and fiber are associated with low blood glucose and cholesterol levels. Materials and Methods: Diet containing 0%, 5%, 10% and 20% (w/w guar gum was fed to diabetic rats for 28 days. Blood serum glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, atherogenic index levels, body weights and food intake were monitored at 0, 7.14 and 28 days after induction of diabetes. Results: In spite of the fact that diabetes elevated blood lipids in all rats after 14 days, the guar gum diet significantly decreased the serum concentration of cholesterol, triacylglicerols and LDL-C and atherogenic index. The most significant result in this study was the reduction of blood glucose in diabetic rats treated with the guar gum diet after 28 days versus non- and glibenclamide-treated rats. The gum promoted a general improvement in the condition of the diabetic rats in body weight and food intake in comparison with nontreated rats. Conclusion: The results of this research suggest that guar gum was significantly effective in comparison with glibenclamide in the treatment of hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia in diabetes rats. Therefore, it may be suggested as a reliable fiber in diabetic regimes in diabetic patients.

  1. French maritime pine bark extract Pycnogenol reduces thromboxane generation in blood from diabetic male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocun, Marek; Ulicna, Olga; Muchova, Jana; Durackova, Zdenka; Watala, Cezary

    2008-03-01

    The protective effect of Pycnogenol against cardiovascular diseases was clearly demonstrated. Nevertheless, little is known about its antithrombotic effect, especially in diabetes associated with enhanced thromboxane synthesis leading to severe vascular complications. Therefore, the main purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of long-term Pycnogenol intake on synthesis of prothrombotic thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)) in animal model of insulin-dependent diabetes. The levels of main plasma TXA(2) metabolite, thromboxane B(2) (TXB(2)), were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Diabetes was induced in Wistar male rats by single injection of streptozotocin, resulting after 8 weeks in significant body weight reduction, increased plasma glucose concentrations, and decreased plasma C-peptide levels, compared to non-diabetic animals. There was no significant reduction of plasma glucose concentrations after Pycnogenol ingestion. It was found, however, that daily administration of either Pycnogenol (5mg/kg b.wt.) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, 10mg/kg b.wt.) significantly reduced plasma TXB(2) concentrations, and this inhibitory effect was higher in the latter case. Nonetheless, simultaneous administration of Pycnogenol and ASA did not improve effectiveness of ASA-mediated decrease in TXB(2) generation. The results of the present study suggest that Pycnogenol might have a beneficial antithrombotic effect when administered alone or as a supplementation of standard antiplatelet therapy in diabetic patients.

  2. The effect of Prosopis farcta beans extract on blood biochemical parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashtban, Mohsen; Sarir, Hadi; Omidi, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of herbals in the treatment of diabetes mellitus is a well-established practice in traditional medicine. The medicinal plant Prosopis farcta has some antioxidant activity, which may be useful in diabetic patients. Since, there is no report on the antidiabetic effect of the P. farcta, this study evaluated antidiabetic activity of P. farcta bean extract (PFE) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Hyperglycemia was induced in male albino Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of STZ (55 mg/kg body weight [BW]), after which, the animals were randomly allocated into six experimental groups as follows: Group 1: Normal rats (received normal saline), Groups 2 and 3: Normal rats received PFE; (50 and 75 mg/kg BW), Group 4: Diabetic control rats, Group 5: Diabetic rats received PFE (50 mg/kg BW), Group 6: Diabetic rats received PFE (75 mg/kg BW). Three days after induction of diabetes, rats were received an extract of PFE orally for 12 days. Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture to determine liver enzymes; aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT), cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), high and low density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL). Results: The administration of PFE (50 and 75 mg/kg) in STZ-induced diabetic rats significantly reduced the blood glucose levels when compared with the STZ-control group (227.2 ± 12.00 and 259.6 ± 7.03 vs. 454.6 ± 12.66, P < 0.001). PFE in diabetic groups had no significant effect on the levels of cholesterol, TG, HDL, LDL, AST, and ALT compare to the STZ-control group. Conclusion: P. farcta could reduce blood glucose in diabetic rats. PMID:27512685

  3. Anti-diabetic and anti-oxidant effects of Zingiber officinale on alloxan-induced and insulin-resistant diabetic male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranloye, B O; Arikawe, A P; Rotimi, G; Sogbade, A O

    2011-11-23

    This study was designed to investigate the hypoglycaemic and anti-oxidant effects of Zingiber officinale on experimentally induced diabetes mellitus using alloxan and insulin resistance. Aqueous extracts of raw ginger was administered orally at a chosen dose of 500mg/ml for a period of 4 weeks to alloxan-induced diabetic and insulin resistant diabetic rats. The experimental rats exhibited hyperglycaemia accompanied with weight loss to confirm their diabetic state. Ginger effectively reduced fasting blood glucose and malonydealdehyde levels in alloxan-induced diabetic and insulin resistant diabetic rats compared to control and ginger only treated rats. Furthermore, ginger increased serum insulin level and also enhanced insulin sensitivity in alloxan-induced diabetic and insulin resistant diabetic rats compared to control and ginger only treated rats. The results of the study clearly show that dietary ginger has hypoglycaemic effect, enhances insulin synthesis in male rats and has high antioxidant activity. One of the likely mechanisms is the action of malonydealdehyde, which acts as a scavenger of oxygen radicals.

  4. Effect of repeated stress in early childhood on the onset of diabetes mellitus in male Spontaneously Diabetic Torii rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ookawa, Katumasa; Mochizuki, Kazuo; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko

    2008-02-01

    Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) rats were discovered from SD rats and represent a confirmed spontaneous type 2 diabetes mellitus model. We investigated the effect of repeated stress in early childhood on SDT rats fed a high-fat diet, on locomotor activity and on the onset of diabetes mellitus. Regarding stress, a water immersion-restraint stress (WIRS) burden was applied 10 times every other day from 4 weeks of age. The results of the study showed, that the locomotor activity of the young SDT rats was clearly lower than that of the SD rats, and their locomotor activity was inferred to be congenitally low. In addition, the stress-burdened SDT rats showed delayed onset of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance compared with the rats not receiving stress burden. The locomotor activity of SDT rats is less than that of SD rats, and they SDT rats are thought to have poor at spontaneous energy expenditure. On the other hand, the feeding efficiency of the WIRS-burdened SDT rats was reduced, and in comparison with the SDT rats with no WIRS burden, energy expenditure was increased; this is suggested to influence the onset of diabetes mellitus.

  5. Protective Effects of Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid in Lead Acetate Exposed Diabetic Male Rats: Evaluation of Blood Biochemical Parameters and Testicular Histopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza AYOUBI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of vitamin C against lead toxicity by measuring the blood parameters and studying histopathology of testis in diabetic male rats. Wister rats (42 were randomly assigned into7 groups: I healthy; II fed lead acetate only; III vitamin C administered only; IV diabetic; V diabetic rats administered by vitamin C; VI diabetic rats given lead acetate and VII diabetic rats received lead acetate and vitamin C. The diabetic and lead groups had higher glucose, cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and lower insulin and HDL concentration than the control group. It was found that vitamin C administration led to a lower level of blood glucose, cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides and higher HDL concentration in diabetic rats significantly. It was concluded that the antioxidant property of vitamin C resulted in reducing the oxidative stress complications of toxic levels of lead acetate in diabetic rats.

  6. Effects of Unilateral Nephrectomy on Renal Function in Male Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Fatty Rats: A Novel Obese Type 2 Diabetic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuda, Yoshiaki; Kemmochi, Yusuke; Maki, Mimi; Sano, Ryuhei; Toriniwa, Yasufumi; Ishii, Yukihito; Miyajima, Katsuhiro; Kakimoto, Kochi; Ohta, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    The Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) fatty rat is a new model for obese type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of 1/2 nephrectomy (Nx) on renal function and morphology and on blood pressure in SDT fatty rats. Male SDT fatty rats underwent 1/2 Nx or a sham operation (Sham). Subsequently, animals were studied with respect to renal function and histological alterations. Induction of 1/2 Nx in SDT fatty rats led to functional and morphological damage to the remnant kidney and to hypertension, which are considered main characteristics of chronic kidney disease, at a younger age compared with the sham group. In conclusion, the SDT fatty rat is useful in investigations to elucidate the pathogenesis of human diabetic nephropathy and in new drug discovery. PMID:25177706

  7. Effects of Unilateral Nephrectomy on Renal Function in Male Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Fatty Rats: A Novel Obese Type 2 Diabetic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Katsuda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT fatty rat is a new model for obese type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of 1/2 nephrectomy (Nx on renal function and morphology and on blood pressure in SDT fatty rats. Male SDT fatty rats underwent 1/2 Nx or a sham operation (Sham. Subsequently, animals were studied with respect to renal function and histological alterations. Induction of 1/2 Nx in SDT fatty rats led to functional and morphological damage to the remnant kidney and to hypertension, which are considered main characteristics of chronic kidney disease, at a younger age compared with the sham group. In conclusion, the SDT fatty rat is useful in investigations to elucidate the pathogenesis of human diabetic nephropathy and in new drug discovery.

  8. Effect of Three Different Types of Honey on Passive Avoidance Memory Process in the Male Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Sadeghmanesh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Honey is a natural product which has been known to have various nutritional benefits. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effect of oral administration of honey (sort of Yazd, Strabillus and Acacia on memory impairment in diabetes using passive avoidance learning test. Materials and Methods: 64 male Wistar rats (180-220 g were randomly divided into 8 groups (n = 8 each, including normal (control, diabetic control, honey-treated normal groups and honey-treated diabetic groups. The honey-treated groups were administrated by 1 g/kg/BW dose of organic honey (sort of Acacia, Strabillus and Yazd for the 8 weeks. Diabetes was induced by intrapritoneally injection of Streptozotocin (60 mg/kg. Passive avoidance learning test was used to evaluate learning and memory. Data were analyzed using SPSS 20 and OneWay ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis post-hoc tests. Results: Diabetic control group showed a significant increase in STLa compared with control group (P < 0.001. Diabetic groups received Yazd, Strabillus and Acacia honey compared to diabetic control group showed a significant decrease in STLa (P < 0.001. 24 and 48 hours after learning, diabetic groups received Yazd and Strabillus honey showed a significant increase (P < 0.001 and diabetic group received Acacia honey showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in STLr compared to diabetic control group. In the retrieval test, diabetic group received Yazd and Strabillus honey (P < 0.001 and diabetic group received Acacia honey (P < 0.01 showed a significant decrease in TDC compared to diabetic control group. Conclusions: Treatment with honey can improve memory possibly via reducing oxidative stress in the diabetic rats. It also possibly can affect some nerve pathways in certain areas of the brain effective on learning and memory.

  9. Modulatory effect of whey proteins in some cytokines involved in wound healing in male diabetic albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Salam, Bahaa Kenawy Abuel-Hussien

    2014-10-01

    The anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10) and the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necroses factor-alpha (TNF-α)) have important functions in wound healing. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether dietary supplementation with whey protein could enhance normal inflammatory responses during wound healing in diabetic rats. In this study, male albino rats were divided into a wounded control group, a wounded diabetic group, and a wounded diabetic group supplemented with whey protein orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. Tested rats showed increasing wound closure in rats treated with whey protein. In addition, after 4 days of wound, modulation in IL-4, IL-10, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α levels were detected. Statistical analysis of data showed significant difference between the whey-protein-treated group and either control or diabetic groups (P whey protein enhances the normal inflammatory responses during wound healing in diabetic rats by modulating the levels of some anti-inflammatory and inflammatory cytokines.

  10. Melatonin administration in diabetes: regulation of plasma Cr, V, and Mg in young male Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Alarcon, Miguel; Ruiz-Ojeda, Francisco J; Blanca-Herrera, Rosa M; Kaki, Abdullah; Adem, Abdu; Agil, Ahmad

    2014-03-01

    The use of melatonin, a neurohormone present in plants, represents an exciting approach for the maintenance of optimum health conditions. Melatonin administration ameliorates glucose homeostasis in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of melatonin in diabetes in relation to the levels and regulation of plasma chromium (Cr), vanadium (V), and magnesium (Mg) in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) and Zucker lean (ZL) rats. At the age of 6 weeks, ZDF (n = 30) and ZL (n = 30) groups were each subdivided into three groups: control (C) (n = 10), vehicle-treated (V') (n = 10) and melatonin-treated (M) (10 mg kg(-1) per day; n = 10) groups for a 6 week period. After treatment, plasma mineral concentrations were measured by flame (Mg) and electrothermal (Cr and V) atomic absorption spectrometry. No significant differences were found between the C and V' groups (p > 0.05). Plasma Mg levels were significantly lower in C-ZDF vs. C-ZL rats, demonstrating the presence of hypomagnesemia in this diabetes mellitus model. Plasma V and Cr levels were significantly higher in M-ZDF vs. C-ZDF rats. Plasma Mg levels in ZDF rats were not affected by melatonin treatment (p > 0.05). Melatonin administration ameliorates the diabetic status of ZDF rats by enhancing plasma Cr and V concentrations. This appears to be the first report of a beneficial effect of melatonin treatment on plasma Cr and V regulation in ZDF rats.

  11. Effect of Melatonin Intake on Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Male Reproductive Organs of Rats under Experimental Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina G. Gobbo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the antioxidant system response of male reproductive organs during early and late phases of diabetes and the influence of melatonin treatment. Melatonin was administered to five-week-old Wistar rats throughout the experiment, in drinking water (10 μg/kg b.w. Diabetes was induced at 13 weeks of age by streptozotocin (4.5 mg/100 g b.w., i.p. and animals were euthanized with 14 or 21 weeks old. Activities of catalase (CAT, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and lipid peroxidation were evaluated in prostate, testis, and epididymis. The enzymes activities and lipid peroxidation were not affected in testis and epididymis after one or eight weeks of diabetes. Prostate exhibited a 3-fold increase in GPx activity at short-term diabetes and at long-term diabetes there were 2- and 3-fold increase in CAT and GST, respectively (p≤0.01. Melatonin treatment to healthy rats caused a 47% increase in epididymal GPx activity in 14-week-old rats. In prostate, melatonin administration normalized GST activity at both ages and mitigated GPx at short-term and CAT at long-term diabetes. The testis and epididymis were less affected by diabetes than prostate. Furthermore, melatonin normalized the enzymatic disorders in prostate demonstrating its effective antioxidant role, even at low dosages.

  12. Effect of Melatonin Intake on Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Male Reproductive Organs of Rats under Experimental Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbo, Marina G; Costa, Carolina F Pereira; Silva, Danilo G Humberto; de Almeida, Eduardo A; Góes, Rejane M

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the antioxidant system response of male reproductive organs during early and late phases of diabetes and the influence of melatonin treatment. Melatonin was administered to five-week-old Wistar rats throughout the experiment, in drinking water (10 μg/kg b.w). Diabetes was induced at 13 weeks of age by streptozotocin (4.5 mg/100 g b.w., i.p.) and animals were euthanized with 14 or 21 weeks old. Activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and lipid peroxidation were evaluated in prostate, testis, and epididymis. The enzymes activities and lipid peroxidation were not affected in testis and epididymis after one or eight weeks of diabetes. Prostate exhibited a 3-fold increase in GPx activity at short-term diabetes and at long-term diabetes there were 2- and 3-fold increase in CAT and GST, respectively (p ≤ 0.01). Melatonin treatment to healthy rats caused a 47% increase in epididymal GPx activity in 14-week-old rats. In prostate, melatonin administration normalized GST activity at both ages and mitigated GPx at short-term and CAT at long-term diabetes. The testis and epididymis were less affected by diabetes than prostate. Furthermore, melatonin normalized the enzymatic disorders in prostate demonstrating its effective antioxidant role, even at low dosages.

  13. The Comparison of Eucalyptus Aqueous Extract and Insulin on Blood Sugar and Liver Enzymes in Diabetic Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Shahraki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since eucalyptus is a traditional plant which has been consumed as antidiabetic in herbal medicines, the aim of this survey was to compare the effect of eucalyptus aqueous extract and insulin on serum blood sugar and liver enzymes in streptozotocin (STZ diabetic male rats. Material & Methods: The experiment was performed on four groups of rats: sham control (A, diabetic control (B, diabetic (C which received insulin and diabetic group (D which consumed Eucalyptus aqueous extract in drinking water for 4 weeks (n=8. Sham control and B group did not receive any agents. At the end, animals were deep anesthetized by diethyl ether, sacrificed and blood samples were collected. Blood sugar, serum lipids and liver enzymes were measured by ordinary methods. Obtained data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results were expressed as mean±SD. Statistical difference of p<0.05 was recognized significant. Results: Results showed that blood sugar in group C significantly decreased compared with that of group B but ALT, AST and ALP activity value significantly increased compared with those of other groups. Conclusion: These results indicated that Eucalyptus aqueous extract caused decreased blood sugar but increased liver enzymes activity in STZ diabetic male rats

  14. The Antidiabetic Effect of Low Doses of Moringa oleifera Lam. Seeds on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetes and Diabetic Nephropathy in Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L.; El Rabey, Haddad A.

    2015-01-01

    The antidiabetic activity of two low doses of Moringa seed powder (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight, in the diet) on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes male rats was investigated. Forty rats were divided into four groups. The diabetic positive control (STZ treated) group showed increased lipid peroxide, increased IL-6, and decreased antioxidant enzyme in the serum and kidney tissue homogenate compared with that of the negative control group. Immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG), fasting blood sugar, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were also increased as a result of diabetes in G2 rats. Moreover albumin was decreased, and liver enzymes and α-amylase were not affected. In addition, the renal functions and potassium and sodium levels in G2 were increased as a sign of diabetic nephropathy. Urine analysis showed also glucosuria and increased potassium, sodium, creatinine, uric acid, and albumin levels. Kidney and pancreas tissues showed also pathological alteration compared to the negative control group. Treating the diabetic rats with 50 or 100 mg Moringa seeds powder/kg body weight in G3 and G4, respectively, ameliorated the levels of all these parameters approaching the negative control values and restored the normal histology of both kidney and pancreas compared with that of the diabetic positive control group. PMID:25629046

  15. The antidiabetic effect of low doses of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds on streptozotocin induced diabetes and diabetic nephropathy in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L; El Rabey, Haddad A

    2015-01-01

    The antidiabetic activity of two low doses of Moringa seed powder (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight, in the diet) on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes male rats was investigated. Forty rats were divided into four groups. The diabetic positive control (STZ treated) group showed increased lipid peroxide, increased IL-6, and decreased antioxidant enzyme in the serum and kidney tissue homogenate compared with that of the negative control group. Immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG), fasting blood sugar, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were also increased as a result of diabetes in G2 rats. Moreover albumin was decreased, and liver enzymes and α-amylase were not affected. In addition, the renal functions and potassium and sodium levels in G2 were increased as a sign of diabetic nephropathy. Urine analysis showed also glucosuria and increased potassium, sodium, creatinine, uric acid, and albumin levels. Kidney and pancreas tissues showed also pathological alteration compared to the negative control group. Treating the diabetic rats with 50 or 100 mg Moringa seeds powder/kg body weight in G3 and G4, respectively, ameliorated the levels of all these parameters approaching the negative control values and restored the normal histology of both kidney and pancreas compared with that of the diabetic positive control group.

  16. The Antidiabetic Effect of Low Doses of Moringa oleifera Lam. Seeds on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetes and Diabetic Nephropathy in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman L. Al-Malki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic activity of two low doses of Moringa seed powder (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight, in the diet on streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetes male rats was investigated. Forty rats were divided into four groups. The diabetic positive control (STZ treated group showed increased lipid peroxide, increased IL-6, and decreased antioxidant enzyme in the serum and kidney tissue homogenate compared with that of the negative control group. Immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, fasting blood sugar, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c were also increased as a result of diabetes in G2 rats. Moreover albumin was decreased, and liver enzymes and α-amylase were not affected. In addition, the renal functions and potassium and sodium levels in G2 were increased as a sign of diabetic nephropathy. Urine analysis showed also glucosuria and increased potassium, sodium, creatinine, uric acid, and albumin levels. Kidney and pancreas tissues showed also pathological alteration compared to the negative control group. Treating the diabetic rats with 50 or 100 mg Moringa seeds powder/kg body weight in G3 and G4, respectively, ameliorated the levels of all these parameters approaching the negative control values and restored the normal histology of both kidney and pancreas compared with that of the diabetic positive control group.

  17. Effect of Melatonin Intake on Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Male Reproductive Organs of Rats under Experimental Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Gobbo, Marina G.; Carolina F. Pereira Costa; Danilo G. Humberto Silva; Eduardo A. Almeida; Góes, Rejane M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the antioxidant system response of male reproductive organs during early and late phases of diabetes and the influence of melatonin treatment. Melatonin was administered to five-week-old Wistar rats throughout the experiment, in drinking water (10 mu g/kg b.w). Diabetes was induced at 13 weeks of age by streptozotocin (4.5 mg/100g b.w., i.p.) and animals were euthanized with 14 or 21 weeks old. Activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione ...

  18. Effect of Amonium Vanadate Nano-Particles on Experimental Diabetes and Biochemical Factors in Male Spargue-Dawly Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Keyshams

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vanadium compounds have antidiabetic, but there is no study about the antidiabetic effects of ammonium monovanadate nono-particles. In this study, antidiabetic effect of ammonium monovanadate was compared with its nonoparticles.Materials and Methods: In this experimental and animal modeling study, 42 male Sprague Dawley rats were divided in 6 groups (each group 7 rats. Diabetes was induced by IP injection of 60 mg/kg streptozicin to five groups. One normal group and one diabetic group were kept without treatment as control groups. Other diabetic rats were treated with nonovanadate 25 mg/kg (NV25, ordinary vanadate 25 mg/kg (V25, nonovanadate 15 mg/kg (NV15 and water ordinary vanadate 25 mg/kg (WV25 groups for 10 days by gavage. Heparinized blood was collected at days 11 and 21 and centrifuged to separate plasma. Glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin, triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, HDL-c and LDL-c were measured at both time and compared between groups.Results: All treatment except in V25 decreased glycemia, but insulin increased only in NV25 group (p<0.05. All treatment decreased TG, TC and LDL-c significantly (p<0.001.Conclusion: Ammonium mono vanadate nonoparticle has better effects than ordinary ammonium mono vanadate on some biochemical factors in experimental diabetes.

  19. Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. suspension cell extract show antidiabetic potential in Alloxan induced diabetic albino male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R Karthic; S Nagaraj; P Arulmurugan; S Seshadri; R Rengasamy; K Kathiravan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the antidiabetic effects of suspension cell extract of Gymnema sylvestre (G.sylvestre in vitro grown suspension cells of G. sylvestre along with field grown and wild plant leaves of G.sylvestre was tested on alloxan induced diabetic rats. Results: While oral administration of the extracts reduced the glucose content in blood and urine, sugar and lipids in serum significantly (P≤0.05), it also increased the body weight, total haemoglobin and plasma protein content.Conclusions:It can be concluded that G. sylvestre suspension cell extract show excellent) along with field grown and wild plants. Methods: The effect of ethanolic extracts of the antidiabetic potential against alloxan induced diabetic albino male rats therefore be considered as potent antidiabetic drug.

  20. Long-term effects of maternal diabetes on blood pressure and renal function in rat male offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yan

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is increasing rapidly worldwide. Previous animal models were established to study consequences of offspring after exposure to severe intrauterine hyperglycemia. In this study we are aiming to characterize the blood pressure levels and renal function of male offspring obtained from diabetic mothers with moderate hyperglycemia. METHODS: We established a rat model with moderate hyperglycemia after pregnancy by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ. The male offspring were studied and fed with either normal diet or high salt diet after weaning. Arterial pressure and renal function were measured. RESULTS: Arterial pressure of male offspring increased from 12 weeks by exposure to intrauterine moderate hyperglycemia. At 20 weeks, high salt diet accelerated the blood pressure on diabetic offspring compared to diabetic offspring fed with normal diet. We found offspring exposed to intrauterine moderate hyperglycemia had a trend to have a higher creatinine clearance rate and significant increase of urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG excretion indicating an early stage of nephropathy progression. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: We observed the high blood pressure level and early renal dysfunction of male offspring obtained from diabetic mothers with moderate hyperglycemia. Furthermore, we investigated high salt diet after weaning on offspring exposed to intrauterine hyperglycemia could exacerbate the blood pressure and renal function. Renin angiotensin system (RAS plays an important role in hypertension pathogenesis and altered gene expression of RAS components in offspring with in utero hyperglycemia exposure may account for the programmed hypertension. Therefore, our study provides evidence "fetal programming" of maternal diabetes is critical for metabolic disease development.

  1. Evaluation of the Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Citrullus colocynthis in Normoglycemic and Streptozocine (STZ Induced Diabetic Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Nikbakht

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Adverse side effects of chemical drugs for treatment of diabetes persuaded the using of medical plants. Citrullus colocynthis is a plant which has been used traditionally for treatment of diabetes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydroalcholic extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruit on normoglycemic and streptozocine induced diabetic rats. Materials & Methods: 45 male Wistar rats weighing, 250-350 gr, have been selected and randomly divided in seven groups. Group1 without any drugs usage, group 2 that received normal saline (IV and distilled water (oral, group 3 received only streptozocine (IV, group 4 received only the extract of Citrullus colocynthis (1000 mg/kg, groups 5, 6 and 7 received 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg of Citrullus colocynthis extract after injection of STZ and induction of diabetes. Diabetes was induced by intravenous injection (45 mg/kg of STZ. Blood sampling was provided directly from animal heart and blood sugar was measured. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software using students t-test and ANOVA. Results: Mean of normal blood sugar in control group was 156.5±15.7 mg/dl which defined as normal blood sugar. Streptozocine significantly increased blood sugar (p<0.05. The Citrullus colocynthis extract with 500 mg/kg dosage has not significantly reduced the blood sugar but is dosage of 1000 and 1500 mg/kg significantly decreased the blood sugar in a dose-dependent mode (p<0.05. Results also showed that the extract in dosage of 1000 mg/kg did not have a significant effect on normoglycemic animals. Conclusion: Results of this study indicate that the extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruit dose-dependently reduced the blood glucose level in streptozocine-induced diabetic rats but did not have significant effect on normal blood sugar.

  2. The Effect of Myrtus communis Extract on Liver Enzymes and Blood Biochemical Factors in Diabetic Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habiballah Johari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was the effect of Myrtus communis extract on liver enzymes and blood biochemical factors in diabetic adult male rats. Materials and Methods: This study has been carried out experimentally and completely random. Seventy adult male Wistar rats were divided in 7 groups including: control which received no treatment, sham who received 2 mL of distilled water, the 1st, 2nd and 3rd experimental groups which received 0.75, 1.5 and 3 mg/kg Myrtus communis leaf extract respectively, the 4th experimental group as the diabetic control group who received streptozotocin (60 mg/kg and the 5th experimental group as the diabetic treatment group who received 3 mg/kg of extract. This experiment lasted 14 days with prescript orally. After this period, all the rats, were weighted, anesthetized and blood samples were taken from the heart centrifuged and sera were evaluated for the concentration of various factors. In addition liver were removed and sliced. Results: According to the obtained results, the plasma concentration of liver enzyme (alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol and glucose presented a significant decrease at (p≤0.05. Whereas no significant change were seen in body weight, triglyceride, urea, albumin and total protein. Histological studies of the liver tissue showed no significant difference among various groups. Conclusion: Myrtus communis is comprise of collections of flavonoids and other various components with antioxidant and anti inflammatory properties. Thence it can effective in treatment of liver diseases and decrease of blood sugar and cholesterol in diabetes mellitus patients.

  3. Decreased expression of GLUT4 in male CG-IUGR rats may play a vital role in their increased susceptibility to diabetes mellitus in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Chang; Liu, Min; Xu, Haiyan; Tang, Weiwei; Liu, Jiayun; Hou, Lamei; Li, Lijuan

    2016-10-01

    Rats with intrauterine growth retardation and catch-up growth (CG-IUGR) after birth show increased susceptibility to diabetes mellitus in adulthood. The expression of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) decreases in female IUGR offspring rats with seminutrient restriction during pregnancy. However, the male CG-IUGR rats also display an increased susceptibility to diabetes mellitus in adulthood. Whether there is another factor, besides GLUT4, in male CG-IUGR rat that mediates their susceptibility to diabetes mellitus? The male IUGR rats with catch-up growth were selected as the research objects. CG-IUGR rats had an increased fasting blood glucose level, and increased serum total cholesterol, triglyceride and free fatty acid levels. Glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance test showed higher glucose levels and much higher insulin levels after a glucose load in CG-IUGR. The mRNA and protein expressions of IRS-2 in liver tissue, and IRS-1 and GLUT4 in skeletal muscle in CG-IUGR rats were down-regulated, but only the GLUT4 down-regulation displayed strong negative correlations with the decreased glucose tolerance capability by Pearson's analysis. The methylation patterns of CpG islands in the promoter regions of IRS-1, IRS-2 and GLUT4 in CG-IUGR rats varied, which was not significantly correlated with their expressions. The male CG-IUGR rats showed decreased glucose tolerant capability, suggesting increased susceptibility to diabetes mellitus in adulthood. The GLUT4 down-regulation may play a vital role in the development of decreased glucose tolerance in male CG-IUGR rats. The methylation modification of the promoter region of GLUT4 does not appear to be involved in its expression.

  4. Acetyl-l-carnitine and oxfenicine on cardiac pumping mechanics in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male Wistar rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hsien Wang

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In the treatment of patients with diabetes, one objective is an improvement of cardiac metabolism to alleviate the left ventricular (LV function. For this study, we compared the effects of acetyl-l-carnitine (one of the carnitine derivatives and of oxfenicine (a carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 inhibitor on cardiac pumping mechanics in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male Wistar rats, with a particular focus on the pressure-flow-volume relationship. METHODS: Diabetes was induced by a single tail vein injection of 55 mg kg(-1 streptozotocin. The diabetic animals were treated on a daily basis with either acetyl-L-carnitine (1 g L(-1 in drinking water or oxfenicine (150 mg kg(-1 by oral gavage for 8 wk. They were also compared with untreated age-matched diabetic controls. LV pressure and ascending aortic flow signals were recorded to calculate the maximal systolic elastance (E max and the theoretical maximum flow (Q max. Physically, E max reflects the contractility of the myocardium as an intact heart, whereas Q max has an inverse relationship with the LV internal resistance. RESULTS: When comparing the diabetic rats with their age-matched controls, the cardiodynamic condition was characterized by a decline in E max associated with the unaltered Q max. Acetyl-l-carnitine (but not oxfenicine had reduced cardiac levels of malondialdehyde in these insulin-deficient animals. However, treating with acetyl-l-carnitine or oxfenicine resulted in an increase in E max, which suggests that these 2 drugs may protect the contractile status from deteriorating in the diabetic heart. By contrast, Q max showed a significant fall after administration of oxfenicine, but not with acetyl-L-carnitine. The decrease in Q max corresponded to an increase in total vascular resistance when treated with oxfenicine. CONCLUSIONS: Acetyl-l-carnitine, but not oxfencine, optimizes the integrative nature of cardiac pumping mechanics by preventing the diabetes

  5. A study of the effect of mother tincture of Syzygium jambolanum on metabolic disorders of Streptozotocin induced diabetic male albino rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumyajit Maiti

    2014-01-01

    Results: The study indicated that the treatment of mother tincture of Syzygium jambolanum in diabetic albino rats restored the body weight and significantly controlled the elevated blood glucose level as compared with the untreated group. Levels of glycogen in liver and skeletal muscle tissues were recovered by treatment with Syzygium jambolanum in diabetic rats as compared with the untreated diabetic rats. Levels of serum urea, uric acid and creatinine were increased in diabetic rats significantly as compared with the control group, which were resettled in the control group after treatment with mother tincture of Syzygium jambolanum in diabetic animals. Alongside, significant recovery in the activities of antioxidant enzymes like catalyse, peroxidase and super oxide dismutase, the levels of free radicals generated as bye products in hepatic and renal tissues were also observed in the treatment with mother tincture of Syzygium jambolanum treated diabetic animals with respect to the untreated in diabetic animals. Conclusion: The homoeopathic mother tincture of Syzygium jambolanum has therapeutic effect on metabolic disorders and oxidative injuries in Streptozotocin induced diabetic male albino rats.

  6. Low glycemic load diets protect against metabolic syndrome and Type 2 diabetes mellitus in the male Nile rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolsinger, Julia; Landstrom, Michelle; Pronczuk, Andrzej; Auerbach, Andrew; Hayes, K C

    2017-04-01

    Dietary modification helps prevent and manage Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) in humans and Nile rats. Specifically fibrous legumes, like lentils, benefit humans, but whether this reflects a specific change in the Glycemic Load (GLoad) remains controversial. Accordingly, low-GLoad foods were tested in the glucose-sensitive Nile rat. 131 male Nile rats aged 3 weeks to 15 months were challenged during four experiments with 15 dietary exposures that varied Glycemic Index (GI, 36-88), GLoad (102-305/2000 kcal), and cumulative GLoad (Cum GLoad=days×GLoad, 181-537g total glucose). Lentil diets with low GLoads (102, 202) prevented, delayed, reduced, even reversed the progress of MetS and T2DM as measured by blood glucose (fasting, random, and oral glucose tolerance test) and plasma lipid parameters (plasma cholesterol and triglycerides) plus necropsy findings (liver and kidney pathology plus adipose reserves). The benefit from lentils exceeded dietary factors such as macronutrient composition (%Energy from carbohydrate:fat:protein, between 70:10:20 to 40:40:20), total fiber (0-24%), or dietary caloric density (2.9-4.7 kcal/g). The benefit of a low GLoad applied equally to rats inherently susceptible or resistant to T2DM, based on random glucose above or below 75 mg/dl, respectively, during interventions of 7-17 weeks. Measuring total food intake and the novel concept of Cum GLoad during growth generated strong correlations (up to r=0.93) between Cum GLoad and parameters of MetS and T2DM, especially during sexual maturation. The present experiments confirm the applicability of male Nile rats to diet-induced human T2DM, and suggest dietary compositions to deter MetS and T2DM in humans. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of troxerutin on insulin signaling molecules in the gastrocnemius muscle of high fat and sucrose-induced type-2 diabetic adult male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, Sathish; Karundevi, Balasubramanian

    2014-10-01

    Troxerutin is a trihydroxyethylated derivative of the flavonoid, rutin. It has been reported to possess the hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antihyperlipidemic activities. Troxerutin treatment reduced the blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels in high-cholesterol-induced insulin-resistant mice and in type-2 diabetic patients. However, the mechanism by which it exhibits antidiabetic property was unknown. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the effect of troxerutin on insulin signaling molecules in gastrocnemius muscle of high fat and sucrose-induced type-2 diabetic rats. Wistar male albino rats were selected and divided into five groups. Group I: Control. Group II: High fat and sucrose-induced type-2 diabetic rats. Group III: Type-2 diabetic rats treated with troxerutin (150 mg/kg body weight/day orally). Group IV: Type-2 diabetic rats treated with metformin (50 mg/kg body weight/day orally). Group V: Normal rats treated with troxerutin (150 mg/kg body weight/day orally). After 30 days of treatment, fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance, serum lipid profile, and the levels of insulin signaling molecules, glycogen, glucose uptake, and oxidation in gastrocnemius muscle were assessed. Diabetic rats showed impairment in insulin signaling molecules (IR, p-IRS-1(Tyr632), p-Akt(Ser473), β-arrestin-2, c-Src, p-AS160(Thr642), and GLUT4 proteins), glycogen concentration, glucose uptake, and oxidation. Oral administration of troxerutin showed near normal levels of blood glucose, serum insulin, lipid profile, and insulin signaling molecules as well as GLUT4 proteins in type-2 diabetic rats. It is concluded from the present study that troxerutin may play a significant role in the management of type-2 diabetes mellitus, by improving the insulin signaling molecules and glucose utilization in the skeletal muscle.

  8. Assessment of the Anti-Hyperglycaemic, Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Activities of the Methanol Extract of Moringa Oleifera in Diabetes-Induced Nephrotoxic Male Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omodanisi, Elizabeth I; Aboua, Yapo G; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O

    2017-03-23

    Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disease of multiple aetiologies in insulin secretion. A deficiency in insulin results in hyperglycemia with metabolic disturbances of biomolecules. Moringa oleifera (MO) is endemic in the tropics with a variety of ethnomedicinal importance. The leaf of this plant has been reported to possess antioxidant and medicinal properties that may be helpful in the treatment and management of diabetes and its associated complications. Diabetes was induced intraperitoneally in rats by a single dose of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg) and treated with methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera (250 mg/kg b.wt) for six weeks. Forty-eight (48) adult male Wistar strain rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control (NC), Moringa oleifera treated control rats (NC + MO), diabetic rats (DM) and Moringa oleifera treated diabetic rats (DM + MO). Estimation of antioxidant capacity, total polyphenols, flavonoids and flavonols content of Moringa oleifera extract was performed and serum biochemical markers were evaluated. Antioxidants such as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, glutathione (GSH) and inflammatory biomarkers were determined in the kidney. Results showed high antioxidant capacities of MO extract and improved serum biochemical markers, whilst lipid peroxidation (MDA) levels were reduced in non-diabetic and diabetic rats after MO treatment when compared to normal control. Subsequent administration of MO led to an increased concentration of serum albumin, globulin and total protein with a decrease in the level of MDA, and improvements in CAT, SOD, GSH, GPx, (tumour necrosis factor-alpha)TNF-α and (interleukin-6)IL-6. MO contains potent phytochemical constituents that offer protective action against diabetic-induced renal damage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammation and could therefore play a role in reducing diabetic complications, particularly in developing countries such as in

  9. Study of root aqueous extract of Prosopis farcta effect on wound healing of diabetic adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Ranjbar Heidari

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: Considering the above findings, the extract of Prosopis farcta root, has effective roles on wound healing in diabetic rats, probably due to its anti- inflammatory, reepithelization, and neovascularization properties. However, more studies are needed in this respect.

  10. The changes in the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis of streptozotocin-treated male rats depend from age at diabetes onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitton, I; Bestetti, G E; Rossi, G L

    1987-01-01

    The influence of age at diabetes onset and of capillary microangiopathy on the severity and evolution of hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal changes was studied morphologically and morphometrically in male rats 4 and 8 months after streptozotocin injection. At each time period we studied 2 groups of rats, one made diabetic before (age 1 month), the other after puberty (age 3 months), and compared them with corresponding controls. The size of hypothalamic axons, numerical density and size of pituitary gonadotrophs, size of testicular tubules, and basement membrane thickness of retinal capillaries were measured. Major differences were found at 8 months. Changes of pituitary glands (i.e. small and numerous gonadotrophs) and testes (i.e. small tubular size) were more important in pre- than in postpubertal diabetic rats. This was a consequence of the aggravating prepubertal diabetes between 4 and 8 months. On the contrary, these changes partially regressed in postpubertal diabetic animals. Pituitary and testicular changes were correlated. Other lesions, such as swollen axonal processes in the hypothalamus, increased thickness of seminiferous epithelium and of capillary basement membranes, though very evident in diabetics, were independent from age at induction. Neither microangiopathy nor glycemia were correlated with any other change which confirmed their secondary role in diabetic neuroendocrine disorders. Thus, two types of diabetic disorders of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis could be distinguished: 1) those with irreversible effects on immature yet partially reversible effects on mature structures; and 2) those independent from age at induction.

  11. Pancreatoprotective effects of Geniotrigona thoracica stingless bee honey in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced male diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Muhammad Shakir Abdul; Giribabu, Nelli; Rao, Pasupuleti Visweswara; Salleh, Naguib

    2017-02-17

    Stingless bee honey (SLBH) has been claimed to possess multiple health benefits. Its anti-diabetic properties are however unknown. In this study, ability of SLBH from Geniotrigona thoracica stingless bee species in ameliorating pancreatic damage and in maintaining metabolic profiles were investigated in diabetic condition.

  12. A Novel Rat Model of Type 2 Diabetes: The Zucker Fatty Diabetes Mellitus ZFDM Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihide Yokoi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Zucker fatty (ZF rat harboring a missense mutation (fatty, fa in the leptin receptor gene (Lepr develops obesity without diabetes; Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rats derived from the ZF strain exhibit obesity with diabetes and are widely used for research on type 2 diabetes (T2D. Here we establish a novel diabetic strain derived from normoglycemic ZF rats. In our ZF rat colony, we incidentally found fa/fa homozygous male rats having reproductive ability, which is generally absent in these animals. During maintenance of this strain by mating fa/fa males and fa/+ heterozygous females, we further identified fa/fa male rats exhibiting diabetes. We then performed selective breeding using the fa/fa male rats that exhibited relatively high blood glucose levels at 10 weeks of age, resulting in establishment of a diabetic strain that we designated Hos:ZFDM-Leprfa (ZFDM. These fa/fa male rats developed diabetes as early as 10 weeks of age, reaching 100% incidence by 21 weeks of age, while none of the fa/+ male rats developed diabetes. The phenotypic characteristics of this diabetic strain are distinct from those of normoglycemic ZF rats. ZFDM rat strain having high reproductive efficiency should serve as a more useful animal model of T2D.

  13. Investigating the effects of Citrullus colocynthis pulp on oxidative stress in testes and epididymis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostovan, Fereshteh; Gol, Ali; Javadi, Abdolreza

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common metabolic diseases in humans, affecting 100 million people around the world. Objective: Investigating the effects of Citrullus colocynthis pulp on oxidant and antioxidant factors of testes and epididymis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty two male rats were divided into four groups (n=8) 1) N (normal) group, 2) N+C group, 3) D (diabetic) group and 4) D+C group. Groups N and D received normal saline 2 ml orally for two weeks and groups N+C and D+C received 10 mg/kg.bw Citrullus colocynthis pulp orally for two weeks. Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) at 65 mg/kg. Results: D group had a significant increase in H2O2 (Hydrogen peroxide) and MDA (malondialdehyde) concentrations, and CAT (catalase) activity, and also a significant decrease in Peroxidase (POD) activity compared to N group. D+C group had a significant decrease in H2O2 and MDA concentrations and, CAT activity and significant increase in POD activity compared to D group. Conclusion: Citrullus colocynthis pulp in two weeks had beneficial effects on oxidants and antioxidants changes in reproductive system in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. PMID:28280799

  14. Protective effect of aqueous seed extract of Vitis Vinifera against oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in the pancreas of adult male rats with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Siti Hajar; Giribabu, Nelli; Kassim, Normadiah; Kumar, Kilari Eswar; Brahmayya, Manuri; Arya, Aditya; Salleh, Naguib

    2016-07-01

    Protective effects of Vitis Vinifera seed aqueous extract (VVSAE) against pancreatic dysfunctions and elevation of oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in the pancreas in diabetes were investigated. Histopathological changes in the pancreas were examined under light microscope. Blood and pancreas were collected from adult male diabetic rats receiving 28days treatment with VVSAE orally. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin and lipid profile levels and activity levels of anti-oxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase-SOD, catalase-CAT and glutathione peroxidase-GPx) in the pancreas were determined by biochemical assays. Histopathological changes in the pancreas were examined under light microscopy and levels of insulin, glucose transporter (GLUT)-2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, Ikkβ and caspase-3 mRNA and protein were analyzed by real-time PCR (qPCR) and immunohistochemistry respectively. Radical scavenging activity of VVSAE was evaluated by in-vitro anti-oxidant assay while gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify the major compounds in the extract. GC-MS analyses indicated the presence of compounds that might exert anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis effects. Near normal FBG, HbAIc, lipid profile and serum insulin levels with lesser signs of pancreatic destruction were observed following administration of VVSAE to diabetic rats. Higher insulin, GLUT-2, SOD, CAT and GPx levels but lower TNF-α, Ikkβ and caspase-3 levels were also observed in the pancreas of VVSAE-treated diabetic rats (p<0.05 compared to non-treated diabetic rats). The extract possesses high in-vitro radical scavenging activities. In conclusions, administration of VVSAE to diabetic rats could help to protect the pancreas against oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis-induced damage while preserving pancreatic function near normal in diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Fruit of Rosa Canina L.Extract on the Level of Plasma Glucose in Male Diabet-Induced Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mohammad Eini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most prevalent chronic and complex metabolic diseases of human , which hyperglycemia can be mentioned as its prominent characteristic. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the hypoglycemic effects of fruit of Rosa canina (R.c. extract in healthy and diabetic rats. Method: A total of 72 Wistar male rats were divided into six group: control,  STZ (diabetic control,  R.c. control (50 mg/kg, R.c. control (100 mg/kg and two experimental groups with 50, and 100 mg/kg of extract dose. Diabetes was induced using streptozotocine (60 mg/kg; IP, and blood collection was carried out on 0, 2 and 4 hours after the oral administration of the extracts. Results: The levels of plasma glucose were determined by spectrophotometric method. In order to statistically analyze the study data, ANOVA test was performed. There was a significant difference between groups concerning the plasma glucose concentration (P<0.0001, which the lowest concentration between diabetes groups was observed in the two experimental groups. Moreover, R.c. had a marked hypoglycemic effect on diabetes mellitus. Conclusion: R.c. extract in hyperglycemic status demands to be further studied in order to control and prevent its complications.

  16. The Hypoglycemic and Antioxidant Activity of Cress Seed and Cinnamon on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetes in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaa Qusti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to estimate the stimulation of pancreas of rats with streptozotocin induced diabetes using 20% (w/w garden cress seed (Lepidium sativum and cinnamon methanol extracts. The positive control diabetic group showed a significant increase in fasting blood sugar, lipid peroxide, interleukin-6, carboxymethyl lysine, serum uric acid, urea, creatinine, immunoglobulins, and urine albumin and a significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes, sodium ions, potassium ions, and urine creatinine. Severe histopathological changes in the kidney and pancreas tissues in hyperglycemic rats were also shown in the positive control diabetic group. Meanwhile, the groups that were treated with 20% garden cress seed and cinnamon methanol extracts showed a significant decrease in fasting blood sugar and all elevated abovementioned biochemical parameters and an increase in the lowered ones restoring them nearly to the normal levels of G1. Kidney and pancreas tissues were also ameliorated and restored nearly to the normal status. Both garden cress seed and cinnamon methanol extracts succeeded in controlling hyperglycemia in rats with streptozotocin induced diabetes and ameliorated the biochemical and histopathological changes because of their antioxidant activity acquired by their possession of phenolic phytochemicals.

  17. Effects of ageing and experimental diabetes on insulin-degrading enzyme expression in male rat tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochkina, Ekaterina G; Plesneva, Svetlana A; Vasilev, Dmitrii S; Zhuravin, Igor A; Turner, Anthony J; Nalivaeva, Natalia N

    2015-08-01

    Due to an increasing life expectancy in developing countries, cases of type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the elderly are growing exponentially. Despite a causative link between diabetes and AD, general molecular mechanisms underlying pathogenesis of these disorders are still far from being understood. One of the factors leading to cell death and cognitive impairment characteristic of AD is accumulation in the brain of toxic aggregates of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). In the normally functioning brain Aβ catabolism is regulated by a cohort of proteolytic enzymes including insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) and their deficit with ageing can result in Aβ accumulation and increased risk of AD. The aim of this study was a comparative analysis of IDE expression in the brain structures involved in AD, as well as in peripheral organs (the liver and kidney) of rats, during natural ageing and after experimentally-induced diabetes. It was found that ageing is accompanied by a significant decrease of IDE mRNA and protein content in the liver (by 32 and 81%) and brain structures (in the cortex by 58 and 47% and in the striatum by 53 and 68%, respectively). In diabetic animals, IDE protein level was increased in the liver (by 36%) and in the striatum (by 42%) while in the brain cortex and hippocampus it was 20-30% lower than in control animals. No significant IDE protein changes were observed in the kidney of diabetic rats. These data testify that ageing and diabetes are accompanied by a deficit of IDE in the brain structures where accumulation of Aβ was reported in AD patients, which might be one of the factors predisposing to development of the sporadic form of AD in the elderly, and especially in diabetics.

  18. Aqueous Extract of Phyllanthus niruri Leaves Displays In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and Prevents the Elevation of Oxidative Stress in the Kidney of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelli Giribabu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available P. niruri has been reported to possess antidiabetic and kidney protective effects. In the present study, the phytochemical constituents and in vitro antioxidant activity of P. niruri leaf aqueous extract were investigated together with its effect on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes levels in diabetic rat kidney. Results. Treatment of diabetic male rats with P. niruri leaf aqueous extract (200 and 400 mg/kg for 28 consecutive days prevents the increase in the amount of lipid peroxidation (LPO product, malondialdehyde (MDA, and the diminution of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activity levels in the kidney of diabetic rats. The amount of LPO showed strong negative correlation with SOD, CAT, and GPx activity levels. P. niruri leaf aqueous extract exhibits in vitro antioxidant activity with IC50 slightly lower than ascorbic acid. Phytochemical screening of plant extract indicates the presence of polyphenols. Conclusion. P. niruri leaf extract protects the kidney from oxidative stress induced by diabetes.

  19. Hypoxis hemerocallidea Significantly Reduced Hyperglycaemia and Hyperglycaemic-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Liver and Kidney Tissues of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwafemi O. Oguntibeju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypoxis hemerocallidea is a native plant that grows in the Southern African regions and is well known for its beneficial medicinal effects in the treatment of diabetes, cancer, and high blood pressure. Aim. This study evaluated the effects of Hypoxis hemerocallidea on oxidative stress biomarkers, hepatic injury, and other selected biomarkers in the liver and kidneys of healthy nondiabetic and streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 50 mg/kg of STZ to induce diabetes. The plant extract-Hypoxis hemerocallidea (200 mg/kg or 800 mg/kg aqueous solution was administered (daily orally for 6 weeks. Antioxidant activities were analysed using a Multiskan Spectrum plate reader while other serum biomarkers were measured using the RANDOX chemistry analyser. Results. Both dosages (200 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg of Hypoxis hemerocallidea significantly reduced the blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic groups. Activities of liver enzymes were increased in the diabetic control and in the diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg, whereas the 200 mg/kg dosage ameliorated hepatic injury. In the hepatic tissue, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, catalase, and total glutathione were reduced in the diabetic control group. However treatment with both doses improved the antioxidant status. The FRAP and the catalase activities in the kidney were elevated in the STZ-induced diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg of the extract possibly due to compensatory responses. Conclusion. Hypoxis hemerocallidea demonstrated antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effects especially in the liver tissue.

  20. Male rat sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agmo, A

    1997-05-01

    The male rat's sexual behavior constitutes a highly ordered sequence of motor acts involving both striate and smooth muscles. It is spontaneously displayed by most adult made rats in the presence of a sexually receptive female. Although the behavior is important for the survival of the species it is not necessary for survival of the individual. In that way it is different from other spontaneous behaviors such as eating, drinking, avoidance of pain, respiration or thermoregulation. Among other things, this means that it is difficult to talk about sexual deprivation or need. Nevertheless, studies of male sex behavior distinguish sexual motivation (the ease by which behavior is activated, "libido") from the execution of copulatory acts (performance, "potency") (Meisel, R.L. and Sachs, B.D., The physiology of male sexual behavior. In: E. Knobil and J.D. Neill (Eds.), The Physiology of Reproduction, 2nd Edn., Vol. 2, Raven Press, New York, 1994, pp. 3-105 [13]). The hormonal control of male sexual behavior has been extensively studied. It is clear that steroid hormones, androgens and estrogens, act within the central nervous system, modifying neuronal excitability. The exact mechanism by which these hormones activate sex behavior remains largely unknown. However, there exists a considerable amount of knowledge concerning the brain structures important for sexual motivation and for the execution of sex behavior. The modulatory role of some non-steroid hormones is partly known, as well as the consequences of manipulations of several neurotransmitter systems.

  1. Diabetes and Insulin Injection Modalities: Effects on Hepatic and Hippocampal Expression of 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 in Juvenile Diabetic Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougeon, Véronica; Moisan, Marie-Pierre; Barthe, Nicole; Beauvieux, Marie-Christine; Helbling, Jean-Christophe; Pallet, Véronique; Marissal-Arvy, Nathalie; Barat, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is often encountered in diabetes, leading to several clinical complications. Our recent results showing an elevated tetrahydrocortisol/tetrahydrocorticosterone ratio in morning urine of diabetic children compared to that of controls suggest an increased nocturnal activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) in the former. We hypothesized that these observations could be explained by a reduced inhibition of hepatic 11β-HSD1 activity by exogenous insulin owing to its subcutaneous (SC) administration and absence of first hepatic passage. Additionally, we hypothesized that hippocampal 11β-HSD1 activity might also be impaired by diabetes. We therefore measured HPA axis activity and 11β-HSD1 expression and activity in liver and hippocampus in streptozotocin-induced diabetic juvenile rats treated with SC or intraperitoneal (IP) insulin. Plasma corticosterone levels were elevated in untreated diabetic rats during the resting phase and restored by both types of insulin treatment. The mRNA expression and activity of 11β-HSD1 were increased in the untreated diabetic group in liver. Although diabetes was controlled equally whatever the route of insulin administration, liver 11β-HSD1 gene expression and activity was decreased only in the IP group, suggesting that a first hepatic pass is needed for 11β-HSD1 hepatic inhibition. In hippocampus, 11β-HSD1 activity was elevated in the untreated diabetic group but restored by both types of insulin treatment. Thus, these data extend our findings in diabetic children by showing impairment of hippocampal 11β-HSD1 in diabetes and by demonstrating that IP is preferable to SC insulin administration to restore 11β-HSD1 activity in liver.

  2. Chlorophytum borivilianum (Safed Musli) root extract prevents impairment in characteristics and elevation of oxidative stress in sperm of streptozotocin-induced adult male diabetic Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giribabu, Nelli; Kumar, Kilari Eswar; Rekha, Somesula Swapna; Muniandy, Sekaran; Salleh, Naguib

    2014-08-08

    We hypothesized that C. borivilianum root, known to improve male reproductive performance, prevents impairment in characteristics, morphology and elevation of oxidative stress in sperm of diabetics. We therefore investigated the effect of aqueous root extract of C. borivilianum on these parameters in diabetic rat model. C. borivilianum root aqueous extract (250 and 500 mg/kg/day) or glibenclamide (600 μg/kg/day) were administered to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male rats for 28 consecutive days. At the end of treatment, animals were sacrificed and sperm were collected. Sperm count and percentages of forward motility, viability, hypoosmotic swelling (HOS) tail-coiled and abnormal sperm were evaluated. Sperm lipid peroxidation product (LPO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) levels, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), activity levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase-SOD, catalase-CAT and glutathione peroxidase-GPx), epididymal sperm density, serum fasting blood glucose (FBG) and HbA1c levels were measured. The expression of sperm caspase-3 was assessed. Meanwhile, in-vitro free radical scavenging activity of C. borivilianum root extract was determined and the root extract was analyzed for the presence of bioactive compounds by FTIR spectroscopy. C. borivilianum root aqueous extract prevents the decrease in sperm count, percentages of forward motility, viability, HOS and the increase in abnormal sperm percentage and caspase-3 level in diabetic rats. Sperm LPO, H2O2 and NO levels, FBG and HbA1c were lower while TAC, SOD, CAT, GPx and epididymal sperm density were higher in diabetic rats receiving C. borivilianum root extract treatment. C. borivilianum root exhibited strong in-vitro free radical scavenging activity which may be due to the phenolic compound. C. borivilianum root extract prevents impairment in sperm characteristics and morphology via preventing elevation of oxidative stress, apoptosis and free radicals levels of

  3. Evaluation of White Sesame Seed Oil on Glucose Control and Biomarkers of Hepatic, Cardiac, and Renal Functions in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats with Chemically Induced Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Farhan; Iqbal, Sanaullah; Nasir, Muhammad; Anjum, Aftab Ahmad; Swan, Pamela; Sweazea, Karen

    2017-05-01

    White sesame seed oil (WSSO) has been used in cooking and food preparations for centuries. It has many purported health benefits and may be a promising nutraceutical. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effects of WSSO on fasting blood glucose (GLU) and insulin (INS) in male Sprague-Dawley rats with chemically induced diabetes. A secondary aim was to explore other hematological biomarkers of hepatic, cardiac, and renal function. Sixty-three male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into standard diet groups, normal control (NCON) (n = 21) and diabetic control (DCON) (n = 21), and a diabetic sesame oil (DSO) (n = 21) group, which were fed a diet containing 12% WSSO. Blood samples were analyzed at 0, 30, and 60 days. Differences between groups and across days were assessed with two-way repeated measures analysis of variance. At baseline, GLU and INS were similar in both diabetic groups, mean 248.4 ± 2.8 mg/dL and mean 23.4 ± 0.4 μU/mL, respectively. At 60 days, GLU was significantly (P < .05) higher in DCON (298.0 ± 2.3 mg/dL) compared with DSO (202.1 ± 1.0 mg/dL). INS showed similar favorable trends after WSSO supplementation. Consumption of WSSO significantly improved glucose control and other biomarkers of hepatic stress, as well as cardiac and renal health. WSSO may be a viable functional food to help reduce the detrimental effects of diabetes.

  4. Antioxidative and antidiabetic activities of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) juice on oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseni, O A; Odesanmi, O E; Oladele, F C

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional and medicinal importance of watermelon has been emphasized and its diseases preventive and curative power must be evaluated. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate the antioxidative and antidiabetic potentials of watermelon. The in vivo assay was carried out on 15 male albino rats which were divided into groups of three stages. In stage I, all animals received normal feeds and water for 1-week after, which five animals were selected and sacrificed for biochemical analyses which form the nondiabetic control, group. The remaining animals were fasted for 24 h before injected intra-peritoneally with a freshly prepared solution of alloxan at a dosage of 35 mg/kg body weight. Five out of the 10 rats were sacrificed as diabetic group while last five animals were fed with water melon juice for a week after, which they were sacrificed to form the treated group animals. In all the groups, body weights, fasting blood sugar, total protein level in the blood, and other biochemical parameters such as reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration; catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) % inhibition activities were determined. The results of the biochemical analyses showed a significant increase in the concentration of blood glucose level after treatment with alloxan, which indicates that diabetic was induced. Hence, watermelon juice caused increased in weight, hypoglycemia; and increases in GSH, GPx, catalase, and SOD % inhibition activities with reduced MDA concentration after treatments. The watermelon juice resulted in the restoration of impaired conditions of the rats.

  5. Comparative Effects of Some Medicinal Plants: Anacardium occidentale, Eucalyptus globulus, Psidium guajava, and Xylopia aethiopica Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Eshu Okpashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin therapy and oral antidiabetic agents/drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus have not sufficiently proven to control hyperlipidemia, which is commonly associated with the diabetes mellitus. Again the hopes that traditional medicine and natural plants seem to trigger researchers in this area is yet to be discovered. This research was designed to compare the biochemical effects of some medicinal plants in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats using named plants that are best at lowering blood glucose and hyperlipidemia and ameliorating other complications of diabetes mellitus by methods of combined therapy. The results obtained showed 82% decrease in blood glucose concentration after the 10th hour to the fortieth hour. There was significant increase P0.05 recorded in the glutathione peroxidase activity of E. globulus (100 mg/kg when compared to the test groups of P. guajava (250 mg/kg and X. aethiopica (250 mg/kg. Catalase activity showed significant increase P0.05, there was no significant difference seen between test group and treated groups. Meanwhile, degree of significance was observed in other parameters analysed. The biochemical analysis conducted in this study showed positive result, attesting to facts from previous works. Though these individual plants extracts exhibited significant increase in amelorating diabetes complication and blood glucose control compared to glibenclamide, a synthetic antidiabetic drug. Greater performance was observed in the synergy groups. Therefore, a poly/combined formulation of these plants extracts yielded significant result as well as resolving some other complications associated with diabetics.

  6. Comparative Effects of Some Medicinal Plants: Anacardium occidentale, Eucalyptus globulus, Psidium guajava, and Xylopia aethiopica Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Albino Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpashi, Victor Eshu; Bayim, Bayim Peter-Robins; Obi-Abang, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Insulin therapy and oral antidiabetic agents/drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus have not sufficiently proven to control hyperlipidemia, which is commonly associated with the diabetes mellitus. Again the hopes that traditional medicine and natural plants seem to trigger researchers in this area is yet to be discovered. This research was designed to compare the biochemical effects of some medicinal plants in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats using named plants that are best at lowering blood glucose and hyperlipidemia and ameliorating other complications of diabetes mellitus by methods of combined therapy. The results obtained showed 82% decrease in blood glucose concentration after the 10th hour to the fortieth hour. There was significant increase P 0.05 recorded in the glutathione peroxidase activity of E. globulus (100 mg/kg) when compared to the test groups of P. guajava (250 mg/kg) and X. aethiopica (250 mg/kg). Catalase activity showed significant increase P 0.05, there was no significant difference seen between test group and treated groups. Meanwhile, degree of significance was observed in other parameters analysed. The biochemical analysis conducted in this study showed positive result, attesting to facts from previous works. Though these individual plants extracts exhibited significant increase in amelorating diabetes complication and blood glucose control compared to glibenclamide, a synthetic antidiabetic drug. Greater performance was observed in the synergy groups. Therefore, a poly/combined formulation of these plants extracts yielded significant result as well as resolving some other complications associated with diabetics.

  7. Beneficial Effect of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. on Osteopenia Associated with Streptozotocin-Induced Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao Sirasanagandla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum ether fraction of Cissus quadrangularis (PECQ impact on the development of osteopenia in type 1 diabetic rat model has been evaluated. Diabetic rats were treated orally with two doses of PECQ. Another group of diabetic rats were treated with subcutaneous injection of synthetic human insulin. The cortical and trabecular bone thickness and bone strength were significantly decreased in diabetic rats. Treatment with two doses of PECQ significantly prevented these changes in diabetic rats. However, PECQ treatment (two doses did not alter the glycemic levels in these diabetic rats. Increased levels of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP, and hydroxyproline were noted in diabetic rats when compared to normal control rats. The two doses of PECQ treatment further improved the serum ALP levels and significantly decreased the serum levels of TRAP and hydroxyproline. The effects of PECQ treatment on histological, biomechanical, and biochemical parameters are comparable to those of insulin. Since PECQ improves the bone health in hyperglycemic conditions by enhancing the cortical and trabecular bone growth and altering the circulating bone markers, it could be used as an effective therapy against diabetes-associated bone disorders.

