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Sample records for diabetic male albino

  1. A study of the effect of mother tincture of Syzygium jambolanum on metabolic disorders of Streptozotocin induced diabetic male albino rat

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    Soumyajit Maiti

    2014-01-01

    Results: The study indicated that the treatment of mother tincture of Syzygium jambolanum in diabetic albino rats restored the body weight and significantly controlled the elevated blood glucose level as compared with the untreated group. Levels of glycogen in liver and skeletal muscle tissues were recovered by treatment with Syzygium jambolanum in diabetic rats as compared with the untreated diabetic rats. Levels of serum urea, uric acid and creatinine were increased in diabetic rats significantly as compared with the control group, which were resettled in the control group after treatment with mother tincture of Syzygium jambolanum in diabetic animals. Alongside, significant recovery in the activities of antioxidant enzymes like catalyse, peroxidase and super oxide dismutase, the levels of free radicals generated as bye products in hepatic and renal tissues were also observed in the treatment with mother tincture of Syzygium jambolanum treated diabetic animals with respect to the untreated in diabetic animals. Conclusion: The homoeopathic mother tincture of Syzygium jambolanum has therapeutic effect on metabolic disorders and oxidative injuries in Streptozotocin induced diabetic male albino rats.

  2. Protective effect of Pterocarpus marsupium bark extracts against cataract through the inhibition of aldose reductase activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male albino rats.

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    Xu, YanLi; Zhao, Yongxia; Sui, YaNan; Lei, XiaoJun

    2018-04-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the protective effect of Pterocarpus marsupium bark extracts against cataract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male albino rats. Aldose reductase is a key enzyme in the intracellular polyol pathway, which plays a major role in the development of diabetic cataract. Rats were divided into five groups as normal control, diabetic control, and diabetic control treated with different concentrations of Pterocarpus marsupium bark extracts. Presence of major constituents in Pterocarpus marsupium bark extract was performed by qualitative analysis. Body weight changes, blood glucose, blood insulin, and reduced glutathione (GSH) and aldose reductase mRNA and protein expression were determined. Rat body weight gain was noted following treatment with bark extracts. The blood glucose was reduced up to 36% following treatment with bark extracts. The blood insulin and tissue GSH contents were substantially increased more than 100% in diabetic rats following treatment with extracts. Aldose reductase activity was reduced up to 79.3% in diabetic rats following treatment with extracts. V max , K m , and K i of aldose reductase were reduced in the lens tissue homogenate compared to the diabetic control. Aldose reductase mRNA and protein expression were reduced more than 50% following treatment with extracts. Treatment with Pterocarpus marsupium bark was able to normalize these levels. Taking all these data together, it is concluded that the use of Pterocarpus marsupium bark extracts could be the potential therapeutic approach for the reduction of aldose reductase against diabetic cataract.

  3. Antioxidative and antidiabetic activities of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) juice on oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar albino rats.

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    Oseni, O A; Odesanmi, O E; Oladele, F C

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional and medicinal importance of watermelon has been emphasized and its diseases preventive and curative power must be evaluated. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate the antioxidative and antidiabetic potentials of watermelon. The in vivo assay was carried out on 15 male albino rats which were divided into groups of three stages. In stage I, all animals received normal feeds and water for 1-week after, which five animals were selected and sacrificed for biochemical analyses which form the nondiabetic control, group. The remaining animals were fasted for 24 h before injected intra-peritoneally with a freshly prepared solution of alloxan at a dosage of 35 mg/kg body weight. Five out of the 10 rats were sacrificed as diabetic group while last five animals were fed with water melon juice for a week after, which they were sacrificed to form the treated group animals. In all the groups, body weights, fasting blood sugar, total protein level in the blood, and other biochemical parameters such as reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration; catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) % inhibition activities were determined. The results of the biochemical analyses showed a significant increase in the concentration of blood glucose level after treatment with alloxan, which indicates that diabetic was induced. Hence, watermelon juice caused increased in weight, hypoglycemia; and increases in GSH, GPx, catalase, and SOD % inhibition activities with reduced MDA concentration after treatments. The watermelon juice resulted in the restoration of impaired conditions of the rats.

  4. Comparative Effects of Some Medicinal Plants: Anacardium occidentale, Eucalyptus globulus, Psidium guajava, and Xylopia aethiopica Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Albino Rats

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    Okpashi, Victor Eshu; Bayim, Bayim Peter-Robins; Obi-Abang, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Insulin therapy and oral antidiabetic agents/drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus have not sufficiently proven to control hyperlipidemia, which is commonly associated with the diabetes mellitus. Again the hopes that traditional medicine and natural plants seem to trigger researchers in this area is yet to be discovered. This research was designed to compare the biochemical effects of some medicinal plants in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats using named plants that are best at lowering blood glucose and hyperlipidemia and ameliorating other complications of diabetes mellitus by methods of combined therapy. The results obtained showed 82% decrease in blood glucose concentration after the 10th hour to the fortieth hour. There was significant increase P 0.05 recorded in the glutathione peroxidase activity of E. globulus (100 mg/kg) when compared to the test groups of P. guajava (250 mg/kg) and X. aethiopica (250 mg/kg). Catalase activity showed significant increase P 0.05, there was no significant difference seen between test group and treated groups. Meanwhile, degree of significance was observed in other parameters analysed. The biochemical analysis conducted in this study showed positive result, attesting to facts from previous works. Though these individual plants extracts exhibited significant increase in amelorating diabetes complication and blood glucose control compared to glibenclamide, a synthetic antidiabetic drug. Greater performance was observed in the synergy groups. Therefore, a poly/combined formulation of these plants extracts yielded significant result as well as resolving some other complications associated with diabetics. PMID:25525518

  5. Histomorphological effects of isoniazid induced hepatotoxicity in male albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humayun, F.; Zareen, N.

    2017-01-01

    To observe the histomorphological changes of isoniazid induced hepatotoxicity in male albino mice. Methodology: This experimental study was carried out at University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan from January to December 2013. Forty male albino mice selected by simple random technique, were divided into two groups; A-Control, and B-experimental. Group A comprised of 15, while Group B comprised 25 mice. Both the groups were kept under identical conditions and diet. However, experimental group was treated with an additional oral hepatotoxic dose of isoniazid i.e. 100mg/kg bodyweight daily for 30 days. After 30 days, the animals were sacrificed and livers were dissected out. Gross comparison of the organ and stained sections were histologically compared for morphological differences between the groups. Fischer Exact test was used to analyze the qualitative data and a p<0.05 was considered significant. Results: Group A animals showed the normal liver architecture. Whereas, those of Group B showed deranged hepatic histomorphology. Conclusion: Hepatotoxic dose of Isoniazid caused histomorphological alterations in the liver of male albino mice. (author)

  6. Effect of scoparia dulcis (Sweet Broomweed) plant extract on plasma antioxidants in streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetes in male albino Wistar rats.

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    Pari, L; Latha, M

    2004-07-01

    Clinical research has confirmed the efficacy of several plants in the modulation of oxidative stress associated with diabetes mellitus. Scoparia dulcis plant extract is tried for prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by streptozotocin injection. A single dose of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg body weight) produced decrease in insulin, hyperglycemia, increased lipid peroxidation (Thiobarbituric reactive substances and lipid hydroperoxides) and decreased antioxidant levels (vitamin C, vitamin E, reduced glutathione, ceruloplasmin). Oral administration of an aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis plant (200 mg/kg body weight) for 6 weeks to diabetic rats significantly increased the plasma insulin and plasma antioxidants and significantly decreased lipid peroxidation. The effect of Scoparia dulcis plant extract at 200 mg/kg body weight was better than that of glibenclamide, a reference drug.

  7. Antihyperglycemic effects of separate and composite extract of root of Musa paradisiaca and leaf of Coccinia indica in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male albino rat.

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    Mallick, Chhanda; Chatterjee, Kausik; Guhabiswas, Mehuli; Ghosh, Debidas

    2007-02-16

    We evaluated the antihyperglycaemic properties of aqueous-methanolic (40:60) extract of root of Musa paradisiaca and leaf of Coccinia indica in separate as well as in composite manner by conducting experiment on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. We measured food and water intake ability, the fasting blood glucose level, glucose tolerance, activities of important carbohydrate metabolic enzymes like glucose-6-phosphatase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, hexokinase in liver along with quantification of glycogen in liver and in skeletal muscle and serum insulin level. We noted that after treatment of aqueous methanolic extract of above plant parts in separate as well as in composite manner at a concentration of 80 mg/100 g body weight/day to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat resulted in a significant remedial effect on blood glucose level as well as carbohydrate metabolic enzymes and the quantity of liver and skeletal muscle glycogen. Serum insulin level that was diminished in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat recovered significantly after the co-administration of extract of above plant parts. All the above parameters showed a more potent remedial effect after composite extract treatment with respect to separate treatment and none of the extract has any general metabolic toxicity induction.

  8. Histopathological effects of doxorubicin on pancreas in male albino rats

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    I.A. Ali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the histopathological side effects of doxorubicin on pancreas tissue in male albino rats Rattus norvegicus. This study were used 55 adult rats (2.5-3.5 month of age. The rats divided into two groups, the first group include (35 rats. The second group were (20 rats. Microscopial examination of pancreas lesion demonstrated oedema around the acini, swelling of the epithelial cells of acini, occurance of cystic fibrosis (mucoviscidosis at the concentration of (4,5 mg/kg of body weight ,occurrence of small islets that form of few cells and exocrine-endocrine transformation. There were thickness in the walls of blood vessels, thrombus, congestion of blood vessels, we conclude, that doxorubicin had histopathological effect on pancreas in sub-acute doses more than chronic doses.

  9. STUDIES ON INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN MALE ALBINO RATS (RATTUS NORVEGICUS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABULYAZID, I.; ABBAS, O.A.; FAYEZ, V.

    2008-01-01

    Levanox, a hepato protective drug, and garlic powder have been considered as safe anti-oxidant agents. The present investigation refers to biochemical and molecular studies to evaluate the protective role of levanox and/or garlic powder toward CCl4-induced toxicity in adult male albino rats. CCl4 intoxication was attempted using a dose of 0.03 ml/kg of rat body weight.Pre-treatment with levanox (one capsule/ kg of rat body weight, each capsule contains 100 mg catechu, 7.5 mg dandelion, 75 mg termiric 2 % curcumin , 17.5 mg silymarin, 100 mg lecithin) was more effective than garlic powder (100mg/kg of rat body weight) in reducing CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity as revealed by its higher potency in reducing elevation of aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases in serum. Serum of control rats and those treated with levanox or garlic or CCl4 produced 13 types of proteins, differing in the molecular weight (MW) and densities, while those of levanox + garlic or garlic +CCl4 produced 14 bands differing in the MW and densities. The similarity index at the epigenetic level was also studied using the primers under study. The control sample produced one amplified DNA fragment with Rf of 0.73 and a molecular size (MS) of 67 base pair (bp) . Using the same primers, no amplified DNA fragment with the same MS was produced in the sample taken from levanox + garlic treated group.OPA-2 primer of sequence 5?- AGA TGC AGC C-3? produced one amplified DNA band with MS of 292 bp and Rf of 0.46 . However, the same primer produced one amplified DNA characteristic band with a molecular size of 363 bp and Rf of 0.43 in the sample of levanox + garlic group.In the control sample, OPA-4 primer of sequence 5? - ACG CAC AAC C-3? produced one amplified DNA band of MS of 299 bp and Rf of 0.43. The same primer produced one amplified characteristic DNA band with MS of 363 bp and Rf of 0.43 in the sample of levanox + garlic group.Dual treatment with levanox and garlic powder resulted in a

  10. Effect of melatonin on serum glucose and body weights in streptozotocin induced diabetes in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidayat, M.

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated in experimental animal models that oxidative stress causes persistent and chronic hyperglycaemia, causing reduction in antioxidant defence system, ultimately leading to accumulation of free radicals.This study was performed to observe the effect of melatonin on serum glucose and body weights in streptozotocin induced diabetes in albino rats. Methods: Forty healthy adult male albino rats were included in the study and divided equally into 4 groups for 6 weeks. Group-A was taken as control. Group-B received streptozotocin I/P in a dose of 37 mg/kg body weight. Group-C received 10 mg/100 ml melatonin in drinking water and Group-D received only melatonin. Results: Streptozotocin significantly increased serum glucose and decreased weight in group B animals, whereas in group C, melatonin significantly restored serum glucose but could not restore the body weights reduced by streptozotocin. There was a significant reduction in body weight in melatonin treated group D animals. Conclusion: Melatonin decreases oxidative stress and hyperglycemia, but cannot restore the body weight reduced by streptozotocin. In fact, it further reduces body weight both in diabetic and normal state. (author)

  11. Effect of honey consumption on intestinal motility in male albino rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: This study investigated the effects of honey on intestinal motility and transit using twenty (20) male albino rats of Wistar strain weighing 210-220g. The rats were randomly grouped into control and honey-fed (test) groups of ten (10) rats each. The control group was fed on normal rat chow ( Pfizer Company, Nigeria ) ...

  12. Protective Effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis) Extract on Naphthalene Induced Nephrotoxicity in Adult Male Albino Rat

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    Neveen M. El-Sherif; Noha Mohy Issa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Naphthalene (NA) is a common environmental contaminant and is abundant in tobacco smoke. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is a herb commonly used as a spice and flavoring agents in food processing and is useful in the treatment of many diseases. Aim of the work: To study the nephrotoxicity of NA and to evaluate the possible protective role of rosemary extract in adult male albino rat. Materials and Methods: 25 animals were divided into three groups: Group I (Control group), G...

  13. Effect of Variable Doses of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Male Albino Mice Behavior.

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    Zahra, Javeria; Iqbal, Shahid; Zahra, Kiran; Javed, Zulha; Shad, Muhammad Aslam; Akbar, Atif; Ashiq, Muhammad Naeem; Iqbal, Furhan

    2017-02-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have diverse utility these days ranging from being part of nanosensors to be ingredient of cosmetics. Present study was designed to report the effect of variable doses of ZnO NPs on selected aspects of male albino mice behavior. Nano particles were synthesized by sol-gel auto-combustion method (Data not shown here). 10 week old male albino mice were divided into four experimental groups; group A, B and C were orally supplemented with 50 (low dose), 300 (medium dose) and 600 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight (high dose) of ZnO NPs for 4 days. Group D (control) orally received 0.2 M sodium phosphate buffer (solvent for ZnO NPs) for the same duration. A series of neurological tests (Rota rod, open field, novel object and light-dark box test) were conducted in all groups and performance was compared between ZnO NPs treated and control group. Muscular functioning during rota rod test was significantly improved in all ZnO NPs treated mice as compared to control group. While no significant differences in open field, novel object and light-dark box test performance were observed when data from studied parameters of specific ZnO NPs treatment were compared with the control group indicating that applied doses of ZnO NPs did not affect the exploratory, anxiolytic behavior and object recognition capability of adult male albino mice.

  14. Histological and Physiological Alterations Induced by Thermal Neutron Fluxes in Male Swiss Albino Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzergy, A.A.; Emara, N.M.; Abd El-Latif, A.A.; El-Saady, S.M.M.; Emara, N.M.; Abd El-Latif, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    This work was performed to investigate the biological effects of different thermal neutron fluxes (0.27x10 8 , 0.52X10 8 , 1.089X10 8 , 2.16X10 8 and 4.32X10 8 ) on liver and kidney of male mice using neutron irradiation cell with Ra-Be(α,n) 3 mCi neutron source Leybold (55930). Exposed to various fluxes of thermal neutron induced a dramatic alterations in hepatic and renal functions as indicated by biochemical estimation of several parameters (bilirubin, SGT, and alkaline phosphate .Urea , total protein, and albumin) and confirmed by histological examinations Thermal neutron exposure induces marked increase in the serum activities of total bilirubin, alanine amino transaminase (ALT or GPT), and alkaline phosphate, whereas, urea, total protein and albumin showed marked decline as compared to control group. The physiological changes induced in thermal neutron fluxes dependent manner. Histopathological results revealed mild to severe type of necrosis, and degenerative changes in liver and kidney of male mice exposed to thermal neutron fluxes. Also it was found that the histopathological alterations induced in thermal neutron fluxes dependent manner. It was found that exposed to thermal neutron fluxes irradiation plays prominent role in the development of the physiological alterations in male Swiss albino mice. The Former up normalities as a result of the sequence events followed interaction of radiation with the former biological mater (liver and kidney) of male Swiss albino mice, which are, physical, physicochemical, chemical, and biological stages.

  15. INFLUENCE OF DIETARY FAT ON LEPTIN AND INSULIN IN MALE ALBINO RATS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KASSAB, F.M.A.; ABDEL-KHALEK, L.G.; KAMAL, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Sixty male albino rats were arranged into 5 equal groups which were used in this study to investigate the relation between leptin and insulin hormones under high fat intake and to assess the role of fresh vegetable intake on minimizing dyslipidemia.The results denoted that dietary fat caused significant increase in the levels of blood glucose and leptin hormone with significant decrease in insulin concentration and with prolonged high fat intake, insulin level was increased. However, the increased leptin and glucose indicated that prolonged fatty diet may cause insulin resistance. Addition of green vegetables to the diet normalized to a great extent the level of cholesterol, triglycerides, VLDL, glucose and insulin

  16. Antidiabetic Potentiality of the Aqueous-Methanolic Extract of Seed of Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq. in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Albino Rat: A Correlative and Evidence-Based Approach with Antioxidative and Antihyperlipidemic Activities.

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    De, Debasis; Chatterjee, Kausik; Ali, Kazi Monjur; Bera, Tushar Kanti; Ghosh, Debidas

    2011-01-01

    Antidiabetic, antioxidative, and antihyperlipidemic activities of aqueous-methanolic (2 : 3) extract of Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq. (family Meliaceae) seed studied in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Feeding with seed extract (25 mg 0.25 mL distilled water(-1)100 gm b.w.(-1)rat(-1) day(-1)) for 21 days to diabetic rat lowered the blood glucose level as well as the glycogen level in liver. Moreover, activities of antioxidant enzymes like catalase, peroxidase, and levels of the products of free radicals like conjugated diene and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in liver, kidney, and skeletal muscles were corrected towards the control after this extract treatment in this model. Furthermore, the seed extract corrected the levels of serum urea, uric acid, creatinine, cholesterol, triglyceride, and lipoproteins towards the control level in this experimental diabetic model. The results indicated the potentiality of the extract of S. mahagoni seed for the correction of diabetes and its related complications like oxidative stress and hyperlipidemia. The extract may be a good candidate for developing a safety, tolerable, and promising neutraceutical treatment for the management of diabetes.

  17. Antidiabetic Potentiality of the Aqueous-Methanolic Extract of Seed of Swietenia mahagoni (L. Jacq. in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Albino Rat: A Correlative and Evidence-Based Approach with Antioxidative and Antihyperlipidemic Activities

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    Debasis De

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antidiabetic, antioxidative, and antihyperlipidemic activities of aqueous-methanolic (2 : 3 extract of Swietenia mahagoni (L. Jacq. (family Meliaceae seed studied in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Feeding with seed extract (25 mg 0.25 mL distilled water−1100 gm b.w.−1rat−1 day−1 for 21 days to diabetic rat lowered the blood glucose level as well as the glycogen level in liver. Moreover, activities of antioxidant enzymes like catalase, peroxidase, and levels of the products of free radicals like conjugated diene and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in liver, kidney, and skeletal muscles were corrected towards the control after this extract treatment in this model. Furthermore, the seed extract corrected the levels of serum urea, uric acid, creatinine, cholesterol, triglyceride, and lipoproteins towards the control level in this experimental diabetic model. The results indicated the potentiality of the extract of S. mahagoni seed for the correction of diabetes and its related complications like oxidative stress and hyperlipidemia. The extract may be a good candidate for developing a safety, tolerable, and promising neutraceutical treatment for the management of diabetes.

  18. The Protective Role of Ginger (Zingiber Officinales ) in Male Albino Rats Exposed to Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, H.F.

    2008-01-01

    The present work was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of preirradiation treatment with ginger (Zingiber Officinales) for 21 consecutive days before exposure in controlling post-irradiation hazards in male rats. Male albino rats weighing about 120±10 g were divided into four groups: ( I ) control, ( II ) treated with ginger 200 mg/kg , ( III ) irradiated with 6 Gy and ( IV ) treated with ginger 200 mg/kg before irradiated with 6 Gy gamma - radiation . The blood samples were collected from heart of animals 21 days after treatment with ginger and seven days post irradiation. Blood samples were subjected to biochemical analysts such as liver functions , lipid profile , kidney function and sex hormone. Whole body gamma irradiation of rats at 6 Gy (single dose) caused significant increase in (aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT), cholesterol, triglycerides , glucose, urea and creatinine) while alkaline phosphatase showed no effect. Irradiation caused decrease in the contents of total protein , albumin and testosterone. Ginger treatment exerted noticeable amelioration in the studied biochemical parameters of the irradiated albino rats. The mechanism of action of ginger may be due to its antiinflammatory properties against whole body gamma irradiation

  19. Lack of beneficial effect of activated charcoal in lead induced testicular toxicity in male albino rats

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    Samuel James Offor

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Lead is a multi-organ toxicant implicated in various diseases including testicular toxicity. In search of cheap and readily available antidote this study has investigated a beneficial role of activated charcoal in lead induced testicular toxicity in male albino rats. Materials and Method: Eighteen male albino rats were divided into three groups of six rats per group. Group 1 (control rats received deionised water (10 ml/kg, group 2 was given lead acetate solution 60 mg/kg and group 3 rats were given lead acetate (60 mg/kg followed by Activated charcoal, AC (1000 mg/kg by oral gavage daily for 28 days. Absolute and relative weights of testis, epididymal sperm reserve, testicular sperm count, percent sperm motility and percent sperm viability were monitored. Results: AC failed to show any significant beneficial effect in ameliorating lead induced testicular toxicity. Conclusions: There seem to be a poor adsorption on lead onto AC in vivo.

  20. Antioxidant activity of eggplant (Solanum melongena) in male albino rats exposed to gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Magied, N.; Ahmed, A.G.; Abo zid, N.M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential benefits of dietary supplementation of eggplant (Solanum melongena) as antioxidant against γ- rays-induced biochemical changes in male albino rats by estimating some of the components of antioxidant defense in the; liver glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA), serum aspartate amino transferase,(AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transaminase (GGT), cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C). Male albino rats (120-150 g) were divided into four groups as Control group, group 2 received diet supplemented with 10% of eggplant (Solanum melongnea) fruit for 21 successive days , group 3: irradiated with a single dose (6.5 Gy), group 4 received eggplant for 21 successive days then exposed to 6.5 Gy. All animals were sacrificed after 1, 3 and 8 days post irradiation. Rats exposed to γ-rays exhibited a profound elevation of AST, ALT, ALP and GGT activities, and lipid abnormalities .Noticeable drop in liver GSH content and SOD activity associated with increase of MDA was recorded. Treatment with dietary eggplant for 21 days before irradiation significantly abolished radiation induced elevations in MDA and significantly elevates hepatic GSH content and SOD activity. The levels of cholesterol, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C as well as the activities of AST, ALT, and GGT in serum were significantly ameliorated and noticeable improvement in the lipid profile levels

  1. Lead Intoxication On Protein Fractions, Testicular Tissues And Ameliorative Effect Of ANTOX On Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HASSANIN, M.M.; EL-MAHDY, A.A.; ZAKI, Z.T.; EMARAH, E.A.M.; HUSSEIN, A.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Lead (heavy metal) was given as lead acetate for two groups of adult male albino rats (Rattus rattus) in drinking water at dose level of 100 mg/litre for 3 and 6 weeks to evaluate its toxic effects on protein and its fractions by using electrophoresis technique, serum testosterone using radioimmunoassay and histological investigation of the testis of male rats.Administration of 100 mg/L lead acetate in drinking water for 3 and 6 weeks induced fluctuated changes in serum total proteins, protein fractions and significant decrease in serum testosterone hormone.Histopathological examination showed cellular changes and degeneration of the seminiferous tubules after 3 and 6 weeks of administration of lead acetate.The treatment of rats with antox (10 mg/kg) during the experimental period caused improvement in protein fraction and testosterone level, and the testes sections appeared more or less normal.

  2. Effect of Piper betel leaf stalk extract on protein metabolism in reproductive tissues of male albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    V Vengaiah; A Govardhan Naik; C Changamma

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To know the impact of Piper betel leaf stalk (P. betel) extract on Protein and energy metabolism and its role in male albino rats. Methods: Healthy adult (3-4 months old) male Wistar strain albino rats were administered with betel leaf stalk extract, at the dose of 50 mg/kg/day through oral gavages for 15 days. Twenty four hours after the last dose, the animals were autopsied. In order to assess antifertility effect in testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate gland, esti...

  3. Modification Of Cesium Toxicity By Prussian Blue In Adult Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MANGOOD, S.A.; HAGGAG, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to asses the toxicological effects of stable cesium chloride, and investigate the possible therapeutic role of Prussian blue (PB) in adult male albino rats.Thirty two adult male albino rats were used in this study and classified to 4 groups (8 rats/group) as follows:1- Group one (G1): rats were considered as controls and kept on the commercial diet without any treatments.2-Group two (G2): treated with daily oral cesium chloride (50 mg/300 g body weight).3-Group three (G3): treated with daily oral Prussian blue (250 mg/rats).4-Group four (G4): treated with cesium chloride at a daily oral dose of 50 mg/300 g body weight + Prussian blue at a daily oral dose of 250 mg/rats.All animals were administered the CsCl and/or PB via intubation tube and the duration of this study was 35 consecutive days. Hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht%), red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), folic acid, vitamin B12, total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio, ALT, AST, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, blood glucose, urea, creatinine, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), sodium, potassium, calcium and inorganic phosphorous and body weight were determined in all groups.The data obtained revealed that the intake of stable cesium chloride in adult male rats caused significant decreases in the Hb, hematocrit, folic acid, vitamin B12 and potassium contents, with significant increases in WBC count, urea and creatinine levels and no effect on the other parameters. On the other hand, PB as a therapeutic agent caused significant amelioration in the changes produced by CsCl with variable degrees leading to the conclusion that the therapeutic agents might provide a protection against the toxicological effects of CsCl.

  4. Lead nitrate induced unallied expression of liver and kidney functions in male albino rats.

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    Chougule, Priti; Patil, Bhagyashree; Kanase, Aruna

    2005-06-01

    To determine the effects of lead where lead accumulates maximum (liver followed by kidney), liver and kidney functions were studied using low oral dose of lead nitrate for prolonged duration. Dose of 20 mg lead nitrate/kg body wt/day was used in male albino rats. AST and ALT levels altered independently. When ALT remained unaltered after 7 and 21 days of treatment, it is decreased by 13.21% after 14 days treatment. AST was marginally lowered after 7 days, increased after 14 days and increased marginally after 21 days. Bilirubin (conjugated, unconjugated and total) decreased after 7 and 14 days and increased after 21 days. Urea increase was directly proportional to duration. Creatinine remained unaltered.

  5. Role of antioxidant supplements in adult male albino rats intoxicated with methomyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, S.M.F.M.; EI-Sherbiny, E.M.; Afifi, E.A.A.

    2007-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate and determine the protective effect of intraperitoneal administration of trace mineral selenium (Se) and antioxidant vitamins E and pantothenic acid (PA) to male albino rats intoxicated with methomyl pesticide. Four groups of rats were used in this study. The data obtained revealed that methomyl caused disturbances in liver functions, which were elucidated through ALT and AST levels, and in the levels of serum glucose and insulin. Also, the levels of serum total protein, albumin, total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol and acethylcholinesterase activity were significantly changed from those found in control rats for different periods. Treatment of rats with the antioxidant supplements ameliorated to some extent most of the disturbances in the mentioned biochemical parameter levels. The data concluded that such antioxidants could provide some protection against pesticide-induced toxicity

  6. Effect of salvia Egyptiaca extract on cholinergic system in adult male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Kader, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    The daily oral administrations of Salvia aegyptiaca extract, equivalent to 2 g/kg body weight for 4 weeks, caused significant decrease in acetylcholine esterase activity in whole blood and in all tested brain areas (cerebellum, pons + medulla oblongata, striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus) of male albino rat nearly all over the experimental period. Treatment with Salvia aegyptiaca extract also resulted in significant increase in acetylcholine content in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus' nearly throughout the whole experimental period. It could be concluded from the present results that the extract of Salvia aegyptiaca caused an increase in acetylcholine content and this increase may be due to the decrease in the activity of acetylcholine esterase enzyme which play an important role in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease

  7. Therapeutic Efficacy of Ginger, Cisplatin and Radiation on Chemically-Induced Cancer in Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Beih, N.M.; Galal, S.M.; Fahmy, N.M.; Abd El-Azime, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the in vivo effect of dietary supplementation with ginger to evaluate its therapeutic effect against lung and kidney cancer and in combination with cisplatin as chemotherapy and radiotherapy in male albino rats. 54 male albino rats were divided into nine groups of 6 animals each, all animals were allowed to food and water ad libitum . Group I was treated with 0.5 ml saline, orlly for 12 consecutive weeks serve as con - trol group Group II injected with N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ); all groups were injected with NDMA + CCl 4 for 6 weeks. Group III were given ginger for 6 consecutive weeks (200 mg/kg, b.wt./day). Group IV animals received cisplatin, group V irradiated with 2 Gy, group VI treated with ginger then irradiated, group VII treated with ginger then injected with cisplatin, group VIII injected with cisplatin then irradiated and group IX treated with ginger and cisplatin then irradiated. Antioxidant status in both kidney and lung tissues were estimated by determining the activity of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD); as well as the level of reduced glutathione (GSH), Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Nitric oxide (NO). In parallel to histopathological investigations of lung and kidney tissues. In addition, Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-α) level, advanced oxidative protein product (AOPP), urea, creatinine and uric acid. Remarkable disturbances were observed in the levels of all tested parameters in NDMA + CCl 4 group. On the other hand, rats injected with the cancer agents then treated with cisplatin+radiation showed moderate improvements in the studied parameters while, treatment with ginger + cisplatin + radiation ameliorated the levels of the disturbed bio

  8. ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF CURCUMA AMADA (MANGO - GINGER IN MALE ALBINO WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari Bai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mango ginger ( Curcuma amada Roxb. has morphological resemblance with ginger, but imparts mango flavour. According to Ayurveda and Unani medicinal systems , the biological activities include antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti - inflammatory, antiallergic, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. Hence curcuma amada aqueous extract for analgesic activity was evaluated in pain animal models. Pain is a most common complaint of many medical conditions, and pain control is one of t he most important therapeutic priorities. Curcuma Amada suppresses the inflammatory mediators associated with pain. However there is no scientific data suggestive of its analgesic activity. Hence this study was carried out to evaluate its role in central a nd peripheral models of pain. OBJECTIVE: To Evaluate rhizomes of Curcuma Amada for analgesic activity in male albino wistar rats . MATERIALS AND METHODS: Albino rats, the proven models for analgesic studies. They were obtained from the animal house of DR.B. R. Ambedkar Medical College. Animals were maintained as per CPCSEA guidelines . The aqueous extract of curcuma amada was used.4x2 groups of 6 Rats were used to ensure that results obtained were statistically significant using ANOVA test. Analgesic activity was assessed with the help of following screening methods . Acetic Acid Writhing Method using Acetic Acid . Tail Flick Method using the Analgesiometer . Tail Immersion Method using Hot Water (55 0 C . Hot Plate method using Hot Plate . RESULT S: Aqueous extract of curcuma amada significantly suppressed the 1% acetic acid induced writhing response in rats when compared to control group (Gum acacia. In Tail flick test and Hot plate test Curcuma Amada increases the latency period of pain (reaction time. In Tail im mersion test the test drug significantly (P < 0.001 reduces pain at 30 min when compared to control group at 60 min of oral administration. CONCLUSION : The present findings indicate that

  9. Nigella sativa oil Ameliorates ionizing Radiation induced cellular injury in Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, E.T.; El-Kady, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Nigella sativa (NS), commonly known as black seed, is a plant spices in which thymoquinone is the main active ingredient isolated from the black seeds. The seeds of Nigella sativa are used in herbal medicine all over the world for the treatment and prevention of a number of diseases. The aim of this study was focused on investigating the possible protective effect of NS against gamma radiation induced nephrotoxicity and inflammatory changes in male albino rats. Twenty four albino rats were divided into four equal groups as follows: control group, irradiated group (animals subjected to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose of 6 Gy), treated group (rats treated with 0.2 ml/kg, i.p., NS oil for 4 weeks), and treated irradiated group (animals treated with 0.2 mL/kg, i.p., NS oil for 4 weeks then exposed to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose of 6 Gy). The obtained results revealed that the administration of Nigella sativa oil to irradiated rats significantly ameliorated the changes induced in kidney antioxidant system; catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities as well as reduced glutathione concentration. Also, NS oil restored the kidney function indices (urea and creatinine) near normal level when compared with their equivalent values in irradiated rats. In addition, the changes in serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) activities were markedly improved compared to the corresponding values of irradiated group. The histopathological results showed distinctive pattern of ischemic renal injury in irradiated group, while in treated- irradiated group the renal tissues showed relatively well-preserved architecture with or without focal degeneration. In conclusion, NS acts in the kidney as a potent scavenger of free radicals to prevent or ameliorates the toxic effects of gamma irradiation as shown in the biochemical and histopathological study and also NS oil might provide substantial protection against

  10. Ameliorative Effects of Acacia Honey against Sodium Arsenite-Induced Oxidative Stress in Some Viscera of Male Wistar Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Aliyu; Sani Ibrahim; Hajiya M. Inuwa; Abdullahi B. Sallau; Olagunju Abbas; Idowu A. Aimola; Nathan Habila; Ndidi S. Uche

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and its development is frequently associated with oxidative stress-induced by carcinogens such as arsenicals. Most foods are basically health-promoting or disease-preventing and a typical example of such type is honey. This study was undertaken to investigate the ameliorative effects of Acacia honey on sodium arsenite-induced oxidative stress in the heart, lung and kidney tissues of male Wistar rats. Male Wistar albino rats divided into four groups...

  11. Possible Outcome of Fenugreek Seeds Powder Administration on the Fertility of Female and Male Albino Rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, M F; El-Tawill, G.A., E-mail: gkyrillos@hotmail.co [Radiation Biology Department, National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2010-07-01

    Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is an annual plant from the family of Papilionaceae-Leguminosae that has been credited with many medicinal properties. The current study aims to evaluate the possible fertility activity of fenugreek seeds powder on female and male albino rats. To achieve the theme, fenugreek seeds powder (200 mg/rat) were daily administered orally to both female and male Wistar rats for 15 and 30 consecutive days, after which the rats were sacrificed for both biochemical and histopathological observations. Fenugreek treatment significantly decreased the serum cholesterol levels in both female and male rats with a marked increase in the ovary and testis cholesterol levels following 30 days of consecutive administration. The circulating serum female hormones showed an initial elevation at the end of 15 days of fenugreek intake followed by a significant drop in the group of rats that continued to receive the daily fenugreek dose for 30 days. These observations were supported by the notable decline in the ovarian weights further validated by their ovarian histological sections revealing remarkable dissolution of some follicles and prominent abundance of inflammatory cells. In the 30 days interval treated males, the serum testosterone hormone concentrations significantly declined and the testis weights were reduced with evident damage to the seminiferous tubules and interstitial tissues as shown by the histopathological picture of testis tissue sections. Accordingly, it can be deduced that fenugreek seeds powder exert a significant antifertility adverse effect on the female and male rats when supplemented at a considerable dose for an extended time interval

  12. Reproductive, cytological and biochemical toxicity of Yohimbe in male Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Majed, Abdulhakeem A; Al-Yahya, Abdulaziz A; Al-Bekairi, A M; Al-Shabanah, Othman A; Qureshi, Shoeb

    2006-07-01

    To study the effect of Corynanthe Yohimbe (Yohimbe) on germ cells in Swiss albino mice. Adult male mice were orally (gavage) treated with different doses (188, 375 and 750 mg/[kg x day]) of aqueous suspension of Yohimbe for 90 days. The following parameters were evaluated: (i) reproductive organ weight, (ii) motility and count of sperm, (iii) study on rate of pregnancy and mean implants, (iv) spermatozoa morphology, (v) cytology of the testes chromosomes, and (vi) biochemical study on estimation of proteins, RNA, DNA, malondialdehyde, nonprotein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) and hormones. The treatment caused significant increase in the weight of seminal vesicles, motility and count of spermatozoa, pre- and post-implants. Male fertility was decreased. These results are confirmed by our data on spermatozoa abnormalities and chromosomal aberrations. The data on biochemical parameters showed increase of malondialdehyde and depletion of NP-SH, proteins, RNA and DNA in the testicular cells. Our results elucidated the role of free radical species in cytological and reproductive changes, possibly, under the influence of yohimbine (principal constituent of Yohimbe) on neurotransmitters, including norephinephrine. These data warrant careful use of Yohimbe.