  8. The Effects of Feeding with Ferrous and Unicellular Yeast Enriched with Organic Chromium on the Blood Factors in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Amiri

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: The study findings revealed that yeast enriched with probiotic-derived chromium can lead to appropriate changes in blood glucose, and serum lipids in diabetic rats. Moreover, treatment with iron increases glucose levels and causes undesirable changes in blood serum lipids of diabetic rats.

  9. Effect of maternal use of flaxseed oil during pregnancy and lactation on glucose metabolism and pancreas histomorphometry of male offspring from diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia-Santos, André Manoel; Suzuki, Akemi; Vicente, Gabriela Câmara; Dos Anjos, Juliana Saraiva; Pereira, Aline D'Avila; Lenzi-Almeida, Kátia Calvi; Boaventura, Gilson Teles

    2014-12-01

    Investigate if the maternal use of flaxseed oil prevents pancreatic alterations in the offspring of diabetic mothers. Diabetes was induced in female wistar rats (n=12) by a high-fat diet and low-dose of streptozotocin. After the confirmation of the diabetes (glucose >300 mg/dL), rats were mated and once pregnancy was confirmed, they were allocated into three groups (n=6): high-fat group (HFG); flaxseed oil group (FOG); and control group (CG) (nondiabetic rats). At weaning, male offspring (n=12/group) received a standard chow diet. The animals were euthanized in two phases: at 100 and at 180 days, (n=6/group). The pancreas was collected for histomorphometric and immunohistochemistry analysis. HFG showed hypertrophy of pancreatic islets at 100 and at 180 days (p<0.0001), while the FOG offspring had islets with smaller diameters compared to HFG at both phases of sacrifice (p<0.0001). HFG had a lower percentage of small islets when compared to CG and FOG, which had a higher percentage when compared to HFG (p=0.0053) at 100 days. At 180 days HFG showed higher percentage of larger islets (p=0.00137) and lower percentage of smaller islets (p=0.00112), when compared to FOG. HFG showed lower islet insulin immunodensity at 100 days (p<0.0001) and 180 days (p<0.0001), whereas FOG was similar to CG (p<0.0001) at 100 days and higher at 180 days (p<0.0001). Flaxseed oil reduced the damage caused by maternal hyperglycemia, promoting normal pancreas histomorphometry and β cell mass. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Metformin Protects Kidney Cells From Insulin-Mediated Genotoxicity In Vitro and in Male Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Eman Maher; Oli, R G; Arias-Loza, Paula-Anahi; Kreissl, Michael C; Stopper, Helga

    2016-02-01

    Hyperinsulinemia is thought to enhance cancer risk. A possible mechanism is induction of oxidative stress and DNA damage by insulin, Here, the effect of a combination of metformin with insulin was investigated in vitro and in vivo. The rationales for this were the reported antioxidative properties of metformin and the aim to gain further insights into the mechanisms responsible for protecting the genome from insulin-mediated oxidative stress and damage. The comet assay, a micronucleus frequency test, and a mammalian gene mutation assay were used to evaluate the DNA damage produced by insulin alone or in combination with metformin. For analysis of antioxidant activity, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial disturbances, the cell-free ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, the superoxide-sensitive dye dihydroethidium, and the mitochondrial membrane potential-sensitive dye 5,5',6,6'tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazol-carbocyanine iodide were applied. Accumulation of p53 and pAKT were analyzed. As an in vivo model, hyperinsulinemic Zucker diabetic fatty rats, additionally exposed to insulin during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, were treated with metformin. In the rat kidney samples, dihydroethidium staining, p53 and pAKT analysis, and quantification of the oxidized DNA base 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine were performed. Metformin did not show intrinsic antioxidant activity in the cell-free assay, but protected cultured cells from insulin-mediated oxidative stress, DNA damage, and mutation. Treatment of the rats with metformin protected their kidneys from oxidative stress and genomic damage induced by hyperinsulinemia. Metformin may protect patients from genomic damage induced by elevated insulin levels. This may support efforts to reduce the elevated cancer risk that is associated with hyperinsulinemia.

  11. Pulpal and periodontal diseases increase triglyceride levels in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintra, Luciano Tavares Angelo; da Silva Facundo, Aguinaldo Cândido; Azuma, Mariane Maffei; Sumida, Dóris Hissako; Astolphi, Rafael Dias; Bomfim, Suely Regina Mogami; Narciso, Luís Gustavo; Gomes-Filho, João Eduardo

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate triglyceride and cholesterol levels in diabetic rats and their relationship with pulpal and periodontal diseases. Eighty male rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus, Wistar) were divided into the following eight groups comprising ten animals each: normal rats (G1), rats with pulpal diseases (G2), rats with periodontal diseases (G3), rats with both pulpal and periodontal diseases (G4), diabetic rats (G5), diabetic rats with pulpal diseases (G6), diabetic rats with periodontal diseases (G7), and diabetic rats with both periodontal and pulpal diseases (G8). Diabetes was induced by injecting streptozotocin, periapical lesions were induced by exposing pulpal tissue to the oral environment, and periodontal diseases were induced by periodontal ligature. The animals were killed after 30 days, and lipid profile was enzymatically measured using Trinder's method. The total assessed values were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance and Tukey test (p triglyceride levels of diabetic rats with periodontal disease and of diabetic rats with both periodontal and pulpal diseases were significantly higher than those of normal rats and nondiabetic group rats, respectively. The differences in the cholesterol levels among the groups were not significant. We found that the association of pulpal and periodontal diseases with diabetes increased triglyceride levels in rats. Changes in lipid profile may be related to the presence of oral infections and diabetes.

  12. Antioxidative and antidiabetic activities of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus juice on oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O A Oseni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The nutritional and medicinal importance of watermelon has been emphasized and its diseases preventive and curative power must be evaluated. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate the antioxidative and antidiabetic potentials of watermelon. Materials and Methods: The in vivo assay was carried out on 15 male albino rats which were divided into groups of three stages. In stage I, all animals received normal feeds and water for 1-week after, which five animals were selected and sacrificed for biochemical analyses which form the nondiabetic control, group. The remaining animals were fasted for 24 h before injected intra-peritoneally with a freshly prepared solution of alloxan at a dosage of 35 mg/kg body weight. Five out of the 10 rats were sacrificed as diabetic group while last five animals were fed with water melon juice for a week after, which they were sacrificed to form the treated group animals. In all the groups, body weights, fasting blood sugar, total protein level in the blood, and other biochemical parameters such as reduced glutathione (GSH, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, malondialdehyde (MDA concentration; catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD % inhibition activities were determined. Results: The results of the biochemical analyses showed a significant increase in the concentration of blood glucose level after treatment with alloxan, which indicates that diabetic was induced. Hence, watermelon juice caused increased in weight, hypoglycemia; and increases in GSH, GPx, catalase, and SOD % inhibition activities with reduced MDA concentration after treatments. Conclusion: The watermelon juice resulted in the restoration of impaired conditions of the rats.

  13. Modulation of antioxidant status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male wistar rats following intake of red palm oil and/or rooibos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ademola Ayeleso; Nicole Brooks; Oluwafemi Oguntibeju

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the role of red palm oil(RPO), rooibos tea extract(RTE) and their combined treatment(RPO+RTE) on antioxidant status in streptozotocin(STZ)-induced diabetic rats.Methods:Diabetes mellitus was induced by a single administration of streptozotocin(50 mg/kg) and the rats were treated for7 weeks.Antioxidant enzymes [catalase(CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase(SOD)], antioxidant capacity [trolox equivalence antioxidant capacity (TEAC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity(ORAC)] as well as total protein, albumin, globulin, total glutathione, conjugated diene and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances(TBARS) were investigated.Results:Treatment withRPO,RTE andRPO+RTE significantly(p>0.05) improved liverSOD and plasmaORAC in the diabetic rats.Similarly, diabetic rats treated withRTE and RPO+RTE enhanced liverGPx.A significant(P<0.05) increase in the plasmaTBARS in the diabetic control group was observed when compared with the normal control group.Treatment of diabetic rats withRTE andRPO+RTE reduced plasmaTBARS to a level not significantly different atP<0.05 from the normal control group. Conclusions:The results revealed the anti-oxidative potentials of red palm oil, rooibos and their combination in diabetic conditions and hence, they could be useful in the management of diabetes and its complications.

  14. Chlorophytum borivilianum root extract maintains near normal blood glucose, insulin and lipid profile levels and prevents oxidative stress in the pancreas of streptozotocin-induced adult male diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giribabu, Nelli; Kumar, Kilari Eswar; Rekha, Somesula Swapna; Muniandy, Sekaran; Salleh, Naguib

    2014-01-01

    The effect of C. borivilianum root on blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbAIc), insulin and lipid profile levels in diabetes mellitus are not fully understood. This study therefore investigated the effect of C. borivilianum root on the above parameters and oxidative stress of the pancreas in diabetes. C. borivilianum root aqueous extract (250 and 500 mg/kg/day) was administered to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced male diabetic rats for 28 days. Body weight, blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin, lipid profile levels and glucose homeostasis indices were determined. Histopathological changes and oxidative stress parameters i.e. lipid peroxidation (LPO) and antioxidant enzymes activity levels of the pancreas were investigated. C. borivilianum root extract treatment to diabetic rats maintained near normal body weight, blood glucose, HbA1c, lipid profile and insulin levels with higher HOMA-β cell functioning index, number of Islets/pancreas, number of β-cells/Islets however with lower HOMA-insulin resistance (IR) index as compared to non-treated diabetic rats. Negative correlations between serum insulin and blood glucose, HbA1c, triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) levels were observed. C. borivilianum root extract administration prevented the increase in lipid peroxidation and the decrease in activity levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) with mild histopathological changes in the pancreas of diabetic rats. C. borivilianum root maintains near normal levels of these metabolites and prevented oxidative stress-induced damage to the pancreas in diabetes.

  15. Anti-diabetic effect of methanolic leaf extract of Pongamia pinnata on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Selvaraju Kavipriya; Narayanaswamy Tamilselvan; Thirunavukkarasu Thirumalai; Gangaipillai Arumugam

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the anti-diabetic effect of methanolic leaf extract of Pongamia pinnata (P. pinnata) on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.Methods:Anti-diabetic activity of P. pinnata leaf extract at dosage of 500 mg/kg and 1 g/kg body weight was evaluated.Results:The levels of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase were significantly increased in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats when compared to that of the normal rats. After supplemented with plant extract, significant lower blood glucose level was recorded.Conclusions:The methanolic leaf extract of P. pinnata has been potent anti-diabetic effect in male albino rats.

  16. Testicular lesions of streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksanen, A

    1975-01-01

    Diabetes was induced in adult male albino rats by a single intravenous injection of streptozotocin (75 mg/kg body weight). The diabetes was allowed to stabilize for at least 15 days, whereafter the testicular and seminal vesicle histology was studied at various time intervals. Reduction in testis weights and tubule diameters was significant after 2 weeks of diabetes. The changes in seminiferous tubules ranged from premature sloughing of epithelium to total cessation of spermatogenesis. The testicular histology of diabetic animals frequently greatly simulated the situation described following hypophysectomy. By subjective visual assessment the number of Leydig cells was found to be normal or reduced in all of the diabetic animals. Diabetes was also demonstrated to induce seminal vesicle atrophy, which did not show any correlation with the degree of testicular lesions. The possible etiology of testicular damage in diabetic animals is discussed.

  17. The Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Rat: An Animal Model of Nonobese Type 2 Diabetes with Severe Diabetic Complications

    OpenAIRE

    Tomohiko Sasase; Takeshi Ohta; Taku Masuyama; Norihide Yokoi; Akihiro Kakehashi; Masami Shinohara

    2013-01-01

    The Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) rat is an inbred strain of Sprague-Dawley rat and recently is established as a nonobese model of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Male SDT rats show high plasma glucose levels (over 700 mg/dL) by 20 weeks. Male SDT rats show pancreatic islet histopathology, including hemorrhage in pancreatic islets and inflammatory cell infiltration with fibroblasts. Prior to the onset of diabetes, glucose intolerance with hypoinsulinemia is also observed. As a result of chronic s...

  18. Progressive histopathological changes in pancreatic islets of Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.W.J.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Lange, W.; Knijnenburg, Q.; Laak, J.A.W.M. van der; Sweep, C.G.J.; Martens, G.J.M.; Verhofstad, A.A.J.

    2001-01-01

    Thus far, histopathological changes in the pancreatic islets of Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats, an animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus), have only been studied in male rats and in 18-weeks old rats or younger. In this study, we have examined in both

  19. The effect of the ginger on the apoptosis of hippochampal cells according to the expression of BAX and Cyclin D1 genes and histological characteristics of brain in streptozotocin male diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molahosseini, A; Taghavi, M M; Taghipour, Z; Shabanizadeh, A; Fatehi, F; Kazemi Arababadi, M; Eftekhar Vaghefe, S H

    2016-10-31

    Diabetes is the most common endocrine disorder in humans with multiple complications including nervous system damages. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of ginger extract on apoptosis of the neurons of hippocampus, via evaluation of BAX and Cyclin D1 and also histological analysis, in male diabetic rats. In this experimental study, 60 Wistar rats (220 ± 30gr) were conducted in 5 groups as follow: diabetic group treated with saline (group 1), normal group treated with saline (group 2), diabetic group treated with ginger (group 3), diabetic group treated with ginger-insulin (group 4), diabetic group treated with insulin (group 5). STZ (60 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally used to induce the diabetes. Expression levels of BAX and Cyclin D1 were examined using Real-Time PCR technique and the normality of neurons was evaluated using H&E staining method. The results showed that blood glucose level significantly decreased in group 4 when compared to group 1. In molecular analysis, there was no significant difference between groups regarding the expression of BAX gens, while, the expression of Cyclin D1 were significantly decreased in group 4 compared with group 1. Histological analysis revealed that pathological symptoms were lower in group 4 than the other diabetic groups. The results of present study showed that the ginger in addition to lowering blood sugar level, changes the expression of Cyclin D1 gene and histological characteristics in a positive manner. This means that the ginger may protects neurons of the hippocampus from apoptosis in diabetic patients.

  20. Relation between diabetes mellitus and male fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Petroianu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the present study was to verify if there is any relation between diabetes mellitus and male infertility. Methods: the spermograms of 43 non-diabetic subjects and 12 diabetic patients (type 1 and 2 aged 20-60 years were compared. Spermiological findings in diabetic patients were compared with those of normal individuals of the same age. Serum testosterone, prolactin, follicle-stimulant hormone, luteinizing hormone, glucose and glycosilated hemoglobin were assayed in diabetic patients. Rresults: Six diabetic patients (four type 1 and two type 2 presented chronic complications attributed to neuropathy and vascular insufficiency. No difference was observed in the semen characteristics (odor, color, viscosity and pH between the control group and the diabetic patients. There were no differences between seminal concentrations and percentage of motile spermatozoa during the first hour of observation in the two groups (p < 0.05. Impotence was reported by four diabetic patients (33.3%. Erectile failure was associated with diabetic microangiopathy and neuropathy. There were no controls with impotence. No significant hormonal changes were found in the diabetic patients. Cconclusions: The present results suggest that neuropathy and vascular insufficiency  may be  implicated in sexual dysfunction in type 1 and 2 diabetic patients, without significantly affecting the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

  1. Rice endosperm protein slows progression of fatty liver and diabetic nephropathy in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Masatoshi; Watanabe, Reiko; Yamaguchi, Miki; Hosojima, Michihiro; Saito, Akihiko; Fujii, Mikio; Fujimura, Shinobu; Kadowaki, Motoni

    2016-10-01

    We previously reported that rice endosperm protein (REP) has renoprotective effects in Goto-Kakizaki rats, a non-obese diabetic model. However, whether these effects occur in obese diabetes remains unclear. This study aimed to clarify the effects of REP on obese diabetes, especially on fatty liver and diabetic nephropathy, using the obese diabetic model Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. In total, 7-week-old male ZDF rats were fed diets containing 20 % REP or casein (C) for 8 weeks. Changes in fasting blood glucose levels and urinary markers were monitored during the experimental period. Hepatic lipids and metabolites were measured and renal glomeruli were observed morphologically. HbA1c levels were significantly lower in rats fed REP, compared with C (Pdiabetes, fatty liver and diabetic nephropathy.

  2. Evaluation of antidiabetic property of Andrographis paniculata powder in high fat and sucrose-induced type-2 diabetic adult male rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Williams Augustine

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antidiabetic effect of the aerial part of Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata powder (500 mg/kg body weight in high fat and sucrose-induced type-2 diabetic rat model. Methods: The fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, serum insulin, lipid profile, mRNA and protein levels of insulin signaling molecules, 14C-2 deoxy glucose uptake and 14C glucose oxidation in liver were checked. Results: In the type-2 diabetes-induced group, the fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance, serum insulin, lipid profile, glucose uptake and oxidation, Akt and glucose transporter 2 mRNA, insulin receptor and glucose transporter 2 protein (both cytosolic and plasma membrane and phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 and Akt were impaired. A. paniculata was able to successfully reinstate this impairment. In addition to this, A. paniculata did not cause a hypoglycemic condition in normal rat, affirming its activity in hyperglycemic state alone. Conclusions: A. paniculata possesses significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activities in high fat and sucrose-induced type-2 diabetic rat and the molecular actions at the level of insulin signaling molecules in liver reinforce it.

  3. Increased RhoA translocation in aorta of diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiping TANG; Ikuyo KUSAKA; Amber R MASSEY; Shadon ROLLINS; John H ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To analyze RhoA expression and activation in the aorta of diabetic rats. Methods: Male SD rats (n=70) were divided into 2 groups: the diabetic group and the control group. Diabetes was induced by intravenous injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). The Rats were studied 3 weeks after the induction of diabetes. Western blotting was used to measure the expression and activation of Rho. Results: Heart rate was measured 24 h/d; it decreased by 58±13 beats/min in the diabetic rats. Isometric tension showed that the contraction of diabetic aorta was significantly reduced compared with that of control aorta when stimulated by KCl and serotonin. The relaxation of the diabetic aorta was reduced when stimulated by acetylcholine. An enhanced RhoA translocation in the aortic tissues of diabetic rats was determined by a 90% increase in membrane-bound RhoA, indicating that the activation of RhoA is markedly increased in the diabetic aorta. Conclusion: Our data suggest that upregulated RhoA could be involved in the vascular dysfunction of diabetic rats.

  4. Metabolic Disorders and Diabetic Complications in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Leprfa Rat: A New Obese Type 2 Diabetic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Kemmochi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Leprfa (SDT fatty rat, established by introducing the fa allele of the Zucker fatty rat into SDT rat genome, is a new model of obese type 2 diabetes. Both male and female SDT fatty rats show overt obesity, and hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia are observed at a young age as compared with SDT rats. With early incidence of diabetes mellitus, diabetic complications, such as nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy, in SDT fatty rats were seen at younger ages compared to those in the SDT rats. In this paper, we overview pathophysiological features in SDT fatty rats and also describe new insights regarding the hematology, blood pressure, renal complications, and sexual dysfunction. The SDT fatty rats showed an increase of leukocytes, especially the monocyte count, prominent hypertension associated with salt drinking, end-stage renal disease with aging, and hypogonadism. Unlike other diabetic models, the characteristic of SDT fatty rat is to present an incidence of diabetes in females, hypertension, and retinopathy. SDT fatty rat is a useful model for analysis of various metabolic disorders and the evaluation of drugs related to metabolic disease.

  5. Phenotypic Characterization of LEA Rat: A New Rat Model of Nonobese Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Okamura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models have provided important information for the genetics and pathophysiology of diabetes. Here we have established a novel, nonobese rat strain with spontaneous diabetes, Long-Evans Agouti (LEA rat derived from Long-Evans (LE strain. The incidence of diabetes in the males was 10% at 6 months of age and 86% at 14 months, while none of the females developed diabetes. The blood glucose level in LEA male rats was between 200 and 300 mg/dl at 120 min according to OGTT. The glucose intolerance in correspondence with the impairment of insulin secretion was observed in male rats, which was the main cause of diabetes in LEA rats. Histological examination revealed that the reduction of β-cell mass was caused by progressive fibrosis in pancreatic islets in age-dependent manner. The intracytoplasmic hyaline droplet accumulation and the disappearance of tubular epithelial cell layer associated with thickening of basement membrane were evident in renal proximal tubules. The body mass index and glycaemic response to exogenous insulin were comparable to those of control rats. The unique characteristics of LEA rat are a great advantage not only to analyze the progression of diabetes, but also to disclose the genes involved in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  6. The Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extracts of Prangos Ferulacea on Blood Factors of Kidney and Liver Functions in Diabetic Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh zare

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease recognized by a reduction in insulin secretion due to the malfunction of β cells in the pancreas or an increase in the cell's resistance to insulin. Prangos Ferulacea has been known as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory herb in the general population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the hydroalcoholic extracts of Prangos Ferulacea on the blood factors of kidney and liver functions in diabetes induced by streptozotocin in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, six groups of animals were selected. Three groups out of six were administered with intra peritoneal injection of streptozotocin to induce diabetes. Group I was fed a normal diet. Group II and III of the animals received 300 and 500 mg/kg/day Prangos Ferulacea extract. Group IV received distilled water (diabetic control, and the animals of groups V and VI were treated with Prangos Ferulacea extract 300 and 500 mg/kg body weight, respectively, for three weeks. Blood glucose, ALT, AST, ALP, creatinine, albumin, urea and BUN were measured in all the animals. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software via the one-way ANOVA. Results: Treatment with the Prangos Ferulacea extract resulted in a significant decrease in blood glucose, ALT, AST and creatinine but no significant decrease in ALP, albumin, urea, and BUN levels. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that hydroalcoholic extracts of Prangos Ferulacea had antidiabetic effects and consequently might alleviate the liver and kidney damage caused by streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus.

  7. The Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Rat: An Animal Model of Nonobese Type 2 Diabetes with Severe Diabetic Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiko Sasase

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT rat is an inbred strain of Sprague-Dawley rat and recently is established as a nonobese model of type 2 diabetes (T2D. Male SDT rats show high plasma glucose levels (over 700 mg/dL by 20 weeks. Male SDT rats show pancreatic islet histopathology, including hemorrhage in pancreatic islets and inflammatory cell infiltration with fibroblasts. Prior to the onset of diabetes, glucose intolerance with hypoinsulinemia is also observed. As a result of chronic severe hyperglycemia, the SDT rats develop profound complications. In eyes, retinopathy, cataract, and neovascular glaucoma are observed. Proliferative retinopathy, especially, resulting from retinal neovascular vessels is a unique characteristic of this model. In kidney, mesangial proliferation and nodular lesion are observed. Both peripheral neuropathy such as decreased nerve conduction velocity and thermal hypoalgesia and autonomic neuropathy such as diabetic diarrhea and voiding dysfunction have been reported. Osteoporosis is another complication characterized in SDT rat. Decreased bone density and low-turnover bone lesions are observed. Taking advantage of these features, SDT rat has been used for evaluating antidiabetic drugs and drugs/gene therapy for diabetic complications. In conclusion, the SDT rat is potentially a useful T2D model for studies on pathogenesis and treatment of diabetic complications in humans.

  8. Characterization of upper thoracic spinal neurons responding to esophageal distension in diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Chao; Ghorbani, Marie L M; Wu, Mingyuan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine spinal neuronal processing of innocuous and noxious mechanical inputs from the esophagus in diabetic rats. Streptozotocin (50 mg/kg, ip) was used to induce diabetes in 15 male Sprague-Dawley rats, and vehicle (10 mM citrate buffer) was injected into 15 rats...

  9. [Simvastatin's effect on insulin resistance in rats with diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskakova, S; Zharmakhanova, G; Bekmukhambetov, Y; Dworacka, M; Dworacki, G

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to estimate the effect of Simvastatin on glycemic variability-related insulin resistance in the course of diabetes mellitus (DM) in rats. Fifty seven male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: I - rats with diabetes mellitus and glycemic variability treated with Simvastatin (20 mg/kg body weight, intragastral during 8 weeks); II - placebo-treated rats with DM and glycemic variability; III - placebo treated rats with DM and IV - nondiabetic control rats. DM was induced by feeding rats with high-fat diet (61%) during five weeks and low-dose of Streptozotocin (30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Daily glucose excursions were stimulated by feeding animals twice a day. We measured fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin and HOMAIR was calculated. Higher insulin resistance in diabetic rats is related to greater daily glycemic variability. In our study was installed significant increasing HOMAIR in diabetics rats with glycemic excursions comparison with the control. Our results showed that the simvastatin-treatment decreases the indices glycemic variability and HOMA in diabetic rats with glycemic excursions.

  10. The sodium glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitor empagliflozin preserves β-cell mass and restores glucose homeostasis in the male zucker diabetic fatty rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Henrik H; Jelsing, Jacob; Hansen, Carl Frederik; Hansen, Gitte; Vrang, Niels; Mark, Michael; Klein, Thomas; Mayoux, Eric

    2014-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by impaired β-cell function associated with progressive reduction of insulin secretion and β-cell mass. Evidently, there is an unmet need for treatments with greater sustainability in β-cell protection and antidiabetic efficacy. Through an insulin and β cell-independent mechanism, empagliflozin, a specific sodium glucose cotransporter type 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor, may potentially provide longer efficacy. This study compared the antidiabetic durability of empagliflozin treatment (10 mg/kg p.o.) against glibenclamide (3 mg/kg p.o.) and liraglutide (0.2 mg/kg s.c.) on deficient glucose homeostasis and β-cell function in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Empagliflozin and liraglutide led to marked improvements in fed glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels, as well as impeding a progressive decline in insulin levels. In contrast, glibenclamide was ineffective. Whereas the effects of liraglutide were less pronounced at week 8 of treatment compared with week 4, those of empagliflozin remained stable throughout the study period. Similarly, empagliflozin improved glucose tolerance and preserved insulin secretion after both 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. These effects were reflected by less reduction in β-cell mass with empagliflozin or liraglutide at week 4, whereas only empagliflozin showed β-cell sparing effects also at week 8. Although this study cannot be used to dissociate the absolute antidiabetic efficacy among the different mechanisms of drug action, the study demonstrates that empagliflozin exerts a more sustained improvement of glucose homeostasis and β-cell protection in the ZDF rat. In comparison with other type 2 diabetic treatments, SGLT-2 inhibitors may through insulin-independent pathways thus enhance durability of β-cell protection and antidiabetic efficacy.

  11. Ocular Inflammation in Uveal Tract in Aged Obese Type 2 Diabetic Rats (Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Fatty Rats)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmochi, Yusuke; Miyajima, Katsuhiro; Ohta, Takeshi; Yasui, Yuzo; Toyoda, Kaoru; Kakimoto, Kochi; Shoda, Toshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    We report uveitis observed in an obese type 2 diabetes rat model, Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Leprfa (SDT fatty) rats aged over 50 weeks. The eyes of SDT fatty rats (16 animals: 7 males and 9 females with 50 or 60 weeks of age) were examined histopathologically. Infiltration of inflammatory cells in the uveal tract was observed in 13 of 16 animals. One female showed severe inflammation affecting the entire uveal tract including the iris, ciliary body, and choroid with a variety of inflammatory cells (neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages). Those changes clinically mimic the findings of diabetic iridocyclitis in diabetic patients. Uveitis associated with diabetes can occur in diabetic patients but the pathogenesis still remains unknown. Since increased extramedullary hematopoiesis in the spleen and abscess in the genital and lower urinary tracts were observed in some SDT fatty rats, increased susceptibility to infection, prolongation of inflammatory states, and disorders of the immune system were considered to be possible factors of the uveitis in aged SDT fatty rats. There have been few reports on how diabetes has influence on the development of uveitis associated with bacterial infection. The SDT fatty rat can be an animal model to investigate diabetes-associated uveitis. PMID:25295283

  12. Ocular Inflammation in Uveal Tract in Aged Obese Type 2 Diabetic Rats (Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Fatty Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Kemmochi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report uveitis observed in an obese type 2 diabetes rat model, Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Leprfa (SDT fatty rats aged over 50 weeks. The eyes of SDT fatty rats (16 animals: 7 males and 9 females with 50 or 60 weeks of age were examined histopathologically. Infiltration of inflammatory cells in the uveal tract was observed in 13 of 16 animals. One female showed severe inflammation affecting the entire uveal tract including the iris, ciliary body, and choroid with a variety of inflammatory cells (neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages. Those changes clinically mimic the findings of diabetic iridocyclitis in diabetic patients. Uveitis associated with diabetes can occur in diabetic patients but the pathogenesis still remains unknown. Since increased extramedullary hematopoiesis in the spleen and abscess in the genital and lower urinary tracts were observed in some SDT fatty rats, increased susceptibility to infection, prolongation of inflammatory states, and disorders of the immune system were considered to be possible factors of the uveitis in aged SDT fatty rats. There have been few reports on how diabetes has influence on the development of uveitis associated with bacterial infection. The SDT fatty rat can be an animal model to investigate diabetes-associated uveitis.

  13. Maternal exposure to diets containing flaxseed flour or flaxseed oil during pregnancy and lactation protects the aortic remodeling in adult male offspring of diabetic rat dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Gabriela Câmara; Correia-Santos, André Manoel; Suzuki, Akemi; Velarde, Luis Guillermo Coca; Chagas, Maurício Alves; Boaventura, Gilson Teles

    2015-11-01

    Diabetes during pregnancy is associated with cardiovascular complications in the fetus and extends into adulthood. Therapeutic applications of flaxseed have been studied in cardiovascular disorders, because its oilseed is the best plant source of omega-3 fatty acid, which is currently considered by researchers to be an essential protective against cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of flaxseed flour and oil on cardiovascular biochemical parameters and the histoarchitecture of the aorta in adult rats which were offspring of diabetic mothers. At 100 days of age in offspring it was observed that maternal consumption of a high-fat diet containing flaxseed oil (FOG) and flaxseed flour (FFG) did not affect the serum concentration of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, vascular endothelial growth factor, cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density-, low-density- or very-low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol. However, the thickness of the intima media layer of the aorta was significantly smaller in FOG and FFG groups; the lumen area was similar among the groups; and a higher percentage of elastic fiber was found in FOG and FFG groups. These data suggest that the use of both flaxseed flour and its oil reduces the remodeling of the aorta; however; it has not been possible to modify the cardiovascular biochemical parameters. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Effect of melatonin supplementation on food and water intake in streptozotocin-diabetic and non-diabetic male Wistar rats Efecto de la suplementación oral con melatonina sobre la ingestión de agua y alimento en ratas Wistar macho con diabetes experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Montano

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of orally supplemented melatonin (MT at 1 mg/kg bw for 4 weeks on feeding behavior of non-diabetic and diabetic male Wistar rats has been studied by computerized meal pattern analysis. Exogenous MT has a satiating effect in non-diabetic rats, but not in diabetic animals. The changes in feeding behavior induced by MT in non-diabetic animals are related to changes in meal frequency, size and duration leading to lower total food intake during the scotophase. MT administration to diabetic rats resulted in lower drinking time and higher faecal output, without further behavioral effects. We conclude that the notorious metabolic changes ocurring in the streptozotocin-diabetic rat can overcome most of the underlying effects of MT supplementation. The possible MT usage for therapeutical purposes could benefit from the lack of behavioral alterations in diabetic animals.Varias líneas de evidencia señalan a la melatonina (MT como un importante factor en el complejo entramado de la regulación de la ingestión de alimento. Puesto que la secreción de MT aumenta en la rata con diabetes tipo I, y dada la importancia de MT en el tracto gastrointestinal, es interesante comprobar los efectos de MT sobre el alterado comportamiento ingestivo de estos animales. Se ha estudiado el efecto de la suplementación oral de MT (1 mg por kg de peso corporal y día en la escotofase sobre el comportamiento ingestivo de ratas Wistar macho diabéticas y no diabéticas durante cuatro semanas mediante análisis de pautas de ingestión asistido por ordenador. La administración de MT exógena indujo un efecto de saciación en ratas no diabéticas, pero no en animales diabéticos. Los cambios en comportamiento ingestivo inducidos por MT en animales no diabéticos están relacionados con cambios en frecuencia, tamaño y duración de las comidas, con el resultado de una disminución de la ingestión total de alimento durante la escotofase. La administración de MT en

  15. Effect of Biophytum sensitivum on streptozotocin and nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ananda Prabu K; Kumarappan CT; Sunil Christudas; Kalaichelvan VK

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of aqueous solution of Biophytum sensitivum leaf extract (BSEt) on normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes was induced in adult male Wistar rats by the administration of STZ-nicotinamide (40, 110 mg/kg b.w., respectively) intraperitoneally. BSEt (200 mg/kg) was administered to diabetic rats for 28 days. The effect of extract on blood glucose, plasma insulin, total haemoglobin, glycosylated haemoglobin, liver glycogen and carbohydrate metabolism regulating enzymes of liver was studied in diabetic rats. Results: BSEt significantly reduced the blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin levels and significantly increased the total haemoglobin, plasma insulin and liver glycogen levels in diabetic rats. It also increased the hexokinase activity and decreased glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase activities in diabetic rats. Conclusions: The results of our study suggest that BSEt possesses a promising effect on STZ-nicotinamide-induced diabetes.

  16. Sulforaphane Prevents Neuronal Apoptosis and Memory Impairment in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gengyin Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To explore the effects of sulforaphane (SFN on neuronal apoptosis in hippocampus and memory impairment in diabetic rats. Methods: Thirty male rats were randomly divided into normal control, diabetic model and SFN treatment groups (N = 10 in each group. Streptozotocin (STZ was applied to establish diabetic model. Water Morris maze task was applied to test learning and memory. Tunel assaying was used to detect apoptosis in hippocampus. The expressions of Caspase-3 and myeloid cell leukemia 1(MCL-1 were detected by western blotting. Neurotrophic factor levels and AKT/GSK3β pathway were also detected. Results: Compared with normal control, learning and memory were apparently impaired, with up-regulation of Caspase-3 and down-regulation of MCL-1 in diabetic rats. Apoptotic neurons were also found in CA1 region after diabetic modeling. By contrast, SFN treatment prevented the memory impairment, decreased the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons. SFN also attenuated the abnormal expression of Caspase-3 and MCL-1 in diabetic model. Mechanically, SFN treatment reversed diabetic modeling-induced decrease of p-Akt, p-GSK3β, NGF and BDNF expressions. Conclusion: SFN could prevent the memory impairment and apoptosis of hippocampal neurons in diabetic rat. The possible mechanism was related to the regulation of neurotropic factors and Akt/GSK3β pathway.

  17. Hypolipidimic effect of some medicinal plants on diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman G.E.Helal * and Mohamed M. A. Shahat

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to evaluate the hypolipidimic effect of aqueous extract of a famous mixture used in Saudi Arabia folk medicine that consists of Nigella sativa, Commiphora myrrha, Boswellia carterii Birdw, Ferule assa-foetida and Aloe vera and also the extract of each plant alone on alloxan induced diabetic rats. Material and Methods :-The present study was carried out on 80 adult male albino rats (120 ± 20 g.b.wt. , the rats were divided randomly into 8 groups, the first group served as control group, the second group as alloxan induced diabetic rats, the third group was diabetic rats treated with mixture of folk medicinal plant ( 0.01g /100 g b. wt. ,the fourth group: diabetic rats treated with Nigella sativa ( 0.01g /100 g b. wt. , the fifth group: diabetic rats treated with Aloe vera ( 0.005g /100 g b. wt. , the sixth group: diabetic rats treated with Ferule assa-foetida ( 0.01 g /100 g b. wt., the seventh: diabetic rats treated with Boswellia carterii Birdw ( 1ml/100 g b. wt. and the eighth group: diabetic rats treated with Commiphora myrrha ( 0.01 g ml/100 g b. wt. Results :- Serum total lipid, serum total cholesterol, LDL­cholesterol, and triglyceride recorded significant increases in diabetic, Nigella sativa, Commiphora myrrha, Boswellia carterii birdw and Aloe vera treated group. While the mixture and Ferule assa-foetida treated group, showed insignificant changes in serum total lipid, triglyceride, serum total cholesterol and LDL­cholesterol. On other hand, the mixture treated group and Ferule assa-foetida treated group showed significant decreased in the previous parameters. The serum HDL­cholesterol was significantly reduced in diabetic group throughout the experimental periods, otherwise, all treated group revealed insignificant changes till the end of experiment when compare with undiabetic rats. Conclusion: The aqueous extract of a mixture consists of Nigella sativa, Commiphora myrrha, Boswellia carterii Birdw, Ferule assa

  18. Gender Differences in Metabolic Disorders and Related Diseases in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii-Leprfa Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Ohta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Leprfa (SDT fatty rat is a novel type 2 diabetic model wherein both male and female rats develop glucose and lipid abnormalities from a young age. In this study, we investigated gender differences in abnormalities and related complications in SDT fatty rats. Food intake was higher in males compared to female rats; however, body weight was not different between genders. Progression of diabetes, including increases in blood glucose and declines in blood insulin, was observed earlier in male rats than in females, and diabetic grade was more critical in male rats. Blood lipids tended to increase in female rats. Gonadal dysfunction was observed in both male and female rats with aging. Microangiopathies, such as nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy, and osteoporosis, were seen in both genders, and pathological grade and progression were more significant in males. Qualitative and quantitative changes were observed for metabolic disease gender differences in SDT fatty rats. The SDT fatty rat is a useful model for researching gender differences in metabolic disorders and related diseases in diabetes with obesity.

  19. Antioxidant potential of bilirubin-accelerated wound healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Mahendra; Singh, Vishakha; Kumar, Dhirendra; Kumawat, Sanjay; Gopalakrishnan, Anu; Lingaraju, Madhu C; Gupta, Priyanka; Tandan, Surendra Kumar; Kumar, Dinesh

    2014-10-01

    Oxidative injury is markedly responsible for wound complications in diabetes mellitus. The biological actions of bilirubin may be relevant to prevent oxidant-mediated cell death, as bilirubin application at a low concentration scavenges reactive oxygen species. Hence, we hypothesized that topical bilirubin application might improve wound healing in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in adult male Wistar rats, which were divided into two groups, i.e., diabetic control and diabetic treated. Non-diabetic healthy rats were also taken as healthy control group. Wound area was measured on days 3, 7, 14, and 19 post-wounding. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) were estimated in the granulation tissue. There was a significant increase in percent wound closure in healthy control and diabetic treated rats on days 7, 14, and 19, as compared to diabetic control rats on days 7, 14, and 19. There was significant decrease in MDA levels on days 7, 14, and 19 in diabetic treated rats, as compared to diabetic control rats. Levels of GSH were significantly increased on days 3, 7, 14, and 19 in diabetic treated rats, as compared to diabetic control rats. GPx, SOD, and CAT activities were significantly higher on days 3, 7, and 14 in diabetic treated rats, as compared to diabetic control rats. The findings indicate that bilirubin is effective in reducing the oxidant status in wounds of diabetic rats which might have accelerated wound healing in these rats.

  20. Adrenergic blockade in diabetic and uninephrectomized rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Jørgensen, P E

    1999-01-01

    The present study reports on the effects of adrenergic blocking agents on the renal growth and on the renal content and urinary excretion of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic or uninephrectomized rats. Diabetic and uninephrectomized rats were allocated to groups...

  1. Effect of vitamin D on bone metabolism in diabetic rats and its related mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3on bone metabolism in diabetic rats and the related molecular mechanism.Methods A total of 45healthy 6-8 weeks old male Sprague Dawley(SD)rats were treated with streptozotocin.The streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were randomly assigned to diabetic group(DM),low dose vitamin D treated group(LD),and high dose vitamin D treated group(HD).Another 12healthy SD rats were used as normol control group(NC).The rats in NC group and DM group were fed with 0.05

  2. Cardiovascular effects of endomorphins in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Yu, Ye; Fan, Ying-zhe; Chang, Hui; Liu, Hong-mei; Cui, Yun; Chen, Qiang; Wang, Rui

    2005-04-01

    Endomorphins, the endogenous, potent and selective mu-opioid receptor agonists, have been shown to decrease systemic arterial pressure (SAP) in rats. In the present study, responses to endomorphins were investigated in systemic vascular bed of alloxan-induced diabetic rats and in non-diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by alloxan (220 mg/kg, i.p.) in male Wistar rats. At 4-5 weeks after the onset of diabetes, intravenous injections of endomorphins (1-30 nmol/kg) led to an increase of SAP and heart rate (HR) consistently and dosed-dependently. SAP increased 7.68+/-3.73, 11.19+/-4.55, 21.19+/-2.94 and 27.48+/-6.21% from the baseline at the 1, 3, 10 and 30 nmol/kg dose, respectively, of endomorphin 1 (n=4; pendomorphin 2. The hypertension could be antagonized markedly by i.p. 2 mg/kg of naloxone. On the other hand, bilateral vagotomy would attenuate the effects of hypertension and diminished the changes of HR in response to endomorphins. With diabetic rats, 6-10 weeks after the induction of diabetes, intravenous injections of endomorphins produced non-dose-related various changes in SAP, such as a single decrease, or a single increase, or biphasic changes characterized by an initial decrease followed by a secondary increase, or no change at all. These results suggest that diabetes may lead to the dysfunction of the cardiovascular system in response to endomorphins. Furthermore, the diabetic rats of 4-5 weeks after alloxan-treatment, the increase in SAP and HR caused by i.v. endomorphins might be explained by a changed effect of vagus and by a naloxone-sensitive mechanism.

  3. The Influence of Goat Milk and Soybean Milk Kefir On IL-6 and Crp Levels in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunarti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Hyperglycemia increases inflammation in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Goat and soybean milks have been known to reduce inflammation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of goat milk and soybean milk kefir on IL-6 and CRP levels in diabetic rats. Materials and Method: A total of 25 male Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: 1 normal rats; 2 diabetic rats; 3 diabetic rats with intake of goat milk kefir; 4 diabetic rats with intake of soybean milk kefir; and 5 diabetic rats with combination of both types of kefir. Before kefir administration for 4 weeks, plasma glucose was measured. After treatment, plasma glucose, CRP and IL-6 levels were assessed. Results: There was a significant decline of plasma glucose in diabetic rats with goat milk kefir (p=0.021, and in diabetic rats with the combination of both goat milk and soybean milk kefir (p<0.001. After treatment, CRP level in diabetic rats was significantly higher when compared with those that had goat milk kefir (p=0.043. All of diabetic rats with kefir had IL-6 values significantly lower than diabetic rats without it (p=0.021. Conclusion: Both goat milk and soybean milk kefir can reduce IL-6 level, but only goat milk kefir can reduce CRP in diabetic rats.

  4. Renal function in streptozotocin-diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P K; Christiansen, J S; Steven, K

    1981-01-01

    Renal function was examined with micropuncture methods in the insulin-treated streptozotocin-diabetic rat. Kidney glomerular filtration rate was significantly higher in the diabetic rats (1.21 ml/min) than in the control group (0.84 ml/min) Nephron glomerular filtration rate increased in proportion...... to the rise in kidney glomerular filtration rate (diabetic rats: 37.0 nl/min; control rats: 27.9 nl/min). Likewise renal plasma flow was significantly higher in the diabetic rats (4.1 ml/min) than in the control group (3.0 ml/min). Glomerular capillary pressure was identical in both groups (56.0 and 56.0 mm......-1mmHg-1). Kidney weight was significantly higher in the diabetic rats (1.15 g; control rats: 0.96 g) while body weight was similar in both groups (diabetic rats: 232 g; control rats: 238 g). Calculations indicate that the increases in transglomerular hydraulic pressure, renal plasma flow...

  5. Effect of diabetes and insulin treatment on nitric oxide synthase content in rat corpus cavemosum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Shun XU; Qiang FU; Sheng-Tian ZHAO; Hai-Nan LIU

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of diabetes mellitus and insulin treatment on rat penile nitric oxide synthase content.Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided at random into two groups: the Control ( n = 8) and the Diabetic ( n =17). Diabetes mellitus was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. The diabetic animals were then ran domly divided into two subgroups: diabetic rats without insulin treatment ( n = 7) and diabetic rats with insulin treat ment ( n = 10). The neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the penile corpus cavemosum were assayed by immrmo histochemical staining with specific antibody to nNOS and the nNOS-positive nerve fibers were counted semiquantita tively under a high power microscope. Results: The nNOS- positive nerve fibres in diabetic rats with treatment was higher than that in diabetic rats without treatment ( P < 0.05) and lower than that in the controls ( P < 0.01 ). The nNOS-positive nerve fibres in diabetic rat without treatment were also lower than that in the controls ( P < 0.01). Con clusion: In streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, the nNOS content in the penile corpus cavernosum was significantly decre~ed. Insulin treatment at the dose level employed partially restores the penile nNOS content in these rats.

  6. Effect of maternal diabetes on gliogensis in neonatal rat hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Akram; Esfandiary, Ebrahim; Hami, Javad; Khanahmad, Hossein; Hejazi, Zahra; Razavi, Shahnaz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes in pregnancy is a common metabolic disorder associated with various adverse outcomes in the offspring including impairments in attention and memory and alterations in social behavior. Glial cells are proven to have a critical role in normal function of neurons, and alteration in their activity could contribute to disturbance in the brain function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal diabetes on hippocampal mRNA expression and distribution pattern of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactive glial cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) of rat neonate at postnatal day 14 (P14). Materials and Methods: Wistar female rats were randomly allocated in control, diabetic, and insulin-treated diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced by injection of streptozotocin from 4 weeks before gestation until parturition. After delivery, the male offspring was euthanized at P14. Results: Our results showed a significant higher level of hippocampal GFAP expression and an increase in the mean number of GFAP positive cells in the DG of diabetic group offspring (P 0.05). Conclusion: The present study revealed that diabetes during pregnancy strongly increased the glial cells production in the developing rat hippocampus. PMID:27656611

  7. Red Cabbage (Brassica oleracea Ameliorates Diabetic Nephropathy in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem A. H. Kataya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective action against oxidative stress of red cabbage (Brassica oleracea extract was investigated. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats using streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight. Throughout the experimental period (60 days, diabetic rats exhibited many symptoms including loss of body weight, hyperglycemia, polyuria, polydipsia, renal enlargement and renal dysfunction. Significant increase in malondialdehyde, a lipid peroxidation marker, was observed in diabetic kidney. This was accompanied by a significant increase in reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity and a decrease in catalase activity and in the total antioxidant capacity of the kidneys. Daily oral ingestion (1 g/kg body weight of B. oleracea extract for 60 days reversed the adverse effect of diabetes in rats. B. oleracea extract lowered blood glucose levels and restored renal function and body weight loss. In addition, B. oleracea extract attenuated the adverse effect of diabetes on malondialdehyde, glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity as well as catalase activity and total antioxidant capacity of diabetic kidneys. In conclusion, the antioxidant and antihyperglycemic properties of B. oleracea extract may offer a potential therapeutic source for the treatment of diabetes.

  8. Acetylsalicylic acid protects erectile function in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, G; Gonulalan, U; Kosan, M; Arioglu, E; Ozturk, B; Cetinkaya, M; Gur, S

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) treatment on diabetes-induced erectile dysfunction. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups as follows: (i) control (C), (ii) diabetic (D), (iii) ASA-treated control (C+ASA) and (iv) ASA-treated diabetic (D+ASA) groups. In groups 2 and 4, diabetes was induced by injection of 35 mg kg(-1) streptozotocin. ASA (100 mg kg(-1) day(-1) , orally) was administrated to rats in groups 3 and 4 for 8 weeks. Both intracavernosal pressure (ICP) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) were measured in in vivo studies. In organ bath, the relaxation responses to acetylcholine (ACh), electrical field stimulation (EFS) and sodium nitroprusside were tested in corpus cavernosum (CC) strips. The mRNA expression for neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) was calculated using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction technique. In in vivo experiments, diabetic rats displayed reduced ICP/MAP values, which were normalised with ASA treatment. The relaxant response to high-dose ACh and EFS at low frequencies (1-8 Hz) in CC strips from the D+ASA group were significantly higher when compared to the D group. Treatment with ASA normalised the raised mRNA expressions of nNOS in diabetic penile tissues. ASA may be involved in mRNA of protein synthesis of NO released from nonadrenergic and noncholinergic cavernosal nerve in diabetes.

  9. Hypolipidimic effect of some medicinal plants on diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Eman G.E.Helal * and Mohamed M. A. Shahat

    2006-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the hypolipidimic effect of aqueous extract of a famous mixture used in Saudi Arabia folk medicine that consists of Nigella sativa, Commiphora myrrha, Boswellia carterii Birdw, Ferule assa-foetida and Aloe vera and also the extract of each plant alone on alloxan induced diabetic rats. Material and Methods :-The present study was carried out on 80 adult male albino rats (120 ± 20 g.b.wt. ), the rats were divided randomly into 8 groups, the first group served as control ...

  10. Male rats play a repeated donation game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Grace; Wood, Ruth I

    2017-05-15

    While previous studies have demonstrated direct and generalized reciprocity in female Norway rats [26], the present study determined if unrelated male laboratory rats respond on behalf of a partner in an iterated sequential game. Pairs of rats worked for food reward in an operant chamber, where participants alternated as Donor and Responder in successive trials. In each trial, the Donor chose between variable and constant reward levers, where the constant reward lever delivered 1 pellet, and the variable reward lever triggered insertion of Responder lever(s); the Donor received 2 pellets when the Responder made any response. In forced-choice constant (FC) trials, the Responder also received 1 pellet for responding on the constant reward lever. In forced-choice variable (FV) trials, the Responder received no pellets for responding on the variable reward lever. In free-choice (FR) trials, the Responder chose between constant (1 pellet) and variable reward levers (0 pellets). With their cagemate, rats earned 61.4±2.0 pellets (64.0±2.1% of 96 possible pellets). As Donor in FC trials, rats preferred the variable reward lever, and the Responder responded frequently. In FV trials, Donor preference for the variable reward lever declined as Responder lever responses decreased. In FR trials, rats alternated responding on variable and constant reward levers as Donor and Responder, respectively. When paired with a new partner, there was no effect on Donor responses, but responses by the Responder decreased in the FV block. Similar effects were observed when paired with a maximally-cooperative stooge. Importantly, rats did not adjust their behavior as Donor to receive more pellets. Results suggest that unrelated male rats will work on behalf of a partner, and that their behavior is sensitive to familiarity, and to cooperative responses by their partner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. EFFECT OF CAMEL MILK ON ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman G. E. Helal*, Samia M. Abd-Elwahab**, and Anwaar Alkamel Mohammad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease which affects large number of population all over the world. Such disease is associated with many complications which may leads finally to patient's mortality. Camel milk supplementation reduces the insulin requirement in Type I diabetic patients. So this study was planned to evaluate the effect of camel milk as hypoglycemic agent.Material and method: Thirty male adult albino rats were used to investigate the effect of camel milk (CM treating diabetic rats. Rats were divided into three equal groups, control, diabetic non treated and diabetic CM treated groups. After thirty days of treatment all rats of each group were sacrificed. The body weight of each rat was determined at the beginning and the end of each period. Blood glucose, serum insulin, lipid and protein profiles, liver and kidney functions, blood picture and liver glycogen were determined for each rat at the end of each period. Pancreatic samples were obtained and processed for microscopic and quantitative evaluation after staining the prepared sections with both Heamatoxylin and eosin as well as special stain for demonstration of the different pancreatic cells in the Islet of Langerhans. Results: The obtained results showed that the induced diabetes was diagnosed by laboratory assessment to body weight loss, hyperglycemia, and hypoinsulinemia, significant increase in liver and kidney functions, lipid and protein profiles and decreased liver glycogen content. While, CM treatment led to a significant improvement in all these parameter except liver function. Microscopically there was definite vaculation, degeneration, karyolysis and pyknosis of beta pancreatic cells in diabetic group while the other pancreatic cells were not affected (alpha and delta cells. The use of CM treatment of this study greatly improves such cellular changes.Conclusion: it was recommended that the use of the CM as a hypoglycemic agent may be of good results

  12. Tissue cholesterol content alterations in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-ting WANG; Jia LI; Li LIU; Nan HU; Shi JIN; Can LIU; Dan MEI; Xiao-dong LIU

    2012-01-01

    Aim:Diabetes is associated with elevated serum total cholesterol level and disrupted lipoprotein subfractions.The aim of this study was to examine alterations in the tissue cholesterol contents closely related to diabetic complications.Methods:Intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin was used to induce type 1 diabetes in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats.On d 35 after the injection,liver,heart,intestine,kidney,pancreas,cerebral cortex and hippocampus were isolated from the rats.The content of total and free cholesterol in the tissues was determined using HPLC.The ATP-binding cassette protein A1 (ABCA1) protein and ApoE mRNA were measured using Western blot and QT-PCR analyses,respectively.Results:In diabetic rats,the level of free cholesterol was significantly decreased in the peripheral tissues,but significantly elevated in hippocampus,as compared with those in the control rats.Diabetic rats showed a trend of decreasing the total cholesterol level in the peripheral tissues,but significant change was only found in kidney and liver.In diabetic rats,the level of the ABCA1 protein was significantly increased in the peripheral tissues and cerebral cortex; the expression of ApoE mRNA was slightly decreased in hippocampus and cerebral cortex,but the change had no statistical significance.Conclusion:Type 1 diabetes decreases the free cholesterol content in the peripheral tissues and increases the free cholesterol content in hippocampus.The decreased free cholesterol level in the peripheral tissues may be partly due to the increased expression of the ABCA1 protein.

  13. Dietary resistant maltodextrin ameliorates testicular function and spermatogenesis in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C-Y; Hsu, Y-J; Chien, Y-W E; Cha, T-L; Tsao, C-W

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of resistant maltodextrin (RMD) on reproduction in streptozotocin (STZ)-nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetic male rats. Forty male rats were induced with diabetes by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (50 mg kg(-1)) and nicotinamide (100 mg kg(-1)). Five groups were analysed in total: normal, diabetic rats without RMD, diabetic rats with RMD 1.2 g per 100 g diet (1×), with RMD 2.4 g per 100 g (2×), and with RMD 6.0 g per 100 g (5×). The groups of diabetic rats with the RMD supplement, compared to those without supplement, showed improved plasma glucose control, attenuated insulin resistance and recovery of testosterone level and spermatogenesis stage. The STZ-nicotinamide-induced diabetes mellitus (DM) caused a significant reduction in serum testosterone, testis androgen receptor (AR), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) protein, but a statistical recovery in each of these was observed in the 5× group. TUNEL-positive cells were observed in the diabetic without RMD group, and RMD treatment reduced apoptotic germ cells. The expression of Bax/Bcl2 was induced in the diabetic group and also significantly reduced in the 5× group. Dietary RMD may improve metabolic control in STZ-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats and attenuate hyperglycaemia-related impaired male reproduction and testicular function.

  14. Acute effect of different antidepressants on glycemia in diabetic and non-diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomez R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic patients have a 20% higher risk of depression than the general population. Treatment with antidepressant drugs can directly interfere with blood glucose levels or may interact with hypoglycemic agents. The treatment of depression in diabetic patients must take into account variations of glycemic levels at different times and a comparison of the available antidepressant agents is important. In the present study we evaluated the interference of antidepressants with blood glucose levels of diabetic and non-diabetic rats. In a first experiment, male adult Wistar rats were fasted for 12 h. Imipramine (5 mg/kg, moclobemide (30 mg/kg, clonazepam (0.25 mg/kg, fluoxetine (20 mg/kg sertraline (30 mg/kg or vehicle was administered. After 30 min, fasting glycemia was measured. An oral glucose overload of 1 ml of a 50% glucose solution was given to rats and blood glucose was determined after 30, 60 and 90 min. Imipramine and clonazepam did not change fasting or overload glycemia. Fluoxetine and moclobemide increased blood glucose at different times after the glucose overload. Sertraline neutralized the increase of glycemia induced by oral glucose overload. In the second experiment, non-diabetic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were fasted, and the same procedures were followed for estimation of glucose tolerance 30 min after glucose overload. Again, sertraline neutralized the increase in glycemia after glucose overload both in diabetic and non-diabetic rats. These data raise the question of whether sertraline is the best choice for prolonged use for diabetic individuals, because of its antihyperglycemic effects. Clonazepam would be useful in cases with potential risk of hypoglycemia.

  15. Effect of ligustrum fruit extract on reproduction in experimental diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Liang FENG; Shu-Hua LI; Yan WANG; Chang-Chun CHEN; Bin GAO

    2001-01-01

    To study the effect of ligustrum fruit on spermatogenesis and blood gonadal hormones in diabetic rats.Methods: Experimental diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats with streptozotocin. Ligustrum fruit extract was given by gastric gavage at a dose of crude drug 30 g@ kg- 1@ d- 1 for 110 days. The serum gonadadotropic hormones and testosterone were determined on d 60 and testicular histology examined on d 110. Results: In the control diabetic rats, the seminiferous tubules were dilated and the spermatogenic cells irregularly arranged. Spermatogenesis was arrested with the number of spermatids highly reduced and spermatozoa not observed. In the treated rats, all types of spermatogenic cells were practically normal. The serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)and testosterone levels were higher in the treated than in the control rats, but the difference was insignificant. Conclusion: In experimental diabetic rats, ligustrum fruit extract protects the damaging effect of experimental diabetes on spermatogenesis.

  16. Diabetes mellitus induced impairment of male reproductive functions: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jangir, Ram Niwas; Jain, Gyan Chand

    2014-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) represents one of the greatest threats to human health all over the world. The incidence of DM is rising rapidly also including children and young persons of reproductive age. Diabetes has been associated with reproductive impairment in both men and women. Diabetes may affect male reproductive functions at multiple levels as a result of its effects on the endocrine control of spermatogenesis, steroidogenesis, sperm maturation, impairment of penile erection and ejaculation. A large number of studies both on diabetic men and experimental diabetic animals have been published on the impact of DM on male reproductive functions during the past few years but many of them have conflicting results. The present review summarizes the research finding of a large number of research papers on the reproductive functions especially on hypothalmo-pituitary-gonadal axis, spermatogenesis, histopathology of testis, synthesis and secretion of testosterone, sperm quality, ejaculatory function and fertility both in diabetic men and experimental diabetic animals.

  17. Diabetic rat testes: morphological and functional alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, G; Catizone, A; Esposito, R; Pisanti, F A; Vietri, M T; Galdieri, M

    2009-12-01

    Reproductive dysfunction is a consequence of diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. This study investigated the histological and molecular alterations in the testes of rats injected with streptozotocin at prepuperal (SPI rats) and adult age (SAI rats) to understand whether diabetes affects testicular tissue with different severity depending on the age in which this pathological condition starts. The testes of diabetic animals showed frequent abnormal histology, and seminiferous epithelium cytoarchitecture appeared altered as well as the occludin distribution pattern. The early occurrence of diabetes increased the percentage of animals with high number of damaged tubules. The interstitial compartment of the testes was clearly hypertrophic in several portions of the organs both in SPI and SAI rats. Interestingly, fully developed Leydig cells were present in all the treated animals although abnormally distributed. Besides the above-described damages, we found a similar decrease in plasma testosterone levels both in SPI and SAI rats. Oxidative stress (OS) is involved in the pathogenesis of various diabetic complications, and in our experimental models we found that manganese superoxide dismutase was reduced in diabetic animals. We conclude that in STZ-induced diabetes, the altered spermatogenesis, more severe in SPI animals, is possibly due to the effect of OS on Leydig cell function which could cause the testosterone decrease responsible for the alterations found in the seminiferous epithelium of diabetic animals.

  18. Centella asiatica Attenuates Diabetes Induced Hippocampal Changes in Experimental Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelli Giribabu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus has been reported to affect functions of the hippocampus. We hypothesized that Centella asiatica, a herb traditionally being used to improve memory, prevents diabetes-related hippocampal dysfunction. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the protective role of C. asiatica on the hippocampus in diabetes. Methods. Streptozotocin- (STZ- induced adult male diabetic rats received 100 and 200 mg/kg/day body weight (b.w C. asiatica leaf aqueous extract for four consecutive weeks. Following sacrifice, hippocampus was removed and hippocampal tissue homogenates were analyzed for Na+/K+-, Ca2+- and Mg2+-ATPases activity levels. Levels of the markers of inflammation (tumor necrosis factor, TNF-α; interleukin, IL-6; and interleukin, IL-1β and oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation product: LPO, superoxide dismutase: SOD, catalase: CAT, and glutathione peroxidase: GPx were determined. The hippocampal sections were visualized for histopathological changes. Results. Administration of C. asiatica leaf aqueous extract to diabetic rats maintained near normal ATPases activity levels and prevents the increase in the levels of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in the hippocampus. Lesser signs of histopathological changes were observed in the hippocampus of C. asiatica leaf aqueous extract treated diabetic rats. Conclusions. C. asiatica leaf protects the hippocampus against diabetes-induced dysfunction which could help to preserve memory in this condition.

  19. Effects of melatonin on biochemical factors and food and water consumption in diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bahram Bibak; Monavareh Khalili; Ziba Rajaei; Mohammad Soukhtanloo; Mousa-Al-Reza Hadjzadeh; Parichehr Hayatdavoudi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetic neuropathy is one of the serious problems due to microvessel vasculopathy in diabetes. It has been reported that hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia are the underlying mechanisms in inducing and progression of diabetic neuropathy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of melatonin on serum glucose and lipid levels, as well as food consumption and water intake in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Eighty male Wistar ra...