  13. Immunomodulatory potential of Anacyclus pyrethrum (L.) and Mucuna pruriens (L.) In male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, F; Shahid, M; Riaz, M; Atta, A; Fatima, H

    2017-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the immunomodulatory potential of Anacyclus pyrethrum roots and Mucuna pruriens seeds in male albino rats. The roots of A. pyrethrum and seeds of M. pruriens were extracted with methanolic solvent (70:30) and administered at dose concentrations of 50, 100 and 200 mg/Kg body weight to healthy male rats. The immune system of rats was suppressed by injecting carbon tetrachloride to animals in the toxic control group and test group animals. Cell-mediated immune response of animals was examined by performing neutrophil adhesion test and the humoral immune response was evaluated by determining serum immunoglobulin levels of the animals under study. The administration of methanolic extracts of A. pyrethrum roots and M. pruriens seeds significantly (p less than 0.05) increased the neutrophil adhesion to the nylon fiber. Increase in % neutrophil adhesion was observed in animals treated with 200 mg of each plant extract. Significant (p less than 0.05) improvement in immunoglobulin levels was recorded in the extract treated group animals, showing that the root extract of A. pyrethrum and seed extract of M. pruriens have immunomodulatory potential. We therefore conclude that the tested extracts can be used as immunomodulatory agents to stimulate the immune system.

  14. Effect of granulosis virus (virotecto) as bioinsecticide on some biochemical changes in male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, N.E; Ali, S.E

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study to determine the biochemical response of granulosis virus in male albino rats fed with potato treated with granulosis virus (0.15 g/Kg) against potato tuber moth in stores .It was carried out by evaluating the effect of daily feeding on treated potato for 5 weeks followed by withdrawal period for 10 days fed with normal diet on some biochemical and histological changes in kidney of male rats. A trail consists of 3 groups each one contain 18 rats, the first group fed on normal basal diet and served as control, the second group fed with 50% normal potato and 50% basal diet (potato group) and the third group fed with 50% basal diet and 50% potato treated with granulosis virus (virus group) through the experimental period. The obtained data revealed a significant reduction in final body weight and organs weight in both normal and treated potato groups. Sera collected at 2 and 5 weeks post feeding and at the end of withdrawal period, recorded significant disorders in some tested parameters. In addition, histological examination of kidney tissue showed different disorders in normal and treated groups.

  15. Evaluation of the aphrodisiac activity of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in sexually sluggish male albino rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surender; Nair, Vinod; Gupta, Yogendra K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To study the effect of acute and repeated dose administration of lyophilized aqueous extract of the dried fruits of Tribulus terrestris (LAET) on sexual function in sexually sluggish male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Aphrodisiac activity of the test drug was evaluated in terms of exhibited sexual behavior. In order to assess the effect of chronic T. terrestris exposure on the hypothalamus--pituitary--gonadal axis, testosterone level estimation and sperm count were carried out. Twenty-eight-day oral toxicity studies were carried out to evaluate the long-term effects of the LAET administration on different body systems. Results: A dose-dependent improvement in sexual behavior was observed with the LAET treatment as characterized by an increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency, and penile erection index, as well as a decrease in mount latency, intromission latency, and ejaculatory latency. The enhancement of sexual behavior was more prominent on chronic administration of LAET. Chronic administration of LAET produced a significant increase in serum testosterone levels with no significant effect on the sperm count. No overt body system dysfunctions were observed in 28-day oral toxicity study. Conclusions: Findings of the present study validate the traditional use of T. terrestris as a sexual enhancer in the management of sexual dysfunction in males. PMID:22368416

  16. Effect of gasoline fumes on reproductive function in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owagboriaye, Folarin O; Dedeke, Gabriel A; Ashidi, Joseph S; Aladesida, Adeyinka A; Olooto, Wasiu E

    2018-02-01

    The increase in the frequency of exposure to gasoline fumes and the growing incidence of infertility among humans has been a major concern and subject of discussion over the years in Nigeria. We therefore present the reproductive effect of gasoline fumes on inhalation exposure in 40 male albino rats. The rats were randomized into five experimental treatments (T) with eight rats per treatment. T1 (control) was exposed to distilled water while T2, T3, T4, and T5 were exposed to gasoline fumes in exposure chambers for 1, 3, 5, and 9 h daily respectively for 12 weeks. Serum level of testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, oxidative stress markers in the testicular tissue, epididymal sperm health assessment, and testicular histopathology of the rats were used as a diagnostic marker of reproductive dysfunction. Significant (p percentage motility in the exposed rats were observed. Significant (p < 0.05) increased in abnormal sperm cells characterized by damaged head, bent tail, damaged tail, and without head were also observed in the exposed rats. Histopathologically, severe degenerative testicular architectural lesions characterized by alterations in all the generations of sperm cells and reduction of interstitial cells were seen in the exposed rats. Gasoline fume is thus said to interfere with spermatogenesis and impair fertility in male gonad.

  17. Biochemical Effects Of Aluminum On Some Selected Serum Enzymes Of Male Wistar Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogueche

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Toxic metals are widely found in our environment and humans are exposed to them via water contaminated air food and soil. Aluminum AL belongs to this group of toxic metals. Its neurological effects are well documented but effects on acid and alkaline phosphatases are poorly studied and this the essence of this study. Toxicity of aluminum was investigated based on the elevation of acid and alkali phosphatases in serum of male Wistar albino rats after days 7 and 14 of aluminum 0.38 3.8 and 38mgkg body weight administration respectively. The results showed significant increase p0.05 in serum acid phosphatase in the test animals given 38kgkg after days 14 while serum alkali phosphatase increased significantly p 0.05 in the test animals given 3.8 and 38 mgkg after days 7 and 14 when compared to the control animals. However lower dose 0.38mgkg showed increase in both serum acid and alkali phosphatases respectively but were statistically non-significant p0.05 at 7 and 14 as compared to control animals.

  18. Short term toxicity of strawberry flavor and carmoisine color in male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElShamy, K.AI.; Morsy, F.A.; Elsheikh, E.A.B.; Hassanin, M.M.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the potential toxicity associated with oral administrations of the strawberry flavor and carmoisine color. The tested materials were given to the animals in their drinking water. Biochemical parameters were determined in liver, kidney and brain DNA and RNA contents.Sera was used for liver and kidney functions, lipid profile and thyroid hormones estimation. Histopathological, histochemical and cytophotometric studies were performed in liver and kidney tissues. Equal weights of flavoring and coloring agents were mixed at 0.1% w/v with drinking water. Forty adult male albino rats were assigned to four equal groups, two groups were served as controls and the remaining two groups received standard diet and water containing the tested materials for three and six week. There were no deaths and all the studied parameters were affected in a time dependent manner. Liver DNA contents were significantly decreased, kidney DNA contents tended to increase and brain DNA contents were significantly increased only after 6 weeks of treatment. RNA contents were significantly decreased in liver and brain

  19. Antioxidant activity of lycopene extracted from tomato pomace toward gamma irradiation hazards in male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, T.M.M.; EL MASRY, F.S.

    2005-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the anti oxidative activity of lycopene extracted from tomato pomace against hazards induced by gamma irradiation. Male Swiss albino rats were orally administered by lycopene (1.2 mg/rat/day) using suitable stomach tube 7 days before exposure to a sublethal single dose (6.5 Gy) of whole body gamma radiation. Lipid peroxides (MDA) levels in plasma, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide dismutase activity in blood were determined, as well as serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transferase activity (GGT) were investigated 7 and 15 days post-irradiation and/or lycopene administration. The results revealed that exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in significant elevation in plasma levels of MDA, serum ALT, AST, ALP and GGT, as well as significant reduction in GSH content and superoxide dismutase activity in blood. Administration of lycopene by using suitable stomach tube pre-irradiation has significantly ameliorated the radiation-induced disturbances in all the investigated parameters

  20. Protective Role Of Fresh Pomegranate Against Oxidative Damage In Whole Body Gamma Irradiated Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassab, F.M.A.; Taha, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty four male albino rats, body weight 100-130 g, were used to evaluate the protective role of fresh pomegranate fruit intake for 30 days on the damage induced by single dose of 6 Gy whole body gamma irradiation. The rats were randomly and equally divided into four groups: group (1): control, group (2): irradiated with 6 Gy, group (3): pomegranate for 30 days and group (4): pomegranate for 30 days followed by 6 Gy whole body irradiation. At the end of the experiment, all rats were sacrificed after 12 hours fasting then sera were separated for the determination of sugar, total antioxidant, lipid profile and liver and kidney functions. Results showed that gamma radiation caused significant decline (P<0.05) in serum total antioxidant, total protein, albumin, HDL-C and blood glucose with significant elevation (P<0.05) in other hepato-renal markers in addition to serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-C. These changes were significantly attenuated in irradiated animals pre-treated with whole fresh pomegranate fruit leading to the conclusion that pre-intake of pomegranate fruit had a radio- protective effect. This protection of this whole fruit may be due to the increased total antioxidant level leading to free radical scavenging

  1. NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF ARTIFICIAL FOOD COLOUR AND SWEETENER IN ADULT MALE ALBINO MICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABDEL-RAHMAN, M.; EL-KHADRAGY, M.F.; ABDEL-AZIZ, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of aspartame (artificial sweetener) and sunset yellow (artificial colour) on monoamines content in different brain areas of the adult male albino mice (cerebellum, brain stem, striatum, hypothalamus and cerebral cortex), and also on testosterone level in serum.The present study showed that the daily intraperitoneal injection of aspartame with dose of 200 mg/kg caused significant increase in monoamines content and testosterone level at most experimental periods. The elevation of monoamines content may be due to increase in phenylalanine concentration which leading to increase the synthesis of monoamines. The elevation of testosterone level may be due to the increment of DA content in hypothalamus which led to increase the release of LHRH. On the other hand, the daily intraperitoneal injection of sunset yellow with a dose of 2.5 mg/kg caused significant decrease in monoamines content and non-significant change in serum testosterone level at most experimental periods. The decrement in monoamines content may be due to the decrease in its uptake by the neurotransmitters or decrease in its synthesis

  2. Effects of Carbaryl and Deltamethrin Pesticides on Some Pituitary Hormones of Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Kader, S.M.; Ezz El-Arab, A.; Aly, M.A.S.

    2005-01-01

    This investigation aims to study the effects of oral administrations of 1/10 LD 5 0 of both carbaryl and deltamethrin pesticides on some pituitary hormones of male rats namely; adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), growth hormone (GH), beta-endorphin (b-end) and prolactin hormone (prol). At different time intervals of 1,3,7 and 10 days, blood samples were collected and sera were separated and analyzed for hormonal assessment using RIA technique. The data clarified that daily oral administrations of 1/10 LD 5 0 of both carbaryl (28.6 mg/kg body weight) and deltamethrin (12.8 mg/kg body weight) to male albino rats resulted in gradual and significant decreases in serum ACTH recording 70.60% and 71.75% as compared to control on the 1 0 ''th day of carbaryl and deltamethrin treatments, respectively. Similarly, serum TSH and GH levels were significantly decreased one day after treatment showing their maximum decreases on the 1 0t h day recording 30.09% and 40.25% for TSH and 43.84% and 41.47% for GH after treatment with carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. Moreover, serum b-endorphin level showed maximum and significant decreases of 29.47% and 33.28% on day 10 of treatment with carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. On the other hand, serum prolactin level was significantly increased one day after treatment showing its maximum increase at the end of the experimental period recording 92.06% and 84.52% for carbaryl and deltamethrin, respectively. From the present data, it could be suggested that the pituitary gland is a major target for the two pesticides carbaryl and deltamethrin which have the potential to influence the modulation of endocrine system via the hypothalamus pituitary axis

  3. Effects of amlodipine on bone metabolism in male albino Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Gradošová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Amlodipine (dihydropyridine-type calcium channel blocker is a widely used agent for the treatment of hypertension in human and veterinary medicine but detailed information about its effects on bone metabolism are missing. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the effect of amlodipine on bone metabolism in male albino Wistar rats. Amlodipine (0.3 mg/100 g body weight; gavage was administered to 8 rats for 8 weeks. Control group (n = 8 received aqua pro inj. (0.2 ml/100 g body weight; gavage. Bone marker concentrations of carboxy-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I and aminoterminal propeptide of procollagen type I in serum, and of bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP in both serum and bone homogenate were measured by enzyme immunoassay. We investigated the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2 in proximal tibia using Western blotting, and bone mineral density was measured by Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry in lumbar and caudal vertebrae and in femoral areas. Mechanical properties of the femurs were measured by three-point bending of the shaft and compression testing of the femoral neck. After 8 weeks of amlodipine administration there was a significant decrease in serum concentrations of BALP (p = 0.0009 and CTX-I (p = 0.003, and the content of BALP in bone homogenate (p = 0.026 compared to the control. In addition, Western blot analysis indicated increased BMP-2 protein concentration after amlodipine administration. Our findings suggest that amlodipine has a retarding influence on bone metabolism in rats by decreasing bone turnover, which probably in consequence increases expression of BMP-2.

  4. Two-line hybrid rice male sterile line 'NHR111S' with a marker of green-revertible albino leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Wei; Liu Xin; Shu Xiaoli; Shu Qingyao; Xia Yingwu; Wu Dianxing

    2006-01-01

    NHR111S is a new two-line male sterile line with a marker of green-revertible albino leave that was bred from in vitro mutagens is of the thermo/photoperiod-sensitive male sterile line 'Guangzhan63S' by 60 Co γ-rays. It has the same desired agronomic traits, fertility characteristics and combining ability as characteristics of the parent. It is convenient to develop leaf color marker-aided elimination strategy in the multiplication and production of hybrid rice seeds. (authors)

  5. Effect of Curcumin on Blood Glucose Level and Some Neurobehavioral Responses in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Swiss Albino Mice

    OpenAIRE

    U. A. Garkuwa; A. W. Alhassan; Y. Tanko

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of curcumin on blood glucose level and neurobehavioral response in Alloxan-induced diabetic Swiss Albino mice. The animals were divided into five (5) groups of four each (n=4). Group I served as control and received distilled water, group II, III, IV and V were diabetic and received olive oil 1 ml/kg, glibenclamide 1 mg/kg, curcumin 50 mg/kg and curcumin 100 mg/kg respectively. Diabetes was induced using Alloxan (150 mg/kg). All administrations...

  6. Therapeutic Effects of Cassia angustifolia in a Cadmium Induced Hepatotoxicity Assay Conducted in Male Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tahir Haidry

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects of Senna plant (Cassia angustifolia L. in a cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity assay by evaluating the activity of alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and total protein (TP in the albino rats’ serum. A total of 30 white albino rats were taken and divided into three groups; each group comprising ten rats. The group A was taken as a control group; group B was given cadmium chloride concentration of 5 mg/kg (body weight for 42 days; and group C was given cadmium chloride 5 mg/kg body weight for first 21 days and then extract of C. angustifolia 100 mg/kg (body weight was given for remaining 21 days. The analysis were performed twice i.e., on 21stst day and 42nd day. Results illustrated that the concentration of cadmium was significantly elevated (P<0.05 at the levels of serum biochemical markers namely ALT, AST, ALP which lowered the protein levels in albino rats. Moreover, treatment with the standard extracts of C. angustifolia observed to reverse the effects of the cadmium significantly (P<0.05. It is concluded that the C. angustifolia had hepatoprotective effects and therapeutic potential against the cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats.

  7. Protective Effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis Extract on Naphthalene Induced Nephrotoxicity in Adult Male Albino Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neveen M. El-Sherif

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Naphthalene (NA is a common environmental contaminant and is abundant in tobacco smoke. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis is a herb commonly used as a spice and flavoring agents in food processing and is useful in the treatment of many diseases. Aim of the work: To study the nephrotoxicity of NA and to evaluate the possible protective role of rosemary extract in adult male albino rat. Materials and Methods: 25 animals were divided into three groups: Group I (Control group, Group II (NA treated group received NA at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day dissolved in 5 ml/kg corn oil orally by gastric tube, Group III (protected group received rosemary extract (10 ml/kg/day followed after 60 min by NA at the same previous dose orally by gastric tube. The experiment lasted 30 days. The following parameters were studied: Biochemical assessment of renal function, histological, immunohistochemical, morphometric studies and statistical analysis of the results. Results: NA treatment resulted in a highly significant increase in the mean values of serum urea and creatinine. NA induced histological changes in the form of glomerular congestion. Some glomeruli demonstrated marked mesangial expansion and hence that Bowman's spaces were almost completely obliterated. Shrinkage of renal glomeruli with widening of Bowman's spaces could also be seen. Focal tubular dilatation with appearance of casts inside the tubules was observed. Congested peritubular blood vessels and interstitial hemorrhage were also seen. The medullary region demonstrated vascular congestion and fibrosis. Focal cellular infiltration was presented in the interstitium. The renal cortex of NA treated rats showed a noticeable down regulation in alkaline phosphatase positive immunoreactive cells in some proximal convoluted tubules. NA induced up regulation of positive immunoreaction for inducible nitric oxide synthase in the proximal and distal convoluted tubules as well as in the collecting tubules

  8. Subchronic Oral Bromocriptine Methanesulfonate Enhances Open Field Novelty-Induced Behavior and Spatial Memory in Male Swiss Albino Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Onaolapo, Olakunle James; Onaolapo, Adejoke Yetunde

    2012-01-01

    This study set out to assess the neurobehavioral effects of subchronic, oral bromocriptine methanesulfonate using the open field and the Y-maze in healthy male mice. Sixty adult Swiss albino mice were assigned into three groups. Controls received normal saline, while test groups received bromocriptine methanesulfonate at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg/day, respectively, for a period of 21 days. Neurobehavioral tests were carried out on days 1 and 21 after administration. Open field assessment on day 1 after...

  9. The role of melatonin in radiation induced biochemical disturbances in brain and thyroid gland in adult male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Kader, S.M.; EI-Sherbiny, E.M.

    2007-01-01

    Radiation induced changes in adult male albino male rats before and after melatonin administration were monitored to detect some biochemical changes in brain and thyroid gland. The parameters monitored were dopamine (DA), norepinephdne (NE) and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) in brain and triiodothyronine (T 3 ) thyroxine (T 4 ) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in serum of irradiated adult male albino rats before and after intraperitoneal injection of melatonin. Results indicated that 6.0 Gy whole body γ-irradiated rats showed gradual and significant decrease in DA, NE and GABA contents in different brain areas under investigation (cerebellum, pons+medulla oblongata, corpus striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus). The maximum effect of whole body γ-irradiation was observed after 21 days. Moreover, gradual and significant decrease in serum T 3 and T 4 levels were recorded after γ-irradiation. However, TSH level showed significant elevation throughout the experimental period. Melatonin at a dose level of 15 mg/kg b.wt. was intraperitoneally injected daily 30 minutes after 6.0 Gy whole body γ-irradiation, ameliorated DA, NE and GABA contents in different brain areas compared to those measured in irradiated rats. Moreover, melatonin gradually attenuated the effect of γ-irradiation on serum T 3 and T 4 levels to reach nearly the control level at day 21 after melatonin injection. However, melatonin ameliorated the elevated TSH level induced by γ-irradiation to reach its corresponding control value at day 21

  10. Effect of embelin on lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in albino rats

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    Ashish K Sahu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the nephroprotective and anti-polyuric role of embelin on lithium induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI in albino rats. Methods: NDI induced by lithium chloride (4 meq/kg/day, i.p. for 6 days which leads to huge amount of urine excretion. After induction of NDI, embelin (50 and 100mg/kg was administered orally, once daily for 21 day in rats and N-acetyl cysteine (10mg/kg, twice daily, i.p. was used as a standard drug for treatment of NDI. The body weight, urine protein, urine creatinine, plasma creatinine, blood urea nitrogen were assessed at 0, 7, 14 and 21 day. At the end of the study glutathione (GSH content in kidney was assessed and histopathology of kidney was performed. Results: Embelin 50 and 100 mg/ kg showed increase in the body weight and decrease in plasma and urine creatinine, blood urea nitrogen levels, and urine protein level. Embelin acts as a potent antioxidant; it increases the level of glutathione in kidney. Histopathological examination of the kidney indicated that embelin 50 and 100 mg/kg were reduced the vascular degeneration of tubules as well as slight degeneration and dilatation of renal tubules, however N-actyl cysteine (NAC treated rats showed normal glomeruli and renal tubule with slight degeneration. Conclusions: Embelin seemed to be effective in NDI by its predominant effect on promoting antioxidant status and decrease the urine excretion may be due to the blocking of sodium channels.

  11. Improvement of sperm density in neem-oil induced infertile male albino rats by Ipomoea digitata Linn.

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    Ghanashyam Keshav Mahajan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Investigation has been carried out to validate folkloric claim of the potential of ID based on reproductive health status in experimentally induced male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Emulsified neem oil (ENO fed albino rats were orally administered root powder of ID suspended in water for the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 40 days. Change in organ weight, sperm density and motility, serum hormonal levels and histomorphological changes were evaluated. Results: Significant increase in the sperm density and the sperm motility (P< 0.01 along with increase in the testis, and epididymes weight in neem-oil induced infertile rats treated with ID at both dose levels. This effect is vis- and agrave;-vis to serum hormonal levels. Presence of beta-sitosterol in the root of ID likely to enhance the process of spermatogenesis as it is evident from histomorphological studies. Conclusion: Results of the present investigation reveal that ID is a good candidate for the management of male infertility. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(2.000: 125-128

  12. Role of Vitamin C As A Potent Antioxidant in Acute Radiation Induced Liver Disease (RILD) Among Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezz El Arab, A.; Ayad, S.K.Y.; El Fouly, A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated the role of vitamin C as antioxidant in alleviating organ damage caused by gamma irradiation. The present study was conducted to find out the effect of vitamin C on liver biochemical functions such as serum ALT, AST, albumin and bilirubin after experimental liver damage induced by gamma irradiation. Rats irradiated with gamma radiation were used as a model of liver injury terminating with necro inflammatory activity and acute hepatitis. Forty male albino rats were classified into 6 groups (G0-G5). G0 included 8 male albino rats that were divided to 2 subgroups (4 rats/subgroup). Both subgroups were exposed to gamma irradiation with 6 Gy as a single dose. The first subgroup was left for 3 weeks then serum and liver samples were collected while in the second subgroup, 2 rats were died and the remaining 2 rats were left for 6 weeks then serum and liver samples were collected. G1 was the negative control while in the rest groups, the whole body of rats was exposed to gamma irradiation of dose 8 Gy divided to 2 doses (4 Gy/one dose) at one week interval in between. G2 included 12 albino rats divided into 3 subgroups (4 rats/subgroup). The whole body of albino rats of G2 was exposed to 8 Gy gamma irradiation that divided as mentioned before. Serum and liver samples were collected after one day, two days and four days after last dose of irradiation. G3 also included 8 rats that were divided into 2 subgroups (4 rats/subgroup) and whole body was exposed to 8 Gy gamma irradiation that were divided as mentioned before. Serum and liver samples were collected after one week for one subgroup and 2 weeks for other subgroup after last dose of irradiation. The rest 2 groups (4 rats/group) were exposed to 8Gy gamma irradiation divided as before, but the rats in one group were orally supplemented with low dose of vitamin C. G4 and the others were supplemented with high dose of vitamin C for 2 weeks starting after last dose of irradiation (G5) then serum

  13. Radio -Protective Role of Zinc Administration Pre-Exposure to Gamma-Irradiation in Male Albino Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Dawy, H.A.; Aly El-Sayed, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the potency of zinc chloride injected subcutaneously (30 mg/kg b.w.) in male albino mice as a radio-protective agent pre exposure to gamma-irradiation. The investigation of the radio-protective role of zinc chloride was accomplished through measuring the levels of sex hormones, and observation of the chromosomal aberrations and sperm-head abnormalities after exposure to gamma-irradiation. The average of abnormal cells with chromosomal aberration and abnormal sperm % on the 7 th and 21 th days were 32% and 40%, and 14% and 22% respectively in mice exposed to radiation alone compared to 12% and 16%, and 5% and 12% respectively in mice treated with zinc chloride pre-irradiation. Treatment of mice with zinc chloride pre-irradiation induced significant amelioration in FSH and LH hormone levels on the 7 th day only of experimentation period, and showed non-significant amelioration in testosterone level

  14. Synergistic Effects of Squalene and Omega-3 on Lipid Peroxidation and some Antioxidants in Gamma-Irradiated Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A. G.; Abdel-Magied, N.

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the synergistic effects of squalene and omega-3 as an antioxidant in protection against oxidative stress which induced by gamma- irradiated in male albino rats. The experimental animals, male albino rats (n=48) weighing (120-150 g) were divided into 4 groups: control, gamma irradiated with a single dose of 6 Gy, oral administration with 0.4 ml/kg b. wt from squalene and omega-3 for 30 days and oral administration with 0.4 ml/kg b. wt from squalene and omega-3 for 30 days and irradiated with a single dose level (6 Gy). Animals were sacrificed on the 3rd and 7th day post irradiation. Biochemical analysis was carried out on blood glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), catalase activity (CAT) and lipid peroxidation (MDA). Also lipid profile: plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) were assayed. Exposure to gamma radiation at dose level 6 Gy elevated significantly lipid peroxidation (MDA) and decline in level of blood glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), and catalase activity (CAT) also, a significant increase in plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and decrease in HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C). Combined supplementation of squalene and omega-3 significantly prevented the elevation of (MDA) and decline in antioxidant parameters after radiation and ameliorates plasma lipid profile. The results indicated that the combination of aqualene and omega-3 has a protective role, antioxidant effect and antilipidemic effect against gamma radiation in exposed rats

  15. Effect of Nigella sativa Linn oil on tramadol-induced hepato- and nephrotoxicity in adult male albino rats

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    A. Elkhateeb

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the role of Nigella sativa Linn (NsL oil against subacute tramadol-induced hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity as well as oxidative stress in adult male albino rats. Sixty adult male albino rats were divided into four groups. Group I: control group; 30 rats equally subdivided into: Ia; −ve control group, Ib; +ve control group received saline, Ic; +ve control group received corn oil. Group II: 10 rats received NsL oil; 1 mg/kg in 1 ml corn oil/day, group III: 10 rats received tramadol; 30 mg/kg/day, group IV: 10 rats received tramadol + NsL oil in the previous doses. Treatments were given by gavage for 30 days. Then rats were sacrificed and specimens from the livers and kidneys were taken for biochemical and histopathological study. Biochemical data showed elevated liver enzymes; alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT, bilirubin as well as urea and creatinine in tramadol group. A significant increase in hepatic and renal malondialdehyde (MDA and a decrease in glutathione peroxidase (GPx levels were also noticed. Histological analysis of the liver showed vacuolated hepatocyte cytoplasm indicating hydropic degeneration with binucleated cells, apoptotic nuclei, congested central veins, cellular infiltration and hemorrhage. Kidney sections revealed atrophied glomeruli with collapsed tufts and wide Bowman's space, degenerated tubules, hemorrhage and mononuclear cellular infiltration. There was also an increase in area % of collagen fibers in both organs. Concomitant use of NsL oil with tramadol induced partial improvement in the hepato- and nephrotoxic effects. In conclusion, this study suggested that concomitant use of NsL oil with tramadol proved to be capable of ameliorating tramadol-induced hepato- and nephrotoxicity which might be due to its antioxidant potential.

  16. Dose- dependent ameliorative effects of quercetin and l-Carnitine against atrazine- induced reproductive toxicity in adult male Albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Aziz, Rabie L; Abdel-Wahab, Ahmed; Abo El-Ela, Fatma I; Hassan, Nour El-Houda Y; El-Nahass, El-Shaymaa; Ibrahim, Marwa A; Khalil, Abdel-Tawab A Y

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the protective effects of co-administration of Quercetin (QT) or l-Carnitine (LC) against the oxidative stress induced by Atrazine (ATZ) in the reproductive system of intact male Albino rats. 36 rats were divided equally into 6 groups. Rats in the control negative "CNT" group received 1.5 ml distilled water for 21 days. All rats in the other groups received ATZ (120 mg/kg bw) through gavage. Groups 3 and 4 were co-administered with either low or high dose of QT (10 "ATZLQT" and 50 "ATZHQT" mg/kg bw, respectively). Groups 5 and 6 were co-administered with either low or high dose of LC (200 "ATZLLC" and 400 "ATZHLC" mg/kg bw, respectively). At the end of the experiment, animals were sacrificed and all samples were collected. ATZ significantly increased serum level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Also, ATZ increased significantly the sperm cell abnormalities and reduced both testicular IgA and serum testosterone levels. Testicular DNA laddering % and CYP17A1 mRNA expression were significantly reduced in ATZ group. Interestingly, co-administration with low dose QT or different doses of LC succeeded to counteract the negative toxic effects of ATZ on serum oxidative stress indicators, serum testosterone levels, testicular IgA level and improved testicular CYP17A1 mRNA expression. In conclusion, QT in low dose and LC in both low and high doses exerted a significant protective action against the reproductive toxicity of ATZ, while higher dose of QT failed induce immune-stimulant effect against ATZ in adult male Albino rats. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. The protective role of melatonin on L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis in adult male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, A S; Khattab, R T

    2017-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease that has an increasing incidence worldwide. AP is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates ranging 15-40% in its severe form. Oxidative stress plays an important role in pancreatic acinar cell injury in case of AP. Melatonin (Mel) is proven to have both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of the work was to investigate the protective role of Mel against L-arginine (L-arg)-induced AP in adult male albino rats. Thirty-six adult male albino rats were used in this study. Animals were divided into four groups; Control group (Group A; n = 6), Mel group (Group B; n = 6), L-arg group (Group C; n = 12) receiving two doses of L-arg injection with 1 h interval in-between, and L-arg+Mel group (Group D; n = 12) receiving Mel 1 h after each L-arg injection. 24 h after the second L-arg injection, the serum levels of amylase (AM), lipase (LP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrotic factor-alpha (TNF-α) were determined. Then, pancreatic specimens were processed for histological and immunohistochemical staining with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the area percentage of VEGF and collagen content were measured by digital image analysis. Microscopic examination revealed that animals received L-arg only (Group C) showed loss of the pancreatic lobular architecture with marked fibrosis, acinar degeneration, inflammatory reaction and marked oedema with vascular congestion. Also, L-arg-induced AP caused a significant elevation of the serum levels of AM, LP, IL-6. All these histo-pathological and serological parameters were markedly improved by Mel administration. Melatonin exhibits strong therapeutic effects in the course of AP. Hence, the use of Mel as adjuvant treatment in AP is recommended.

  18. Daily Dose effect of Valerian root extract on some Neurotransmitter contents in different Brain areas of male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waggas, Abeer M

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the daily effect of valerian (Valeriana officinalis L .) root extract on epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) , and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) contents in different brain areas (cerebellum , pons plus medulla oblongata , striatum , cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus) of male albino rats .The daily intraperitoneal ( i.p.) injection of 300 mg/kg body wt valerian for 30 days caused a significant increase in epinephrine ( E ) content in pons plus medulla oblongata, cerebral cortex , hypothalamus and in midbrain . Norepinephrine (NE ) content was significantly increased in all brain areas tested except in cerebellum and cerebral cortex . Dopamine (DA) content was significantly increased in all tested brain areas except in cerebral cortex and hippocampus . moreover , there was also a significant increase in serotonin (5-HT ) and 5-hydroxyindol acetic acid (5-HIAA) contents in all tested brain areas . However, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content was significantly decreased in all tested brain areas . After the extract withdrawal, the increase in ( E, NE, DA , 5-HT ) contents and the decrease in GABA content persisted in pons plus medulla oblongata , striatum , midbrain and hippocampus , and this might be due to regional differences toward the effect. The increase in E, NE, DA , 5-HT and 5-HIAA contents, at the same time the decrease in GABA content in the different brain areas of albino rats may be due to the presence of both valepotriates and valerenic acid in the extract which mediated the GABA ergic mechanisms including the inhibition of GABA metabolism and the increase in GABA synthesis and release , although agonized the GABAA receptors which led to the inhibit of the neurotransmitter release. Valerian root extract may be useful as a herbal medicine having sedative effect and it is safe. (author)

  19. Relation between diabetes mellitus and male fertility

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    Andy Petroianu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the present study was to verify if there is any relation between diabetes mellitus and male infertility. Methods: the spermograms of 43 non-diabetic subjects and 12 diabetic patients (type 1 and 2 aged 20-60 years were compared. Spermiological findings in diabetic patients were compared with those of normal individuals of the same age. Serum testosterone, prolactin, follicle-stimulant hormone, luteinizing hormone, glucose and glycosilated hemoglobin were assayed in diabetic patients. Rresults: Six diabetic patients (four type 1 and two type 2 presented chronic complications attributed to neuropathy and vascular insufficiency. No difference was observed in the semen characteristics (odor, color, viscosity and pH between the control group and the diabetic patients. There were no differences between seminal concentrations and percentage of motile spermatozoa during the first hour of observation in the two groups (p < 0.05. Impotence was reported by four diabetic patients (33.3%. Erectile failure was associated with diabetic microangiopathy and neuropathy. There were no controls with impotence. No significant hormonal changes were found in the diabetic patients. Cconclusions: The present results suggest that neuropathy and vascular insufficiency  may be  implicated in sexual dysfunction in type 1 and 2 diabetic patients, without significantly affecting the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

  20. Antioxidant Activity of Cabbage and/or Carrot Against Oxidative Stress Induced by Gamma Irradiation in Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, R.G.; Mahmoud, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    Several studies indicated that diets rich in fruits and vegetables are protective against diseases, and populations that consume such diets have higher plasma antioxidants and exhibit lower risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Vegetable is considered major dietary source of fibers and antioxidants such as polyphenols, flavonoids and carotenoids that can protect against different dietary disorders. The present study was carried out to investigate the potential protective effects of cabbage and/or carrot against oxidative stress induced by gamma irradiation in male albino rats. Chemical composition and phenolic contents in cabbage and carrot were determined. Male albino rats were exposed to 5 Gy (single dose with rate 0.46 Gy/min) of whole body gamma irradiation. Thirty five rats were randomly divided into five groups as follow: group 1: control (rats fed on balanced diet for 6 weeks), group 2: irradiated (rats were exposed to whole gamma irradiation and fed on balanced diet for 6 weeks) and groups 3, 4 and 5: irradiated rats fed on balanced diet and received cabbage 15%, carrot 15% and a combination of cabbage and carrot, respectively. The results obtained revealed that the administration of cabbage and/or carrot diet significantly reduced the changes induced by gamma irradiation in the serum level of glucose and liver function parameters; serum aminotransferases (AST, ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein and albumin. In addition, significant improvements were observed in the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). Significant enhancement in hepatic antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), was observed. The levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) associated with remarkable decrease in the level of lipid peroxidation (TBARS) were observed. Accordingly, it could be concluded that consumption of cabbage and/or carrot

  1. The Protective Efficacy Of Extract Of Hibiscus Sabdariffa (Karkade) Calyces Against Alcohol Toxicity In Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, E.A.; Ali, E.A.; Shahen, E.M.; El Madawy, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS), Malvacea family, is a medicinal plant with a worldwide fame. Its benefit effect on some physiological parameters as blood picture, blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, liver and kidney functions, electrolytes and antioxidant capacity is mentioned in several recent studies. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of this plant in protecting from alcohol toxicity in rats. Thirty two adult male albino rats were divided into four equal groups: group 1 received water orally for 30 days, group 2 received ethanol (5 ml/kg/day) for 30 days, both group 3 and group 4 received Hibiscus sabdariffa (100 mg/kg/day) orally for 30 days and then group 4 received ethanol (5 ml/kg/day) orally for another 30 days. Serum hepatic markers (aspartate and alanine minotransferases; AST and ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) were increased significantly by alcohol abuse with no observed improvement in treatment with HS. Significant reduction in total protein and albumin was observed in alcohol abuse which improved with HS treatment and showed significant increase as compared with both control and alcohol treated groups. Serum kidney markers (urea, creatinine and uric acid) were increased in alcohol abuse and only creatinine and uric acid nearly returned to normal levels with HS treatment while urea level remains high. Serum glucose was increased significantly in alcohol abuse and significantly decreased in group 3 (HS treated) and group 4 (HS + ethanol). Serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and atherogenic index were increased significantly while HDL-C was significantly reduced in alcohol abuse. HS treatment resulted in significant increase in HDL-C and therefore decreased atherogenic index in both group 3 and group 4 which indicated protective effect of HS for coronary heart diseases. These results lead to the

  2. Subchronic Oral Bromocriptine Methanesulfonate Enhances Open Field Novelty-Induced Behavior and Spatial Memory in Male Swiss Albino Mice

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    Olakunle James Onaolapo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to assess the neurobehavioral effects of subchronic, oral bromocriptine methanesulfonate using the open field and the Y-maze in healthy male mice. Sixty adult Swiss albino mice were assigned into three groups. Controls received normal saline, while test groups received bromocriptine methanesulfonate at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg/day, respectively, for a period of 21 days. Neurobehavioral tests were carried out on days 1 and 21 after administration. Open field assessment on day 1 after administration revealed significant increase in grooming at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg, while horizontal and vertical locomotion showed no significant changes. Day 1 also showed no significant changes in Y-maze alternation. On day 21, horizontal locomotion, rearing, and grooming were increased significantly at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg doses after administration; also, spatial memory was significantly enhanced at 2.5 mg/kg. In conclusion, the study demonstrates the ability of oral bromocriptine to affect neurobehavior in normal mice. It also suggests that there is a cumulative effect of oral bromocriptine on the behaviors studied with more changes being seen after subchronic administration rather than after a single oral dose.

  3. Serotonin exerting protection of serum lipid pattern in male albino rat subjected to shot or intermittent whole body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Dighidy, E.A.M.; El-Kady, M.H.R.

    1995-01-01

    Certain cancer patients are subjected to varying levels of intermittent radiation delivered in certain cases as whole body exposure. Effective control of many haematological complications built up during radiation treatment would necessarily contribute to up-grading of cancer radiotherapy. In the present study, the effect of either shot or intermittent whole body gamma irradiation at cumulative dose levels up to 6 and 10 Gy, have been evaluated on the levels of total lipids and lipid fractions in blood serum of male albino rats. The pharmacological role of serotonin and its potential radioprotective capacity have been assessed on the serum lipid pattern. The results indicated generally significant increases in the levels of blood lipid fractions especially HDL-cholesterol. On the other hand, the level of LDL-cholesterol recorded a significant decrease on the third day post either shot or cumulative dose levels at 6 or 10 Gy and also post 4 successive doses of serotonin administration. The only exceptions were recorded in the case of LDL-cholesterol post administration of single dose of serotonin and serotonin prior to shot dose levels of 6 or 10 Gy. 2 tabs

  4. Subchronic Oral Bromocriptine Methanesulfonate Enhances Open Field Novelty-Induced Behavior and Spatial Memory in Male Swiss Albino Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaolapo, Olakunle James; Onaolapo, Adejoke Yetunde

    2013-01-01

    This study set out to assess the neurobehavioral effects of subchronic, oral bromocriptine methanesulfonate using the open field and the Y-maze in healthy male mice. Sixty adult Swiss albino mice were assigned into three groups. Controls received normal saline, while test groups received bromocriptine methanesulfonate at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg/day, respectively, for a period of 21 days. Neurobehavioral tests were carried out on days 1 and 21 after administration. Open field assessment on day 1 after administration revealed significant increase in grooming at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg, while horizontal and vertical locomotion showed no significant changes. Day 1 also showed no significant changes in Y-maze alternation. On day 21, horizontal locomotion, rearing, and grooming were increased significantly at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg doses after administration; also, spatial memory was significantly enhanced at 2.5 mg/kg. In conclusion, the study demonstrates the ability of oral bromocriptine to affect neurobehavior in normal mice. It also suggests that there is a cumulative effect of oral bromocriptine on the behaviors studied with more changes being seen after subchronic administration rather than after a single oral dose.

  5. Potential therapeutic and protective effect of curcumin against stroke in the male albino stroke-induced model rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Yan, Yi; Cao, Yi; Yang, Yongtao; Zhao, Qing; Jing, Rui; Hu, Jiayi; Bao, Juan

    2017-08-15

    The present study was carried out to understand the therapeutic effect of curcumin (CUR) against stroke in the experimental animal model. The study investigates the healing effect of CUR on mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation. Male albino, Wistar strain rats were used for the induction of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and reperfusion. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for the determination of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the brain region. Western blot analysis was used to determine the protein expression levels of Bax, Bcl-2, p53, and Sirt1. The water level was determined in brain region by using standard method. Experimental results indicated that the use of CUR significantly reduced brain edema and water content. IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly reduced in the brain region following use of CUR. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) also reduced significantly after CUR treatment. Protein expression of p53 and Bax were significantly reduced, whereas Bcl-2 and Sirt1 were increased following CUR treatment. Taking all these data together, it is suggested that the use of CUR may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of stroke. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of deltamethrin on transmission of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and thyroid hormones in adult male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-kader, S.M.; Abdel-Rahman, M.

    2005-01-01

    The oral administration of 1/5 LD 5 0 of deltamethrin for 15 days produced an increase in GABA content and a decrease in Cl - ions concentration in all tested brain areas (cerebellum, pons + medulla oblongata, striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus) of adult male albino rats, almost at most time intervals. Deltamethrin also resulted in a significant decrease in serum TSH and increase in T 3 and T 4 levels in the treated rats. From the present results, it was found that deltamethrin decreased the passage of Cl - ions in the cells which might be, in part, due to a decrease of the transmission of GABA and an increase of the circulating thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine and thyroxine). Accordingly, deltamethrin may act as GABA antagonist and may act on the hypothalamus pituitary thyroid axis. In conclusion the elevation of thyroid hormones as well as the decrease in both CL - ions and GABA transmission which could be all together responsible for the impairment of motor activity, hyper excitability and seizure that occurred in rats treated with the pyrethroid insecticide deltamethrin

  7. The Antidiabetic Activity of Nigella sativa and Propolis on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes and Diabetic Nephropathy in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddad A. El Rabey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare the ameliorative effect of Nigella sativa and propolis methanol extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats and treating diabetic nephropathy. Forty male Albino rats were divided into four groups; the first group was the negative control fed standard diet. The other 30 rats were injected with streptozotocin to induce diabetes by a single intravenous injection and then divided equally into three groups; the second group was the positive diabetic control; the third and the fourth groups were treated orally with 20% w/w Nigella sativa seeds methanol extract and propolis methanol extract (20% w/w, respectively. The rats of the second group showed increased glucose levels and lipid peroxide accompanied with reduction in superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione-S-transferase enzyme activities compared with the negative control. Carboxymethyl lysine, interleukin-6, and immunoglobulins were also increased as a result of diabetes. Kidney function parameters were also elevated, while potassium and sodium levels were decreased. Moreover, tissues of kidney and pancreas showed severe histopathological changes. Treating the diabetic rats with Nigella sativa and propolis methanol extract in the third and fourth groups, respectively, ameliorated all altered biochemical and pathological examinations approaching the negative control. Propolis was more effective than Nigella sativa.

  8. Biochemical activity of the insecticide (diflubenzuron) residues on male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel- Naser, H.F.O.

    1997-01-01

    The toxicological studies of the insecticide. Diflubenzuron were investigated in experimental animals during 45th days feeding study. The studies carried out included treatment of wheat grains with 100 and 300 ppm DFB, this was accomplished by feeding male rats for 45 days (sub chronic toxicity study) on DFB incorporated in grains to monitor any possible change that might have been altered in the animal during that period. 6 tabs., 17 figs., 109 refs

  9. Antispermatogenic, antiandrogenic activities of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth bark extract in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R S; Kachhawa, J B S; Chaudhary, R

    2006-03-01

    Methanolic extract of Albizia lebbeck bark when administered orally at the dose level of 100 mg/rat/day to male rats of proven fertility for 60 days did not cause any significant loss in their body weights but the weights of reproductive organs, i.e. testis, epididymides, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate were decreased in a significant manner when compared to controls. Sperm motility as well as sperm density were reduced significantly which resulted in reduction of male fertility by 100%. Marked decline in the germ cell population was noticed. Population of preleptotene, pachytene, secondary spermatocytes and step-19 spermatid were declined by 60.86%, 65.81%, 71.56% and 66.55%, respectively. Cross-sectional surface area of sertoli cells as well as the cells counts were found to be depleted significantly. Leydig cells nuclear area and number of mature Leydig cells were decreased by 60.03% and 51.56%, respectively. Serum testosterone levels showed significant reduction after A. lebbeck extract feeding. Oral administration of the extract did not affect red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) count, haemoglobin, haematocrit and glucose in the blood and cholesterol, protein, triglyceride and phospholipid in the serum. In conclusion, A. lebbeck bark extract administration arrests spermatogenesis in male rats without noticeable side effects.

  10. Anabolic effect of Hibiscus rosasinensis Linn. leaf extracts in immature albino male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olagbende-Dada, S O; Ezeobika, E N; Duru, F I

    2007-01-01

    Many plants remedies have been employed in solving man's health needs especially the nutritive value which enhances health living. Aphrodisiac plants are plants with anabolic properties i.e. they help in protein synthesis and enhances sexual abilities in males. They are also known as androgenic plants because their properties are similar to that of androgen a male hormone. Cold aqueous extract of Hibiscus rosasinensis leaves is reported by local traditional practioners in Western Nigeria to be aphrodisiac. To investigate the anabolic properties of Hibiscus rosasinensis. Three groups (8/group) of immature male rats of known weights were administered equal doses of aqueous (cold and hot) and alcoholic extracts of Hibiscus rosasinensis leaves for 8 weeks. The gain in body and isolated sexual organs (testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate) weights were determined after treatment and compared to the value obtained from a fourth untreated group which served as the control. Section through the testes of both the treated and untreated rats were also examined microscopically and displayed as a photomicrograph for comparism. All data were statistically analysed and displaced in graphic form. Over the 8 weeks of treatment, the control, the cold aqueous extract dosed, hot aqueous extract dosed and alcoholic extract dosed rats gained 8%, 15%, 18% and 22% in body weights respectively. The increase in the weight of testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate of the alcoholic extract dosed rats was 19%, 30%, 31% and 40% respectively. The anabolic effect of the leaf extracts of H. rosasinensis is hereby established. More work needs to be done on these leaf extracts to know their effect on the gonadotrophin hormones which regulate the activity of the androgens in relation to spermatogenesis.

  11. Toxicity effect of sub-chronic oral administration of class bitters® - a polyherbal formula on serum electrolytes and hematological indices in male Wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley C. Patrick-Iwuanyanwu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The indiscriminate administration of readyto- use herbal formulations has become a major concern due to their potential health risk. The study investigated the effect of class bitters® (CB - a polyherbal formula prepared with Mondia whitei, Khaya senegalensis, Capparis erythrocarpus, Thoningia sanguinea and Xylopia aethiopica on serum electrolytes and hematological parameters in male Wistar albino rats. Two doses (500 and 1000 mg kg–1 of the polyherbal drugs were administered orally to male Wistar albino rats for a period of 9 weeks. The results showed that administration of 500 and 1000 mg kg–1 body weight of CB recorded a marked increase in the levels of sodium and chlorum when compared with control. However, there was a marked reduction in the levels of potassium and hydrogen carbonate. The results of the study also showed a significant (P≤0.05 decrease in the level of hematological parameters such as hemoglobin (Hb, packed cell volume (PCV, red blood cells (RBCs and platelets levels in the male Wistar albino rats, when compared with control. The marked decrease in Hb, PCV, RBCs and platelets concentrations observed in experimental rats in this study suggest that CB may have an adverse effect on erythropoiesis. These observations therefore showed that long-term administration of CB might cause renal disease and anemia.

  12. Toxicological and Histopathological Studies on the Effect of Tartrazine in Male Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    F. Alaa Ali; S. A. Sherein Abdelgayed; S. Osama. EL-Tawil; M. Adel Bakeer

    2016-01-01

    Tartrazine is an organic azo dyes food additive widely used in foods, drugs, and cosmetics. The present study aimed to investigate the toxic effects of tartrazine on kidneys and liver biomarkers in addition to the investigation of oxidative stress and change of histopathological structure of liver and kidneys in 30 male rats. Tartrazine was orally administrated daily at dose 200 mg/ kg bw (1/ 10 LD50) for sixty days. Serum and tissue samples were collected at the end of the experiment to inve...

  13. Beta-glucan ameliorates gamma-rays induced oxidative injury in male Swiss albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, S.F.

    2011-01-01

    1,3-beta-D-Glucan is a natural polysaccharide derived from the cell walls of bakers yeast Saccharomyces cerevsiae with immunoenhancing and potent antioxidant effects. This study investigated the pathways through which beta-glucan gavage treatment (50mg/kg) exerts its effect on radiation-induced oxidative damage in male rats. Beta-glucan was given orally to male rats; 3 hours post gamma-irradiation at dose 5Gy, for 10 and 20 days post-irradiation level were assayed, being remarkable indicators in cell oxidative stress. Results pointed out that irradiation at 5Gy significantly depressed all blood parameters, such as erythrocytes count (RBCs), hemoglobin content (Hb), hematocrit value (Hct), total leucocytes count and absolute lymphocytes and neutrophils counts, blood glutathione (GSH) level and conversely elevated level of serum ascorbyl radical (AsR), product of lipid peroxidation (MDA melanodialdehyde), triglycerides and cholesterol. Total leucocytes count and absolute lymphocytes and neutrophils counts, RBCs, Hb, Hct, blood GSH and serum MDA of irradiated animals receiving beta-glucan administration were exhibited significant differences compared to the irradiated group. Marrow count and the percentage of viability and spleenocytes viability were also significantly decreased. Beta-glucan treatment accelerates recovery of cell damage induced by ionizing irradiation through its potential immune-enhancing activity and free radical scavenging ability that is partially mediated through stimulation of immunohaematological system thus could play a role in regulating irradiation complications

  14. Amelioration of some biochemical parameters in irradiated male albino rats by garlic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-masry, F.S.H.; El-sayed, N.M.; Hussein, A.H.

    2005-01-01

    Garlic extract has various medical effects on the treatment of many diseases as hypertension, atherosclerosis, inflammation and diabetes. The alteration of the biochemical parameters in blood serum of irradiated rats may play an important role in determining the pathogenesis of radiation exposure. Many of the damaging effects of ionizing radiation are mediated by reactive free radicals. This study was designed to evaluate the protective role of garlic against gamma irradiation (5Gy) induced biochemical disorders in rats. Samples were collected at 1, 7 and 14 days post-irradiation. Lipid peroxide content (malondialdehyde), cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, fatty acids, glucose, insulin, glycogen, haemoglobin, ferritin andiron were estimated.Garlic was orally administered to rats (100 mg/kg body weight) for 14 days before exposure to single dose of gamma irradiation at dose level 5 Gy. The data revealed significant increase in the levels of lipid peroxide, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, fatty acids, insulin, glucose and iron accompanied with significant decrease in the levels of HDL-cholesterol, glycogen, haemoglobin and ferritin due to radiation exposure. Administration of garlic alone to the rats caused nonsignificant changes in the estimated parameters indicating its safe use, but the treatment with garlic to rats before radiation exposure ameliorated the changes induced by gamma irradiation and tended to normalize their levels.It could be concluded that garlic administration may has a beneficial role in restoring the biochemical disorders induced by 5 Gy gamma irradiation

  15. Hepatic and Gonadal Dysfunction Induced by Chloropyrifos in Protein Malnourished Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heibashy, M.I.A.; Amer, M.M.

    2003-01-01

    Malnutrition seems to be a common problem in most of the developing communities especially among the labour level,specifically child labour. In spite of the great awareness of the dangerous use of insecticides, yet several hundred types of these chemicals are still widely used. The present study was conducted to investigate the harmful effect of malnutrition and /or exposure to organophosphorus insecticide (chloropyrifos) with different doses (low dose; 30 mg/kg body weight/day and high dose; 60 mg/kg body weight/day) on liver and testis function in male rats. The results showed significant decrease in body weight, haemoglobin, serum total protein, albumin and testosterone level. On the other hand, liver enzyme activities (ALT and AST) and ferritin concentration recorded significant elevation after treatment with chloropyrifos

  16. Effect of Carbonated Beverage Intake on Blood Gases and Some Biochemical Parameters in Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, M.S.; Osman, H.F.

    2012-01-01

    colour carbonated beverage than rats receiving colourless carbonated beverage. The black colour beverages have caffeine which may be the reason for decreasing bone mineral density. Very high significant increase was recorded in glucose level in groups (II) and (III) while insulin was decreased significantly in group (II), and very high significant decrease in group (III) was observed which lead to diabetes mellitus. It could be concluded that carbonic acid found in carbonated beverages may lead to the alkalinity of the blood which reflect metabolic problem. Cola beverages can increase the risk of kidney problems more than non-cola sodas. Cola beverages consumption may have adverse effects on bone mineral density and furthermore, cola beverages consumption is a significant risk factor for devolving of metabolic syndrome such as insulin resistance that might result in diabetes

  17. Role of carnitine in ameliorating the lead and / or irradiation induced toxicity in male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, N.M.

    2005-01-01

    This work: aimed to investigate the protective effect of carnitine (3-hydroxy-4-N-trimethyl amino butyric acid) on the contents of total protein, albumin, glucose and lipid peroxides as malonaldehyde (MDA) in serum, in addition to liver glycogen and lipid peroxides content 1, 2, 4 weeks after exposure of rats to a collective dose of 4 Gy whole body gamma irradiation and / or lead treatment. Adult male rats received lead (50 mg/kg body weight) and / or exposed to fractionated dose (4 Gy) of gamma irradiation delivered as 0.5 Gy twice weekly for four weeks. Results of the present study revealed that fractionated whole body gamma irradiation and / or lead administration induced cellular damage manifested by a significant decrease in serum total protein and albumin, and a significant increase in serum glucose and MDA content as well as significant increase in liver glycogen and MDA. Administration of carnitine (200 mg/kg b.wt.) before lead and / or gamma irradiation, has significantly ameliorated the observed changes, indicating the prophylactic action of carnitine on lead and / or irradiation toxicity

  18. The Use of Statin Substitutes to Improve the Lipid Profile in Liver Dysfunctional Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, M.M.; Michael, M.I.

    2010-01-01

    More attention has been drawn to different strategies for prevention of cardiovascular associated with liver dysfunction. The aim of the present study is to compare between statin and free fat- milk supplemented with multivitamins in hyperlipidaemic male rats with or without liver dysfunction induced by CCl4. The animals were allocated to 7 equal experimental groups (16 rats each): control group, hypercholesterolemic group, hypercholestero-lemic-statin group, hypercholesterolemic-free fat milk-multivitamins group, hypercholesterolemic-CCl4 group, hypercholesterolemic-CCl4-statin group, and hypercholesterolemic-CCl4- fat-free milk-multivita-mins group. After one month half of the rats of each group were decapitated and the rest of the animals were decapitated after two months. Lipid profile, relative liver weight, liver function, CPK and LDH were determined. The effectiveness of statin drug in the management of blood lipids was confirmed without improving or worsening liver functions. Meanwhile, this effectiveness worsened in hypercholesterolemic rats treated with CCl4 as compared to hypercholesterolemic group. Administration of fat-free milk with multivitamins, as an alternative remedy for statin drug, has improved lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats and it revealed no changes in liver enzymes in hypercholesterolemic rats with liver dysfunction indicating the favorable use of them as hypolipotropic agent without affecting liver metabolism

  19. The ameliorative effect of grape seed extract(GSE) on sodium borate-inducing kidney injury of male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayad, S.K.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Borax (sod-borate) is a toxic compound that is implicated daily to environmental pollutant, so occupational exposure leading to adverse effects on functions of some organs causing their damage as nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and testicular atrophy . In particularly, kidney is the most organ that is affected by borax exposure due to continuous exposure with slow rate of excretion leading to accumulation in the renal tissue. Supplementation with high potent antioxidant grape seed extract may alleviate the worse damage effects induced in the kidney as a result of continual exposure of borax in our daily life. The current study aimed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of grape seed extract on renal injury of male albino rats intoxicated with sod-borate. Twenty eight male albino rats were classified to 4 groups(GI and II and III and IV).GI served as a control, group GII was a group intoxicated with sod-borate for 45 days, where as rats in GIII supplemented with GSE beside sod-borate for 45 days , GIV was a group supplemented with GSE only. Serum and kidney samples were collected for biochemical, histopathological and DNA examinations. Significant elevation in the levels of blood urea and creatinine in GII were observed when compared to control group(GI). Significant decline were prominent in biochemical kidney functions when intoxicated group supplemented with GSE(GIII) , where as non significant changes were observed between control group and group supplemented with GSE only (GIV). Significant increase in both cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 was observed in group intoxicated with sod-borate(GII) when compared to control rats(GI). Oral supplementation with high potent antioxidant GSE (GIII) caused alleviation in the kidney injury leading to the reduction of both pro-inflammatory mediator cytokines TNF-α and IL-6. DNA% fragment migration showed that worse significant migration of DNA fragements were observed in toxicated group(GII) followed by increase in

  20. Sweet potato Ipomoea Batatas Modulates Radiation-induced Oxidative damage in Liver and kidney of Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, M. M.; Farag, M. F. S.; Osman, N. N.

    2010-01-01

    Sweet potato Ipomoea Batatas, one of the major vegetable crops consumed worldwide, is rich in phytochemicals, which displayed antioxidant activities. This work aims at assessing the radio-protective properties of sweet potato tubers on liver and kidney tissues. Male albino rats were whole body exposed to 0.5 Gy day after day for a period of 20 days. Animal received orally prepared aqueous extract of sweet potato tubers (100 mg kg/body weight), one week before irradiation and during the period of radiation exposure. The results demonstrated that irradiation of rats induced a significant increase in lipid peroxides level measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concomitant with a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activity and glutathione (GSH) content in liver and kidney tissues. Administration of a freshly prepared aqueous extract of sweet potato tubers to rats, one week pre-irradiation and during the period of radiation exposure has significantly of ameliorated the oxidative stress in both tissues. The significant amelioration in oxidative stress was substantiated by improvement of liver and kidney enzymes Treatment of rats with sweet potato has significantly reduced the increase in serum alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, serum creatinine and urea levels. Furthermore, hyperglycemia and alteration in lipid profile manifested by a significant increase in triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and a significant decrease in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), were improved in sweet potato-treated irradiated rats compared to those only irradiated. According to the results obtained in the present study, it could be concluded that sweet potato through its antioxidant activities could protect cellular membrane from radiation induced oxidative damage in animals and preserve the

  1. Cognitive and biochemical effects of monosodium glutamate and aspartame, administered individually and in combination in male albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Taweel, Gasem M; A, Zyadah M; Ajarem, Jamaan S; Ahmad, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the in vivo effects of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and aspartame (ASM) individually and in combination on the cognitive behavior and biochemical parameters like neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices in the brain tissue of mice. Forty male Swiss albino mice were randomly divided into four groups of ten each and were exposed to MSG and ASM through drinking water for one month. Group I was the control and was given normal tap water. Groups II and III received MSG (8 mg/kg) and ASM (32 mg/kg) respectively dissolved in tap water. Group IV received MSG and ASM together in the same doses. After the exposure period, the animals were subjected to cognitive behavioral tests in a shuttle box and a water maze. Thereafter, the animals were sacrificed and the neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices were estimated in their forebrain tissue. Both MSG and ASM individually as well as in combination had significant disruptive effects on the cognitive responses, memory retention and learning capabilities of the mice in the order (MSG+ASM)>ASM>MSG. Furthermore, while MSG and ASM individually were unable to alter the brain neurotransmitters and the oxidative stress indices, their combination dose (MSG+ASM) decreased significantly the levels of neurotransmitters (dopamine and serotonin) and it also caused oxidative stress by increasing the lipid peroxides measured in the form of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and decreasing the level of total glutathione (GSH). Further studies are required to evaluate the synergistic effects of MSG and ASM on the neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices and their involvement in cognitive dysfunctions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Quercetin ameliorates chronic unpredicted stress-induced behavioral dysfunction in male Swiss albino mice by modulating hippocampal insulin signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Vineet; Singh, Tiratha Raj; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2017-12-01

    Chronic stress is associated with impaired neurogenesis, neurodegeneration and behavioral dysfunction, whereas the mechanism underlying stress-mediated neurological complications is still not clear. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether chronic unpredicted stress (CUS) mediated neurological alterations are associated with impaired hippocampal insulin signaling or not, and studied the effect of quercetin in this scenario. Male Swiss albino mice were subjected to 21day CUS, during which 30mg/kg quercetin treatment was given orally. After 21days, behavioral functions were evaluated in terms of locomotor activity (Actophotometer), muscle coordination (Rota-rod), depression (Tail Suspension Test (TST), Forced Swim Test (FST)) and memory performance (Passive-avoidance step-down task (PASD)). Further, hippocampal insulin signaling was evaluated in terms of protein expression of insulin, insulin receptor (IR) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT-4) and neurogenesis was evaluated in terms of doublecortin (DCX) expression. 21day CUS significantly impaired locomotion and had no effect on muscle coordination. Stressed animals were depressed and showed markedly impaired memory functions. Quercetin treatment significantly improvement stress-mediated behavior dysfunction as indicated by improved locomotion, lesser immobility time and greater frequency of upward turning in TST and FST and increased transfer latency on the day 2 (short-term memory) and day 5 (long-term memory) in PASD test. We observed significantly higher IR expression and significantly lower GLUT-4 expression in the hippocampus of stressed animals, despite of nonsignificant difference in insulin levels. Further, chronic stress impaired hippocampal neurogenesis, as indicated by the significantly reduced levels of hippocampal DCX expression. Quercetin treatment significantly lowered insulin and IR expression and significantly enhanced GLUT-4 and DCX expression in the hippocampus, when compared to CUS. In

  3. Hypoglycemic Effect of Aqueous and Methanolic Extract of Artemisia afra on Alloxan Induced Diabetic Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Ahmed Issa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is metabolic syndrome that causes disability, early death, and many other complications. Currently insulin and many synthetic drugs are used in diabetes treatment. However, these pharmaceutical drugs are too expensive particularly for sub-Saharan population in addition to their undesirable side effects. The present study was aimed to evaluate antidiabetic effect and toxicity level of Artemisia afra which was collected from its natural habitat in Bale Zone, around Goba town, 455 km southeast of Addis Ababa. Air dried aerial parts of Artemisia afra were separately extracted with both distilled water and 95% methanol. Oral acute toxicity test was conducted on healthy Swiss albino mice. Antidiabetic effect of the aqueous and methanolic extracts of Artemisia afra was separately evaluated on alloxan induced diabetic mice at doses of 500, 750, and 1000 mg/Kg body weight orally. The results indicate that mean lethal dose (LD50 for aqueous extract of Artemisia afra was 9833.4 mg/Kg. Blood glucose level was significantly decreased by 24% (p<0.005 and 56.9% (p<0.0004 in groups that received aqueous extract of Artemisia afra at dose of 500 mg/Kg and 750 mg/Kg, respectively. The methanolic extract of Artemisia afra also significantly lowered blood glucose by 49.8% (p<0.0001 at doses of 1000 mg/kg on the 5th hr. Aqueous extract of Artemisia afra was regarded as nontoxic and safe since its LD50 was found above 5000 mg/Kg. Aqueous extract showed higher effect at relatively lower dose as compared to methanolic extract. The aqueous extract was screened positive for phytochemicals like flavonoids, polyphenols, and tannins that were reported to have antioxidant activity.

  4. Light Modulates Ocular Complications in an Albino Rat Model of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrawus, Elias; Veildbaum, Gizi; Zemel, Esther; Leibu, Rina; Perlman, Ido; Shehadeh, Naim

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess potential interactions of light exposure and hyperglycemia upon ocular complications in diabetic rats. Streptozotocin-induced (STZ-induced) diabetic rats ( N = 39) and non-diabetic rats ( N = 9) were distributed into eight groups according to the irradiance and color of the light phase during the 12/12-hour light/dark regime. Follow-up lasted 90 days and included assessment of cataract development and electroretinogram (ERG) recordings. Stress to the retina was also assessed by glial fibrillary acidic protein immunocytochemistry. Cataract development was fast in diabetic rats that were exposed to unattenuated white light or to bright colored lights during the light phase. Diabetic rats that were kept under attenuated brown or yellow light during the light phase exhibited slower rate of cataract development. Electroretinogram responses indicated very severe retinal damage in diabetic rats kept under bright colored lights in the blue-yellow range or bright white light during the light phase. Electroretinogram damage was milder in rats kept under bright red light or attenuated yellow or brown light during the light phase. Glial fibrillary acidic protein expression in retinal Müller cells was consistent with ERG assessment of retinal damage. Attenuating white light and filtering out short wavelengths have a protective effect on the eyes of diabetic rats as evident by slower rate of cataract formation and a smaller degree of retinal damage. Our findings suggest that special glasses attenuating light exposure and filtering out short wavelengths (400-530 nm) may be beneficial for diabetic patients.

  5. Evaluation of the Role of Ginger, Cisplatin and Radiation in the Treatment of Chemically- Induced Cancer in Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Sh.M.G.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with ginger to evaluate its therapeutic effect against lung and kidney cancer and in combination with cisplatin as chemotherapy and radiotherapy in male Wistar albino rats (Rattus norvegicus). Studies involve investigating the therapeutic role of ginger for better restoration of certain haematological parameters: (white blood cells count, red blood cells count, haemoglobin content, hematocrit value and platelets count ) Besides biochemical parameters (serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) level, advanced oxidative protein product (AOPP), urea, creatinine and uric acid ). Tissue parameters in both kidney and lung tissues: were estimated by determining the activity of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD); as well as by determining the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Nitric oxide (NO) and histopathological changes of kidney and lung tissues. Cancer induced a significant decrease in WBCs, RBCs, Hb, Hct value and platelets count with a significant increase in the serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) level, advanced oxidative protein product (AOPP), urea, creatinine and uric acid. Besides, it produced high levels of lung and kidney Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Nitric oxide (NO) with significant decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Ginger + cisplatin + radiation manifested good amelioration against NDMA + CCl 4 group in the studied haematological and biochemical parameters. In histological investigation showed that rat groups treated with ginger alone showed no deviation from control group. While rats injected with NDMA + CCl 4 showed sever degenerative changes. On the other hand, groups injected with NDMA + CCl4 and treated with ginger + cisplatin + radiation group showed an even more remarkable effect showing histopathological lung and kidney profiles close to those of the control group when compared with NDMA + CCl 4

  6. Salvia aegyptiaca as a Potential Herb for Ameliorating the Acute Toxicity Induced by Fenvalerate in Adult Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Kader, S.M.; Aly, M.A.S.

    2007-01-01

    After fen valerate and/or Salvia aegyptiaca administration to male albino rats, fenvalerate caused a reduction in liver enzymes activity in liver homogenate with a percent change recording -24.1, -21.94 and-30.46 %, after 7 days, for ALT, AST and ALP, respectively .. Moreover, it increased the total protein and albumin at the same period. On day 7, fenvalerate increased the levels of serum ALT, AST and ALP by 351. 24, 164.60 and 119.78%, respectively. On the contrary, fenvalerate reduced the serum levels of total protein and albumin. Significant increase was observed in both creatinine (58.62%) and blood urea (47.41 %) after 7 days, whereas, serum T 3 and T 4 recorded a percentage change of -3.0.18 and -51.45%, respectively. An increase in GABA content in 7 brain areas was noticed after daily oral administration of fenvalerate, showing that GABA content in 'the cortex was the most affected recording, 191.43% change from control on the 7th day. Daily oral administration of 2 g/kg body weight of Salvia aegyptiaca extract alone or after fenvalerate caused a gradual decrease in ALT, AST and ALP enzyme activity as well as in total protein and albumin content in both liver homogenate and serum, on the 7th day. Salvia extract decreased serum creatinine and blood urea throughout the experimental period. No statistically significant changes in T 3 and T 4 levels were observed in animals that received salvia extract alone. On the other hand, salvia improved T 3 and T 4 levels after it was delivered post fenvalerate administration, bringing the hormonal levels near to that of control. Moreover, salvia extract caused a significant decrease in GABA content throughout the experimental period. However, animals that received combined treatment (fenvalerate + salvia) showed that salvia reduced the elevation that occurred in GABA content as a result of fenvalerate administration in all brain areas under investigation. From the current investigation, it could be recommended that, the

  7. Protective Role of Carnitine against the Harmful Biological Effects of Paracetamol and Radiation Exposure in Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El Rahman, N.A.

    2012-01-01

    L-carnitine, a natural component of mammalian tissue, is a necessary factor in the utilization of long-chain fatty acids to produce energy. Furthermore it has been shown to protect cells from per oxidative stress. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of L-carnitine on hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity induced by paracetamol, γ-radiation, and paracetamol + γ-radiation. Male albino rats were divided into 8 groups. 1-Control group: rats not subject to any treatment, 2-Carnitine group: rats received L-carnitine (0.5 ml/Kg body weight) via intraperitoneal injection during 21 days, 3-Paracetamol group: rats received paracetamol (50 mg/kg body) via intraperi-toneal injection during 21 days, 4- Carnitine + Paracetamol group: rats received L-carnitine in parallel to paracetamol treatment, 5- Radiation groups: rats were whole body gamma irradiated with 7 Gy, 6- Carnitine + Radiation group: rats received L-carnitine for 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation with 7Gy, 7- Paracetamol + Radiation group: rats received paracetamol during 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation, 8- Carnitine + Paracetamol + Radiation group: rats received L-carnitine parallel to paracetamol during 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation.The results demonstrated that rats receiving paracetamol, as well as whole body gamma irradiated rats and rats receiving paracetamol and irradiated showed a significant increase of alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and a significant decrease of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activity indicating liver injury. A significant increase of urea, creatinine and uric acid levels was recorded also indicating kidney damage. Alteration in liver and kidney functions was accompanied by a significant increase in the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) associated with a significant decrease in glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide

  8. Efficacy of turmeric on blood sugar and polyol pathway in diabetic albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, N; Nalini, N

    2002-01-01

    In the traditional system of medicine, Ayurveda, several spices and herbs are thought to possess medicinal properties. Among the spices, turmeric rhizomes (Curcuma longa. Linn.) are used as flavoring and coloring agents in the Indian diet everyday. In this research, we studied the effect of turmeric and its active principle, curcumin, on diabetes mellitus in a rat model. Alloxan was used to induce diabetes. Administration of turmeric or curcumin to diabetic rats reduced the blood sugar, Hb and glycosylated hemoglobin levels significantly. Turmeric and curcumin supplementation also reduced the oxidative stress encountered by the diabetic rats. This was demonstrated by the lower levels of TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), which may have been due to the decreased influx of glucose into the polyol pathway leading to an increased NADPH/NADP ratio and elevated activity of the potent antioxdiant enzyme GPx. Moreover, the activity of SDH (sorbitol dehydrogenase), which catalyzes the conversion of sorbitol to fructose, was lowered significantly on treatment with turmeric or curcumin. These results also appeared to reveal that curcumin was more effective in attenuating diabetes mellitus related changes than turmeric.

  9. Effect of caricapryl-99 seed alkaloid extract on the serum levels of sex hormones and pituitary gonadotrophins in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udoh, P B; Udoh, F V; Umoren, E B; James, U W; Okeke, C P; Agwu, B

    2009-06-01

    Activity of alkaloid extract of caricapryl-99 seeds [Carica papaya Linn seeds] on the serum levels of steroid hormones was studied in adult male albino rats. Three tolerated doses obtained from the graph of percentage toxicity [10, 50 and 150 mg/kg] were separately administered orally, daily for three days to three groups of male rats [n=5] while group four of 5 rats received the vehicle [corn oil] as control. The results showed that 10 mg/kg/d caused increase serum levels of FSH and estrogen but decrease in the serum levels of LH and testosterone compared to control; 50 mg/kg/d elevated the serum levels of FSH, estrogen but inhibited testosterone; while 150 mg/kg/d pretreatments caused a significant decrease [pinfertility.

  10. The short term effect of insulin, metformin and insulin-metformin combination on the liver morphology in high fat diet/streptozotocin induced diabetic albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mubeen, S.; Amjad, Z.; Memon, F.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the histological effects of insulin, metformin and insulin-metformin combination on liver morphology in high fat diet (HFD) / Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic albino rats. Study Design: Experimental and comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Institute of Basic Medical Sciences (IBMS), Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Ojha Campus, Karachi, from January to August 2012. Methodology: The study was conducted on 50 HFD/STZ induced diabetic albino wistar rats which were randomized into 5 groups. One of the groups was treated with insulin, one with metformin, and the other group with insulin-metformin combination for 4 weeks. One of the groups was left untreated. One group was control group. After the treatment period, the rats were sacrificed and livers were isolated, weighed, processed and stained to analyse the difference in hepatic morphology in each treated and untreated groups, then the results were compared with control rats. Results: Statistically significant difference (p < 0.0001) was seen between the groups by using Kruskill Wallis Test. To further investigate the effectiveness of insulin, metformin and insulin-metformin combination, Mann-Whitney U-test was applied. Statistically significant difference was noticed when diabetic rats were given insulin-metformin combination (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: The combination therapy was observed to have better effects on liver morphology than insulin and metformin used separately. (author)

  11. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECTS OF TWO DIFFERENT PARTS OF BAUHUNIA PURPUREA LINN. PLANT IN STZ-INDUCED DIABETIC ALBINO WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Brahmachari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work was undertaken to study the comparative phytochemical profiles and hypoglycemic effects of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. Barks (BPBE and leaves ethanolic extracts (BPLE in albino wistar rats to validate their ethno medical use in hyperglycemia as well as to explore the better option. Phytochemicals in ethanolic extracts were analyzed by standard natural product chemistry methods. Diabetes was developed in rats by single intraperitoneal injection of Streptozotocin @ 60mg/ Kg bw. Diabetic albino wister rats (n=3 of either sex (150-200gm bw were orally fed with the extracts once daily for 4 weeks. Glibenclamide @ 0.5mg/Kg bw was used as a positive control for comparison. Fasting blood glucose level at 0, 14th and 28th day and hemoglobin and glycosylated hemoglobin on 28th day of experiment were analyzed. Our results show that the extracts contain alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, tannins and phenolics. Rats treated with plant extracts show better glucose modulation, decreased hemoglobin glycosylation and improved hemoglobin concentration as compared to diabetic control. The hypoglycemic effect of only BPBE at 420 mgkg-1 on 14th and 28th day is comparable to that of standard drug glibenclamide (P>0.01. The bark extract has been observed to be more potent hypoglycemic agent than leave extract.