  20. Diaphragmatic function is enhanced in fatty and diabetic fatty rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, Serge; Na, Na; Carillion, Aude; Jiang, Cheng; Beuvin, Maud; Lacorte, Jean-Marc; Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique; Riou, Bruno; Coirault, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with a decrease in mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU) (the "obesity paradox"). We hypothesized that obesity may paradoxically improve diaphragmatic function. Methods Diaphragm contractility was prospectively recorded in vitro in adult male Zucker lean (control), fatty, and diabetic fatty rats, at rest, after 12h mechanical ventilation and after fatigue. We analyzed diaphragm morphology, cytokines, and protein expression of the protein kinase signaling pathways. Results Diaphragm active-force (AF) was higher in fatty (96±7mN.mm-2,P = 0.02) but not in diabetic fatty rats (90±17mN.mm-2) when compared with controls (84±8mN.mm-2). Recovery from fatigue was improved in fatty and diabetic fatty groups compared with controls. Ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction was observed in each group, but AF remained higher in fatty (82±8mN.mm-2,P = 0.03) compared with controls (70±8mN.mm-2). There was neutral lipid droplet accumulation in fatty and diabetic fatty. There were shifts towards a higher cross-sectional-area (CSA) of myosin heavy chain isoforms (MyHC)-2A fibers in fatty and diabetic fatty compared with control rats (P = 0.002 and Pobese rats before and after mechanical ventilation, and is associated with activation of AKT pathway signaling and complex changes in morphology. PMID:28328996

  1. Acute exercise adjustments of cardiovascular autonomic control in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Pureza, Demilto Yamagushi; Jorge, Luciana; Sanches, Iris Callado; Irigoyen, Maria-Cláudia; De Souza, Romeu Rodrigues; De Angelis, Kátia

    2012-07-01

    We evaluated the role of cardiovascular autonomic changes in hemodynamics at rest and in response to exercise in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into nondiabetic (ND, n = 8) and diabetic (D, n = 8) groups. Arterial pressure signals were recorded in the basal state and after atropine or propranolol injections at rest, during exercise and during recovery. At rest, vagal tonus was reduced in D (37 ± 3 bpm) in comparison with the ND group (61 ± 9 bpm). Heart rate during exercise was lower in D in relation to ND rats associated with reduced vagal withdrawal in the D group. The D rats had an increase in vagal tonus in the recovery period (49 ± 6 bpm). Exercise-induced hemodynamic adjustment impairment in diabetic rats was associated with reduced cardiac vagal control. The vagal dysfunction was attenuated after aerobic exercise, reinforcing the positive role of this approach in the management of cardiovascular risk in diabetics. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Melatonin reduces hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction in diabetic obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agil, Ahmad; El-Hammadi, Mazen; Jiménez-Aranda, Aroa; Tassi, Mohamed; Abdo, Walied; Fernández-Vázquez, Gumersindo; Reiter, Russel J

    2015-08-01

    Hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction is thought to play a role in the development of liver steatosis and insulin resistance, which are both common characteristics of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It was hypothesized that the antioxidant properties of melatonin could potentially improve the impaired functions of hepatic mitochondria in diabetic obese animals. Male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats and lean littermates (ZL) were given either melatonin (10 mg/kg BW/day) orally for 6 wk (M-ZDF and M-ZL) or vehicle as control groups (C-ZDF and C-ZL). Hepatic function was evaluated by measurement of serum alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels, liver histopathology and electron microscopy, and hepatic mitochondrial functions. Several impaired functions of hepatic mitochondria were observed in C-ZDF in comparison with C-ZL rats. Melatonin treatment to ZDF rats decreases serum levels of ALT (P diabetic-induced mitochondrial abnormalities, glycogen, and lipid accumulation. Melatonin improves mitochondrial dysfunction in M-ZDF rats by increasing activities of mitochondrial citrate synthase (P melatonin augments ATP production (P melatonin reduces liver steatosis and mitochondria dysfunction in ZDF rats. Therefore, it may be beneficial in the treatment of diabesity.

  3. Streptozotocin induced diabetes in lyon hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LeaEMONNOT; JeanSASSARD; MingLO

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Lyon hypertensive (LH) rats, compared to their normotensive controls (LL) exhibit an increased blood pressure (BP)associated with a marked proteinuria and a metabolic syndrom including elevated plasma lipids and insulin/glucose ratio. The aim of the present work was to determine wether a type 2 diabetes could be induced in LH rats so as to obtain a model suitable for study of the relationships between diabetes and hypertension.

  4. Modeling diabetic sensory neuropathy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcutt, Nigel A

    2004-01-01

    The procedures to induce insulin-deficient diabetes in rats using streptozotocin are described along with a number of insulin treatment regimes that can be used to maintain these animals at different degrees of glycemia for periods of weeks to months. Streptozotocin-diabetic rats develop tactile allodynia, hyperalgesia following paw formalin injection and abnormal responses to thermal stimulation and the detailed methods used to evaluate these behavioral indices of abnormal sensory function are provided.

  5. Co-administration of caffeine and hydromethanolic fraction of Citrullus lanatus seeds improved testicular functions in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.I. Onyeso

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: The present study showed that co-administration of caffeine and hydromethanolic fraction of C. lanatus seed extract have hypoglycemic effect and may consequently ameliorate the impaired testicular general architecture and inhibits sperm death or testicular damage caused by alloxan-induced diabetes.

  6. The Effect of Treadmill Exercise on Antioxidant Status in the Hearts of the Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Salehi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder caused by low secretion or resistance to the insulin action. Oxidative stress, as a result of imbalance between the free radical production and antioxidant defense systems is strongly related to diabetes and its complications. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of experimental diabetes and forced treadmill exercise on oxidative stress indexes in heart tissue.Materials & Methods: 40 male wistar rats (20020g were divided into four groups(n=10: control, control with exercise, diabetic, diabetic with exercise. Diabetes was induced by a single dose injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/Kg-1, i.p. Treadmill was performed for 1 hour, 5 days in 8 weeks. At the end of the experiments, the rats were anesthetized by sodium pentobarbital (50 mg/Kg-1, i.p and left ventricle dissociate from heart and maintenance in -80 ºC. Supernatant from homogenization were used to determine the superoxide dismutase (SOD, gluthatione peroxidase (GPX, gluthatione reductase (GR and catalase (CAT activities as enzymatic antioxidant status. Also Maolnyldealdehyde (MDA level as index of lipid peroxidation and total glutathione (T.GSH of the heart tissue were measured.Results: Diabetes significantly reduced CAT and GR activities in diabetic rats compared with control rats. SOD and GPX activities weren't changed in the hearts of the diabetic rats. MDA level, as a lipid peroxidation index, increased in non exercised diabetic rats. In response to exercise, MDA level, CAT, GR and SOD activities showed a significant increase in exercise diabetic rats compared with non exercise diabetic rats.Conclusion: Forced treadmill with moderate severity has harmful effects on cardiovascular system in diabetes because it increases MDA level of heart tissue in exercised diabetic rats.

  7. Thymoquinone Defeats Diabetes-Induced Testicular Damage in Rats Targeting Antioxidant, Inflammatory and Aromatase Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa S. Atta

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants have valuable effects on the process of spermatogenesis, particularly with diabetes mellitus (DM. Therefore, the present study investigated the impact and the intracellular mechanisms by which thymoquinone (TQ works against diabetes-induced testicular deteriorations in rats. Wistar male rats (n = 60 were randomly allocated into four groups; Control, Diabetic (streptozotocin (STZ-treated rats where diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ, 65 mg/kg, Diabetic + TQ (diabetic rats treated with TQ (50 mg/kg orally once daily, and TQ (non-diabetic rats treated with TQ for 12 weeks. Results revealed that TQ significantly improved the sperm parameters with a reduction in nitric oxide (NO and malondialdehyde (MDA levels in testicular tissue. Also, it increased testicular reduced glutathione (GSH levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity. Interestingly, TQ induced downregulation of testicular inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB and significantly upregulated the aromatase protein expression levels in testicles in comparison with the diabetic rats. In conclusion, TQ treatment exerted a protective effect against reproductive dysfunction induced by diabetes not only through its powerful antioxidant and hypoglycemic effects but also through its downregulation of testicular iNOS and NF-κB along with upregulation of aromatase expression levels in diabetic rats.

  8. Morphological Changes of Gingiva in Streptozotocin Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tesseromatis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingivitis and periodontitis are chronic bacterial diseases of the underlying and surrounding tooth tissues. Diabetes mellitus is responsible for tooth deprivation both by decay and periodontal disease. The streptozotocin-induced diabetes results in a diabetic status in experimental animals similar to that observed in diabetes patients. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between the gingival lesions and the microangiopathy changes in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into two groups (control and experimental. Diabetes mellitus was induced by 45 mg/kg IV streptozotocin. The histological investigation of the marginal gingival and the relevant gingival papilla showed inflammation of the lamina propria and the squamous epithelium as well as marked thickness of the arteriole in the diabetic group, but no changes were observed in the control group. The results suggested a probable application of a routine gingival histological investigation in diabetic patients in order to control the progress of disease complications. It may be concluded that histological gingival investigation can be used as a routine assay for the control of the diabetic disease and prevention of its complications.

  9. Antihyperglycaemic, antilipid peroxidative and antioxidant effects of gallic acid on streptozotocin induced diabetic Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punithavathi, Vilapakkam Ranganathan; Prince, Ponnian Stanely Mainzen; Kumar, Ramesh; Selvakumari, Jemmi

    2011-01-10

    The present study aims to evaluate the antihyperglycaemic, antilipid peroxidative and antioxidant effects of gallic acid on streptozotocin induced diabetic male Wistar rats. To induce diabetes mellitus, rats were injected with streptozotocin intraperitoneally at a single dose of 40mg/kg. Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats showed significant (Pacid reactive substances and lipid hydroperoxides were significantly (Pgallic acid (10 and 20mg/kg) daily for a period of 21days showed significant (Pgallic acid in diabetic rats. In vitro study also revealed the potent antioxidant effect of gallic acid. Thus, the study shows the antihyperglycaemic, antilipid peroxidative and antioxidant effects of gallic acid on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The effect exerted by 20mg/kg body weight of gallic acid was more effective than 10mg/kg body weight of gallic acid.

  10. Chronic rapamycin treatment causes diabetes in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Christine E; Partap, Uttara; Patchen, Bonnie K; Swoap, Steven J

    2014-08-15

    Current evidence indicates that the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor rapamycin both increases longevity and, seemingly contradictorily, impairs glucose homeostasis. Most studies exploring the dimensions of this paradox have been based on rapamycin treatment in mice for up to 20 wk. We sought to better understand the metabolic effects of oral rapamycin over a substantially longer period of time in HET3 mice. We observed that treatment with rapamycin for 52 wk induced diabetes in male mice, characterized by hyperglycemia, significant urine glucose levels, and severe glucose and pyruvate intolerance. Glucose intolerance occurred in male mice by 4 wk on rapamycin and could be only partially reversed with cessation of rapamycin treatment. Female mice developed moderate glucose intolerance over 1 yr of rapamycin treatment, but not diabetes. The role of sex hormones in the differential development of diabetic symptoms in male and female mice was further explored. HET3 mice treated with rapamycin for 52 wk were gonadectomized and monitored over 10 wk. Castrated male mice remained glucose intolerant, while ovariectomized females developed significant glucose intolerance over the same time period. Subsequent replacement of 17β-estradiol (E2) in ovariectomized females promoted a recovery of glucose tolerance over a 4-wk period, suggesting the protective role of E2 against rapamycin-induced diabetes. These results indicate that 1) oral rapamycin treatment causes diabetes in male mice, 2) the diabetes is partially reversible with cessation of treatment, and 3) E2 plays a protective role against the development of rapamycin-induced diabetes.

  11. Lead Nitrate Induced Testicular Toxicity in Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Rats: Protective Role of Sodium Selenite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Gokce Apaydin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Among heavy met als, lead is one of the common pollutants found in the environment and biological system. In the present study, streptozotocin-induced diabetic and normal non-diabetic male Wistar rats were given sodium selenite (1.0 mg/kg bw, lead nitrate (22.5 mg/kg bw and sodium selenite plus lead nitrate (1.0 mg/kg+22.5 mg/kg bw, respectively through gavage. At the end of 4th week, malondialdehyde (MDA levels, antioxidant enzyme activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST], and histopathological changes of testes were investigated compared to the control group. No significant differences were observed between the control and sodium selenite treated groups. However, lead nitrate increased the levels of MDA, SOD, CAT, GPx and GST activities compared with the control group in diabetic and non-diabetic rats. Light microscopic analyses revealed that lead nitrate induced numerous histopathological changes in testis tissues of diabetic and non-diabetic rats. In the diabetic and non-diabetic sodium selenite plus lead nitrate treated groups, there were statistically significantly decreased MDA levels and antioxidant enzymes activities and mild pathological changes. As a result, sodium selenite significantly reduced lead nitrate induced testicular toxicity for both diabetic and non-diabetic rats.

  12. Cerebrolysin Ameloriates Cognitive Deficits in Type III Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgy, Gehan S; Nassar, Noha N; Mansour, Hanaa A; Abdallah, Dalaal M

    2013-01-01

    Cerebrolysin (CBL), a mixture of several active peptide fragments and neurotrophic factors including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), is currently used in the management of cognitive alterations in patients with dementia. Since Cognitive decline as well as increased dementia are strongly associated with diabetes and previous studies addressed the protective effect of BDNF in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes; hence this work aimed to evaluate the potential neuroprotective effect of CBL in modulating the complications of hyperglycaemia experimentally induced by streptozotocin (STZ) on the rat brain hippocampus. To this end, male adult Sprague Dawley rats were divided into (i) vehicle- (ii) CBL- and (iii) STZ diabetic-control as well as (iv) STZ+CBL groups. Diabetes was confirmed by hyperglycemia and elevated glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c%), which were associated by weight loss, elevated tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and decreased insulin growth factor (IGF)-1β in the serum. Uncontrolled hyperglycemia caused learning and memory impairments that corroborated degenerative changes, neuronal loss and expression of caspase (Casp)-3 in the hippocampal area of STZ-diabetic rats. Behavioral deficits were associated by decreased hippocampal glutamate (GLU), glycine, serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine. Moreover, diabetic rats showed an increase in hippocampal nitric oxide and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances versus decreased non-protein sulfhydryls. Though CBL did not affect STZ-induced hyperglycemia, it partly improved body weight as well as HbA1c%. Such effects were associated by enhancement in both learning and memory as well as apparent normal cellularity in CA1and CA3 areas and reduced Casp-3 expression. CBL improved serum TNF-α and IGF-1β, GLU and 5-HT as well as hampering oxidative biomarkers. In conclusion, CBL possesses neuroprotection against diabetes-associated cerebral neurodegeneration and cognitive decline via anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and

  13. Cerebrolysin Ameloriates Cognitive Deficits in Type III Diabetic Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehan S Georgy

    Full Text Available Cerebrolysin (CBL, a mixture of several active peptide fragments and neurotrophic factors including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, is currently used in the management of cognitive alterations in patients with dementia. Since Cognitive decline as well as increased dementia are strongly associated with diabetes and previous studies addressed the protective effect of BDNF in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes; hence this work aimed to evaluate the potential neuroprotective effect of CBL in modulating the complications of hyperglycaemia experimentally induced by streptozotocin (STZ on the rat brain hippocampus. To this end, male adult Sprague Dawley rats were divided into (i vehicle- (ii CBL- and (iii STZ diabetic-control as well as (iv STZ+CBL groups. Diabetes was confirmed by hyperglycemia and elevated glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c%, which were associated by weight loss, elevated tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and decreased insulin growth factor (IGF-1β in the serum. Uncontrolled hyperglycemia caused learning and memory impairments that corroborated degenerative changes, neuronal loss and expression of caspase (Casp-3 in the hippocampal area of STZ-diabetic rats. Behavioral deficits were associated by decreased hippocampal glutamate (GLU, glycine, serotonin (5-HT and dopamine. Moreover, diabetic rats showed an increase in hippocampal nitric oxide and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances versus decreased non-protein sulfhydryls. Though CBL did not affect STZ-induced hyperglycemia, it partly improved body weight as well as HbA1c%. Such effects were associated by enhancement in both learning and memory as well as apparent normal cellularity in CA1and CA3 areas and reduced Casp-3 expression. CBL improved serum TNF-α and IGF-1β, GLU and 5-HT as well as hampering oxidative biomarkers. In conclusion, CBL possesses neuroprotection against diabetes-associated cerebral neurodegeneration and cognitive decline via anti

  14. The Pattern of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene Expression in the Hippocampus of Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Salehi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sThe aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of regular exercise in preventing diabetes complication in the hippocampus of streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rat.Materials and MethodsA total of 48 male wistar rats were divided into four groups (control, control exercise, diabetic and diabetic exercise. Diabetes was induced by injection of single dose of STZ. Exercise was performed for one hr every day, over a period of 8 weeks. The antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPX, CAT and GR and oxidant indexes with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF protein and its mRNA and apoptosis were measured in hippocampus of rats. ResultsA significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes activities and increased malondialdehyde (MDA level were observed in diabetic rats (P= 0.004. In response to exercise, antioxidant enzymes activities increased (P= 0.004. In contrast, MDA level decreased in diabetic rats (P= 0.004. Induction of diabetes caused an increase of BDNF protein and its mRNA expression. In response to exercise, BDNF protein and its mRNA expression reduced in hippocampus of diabetic rats. ConclusionDiabetes induced oxidative stress and increased BDNF gene expression. Exercise ameliorated oxidative stress and decreased BDNF gene expression.

  15. Hypoglycemic and antioxidant activities of Caesalpinia ferrea Martius leaf extract in streptozotocininduced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sherien; Kamal; Hassan; Nermin; Mohammed; El-Sammad; Amria; Mamdouh; Mousa; Maha; Hashim; Mohammed; Abd; el; Razik; Hussein; Farrag; Amani; Nassir; Eldin; Hashim; Victoria; Werner; Ulrike; Lindequist; Mahmoud; Abd; El-Moein; Nawwar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antidiabetic and antioxidant ef ects of aqueous ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia ferrea(C. ferrea) leaf in normal and streptozotocin(STZ) induced diabetic rats.Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into 6 groups of 6 rats each were assigned into diabetic and non-diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced in rats by single intraperitoneal administration of STZ(65 mg/kg body weight). C. ferrea extract at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight was orally administered to both diabetic and non-diabetic animals for a period of 30 days. After completion of experimental duration serum, liver and pancreas were used for evaluating biochemical and histopathological changes.Results: Oral administration of C. ferrea leaf extract significantly reduced elevated serum glucose, α-amylase, liver function levels and signii cantly increased serum insulin, total protein and body weight as well as improved lipid proi le due to diabetes. Furthermore, the treatment resulted in a marked increase in glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione, and diminished levels of lipid peroxidation in liver and pancreas of diabetic rats. Histopathological studies demonstrated the reduction in the pancreas and liver damage and coni rmed the biochemical i ndings.Conclusions: From the present study, it can be concluded that the C. ferrea leaf extract ef ectively improved hyperglycaemia while inhibiting the progression of oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Hence, it can be used in the management of diabetes mellitus.

  16. The Protective Effect of Beraprost Sodium on Diabetic Nephropathy by Inhibiting Inflammation and p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway in High-Fat Diet/Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Li Peng; Jie Li; Yixing Xu; Yangtian Wang; Hong Du; Jiaqing Shao; Zhimin Liu

    2016-01-01

    Background. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) plays a crucial role in regulating signaling pathways implicated in inflammatory processes leading to diabetic nephropathy (DN). This study aimed to examine p38 MAPK activation in DN and determine whether beraprost sodium (BPS) ameliorates DN by inhibiting inflammation and p38 MAPK signaling pathway in diabetic rats. Methods. Forty male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into the normal control group, type 2 diabetic group, a...

  17. Icariside II ameliorates diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian W

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wenjie Tian,1,2,* Hongen Lei,1,* Ruili Guan,1 Yongde Xu,1 Huixi Li,1 Lin Wang,1 Bicheng Yang,1 Zhezhu Gao,1 Zhongcheng Xin1 1Andrology Center, Peking University First Hospital, Peking University, Beijing, 2Department of Urology, The Second Hospital of Jilin University, Jilin University, Changchun, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: To investigate the therapeutic effects and potential mechanisms of icariside II (ICA II on reversing diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin (STZ-induced type I diabetic rats.Methods: Newborn male Sprague Dawley rats were labeled with thymidine analog 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU for tracking endogenous label retaining progenitor cells (LRCs. At age of 8 weeks, 48 rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal control group (n=16, diabetes mellitus group (DM; n=16, and diabetes mellitus plus ICA II therapy group (DM+ICA II, n=16. Eight weeks induced for diabetes with STZ, rats in DM group and DM+ICA II group were treated with vehicle or ICA II (5 mg/kg/day for another 8 weeks, respectively. Then, blood creatinine, 24-hour urine protein, blood urea nitrogen, and glycosylated hemoglobin were measured, as well as the expression of von Willebrand factor, malondialdehyde, transforming growth factor-β/drosophila mothers against decapentaplegic protein/connective tissue growth factor (TGF-β/Smad/CTGF signaling, marker of proliferation Ki-67, and EdU+ LRCs in renal tissues.Results: Increased levels of creatinine, 24-hour urine protein, and blood urea nitrogen and remarkably decreased proportion of normal glomeruli and increased proportions of I, IIa, IIb, and III glomeruli were observed in diabetic rats, while ICA II could reverse these changes. Interestingly, ICA II could significantly downregulate the levels of malondialdehyde and TGF-β/Smad/CTGF signaling and increase the expression of von Willebrand factor, Ki-67, and EdU+ LRCs in the kidney.Conclusion: ICA

  18. A novel advanced glycation endproducts breaker restores cardiovascular dysfunctions in experimental diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GangCHENG; Li-liWANG; Hong-yingLIU; HaoCUI; Ying-linCAO; SongLI

    2005-01-01

    AIM The formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) on connective tissue and matrix components leads to increases in collagen crosslinkingthat contributes to aortic and myocardial stiffness in normal aging and which occurs at an accelerated rate in diabetes. In this study, we examined the effects of a novel AGEs breaker, C36, on cardiovascular dysfunctions in experimental diabetic rats. METHODS and RESULTS Male Wiatar rats were made diabetic by i.p. injection of 70mg/kg streptozotocin. After 12 weeks of diabetes, the animals were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=8-11),

  19. Effect of opium on glucose metabolism and lipid profiles in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadeghian, Saeed; Boroumand, Mohammad Ali; Sotoudeh-Anvari, Maryam; Rahbani, Shahram; Sheikhfathollahi, Mahmood; Abbasi, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Background: This experimental study was performed to determine the impact of opium use on serum lipid profile and glucose metabolism in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Material and methods: To determine the effect of opium, 20 male rats were divided into control (n = 10) and opium-treated

  20. Effect of opium on glucose metabolism and lipid profiles in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadeghian, Saeed; Boroumand, Mohammad Ali; Sotoudeh-Anvari, Maryam; Rahbani, Shahram; Sheikhfathollahi, Mahmood; Abbasi, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Background: This experimental study was performed to determine the impact of opium use on serum lipid profile and glucose metabolism in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Material and methods: To determine the effect of opium, 20 male rats were divided into control (n = 10) and opium-treated

  1. Changes of macrovascular endothelial ultrastructure and gene expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆颖理; 胡申江; 沈周俊; 邵一川

    2004-01-01

    Background The most intimidatory pathological changes in patients with DM are cardiovascular illnesses, which are the major causes of death in diabetic patients and are far more prevalent than in nondiabetics because of accelerated atherosclerosis. In this study, we tried to clarify the changes in macrovascular endothelial ultrastructure and in the gene expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)mRNA in diabetic rats. Methods The study was conducted on 52 of 10-week old Sprague Dawley (SD) rats with body weight of (320±42) g. SD rats were divided into: experimental group treated with a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 60 mg/kg), (male, n=20, diabetes mellitus (DMM)); female, n=12, diabetes mellitus female (DMF)) and control group (male, n=10, diabetes mellitus male control (DMMC); female, n=10, diabetes mellitus female control (DMFC)). Four weeks after treatment, half of the rats were sacrificed; the remainders were sacrificed ten weeks after treatment. One part of the abdominal aortic sample was stored under glutaraldehyde (volume fraction ψB = 2.5 %). After the process of chemical fixation, chemical dehydration, drying and conductivity enhancement, all samples were observed and photographed using scanning electron microscopy (Leica-Stereoscan 260, England). The other part of the abdominal aortic sample was treated with liquid nitrogen and the expression of eNOSmRNA was assessed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Results The aortic lumen of both experimental groups adsorbed much more debris than that of either control group. The endothelial surfaces of diabetic rats were coarse, wrinkled and protuberant like fingers or villi. The vascular endothelial lesions of diabetic male rats were very distinct after 4 weeks, and as obvious as those at 10 weeks. The vascular endothelial lesions of diabetic female rats were not severe at 4 weeks and only became marked after 10 weeks. In both males and females, the abdominal aortic eNOSmRNA content

  2. Effects of Sesame Butter (Ardeh) versus Sesame Oil on Metabolic and Oxidative Stress Markers in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidari, Fatemeh; Mohammadshahi, Majid; Zarei, Mehdi; Gorji, Zahra

    2016-03-01

    Diabetes is one of the most common metabolic disorders and is related to oxidative-stress-induced diseases. Given the role of dietary antioxidants in the control and prevention of diabetes, this study aimed to examine the effects of sesame butter versus sesame oil on the serum levels of glucose, lipid profile, and oxidative stress biomarkers in diabetic rats. Forty male albino rats of Wistar strain were randomly divided into 4 groups (i.e., nondiabetic control rats, diabetic rats, diabetic rats treated with sesame butter, and diabetic rats treated with sesame oil). Experimental diabetes was induced with an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). Sesame butter (1.25 g/kg) and sesame oil (0.5 g/kg) were given by oral gavage to the diabetic rats for 6 weeks. Finally, serum glucose, lipid profile, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured and analyzed statistically. Our data showed that the diabetic groups treated with sesame butter and sesame oil had significantly lower levels of glucose and higher levels of high-density lipoprotein than did the diabetic control group at the end of the study (PSesame butter supplementation also increased TAC and decreased MDA concentrations significantly in the diabetic rats (Psesame butter make it an excellent candidate for future human studies on diabetes, although further research is needed to determine the exact dose and duration of supplementation.

  3. Effect of irradiation on the dental pulp tissues in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Ho Duk; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-03-15

    To observe the histological changes in the pulp tissues of mandibular molars in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after irradiation. The male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing approximately 250 gm were divided into four groups : control, diabetes, irradiation, and diabetes-irradiation groups. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the rats by injecting streptozotocin. Rats in control and irradiation groups were injected with citrate buffer only. After 5 days, the head and neck region of the rats in irradiation and diabetes-irradiation groups were irradiated with a single absorbed dose of 10 Gy. All the rats were sacrificed at 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after irradiation. The specimen including the mandibular molars were sectioned and observed using a histopathological method. In the diabetes group, capillary dilatation was observed. However, there was no obvious morphologic alteration of the odontoblasts. In the irradiation group, generalized necrosis of the dental pulp tissues was observed. Vacuolation of the odontoblasts and dilatation of the capillaries were noted in the early experimental phases. In the diabetes-irradiation group, generalized degeneration of the dental pulp tissues was observed. Vacuolation of the dental pulp cells and the odontoblasts was noted in the late experimental phases. This experiment suggest that dilatation of the capillaries in the dental pulp tissue is induced by diabetic state, and generalized degeneration of the dental pulp tissues is induced by irradiation of the diabetic group.

  4. Effect of umbelliferone on tail tendon collagen and haemostatic function in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Balakrishnan; Pugalendi, Kodukkur Viswanathan

    2007-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus is known to affect collagen in various tissues. Umbelliferone (7-hydroxycoumarin), a natural antioxidant and benzopyrone, is found in golden apple (Aegle marmelos Correa) and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium). Plant-derived phenolic coumarins have been shown to act as dietary antioxidants. In this study, we have investigated the influence of umbelliferone on collagen content and its effects on the tail tendon in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Male albino Wistar rats (180-200 g) were made diabetic by intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg). Normal and diabetic rats were treated with umbelliferone for 45 days. Diabetic rats had increased glucose and decreased insulin levels. Tail tendons of diabetic rats had increased total collagen, glycation and fluorescence, and decreased levels of neutral, acid and pepsin-soluble collagens. We have studied the effect of umbelliferone on haemostatic function because umbelliferone is also a coumarin derivative like the anticoagulant, warfarin. Diabetic rats had a significant decrease in prothrombin, clotting and bleeding time, and treatment with umbelliferone made these parameters almost normal. Our results show that umbelliferone controls glycaemia and has a beneficial effect on collagen content and its properties, i.e. collagen related parameters, in the tail tendon, which indicates recovery from the risk (recovery of animals from the risk of complications) of collagen-mediated diabetic polyneuropathy and diabetic nephropathy.

  5. Melatonin improves glucose homeostasis in young Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agil, Ahmad; Rosado, Isaac; Ruiz, Rosario; Figueroa, Adriana; Zen, Nourahouda; Fernández-Vázquez, Gumersindo

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of melatonin on glucose homeostasis in young male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, an experimental model of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). ZDF rats (n=30) and lean littermates (ZL) (n=30) were used. At 6wk of age, both lean and fatty animals were subdivided into three groups, each composed of ten rats: naive (N), vehicle treated (V), and melatonin treated (M) (10mg/kg/day) for 6wk. Vehicle and melatonin were added to the drinking water. ZDF rats developed DM (fasting hyperglycemia, 460±39.8mg/dL; HbA(1) c 8.3±0.5%) with both insulin resistance (HOMA-IR 9.28±0.9 versus 1.2±0.1 in ZL) and decreased β-cell function (HOMA1-%B) by 75%, compared with ZL rats. Melatonin reduced fasting hyperglycemia by 18.6% (Pmelatonin lowered insulinemia by 15.9% (Pmelatonin decreased hyperleptinemia by 34% (Pmelatonin reduced serum free fatty acid levels by 13.5% (Pmelatonin administration ameliorates glucose homeostasis in young ZDF rats by improving both insulin action and β-cell function. These observations have implications on melatonin's possible use as a new pharmacologic therapy for improving glucose homeostasis and of obesity-related T2DM, in young subjects.

  6. Apple cider vinegar attenuates lipid profile in normal and diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishehbor, F; Mansoori, A; Sarkaki, A R; Jalali, M T; Latifi, S M

    2008-12-01

    In this study, the effect of apple cider vinegar on Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and lipid profile in normal and diabetic rats was investigated. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats (300+/-30 g) by the intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg kg(-1) of body weight). Both normal and diabetic animals were fed with standard animal food containing apple cider vinegar (6% w/w) for 4 weeks. Fasting blood glucose did not change, while HbA1c significantly decreased by apple cider vinegar in diabetic group (pvinegar, significant reduction of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) (pcider vinegar also reduced serum triglyceride (TG) levels (pcider vinegar improved the serum lipid profile in normal and diabetic rats by decreasing serum TG, LDL-c and increasing serum HDL-c and may be of great value in managing the diabetic complications.

  7. Effect of vitamin E on oxidative stress ,status in small intestine of diabetic rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of vitamin E on oxidative stress status in the small intestine of diabetic rats.METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: Control (C), non-treated diabetic (NTD) and vitamin E-treated diabetic (VETD)groups. The increases in lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in these three groups was compared after 6 wk.RESULTS: There was no significant difference in catalase activity between NTD and control rats.Compared to NTD rats, the treatment with vitamin E significantly decreased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, and also increased catalase activity and SOD.CONCLUSION: The results revealed the occurrence of oxidative stress in the small intestine of diabetic rats. Vitamin E, as an antioxidant, attenuates lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, and increases antioxidant defense mechanism.

  8. The effect of Resveratrol flavonoid on learning and memory in passive avoidance and Y maze in diabetic rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Nasri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes type I is accompanied with disturbances in cognitive skills, memory and learning. In this research, we evaluated the effect of resveratrol chronic treatment on learning and memory in diabetic male rats. Material and Methods: Rats were divided into 4 groups: control, resveratrol-treated control, diabetic and resveratrol-treated diabetic groups. We used streptozotosin for inducing diabetes. Resveratrol (10mg/kg I.p. was administered for 8 weeks. For evaluation of learning and memory, passive avoidance test and Y-maze task were used. For Statistical analysis, SPSS software and paired T-test and one-way ANOVA were used. Results: Resveratrol decreased serum glucose in diabetic rats (P<0.01. In passive avoidance learning, there wasn’t any significant difference in initial latency between diabetic and treated- diabetic group. Also, a significant decrease of step latency was observed in diabetic and treated diabetic rats (P<0.01. In Y maze, Resveratrol improved alternation percentage in diabetic rats. Conclusion: Probably due to different mechanism of long term and short term memory, long term resveratrol treatment didn’t improve memory and learning in passive avoidance learning. In Y maze, method for determining the spatial memory, resveratrol improved spatial memory in diabetic rats. Resveratrol not only regulates glucose in diabetic rats but also it improves short term memory.

  9. [Berberine inhibits cardiac fibrosis of diabetic rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kun; Shen, Yongjie; He, Jinfeng; Liu, Guoling; Song, Wei

    2016-10-01

    Objective To explore the effect of berberine on cardiac fibrosis of diabetic rats by observing the expressions of serum transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) , collagen type 1 (Col1) and collagen type 3 (Col3) in myocardial tissues of diabetic rats after berberine treatment. Methods The diabetic model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptococci (STZ). Forty-three diabetic rats were randomly divided into diabetic model group (n=9), berberine treated groups of different doses [50, 100, 150 mg/(kg.d), gavage administration for 12 weeks; n=9, 9, 8 respectively], and metformin group as positive control (n=8); other 8 normal rats served as a negative control group. After the last administration, fasting blood glucose, left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP) and left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP) were measured; rats' heart were taken to calculate the heart mass index (HMI); ELISA was used to detect the serum levels of TGF-β1 and CTGF; collagenous fibers in cardiac tissues were tested by Masson staining; collagen volume fraction (CVF) was measured by image analysis; Col1 and Col3 in cardiac tissues were determined by Western blotting. Results Compared with the normal control group, the fasting blood glucose, LVSP, LVEDP absolute value, HMI, the degree of cardiac fibrosis, the expressions of TGF-β1, CTGF, Col1 and Col3 significantly increased in the model group. All indexes mentioned above were reduced obviously in berberine treated groups of 100 and 150 mg/(kg.d). Conclusion Berberine improves cardiac fibrosis in diabetic rats through down-regulating the expressions of TGF-β1 and CTGF and reducing the synthesis and deposition of Col1 and Col3.

  10. Risk of diabetes according to male factor infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glazer, Clara Helene; Bonde, Jens Peter; Giwercman, Aleksander

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is male factor infertility associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes? SUMMARY ANSWER: The study provides evidence that male factor infertility may predict later occurrence of diabetes mellitus with the risk being related to the severity of the underlying fertility...... problem. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Previous cross-sectional studies have shown an increased prevalence of comorbidities among infertile men when compared to controls. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: In this prospective cohort study, 39 516 men who had since 1994 undergone fertility treatment with their female...... partner were identified from the Danish national IVF register, which includes data on assumed cause of couple infertility (male/female factor, mixed and unexplained infertility) and type of fertility treatment. With a median follow-up time of 5.6 years, each man was followed for diabetes occurrence from...

  11. Dynamic aerobic exercise induces baroreflex improvement in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Luciana; da Pureza, Demilto Y; da Silva Dias, Danielle; Conti, Filipe Fernandes; Irigoyen, Maria-Cláudia; De Angelis, Kátia

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of an acute aerobic exercise on arterial pressure (AP), heart rate (HR), and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into control (n = 8) and diabetic (n = 8) groups. AP, HR, and BRS, which were measured by tachycardic and bradycardic (BR) responses to AP changes, were evaluated at rest (R) and postexercise session (PE) on a treadmill. At rest, STZ diabetes induced AP and HR reductions, associated with BR impairment. Attenuation in resting diabetes-induced AP (R: 103 ± 2 versus PE: 111 ± 3 mmHg) and HR (R: 290 ± 7 versus PE: 328 ± 10 bpm) reductions and BR dysfunction (R: -0.70 ± 0.06 versus PE: -1.21 ± 0.09 bpm/mmHg) was observed in the postexercise period. In conclusion, the hemodynamic and arterial baro-mediated control of circulation improvement in the postexercise period reinforces the role of exercise in the management of cardiovascular risk in diabetes.

  12. Relationship between Immunological Abnormalities in Rat Models of Diabetes Mellitus and the Amplification Circuits for Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Tomoko; Asao, Hironobu; Wakabayashi, Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    A better understanding of pathogenic mechanisms is required in order to treat diseases. However, the mechanisms of diabetes mellitus and diabetic complications are extremely complex. Immune reactions are involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications, while diabetes influences immune reactions. Furthermore, both diabetes and immune reactions are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. To address these issues, animal models are useful tools. So far, various animal models of diabetes have been developed in rats, which have advantages over mice models in terms of the larger volume of tissue samples and the variety of type 2 diabetes models. In this review, we introduce rat models of diabetes and summarize the immune reactions in diabetic rat models. Finally, we speculate on the relationship between immune reactions and diabetic episodes. For example, diabetes-prone Biobreeding rats, type 1 diabetes model rats, exhibit increased autoreactive cellular and inflammatory immune reactions, while Goto-Kakizaki rats, type 2 diabetes model rats, exhibit increased Th2 reactions and attenuation of phagocytic activity. Investigation of immunological abnormalities in various diabetic rat models is useful for elucidating complicated mechanisms in the pathophysiology of diabetes. Studying immunological alterations, such as predominance of Th1/17 or Th2 cells, humoral immunity, and innate immune reactions, may improve understanding the structure of amplification circuits for diabetes in future studies.

  13. Treadmill Exercise Preconditioning Attenuates Lung Damage Caused by Systemic Endotoxemia in Type 1 Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hsia Hung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endotoxemia induces a series of inflammatory responses that may result in lung injury. However, heat shock protein72 (HSP72 has the potential to protect the lungs from damage. The objective of this study was to determine whether prior exercise conditioning could increase the expression of HSP72 in the lungs and attenuate lung damage in diabetic rats receiving lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Streptozotocin was used to induce diabetes in adult male Wistar rats. Rats were randomly assigned to sedentary or exercise groups. Rats in the exercise condition ran on a treadmill 5 days/week, 30–60 min/day, with an intensity of 1.0 mile/hour over a 3-week period. Rats received an intravenous infusion of LPS after 24 hrs from the last training session. Elevated lavage tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α level in response to LPS was more marked in diabetic rats. HSP72 expression in lungs was significantly increased after exercise conditioning, but less pronounced in diabetic rats. After administration of LPS, exercised rats displayed higher survival rate as well as decreased lavage TNF-α level and lung edema in comparison to sedentary rats. Our findings suggest that exercise conditioning could attenuate the occurrence of inflammatory responses and lung damage, thereby reducing mortality rate in diabetic rats during endotoxemia.

  14. Heme Oxygenase-1 Promotes Delayed Wound Healing in Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing-Ying; Wang, Guo-Guang; Li, Wei; Jiang, Yu-Xin; Lu, Xiao-Hua; Zhou, Ping-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic ulcers are one of the most serious and costly chronic complications for diabetic patients. Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress may play an important role in diabetes and its complications. The aim of the study was to explore the effect of heme oxygenase-1 on wound closure in diabetic rats. Diabetic wound model was prepared by making an incision with full thickness in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Wounds from diabetic rats were treated with 10% hemin ointment for 21 days. Increase of HO-1 protein expression enhanced anti-inflammation and antioxidant in diabetic rats. Furthermore, HO-1 increased the levels of VEGF and ICAM-1 and expressions of CBS and CSE protein. In summary, HO-1 promoted the wound closure by augmenting anti-inflammation, antioxidant, and angiogenesis in diabetic rats.

  15. Heme Oxygenase-1 Promotes Delayed Wound Healing in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Ying Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic ulcers are one of the most serious and costly chronic complications for diabetic patients. Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress may play an important role in diabetes and its complications. The aim of the study was to explore the effect of heme oxygenase-1 on wound closure in diabetic rats. Diabetic wound model was prepared by making an incision with full thickness in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Wounds from diabetic rats were treated with 10% hemin ointment for 21 days. Increase of HO-1 protein expression enhanced anti-inflammation and antioxidant in diabetic rats. Furthermore, HO-1 increased the levels of VEGF and ICAM-1 and expressions of CBS and CSE protein. In summary, HO-1 promoted the wound closure by augmenting anti-inflammation, antioxidant, and angiogenesis in diabetic rats.

  16. Protective effect of turnip root ethanolic extract on early diabetic nephropathy in the rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Amouoghli-Tabrizi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder and one of its most important consequences is renal insufficiency. A multitude of herbs has been described for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The aim of present study was to assess the protective effect of turnip root ethanolic extract (TREE on early nephropathy in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.Materials and Method: Eighty male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into 4 equal groups including: healthy rats, normal healthy rats receiving TREE, diabetic rats and diabetic rats receiving TREE. Diabetes was induced by a single injection of alloxan (120 mg/kg; i.p. The extract (200 mg/kg was gavaged to TREE treatment groups daily for 8 weeks. At the end of experiment; serum levels of urea, uric acid and creatinine were assessed. The lipid peroxidation product, thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS, and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were measured in the renal tissue. Finally, the biochemical findings were matched with histopathological verification. Statistically, the quantitative data obtained, compared among the groups by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey post-test. Statistical significance was considered at p<0.05.Results: In the diabetic rats, TREE significantly decreased the levels of serum biomarkers of renal injury. Furthermore, TREE significantly decreased the lipid peroxidation and elevated the decreased levels of antioxidant enzymes in diabetic rats. Histopathological findings were in agreement with the biochemical findings.Conclusion: TREE has protective effect on early diabetic nephropathy in the rats with experimentally induced diabetes

  17. Protective effects of leflunomide on renal lesions in a rat model if diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Ji, Yongqiang; Lv, Wei; He, Tianwei; Wang, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most common chronic complications of diabetes with poor efficacy of clinical treatment. This study investigated the protective effects of leflunomide, a new immunosuppressant, on tubulointerstitial lesions in a rat model of diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection in male Wistar rats. Two weeks after STZ injection, diabetic rats were treated daily for 8 weeks with low (5 mg/kg) and high dose (10 mg/kg) of leflunomide, and benazepril hydrochloride (4 mg/kg) as a positive control. In diabetic rats, the 24-h urine volume, urine protein and microalbumin, blood creatinine and urea nitrogen significantly increased, which were attenuated by leflunomide treatment in a dose-dependent manner (all p leflunomide treatment. Immunohistochemistry study and real-time polymerase chain reaction results demonstrated that osteopontin (OPN), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), α-smooth muscle actin and CD68 expression in the renal tubulointerstitial region were significantly increased in the diabetic rats, while these increases were inhibited by leflunomide treatment. These findings suggest that leflunomide protects the kidney injury of diabetic rats might through its inhibition of OPN/TGF-β1 mediated extracellular matrix deposition and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, as well as its inhibition on tubular epithelial-myofibroblast transdifferentiation.

  18. Effects of coffee and caffeine on bladder dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao-ran YI; Zhong-qing WEI; Xiang-lei DENG; Ze-yu SUN; Xing-rang LI; Cheng-gong TIAN

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To explore the effects and mechanisms of caffeine and coffee on bladder dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided randomly into 4 groups: control, diabetes mellitus (DM), DM with coffee treatment, and DM with caffeine treatment. The diabetic rat was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). After 7 weeks of treatment with coffee and caffeine, cystometrogram, contractile responses to electrical field stimulation (EFS) and acetylcholine (ACh), and cyclic AMP (cAMP) concentration of the bladder body and base were measured. Results: The bladder weight, volume threshold for micturition and post-void residual volume (PVR) in the diabetic rats were significantly higher compared to those in the control animals. Coffee or caffeine treatment significantly reduced the bladder weight, bladder capacity and PVR in the diabetic rats. DM caused significant decreases in cAMP concentration of the bladder and coffee and caffeine caused upregulation of cAMP content in the diabetic bladder. In addition, coffee and caffeine tended to normalize the altered detrusor contractile responses to EFS and ACh in the diabetic rats. Conclusion: These results indicate that caffeine and coffee may have beneficial effects on bladder dysfunction in the early stage of diabetes by increasing cAMP content in the lower urinary tract, recovering the micturition reflex and improving the detrusor contractility.

  19. Renal and hepatic transporter expression in type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Michael T; Aleksunes, Lauren M; Sawant, Sharmilee P; Dnyanmote, Ankur V; Mehendale, Harihara M; Manautou, José E

    2008-01-01

    Membrane transporters are critical for the uptake as well as elimination of chemicals and by-products of metabolism from the liver and kidneys. Since these proteins are important determinants of chemical disposition, changes in their expression in different disease states can modulate drug pharmacokinetics. The present study investigated alterations in the renal and hepatic expression of organic anion and cation transporters (Oats/Octs), multidrug resistance-associated proteins (Mrps), breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp), P-glycoprotein (Pgp), and hepatic Na(+)-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp) in type 2 diabetic rats. For this purpose, type 2 diabetes was induced by feeding male Sprague-Dawley rats a high fat diet followed by a single dose of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg, i.p., in 0.01 M citrate buffer pH 4.3) on day 14. Controls received normal diet and vehicle. Kidney and liver samples were collected on day 24 for generation of crude plasma membrane fractions and Western blot analysis of Oat, Oct, Mrp, Bcrp, Pgp, and Ntcp proteins. With regards to renal uptake transporters, type 2 diabetes increased levels of Oat2 (2.3-fold) and decreased levels of Oct2 to 50% of control kidneys. Conversely, efflux transporters Mrp2, Mrp4, and Bcrp were increased 5.4-fold, 2-fold, and 1.6-fold, respectively in type 2 diabetic kidneys with no change in levels of Mrp1, Mrp5, or Pgp. Studies of hepatic transporters in type 2 diabetic rats reveal that the protein level of Mrp5 was reduced to 4% of control livers with no change in levels of Bcrp, Mrp1, Mrp2, Mrp4, Ntcp, or Pgp. The changes reported in this study may have implications in type 2 diabetic patients.

  20. Impact of Ellagic Acid in Bone Formation after Tooth Extraction: An Experimental Study on Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen M. Jamil Al-Obaidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To estimate the impact of ellagic acid (EA towards healing tooth socket in diabetic animals, after tooth extraction. Methods. Twenty-four Sprague Dawley male rats weighing 250–300 g were selected for this study. All animals were intraperitoneally injected with 45 mg/kg (b.w. of freshly prepared streptozotocin (STZ, to induce diabetic mellitus. Then, the animals were anesthetized, and the upper left central incisor was extracted and the whole extracted sockets were filled with Rosuvastatin (RSV. The rats were separated into three groups, comprising 8 rats each. The first group was considered as normal control group and orally treated with normal saline. The second group was regarded as diabetic control group and orally treated with normal saline, whereas the third group comprised diabetic rats, administrated with EA (50 mg/kg orally. The maxilla tissue stained by eosin and hematoxylin (H&E was used for histological examinations and immunohistochemical technique. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2 and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were used to evaluate the healing process in the extracted tooth socket by immunohistochemistry test. Results. The reactions of immunohistochemistry for FGF-2 and ALP presented stronger expression, predominantly in EA treated diabetic rat, than the untreated diabetic rat. Conclusion. These findings suggest that the administration of EA combined with RSV may have accelerated the healing process of the tooth socket of diabetic rats, after tooth extraction.

  1. Effects of Melatonin and Vitamin E on Peripheral Neuropathic Pain in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Heidari

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sPrevious studies have indicated that diabetes mellitus might be accompanied by neuropathic pain. Oxidative stress is implicated as a final common pathway in development of diabetic neuropathy. Pharmacological interventions targeted at inhibiting free radical production have shown beneficial effects in diabetic neuropathy. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the possible analgesic effects of melatonin and vitamin E in diabetic rats.Materials and MethodsThis study was performed on 32 male Wistar rats divided into 4 groups: control, diabetic, melatonin-treated diabetic and vitamin E-treated diabetic. Experimental diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal streptozotocin (50 mg/kg injection. Melatonin (10 mg/kg, i.p. and vitamin E (100 mg/kg, i.p. were injected for 2 weeks after 21st day of diabetes induction. At the end of administration period, pain-related behavior was assessed using 0.5% formalin test according to two spontaneous flinching and licking responses. The levels of lipid peroxidation as well as glutathione-peroxidase and catalase activities were evaluated in lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia.ResultsFormalin-evoked flinching and total time of licking were increased in both acute and chronic phases of pain in diabetic rats as compared to control rats, whereas treatment with melatonin or vitamin E significantly reduced the pain indices. Furthermore, lipid peroxidation levels increased and glutathione-peroxidase and catalase activities decreased in diabetic rats. Both antioxidants reversed the biochemical parameters toward their control values.ConclusionThese results suggest that oxidative stress may contribute to induction of pain in diabetes and further suggest that antioxidants, melatonin and vitamin E, can reduce peripheral neuropathic pain in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

  2. Progression of nephropathy after islet of langerhans transplantation in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Tadeu Spadella

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of islet of Langerhans transplantation (IT on the kidney lesions of rats with alloxan-induced diabetes. Forty-five inbred male Lewis rats were randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups: group Gl included 15 non-diabetic control rats (NC, group GIT included 15 alloxan-induced diabetic rats (DC, and group III included 15 alloxan-induced diabetic rats that received pancreatic islet transplantation prepared by nonenzymatic method from normal donor Lewis rats and injected into the portal vein (IT. Each group was further divided into 3 subgroups of 5 rats which were sacrificed at 1, 3, and 6 months of follow-up, respectively. Clinical and laboratorial parameters were recorded in the mentioned periods in the 3 experimental groups. For histology, the kidneys of all rats of each subgroup were studied and 50 glomeruli and 50 tubules of each kidney were analyzed using light microscopy by two different investigators in a double blind study. The results showed progressive glomerular basement membrane thickening (GBMT, mesangial enlargement (ME, and Bowman's capsule thickening (BCT in the 3 experimental groups throughout the follow-up. These alterations were significantly more severe in DC rats at 6 months when compared to NC rats (p < 0.01. However, the degree of GBMT, ME, and BCT observed in DC rats was not statistically different from IT rats at 1, 3, and 6 months. In addition, Armanni-Ebstein lesions of the tubules (AE and tubular lumen protein (PRO observed in DC rats were also observed in IT rats all over the study. These lesions were never present in NC rats. We conclude that IT did not prevent progression of kidney lesions in alloxan-induced diabetic rats within 6 months after transplantation.

  3. EFFECT OF FERMENTED CHUB MACKEREL EXTRACT ON LIPID METABOLISM OF DIABETIC RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Santoso

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fermented chub mackerel extract(FCME on lipid metabolism in diabetic rats. Four week-old male Wistar rats were divided into threegroups based on weight. All rats were induced with diabetes mellitus by single intraperitoneal injectionof streptozotocin at 45 mg/kg body weight. Thereafter, they were randomly distributed to threetreatments with 7 rats assigned to each treatment. One group was the control with no additive, and twotreatmentgroups were given the purified diets supplemented with 1% or 2% FCME. Experimentalresults showed that in comparison to the control, diabetic rats fed FCME increased feed intake (P<0.01and body weight gain (P<0.05. FCME inclusion significantly reduced the activities of acetyl-CoAcarboxylase (P<0.01 and fatty acid synthetase (P<0.05 in diabetic rats. FCME significantly increasedcholesterol 7 -hydroxylase with no effect on HMG-CoA reductase activity. FCME had no effect onhepatic triglyceride, free cholesterol and phospholipid. FCME inclusion at 1% level significantlyreduced serum triglyceride. FCME significantly increased HDL-cholesterol (P<0.05 with no effect onLDL + VLDL-cholesterol, and significantly reduced atherogenic index. FCME did not significantlyaffect serum insulin and glucose concentration. In conclusion, FCME supplementation altered lipidmetabolism in diabetic rats. FCME supplementation reduced the risk of atherosclerosis in diabetic rats.

  4. Control of glomerular hypertension by insulin administration in diabetic rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Scholey, J.W.; Meyer, T W

    1989-01-01

    Micropuncture studies were performed in Munich Wistar rats made diabetic with streptozotocin and in normal control rats. Diabetic rats received daily ultralente insulin to maintain moderate hyperglycemia (approximately 300 mg/dl). Group 1 diabetic rats studied after routine micropuncture preparation exhibited elevation of the single nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR) due to increases in the glomerular transcapillary hydraulic pressure difference and glomerular plasma flow rate. In gro...

  5. The efficacy of Aesculus hippocastanum seeds on diabetic nephropathy in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmas, Onur; Erbas, Oytun; Yigitturk, Gurkan

    2016-10-01

    Cytokines, such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß1, and increased oxidative stress are considered to be responsible for the development of diabetic nephropathy. We hypothesized that Aesculus hippocastanum (AH) seeds may have preventive effects on oxidative stress and TGF-β-related diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic nephropathy in rats. Twenty-one male Sprague-Dawley albino rats were divided into three groups (n=7). Except for the control group, they all had diabetic nephropathy induced by an intraperitoneal injection of STZ. While the diabetes group did not receive any medication, the diabetes+AH group was given the medication for 4 weeks. After the experiment, analyses were performed to evaluate the glomerular area, severity of sclerosis, and fibronectin immunoexpression, as well as levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), TGF-β, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), blood glucose, creatinine, and proteinuria. It was found that glomerular area, severity of sclerosis, fibronectin immunoexpression, and levels of MDA, TGF-β, BUN, creatinine, and proteinuria were decreased in the diabetes+AH group. It is known that diabetic nephropathy is induced, to a large extent, by hyperglycemia. In the present study, AH extract ameliorated diabetic nephropathy without decrease in blood glucose levels. In the study, AH seeds showed beneficial effects on the functional properties of the kidney and microscopic improvements in diabetic nephropathy.

  6. Ameliorative Effect of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Antioxidants and Sperm Characteristics in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat Testes

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Afifi; Almaghrabi, Omar A.; Naif Mohammed Kadasa

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) on the oxidative status and sperm characteristics in diabetic rat testicular tissue. Forty male albino rats were used in this study; 10 of them served as a control and 30 rats were injected with a single dose (100 mg/kg) of streptozotocin intraperitoneally. They were subdivided into diabetic, diabetic + ZnONPs (10 mg/kg B.W.), and diabetic and cotreated with ZnONPs + insulin groups. The sperm count and motility wer...

  7. Effects of Submaximal Endurance Training and Vitamin D3 Supplementation on Pain Threshold in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jalal Taherabadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to beneficial effects of endurance training and vitamin D3 in diabetes mellitus, purpose of this study is effects submaximal endurance training and vitamin D3 supplementation on pain threshold in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats (250±20 g, N=40 were made diabetic by streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, subcutaneously. 72 h after injection diabetes induction was confirmed by tail vein blood glucose concentration (>300 mg/dl. Then animals were divided to five groups: diabetic control (DC, diabetic trained (DT, diabetic -vitamin D (DD, diabetic trained and vitamin D (DTD, and control (C. Animals were submitted to endurance training by treadmill and vitamin D3 treatment (twice aweek, intrapretonally for 4 weeks. 48 h after at the end of exercise and treatment protocol, we used tail-flick to assess the effects of training and vitamin D3 on thermal pain threshold. We used one way ANOVA statistical analysis to compare differences between groups, significance level of p<0.05 was considered.Results: Diabetic induced hyperalgesia were decreased significantly by vitamin D but not 4 weeks endurance exercise training. Concurrent effects of training and vitamin D on thermal pain threshold were not significantly higher than vitamin D effects alone.Conclusion: It is concluded that vitamin D administration given at the time of diabetes induction may be able to restore thermal hyperalgesia. But effects of endurance exercise training needs to more investigation in diabetic rats.

  8. Effects of melatonin on biochemical factors and food and water consumption in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Bibak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetic neuropathy is one of the serious problems due to microvessel vasculopathy in diabetes. It has been reported that hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia are the underlying mechanisms in inducing and progression of diabetic neuropathy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of melatonin on serum glucose and lipid levels, as well as food consumption and water intake in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Eighty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to six groups including; normal control group, diabetic control group and 4 diabetic experimental groups that received melatonin intraperitoneally at doses of 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg at the end of sixth week after verification of neuropathy by means of evaluation of sciatic nerve conduction velocity (MNCV, for two weeks. Blood glucose and lipid levels, body weight, the amounts of food consumption, and water intake were determined in all groups at weeks 0 (before diabetes induction, 3, 6, and at the end of eighth week. Results: Treatment with melatonin reduced significantly the serum glucose (P < 0.001 and triglyceride (P < 0.05 levels, food consumption (P < 0.001, and water intake (P < 0.001 in diabetic rats at the end of eighth week. However, melatonin had no significant effect on body weight of diabetic animals. Conclusions: Treatment with melatonin could improve several signs of diabetes, including hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, polyphagia, and polydipsia. Therefore, melatonin may be used as an adjunct therapy in the treatment of diabetes.

  9. Chromium and manganese interactions in streptozocin-diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.L.; Jarrett, C.R.; Adeleye, B.O.; Stoecker, B.J. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater (United States))

    1991-03-15

    Weanling male rats were fed casein-based diets low in chromium and manganese ({minus}Cr-MN) or supplemented with 1 ppm chromium as chromium chloride (+Cr) and/or 55 ppm manganese as manganous carbonate in a factorial design. After 7 weeks on the experimental diets, half of the rats in each group were injected on 2 consecutive days with 55 mg/kg streptozocin (STZ) in citrate buffer pH 4. Four weeks after injection, serum glucose in the diabetic group supplement with both Cr and Mn was not different from non-diabetic animals; however, diabetic animals in {minus}Cr groups or in the +Cr-Mn group had significantly elevated serum glucose. Serum insulin was reduced by STZ. A significant interaction between Mn and diabetes affected serum cortisol concentrations. More new tissue was formed on a polyvinyl sponge inserted under the skin in +Mn animals. In this study, the STZ animals were more sensitive than the control animals to dietary Cr and Mn concentrations.

  10. Modulation of antioxidant status, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism by melatonin on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirunalini Sankaran*

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Melatonin, “synchronizer of the biological clock” is major hormones secreted from the pineal gland have various therapeutic effects. The present study was designed to explore the modulatory effect of melatonin on antioxidant status, glucose and lipid metabolism in streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats weighing 180-200 g were made diabetic by administration of streptozotocin (STZ (40 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally. Melatonin was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 2 mg/kg body weight to STZ-induced diabetic rats for 30 days. Body weight, blood glucose, carbohydrate metabolic enzyme, lipid profile, antioxidant and lipid peroxidation status were assessed. The level of the blood glucose, carbohydrate metabolic enzymes (glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and lipid peroxidative marker (TBARS were increased in STZ induced diabetic rats while the melatonin treatment revert back to the near normal condition. In contrast, administered melatonin resulted in an increased in body weight and insulin secretion in diabetic rats. The enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT and GPX and non-enzymatic antioxidants (GSH, vitamin C and vitamin E were also increased by melatonin treatment. The cholesterol and phospholipids which were elevated in diabetic rats were normalized by the melatonin administration. Hence these findings indicate that melatonin protects against STZ induced oxidative stress and thus explain its use in treatment of diabetes by modulating lipid and glucose metabolism.

  11. Chronic Rumex Patientia Seed Feeding Improves Passive Avoidance Learning and Memory in Streptozotocin-Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tourandokht Baluchnejadmojarad

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A B S T R A C T Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is accompanied with disturbances in learning, memory, and cognitive skills in the human society and experimental animals. Due to anti-diabetic and antioxidant activity of Rumex patientia (RP, this research study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of chronic Rumex patientia feeding on alleviation of learning and memory disturbance in streptozotocindiabetic rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into control, diabetic, RP-treatedcontrol and -diabetic groups. For induction of diabetes, streptozotcin (STZ was administered at a dose of 60 mg/Kg. Meanwhile, RP-treated groups received RP seed powder mixed with standard pelleted food at a weight ratio of 6% for 4 weeks. For evaluation of learning and memory, initial latency (IL and step-through latency (STL were determined at the end of study using passive avoidance test. Results: It was found out that regarding initial latency, there was no significant difference among the groups. In addition, diabetic rats developed a significant impairment in retention and recall in passive avoidance test (p<0.01, as it is evident by a lower STL. Furthermore, RP treatment of diabetic rats did produce a significant improvement in retention and recall (p<0.05. Discussion: Taken together, chronic RP feeding could improve retention and recall capability in passive avoidance test in STZ-diabetic rats

  12. Diabetes enhances dental caries and apical periodontitis in caries-susceptible WBN/KobSlc rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Yasushi; Matsuura, Masahiro; Sano, Tomoya; Nakahara, Yutaka; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Narama, Isao; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2011-02-01

    Many epidemiologic studies have suggested that diabetes may be an important risk factor for periodontal disease. To determine whether diabetes induces or enhances periodontal disease or dental caries, dental tissue from diabetic male and nondiabetic female WBN/KobSlc rats and male and female age-matched nondiabetic F344 rats was analyzed morphologically and morphometrically for these 2 types of lesions. Soft X-ray examination revealed that the incidence and severity of both molar caries and alveolar bone resorption were much higher in male WBN/KobSlc rats with chronic diabetes than in nondiabetic female rats of the same strain. Histopathologic examination showed that dental caries progressed from acute to subacute inflammation due to bacterial infections and necrosis in the pulp when the caries penetrated the dentin. In the most advanced stage of dental caries, inflammatory changes caused root abscess and subsequent apical periodontitis, with the formation of granulation tissue around the dental root. Inflammatory changes resulted in resorption of alveolar bone and correlated well with the severity of molar caries. Our results suggest that diabetic conditions enhance dental caries in WBN/KobSlc rats and that periodontal lesions may result from the apical periodontitis that is secondary to dental caries.

  13. Characterization of Diabetic Neuropathy in the Zucker Diabetic Sprague-Dawley Rat: A New Animal Model for Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Eric P.; Coppey, Lawrence J.; Amey Holmes; Sergey Lupachyk; Dake, Brian L.; Oltman, Christine L.; Peterson, Richard G.; Yorek, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Recently a new rat model for type 2 diabetes the Zucker diabetic Sprague-Dawley (ZDSD/Pco) was created. In this study we sought to characterize the development of diabetic neuropathy in ZDSD rats using age-matched Sprague-Dawley rats as a control. Rats were examined at 34 weeks of age 12 weeks after the onset of hyperglycemia in ZDSD rats. At this time ZDSD rats were severely insulin resistant with slowing of both motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities. ZDSD rats also had fatty livers,...