  12. Designing a New Nano-Plant Composite of Cucurbita pepo for Wound Repair of Skin in Male Albino Mice: A New Nano Approach for Skin Repair

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    Nooshin Naghsh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective : The Cucurbita pepo is one of plants that are functional in traditional therapy. This plant has antioxidant and skin damage repair properties. This study investigated the effect of Cucurbita pepo nano silver as a new nano-plant composition in wound repair skin in male mice.   Materials & Methods: In this investigation, male albino mice were places in 8 groups, each containing 8 animals. Group I – VIII were treated with nano silver (500, 250, and 125 ppm concentrations and different concentrations of extracts [70%, 50%, and 25%] and the control group received a mixture of 25% Cucurbita pepo extract (125 ppm nano silver. The eighth group, as control, was treated with sterile deionizer water after the induction of wound skin. The average diameter of the wounds was measured 28 days after treatment in the control and treatment groups. These data were analyzed using the t-test and ANOVA statistical method.   Results: The results of this study showed that ethanol extraction (80% has its highest repair effect 28 days post treatment. The average diameter of the wounds in the control group was 1.16 ±. 0.46 cm, which was decreased to 0 cm and 0.12 ±. 0.23 cm in the ethanol extract (70% of the Cucurbita pepo and component groups, respectively (p value ≤ 0.01.   Conclusion: In this project, nano silver-Cucurbita pepo ethanol extraction for wound repair in albino male mice was more effective than single materials. These findings show that the repair synergic effects are between alcoholic extract and nano silver in this nano composite.

  13. Treating Mental Illness among Diabetic Black Male Adolescents: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Andrae; Fields, Lashawnda; O'Dwyer, Curtis; Scott, Marquisha Lawrence; Joe, Sean

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To examine randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for treatment evidence for Black male adolescents suffering from comorbid mental illness and diabetes mellitus. Method: A review of the studies published in English-language journals was conducted. Results: We found no RCT focused on Black males with diabetes mellitus Type 2 (DMT2).…

  14. Evaluation of the radioprotective Effect of the co-oral Administration of Vitamin B12 with Vitamin c on some Haematological and Biochemical Alterations in Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Magied, N.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of co-oral administration of vitamin B 12 with vitamin C against radiation induced haematological and biochemical alterations in male albino rats. Male albino rats were divided into six groups (n=8). Group 1: rats were kept as control, Group 2; rats received orally vita-min B 12 (2000μgkg -1 ). Group 3; rats received Vitamin B 12 with Vitamin C (500mgkg -1 ). Group 4; rats whole body exposed to 7Gy of gamma rays. Group 5; rats received vitamin B 12 for 21 successive days before irradiation. Group 6; rats received Vitamin B 12 with Vitamin C for 21 successive days before irradiation. Animals were sacrificed the third day post irradiation. The oral administration of Vitamin B 12 with or with-out Vitamin C enhanced the recovery from radiation-induced haemopoietic injury and some biochemical changes demonstrated by a significant increase (p0.05>) of WBCs, RBCs and Platelets count, Hb content, Hct%, serum erythropoietin and iron levels and a significant reduction (p0.05>) of serum homocysteine level (Hcy), creatine kinase (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities compared to their respective values in irradiated rats. Improvement of oxidative stress in heart and spleen tissues denoted by a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation (MDA) and a significant increase in glutathione (GSH) content was recorded also. The co-oral administration of vitamin B 12 with vitamin C has no effect on the prophylactic efficacy of vitamin B 12

  15. Effect of aflatoxin ingestion on total body water (T OH3 - space), total body solids A KD on some physiological and reproductive characteristics of male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowar, M.S.; Eldarawany, A.A.; Habeeb, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    This investigation aimed to study the effects of aflatoxins B 1 +G 1 mixture mainly on total body water (TBW) and on total body solids (TBS) of male albino rats. Some blood components and some reproductive characteristic were also taken into consideration. Two groups, each of 8 male rats were fed the same ration. Rats of one group had been individually ingested daily with a dose of 22 μg B 1 plus 22 μg G 1 for 15 successive weeks. The obtained results showed that aflatoxin administration caused: 1- A decrease in final body weight (FBW), TBW (P<0.01) and TBS (P<0.05). 2- A decrease in serum total proteins (P<0.01), albumin (P<0.05), globulin (P<0.05), glucose (P<0.05) and increase in serum cholesterol, GOT and GPT (P<0.05) activities. 3- A decrease in each of the number of effective matings of males and delivery percentages of females mated with treated males.1 tab

  16. Evaluation of Anticonvulsive ٍEffect of Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticles in Comparison with Conventional MgO in Diabetic and Non-diabetic Male Mice

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    Leila Jahangiri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Some studies show magnesium has anticonvulsive effect in some animal models. Despite of the availability of well-studied anticonvulsant drugs, this evaluation was not carried on new kind of magnesium supplement, magnesium oxide nanoparticles (nMgO. According to the interaction between magnesium and convulsion, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of nMgO on strychnine-induced convulsive model in compared to its conventional in diabetic and normal mice. Methods: Healthy male albino mice were divided to 10 groups. Diabete mellitus was induced by streptozocin in 5 groups. Conventional and nanoparticle MgO (5&10mg/kg in presence and absence diabetes injected to mice, then strychnine injected and onset of convulsions and time of death were measured after strychnine administration. Results: Convulsive parameters did not change in normal and diabetic mice. cMgO pretreatment did not have anticonvulsant effect in strychnine-induced convulsion in normal and diabetic mice. But nMgO significantly changed convulsion onset and death time after strychnine administration in normal and diabetic status. Discussion: According to our results It seems that nMgO may be important in prevention or treatment of epilepsy and has more efficacy than its conventional form to showing anticonvulsive effect that probably is related to the physicochemical properties of nMgO, specially in diabetic subjects, a point that need to further investigation.

  17. Melatonin improves spatial navigation memory in male diabetic rats

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    Farrin Babaei-Balderlou

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of melatonin as an antioxidant on spatial navigation memory in male diabetic rats. Thirty-two male white Wistar rats weighing 200 ± 20 g were divided into four groups, randomly: control, melatonin, diabetic and melatonin-treated diabetic. Experimental diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg kg-1 streptozotocin. Melatonin was injected (10 mg kg-1 day-1, ip for 2 weeks after 21 days of diabetes induction. At the end of administration period, the spatial navigation memory of rats was evaluated by cross-arm maze. In this study lipid peroxidation levels, glutathione-peroxidase and catalase activities were measured in hippocampus. Diabetes caused to significant decrease in alternation percent in the cross-arm maze, as a spatial memory index, compared to the control group (p < 0.05, whereas administration of melatonin prevented the spatial memory deficit in diabetic rats. Also melatonin injection significantly increased the spatial memory in intact animals compared to the control group (p < 0.05. Assessment of hippocampus homogenates indicated an increase in lipid peroxidation levels and a decrease in GSH-Px and CAT activities in the diabetic group compared to the control animals, while melatonin administration ameliorated these indices in diabetic rats. In conclusion, diabetes induction leads to debilitation of spatial navigation memory in rats, and the melatonin treatment improves the memory presumably through the reduction of oxidative stress in hippocampus of diabetic rats.

  18. The effect of Tributyltin on thyroid follicular cells of adult male albino rats and the possible protective role of green tea: a toxicological, histological and biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr El Dine, Fatma M M; Nabil, Iman M; Dwedar, Fatma I

    2017-01-01

    Tributyltin is one of the important and wide-spread persistent organic contaminants that accumulate in the food chain. It is suspected to cause endocrine-disrupting effects in mammals, due in part to its possible transfer through marine food chains and to the consumption of contaminated seafood. Was to study the possible toxic effect of Tributyltin on thyroid follicular cells of adult male albino rats and to evaluate the possible protective role of green tea. Forty-five adult male albino rats were included and randomly divided into 3 equal groups: a control group (Group I); Group II: received tributyltin chloride (TBT) dissolved in corn oil orally in a dose of 5 mg/kg for 30 days. Group III: received tributyltin chloride in the same dose with concomitant oral administration of green tea extract for 30 days. At the end of the experiment, the animals were sacrificed and blood samples were subjected to hormonal assay for T3, T4 and TSH levels. Malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione were assessed. The thyroid tissue was processed for histological and ultrastructure examination. The colloid area of thyroid follicles was evaluated morphometrically and statistically analyzed. A significant decrease in T3 and T4 levels and serum reduced glutathione in the group II when compared with the other groups. Furthermore, a significant increase in serum Malondialdehyde and TSH levels was recorded in group II treated group by comparison to the other two groups. Histopathological and ultrastructural changes of thyroid gland follicles were detected in tributyltin treated rats; the follicular cells appeared swollen and vacuolated. Epithelial stratification was noticed in some foci with excessive vacuolation of the colloid. Dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum filled with flocculent material and increased number of lysosomes were also detected together with variation in shape and size of the nuclei. A marked improvement in the histological features of thyroid follicles was noticed in

  19. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of ethanolic extract of leaves of Punica granatum in alloxan-induced non–insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus albino rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Swarnamoni; Barman, Sarajita

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Punica granatum L., (Family: Punicaceae) is used in Indian Unani medicine for treatment of diabetes mellitus. Therefore, the present study was done to evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of ethanolic extract of leaves of P. granatum in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Healthy Wistar albino rats (100-150 g) were divided into four groups of six animals each. Groups A and B received normal saline [(10 ml/kg/day/per oral (p.o.)]; group C received ethanolic extract of leaves of P. granatum (500 mg/kg/p.o.); and group D received glibenclamide (0.5 mg/kg/day/p.o.). The extracts were given for 1 week in all groups. To induce diabetes, alloxan 150 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p.) single dose was administered to groups B, C, and D. Blood glucose and serum lipids [Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG), Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL), and High Density Lipoproteins (HDL)] and the atherogenic index were estimated after one week. For mechanism of antidiabetic action glycogen estimation on the liver, cardiac and skeletal muscle, and intestinal glucose absorption was done. Results: Group B showed a significant (Pgranatum leaves possess significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity. PMID:22529479

  20. Sub-chronic indomethacin treatment and its effect on the male reproductive system of albino rats: possible protective role of black tea extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagoji, Ishwar B; Hadimani, Gavishiddappa A; Yendigeri, Saeed M; Das, Kusal K

    2017-05-01

    Indomethacin is commonly used as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) to treat inflammation, arthritis and joint pains. Unfortunately, it has a wide range of adverse effects on the physiological system, including gonads. This study aimed to assess possible beneficial effects of black tea extract (BTE) against indomethacin-induced alteration of gonadal hormone levels in male rats. Adult male rats were divided into Group I (control), Group II (indomethacin, 5 mg/kg body weight [bwt.]; i.p., 21 days), Group III (BTE, 2.5 g tea leaf/dL of water, i.e. 2.5% of aqueous BTE, orally, 21 days) and Group IV (indomethacin+BTE, 21 days). Sperm count and motility, serum luteinising hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone, along with histopathology of testes were studied. One-way ANOVA, followed by post-hoc t-test were conducted. Indomethacin-treated rats showed significant decrease in testicular weight, sperm count, sperm motility, serum gonadotropins and testosterone concentrations. Histopathology of the testes showed tortuous and distorted seminiferous tubules, marked thickening of the tubular basement membrane, reduced spermatogenesis process (>30%) and marked decrease in the number of interstitial cells of Leydig in indomethacin-treated rats. Interestingly, rats supplemented with BTE showed remarkable improvements in testicular weight gain, sperm count and motility, serum gonadotropins and testosterone concentrations, along with testicular histopathology. The results suggest that BTE might have potential ameliorative effects against sub-chronic indomethacin-induced alteration of gonadal hormone levels in male albino rats.

  1. Protective effect of pineapple (Ananas cosmosus peel extract on alcohol-induced oxidative stress in brain tissues of male albino rats

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    Ochuko L Erukainure

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the ability of pineapple peels to protect against alcohol-induced oxidative stress in brain tissues using male albino rat models. Methods: Response surface methodology (RSM was used to design a series of experiments to optimize treatment conditions with the aim of investigating the protective effect of pineapple peel extract on alcohol-induced oxidative stress in brain tissues. Oxidative stress was induced by oral administration of ethanol (20% w/v at a dosage of 5 mL/kg bw. The treatment lasted for 28 days. At the end of the treatment, the rats were fasted overnight and sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Tissue homogenates were used for the assessment of protein concentration, reduced glutathione (GSH content, catalase, and SOD. Results: Alcohol administration caused a significant decrease (P>0.05 in GSH level in the group which was only fed alcohol. Treatment with pineapple peel extracts caused increase in GSH level in alcohol fed groups. No significant difference (P<0.05 was observed in SOD levels of the negative control and group fed on only pineapple peel extract. Elevated level of catalase was observed in the negative control but pineapple peel extract significantly reduced the levels. Conclusions: This study indicates the protective effect of pineapple peel against alcoholinduced oxidative stress in brain tissues.

  2. Role of garlic extract and silymarin compared to dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA in treatment of lead induced nephropathy in adult male albino rats

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    Iman A. El-Khishin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead poisoning has been known as an important disorder that affects individuals through acute, sub-acute and chronic exposure in environmental and occupational settings. This study was conducted to compare the curative role of garlic combined with silymarin versus dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA in decreasing lead induced nephrotoxicity in adult male albino rats. The period of lead intoxication extended for 3 months followed by either 1 month treatment with garlic and silymarin or 5 days treatment with DMSA. Lead poisoning caused non-significant difference in kidney function tests (BUN and serum creatinine while, it caused significant elevation in kidney lead level, significant decrease in renal antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase and significant elevation in kidney malondialdehyde. Histologically, lead induced disorganization and shrinkage of glomeruli with sloughing and vaculation of epithelium, widening of Bowman's space and inflammatory infiltration in renal medulla. Treatment by garlic extract combined with silymarin as well as treatment with DMSA resulted in significant improvement in the affected parameters. Also, both methods of treatment resulted in improvement of the histopathological changes. It can be concluded that garlic extract combined to silymarin is comparable to DMSA in amelioration of lead induced nephrotoxicity.

  3. Protective Effect of Phoenix dactylifera-L Extracts against Radiation-Induced Cardio-Toxicity and Some Biochemical Changes in Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangood, S.A.; Kamal, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The Antioxidant properties of the date palm fruit; Phoenix dactylifera-L in mitigation of cellular injury following free radicals release by ionizing radiation has been investigated. Forty-eight male albino rats divided equally into 6 groups were used in this study. Group 1 (G.1) acted as control, G.2 received date extract orally (4 ml/ kg/ day) for 21 days, G.3 was exposed to a single dose of gamma irradiation (6 Gy), G.4 received date extract orally at an identical dose and duration to G.2 and irradiation to G.3, G.5 received the daily date extract for 7 days post irradiation and G.6 received the daily date extract for 21 days before and for 7 days after irradiation. Heart tissue was examined histologically and biochemical testing for total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C and LDL-C), creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was performed for each rat group. Data from the investigation showed that gamma irradiation caused histopathological damage to the heart tissue and disturbances in most parameters related to cardiac function. Administration of date extracts pre-irradiation provided evidence of a potential protective effect against irradiation hazard

  4. AN EXPERIMENTAL COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF CURCUMA: AMADA (MANGO - GINGER WITH CONVENTIONAL NSAID ASPIRIN IN MALE ALBINO WISTAR RATS

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    Shanmukananda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mango ginger ( Curcuma amada Roxb. belongs to Zingiberaceae family has biological activities include antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti - inflammatory, antiallergic, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. The major chemical components include starch, phenolic acids, volatile oils, curcuminoids and terpenoids like difurocumenonol, amadannulen and amadaldehyde. Pain is often the first indication of disease or injury and a major symptom in many clinical conditions and can significantly interferes with a person’s quality of life and general functioning. The standard and test drugs suppress the inflammatory mediators associated with pain. This article brings out the analgesic activity of C. Amada in comparison with aspirin. Therefore aqueous extract of C. amada was evaluated for analgesic activity in animal models of pain. OBJECTIVES: 1. To evaluate rhizomes of Curcuma Amada for analgesic activity in male albino wistar rats and to compare the analgesic activity with aspirin . 2. To Evaluate if combination of Curcuma Amada with aspirin is synergistic . MATERIALS AND METHODS: Albino rats are the proven models for analgesic studies. They were obtained from the animal house of DR.B. R. Ambedkar Medical College. Animals were maintained as per CPCSEA guidelines .The aqueous extract of Curcuma Amada was used. Aspirin (100mg/kg was used as the standard analgesic drug. 4x4 groups of 6 Rats were used to ensure that results obtained were statistically significant using ANOVA test. Analgesic activity will be assessed with the help of following screening methods Acetic Acid Writhing Method using Acetic Acid, Tail Flick Method using the Analgesiometer, Tail Immersion Method using Hot Water (55 0 C , Hot Plate method using Hot Plate . RESULTS : Aqueous extract of Curcuma Amada significantly suppressed the 1% acetic acid induced writhing response in rats when compared to standard drug aspirin. In the Tail flick and Hot plate test Curcuma

  5. An experimental study on effect of antioxidant vitamin E in stress and alcohol induced changes in male fertility in albino rats.

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    Sanghishetti Vijay Prasad, Nayak BB, Ghongane BB, Raul AR, Vijay Kumar AN, Mutalik MM, Kapure NL.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physical and Psychological stresses are believed to reduce sexual functions, resulting fromneurotransmission changes in various erectile response pathways and reduced blood flow in genital organs.Intake of alcohol depends on numerous genetic and environmental factors. Stress has long been thought to influence the alcohol drinking in humans. Forced swimming in laboratory animals has been widely used as a model of stress to study the physiological changes and the capacity of the organism in response to stress. Aim: 1. To assess the effect of forced swimming stress on seminal fluid profile, Serum testosterone level, Testicular lipid peroxidation levels. 2. To assess the effect of Vitamin E on stress induced changes. Method: Adult male albino rats weighing 200 – 220 g, aged 12-15 weeks were used in this study. The animals were randomly divided into four groups of 6 animals each. Group1 (control received distilled water, Group 2 (Forced Swimming Stress received distilled water Group 3: subjected to Forced Swimming stress with 20% alcohol intake p.o. Group 4: Swimming stress with 20% alcohol treated with Vitamin E(200mg/kg/day orally. The following parameters were studied in all groups 1. Body weight. 2. Sperm count Motility and Life /death Ratio (SLDR. 3. Serum Testosterone 4. Testicular Malondialdehyde level (MDA. Results: Forced swimming stress caused loss in body wt, reduction in sperm count, motility and SLDR in sperm analysis, reduction in serum testosterone and increase testicular MDA levels compared to control. All the changes were statistically significant. When alcohol was added along with forced swimming it caused further loss in body wt, sperm count, motility and SLDR, serum testosterone level and slightly further increase in MDA levels. These observations were also statistically significant. In case of group IV in which Vitamin E was administered long with stress with alcohol it showed a trend of reversal phenomenon of

  6. Effects of exposure to 50 Hz, 1 Gauss magnetic field on reproductive traits in male albino rats

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    Islam M. Saadeldin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of extremely low frequency magnetic field ELF-MF (50 Hz/1 Gauss on male fertility were studied in rats. Twenty eight adult male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups, 2 experimental groups exposed to magnetic field for 21 days and 2 control groups (sham exposed. The first exposed group was sacrificed at the end of the exposure period, and the second exposed group was kept for extra 48 days post exposure to assess the delayed effects of exposure. Significant decrease in the testes weights, sperm motility, sperm count, normal sperms and live sperms was detected in the exposed groups compared to control. Serum testosterone concentrations were significantly increased after 21 days of exposure, and then these changes were corrected after 48 days post exposure. Superoxide dismutase, catalase activities and α-tocopherol concentration were significantly decreased after 21 days of exposure, while the later became non-significant after 48 days post exposure. L-ascorbate concentration was significantly increased after 21 days of exposure, and returned to normal 48 days post exposure. Histopathological examination of the testis from the exposed rats showed a disruption in its architecture with an increase in Leydig cell number and activity, whereas 48 days post exposure, the testicular germ cell layers increased with presence of high apoptotic rates. In conclusion, prolonged exposure to 50 Hz, 1 Gauss MF is biologically toxic to the testicular functions with oxidative stress on spermatogenesis that subsequently may affect male fertility and his sexual efficiency.

  7. Misconceptions about diabetes mellitus among adult male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major public health problem in Saudi Arabia. Its prevalence is on the increase, being as high as 23.7% among adult citizens. Misconceptions and wrong beliefs regarding DM and its management among those attending primary health care centres (PHCCs) can result in poor control, ...

  8. Phenolic Profiling and Evaluation of Contraceptive Effect of the Ethanolic Extract of Salsola imbricata Forssk. in Male Albino Rats

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    Naglaa Gamil Shehab

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reported researches dealing with either composition or bioactivity of Salsola imbricata are limited. This study was conducted aiming to investigate the phenolic composition of the plant and evaluate its efficacy as male contraceptive. Polyphenols, namely, phenolic acids and flavonoids, were qualitatively and quantitatively analysed by RP-HPLC in the hydrolysed methanol extract using two different wavelengths, 280 and 330 nm. The efficiency of different solvents in extracting the plant phenolics was assessed via spectrophotometric determination of the total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Acute toxicity study was carried out on the ethanolic extract to ascertain its safety prior to biological evaluation. The contraceptive effect was assessed, in male rats, by oral administration of the extract at two doses (250 and 500 mg/kg b. wt., over a period of 65 days. HPLC analyses allowed the identification and quantification of a total of 13 and 8 components in the hydrolysed-methanol extract; the overall phenolic composition was dominated by quercitrin (12.692% followed by coumaric acid (4.251%. Prolonged oral administration of the ethanolic extract caused slight reduction in the testis weight only. A significant decrease in the sperm count was observed (P<0.01 in the two treated groups while significant decrease in the epididymal sperm motility was only observed in the high dose group. Morphological abnormalities were observed in sperms of treated animals. No distinct change in serum FSH, LH, and testosterone concentration was recorded. The histopathological findings supported to a high extent these results. The male contraceptive activity of Salsola imbricata could be ascribed to its phenolic components, especially quercitrin.

  9. Effect of Saponins of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth bark on the reproductive system of male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R S; Chaudhary, Rakesh; Yadav, Rajesh K; Verma, Suresh K; Dobhal, M P

    2005-01-04

    Oral administration of saponins isolated from Albizia lebbeck bark at the dose level of 50 mg/kg/b.w. per day for 60 days to male rats brought about a significant decrease in the weights of testes, epididymides, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate. The production of round spermatid was reduced by 73.04% in Albizia lebbeck treated rats. The population of preleptotene spermatocytes and spermatogonia were reduced by 65.07% and 47.48% and secondary spermatocytes by 73.41%, respectively. Cross sectional surface area of Sertoli cells as well as the cell counts were found to be depleted significantly. Leydig cell nuclear area and number of mature Leydig cells were decreased by 57.47% and 54.42%, respectively. Sperm motility as well as sperm density were reduced significantly. Albizia lebbeck reduced the fertility of male rats by 100%. There were no significant changes in RBC and WBC count, haemoglobin, haematocrit and glucose in the blood and cholesterol, protein, triglyceride and phospholipid in the serum. The protein, glycogen and cholesterol contents of the testes, fructose in the seminal vesicle and protein in epididymides were significantly decreased. Histoarchitecture of the testes showed vacuolization at primary spermatocytes stage. Highly reduced seminiferous tubular diameter and increased intertubular space were also observed when compared to controls.

  10. Efficiency of lycopene extracted from tomato pomace as antioxidant against gamma irradiation hazards in male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, I.Z.A.; Kattab, H.A.H.; Sheashea, E.A.R.

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays, increasing attention has been given to the roles of free radicals generated through oxidative stres. The present study aims to evaluate the antioxidative role lycopene extracted from tomato processing wastes or pomace against hazards induced by gamma irradiation. Male rats were adminstered lycopene by a daily intragastric gavage(0.24mg/rat/day) or supplemented in a standard casein diet (6.5 Gy) of whole body gamma radiation. Lipid peroxides (MDA) reduced ghutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) were determined in liver homogenate, as well as serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT). asparate aminotransferase (AST), toral protein, albumin, globulin and A/G ratio were investigated 2 and 13 days post irradiation and/or lycopene administration. The results revealed that exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in significant elevation in MDA, ALT,AST, albumin levels and A/G ratio. Meanwhile, radiation exposure caused significant reduction in weight gain, SOD activity, GSH, total protein and globulin levels

  11. Effect of N′-nitrosodimethylamine on red blood cell rheology and proteomic profiles of brain in male albino rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Areeba; Fatima, Ravish; Maheshwari, Veena; Ahmad, Riaz

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effects of N'-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) induced toxicity on red blood cell rheology in male rats and identified bands in proteomic profiles of brain which can be used as novel markers. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) profiles exhibited constitutive as well as induced expression of the polypeptides. Remarkably, the molecular weight range of the polypeptides (8–150 kDa) corresponded to that of the family of heat shock proteins. Our results revealed significant changes in blood parameters and showed the presence of acanthocytes, tear drop cells, spicules and cobot rings in the treated categories. Lactate dehydrogenase and esterase zymograms displayed a shift to anaerobic metabolism generating hypoxia-like conditions. This study strongly suggests that NDMA treatment causes acute toxicity leading to cell membrane destruction and alters protein profiles in rats. It is therefore recommended that caution should be exercised in using NDMA to avoid risks, and if at all necessary strategies should be designed to combat such conditions. PMID:22058653

  12. Role of Omega 3 fatty acids on radiation-induced oxidative and structural damage in different tissues of male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezk, R.G.; Abou Zaid, N.M.; Ahmed, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids play a critical role in the development and function of the reproductive and central nervous systems. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels associated with histopathologic changes induced by gamma irradiation in the testis and brain of male albino rats. Rats were whole body exposed to radiation at a single dose of 3 Gy. Omega-3 fatty acids (0.4 gm/kg b wt/day) were given to rats, by gavages, for 15 consecutive days before irradiation and for 15 days after irradiation. Rats were sacrificed one and 15 days post irradiation .Biochemical analysis of testis and cerebral cortex samples showed that irradiation induced a significant increase in xanthine oxidase (XO) activity and lipid peroxidation end product malondialdehyde (MDA) and a decrease in the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) and activity of antioxidant enzymes; glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT).Histological examination of testis and cerebral cortex tissues showed spermatogonia degeneration, apoptosis and necrosis in the testis and neurons cell bodies with ill defined and even ruptured cell membrane and damaged blood capillaries in the cerebral cortex. Omega-3 administration has attenuated the toxic effects of radiation by decreasing the levels of MDA, and XO, and increasing the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, which was associated with amelioration of the histological injury markers in both testis and cerebral cortex. It could be postulated that omega-3 fatty acids as a multi-functional dietary supplement could exert a modulatory role in radiation- induced testis and cerebral cortex biochemical and histological changes through its antioxidant properties.

  13. Effect of Urtica Dioica Decoction on Serum Glucose and Lipid Profile in Stereptozotocin Induced Diabetic Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Sahraki

    Full Text Available Background: Since Urtica dioica is a traditional treatment plant and is used for antihypertensive, antilipidemic and antidiabetic agents, this survey was carried out to evaluate the effect of Urtica dioica decoction on serum glucose and lipid profile in diabetic male rats induced by stereptozotocin (STZ. Materials and Methods: This experiment was performed on 30 Wistar-Albino male rats, weighing 200-250 g, which were divided in sham control (A, diabetic control (B and diabetic test groups (C randomly (N=10. Type I diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (65 mg/kg. Test group received 0.40-0.60 ml of Urtica dioica decoction for a month by gavages, control group (B received the same volume of distill water. Group (A did not receive any agent during the experiment period. Finally, animals were anesthetized, sacrificed and blood samples were collected from the cervical vein. Then, serum glucose and lipid profiles were measured by ordinary methods. Data were analyzed by SPSS-11, using ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests. Results were expressed as mean±SD, and statistical difference was considered significant by p<0.05.Results: Results in the present study showed that fasting blood glucose (FBS, total cholesterol (TCho, triglyceride (TG, LDL, food and water intake were significantly decreased in group C compared with those of group B, but body weight gain was significantly increased compared with that of control group (B.Conclusion: These results indicated that Urtica dioica decoction caused decreased FBS and improved serum lipids in diabetic male rats. Some more studies have shown the same mechanism.

  14. Biochemical and histological changes in liver and kidney in male Wistar albino rats following exposure to Solignum®: a permethrincontaining wood preservative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley C. Patrick-Iwuanyanwu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was aimed to determine the effect of sub-chronic exposure to Solignum®, a permethrin-containing wood preservative on biochemical and histological changes in liver and kidneys of male Wistar albino rats. Thirty-two male rats were randomly divided into four groups: control and three treatment concentrations containing 8 rats each. The treatment groups were exposed to Solignum® at dose rates of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight (BW respectively per day orally for four weeks. Data obtained from the study showed a progressive increase in the body weight of rats in control whereas, rats treated with different concentrations (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg BW of Solignum® decreased significantly (≤0.05 especially at the end of the second and fourth week when compared with control. On the other hand, there was a significant decrease in the relative liver weights of rats treated with 100 and 200 mg/kg BW Solignum® while rats treated with 400 mg/kg BW showed a significant increase when compared with control. The relative weight of kidneys in experimental groups increased significantly when compared with control. Biochemical analysis results illustrated that there was a significant increase in marker enzymes namely alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity at the end of the fourth week. Similarly, total bilirubin, serum urea, creatinine and electrolytes (Na+, K+ and Cl- levels increased in a dose dependent manner in treated rats when compared with untreated control group. Serum total protein decreased significantly in experimental rats when compared with control. However, cholesterol and triglycerides showed no significant difference when compared with control. Histopathological examination of hepatocytes in treated rats was characterized by mild periportal inflammatory cells and cytoplasmic degeneration. Furthermore, histopathological examination of rat kidneys revealed inflammatory

  15. Ameliorative effect of Morus alba leaves extract against developmental retinopathy in pups of diabetic and aluminum intoxicated pregnant albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan; El-Sayyed; Gamal; Badawy; Sobhy; Hassab; Elnabi; Ibrahim; El-Elaimy; Eman; Al; Shehari

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible ameliorative effect of crude water extract of Morus alba(M. alba) leaves on retinopathy of rat pups maternally subjected to diabetes and/or Al intoxication.Methods: Both control and experimental groups were subjected to certain integrated approaches, namely, biochemical assessments, light microscopic investigation, transmission electron microscopic investigation, single cell gel electrophoresis(comet assay) and determination of DNA fragmentation.Results: The retina of pups of diabetic and/or Al-intoxicated mothers exhibited abnormal alterations in retinal cell layers including retinal pigmented epithelium, photoreceptor inner segment and ganglion cells. Increased incidence of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis were evident in pups of diabetic and/or Al-intoxicated mothers. However, retina of pups maternally received M. alba extract plus diabetes or Al-intoxicated alone or in combination showed marked amelioration. Less degree of ameliorations was seen in retina of pups maternally subjected to combined treatment. Furthermore, application of crude water extract of M.alba resulted in amelioration of the alterations of maternal serum glucose as well as Al concentration.Conclusions: Based on the results of the present study, M. alba extract is effective against experimentally diabetic and Al-induced developmental retinopathy.

  16. Effect of Mucuna pruriens (Linn.) on sexual behavior and sperm parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Sekar; Prakash, Seppan

    2012-12-01

    Sexual dysfunction is one of the major secondary complications in the diabetic. Mucuna pruriens, a leguminous plant identified for its antidiabetic, aphrodisiac, and improving fertility properties, has been the choice of Indian traditional medicine. Objective of the present study was to analyze the efficacy of M. pruriens on male sexual behavior and sperm parameters in long-term hyperglycemic male rats. Male albino rats were divided as group I control, group II diabetes induced (streptozotocin [STZ] 60 mg/kg of body weight (b.w.) in 0.1 M citrate buffer), group III diabetic rats administered with 200 mg/kg b.w. of ethanolic extract of M. pruriens seed, group IV diabetic rats administered with 5 mg/kg b.w. of sildenafil citrate (SC), group V administered with 200 mg/kg b.w. of extract, and group VI administered with 5 mg/kg b.w. of SC. M. pruriens and SC were administered in single oral dosage per day for a period of 60 days. The animals were subjected to mating behavior analyses, libido, test of potency, and epididymal sperms were analyzed. The mating behavior, libido, test of potency, along with epididymal sperms were studied. The study showed significant reduction in sexual behavior and sperm parameters in group II. Daily sperm production (DSP) and levels of follicular stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and testosterone were significantly reduced in group II, whereas the animals with diabetes administered with seed extract of M. pruriens (group III) showed significant improvement in sexual behavior, libido and potency, sperm parameters, DSP, and hormonal levels when compared to group II. The present work reveals the potential efficacy of ethanolic seed extract of M. pruriens to improve male sexual behavior with androgenic and antidiabetic effects in the STZ-induced diabetic male rats. This study supports the usage of M. pruriens in the Indian system of medicine as sexual invigorator in diabetic condition and encourages performing similar study in men.

  17. Decrease in toe pinch force in male type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Hiroaki; Miyatake, Nobuyuki; Kitayama, Naomi; Murao, Satoshi; Tanaka, Satoshi

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the toe pinch force (TPF) of type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy by disease stage, and to clarify the factors affecting the TPF. Seventy-four men with diabetic nephropathy (age: 62.7 ± 8.9 years, duration of diabetes: 14.2 ± 8.6 years) were enrolled. According to the staging of diabetic nephropathy, TPF and knee extension force (KEF) were compared among three groups: normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria, and overt nephropathy. In addition, we investigated factors influencing TPF and KEF by performing multiple regression analysis. Normoalbuminuria group, microalbuminuria group, and overt nephropathy group included 26, 25, and 23 patients, respectively. The TPF of the overt nephropathy group (3.15 ± 0.75 kg) was significantly lower than that of the normoalbuminuria (4.2 ± 0.7 kg, p diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) and diabetic nephropathy were determinant factors of the TPF; and age, body mass index, and diabetic nephropathy were determinant factors of the KEF. We found in male patients with diabetic nephropathy, the TPF and KEF decreased with progression of diabetic nephropathy. Furthermore, our findings suggest diabetic nephropathy and DPN are critically involved in the reduction of TPF and KEF.

  18. Risk of diabetes according to male factor infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glazer, Clara Helene; Bonde, Jens Peter; Giwercman, Aleksander

    2017-01-01

    for the entire IVF registration period (1994-2012), separate analyses were performed for men identified from the first (1994-2005) and second (2006-2012) IVF registration period owing to heterogeneity in the reporting of male factor infertility in these two time periods, because the reason for male factor...... infertility was not available from the first register. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Male factor infertility was identified from the variable 'yes' or 'no' from the first IVF register and through a diagnosis code (e.g. oligospermia, azoospermia) from the second IVF register. The reference group...... was men with male factor infertility (='no') and those with normal semen quality or sterilized men. Of the included men, 18 499 (46.8%) had male factor infertility and 21 017 (53.2%) made up the reference group. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: A total of 651 (1.6%) diabetes cases were identified...