  14. Effect of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetic Nephropathy on IgG Pharmacokinetics and Subcutaneous Bioavailability in the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Gurkishan S; Morris, Marilyn E

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the effects of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and diabetic nephropathy (DN) on the pharmacokinetics of human IgG (hIgG), an antibody isotype, in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Furthermore, the specific role of T2DM in the altered disposition of hIgG was evaluated by treating diabetic rats with pioglitazone, while the role of chronic kidney disease (CKD) was assessed using 5/6 nephrectomized Sprague Dawley rats. ZDF male (lean non-diabetic control and obese diabetic) and pioglitazone-treated ZDF rats were studied at ages 12-13 weeks (only DM was present), and at ages 29-30 weeks (progression to DN). All animals were dosed with 1 mg/kg of hIgG intravenously (IV) or subcutaneously (SC). ZDF rats had significantly higher blood glucose concentrations and urinary albumin excretion compared to control rats. Significant increases in total clearance (2.5-fold) and renal clearance (100-fold) of hIgG were observed; however the major increase in total clearance was due to increased non-renal clearance. Greater changes in urinary albumin excretion and total and renal clearances of IgG (3.5-fold and 300-fold, respectively) were observed with progression to DN. SC bioavailability of hIgG in all animal groups was similar (>84%). With pioglitazone-treatment, diabetic animals remained euglycemic and treatment was able to reverse the clearance changes, although incompletely. In the CKD group, no difference in hIgG clearance was observed when compared with controls. In conclusion, the increased clearance of hIgG in ZDF diabetic animals, reversal by pioglitazone treatment and lack of effect of CKD, demonstrate the influence of T2DM on hIgG pharmacokinetics.

  15. Berberine in Combination with Insulin Has Additive Effects on Titanium Implants Osseointegration in Diabetes Mellitus Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Li; Zhijian, Huang; Lei, Li; Wenchuan, Chen; Zhimin, Zhu

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of berberine in combination with insulin on early osseointegration of implants in diabetic rats. Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: healthy rats were used as control (HC), and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were treated with insulin, berberine, berberine + insulin (IB), or no treatment. Each rat received one machined-surface cp-Ti implant into the right tibia and was given insulin injection and/or gavage feeding with berberine daily for 8 weeks until being sacrificed. Serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bone gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein (BGP) were analyzed in each group. Peri-implant mineral apposition was marked by fluorochrome double-labeling and osseointegration was histomorphologically examined. The ALP and BGP levels decreased in diabetic rats but were successfully corrected by insulin and berberine combined treatment. Moreover, untreated diabetic rats had less labeled mineral apposition and impaired osseointegration. In contrast, Groups I, B, and IB were observed with increased peri-implant bone formation. The combination treatment of insulin and berberine was more effective than each administrated as a monotherapy. These results suggest that berberine combined with insulin could promote osseointegration in diabetic rats, thereby highlighting its potential application to patients, though further studies are needed.

  16. Berberine in Combination with Insulin Has Additive Effects on Titanium Implants Osseointegration in Diabetes Mellitus Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of berberine in combination with insulin on early osseointegration of implants in diabetic rats. Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: healthy rats were used as control (HC, and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were treated with insulin, berberine, berberine + insulin (IB, or no treatment. Each rat received one machined-surface cp-Ti implant into the right tibia and was given insulin injection and/or gavage feeding with berberine daily for 8 weeks until being sacrificed. Serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP and bone gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein (BGP were analyzed in each group. Peri-implant mineral apposition was marked by fluorochrome double-labeling and osseointegration was histomorphologically examined. The ALP and BGP levels decreased in diabetic rats but were successfully corrected by insulin and berberine combined treatment. Moreover, untreated diabetic rats had less labeled mineral apposition and impaired osseointegration. In contrast, Groups I, B, and IB were observed with increased peri-implant bone formation. The combination treatment of insulin and berberine was more effective than each administrated as a monotherapy. These results suggest that berberine combined with insulin could promote osseointegration in diabetic rats, thereby highlighting its potential application to patients, though further studies are needed.

  17. The Effects of Topical Application of Thyroid Hormone (Liothyronine, T3 on Skin Wounds in Diabetic Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ali Kaykhaei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Efficient treatment of skin ulcers, a leading cause of substantial number of morbidities among diabetic patients, is a subject of matter. Objectives Since current therapies are partially effective and/or expensive and topical liothyronine (T3 was shown to get faster wound healing in mice, the present study was designed to assess its effectiveness in diabetic male rats. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, 30 male wistar rats with mean weight of 242 g were randomly assigned into control (group C (n = 10 and diabetic (n = 20 groups. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of streptozotocin. Diabetic rats were randomly subdivided into two groups: diabetic T3 group (group A which was treated with 150 ng/day topical T3 and diabetic placebo group (group B received vehicle. Full thickness wound on dorsum was created in each rat (1 cm2. Photographs were taken at baseline, fourth and tenth day to analyze changes in surface areas of wounds. Results Results obtained from the present study showed that baseline surface areas of wounds were similar in all groups. Conversely, wound contraction was significantly better in T3 group in fourth and tenth days compared to placebo group, (P = 0.001, P < 0.00001. Moreover, wound healing was impaired in diabetic placebo group compared to other groups (all P < 0.05. Conclusions This study revealed that topical T3 administration is an effective measure for treatment of ulcers in diabetic male rats.

  18. Phlorizin Prevents Glomerular Hyperfiltration but not Hypertrophy in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slava Malatiali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationships of renal and glomerular hypertrophies to development of hyperfiltration and proteinuria early in streptozotocin-induced diabetes were explored. Control, diabetic, phlorizin-treated controls, and diabetic male Fischer rats were used. Phlorizin (an Na+-glucose cotransport inhibitor was given at a dose sufficient to normalize blood glucose. Inulin clearance (Cinulin and protein excretion rate (PER were measured. For morphometry, kidney sections were stained with periodic acid Schiff. At one week, diabetes PER increased 2.8-folds (P<.001, Cinulin increased 80% (P<.01. Kidney wet and dry weights increased 10%–12% (P<.05, and glomerular tuft area increased 9.3% (P<.001. Phlorizin prevented proteinuria, hyperfiltration, and kidney hypertrophy, but not glomerular hypertrophy. Thus, hyperfiltration, proteinuria, and whole kidney hypertrophy were related to hyperglycemia but not to glomerular growth. Diabetic glomerular hypertrophy constitutes an early event in the progression of glomerular pathology which occurs in the absence of mesangial expansion and persists even after changes in protein excretion and GFR are reversed through glycemic control.

  19. Carvedilol protected diabetic rat hearts via reducing oxidative stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG He; SHAN Jiang; PAN Xiao-hong; WANG Hui-ping; QIAN Ling-bo

    2006-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a dominant role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. Bcl-2 gene has close connection with antioxidant stress destruction in many diseases including diabetes. Carvedilol, an adrenoceptor blocker, also has antioxidant properties. To study the effect of carvedilol on the antioxidant status in diabetic hearts, we investigated carvedilol-administrated healthy and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. After small and large dosage carvedilol-administered for 5 weeks, hemodynamic parameters, the levels of malondialdehyde, activities of antioxidant enzymes and expression of Bcl-2 mRNA in the cardiac tissues were measured. The diabetic rats not only had cardiac disfunction, weaker activities of antioxidant enzymes, but also showed lower expression of Bcl-2. Carvedilol treatment increased activities of antioxidant enzymes and expression of Bcl-2 in healthy rats as well as diabetic rats. These results indicated that earvedilol partly improves cardiac function via its antioxidant properties in diabetic rats.

  20. Melatonin, quercetin and resveratrol attenuates oxidative hepatocellular injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbe, H; Esrefoglu, M; Vardi, N; Taslidere, E; Ozerol, E; Tanbek, K

    2015-09-01

    In this study, effects of melatonin, quercetin and resveratrol on hepatocellular injury in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced experimental diabetes were aimed to be investigated by histological and biochemical methods. Thirty-five male Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups, namely, control, diabetes (STZ 45 mg/kg/single dose/intraperitoneally (ip)), diabetes + melatonin (10 mg/kg/30 days/ip), diabetes + quercetin (25 mg/kg/30 days/ip) and diabetes + resveratrol (10 mg/kg/30 days/ip). Initial and final blood glucose levels and body weights (BWs) were measured. At the end of the experimentation, following routine tissue processing procedure, sections were stained with haematoxylin-eosin (H-E), periodic acid Schiff and Masson's trichrome. Tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were examined. The diabetic rats had significantly higher blood glucose levels than those of control rats (p = 0.0001). Mean BWs of diabetic rats were significantly decreased when compared with the control rats (p = 0.0013). Histopathological alterations including cellular glycogen depletion, congestion, sinusoidal dilatation, inflammation and fibrosis were detected in diabetes group. On the other hand, histopathological changes markedly reduced in all of the treatment groups (p = 0.001). Mean tissue MDA level was increased but mean tissue CAT and SOD activities and GSH levels were decreased in the diabetes group. Melatonin, quercetin and resveratrol administered diabetic rats showed an increase in CAT activities and GSH levels and a decrease in MDA levels (p Melatonin, quercetin and resveratrol administrations markedly reduced hepatocellular injury in STZ-induced experimental diabetes.

  1. An early diagnostic tool for diabetic peripheral neuropathy in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Kambiz (Shoista); J.W. van Neck (Han); S.G. Cosgun (Saniye G.); M.H.N. van Velzen (M. H N); J.A.M.J.L. Janssen (Joseph); Avazverdi, N. (Naim); S.E.R. Hovius (Steven); E.T. Walbeehm (Erik)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe skin's rewarming rate of diabetic patients is used as a diagnostic tool for early diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy. At present, the relationship between microvascular changes in the skin and diabetic neuropathy is unclear in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. The aim of this study w

  2. An early diagnostic tool for diabetic peripheral neuropathy in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kambiz, S.; Neck, J.W. van; Cosgun, S.G.; Velzen, M.H. van; Janssen, J.A.M.; Avazverdi, N.; Hovius, S.E.; Walbeehm, E.T.

    2015-01-01

    The skin's rewarming rate of diabetic patients is used as a diagnostic tool for early diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy. At present, the relationship between microvascular changes in the skin and diabetic neuropathy is unclear in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. The aim of this study was to invest

  3. Activation of caspase 8 in the pituitaries of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: implication in increased apoptosis of lactotrophs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroba, Ana I; Frago, Laura M; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A

    2005-10-01

    Lactotroph cell death is increased in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. To determine the mechanism involved, cell death proteins were accessed in pituitaries of diabetic (streptozotocin at 65 mg/kg, 2 months evolution) and control male rats by Western blot analysis and double immunohistochemistry. The intact and cleaved forms of caspase 9 were increased in diabetic rat pituitaries compared with controls. Although the proforms of caspases 3, 6, and 7 were increased in diabetic rat pituitaries, their activated forms were either unchanged or decreased. Activation of these effector caspases may be blocked by the increased expression of X-chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) in diabetic rat pituitaries. However, in diabetic rats, XIAP expression in lactotrophs was decreased, suggesting that this cell type is not protected. Caspase 8, p53, and nuclear factor kappaB were more highly activated in diabetic rat pituitaries, with caspase 8 colocalization in lactotrophs being increased. These results suggest that, in the pituitaries of diabetic rats, the cascades of normal cell turnover are partially inhibited, possibly via XIAP, and this may be cell specific. Furthermore, activation of the extrinsic cell-death pathway, including activation of caspase 8, may underlie the diabetes-associated increase in lactotroph death.

  4. Peperomia pellucida in diets modulates hyperglyceamia, oxidative stress and dyslipidemia in diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rabiat U Hamzah; Adebimpe A Odetola; Ochuko L Erukainure; Ademola A Oyagbemi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of Peperomia pellucida (P. pellucida) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Beside mouse chow, two diets were designed to contain 10%w/w and 20%w/w P. pellucida as supplements respectively. Diabetes was induced in groups of five male albino rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan. Two groups of diabetic rats and normo rats were each fed one of these diets respectively, while two other groups served as positive and negative controls respectively. A seventh group was fed pelletized mouse chow. Results: Diabetic rats on diets supplemented with 10%w/w and 20%w/w of P. pellucida for 28 d resulted in reduction of blood glucose level. The level of total serum cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol decreased significantly (P<0.05) with the supplementation diets compared to the untreated diabetic rats. Also treatment with glibenclamide and P. pellucida (10% and 20%w/w) led to increased activities of SOD, CAT and GSH respectively. There was significant (P<0.05) reduction in the level of HDL-cholesterol, Catalase, SOD activities and GSH concentration in diabetic untreated rats. The supplemented diets significantly (P<0.05) reduced lipid peroxidation, which was elevated in untreated diabetic rats. Significant decrease (P<0.05) in the activities of AST, ALT and ALP was also observed in rats fed P. pellucida supplemented diets. Conclusions: The results from this study indicate that P. pellucida has an antidiabetic and antioxidant properties in experimental diabetes mellitus and thus justifies the acclaimed traditional antidiabetic use.

  5. Control of glomerular hypertension by insulin administration in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholey, J W; Meyer, T W

    1989-01-01

    Micropuncture studies were performed in Munich Wistar rats made diabetic with streptozotocin and in normal control rats. Diabetic rats received daily ultralente insulin to maintain moderate hyperglycemia (approximately 300 mg/dl). Group 1 diabetic rats studied after routine micropuncture preparation exhibited elevation of the single nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR) due to increases in the glomerular transcapillary hydraulic pressure difference and glomerular plasma flow rate. In group 2 diabetic rats infusion of insulin to achieve acute blood glucose control normalized the glomerular transcapillary pressure gradient while increasing the glomerular ultrafiltration coefficient, so that SNGFR remained elevated. Persistent elevation of SNGFR despite normalization of the transcapillary pressure gradient was also observed in group 3 diabetic rats infused with insulin plus sufficient dextrose to maintain hyperglycemia. These studies indicate that glomerular capillary hypertension in diabetes is an acutely reversible consequence of insulin deficiency and not the result of renal hypertrophy. PMID:2649514

  6. Effect of maternal diabetes on longevity in offspring of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, M; Wada, M; Shinohara, N; Yoshizumi, H; Yoshinari, M; Fujishima, M

    1995-01-01

    We studied the effect of maternal diabetes induced by neonatal streptozotocin treatment on the longevity of the male offspring in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Maternal diabetes significantly decreased the survival in the offspring as compared with the control (p death was 14.9 +/- 0.6 months in the offspring from the diabetic dams and 17.9 +/- 1.1 months in that from the control. The life span was significantly correlated with the birth weight (rs = 0.55, p = 0.009). These findings suggest that a diabetic pregnancy may accelerate an age-related degenerative process of the offspring in SHR.

  7. Effect of Scrophularia ningpoensis extract on diabetes in rats | Lu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Scrophularia ningpoensis extract on diabetes in rats. ... glucose and plasma insulin levels were evaluated in order to determine antihyperglycemic effect. ... free radicals and is thus capable of reducing the risk of diabetic complications.

  8. Effects of Short Term Exposure of Atrazine on the Liver and Kidney of Normal and Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Babu Jestadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the effects of short term (15 days exposure of low dose (300 μg kg−1 of atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine on antioxidant status and markers of liver and kidney damage in normal (nondiabetic and diabetic male Wistar rats. Rats were divided into four groups: Group I as normal control, Group II as atrazine treated, Group III as diabetic control, and Group IV as atrazine treated diabetic rats. Atrazine administration resulted in increased MDA concentration as well as increased activities of SOD, CAT, and GPx in both liver and kidney of atrazine treated and atrazine treated diabetic rats. However, GSH level was decreased in both liver and kidney of atrazine treated and atrazine treated diabetic rats. Atrazine administration led to significant increase in liver damage biomarkers such as AST, ALT, and ALP as well as kidney damage biomarkers such as creatinine and urea in both normal and diabetic rats, but this increase was more pronounced in diabetic rats when compared to normal rats. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrate that short term exposure of atrazine at a dose of 300 μg kg−1 could potentially induce oxidative damage in liver and kidney of both normal and diabetic rats.

  9. Resistant starch but not enzymatic treated waxy maize delays development of diabetes in Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Hermansen, Kjeld; Pedersen, Sven

    2017-01-01

    of diabetes in male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Methods: Forty-eight male ZDF rats, aged 5 wk, were divided into 4 groups and fed experimental diets for 9 wk that contained 52.95% starch: gelatinized corn starch (S), glucidex (GLU), resistant starch (RS), or enzymatically modified starch (EMS). Blood...... glucose after feed deprivation was assessed every second week; blood samples taken at run-in and at the end of the experiment were analyzed for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and plasma glucose, insulin, and lipids. During weeks 2 and 8, urine was collected for metabolomic analysis. Results: Based on blood...... glucose concentrations in feed-deprived rats, none of the groups developed diabetes. However, in week 9, plasma glucose after feed deprivation was significantly lower in rats fed the S and RS diets (13.5 mmol/L) than in rats fed the GLU and EMS diets (17.0–18.9 mmol/L), and rats fed RS had lower HbA1c (4...

  10. Neuroprotective effect of RYGB in Zucker fatty diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the therapeutic potential of RYGB, a common used bariatric surgery, on diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. In animal model experiments, rats were made diabetic by STZ administration, and after 12 weeks of diabetes, two groups were studied: RYGB and sham surgery control (PF). Change in oral glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and the plasma concentrations of insulin, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were ...

  11. Hyperprolactinemia affects spermiogenesis in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleem, M; Choudhari, J; Padwal, V; Balasinor, N; Parte, P; Gill-Sharma, M K

    2005-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the antifertility effects of hyperprolactinemia have yet to be established in an appropriate experimental model. Hyperprolactinemia is a known side effect of fluphenazine, a broad spectrum, long-acting phenothiazine known to be dopamine type-D2 receptor antagonist. In our earlier study in adult male rats, we reported that fluphenazine at a dose of 3 mg/kg/day suppressed serum FSH but not testosterone (T) through increasing dopamine (DA) metabolism in the pituitary gland, within 60 days. Fluphenazine treatment affected sperm quality and male rats treated with fluphenazine sired fewer litters. The effects of fluphenazine-induced hyperprolactinemia on sperm quality appeared to be related to reduced FSH. We now report that FSH suppression enhanced the uptake of acridine orange (AO), a DNA intercalating, fluorescent dye by the fluphenazine-treated caput epididymal sperms with concomitant reduction in the uptake of thiol-specific monobromobimane (mBBr) fluorescent dye in vitro, suggesting greater accessibility of DNA intercalating dye to sperm chromatin and reduction in free sperm protein thiols. The concomitant increase in AO and decrease in mBBr fluorescence was suggestive of loose chromatin packaging in caput epididymal sperms after treatment with fluphenazine at 3 mg/kg/day for 60 days. The suppression in levels of protamine (P1) in caput epididymal sperms suggested that chromatin hypocompaction was due to reduced deposition of protamines in sperm chromatin. Reduction in testicular levels of cyclic adenosyl 3', 5' monophosphate response element modulator (CREMtau) and P1 further suggested that reduced deposition was indeed due to reduced synthesis. The concomitant reduction in testicular levels of transition protein 1 (TP1) and transition protein 2 (TP2) also suggested that hypoprotamination was due to reduced synthesis of these proteins crucial for facilitating P1 deposition. The effect appeared to have occurred at the level of translation

  12. Gibberellic acid acts as an agonist of steroidogenesis in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premalatha, R; Jubendradass, R; Srikumar, K; Mathur, P P

    2014-10-01

    Testicular steroidogenesis has significant implication in male reproductive function. Although the effects of various signalling molecules on testicular functions have been studied earlier, the influence of the plant hormone gibberellic acid (GA3 ) on steroidogenesis has not been investigated. Acute (4 h) and subacute (15 days) studies using this compound through oral administration (150 μg day(-1) ) to groups of normal and diabetic Wistar male rats were therefore carried out. Results indicate that (i) enhanced activity of steroidogenic markers 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD), elevated tissue testosterone (T) content, increased steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and androgen binding protein (ABP) levels with reduced lipid peroxidation and improved antioxidant defence in this treatment group of normal and diabetic rat testis, and (ii) elevated lipid peroxidation and diminished antioxidant defence, with insignificant change in 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD activity and testosterone level in acute treatment group of normal and diabetic rats testis, were noted. The observed increase in the activity of testicular 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD along with elevated testosterone content established GA3 as an inducer of steroidogenesis in rat.

  13. Antidiabetic effect of Chloroxylon swietenia bark extracts on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jayaprasad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes has been increasing at an alarming rate around the world, and experts have relied on remedies from the utilization of ancient drugs that are essentially derived from plants. The present study aimed to evaluate the antidiabetic potential of Chloroxylon swietenia bark extracts on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in male albino Wistar rats by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ (50 mg/kg b.w.. The diabetic rats were administered orally with C. swietenia bark (CSB methanolic (CSBMEt and aqueous (CSBAEt (250 mg/kg b.w. extracts and glibenclamide (600 µg/kg b.w. by intragastric intubation for 45 days. The result showed a heavy loss in weight, increase in blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin level, and decline in plasma insulin and total hemoglobin content. Furthermore, glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bis phosphatase were found to be increased whereas hexokinase and glycogen contents were decreased in STZ induced diabetic rats. CSBAEt, CSBMEt and glibenclamide treated diabetic rats showed moderate reduction in blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels; in addition, plasma insulin and hemoglobin levels were elevated. The altered activities of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes and liver glycogen were improved remarkably. CSBMEt results were comparable to the standard drug glibenclamide. The present findings support the usage of the plant extracts for the traditional treatment of diabetes.

  14. Effect of melatonin and vitamin E on diabetes-induced learning and memory impairment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzcu, Mehmet; Baydas, Giyasettin

    2006-05-10

    Previous studies indicate that diabetes mellitus might be accompanied by a certain erosion of brain function such as cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to examine and compare the effects of melatonin and vitamin E on cognitive functions in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in male albino rats via intraperitoneal streptozotocin injection. Learning and memory behaviors were investigated using a spatial version of the Morris water maze test. The levels of lipid peroxidation and glutathione were detected in hippocampus and frontal cortex. The diabetic rats developed significant impairment in learning and memory behaviors as indicated by the deficits in water maze tests as compared to control rats. Furthermore, lipid peroxidation levels increased and glutathione concentration decreased in diabetic rats. Treatment with melatonin and vitamin E significantly ameliorated learning and memory performance. Furthermore, both antioxidants reversed lipid peroxidation and glutathione levels toward their control values. These results suggest that oxidative stress may contribute to learning and memory deficits in diabetes and further suggest that antioxidant melatonin and vitamin E can improve cognitive impairment in streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

  15. Antidiabetic activity of methanol extract of Acorus calamus in STZ induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Hansi Prisilla; Rangachari Balamurugan; Harshit R Shah

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antihperglycemic activity of methanol extract of Acorus calamus (AC) rhizome in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Methods: Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed in normal rats. Male albino rats were rendered diabetic by STZ (40 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). 200 mg/kg of AC extract was administered orally to diabetic rats for 21 days to determine the antihyperglycemic activity by estimating various biochemical parameters. Results:Oral administration of AC methanol extract showed significant restoration of the levels of blood glucose level. After 21 days of treatment, blood glucose, lipid profile (total cholesterol, LDL and HDL-cholesterol), glucose 6-phosphatase, fructose 1,6 bis phosphatase levels and hepatic markers enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase) were decreased when compared with diabetic control. Plasma insulin, tissue glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase levels were increased significantly compared to diabetic control. Concurrent histopathological studies of the pancreas showed comparable regeneration by extract which were earlier necrosed by STZ. Conclusions: The results exhibited that AC methanol extract possess potent antihyperglycemic activity in normal and STZ induced diabetic rats and so might be of useful in the management of diabetes. The phyto-treatment showed more efficient antihyperglycemic effect than the standard drug glibenclamide.

  16. Terbufos-sulfone exacerbates cardiac lesions in diabetic rats: a sub-acute toxicity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurulain, Syed M; Shafiullah, Mohamed; Yasin, Javed; Adem, Abdu; Kaabi, Juma Al; Tariq, Saeed; Adeghate, Ernest; Ojha, Shreesh

    2016-06-01

    Organophosphorus compounds (OPCs) have a wide range of applications, from agriculture to warfare. Exposure to these brings forward a varied kind of health issues globally. Terbufos is one of the leading OPCs used worldwide. The present study investigates the cardiac effect of no observable dose of a metabolite of terbufos, terbufos-sulfone (TS), under non-diabetic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic condition. One hundred nanomoles per rat (1/20 of LD50) was administered intraperitoneally to adult male Wister rats daily for fifteen days. The left ventricle was collected for ultrastructural changes by transmission electron microscopy. The blood samples were collected for biochemical tests including RBC acetylcholinesterase, creatinine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides, ALT, AST, and GGT. The study revealed about 10 % inhibition of RBC-AChE in two weeks of TS treatment in non-diabetic rats whereas RBC-AChE activity was significantly decreased in diabetic TS treated rats. CK, LDH, and triglycerides were significantly higher in diabetic TS treated rats. Electron microscopy of the heart showed derangement and lesions of the mitochondria of cardiomyocytes in the TS treated groups. The present study concludes that a non-lethal dose of TS causes cardiac lesions which exacerbate under diabetic condition. Biochemical tests confirmed the ultrastructural changes. It is concluded that a non-lethal dose of TS may be a risk factor for a cardiovascular disease, which may be fatal under diabetic condition.

  17. Sargassum polycystum extract attenuates oxidative stress on diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhamad Firdaus; Setyawati Soeharto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To evaluate hypoglycemic, free radical scavenging and improving antioxidant enzymes activities on diabetic-induced streptozotocin rats bySargassum polycystum (S. polycystum) extract. Methods: The seaweed extract was obtained by maceration, concentration and freeze drying, respectively. Acute toxicity was investigated on 25 rats. Forty eight of rats were used to study anti-stress oxidative of extract and divided into eight groups, where the first and fifth group were normal and diabetic control. The normal and diabetic treated groups were administered orally with extracts ofS. polycystum for 28 days. The blood glucose and body weight of rats were observed each week. The blood was obtained for determination of malondialdehide, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, respectively. Results:Extract ofS. polycystum revealed no mortality and it was grouped as relatively non-toxic substance. The normal rats revealed difference statistically to the diabetic rats. The diabetic rats treated extract showed decreasing of blood glucose level and increasing of body weight. The diabetic rats were treated with 450 mg/kg of extract showed the higher oxidative stress augmentation than other diabetic treatments. It was caused free radical scavenging and induction of antioxidant enzymes activity by brown seaweed extract. Conclusions: The extract ofS. echinocarpum reduce oxidative stress on diabetic-induced streptozotocin rats and demonstrate as candidate of antioxidant diabetic substances.

  18. Chronopharmacokinetics of puerarin in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C T Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Puerarin injection has been widely used for clinic treatment of diabetes recently. To assess the relationship between the administration time of puerarin and the blood concentration of puerarin as well as its pharmacokinetic parameters, the diabetic rat model was used in current study. The rats were randomly divided into morning and evening groups according to the administration time. After the puerarin injection, blood glucose was tested in order to know whether the efficiency of puerarin was influenced by its concentration and pharmacokinetic parameters. Our results show that the average concentration of puerarin in the evening group is significantly higher than that in the morning group. The numbers of t 1/2α, t 1/2β, CL and AUC (0-∞ are significantly different between the morning and evening groups. The blood glucose level in the evening group was lower than that in the morning group. The speed of its onset is higher and the blood glucose level declines much more significantly in the evening group. These findings suggest that the concentration and pharmacokinetic parameters of puerarin affect its efficiency in diabetic rats. Therefore, it might be better to give puerarin in evening than in the morning for the mellitus treatment.

  19. Antioxidant effect of pomegranate against streptozotocin-nicotinamide generated oxidative stress induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Aboonabi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress attributes a crucial role in chronic complication of diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine the most effective part of pomegranate on oxidative stress markers and antioxidant enzyme activities against streptozotocin-nicotinamide (STZ-NA-induced diabetic rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups. Experimental diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection (i.p, 15 min after the i.p administration of NA. Diabetic rats showed significant increase in plasma glucose level, and the significant decrease in plasma insulin level. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as total antioxidant status (TAS, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT reduced while the levels of biomarkers of oxidative stress such as gamma-glutamyle transferase (GGT, and malondialdehyde (MDA increased in diabetic control rats as compared to normal control rats. Oral treatment with pomegranate seed-juice for 21 days demonstrated significant protective effects on all the biochemical parameters studied. Besides, biochemical findings were supported by histopathological study. These results revealed that pomegranate has potential protective effect against oxidative stress induced diabetic rats.

  20. Evaluation of Topical Tocopherol Cream on Cutaneous Wound Healing in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teoh Seong Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a common cause of delayed wound healing. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of topical administration of tocopherol cream on the wound healing process in diabetic rats. The study was conducted using 18 male Sprague Dawley rats which were divided into three groups: (I diabetic rats receiving control cream , (II diabetic rats receiving 0.06% tocopherol cream , and (III diabetic rats receiving 0.29% tocopherol cream . Four cutaneous wounds were created at the dorsal region of the rats. Wound healing was assessed by total protein content, rate of wound closure estimation, and histological studies on the tenth day after wounding. Tocopherol treatment enhanced the wound healing process by increasing rate of wound closure and total protein content significantly compared to the control group. Histological observation also showed better organized epithelium and more collagen fibers in the tocopherol treated groups. Application of tocopherol cream enhances wound healing process in diabetic condition which is known to cause delay in wound healing.

  1. Evaluation of Topical Tocopherol Cream on Cutaneous Wound Healing in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Teoh Seong; Abd Latiff, Azian; Abd Hamid, Noor Aini; Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah bt; Mazlan, Musalmah

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes is a common cause of delayed wound healing. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of topical administration of tocopherol cream on the wound healing process in diabetic rats. The study was conducted using 18 male Sprague Dawley rats which were divided into three groups: (I) diabetic rats receiving control cream (n = 6), (II) diabetic rats receiving 0.06% tocopherol cream (n = 6), and (III) diabetic rats receiving 0.29% tocopherol cream (n = 6). Four cutaneous wounds were created at the dorsal region of the rats. Wound healing was assessed by total protein content, rate of wound closure estimation, and histological studies on the tenth day after wounding. Tocopherol treatment enhanced the wound healing process by increasing rate of wound closure and total protein content significantly (P < 0.05) compared to the control group. Histological observation also showed better organized epithelium and more collagen fibers in the tocopherol treated groups. Application of tocopherol cream enhances wound healing process in diabetic condition which is known to cause delay in wound healing. PMID:23097676

  2. Postnatal treadmill exercise alleviates short-term memory impairment by enhancing cell proliferation and suppressing apoptosis in the hippocampus of rat pups born to diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Hoon; Sung, Yun-Hee; Lee, Hee-Hyuk; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Eun; Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Bo-Kyun

    2014-08-01

    During pregnancy, diabetes mellitus exerts detrimental effects on the development of the fetus, especially the central nervous system. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of postnatal treadmill exercise on short-term memory in relation with cell proliferation and apoptosis in the hippocampus of rat pups born to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic maternal rats. Adult female rats were mated with male rats for 24 h. Two weeks after mating, the pregnant female rats were divided into two groups: control group and STZ injection group. The pregnant rats in the STZ injection group were administered 40 mg/kg of STZ intraperitoneally. After birth, the rat pups were divided into the following four groups: control group, control with postnatal exercise group, maternal STZ-injection group, and maternal STZ-injection with postnatal exercise group. The rat pups in the postnatal exercise groups were made to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day, 5 times per week for 2 weeks beginning 4 weeks after birth. The rat pups born to diabetic rats were shown to have short-term memory impairment with suppressed cell proliferation and increased apoptosis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Postnatal treadmill exercise alleviated short-term memory impairment by increased cell proliferation and suppressed apoptosis in the rat pups born to diabetic rats. These findings indicate that postnatal treadmill exercise may be used as a valuable strategy to ameliorate neurodevelopmental problems in children born to diabetics.

  3. Heat stress attenuates skeletal muscle atrophy of extensor digitorum longus in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, K; Une, S; Akiyama, J

    2015-09-01

    To investigate whether heat stress attenuates skeletal muscle atrophy of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, 12-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 6 per group): control (Con), heat stress (HS), diabetes mellitus (DM), and diabetes mellitus/heat stress (DM + HS). Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). Heat stress was induced in the HS and DM + HS groups by immersion of the lower half of the body in hot water at 42 °C for 30 min; it was initiated 7 days after injection of streptozotocin, and was performed once a day, five times a week for 3 weeks. The muscle fiber cross-sectional area of EDL muscles from diabetic and non-diabetic rats was determined; heat stress protein (HSP) 72 and HSP25 expression levels were also analyzed by western blotting. Diabetes-induced muscle fiber atrophy was attenuated upon heat stress treatment in diabetic rats. HSP72 and HSP25 expression was upregulated in the DM + HS group compared with the DM group. Our findings suggest that heat stress attenuates atrophy of the EDL muscle by upregulating HSP72 and HSP25 expression.

  4. Effects of Pomegranate Seed Oil on Insulin Release in Rats with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekooeian, Ali Akbar; Eftekhari, Mohammad Hassan; Adibi, Soroor; Rajaeifard, Abdloreza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pomegranate seed oil and its main constituent, punicic acid, have been shown to decrease plasma glucose and have antioxidant activity. The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of pomegranate seed oil on rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Method: Six groups (n=8 each) of male Sprague-Dawley rats, comprising a control, a diabetic (induced by Streptozocin and Nicotinamide) receiving water as vehicle, a diabetic receiving pomegranate seed oil (200 mg/kg/day), a diabetic receiving pomegranate seed oil (600 mg/kg/day), a diabetic receiving soybean oil (200 mg/kg/day), and a diabetic receiving soybean oil (600 mg/kg/day), were used. After 28 days of receiving vehicle or oils, blood glucose, serum levels of insulin, malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase, and lipid profile were determined. Results: The diabetic rats had significantly higher levels of blood glucose, serum triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and malondialdehyde and lower levels of serum insulin and glutathione peroxidase. Rats treated with pomegranate seed oil had significantly higher levels of serum insulin and glutathione peroxidase activity, and there were no statistically significant differences in terms of blood glucose between them and the diabetic control group. Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggest that pomegranate seed oil improved insulin secretion without changing fasting blood glucose. PMID:24644382

  5. Effects of Pomegranate Seed Oil on Insulin Release in Rats with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Nekooeian

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pomegranate seed oil and its main constituent, punicic acid, have been shown to decrease plasma glucose and have antioxidant activity. The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of pomegranate seed oil on rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Method: Six groups (n=8 each of male Sprague-Dawley rats, comprising a control, a diabetic (induced by Streptozocin and Nicotinamide receiving water as vehicle, a diabetic receiving pomegranate seed oil (200 mg/kg/day, a diabetic receiving pomegranate seed oil (600 mg/kg/day, a diabetic receiving soybean oil (200 mg/kg/day, and a diabetic receiving soybean oil (600 mg/kg/day, were used. After 28 days of receiving vehicle or oils, blood glucose, serum levels of insulin, malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase, and lipid profile were determined. Results: The diabetic rats had significantly higher levels of blood glucose, serum triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and malondialdehyde and lower levels of serum insulin and glutathione peroxidase. Rats treated with pomegranate seed oil had significantly higher levels of serum insulin and glutathione peroxidase activity, and there were no statistically significant differences in terms of blood glucose between them and the diabetic control group. Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggest that pomegranate seed oil improved insulin secretion without changing fasting blood glucose.

  6. Effects of Canarium odontophyllum leaves on plasma glucose and T lymphocyte population in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, Shafikha Mohd; Basri, Dayang Fredalina; Budin, Siti Balkis; Warif, Nor Malia Abd

    2017-02-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease characterized by lack of insulin production. Immune mechanisms are implicated in the pathogenesis of Type 1 diabetes. Canarium odontophyllum (CO) fruits and leaves have been shown to possess high antioxidant activity. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of CO leaves aqueous extract on the blood glucose and T lymphocyte population in the spleen of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Nineteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal, diabetic control and CO treated diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 65 mg STZ/kg body weight. The extract of CO leaves was administered orally by force feeding daily at the dose of 300 mg/kg for 28 days. The rats were sacrificed at the end of the study and the spleen was harvested for flow cytometry analysis. The results showed a significant decrease in body weight of diabetic and CO treated diabetic groups compared with the normal group (p diabetic group was significantly lower than the diabetic group (p Diabetic and CO treated diabetic groups showed a significant increase in the percentage of spleen CD3(+) CD4(+) T lymphocytes (p diabetic rats.

  7. Effects of galangal extract on cognitive dysfunction and nerve pathological change in rats with diabetic encephalopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dao-Rui Yu; Tao Wang; Li-Ping Ji; Xing-Yue Fang; Xi-Nan Yi; Qi-Bing Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effects of galangal extract on cognitive dysfunction and nerve pathological change in rats with diabetic encephalopathy.Methods: Sixty male SD rats were given high sugar and fat diet except the control group. Fifty days later, the animals were injected with STZ 30 mg/kg through intraperitoneal to establish type 2 diabetes model. Rats were divided into control group, model group, Metformin group, oxiracetam group, galangal extract high and low dose group. After 4-week administration, Morris water maze was utilized to investigate the effects of different galangal extract on learning and memory ability in rats. After behavioral testing, the blood sugar level was detected. Meanwhile, spectrophotometer was used to measure the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and maleic dialdehyde (MDA) content of brain tissue. HE staining was used to observe the morphological changes in the hippocampus.Results: Galangal extract can significantly reduce swimming time and swimming distance of diabetic encephalopathy rat model, lower fasting blood glucose while increase body weight. At the same time, SOD activity and MDA content of rat brain were reduced. The morphology of neurons in hippocampus was improved and neuronal nuclear condensation was reduced correspondingly.Conclusions:Galangal extract can significantly improve cognitive ability in diabetic rats, reduce hippocampal pathological changes and have some prevention or treatment effects on of diabetes encephalopathy.

  8. Effects of melatonin on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat testis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdullah Armagan; Efkan Uz; H. Ramazan Yilmaz; Sedat Soyupek; Taylan Oksay; Nurten Ozcelik

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To examine the effects of melatonin treatment on lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the testicular tissue of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Twenty-six male rats were randomly divided into three groups as follows: group Ⅰ, control, non-diabetic rats (n = 9); group Ⅱ, STZ-induced,Following 8-week melatonin treatment, all rats were anaesthetized and then were killed to remove testes from the scrotum. Results: As compared to group Ⅰ, in rat testicular tissues of group Ⅱ, increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) (P < 0.01) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (P < 0.01) as well as decreased levels of catalase (CAT) (P < 0.01)and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) (P > 0.05) were found. In contrast, as compared to group Ⅱ, in rat testicular tissues of group Ⅲ, levels of MDA decreased (but this decrease was not significant, P > 0.05) and SOD (P < 0.01) as well as CAT (P < 0.05) increased. GSH-Px was not influenced by any of the treatment. Melatonin did not significantly affect the elevated glucose concentration of diabetic group. At the end of the study, there was no significant difference between the melatonin-treated group and the untreated group by means of body and testicular weight.Conclusion: Diabetes mellitus increases oxidative stress and melatonin inhibits lipid peroxidation and might regulate the activities of antioxidant enzymes of diabetic rat testes.

  9. The calcium-sensing receptor participates in testicular damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Wei-Yuan; Tong, Li-Quan; Zhang, Hai-Jun; Cao, Yong-Gang; Wang, Gong-Chen; Zhu, Jin-Zhi; Zhang, Feng; Sun, Xue-Ying; Zhang, Tie-Hui; Zhang, Lin-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Male infertility caused by testicular damage is one of the complications of diabetes mellitus. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is expressed in testicular tissues and plays a pivotal role in calcium homeostasis by activating cellular signaling pathways, but its role in testicular damage induced by diabetes remains unclear. A diabetic model was established by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 40 mg kg-1 ) in Wistar rats. Animals then received GdCl 3 (an agonist of CaSR, 8.67 mg kg-1 ), NPS-2390 (an antagonist of CaSR, 0.20 g kg-1 ), or a combination of both 2 months after STZ injection. Diabetic rats had significantly lower testes weights and serum levels of testosterone compared to healthy rats, indicating testicular damage and dysfunction in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Compared with healthy controls, the testicular tissues of diabetic rats overexpressed the CaSR protein and had higher levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), lower superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, and higher numbers of apoptotic germ cells. The testicular tissues from diabetic rats also expressed lower levels of Bcl-2 and higher levels of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 in addition to higher phosphorylation rates of c-Jun NH 2 -terminal protein kinase (JNK), p38, and extracellular signaling-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2. The above parameters could be further increased or aggravated by the administration of GdCl 3 , but could be attenuated by injection of NPS-2390. In conclusion, the present results indicate that CaSR activation participates in diabetes-induced testicular damage, implying CaSR may be a potential target for protective strategies against diabetes-induced testicular damage and could help to prevent infertility in diabetic men.

  10. The calcium-sensing receptor participates in testicular damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Yuan Kong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Male infertility caused by testicular damage is one of the complications of diabetes mellitus. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR is expressed in testicular tissues and plays a pivotal role in calcium homeostasis by activating cellular signaling pathways, but its role in testicular damage induced by diabetes remains unclear. A diabetic model was established by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 40 mg kg−1 in Wistar rats. Animals then received GdCl 3 (an agonist of CaSR, 8.67 mg kg−1 , NPS-2390 (an antagonist of CaSR, 0.20 g kg−1 , or a combination of both 2 months after STZ injection. Diabetic rats had significantly lower testes weights and serum levels of testosterone compared to healthy rats, indicating testicular damage and dysfunction in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Compared with healthy controls, the testicular tissues of diabetic rats overexpressed the CaSR protein and had higher levels of malondialdehyde (MDA, lower superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activity, and higher numbers of apoptotic germ cells. The testicular tissues from diabetic rats also expressed lower levels of Bcl-2 and higher levels of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 in addition to higher phosphorylation rates of c-Jun NH 2 -terminal protein kinase (JNK, p38, and extracellular signaling-regulated kinase (ERK 1/2. The above parameters could be further increased or aggravated by the administration of GdCl 3 , but could be attenuated by injection of NPS-2390. In conclusion, the present results indicate that CaSR activation participates in diabetes-induced testicular damage, implying CaSR may be a potential target for protective strategies against diabetes-induced testicular damage and could help to prevent infertility in diabetic men.

  11. Pioglitazone treatment restores in vivo muscle oxidative capacity in a rat model of diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, B.; Ciapaite, J.; van den Broek, N. M. A.; Houten, S. M.; Nicolay, K.; Prompers, J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To determine the effect of pioglitazone treatment on in vivo and ex vivo muscle mitochondrial function in a rat model of diabetes. Methods: Both the lean, healthy rats and the obese, diabetic rats are Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats. The homozygous fa/fa ZDF rats are obese and diabetic. The he

  12. Oral salmon calcitonin attenuates hyperglycaemia and preserves pancreatic beta-cell area and function in Zucker diabetic fatty rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feigh, M; Andreassen, K V; Neutzsky-Wulff, A V

    2012-01-01

    Oral salmon calcitonin (sCT), a dual-action amylin and calcitonin receptor agonist, improved glucose homeostasis in diet-induced obese rats. Here, we have evaluated the anti-diabetic efficacy of oral sCT using parameters of glycaemic control and beta-cell morphology in male Zucker diabetic fatty...

  13. The sesame lignan sesamin attenuates vascular dysfunction in streptozotocin diabetic rats: involvement of nitric oxide and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluchnejadmojarad, Tourandokht; Roghani, Mehrdad; Jalali Nadoushan, Mohammad-Reza; Vaez Mahdavi, Mohammad-Reza; Kalalian-Moghaddam, Hamid; Roghani-Dehkordi, Farshad; Dariani, Sharareh; Raoufi, Safoura

    2013-01-05

    The effect of chronic administration of sesamin was studied on aortic reactivity of streptozotocin diabetic rats. Male diabetic rats received sesamin for 7 weeks after diabetes induction. Contractile responses to KCl and phenylephrine and relaxation response to acetylcholine were obtained from aortic rings. Maximum contractile response of endothelium-intact rings to phenylephrine was significantly lower in sesamin-treated diabetic rats relative to untreated diabetics and endothelium removal abolished this difference. Meanwhile, endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine was significantly higher in sesamin-treated diabetic rats as compared to diabetic ones and pretreatment of rings with nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester significantly attenuated the observed response. Two-month diabetes also resulted in an elevation of malondialdehyde and decreased superoxide dismutase activity and sesamin treatment significantly improved these changes. Therefore, chronic treatment of diabetic rats with sesamin could prevent some abnormal changes in vascular reactivity in diabetic rats through nitric oxide and via attenuation of oxidative stress and tissue integrity of endothelium is necessary for its beneficial effect.

  14. Ameliorative effects of ethanolic leaf extract of Azadirachta indica on renal histologic alterations in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwole Busayo, Akinola; Laura, Zatta; Olufunke Olubusola, Dosumu; Oluwafunmike Sharon, Akinola; Luciana, Dini; Ezekiel Ademola, Caxton-Martins

    2011-01-01

    We studied the effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (AIE) on the microanatomy of the kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Thirty male Wistar rats (161-190 g) were randomly assigned to one of five treatment groups of six animals each: control, diabetic, diabetic + AIE, diabetic + metformin, AIE only. Diabetes was induced with a single intraperitoneal dose of streptozotocin (70 mg/kg body weight). AIE and metformin were administered orally for 50 days (50 d) at 500 mg/kg bw/d and 350 mg/kg bw/d, respectively. Blood glucose was estimated by glucose oxidase method; plasma urea and creatinine were assayed; and paraffin sections of the kidney were stained by periodic acid-Schiff technique. Untreated diabetic rats exhibited marked hyperglycemia. Renal histopathology of these animals showed features of diabetic nephropathy, with nodular glomerulosclerosis and vacuolation of proximal tubule cells (Armanni-Ebstein phenomenon). These feature were absent in the diabetic rats treated with AIE. Besides, plasma urea and creatinine were not significantly different from the control in this group (p > 0.05), in contrast to the untreated diabetic rats, where significant increases in these markers (p < 0.05). These findings showed that the leaf extract of Azadirachta indica ameliorates hyperglycemia and diabetic nephropathy in rats.

  15. Endothelium-dependent Effect of Sesame Seed Feeding on Vascular Reactivity of Streptozotocin-diabetic Rats: Underlying Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roghani, Mehrdad; Jalali-Nadoushan, Mohammad Reza; Baluchnejadmojarad, Tourandokht; Vaez Mahdavi, Mohammad-Reza; Naderi, Gholamali; Roghani Dehkordi, Farshad; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disorders continue to constitute major causes of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. In this study, the effect of chronic administration of sesame (Sesamum indicum L) seed feeding was studied on aortic reactivity of streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. Male diabetic rats received sesame seed-mixed food at weight ratios of 3% and 6% for 7 weeks, one week after diabetes induction. Contractile responses to KCl and phenylephrine (PE) and relaxation response to acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were obtained from aortic rings. Maximum contractile response of endothelium-intact rings to PE was significantly lower in sesame-treated diabetic rats (at a ratio of 6%) relative to untreated diabetics and endothelium removal abolished this difference. Endothelium-dependent relaxation to ACh was also significantly higher in sesame-treated diabetic rats (at a ratio of 6%) as compared to diabetic rats and pretreatment of rings with nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) significantly attenuated the observed response. Two-month diabetes also resulted in an elevation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and sesame treatment significantly reversed the increased MDA content and restored activity of SOD. We thus conclude that chronic treatment of diabetic rats with sesame seed could in a dose-manner prevent some abnormal changes in vascular reactivity through nitric oxide and via attenuation of oxidative stress in aortic tissue and endothelium integrity is necessary for this beneficial effect.

  16. The Effect of Citrullus colocynthis Pulp Extract on the Liver of Diabetic Rats a Light and Scanning Electron Microscopic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khalil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The goal of the current investigation was to clarify the effects of Citrullus colocynthis pulp extract on the structure of the liver of diabetic rats at both light and scanning electron microscopic levels. Approach: Forty-eight adult male albino rats were equally allocated into four groups: Group1: control, Group 2: Citrullus colocynthis-treated, Group 3: diabetic rats and Group4: diabetic rats treated with Citrullus colocynthis. All treatments were administered via an intragastric tube. Diabetes was induced in the rats of groups 3 and 4 by an intraperitoneal injection with alloxan. Results: The liver of Citrullus colocynthis-treated rats revealed minor histological changes versus the control animals. In group 3 animals, diabetes caused degenerative alterations in the form of disorganization of the hepatic cords, cytoplasmic vacuolization and pyknosis of the nuclei of hepatocytes and inflammatory cell infiltration. Scanning electron microscope examination of these livers revealed numerous lipid droplets within hepatocytes, damaged blood sinusoids and hemorrhage of erythrocytes between hepatocytes and inside Disse’s spaces. On the other hand, the normal histological and scanning ultrastructural features were nearly resumed in the liver of diabetic rats treated with Citrullus colocynthis pulp extract. Conclusion: The present study proved a lessening effect of Citrullus colocynthis pulp extract on the liver of diabetic rats. In light of these advantageous influences, it is advisable to widen the scale of its use in a trial to alleviate the diabetic hepatic adverse effects.

  17. Boldine Prevents Renal Alterations in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Hernández-Salinas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy alters both structure and function of the kidney. These alterations are associated with increased levels of reactive oxygen species, matrix proteins, and proinflammatory molecules. Inflammation decreases gap junctional communication and increases hemichannel activity leading to increased membrane permeability and altering tissue homeostasis. Since current treatments for diabetic nephropathy do not prevent renal damage, we postulated an alternative treatment with boldine, an alkaloid obtained from boldo with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypoglycemic effects. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic and control rats were treated or not treated with boldine (50 mg/Kg/day for ten weeks. In addition, mesangial cells were cultured under control conditions or in high glucose concentration plus proinflammatory cytokines, with or without boldine (100 µmol/L. Boldine treatment in diabetic animals prevented the increase in glycemia, blood pressure, renal thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the urinary protein/creatinine ratio. Boldine also reduced alterations in matrix proteins and markers of renal damage. In mesangial cells, boldine prevented the increase in oxidative stress, the decrease in gap junctional communication, and the increase in cell permeability due to connexin hemichannel activity induced by high glucose and proinflammatory cytokines but did not block gap junction channels. Thus boldine prevented both renal and cellular alterations and could be useful for preventing tissue damage in diabetic subjects.

  18. Anti-diabetic activity of crude Pistacia lentiscus in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Saad Ur Rehman; Sairah Hafeez Kamran; Mobasher Ahmad; Usman Akhtar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-diabetic effect of crude Pistacia lentiscus gum (mastic gum) in alloxan-treated diabetic rat model. The crude P. lentiscus (100 mg/kg) showed significant (p

  19. Psychopharmacology of male rat sexual behavior: modeling human sexual dysfunctions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivier, B.; Chan, J.S.; Pattij, T.; Jong, T.R. de; Oosting, R.S.; Veening, J.G.; Waldinger, M.D.

    2006-01-01

    Most of our current understanding of the neurobiology, neuroanatomy and psychopharmacology of sexual behavior and ejaculatory function has been derived from preclinical studies in the rat. When a large population of male rats is tested on sexual activity during a number of successive tests, over tim

  20. Gabapentin prevents hyperalgesia during the formalin test in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceseña, R M; Calcutt, N A

    1999-03-05

    The anticonvulsant agent gabapentin exhibits antihyperalgesic properties in animal models of neuropathic pain. Diabetic rats display increased nocifensive behavior during the formalin test of persistent chemical irritation to the paw, suggesting the presence of abnormal pain processing mechanisms. We therefore, investigated the efficacy of gabapentin on formalin-evoked behavior in diabetic rats. Diabetic rats showed increased (P < 0.05) flinching during the normally quiescent phase of the 5.0% formalin test. Gabapentin (50 mg/kg i.p. 30 min pre-test) suppressed flinching during phases 1 and 2 of the formalin test in both control and diabetic rats but not the increased flinching of diabetic rats during the quiescent phase. When 0.5% formalin was used, diabetic rats exhibited increased flinching during both the quiescent phase and phase 2. Gabapentin was without effect in controls but suppressed (P < 0.01) the increased flinching in diabetic rats. Gabapentin displays efficacy against abnormal sensory processing in diabetic rats and may be of benefit for treating painful diabetic neuropathy.

  1. Cardiopulmonary Profile in Streptozotocin-Induced Type 1 Diabetic Rats during Systemic Endotoxemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hsia Hung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the severity of cardiopulmonary dysfunction during systemic endotoxemia in type 1 diabetes. Thirty-two adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to a control group or to a group treated with streptozotocin (STZ to create an animal model of type 1 diabetes. Survival time and cardiovascular parameters were continually monitored in urethane anaesthetized animals receiving intravenous infusion of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide (LPS or saline. We also determined arterial blood gases, lung injury, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α levels in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Before LPS administration, the mean arterial pressure in STZ rats was significantly higher than that in normal rats. After LPS injection, the heart rate drop significantly in STZ rats than that in the control group. Also, the increased levels of TNF-α in serum and lavage fluid after LPS treatment were significantly higher in STZ rats than those in normal rats. Survival time in STZ rats was shorter than that in normal rats after LPS application. Albumin content, wet/dry weight ratio of lung, and lung injury were indistinguishable between STZ and normal rats. These results indicate that the cardiopulmonary change which occurs during LPS-induced endotoxemia is minor in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  2. Ethanopharmacological study of the aqueous, chloroform, ethanol leaves extracts and latex of Calotropisprocera in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ismaiel Ali-Abd Alrheam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Calotropisprocera is a member of the plant family Asclepiadaceae, a shrub about 6m high and is widely distributed in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This study aimed to show some medicinal potentials and biological activity of Calotropisprocera and to discover new natural, safe and effective materials available in the Saudi Arabia environment. Marerial and Methods:The leaves extracts and latex of Calotropisprocerawere investigated for its anti-hyperglycemic effect in Male Wister Albino rats. Diabetes was induced by administration of single dose of streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg/kg, I.P. Forty two male albino rats, weighting 150-200 gm divided into seven groups, each consisted of 6 rats as follows: Group I : Normal control, Group II: Diabetic control, Group III: Diabetic rats given Glibenclamide 600 and #956;g/kg, Group IV: Diabetic rats given aqueous leaves extracts C. procera200mg/kg b. wt, Group V: Diabetic rats given chloroform leaves extracts C. procera200mg/kg b. wt, Group VI: Diabetic rats given ethanol leaves extracts C. procera200mg/kg b. wt, Group VII: Diabetic rats given latex of C. procera200mg/kg b. wt.The leaves extracts and latex of Calotropisprocera were administered as single dose per day to diabetes-induced rats for a period of 15 days.The effect of C. proceraon blood glucose level was measured in the diabetic rats. Serum lipid profile (Total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density, and high density lipoprotein also were measured. The activities were also compared to that effect produced by a standard anti-diabetic agent, glibenclamide 500 and #956;g/kg. Results and Discussion:The results showed a significant decrease in the mean level of blood glucose and serum cholesterol, Triglycrides, HDL, LDL. Calotropisprocera appears to be a rich source of phytoconstituents that activate and inhence a pharmacological response of different parts of the body and this study need further studies to shows the complete properties of the

  3. Resveratrol Improves Cognitive Impairment by Regulating Apoptosis and Synaptic Plasticity in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyan Tian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To investigate the effects of resveratrol on cognitive impairment in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats and to explore the mechanisms of that phenomenon. Methods: Sixty healthy male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control group (Con group, n = 15, Res group (normal Sprague Dawley rats treated with resveratrol, n = 15, diabetes mellitus group (DM group, n = 15 and DM + Res group (diabetic rats treat with resveratrol, n = 15. Streptozotocin (STZ was injected intraperitoneally to establish the diabetic model. One week after diabetic model induction, the animals in the Res group and the DM + Res group received resveratrol intraperitoneally once a day for consecutive 4 weeks. The Morris water maze test was applied to assess the effect of resveratrol on learning and memory. To explore the mechanisms of resveratrol on cognition, we detected the protein expression levels of Caspase-3, Bcl-2, Bax, NMDAR1 (N-Methyl-d-Aspartate receptor and BDNF (Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor via western blotting analysis. Results: Resveratrol has no obvious effect on normal SD rats. Compared to Con group, cognitive ability was significantly impaired with increased expression of Caspase-3, Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2, NMDAR1 and BDNF in diabetic rats. By contrast, resveratrol treatment improved the cognitive decline. Evidently, resveratrol treatment reversed diabetes-induced changes of protein expression. Conclusions: Resveratrol significantly ameliorates cognitive decline in STZ-induced diabetic model rats. The potential mechanism underlying the protective effect could be attributed to the inhibition of hippocampal apoptosis through the Bcl-2, Bax and Caspase-3 signaling pathways and improvement of synaptic dysfunction. BDNF may also play an indispensable role in this mechanism.

  4. Antihyperlipidemic activity of alcoholic leaf extract of Solanum surattense in streptozotocin-diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sridevi M; Kalaiarasi P; Pugalendi KV

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To study the antihyperlipidemic efficacy of alcoholic leaf extract of Solanum surattense (S. surattense) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Methods:The male albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups with six animals in each group. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ (40 mg/kg). After being confirmed the diabetic rats were treated with S. surattense leaf extract (100 mg/kg b.w.) for 45 days. The biochemical estimation like lipid profile and fatty acid composition of tissues was performed. Results:The diabetic rats showed elevated levels of blood glucose, and a significant decrease in plasma insulin. It also showed significant increase in the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), phospholipids (PL) and free fattyacids (FFA) in the plasma, liver and kidney. The plasma lipoproteins were changed in diabetic rats. High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) decreased, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) increased. Fatty acid compositions were also altered in STZ-diabetic rats. Palmitic, stearic and oleic acids increased and the levels of linolenic and arachidonic acids decreased. It also showed decreased levels of total proteins and albumin. Administration of S. surattense (100 mg/kg b.w.) to diabetic rats for 45 days significantly reversed the above parameters towards normalcy. Conclusions: The antihyperlipidemic effect is due to the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides, triterpenoids and sterols in the extract. The hypolipidemic effect mediated by S. surattense may also be anticipated to have biological significance and provide a scientific rationale for the use of S. surattense as an anti-diabetic plant.

  5. Vasodilator effects of adenosine on retinal arterioles in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Taisuke; Mori, Asami; Saito, Maki; Sakamoto, Kenji; Nakahara, Tsutomu; Ishii, Kunio

    2008-02-01

    Adenosine is a potent vasodilator of retinal blood vessels and is implicated to be a major regulator of retinal blood flow during metabolic stress, but little is known about the impact of diabetes on the role of adenosine in regulation of retinal hemodynamics. Therefore, we examined how diabetes affects adenosine-induced vasodilation of retinal arterioles. Male Wistar rats were treated with streptozotocin (80 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), and experiments were performed 6-8 weeks later. Rats were treated with tetrodotoxin (50 microg/kg, intravenously [i.v.]) to eliminate any nerve activity and prevent movement of the eye and infused with methoxamine continuously to maintain adequate systemic circulation. Fundus images were captured with a digital camera that was equipped with a special objective lens, and diameters of retinal arterioles were measured. Adenosine increased diameters of retinal arterioles and decreased systemic blood pressure. These responses were significantly attenuated by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (30 mg/kg, i.v.) and the adenosine triphosphate-dependent K+ (K(ATP)) channel blocker glibenclamide (20 mg/kg, i.v.). The depressor responses to adenosine were reduced in diabetic rats, whereas diabetes did not alter vasodilation of retinal arterioles to adenosine. In contrast, both depressor response and vasodilation of retinal arteriole to acetylcholine were reduced in diabetic rats. The retinal vasodilator responses to adenosine and acetylcholine observed in diabetic rats were diminished by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. There were no differences in the responses to pinacidil, a K(ATP) channel opener, between the diabetic and nondiabetic rats. These results suggest that both the activation of nitric oxide synthase and opening of K(ATP) channels contribute to the vasodilator effects of adenosine in rats in vivo. However, diabetes has no significant impact on the vasodilation mediated by these mechanisms in

  6. Effect of Rebaudioside A, a diterpenoid on glucose homeostasis in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Ramalingam; Vengatash babu, Kaliyappan; Ramachandran, Vinayagam

    2012-09-01

    Rebaudioside A (Reb A), a major constituent of Stevia rebaudiana, was recently proposed as an insulinotropic agent. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect of Reb A on the activities of hepatic enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in adult male Albino Wistar rats, weighing 180-200 g, by a single intraperitoneal injection at a dose of STZ (40 mg/kg body weight). Diabetic rats showed significant (P<0.05) increase in the levels of plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin and significant (P<0.05) decrease in the levels of plasma insulin and hemoglobin. Activities of gluconeogenic enzymes such as glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase were significantly (P<0.05) increased while hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the liver along with glycogen. Oral treatment with Reb A to diabetic rats significantly (P<0.05) decreased blood glucose and reversed these hepatic carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes in a significant manner. Histopathology changes of pancreas confirmed the protective effects of Reb A in diabetic rats. Thus, the results show that Reb A possesses an antihyperglycemic activity and provide evidence for its traditional usage in the control of diabetes.

  7. Antihyperglycemic Effect of Ginkgo biloba Extract in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daye Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE has been reported to have a wide range of health benefits in traditional Chinese medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antihyperglycemic effects of GBE on streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetes in rats. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by the administration of STZ (60 mg/kg b.w. intraperitoneally. GBE (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg b.w. was administered orally once a day for a period of 30 days. Body weight and blood glucose levels were determined in different experimental days. Serum lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes in hepatic and pancreatic tissue were measured at the end of the experimental period. Significant decreases in body weight and antioxidant ability and increases in blood glucose, lipid profile, and lipid peroxidation were observed in STZ-induced diabetic rats. The administration of GBE and glibenclamide daily for 30 days in STZ-induced diabetic rats reversed the above parameters significantly. GBE possesses antihyperglycemic, antioxidant, and antihyperlipidemia activities in STZ-induced chronic diabetic rats, which promisingly support the use of GBE as a food supplement or an adjunct treatment for diabetics.