  19. Extract Against Toxic Sodium The Protective Role of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins Nitrites and Gamma Irradiation Induced Histological Changes in Intestine and Urinary Bladder of Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El- Azeem, M.G.; El-Nashar, D.E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (a grape seed extract) possess a broad spectrum of biological activities. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of gamma radiation exposure and toxic sodium nitrites induced oxidative stress on the intestine and urinary bladder histologically and also to evaluate the possible protective role of proanthocyanidins. Seventy adult male albino rats, each weighing 95-105 g were used and divided into 7 groups as follows: The first group represents the control group. The second experimental group were exposed to 7 Gy gamma-rays as a single dose and sacrificed on the 7th day. The third experimental group received by a stomach tube daily 50 mg/kg b.wt of sodium nitrite for 4 weeks. The fourth experimental group received proanthocyanidins, Grape seed extracts (antioxidant) (100 mg/kg) body wt.) daily for seven days before irradiation and the continued for 14 days post irradiation. The fifth group of animals received grape seed extract after being exposed to gamma radiation for two weeks, while the sixth experimental group received the same antioxidant for seven days before and after received sodium nitrite (50 mg/kg) daily for 4 weeks. Finally, the seventh experimental groups was treated with the same antioxidant in same dose and time after received sodium nitrite for 4 weeks. The animals were then sacrificed on the end of each experimental duration. The results revealed that both gamma-radiation and sodium nitrite induced different histological changes in the intestine and urinary bladder of irradiated and sodium nitrite received animals. The effect of gamma radiation exposure showed marked degeneration of intestinal villi, vaculation in the lining epithelium cells and karyolytic nuclei. In addition, using sodium nitrite lead to necrosis of intestinal glandular cells. The effect of gamma radiation on urinary bladder was presented by, hyperplasia and vaculation of mucosal epithelium, congestion of blood capillaries. Rats from nitrite

  20. Transgenerational inheritance of susceptibility to diabetes-induced male subfertility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlínková, Gabriela; Margaryan, Hasmik; Žatecká, Eva; Valášková, Eliška; Elzeinová, Fatima; Kubátová, Alena; Bohuslavová, Romana; Pěknicová, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, JUL 10 2017 (2017), č. článku 4940. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV15-30880A; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-06825S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : HIGH-FAT DIET * MALE-INFERTILITY * GENE-EXPRESSION * SPERM PARAMETERS Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition OBOR OECD: Endocrinology and metabolism (including diabetes, hormones) Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  1. APPRAISAL OF MALE ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION IN PATIENTS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Prasad Suram

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND One of the most common adverse effects of diabetes mellitus, erectile dysfunction (ED remains difficult to treat despite advances in pharmacotherapeutic approaches in the field. This unmet need has brought about a late re-focus on the pathophysiology, so as to comprehend the cellular and molecular mechanism prompting ED in diabetes. Diabetes-induced ED is a need to find focuses that may prompt novel approaches for a fruitful treatment. Present study was tried to understand role of vascular and neurogenic alterations in the pathophysiology of diabetic sexual dysfunction. SUBJECTS AND METHODS The study was carried out on 17 male impotent patients with Diabetes Mellitus: 5 patients (Aged 43-56 years; mean age 48.4 had insulin-dependent DM, and 13 patients (Aged 40-62; mean age 53.5 non-insulin-dependent DM. None of the patients were on medications known to interfere with male erectile sexual function. All patients were told to give informed consent. Every participant underwent a physical examination including complete medical and sexual history and routine laboratory tests. Penile vascular assessment and assessment of nocturnal penile erections investigation were assessed in the study. RESULTS As showed in Table I. alterations in the vascular system was found in 13 (61.5% participants. Out of which moderate alteration noticed in 8 (47% and severe alteration in 5 (16% patients. Among the patients with non-insulin-dependent DM, 7 (41.1% had showed Nocturnal Penile Erections abnormalities. According to the history and also to the normal responses to the Nocturnal penile tumescence monitoring (NPTM, patients were diagnosed as having impotence of psychogenic origin. CONCLUSION Initial involvement of both arterial supply and of the neurological pathways can be of some interest, suggesting the need for an early screening of neural and vascular status even in patients without penile erectile failure. As is the case for other degenerative

  2. The protective effect of grape seed and Ginkgo biloba against hepatotoxicity induced by the antidysrhythmic drug “amiodarone” in male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Abdul-Hamid

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Amiodarone was an orally effective antiarrhythmic drug widely used throughout the world, had long-term administration side effects such as hepatotoxicity. The actions of two antioxidants; grape seed and Ginkgo biloba on the extent of tissue damage in amiodarone-induced hepatotoxicity were elucidated in this study. We equally divided thirty-six albino rats into six groups given doses by gastric tube daily for 8 weeks as follow; the 1st group (G1 served as an untreated control group under the same laboratory conditions and was given distilled water, the 2nd group (G2 grape seed-treated group that received (100 mg/kg/day, the 3rd group (G3 Ginkgo biloba-treated group that received (100 mg/kg/day, the 4th group (G4 amiodarone-treated group that received (40 mg/kg/day, the 5th group (G5 received amiodarone parallel with grape seed at the same time and the 6th group (G6 received amiodarone parallel with Ginkgo biloba at the same time. The current histological study revealed that amiodarone caused marked change in the liver including degeneration, proliferation of bile duct, inflammatory cells infiltration and fatty changes of hepatocytes in addition to deposition of collagen fibers in the hepatic tissue moreover, ultra-structural observations in the liver including vacuolation, fibrosis and pyknotic nuclei. In addition, histochemical study revealed depletion of glycogen and comet assay revealed marked of DNA damage.Treatment with the two used antioxidants reduced the extent of liver damage induced by amiodarone as indicated by decreased Aspartate aminotransferase (AST and Alanine aminotransferase (ALT activities. These antioxidants ameliorated the histopathological, histochemical and ultrastructure alternations of the liver tissue. In conclusion, grape seed was markedly effective than Ginkgo biloba in protecting rats against amiodarone. Keywords: Amiodarone, Grape seed, Ginkgo biloba, Comet assay, Hepatotoxicity, Histopathology, Ultrastructure

  3. Diabetes and male sex are key risk factor correlates of the extent of coronary artery calcification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoll, Rachel; Zhao, Ying; Wiklund, Urban

    2017-01-01

    for CAC scoring. RESULTS: Among all patients, male sex (OR = 4.85, pdyslipidemia and smoking also showing a relationship. Among patients with CAC, age, diabetes, hypertension...... and dyslipidemia were associated with an increasing CAC score in males and females, with diabetes being the strongest dichotomous risk factor (p... males and females. To a lesser extent, hypertension and dyslipidemia were also associated in the high CAC quantiles and the low CAC quantiles respectively. CONCLUSION: In addition to age and male sex in the total population, diabetes is the most important correlate of CAC extent in both sexes....

  4. Assessment of the Toxicity of Sub-chronic Low and High Doses of the Bio-insecticide Spinosad on the Liver, Kidney and the Cerebellum in Male Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabry A El-Naggar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Spinosad (SPD is a highly selective insect control product. However, it was reported that SPD has toxicity toward other non-target organisms. This study was conducted to address the toxic effect of two sub-chronic low and high doses; 35 and 350 mg/kg SPD on some biochemical, histological and immunohistochemical parameters of the liver, kidney and cerebellum. Thirty-six male Swiss mice were divided into three groups of 12 mice each; first group (G1 served as a control, second group (G2 received a low sub-chronic dose of SPD that is equal to 35 mg/kg, and third group (G3 received a high sub-chronic dose of SPD that is equal to 350 mg/kg. The results showed that mice which were received 350 mg/kg SPD showed a significant decrease in the body weight and a significant increase in their relative kidney and spleen weights. They also showed a significant increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT, triglycerides and urea levels. Histopathological examination showed cytoplasmic degeneration and cell necrosis in the liver and kidney. Immunohistochemical examination showed that cerebellum illustrated several neurodegenerative changes and a down-regulation of synaptophysin-Syp. In conclusion, exposure to a high dose of SPD that is equal to 350 mg/kg could cause a marked toxicity on the liver, kidney and cerebellum in male albino mice.

  5. Evaluation of antidiabetic, hypolipedimic and antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves and fruit peel of Punica granatum in male Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salwe, Kartik J; Sachdev, Devender O; Bahurupi, Yogesh; Kumarappan, Manimekalai

    2015-01-01

    We investigated anti-diabetic, hypolipedimic and antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract from leaves and fruit peel of Punica granatum. Streptozotocin induced diabetic Wister rats were used in this study consisting of seven groups of six animals each. Groups (1) normal control, (2) diabetic control, (3) leaves extract 100 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum, (4) leaves extract 200 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum, (5) fruit peel extract 100 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum, (6) peel extract 200 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum and (7) glibenclamide respectively. Fasting blood sugar was recorded on 1(st), 7(th), 14(th), 21(st) and 28(th) day. At the end of the experiment Lipid profile and levels of antioxidants were determined. Safety profile of both extracts was evaluated using acute and chronic toxicity studies. Higher dose of fruit peel extract of P. granatum (PEPG) and glibenclamide significantly lowered blood glucose level from 7(th) day onwards however glibenclamide was found to be more effective. Leaves extract at higher dose and fruit extract at lower dose also significantly lowered blood glucose level from 14(th) day onwards. Leaves extract at lower dose also significantly lowered blood glucose level from 21(st) day onwards. Glibenclamide and higher dose of fruit PEPG extract significantly reduced the total cholesterol, triglyceride levels and significantly increased the high density lipoprotein cholesterol level. Glibenclamide followed by higher dose was found more effective in reducing plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and increasing levels of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase). No toxicity was observed even when both extracts were administered at 10 times of higher dose used in this study and no significant changes were seen when it were used chronically. Leaves and fruit PEPG possesses significant anti-diabetic, hypolipedimic and antioxidant properties. This study supports the traditional use of P. granatum in diabetes. Fruit peel which is

  6. EVALUATION OF MALE SEX HORMONES AND TRACE ELEMENTS IN MALE TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS ATTENDING NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL DIABETIC CLINICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubajaka, C F; Meludu, S C; Dioka, C E; Onah, C E; Osuji, C U; Modebe, I A; Ifeadike, G C; Okwara, J E; Amah, U K; Nnebue, C C

    2015-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that the metabolism of male sex hormones and several trace elements are altered in type 2 diabetic mellitus and may have specific role in the pathogenesis and progression of the disease. To assess the levels of male sex hormones and trace elements in type 2 diabetic patients and to ascertain an association between male sex hormones and trace elements among diabetic subjects. A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among 125 diabetic and 50 non diabetic subjects. Venous blood samples were collected from all respondents and estimated for fasting blood glucose, male sex hormones and trace elements. The results were subjected to statistical analysis and comparison using Students' test and Pearson correlation analysis. The mean testosterone level was significantly lower in diabetics than in controls (3.9 ± 1.9ng/ml) in comparison with (5.1 ± 1.7ng/ml; P < 0.05). The mean value of Zinc, Manganese, Selenium and Chromium were significantly lower among the diabetics when compared with the controls (Zn;898.7 ± 131.0 μg/l; Mn:0.30 ± 0.06 μg/l;Se:51.3 ± 11.1 μg/l; Cr: 0.04 ± 0.03 μg/I) in comparison with (Zn: 1007.3 ± 85.2 μg/l; Mn: 0.05 ± 0.07μg/l; Se: 62.1 ± 11.1 μg/l; Cr: 0.06 ± 0.01 μg/l; P < 0.05).The mean Fasting Blood Glucose in diabetic subjects was significantly higher when compared with the controls (7.9 ± 3.7 mmol/l) in comparison with (4.6 ± 0.4 mmol/l; P < 0.05).The trace elements showed a positive correlation with testosterone in diabetic subjects (Zn r = 0.359, Ser = 0.443, Mn r = 0.350, P < 0.05). This study observed decreased levels of testosterone and trace elements in type 2 diabetics and a positive correlation between low testosterone and low trace elements levels in diabetic subjects. These trace elements are antioxidants and their low levels in diabetic patients may further increase the severity of the disease.

  7. Maternal Diabetes Mellitus and Genital Anomalies in Male Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Linn Håkonsen; Lindhard, Morten Søndergaard; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2018-01-01

    -born boys from Denmark (1978-2012) and Sweden (1987-2012) was carried out using Danish and Swedish register-based data. Using Cox regression models, we estimated hazard ratios for hypospadias and cryptorchidism according to maternal diabetes. We considered type and severity of diabetes, as well as timing...

  8. Significance of repeated exercise testing with thallium-201 scanning in asymptomatic diabetic males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubler, S.; Fisher, V.J.

    1985-01-01

    This study was conducted with asymptomatic middle-aged male subjects with diabetes mellitus to detect latent cardiac disease using noninvasive techniques. One group of 38 diabetic males (mean age 50.5 +/- 10.2 years) and a group of 15 normal males (mean age 46.9 +/- 10.0 years) participated in the initial trial; 13 diabetic patients and 7 control subjects were restudied 1-2 years later. Maximal treadmill exercise with a Bruce protocol and myocardial scintigraphy with thallium-201(201Tl) were used. Diabetic subjects on initial examination and retesting achieved a lower maximal heart rate and duration of exercise than control subjects. Abnormal electrocardiographic changes, thallium defects, or both were observed in 23/38 diabetic males (60.5%) on the first study and only one 65-year-old control subject had such findings. On retesting, the control subjects had no abnormalities while 76.9% of diabetic subjects had either 201Tl defects or ECG changes. We conclude that despite the fact that none of diabetic males had any clinical evidence or symptoms of heart disease, this high-risk group demonstrated abnormalities on exercise testing that merit careful subsequent evaluation and followup and could be an effective method of detecting early cardiac disease

  9. Correction of protein metabolic disorders by composite extract of Musa paradisiaca and Coccinia indica in streptozotocin-induced diabetic albino rat: an approach through the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Chhanda; De, Debasis; Ghosh, Debidas

    2009-04-01

    The study focused on the ability of the extracts of Musa paradisiaca and Coccinia indica on protein metabolic disorders in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Wistar strain rats were divided into 6 groups as control, control + composite extract treated, STZ-induced diabetes, diabetic + composite extract treated, composite extract-pretreated diabetes, and composite extract-pretreated diabetes + composite extract treated. Protein metabolic status was assessed by serum levels of urea, uric acid, albumin, and creatinine along with urine urea and albumin levels. Diabetic therapeutic ability was assessed by blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and serum insulin levels. Histology of the pancreas, liver, and kidney was evaluated. Indices of protein metabolic disorders were deviated from control in STZ-induced diabetes, which were protected significantly after the treatment of composite extract of M. paradisiaca and C. indica. This protection was more prominent when the extract-pretreated animals were subjected to diabetes induction by STZ. The composite extract has a protective therapeutic effect against diabetes through beta-cell regeneration capacity.

  10. Therapeutic and fertility restoration effects of Ionidium suffruticosum on sub-fertile male albino Wistar rats: effects on testis and caudal spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenniappan, Kuppusamy; Murugan, Kadarkari

    2017-12-01

    Ionidium suffruticosum (L.) Ging (Violaceae) is an important medicinal plant widely used as a herbal traditional medicine in Ayurveda for the treatment of infertility. Currently, little pharmacological information is available on its male fertility properties following prolonged use. To investigate I. suffruticosum leaf extracts for male fertility parameters. The ethanol lyophilized fraction was administered orally on carbendazim-induced sub-fertility rats (250 mg/kg body weight for 28 days). The effects of fractions on rat's fertility parameters i.e., body and testes weight, sperm motility, sperm vitality, epididymal sperm counts, its morphology, enzyme and antioxidant stress and histopathology were studied and compared with clomiphene citrate. The sub-fertile male rats treated with I. suffruticosum leaf extract increased the body weight of 7 g, testis weight of 97 mg, increased cauda epididymal sperm counts of 34.2 × 10 6 sperm/mL, motility of sperm 46% and vitality 28% also increased and normal sperm morphology also improved up to 32%. The carbendazim-treated group showed loss in body weight of 33 g, testis weight of 851 mg, decreased epididymal sperm counts of 15 × 10 6 sperm/mL, with sluggish motility and a highly significant fall in the live sperms of about 57%. The leaf fraction of I. suffructicosum increased the testicular weight, spermatogenesis, sperm counts, lessened sperm agglutination, and increased testicular oxidative biomarkers, SOD, and CAT. This study therefore supports the usage of I. suffructicosum in traditional medicine for infertility.

  11. Effect of Acute Administration of loganin on Spatial Memory in Diabetic Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisou Mohaddes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Diabetes is associated with memory and learning disorder. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of acute oral administration of loganin on memory in diabetic male rats. Methods: 42 male Wistar rats (250-300 g were divided into six groups: Control, Diabetic (1 week, Diabetic (12 weeks, Loganin, Diabetic (1 week + Loganin, Diabetic (12 weeks + Loganin. Diabetes was induced by IP injection of Streptozotocin (60 mg/kg. Loganin (40 mg/kg, po was administrated 1 hour before test. Then, spatial memory was compared between groups with Morris Water Maze tests. Results: Administration of loganin during acquisition, significantly (p<0.05 decreased both escape latency and traveled distance to find hidden platform in 1 and 12 weeks diabetic rats. In evaluation of recall phase of memory, loganin significantly (p<0.05 increased time and distance spent in the target quadrant in 1 and 12 weeks diabetic rats. Conclusion: Acute administration of loganin could improve spatial memory in diabetic rats.

  12. Toxic effects of sub-chronic exposure of male albino rats to emamectin benzoate and possible ameliorative role of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, El-Sayed A; Galal, Azza A A

    2015-05-01

    Emamectin benzoate (EB) is an avermectin insecticide used extensively in pest control on vegetable and field crops. Few studies have been done for evaluating adverse effects of EB. In the current study, we evaluated the toxic effects of EB on male rats and the possible ameliorative role of fennel essential oil (FEO). Thirty two male rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups. All groups were treated orally with distilled water (control group), 0.5mlFEOkg(-1) BW (FEO group), 2.5mgEBkg(-1) BW (EB group), and 0.5mlFEOkg(-1) BW+2.5mgEBkg(-1) BW (FEO+EB group) for 28 days. The obtained results showed that EB treatment resulted in a significant decrease in body weight, body weight gain, RBC count, Hb concentration, % PCV, MCV and MCHC. Moreover, EB significantly decreased total leukocyte, lymphocyte, monocyte and platelet count but significantly increased granulocyte count. EB markedly decreased total protein, albumin, globulin, IgG and IgM concentrations with a significant increase in TNF-α secretion. EB had a negative impact on the liver as it significantly increased ALT, ALP, and MDA, while decreasing SOD activity. Regarding to the histopathological examination, EB treatment induced coagulative necrosis and blood vessels congestion of the liver in treated rats. Furthermore, it resulted in depletion and necrosis of the white pulp of the spleen in treated rats. The co-administration of FEO with EB, however, improved the majority of parameters studied, suggesting that FEO is an important substance in decreasing toxic effects of EB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ameliorating role of chromium ingestion on biochemical, histological and trigluconate disorders induced by diabetes and / or gamma irradiation in pregnant albino rats and their fetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RAMADAN, F.L.; REZK, R.G.

    2006-01-01

    Chromium is an essential trace element in human nutrition for the regulation of insulin action thereby influencing carbohydrate and lipid metabolism The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of chromium intake on radiation-induced damage in diabetic mothers. Diabetes was induced in female rats by intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/kg alloxan dissolved in saline. Pregnant diabetic mothers were received chromium (20 mg/kg) from the 1st up to the 19 th day of gestation. Meanwhile, pregnant diabetic rats were exposed to 0.3 Gy gamma radiation on the 6th and the 12 th day of gestation. Chromium treatment of diabetic mothers ameliorated radiation-induced damage, which was obvious by diminishing the increase of glucose, malonaldehyde (MDA), total cholesterol levels and by ameliorating the decrease of glutathione level in blood serum. In addition,chromium treatment ameliorated the radiation-induced changes in cholesterol levels of the fetuses. Moreover, chromium treatment led to the regeneration of the normal architecture of maternal hepatic cells and blood vessels. It could be concluded that chromium supplementation to diabetic mothers ameliorated the radiation-induced biochemical, histopathological and teratological disorders. Furthermore, the results obtained showed that chromium administration caused a significant protection to diabetic pregnant females against radiation-induced spontaneous abortion and embryo malformations

  14. Garlic used as an alternative medicine to control diabetic mellitus in alloxan-induced male rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahesar, H.; Bhutto, M.A.; Khand, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Herbal medicines are widely used because of their effectiveness, less side effects and low cost, so investigation on such agents from traditional medicinal plants has become more important in present day studies on medical sciences. Garlic is one of the most popular herbs used as an anti-diabetic agent. In present study possible anti diabetic effects of garlic were studied in alloxan induced diabetic male rabbits, compared to normal control and diabetic control male rabbits. The blood samples were collected every third day and anti-diabetic effects of garlic were observed every time. The serum cholesterol level and body weight were also studied. With an aqueous extract of garlic (1% solution/Kg) body weight for 30 days significantly lowered serum glucose level (38.88%) and serum cholesterol level (57%). Results and Conclusion: The results indicate that garlic possesses a beneficial anti-hyperglycaemic effect in alloxan-induced rabbits. (author)

  15. Pumpkin Seed Oil Attenuates Functional and Structural Disorders in Urogenital System of Male Albino Rats Induced by Whole Body Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezk, R.G.; Darwish, M.R

    2012-01-01

    Pumpkin seeds have long been used for health benefits and the seed oil has been shown to contain active beneficial components that may protect from oxidative stress. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the modulator role of pumpkin seed oil (PSO) supplementation on gamma radiation induced changes in certain biochemical and histological abnormalities in both kidney and testes tissues. Male rats received 5Gy whole body gamma-irradiation delivered as 1 Gy day after day to result in a cumulative dose of 5 Gy. PSO was orally administered to rats (20mg/Kg body weight) for 20 consecutive days before irradiation and during the period of irradiation. On days seven and twenty one after the last irradiation dose, rats were sacrificed. Biochemical analysis in the serum revealed that PSO supplementation diminished the radiation-induced increase in the level of urea, creatinine , follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Significant amelioration of the radiation-induced decreases in calcium (Ca +2 ), potassium (K + ) and testosterone levels were also recorded. PSO administration has attenuated the toxic effects of radiation by decreasing the level of lipid peroxides measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and increasing the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and the content of glutathione (GSH). Histological observations of photomicrographs of kidney sections of irradiated rats showed amorphoid glomeruli, renal sclerosis and high content of inflammatory cells and fibroblasts, hemorrhage in glomeruli, ruptured proximal and distal convoluted tubules. Examination of testis tissues showed disappearance of seminiferous tubules, ruptured tunica albuginea, and degeneration of interstitial cells. PSO supplementation has obviously improved the radiation-induced histopathological changes in both tissues. It could be concluded that PSO can be used as a useful adjunct for maintaining

  16. Chronic Opium Treatment Can Differentially Induce Brain and Liver Cells Apoptosis in Diabetic and Non-diabetic Male and Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Asiabanha, Majid; Asadikaram, Gholamreza; Rahnema, Amir; Mahmoodi, Mehdi; Hasanshahi, Gholamhosein; Hashemi, Mohammad; Khaksari, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    It has been shown that some opium derivatives promote cell death via apoptosis. This study was designed to examine the influence of opium addiction on brain and liver cells apoptosis in male and female diabetic and non-diabetic Wistar rats. This experimental study was performed on normal, opium-addicted, diabetic and diabetic opium-addicted male and female rats. Apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL and DNA fragmentation assays. Results of this study showed that apoptosis in opium-addicted and dia...

  17. the Early Effects of Gamma radiation on the diurnal changes of Some Biochemical Parameters and the Role of α-lipoic acid as an Antioxidant in Male Albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Fattah, K.I.; Yacoub, S.F.; Abdel-Aziz, N.

    2013-01-01

    In mammals most of the physiological and behavioral systems such as sleep-wake cycle, cardiovascular activity, endocrine system, blood pressure, body temperature and hepatic metabolism are regulated by the circadian clock. The aim of the present work was to investigate the disturbances induced after gamma irradiation on the metabolic diurnal rhythm and the role of α-alpha lipoic acid (ALA) in preventing/or decreasing these disorders in rat. Male Swiss albino rats were divided into 4 groups, one of which served as a normal control group, the second group was exposed to a single whole body gamma radiation dose of 6Gy, the third group was treated by gavage with ALA 100 mg/kg/day for 20 days and the fourth one was orally administered with ALA 100 mg/kg/day for 20 days before whole body gamma radiation at a dose of 6Gy. Rats were irradiated at 10 am and sacrificed at 11 am, 12 pm, 1 pm and 2 pm and then the biochemical analyses were performed. The results showed a significant increase in the level of lipid peroxidation products (MDA) at all time intervals. A significant increase was recorded also in the amount of free radicals at 11 am and 2 pm, and pyruvic acid level at 12 pm and 2 pm. A significant reduction of glutathione level (GSH) was recorded at 12 pm, 1 pm and 2 pm in the liver of the irradiated rats. Furthermore, a significant increase was registered in blood glucose level and blood aminotransferase activities (AST, ALT) in irradiated rats. Administration of ALA has significantly attenuated the radiation induced oxidative damage. It could be concluded that the biochemical changes induced by whole body gamma irradiation of rats are dependent on the circadian cycle. Further investigations are necessary to understand these complicated relations.

  18. Softened food reduces weight loss in the streptozotocin-induced male mouse model of diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Sisse A; Sand, Fredrik W; Sørensen, Dorte B

    2018-01-01

    The streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mouse is a widely used model of diabetes and diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, it is a well-known issue that this model is challenged by high weight loss, which despite supportive measures often results in high euthanization rates. To overcome...... these issues, we hypothesized that supplementing STZ-induced diabetic mice with water-softened chow in addition to normal chow would reduce weight loss, lower the need for supportive treatment, and reduce the number of mice reaching the humane endpoint of 20% weight loss. In a 15 week STZ-induced DN study we...... demonstrated that diabetic male mice receiving softened chow had reduced acute weight loss following STZ treatment ( p = 0.045) and additionally fewer mice were euthanized due to weight loss. By supplementing the diabetic mice with softened chow, no mice reached 20% weight loss whereas 37.5% of the mice...

  19. Two weeks taurine supplementation reverses endothelial dysfunction in young male type 1 diabetics.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moloney, Michael A

    2010-10-01

    Type 1 diabetics have a well-recognised risk of accelerated cardiovascular disease. Even in the absence of clinical signs there are detectable abnormalities of conduit vessel function. Our group has previously reported reversal of endothelial dysfunction in diabetics with pravastatin. In young asymptomatic smokers, taurine supplementation has a beneficial impact on macrovascular function, assessed by FMD, and shows an up-regulation of nitric oxide from monocyte-endothelial cell interactions. We hypothesise that taurine supplementation reverses early endothelial abnormalities in young male type 1 diabetics, as assessed by applanation tonometry, brachial artery ultrasound and laser Doppler fluximetry. Asymptomatic, male diabetics (n=9) were scanned prior to treatment and then randomised in a double-blind cross-over fashion to receive either 2 weeks placebo or taurine. Control patients (n=10) underwent a baseline scan. Assessed diabetics had detectable, statistically significant abnormalities when compared with controls, in both arterial stiffness (augmentation index) and brachial artery reactivity (FMD). Both of these parameters were returned to control levels with 2 weeks taurine supplementation. In conclusion, 2 weeks taurine supplementation reverses early, detectable conduit vessel abnormalities in young male diabetics. This may have important implications in the long-term treatment of diabetic patients and their subsequent progression towards atherosclerotic disease.

  20. Male Reproductive Complications of Diabetes Mellitus and Possible

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Objective: Male reproductive dysfunction and subsequent infertility are major complications that are becoming .... pancreatic â-islet cells, while NIDDM is usually as a result of a ... the endocrine control of spermatogenesis, it was concluded that ...

  1. Beneficial effects of exercise training in heart failure are lost in male diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudia, Dalila; Domergue, Valérie; Mateo, Philippe; Fazal, Loubina; Prud'homme, Mathilde; Prigent, Héloïse; Delcayre, Claude; Cohen-Solal, Alain; Garnier, Anne; Ventura-Clapier, Renée; Samuel, Jane-Lise

    2017-12-01

    Exercise training has been demonstrated to have beneficial effects in patients with heart failure (HF) or diabetes. However, it is unknown whether diabetic patients with HF will benefit from exercise training. Male Wistar rats were fed either a standard (Sham, n = 53) or high-fat, high-sucrose diet ( n = 66) for 6 mo. After 2 mo of diet, the rats were already diabetic. Rats were then randomly subjected to either myocardial infarction by coronary artery ligation (MI) or sham operation. Two months later, heart failure was documented by echocardiography and animals were randomly subjected to exercise training with treadmill for an additional 8 wk or remained sedentary. At the end, rats were euthanized and tissues were assayed by RT-PCR, immunoblotting, spectrophotometry, and immunohistology. MI induced a similar decrease in ejection fraction in diabetic and lean animals but a higher premature mortality in the diabetic group. Exercise for 8 wk resulted in a higher working power developed by MI animals with diabetes and improved glycaemia but not ejection fraction or pathological phenotype. In contrast, exercise improved the ejection fraction and increased adaptive hypertrophy after MI in the lean group. Trained diabetic rats with MI were nevertheless able to develop cardiomyocyte hypertrophy but without angiogenic responses. Exercise improved stress markers and cardiac energy metabolism in lean but not diabetic-MI rats. Hence, following HF, the benefits of exercise training on cardiac function are blunted in diabetic animals. In conclusion, exercise training only improved the myocardial profile of infarcted lean rats fed the standard diet. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Exercise training is beneficial in patients with heart failure (HF) or diabetes. However, less is known of the possible benefit of exercise training for HF patients with diabetes. Using a rat model where both diabetes and MI had been induced, we showed that 2 mo after MI, 8 wk of exercise training failed to improve

  2. Balanoposthitis as a cutaneous marker of diabetes mellitus in an apparently healthy male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Saoji

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Balanoposthitis inflammation of the glans penis, which often involves prepuce is a common condition and are usually managed symptomatically without considering a possible association diabetes. Acquired balanoposthitis may be the first clinical presentation of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus. Methods: We enrolled 100 subjects with balanoposthitis with no history of diabetes mellitus in the past. Random blood sugar was done in all subjects, those with random blood sugar more than 140 mg/dl underwent fasting and 2 hour post prandial blood sugar estimation. Result: Out of 100 patients having balanitis,7 patients were detected to have diabetes mellitus for the first time, while another 4 patients were found to have impaired glucose tolerance for the first time. Conclusion: In conclusion, we must bear in mind that balanoposthitis may be the first clinical sign of diabetes mellitus in males and hence appropriate blood glucose testing should be carried out when assessing men with balanoposthitis.

  3. Activation of PPAR by Rosiglitazone Does Not Negatively Impact Male Sex Steroid Hormones in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mansour

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR activation decreased serum testosterone (T in women with hyperthecosis and/or polycystic ovary syndrome and reduced the conversion of androgens to estradiol (E2 in female rats. This implies modulation of female sex steroid hormones by PPAR. It is not clear if PPAR modulates sex steroid hormones in diabetic males. Because PPAR activation by thiazolidinedione increased insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes, understanding the long term impact of PPAR activation on steroid sex hormones in males is critical. Our objective was to determine the effect of PPAR activation on serum and intratesticular T, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and E2 concentrations in male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rats treated with the PPAR agonist rosiglitazone (a thiazolidinedione. Treatment for eight weeks increased PPAR mRNA and protein in the testis and elevated serum adiponectin, an adipokine marker for PPAR activation. PPAR activation did not alter serum or intratesticular T concentrations. In contrast, serum T level but not intratesticular T was reduced by diabetes. Neither diabetes nor PPAR activation altered serum E2 or gonadotropins FSH and LH concentrations. The results suggest that activation of PPAR by rosiglitazone has no negative impact on sex hormones in male ZDF rats.

  4. Modifications in sperm quality of Wister Albino Rats by Ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of a well known herb, Phyllanthus amarus on the sperm characteristics in male albino rats was studied. This was an investigation of the age-long claim by the locales in the rural communities in the southern states of Nigeria where this plant is consumed religiously that it affects sperm quality, hence sexual potency ...

  5. Malignant Melanoma in an Albino | Efem | Sudan Journal of Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oculocutaneous albinism is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterised by generalised depigmentation, photophobia, decreased visual acuity, and nystagmus. Malignant melanoma is rare in patients with albinism. We report a case of a large advanced fumigating tumour on the right forearm of a male Nigerian albino ...

  6. the reproductive dysfunction effects of gasoline inhalation in albino

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    exposure to inhalation gasoline, which generally saturate the ambient air of their workplaces. In this study, we challenged male and female albino rats with gasoline vapour and monitored the endocrine disruptive effects as part of a comprehensive study of the health risks faced by refinery workers in Nigeria. The ultimate.

  7. The reproductive dysfunction effects of gasoline inhalation in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwoke, C C; Nwobodo, E D; Unekwe, P; Odike, M; Chukwumai, S T; Amilo, G

    2005-01-01

    Daily exposure to fuel vapour may pose significant health risk to exposed individuals. Fifteen each of male and female albino rats weighing between 110-230g were divided into test (10) and control (5) groups each. The test animals; were exposed to inhalation gasoline for one hour daily for twenty-one consecutive days. All animals were then bled and the serum levels of the reproductive hormones determined. The results showed significant [P inhalation gasoline exposure significantly [P < 0.05] lowers the levels of reproductive hormones in albino rats and may thus interfere with reproduction.

  8. The Effect of Resistance Training on Cardio-Metabolic Factors in Males with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghalavand

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetes is one of the most important metabolic diseases in the world and exercise is a common advice to manage diabetes and reduce its complications. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of resistance training on blood glucose, blood pressure and resting heart rate in males with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods In this semi-experimental study, 20 males with type 2 diabetes with mean age of 46 ± 3.4 years old who met the inclusion criteria were selected. The participants were randomly assigned into resistance training (n = 10 and control (n = 10 groups. Resistance exercise training program was performed for eight weeks, three sessions per week. Cardiovascular and biochemical parameters were measured before and after the intervention. To analyze the measured parameters changes t-test was used at P ≤ 0.05 significance level. Results After eight weeks, a significant decrease in fasting blood sugar (P = 0.002, glycosylated hemoglobin (P = 0.025 and systolic blood pressure (P = 0.022 was observed in the resistance group. In addition, there was a significant difference in blood sugar (P = 0.003 and glycosylated hemoglobin (P = 0.031 between the two groups. Conclusions Findings of this study confirmed the positive influence of resistance training to control blood glucose and blood pressure in males with type 2 diabetes.

  9. Neurophysiological role of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) on seminal parameters in diabetic males with and without neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syed Tabrez; Rakkah, Nabeeh I

    2007-01-01

    Sildenafil citrate is a specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterase (PDE) type-5 and represents a powerful therapy for male erectile and fertility dysfunctions of different etiologies. Present study demonstrates whether sildenafil administration modifies seminal parameters in diabetic neuropathic patients. In this investigation 50 insulin dependent (IDDM) and 50 non insulin dependent (NIDDM) diabetic male patients with and without an objective evidence of neuropathy and 50 age matched non diabetic male controls were selected. Every male had age between 20 to 65 years with duration of diabetes distributed over 1 to 20 years. Treatment with 100 mg of oral sildenafil citrate on seminal parameters was evaluated by semen analysis in these patients. In both IDDM and NIDDM diabetic neuropathic patients, chronic sildenafil treatment exhibited a significant decrease in total sperm output and sperm concentration (p<0.001). On the other hand, sperm motility and semen volume were found to be increased by about 40% and 48% respectively in these patients, where as sperm morphology and quality of sperm motility remained unaffected. However both types of non neuropathic diabetics showed a non significant difference in all the above mentioned parameters when compared with the untreated groups and their respective control subjects. A comparison between IDDM and NIDDM neuropathic and non neuropathic diabetic groups further indicated a non significant difference in all the parameters of semen analysis. These findings suggest a chronic neuro physiological effect of sildenafil treatment on male fertility profile exclusively in diabetic neuropathic condition with an improvement in testicular function which was probably arrested due to some kind of testicular hyperplasia resulted by testicular necrosis and promoted spermatogenesis. Sildenafil seems to be associated with an improvement in the entire smooth musculature of reproductive tract and testicular morphology which was altered due to

  10. Endothelial arginine resynthesis contributes to the maintenance of vasomotor function in male diabetic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chennupati, Ramesh; Meens, Merlijn J P M T; Marion, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) is essential for recycling L-citrulline, the by-product of NO synthase (NOS), to the NOS substrate L-arginine. Here, we assessed whether disturbed arginine resynthesis modulates endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in normal and diabetic male mice. METHODS...... of endothelial citrulline recycling to arginine did not affect blood pressure and systemic arterial vasomotor responses in healthy mice. EDNO-mediated vasodilatation was significantly more impaired in diabetic Ass-KOTie2 than in control mice demonstrating that endothelial arginine recycling becomes a limiting...... responses were studied in isolated saphenous arteries of 12- and 34-week-old Ass-KOTie2 and control animals. At the age of 10 weeks, diabetes was induced in control and Ass-KOTie2 mice by streptozotocin injections. Vasomotor responses of diabetic animals were studied 10 weeks later. MAP was similar...

  11. Evidence for diffuse central retinal edema in vivo in diabetic male Sprague Dawley rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce A Berkowitz

    Full Text Available Investigations into the mechanism of diffuse retinal edema in diabetic subjects have been limited by a lack of animal models and techniques that co-localized retinal thickness and hydration in vivo. In this study we test the hypothesis that a previously reported supernormal central retinal thickness on MRI measured in experimental diabetic retinopathy in vivo represents a persistent and diffuse edema.In diabetic and age-matched control rats, and in rats experiencing dilutional hyponatremia (as a positive edema control, whole central retinal thickness, intraretinal water content and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC, 'water mobility' were measured in vivo using quantitative MRI methods. Glycated hemoglobin and retinal thickness ex vivo (histology were also measured in control and diabetic groups. In the dilutional hyponatremia model, central retinal thickness and water content were supernormal by quantitative MRI, and intraretinal water mobility profiles changed in a manner consistent with intracellular edema. Groups of diabetic (2, 3, 4, 6, and 9 mo of diabetes, and age-matched controls were then investigated with MRI and all diabetic rats showed supernormal whole central retinal thickness. In a separate study in 4 mo diabetic rats (and controls, MRI retinal thickness and water content metrics were significantly greater than normal, and ADC was subnormal in the outer retina; the increase in retinal thickness was not detected histologically on sections of fixed and dehydrated retinas from these rats.Diabetic male Sprague Dawley rats demonstrate a persistent and diffuse retinal edema in vivo, providing, for the first time, an important model for investigating its pathogenesis and treatment. These studies also validate MRI as a powerful approach for investigating mechanisms of diabetic retinal edema in future experimental and clinical investigations.