  8. Antiobesity, antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of red Ginseng plant extract in obese diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Abbas Shalaby

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to investigate the effects of red ginseng extract (RGE on adiposity index, some serum biochemical parameters and tissue antioxidant activity in obese diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Five groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Group (1 was negative control and the other 4 groups were fed on high fat-diet for 6 weeks to induce obesity. The obese rats were then rendered diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan for 5 days. Group (2 was kept obese diabetic (positive control and the other 3 groups were orally given RGE at 100, 200 and 400 mg /kg /day, respectively, for 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analyses and kidneys were taken to assay of activities of antioxidant enzymes. Results: oral dosage of RGE to obese diabetic rats significantly (P < 0.05 reduced adiposity index; decreased serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, gamma- glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT enzymes, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, and low density lipoproteins (LDL-c and improved atherogenic index. Blood glucose and leptin hormone decreased, but insulin increased by administration of RGE. it increased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and catalase (CAT antioxidant enzymes in kidneys tissues. Conclusion: Red ginseng extract produces antiobesity, antioxidant, and antidiabetic activities in obese diabetic rats. The study suggests that red ginseng plant may be beneficial for the treatment of patients who suffer from obesity associated with diabetes. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2013; 2(3.000: 165-172

  9. Effect of Eugenia Jambolana on Streptozotocin-Nicotinamide induced type-2 Diabetic Nephropathy in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godwin Selvaraj Esther

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The chronic type-2 diabetes mellitus leads to diabetic nephropathy, which is one of the major microvascular complication of end stage renal disease worldwide and causes premature death in diabetic patients. The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the antidiabetic activity and protective effect of diabetic induced nephropathy of ethanolic extract of seeds of Eugenia jambolana (SEEJ by using in-vitro and in-vivo models. The in-vitro antidiabetic effect was studied by glucose uptake assay in lymphocyte culture preparation. The in-vivo antidiabetic activity and the effect on diabetic nephropathy was evaluated using streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type-2 diabetes mellitus in male albino Wistar rats. The results of in-vitro study revealed that SEEJ increased the percentage glucose uptake when calculated in comparison with control group. The in-vivo study showed that blood glucose level was significantly reduced in dose dependent manner when compared to the diabetic control group. In addition, it significantly restored the body weight loss, increased kidney weight, glycosylated haemoglobin, blood urea, blood uric acid, blood urea nitrogen, blood creatinine, urine volume and urine microalbumin levels when compared to diabetic control groups. The report of histopathological study of rat kidney tissues strongly supported the protective effect of SEEJ in diabetic nephropathy. The findings of this investigation concluded that SEEJ has significant antidiabetic activity and potential protective effect in diabetic nephropathy.

  10. Reduced glomerular angiotensin II receptor density in diabetes mellitus in the rat: time course and mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkes, B.M.

    1987-04-01

    Glomerular angiotensin II receptors are reduced in number in early diabetes mellitus, which may contribute to hyperfiltration and glomerular injury. The time course and role of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in the pathogenesis of the receptor abnormality were studied in male Sprague-Dawley rats made diabetic with streptozotocin (65 mg, iv). Glomerular angiotensin II receptors were measured by Scatchard analysis; insulin, renin activity, angiotensin II, and aldosterone were measured by RIA. Diabetes mellitus was documented at 24 h by a rise in plasma glucose (vehicle-injected control, 133 +/- 4; diabetic, 482 +/- 22 mg/dl and a fall in plasma insulin (control, 53.1 +/- 5.7; diabetic, 35.6 +/- 4.0 microIU/ml. At 24 h glomerular angiotensin II receptor density was decreased by 26.5% in diabetic rats (control, 75.5 +/- 9.6 X 10(6); diabetic, 55.5 +/- 8.3 X 10(6) receptors/glomerulus. Receptor occupancy could not explain the defect, because there was reduced binding in diabetic glomeruli after pretreatment with 3 M MgCl/sub 2/, a maneuver that caused dissociation of previously bound hormone. There was a progressive return of the receptor density toward normal over the 60 days following induction of diabetes, with diabetic glomeruli measuring 22.7%, 14.8%, and 3.7% fewer receptors than age-matched controls at 11 days, 1 month, and 2 months, respectively.

  11. Renal biochemical and histopathological alterations of diabetic rats under treatment with hydro alcoholic Morus nigra extrac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi-Madiseh, Mohammad; Naimi, Azar; Heydarian, Esfandiar; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Morus nigra fruit is known to have antioxidant effects and used to control the blood sugar level in traditional medicine. Objectives: This study was conducted to investigate the biochemical and histopathological changes in the serum and kidneys of diabetic rats treated with hydroalcoholic M. nigra extract. Materials and Methods: In this study, 60 male Wistar rats were divided into five groups of 12 each. After induction of diabetes with alloxan, the diabetic rats were treated with hydroalcoholic extract of M. nigra at different concentrations. Then, the animals were anesthetized and the serum levels of glucose, creatinine, and urea as well as kidney tissue catalase level measured. The kidney tissue was also histopathologically examined. Results: Milder glomerular damage was seen in the group treated with 800 mg/kg of the M. nigra extract compared with diabetic and positive controls, and no difference in the expansion of mesenchymal tissue into renal glomerular vessels observed between the group treated with 800 mg/kg of M. nigra extract and diabetic and positive controls. Furthermore, creatinine levels were significantly higher and urea levels significantly lower in the group treated with 800 mg/kg of M. nigra extract than healthy and positive control groups (Pnigra extract at 800 mg/kg can prevent kidney tissue damage in diabetic rats and this fruit seems to be beneficial to patients with diabetes.

  12. Studies on the apoptosis of autonomic neuron in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qinglin Lou; Rongwen Bian; Tao Peng; Xiaojun Ouyang; Hui Xia; Liubao Gu; Yongzhen Mo

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate apoptosis of the autonomic neuron in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, and observe the effect of intervention with nerve growth factor (NGF) on the apoptosis. Methods: A total of 29 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups, i.e. normal control (NC, n = 12), untreated diabetic (DM, n =9) and diabetic treated with NGF daily of 500 μg/kg for 30 days(DM+NGF, n = 8). The diabetic rat models were produced by intraperitoneal injection with streptozotocin(65 mg/kg). Over 3 months since the diabetes were setup, the superior cervical sympathetic ganglions(SCG) and the celiac ganglions(CG) were removed and fixed with 10% paraformaldchyde. Apoptosis was measured using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling(TUNEL). Apoptotic index (AI) was calculated by computer image analysis system. Results: The AI of SCG and CG in DM and DM+NGF group were significant higher than those of NC group (P < 0.001) respectively. There was no difference of AI of SCG and CG between DM group and DM+NGF group (both P > 0.05). Conclusion: Neuron apoptosis may contribute to the pathophysiology of diabetic autonomic neuropathy and NGF can not prevent the apoptosis of autonomic neuron in diabetic rats.

  13. Reproductive Toxicity of Triptolide in Male House Rat, Rattus rattus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neena Singla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to investigate the toxic effect of triptolide fed in bait on reproduction of male house rat, Rattus rattus. Feeding of cereal based bait containing 0.2% triptolide to male R. rattus for 5 days in no-choice feeding test, leading to mean daily ingestion of 20.45 mg/kg bw of triptolide, was found effective in significantly (P≤0.05 reducing sperm motility and viability in cauda epididymal fluid by 80.65 and 75.14%, respectively, from that of untreated rats. Pregnancy rates were decreased by 100% in untreated cyclic female rats paired with male rats treated with 0.2% triptolide. Present studies suggest the potential of 0.2% triptolide bait in regulating reproductive output of R. rattus.

  14. Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Commiphora mukul Gum Resin May Improve Cognitive Impairments in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salehi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetes causes cognitive impairment. Medicinal plants due to different mechanisms, such as antioxidant activities may improve diabetes and relieve its symptoms. Commiphora mukul (Burseraceae has a significant antioxidant activity. Objectives This study aimed to examine the effect of hydro- alcoholic extract of C. mukul on passive-avoidance learning and memory in streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic male rats. Materials and Methods Thirty-two adult male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to four groups: normal, diabetic, normal + extract of C. mukul and diabetic + extract of C. mukul groups with free access to regular rat diet. Diabetes was induced in male rats by single interaperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg STZ. After the confirmation of diabetes, 300 mg/kg C. mukul extract was orally administered to the extract-treated groups. Control groups received normal saline at the same time. Passive-avoidance memory was tested eight weeks after the STZ treatment, and blood glucose and body weight were measured in all groups at the beginning and end of the experiment. Results In the present study, diabetes decreased learning and memory. Although the administration of C. mukul extract did not affect the step-through latency (STLa and the number of trials of the diabetic groups during the first acquisition trial, a significant decrease was observed in STLr and also a significant increase in time spent in the dark compartment (TDC and number of crossing (NOC in the retention test (after 24 and 48 hours. Although no significant difference was observed in body weight of diabetic + extract of C. mukul (DE and diabetic control (DC groups, the plasma glucose of DE group was significantly lower in comparison to DC group. Conclusions Commiphora mukul extract can improve passive-avoidance learning and memory impairments in the STZ-induced diabetic rats. This improvement may be due to the antioxidant, acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, anti

  15. Vascular filtration function in galactose-fed versus diabetic rats: The role of polyol pathway activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliese, G.; Tilton, R.G.; Speedy, A.; Chang, K.; Province, M.A.; Kilo, C.; Williamson, J.R. (Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (USA))

    1990-07-01

    These studies were undertaken to assess the effects of increased galactose (v increased glucose) metabolism via the polyol pathway on vascular filtration function in the kidneys, eyes, nerves, and aorta. Quantitative radiolabeled tracer techniques were used to assess glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and regional tissue vascular clearance of plasma 131I-bovine serum albumin (BSA) in five groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats: nondiabetic controls, streptozotocin-diabetic rats, nondiabetic rats fed a 50% galactose diet, diabetic rats treated with sorbinil (an aldose reductase inhibitor), and galactose-fed rats treated with sorbinil. Sorbinil was added to the diet to provide a daily dose of approximately .2 mmol/kg body weight. After 2 months of diabetes or galactose ingestion, albumin clearance was increased twofold to fourfold in the eye (anterior uvea, choroid, and retina), sciatic nerve, aorta, and kidney; GFR was increased approximately twofold and urinary excretion of endogenous albumin and IgG were increased approximately 10-fold. Sorbinil treatment markedly reduced or completely prevented all of these changes in galactose-fed, as well as in diabetic rats. These observations support the hypothesis that increased metabolism of glucose via the sorbitol pathway is of central importance in mediating virtually all of the early changes in vascular filtration function associated with diabetes in the kidney, as well as in the eyes, nerves, and aorta. On the other hand, renal hypertrophy in diabetic rats and polyuria, hyperphagia, and impaired weight gain in galactose-fed and in diabetic rats were unaffected by sorbinil and therefore are unlikely to be mediated by increased polyol metabolism.

  16. Cerebral blood flow response to propranolol in streptozotocin diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lass, Preben; Knudsen, G M

    1990-01-01

    The influence of propranolol on cerebral blood flow (CBF) was tested in streptozotocin diabetic rats and in control animals. Resting CBF values were 40% lower in the diabetic rats compared with controls. Intravenous injection of propranolol (2 mg kg-1) decreased CBF significantly in the control...

  17. Skin changes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Thiago Antônio Moretti; Masson-Meyers, Daniela Santos; Caetano, Guilherme Ferreira; Terra, Vânia Aparecida; Ovidio, Paula Payão; Jordão-Júnior, Alceu Afonso; Frade, Marco Andrey Cipriani

    2017-09-02

    Diabetes can cause serious health complications, which can affect every organ of the body, including the skin. The molecular etiology has not yet been clarified for all diabetic skin conditions. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the changes of diabetes in skin compared to non-diabetic skin in rats. Fifteen days after establishing the diabetic status, skin samples from the dorsum-cervical region were harvested for subsequent analysis of alterations caused by diabetes. Our results demonstrate that diabetes stimulated higher inflammation and oxidative stress in skin, but antioxidant defense levels were lower compared to the non-diabetic group (p skin changes compared to non-diabetic skin in rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Emblica officinalis improves glycemic status and oxidative stress in STZ induced type 2 diabetic model rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aneesa Ansari; Md Shahed Zaman Shahriar; Md Mehedi Hassan; Shukla Rani Das; Begum Rokeya; Md Anwarul Haque; Md Enamul Haque; Nirupam Biswas; Tama Sarkar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of Emblica officinalis (E. officinalis) fruit on normal and type 2 diabetic rats. Methods: Type 2 diabetes was induced into the male Long-Evans rats. The rats were divided into nine groups including control groups receiving water, type 2 diabetic controls, type 2 diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide (T2GT) and type 2 diabetic rats treated with aqueous extract of fruit pulp of E. officinalis. They were fed orally for 8 weeks with a single feeding. Blood was collected by cutting the tail tip on 0 and 28 days and by decapitation on 56 day. Packed red blood cells and serum were used for evaluating different biochemical parameters. Results: Four weeks administration of aqueous extract of E. officinalis improved oral glucose tolerance in type 2 rats and after 8 weeks it caused significant (P<0.007) reduction in fasting serum glucose level compared to 0 day. Triglycerides decreased by 14% but there was no significant change in serum ALT, creatinine, cholesterol and insulin level in any group. Furthermore, reduced erythrocyte malondialdehyde level showed no significant change (P<0.07) but reduced glutathione content was found to be increased significantly (P<0.05).Conclusions:The aqueous extract of E. officinalis has a promising antidiabetic and antioxidant properties and may be considered for further clinical studies in drug development.

  19. Anti-diabetic activity of the chloroform extract of Senecio mikanioides Otto in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan S. M. Marzouk

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we examined the effect of oral administration of the chloroform extract of Senecio mikanioides Otto for a period of 30 days at doses of 100, 300 or 500 mg/kg body weight/day on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups and classified into; extract treatment group received 100, 300 or 500 mg/kg body weight per day by oral gavage for 30 days; diabetic group administered intraperitoneally a single dose (75 mg/kg body weight of streptozotocin (STZ; diabetic rats plus tolbutamide group where diabetic rats received the standard hypoglycemic drug tolbutamide (100 mg/kg body weight per day by oral gavage for 30 days; diabetic rats plus extract group where diabetic rats received the extract (same doses by gavage for 30 days; as well as a normal group for comparison. In all of these groups, the levels of glucose and insulin were checked in blood, while the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH, nitric oxide (NO, lipid peroxidation (TBARS and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR activity were measured in pancreatic tissues. Results: The results revealed that STZ administration resulted in significant elevation in the level of both TBARS and NO with depletion in the level of GSH as compared with control accompanied with hyperglycemia, hypo-insulinemia and low insulin sensitivity. Moreover, the activity of pancreatic TrxR was lower than the control group. Feeding the diabetic rats for 30 days with the extract normalizes the previous biochemical parameters in dose dependent manner reaching near the tolbutamide treated group at the highest dose. Conclusion: The chloroform extract of Senecio mikanioides Otto exhibited antidiabetic activity and it corrected the insulin level and its sensitivity in experimentally induced diabetic rats in dose dependent manner. The current results clearly indicated the beneficial effects of the chloroform extract of Senecio mikanioides Otto in both

  20. Improvement in beta-islets of Langerhans in alloxan-induced diabetic rats by erythropoietin and spirulina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. El-Desouki

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of erythropoietin (EPO and/or spirulina to treat alloxanized-diabetic rats. Eighty male albino rats were equally divided into eight groups; Group I: Normal control rats, Group II: Non-diabetic rats treated with EPO (40 U/kg injected subcutaneously three times weekly for 3 weeks, Group III: Non-diabetic rats administered orally with spirulina (2 g/kg/d for 21 days, Group IV: Non-diabetic rats treated by EPO (40 U/kg together with spirulina (2 g/kg/d as mentioned in groups II & III, Group V: Alloxanized-diabetic rats. Group VI: Diabetic rats treated with EPO (40 U/kg as in group II, Group VII: Diabetic rats administered with spirulina (2 g/kg/d as in group III, Group VIII: Diabetic rats were given with EPO (40 U/kg and spirulina (2 g/kg/d as in group IV. Diabetic rat group showed a significant increase in glucose and NO; and a significant decrease in insulin, SOD and CAT levels. Diabetic rats treated with EPO or/and spirulina recorded a significant decrease in the glucose and NO levels; and a significant increase in insulin, SOD and CAT levels when compared with the diabetic group. Histopathologically, diabetic rats treated with EPO or spirulina showed a slight improvement of pancreatic islets and acinar cells, diabetic rats treated with EPO & spirulina together showed an obvious recovery to approximately normal status. IHC, the expression of insulin producing cells (β-cells of diabetic rats was improved in the three treatment groups with a lesser affinity for EPO than spirulina while with both together showed marked recovery into normal status. In conclusion, all the changes were minimized in spirulina administered group more than EPO group, however, the co-treatment of EPO and spirulina exerted stronger anti-hyperglycemic effects than treatment with each agent alone.

  1. Pathophysiological Characteristics of Diabetic Ocular Complications in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiko Sasase

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT rat, a nonobese type 2 diabetes model, develops severe diabetic retinopathy as result of chronic severe hyperglycemia. Although existing diabetes animal models also develop ocular complications, severe retinal lesions frequently observed in human diabetes patients such as preretinal neovascularization or retinal detachment are not found. Distinctive features in SDT rat are hypermature cataract, tractional retinal detachment with fibrous proliferation, and massive hemorrhaging in the anterior chamber. These pathophysiological changes are caused by sustained hyperglycemic condition and subsequent increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in retina, iris, and ciliary body. Although some differences in diabetic retinopathy exist between SDT rats and humans (e.g., a low incidence of neovascular formation and poor development of nonperfused area are found in this animal, SDT rat will be a useful model in studies of the pathogenesis and treatment of diabetic retinopathy.

  2. Ameliorative Effect of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Antioxidants and Sperm Characteristics in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat Testes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Mohamed; Almaghrabi, Omar A.; Kadasa, Naif Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) on the oxidative status and sperm characteristics in diabetic rat testicular tissue. Forty male albino rats were used in this study; 10 of them served as a control and 30 rats were injected with a single dose (100 mg/kg) of streptozotocin intraperitoneally. They were subdivided into diabetic, diabetic + ZnONPs (10 mg/kg B.W.), and diabetic and cotreated with ZnONPs + insulin groups. The sperm count and motility were assessed. The activity and mRNA expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRD), and Glutathion-S-Transferase (GST) were determined in the testicular tissue. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were estimated in the testicular tissue. Sperm count and motility increased in ZnONPs treated diabetic rats. A significant increase in the activity and mRNA expression of SOD, CAT, GPx, GRD, and GST was shown in ZnONPs treated diabetic rats. MDA significantly decreased, while GSH increased in testicular tissue of ZnONPs treated diabetic rats. It was concluded that ZnONPs either alone or in combination with insulin have the ability to increase the sperm count and motility and protect the testicular tissue against the oxidative stress induced by diabetes in rats. PMID:26581756

  3. Ameliorative Effect of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Antioxidants and Sperm Characteristics in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat Testes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Afifi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the impact of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs on the oxidative status and sperm characteristics in diabetic rat testicular tissue. Forty male albino rats were used in this study; 10 of them served as a control and 30 rats were injected with a single dose (100 mg/kg of streptozotocin intraperitoneally. They were subdivided into diabetic, diabetic + ZnONPs (10 mg/kg B.W., and diabetic and cotreated with ZnONPs + insulin groups. The sperm count and motility were assessed. The activity and mRNA expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione reductase (GRD, and Glutathion-S-Transferase (GST were determined in the testicular tissue. Malondialdehyde (MDA and reduced glutathione (GSH levels were estimated in the testicular tissue. Sperm count and motility increased in ZnONPs treated diabetic rats. A significant increase in the activity and mRNA expression of SOD, CAT, GPx, GRD, and GST was shown in ZnONPs treated diabetic rats. MDA significantly decreased, while GSH increased in testicular tissue of ZnONPs treated diabetic rats. It was concluded that ZnONPs either alone or in combination with insulin have the ability to increase the sperm count and motility and protect the testicular tissue against the oxidative stress induced by diabetes in rats.

  4. Ameliorative Effect of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Antioxidants and Sperm Characteristics in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat Testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Mohamed; Almaghrabi, Omar A; Kadasa, Naif Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) on the oxidative status and sperm characteristics in diabetic rat testicular tissue. Forty male albino rats were used in this study; 10 of them served as a control and 30 rats were injected with a single dose (100 mg/kg) of streptozotocin intraperitoneally. They were subdivided into diabetic, diabetic + ZnONPs (10 mg/kg B.W.), and diabetic and cotreated with ZnONPs + insulin groups. The sperm count and motility were assessed. The activity and mRNA expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRD), and Glutathion-S-Transferase (GST) were determined in the testicular tissue. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were estimated in the testicular tissue. Sperm count and motility increased in ZnONPs treated diabetic rats. A significant increase in the activity and mRNA expression of SOD, CAT, GPx, GRD, and GST was shown in ZnONPs treated diabetic rats. MDA significantly decreased, while GSH increased in testicular tissue of ZnONPs treated diabetic rats. It was concluded that ZnONPs either alone or in combination with insulin have the ability to increase the sperm count and motility and protect the testicular tissue against the oxidative stress induced by diabetes in rats.

  5. Action of pelargonidin on hyperglycemia and oxidative damage in diabetic rats: implication for glycation-induced hemoglobin modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Moumita; Sen, Subhrojit; Chakraborti, Abhay Sankar

    2008-05-23

    Glycation-modified hemoglobin in diabetes mellitus has been suggested to be a source of enhanced catalytic iron and free radicals causing pathological complications. The present study aims to verify this idea in experimental diabetes. Pelargonidin, an anthocyanidin, has been tested for its antidiabetic potential with emphasis on its role against pathological oxidative stress including hemoglobin-mediated free radical reactions. Male wistar rats were grouped as normal control, streptozotocin-induced diabetic control, normal treated with pelargonidin and diabetic treated with pelargonidin. Pelargonidin-treated rats received one time i.p injection of the flavonoid (3 mg/kg bodyweight). Biochemical parameters were assayed in blood samples of different groups of rats. Liver was used for histological examinations. Pelargonidin treatment normalized elevated blood glucose levels and improved serum insulin levels in diabetic rats. Glucose tolerance test appeared normal after treatment. Decreased serum levels of SOD and catalase, and increased levels of malondialdehyde and fructosamine in diabetic rats were reverted to their respective normal values after pelargonidin administration. Extents of hemoglobin glycation, hemoglobin-mediated iron release, iron-mediated free radical reactions and carbonyl formation in hemoglobin were pronounced in diabetic rats, indicating association between hemoglobin glycation and oxidative stress in diabetes. Pelargonidin counteracts hemoglobin glycation, iron release from the heme protein and iron-mediated oxidative damages, confirming glycated hemoglobin-associated oxidative stress in diabetes.

  6. Ameliorating effect of eugenol on hyperglycemia by attenuating the key enzymes of glucose metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Subramani; Sathish, Gajendren; Jayanthi, Mahadevan; Muthukumaran, Jayachandran; Muruganathan, Udaiyar; Ramachandran, Vinayagam

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that diabetes mellitus is a serious health burden for both governments and healthcare providers. This study was hypothesized to evaluate the antihyperglycemic potential of eugenol by determine the activities of key enzymes of glucose metabolism in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced into male albino Wistar rats by intraperitoneal administration of STZ (40 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)). Eugenol was administered to diabetic rats intragastrically at 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg b.w. for 30 days. The dose 10 mg/kg b.w. significantly reduced the levels of blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and increased plasma insulin level. The altered activities of the key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism such as hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, and liver marker enzymes (AST, ALT, and ALP), creatine kinase and blood urea nitrogen in serum and blood of diabetic rats were significantly reverted to near normal levels by the administration of eugenol. Further, eugenol administration to diabetic rats improved body weight and hepatic glycogen content demonstrated the antihyperglycemic potential of eugenol in diabetic rats. The present findings suggest that eugenol can potentially ameliorate key enzymes of glucose metabolism in experimental diabetes, and it is sensible to broaden the scale of use of eugenol in a trial to alleviate the adverse effects of diabetes.

  7. Anti-diabetic and hypolipidaemic properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amin, Zainab M; Thomson, Martha; Al-Qattan, Khaled K; Peltonen-Shalaby, Riitta; Ali, Muslim

    2006-10-01

    In the present study, the hypoglycaemic potentials of ginger (Zingiber officinale) were studied in rats. An aqueous extract of raw ginger was administered daily (500 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) for a period of 7 weeks to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Fasting blood serum was analysed for blood glucose, cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels. The STZ-injected rats exhibited hyperglycaemia accompanied with weight loss, indicating their diabetic condition. At a dose of 500 mg/kg, raw ginger was significantly effective in lowering serum glucose, cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels in the ginger-treated diabetic rats compared with the control diabetic rats. The ginger treatment also resulted in a significant reduction in urine protein levels. In addition, the ginger-treated diabetic rats sustained their initial weights during the treatment period. Moreover, ginger decreased both water intake and urine output in the STZ-induced diabetic rats. The present results indicate that raw ginger possesses hypoglycaemic, hypocholesterolaemic and hypolipidaemic potential. Additionally, raw ginger is effective in reversing the diabetic proteinuria observed in the diabetic rats. Thus, ginger may be of great value in managing the effects of diabetic complications in human subjects.

  8. Caspase-dependent retinal ganglion cell apoptosis in the rat model of acute diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Background Neural apoptosis is generally believed to be mediated by two distinct pathways, caspase-dependant and caspase-independent pathways. This study investigated the apoptotic pathways involved in retinal ganglion ceils in acute diabetes in rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by a peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Expression and localization of caspase-3 and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) proteins in the retina of diabetic rats was examined by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry analyses. Terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay and immunofluorescent staining specific for caspase-3 and AIF were applied to analyze for apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells. In addition, a caspase-3 inhibitor DEVD-CHO was injected intravitreally to further determine the apoptotic pathways of retinal ganglion cells triggered in acute diabetes. Results Two weeks after induction of diabetes, a significant increase in caspase-3 protein expression and localization occurred in the nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell layer, and inner plexiform layer of the retina. Four weeks after the onset of diabetes, the increase in caspase-3 expression was profound eight weeks postinduction of diabetes (P<0.05). Meanwhile, no AIF protein expression was detected in this study. In addition, intravitreal administration of the caspase-3 inhibitor DEVD-CHO reduced apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells by its direct inhibitory action on caspase-3. Conclusion Caspase-dependent apoptotic pathways may be the main stimulant of STZ-induced retinal ganglion cell apoptosis in acute diabetes.

  9. Ameliorative effect of ethanolic Gymnema sylvestre extract on diabetic cardiomyopathy against streptozotocin-induced diabetes in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes leads to a cardiomyopathy characterized by myocyte loss. Streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic cardiomyopathy is characterized by decreased left ventricular contractility and diminished ventricular compliance with marked abnormal systolic and diastolic function. Aim: The ameliorative effect of ethanolic Gymnema sylvestre extract (GSE was evaluated in diabetic cardiomyopathy against STZ-induced diabetes. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by a single intravenous injection of (STZ, 45 mg/kg in male Wistar rats. Blood pressure, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, glucose apolipoprotein B and lipids as well as heart weight, caspase-3, sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase Na + K + ATPase, and DNA laddering were determined. Results and Conclusions: Administration of GSE (120 mg/kg/p.o. treatment significantly ( P < 0.01 reduced myocyte loss by suppressing the levels of cardiac caspase-3, DNA laddering; mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate as well as serum LDH, glucose, apolipoprotein B, and lipids levels. Further, it increased the heart weight and cardiac Na + K + ATPase activity in diabetic rats. The cardiomyopathy suppression is accompanied by decrease in cardiac caspase-3 levels, DNA laddering, blood pressures, serum LDH, apolipoprotein-B and glucose. Thus, this present study reports the anti-apoptotic potential of GSE in STZ-induced diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  10. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic studies on exenatide in diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-gang LI; Liang LI; Xuan ZHOU; Ye CHEN; Yu-peng REN; Tian-yan ZHOU; Wei LU

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To quantitatively evaluate the blood glucose-lowering effect of exenatide in diabetic rats.Methods:Male Harlan-Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with high-fat diet/streptozotocin to induce type 2 diabetes.After subcutaneous administration of a single dose of exenatide (4.2,42,or 210 pg/kg),serum exenatide,insulin concentration and blood glucose were measured.The pharmacokinetics of exenatide was characterized by a two-compartment model with first-order absorption.Insulin turnover was characterized by an effect compartment and indirect response combined model.Glucose turnover was described using an indirect response model with insulin (in effect compartment) stimulating glucose disposition and insulin (in insulin compartment) inhibiting glucose production simultaneously.The model parameters were estimated using nonlinear mixed-effects model program.Visual predictive check and model evaluation were used to make assessments.Results:Exenatide exhibited rapid absorption with ka=4.45 h-1,and the two-compartment model well described its pharmacokinetic profile.For the pharmacodynamic model,exenatide increased insulin release with the estimated Sm1 of 0.822 and SC50 of 4.02 pg/L.It was demonstrated that insulin stimulated glucose dissipation (Sm2=0.0513) and inhibited the production of glucose (Im=0.0381).Visual predictive check and model evaluation study indicated that a credible model was developed.Conclusion:The glucose-lowering effect of exenatide in diabetic rats is reliably described and predicted by the combined effect compartment/indirect response model.

  11. comparison of serum visfatin levels in restricted diet rats,type2 diabetic rats and insulin resistance rats with normal rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammadali ghaffari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Adipose tissue is not only a site of triglycerides storage, but also an active endocrine organ that secretes many biologically active mediators refered to as "adipokines". Visfatin, as a new adipokine has an important role in Homeostasis of energy and glucose metabolism. In the present study serum visfatin levels in restricted diet rats,type2 diabetic rats and insulin resistant rats has been measured and compared with control group. relationship between Visfatin and blood sugar, lipid profile, insulin, and HOMA-IR in these groups has been investigated Methods and Materials: 32 male wistar rats were divided into 4 groups (8 rats in each group.group 1 was control,with free access to diet, group 2 or restricted diet group using 65% of normal diet , group3 orinduced type2 diabetic group with nicotinamide and streptozocin and group 4 was insulin resistance ,induced with fructose diet. After 6 weeks animals weight and other biochemical factors such as FBS (Fasting Blood Sugar, lipid profile, insulin and visfatin were measured. Results of this study were analyzed using SPSS16.and then examined and reported as ±average of standard deviation. Values of p< 0.05 were considered statistically significant . Results: Results of this study showed that body weight increased in all groups except diabetic group. Triglyceride were increased in all groups, in this order,restricted diet, control, insulin resistance and diabetic groups. visfatin, insulin, and Homa-IR increase significantly in type 2 diabetic rats and insulin resistant group. Conclusion: There was a positive and significant relationship between visfatin and HOMA-IR, and between visfain and FBS (Fasting Blood Sugar, while there was a negative relationship between visfatin and insulin, but this relationship was not significant.

  12. Teripang Pasir Meningkatkan Kandungan Antioksidan Superoksida Dismutase pada Pankreas Tikus Diabetes (SEA CUCUMBER INCREASED ANTIOXIDANT SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE IN THE PANCREATIC TISSUE OF DIABETIC RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutik Wresdiyati

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available High level of blood glucose is an indicator for diabetes mellitus (DM condition. The condition iscaused by low level of insulin secretion or impairement of insulin receptor. The number of DM patientincreases every year. The World Health Organization reported that the number of DM patient in Indonesiawas the 4th highest in the world, after following China, India, and the United States of America, respectively.This study was conducted to analyze the effect of sea cucumber (Holothuria scabra J on the profile ofantioxidant copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD in the pancreatic tissues of diabetic rats. Atotal of 25 male white rats (Sprague Dawley were used in this study. They were divided into five groups;(1 negative control (KN, (2 positive control, diabetic rats (KP, (3 diabetic rats treated with hydrolyzatedprotein of sea cucumber (HDL, (4 diabetic rats treated with concentrated protein of sea cucumber (KST,and (5 diabetic rats treated with isolated protein of sea cucumber (ISL, respectively. Diabetic conditionwas obtained by alloxan injection 110 mg/kg bw. The treatments were done for 28 days. At the end oftreatment period, the rats were sacrificed and pancreatic tissues were collected and fixed in Bouin solution and then processed to paraffin embedding standard method. The tissues were then stained withimmunohistochemical staining techniques using monoclonal antibody of Cu, Zn-SOD. The results showedthat treatment of HDL, KST, and ISL of sea cucumber (Holothuria scabra J increased the content ofantioxidant Cu, Zn-SOD either in Langerhans islets and acinar cells of pancreatic tissues-diabetic rats.The HDL of sea cucumber treatment gave the best effect in increasing the antioxidant content of Cu, Zn-SOD in pancreatic tissue of diabetic rats.

  13. Antifibrogenic role of valproic acid in streptozotocin induced diabetic rat penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, O; Karaguzel, E; Gurgen, S G; Okatan, A E; Kutlu, S; Bayraktar, C; Kazaz, I O; Eren, H

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the therapeutic effects of valproic acid (VPA) on erectile dysfunction and reducing penile fibrosis in streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Eighteen male rats were divided into three experimental groups (Control, STZ-DM, STZ-DM plus VPA) and diabetes was induced by transperitoneal single dose STZ. Eight weeks after, VPA and placebo treatments were given according to groups for 15 days. All rats were anesthetised for the measurement of in vivo erectile response to cavernous nerve stimulation. Afterward penes were evaluated histologically in terms of immune labelling scores of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Slides were also evaluated in terms of collagen/smooth muscle ratio and penile apoptosis. After the treatment with VPA, erectile responses were found as improved when compared with STZ-DM rats but not statistically meaningful. eNOS and VEGF immune expressions diminished in penile corpora of STZ-DM rats and improved with VPA treatment. VPA led to decrease in TGF-β1 expression and collagen content of diabetic rats' penes. Penile apoptosis was not diminished with VPA. In conclusion, VPA treatment seems to be effective for reducing penile fibrosis in diabetic rats and more prolonged treatment period may enhance erectile functions.

  14. Antidepressant-like Effect of Insulin in Streptozotocin-induced Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestile, Caio C; Maraschin, Jhonatan C; Rangel, Marcel P; Cuman, Roberto K N; Audi, Elisabeth A

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated the antidepressant-like effect of insulin compared to sertraline and a combination of insulin and sertraline in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats submitted to the forced swim test (FST). Male Wistar rats were daily treated for 21 days with insulin (1 or 2 IU/kg, i.p.), with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), sertraline (10 mg/kg, i.p.), or with a combination of insulin (1 or 2 IU/kg, i.p.) and sertraline (10 mg/kg, i.p.) and submitted to the FST. We also evaluated the water and food intake, urine volume and weight gain of the rats. Rats treated with STZ showed impaired glucose tolerance. Chronic treatment with sertraline showed an antidepressant-like effect in non-diabetic and diabetic rats. Furthermore, sertraline promoted lower weight gain in diabetic rats. Insulin reduced the immobility behaviour in T2DM rats with impaired glucose tolerance. In conclusion, our results showed that insulin has an antidepressant-like effect comparable to that of sertraline. Sertraline is effective as an antidepressant and reduces weight gain, which reinforces its superiority over other SSRIs in the treatment of major depression disorder in patients with T2DM.

  15. Hypolipidemic and Antiatherogenic Effects of Satureja Khozestanica Essential Oil in Alloxan-Induced Type 1 Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ahmadvand

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of diabetes is increasing around the world. Oxidative stress is one of the risk factors in diabetes. The purpose of this study is to examine the protective effects of the essential oil of Satureja khuzestanica on the level of serum lipids and atherogenic indices in the male rats with diabetes.Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted on thirty male rats randomly divided into three groups including: 1- control group, 2- rats with untreated diabetes 3- rats with treated diabetes (through orally intake of water containing 500 ppm of the essential oil of Satureja khuzestanica. The second and third groups also developed diabetes through injection of alloxan tetrahydrate (120 mg/kg. After eight weeks of treatment, their blood sample was taken, and then the levels of glucose, lipids and atherogenic indices of the serum were measured.Results: The levels of glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL and atherogenic indices of plasma in treated diabetic group were significantly decreased. The amount of high density lipoprotein (HDL was significantly increased in the treated group. Conclusion: The results obtained from this study showed that the essential oil of Satureja khuzestanica has beneficial effects on the level of serum lipids and atherogenic indices of rats with type 1 diabetes.

  16. Effect of Iranian Honey bee (Apis Mellifera Venom on Blood Glucose and Insulin in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyedeh Mahbubeh Mousavi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is an important disease. This disease is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from perturbation in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. Honey bee venom contains a wide range of polypeptide agents. The principle components of bee venom are mellitin and phospholipase A2. These components increase insulin secretion from the β-cells of pancreas. This study was conducted to show the hypoglycemic effect of honey bee venom on alloxan induced diabetic male rats.Methods: Eighteen adult male rats weighting 200±20 g were placed into 3 randomly groups: control, alloxan monohy­drate-induced diabetic rat and treated group that received honey bee venom daily before their nutrition for four months. Forty eight hours after the last injection, blood was collected from their heart, serum was dissented and blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride and total cholesterol were determined.Results: Glucose serum, triglyceride and total cholesterol level in treated group in comparison with diabetic group was significantly decreased (P< 0.01. On the other hand, using bee venom causes increase in insulin serum in com­parison with diabetic group (P< 0.05.Conclusion: Honeybee venom (apitoxin can be used as therapeutic option to lower blood glucose and lipids in dia­betic rats.

  17. Metallothionein metabolism in the streptozotocin-diabetic rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, M.L.; Failla, M.L.

    1986-03-05

    Earlier reports from their laboratory showed the induction of the insulin-deficient diabetic state in adult rats was associated with an accumulation of zinc, copper, and a metallothionein-like zinc and copper binding protein in the soluble fraction of liver and kidney. Based upon chromatographic and electrophoretic properties, -SH to metal ratio and amino acid composition, they now report that elevated concentrations of metallothioneins (MT)-I and -II are indeed present in diabetic rat liver and kidney cytosol. The relative rates of MT synthesis in tissues from diabetic and control rats were measured by comparing incorporation of /sup 35/S-cysteine into MT vs. total cytoplasmic proteins at 5 h after injection of the precursor. The relative rates of MT synthesis in livers from rats diabetic for 10 d and fed either chow or purified diet containing 13 or 35 ppm copper were 1.4, 2.3 and 2.8 times greater, respectively, than control rats fed the same diets. Higher relative rates of MT synthesis were also observed in kidneys from diabetic rats fed purified diets compared to controls. Maximal relative rates of MT synthesis in diabetic liver and kidney were observed at 4 and 10 d, respectively, after onset of diabetes. The half-lives of cytoplasmic MT in liver and kidney from diabetic (10 d) rats were 1.3 and 2.6 days, respectively; half-lives of MT in control liver and kidney were 5.0 and 2.1 days, respectively.

  18. Insulin Modulates Liver Function in a Type I Diabetes Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo L. Nolasco

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Several studies have been performed to unravel the association between diabetes and increased susceptibility to infection. This study aimed to investigate the effect of insulin on the local environment after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP in rats. Methods: Diabetic (alloxan, 42 mg/kg i.v., 10 days and non-diabetic (control male Wistar rats were subjected to a two-puncture CLP procedure and 6 h later, the following analyses were performed: (a total and differential cell counts in peritoneal lavage (PeL and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluids; (b quantification of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC-1 and CINC-2 in the PeL and BAL fluids by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; (c total leukocyte count using a veterinary hematology analyzer and differential leukocyte counts on stained slides; (d biochemical parameters (urea, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP by colorimetric analyses; and (e lung, kidney, and liver morphological analyses (hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results: Relative to controls, non-diabetic and diabetic CLP rats exhibited an increased in the concentration of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, CINC-1, and CINC-2 and total and neutrophil in the PeL fluid. Treatment of these animals with neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin (NPH, 1IU and 4IU, respectively, s.c., 2 hours before CLP procedure, induced an increase on these cells in the PeL fluid but it did not change cytokine levels. The levels of ALT, AST, ALP, and urea were higher in diabetic CLP rats than in non-diabetic CLP rats. ALP levels were higher in diabetic sham rats than in non-diabetic sham rats. Treatment of diabetic rats with insulin completely restored ALT, AST, and ALP levels. Conclusion: These results together suggest that insulin attenuates liver dysfunction during early two-puncture CLP-induced peritoneal

  19. Phaleria macrocarpa reduces glomerular growth factor expression in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evy Sulistyoningrum

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetic nephropathy (DN is the most serious complication of diabetes, causing end-stage renal disease throughout the world. Recent studies have reported a direct role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and transforming growth factor-â (TGF-â in DN pathogenesis. VEGF and TGF-â are expressed early in glomeruli in response to hyperglycemia. Active substances of Phaleria macrocarpa (PM pericarp are known to have nephroprotective effects. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff. Boerl pericarp extract on VEGF and TGF-â expression in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods An experimental study was conducted on twenty five male albino (Sprague Dawley rats divided into five groups (of five each: normal control; diabetic; diabetic + metformin 100 mg/kgBW; diabetic + methanolic PM extract 250 mg/kgBW; and diabetic + aqueous PM extract 250 mg/kgBW. Diabetes was induced by alloxan monohydrate 150 mg/BW intraperitoneally. Treatment was given for 3 weeks. VEGF and TGF-â expression analysis was performed by means of immunohistochemical technique. Differences between groups were assessed by one-way ANOVA. Results VEGF expression in the PM extract group was significantly lower than that in the diabetic group and even metformin group (p<0.01. TGF-â expression in methanolic PM extract group was significantly lower than in diabetic and metformin group (p<0.01, but aqueous PM extract group only showed significancy when compared with diabetic group (p< 0.01. Conclusions Phaleria macrocarpa pericarp extract reduces glomerular expression of TGF-â and VEGF in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

  20. Effects of Petroselinum crispum extract on pancreatic B cells and blood glucose of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanardağ, Refiye; Bolkent, Sehnaz; Tabakoğlu-Oğuz, Ayse; Ozsoy-Saçan, Ozlem

    2003-08-01

    This study investigated both morphologically and biochemically whether parsley (Petroselinum crispum), which is used as a folk remedy to decrease blood glucose, has any antidiabetic effect on pancreatic B cells of rats. Parsley extract was given to male diabetic rats. In the diabetic group given parsley extract, it was detected that the number of secretory granules and cells in islets and other morphologic changes were not different from the control diabetic group, while the blood glucose levels in the diabetic group given the plant extract were reduced in comparison to the diabetic group. In addition, a decrease was observed in the weight of the control diabetic group and the diabetic group given the plant extract. It is suggested that the plant therapy can provide blood glucose homeostasis and cannot regenerate B cells of the endocrine pancreas.

  1. Hypolipidemic activity of Semecarpus anacardium in Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya, Aseervatham; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachdanandam, Panchanatham

    2010-08-01

    Alterations in lipid metabolism and lipoprotein disturbances have played an important role in increasing the risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in diabetes. A drug that has hypoglycemic activity can be used for the treatment of hyperlipidemia also. The present study was carried out to evaluate the hypolipidemic activity of Semecarpus anacardium. Male Wister rats weighing 250-270 g were injected with Streptozotocin at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight and administered with S. anacardium (300 mg/kg body weight) and Metformin (500 mg/kg body weight) for 21 days. Control and drug control groups were also included in the study. After the experimental duration, serum was collected, liver and kidney were excised and used for the analysis of lipid and lipid metabolizing enzymes. The results of the study revealed that S. anacardium administration was able to decrease the levels of LDL, cholesterol, VLDL, TG, phospholipid and free fatty acid and increase the HDL levels and favorably modulate the lipid metabolizing enzymes in the liver and kidney. These results show that S. anacardium exerts hypolipidemic activity in diabetic rats.

  2. Protective Effects of Ginger ( Extract against Diabetes-Induced Heart Abnormality in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Ilkhanizadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDiabetic cardiomyopathy is an important causal factor in morbidity and mortality among diabetic patients, and currently, no effective means are available to reverse its pathological progress. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of ginger extract on apolipoproteins (apo A and B, hyperhomocysteinemia, cathepsin G and leptin changes, as well as cardiac fibrosis and heart muscle cell proliferation under hyperglycemic conditions in vivo.MethodsTwenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into three groups, namely: control, non-treated diabetic, and ginger extract-treated diabetic groups. The ginger extract-treated diabetic group received a 50 mg daily dose of ginger extract intragastrically for 6 weeks.ResultsThe results revealed concurrent significant increases in plasma C-reactive protein (CRP, homocysteine (Hcy, cathepsin G and apoB levels and decreases in apoA and leptin levels in the non-treated diabetic group compared to the control group. Moreover, heart structural changes, including fibrosis and heart muscle cell proliferation, were observed in non-treated diabetic rats compared to the control rats. Significant amelioration of changes in the heart structure together with restoration of the elevated levels of Hcy and CRP, leptin, cathepsin G, and apoA and B were found in the ginger extract-treated diabetic group compared to the non-treated diabetic group.ConclusionThe findings indicated that ginger extract significantly reduces heart structural abnormalities in diabetic rats and that these effects might be associated with improvements in serum apo, leptin, cathepsin G, and Hcy levels and with the antioxidant properties of ginger extract.

  3. APPRAISAL OF MALE ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION IN PATIENTS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Prasad Suram

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND One of the most common adverse effects of diabetes mellitus, erectile dysfunction (ED remains difficult to treat despite advances in pharmacotherapeutic approaches in the field. This unmet need has brought about a late re-focus on the pathophysiology, so as to comprehend the cellular and molecular mechanism prompting ED in diabetes. Diabetes-induced ED is a need to find focuses that may prompt novel approaches for a fruitful treatment. Present study was tried to understand role of vascular and neurogenic alterations in the pathophysiology of diabetic sexual dysfunction. SUBJECTS AND METHODS The study was carried out on 17 male impotent patients with Diabetes Mellitus: 5 patients (Aged 43-56 years; mean age 48.4 had insulin-dependent DM, and 13 patients (Aged 40-62; mean age 53.5 non-insulin-dependent DM. None of the patients were on medications known to interfere with male erectile sexual function. All patients were told to give informed consent. Every participant underwent a physical examination including complete medical and sexual history and routine laboratory tests. Penile vascular assessment and assessment of nocturnal penile erections investigation were assessed in the study. RESULTS As showed in Table I. alterations in the vascular system was found in 13 (61.5% participants. Out of which moderate alteration noticed in 8 (47% and severe alteration in 5 (16% patients. Among the patients with non-insulin-dependent DM, 7 (41.1% had showed Nocturnal Penile Erections abnormalities. According to the history and also to the normal responses to the Nocturnal penile tumescence monitoring (NPTM, patients were diagnosed as having impotence of psychogenic origin. CONCLUSION Initial involvement of both arterial supply and of the neurological pathways can be of some interest, suggesting the need for an early screening of neural and vascular status even in patients without penile erectile failure. As is the case for other degenerative

  4. Characterization of Diabetic Neuropathy in the Zucker Diabetic Sprague-Dawley Rat: A New Animal Model for Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric P. Davidson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently a new rat model for type 2 diabetes the Zucker diabetic Sprague-Dawley (ZDSD/Pco was created. In this study we sought to characterize the development of diabetic neuropathy in ZDSD rats using age-matched Sprague-Dawley rats as a control. Rats were examined at 34 weeks of age 12 weeks after the onset of hyperglycemia in ZDSD rats. At this time ZDSD rats were severely insulin resistant with slowing of both motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities. ZDSD rats also had fatty livers, elevated serum free fatty acids, triglycerides, and cholesterol, and elevated sciatic nerve nitrotyrosine levels. The corneas of ZDSD rats exhibited a decrease in subbasal epithelial corneal nerves and sensitivity. ZDSD rats were hypoalgesic but intraepidermal nerve fibers in the skin of the hindpaw were normal compared to Sprague-Dawley rats. However, the number of Langerhans cells was decreased. Vascular reactivity of epineurial arterioles, blood vessels that provide circulation to the sciatic nerve, to acetylcholine and calcitonin gene-related peptide was impaired in ZDSD rats. These data indicate that ZDSD rats develop many of the neural complications associated with type 2 diabetes and are a good animal model for preclinical investigations of drug development for diabetic neuropathy.

  5. The effect of red, green and blue lasers on healing of oral wounds in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekrazad, Reza; Mirmoezzi, Amir; Kalhori, Katayoun Am; Arany, Praveen

    2015-07-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) can improve wound healing in non-diabetic and diabetic animals. We compared the effects of red, green, and blue lasers in terms of accelerating oral wound healing in diabetic rats. Diabetes was successfully induced in 32 male Wistar rats using intraperitoneal injection of Streptozotocin (150 mg/kg). After intraperitoneal injection of the anesthetic agent, a full-thickness oral wound (10 mm × 2 mm) was created aseptically with a scalpel on hard palate of the diabetic rats. The study was performed using red (630 nm), green (532 nm), and blue (425 nm) lasers and a control group. We used an energy density of 2J/cm2 and a treatment schedule of 3 times/week for 10 days. The area of wounds was measured and recorded on a chart for all rats. On the 10th day, the samples were then sacrificed and a full-thickness sample of wound area was prepared for pathological study. We observed a significant difference (plaser and two other lasers - blue and green (plaser and green laser (p=0.777). The results of the present study provide evidence that wound healing is slower in control rats compared to the treatment groups. Moreover, the findings suggest that wound healing occurs faster with red laser compared to blue and green lasers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of Anti-Hyperglycemic Activity of Kariveppilai Churnam in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mary Sharmila

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective - The present investigation is undertaken to study the effect of Kariveppilai churnam on changes in Body weight, Plasma glucose, Plasma Insulin, Hemoglobin and glycosylated hemoglobin and lipid profile in alloxan induced Diabetic Rats. Methodology - The raw materials of the compound herbal drug were purchased, identified and pulverized into powder form. The trial drug was administered to alloxan induced diabetic male albino rats. The rats were divided into 5 groups with 6 rats in each group. Group 1, 2 and 3 were normal control, toxic control and diabetic control respectively. Group 4 and 5 received the trial drug at a dose of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg orally respectively once a day. The anti-hyperglycemic activity of the trial drug was evaluated using the parameters of blood glucose, hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, plasma insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides , HDL and phospholipids. Results – The administration of the trial drug at doses of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of the body weight of the diabetes induced rats showed significant decrease in the above mentioned elevated parameters. Glipizide (10mg/kg was used as the reference standard. Conclusion- From the results it can be observed that trial drug at a dose of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg has protective effect against alloxan induced diabetes and its complications. The findings suggest that kariveppilai churnam possess anti-atherogenic property along with anti hyperglycemic activity.

  7. Apoptosis: an underlying factor for accelerated periodontal disease associated with diabetes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunalı, Mustafa; Ataoğlu, Tamer; Celik, Ilhami

    2014-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is well-established risk factor for periodontal disease. DM can also lead to changes in the number of apoptotic cells in periodontal tissues. The goal of this study was to evaluate apoptosis, depending on DM, in healthy and diseased periodontal soft tissues. A total of 43 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. Experimental periodontitis was created by placing silk ligatures around the cervices of the first mandibular molars. Experimental diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of the diabetogenic agent streptozotocin (STZ). Following the induction of both experimental diseases, the animals were divided into four groups: (1) The healthy group (H) (n = 10); (2) The diabetes group (D) (n = 10); (3) The periodontitis group (P) (n = 11); and (4) The diabetes and periodontitis group (DP) (n = 12). Apoptotic cells were determined by immunohistochemistry, and the frequency of apoptotic cells was evaluated by apoptotic index score. It was observed that there was less apoptosis in both the epithelial and gingival connective tissue cells of healthy diabetic tissues than in healthy tissues without diabetes. When periodontal disease existed, apoptosis increased in both the epithelial and gingival connective tissues of diabetic and non-diabetic animals. There may be differences in the apoptotic mechanisms in the periodontal soft tissues of diabetic and non-diabetic animals. Apoptosis may be one of the underlying factors in increased risk for periodontal disease that is associated with diabetes.

  8. Effect of Resistance Training on Plasma Nitric Oxide and Asymmetric Dimethylarginine Concentrations in Type I Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahani, Parivash Shekarchizadeh; Gharakhanlou, Reza; Karimian, Jahangir; Khazaei, Majid; Feizi, Awat; Safarzade, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Background: Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) has a predominant role in progression of some cardiovascular diseases, including diabetes. It interferes with L-arginine in production of nitric oxide (NO) by inhibition of NO synthase. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of resistance training on plasma NO and ADMA concentrations in type 1 diabetic male rats. Methods: Thirty-six male wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: (1) control; (2) diabetic; (3) diabetic trained, and (4) control trained (n = 9 each). In the trained groups, the animals undertook one training session per day, 3 days/week, for 4 weeks. At the end of experiment, blood samples were taken and the concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, lipid profile, NO and ADMA concentrations were determined. Results: plasma ADMA concentration showed a significant increase in diabetic rats compare to control group (0.73 ± 0.07 vs. 0.62 ± 0.04 μmol/l; P < 0.05). The plasma ADMA level in the trained diabetic and control were lower than the sedentary groups, although it was not statistically significant. Plasma NO concentration in diabetic group was lower than control (P < 0.05). Resistance training significantly increased plasma NO concentration in diabetic animals (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Elevated ADMA level in diabetic animals can normalize during resistance exercise. Reduced ADMA level and increased NO level following resistance training might improve cardiovascular risk in diabetic subjects. PMID:23717776

  9. Oral supplementation of standardized extract of Withania somnifera protects against diabetes-induced testicular oxidative impairments in prepubertal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyathanahalli, Chandrashekara Nagaraj; Manjunath, Mallayya Jayawanth; Muralidhara

    2014-09-01

    Male reproductive dysfunctions and infertility are the common consequences of overt diabetes. Available evidence support oxidative stress to be the underlying mechanism for the manifestation of testicular complications during diabetes. In the present study, we assessed the attenuating effects of Withania somnifera root extract (WS) on diabetes-induced testicular oxidative disturbances in prepubertal rats. Four-week-old prepubertal rats were assigned into nondiabetic control, streptozotocin (STZ)-treated and STZ+WS supplemented (500 mg/kg b.w./d, oral, 15 days) groups. Experimental diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (90 mg/kg b.w). Terminally, all animals were killed, and markers of oxidative stress were determined in the testis cytosol and mitochondrial fraction. Severe hyperglycemia and regression in testis size were apparent in diabetic rats. A decline in antioxidant defenses with subsequent elevation in the generation of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation was discernible in testis cytosol and mitochondria of diabetic prepubertal rats, which was significantly reversed by WS. However, there was partial restoration of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, and 3-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities in testis of diabetic prepubertal rats administered with WS. Taken together, data accrued suggest the potential of WS to improve diabetes-induced testicular dysfunctions in prepubertal rats.

  10. Oxytocin mediates copulation-induced hypoalgesia of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futagami, Hiroko; Sakuma, Yasuo; Kondo, Yasuhiko

    2016-04-08

    Copulatory behavior has been reported to raise the pain threshold in male rats. In this study, we examined the effect of copulatory behavior with or without ejaculation on pain threshold measured by electrical shock via an electrode attached to the tail. It was demonstrated that ejaculation is not necessary to raise the pain threshold in male rats. In addition, we examined whether oxytocin, a hypothalamic neuropeptide, was involved in copulation-induced hypoalgesia. Sexually experienced males were subjected to stereotaxic implantation of a guide cannula targeting the lateral ventricle. After the recovery period, half of the males were intracerebroventricularly treated with an oxytocin antagonist (OTA, 100ng d(CH2)51,Tyr(Me)2,Thr4, Orn8,Tyr-NH29]-vasotocin/1μL saline) and the remaining half were administered saline without anesthesia. Fifteen minutes later, half of each group were given sexual behavior with receptive females. We found no effect of OTA on sexual activity. Immediately after ejaculation, pain threshold was measured. While raised pain threshold was observed after sexual behavior in saline-treated males, no change in pain threshold was found in OTA-treated males even after copulation. The results suggest that central oxytocin mediates copulation-induced hypoalgesia in male rats.

  11. Dobutamine stress echocardiography in healthy adult male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Couet Jacques; Roussel Élise; Drolet Marie-Claude; Lachance Dominic; Plante Eric; Arsenault Marie

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Dobutamine stress echocardiography is used to investigate a wide variety of heart diseases in humans. Dobutamine stress echocardiography has also been used in animal models of heart disease despite the facts that the normal response of healthy rat hearts to this type of pharmacological stress testing is unknown. This study was performed to assess this normal response. Methods 15 normal adult male Wistar rats were evaluated. Increasing doses of dobutamine were infused intra...

  12. Controversial effects of Calendula officinalis L. on Biochemical and Pathological Factors of Nephropathy in Diabetic Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salehi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Chronic hyperglycemia leads to microvascular and macrovascular complications such as diabetic nephropathy. Medicinal plants are good sources for finding new therapeutic chemicals to improve diabetes and relieve its symptoms. Objectives The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the hydroalcoholic extract (300 mg/kg of Calendula officinalis (marigold on blood biochemical profiles and histopathological changes in kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods Twenty male Wistar rats were divided to four groups: Normal control (NC, diabetic control (DC, normal C. officinalis (N+CO 300 mg/kg, and diabetic C. officinalis (D+CO 300 mg/kg. The rats were treated for a period of 13 weeks. Diabetes was induced by Streptozocin injection, intraperitoneally. Level of glucose, urea, creatinine and also total anti-oxidant capacity, malondialdehyde, total oxidant status in serum and histological alterations in the kidney were analyzed. Results Level of serum glucose, urea, creatinine, malondialdehyde and total oxidant status were increased in diabetic rats, whereas, total anti-oxidant capacity was decreased compared to the control animals. Also, histological findings confirmed the absence of integrity in glomerulus and mass infiltration in kidney tissue in diabetic rats compared to the normal controls. Calendula officinalis extract had no effect on blood glucose, but it decreased blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, total oxidant status and malondialdehyde while it increased total anti-oxidant capacity in the diabetic extract-treated group when compared to diabetic rats. Calendula officinalis could not prevent nephropathy changes in the diabetic rats. Conclusions Therefore, our results suggest that although administration of 300 mg/kg of Calendula officinalis extract showed salutary effects on anti-oxidant profile, yet its protective effects on anti-diabetic and regenerative properties on nephropathy were

  13. Amelioration of Glomerulosclerosis by Satureja khozestanica Essential Oil in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ahmadvand

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Satureja khuzestanica, an endemic plant of Iran, has been reported to be used traditionally to treat diabetes. We examined possible protective effect of Satureja khozestanica essential oil (SKE on glomerulosclerosis in alloxan-induced type 1 diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 30 Sprage-dawley male rats were divided into 3 groups randomly; group 1 as control, group 2 diabetic untreated, and group 3 treatments with SKE by 500 ppm in drinking water, respectively. Diabetes was induced in the second and third groups by alloxan injection subcutaneously. After 8 weeks, animals were anaesthetized; livers and kidneys were then removed immediately. Kidney paraffin sections were prepared and stained by periodic acid Schiff method. Glomerular volume and leukocyte infiltration were estimated by stereological rules and glomerular sclerosis was studied semi-quantitatively. Results: Flow treatment of diabetic animals with SKE could significantly inhibit glomerular hypertrophy (22% leukocyte infiltration (31% and glomerulosclerosis (20% in comparison with the diabetic untreated group. Conclusion: The findings showed that SKE alleviates loss of glomerular volume, leukocyte infiltration, and glomerulosclerosis and exerts beneficial effects on the lipid peroxidation in alloxan-induced type 1 diabetic rats.

  14. Ursolic Acid provides kidney protection in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Chen; Jinping, Lu; Xia, Li; Renyong, Yang

    2013-12-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most serious microvascular complications of diabetes and the leading cause of end-stage renal failure. However, the treatment of DN is still a problem in the world. Inflammatory process plays a critical role in the development of DN. Therefore, anti-inflammatory treatment of DN is worth exploring now and in the future. The study aimed to evaluate the impact of ursolic acid (UA) on renal function in streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes were treated with UA for 16 weeks. After 16 weeks, urine albumin excretion, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen were measured. In addition, renal oxidative stress level, nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activity, P-selectin expression, and kidney histopathologic changes were evaluated. Sixteen weeks following streptozotocin injection, the rats produced significant alteration in renal function and increased oxidative stress, NF-κB activity, and P-selectin expression in the kidneys. Interestingly, UA significantly prevented biochemical and histopathologic changes in the kidneys associated with diabetes. Compared with untreated diabetic rats, UA treatment lowered urine albumin excretion, renal oxidative stress level, NF-κB activity, and P-selectin expression. Moreover, UA treatment also improved renal histopathologic changes in rats with diabetes. UA treatment exhibited a protective effect on kidneys in diabetic rats, implying that UA could be a potential treatment for diabetic nephropathy.

  15. Intermittent hypoxia maintains glycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaofei; Zhao, Tong; Huang, Xin; Wu, Liying; Wu, Kuiwu; Fan, Ming; Zhu, Lingling

    2016-05-01

    Increasing studies have shown protective effects of intermittent hypoxia on brain injury and heart ischemia. However, the effect of intermittent hypoxia on blood glucose metabolism, especially in diabetic conditions, is rarely observed. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intermittent hypoxia influences blood glucose metabolism in type 1 diabetic rats. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic adult rats and age-matched control rats were treated with intermittent hypoxia (at an altitude of 3 km, 4 h per day for 3 weeks) or normoxia as control. Fasting blood glucose, body weight, plasma fructosamine, plasma insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), pancreas β-cell mass, and hepatic and soleus glycogen were measured. Compared with diabetic rats before treatment, the level of fasting blood glucose in diabetic rats after normoxic treatment was increased (19.88 ± 5.69 mmol/L vs. 14.79 ± 5.84 mmol/L, p  0.05). Meanwhile, fasting blood glucose in diabetic rats after hypoxic treatment was also lower than that in diabetic rats after normoxic treatment (13.14 ± 5.77 mmol/L vs. 19.88 ± 5.69 mmol/L, pintermittent hypoxia was significantly lower than that in diabetic rats receiving normoxia (1.28 ± 0.11 vs. 1.39 ± 0.11, p intermittent hypoxia showed effect on the increase of soleus glycogen but not hepatic glycogen. We conclude that intermittent hypoxia maintains glycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and its regulation on muscular glycogenesis may play a role in the underlying mechanism.

  16. Assessment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dongye; Zhang, Xiang; Lu, Liejing; Li, Haojiang; Zhang, Fang; Chen, Yueyao; Shen, Jun [Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2014-09-10

    To determine the role of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and quantitative T2 value measurements in the assessment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Sequential MR imaging, T2 measurement, and quantitative sensory testing of sciatic nerves were performed in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (n = 6) and normal control rats (n = 6) over a 7-week follow-up period. Histological assessment was obtained from 48 diabetic rats and 48 control rats once weekly for 7 weeks (n = 6 for each group at each time point). Nerve signal abnormalities were observed, and the T2 values, mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT), and histological changes were measured and compared between diabetic and control animals. Sciatic nerves in the diabetic rats showed a gradual increase in T2 values beginning at 2 weeks after the induction (P = 0.014), while a decrease in MWT started at 3 weeks after the induction (P = 0.001). Nerve T2 values had a similar time course to sensory functional deficit in diabetic rats. Histologically, sciatic nerves of diabetic rats demonstrated obvious endoneural oedema from 2 to 3 weeks after the induction, followed by progressive axonal degeneration, Schwann cell proliferation, and coexistent disarranged nerve regeneration. Nerve T2 measurement is potentially useful in detecting and monitoring diabetic neuropathy. (orig.)

  17. Study of the Pharmacokinetic Changes of Tramadol in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lida Hakemi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:Besides the pathological states, diabetes mellitus may also alter the hepatic biotransformation of pharmaceutical agents. It is advantageous to understand the effect of diabetes on the pharmacokinetic of drugs. The objective of this study was to define the pharmacokinetic changes of tramadol and its main metabolites after in vivo intraperitoneal administration and ex vivo perfused liver study in diabetic rat model.Tramadol (10 mg/kg was administered to rats (diabetic and control groups of six intraperitoneally and blood samples were collected at different time points up to 300 min. In a parallel study, isolated liver perfusion was done (in diabetic and control rats by Krebs-Henseleit buffer (containing 500 ng/ml tramadol. Perfusate samples were collected at 10 min intervals up to 180 min. Concentration of tramadol and its metabolites were determined by HPLC.Results:Tramadol reached higher concentrations after i.p. injection in diabetics (Cmax of 1607.5 ± 335.9 ng/ml compared with control group (Cmax of 561.6 ± 111.4. M1 plasma concentrations were also higher in diabetic rats compared with control group. M2 showed also higher concentrations in diabetic rats. Comparing the concentration levels of M1 in diabetic and control perfused livers, showed that in contrast to intact animals, the metabolic ratios of M1 and M5 (M/T were significantly higher in diabetic perfused liver compared to those of control group.Conclusions:The pharmacokinetic of tramadol and its three metabolites are influenced by diabetes. As far as M1 is produced by Cyp2D6, its higher concentration in diabetic rats could be a result of induction in Cyp2D6 activity, while higher concentrations of tramadol can be explained by lower volume of distribution.

  18. Characterization of the Prediabetic State in a Novel Rat Model of Type 2 Diabetes, the ZFDM Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghupurjan Gheni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We recently established a novel animal model of obese type 2 diabetes (T2D, the Zucker fatty diabetes mellitus (ZFDM rat strain harboring the fatty mutation (fa in the leptin receptor gene. Here we performed a phenotypic characterization of the strain, focusing mainly on the prediabetic state. At 6–8 weeks of age, fa/fa male rats exhibited mild glucose intolerance and severe insulin resistance. Although basal insulin secretion was remarkably high in the isolated pancreatic islets, the responses to both glucose stimulation and the incretin GLP-1 were retained. At 10–12 weeks of age, fa/fa male rats exhibited marked glucose intolerance as well as severe insulin resistance similar to that at the earlier age. In the pancreatic islets, the insulin secretory response to glucose stimulation was maintained but the response to the incretin was diminished. In nondiabetic Zucker fatty (ZF rats, the insulin secretory responses to both glucose stimulation and the incretin in the pancreatic islets were similar to those of ZFDM rats. As islet architecture was destroyed with age in ZFDM rats, a combination of severe insulin resistance, diminished insulin secretory response to incretin, and intrinsic fragility of the islets may cause the development of T2D in this strain.

  19. Protective effects of vitamin E and selenium on spermatogenesis in adult male rat insulin-resistant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Zakerabasali

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease and is a multifactorial disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia resulting from impaired insulin secretion and insulin factional or both. In this study, the protective role of vitamin E and sodium selenite in preventing the harmful effects of insulin resistance (diabetes type 2 on spermatogenesis was studied.   Materials & Methods: Male adults (180-200 g of Wistar rats were divided into five groups, each containing 7 rats (control, sham, and three experimental groups. The rats were fed daily with water-soluble fructose (10%, mg/kg 200 of vitamin E (gavage, and 5/0 mg/kg of sodium selenite (intraperitoneal injection or both for 110 days. Subsequently, sperm parameters, levels of testosterone, LH, and daily sperm production (DSP were checked. Additionally, testicular histopathology and malondialdehyde (MDA in the testis were examined.   Results: Sperm count, sperm motility and viability, and insulin resistance in the rats decreased DSP. A significant decrease was observed in the number of Leydig cells, spermatogonia, spermatogenesis, and spermatozoa in the testis of the insulin-resistant animals, whereas MDA and testosterone rose in the insulin-resistant rats. Vitamin E and sodium selenite intake reduced the levels of MDA and harmful effects of fructose on testicles, as well as sperm parameters and testicular pathology. A simultaneous intake of vitamin E and sodium selenite conferred the highest level of protection.   Conclusion: These findings suggest that vitamin E and sodium selenite can have a protective role in the testes of rats against oxidative stress induced by diabetes type 2.

  20. Histopathological effects of doxorubicin on pancreas in male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Ali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the histopathological side effects of doxorubicin on pancreas tissue in male albino rats Rattus norvegicus. This study were used 55 adult rats (2.5-3.5 month of age. The rats divided into two groups, the first group include (35 rats. The second group were (20 rats. Microscopial examination of pancreas lesion demonstrated oedema around the acini, swelling of the epithelial cells of acini, occurance of cystic fibrosis (mucoviscidosis at the concentration of (4,5 mg/kg of body weight ,occurrence of small islets that form of few cells and exocrine-endocrine transformation. There were thickness in the walls of blood vessels, thrombus, congestion of blood vessels, we conclude, that doxorubicin had histopathological effect on pancreas in sub-acute doses more than chronic doses.

  1. The hypoglycaemic response of diabetic rats to insulin-liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkowicz, J; Byra, A; Szumiło, T

    1990-01-01

    We prepared insulin-liposomes using one combination of lipids including phosphatidylcholine (cholesterol) stearylamine, 7/2/1 (molar ratio). Non-sonicated liposomes (LMV) and sonicated liposomes (SUV) contained about 20% and 5% of insulin, respectively. Free insulin was removed from liposomes-associated insulin by ultracentrifugation, or ultrafiltration on Sepharose 6B column. Insulin preparations were administered parenterally and non-parenterally into male, Wistar rats with alloxan diabetes to produce the hypoglycaemia. In case of i.v. and s.c. routes of administration all preparations acted in the similar manner giving the clear hypoglycaemia after 2 h. When administered intragastrically only liposome insulin caused hypoglycaemia. In case of buccal and nasal routes of administration only SUV-insulin was effective.

  2. Effects of Duration of Diabetes on Cognitive Functions in Streptozotocin Induced Young Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajashree R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with early onset Type I diabetes have been reported to show modest deficits on a wide range of neuropsychological tests. However, the contribution of duration of the disease with respect to cognitive dysfunction remains unresolved. The present study aims to determine the effects of different duration of hyperglycemia on cognitive function in young diabetic rats. Objectives: To determine the effect of 10 and 20 days duration of diabetes on cognitive functions. Materials and methods: Diabetes was induced in young rat pups, by streptozotocin injection (i.p at a dose of 50 mg /kg.BW. Diabetic state was confirmed on 30th post natal day. 10 and 20 days after inducing diabetes, the rats were tested in passive avoidance box and Morris water maze, over a period of 10 days. Results: Diabetic rats showed significantly impaired cognitive functions, compared to their age matched controls. The cognitive impairment was greater in rats with 20 days of diabetic state compared to their 10 days counterparts. Conclusion: It is essential to diagnose and treat diabetes as early as possible in case of young children with Type I diabetes of early onset to prevent irreversible cognitive functions

  3. Improvement of renal oxidative stress markers after ozone administrationin diabetic nephropathy in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morsy Mohamed D

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several complications of diabetes mellitus (DM e.g. nephropathy (DN have been linked to oxidative stress. Ozone, by means of oxidative preconditioning, may exert its protective effects on DN. Aim The aim of the present work is to study the possible role of ozone therapy in ameliorating oxidative stress and inducing renal antioxidant defence in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. Methods Six groups (n = 10 of male Sprague Dawley rats were used as follows: Group C: Control group. Group O: Ozone group, in which animals received ozone intraperitoneally (i.p. (1.1 mg/kg. Group D: Diabetic group, in which DM was induced by single i.p. injections of streptozotocin (STZ. Group DI: Similar to group D but animals also received subcutaneous (SC insulin (0.75 IU/100 gm BW.. Group DO: In which diabetic rats received the same dose of ozone, 48 h after induction of diabetes. Group DIO, in which diabetic rats received the same doses of insulin and ozone, respectively. All animals received daily treatment for six weeks. At the end of the study period (6 weeks, blood pressure, blood glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, kidney tissue levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxide (GPx, aldose reductase (AR activities and malondialdehyde (MDA concentration were measured. Results Induction of DM in rats significantly elevated blood pressure, HbA1c, BUN, creatinine and renal tissue levels of MDA and AR while significantly reducing SOD, CAT and GPx activities. Either Insulin or ozone therapy significantly reversed the effects of DM on all parameters; in combination (DIO group, they caused significant improvements in all parameters in comparison to each alone. Conclusions Ozone administration in conjunction with insulin in DM rats reduces oxidative stress markers and improves renal antioxidant enzyme activity which highlights its potential uses in the regimen for treatment of

  4. Melatonin Reduces Cataract Formation and Aldose Reductase Activity in Lenses of Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Khorsand

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relationship between the high activity of aldose reductase (AR and diabetic cataract formation has been previously investigated. The purpose of the present study was to determine the preventing effect of melatonin on streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic cataract in rats. Methods: 34 adult healthy male Sprague-Dawely rats were divided into four groups. Diabetic control and diabetic+melatonin received a single dose of STZ (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, whereas the normal control and normal+melatonin received vehicle. The melatonin groups were gavaged with melatonin (5 mg/kg daily for a period of 8 weeks, whereas the rats in the normal control and diabetic control groups received only the vehicle. The rats’ eyes were examined every week and cataract formation scores (0-4 were determined by slit-lamp microscope. At the end of the eighth week, the rats were sacrificed and markers of the polyol pathway and antioxidative (Glutathione, GSH in their lens were determined. The levels of blood glucose, HbA1c and plasma malondialdhyde (MDA, as a marker of lipid peroxidation, were also measured. Results: Melatonin prevented STZ-induced hyperglycemia by decreased blood glucose and HbA1c levels. Slit lamp examination indicated that melatonin delayed cataract progression in diabetic rats. The results revealed that melatonin feeding increased the GSH levels, decreased the activities of AR and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH and sorbitol formation in catractous lenses as well as plasma MDA content. Conclusion: In summary, for the first time we demonstrated that melatonin delayed the formation and progression of cataract in diabetic rat lenses.

  5. [Pentosan polysulfate sodium prevents kidney morphological changes and albuminuria in rats with type 1 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathison Natera, Y; Finol, H J; Quero, Z; González, R; González, J

    2010-01-01

    Decreased levels of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have been observed in the kidney and other organs, in human and animal models of diabetes. Long-term administration of heparins and other glycosaminoglycans has demonstrated a beneficial effect on morphological and functional kidney abnormalities in diabetic rats. We assessed the effect of pentosan polysulfate sodium (PPS), a semi-synthetic glycosaminoglycan with low anticoagulant activity, on kidney involvement in streptozotocin diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by i.v. administration of streptozotocin (STZ). Animals were randomly allocated to three groups: C = control, STZ and STZ + PPS = pretreated with PPS (15 mg/kg, s.c.). After three months of follow-up, blood and 24 h-urine samples were obtained, the animals were sacrificed and the kidney microdissected for morphometric analysis. Urinary albumin excretion was markedly increased in untreated diabetic rats (C = 0.26 ± 0.03 vs STZ = 7.75 ± 1.8 mg/24 h) and PPS treatment partially prevented the albumin rise (3.7 ± 0.7 mg/24 h), without affecting the metabolic control HbA1c (C = 3.6 ± 1.7; STZ = 8.82 ± 0.47; STZ + PPS = 8.63 ± 0.54). Electron microscope observation revealed typical renal lesions described in experimental diabetes (STZ group). PPS administration prevents the tubular basement membrane thickening and the loss of cytoarchitecture induced by experimental diabetes. Our data demonstrate that long-term administration of PPS has a favourable effect on morphological and functional abnormalities in kidneys of diabetic rats and suggests a potential therapeutic use for this compound.

  6. EFFECT OF THIOPROPANOL ON AMINO ACID TURNOVER AND REDOX STATUS IN ALLOXAN DIABETIC RAT LIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickram

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Decreased cellular thiol levels seen in diabetes mellitus (DM may be in part attributed to increased free radical generation. The free radical mediated oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of DM and its complications. The relative deficiency or non-availability of insulin in DM affects the metabolism of biomolecules, specifically the carbohydrate metabolism. The insulin-mimicking actions of various thiols have been studied. In our previous study, we have documented that 3-mercapto- 1-propanol (Thiopropanol, a low molecular weight thiol, at the dosage employed has increased glucose utilisation in alloxandiabetic rat liver tissue probably by favouring utilisation of glucose through glycolysis and HMP pathway. It is known that insulin inhibits gluconeogenesis by inhibiting the key enzymes of the same and by controlling the channelling of amino acids for the glucose biosynthesis through gluconeogenic pathway. A study was undertaken to assess the effects of thiopropanol (TP on amino acid turnover and the redox status in alloxan diabetic rat liver. METHODS Male albino rats weighing 150-250 g were used. Diabetes was induced using alloxan monohydrate. Rats were divided into normal and diabetic groups. Levels of amino acid nitrogen (AAN, alanine, total thiol (-SH groups, TBARS (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and activities of alanine transaminase (ALT and aspartate transaminase (AST were estimated in liver specimens of normal, control-alloxan diabetic and TP-exposed-alloxan-diabetic rats. RESULTS The results showed a significant increase (p<0.001 in AAN levels, alanine levels, and total -SH groups concentration; and a significant decrease (p<0.001 in TBARS levels, ALT and AST activities in TP-exposed-alloxan diabetic liver slices as compared to control-alloxan diabetic liver slices. CONCLUSIONS Hence, it may be concluded that TP, at the concentration employed, inhibits gluconeogenesis from amino acids probably by

  7. Effect of E.globulus upon Candida colonization in normal and diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bokaeian

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The leaves of Eucalyptus globulus (eucalyptus are used for treatment of diabetes mellitus in traditional medicine. The aim of present study is to evaluate the effects of eucalyptus in treatment of systemic infection with Candida albicans in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Method: Sixty normoglycemic male Wistar rats, weighing 200-250 g, were selected and randomly divided into six groups (n=10: I. normal control, II. control+C. albicans, III. control+eucalyptus+C. albicans, IV. Diabetic control, V. diabetic+C. albicans, VI. diabetic+eucalyptus+C. albicans. Experimental diabetes was induced in IV-VI groups after a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight and eucalyptus was added to the diet (62.5 g/kg and drinking water (2.5 g/L of III and VI groups for 3 weeks. The II, III, V, and VI groups were inoculated with C. albicans in seventh day using intraperitoneal injection of C. albicans. At the end of 23 days experiment, fasted rats were killed by cervical decapitation. Blood was collected from neck vein for estimation of glucose. C. albicans concentrations were estimated in liver and kidneys using serial dilution culture of tissue homogenates. Results: Eucalyptus administration significantly improved the hyperglycemia, polydipsia, polyphagia, and it also compensated weight loss of diabetic rats (p=0.05. Moreover, eucalyptus caused a significant reduction in C. albicans concentration in liver and kidney homogenates (p=0.04. Conclusion: The results revealed that eucalyptus improves Candidia infection in normal and diabetic rats

  8. Neonatal inhalatory anesthetic exposure: reproductive changes in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, A C; Pereira, O C M

    2002-12-01

    We investigated the effects of an inhalatory anesthetic (ethyl ether) during the neonatal period of brain sexual differentiation on the later fertility and sexual behavior of male rats. Animals were exposed to ethyl ether immediately after birth. At adulthood, body weight, testes wet weight, and plasma testosterone levels were not affected; however, neonatal exposure to ether showed alterations on male fertility: a decrease in the number of spermatids and spermatozoa, an increase in the transit time of cauda epididymal spermatozoa and a decrease in daily sperm production. An alteration of sexual behavior was also observed: decreased male sexual behavior and appearance of homosexual behavior when the male rats were castrated and pretreated with exogenous estrogen. Probably, the ether delayed or reduced the testosterone peak of the sexual differentiation period, altering the processes of masculinization and defeminization of the hypothalamus. Our results indicate that perinatal exposure to ethyl ether during the critical period of male brain sexual differentiation, acting as endocrine disruptors, has a long-term effect on the fertility and sexual behavior of male rats, suggesting endocrine disruption through incomplete masculinization and defeminization of the central nervous system.

  9. Amelioration of altered antioxidant enzyme activity by Satureja khuzistanica essential oil in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadvand, Hassan

    2014-09-01

    To examine the possible protective effect of Satureja khuzistanica essential oil (SKE) on antioxidant enzyme activity in alloxan-induced Type 1 diabetic rats. Thirty Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into three groups randomly; group one as control, group two diabetic, with no treatment, and group three treatment with SKE at 500 ppm in drinking water, respectively. Diabetes was induced in the second and third groups by alloxan injection subcutaneously. After eight weeks, animals were anaesthetized. Blood samples were also collected before killing to measure antioxidant enzymes activity. SKE significantly increased the serum level of glutathione and the serum activity of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase in the treated group compared with the diabetic untreated group. The findings showed that SKE exerts beneficial effects on the antioxidant enzymes activity in alloxan-induced Type 1 diabetic rats. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Insulin secretion enhancing activity of roselle calyx extract in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eamruthai Wisetmuen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Our recent study revealed the antihyperglycemic activity of an ethanolic extract of roselle calyxes (Hibiscus sabdariffa in diabetic rats. The present study had, therefore, an objective to investigate the mechanism underlying this activity. Materials and Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were induced to be diabetes by intraperitoneal injection of 45 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ. Normal rats as well as diabetic rats were administered with the ethanolic extract of H. sabdariffa calyxes (HS-EE at 0.1 and 1.0 g/kg/day, respectively, for 6 weeks. Then, blood glucose and insulin levels, at basal and glucose-stimulated secretions, were measured. The pancreas was dissected to examine histologically. Results: HS-EE 1.0 g/kg/day significantly decreased the blood glucose level by 38 ± 12% in diabetic rats but not in normal rats. In normal rats, treatment with 1.0 g/kg HS-EE increased the basal insulin level significantly as compared with control normal rats (1.28 ± 0.25 and 0.55 ± 0.05 ng/ml, respectively. Interestingly, diabetic rats treated with 1.0 g/kg HS-EE also showed a significant increase in basal insulin level as compared with the control diabetic rats (0.30 ± 0.05 and 0.15 ± 0.01 ng/ml, respectively. Concerning microscopic histological examination, HS-EE 1.0 g/kg significantly increased the number of islets of Langerhans in both normal rats (1.2 ± 0.1 and 2.0 ± 0.1 islet number/10 low-power fields (LPF for control and HS-EE treated group, respectively and diabetic rats (1.0 ± 0.3 and 3.9 ± 0.6 islet number/10 LPF for control and HS-EE treated group, respectively. Conclusion: The antidiabetic activity of HS-EE may be partially mediated via the stimulating effect on insulin secretion.

  11. Nicotine Increases Alcohol Intake in Adolescent Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lárraga, Armando; Belluzzi, James D.; Leslie, Frances M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Use of alcohol and tobacco, the two most concurrently abused drugs, typically first occurs during adolescence. Yet, there have been no systematic analyses of ethanol (EtOH) and nicotine (Nic) interactions during adolescence. Recent animal studies report that kappa-opioid (KOR) receptor activation mediates age differences in drug reinforcement. Our hypothesis is that concurrent self-administration of EtOH and Nic will be greater in adolescent rats because of age differences in KOR function. Furthermore, exposure to alcohol and nicotine during adolescence has been reported to increase EtOH intake in adulthood. We performed a longitudinal animal study and hypothesized adolescent rats allowed to self-administer nicotine would drink more alcohol as adults. Methods: Adolescent, postnatal day (P)32, and adult (P90) male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were allowed to self-administer EtOH, Nic, or a combination of both, EtOH+Nic, in an intravenous self-administration paradigm. The role of KOR was pharmacologically evaluated with the KOR antagonist, norbinaltorphamine (norBNI) and with the KOR agonist, U50,488H. Alcohol drinking was subsequently evaluated with male rats in a drinking in the dark (DID), 2-bottle choice test. Results: Concurrent Nic increased EtOH intake in adolescent males, but not in adults or females. Pharmacological blockade of KOR with norBNI robustly increased EtOH+Nic self-administration in adult male rats, but had no effect with female rats. Lastly, in our longitudinal study with male rats, we found prior self-administration of Nic or EtOH+Nic during adolescence increased subsequent oral EtOH intake, whereas prior self-administration of EtOH alone in adults increased subsequent EtOH drinking. Conclusions: There are major age- and sex-differences in the reinforcing effects of EtOH+Nic. Adolescent males are sensitive to the reinforcing interactions of the two drugs, whereas this effect is inhibited by KOR activation in male adults. Nicotine

  12. Extract of Adenanthera pavonina L. seed reduces development of diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramdas Pandhare

    2012-09-01

    Conclusion: These results suggested that APSAE has reduced development of diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and could have beneficial effect in reducing the progression of diabetic nephropathy.

  13. Mechanism of testicular protection of carvedilol in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie M Ramzy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Male sub-fertility and infertility are major complications of diabetes mellitus. The non-selective β-blocker carvedilol has been reported to have favorable effects on some of the diabetic complications based on its antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects. This study aims to evaluate the possible testicular protective effect of carvedilol in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rat model and its possible mechanisms. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by a single i.p. dose of 65 mg/kg of STZ. In parallel groups of diabetic rats, carvedilol in low and high doses (1 and 10 mg/kg/day orally were administered for 4 weeks. Oxidative stress markers as reduced glutathione (GSH and the product of lipid peroxidation; malondialdehyde (MDA were evaluated in testicular homogenate. The level of expression of the apoptotic marker; caspase 3, was assessed using western blot, followed by densitometric analysis. Results: Induction of diabetes caused distortion of histological normal testicular structure, with decrease (P < 0.05 in GSH and increase (P < 0.05 in MDA, as well as induction of caspase 3 expression. Carvedilol in low or high doses reverted diabetes-induced histological damage, restored antioxidant activity and ameliorated caspase 3 expression. Conclusion: Carvedilol confers testicular protection against diabetes-induced damage through antioxidant and anti-apoptotic mechanisms.

  14. Effect of Momordica charantia fruit extract on vascular complication in type 1 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abas, Razif; Othman, Faizah; Thent, Zar Chi

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the risk factors in the development of vascular complications. Decreased nitric oxide (NO) production and increased lipid peroxidation in diabetes mellitus are the dominant exaggerating factors. Mormodica charantia (MC) was proven to be useful in improving diabetes mellitus and its complications. In the present study, a total of 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Diabetes was induced by a single dose (50 mg/kg) of streptozotocin (STZ), intramuscularly. Following 4 weeks of STZ induction, the animals were equally divided into five groups (n = 8); Control group (Ctrl), control group treated with MC (Ctrl-MC), diabetic untreated group (DM-Ctrl), diabetic group treated with MC (DM-MC) and diabetic group treated with metformin 150 g/kg (DM-Met). Oral administration of the MC fruit extract (1.5 g/kg) was continued for 28 days. DM-MC group showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in blood pressure, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels compared to the DM-Ctrl group. Aortic tissue NO level was significantly increased and malondialdehyde level was decreased in the DM-MC group. Immunohistochemical staining showed an increase in eNOS expression in the endothelial lining of the DM-MC group. Similarly, morphological deterioration of the aortic tissues was reverted to normal. In summary, treatment with the MC fruit extract exerted the significant vasculoprotective effect in the type 1 diabetic rat model.

  15. Post-translational processing of synaptophysin in the rat retina is disrupted by diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis S D'Cruz

    Full Text Available Synaptophysin, is an abundant presynaptic protein involved in synaptic vesicle recycling and neurotransmitter release. Previous work shows that its content is significantly reduced in the rat retina by streptozotocin (STZ-diabetes. This study tested the hypothesis that STZ-diabetes alters synaptophysin protein turnover and glycosylation in the rat retina. Whole explant retinas from male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. Rats were made diabetic by a single intraperitoneal STZ injection (65 mg/kg body weight in 10 mM sodium citrate, pH 4.5. mRNA translation was measured using a (35S-methionine labeling assay followed by synaptophysin immunoprecipitation and autoradiography. A pulse-chase study was used to determine the depletion of newly synthesized synaptophysin. Depletion of total synaptophysin was determined after treatment with cycloheximide. Mannose rich N-glycosylated synaptophysin was detected by treating retinal lysates with endoglycosidase H followed by immunoblot analysis. Synaptophysin mRNA translation was significantly increased after 1 month (p<0.001 and 2 months (p<0.05 of STZ-diabetes, compared to age-matched controls. Newly synthesized synaptophysin degradation was significantly accelerated in the retina after 1 and 2 months of diabetes compared to controls (p<0.05. Mannose rich glycosylated synaptophysin was significantly increased after 1 month of STZ-diabetes compared to controls (p<0.05.These data suggest that diabetes increases mRNA translation of synaptophysin in the retina, resulting in an accumulation of mannose rich glycosylated synaptophysin, a transient post-translational state of the protein. This diabetes-induced irregularity in post-translational processing could explain the accelerated degradation of retinal synaptophysin in diabetes.

  16. Fermented soy permeate reduces cytokine level and oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malardé, Ludivine; Groussard, Carole; Lefeuvre-Orfila, Luz; Vincent, Sophie; Efstathiou, Théo; Gratas-Delamarche, Arlette

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are involved in the development of type 1 diabetes and its complications. Because two compounds found in soy, that is, isoflavones and alpha-galactooligosaccharides, have been shown to exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, this study aimed to assess the effects of a dietary supplement containing these two active compounds, the fermented soy permeate (FSP). We hypothesized that FSP would be able to reduce in vivo oxidative stress and inflammation in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into the control placebo, diabetic placebo, and diabetic FSP-supplemented groups. They received daily, by oral gavage, water (placebo groups) or diluted FSP (0.1 g/day; FSP-supplemented group). After 3 weeks, glycemic regulation (glycemia and fructosamine level); the plasma level of carboxymethyllysine (CML), a marker of systemic oxidative stress in diabetes; and the plasma levels of inflammatory markers (CRP, IL-1β, IL-6, and uric acid) were evaluated. Markers of oxidative damage (isoprostanes and GSH/GSSG), antioxidant enzymatic activity (SOD and GPX), and Mn-SOD content were determined in skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius). Diabetic placebo rats exhibited higher CML levels, lower SOD and GPX activities, and decreased Mn-SOD contents. FSP supplementation in diabetic animals normalized the CML and antioxidant enzymatic activity levels and tended to increase Mn-SOD expression. The markers of inflammation whose levels were increased in the diabetic placebo group were markedly decreased by FSP (IL-1β: -75%, IL-6: -46%, and uric acid: -17%), except for CRP. Our results demonstrate that FSP exhibited antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in vivo in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  17. Antioxidant and protective effects of Royal jelly on histopathological changes in testis of diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Elham; Nejati, Vahid; Khazaei, Mozafar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is the most common endocrine disease. It has adverse effects on male reproductive function. Royal Jelly (RJ) has antioxidant and anti-diabetic effects and show protective effects against diabetes. Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of RJ on histopathological alterations of the testicular tissue in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 28 adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into control (C), royal jelly (R), diabetic (D) and RJ-treated diabetic (D+R) groups. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ at 50 mg/kg body weight (BW). The rats from the R and D+R groups received daily RJ (100 mg/kg BW) for 6 wks orally. Hematoxylin-Eosin staining was used to analyze histopathological changes including: tunica albuginea thickness (TAT), seminiferous tubules diameter (STsD), Johnsen’s score, tubular differentiation index (TDI), spermiogenesis index (SPI), Sertoli cell index (SCI), meiotic index (MI), and mononuclear immune cells (MICs) in testes. The antioxidant status was examined by evaluating testicular levels of ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and catalase (CAT) activity. Results: Histological results of the testis from diabetic rats showed significant decrease in STsD, Johnsen’s score, TDI, SPI, SCI and MI, and significant increase in TAT and MICs, while administration of RJ significantly reverted these changes (p<0.05). RJ treatment markedly increased activity of CAT and FRAP. There were significant differences in FRAP levels among C (13.0±0.5), RJ (13.4±0.3), D (7.8±0.6) and D+R (12.4±0.7) groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: RJ improved diabetes-induced impairment in testis, probably through its antioxidant property. PMID:27679827

  18. Effect of chronic administration of forskolin on glycemia and oxidative stress in rats with and without experimental diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Silva, Mónica; Trujillo, Xóchitl; Trujillo-Hernández, Benjamín; Sánchez-Pastor, Enrique; Urzúa, Zorayda; Mancilla, Evelyn; Huerta, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Forskolin is a diterpene derived from the plant Coleus forskohlii. Forskolin activates adenylate cyclase, which increases intracellular cAMP levels. The antioxidant and antiinflammatory action of forskolin is due to inhibition of macrophage activation with a subsequent reduction in thromboxane B2 and superoxide levels. These characteristics have made forskolin an effective medication for heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, and asthma. Here, we evaluated the effects of chronic forskolin administration on blood glucose and oxidative stress in 19 male Wistar rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes compared to 8 healthy male Wistar rats. Rats were treated with forskolin, delivered daily for 8 weeks. Glucose was assessed by measuring fasting blood glucose in diabetic rats and with an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in healthy rats. Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8‑OHdG) in 24-h urine samples. In diabetic rats, without forskolin, fasting blood glucose was significantly higher at the end than at the beginning of the experiment (8 weeks). In both healthy and diabetic rats, forskolin treatment lowered the fasting glucose at the end of the experiment but no effect was found on oral glucose tolerance. The 8-OHdG levels tended to be less elevated in forskolin-treated than in untreated group. Our results showed that chronic administration of forskolin decreased fasting blood glucose levels; however, the reductions of 8-OHdG were not statistically significant.

  19. Galanin-like peptide rescues reproductive function in the diabetic rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanovitch, Angela G; Johnson, Marlie A; Clifton, Donald K; Steiner, Robert A; Fraley, Gregory S

    2005-08-01

    Galanin-like peptide (GALP) is expressed in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and is regulated by leptin and insulin. Centrally administered GALP stimulates gonadotropin secretion and sexual behavior in the rat. Type 1 diabetes is associated with reduced expression of GALP, as well as an overall decline in reproductive function. We postulated that tonic activity of GALP in the brain is required to sustain normal reproductive activity. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether central (intracerebroventricular) immunoblockade of GALP would reduce sexual behaviors and serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) in normal adult male rats. We found that GALP antibody reversibly reduced serum levels of LH and abolished male sexual behaviors (P < 0.05 and 0.001, respectively). Second, we tested whether intracerebroventricular GALP could restore normal plasma LH levels and sexual behavior in diabetic animals. We compared groups of diabetic rats that received intracerebroventricular GALP or vehicle and found that GALP increased serum levels of LH and sexual behavior. Third, we examined whether intracerebroventricular administration of affinity-purified GALP antibody could block the effect of insulin and leptin in reversing the effects of diabetes on LH and sexual behavior. We found that treatment of diabetic animals with insulin and leptin nearly normalized LH levels and sexual behaviors; however, this effect was attenuated by intracerebroventricular administration of GALP antibody (P < 0.05). These observations demonstrate that endogenous GALP provides trophic support to the neuroendocrine reproductive axis, including sexual behavior.

  20. Development of diabetes-induced acidosis in the rat retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, Andrey V; Henderson, Desmond; Linsenmeier, Robert A

    2016-08-01

    We hypothesized that the retina of diabetic animals would be unusually acidic due to increased glycolytic metabolism. Acidosis in tumors and isolated retina has been shown to lead to increased VEGF. To test the hypothesis we have measured the transretinal distribution of extracellular H(+) concentration (H(+)-profiles) in retinae of control and diabetic dark-adapted intact Long-Evans rats with ion-selective electrodes. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Intact rat retinae are normally more acidic than blood with a peak of [H(+)]o in the outer nuclear layer (ONL) that averages 30 nM higher than H(+) in the choroid. Profiles in diabetic animals were similar in shape, but diabetic retinae began to be considerably more acidic after 5 weeks of diabetes. In retinae of 1-3 month diabetics the difference between the ONL and choroid was almost twice as great as in controls. At later times, up to 6 months, some diabetics still demonstrated abnormally high levels of [H(+)]o, but others were even less acidic than controls, so that the average level of acidosis was not different. Greater variability in H(+)-profiles (both between animals and between profiles recorded in one animal) distinguished the diabetic retinae from controls. Within animals, this variability was not random, but exhibited regions of higher and lower H(+). We conclude that retinal acidosis begins to develop at an early stage of diabetes (1-3 months) in rats. However, it does not progress, and the acidity of diabetic rat retina was diminished at later stages (3-6 months). Also the diabetes-induced acidosis has a strongly expressed local character. As result, the diabetic retinas show much wider variability in [H(+)] distribution than controls. pH influences metabolic and neural processes, and these results suggest that local acidosis could play a role in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Glutamine supplementation stimulates protein-synthetic and inhibits protein-degradative signaling pathways in skeletal muscle of diabetic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana C Lambertucci

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effect of glutamine (Gln supplementation on the signaling pathways regulating protein synthesis and protein degradation in the skeletal muscle of rats with streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes. The expression levels of key regulatory proteins in the synthetic pathways (Akt, mTOR, GSK3 and 4E-BP1 and the degradation pathways (MuRF-1 and MAFbx were determined using real-time PCR and Western blotting in four groups of male Wistar rats; 1 control, non-supplemented with glutamine; 2 control, supplemented with glutamine; 3 diabetic, non-supplemented with glutamine; and 4 diabetic, supplemented with glutamine. Diabetes was induced by the intravenous injection of 65 mg/kg bw STZ in citrate buffer (pH 4.2; the non-diabetic controls received only citrate buffer. After 48 hours, diabetes was confirmed in the STZ-treated animals by the determination of blood glucose levels above 200 mg/dL. Starting on that day, a solution of 1 g/kg bw Gln in phosphate buffered saline (PBS was administered daily via gavage for 15 days to groups 2 and 4. Groups 1 and 3 received only PBS for the same duration. The rats were euthanized, and the soleus muscles were removed and homogenized in extraction buffer for the subsequent measurement of protein and mRNA levels. The results demonstrated a significant decrease in the muscle Gln content in the diabetic rats, and this level increased toward the control value in the diabetic rats receiving Gln. In addition, the diabetic rats exhibited a reduced mRNA expression of regulatory proteins in the protein synthesis pathway and increased expression of those associated with protein degradation. A reduction in the skeletal muscle mass in the diabetic rats was observed and was alleviated partially with Gln supplementation. The data suggest that glutamine supplementation is potentially useful for slowing the progression of muscle atrophy in patients with diabetes.

  2. The effect of fenugreek on nociceptive response in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Roghani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract  Introduction: Diabetic rats display exaggerated hyperalgesic behavior in response to noxious stimuli that may resemble and model aspects of painful diabetic neuropathy in humans. This study was designed to investigate the effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum (TFG on formalin-induced nociceptive responses (standard formalin test in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats.  Methods: For this purpose, STZ-diabetic rats received intraperitoneal injection of aqueous leaf extract of TFG (200 mg/kg every other day for a period of one month.  Results: It was found out that TFG treatment did cause a significant reduction in blood glucose in diabetic rats and TFG-treated diabetic rats exhibited a lower nociceptive score as compared to untreated-diabetic ones. Meanwhile, TFG treatment reduced the nociceptive score in both phases of the formalin test. In contrast, sodium salicylate as positive control only reduced this score in the second phase of the test.  Discussion: The results suggest therapeutic potential of aqueous extract of fenugreek for treating painful diabetic neuropathy. 

  3. Retinal Electrophysiological Effects of Intravitreal Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Çerman

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is the most common cause of legal blindness in developed countries at middle age adults. In this study diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ in male Wistar albino rats. After 3 months of diabetes, rights eye were injected intravitreally with green fluorescein protein (GFP labelled bone marrow derived stem cells (BMSC and left eyes with balanced salt solution (Sham. Animals were grouped as Baseline (n = 51, Diabetic (n = 45, Diabetic+BMSC (n = 45 eyes, Diabetic+Sham (n = 45 eyes, Healthy+BMSC (n = 6 eyes, Healthy+Sham (n = 6 eyes. Immunohistology analysis showed an increased retinal gliosis in the Diabetic group, compared to Baseline group, which was assessed with GFAP and vimentin expression. In the immunofluorescence analysis BMSC were observed to integrate mostly into the inner retina and expressing GFP. Diabetic group had prominently lower oscillatory potential wave amplitudes than the Baseline group. Three weeks after intravitreal injection Diabetic+BMSC group had significantly better amplitudes than the Diabetic+Sham group. Taken together intravitreal BMSC were thought to improve visual function.

  4. Antidiabetic assessment; in vivo study of gold and core-shell silver-gold nanoparticles on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Th I; El-Naggar, Mehrez E; Hussein, Jihan S; El-Bana, Mona; Emara, Enayat; El-Khayat, Z; Fouda, Moustafa M G; Ebaid, Hossam; Hebeish, A

    2016-10-01

    Recently, we have published a pioneering work on green biosynthesis and complete characterization of gold and core shell silver-gold nanoparticles (AuNPs and Ag@AuNPs). Herein, the so obtained nanoparticles are assessed for their antidiabetic activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Thus, sixty-four male albino rats were divided into eight groups: control untreated; diabetic rats; diabetic rats received standard drug; diabetic rats received carrier only; diabetic rats received 0.5ml AuNPs; diabetic rats received 1ml AuNPs; diabetic rats received 0.5ml Ag@AuNPs and diabetic rats received 1ml Ag@AuNPs for twenty-one days. Results revealed that diabetic rats treated with AuNPs or Ag@AuNPs restored normal glucose level. In particular, Ag@AuNPs was found to significantly induce a reduction in blood glucose and restore both the high serum insulin level and glucokinase activity compared to the control normal rats. The results obtained disclose the effectual role of Ag@AuNPs in reducing the lipid profile, an anti-inflammatory effect in diabetic rats assessed using inflammatory markers IL-α and C-reactive protein (CRP). Histopathological examination of diabetic rats signifies distortion in the arrangement of cells around the central vein, inflammatory cells, pyknotic and apoptotic nuclei. Kidney of diabetic rat appears with vacuolation and pyknotic nuclei of some tubules. On the other hand, the liver of diabetic rat treated with Ag@AuNPs displayed normal hepatic cells with only few necrosis of hepatocytes. Ag@AuNPs restored the increased number of caspase-3 stained cells in the liver and kidney tissue in diabetic rats. In conclusion, Ag@AuNPs was observed to improve diabetic condition by limiting prolonged inflammation, suppressing oxidative stress and elevating the antioxidant defense system in diabetic rats which subsequently evoke the potential impact of AuNPs as a cost effective therapeutic cure in diabetic treatments and its complications.

  5. Neuroprotective effects of octreotide on diabetic neuropathy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmaz, Volkan; Çınar, Bilge Piri; Yiğittürk, Gürkan; Özlece, Hatice Köse; Avni Eroglu, Hüseyin; Tekatas, Aslan; Erbaş, Oytun; Taşkıran, Dilek

    2017-02-26

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the possible healing effects of octreotide (OCT) on motor performance, electrophysiological and histopathological findings of diabetic neuropathy in a rat model of diabetes mellitus (DM). To induce diabetes, rats were administered a single dose (60mg/kg) of streptozotocin (STZ). Diabetic rats were treated either with saline (1ml/kg/day, n=7) or OCT (0.1mg/kg/day, n=7) for four weeks. Seven rats served as control group and received no treatment. At the end of the study, electromyography (EMG), gross motor function (inclined plate test), general histology and the perineural thickness of sciatic nerve were evaluated. At the end of study, weight loss was significantly lower in OCT treated rats than that of saline treated ones (pdiabetic rats with OCT significantly counteracted these alterations in EMG. Furthermore, OCT significantly improved the motor performance scores in diabetic rats (pdiabetic neuropathy, which promisingly support the use of OCT as a neuroprotective agent in patients with diabetic neuropathy.

  6. Investigating Nanosilver Effects on Blood Cells Counter in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Aghababa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nanosilver particles are one of the functional grounds in nanotechnology field. These nanoparticles may produce free radicals and destruct different cells. In this study, Nanosilver toxic effects on RBC and WBC numbers in male Rats were studied. Thus, male rats were treated with nanosilver and RBC and WBC were detected. Methods: In this study, RBC was detected in male Wistar rats following exposure to 50, 100, 200 and 400ppm concentration of silver nanoparticles administrated peritoneally. Then, RBC and WBC were collected in rats 3, 8 and 12 days after treatment of nanosilver particles. Numbers of RBC and WBC were compared in treatment and control groups. Results: The study results indicated that dose of 400ppm nanosilver was effective on decrease of RBC and increase of WBC in treatment rats 12 day after treatment. These results were significant (p≤0/01. Discussion: The efficiency of 400ppm concentration of nanosilver, RBC decease and WBC increase could be referred to probabale lyses of RBC cell membranes and sever incitement of cellular immune system. The extra investigation is recommended regarding variety of new shapes, sizes and composition of nanosilver.

  7. Toxic Effects of Atrazine on Reproductive System of Male Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yang; JIA Zhen Chao; CHEN Jin Yao; HU Jun Xiang; ZHANG Li Shi

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to evaluate the toxic effects of Atrazine (ATZ) on the reproductive system of male rats. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to ATZ by gavage at dosages of 0, 38.5, 77, and 154 mg/kg bw/day for 30 d. The toxic effects of ATZ to rats were assessed through histopathologcal observation, spermatozoa quality evaluation, testicular marker enzyme indicators, antioxidant capacity and reproductive hormone levels. Results Significant adverse effects on reproductive system were observed in rats exposed to ATZ at different dosages compared with 0 mg/kg group, including an irregular and disordered arrangement of the seminiferous epithelium in 154 mg/kg group;a decreased spermatozoa number and an increased spermatozoa abnormality rate in 77 and 154 mg/kg groups;decreased levels of acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) with the increasing of ATZ concentration; a decreased level of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in a dose-dependent manner, and a decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) level and an increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content in 154 mg/kg group;and decreased serum levels of testosterone (T) and inhibin-B (INH-B) and an increased serum level of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in 77 and 154 mg/kg groups, and an increased serum level of luteinizing hormone (LH) in 154 mg/kg group. Conclusion These results suggested that relatively high doses of ATZ could exert reproductive toxicity of male rats.

  8. Anabolic Action Of Bovine Parathyroid Hormone In Male Rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anabolic Action Of Bovine Parathyroid Hormone In Male Rats. ... bovine parathyroid hormone (bPTH) and to throw more lights on the mechanisms of these ... DNA, RNA and activities of some lipogenic enzymes such as ATP-citrate lyase, malic ...

  9. Olanzapine affects locomotor activity and meal size in male rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwaal, Esther M.; Luijendijk, Mieneke C. M.; Evers, Simon S.; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Adan, Roger A. H.

    2010-01-01

    Olanzapine is an antipsychotic drug that frequently induces weight gain accompanied by increased fat deposition as a side effect To investigate how olanzapine affects different aspects of energy balance we used male rats to determine effects on meal patterns food preference locomotor activity and

  10. Effects of propoxur on the reproductive system of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoula, Ferdinand; Watcho, Pierre; Bouseko, Tepi Serges; Kenfack, Augustave; Tchoumboué, Joseph; Kamtchouing, Pierre

    2007-04-01

    The reproductive toxicity of propoxur (2-isopropoxy-phenyl-N-methylcarbamate), a carbamate pesticide, was investigated in adult male Wistar rats exposed to 0, 1.73, 2.6, and 5.2 mg/kg body weight/day for 90 successive days. Results obtained from this study showed a significant (p propoxur (5.2 mg/kg) compared to the control. On the contrary, there was a significant (p propoxur at the dose of 5.2 mg/kg body weight. Propoxur had no significant effect on gestation, fertility and parturition indices, average birth weight, litter size and pups sex ratio of untreated female rats mated with treated males rats. These results suggested that propoxur increased food consumption, relative weight of reproductive and detoxication organs, decreased body weight gain and sperm density per gram of cauda epididymis without affecting the reproductive performances.

  11. Effect of glyphosate on reproductive organs in male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Pengyuan; Hu, Ping; Tang, Juan; Li, Yansen; Li, Chunmei

    2016-06-01

    Glyphosate as an active ingredient of Roundup(®) which is thought to be one of the most popular herbicide was used worldwide. Many studies have focused on reproductive toxicity on glyphosate-based herbicide, but few evidence exists to imply the male reproductive toxicity of glyphosate alone in vivo. In this study SD rats were Lavaged with glyphosate at doses of 5, 50, 500mg/kg to detect the toxicity of glyphosate on rat testis. Glyphosate significantly decreased the average daily feed intake at dose of 50mg/kg, and the weight of seminal vesicle gland, coagulating gland as well as the total sperm count at dose of 500mg/kg. Immunohistochemistry of androgen receptor (AR) has no difference among all groups. As to testosterone, estradiol, progesterone and oxidative stress parameters, the level of them has no differences amidst all doses. Taken together, we conclude that glyphosate alone has low toxicity on male rats reproductive system.

  12. Reproductive ability of pubertal male and female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Zemunik

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Ten Fisher rats 50 to 55 days of age made up the pubertal group, and ten rats 90 to 95 days of age served as the controls. The testicular and epididymal weights and volumes of the pubertal males were lower than those of the controls (P0.05. At the beginning of gestation, the pubertal dams weighed less than the controls (P<0.001 but following uterectomy the body weights were equal. Pubertal dams delivered fewer pups than the controls (8.1 ± 2.5 vs 10.4 ± 1.3, P<0.05. There was no difference in the body weights of their offspring or in the weights of their placentas. The results suggest that, in contrast to their female counterparts, pubertal male rats are not fully mature and have not reached complete reproductive capacity at 50-55 days of age.

  13. Amelioration of Altered Serum, Liver, and Kidney Antioxidant Enzymes Activities by Sodium Selenite in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ahmadvand

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible protective effect of sodium selenite on serum, liver, and kidney antioxidant enzymes activities in alloxan-induced type 1 diabetic rats. Methods: Forty Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into four groups; Group one as control, Group two as sham-treated with sodium selenite by 1 mg/kg intraperitoneal (i.p. injections daily, Group three as diabetic untreated, and Group four as diabetic treated with sodium selenite by 1 mg/kg i.p. injections daily . Diabetes was induced in the third and fourth groups by subcutaneous alloxan injections. After eight weeks the animals were euthanized and livers and kidneys were immediately removed and used fresh or kept frozen until analysis. Before the rats were killed blood samples were also collected to measure glutathione peroxidase (GPX and catalase (CAT activities in sera. Results: Glutathione peroxidase and CAT activities serum, liver, and kidney were all significantly less in the diabetic rats than in the controls. Sodium selenite treatment of the diabetic rats resulted in significant increases in GPX activity in the kidneys and livers, and CAT activity in the sera and livers. Conclusions: Our results indicate that sodium selenite might be a potent antioxidant that exerts beneficial effects on both GPX and CAT activities in alloxan-induced type 1 diabetic rats.

  14. Reproductive toxicity of Roundup herbicide exposure in male albino rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owagboriaye, Folarin O; Dedeke, Gabriel A; Ademolu, Kehinde O; Olujimi, Olarenwaju O; Ashidi, Joseph S; Adeyinka, Aladesida A

    2017-05-01

    The incidence of infertility in human is on the increase and the use of Roundup herbicide and presence of its residues in foodstuff is a major concern. This study therefore aim to assess the effect of Roundup on the reproductive capacity of 32 adult male albino rats randomized into 4 groups of 8 rats per group orally exposed to Roundup at 3.6mg/kg body weight(bw), 50.4mg/kgbw and 248.4mg/kgbw of glyphosate concentrations for 12 weeks while the control group was given distilled water. Serum level of reproductive hormone (testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin), oxidative stress indices in the testicular tissue, epididymal sperm morphology assessment and testicular histopathology of the rats were used as a diagnostic marker of reproductive dysfunction. Significant (p<0.05) alterations in the level of all the reproductive hormones and oxidative stress markers assayed were observed in rats exposed to Roundup. Significant reductions (p<0.05) in sperm count, percentage motility and significant (p<0.05) increased in abnormal sperm cells were observed in the exposed rats. Histopathologically, severe degenerative testicular architectural lesions were seen in the Roundup exposed rats. Roundup may interfere with spermatogenesis and impair fertility in male gonad. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Adrenal and gonadal function in hypothyroid adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohei, A; Akai, M; Tomabechi, T; Mamada, M; Taya, K

    1997-01-01

    The functional relationship between thyroid, adrenal and gonadal hormones was investigated using adult male rats. Hypothyroidism was produced by the administration of 4-methyl-2-thiouracil (thiouracil) in the drinking water for 2 weeks. Plasma concentrations of TSH dramatically increased, whereas plasma concentrations of tri-iodothyronine and thyroxine decreased in thiouraciltreated rats as compared with euthyroid rats. Hypothyroidism increased basal levels of plasma ACTH and pituitary content of ACTH. The pituitary responsiveness to CRH for ACTH release markedly increased, whereas the adrenal responsiveness to ACTH for corticosterone release decreased. These results indicated that hypothyroidism causes adrenal dysfunction in adult male rats. Pituitary contents of LH and prolactin decreased in hypothyroid rats as compared with euthyroid rats. In addition, hypothyroidism lowered pituitary LH responsiveness to LHRH. Testicular responsiveness to human chorionic gonadotrophin for testosterone release, however, was not different between euthyroid and hypothyroid animals. These results indicated that hypothyroidism causes adrenal dysfunction and results in hypersecretion of ACTH from the pituitary gland. Adrenal dysfunction may contribute to the inhibition of LHRH secretion from the hypothalamus, possibly mediated by excess CRH.

  16. Long-term AICAR administration and exercise prevents diabetes in ZDF rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pold, Rasmus; Jensen, Lasse S; Jessen, Niels; Buhl, Esben S; Schmitz, Ole; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Fujii, Nobuharu; Goodyear, Laurie J; Gotfredsen, Carsten F; Brand, Christian L; Lund, Sten

    2005-04-01

    Lifestyle interventions including exercise programs are cornerstones in the prevention of obesity-related diabetes. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been proposed to be responsible for many of the beneficial effects of exercise on glucose and lipid metabolism. The effects of long-term exercise training or 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-d-riboruranoside (AICAR) treatment, both known AMPK activators, on the development of diabetes in male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats were examined. Five-week-old, pre-diabetic ZDF rats underwent daily treadmill running or AICAR treatment over an 8-week period and were compared with an untreated group. In contrast to the untreated, both the exercised and AICAR-treated rats did not develop hyperglycemia during the intervention period. Whole-body insulin sensitivity, as assessed by a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp at the end of the intervention period, was markedly increased in the exercised and AICAR-treated animals compared with the untreated ZDF rats (P < 0.01). In addition, pancreatic beta-cell morphology was almost normal in the exercised and AICAR-treated animals, indicating that chronic AMPK activation in vivo might preserve beta-cell function. Our results suggest that activation of AMPK may represent a therapeutic approach to improve insulin action and prevent a decrease in beta-cell function associated with type 2 diabetes.

  17. Protective Effects and Its Relative Mechanisms of Low Dose Ionizing Radiation on pancreatic cells of Male Diabetic Rat’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa F. Waer, **Seham A. Helmy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Back ground & Aim of the work: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic metabolic disorder brings great danger to human health. Low-dose-rate radiation modulates various biological responses including carcinogenesis, immunological responses and diabetes. This study examined the effect of low doses of irradiation on the pathological and ultrastructural progression of type I diabetes in rats inducted by Streptozotocin.Material and Methods: The present study was done on 80 healthy adult albino male rats 9 weeks age, in the weight range from (150–200 gm. Rats were grouped to 4 groups they were cared according to the Guiding Principle in the Care and Use of Animals. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of freshly prepared Streptozotocin (STZ- 45 mg/kg b.w.. Whole body gamma irradiation was performed using Caesium -137. Animals were exposed to fractionated dose levels of 0.5 Gy/week of γ-radiation for 3 and 6 weeks. The body weight, blood glucose and insulin levels were measured after 3 and 6 weeks. Small blocks of pancreatic tissues of different groups were removed and prepared for pathological and ultrastructure examination. Results: An elevated level of glucose and decreased level of insulin in blood were first detected at 3 and 6 weeks of age in the STZ treated rats. There was significant and remarkable tendency of gaining normal levels of both blood glucose and blood insulin by irradiation exposure especially after 6 weeks of irradiation. Both suppression of cell death and cellular injury induced by STZ were also observed by EM examination in 3 week and 6 weeks. Conclusion: The present results indicated that treatment with 0.5 Gy γ rays suppresses progression of type I diabetes in STZ rats

  18. Effect of Scrophularia ningpoensis extract on diabetes in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Center of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shandong Academy of Clinical Medicine, ... determined in both diabetic control and treated rats. ..... Eds, Drug, Diet and Disease: Mechanistic Approach to.

  19. Root Extract and Fractions in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cholesterol, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels in hyperlipidemic untreated rats ... Analysis of oxidative stress markers ... Keywords: Diabetes, Hyperlipidermia, Plumeria alba, Fructose-enriched fat diet, Oxidative stress.

  20. [Effects of Chinese herbal medicine Yiqi Huayu formula on substance P expression in skin ulcers of rats with diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-fei; Que, Hua-fa

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the effects of Chinese herbs for replenishing qi (Yiqi) and dissolving stasis (Huayu) on substance P expression in granulation tissue of skin ulcers in rats with diabetes mellitus. One hundred male Sprague-Dawley rats with back full-thickness skin lesion were randomly divided into five groups: ulcer control group, diabetic ulcer group, Yiqi Huayu herb group, Yiqi herb group, and Huayu herb group. Except ulcer control group, the other rats were also injected streptozotocin to induce diabetes mellitus. Rats in each group were given normal saline or herbal drugs for 15 d and the wound healing rate of the rats was observed on days 8 and 15, respectively. After treatment, the expression of substance P in granulation tissues of the rats was tested with immunohistochemical method and the immunohistochemical index was calculated. On the 8th and 15th days after treatment, the wound healing rate of the ulcer control group was higher than that of the diabetic ulcer group (Pdiabetic ulcer group (Pherb group was higher than those of the Yiqi herb group and the Huayu herb group (Pdiabetic ulcer group, the expression of substance P of the ulcer control group was increased (Pherb group and the Huayu herb group were higher than that of the diabetic ulcer group (Pherbs can promote wound healing in rats with diabetes mellitus by up-regulating the expression of substance P.

  1. Effect of Low Dietary Zinc Intake and Experimental Diabetes on the Zinc and Carbohydrate Metabolism in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kechrid, Zine

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effect of low dietary zinc intake and experimental diabetes (IDDM) on the zinc and carbohydrate metabolism, 8-week-old male wealing normal albino (Wistar) rats were fed diets containing either adequate (54mg/kg) or low zinc (1mg/kg) quantities for one week. Ten rats from each group (n=20) were then intraperitoneally injected with alloxan to induce diabetes. The rats were sacrificed after a further three weeks. Body weight gain and food intake were recorded regularly. On day...

  2. Ameliorative effect of zinc oxide and silver nanoparticles on antioxidant system in the brain of diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed Afifi; Aaser Mohamed Abdelazim

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To test the ability of both zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) and silver nanoparticles (SNPs) to ameliorate the oxidative stress resulted from diabetes in diabetic rats. Methods: Fifty male albino rats were used; ten of them were served as control group and forty, as the experiment group, were injected with streptozotocin at the single intraperitoneal dose of 100 mg/kg. Then, the experiment group was subdivided into, diabetic, diabetic +ZnONPs, diabetic +SNPs and diabetic + insulin groups. The activities and mRNA expression levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were determined in brain tissues. Malondialdehyde, total antioxidant capacity, zinc and silver concentrations were estimated in the brain tissues of all rats. Results:A significant increase in the activities and mRNA expression levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase was shown. Malondialdehyde levels were significantly decreased while there was a significant increase in the zinc, silver concentrations and total antioxidant capacity in brain ofZnONPs andSNPs treated rats, compared with diabetic or diabetic + insulin group and their control group. Conclusions:ZnONPs andSNPs can be used to ameliorate the oxidative stress in brain resulted from diabetes mellitus.

  3. Antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of Croton lobatus L. in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasola, Taiye Remi; Ukwenya, Blessing; Oyagbemi, Ademola Adetokunbo; Omobowale, Temidayo Olutayo; Ajibade, Temitayo Olabisi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Croton lobatus contains a high amount of antioxidant phytochemicals that probably account for its wide use as food and medicine in the traditional communities of West Africa. Methods: The study evaluated the modulatory role of methanol extract of Croton lobatus leaf on alloxan-induced diabetes and associated cardiovascular complications. Male rats were randomly selected and assigned to one of six groups (A to F) of eight animals each: A (distilled water); B (corn oil); C (Alloxan); D (Alloxan + 100 mg kg-1 Croton lobatus); E: (Alloxan + 200 mg kg-1 C. lobatus); and F (Alloxan + 100 mg kg-1 glibenclamide). Results: Acute toxicity studies revealed no mortality of rats at the administration of different doses of extract up to the 5,000 mg kg-1 dose. Histology of the pancreas showed focal area of necrosis, and fatty infiltration in diabetic untreated rats, but these lesions were absent in pancreas of rats treated with C. lobatus extract. Conclusion: Methanol leaf extract of C. lobatus reduced arteriogenic risk factors, improved antioxidant status, restored the observable pathological lesions associated with experimental diabetes in rats, and thus offers a new therapeutic window as herbal therapy for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and associated cardiovascular complications. PMID:27757266

  4. Rosa damascena Mill. Essential Oil Has Protective Effect Against Testicular Damage in Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedi, Somayeh; Shomali, Tahoora; Haghighat, Aliakbar

    2017-08-09

    This study investigates the protective effect of Rosa damascena essential oil on diabetes-induced testicular damage in rats. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 equal groups: Group I: negative control (no treatment); Group II: positive control (diabetic by alloxan injection); Groups III-VI that rendered diabetic and received, respectively, 50, 100, 200, and 400 µg/kg/day rose oil, orally for 28 days. Rose oil did not significantly change body weight and blood glucose level as compared to positive control. Serum testosterone level of rose oil-treated rats remained statistically the same with both negative and positive control groups (Groups I and II). Rats treated with rose oil especially at 2 higher dosages (Groups V and VI) had higher sperm count and increased diameters of seminiferous tubules as compared to Group II. Rose oil even at the lowest dosage significantly increased cell count of spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes, Sertoli cells, and Leydig cells, with better outcomes for higher dosages. It appears that short-term repeated dose administration of rose oil can dose-dependently improve structural deteriorations of testes and epididymal sperm count in diabetic rats.

  5. Cell Treatment for Stroke in Type Two Diabetic Rats Improves Vascular Permeability Measured by MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangliang Ding

    Full Text Available Treatment of stroke with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC significantly enhances brain remodeling and improves neurological function in non-diabetic stroke rats. Diabetes is a major risk factor for stroke and induces neurovascular changes which may impact stroke therapy. Thus, it is necessary to test our hypothesis that the treatment of stroke with BMSC has therapeutic efficacy in the most common form of diabetes, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. T2DM was induced in adult male Wistar rats by administration of a high fat diet in combination with a single intraperitoneal injection (35mg/kg of streptozotocin. These rats were then subjected to 2h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo. T2DM rats received BMSC (5x106, n = 8 or an equal volume of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS (n = 8 via tail-vein injection at 3 days after MCAo. MRI was performed one day and then weekly for 5 weeks post MCAo for all rats. Compared with vehicle treated control T2DM rats, BMSC treatment of stroke in T2DM rats significantly (p<0.05 decreased blood-brain barrier disruption starting at 1 week post stroke measured using contrast enhanced T1-weighted imaging with gadopentetate, and reduced cerebral hemorrhagic spots starting at 3 weeks post stroke measured using susceptibility weighted imaging, although BMSC treatment did not reduce the ischemic lesion volumes as demarcated by T2 maps. These MRI measurements were consistent with histological data. Thus, BMSC treatment of stroke in T2DM rats initiated at 3 days after stroke significantly reduced ischemic vascular damage, although BMSC treatment did not change infarction volume in T2DM rats, measured by MRI.