  12. Softened food reduces weight loss in the streptozotocin-induced male mouse model of diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørgaard, Sisse A; Sand, Fredrik W; Sørensen, Dorte B; Abelson, Klas Sp; Søndergaard, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    The streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mouse is a widely used model of diabetes and diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, it is a well-known issue that this model is challenged by high weight loss, which despite supportive measures often results in high euthanization rates. To overcome these issues, we hypothesized that supplementing STZ-induced diabetic mice with water-softened chow in addition to normal chow would reduce weight loss, lower the need for supportive treatment, and reduce the number of mice reaching the humane endpoint of 20% weight loss. In a 15 week STZ-induced DN study we demonstrated that diabetic male mice receiving softened chow had reduced acute weight loss following STZ treatment ( p = 0.045) and additionally fewer mice were euthanized due to weight loss. By supplementing the diabetic mice with softened chow, no mice reached 20% weight loss whereas 37.5% of the mice without this supplement reached this humane endpoint ( p = 0.0027). Excretion of corticosterone metabolites in faeces was reduced in diabetic mice on softened chow ( p = 0.0007), suggesting lower levels of general stress. Finally, it was demonstrated that the water-softened chow supplement did not significantly affect the induction of key disease parameters, i.e. %HbA1C and albuminuria nor result in abnormal teeth wear. In conclusion, supplementation of softened food is refining the STZ-induced diabetic mouse model significantly by reducing stress, weight loss and the number of animals sacrificed due to humane endpoints, while maintaining the key phenotypes of diabetes and nephropathy.

  13. Risk Factors for Hypogonadism in Male Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rendong; Cao, Lin; Cao, Wen; Chu, Xiaoqiu; Hu, Yongxin; Zhang, Huifeng; Xu, Juan; Sun, Hongping; Bao, Weiping; Liu, Kemian; Liu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Background. Male hypogonadism is an endocrine disease characterized by low levels of serum testosterone and is closely related to the development of diabetes. The purpose of the present study was to observe the risk factors for hypogonadism in male patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. A total of 213 patients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled and divided into a low total testosterone (TT) group (=75) and a normal TT group (=138). The patients' blood glucose, blood lipids, serum insulin, and sex hormones were measured. The correlations between the patients' metabolic index and sex hormone levels were analyzed. Results. Compared with the normal TT group, body mass index (BMI), fasting insulin (FINS), and HOMA insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) levels were significantly higher, but the luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were significantly lower in the low TT group (p hypogonadism. BMI, metabolic syndrome (MS), HOMA-IR, and LH are independent risk factors for hypogonadism in male patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:27006953

  14. Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Erythrocyte Membrane in Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein, Jihan; Mostafa, Ehab; El-Waseef, Maha; El-Khayat, Zakarya; Badawy, Ehsan; Medhat, Dalia

    2011-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characterized by chronic hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, almost always with a major contribution from insulin resistance which may be affected by cell membrane fatty acids and phospholipids fractions.Aim: To evaluate the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on erythrocyte membrane and also in decreasing oxidative stress in diabetic rats.Material and Methods: Sixty healthy male albino rats weighting 180-200 g divided int...

  15. [Association between smoking/smoking cessation and glycemic control in male patients with type 2 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, J; Qin, Y; Shen, C; Gao, Y; Pan, E C; Pan, X Q; Tao, R; Zhang, Y Q; Wu, M

    2017-11-10

    Objective: To explore the association of smoking and smoking cessation with glycemic control in male patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: From December 2013 to January 2014, a total of 7 763 male patients with type 2 diabetes, who received national basic public health service in Changshu county of Suzhou city, Huai'an and Qinghe districts of Huai'an city, Jiangsu province, were recruited by cluster sampling. Questionnaire survey and anthropometric measurements were conducted, and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were measured. Multiple linear regression model was used to evaluate the association of smoking and smoking cessation with glycemic control. Results: The prevalence of current smoking was 45.5% in male patients with type 2 diabetes. The levels of FPG and HbA1c increased with number of cigarettes smoked per day compared with non-smokers ( P smoking duration ≥30 years and smoking index ≥40 pack-years were 0.27% (95 %CI : 0.05%-0.49%) and 0.38% (95 %CI : 0.23%-0.53%), respectively. FPG and HbA1c level decreased obviously with smoking cessation years among former smokers ( P smoking duration, smoking cessation years and levels of FPG and HbA1c. Conclusion: Cigarette smoking was negatively related with glycemic control in male type 2 diabetes patients, especially in patients with drug treatment. Smoking cessation may be beneficial for glycemic control. Smoking cessation should be encouraged for diabetes patients as early as possible.

  16. Endothelial arginine resynthesis contributes to the maintenance of vasomotor function in male diabetic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Chennupati

    Full Text Available Argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS is essential for recycling L-citrulline, the by-product of NO synthase (NOS, to the NOS substrate L-arginine. Here, we assessed whether disturbed arginine resynthesis modulates endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in normal and diabetic male mice.Endothelium-selective Ass-deficient mice (Assfl/fl/Tie2Cretg/- = Ass-KOTie2 were generated by crossing Assfl/fl mice ( = control with Tie2Cre mice. Gene ablation in endothelial cells was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Blood pressure (MAP was recorded in 34-week-old male mice. Vasomotor responses were studied in isolated saphenous arteries of 12- and 34-week-old Ass-KOTie2 and control animals. At the age of 10 weeks, diabetes was induced in control and Ass-KOTie2 mice by streptozotocin injections. Vasomotor responses of diabetic animals were studied 10 weeks later. MAP was similar in control and Ass-KOTie2 mice. Depletion of circulating L-arginine by arginase 1 infusion or inhibition of NOS activity with L-NAME resulted in an increased MAP (10 and 30 mmHg, respectively in control and Ass-KOTie2 mice. Optimal arterial diameter, contractile responses to phenylephrine, and relaxing responses to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside were similar in healthy control and Ass-KOTie2 mice. However, in diabetic Ass-KOTie2 mice, relaxation responses to acetylcholine and endothelium-derived NO (EDNO were significantly reduced when compared to diabetic control mice.Absence of endothelial citrulline recycling to arginine did not affect blood pressure and systemic arterial vasomotor responses in healthy mice. EDNO-mediated vasodilatation was significantly more impaired in diabetic Ass-KOTie2 than in control mice demonstrating that endothelial arginine recycling becomes a limiting endothelial function in diabetes.

  17. ASSESSMENT OF SERUM LIPIDS IN TYPE II DIABETES MALE AND FEMALE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annapurna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM often have both quantitative and qualitative abnormalities of lipoproteins that are responsible for increased incidence of microvascular and macrovascular complications. Incidence of coronary heart disease is three to four folds higher in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus compared to non - diabetics. It has been proposed that the composition of lipid particles in diabetic dyslipidemia is more atherogenic than other types of dyslipidemia. This study was conducted to asses s serum lipid profile in type diabetes male and female patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted on 50 T2DM patients with history more than ten yrs diabetes. Diabetic patients with overt complications and patients on drugs like diuretics, s teroids, oral contraceptives and beta blockers etc are excluded from study. 5 ml of whole blood was collected via vena puncture with the help of a disposable syringe in between 7.00am and 8.00am. Fasting plasma glucose and different Lipid fractions were es timated using standard procedure. All values were expressed as mean ± S.D. Statistical significance of differences between control and study groups were evaluated by student’s t test. A p - value less than 0.05 were considered as significant. RESULTS: The se rum total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly raised in both males and females . CONCLUSION: Hyperlipidaemia is a common finding among DM patients. DM patients should be screened and appropriate management should be instituted to reduce the risk of CHD and atherosclerosis

  18. The effect of alloxan diabetes on the activity of some mixed function oxidases in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedjar, A; Stoytchev, T

    1990-01-01

    The effect of alloxan-induced diabetes on the duration of hexobarbital sleep (HB sleep) the activity of ethylmorphine-N-demethylase (EMND), aniline hydroxylase (AH), the content of microsomal cytochrome P-450 and b5, on the activity of ethoxycumarine-0-deethylase (ECOD) and ethoxyresorufine-0-deethylase (EROD) after induction with beta naphthoflavone (beta-NF), as well as the activity of benzphetamine-N-demethylase and pentoxyresorufine-O-dealkylase (PROD) after induction with phenobarbital (PB), was studied in experiments on male Wistar rats. In rats with alloxan diabetes there was a significant prolongation of HB sleep (by 106%) and inhibition of the liver EMND (by 54%), while the AH activity increased by 131%, with a parallel rise in the content of microsomal cytochromes P-450 (by 67%) and b5 (by 113%). In rats with alloxan diabetes the enzyme-inducing effect of beta-NF with respect to the activities of EROD and ECOD is reduced, although diabetes by itself causes a rise in the ECOD activity in untreated animals. When induced with PB, the PROD and benzphetamine-N-demethylase activity in diabetic rats is lower than in the healthy animals. However, if the enzyme activity after the application of inducers is referred to the respective starting enzyme activities of the two groups of animals, it is found that the enzyme-inducing effect of PB is preserved and even slightly potentiated in the diabetic rats compared with the healthy ones: the increases in the benzphetamine-N-demethylase activity is by 60% in the diabetic rats, compared with a rise of 28% in the healthy animals, of the PROD activity 19 times for the diabetic compared with 16 times increase for the healthy rats.

  19. Black Seed Thymoquinone Improved Insulin Secretion, Hepatic Glycogen Storage, and Oxidative Stress in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba M. A. Abdelrazek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is one of the metabolic diseases having several complications. Nigella sativa oil (NSO might have beneficial effects in the treatment of diabetic complications. Thirty-two mature male Wistar rats were equally divided into four experimental groups: control, control NSO 2 mL/kg, streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic, and diabetic (STZ-induced treated with oral NSO 2 mg/kg for 30 days. Fasting blood glucose (FBG, insulin, and lipid profile levels were determined. Pancreatic and hepatic tissues were used for catalase and GSH. Histopathology, hepatic glycogen contents, insulin immunohistochemistry, and pancreatic islet morphometry were performed. NSO 2 mL/kg was noticed to decrease (P<0.05 FBG and increase (P<0.05 insulin levels in diabetic rats than in diabetic nontreated animals. Lipid profile showed significant (P<0.5 improvement in diabetic rats that received NSO 2 mL/kg than in the diabetic group. Both pancreatic and hepatic catalase and GSH activities revealed a significant (P<0.05 increment in the diabetic group treated with NSO than in the diabetic animals. NSO improved the histopathological picture and hepatic glycogen contents of the diabetic group as well as increased (P<0.05 insulin immunoreactive parts % and mean pancreatic islet diameter. NSO exerts ameliorative and therapeutic effects on the STZ-induced diabetic male Wistar rats.

  20. Diabetes-induced hyperglycemia impairs male reproductive function: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresch, Constanze C; Stute, Dina C; Alves, Marco G; Oliveira, Pedro F; de Kretser, David M; Linn, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Hyperglycemia can result from a loss of pancreatic beta-cells or a decline in their function leading to decreased insulin secretion or may arise from insulin resistance and variable degrees of inadequate insulin secretion resulting in diabetes and related comorbidities. To date several reviews have addressed the issue of diabetes-related male infertility but most have focused on how metabolic syndrome causes the decline in male fertility. However, a comprehensive overview as to how diabetes-induced hyperglycemia impairs male fertility is missing. Impaired regulation of glucose and the resultant hyperglycemia are major threats to the health of individuals in modern societies especially given the rapidly rising prevalence affecting an increasing number of men in their reproductive years. Consequently, diabetes-induced hyperglycemia is likely to contribute to a decline in global birth rates especially in those societies with a high diabetic prevalence. This systematic review addresses and summarizes the impact of hyperglycemia on male reproductive health with a particular emphasis on the molecular mechanisms that influence the testis and other parts of the male reproductive tract. A systematic search of the literature published in the MEDLINE-Pubmed database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed) and Cochrane Library (http://www.cochranelibrary.com) was performed, as well as hand searching reference lists, from the earliest available online indexing year until May 2017, using diabetes- and male fertility-related keywords in combination with other search phrases relevant to the topic of hyperglycemia. Inclusion criteria were: clinical studies on type 1 diabetic (T1D) men and studies on T1D animal models with a focus on reproductive parameters. Case reports/series, observational studies and clinical trials were included. Studies on patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) or animal models of T2D were excluded to distinguish hyperglycemia from other metabolic effects. A total

  1. Increasing incidence of early onset Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus: a study of Danish male birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, A.; Andersen, Per Kragh; Svendsen, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    To provide information of the incidence trends of Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus we performed a cohort study of a series of Danish male birth cohorts. All male livebirths in Denmark between 1 January 1949 and 31 December 1964, were investigated regarding the development of Type 1...... of 1705 diabetic subjects were identified of whom 23 were not representative of idiopathic Type 1 diabetes. The cumulative rate of Type 1 diabetes development during the first 20 years of life increased from 2.37 to 2.90 per 1000 for the first eight and last eight birth cohorts, respectively. A log...... diabetes during the first 20 years of life using the files of the Danish Conscript Board, supplemented by a search in the Danish National Registry of Deaths. Diagnosis was verified and clinical information obtained from medical records. The material is estimated to be more than 95% complete. A total...

  2. Effect of tadalafil on erectile dysfunction in male patients with diabetes mellitus

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    Popović Srđan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. During the first 10 years over 50% of diabetes patients develop erectile dysfunction (ED. It is more severe and resistant to therapy than in male patients with normal glucoregulation. The purpose of this pilot study was to estimate the tadalafil (Cialis efficacy and safety in male patients with diabetes mellitus (DM, together with moderate to severe ED. Methods. The study included 30 male patients with diagnozed type 1 or type 2 DM together with ED. ED was estimated through the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-6, Sexual Encounter Profile (SEP questionnaire and prostaglandin test, at the beginning of the research and three months after the 20 mg tadalafil therapy initiation, once a week (on Fridays. Glycosylated haemoglobin in blood (HbA1c values were also monitored. According to the ED severity (IIEF values at the beginning of the therapy the patients were divided into 2 groups. The previous experience with sildenafil citrate (Viagra and prostaglandin E1 intracavernous therapy was recorded. Results. Tadalafil significantly improved ED (p < 0.001 for 7.40 points of the IIEF score, i.e. for 58% and 60% towards SEP2 and SEP3 questionnaire, respectively. Compared to the previous ED therapy subjectively better tadalafil experience was recorded. Each group experienced a significant improvement in IIEF score (p < 0.001, more significantly in the group 2 (8.26±1.49 points compared with the medium improvement in the group 1 (6.27±1.35 points. After three months HbA1c values decreased for 2.26±1.62 (p < 0.001. Conclusion. Tadalafil is an effective tool for treating ED in diabetes patients. In some situations tadalafil application could replace prostaglandin test. The sexual sphere motivation leads to the improvement of glucoregulation in DM patients. .

  3. Diabetes Mellitus-Associated Functional Hypercortisolism Impairs Sexual Function in Male Late-Onset Hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirabassi, G; Corona, G; Lamonica, G R; Lenzi, A; Maggi, M; Balercia, G

    2016-01-01

    Functional hypercortisolism is generated by conditions able to chronically activate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and has been proven to have a negative role in several complications. However, no study has evaluated the possible influence of diabetes mellitus-associated functional hypercortisolism on male hypogonadism and sexual function. We aimed to identify any association of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation measures with testosterone and sexual function in men simultaneously affected by diabetes mellitus and late-onset hypogonadism. Fifteen diabetes mellitus and late-onset hypogonadism subjects suffering from functional hypercortisolism and fifteen diabetes mellitus and late-onset hypogonadism subjects who were free of functional hypercortisolism were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical, hormonal, and sexual parameters were considered. Hypercortisolemic subjects showed higher values of body mass index, waist, and glycated hemoglobin and lower ones of testosterone compared to normocortisolemic ones. All sexual parameters, except for orgasmic function, were significantly worse in hypercortisolemic than in normocortisolemic subjects. Hypercortisolemic patients showed higher values of cortisol after dexamethasone and urinary free cortisol as well as a lesser ACTH response after corticotropin releasing hormone test (ACTH area under curve) compared to normocortisolemic ones. No significant association was found at Poisson regression analysis between hormonal and sexual variables in normocortisolemic patients. In hypercortisolemic subjects, negative and significant associations of cortisol response after corticotropin releasing hormone (cortisol area under curve) with erectile function (β: -0.0008; p: 0.015) and total international index of erectile function score (β: -0.0006; p: 0.001) were evident. This study suggests for the first time the impairing influence of the dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis on sexual function in

  4. Rare Cause of Seizures, Renal Failure, and Gangrene in an 83-Year-Old Diabetic Male

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    Stalin Viswanathan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an 83-year-old diabetic male who presented with acute-onset renal failure, seizures, psychosis, pneumonia, and right foot gangrene. Investigations revealed thrombocytopenia, CSF lymphocytosis, ANA and dsDNA positivity, hypocomplementemia, and pneumonitis following which he was treated with pulse methylprednisolone. He was treated for Pseudomonas-related ventilator-associated pneumonia, candiduria, and E. coli-related bedsore infection prior to discharge. He was discharged at request and died 17 days later due to a respiratory infection.

  5. Assessment of Antihyperglycaemic Activity of Calotropis Procera Leaves Lxtract on Alloxan-Induced Diabetes Male Rats

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    Shaymaa Abd Al-Jasim Alshukri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims  studying the influences of treatment with methanol watery leaf extracts of Calotropis procera  on Fasting blood glucose and Insulin level in alloxan induced diabetic male rats. phytochemical analysis of leaves extract reveals presence of Glycosides, Tannines, phenols compound, Flavonoids, Coumarins, Resins and terpenes. Also methanol watery leaf extracts of Calotropis procera  dose 250 and 500mg/kg body weight showed significant lowering in the blood glucose from 348.16 ± 36.67 to 169.33 ±21.80 after 45 day of treatment. While showed non-significant enhancement in fasting serum Insulin level.

  6. Cutaneous Cancers in Nigerian Albinos: A Review of 22 Cases

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    Oluwafemi Olasupo Awe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Albinism is an inherited disorder of hypopigmentation involving the skin, eyes, and hair. This disorder results in the absence or reduction in melanin production. There are two main types of albinism which are ocular albinism and oculocutaneous albinism. It could also be classified as syndromic or nonsyndromic the melanin, which protects from the harmful effect of ultraviolet radiation of the sun on the normal skin, is deficient in the albino, predisposing them more, to cutaneous malignancies. Aim: This study is to highlight the epidemiology of cutaneous cancers in albinos in sub-urban Nigeria. Methodology: This is a retrospective review of all albinos with histological diagnoses of cutaneous malignancies that presented to Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua Edo State, Nigeria between September 2010 and August 2016. The following details were extracted from the patients' case-notes, operation register, and the histopathology register. These data include age, gender, site of the lesion, the diagnosis, no of lesions excised, and duration of the lesion (s. These were collated and analyzed using SPSS version 22. Results: There were 22 albinos with histopathologically diagnosed cutaneous malignancies. There were 11 males and 11 females with male:female of 1. The age range is from 25 to 55 years with the mean of 34.68. Conclusion: Albinism is one of the most common causes of cutaneous malignancies, and majority of them present with locally advanced lesions that will need excision biopsy resulting in disfigurement. This problem can be prevented in many cases with proper community education, support, and free health care. There is also need for them to present early whenever they noticed any skin changes.

  7. Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of testosterone deficiency (hypogonadism in male patients with diabetes mellitus (Draft

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    Galina Afanas'evna Melnichenko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hypogonadism in male patients is defined as a decrease in the serum testosterone level; it is associated with specific symptoms and/or signs (see the detailed description below. It is a common complication in diabetes mellitus. The guidelines do not review all disorders leading to the development of hypogonadism but focus on options for the treatment of hypogonadism, which is generally observed in male patients with diabetes. In the literature, data on the prevalence of hypogonadism in patients with diabetes are available. In the section on diagnostics, the medical history of patients with hypogonadism and diabetes, including the necessary methods for physical and laboratory inspection. Risk factors for and the clinical consequences of hypogonadism are separately considered. In the section on treatment options, variations in treatment using various androgenic therapeutic agents based on patients’ requirements, conservation of their reproductive function, and their risk factors are provided. Special attention is given to indications of, contraindications of and risk factors for androgenic therapy in male patients with diabetes, particularly those in their advanced age. The principles of the clinical monitoring are developed. The favourable effects of androgenic therapy for hypogonadism in male patients with diabetes are shown.

  8. Salivary Distinctiveness and Modifications in Males with Diabetes and Behçet’s Disease

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    Loai Aljerf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral diseases associated with systematic diseases as metabolic and vasculitic have been included in this paper. This will enhance our understanding of the salivary function in promoting healthy oral condition. The study investigates the effects of type I and type II diabetes mellitus in well-controlled diabetic patients, in addition to Behçet disease (BD on saliva flow rate (SFR, pH, the decay, missing, and filled tooth (DMFT index, glucose, and major earth-alkaline ions (Ca2+ and Mg2+ compared to healthy males and age-matched controls. Saliva samples were collected from 1403 male human subjects, distributed on 7 levels including 3 control groups, and analyzed. The symptoms and clinical observations were enrolled. A preprandial salivary glucose has illustrated statistically strong significant and positive correlations with HbA1c and blood glucose levels. TIDM saliva showed lower pH, SFR, and Ca2+ but higher Mg2+, caries risk, and poor metabolic control. These led to dysfunction of secretory capacity of salivary glands. TIIDM proved higher SFR, DMFT, and glucose than TIDM patients. DM oral calcium has decreased by age while magnesium sharply slopes at seniority. BD oral fluid is associated with lower glucose and minerals but noticeably with both higher pH and DMFT.

  9. Salivary Distinctiveness and Modifications in Males with Diabetes and Behçet's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljerf, Loai; Alhaffar, Iyad

    2017-01-01

    Oral diseases associated with systematic diseases as metabolic and vasculitic have been included in this paper. This will enhance our understanding of the salivary function in promoting healthy oral condition. The study investigates the effects of type I and type II diabetes mellitus in well-controlled diabetic patients, in addition to Behçet disease (BD) on saliva flow rate (SFR), pH, the decay, missing, and filled tooth (DMFT) index, glucose, and major earth-alkaline ions (Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ ) compared to healthy males and age-matched controls. Saliva samples were collected from 1403 male human subjects, distributed on 7 levels including 3 control groups, and analyzed. The symptoms and clinical observations were enrolled. A preprandial salivary glucose has illustrated statistically strong significant and positive correlations with HbA 1c and blood glucose levels. TIDM saliva showed lower pH, SFR, and Ca 2+ but higher Mg 2+ , caries risk, and poor metabolic control. These led to dysfunction of secretory capacity of salivary glands. TIIDM proved higher SFR, DMFT, and glucose than TIDM patients. DM oral calcium has decreased by age while magnesium sharply slopes at seniority. BD oral fluid is associated with lower glucose and minerals but noticeably with both higher pH and DMFT.

  10. Association between Sex Hormone and Blood Uric Acid in Male Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

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    Wen Cao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between serum uric acid (SUA level and sexual dysfunction in patients with diabetes is not well characterized. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM causes metabolic disorders, including abnormal serum uric acid (SUA levels. In this study, we enrolled 205 male patients with T2DM and investigated the relationship between sex hormone levels and SUA. Patients were divided into four groups based on SUA quartiles. On the other hand, based on the total testosterone (TT level, patients were divided into three groups; SUA and other laboratory indices were determined. Increase in SUA level was significantly associated with decreased levels of TT, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, sex hormone-binding globulin, and increased levels of dehydroepiandrosterone, age, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, glycated hemoglobin, serum creatinine, and HOMA-IR levels. SUA, waist circumference, BMI, and HOMA-IR showed a negative correlation with TT level, while age showed a positive correlation with TT level. SUA and body mass index were found to be risk factors for gonadal dysfunction. Therefore, we conclude that hypogonadism of male patients with T2DM is related to SUA level.

  11. A study to evaluate the prevalence of hypogonadism in Indian males with Type-2 diabetes mellitus

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    Pankaj Kumar Agarwal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A high prevalence of hypogonadism in men with Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM has been reported worldwide. Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of hypogonadism in Indian males with T2DM and assess the primary and secondary hypogonadism along with androgen deficiency. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 900 men with T2DM were evaluated using androgen deficiency in aging male questionnaire. They were screened for demographic characteristics, gonadal hormone levels, lipid profile, and glycosylated hemoglobin. Results: The prevalence of hypogonadism in T2DM patients was found to be 20.7% (186 out of 900. Hypogonadism was of testicular origin (primary in 48/186 (25.8% patients, of pituitary or hypothalamic origin (secondary in 14/186 (7.53%, and remaining 124/186 (66.67% patients were found to have low testosterone with the inappropriate normal level of luteinizing hormone and Follicle-stimulating hormone. 451/900 (50.1% patients were only symptomatic but had normal testosterone levels. Further 263 patients out 900 were asymptomatic, of which 51/900 (5.7% patients had low levels of testosterone and 212/900 (23.5% patients had normal testosterone level without symptoms. There were no deaths or other serious adverse events except mild pyrexia which was not related to the study. Conclusion: Hypogonadism diagnosis, at times, might not be validated with the help of androgen deficiency questionnaire or symptoms only. Given the large number of patients of T2DM in India, the incidence of hypogonadism is more in diabetic patients as compared to the general population. Hence, implementation of screening programs in diabetic patients is necessary to understand and detect individuals with low serum total testosterone at any early stage and to supplement testosterone accordingly.

  12. [Hypogonadism and the quality of life in male patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu-Yao; He, Wei; Wan, Jian-Xin; Yin, Qi-Qi; Cheng, Zhen; Chen, Guan-Ming; Ji, Wen; Li, Hai; Li, Yan-Bing; Liao, Zhi-Hong

    2016-12-01

    To compare the level of testosterone between type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and healthy controls and to investigate the status of hypogonadism and the influence of hypopgonadism on the quality of life. We collected serum total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and other clinical data from 166 T2DM patients aged over 30 years and 186 age-matched healthy controls. We investigated the quality of life (QoL) of the two groups of subjects using the questionnaires of Androgen Deficiency in Aging Males (ADAM), Aging Male Symptoms (AMS), 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), and Special Quality of Life for Diabetes Mellitus (DSQL). The level of calculated FT (cFT) was remarkably lower in the T2DM patients than in the healthy controls (Pmales with hypogonadism showed significant differences from those without in age, height, systolic blood pressure, and creatinine (Phypogonadism was 51.81% in the T2DM patients, 31.58% in the 30-39 yr group, 32.50% in the 40-49 yr group, 50% in the 50-59 yr group, 69.23% in the 60-69 yr group, and 77.27% in the ≥70 yr group, elevated by 77.4% with the increase of 10 years of age (OR = 1.774, Phypogonadism. Age is a main risk factor of hypogonadism. Severer testosterone deficiency symptoms are associated with lower scores of QoL in T2DM males.

  13. The effects of cinnamon on glycemic indexes and insulin resistance in adult male diabetic rats with streptozotocin

    OpenAIRE

    SEbrahim Hosseini; STaereh Shojaei; SAli Hosseini

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is a common disease that for its treatment and control different methods are recommended such as the use of natural remedies and lifestyle modification. Since the use of herbal medicines have less side effects than many chemical drugs, hence, this study aimed to investigate the effect of cinnamon extract on blood glucose, insulin and insulin resistance in diabetic rats with streptozotocin. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted on 40 adult male rats,...

  14. Ectopic gynecomastia: report of occurrence in a male patient with type 1 diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serpa, Bruna S.; Scoppetta, Luiz Raphael Pereira Donoso; Moraes, Paula Camargo; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmao, E-mail: brunass@einstein.b [Hospital Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. of Imaging

    2010-08-15

    We report a case of breast tissue development at the usual insulin injection area, on both iliac fossa. There is no report in the literature that shows relation between hypertrophy, and/or increase of in vivo breast tissue and insulin stimulus. To our knowledge, this is the first case of ectopic gynecomastia reported in the literature. Male patient, 52 years, diabetic, sought to the Emergency Department due to abdominal pain. Abdomen computed tomography scan incidentally identified tissue with the same morphological and attenuation characteristics of the breast in the subcutaneous of both iliac fossa, at the usual insulin injection site. The patient was also submitted to complementary ultrasound exam. Ectopic gynecomastia is a possible entity, considering embryology and hormone aspects, but literature has no record of such cases in men. Another intriguing point is that the preeminence of the breast tissue occurred only at the chronic insulin injection area, a stimulating hormone, known to be mitogenic. (author)

  15. Ectopic gynecomastia: report of occurrence in a male patient with type 1 diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serpa, Bruna S.; Scoppetta, Luiz Raphael Pereira Donoso; Moraes, Paula Camargo; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmao

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of breast tissue development at the usual insulin injection area, on both iliac fossa. There is no report in the literature that shows relation between hypertrophy, and/or increase of in vivo breast tissue and insulin stimulus. To our knowledge, this is the first case of ectopic gynecomastia reported in the literature. Male patient, 52 years, diabetic, sought to the Emergency Department due to abdominal pain. Abdomen computed tomography scan incidentally identified tissue with the same morphological and attenuation characteristics of the breast in the subcutaneous of both iliac fossa, at the usual insulin injection site. The patient was also submitted to complementary ultrasound exam. Ectopic gynecomastia is a possible entity, considering embryology and hormone aspects, but literature has no record of such cases in men. Another intriguing point is that the preeminence of the breast tissue occurred only at the chronic insulin injection area, a stimulating hormone, known to be mitogenic. (author)

  16. Short- and long-term reproductive effects of prenatal and lactational growth restriction caused by maternal diabetes in male rats

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    Amorim Elaine MP

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A suboptimal intrauterine environment may have a detrimental effect on gonadal development and thereby increases the risk for reproductive disorders and infertility in adult life. Here, we used uncontrolled maternal diabetes as a model to provoke pre- and perinatal growth restriction and evaluate the sexual development of rat male offspring. Methods Maternal diabetes was induced in the dams through administration of a single i.v. dose of 40 mg/kg streptozotocin, 7 days before mating. Female rats presenting glycemic levels above 200 mg/dL after the induction were selected for the experiment. The male offspring was analyzed at different phases of sexual development, i.e., peripuberty, postpuberty and adulthood. Results Body weight and blood glucose levels of pups, on the third postnatal day, were lower in the offspring of diabetic dams compared to controls. Maternal diabetes also provoked delayed testicular descent and preputial separation. In the offspring of diabetic dams the weight of reproductive organs at 40, 60 and 90 days-old was lower, as well as sperm reserves and sperm transit time through the epididymis. However the plasma testosterone levels were not different among experimental groups. Conclusions It is difficult to isolate the effects directly from diabetes and those from IUGR. Although the exposure to hyperglycemic environment during prenatal life and lactation delayed the onset of puberty in male rats, the IUGR, in the studied model, did not influenced the structural organization of the male gonads of the offspring at any point during sexual development. However the decrease in sperm reserves in epididymal cauda and the acceleration in sperm transit time in this portion of epididymis may lead to an impairment of sperm quality and fertility potential in these animals. Additional studies are needed in attempt to investigate the fertility of animals with intrauterine growth restriction by maternal diabetes and

  17. Hepatoprotective, Antihyperlipidemic, and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Moringa oleifera in Diabetic-induced Damage in Male Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omodanisi, Elizabeth I.; Aboua, Yapo G.; Chegou, Novel N.; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The number of individuals with diabetes is increasing daily, and diabetes is presently estimated to affect about 422 million adults worldwide. Conventional drugs used to treat diabetes are not without severe side effects, accessibility, and affordability. This study elucidates the potential effects of Moringa oleifera (MO) leaves extract to manage and treat diabetes induced in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 12/group): NC – nondiabetic rats (positive control), MO – nondiabetic-treated rats, DM – diabetic rats (negative control), DM + MO – diabetic-treated rats. Hepatic enzymes and biochemical parameters as well as antioxidant capacity and inflammatory cytokine levels were assessed. Levels of low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol were evaluated. Results: Oral administration of methanolic extract of MO (250 mg/kg) to diabetic rats for 42 days showed a significant reduction in hepatic enzyme markers and normalized lipid profile parameters in the serum compared to normal control group. Treatment also increased the level of antioxidant capacity and alleviated inflammatory biomarkers of the liver. Histology sections of the liver tissue showed protective effect of MO in treated rats. Conclusions: MO showed hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and lipid-lowering effects against streptozotocin-induced hepatotoxicity. Histological section demonstrated specific alterations in the liver of the diabetic and nondiabetic male Wistar rats while MO treatment revealed improvement in liver alterations. Abbreviations Used: IL 1: Interleukin 1, IL 6: Interleukin 16, MCP-1: Monocyte chemotactic protein, TNF-α: Tumor Necrotic factor alpha, ROS: Reactive oxygen species, MO: Moringa oleifera, STZ: Streptozotocin, SRC: Standard rat chow, ALP: Alkaline phosphatase, AST: Aspartate aminotransferase, ALT: Alanine aminotransferase, ORAC: Oxygen radical absorbance

  18. The Effects of Capparis Spinosa Hydroalcoholic Extract on Blood Glucose and Lipids Serum in Diabetic and Normal Male Rats

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    M Negahdarizadeh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrine disorders in the world which affects glucose metabolism in the body. Diabetes mellitus is due to lack of insulin secretion and/or failure in insulin action. Researches conducted in the last few decades on plants have reported anti-diabetic properties for some herbs and their traditional use for diabetes treatment. Capparis spinosa is one of these herbs which are used as an anti-diabetic treatment in tribal medicine. The objective of the present study was to examine the anti-diabetic effects of Capparis spinosa on blood glucose and serum lipids in streptozotocin induced diabetes in male rats. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study conducted at Yasouj University of Medical Sciences in 2010, five groups of animals were selected. Three groups out of five were administered with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin to become diabetic. Group I were fed normal diet. Group II of animals received 20 mg/kg/day Capparis spinosa extract. Group III received no treatment (diabetic control and animals of groups IV and V were treated with capparis spinosa fruit extract 20 and 30 mg/kg body weight respectively for three weeks. Blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and body weight were measured in all animals. The collected data was analyzed by the SPSS software using one-way ANOVA. Results: Treatment with the 30 mg/kg/body weight of capparis spinosa fruit extract showed a significant decrease in blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL, and a significant increase in HDL level. In addition, administration of 20 mg/kg/body weight of capparis spinosa extract decreased blood glucose and lipid levels in diabetic rats. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the oral administration of capparis spinosa extract at the dose of 30 mg/kg/body weight has glucose and lipids lowering activity in diabetic rats.

  19. Characteristic, inheritance and breeding application of rice mutants with greenable albino leaf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Xiantao; Ma Hongli; Zhao Fuyuan; Zhang Qingqi; Zhang Shubiao

    2009-01-01

    Inheritance and main agronomic traits of photo-thermo-sensitive genic male sterile line with green-revertible albino leaf were investigated. The results indicated that the mutants might be divided into three types: albino regreening type (W2, W3, W4 and W10), albino to kelly type (W9) and abino-regreening-albino-regreening type (W1 and W7). Genetic study indicated that green-revertible albino leaf color trait of the mutants as controlled by a single recessive gene. These mutants had similar agronomic traits and fertility characteristics to the corresponding male sterile line 'Peiai 64S'. The hybrids of these mutants had similar characteristics with original-hybrids in plant type, developing of tillers and plant height. The yield components of the mutant hybrids were different depending on different mutants. The yield potential of hybrids of W1, W2 and W3 were similar to the original-hybrid. The results also indicated that W1, W2 and W3 had breeding application value. (authors)

  20. Treatment effect of l-Norvaline on the sexual performance of male rats with streptozotocin induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Abhijit; Singh, Mamta F; Singh, Vinod; Ram, Veerma; Bisht, Shradha

    2016-01-15

    Sexual impairment is an established risk factor in diabetes mellitus affecting about 75% of male diabetic population. In diabetes overexpression of arginase leads to decreased production of NO and diminished erectile response. Inhibition of arginase enzyme can lead to improvement in diabetes induced sexual dysfunction. In the present study diabetes mellitus was induced in adult male rats by intraperitoneal injection of single dose of streptozotocin (65mg/kg) in 0.1M Citrate buffer pH 4.5 and after 72h fasting serum glucose level was checked by glucose oxidase-peroxidase method and those animals showing FSG above 250mg/dl were selected. Diabetic animals were divided into four groups comprising six animals in each. l-Norvaline, potent arginase inhibitor was administered at a dose of 10mg/kg ip to the different groups of diabetic animals for a period of 30 days. Sildenafil at a dose of 5mg/kg orally was used as a standard drug. Mating behavior tests were performed at 0, 15th and 30th days. After 30 days, various biochemical and hormonal parameters (nitrates, LDH, urea, testosterone), testicular parameters (total protein, nitrates, LDH, total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides, VLDL, HDL) were evaluated to find out the effect of l-Norvaline in sexual impairment. Sperm analysis was also carried out for the treated rats. l-Norvaline showed significant improvement in serum nitrates, urea, LDH, testosterone and testicular protein level as compared with diabetic group. It also improved sperm motility, count and viability in diabetic rats. Sildenafil showed no improvement in above parameters except restoration in serum nitrates level. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Ascorbic acid treatment elevates follicle stimulating hormone and testosterone plasma levels and enhances sperm quality in albino Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Okon, Uduak Akpan; Utuk, Ikponoabasi Ibanga

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infertility issues have been linked to the effect of oxidative reaction in the reproductive system. This study evaluated the effect of ascorbic acid, on fertility parameters of male albino Wistar rats was studied. Materials and Methods: Eighteen albino Wistar rats weighed between 178 g and 241 g were used, randomly assigned into three groups. Group 1 was the control group; oral gavaged 5 ml of distilled water; Groups 2 and 3 were administered medium dose (250 mg/kg) and high dose ...