  6. Nutritional correlates and dynamics of diabetes in the Nile rat (Arvicanthis niloticus: a novel model for diet-induced type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslova Ekaterina

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and related chronic diseases, among them non-insulin-dependent (type 2 diabetes mellitus, are on the rise in the United States and throughout the world. Animal models that respond to environmental stressors, such as diet, are useful for investigating the outcome and development of these related diseases. Objective Within this context, growth and energy relationships were characterized in the Nile rat, an exotic African rodent, as a potential animal model for diet-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus and Metabolic Syndrome. Methods Compiled data from several studies established the relationship between age, body weight gain (including abdominal adiposity, food and water consumption, and blood glucose levels as determinants of diabetes in male and female Nile rats. Glucose Tolerance Testing, insulin, HbA1c, blood pressure measurements and plasma lipids further characterized the diabetes in relation to criteria of the Metabolic Syndrome, while diet modification with high-fat, low-fiber or food restriction attempted to modulate the disease. Results The Nile rat fed lab chow demonstrates signs of the Metabolic Syndrome that evolve into diet-induced non-insulin-dependent (type 2 diabetes mellitus characterized by hyperinsulinemia with rising blood glucose (insulin resistance, abdominal adiposity, and impaired glucose clearance that precedes increased food and water intake, as well as elevated HbA1c, marked elevation in plasma triglycerides and cholesterol, microalbuminuria, and hypertension. Males are more prone than females with rapid progression to diabetes depending on the challenge diet. In males diabetes segregated into early-onset and late-onset groups, the former related to more rapid growth and greater growth efficiency for the calories consumed. Interestingly, no correlation was found between blood glucose and body mass index (overall adiposity in older male Nile rats in long term studies

  7. Spinal pharmacology of tactile allodynia in diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    Rats develop tactile allodynia to stimulation of the plantar surface of the hindpaw with von Frey filaments within days of the onset of streptozotocin-induced diabetes. This is prevented by insulin and alleviated by systemic lignocaine, but the aetiology is unknown.Using indwelling lumbar intrathecal catheters to deliver pharmacological agents, we have investigated whether tactile allodynia in streptozotocin-diabetic rats is dependent on mechanisms associated with spinal sensitization, by ass...

  8. Effects of Astragalus polysaccharides on memory impairment in a diabetic rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dun, Changping; Liu, Junqian; Qiu, Fucheng; Wu, Xueda; Wang, Yakun; Zhao, Yongyan; Gu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Objective Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) are active constituents of Astragalus membranaceus. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of APS on memory impairment in a diabetic rat model and their mechanisms. Methods A diabetic model was established in 50 male Wistar rats with streptozotocin intra-peritoneal injection. A blood glucose level higher than 16.7 mmol/L obtained 72 hours after the injection was regarded as a successful diabetic model. The modeled rats were divided into model group, high, medium, and low doses of APS, and piracetam groups (positive control). A group of ten rats without streptozotocin-induced diabetes were used as a normal control. After respective consecutive 8-week treatments, the levels of blood fasting plasma glucose, insulin, hemoglobin A1c, memory performance, hippocampal malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase were determined. Results After the 8-week APS treatment, serum fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and insulin levels were decreased compared with those of the model group (P<0.05). Importantly, memory impairment in the diabetic model was reversed by APS treatments. In addition, hippocampal malondialdehyde concentration was lowered, whereas that of superoxide dismutase was higher after APS treatments. Conclusion APS are important active components responsible for memory improvement in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. The potential mechanism of action is associated with the effects of APS on glucose and lipid metabolism, and antioxidative and insulin resistance. APS are constituents of A. membranaceus that are potential candidate therapeutic agents for the treatment of memory deficit in diabetes. PMID:27445477

  9. Effect Of Some Herbal Medicine On Some biochemical parameters In Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman G.E. Helal, Mervat A.Abbas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study was planned to follow up the effect of famous mixture used as a hypoglycemic traditional medicine in Saudi Arabia on diabetic albino rats and their effects on some biochemical parameter as DHEA .This study also aimed to study the effect of each plants alone to illustrate the most powerful one of them. The present study was carried out on eighty adult male albino rats (120+20gm b.wt. They were randomly divided into eight groups. First group conserved as control group.The others groups received alloxan to become diabetic .The second group conserved as diabetic, the third group treated with a mixture of plants (0.5gm/120gm b.wt.From he fourth to eight group,the rats treated with Nigella sativa (0.25gm/120gm b.wt,Aloe vera,Ferulaassa-foetid,Boswellia Carterii Birdw and Commiphora myrrha respectively (0.5gm/120gm b.wt..Our result showed that the body weight was reduced significantly in diabetic group and Nigella sativa treated group. On the other hand, treatment with commiphora myrrha revealed significant increase in body weight gain, while mixture and Aloe vera treated rats recorded insignificant change. Diabetic rats revealed a significant decrease in serum glucose and DHEA-S levels and liver glycogen content, while insignificant difference was recoded in all treated groups. A significant decrease in serum insulin level was observed in diabetic group, Nigella sativa and Ferula assa-foetida treated groups, but insignificant different was recorded in the rest treated groups throughout the experiment. A significant increase in LDH activities in diabetic and Ferula assa-foetida treated groups was recorded while rest treated groups recorded insignificant change During experimental period.

  10. Pioglitazone attenuates cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy in a rat model of diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrashidy, Rania A; Asker, Mervat E; Mohamed, Hoda E

    2012-09-01

    Pioglitazone has been demonstrated to have beneficial effects on cardiovascular outcomes. However, little is known about its effect on cardiac remodeling associated with diabetic nephropathy. Therefore, this study was designed to study the effects of pioglitazone on cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy in a rat model of diabetic nephropathy. For this purpose, male Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups (n = 10 per group): normal (N) group, diabetic (D) group, diabetic nephropathic (DN) group received an equal amount of vehicle (0.5% carboxy methyl cellulose), and diabetic nephropathic group treated by oral administration of pioglitazone (10 mg/kg per d) for 4 weeks. Diabetic nephropathy was induced by subtotal nephrectomy plus streptozotocin (STZ) injection. The results revealed that DN rats showed excessive deposition of collagen fibers in their cardiac tissue, along with a marked myocyte hypertrophy. This was associated with a dramatic upregulation of cardiac transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) gene. Furthermore, the gene expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) decreased, while the gene expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2) increased in the hearts of DN rats. In addition, enhanced lipid peroxidation and myocardial injury, evidenced by a significant increase in their serum creatine kinase-MB level were observed in DN rats. All these abnormalities were ameliorated by pioglitazone administration. Our findings suggest that upregulation of cardiac TGF-β1 gene along with the imbalance between MMP-2 and TIMP-2 expressions is critically involved in cardiac fibrosis associated with diabetic nephropathy. Pioglitazone can ameliorate cardiac remodeling by suppressing the gene expression of TGF-β1 and regulating the MMP-2/TIMP-2 system.

  11. Compromised Wound Healing in Ischemic Type 2 Diabetic Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peilang Yang

    Full Text Available Ischemia is one of the main epidemic factors and characteristics of diabetic chronic wounds, and exerts a profound effect on wound healing. To explore the mechanism of and the cure for diabetic impaired wound healing, we established a type 2 diabetic rat model. We used an 8 weeks high fat diet (HFD feeding regimen followed by multiple injections of streptozotocin (STZ at a dose of 10mg/kg to induce Wister rat to develop type 2 diabetes. Metabolic characteristics were assessed at the 5th week after the STZ injections to confirm the establishment of diabetes mellitus on the rodent model. A bipedicle flap, with length to width ratio 1.5, was performed on the back of the rat to make the flap area ischemic. Closure of excisional wounds on this bipedicle flap and related physiological and pathological changes were studied using histological, immunohistochemical, real time PCR and protein immunoblot approaches. Our results demonstrated that a combination of HFD feeding and a low dose of STZ is capable of inducing the rats to develop type 2 diabetes with noticeable insulin resistance, persistent hyperglycemia, moderate degree of insulinemia, as well as high serum cholesterol and high triglyceride levels. The excision wounds on the ischemic double pedicle flap showed deteriorative healing features comparing with non-ischemic diabetic wounds, including: delayed healing, exorbitant wound inflammatory response, excessive and prolonged ROS production and excessive production of MMPs. Our study suggested that HFD feeding combined with STZ injection could induce type 2 diabetes in rat. Our ischemic diabetic wound model is suitable for the investigation of human diabetic related wound repair; especically for diabetic chronic wounds.

  12. Kefir administration reduced progression of renal injury in STZ-diabetic rats by lowering oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punaro, Giovana R; Maciel, Fabiane R; Rodrigues, Adelson M; Rogero, Marcelo M; Bogsan, Cristina S B; Oliveira, Marice N; Ihara, Silvia S M; Araujo, Sergio R R; Sanches, Talita R C; Andrade, Lucia C; Higa, Elisa M S

    2014-02-15

    This study aimed at assessing the effects of Kefir, a probiotic fermented milk, on oxidative stress in diabetic animals. The induction of diabetes was achieved in adult male Wistar rats using streptozotocin (STZ). The animals were distributed into four groups as follows: control (CTL); control Kefir (CTLK); diabetic (DM) and diabetic Kefir (DMK). Starting on the 5th day of diabetes, Kefir was administered by daily gavage at a dose of 1.8 mL/day for 8 weeks. Before and after Kefir treatment, the rats were placed in individual metabolic cages to obtain blood and urine samples to evaluate urea, creatinine, proteinuria, nitric oxide (NO), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and C-reactive protein (CRP). After sacrificing the animals, the renal cortex was removed for histology, oxidative stress and NOS evaluation. When compared to CTL rats, DM rats showed increased levels of glycemia, plasmatic urea, proteinuria, renal NO, superoxide anion, TBARS, and plasmatic CRP; also demonstrated a reduction in urinary urea, creatinine, and NO. However, DMK rats showed a significant improvement in most of these parameters. Despite the lack of differences observed in the expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) was significantly lower in the DMK group when compared to DM rats, as assessed by Western blot analysis. Moreover, the DMK group presented a significant reduction of glycogen accumulation within the renal tubules when compared to the DM group. These results indicate that Kefir treatment may contribute to better control of glycemia and oxidative stress, which is associated with the amelioration of renal function, suggesting its use as a non-pharmacological adjuvant to delay the progression of diabetic complications.

  13. Expression and effect of proline hydroxylase domain 2 in retina of diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the expression of proline hydroxylase domain 2 (PHD2 in the retina of diabetic rats and investigate the relationship between PHD2 and relevant intraocular vascular proliferation factors. METHODS: Sixty male specific pathogen free (SPF Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were randomly divided into two groups: the diabetic group and the control group. The rats in the diabetic group were intraperitoneally injected with 60 mg/kg (0.60 mL/100g of streptozotocin to induce a diabetic rat model. The rats in the control group were injected with an equal volume of sodium citrate buffer solution by the same method. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining and immumofluorescence (IF method were adopted to observe the pathological changes of retinal tissues and the expression of PHD2, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF by 8wk. RT-PCR method was applied to detect the expressions of mRNA of PHD2, VEGF and GFAP. The relationship between PHD2 and other vascular proliferation factors was analyzed. RESULTS: HE staining showed that there was the retinal tissue edema in the diabetic group, and the arrangement was in disorder, and proliferation could be seen. IF staining: in the retina of normal rats, PHD2 was not expressed, GFAP and VEGF were mainly expressed in astrocytes; while in the diabetic rats, PHD2, GFAP and VEGF staining showed strong positivity in all retinal layers, mainly in neurogliocytes. PHD2 was co-expressed with VEGF and GFAP. The mRNA expression levels of PHD2, GFAP and VEGF in the diabetic group were obviously higher than that in the control group,respectively 1.83 times, 1.75 times and 2.08 times. The difference had statistical significance (P<0.01. CONCLUSION: The high expression of PHD2 in the retina of early-stage diabetic rats might result from secretion of neurogliocytes induced by local high-concentration blood glucose, thus promoting the expression of VEGF and GFAP. PHD2 plays an important role during

  14. The Actions of Lyophilized Apple Peel on the Electrical Activity and Organization of the Ventricular Syncytium of the Hearts of Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elideth Martínez-Ladrón de Guevara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine the effects of lyophilized red delicious apple peel (RDP on the action potentials (APs and the input resistance-threshold current relationship. The experiments were performed on isolated papillary heart muscles from healthy male rats, healthy male rats treated with RDP, diabetic male rats, and diabetic male rats treated with RDP. The preparation was superfused with oxygenated Tyrode’s solution at 37°C. The stimulation and the recording of the APs, the input resistance, and the threshold current were made using conventional electrophysiological methods. The RDP presented no significant effect in normal rats. Equivalent doses in diabetic rats reduced the APD and ARP. The relationship between input resistance and threshold current established an inverse correlation. The results indicate the following: (1 The functional structure of the cardiac ventricular syncytium in healthy rats is heterogeneous, in terms of input resistance and threshold current. Diabetes further accentuates the heterogeneity. (2 As a consequence, conduction block occurs and increases the possibility of reentrant arrhythmias. (3 These modifications in the ventricular syncytium, coupled with the increase in the ARP, are the adequate substrate so that, with diabetes, the heart becomes more arrhythmogenic. (4 RDP decreases the APD, the ARP, and most syncytium irregularity caused by diabetes.

  15. Hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, liver damage and dysfunction in alloxan-induced diabetic rat are prevented by Spirulina supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Manel; Magné, Christian; El Feki, Abdelfattah

    2016-11-01

    Medicinal plants have long been used against life-threatening diseases including diabetes, with more or less success. Some of these plants have been shown to possess antioxidant activities, which could help improving diabetes inconveniences. In that context, we investigated the effects of spirulina supplementation on alloxan-induced diabetic rats, hypothesizing that co-administration of spirulina with rat diet could ameliorate diabetes complications and provide as benefits as the common antidiabetic insulin. Following alloxan treatment, male Wistar rats were fed daily with 5% spirulina-enriched diet or treated with insulin (0.5 IU/rat) for 21 days. Both spirulina and insulin treatments of diabetic rats resulted in a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose and an increase of glycogen level. Spirulina supplementation also impeded loss of body weight and ameliorated hepatic toxicity indices, i.e. alkaline phosphatases and transaminases activities, bilirubin levels and lipid peroxidation. Besides, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased in the serum. Moreover, diabetic rats fed with spirulina exhibited sig changes in antioxidant enzyme activities in the liver (ie, decrease in superoxide dismutase and increase in catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities). The beneficial effects of spirulina or insulin were confirmed by histological study of the liver of diabetic rats. Overall, this study indicates that treatment with spirulina decreased hyperglycemia and oxidative stress in diabetic rats, this amelioration being even more pronounced than that provided by insulin injection. Therefore, administration of this alga would be very helpful in the prevention of diabetic complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Antihyperlipidemic and Biochemical Activities of Mcy Protein in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saritha Marella

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was aimed to evaluate the protective effects of a novel anti-hyperglycemic “Mcy protein” isolated from the fruits of Momordica cymbalaria in streptozotocin induced- diabetes rat model. Materials and Methods: Wild type and Streptozotocin induced diabetic male wistar albino rats were either treated with single intraperitoneal injection of 2.5 mg Mcy protein/kg body weight or acetate buffer daily for 30 days. Fasting blood glucose and, serum and tissue lipid levels were measured along with biochemical analysis for hepatic and renal function tests. Results: Mcy protein significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose and, serum as well as tissue lipid levels (pConclusion: Mcy protein can alleviate hyperlipidemia and help manage diabetes by stimulating insulin secretion without evident toxic effects on liver and kidney.

  17. Angiotensin-(1-7) Downregulates Diabetes-Induced cGMP Phosphodiesterase Activation in Rat Corpus Cavernosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benter, Ibrahim F.

    2017-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms of the beneficial effects of angiotensin-(1-7), Ang-(1-7), in diabetes-related complications, including erectile dysfunction, remain unclear. We examined the effect of diabetes and/or Ang-(1-7) treatment on vascular reactivity and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) phosphodiesterase (PDE) in corpus cavernosum. Male Wistar rats were grouped as (1) control, (2) diabetic (streptozotocin, STZ, treated), (3) control + Ang-(1-7), and (4) diabetic + Ang-(1-7). Following 3 weeks of Ang-(1-7) treatment subsequent to induction of diabetes, rats were sacrificed. Penile cavernosal tissue was isolated to measure vascular reactivity, PDE gene expression and activity, and levels of p38MAP kinase, nitrites, and cGMP. Carbachol-induced vasorelaxant response after preincubation of corpus cavernosum with PE was significantly attenuated in diabetic rats, and Ang-(1-7) markedly corrected the diabetes-induced impairment. Gene expression and activity of PDE and p38MAP kinase were significantly increased in cavernosal tissue of diabetic rats, and Ang-(1-7) markedly attenuated STZ-induced effects. Ang-(1-7) significantly increased the levels of nitrite and cGMP in cavernosal tissue of control and diabetic rats. Cavernosal tissue of diabetic rats had significantly reduced cGMP levels and Ang-(1-7) markedly prevented the STZ-induced cGMP depletion. This study demonstrates that attenuation of diabetes-induced PDE activity might be one of the key mechanisms in the beneficial effects of Ang-(1-7).

  18. Increased caspase-3 immunoreactivity of erythrocytes in STZ diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fırat, Uğur; Kaya, Savaş; Cim, Abdullah; Büyükbayram, Hüseyin; Gökalp, Osman; Dal, Mehmet Sinan; Tamer, Mehmet Numan

    2012-01-01

    Eryptosis is a term to define apoptosis of erythrocytes. Oxidative stress and hyperglycemia, both of which exist in the diabetic intravascular environment, can trigger eryptosis of erythrocytes. In this experimental study, it is presented that the majority of erythrocytes shows caspase-3 immunoreactivity in streptozocin- (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Besides that, caspase-3 positive erythrocytes are aggregated and attached to vascular endothelium. In conclusion, these results may start a debate that eryptosis could have a role in the diabetic complications.

  19. Cardioprotective effect of pioglitazone in diabetic and non-diabetic rats subjected to acute myocardial infarction involves suppression of AGE-RAGE axis and inhibition of apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodeer, Dina M; Zaitone, Sawsan A; Farag, Noha E; Moustafa, Yasser M

    2016-05-01

    Insulin resistance increases risk of cardiovascular diseases. This work investigated the protective effect of pioglitazone on myocardial infarction (MI) in non-diabetic and diabetic rats, focusing on its role on advanced glycated endproducts (AGEs) and cardiac apoptotic machinery. Male rats were divided into 2 experiments: experiment I and II (non-diabetic and diabetic rats) were assigned as saline, MI (isoproterenol, 85 mg/kg, daily), and MI+pioglitazone (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg). Injection of isoproterenol in diabetic rats produced greater ECG disturbances compared to non-diabetic rats. Treatment with pioglitazone (5 mg/kg) reduced the infarct size and improved some ECG findings. Pioglitazone (10 mg/kg) enhanced ECG findings, improved the histopathological picture and downregulated apoptosis in cardiac tissues. Whereas the higher dose of pioglitazone (20 mg/kg) did not improve most of the measured parameters but rather worsened some of them, such as proapoptotic markers. Importantly, a positive correlation was found between serum AGEs and cardiac AGE receptors (RAGEs) versus caspase 3 expression in the two experiments. Therefore, the current effect of pioglitazone was, at least in part, mediated through downregulation of AGE-RAGE axis and inhibition of apoptosis. Consequently, these data suggest that pioglitazone, at optimized doses, may have utility in protection from acute MI.

  20. Effect of Treadmill Exercise on Interleukin-15 Expression and Glucose Tolerance in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jae Kim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundInterleukin-15 (IL-15, a well-known myokine, is highly expressed in skeletal muscle and is involved in muscle-fat crosstalk. Recently, a role of skeletal muscle-derived IL-15 in the improvement of glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity has been proposed. However, little is known regarding the influence of endurance training on IL-15 expression in type 2 diabetic skeletal muscles. We investigated the effect of endurance exercise training on glucose tolerance and IL-15 expression in skeletal muscles using type 2 diabetic animal models.MethodsMale Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF and ZDF lean control (ZLC rats were randomly divided into three groups: sedentary ZLC, sedentary ZDF (ZDF-Con, and exercised ZDF (ZDF-Ex. The ZDF-Ex rats were forced to run a motor-driven treadmill for 60 minutes once a day 5 times per week for 12 weeks. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT was performed after 12 weeks. Expression of IL-15 was measured using ELISA in extracted soleus (SOL and gastrocnemius medial muscles.ResultsAfter 12 weeks of treadmill training, reduction of body weight was observed in ZDF-Ex compared to ZDF-Con rats. Glucose tolerance using IPGTT in diabetic rats was significantly improved in ZDF-Ex rats. Furthermore, the expression of IL-15 was significantly increased (P<0.01 only in the SOL of ZDF-Ex rats compared to ZDF-Con. Additionally, IL-15 expression in SOL muscles was negatively correlated with change of body weight (R=-0.424, P=0.04.ConclusionThe present study results suggest that 12 weeks of progressive endurance training significantly improved glucose tolerance with concomitant increase of IL-15 expression in SOL muscles of type 2 diabetic rats.

  1. Effects of thyroidectomy or thiouracil treatment on copulatory behavior in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohei, A; Watanabe, G; Taya, K

    1998-03-01

    Male copulatory behavior and the function of the hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal axis in hypothyroid male rats were investigated in the present study. Hypothyroidism was induced by thyroidectomy or thiouracil. In male copulatory behavior test, intromission latencies in hypothyroid rats were significantly longer than those in euthyroid rats and ejaculation frequencies were reduced in hypothyroid male rats compared to control rats without reduction of plasma concentrations of testosterone. These changes in copulatory behavior in hypothyroid male rats were restored to control levels by administration of T4 (5 micrograms/rat). Hypothyroidism decreased adrenal weights, and basal and peak concentrations of corticosterone during diurnal variation, whereas it increased peak concentrations of ACTH in adult male rats. These results indicate that hypothyroidism causes adrenal dysfunction directly and results in hypersecretion of ACTH. The adrenal disturbance observed in hypothyroid rats may affect male copulatory behavior.

  2. Effect of GLP-1 on the expression of NADPH oxidase subunits in the kidney of type 1 diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-jin LIU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the effect of exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 receptor agonist, on the expression of NADPH oxidase subunits NOX4 and p22phox and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF in the kidney of streptozotocin (STZ-induced type 1 diabetic rats, and explore the protective effects and mechanisms of exenatide on the kidney of diabetic rats. Methods Thirty male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were divided into control group (group A, n=7 and diabetic model group (n=23. Type 1 diabetic model was reproduced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. It was successful in 19 rats. Diabetic rats were randomly divided into diabetic control group (group B, n=10 and diabetic with treatment of exenatide group (group C, n=9. Rats in group C were injected subcutaneously with exenatide in dose of 5μg/kg twice daily. Rats in group A and B were given equivalent volume of normal saline by subcutaneous injection. All rats were sacrificed after eight weeks. The mRNA expression of renal p22phox and NOX4 were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. The protein expression of CTGF was detected by immunohistochemical staining. Results The levels of blood glucose, lipids, creatinine, and urea nitrogen, the albumin excretion rate, kidney index, the mRNA expressions of renal NOX4 and p22phox, and the protein expression of renal CTGF were significantly increased in group B compared with that in group A (P0.05. Conclusion Exenatide can decrease the expressions of renal NOX4, p22phox and CTGF, decline the index of urinary protein, and alleviate the kidney hypertrophy in type 1 diabetic rats, implying that exenatide exerted a protective effect on the kidney.

  3. Diabetic cardiomyopathy in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: the forgotten right ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubberink Mark

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In patients with myocardial infarction or heart failure, right ventricular (RV dysfunction is associated with death, shock and arrhythmias. In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, structural and functional alterations of the left ventricle (LV are highly prevalent, however, little is known about the impact of diabetes on RV characteristics. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether LV changes are paralleled by RV alterations in a rat model of diabetes. Methods Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF and control (ZL rats underwent echocardiography and positron emission tomography (PET scanning using [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose under hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp conditions. Glucose, insulin, triglycerides and fatty acids were assessed from trunk blood. Another group of rats received an insulin or saline injection to study RV insulin signaling. Results ZDF rats developed hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia and dyslipidaemia (all p M-value (r = 0.91, p M-value (r = 0.77, p Conclusions LV changes were paralleled by RV alterations in insulin-stimulated glucose utilisation and RV systolic function in a rat model of diabetes, which may be attributed to ventricular interdependence as well as to the uniform effect of diabetes. Since diabetic patients are prone to develop diabetic cardiomyopathy and myocardial ischaemia, it might be suggested that RV dysfunction plays a central role in cardiac abnormalities in this population.

  4. INTERVAL TRAINING IS INSUFFICIENT TO ATTENUATE METABOLIC DISTURBANCES IN DIABETIC RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricelli Endrigo Ruppel da Rocha

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Type 1 diabetes is a metabolic disease associated to blood disturbances and disorder of the innate immune system functionality. Objective: This study investigated the effect of two weeks interval training on blood biochemistry and immunological parameters in rats with type 1 diabetes. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: sedentary (SE, n = 10, diabetic sedentary (DI, n = 10, diabetic interval training (DIT, n = 10. IV injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg induced diabetes. Interval training consisted of swimming exercise for 30 seconds with 30 seconds of rest for 30 minutes three times a week during two weeks, with an overload of 15% of the total body mass. The evaluations performed were fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol concentrations, phagocytic capacity, cationic vesicles content, superoxide anion, and production of hydrogen peroxide of blood neutrophils and peritoneal macrophages. Results: The results showed that two weeks interval training did not attenuate the hyperglycemic state at rest and did not decrease blood lipids in the DIT group. Diabetes increased the functionality of blood neutrophils and peritoneal macrophages in the DI group. Interval training increased the content of cationic vesicles and the phagocytic capacity of blood neutrophils and peritoneal macrophages in the DIT group. Conclusion: It was found that two weeks of interval training increased the functionality parameters of innate immune cells, although this has been insufficient to attenuate the biochemical disorders caused by diabetes.

  5. Expression of FGF-2 and IGF-1 in diabetic rats with fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Quan Chen; Wan-Ming Wang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To observe the change of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in serum and bone callus after fracture in diabetic rats, and to explore molecular biological mechanism of healing of diabetic fracture. Methods: Thirty male SD rats were designed into normal (n=15) and control (n=15) groups randomly. Venous blood was extracted on the lst, 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th week after surgery. It was certificated and the serum was obtained. Left lower extremity was observed by X- ray. Bone callus at broken ends was observed under light microscope. Expressions of FGF-2 and IGF-1 in tissue were detected by immunohistochemistry method, and ELISA was used to detect expression of FGF-2 and IGF-1 in serum. Results:The results showed a significant increase in the density and area of newly formed bone in the distraction gaps of normal rats compared to control rats. Increased cell proliferation was also found in the distraction gaps of normal rats versus control rats. There was significant difference in serum levels of FGF-2 and IGF-1 between two groups. Conclusions: The decrease of FGF-2 and IGF-1 both in the serum and in the fracture region is one of the reasons for bad bone healing or delayed union in rats’ fracture with diabetes. There are some synergistic effects possibly between FGF-2 and IGF-1.

  6. Effects of valsartan on diabetic cardiomyopathy in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhong-hua; PENG Xiao-dong

    2010-01-01

    Background The development of diabetic cardiomyopathy is multifactorial. Insulin resistance (IR) and excessive activity of the renin-angiotensin system are confirmed reasons for diabetic cardiomyopathy. Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors can reduce tissue Ang Ⅱ levels, with beneficial effects on cardiovascular function. Therefore, in type-2diabetes mellitus (T2DM), blockade of the RAS may have the function of protecting against diabetic cardiomyopathy through increasing insulin sensitivity and inhibiting excessive activity of RAS. However, this has not been confirmed.Methods The effect of valsartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), on diabetic cardiomyopathy in the presence of T2DM was studied. Wistar rats with T2DM and T2DM treated with valsartan were studied. Glucose infusion rates (GIR),index of IR, heart weight, the heart weight-to-body weight ratio (HW/BW), myocardial apoptotic index, cardiac hydroxyprolin content, and cardiac tissue collagen type Ⅰ and collagen type Ⅲ content were measured.Results GIR in T2DM rats and T2DM rats treated with valsartan decreased (P <0.01). In T2DM rats treated with valsartan, heart weight, myocardial apoptotic index, cardiac hydroxyprolin content, and cardiac tissue collagen type Ⅰ and collagen type Ⅲ content were higher than in control rats, but lower than in T2DM rats. In rats with T2DM, GIR was negatively and significantly correlated with all the variables. However, in T2DM rats treated with valsartan or normal control rats, none of the correlations was significant.Conclusions In the presence of T2DM, diabetic cardiomyopathy is related with IR. Valsartan can not alleviate IR, but can protect against diabetic cardiomyopathy and remove the correlation between IR and diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  7. Electrocardiographic changes with the onset of diabetes and the impact of aerobic exercise training in the Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Jarrah Muhammed

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early markers of diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN in an electrocardiogram (ECG include elevated R wave amplitudes, widening of QTc intervals and decreased heart rate variability (HRV. The severity of DAN has a direct relationship with mortality risk. Aerobic exercise training is a common recommendation for the delay and possible reversal of cardiac dysfunction. Limited research exists on ECG measures for the evaluation of aerobic exercise training in Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF rat, a model of type 2 diabetes. The objective of this study was to assess whether aerobic exercise training may attenuate diabetes induced ECG changes. Methods Male ZDF (obese fa/fa and control Zucker (lean fa/+ rats were assigned to 4 groups: sedentary control (SC, sedentary diabetic (SD, exercised control (EC and exercised diabetic (ED. The exercised groups began 7 weeks of treadmill training after the development of diabetes in the ED group. Baseline (prior to the training and termination measurements included body weight, heart weight, blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels and ECG parameters. One way repeated measures ANOVA (group analyzed within and between subject differences and interactions. Pearson coefficients and descriptive statistics described variable relationships and animal characteristics. Results Diabetes caused crucial changes in R wave amplitudes (p c intervals (p c interval prolongation nor restored decreases in HRV in diabetic rats. Conclusion This study revealed alterations in R wave amplitudes, HRV, QT and QTc intervals in ZDF rats. Of these changes, aerobic exercise training was able to correct R wave amplitude changes. In addition, exercise has beneficial effect in this diabetic rat model in regards to ECG correlates of left ventricular mass.

  8. Effects of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) on the liver of diabetic rats: a morphological and biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolkent, S; Yanardag, R; Ozsoy-Sacan, O; Karabulut-Bulan, O

    2004-12-01

    Parsley is used by diabetics in Turkey to reduce blood glucose. The present study aims to investigate both the morphological and biochemical effects of parsley on liver tissue. Rat hepatocytes were examined by light and electron microscopy. Degenerative changes were observed in the hepatocytes of diabetic rats. These degenerative changes were significantly reduced or absent in the hepatocytes of diabetic rats treated with parsley. Blood glucose levels, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase were observed to be raised in diabetic rats. Diabetic rats treated with parsley demonstrated significantly lower levels of blood glucose, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase. The present study suggests that parsley demonstrates a significant hepatoprotective effect in diabetic rats.

  9. Gender differences in nerve regeneration after sciatic nerve injury and repair in healthy and in type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenberg, Lena; Dahlin, Lars B

    2014-09-13

    In view of the global increase in diabetes, and the fact that recent findings indicate that diabetic neuropathy is more frequently seen in males, it is crucial to evaluate any gender differences in nerve regeneration in diabetes. Our aim was to evaluate in short-term experiments gender dissimilarities in axonal outgrowth in healthy and in genetically developed type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, and also to investigate the connection between activated (i.e. ATF-3, Activating Transcription Factor 3) and apoptotic (cleaved caspase 3) Schwann cells after sciatic nerve injury and repair. Female and male diabetic GK rats, spontaneously developing type 2 diabetes, were compared with corresponding healthy Wistar rats. The sciatic nerve was transected and instantly repaired. After six days the nerve was harvested to measure axonal outgrowth (i.e. neurofilament staining), and to quantify the number of ATF-3 (i.e. activated) and cleaved caspase 3 (i.e. apoptotic) stained Schwann cells using immunohistochemistry. Axonal outgrowth was generally longer in male than in female rats and also longer in healthy than in diabetic rats. Differences were observed in the number of activated Schwann cells both in the distal nerve segment and close to the lesion site. In particular the female diabetic rats had a lower number. There were no gender differences in number of cleaved caspase 3 stained Schwann cells, but rats with diabetes exhibited more (such cleaved caspase 3 stained Schwann) cells both at the lesion site and in the distal part of the sciatic nerve. Axonal outgrowth correlated with the number of ATF3 stained Schwann cells, but not with blood glucose levels or the cleaved caspase 3 stained Schwann cells. However, the number of cleaved caspase 3 stained Schwann cells correlated with the blood glucose level. We conclude that there are gender differences in nerve regeneration in healthy rats and in type 2 diabetic GK rats.

  10. Study on sperm damage caused by trichloroethylene in male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴德生

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study in vitro sperm damage caused by trichloroethylene in male rats.Methods Sperms of Sprague-Dawley(SD)rats were collected 4 hours after being contaminated by trichloroethylene of 0,2,4,6,8,and 10 mmol/L in vitro.Giemsa staining was performed to observe the morphological changes of sperms,and flow cytometer was used to detect the changes in mitochondrial membrane potential.Results The sperm motilities in6,8,and 10 mmol/L trichloroethylene groups decreased significantly

  11. Effects of Hyperbaric Oxygen on Metabolic Capacity of the Skeletal Muscle in Type 2 Diabetic Rats with Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Fujita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether hyperbaric oxygen enhances the oxidative metabolic capacity of the skeletal muscle and attenuates adipocyte hypertrophy in type 2 diabetic rats with obesity. Five-week-old male Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF and Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO rats were used as diabetic animals and nondiabetic controls, respectively, and assigned to control and hyperbaric oxygen groups. Animals in the hyperbaric oxygen group were exposed to an atmospheric pressure of 1.25 with an oxygen concentration of 36% for 3 h daily. The glucose level at 27 weeks of age was significantly higher in OLETF rats than in LETO rats, but the elevation was inhibited in OLETF rats exposed to hyperbaric oxygen. The slow-to-fast fiber transition in the skeletal muscle was observed in OLETF rats, but the shift was inhibited in OLETF rats exposed to hyperbaric oxygen. Additionally, the oxidative enzyme activity of muscle fibers was increased by hyperbaric oxygen. The adipocyte size was larger in OLETF rats than in LETO rats, but hypertrophied adipocytes were not observed in OLETF rats exposed to hyperbaric oxygen. Hyperbaric oxygen enhances glucose and lipid metabolism in the skeletal muscle, indicating that hyperbaric oxygen can prevent elevation of glucose and adipocyte hypertrophy in diabetic rats with obesity.

  12. Hypoxic neuropathy versus diabetic neuropathy : an electrophysiological study in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Hendriksen, P.H.; Oey, P.L.; Wieneke, G.H.; Huffelen, A.C. van

    1992-01-01

    In the experimental rat model of diabetes a slowing of nerve conduction velocity and a resistance to ischemic conduction failure have been found as an indication of polyneuropathy. The same electrophysiological abnormalities have been demonstrated in a model in which healthy rats are kept under hypo

  13. Drug specificity in drug versus food choice in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunstall, Brendan J; Riley, Anthony L; Kearns, David N

    2014-08-01

    Although different classes of drug differ in their mechanisms of reinforcement and effects on behavior, little research has focused on differences in self-administration behaviors maintained by users of these drugs. Persistent drug choice despite available reinforcement alternatives has been proposed to model behavior relevant to addiction. The present study used a within-subjects procedure, where male rats (Long-Evans, N = 16) were given a choice between cocaine (1.0 mg/kg/infusion) and food (a single 45-mg grain pellet) or between heroin (0.02 mg/kg/infusion) and food in separate phases (drug order counterbalanced). All rats were initially trained to self-administer each drug, and the doses used were based on previous studies showing that small subsets of rats tend to prefer drug over food reinforcement. The goal of the present study was to determine whether rats that prefer cocaine would also prefer heroin. Choice sessions consisted of 2 forced-choice trials with each reinforcer, followed by 14 free-choice trials (all trials separated by 10-min intertrial interval). Replicating previous results, small subsets of rats preferred either cocaine (5 of the 16 rats) or heroin (2 of the 16 rats) to the food alternative. Although 1 of the 16 rats demonstrated a preference for both cocaine and heroin to the food alternative, there was no relationship between degree of cocaine and heroin preference in individual rats. The substance-specific pattern of drug preference observed suggests that at least in this animal model, the tendencies to prefer cocaine or heroin in preference to a nondrug alternative are distinct behavioral phenomena.

  14. Type 2 diabetes mellitus--genes or intrauterine environment? An embryo transfer paradigm in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill-Randall, R; Adams, D; Ollerton, R L; Lewis, M; Alcolado, J C

    2004-08-01

    The familial predisposition to Type 2 diabetes mellitus is mediated by both genetic and intrauterine environmental factors. In the normal course of events, maternal genes always develop in the same uterus, thus restricting studies aimed at investigating the relative contribution of these factors. We have developed an embryo transfer paradigm in rats to overcome this difficulty. Euglycaemic female Wistar rats were superovulated and mated with male Wistar rats. The following day, fertilised eggs were transferred into pseudo-pregnant female Wistar rats or hyperglycaemic Goto Kakizaki (GK) rats. Pregnancies were allowed to go to term. Offspring were weighed at 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months of age and an intravenous glucose tolerance test was carried out at 6 months of age. Offspring from Wistar into Wistar embryo transfers (n=20) were not significantly hyperglycaemic compared to the non-manipulated Wistar stock colony (n=26). However, offspring from Wistar gametes reared in hyperglycaemic GK mothers (n=51) were significantly lighter at 6 weeks of age (156+/-4.1 g vs 180+/-6.1 g [mean +/- SEM], p<0.01) and significantly more hyperglycaemic at 6 months of age (fasting glucose 6.6+/-0.18 mmol/l vs 4.8+/-0.21 mmol/l, mean blood glucose during glucose tolerance test 14.3+/-0.31 mmol/l vs 11.1+/-0.28 mmol/l, p<0.01) than Wistar gametes transferred back into euglycaemic Wistar mothers. When GK rats were superovulated and mated together, transfer of 1-day-old embryos into pseudo-pregnant Wistar dams did not alleviate hyperglycaemia in adult offspring. In GK rats, a euglycaemic intrauterine environment cannot overcome the strong genetic predisposition to diabetes. However, in Wistar rats with a low genetic risk of diabetes, exposure to hyperglycaemia in utero significantly increases the risk of diabetes in adult life.

  15. High rat food vitamin E content improves nerve function in streptozotocin-diabetic rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Dam, P.S. van; Bravenboer, B.; Asbeck, B.S. van; Marx, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Antioxidants can improve nerve dysfunction in hyperglycaemic rats. We evaluated whether the standard supplementation of rat food with vitamin E (normally added for preservation purposes) or high-dose vitamin E treatment improves nerve conduction in maturing streptozotocin-diabetic rats, a model

  16. Effect of mangiferin isolated from Salacia chinensis regulates the kidney carbohydrate metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Periyar Selvam Sellamuthu; Palanisamy Arulselvan; Balu Periamallipatti Muniappan; Murugesan Kandasamy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present investigation was to evaluate the possible anti-diabetic effect of mangiferin from Salacia chinensis (S. chinensis) on the activities of kidney carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in chemically induced diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) in adult male rats, as a single intraperitoneal injection at a dose of 55 mg/kg body weight. The STZ-induced diabetic rats were treated by mangiferin and glibenclamide (positive control drug) for 30 days. At the end of the experiment, the rats were sacrificed and carbohydrate metabolic enzyme activities were analyzed in the kidney. Results: Diabetic control rats showed a significant increase in the level of fasting blood glucose and also increase the activities of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in kidney on successive days of the experiment as compared with their basal values. Daily oral administration of mangiferin showed a significant decrease in the blood glucose when compared to diabetic control. The anti-hyperglycemic effect was obtained with the dose of 40 mg/kg b.wt. In addition, treatment of mangiferin shows alteration in kidney carbohydrate metabolic enzymes including gluconeogenic enzymes like glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-disphosphatase. These results were comparable with positive control drug, glibenclamide. Conclusions: The results obtained in this study provide evidence of the anti-diabetic potential of mangiferin, mediated through the regulation of carbohydrate key metabolic enzyme activities.

  17. Influence of streptozotocin-induced diabetes and insulin treatment on the pituitary-testicular axis during sexual maturation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, S; Valli, G; Julie, P M; Arunakaran, J; Govindarajulu, P; Balasubramanian, K

    2000-01-01

    Effects of streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetes and insulin treatment on the functioning of pituitary-testicular axis during sexual maturation was studied. Prepubertal (30 days old) and pubertal (50 days old) male Wistar rats were made diabetic by a single injection of STZ. A group of diabetic rats was given insulin (3U/100 g b.wt./day in 2 equally divided doses), 3 days after STZ treatment. Prepubertal and pubertal rats of all groups were killed on postnatal days 51 and 71, respectively. STZ-diabetes caused marked reduction in serum LH, FSH, prolactin, testosterone and testicular interstitial fluid testosterone as well as the activities of Leydig cellular steroidogenic enzymes (3beta-and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases). Insulin treatment to diabetic rats maintained these changes at control range except FSH and prolactin in prepubertal rats. The results indicate that (i) diabetes-induced steroidogenic lesions in Leydig cells represent a direct consequence of dysfunctioning of pituitary-testicular axis, (ii) the adverse effects of diabetes on pituitary-testicular functions are influenced by age of its induction and (iii) optimum insulin level is essential for the acquisition of Leydig cellular steroidogenic efficacy during sexual development.

  18. The effect of Stevia rebaudiana on serum omentin and visfatin level in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarzadeh, Samad; Eskandari, Fatemeh; Tangestani, Hadis; Bagherinejad, Somaieh Tangerami; Bargahi, Afshar; Bazzi, Parviz; Daneshi, Adel; Sahrapoor, Azam; O'Connor, William J; Rahbar, Ali Reza

    2015-03-01

    Recently the role of adipocytokines in relationship to incidence of diabetes has been demonstrated. One of the medicinal plants that are used in the treatment of diabetes is stevia. This study investigates the effect of stevia on serum omentin and visfatin levels as novel adipocytokines in diabetic induced rats to find potential mechanisms for the anti hyperglycemic effect of stevia. Forty male wistar rats weighing 180-250 g were induced with diabetes by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). The animals were divided into 5 groups of 8. Rats in group 1 (non-diabetic control) and group 2 (diabetic control) were treated with distilled water, and the rats in the treated groups, group 3 (T250), group 4 (T500), and group 5 (T750) were treated with stevia, gavaged every day at 9 a.m. in doses of 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg, respectively. At the end of the study significant reductions in fasting blood sugar (FBS), the homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), triglyceride (TG), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and Omentin level were found in groups 3 and 4 in comparison with group 2. Pancreatic histopathology slides demonstrated that stevia extract did not induce any increase in the number of β-cells. The conclusion is that prescription of stevia in the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg/d decreases the omentin level indirectly via activating insulin sensitivity and lowering blood glucose in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  19. Assessment of apoptosis and oxidative stress in retina tissue of rats with diabetic retinopathy after grape polyphenols intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-Li Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of grape polyphenols intervention on apoptosis and oxidative stress in retina tissue of rats with diabetic retinopathy (DR).Methods: SPF male SD rats were selected as experimental animals and divided into control group, diabetes group and grape polyphenols group, intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin was adopted to establish diabetic rat models, and grape polyphenols group received intragastric administration of grape polyphenols. 60 d after model establishment, the rats were executed, and the retina tissue was collected to determine apoptosis molecules and oxidative stress indexes.Results:Bax, Caspase-3, c-fos, c-jun, ROS, MDA, 8-OHdG, PARP, Cyclophilin D, Nrf-2, ARE, ERK and PI3K content in retina tissue of diabetes group were significantly higher than those of control group while Bcl-2, CAT, SOD, GSH-Px, HO-1 and NQO1 content were significantly lower than those of control group; Bax, Caspase-3, c-fos, c-jun, ROS, MDA, 8-OHdG, PARP and Cyclophilin D content in retina tissue of grape polyphenols group were significantly lower than those of diabetes group while Bcl-2, CAT, SOD, GSH-Px, HO-1, NQO1, Nrf-2, ARE, ERK and PI3K content were significantly higher those of diabetes group.Conclusions:Grape polyphenols intervention can relieve the apoptosis and oxidative stress in retina tissue of rats with diabetic retinopathy.

  20. Effects of atorvastatin on progression of diabetic nephropathy and local RAGE and soluble RAGE expressions in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin LU; Wen-hui PENG; Wei WANG; Ling-jie WANG; Qiu-jing CHEN; Wei-feng SHEN

    2011-01-01

    Objective:Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) exert inflammatory and oxidative stress insults to produce diabetic nephropathy mainly through the receptor for AGEs (RAGE).This study aimed to assess the effect of atorvastatin on diabetic nephropathy via soluble RAGE (sRAGE) and RAGE expressions in the rat kidney.Methods:Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups based on the presence or absence of streptozotocin-induced diabetes with or without atorvastatin treatment (10 mg/kg for 24 weeks).Serum sRAGE and glycated albumin (GA) levels were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and improved bromocresol purple methods.Renal AGEs,RAGE,endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE),and sRAGE were determined with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting.Results:Mesangial expansion and microalbuminuria were aggravated in diabetic rats,and improved with atorvastatin treatment.Serum sRAGE levels were lower in diabetic than in normal rats.After atorvastatin treatment,serum and renal sRAGE levels were up-regulated,while renal RAGE expression was decreased in diabetic rats,associated with a reduction in accumulation of AGEs,though renal esRAGE mRNA expression was not significantly increased.Conclusions:Atorvastatin exerted a beneficial effect on diabetic nephropathy with reduced AGE accumulation,down-regulating RAGE expression and up-regulating sRAGE in the kidney.

  1. Dose-dependent effects of dihydrotestosterone in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Qin; Prabhu, Anjali; Xu, Shujing; Manigrasso, Michaele B.; Maric, Christine

    2009-01-01

    We recently reported that castration exacerbates albuminuria, glomerulosclerosis, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis associated with diabetic renal disease. The aim of the present study was to examine whether these effects of castration can be attenuated with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) supplementation. The study was performed in castrated male Sprague-Dawley, streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with 0 mg/day DHT (DHT0), 0.75 mg/day DHT (DHT0.75), or 2.0 mg/day DHT (DHT2.0) for 14 wk. Tre...

  2. Effect of exposure to lead on reproduction in male rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piasek, M.; Kostial, K.

    1987-09-01

    The objective of present study was to determine the effect of chronic oral exposure to different levels of lead on male reproductive performance since oral exposure data are more relevant to human environmental exposure. Additionally, most previous results have been obtained after parenteral administration of lead. These experiments were performed on rats by using the incidence of pregnancy to assess male fertility and litter size and pup weight as indicators of the lead effect on perinatal development. Similar parameters were used in reproduction studies by other authors.

  3. Effect of diabetes on glycogen metabolism in rat retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Chávez, Gustavo; Hernández-Berrones, Jethro; Luna-Ulloa, Luis Bernardo; Coffe, Víctor; Salceda, Rocío

    2008-07-01

    Glucose is the main fuel for energy metabolism in retina. The regulatory mechanisms that maintain glucose homeostasis in retina could include hormonal action. Retinopathy is one of the chemical manifestations of long-standing diabetes mellitus. In order to better understand the effect of hyperglycemia in retina, we studied glycogen content as well as glycogen synthase and phosphorylase activities in both normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat retina and compared them with other tissues. Glycogen levels in normal rat retina are low (46 +/- 4.0 nmol glucosyl residues/mg protein). However, high specific activity of glycogen synthase was found in retina, indicating a substantial capacity for glycogen synthesis. In diabetic rats, glycogen synthase activity increased between 50% and 100% in retina, brain cortex and liver of diabetic rats, but only retina exhibited an increase in glycogen content. Although, total and phosphorylated glycogen synthase levels were similar in normal and diabetic retina, activation of glycogen synthase by glucose-6-P was remarkable increased. Glycogen phosphorylase activity decreased 50% in the liver of diabetic animals; it was not modified in the other tissues examined. We conclude that the increase in glycogen levels in diabetic retina was due to alterations in glycogen synthase regulation.

  4. The effect of dietary Cu and diabetes on indices of Cu nutriture in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rucker, R.B.; Uriu-Hare, J.Y.; Tinker, D.; Keen, C.L. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States))

    1991-03-11

    The uptake-retention of 67Cu is affected by dietary Cu and diabetes. Consequently, the functional activities of select enzymes and tissue Cu status were assessed. STZ-diabetic and control rats were fed Cu suppl. or def. diets. Rats were gavaged with 28 {mu}Ci 67Cu, and killed 8, 16, 24, 32, 64, or 128 h later. Diabetic rats were hyperphagic, hyperglycemic and hypoinsulinemic; with no effect of diet. Plasma ceruloplasmin activity (Cp) was lower in Cu def. rats; diabetic rats tended to have higher Cp than controls. Cu def. rats had low Cu levels in liver, kidney and plasma. Cu suppl. diabetic rats had higher liver and kidney Cu compared to Cu def. diabetic rats. Gel chromatography of liver showed that with time, there was a transfer of 67Cu from low to higher MW ligands. In nondiabetic rats, more 67Cu was associated with the higher MW ligands. The converse was observed for diabetic rats. There was no effect of diabetes on liver 67Cu localization. Diabetic rats had higher metallothionein (MT) concentrations in liver and kidney compared to controls Cu deficiency lowered MT values in both diabetic and control rats. CuZn SOD Cu activity was lowered with Cu def. and diabetes, while Mn SOD activity was similar among groups. Plasma lipid peroxide levels were lower in diabetic rats than controls. The results show that Cu metabolism is affected in diabetes, and the changes are functionally significant.

  5. Profertility and antidiabetic properties of Gynura procumbens on streptozotocin induced male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaidatul Akmar, K.; Mahanem, M. N.

    2016-11-01

    Gynura procumbens (GP) is an herbal plant that is used for treating diseases such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular and also fertility. The objective of this study was to determine the anti-diabetic and pro-fertility effect of GP on streptozotocin induced male rats within 14 days. A total of 42 male rats were randomly assigned into six groups; normal, negative, and positive control, and three treated groups of different dosages of GP; 150 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg and 450 mg/kg. The treated groups were given aqueous extract GP via oral gavage for 14 consecutive days. The fasting blood glucose (FBG) level in all treated groups showed significant decreased compared to negative and positive group after 14 days treatment. Sperm quality parameters in GP treated group (450 mg/kg) showed significant increase when compared to negative and positive group. It was observed that the histology of testes in the treated group (450 mg/kg) produced a significant result whereby the germinal cell layer shown an arranged order of cells compared to the negative and positive control groups. It appeared that aqueous extract of GP have a pro-fertility effect and possess anti-hyperglycemic activity within 14 days of treatment.

  6. Prenatal exposure to ethanol causes partial diabetes insipidus in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knee, Daniel S; Sato, Aileen K; Uyehara, Catherine F T; Claybaugh, John R

    2004-08-01

    Chronic consumption of ethanol in adult rats and humans leads to reduced AVP-producing neurons, and prenatal ethanol (PE) exposure has been reported to cause changes in the morphology of AVP-producing cells in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of young rats. The present studies further characterize the effects of PE exposure on AVP in the young adult rat, its hypothalamic synthesis, pituitary storage, and osmotically stimulated release. Pregnant rats were fed a liquid diet with 35% of the calories from ethanol or a control liquid diet for days 7-22 of pregnancy. Water consumption and urine excretion rate were measured in the offspring at 60-68 days of age. Subsequently, the offspring were infused with 5% NaCl at 0.05 ml.kg(-1).min(-1) with plasma samples taken before and at three 40-min intervals during infusion for measurement of AVP and osmolality. Urine output and water intake were approximately 20% greater in PE-exposed rats than in rats with no PE exposure, and female rats had a greater water intake than males. The relationship between plasma osmolality and AVP in PE-exposed rats was parallel to, but shifted to the right of, the control rats, indicating an increase in osmotic threshold for AVP release. Pituitary AVP was reduced by 13% and hypothalamic AVP mRNA content was reduced by 35% in PE-exposed rats. Our data suggest that PE exposure can cause a permanent condition of a mild partial central diabetes insipidus.

  7. Suv39h1 Protects from Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with diabetes are at increased risk of ischemic events. Suv39h1 is a histone methyltransferase that catalyzes the methylation of histone 3 lysine 9, which is associated with the suppression of inflammatory genes in diabetes. However, the role of Suv39h1 in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury under diabetic condition has not been evaluated. Methods: To generate diabetic model, male SD rats were fed with 60% fat diet followed by intraperitoneal injection with 40mg/kg streptozotocin. Adenovirus encoding Suv39h1 gene was used for Suv39h1 overexpression. Each rat received injections of adenovirus at five myocardial sites. Three days after gene transfection, each rat was subjected to left main coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion. After 30 min ischemia and reperfusion for 4 h, the rats were euthanized for real-time PCR, Western blot, immunohistochemical staining, and morphometric analysis. Results: Delivery of Ad-Suv39h1 into the hearts of diabetic rats could markedly increase Suv39h1 expression. Up-regulation of Suv39h1 significantly reduced infarct size and tissue damage after I/R injury, which was associated with protection from apoptosis of cardiac myocytes and reduction of inflammatory response. In addition, compared with injury group, Ad-Suv39h1 led to a decreased activity of mitogen-activated protein kinase family and its down-steam transcriptional factor NF-κB. Conclusion: Overexpression of Suv39h1 results in the de-activation of proinflammatory pathways and reduced apoptosis and myocardial injury. Therefore, Suv39h1 might represent a novel therapeutic strategy to reduce I/R injury under diabetic condition.

  8. Ability of alpha-lipoic acid to reverse the diabetic cystopathy in a rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-jun JIANG; Da-xin GONG; Hai-bo LIU; Chun-ming YANG; Zhi-xi SUN; Chui-ze KONG

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to investigate whether alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) is able to reverse impaired bladder function induced by diabetes in a rat model and to explore the possible mechanism mediating the effect. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into 3 age-matched groups: control, diabetes mellitus (DM) treated with vehicle, and DM with α-LA treatment. The diabetic rats were induced by a single intraperitoneal (ip) injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). Six weeks after the induction of DM, the two groups received another 6 weeks of treatment with vehicle or α-LA (100 mg/kg, ip). Body weight and blood glucose levels were measured weekly. The bladder function was evaluated by in vitro cystometry. The oxidative stress status was determined by biochemical methods, and the level of nerve growth factor was investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats showed impaired bladder function characterized by increased bladder capacity, decreased bladder contractility (voiding efficiency), and an increase in residual urine. Treat-ment with α-LA significantly normalized the increased bladder capacity for induc-ing voiding, single-voided volume, and post-void residual volume, α-LA treat-ment significantly reversed the increased level of malondialdehyde and reduced the activities of both superoxide dismutase and catalase. DM caused a decrease in the bladder nerve growth factor (NGF) level, and α-LA upregulated the level of NGF in the diabetic rat bladder. Conclusion: These results indicate that α-LA has a beneficial effect on diabetes-induced cystopathy by ameliorating oxidative stress and normalizing the NGF level in the bladder.

  9. Cytoprotective Effect of Silymarin against Diabetes-Induced Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis in Diabetic Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muobarak J Tuorkey; Nabila I El-Desouki; Rabab A Kamel

    2015-01-01

    Objective The beneficial effects of silymarin have been extensively studied in the context of inflammation and cancer treatment, yet much less is known about its therapeutic effect on diabetes. The present study was aimed to investigate the cytoprotective activity of silymarin against diabetes-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Methods Rats were randomly divided into: control group, untreated diabetes group and diabetes group treated with silymarin (120 mg/kg·d) for 10 d. Rats were sacrificed, and the cardiac muscle specimens and blood samples were collected. The immunoreactivity of caspase-3 and Bcl-2 in the cardiomyocytes was measured. Total proteins, glucose, insulin, creatinine, AST, ALT, cholesterol, and triglycerides levels were estimated. Results Unlike the treated diabetes group, cardiomyocyte apoptosis increased in the untreated rats, as evidenced by enhanced caspase-3 and declined Bcl-2 activities. The levels of glucose, creatinine, AST, ALT, cholesterol, and triglycerides declined in the treated rats. The declined levels of insulin were enhanced again after treatment of diabetic rats with silymarin, reflecting a restoration of the pancreaticβ-cells activity. Conclusion The findings of this study are of great importance, which confirmed for the first time that treatment of diabetic subjects with silymarin may protect cardiomyocytes against apoptosis and promote survival-restoration of the pancreaticβ-cells.

  10. Effect and mechanisms of zinc supplementation in protecting against diabetic cardiomyopathy in a rat model of type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Lu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a prominent cause of heart failure in patients with diabetes mellitus. Currently, there is no specific treatment for diabetic cardiomyopathy. This study aimed to investigate the effect and underlying mechanisms of Zinc (Zn supplementation in the protection against diabetic cardiomyopathy in a rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. T2DM-like lesions in male Wistar rats were induced by introducing the high-fat diet and by administration of streptozocin (STZ. After STZ induction, animals with fasting plasma glucose level ≥16.7 mM were considered as diabetic, and randomly assigned to the group receiving physiological saline (control or ZnSO4 for 56 days. On days 0, 7, 28 and 56 of treatment, animals were weighed, and their blood samples were analyzed. On day 56, hemodynamic assessment was performed right before the sacrifice of animals. Cardiac tissue specimens were collected and subjected to pathologic assessment, metallothionein (MT concentration measurement and Western blot analysis of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3, the marker of autophagy, and glucose-regulated protein-78 (GRP78, an oxidative stress marker. High-fat diet feeding followed by STZ administration resulted in weight loss, hyperglycemia, polydipsia, polyphagia, hemodynamic anomalies and a significant increase in the myocardial content of LC3 and GRP78 proteins, but not in MT protein. Zn supplementation effectively attenuated all these aberrations induced by high-fat diet and STZ. These findings suggest that Zn might be a protective factor in diabetic cardiomyopathy, acting in two ways: at least partially, through inhibiting autophagy and by endoplasmic reticulum stress.

  11. Effect and mechanisms of zinc supplementation in protecting against diabetic cardiomyopathy in a rat model of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ying; Liu, Ya; Li, Hongyan; Wang, Xue; Wu, Wenjie; Gao, Lichao

    2015-02-05

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a prominent cause of heart failure in patients with diabetes mellitus. Currently, there is no specific treatment for diabetic cardiomyopathy. This study aimed to investigate the effect and underlying mechanisms of Zinc (Zn) supplementation in the protection against diabetic cardiomyopathy in a rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). T2DM-like lesions in male Wistar rats were induced by introducing the high-fat diet and by administration of streptozocin (STZ). After STZ induction, animals with fasting plasma glucose level ≥16.7 mM were considered as diabetic, and randomly assigned to the group receiving physiological saline (control) or ZnSO4 for 56 days. On days 0, 7, 28 and 56 of treatment, animals were weighed, and their blood samples were analyzed. On day 56, hemodynamic assessment was performed right before the sacrifice of animals. Cardiac tissue specimens were collected and subjected to pathologic assessment, metallothionein (MT) concentration measurement and Western blot analysis of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3), the marker of autophagy, and glucose-regulated protein-78 (GRP78), an oxidative stress marker. High-fat diet feeding followed by STZ administration resulted in weight loss, hyperglycemia, polydipsia, polyphagia, hemodynamic anomalies and a significant increase in the myocardial content of LC3 and GRP78 proteins, but not in MT protein. Zn supplementation effectively attenuated all these aberrations induced by high-fat diet and STZ. These findings suggest that Zn might be a protective factor in diabetic cardiomyopathy, acting in two ways: at least partially, through inhibiting autophagy and by endoplasmic reticulum stress.

  12. Effect of irradiation on the expression of caspase-3 in the submandibular gland of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Heung Ki; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-09-15

    To observe the histopathological changes and caspace-3 expression in the submandibular gland in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after irradiation. The male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing approximately 250gm were divided into four groups; control, diabetes, irradiation, and diabetes-irradiation groups. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the rats by injecting streptozotocin. Rats in the control and irradiation groups were injected with citrate buffer only. After 5 days, rats in irradiation, and diabetes-irradiation groups were irradiated with a single absorbed dose of 10 Gy to the head and neck region. All the rats were sacrificed at 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after irradiation. The specimen including the submandibular gland were sectioned and observed using histopathological and immunohistochemical methods. In the irradiation group, the condensed nucleus, karyolysis, and degeneration of the acinar cells and atrophy of the duct cells were observed in the early experimental phase. However, the acinar cells were found to be normal at 28 days after irradiation. In the diabetes group, the condensed nucleus, karyolysis, atrophy, and degeneration of the acinar cells were observed in the early experimental phase. However, the acinar cells were found to be normal at 21 days, after diabetic state induction. In the diabetes-irradiation group, the ductal epithelial cells were predominant in their glandular tissues at 28 days after irradiation. In all of the experimental groups, the most prominent change of the acinar cells and ductal cells were observed at 14 days after diabetic state induction and irradiation. The expression of caspase-3 in the acinar cells and ductal cells of the submandibular gland was weak after irradiation, but that in the acinar cells, ductal cells, and fibrous cells of the submandibular gland was prominent after diabetic state induction.

  13. Anti-diabetic activity of Zingiber officinale in streptozotocin-induced type I diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhani, Sanjay P; Vishwakarma, Santosh L; Goyal, Ramesh K

    2004-01-01

    The fresh and dried rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (commonly known as ginger) is widely used in traditional medicine. We have studied the effect of the juice of Z. officinale (4 mL kg(-1), p.o. daily) for 6 weeks on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type I diabetic rats with particular reference to the involvement of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) receptors in glycaemic control. In normoglycaemic rats, 5-HT (1mg kg(-1), i.p.) produced hyperglycaemia and hypoinsulinaemia, which was significantly prevented by the juice of Z. officinale. STZ-diabetes produced a significant increase in fasting glucose levels that was associated with a significant decrease in serum insulin levels. Treatment with Z. officinale produced a significant increase in insulin levels and a decrease in fasting glucose levels in diabetic rats. In an oral glucose tolerance test, treatment with Z. officinale was found to decrease significantly the area under the curve of glucose and to increase the area under the curve of insulin in STZ-diabetic rats. Treatment with Z. officinale also caused a decrease in serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride and blood pressure in diabetic rats. Our data suggest a potential antidiabetic activity of the juice of Z. officinale in type I diabetic rats, possibly involving 5-HT receptors.

  14. Furan toxicity on testes and protective role of lycopene in diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Özlem; Baş, Hatice; Pandır, Dilek

    2016-01-01

    Objective Furan (C4H4O) is a heat-induced food contaminant that is utilized as an industrial chemical agent. Lycopene is a natural substance that is produced by plants and tomatoes. We aimed to evaluate the toxicity of furan on testes and the protective effect of lycopene in diabetic rats. Material and Methods Male Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups: Group 1 (control group) received 1 mL/kg corn oil. Group 2 (diabetic control group) received 55 mg/kg STZ and 1 mL/kg corn oil. Group 3 (diabetic lycopene group) received 55 mg/kg STZ and 4 mg/kg lycopene. Group 4 (diabetic furan group) received 55 mg/kg STZ and 40 mg/kg furan. Group 5 (diabetic furan + lycopene group) received 55 mg/kg STZ, 40 mg/kg furan, and 4 mg/kg lycopene. After 28 days, the testes were extirpated in all groups. In the testicular tissue samples, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and reducted glutathione (GST) were studied. Serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone levels were measured. Histopathologic examination was performed by light microscope. Results The MDA level and the activities of CAT, GPx, SOD, and GST were found to be higher in the furan group than in the control and diabetic control groups (p<0.05). The MDA level and the activities of CAT, GPx, SOD, and GST were significantly lower in the furan + lycopene group than in the furan group (p<0.05). Conclusion The low blood testosterone level in the rats who received furan suggested the presence of endocrinological defects and cellular degenerative changes. Lycopene may be effective to reverse furan toxicity in diabetic rat testes. PMID:27990087

  15. Administration of sesamol improved blood-brain barrier function in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanGilder, R L; Kelly, K A; Chua, M D; Ptachcinski, R L; Huber, Jason D

    2009-07-01

    Uncontrolled or poorly controlled blood glucose during diabetes is an important factor in worsened vascular function. While evidence suggests that hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress plays a prominent role in development of microangiopathy of the retina, kidney, and nerves, the role oxidative stress plays on blood-brain barrier (BBB) function and structure has lagged behind. In this study, a natural antioxidant, sesamol, was administered to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats to examine the role that oxidative stress plays on BBB structure and function. Experiments were conducted at 56 days after STZ injection. Male Sprague-Dawley rats randomly were divided into four treatment groups CON--control; STZ--STZ-induced diabetes; CON + S--control + sesamol; STZ + S--STZ-induced diabetes + sesamol. Functional and structural changes to the BBB were measured by in situ brain perfusion and western blot analysis of changes in tight junction protein expression. Oxidative stress markers were visualized by fluorescent confocal microscopy and assayed by spectrophotometric analysis. Results demonstrated that the increased BBB permeability observed in STZ-induced diabetic rats was attenuated in STZ + S rats to levels observed in CON. Sesamol treatment reduced the negative impact of STZ-induced diabetes on tight junction protein expression in isolated cerebral microvessels. Oxidative stress markers were elevated in STZ as compared to CON. STZ + S displayed an improved antioxidant capacity which led to a reduced expression of superoxide and peroxynitrite and reduced lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, this study showed that sesamol treatment enhanced antioxidant capacity of the diabetic brain and led to decreased perturbation of hyperglycemia-induced changes in BBB structure and function.

  16. Studies on the antidiabetic activities of Momordica charantia fruit juice in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mona F; El Ashry, Fatma El Zahraa Z; El Maraghy, Nabila N; Fahmy, Ahmed

    2017-12-01

    Momordica charantia Linn (Cucurbitaceae) (MC) is used in folk medicine to treat various diseases including diabetes mellitus. This study investigates the antidiabetic activities of Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) on streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats. Male Wister rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups. Group I, Normal control; Group II, STZ diabetic; Group III and IV, Momordica charantia fruit juice was orally administered to diabetic rats (10 mL/kg/day either as prophylaxis for 14 days before induction of diabetes then 21 days treatment, or as treatment given for 21 days after induction of diabetes). The effects of MC juice were studied both in vivo and in vitro by studying the glucose uptake of isolated rat diaphragm muscles in the presence and absence of insulin. Histopathological examination of pancreas was also performed. This study showed that MC caused a significant reduction of serum glucose (135.99 ± 6.27 and 149.79 ± 1.90 vs. 253.40* ± 8.18) for prophylaxis and treatment respectively, fructosamine (0.99 ± 0.01 and 1.01 ± 0.04 vs. 3.04 ± 0.07), total cholesterol, triglycerides levels, insulin resistance index (1.13 ± 0.08 and 1.19 ± 0.05 vs. 1.48 ± 1.47) and pancreatic malondialdehyde content (p Momordica charantia presents excellent antidiabetic and antioxidant activities and thus has great potential as a new source for diabetes treatment whether it is used for prophylaxis or treatment.

  17. Cardioprotective Effect of Sodium Ferulate in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Xu, Haijuan Xiao, Jiangpei Zhao, Tongfeng Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS play important roles in the occurrence and development in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DC. Ferulic acid is one of the ubiquitous compounds in diet. Sodium ferulate (SF is its sodium salt. SF has potent free radical scavenging activity and can effectively scavenge ROS. The study investigated the effect of SF on cardioprotection in diabetic rats. The diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin (STZ were treated with SF (110mg/kg by gavage per day for 12 weeks. Results showed that the levels of nitric oxide (NO and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in plasma and myocardium in SF-treated group were significantly higher than those in diabetic control group. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA in plasma and myocardium in SF-treated group were significantly lower than those in diabetic control group. Expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF in myocardium in SF-treated group was apparently lower than that in diabetic control group. Compared with normal control group, electron micrographs of myocardium in diabetic control group showed apparently abnormality, while that was significantly ameliorated in SF-treated group. The study demonstrated that SF has a cardioprotective effect via increasing SOD activity and NO levels in plasma and myocardium, inhibiting oxidative stress in plasma and myocardium, and inhibiting the expression of CTGF in myocardium in diabetes rats.

  18. Lipidemic effects of common edible oils and risk of atherosclerosis in diabetic Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladapo, Olulola Olutoyin; Ojora, Kehinde Adeyemi; Quadri, Oluwafemi Majeed; Ajani, Rotimi Sunday

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic state potentiates atherosclerosis and the type of edible oil consumed by the individual may affect this further. This study aimed to determine if the common edible oils in Nigeria have any effects on the lipid profiles and arteries of alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups of normal control, diabetic control, animals on diet enriched with refined, bleached deodorized palm oil (RBD-PO), animals on diet enriched with soya oil, and animals on diet enriched with olive oil. At the end of 8 weeks, the lipid profiles of the animals were determined before sacrificing them. Their aortas were subsequently harvested for histological examination. The olive oil fed group had the highest level of total cholesterol (TC), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), lowest HDL-C, and highest artherogenic index (AI). Diabetic animals fed on RBD-PO had a lower non-HDL-C, higher HDL-C, and lower AI than diabetic animals fed on olive oil or soya oil. However, the diabetic animals fed on RBD-PO had the highest triglyceride level. When the aortas were examined histologically, there were no atherosclerotic lesions in all the control and experimental groups except those fed on 10% soya oil enriched diet that had type II atherosclerotic lesions according to American Heart Association (AHA). The result of our study showed that RBD-PO appears to offer a better lipid profile in the diabetic animals compared with olive oil and soya oil. Soya oil appears to cause the development of atherosclerosis in diabetic state.

  19. Targeting heme oxygenase-1 in early diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo El Gheit, R; Emam, M N

    2016-12-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most common microvascular diabetic complications. This study was designed to evaluate the possible protective effect and underlying mechanisms of HO-1 induction in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced early DN in rats. The diabetic rats were divided into three groups: STZ-diabetic, cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP)-treated diabetic, and zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP)-treated diabetic groups. Compared to the STZ-diabetic group, CoPP-induced HO-1 upregulation improved the diabetic state and renal functional parameters, suppressed the renal proinflammatory marker, NF-κB, abrogated the elevated renal hydroxyprolin, and decreased the enhanced renal nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity with parallel reduction of urinary oxidative stress markers. On the contrary, treatment with ZnPP abrogated HO-1 levels, aggravated the diabetic condition with further increases in renal oxidative stress, fibrotic and inflammatory markers, and exacerbated renal dysfunction in diabetic animals. These findings suggest that the reduced diabetic renal injury upon HO-1 induction implicates the role of HO-1 induction as a potential treatment for DN.

  20. Antidiabetic and Synergistic Effects of Anthocyanin Fraction from Berberis integerrima Fruit on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Sabahi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a complex endocrine disorder. There is a serious attempt to identify antidiabetic compounds from natural sources to use with other drugs for reduction of diabetes complications. Present study is based on the investigation of antihyperglycemic effect of anthocyanin fraction of Berberis integerrima Bunge (AFBI fruits on some physiological parameters (glucose level, glycogen content, and body weight in normal and streptozotocin-induced (STZ-induced diabetic rats and evaluation of synergic effect of this fraction with metformin and glibenclamide. Male Sprague dawley rats were divided into nine groups: healthy control group, diabetic control group, diabetic groups treated with anthocyanin fraction (200, 400 and 1000 mg/kg, respectively; diabetic groups treated with glibenclamide and metformin separately, diabetic groups treated with glibenclamide + anthocyanin fraction (1000 mg/kg, metformin + anthocyanin fraction (1000 mg/kg. Treatment of diabetic rats with AFBI (400, 1000mg/kg significantly decreased blood glucose as compared with control. Moreover, AFBI (400, 1000mg/kg significantly increased liver glycogen and body weight compared to control. Nevertheless, there were no synergistic effects between anthocyanin fraction and metformin or glibenclamide on blood glucose, liver glycogen, and body weight. The results of this study indicate that AFBI possesses hypoglycemic effects and may be considered for evaluation in future diabetes clinical studies.

  1. The effects of taurine, hypotaurine, and taurine homologs on erythrocyte morphology, membrane fluidity and cytoskeletal spectrin alterations due to diabetes, alcoholism and diabetes-alcoholism in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossai, Davekanand; Lau-Cam, Cesar A

    2009-01-01

    Taurine (TAU) and compounds representing a TAU analog (hypotaurine = HYTAU) or homolog (aminomethanesulfonic acid = AMSA, homotaurine = HMTAU) were tested for their counteracting effects against alterations in erythrocyte (RBC) morphology, membrane fluidity and cytoskeletal spectrin distribution due to diabetes, alcoholism and diabetes-alcoholism in male Goto-Kakizaki rats (made diabetic with a high fat diet and alcoholic upon feeding on a flavored alcohol solution) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (serving as controls). Both diabetes and alcoholism changed the RBC discoidal biconcave shape to a spiculated one, lowered membrane fluidity, and caused spectrin to become marginalized. While AMSA and HYTAU returned the RBC shape to normal, HMTAU made it only discoidal, and TAU was without effect. All test compounds, but TAU, maintained the membrane fluidity normal; and HYTAU and AMSA, but not TAU or HMTAU, kept spectrin uniformly distributed. The noted effects were correlated with compound structure and RBC values for malondialdehyde and cholesterol/phospholipid ratio.

  2. Reduced epidermal thickness, nerve degeneration and increased pain-related behavior in rats with diabetes type 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boric, Matija; Skopljanac, Ivan; Ferhatovic, Lejla; Jelicic Kadic, Antonia; Banozic, Adriana; Puljak, Livia

    2013-11-01

    To examine the mechanisms contributing to pain genesis in diabetic neuropathy, we investigated epidermal thickness and number of intraepidermal nerve fibers in rat foot pad of the animal model of diabetes type 1 and type 2 in relation to pain-related behavior. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Diabetes type 1 was induced with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) and diabetes type 2 was induced with a combination of STZ and high-fat diet. Control group for diabetes type 1 was fed with regular laboratory chow, while control group for diabetes type 2 received high-fat diet. Body weights and blood glucose levels were monitored to confirm induction of diabetes. Pain-related behavior was analyzed using thermal (hot, cold) and mechanical stimuli (von Frey fibers, number of hyperalgesic responses). Two months after induction of diabetes, glabrous skin samples from plantar surface of the both hind paws were collected. Epidermal thickness was evaluated with hematoxylin and eosin staining. Intraepidermal nerve fibers quantification was performed after staining skin with polyclonal antiserum against protein gene product 9.5. We found that induction of diabetes type 1 and type 2 causes significant epidermal thinning and loss of intraepidermal nerve fibers in a rat model, and both changes were more pronounced in diabetes type 1 model. Significant increase of pain-related behavior two months after induction of diabetes was observed only in a model of diabetes type 1. In conclusion, animal models of diabetes type 1 and diabetes type 2 could be used in pharmacological studies, where cutaneous changes could be used as outcome measures for predegenerative markers of neuropathies.

  3. Combined effects of chronic hyperglycaemia and oral aluminium intoxication on testicular tissue and some male reproductive parameters in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinola, O B; Biliaminu, S A; Adedeji, O G; Oluwaseun, B S; Olawoyin, O M; Adelabu, T A

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to either environmental toxicants or chronic hyperglycaemia could impair male reproductive function. However, the extent to which exposure to such toxicants, in the presence of pre-existing metabolic dysfunction, could affect male reproduction is unclear. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats (12 weeks old) were exposed to oral aluminium chloride at 250 ppm for 30 days; followed by evaluation of caudal epididymal sperm count and motility, assay for serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone (T) and oestradiol; and assessment of testicular histology. Moreover, blood glucose was evaluated by the glucose oxidase method. In rats treated with streptozotocin (STZ) or aluminium (Al) alone, erosion of testicular parenchyma and stroma was observed. This effect was most severe in diabetic rats simultaneously exposed to Al; coupled with reduced caudal epididymal sperm count that was least in this (STZ+Al) group (18.75 × 10(6)  ml(-1) ) compared with controls (61.25 × 10(6)  ml(-1) ; P < 0.05), STZ group or Al group. Moreover, these reproductive perturbations (in the STZ+Al group) were associated with reduced sperm motility and significantly reduced serum FSH (P < 0.05); but elevated serum T and oestradiol (P < 0.05), compared with control. These suggest that diabetes-induced testicular lesion is exacerbated by simultaneous oral Al toxicity in Wistar rats. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. The effect of lithospermic acid, an antioxidant, on development of diabetic retinopathy in spontaneously obese diabetic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Ji Jin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lithospermic acid B (LAB, an active component isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza radix, has been reported to have antioxidant effects. We examined the effects of LAB on the prevention of diabetic retinopathy in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF rats, an animal model of type 2 diabetes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: LAB (10 or 20 mg/kg or normal saline were given orally once daily to 24-week-old male OLETF rats for 52 weeks. At the end of treatment, fundoscopic findings, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression in the eyeball, VEGF levels in the ocular fluid, and any structural abnormalities in the retina were assessed. Glucose metabolism, serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP1, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα and urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG levels were also measured. Treatment with LAB prevented vascular leakage and basement membrane thickening in retinal capillaries in a dose-dependent manner. Insulin resistance and glucose intolerance were significantly improved by LAB treatment. The levels of serum hsCRP, MCP1, TNFα, and urinary 8-OHdG were lower in the LAB-treated OLETF rats than in the controls. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with LAB had a preventive effect on the development of diabetic retinopathy in this animal model, probably because of its antioxidative effects and anti-inflammatory effects.

  5. Impact of 1, 25-(OH)2D3 on Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Fan; Shan-xiao Zhang; Meng Ren; Li-feng Hong; Xiao-ni Yan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of 1, 25-(OH)2D3 on left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in type 2 diabetic rats. Methods Type 2 diabetic mellitus (DM) model rats were established by intraperitoneally injecting with 30 mg/kg streptozotocin. After 8 weeks, 19 male rats were identified as diabetic with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) by ultrasound examination, and randomly assigned into three groups:untreated (DM-LVH, n=7), treated with insulin (DM-LVH+INS, n=6), and treated with 1, 25-(OH)2D3 (DM-LVH+VD, n=6). Healthy male rats were used as the controls group (n=6). The fasting blood glucose and the insulin level were determined weekly. The left ventricular mass index, myocardial collagen content, collagen volume fraction, and 1, 25-(OH)2D3-receptor level were determined by 4 weeks later. Results In the DM-LVH model group, the insulin level was significantly decreased compared with the non-diabetic control group (P Conclusion 1, 25-(OH)2D3 could reverse LVH in diabetic rats and that the mechanism may involve stimulating insulin secretion and reducing blood glucose via direct up-regulation of 1, 25-(OH)2D3-receptor expression.

  6. Acute Ozone (O3) Exposure Enhances Aortic Contraction in Healthy Rats while Exacerbating Pulmonary Injury in Diabetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution exposure affects health adversely in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and diet induced obesity (DIO). We hypothesized that T2D and DIO would exacerbate O3 induced pulmonary responses and alter arterial reactivity. Male Wistar and Goto Kakizaki (GK) rats, a l...

  7. Melatonin ameliorates low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress in young Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agil, Ahmad; Reiter, Russel J; Jiménez-Aranda, Aroa; Ibán-Arias, Ruth; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel; Marchal, Juan Antonio; Adem, Abdu; Fernández-Vázquez, Gumersindo

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of melatonin on low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress in young male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, an experimental model of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). ZDF rats (n = 30) and lean littermates (ZL) (n = 30) were used. At 6 wk of age, both lean and fatty animals were subdivided into three groups, each composed of 10 rats: naive (N), vehicle treated (V), and melatonin treated (M) (10 mg/kg/day) for 6 wk. Vehicle and melatonin were added to the drinking water. Pro-inflammatory state was evaluated by plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Also, oxidative stress was assessed by plasma lipid peroxidation (LPO), both basal and after Fe(2+)/H2O2 inducement. ZDF rats exhibited higher levels of IL-6 (112.4 ± 1.5 pg/mL), TNF-α (11.0 ± 0.1 pg/mL) and CRP (828 ± 16.0 µg/mL) compared with lean rats (IL-6, 89.9 ± 1.0, P Melatonin lowered IL-6 (10%, P Melatonin improved basal LPO (15%, P melatonin administration ameliorates the pro-inflammatory state and oxidative stress, which underlie the development of insulin resistance and their consequences, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

  8. Therapeutic insight into molsidomine, a nitric oxide donor in streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathani Minaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes-induced oxidative stress and hypertension play a major role in the development of nephropathy. Hence, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effects of molsidomine, a nitric oxide donor in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy (DN in rats. Materials and Methods: Type 1 diabetes was induced through a single dose of STZ (52 mg/kg, i.p. in male Wistar rats and then treated with molsidomine (5 and 10 mg/kg; p.o. for 8 weeks. Physical parameters, vital and renal function test including blood glucose, albuminuria, blood urine nitrogen, serum creatinine, and kidney index were determined. Oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation were assessed in the kidney homogenate by means of antioxidant enzymes and malondialdehyde levels. Results: DN rats exhibited a significant renal dysfunction with a reduction in body weight, excessive oxidative stress, and pathological changes. Molsidomine treatment significantly improved vital sign, renal functions, and oxidative stress in DN rats in a dose-dependent manner. The protective effect of molsidomine was also substantiated by pathological changes in the architect of the kidney. Conclusion: Molsidomine shows a significant beneficial effect in Type 1 DN in rats.

  9. Dietary Consumption of Virgin Coconut Oil Ameliorates Lipid Profiles in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Akinnuga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Virgin coconut oil (VCO is a saturated fat with promising antidiabetic properties but its ameliorative effect on lipid profiles in diabetics is rarely reported. Therefore, in this study, a total of fifteen (15 male rats weighing 200–250 g were divided into 3 experimental groups (n=5. Group I (control and Group II (diabetic control group were fed a normal rat chow while Group III (diabetic test group was fed a 10% VCO diet for 3 weeks. Group II and Group III were made diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/kg of alloxan. After 72 hours of injection, blood glucose was tested to confirm diabetes mellitus. After 3 weeks, the animals were sacrificed to collect blood samples for lipid profile analysis. The results showed a significant increase in concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, and very low density lipoprotein and decrease in concentration of high density lipoprotein in Group II when compared to Group I. Also, the concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, and very low density lipoprotein except high density lipoprotein significantly reduced in Group III when compared to Group II (P<0.01, 0.001. VCO consumption can be claimed to ameliorate lipid levels in diabetes mellitus.

  10. Effect of ozone on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and related inflammatory cytokines in rats with diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, T Y; Yan, W; Lou, J; Chen, X Y

    2016-05-13

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ozone on inflammatory cytokines in diabetic retinopathy (DR) rats. Male rats (40) weighing 300-360 g were included in this study. Thirty rats were randomly divided into the model and ozone groups after DR was induced by streptozotocin. Ten rats served as the blank group. After the diabetic models were established for one month, the rats in the ozone group were treated with 50 mg/kg ozone coloclysis for one month (three times a week). After the rats were anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection, blood samples from the abdominal aorta were collected, and the supernatant was obtained by centrifugation. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and inflammatory cytokine content in the serum was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The values of VEGF, intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1, interleukin-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor-a, and IL-6 were significantly different among the three groups (P ozone group was higher than that in the blank group. Compared with the model group, the cytokine levels in the ozone group were significantly reduced (P Ozone had no effect on the blood glucose of diabetic rats. Treatment with ozone coloclysis may effectively reduce the secretion of VEGF and inflammatory cytokines in diabetic retinopathy rats.

  11. Fenugreek Prevents the Development of STZ-Induced Diabetic Nephropathy in a Rat Model of Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingli Jin

    2014-01-01

    evidently reduced by fenugreek treatment. Furthermore, the upregulation of TGF-β1 and CTGF at a transcriptional and translational level in DN rats was distinctly inhibited by fenugreek. Consequently, fenugreek prevents DN development in a STZ-induced diabetic rat model.

  12. Uninephrectomized High-Fat-Fed Nicotinamide-Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats: A Model for the Investigation of Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, Yuri V.; Chefu, Svetlana G.; Pchelin, Ivan Yu.; Bairamov, Alekber A.; Alexeyeva, Nina P.; Shatalov, Ivan S.

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (DM2) could be reproduced in rats with alimentary obesity by using low doses of streptozotocin (LD-STZ) as well as STZ in high doses with preliminary nicotinamide (NA) administration. However, STZ could induce tubulotoxicity. Aim. To develop rat model of DN in NA-STZ-induced DM2 and compare it with LD-STZ-model in order to choose the most relevant approach for reproducing renal glomerular and tubular morphofunctional diabetic changes. Starting at 3 weeks after uninephrectomy, adult male Wistar rats were fed five-week high-fat diet and then received intraperitoneally either LD-STZ (40 mg/kg) or NA (230 mg/kg) followed by STZ (65 mg/kg). Control uninephrectomized vehicle-injected rats received normal chow. At weeks 10, 20, and 30 (the end of the study), metabolic parameters, creatinine clearance, albuminuria, and urinary tubular injury markers (NGAL, KIM-1) were evaluated as well as renal ultrastructural and light microscopic changes at weeks 20 and 30. NA-STZ-group showed higher reproducibility and stability of metabolic parameters. By week 10, in NA-STZ-group NGAL level was significantly lower compared to LD-STZ-group. By week 30, diabetic groups showed early features of DN. However, morphofunctional changes in NA-STZ-group appeared to be more pronounced than those in STZ-group despite lower levels of KIM-1 and NGAL. We proposed a new rat model of DM2 with DN characterized by stable metabolic disorders, typical renal lesions, and lower levels of tubular injury markers as compared to LD-STZ-induced diabetes. PMID:28090542

  13. Antispermatogenic activity of Morinda lucida extract in male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinusa Raji; Olumide S. Akinsomisoye; Toyin M. Salman

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of Morinda lucida Benth (Rubiaceae) on the reproductive activity of male albino rats.respectively. The control rats received the vehicle. All the treated rats had corresponding recovery groups. At the end of each experimental period, animals were killed and organ weights, sperm characteristics, serum testosterone levels,histology of the testes and fertility were assessed. Results: Morinda lucida leaf extract did not cause any changes in body and somatic organ weights, but significantly increased the testis weight (P < 0.05). The sperm motility and viability, and the epididymal sperm counts of rats treated for 13 weeks were significantly reduced (P < 0.05). Sperm morphological abnormalities and serum testosterone levels were significantly increased (P < 0.05). There were various degrees of damage to the seminiferous tubules. The extract reduced the fertility of the treated rats by reducing the litter size. Reversal of these changes, however, occurred after a period of time. Conclusion: The extract of Morinda lucida has reversible antispermatogenic properties.

  14. Effects of maternal diabetes on male offspring: high cell proliferation and increased activity of MMP-2 in the ventral prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, A A; Carvalho, C P; Santos, E M B; Botelho, F V; Araújo, F A; Deconte, S R; Tomiosso, T C; Balbi, A P C; Zanon, R G; Taboga, S R; Góes, R M; Ribeiro, D L

    2014-10-01

    This study presents a comprehensive view of the histological and functional status of the prostate of adult rat offspring of mothers subjected to gestational diabetes induced by alloxan. The ventral prostate of male adult offspring of diabetic (DP) or normal (CP) mothers was evaluated for collagen fibres, cell death, fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, cell proliferation, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), androgen receptors (AR), transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ-1), catalase and total antioxidant activity. The prostates of DP animals were lower in weight than those of the CP group. The DP group also exhibited hyperglycaemia and hypotestosteronemia, higher cell proliferation and AR expression, a reduction in α-actin (possibly interfering with the reproductive function of the prostate), and enhanced activity of MMP-2, although the absolute content of MMP-2 was lower in this group. These findings were associated with increased TGFβ-1 and decreased collagen distribution. The prostates of DP rats additionally exhibited reductions in catalase and total antioxidant activity. Thus, rats developing in a diabetic intrauterine environment have glycaemic and hormonal changes that impact on the structure and physiology of the prostate in adulthood. The increased AR expression possibly leads to elevated cell proliferation. Stromal remodelling was characterized by enhanced activity of MMP-2 and collagen degradation, even with increased TGFβ-1 activation. These changes associated with increased oxidative stress might interfere with tissue architecture and glandular homeostasis.

  15. The sensitivity of male rat reproductive organs to monosodium glutamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitthichai Iamsaard

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to investigate the sensitivity of the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, and sperm acrosome reaction (AR to monosodium L- glutamate (MSG in rats. Materials and methods. Rats were divided into four groups and fed with non-acidic MSG at 0.25, 3 or 6 g/kg body weight for 30 days or without MSG. The morphological changes in the reproductive organs were studied. The plasma testosterone level, epididymal sperm concentration, and sperm AR status were assayed. Results. Compared to the control, no significant changes were discerned in the morphology and weight of the testes, or the histological structures of epididymis, vas deferens and seminal vesicle. In contrast, significant decreases were detected in the weight of the epididymis, testosterone levels, and sperm concentration of rats treated with 6 g/kg body weight of MSG. The weight loss was evident in the seminal vesicle in MSG-administered rats. Moreover, rats treated with MSG 3 and 6 g/kg exhibited partial testicular damage, characterized by sloughing of spermatogenic cells into the seminiferous tubular lumen, and their plasma testosterone levels were significantly decreased. In the 6 g/kg MSG group, the sperm concentration was significantly decreased compared with the control or two lower dose MSG groups. In AR assays, there was no statistically significant difference between MSG-rats and normal rats. Conclusion. Testicular morphological changes, testosterone level, and sperm concentration were sensitive to high doses of MSG while the rate of AR was not affected. Therefore, the consumption of high dose MSG must be avoided because it may cause partial infertility in male.

  16. B vitamins alleviate indices of neuropathic pain in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolivalt, Corinne G; Mizisin, Leah M; Nelson, Austin; Cunha, Joice M; Ramos, Khara M; Bonke, Dieter; Calcutt, Nigel A

    2009-06-10

    There are sporadic reports that assorted combinations of B vitamins can alleviate pain in diabetic patients, but there is neither agreement on the relative efficacy of individual B vitamins nor understanding of the mechanisms involved. We therefore investigated the efficacy of a cocktail of the vitamins B1, B6 and B12 in alleviating behavioral indices of sensory dysfunction such as allodynia and hyperalgesia in diabetic rats and also the relative contribution of individual components of the cocktail. Repeated daily treatment with the cocktail of B vitamins for 7-9 days ameliorated tactile allodynia and formalin-evoked hyperalgesia in a dose-dependent manner and also improved sensory nerve conduction velocity in diabetic rats. Investigation of the contribution of individual B vitamins suggested that all three participated with variable efficacy in the alleviation of allodynia after protracted, but not single dose treatment. Only vitamin B6 improved sensory nerve conduction velocity slowing in diabetic rats when given alone. To address potential mechanisms of action, we measured markers of oxidative stress (lipid and protein oxidation) and inflammation (cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and TNFalpha protein) in the nerve but treatment with the vitamin B cocktail did not significantly affect any of these parameters. The positive effects of B vitamins on functional and behavioral disorders of diabetic rats suggest a potential for use in treating painful diabetic neuropathy.

  17. Toksisitas Ekstrak Daun Sirih Merah pada Tikus Putih Penderita Diabetes Melitus (TOXICITY OF RED BETEL EXTRACT IN DIABETIC WHITE RAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anak Agung Sagung Kendran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the toxicity of red betel  (Piper crocatum extract in diabeticwhite rat based on ALT and AST activities. This research used 20 male white rats, which randomlydivided into five groups, P1: given only aqua; P2: given alloxan 120mg/kg bw; P3: given alloxan 120 mg/kgbw and red betel leaf extract 50 mg/kg bw; P4: given alloxan 120 mg/kg bw and red betel leaf extract 100mg/kg bw; P5: given alloxan 120 mg/kg bw and glibenclamide suspension 1 mg/kg bw. ALT and ASTactivities were measured by using reflovet plus Machine. The collected data were analyzed by usinganalysis of covariance. The result showed no significant  effect (P>0.05 was observed on giving red betelleaf extract in diabetic white rat for ALT and AST activities.  It can be concluded that red betel leaf extractis potential for diabetic treatment in white rat  and it is not toxic for the rat’s ALT and AST activities.

  18. MR angiography, MR imaging and proton MR spectroscopy in-vivo assessment of skeletal muscle ischemia in diabetic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Delli Pizzi

    Full Text Available To prospectively evaluate the feasibility of using magnetic resonance (MR techniques for in-vivo assessing a rat diabetic model of limb ischemia. Unilateral hind limb ischemia was induced by ligation of the iliac-femoral artery in male streptozotocin-treated and non-diabetic control rats. Four weeks after ligation, rats underwent MR Angiography (MRA, T(1-weighted and Short Time Inversion Recovery (STIR sequences and muscle Proton MR Spectroscopy ((1H-MRS on both hind limbs. After MR examinations, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence analysis were performed. MRA showed a signal void due to flow discontinuation distal to the artery ligation. T(1-weighted and STIR images showed, respectively, the presence of tissue swelling (p = 0.018 for non-diabetic; p = 0.027 for diabetic rats and signal hyperintensity in tissue affected by occlusion. Mean total creatine/water for the occluded limb was significantly lower than for the non-occluded limbs in both non-diabetic (5.46×10(-4 vs 1.14×10(-3, p = 0.028 and diabetic rats (1.37×10(-4 vs 1.10×10(-3; p = 0.018. MR Imaging and (1H-MRS changes were more pronounced in diabetic than in non-diabetic occluded limbs (p = 0.032. MR findings were confirmed by using histological findings. Combined MR techniques can be used to demonstrate the presence of structural and metabolic changes produced by iliac-femoral artery occlusion in rat diabetic model of limb ischemia.

  19. Morphological and microvascular changes of the adrenal glands in streptozotocin-induced long-term diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sricharoenvej, Sirinush; Boonprasop, Surasak; Lanlua, Passara; Piyawinijwong, Sitha; Niyomchan, Apichaya

    2009-01-01

    It has been known that diabetes mellitus is associated with hyperfunction of the adrenal gland. However, the structural changes of adrenal gland in diabetes have rarely been studied. The aims of this study were to investigate the morphological and microvascular alterations in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced long-term diabetic rats. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into diabetic (n=8) and control (n=4) groups. Each diabetic rat was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60 mg/kg) in citrate buffer (pH 4.5). Control rats were intraperitoneally injected with the same amounts of the buffer. These animals were sacrificed at 20 weeks after the injections. The adrenal glands were processed for the morphological and microvascular studies by using conventional light microscopy (LM) and vascular corrosion cast technique combined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. In the diabetic group, the cells in zona glomeruloza (ZG) became atrophied and the thickness of this zone was found to be less than that of the controls. In the zona fasciculata (ZF) and zona reticularis (ZR), the hypertrophic cells were investigated in both layers. The degenerated chromaffin and hypertrophic sympathetic ganglion cells in the adrenal medulla were observed. Also some degenerated ganglion cells were found. Additionally, lymphocyte infiltration, macrophages and amyloidosis were found in the adrenal medulla of long-term diabetic rats with renal failure. Under the SEM observation, the luminal diameters of capillaries in the diabetic group were dilated in all zones. In addition, these capillaries in the ZF and ZR were arranged in tortuous courses. This study demonstrates morphological and microvascular changes in the adrenal gland of diabetic rats which are in accordance with the hormonal changes reported by previous investigators.

  20. Effects of Short-term Renovascular Hypertension and Type 2 Diabetes on Cardiac Functions in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Nekooeian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cardiac effects simultaneously occurring during experimental hypertension and diabetes have rarely been investigated. This study aimed at examining the effects of short-term renovascular hypertension and type 2 diabetes on cardiac functions. Methods: Five groups (7 each of male Sprague-Dawley rats, including a control group, a diabetes (induced by Streptozocin and Nicotinamide group, a renovascular hypertensive (induced by placing Plexiglas clips on the left renal arteries group, a sham group, and a simultaneously hypertensive-diabetic group, were used. The animals’ hearts were used for isolated heart studies, and the indices of cardiac functions and coronary effluent creatine kinase MB were measured. The results were analyzed using One-way Analysis of Variance, followed by the Duncan Multiple Range test. Results: The diabetic group had a significantly lower rate of rise (-29.5% and decrease (-36.18% in ventricular pressure, left ventricular developed pressure (-28.8%, and rate pressure product (-35%, and significantly higher creatine kinase MB (+166% and infarct size (+36.2% than those of the control group. The hypertensive group had a significantly higher rate of rise (+12.17% and decrease (+16.2% in ventricular pressure, left ventricular developed pressure (+16%, and rate pressure product (+24%, and significantly lower creatine kinase MB (-30% and infarct size (-27% than those of the sham group. Simultaneously, the diabetic and hypertensive rats had a significantly higher rate of rise (+32% and decrease (+30.2% in ventricular pressure, left ventricular developed pressure (+17.2%, and rate pressure product (+22.2%, and significantly lower creatine kinase MB (-24% and infarct size (-16.2% than those of the diabetic group. Conclusion: The findings indicated that the simultaneity of hypertension with type 2 diabetes attenuated diabetes-induced cardiac impairment.

  1. Effects of a Novel Glucokinase Activator, HMS5552, on Glucose Metabolism in a Rat Model of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huili

    2017-01-01

    Glucokinase (GK) plays a critical role in the control of whole-body glucose homeostasis. We investigated the possible effects of a novel glucokinase activator (GKA), HMS5552, to the GK in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups: control group, diabetic group, low-dose (10 mg/kg) HMS5552-treated diabetic group (HMS-L), and high-dose (30 mg/kg) HMS5552-treated diabetic group (HMS-H). HMS5552 was administered intragastrically to the T2DM rats for one month. The levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, fasting plasma insulin (FINS), and glucagon (FG) were determined, and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. The expression patterns of proteins and genes associated with insulin resistance and GK activity were assayed. Compared with diabetic rats, the FINS level was significantly decreased in the HMS5552-treated diabetic rats. HMS5552 treatment significantly lowered the blood glucose levels and improved GK activity and insulin resistance. The immunohistochemistry, western blot, and semiquantitative RT-PCR results further demonstrated the effects of HMS5552 on the liver and pancreas. Our data suggest that the novel GKA, HMS5552, exerts antidiabetic effects on the liver and pancreas by improving GK activity and insulin resistance, which holds promise as a novel drug for the treatment of T2DM patients. PMID:28191470

  2. Neuroprotective effect of Cucumis melo Var. flexuosus leaf extract on the brains of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Doaa S

    2017-02-01

    The central nervous system is one of the most vulnerable organs affected by the oxidative stress associated with diabetes mellitus. Healthy food provides an important source for antioxidants. Therefore, the protective effect of Cucumis melo var. flexuosus (C. melo var. flexuosus) leaf extract on the brains of diabetic rats was investigated. Adult male albino rats divided into 5 groups of 6 rats each were assigned into a normal control group and four diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced in rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 60 mg/kg bw). One of the four diabetic groups was left untreated and was considered as a diabetic control group while the three other groups were treated with C. melo var. flexuosus leaf extract at the doses of 30, 60 and 120 mg/kg bw for a period of 30 days. After completion of experimental duration plasma and brains were used for evaluating biochemical changes. The obtained data showed that C. melo var. flexuosus leaf extract treatment lowered blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, brain tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin levels, brain malondialdehyde content and caspase-3 activity. Furthermore, the treatment resulted in a marked increase in plasma dopamine, melatonin, brain vascular endothelial growth factor-A levels, brain catalase and superoxide dismutase activities. From the present study, it can be concluded that the C. melo var. flexuosus leaf extract exerts a neuroprotective effect against oxidative damage associated with diabetes.

  3. Estimation of lipid profile and glucose level in alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinwe O. Ewenighi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cymbopogon citratus extract has been reported to have hypoglycemic properties but not much is known about its hypolipidemic effects. In this study it was aimed to demonstrate the hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic potentials of Cymbopogon citratus extract on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Eighteen male albino rats of weights between 106-118 g were used for the study and divided into three groups of six rats each. The rats of the non-diabetic control group were given 1 ml of distilled water daily. Two other groups induced with diabetes using alloxan by a single dose administration of 120 mg/kg body weight (BW; one of these diabetic rat groups were treated with Cymbopogon citratus extract daily at 1.5 ml/100 g BW for 4 weeks while the other group was left untreated. Blood samples were collected and total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, low-density lipoprotein (LDL and glucose levels were assayed. Results: After four weeks of treatment, data indicated significant reductions in BW, blood glucose, TG, TC and LDL levels of diabetic rats treated with Cymbopogon citratus extract compared to the non-treated group. The treated diabetic rats also indicated significantly higher HDL levels compared to the non-treated group. Conclusion: Treatment of diabetic rats with the Cymbopogon citratus extract lowered blood glucose, TG, TC and LDL levels and increased the HDL level. This shows that the extract has both hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects. [J Exp Integr Med 2013; 3(3.000: 249-253

  4. The Protective Effect of Aloe Vera on Histological Structure of Endocrine Portion of Pancreas Gland in the Diabetic Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Erfani-Majd

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since aloe vera plant has many medical benefits, the present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of Aloe vera gel on the pancreatic islets and beta cells. Methods: This experimental study consisted of 50 mature male rats aged 2-3 months and weighed 200-250 g, who were randomly divided into five groups (n=10. Group I (control did not receive any treatments, and group II were diabetized via Streptozotocin (IP in 65 mg/kg, whose blood sample was taken after one week. Rats with blood glucose more than 250 mg/dL were considered as diabetic. Group III diabetic rats received the Aloe vera gel daily with dosage of 400 mg/kg, and group IV diabetic rats received insulin in 10 units/rat. Group V involved healthy rats which received only Aloe vera gel. After the last Aloe vera gel administration, blood glucose and body weight of all groups were measured on 15th and 30th days. Animals were euthanized with ether. Then tissues samples were collected from pancreas gland and fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin solution. The 5-6 µ sections were made by paraffin embedding method and stained using haematoxylin-eosin (H&E and Aldehyde fuchsin stains. Ultimately, the histomorphometrical parameters were evaluated. Results: The mean number and size of pancreatic islets and beta cells of Langerhans islets decreased significantly in the diabetic group compared to the control group. The number of beta cells and diameter of langerhans islets increased significantly in the rats treated by Aloe vera gel in comparison to diabetic group at the end of 15th and 30th days. Conclusion: Applying Aloe vera gel seems to improve the renewal and restoration of langerhans islets and beta cells of pancreas gland in the diabetic rat.

  5. Comparative Evaluation of Different Commercial Topical Natural Products Base Formulation on Wound Healing in Normal and Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surayya Razali

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Wound healing is impaired and delayed in diabetes state. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of different topical natural products; Olive Heal, olive oil and vitamin E on the wound healing process in normal and diabetic rats. The study was carried out using 56 male Sprague-Dawley rats which were assigned randomly into 7 groups:  group I (normal wounded untreated, group II (normal wounded treated with Olive Heal, group III (diabetic wounded untreated, group IV (diabetic wounded treated with Jelonet®, group V (diabetic wounded treated with Olive Heal, group VI (diabetic wounded treated with olive oil, and group VII (diabetic wounded treated with palm vitamin E. Four full thickness excisions were made at the back of the rats. Wound healing was assessed by rate of wound closure and histological evaluation on the tenth day after wounding. All treatments were able to enhance the wound healing process by increasing rate of wound closure significantly (p0.05 on collagen deposition and neovascularization scores. However, all treatments showed high histological scores compared to group III. In conclusion, topical application of the natural products enhanced wound healing process in normal and diabetic rats. Industrial relevance. Wound healing impairment in diabetes mellitus patients is one of the complications which can debilitate patients. Natural products that can be used as topical dressing have been studied. This study was conducted to determine the ability of Olive Heal, olive oil and vitamin E in promoting wound healing. These treatments pose fewer side effects compared to the chemical drugs used commercially. In addition, antioxidant contents in these natural products may play a role to reduce radicals and act as scavengers against reactive species. It may protect the cells from oxidative damage thus expediting wound healing. This will explore the possibilities of commercializing these natural products as wound healing agents

  6. Histopathologic Responses of the Dental Pulp to Calcium-Enriched Mixture (CEM) and Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) in Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Zahra Sadat; Haddadi, Azam; Mesgarani, Abbas; Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Mostafazadeh, Amrollah; Bijani, Ali; Ashraphpour, Manouchehr

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease which affects the healing ability of the pulp and periodontium. The aim of the present study was to assess the histopathologic response of dental pulp to pulp capping using MTA or CEM cement in diabetic rats. Thirty two Wistar male rats aged between 8 and 10 weeks (weight: 200-250g) were divided into two groups of diabetic (n=16) and healthy (n=16) animals and then subdivided into MTA and CEM subgroups. In each group, 10 MTA treated, 10 CEM treated and 12 intact (without any intervention) teeth were analyzed. Intact teeth were considered as a baseline inflammation control. Then, class I cavity was made in the maxillary first molars teeth with pinpoint pulpal exposure. Either MTA or CEM cement was then placed over exposed pulp as pulp capping agent and the cavities were restored using resin- modified glass ionomer cement. Both teeth of rats in subgroups remained intact without any intervention. After four weeks, the rats were sacrificed and the teeth were subjected to histological evaluation in terms of inflammation intensity, dentin bridge formation and dentin bridge continuity. The CEM cement treated diabetic rats exhibited a significant higher inflammatory response when compared to healthy control group (P=0.004) whereas, MTA treated diabetic rats did not exhibit a significant higher inflammatory response in comparison to healthy controls. There was no significant difference between MTA and CEM cement in the induction of dentin bridge formation in diabetic and healthy controls. This preliminary study suggests that MTA is a superior dental material than CEM cement for pulp therapy in subjects with diabetes.

  7. Hypoglycemic Effects of Achillea Wilhelmsii in Normal and Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Sadeghi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction & Objective: Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome, initially characterized by a loss of glucose homeostasis resulting from defects in Insulin secretion, insulin action both is resulting in impaired metabolism of glucose and other energy yielding fuels as lipids and protein. Several medicinal herbs have been described with hypoglycemic effects. These include: Allium Sativum, Trigonella Foenum, Marus nigra, Ocimum Sanctum, and Astragalus Ovinus. The main purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of Achillea Wilhelmsii C. Koch on blood glucose levels of diabetic rats induced by stereptozotocine (STZ. Materials & Methods: In this experimental research, forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: non-diabetic (normal and STZ-induced diabetic mice. Each group was further divided into four groups: control (induced by normal saline and treatment received 100, 200.and 300 mg/kg aqueous- alcoholic extract of Achillea Wilhelmsii C. Koch daily for one month. The blood glucose level was measured and Data were analyzed by t-test and ANOVA. Results: At the end of first month, significant decrease was observed in blood glucose level in diabetic rats which received 100 mg/kg (p<0/001, 200mg/kg(p<0/01, 300mg/kg (p<0/001 of aqueous alcoholic extract of Achillea Wilhelmsii C. Koch in comparison with control groups. The extract had not have any significant effects on the blood glucose level of normal groups except in those which received 300mg/kg of the extract. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that aqueous- alcoholic extract of Achillea Wilhelmsii C. Koch have a significant effect on reducing the blood glucose level of diabetic rats.

  8. Sympathoadrenal activity during exercise in partial diabetic and diabetic rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwing, H; Strubbe, J.H.; Bruggink, J.E; Steffens, A.B

    1997-01-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is associated with altered fat and carbohydrate metabolism and disturbed sympathoadrenal functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the short-term diabetic state alters the activity of the sympathoadrenal system and of the adrenal cortex during

  9. Behavioral effects of dehydroepiandrosterone in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotova, Julia; Sapronov, Nikolay

    2004-09-01

    It is well-documented that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) exhibits various behavioral effects in rodents, at least one of which is modulation of learning/memory processes in several test paradigms. However, little is known about the influence of DHEA on cognitive performance in the adult rodents. This work was designed to determine whether chronic DHEA administration during 10 days in the high (0.7 mg/kg, s.c.) or low (0.1 mg/kg, s.c.) doses has any effect on learning/memory abilities and behavior in the adult male rats (5- to 6-month old). Effect of DHEA was estimated in active and passive avoidance tasks, behavior was registered in the elevated "plus" maze and the "open field" test. DHEA in the high dose significantly (pDHEA in the low dose significantly (pDHEA in the high dose did not significantly modify behavior in intact rats as compared with control group. Results of the ANOVA on passive avoidance performance revealed no statistically significant differences among the groups receiving DHEA in the high or low doses as compared to the control. However, DHEA in the low dose significantly (pDHEA, the active avoidance performance did not differ significantly from the control. Thus, chronic DHEA administration has a modulatory action on the learning and behavior of the adult male rats.

  10. Effect of Fenugreek seed Extract (Trigonella Foenum-graecum on testicular tissue in the embryos of Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M beyzaei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Diabetes mellitus is associated with some of the metabolic dysfunctions represented with chronic hyperglycemia.  This disease can disrupt the function of testicular tissue and decline male sexual ability. Some of the medicinal herbs such as fenugreeks have protective effects on tissues via hypoglycemic and anti-oxidative properties. In the present paper,  the effects of fenugreek seed extract was evaluated on testicular tissue of 20 day-old embryos from diabetic rats. Methods: In the present experimental study, sixty normal female rats were divided into three normal groups: non-diabetic control, glibenclamide and fenugreek groups and three diabetic groups: diabetic control, glibenclamide treatment and fenugreek treatment groups. Single injection of streptozotocin was used for induction of diabetes in these female rats. After detection of pregnancy, 1000 mg/kg fenugreek seed extract was fed to non-diabetic and diabetic fenugreek groups and 5 mg/kg glibenclamide was fed to non-diabetic and diabetic glibenclamide groups. Non-diabetic and diabetic control group was fed with distilled water as the same volume as the fenugreek extract. After 20 days, their embryos were pulled out and fixed at 10% formalin. After tissue processing, five micron sections were stained with Hematoxylin- eosin and evaluated for morphometric changes of testicular tissue. Data were evaluated with One-Way ANOVA test and Duncan post-hoc test. Results: The mean diameter of seminiferous tubules and testis capsule thickness indicated no significant differences between fenugreek treatment and diabetic control groups (P> 0.05. Mean body weight of male embryos was significantly lower in fenugreek treatment group in comparison with the diabetic control group (P&le 0.05. The leydig, sertoli and spermatogonial cells number was significantly higher in fenugreek treatment group in compression with diabetic control group                      (P

  11. Glycemic control with insulin prevents progression of dental caries and caries-related periodontitis in diabetic WBN/KobSlc rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Yutaka; Sano, Tomoya; Kodama, Yasushi; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2013-07-01

    We have previously reported that dental caries progress in spontaneously and chemically induced diabetic rodent models. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between hyperglycemia and dental caries by evaluating the preventive effect of glycemic control with insulin on the progression of the lesions in diabetic rats. Male WBN/KobSlc rats aged 15 weeks were divided into groups of spontaneously diabetic rats (intact group), spontaneously diabetic rats with insulin treatment (INS group), alloxan-induced prolonged diabetic rats (AL group), and alloxan-induced prolonged diabetic rats with insulin treatment (AL + INS group). The animals were killed at 90 weeks of age, and their oral tissue was examined. Dental caries and periodontitis were frequently detected in the intact group, and the lesions were enhanced in the AL group (in which there was an increased duration of diabetes). Meanwhile, glycemic control with insulin reduced the incidence and severity of dental caries and periodontitis in the INS group, and the effects became more pronounced in the AL + INS group. In conclusion, glycemic control by insulin prevented the progression of dental caries and caries-related periodontitis in the diabetic rats.

  12. Effect of tetrahydrocurcumin on insulin receptor status in type 2 diabetic rats: studies on insulin binding to erythrocytes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pidaran Murugan; Leelavinothan Pari; Chippada Appa Rao

    2008-03-01

    Curcumin is the most active component of turmeric. It is believed that curcumin is a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. Tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) is one of the major metabolites of curcumin, and exhibits many of the same physiological and pharmacological activities as curcumin and, in some systems, may exert greater antioxidant activity than curcumin. Using circulating erythrocytes as the cellular mode, the insulin-binding effect of THC and curcumin was investigated. Streptozotocin (STZ)–nicotinamide-induced male Wistar rats were used as the experimental models. THC (80 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally for 45 days. The effect of THC on blood glucose, plasma insulin and insulin binding to its receptor on the cell membrane of erythrocytes were studied. Mean specific binding of insulin was significantly lowered in diabetic rats with a decrease in plasma insulin. This was due to a significant decrease in mean insulin receptors. Erythrocytes from diabetic rats showed a decreased ability for insulin–receptor binding when compared with THC-treated diabetic rats. Scatchard analysis demonstrated that the decrease in insulin binding was accounted for by a decrease in insulin receptor sites per cell, with erythrocytes of diabetic rats having less insulin receptor sites per cell than THC-treated rats. High affinity (Kd1), low affinity (Kd2) and kinetic analyses revealed an increase in the average receptor affinity of erythrocytes from THC-treated rats compared with those of diabetic rats. These results suggest that acute alteration of the insulin receptor on the membranes of erythrocytes occurred in diabetic rats. Treatment with THC significantly improved specific insulin binding to the receptors, with receptor numbers and affinity binding reaching near-normal levels. Our study suggests the mechanism by which THC increases the number of total cellular insulin binding sites resulting in a significant increase in plasma insulin. The effect of THC is

  13. Assessment of hypoglycemic activity of the aqueous extract of Abuta grandifolia (Mart.) in diabetic rats induced by alloxan

    OpenAIRE

    Justil, Carlos; Laboratorio de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Angulo H., Pedro; Laboratorio de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Justil G., Hugo; Laboratorio de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina Humana, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Arroyo A., Jorge; Laboratorio de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina Humana, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima

    2015-01-01

    Abuta grandifolia is a native plant from the Amazon region, traditionally used in the control of diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of reducing the glucose level when the aqueous extract (AE) ofA. grandifolia (Mart.) is orally administered in diabetic rats induced by alloxan. Thirty Sprague Dawley male rats, 3-month-old, body weight of 240 ± 10 g were used. The animals were distributed in six groups (negative control, positive control, treated wi...

  14. Protein turnover in adipose tissue from fasted or diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, Marc E.; Ost, Alan H.; Coffman, Julia

    1986-01-01

    Protein synthesis and degradation in vitro were compared in epididymal fat pads from animals deprived of food for 48 h or treated 6 or 12 days prior with streptozotocin to induce diabetes. Although both fasting and diabetes led to depressed (-24 to -57 percent) protein synthesis, the diminution in protein degradation (-63 to -72 percent) was even greater, so that net in vitro protein balance improved dramatically. Insulin failed to inhibit protein degradation in fat pads of these rats as it does for fed animals. Although insulin stimulated protein synthesis in fat pads of fasted and 12 day diabetic rats, the absolute change was much smaller than that seen in the fed state. The inhibition of protein degradation by leucine also seems to be less in fasted animals, probably because leucine catabolism is slower in fasting. These results show that fasting and diabetes may improve protein balance in adipose tissue but diminish the regulatory effects of insulin.

  15. Protein turnover in adipose tissue from fasted or diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, Marc E.; Ost, Alan H.; Coffman, Julia

    1986-01-01

    Protein synthesis and degradation in vitro were compared in epididymal fat pads from animals deprived of food for 48 h or treated 6 or 12 days prior with streptozotocin to induce diabetes. Although both fasting and diabetes led to depressed (-24 to -57 percent) protein synthesis, the diminution in protein degradation (-63 to -72 percent) was even greater, so that net in vitro protein balance improved dramatically. Insulin failed to inhibit protein degradation in fat pads of these rats as it does for fed animals. Although insulin stimulated protein synthesis in fat pads of fasted and 12 day diabetic rats, the absolute change was much smaller than that seen in the fed state. The inhibition of protein degradation by leucine also seems to be less in fasted animals, probably because leucine catabolism is slower in fasting. These results show that fasting and diabetes may improve protein balance in adipose tissue but diminish the regulatory effects of insulin.

  16. Attenuation of Diabetic Conditions by Sida rhombifolia in Moderately Diabetic Rats and Inability to Produce Similar Effects in Severely Diabetic in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Padmaja; Kwape, Tebogo Elvis

    2015-12-01

    This study was done out to evaluate the effects of Sida rhombifolia methanol extract (SRM) on diabetes in moderately diabetic (MD) and severely diabetic (SD) Sprague-Dawley rats. SRM was prepared by soaking the powdered plant material in 70% methanol and rota evaporating the methanol from the extract. Effective hypoglycemic doses were established by performing oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) in normal rats. Hourly effects of SRM on glucose were observed in the MD and the SD rats. Rats were grouped, five rats to a group, into normal control 1 (NC1), MD control 1 (MDC1), MD experimental 1 (MDE1), SD control 1 (SDC1), and SD experimental 1 (SDE1) groups. All rats in the control groups were administered 1 mL of distilled water (DW). The rats in the MDE1 and the SDE1 groups were administered SRM orally at 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight (BW), respectively, dissolved in 1 mL of DW. Blood was collected initially and at intervals of 1 hour for 6 hours to measure blood glucose. A similar experimental design was followed for the 30-day long-term trial. Finally, rats were sacrificed, and blood was collected to measure blood glucose, lipid profiles, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH). OGTTs indicated that two doses (200 and 300 mg/kg BW) were effective hypoglycemic doses in normal rats. Both doses reduced glucose levels after 1 hour in the MDE1 and the SDE1 groups. A long-term trial of SRM in the MD group showed a reduced glucose level, a normal lipid profile, and normal GSH and TBARS levels. In SD rats, SRM had no statistically significant effects on these parameters. Normal weight was achieved in the MD rats, but the SD rats showed reduced BW. The study demonstrates that SRM has potential to alleviate the conditions of moderate diabetic, but not severe diabetes.

  17. Effect of naringerin on biochemical parameters in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Angélica Henrique Fernandes

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Amongst the numerous co-adjuvant therapies which could influence the incidence and progression of diabetic complications, antioxidants and flavonoids are currently being tested in clinical trials. We investigated the effect of naringerin on biochemical parameters in streptozotocin-induced (STZ - 60 mg/kg, i.p. diabetic rats. Male rats were divided into four groups: G1: untreated controls; G2: normal rats receiving naringerin; G3: untreated diabetics; G4: diabetics rats receiving naringerin. The naringerin (50mg/kg, i.p, decreased the hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia associated with STZ-diabetes. The concentrations of serum insulin in treated diabetic rats tended to be increased. Naringerin treatment prevents STZ-induced changes in the activities of ALT, AST and LDH in the liver and heart, indicating the protective effect of naringerin against the hepatic and cardiac toxicity caused by STZ. The glycogen level in cardiac and hepatic tissues elevated with naringerin in diabetic rats. The naringerin can improve the glucose and lipid metabolism and is beneficial in preventing diabetic complications.Dentre as numerosas terapias para minimizar as complicações diabéticas, os antioxidantes e flavonoides são testados na clínica médica. Foi analisado o efeito da naringerina sobre os parâmetros bioquímicos em ratos diabéticos induzidos por estreptozotocina (STZ - 60mg/kg, i.p.. Ratos machos foram divididos em 4 grupos: G1: controle não tratado; G2: ratos normais que receberam naringerina; G3: diabéticos não tratados; G4: ratos diabéticos que receberam naringerina. Naringerina (50mg/kg, i.p., decresceu a hiperglicemia e a hiperlipidemia em ratos diabéticos. A concentração sérica de insulina em ratos tratados tendeu aumentar. A naringerina preveniu as alterações, provocadas pela estreptozotocina, na atividade hepática e cardíaca de ALT, AST e LDH, indicando o efeito protetor da naringerina sobre estes tecidos, contra toxicidade

  18. Cinnamon extract inhibits α-glucosidase activity and dampens postprandial glucose excursion in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirumurugan Kavitha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background α-glucosidase inhibitors regulate postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG by impeding the rate of carbohydrate digestion in the small intestine and thereby hampering the diet associated acute glucose excursion. PPHG is a major risk factor for diabetic vascular complications leading to disabilities and mortality in diabetics. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, a spice, has been used in traditional medicine for treating diabetes. In this study we have evaluated the α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of cinnamon extract to control postprandial blood glucose level in maltose, sucrose loaded STZ induced diabetic rats. Methods The methanol extract of cinnamon bark was prepared by Soxhlet extraction. Phytochemical analysis was performed to find the major class of compounds present in the extract. The inhibitory effect of cinnamon extract on yeast α-glucosidase and rat-intestinal α-glucosidase was determined in vitro and the kinetics of enzyme inhibition was studied. Dialysis experiment was performed to find the nature of the inhibition. Normal male Albino wistar rats and STZ induced diabetic rats were treated with cinnamon extract to find the effect of cinnamon on postprandial hyperglycemia after carbohydrate loading. Results Phytochemical analysis of the methanol extract displayed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, coumarins and anthraquinones. In vitro studies had indicated dose-dependent inhibitory activity of cinnamon extract against yeast α-glucosidase with the IC 50 value of 5.83 μg/ml and mammalian α-glucosidase with IC 50 value of 670 μg/ml. Enzyme kinetics data fit to LB plot pointed out competitive mode of inhibition and the membrane dialysis experiment revealed reversible nature of inhibition. In vivo animal experiments are indicative of ameliorated postprandial hyperglycemia as the oral intake of the cinnamon extract (300 mg/kg body wt. significantly dampened the postprandial hyperglycemia by 78.2% and 52

  19. Activated platelets from diabetic rats cause endothelial dysfunction by decreasing Akt/endothelial NO synthase signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Ishida

    Full Text Available Diabetes is associated with endothelial dysfunction and platelet activation, both of which may contribute to increased cardiovascular risk. The purpose of this study was to characterize circulating platelets in diabetes and clarify their effects on endothelial function. Male Wistar rats were injected with streptozotocin (STZ to induce diabetes. Each experiment was performed by incubating carotid arterial rings with platelets (1.65×10(7 cells/mL; 30 min isolated from STZ or control rats. Thereafter, the vascular function was characterized in isolated carotid arterial rings in organ bath chambers, and each expression and activation of enzymes involved in nitric oxide and oxidative stress levels were analyzed. Endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by acetylcholine was significantly attenuated in carotid arteries treated with platelets isolated from STZ rats. Similarly, treatment with platelets isolated from STZ rats significantly reduced ACh-induced Akt/endothelial NO synthase signaling/NO production and enhanced TXB2 (metabolite of TXA2, while CD61 (platelet marker and CD62P (activated platelet marker were increased in carotid arteries treated with platelets isolated from STZ rats. Furthermore, the platelets isolated from STZ rats decreased total eNOS protein and eNOS dimerization, and increased oxidative stress. These data provide direct evidence that circulating platelets isolated from diabetic rats cause dysfunction of the endothelium by decreasing NO production (via Akt/endothelial NO synthase signaling pathway and increasing TXA2. Moreover, activated platelets disrupt the carotid artery by increasing oxidative stress.

  20. Propolis effect on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    DRS Sartori; CL Kawakami; CL Orsatti; JM Sforcin

    2009-01-01

    Propolis is one of the hive products that has been used extensively in folk medicine, due to its several biological and pharmacological properties. Besides, propolis-containing products have been intensely marketed by the pharmaceutical industry and health-food stores. This work was carried out in order to investigate whether propolis treatment could revert the metabolic alterations of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Animals were kept in metabolic cages and diabetes was induced by a sin...

  1. Reproductive toxicity of sodium valproate in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bairy Laxminarayana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the effects of sodium valproate on rat sperm morphology, sperm count, motility, and histopathological changes in testis. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats (12 week old were treated with sodium valpraote and sacrificed at the end of 2 nd , 4 th , 5 th , 7 th , 10 th and 15 th week after the last exposure to sodium valproate. Epididymal sperm count, sperm motility, sperm morphology, and histopathology of testes were analyzed. Results: Sperm count and sperm motility were decreased significantly by sodium valproate. The percentage of abnormal sperms increased in a dose-dependent manner. A histopathological study revealed that sodium valproate had caused sloughing of epithelial cells in testes. Conclusion: Sodium valproate causes reversible change in sperm motility, sperm count, morphology, and cytoarchitecture of testes.

  2. ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC EFFECT OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA EXTRACT IN STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vetrivadivelan et al.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to evaluate the antihyperlipidemic effect of aqueous extract of stem of Tinospora cordifolia in streptozotocin induced diabetic and diet induced hyperlipidemic rats. Diabetes mellitus was