  2. Hepatopancreatic intoxication of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide on albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Elhalwagy, Manal EA; Abd-Alrahman, Sherif H; Nahas, AA; Ziada, Reem M; Mohamady, Aziza H

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the known adverse effects of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide, little is known about its hepatopancreatic intoxication effects. The present study was carried out to elucidate sub-chronic effect of Karat 2.5% EC formulation of lambda cyhalothrin on male albino rats. Methods: To explore the effects of exposure to lambda cyhalothrin on rats and its mechanism, low (1/40 of LD50, 5 mg/kg/day) and high dose (1/4 of LD50, 50 mg/kg/day) lambda cyhalothrin were applied to rats via dr...

  3. Long-term effects of maternal diabetes on blood pressure and renal function in rat male offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yan

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is increasing rapidly worldwide. Previous animal models were established to study consequences of offspring after exposure to severe intrauterine hyperglycemia. In this study we are aiming to characterize the blood pressure levels and renal function of male offspring obtained from diabetic mothers with moderate hyperglycemia. METHODS: We established a rat model with moderate hyperglycemia after pregnancy by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ. The male offspring were studied and fed with either normal diet or high salt diet after weaning. Arterial pressure and renal function were measured. RESULTS: Arterial pressure of male offspring increased from 12 weeks by exposure to intrauterine moderate hyperglycemia. At 20 weeks, high salt diet accelerated the blood pressure on diabetic offspring compared to diabetic offspring fed with normal diet. We found offspring exposed to intrauterine moderate hyperglycemia had a trend to have a higher creatinine clearance rate and significant increase of urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG excretion indicating an early stage of nephropathy progression. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: We observed the high blood pressure level and early renal dysfunction of male offspring obtained from diabetic mothers with moderate hyperglycemia. Furthermore, we investigated high salt diet after weaning on offspring exposed to intrauterine hyperglycemia could exacerbate the blood pressure and renal function. Renin angiotensin system (RAS plays an important role in hypertension pathogenesis and altered gene expression of RAS components in offspring with in utero hyperglycemia exposure may account for the programmed hypertension. Therefore, our study provides evidence "fetal programming" of maternal diabetes is critical for metabolic disease development.

  4. Effects of concomitant diabetes mellitus and hyperthyroidism on testicular and epididymal histoarchitecture and steroidogenesis in male animals*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korejo, Nazar Ali; Wei, Quan-wei; Shah, Atta Hussain; Shi, Fang-xiong

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of comorbid disorders of diabetes and hyperthyroidism in the adult male mice. In total, 32 ICR strain mice were equally distributed into four groups: control (C), diabetic (D), diabetic-plus-hyperthyroid (DH), and hyperthyroid (H). Mice allocated for diabetes received a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) at 200 mg/kg body weight. At the onset of diabetes, one group of mice was concomitantly injected levothyroxine (LT4; 0.3 mg/kg body weight) and the other set of animals received the same treatment independently on a daily basis. The body weight, as well as the testicular and epididymal weights, was reduced markedly in D and DH mice. Higher trends of blood glucose levels were seen in the DH group, in comparison to euthyroid diabetic mice. Thyroid hormones could exert a transient effect on blood glucose homeostasis by altering the serum blood glucose level in diabetic patients. Histomorphometric analysis showed increased luminal sizes of seminiferous tubules, along with decreased epithelial height and atrophic changes in germinal stem cells in the testis of DH and H mice. Caput epididymis of DH mice showed extensive compaction of principal cells, loss of stereocilia, lipid vacuolization, and inflammatory infiltrations; however, damaged tubular integrity, packed clear cells, exfoliated cells, and round spermatids were profoundly noticed in the cauda epididymis. Hyperthyroidism elevated the serum testosterone levels in H and DH mice and produced critical damages to the histoarchitecture of the epididymis. Collectively, this experiment endeavored to mimic the polyglandular autoimmune syndrome, which will be helpful to better understand the reasons for male infertility in diabetic-cum-hyperthyroid patients. PMID:27819132

  5. Effects of concomitant diabetes mellitus and hyperthyroidism on testicular and epididymal histoarchitecture and steroidogenesis in male animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korejo, Nazar Ali; Wei, Quan-Wei; Shah, Atta Hussain; Shi, Fang-Xiong

    This study evaluated the effects of comorbid disorders of diabetes and hyperthyroidism in the adult male mice. In total, 32 ICR strain mice were equally distributed into four groups: control (C), diabetic (D), diabetic-plus-hyperthyroid (DH), and hyperthyroid (H). Mice allocated for diabetes received a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) at 200 mg/kg body weight. At the onset of diabetes, one group of mice was concomitantly injected levothyroxine (LT4; 0.3 mg/kg body weight) and the other set of animals received the same treatment independently on a daily basis. The body weight, as well as the testicular and epididymal weights, was reduced markedly in D and DH mice. Higher trends of blood glucose levels were seen in the DH group, in comparison to euthyroid diabetic mice. Thyroid hormones could exert a transient effect on blood glucose homeostasis by altering the serum blood glucose level in diabetic patients. Histomorphometric analysis showed increased luminal sizes of seminiferous tubules, along with decreased epithelial height and atrophic changes in germinal stem cells in the testis of DH and H mice. Caput epididymis of DH mice showed extensive compaction of principal cells, loss of stereocilia, lipid vacuolization, and inflammatory infiltrations; however, damaged tubular integrity, packed clear cells, exfoliated cells, and round spermatids were profoundly noticed in the cauda epididymis. Hyperthyroidism elevated the serum testosterone levels in H and DH mice and produced critical damages to the histoarchitecture of the epididymis. Collectively, this experiment endeavored to mimic the polyglandular autoimmune syndrome, which will be helpful to better understand the reasons for male infertility in diabetic-cum-hyperthyroid patients.

  6. The Antidiabetic Effect of Low Doses of Moringa oleifera Lam. Seeds on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetes and Diabetic Nephropathy in Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L.; El Rabey, Haddad A.

    2015-01-01

    The antidiabetic activity of two low doses of Moringa seed powder (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight, in the diet) on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes male rats was investigated. Forty rats were divided into four groups. The diabetic positive control (STZ treated) group showed increased lipid peroxide, increased IL-6, and decreased antioxidant enzyme in the serum and kidney tissue homogenate compared with that of the negative control group. Immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG), fasting blood sugar, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were also increased as a result of diabetes in G2 rats. Moreover albumin was decreased, and liver enzymes and α-amylase were not affected. In addition, the renal functions and potassium and sodium levels in G2 were increased as a sign of diabetic nephropathy. Urine analysis showed also glucosuria and increased potassium, sodium, creatinine, uric acid, and albumin levels. Kidney and pancreas tissues showed also pathological alteration compared to the negative control group. Treating the diabetic rats with 50 or 100 mg Moringa seeds powder/kg body weight in G3 and G4, respectively, ameliorated the levels of all these parameters approaching the negative control values and restored the normal histology of both kidney and pancreas compared with that of the diabetic positive control group. PMID:25629046

  7. Treadmill exercise alleviates diabetic cardiomyopathy by suppressing plasminogen activator inhibitor expression and enhancing eNOS in streptozotocin-induced male diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chengji, Wang; Xianjin, Fan

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the biological mechanism of the effect of different intensity exercises on diabetic cardiomyopathy. 87 raise specific pathogen SPF healthy 6-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats, fed 6 weeks with high-fat diet for rats were used, and a diabetic model was established by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin - randomly selected 43 rats were divided into Diabetic control group (DCG, n  = 10), Diabetic exercise group 1 (DEG1, n  = 11), Diabetic exercise group 2 (DEG2, n  = 11) and Diabetic exercise group 3 (DEG3, n  = 11). The rats in DEG1 were forced to run on a motorized treadmill, the exercise load consisted of running at a speed of 10 m/min, the exercise load of the rats in DEG2 were running at a speed of 15 m/min, the exercise load of the rats in DEG3 were running at a speed of 20 m/min, for one hour once a day for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks of exercise intervention, glucose metabolism-related indexes in rats such as blood glucose (FBG), glycosylated serum protein (GSP) and insulin (FINS); cardiac fibrinolytic system parameters such as PAI-1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor 1), Von Willebrand factor (vWF), protein kinase C (PKC) and diacylglycerol (DAG); and serum level of NO, eNOS and T-NOS were measured. Compared with DCG, fasting blood glucose and GSP were decreased, while insulin sensitivity index and insulin level were increased in all rats of the three exercise groups. FBG decrease was statistically significant ( P  diabetic rats; myocardial PAI-1 in DEG1, DEG2 and DEG3 rats decreased significantly ( P  diabetic cardiomyopathy by affecting the levels of PAI-1 and eNOS, and there is a dependence on intensity. © 2018 The authors.

  8. Working Long Hours is Associated with Higher Prevalence of Diabetes in Urban Male Chinese Workers: The Rosai Karoshi Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayama, Jun; Li, Jue; Munakata, Masanori

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the relationship between number of weekly working hours and the prevalence of diabetes in the urban Chinese population. Data regarding anthropometric measurements, fasting blood glucose level and number of hours worked per week were collected from 2228 workers in Shanghai, China (Mage  = 44 years; 64% men). Participants were divided into three groups according to the number of hours worked per week (worked ≥55 h per week compared with those who worked working long hours could be a risk factor for diabetes in Chinese male workers. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Effect of acetylsalicylic acid on spermatogenesis in adult albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ameer, M.K.; Tahrir, M.

    2015-01-01

    Spermatogenesis in male albino mice. Study Design: Laboratory based randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anatomy University of Health Sciences, Lahore from Apr, 2012 to Dec, 2012. Material and Methods: Thirty nine male albino mice, 6-8 weeks old weighing 30 - 5 gm, were used; these were randomly divided into three groups having thirteen mice in each using random numbers table. Group A served as a control and was given distilled water orally via oral gavage 10 ml per kg for 30 days. Group B was given acetylsalicylic acid 100 mg/kg dissolved in 10 ml distilled orally for a period of 30 days. Group C was given acetylsalicylic acid 25 mg/kg dissolved in 2.5 ml distilled orally for a period of 30 days. Animals were sacrificed 24 hours after the last dose and the testes were removed, fixed in Bouin's fixative for 48 hours. Five microns thick sections of processed tissue were stained with H and E and PAS for calculation of Johnsen score and diameter of seminiferous tubules. Serum testosterone level was measured by testosterone enzyme immunoassay test kits. Results: Microscopic examination demonstrated that ASA treatment lead to statistically significant increase in the mean Johnsen score and mean diameter of seminiferous tubules. Conclusion: It was concluded from the current study that ASA treatment enhances spermatogenesis. (author)

  10. Diabetes and hypertension care among male prisoners in Mexico City: exploring transition of care and the equivalence principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman-Retana, Omar; Servan-Mori, Edson; Lopez-Ridaura, Ruy; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio

    2016-07-01

    To document the performance of diabetes and hypertension care in two large male prisons in Mexico City. We analyzed data from a cross-sectional study carried out during July-September 2010, including 496 prisoners with hypertension or diabetes in Mexico City. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regressions were used to assess process-of-care indicators and disease control status. Hypertension and diabetes prevalence were estimated on 2.1 and 1.4 %, respectively. Among prisoners with diabetes 22.7 % (n = 62) had hypertension as comorbidity. Low achievement of process-of-care indicators-follow-up visits, blood pressure and laboratory assessments-were observed during incarceration compared to the same prisoners in the year prior to incarceration. In contrast to nonimprisoned diabetes population from Mexico City and from the lowest quintile of socioeconomic status at the national level, prisoners with diabetes had the lowest performance on process-of-care indicators. Continuity of care for chronic diseases, coupled with the equivalence of care principle, should provide the basis for designing chronic disease health policy for prisoners, with the goal of consistent transition of care from community to prison and vice versa.

  11. The potential of sanrego (Lunasia amara) in enhancing fertility and anti-hyperglycemic effect in diabetic induced male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor Raidah, R.; Mahanem M., N.; Mohd Shazrul Fazry, S.

    2014-09-01

    Study on the effects of Lunasia amara (LA) aqueous extract on male fertility and its anti-hyperglycemic activity was carried out. Twelve adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups for fertility test; control given orally distilled water (n=6) and treatment (n=6) given 60 mg/kg aqueous extract of LA for 42 days. On day 43, all rats were sacrificed and cauda epididymis was isolated for sperm quality analysis that includes parameter of sperm count, motility and viability. Anti-hyperglycemic study was done on five groups of male rats; I-normal control, II-Diabetic control and three other groups induced diabetic given 500 mg/kg metformin, 60 mg/kg LA and 120 mg/kg LA respectively. Diabetes was induced in the male rats by intravenous injection of 55 mg/kg streptozotocin. On day 7, the fasting blood glucose level was measured from blood drawn by tail snip. Results showed that aqueous extract of LA increased significantly (p sperm count (39.88 ± 2.33) × 106, viability 82.46 ± 1.91 % and progressive motility 76.00 ± 1.51and of sperm data in treated group compared to control group. LA aqueous extract at dose 120 mg/kg was significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose in the diabetic rats by 49.53 %. In conclusion, the aqueous extract of LA effective in increasing sperm quality of male rats and suggest that LA may possess anti-hyperglycemic property.

  12. Increased oxidative stress and apoptosis in the hypothalamus of diabetic male mice in the insulin receptor substrate-2 knockout model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canelles, Sandra; Argente, Jesús; Barrios, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Insulin receptor substrate-2-deficient (IRS2−/−) mice are considered a good model to study the development of diabetes because IRS proteins mediate the pleiotropic effects of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin on metabolism, mitogenesis and cell survival. The hypothalamus might play a key role in the early onset of diabetes, owing to its involvement in the control of glucose homeostasis and energy balance. Because some inflammatory markers are elevated in the hypothalamus of diabetic IRS2−/− mice, our aim was to analyze whether the diabetes associated with the absence of IRS2 results in hypothalamic injury and to analyze the intracellular mechanisms involved. Only diabetic IRS2−/− mice showed increased cell death and activation of caspase-8 and -3 in the hypothalamus. Regulators of apoptosis such as FADD, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and p53 were also increased, whereas p-IκB and c-FLIPL were decreased. This was accompanied by increased levels of Nox-4 and catalase, enzymes involved in oxidative stress. In summary, the hypothalamus of diabetic IRS2−/− mice showed an increase in oxidative stress and inflammatory markers that finally resulted in cell death via substantial activation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Conversely, non-diabetic IRS2−/− mice did not show cell death in the hypothalamus, possibly owing to an increase in the levels of circulating IGF-I and in the enhanced hypothalamic IGF-IR phosphorylation that would lead to the stimulation of survival pathways. In conclusion, diabetes in IRS2-deficient male mice is associated with increased oxidative stress and apoptosis in the hypothalamus. PMID:27013528

  13. Cutaneous Cancers in Nigerian Albinos: A Review of 22 Cases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-20

    Apr 20, 2018 ... this protective pigment in albinos predisposed them to sunburns and subsequent ... The most common of the skin cancers documented among the albinos ..... hats, application of sunscreen creams and always using umbrella ...

  14. The Correlation of Plasma Levels of Apelin-13 with Insulin Resistance Index and Plasma Leptin of Diabetic Male Rats after 8-Week Aerobic Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Kazemi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The physiological role of apelin, an adipokine secreted by adipose tissue, in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes has been identified. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation of plasma levels of apelin-13 with insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR and plasma leptin of diabetic male rats after 8-week aerobic exercise. Materials and Methods: Peresent study was an experimental study with animal model. Twenty eight diabetic male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: Non-diabetic (n=9, control diabetic (n=9 and trained diabetic (n=10. Type 2 diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide and streptozotocin. The trained diabetic rat ran 8-week on treadmill progressively. After the training period, plasma levels of glucose, insulin, leptin and apelin-13 were measured and HOMA-IR was calculated. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Pearson’s correlation were used for analyzing data. p<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: A significant decrease in plasma levels of glucose, insulin and leptin and HOMA-IR in trained diabetic vs control diabetic rats, a significant increase in plasma levels of apelin in trained diabetic vs non-diabetic and control diabetic rats and a significant negative correlation of plasma levels of apelin with HOMA-IR and plasma leptin in trained diabetic rats was observed. Conclusion: In present study, 8-week aerobic training by improvement of insulin sensitivity (decrease of HOMA-IR and plasma leptin increased plasma levels of apelin-13 in diabetic male rats.

  15. Protective Effects of Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid in Lead Acetate Exposed Diabetic Male Rats: Evaluation of Blood Biochemical Parameters and Testicular Histopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza AYOUBI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of vitamin C against lead toxicity by measuring the blood parameters and studying histopathology of testis in diabetic male rats. Wister rats (42 were randomly assigned into7 groups: I healthy; II fed lead acetate only; III vitamin C administered only; IV diabetic; V diabetic rats administered by vitamin C; VI diabetic rats given lead acetate and VII diabetic rats received lead acetate and vitamin C. The diabetic and lead groups had higher glucose, cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and lower insulin and HDL concentration than the control group. It was found that vitamin C administration led to a lower level of blood glucose, cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides and higher HDL concentration in diabetic rats significantly. It was concluded that the antioxidant property of vitamin C resulted in reducing the oxidative stress complications of toxic levels of lead acetate in diabetic rats.

  16. Effect of chronic usage of tramadol on motor cerebral cortex and testicular tissues of adult male albino rats and the effect of its withdrawal: histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Fatma M; Khalaf, Hanaa A; Elsamanoudy, Ayman Z; Helaly, Ahmed N

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to demonstrate the histopathological and biochemical changes in rat cerebral cortex and testicles due to chronic usage of tramadol and the effect of withdrawal. Thirty adult male rats weighing 180-200 gm were classified into three groups; group I (control group) group II (10 rats received 50 mg/kg/day of tramadol intraperitoneally for 4 weeks) and group III (10 rats received the same dose as group II then kept 4 weeks later to study the effect of withdrawal). Histological and immunohistochemical examination of cerebral cortex and testicular specimens for Bax (apoptotic marker) were carried out. Testicular specimens were examined by electron microscopy. RT-PCR after RNA extraction from both specimens was done for the genes of some antioxidant enzymes .Also, malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured colourimetrically in tissues homogenizate. The results of this study demonstrated histological changes in testicular and brain tissues in group II compared to group I with increased apoptotic index proved by increased Bax expression. Moreover in this group increased MDA level with decreased gene expression of the antioxidant enzymes revealed oxidative stress. Group III showed signs of improvement but not returned completely normal. It could be concluded that administration of tramadol have histological abnormalities on both cerebral cortex and testicular tissues associated with oxidative stress in these organs. Also, there is increased apoptosis in both organs which regresses with withdrawal. These findings may provide a possible explanation for delayed fertility and psychological changes associated with tramadol abuse.

  17. Comparison of Analgesic and Hypoglycemic Effect of Hexanic and Alcohlic Extract of Fenugreek Seed in Male Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Nasri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Diabetes mellitus is recognized with severe metabolic complications. Many herbal medicines have been recommended for treatment of diabetes. In this study, the antidiabetic and analgesic effect of hexanic and alcohlic extract Trigonella-foenum graecum was investigated in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  Methods: Present study was carried out in 2011 at Guilan University of Medical Sciences, 48 male Sprague Dawley rats (230-300 gr were divided into six groups: control, type 1 diabetic, and 4 treat ed groups that received intraperitonealy hexanic and alcoholic extract of fenugreek (100, 200 mg/kg body weight for 28 days. Two experimental models were used (acetic acid, and hot-plate tests in order to characterize the analgesic effect. Blood glucose was measured with glucometer. Data analyzed with spss software 16 and one way ANOVA and Tukey tests. P<0.05 was statistically significant.  Results: Compared to control rats, both of the aqueous - alcoholic and Hexan ic extract significantly reduced blood glucose level in all diabetics groups. This effect was stronger in groups that received Hexanic extract (p<0.05 . All groups received the aqueous - alcoholic and Hexan ic extract showed analgesic effect but this effect was more clear in the Hexanic 200 mg/kg group (p<0.05.  Conclusion: Fenugreek extract possesses hypoglycemic , and analgesic effects .

  18. Antioxidant and Hypolipidemic Effects of Olive Oil in Normal and Diabetic Male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alhazza, I. M.

    2007-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus manifests itself in a wide variety of complications and the symptoms of the disease are multifactorial. The lipid hydroperoxide level and lipid profile were investigated in plasma of normal and Alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with olive oil for six weeks. Diabetic rats exhibited an increase in the levels of hydroperoxide, cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoprotein (LDL), and a decrease in the level of high density lipoprotein (HDL). The administration of olive oil showed a better profile in the lipid as well as decreases in the concentration of lipid hydroperoxides either in normal or diabetic rats. The results are discussed according to antioxidant property of olive oil. (author)

  19. Antioxidant Activities of Basella alba Aqueous Leave Extract In Blood, Pancreas, and Gonadal Tissues of Diabetic Male Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arokoyo, Dennis Seyi; Oyeyipo, Ibukun Peter; Du Plessis, Stefan Simon; Aboua, Yapo Guillaume

    2018-01-01

    Oxidative stress is frequently identified as a key element in the pathophysiology of many complications of diabetes mellitus, including reproductive complications. The antioxidant potential of medicinal plants have been suggested for therapeutic focus of diseases in recent reports. To investigate the effect of Basella alba (Ba) aqueous leave extract on diabetes-induced oxidative stress. Forty male Wistar rats (8-10 weeks) were randomly divided into four groups ( n = 10) and treated as follows; Control (C + Ns) and Diabetic (D + Ns) animals received oral normal saline 0.5 ml/100 g body weight daily, while Healthy Treatment (H + Ba) and Diabetic Treatment (D + Ba) rats were given Ba extract at an oral dose of 200 mg/kg body weight daily. Treatment was by gavage and lasted 4 weeks in all groups. Diabetes was induced in D + Ns and D + Ba rats by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg) and fasting blood sugar (FBS) recorded weekly in all rats afterwards. Animals were euthanized at the end of the experiment and blood samples, pancreas, testes, and epididymis were preserved for analysis of oxidative stress biomarkers. Oral administration of aqueous leave extract of Ba significantly ( P antioxidant power, but lower serum concentration of conjugated dienes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in D + Ba compared to D + Ns rats ( P antioxidant effects in the gonads by enhancing antioxidant parameters in circulating blood, but not necessarily in the gonadal tissues. Oral treatment of diabetic rats with aqueous leave extract of Basella alba exerts antioxidant effects in the gonads by enhancing antioxidant parameters in circulating blood, but not necessarily in the gonadal tissues. Abbreviations Used: AP - Antioxidant parameters, Ba - Basella alba , CAT - Catalase, CDs - Conjugated dienes, DM - Diabetes mellitus, FBS - Fasting blood sugar, FRAP - Ferric reducing antioxidant power, GSH - reduced glutathione, Ns - Normal saline, ORAC - oxygen radical

  20. seed on haematological parameters of albino rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ejere

    2015-06-23

    Jun 23, 2015 ... and its indices (haemoglobin content, pack cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin ... demands in plant-based proteins for humans and livestock, ... hypogea) and animal based proteins (Siddhuraju et al.,. 1995 ..... difference in the packed cell volume (PCV) of albino rats.

  1. Effect of Moderate-Intensity Exercise Versus Activities of Daily Living on 24-Hour Blood Glucose Homeostasis in Male Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, J.W.; Venema, M.; van Mechelen, W.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Hartgens, F.; van Loon, L.J.C.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE-To investigate the impact of activities of daily living (ADL) versus moderateintensity endurance-type exercise on 24-h glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSdTwenty males with type 2 diabetes participated in a randomized crossover study consisting of

  2. Effect of continuous irradiation with low dose X-rays on the reproductive complications in male diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hongguang; Xu Songbai; Li Pengwu; Wang Zhicheng; Lin Chenghe; Gong Shouliang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of 75 mGy irradiation on the apoptosis of spermatogenic cells and antioxidant capacity of serum and testis and hormone levels in male rats with diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: Rats were injected intraperitoneally with streptozotocin (STZ) to develop diabetes. The diabetic rats were irradiated with 75 mGy X-rays every other day for 4 weeks. Their survival rate and body weight were recorded 12 weeks after development of diabetes. The apeptosis percentage of germ cells was measured with flow cytometry and TUNEL method. The changes of anti-oxidation and gonadal hormone levels in serum and testis were measured with kits. Results: After the rats suffered from diabetes for 12 weeks, the survival rate in DM group was 25% (6/24), 100% in normal control group (16116). The survival rate in 75 mGy + DM group (9/16,56.25%) was obviously higher than that in the DM group (χ 2 = 4.00,P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the percentage of apaptotic spermatogenic cells in the diabetic rats was significantly larger than those in the normal control and irradiation groups (F = 5.496, P < 0.05). MDA and NO levels in serum and testis of diabetic rats were higher in varying degrees than that in the normal control, while the serum and testis MDA content in the 75 mGy + DM group were lower than those in the DM group especially in the testis (F = 10.644, P < 0.01). 75 mGy X-ray irradiation decreased NO content in the diabetic rats serum significantly (F = 14.379, P < 0.05) and increased NOS activity and TS, FSH level (F = 9.676, 43.194 and 5.282, respectively, P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). Conclusions: LDR could decrease the MDA level and NO content, and increase the antioxidant enzyme activity and TS and FSH levels in testis and serum of diabetic rats. (authors)

  3. Genistein modulation of streptozotocin diabetes in male B6C3F1 mice can be induced by diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Tai L.; Wang, Yunbiao; Xiong, Tao; Ling, Xiao; Zheng, Jianfeng

    2014-01-01

    Diet and phytoestrogens affect the development and progression of diabetes. The objective of the present study was to determine if oral exposure to phytoestrogen genistein (GE) by gavage changed blood glucose levels (BGL) through immunomodulation in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male B6C3F1 mice fed with three different diets. These three diets were: NTP-2000 diet (NTP), soy- and alfalfa-free 5K96 diet (SOF) and high fat diet (HFD) with 60% of kcal from fat, primarily rendered fat of swine. The dosing regimen for STZ consisted of three 100 mg/kg doses (i.p.): the first dose was administered at approximately 2 weeks following the initiation of daily GE (20 mg/kg) gavage, and the second dose was on day 19 following the first dose, and the third dose was on day 57 following the first dose. In mice on the NTP diet, GE treatment decreased BGL with statistical significances observed on days 33 and 82 following the first STZ injection. In mice fed the HFD diet, GE treatment produced a significant decrease and a significant increase in BGL on days 15 and 89 following the first STZ injection, respectively. In mice fed the SOF diet, GE treatment had no significant effects on BGL. Although GE treatment affected phenotypic distributions of both splenocytes (T cells, B cells, natural killer cells and neutrophils) and thymocytes (CD4/CD8 and CD44/CD25), and their mitochondrial transmembrane potential and generation of reactive oxygen species, indicators of cell death (possibly apoptosis), GE modulation of neutrophils was more consistent with its diabetogenic or anti-diabetic potentials. The differential effects of GE on BGL in male B6C3F1 mice fed with three different diets with varied phytoestrogen contents suggest that the estrogenic properties of this compound may contribute to its modulation of diabetes. - Highlights: • Diets affected streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male B6C3F1 mice. • Genistein modulation of streptozotocin diabetes can be induced by diet.

  4. Genistein modulation of streptozotocin diabetes in male B6C3F1 mice can be induced by diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Tai L., E-mail: tlguo1@uga.edu [Department of Biosciences and Diagnostic Imaging, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-7382 (United States); Wang, Yunbiao [Department of Biosciences and Diagnostic Imaging, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-7382 (United States); Key Laboratory of Wetland Ecology and Environment, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130102 (China); Xiong, Tao [College of Animal Science, Yangtze University, Jingzhou City, Hubei Province 434025 (China); Ling, Xiao [Institute for Food and Drug Control of Shandong Province, Jinan City, Shandong 250012 (China); Zheng, Jianfeng [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298-0613 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Diet and phytoestrogens affect the development and progression of diabetes. The objective of the present study was to determine if oral exposure to phytoestrogen genistein (GE) by gavage changed blood glucose levels (BGL) through immunomodulation in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male B6C3F1 mice fed with three different diets. These three diets were: NTP-2000 diet (NTP), soy- and alfalfa-free 5K96 diet (SOF) and high fat diet (HFD) with 60% of kcal from fat, primarily rendered fat of swine. The dosing regimen for STZ consisted of three 100 mg/kg doses (i.p.): the first dose was administered at approximately 2 weeks following the initiation of daily GE (20 mg/kg) gavage, and the second dose was on day 19 following the first dose, and the third dose was on day 57 following the first dose. In mice on the NTP diet, GE treatment decreased BGL with statistical significances observed on days 33 and 82 following the first STZ injection. In mice fed the HFD diet, GE treatment produced a significant decrease and a significant increase in BGL on days 15 and 89 following the first STZ injection, respectively. In mice fed the SOF diet, GE treatment had no significant effects on BGL. Although GE treatment affected phenotypic distributions of both splenocytes (T cells, B cells, natural killer cells and neutrophils) and thymocytes (CD4/CD8 and CD44/CD25), and their mitochondrial transmembrane potential and generation of reactive oxygen species, indicators of cell death (possibly apoptosis), GE modulation of neutrophils was more consistent with its diabetogenic or anti-diabetic potentials. The differential effects of GE on BGL in male B6C3F1 mice fed with three different diets with varied phytoestrogen contents suggest that the estrogenic properties of this compound may contribute to its modulation of diabetes. - Highlights: • Diets affected streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male B6C3F1 mice. • Genistein modulation of streptozotocin diabetes can be induced by diet.

  5. Evaluation of the Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Citrullus colocynthis in Normoglycemic and Streptozocine (STZ Induced Diabetic Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Nikbakht

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Adverse side effects of chemical drugs for treatment of diabetes persuaded the using of medical plants. Citrullus colocynthis is a plant which has been used traditionally for treatment of diabetes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydroalcholic extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruit on normoglycemic and streptozocine induced diabetic rats. Materials & Methods: 45 male Wistar rats weighing, 250-350 gr, have been selected and randomly divided in seven groups. Group1 without any drugs usage, group 2 that received normal saline (IV and distilled water (oral, group 3 received only streptozocine (IV, group 4 received only the extract of Citrullus colocynthis (1000 mg/kg, groups 5, 6 and 7 received 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg of Citrullus colocynthis extract after injection of STZ and induction of diabetes. Diabetes was induced by intravenous injection (45 mg/kg of STZ. Blood sampling was provided directly from animal heart and blood sugar was measured. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software using students t-test and ANOVA. Results: Mean of normal blood sugar in control group was 156.5±15.7 mg/dl which defined as normal blood sugar. Streptozocine significantly increased blood sugar (p<0.05. The Citrullus colocynthis extract with 500 mg/kg dosage has not significantly reduced the blood sugar but is dosage of 1000 and 1500 mg/kg significantly decreased the blood sugar in a dose-dependent mode (p<0.05. Results also showed that the extract in dosage of 1000 mg/kg did not have a significant effect on normoglycemic animals. Conclusion: Results of this study indicate that the extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruit dose-dependently reduced the blood glucose level in streptozocine-induced diabetic rats but did not have significant effect on normal blood sugar.

  6. Rapid changes in plasma androgens during insulin withdrawal in male type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsbad, S; Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick

    1986-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of testosterone, androstenedione and dihydrotestosterone were measured in 15 Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetics with (n = 8) and without (n = 7) B-cell function during 12 h of insulin withdrawal and compared with those of 8 normal subjects. Before insulin withdrawal......, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone concentrations were lower in the diabetics after 4 h of insulin withdrawal and remained so throughout the study. The concentrations of androstenedione were not significantly different between diabetics and normal subjects except after 4 h of insulin withdrawal. Despite...

  7. The effects of cinnamon on glycemic indexes and insulin resistance in adult male diabetic rats with streptozotocin

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    SEbrahim Hosseini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is a common disease that for its treatment and control different methods are recommended such as the use of natural remedies and lifestyle modification. Since the use of herbal medicines have less side effects than many chemical drugs, hence, this study aimed to investigate the effect of cinnamon extract on blood glucose, insulin and insulin resistance in diabetic rats with streptozotocin. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted on 40 adult male rats, that were randomly divided into 4 groups including non diabetic control, diabetic control and two experimental groups receiving doses 60mg/kg of cinnamon extract for 3 and 6 weeks. At the end, by phlebotomizing of rats' heart, blood glucose and insulin were measured and using HOMA score insulin resistance was measured. To be normal data distribution, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was done and data analyzed by SPSS-20 software and ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests. Results: The results showed that in the group receiving the cinnamon extract, glycemic and insulin indexes were significantly adjusted. Conclusion: Cinnamon is probably due to have flavonoid and antioxidant compounds with antioxidant by increasing glucose uptake via the different body cells and due to reduction of oxidative stress level led to adjust glycemic and insulin indexes of blood

  8. Note on breeding and parental care behaviours of albino Hoary-bellied Squirrel Callosciurus pygerythrus (Rodentia: Sciuridae in Sibsagar District of Assam, India

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    G. Kalita

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A few individuals of albino Horay-bellied Squirrels along with normal gray individuals of Callosciurus pygerythrus have been observed in Sibsagar district of Assam, India. One albino female was studied in captivity. This paper presents our observations on the breeding behaviour and the parental care exhibited by the albino squirrel in captivity. The squirrel bred twice in captivity with a normal male of the same species. In both the periods, a single male baby with normal coat colour developed. Oral dose of vitamin E has been found helpful in the breeding of the studied squirrel species. The mother squirrel exhibited parental care by carrying her baby using her mouth, to a safer place during danger. However, the observed phenomenon is unlike that of the cat species. Some of the habitat ecology and feeding habits of the albino squirrels have also been studied, both in natural and in captive conditions.

  9. Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of testosterone deficiency (hypogonadism in male patients with diabetes mellitus

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    Ivan I. Dedov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypogonadism in men, defined as a reduction in serum testosterone in combination with characteristic symptoms and/or signs (described in detail later, is common in diabetes mellitus (DM. These recommendations do not cover the whole range of pathologies that cause the development of testosterone deficiency (hypogonadism, but focus on its clinical variants and characteristic for men with diabetes. The recommendations provide data on the prevalence of hypogonadism in diabetes, its etiology. In the section "diagnostics" the features of anamnesis of patients with hypogonadism with diabetes, the necessary methods of physical and laboratory examination are presented in detail. The risk factors and clinical consequences of hypogonadism are separately examined. In the section "choice of treatment methods", there are possible treatment options for such patients using various androgenic therapies, taking into account the needs of the man, maintaining his reproductive function and risk factors. Particular attention is paid to indications, contraindications and risk factors for androgen therapy in men with diabetes, especially in old age. With this in mind, principles for monitoring the treatment are developed. Based on a large number of studies, favorable effects of androgen replacement therapy in men with hypogonadism and diabetes have been demonstrated.

  10. The Effect of Myrtus communis Extract on Liver Enzymes and Blood Biochemical Factors in Diabetic Adult Male Rats

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    Habiballah Johari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was the effect of Myrtus communis extract on liver enzymes and blood biochemical factors in diabetic adult male rats. Materials and Methods: This study has been carried out experimentally and completely random. Seventy adult male Wistar rats were divided in 7 groups including: control which received no treatment, sham who received 2 mL of distilled water, the 1st, 2nd and 3rd experimental groups which received 0.75, 1.5 and 3 mg/kg Myrtus communis leaf extract respectively, the 4th experimental group as the diabetic control group who received streptozotocin (60 mg/kg and the 5th experimental group as the diabetic treatment group who received 3 mg/kg of extract. This experiment lasted 14 days with prescript orally. After this period, all the rats, were weighted, anesthetized and blood samples were taken from the heart centrifuged and sera were evaluated for the concentration of various factors. In addition liver were removed and sliced. Results: According to the obtained results, the plasma concentration of liver enzyme (alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol and glucose presented a significant decrease at (p≤0.05. Whereas no significant change were seen in body weight, triglyceride, urea, albumin and total protein. Histological studies of the liver tissue showed no significant difference among various groups. Conclusion: Myrtus communis is comprise of collections of flavonoids and other various components with antioxidant and anti inflammatory properties. Thence it can effective in treatment of liver diseases and decrease of blood sugar and cholesterol in diabetes mellitus patients.

  11. A pilot study to examine the correlation between cognition and blood biomarkers in a Singapore Chinese male cohort with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

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    Deborah Amanda Goh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetes is reported to be linked to poorer cognitive function. The purpose of this study is to examine (a clinical correlation between cognitive function and the biochemical perturbations in T2DM, and (b the impact of statin treatment on cognitive function in diabetic subjects. METHODS: Forty Singaporean Chinese males with diabetes and twenty Singaporean Chinese males without diabetes were recruited for this study. Twenty-two of the diabetic subjects were on statin therapy and all subjects were non-demented. This was a 2-period non-interventional case-control study in which subjects were assessed for cognitive function in period 1 and blood samples taken over 2 periods, approximately 1 week apart. Blood was collected to determine the level of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, triglycerides, glucose and insulin. Cognitive performance was measured by a neuropsychological battery covering domains of attention, language, verbal and visual memory, visuomotor speed and executive function. Z-scores were derived for each cognitive domain using the mean and standard deviations (SDs, and they were used to compare between (a diabetic and non-diabetic groups, and (b diabetic subjects with and without statin treatment. ANCOVAs with age, education, BMI, and the duration of diabetes as covariates were employed to examine differences in mean score of cognitive domains and subtests between the two groups. RESULTS: Overall cognitive function was similar among diabetics and age matched non-diabetic controls. Among diabetic statin users, HDL, LDL and total cholesterol were negatively correlated with executive function, whereas peripheral insulin levels and insulin resistance were negatively associated with attention. CONCLUSION: Diabetic statin users were likely to have poorer performance in attention and executive function. Increasing levels of the peripheral biomarkers are likely to contribute to poorer

  12. Male non-insulin users with type 2 diabetes mellitus are predisposed to gastric corpus-predominant inflammation after H. pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yao-Jong; Wu, Chung-Tai; Ou, Horng-Yih; Lin, Chin-Han; Cheng, Hsiu-Chi; Chang, Wei-Lun; Chen, Wei-Ying; Yang, Hsiao-Bai; Lu, Cheng-Chan; Sheu, Bor-Shyang

    2017-10-30

    Both H. pylori infection and diabetes increase the risk of gastric cancer. This study investigated whether patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and H. pylori infection had more severe corpus gastric inflammation and higher prevalence of precancerous lesions than non-diabetic controls. A total of 797 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were screened for H. pylori, of whom 264 had H. pylori infection. Of these patients, 129 received esophagogastroduodenoscopy to obtain topographic gastric specimens for gastric histology according to the modified Updated Sydney System, corpus-predominant gastritis index (CGI), Operative Link on Gastritis Assessment, and Operative Link on Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia Assessment. Non-diabetic dyspeptic patients who had H. pylori infection confirmed by esophagogastroduodenoscopy were enrolled as controls. The male as well as total T2DM patients had higher acute/chronic inflammatory and lymphoid follicle scores in the corpus than non-diabetic controls (p H. pylori-infected patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and H. pylori infection had more severe corpus gastric inflammation than non-diabetic controls. Moreover, male gender and non-insulin users of T2DM patients were predisposed to have corpus-predominant gastritis after H. pylori infection. ClinicalTrial: NCT02466919 , retrospectively registered may 17, 2015.

  13. The Effect of Aerobic Training and Arbotin on Cardiac Nitric Oxide, Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha, and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Male Diabetic Rats

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    Rahemeh Jahangiri Jahangiri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Diabetes is one of the most important metabolic diseases, which its incidence rate has increased in recent years. In this disease, the insulin function is impaired, leading to several complications. Physical exercise and medicinal plants are considered as a way to control diabetes along with nutrition and medicine. The present study was conducted with the purpose of determining the effect of aerobic training and use of arbutin on cardiac nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α and vessel endothelial growth factor in male diabetic rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 42 male adult Wistar rats (age, 8 weeks; weight, 190-220g, were randomly divided into 6 groups of 7 each (control, arbutin, diabetic, diabetic+training, diabetic+arbutin, and diabetic+training+arbutin. Training programs included 5 days of swimming per week for 6 weeks. Sampling from the heart was performed 72 hours after the last training session and arbutin consumption to analyze NO, TNF-α and VEGF. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA at the significance level p≤0.05. Results: Aerobic training along with use of arbutin led to increased levels of NO and VEGF and decreased level of TNF-α in cardiac tissue of diabetic rats (p<0.001. Conclusion: The results indicated that a period of regular aerobic training and use of arbutin can be considered as an appropriate non-medicinal method to control diabetes mellitus type 2 through decrease in inflammatory factors.

  14. Irisin Response to Two Types of Exercise Training in Type 2 Diabetic Male Rats

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    Mousa Khalafi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Irisin is an exercise-induced myokine that is reduced with type 2 diabetes and improves insulin resistance via the browning of white adipose tissues. However, irisin response to two types of exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes is unknown. Materials and Methods: In this study, 22 diabetic Wistar rats (Induced by high-fat diet and injections Stz were randomly assigned to 3 groups: high intensity interval exercise (HIIT, low intensity continuous training (LICT and control (C. Both HIIT and LICT groups trained on the treadmill 5 sessions per week for 8 weeks. Blood samples were taken 24 hours after the last training session and plasma irisin, insulin and glucose levels were measured. ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests were used to analyze data and the level of significance has been considered at p≤0.05. Results: Data analysis showed that plasma irisin levels in the HIIT group were significantly increased compared to the control group (p0.05. Plasma glucose in both HIIT and LICT groups was significantly decreased compared to the control group (p0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that exercise training can increase plasma irisin in rats with type 2 diabetes. However, these changes are partially dependent on the type of exercise training.

  15. Rapid changes in plasma androgens during insulin withdrawal in male type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsbad, S; Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick

    1986-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of testosterone, androstenedione and dihydrotestosterone were measured in 15 Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetics with (n = 8) and without (n = 7) B-cell function during 12 h of insulin withdrawal and compared with those of 8 normal subjects. Before insulin withdrawal no sig...

  16. Antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective effects of Arctium lappa root’s hydro-alcoholic extract on nicotinamide-streptozotocin induced type 2 model of diabetes in male mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Heidari, Hamid; Oroojan, Ali Akbar; Mirzavandi, Farhang; Nasr Esfehani, Khalil; Dehghan Mohammadi, Zeinab

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Arctium lappa (burdock), (A. lappa) root has hypoglycemic and antioxidative effects, and has been used for treatment of diabetes in tradition medicine. This study was conducted to evaluate the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic properties of A. lappa root extract on nicotinamide-streptozotocin (NA-STZ)-induced type2 diabetes in mice. Materials and Methods: In this investigation, 70 adult male NMRI mice (30-35g) randomly divided into 7 groups (n=10) as follow: 1-control, 2-type 2 diabetic mice, 3-diabetic mice that received glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg) as an anti-diabetic drug, 4, 5, 6 and 7- diabetic and normal animals that were pre-treated with 200 and 300 mg/kg A. lappa root extract, respectively, for 28 days. Diabetes has been induced by intraperitoneal injection of NA and STZ. Finally, the blood sample was taken and insulin, glucose, SGOT, SGPT, alkaline phosphatase, leptin and lipid levels was evaluated. Results: Induction of diabetes decreased the level of insulin, leptin and high density lipoprotein (HDL) and increased the level of other lipids, glucose, and hepatic enzymes significantly (plappa root extract, at specific doses, has an anti-diabetic effect through its hypolipidemic and insulinotropic properties. Hence, this plant extract may be beneficial in the treatment of diabetes. PMID:28348972

  17. Antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective effects of Arctium lappa root's hydro-alcoholic extract on nicotinamide-streptozotocin induced type 2 model of diabetes in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Heidari, Hamid; Oroojan, Ali Akbar; Mirzavandi, Farhang; Nasr Esfehani, Khalil; Dehghan Mohammadi, Zeinab

    2017-01-01

    Arctium lappa (burdock), (A. lappa) root has hypoglycemic and antioxidative effects, and has been used for treatment of diabetes in tradition medicine. This study was conducted to evaluate the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic properties of A. lappa root extract on nicotinamide-streptozotocin (NA-STZ)-induced type2 diabetes in mice. In this investigation, 70 adult male NMRI mice (30-35g) randomly divided into 7 groups (n=10) as follow: 1-control, 2-type 2 diabetic mice, 3-diabetic mice that received glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg) as an anti-diabetic drug, 4, 5, 6 and 7- diabetic and normal animals that were pre-treated with 200 and 300 mg/kg A. lappa root extract, respectively, for 28 days. Diabetes has been induced by intraperitoneal injection of NA and STZ. Finally, the blood sample was taken and insulin, glucose, SGOT, SGPT, alkaline phosphatase, leptin and lipid levels was evaluated. Induction of diabetes decreased the level of insulin, leptin and high density lipoprotein (HDL) and increased the level of other lipids, glucose, and hepatic enzymes significantly (plappa root extract, at specific doses, has an anti-diabetic effect through its hypolipidemic and insulinotropic properties. Hence, this plant extract may be beneficial in the treatment of diabetes.

  18. Comparative study on the effects of type 1 and type 2 diabetes on structural changes and hormonal output of the adrenal cortex in male Wistar rats

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    Elahi-Moghaddam Zohreh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Diabetes is one of the most common endocrine disorders characterized by hyperglycemia due to defects in insulin secretion, insulin function, or both. Causing dysfunction in the body general metabolism, diabetes-induced chronic hyperglycemia leads to alterations in those endocrine glands involved in regulating the body metabolism. In this line, the present study has been conducted to investigate the effects of type 1 and type 2 diabetes on the structural changes and hormonal output of the adrenal cortex in male Wistar rat. Methods Eighteen male Wistar rats were divided into three groups including control, experimental type 1 diabetes (subcutaneous injection of 135 mg/kg alloxan and experimental type 2 diabetes (8 weeks treatment with drinking water containing 10% fructose. Two months after the induction of both types of diabetes, the level of blood biochemical factors (glucose, insulin, cortisol, triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL, and HDL were measured. Structural changes of the adrenal cortex were then evaluated, using stereological techniques. Results Serum biochemical analysis showed significant difference in the levels of glucose, triglycerides, insulin and cortisol in experimental groups, compared to the control. The results of structural alterations were also indicative of increase in adrenal cortex volume in both types of diabetes. Conclusion Probably through increasing HPA axis activity, type1 diabetes-induced hyperglycemia leads to adrenal hypertrophy and increase the hormonal output of adrenal gland.

  19. Self-Reported Periodontitis and Incident Type 2 Diabetes among Male Workers from a 5-Year Follow-Up to MY Health Up Study.

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    Atsushi Miyawaki

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine whether periodontitis is associated with incident type 2 diabetes in a Japanese male worker cohort.The study participants were Japanese men, aged 36-55 years, without diabetes. Data were extracted from the MY Health Up study, consisting of self-administered questionnaire surveys at baseline and following annual health examinations for an insurance company in Japan. The oral health status of the participants was classified by two self-reported indicators: (1 gingival hemorrhage and (2 tooth loosening. Type 2 diabetes incidence was determined by self-reporting or blood test data. Modified Poisson regression approach was used to estimate the relative risks and the 95% confidence intervals of incident diabetes with periodontitis. Covariates included age, body mass index, family history of diabetes, hypertension, current smoking habits, alcohol use, dyslipidemia, and exercise habits.Of the 2895 candidates identified at baseline in 2004, 2469 men were eligible for follow-up analysis, 133 of whom were diagnosed with diabetes during the 5-year follow-up period. Tooth loosening was associated with incident diabetes [adjusted relative risk = 1.73, 95% confidence interval = 1.14-2.64] after adjusting for other confounding factors. Gingival hemorrhage displayed a similar trend but was not significantly associated with incident diabetes [adjusted relative risk = 1.32, 95% confidence interval = 0.95-1.85].Tooth loosening is an independent predictor of incident type 2 diabetes in Japanese men.

  20. Effects of alpha lipoic acid, ascorbic acid-6-palmitate, and fish oil on the glutathione, malonaldehyde, and fatty acids levels in erythrocytes of streptozotocin induced diabetic male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Okkeş; Ozkan, Yusuf; Yildirim, Mehmet; Oztürk, A Ihsan; Erşan, Yasemin

    2002-01-01

    In this research, it has been aimed to evaluate the improvement effects of alpha lipoic acid (ALA), ascorbic acid-6-palmitate (AA6P), fish oil (FO), and their combination (COM) on some biochemical properties in erythrocytes of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male rats. According to experimental results, glutathione (GSH) level in erythrocytes decreased in diabetes (P cholesterol level was high in diabetes and D + ALA groups (P acid raised in diabetes group (P acid in D + FO, D + ALA, and diabetes groups was lower than control (P acid reduced in D + COM and D + FO groups, but its level raised in D + AA6P and D + ALA groups (P acid (LA) elevated in ALA + D, D + AA6P, and diabetes groups, linolenic acid level in diabetes, D + AA6P, and D + FO groups was lower than control (P acid (AA) decreased in D + ALA, D+ AA6P, and diabetes groups (P acid (DHA) increased in D + AA6P and D + COM (P acid level raised in diabetes group, its level reduced in D + ALA and D + FO groups (P acid level in D + ALA and D + FO groups was higher than control (P acid degree was raised by the effects of ALA and FO. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Association of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms with diabetic dyslipidemia in the elderly male population in North China

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    Xia Z

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Zheng Xia,1,* Yazhuo Hu,1,* Zhitao Han,1 Ya Gao,1 Jie Bai,2 Yao He,1 Hua Zhao,3 Honghong Zhang1 1Institute of Geriatrics, Beijing Key Laboratory of Normal Aging and Geriatrics, 2Cinical Laboratory in South Building, Chinese PLA General Hospital & Chinese PLA Medical Academy, Beijing, China; 3Zhantansi Outpatient Department, Chinese PLA 309 Hospital, Beijing, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The prevalence of dyslipidemia is rising alarmingly in elderly Han Chinese male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. The genetic factors that contribute to the development of diabetic dyslipidemia remain incompletely identified. This study was conducted to assess the association between vitamin D receptor (VDR polymorphisms and development of dyslipidemia in the Han elderly male population with T2DM in North China.Methods: A total of 242 T2DM patients with dyslipidemia (DH group, n=108 or without dyslipidemia (DO group, n=134 and 100 controls were genotyped for ApaI, TaqI and FokI single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the VDR gene using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequencing. The frequency and distribution of the SNPs were compared between cases and controls.Results: The distribution of genotypes of VDR-FokI was significantly different between the control and DM group (P=0.033, as well as between the control and DH subgroup (P=0.011 but not DO subgroup (P=0.111. The frequency of C allele and CC genotype of FokI was significantly higher in the DH patients than in the controls (P=0.015 and P=0.003, respectively. Logistic regression analysis in a dominant model homozygous for the C allele of the FokI SNP showed that CC genotype was associated with DH patients (OR =1.797, 95% CI: 1.077–2.999, P=0.025. Significant associations of the ApaI and TaqI SNPs with either DO or DH subjects were not observed.Conclusion: These findings suggest that CC genotype of VDR-FokI is a risk

  2. Attenuation of N-nitrosodimethylamine induced hepatotoxicity by Operculina turpethum in Swiss Albino mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Veena; Singh, Manu

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): To appraise the antihepatotoxic efficacy of ethanolic extract of Operculum turpethum root on the liver of Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Hepatic fibrosis was induced in adult male albino mice through intraperitoneal administrations of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) at the concentration of 10 mg/kg body weight. The liver toxicity and therapeutic effect of the plant ethanolic extract was assessed by the analysis of liver marker enzymes and antioxidant enzymes and liver histopathological studies. Results: Hepatotoxicity was manifested by significantly decreased (PNDMA induced toxicity which was also supported by histopathological studies of the liver. Conclusion: O. turpethum manifested therapeutic effects by significantly restoring the enzymatic levels and reducing the hepatic damage in mice. This work intends to aid researchers in the study of natural products which could be useful in the treatment of liver diseases including cancer. PMID:24592311

  3. Swim Training Improves HOMA-IR in Type 2 Diabetes Induced by High Fat Diet and Low Dose of Streptozotocin in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiasi, Rafigheh; Ghadiri Soufi, Farhad; Somi, Mohammad Hossein; Mohaddes, Gisou; Mirzaie Bavil, Fariba; Naderi, Roya; Alipour, Mohammad Reza

    2015-09-01

    Insulin resistance plays a key role in the onset and development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its complications. In this study, we evaluated the effect of swim training on insulin resistance in diabetic rats. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=10): sedentary control (Con), sedentary diabetic (Dia), swim trained control (Exe) and swim trained diabetic (Dia+Exe) rats. Diabetes was induced by high fat diet (HFD) and a low dose of streptozotocin (35 mg/kg, i.p). In trained groups, one week after the induction of diabetes, animals were subjected to swimming (60 min/5 days a week) for 10 weeks. At the end of training, fasting blood sugar (FBS), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), fasting/basal insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, insulin resistance index, homeostasis model assessment method (HOMA-IR), triglycerides (TG,) total cholesterol (TCh), and high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels in blood were measured. Swimming significantly improved OGTT (PHOMA-IR (P<0.01). Swim training also significantly decreased FBS (p<0.01), fasting/basal insulin (P<0.01), HbA1C (p<0.01), TG (P<0.05), and TCh (P<0.05) levels. It also significantly increased HDL (p<0.05) level. Our findings indicate that swim training improved glycemic control and insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes caused by high fat diet in male rats.

  4. The effect of aqueous extract of Avicennia marina (Forsk. Vierh. leaves on liver enzymes' activity, oxidative stress parameters and liver histopathology in male diabetic rats

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    Akram Hamzevi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Avicennia marina has antioxidant and anti-diabetic properties. This study was conducted to examine the effect of aqueous extract of A. marina on liver enzymes' activity, oxidative stress parameters and liver histopathology in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 28 male rats were allocated into the equal groups of control, diabetic control and experimental diabetic 1 and 2. The diabetes in diabetic control and experimental diabetic groups was induced using an intraperitoneal injection of 120 mg/kg alloxan. The experimental diabetic groups received the aqueous extract of A. marina (100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p. in alternate days for one month. Sterile distilled water was injected to the animals of control and diabetic control groups. At the end of the treatment period, serum levels of ALT, AST, GGT and ALP were measured. Then, levels of SOD, GST, CAT and MDA were measured in the liver tissue. The liver sections were prepared and examined by an optical microscope. Results: Results showed that administration of the A. marina extract (100 and 300 mg/kg, ip to the diabetic rats significantly decreased the serum levels of liver enzymes and tissue level of MDA. Also, the activity of the liver tissue's antioxidant enzymes was increased (P<0.05. The A. marina extract dose-dependently decreased liver damages in diabetic rats. Conclusion: Administration of the A. marina extract improves liver tissue oxidative stress indices and decreases the serum level of liver enzymes. Also, A. marina extract improves liver tissue injuries induced by diabetes.

  5. Effect of Urtica dioica on morphometric indices of kidney in streptozotocin diabetic rats--a stereological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golalipour, Mohammad Jafar; Gharravi, Anneh Mohammad; Ghafari, Sorya; Afshar, Mohammad

    2007-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Urtica dioica on Morphometric indices of kidney in diabetic rats. Thirty male adult albino wistar rats of 125-175 g divided into control, diabetic and Urtica dioica treatment groups. In treatment Group, diabetic rats received 100 mg kg(-1) daily hydroalcoholic extract of U. dioica intraperitoneally for 4 weeks. After the animals had been sacrified, the kidneys were removed and fixed by formaldehyde, cut horizontally into 1 mm slices and processed, Stained with H and E. Stereological study performed using light microscope and the image projected on a table of olysa software. Cavalieri principle was used to estimate the volume of cortex, medulla and whole kidney. All the grouped data statistically evaluated using Student's t-test, expressed as the Mean +/- SE. Ration of kidney weight/body weight in diabetes (0.51) and diabetes-extract group (0.67) were higher then control group (0.42). Ratio of kidney volume/body weight in diabetes (350) and diabetes-extract group (348) were higher then control group (323). Volume Ratio of cortex/medulla in diabetes-extract group (1.65) was higher then control (1.34) and diabetes group (1.33). Glomerular area and diameter and proximal tubule diameter in diabetes-Extract group was higher than control and diabetes groups. This study revealed that Urtica dioica has no effect on renal morphometric indices in induced diabetic rats.

  6. How does agonistic behaviour differ in albino and pigmented fish?

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    Ondřej Slavík

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In addition to hypopigmentation of the skin and red iris colouration, albino animals also display distinct physiological and behavioural alterations. However, information on the social interactions of albino animals is rare and has mostly been limited to specially bred strains of albino rodents and animals from unique environments in caves. Differentiating between the effects of albinism and domestication on behaviour in rodents can be difficult, and social behaviour in cave fish changes according to species-specific adaptations to conditions of permanent darkness. The agonistic behaviours of albino offspring of pigmented parents have yet to be described. In this study, we observed agonistic behaviour in albino and pigmented juvenile Silurus glanis catfish. We found that the total number of aggressive interactions was lower in albinos than in pigmented catfish. The distance between conspecifics was also analysed, and albinos showed a tendency towards greater separation from their same-coloured conspecifics compared with pigmented catfish. These results demonstrate that albinism can be associated with lower aggressiveness and with reduced shoaling behaviour preference, as demonstrated by a tendency towards greater separation of albinos from conspecifics.

  7. Hypocalcaemia, Hypoglycaemia, Macrosomia and Congenital Cryptorchidism in a Male Offspring of a Mother with Overweight and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

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    Onyiriuka Alphonsus N.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a case of a male infant born to a 32-year-old multiparous mother with overweight (BMI 28.5kg/m2 and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. The mother had fasting hyperglycaemia (range 5.7- 6.0mmol/L noted at 24 weeks of pregnancy and was managed with diet alone. There is no family history of diabetes mellitus and the mother did not have pre-eclampsia. Physical examination of the infant revealed macrosomia (birthweight, 4600g and bilateral congenital cryptorchidism. The baby suffered severe hypoglycaemia (blood glucose 1.7mmol/L and hypocalcaemia (total serum calcium 1.03mmol/L, manifesting with seizures. He was successfully managed with 10% dextrose water and calcium gluconate infusion, using standard protocol. His karyotype is 46 XY. The patient was discharged from admission at the age of 10 days and was referred to the paediatric endocrinologist at the tertiary hospital. By 8 weeks of age, the right testis was noticed to have descended into the right scrotum. At the age of 3 months, the left testis was still not palpable either in the inguinal canal or the scrotal sac. The patient was lost to follow up. Conclusion: Diet-treated maternal overweight in association with GDM could potentially increase the risk for hypocalcaemia, hypoglycaemia, macrosomia and congenital cryptorchidism in the offspring, highlighting the need for physicians to assess for the presence of these morbidities in such infants.

  8. Antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective effects of Arctium lappa root’s hydro-alcoholic extract on nicotinamide-streptozotocin induced type 2 model of diabetes in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Ahangarpour

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Arctium lappa (burdock, (A. lappa root has hypoglycemic and antioxidative effects, and has been used for treatment of diabetes in tradition medicine. This study was conducted to evaluate the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic properties of A. lappa root extract on nicotinamide-streptozotocin (NA-STZ-induced type2 diabetes in mice.Materials and Methods: In this investigation, 70 adult male NMRI mice (30-35g randomly divided into 7 groups (n=10 as follow: 1-control, 2-type 2 diabetic mice, 3-diabetic mice that received glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg as an anti-diabetic drug, 4, 5, 6 and 7- diabetic and normal animals that were pre-treated with 200 and 300 mg/kg A. lappa root extract, respectively, for 28 days. Diabetes has been induced by intraperitoneal injection of NA and STZ. Finally, the blood sample was taken and insulin, glucose, SGOT, SGPT, alkaline phosphatase, leptin and lipid levels was evaluated.Results: Induction of diabetes decreased the level of insulin, leptin and high density lipoprotein (HDL and increased the level of other lipids, glucose, and hepatic enzymes significantly (p

  9. Perianal Ulcer and Diabetes Insipidus: A Rare Presentation of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in an Adult Male

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    Ng Chong Beng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH, previously known as Histiocystosis X, is a rare idiopathic disease caused by a build-up of langerhan cells in the body. LCH has a heterogenous form of clinical presentation and presents with varying degree of severity. The severity often depends on the disease burden. LCH can manifest as a unifocal disease, multifocal-unisystem or multifocal-multisystem disease with the latter being more fatal than the rest. Risk organ involvement confers a grim prognosis. Perianal lesions are extremely rare skin manifestation of LCH with only few cases reported in the past. Vinca-alkaloids and steroid therapy have been shown to be effective in a large percentage of those presenting with LCH. This case report highlights the diagnosis and management of LCH presenting as a painful perianal ulcer in the background of newly diagnosed diabetes insipidus.

  10. Mitochondrial DNA polymerase editing mutation, PolgD257A, reduces the diabetic phenotype of Akita male mice by suppressing appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Raymond; Kim, Hyung-Suk; Reddick, Robert L; Kujoth, Gregory C; Prolla, Tomas A; Tsutsumi, Shuichi; Wada, Youichiro; Smithies, Oliver; Maeda, Nobuyo

    2011-05-24

    Diabetes and the development of its complications have been associated with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) dysfunction, but causal relationships remain undetermined. With the objective of testing whether increased mtDNA mutations exacerbate the diabetic phenotype, we have compared mice heterozygous for the Akita diabetogenic mutation (Akita) with mice homozygous for the D257A mutation in mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma (Polg) or with mice having both mutations (Polg-Akita). The Polg-D257A protein is defective in proofreading and increases mtDNA mutations. At 3 mo of age, the Polg-Akita and Akita male mice were equally hyperglycemic. Unexpectedly, as the Polg-Akita males aged to 9 mo, their diabetic symptoms decreased. Thus, their hyperglycemia, hyperphagia and urine output declined significantly. The decrease in their food intake was accompanied by increased plasma leptin and decreased plasma ghrelin, while hypothalamic expression of the orexic gene, neuropeptide Y, was lower and expression of the anorexic gene, proopiomelanocortin, was higher. Testis function progressively worsened with age in the double mutants, and plasma testosterone levels in 9-mo-old Polg-Akita males were significantly reduced compared with Akita males. The hyperglycemia and hyperphagia returned in aged Polg-Akita males after testosterone administration. Hyperglycemia-associated distal tubular damage in the kidney also returned, and Polg-D257A-associated proximal tubular damage was enhanced. The mild diabetes of female Akita mice was not affected by the Polg-D257A mutation. We conclude that reduced diabetic symptoms of aging Polg-Akita males results from appetite suppression triggered by decreased testosterone associated with damage to the Leydig cells of the testis.

  11. Dynamic analysis of sexual organ weight and serum levels of glucose, glycosyl protein, testosterone in male rats with short-term diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Donghui; Wang Zhongshan; Zhao Hui; Xu Zongge

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of short-term diabetes on the changes of sexual organ weights and serum levels of testosterone in male rats. Methods: All rats were divided into control (C) and diabetes (D). Diabetes group was observed on 1 day, 3 days, 5 days, 7 days, 14 days after injection of streptozotocin. All rats were killed for measurement of serum levels of glucose, glycosyl protein, testosterone and weights of sexual organs (testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate). Results: The serum levels of glucose, glycosyl protein of diabetes group decreased significantly, compared with those of control group; the serum levels of T lowered remarkably compared with control levels after three days of injection of STZ. The weight of epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate reduced remarkably, compared with control group. The weights of seminal vesicle, prostate negatively correlated with serum levels of glucose and glycosyl protein, and they positively correlated with serum levels of testosterone. Conclusion: The sexual organs (testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate) of male rats with short-term diabetes were damaged, and the changes of sexual organs closely related with the serum levels of testosterone besides irregular metabolism in diabetes

  12. Lower plasma adiponectin is a marker of increased intima-media thickness associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and with male gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, Robin P. F.; de Vries, Rindert; van Tol, Arie; Sluiter, Wim J.

    Objective: We tested the extent to which altered plasma adipokine levels may contribute to the increased carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and with male gender, independently of conventional cardiovascular risk factors, insulin resistance, and

  13. In vivo effects of diabetes, insulin and oleanolic acid on enzymes of glycogen metabolism in the skin of streptozotocin-induced diabetic male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukundwa, Andrew; Langa, Silvana O; Mukaratirwa, Samson; Masola, Bubuya

    2016-03-04

    The skin is the largest organ in the body and diabetes induces pathologic changes on the skin that affect glucose homeostasis. Changes in skin glycogen and glucose levels can mirror serum glucose levels and thus the skin might contribute to whole body glucose metabolism. This study investigated the in vivo effects of diabetes, insulin and oleanolic acid (OA) on enzymes of glycogen metabolism in skin of type 1 diabetic rats. Diabetic and non-diabetic adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with a single daily dose of insulin (4 IU/kg body weight), OA (80 mg/kg body weight) and a combination of OA + insulin for 14 days. Glycogen phosphorylase (GP) expression; and GP, glycogen synthase (GS) and hexokinase activities as well glycogen levels were evaluated. The results suggest that diabetes lowers hexokinase activity, GP activity and GP expression with no change in GS activity whilst the treatments increased GP expression and the activities of hexokinase, GP and GS except for the GS activity in OA treated rats. Glycogen levels were increased slightly by diabetes as well as OA treatment. In conclusion diabetes, OA and insulin can lead to changes in GS and GP activities in skin without significantly altering the glycogen content. We suggest that the skin may contribute to whole body glucose homeostasis particularly in disease states. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Histological review of skin cancers in African Albinos: a 10-year retrospective review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiprono, Samson Kimaiyo; Chaula, Baraka Michael; Beltraminelli, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is rare among Africans and albinism is an established risk for skin cancer in this population. Ultraviolet radiation is highest at the equator and African albinos living close to the equator have the highest risk of developing skin cancers. This was a retrospective study that involved histological review of all specimens with skin cancers from African albinos submitted to The Regional Dermatology Training Center in Moshi, Tanzania from 2002 to 2011. A total of 134 biopsies from 86 patients with a male to female ratio of 1:1 were reviewed. Head and neck was the commonest (n = 75, 56.0%) site affected by skin cancers. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was more common than basal cell carcinoma (BCC) with a ratio of 1.2:1. Only one Acral lentiginous melanoma was reported. Majority (55.6%) of SCC were well differentiated while nodular BCC (75%) was the most common type of BCC. Squamous cell carcinoma is more common than basal cell carcinoma in African albinos

  15. COMPARISON OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF NIGELLA SATIVA AND DICLOFENAC SODIUM IN ALBINO RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Muhammad Usman; Qureshi, Hamid Javaid; Saleem, Tahira

    2015-01-01

    Nigella sativa or "Kalonji" is a naturally occurring plant in Pakistan and other countries which possesses a wide range of medicinal properties, the anti-inflammatory property being one of these. Diclofenac sodium is a commonly used anti-inflammatory drug. The purpose of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds with that of diclofenac sodium in albino rats. This laboratory randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted in the Physiology Department, Services Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS), Lahore. The study was carried out on 90 male albino rats. Five percent formalin in a dose of 50 µl was injected into sub-plantar surface of right hind paw of each rat to produce inflammation. The rats were randomly divided into three groups of thirty each. Group A was given normal saline (control); group B was given Nigella sativa seed extract; and group C received diclofenac sodium, as a reference drug. Increase in paw diameter, and total and differential leukocyte counts were measured as markers of inflammation. Nigella sativa seeds extract caused significant (pdiclofenac sodium; however, the extract was comparatively less potent than diclofenac sodium. The extract had no significant effect (p>0.05) on the total or differential leukocyte counts. Our results suggest that ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds possesses potent anti-inflammatory effect, in albino rats however, this effect is comparatively less but prolonged than that produced by diclofenac sodium.

  16. Anticonvulsant activity of Granisetron in Albino mice

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    Sathisha Aithal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the anticonvulsant activity of  5-HT3 antagonist, granisetron in albino mice. In this study granisetron (0.5mg/kg, i.p. was administered 30 minutes prior to application of electroshock (60mA, 02.seconds or administration of pentylenetetrazole. Granisetron significantly reduced the duration of tonic hind limb extension in maximum electroshock seizure (MES test. In pentylenetetrazole (PTZ test, granisetron delayed the onset and the decreased the duration of convulsions compared to control group. The percentage of animals protected in MES and PTZ  models were 66 and 83 respectively. The results showed that granisetron at dose of 0.5mg possess anticonvulsant activity in both MES and PTZ models.

  17. Effect of nigella sativa seeds extract on serum c-reactive protein in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, M.U.; Qureshi, H.

    2014-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein. It predicts future risk of cardiovascular diseases. Different medicinal plants and their active ingredients possess the ability to reduce serum CRP levels and hence inflammatory disorders and cardiovascular diseases. In our study, ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds was evaluated in albino rats for its possible effect on serum CRP levels. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds on an acute inflammatory biomarker/mediator, C-reactive protein (CRP) in albino rats. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial (RCT). Place and Duration of Study: Physiology Department, Services Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS), Lahore; from September to November, 2009. Subjects and Methods: The study was carried out on 90 male albino rats. Five percent (5%) formalin in a dose of 50 meu1 was injected into sub-plantar surface of right hind paw of each rat to produce inflammation. The rats were randomly divided into three groups of thirty each. Group A was given normal saline (control); group B was given Nigella sativa seed extract; and group C received diclofenac sodium, as a reference drug. CRP levels in each group were measured from blood samples taken 25 hours after giving formalin. Results: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds, given intraperitoneally, caused highly significant (p<0.001) reduction in serum CRP levels as compared to control group. The reduction in CRP levels by ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa was also significantly (p<0.05) more than that produced by diclofenac sodium. Conclusion: Our results suggest that Nigella sativa possesses ability to reduce serum CRP levels significantly, after production of artificial inflammation, in albino rats. (author)

  18. Comparison of anti-inflammatory activity of nigella sativa and diclofenac sodium in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, M.U.; Qureshi, H.J.; Saleem, T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nigella sativa or Kalonji is a naturally occurring plant in Pakistan and other countries which possesses a wide range of medicinal properties, the anti-inflammatory property being one of these. Diclofenac sodium is a commonly used anti-inflammatory drug. The purpose of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds with that of diclofenac sodium in albino rats. Method: This laboratory randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted in the Physiology Department, Services Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS), Lahore. The study was carried out on 90 male albino rats. Five percent formalin in a dose of 50 meu was injected into sub-plantar surface of right hind paw of each rat to produce inflammation. The rats were randomly divided into three groups of thirty each. Group A was given normal saline (control); group B was given Nigella sativa seed extract; and group C received diclofenac sodium, as a reference drug. Increase in paw diameter, and total and differential leukocyte counts were measured as markers of inflammation. Results: Nigella sativa seeds extract caused significant (p<0.05) reduction in the paw inflammatory response in albino rats. The effect was longer in duration than the effect caused by diclofenac sodium; however, the extract was comparatively less potent than diclofenac sodium. The extract had no significant effect (p>0.05) on the total or differential leukocyte counts. Conclusion: Our results suggest that ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds possesses potent anti-inflammatory effect, in albino rats however, this effect is comparatively less but prolonged than that produced by diclofenac sodium. (author)

  19. Type 2 diabetes family histories, body composition and fasting glucose levels: a cross-section analysis in healthy sedentary male and female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Antonino; Pomara, Francesco; Thomas, Ewan; Paoli, Antonio; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Petrucci, Marco; Proia, Patrizia; Bellafiore, Marianna; Palma, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes type 2 is a world wide spread disease with a multifactorial pathogenetic evolution. Various factors like obesity, physical inactivity and poor lifestyle habits contribute to its development. The aim of this study was to verify if in young healthy sedentary male and female there is positive correlation between family history to type 2 diabetes and an increase in body weight and fat mass, or alterations in basal glycemia values. Totally183 male and 237 female healthy sedentary subjects were analysed in 2012, in Italy. They were divided in three groups: FH(+) with first degree family history, FH(++) with second degree family history and FH(-) with no family history. Anthropometrics, body composition and blood parameters were assessed. Male had the highest BMI values (Plife-style changes, such as increased physical activity and controlled quantity and quality of food intake.

  20. Hepatopancreatic intoxication of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide on albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhalwagy, Manal Ea; Abd-Alrahman, Sherif H; Nahas, A A; Ziada, Reem M; Mohamady, Aziza H

    2015-01-01

    Despite the known adverse effects of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide, little is known about its hepatopancreatic intoxication effects. The present study was carried out to elucidate sub-chronic effect of Karat 2.5% EC formulation of lambda cyhalothrin on male albino rats. To explore the effects of exposure to lambda cyhalothrin on rats and its mechanism, low (1/40 of LD50, 5 mg/kg/day) and high dose (1/4 of LD50, 50 mg/kg/day) lambda cyhalothrin were applied to rats via drinking water for 3 months. Blood samples were collected monthly, and the animals were dissected for liver and pancreas's examination at the end of the experiment. Lambda cyhalothrin administration was associated with the elevation in lipid peroxidation marker, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduction in SH-protein a major marker for antioxidant, as well as basel paraoxonase (PON) in both treated groups throughout the experimental periods. In addition, significant elevations in liver enzymes alanin amino transferase, (ALT), and aspartate amino transferase (AST), as well as plasma acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glucose level. While, significant reduction in insulin level through the experimental periods. Results of histopathological and histochemical studies showed that lambda cyhalothrin exposure induces liver and pancreatic tissues damage and depletion in glycogen content was pronounced in liver of both treated groups. In conclusion subchronic intoxication with lambda cyhalothrin formulation induced remarkable changes in the examined parameters.

  1. Effect of Eight Weeks High Intensity Interval Training and Medium Intensity Interval Training and Aloe vera Intake on Serum Vaspin and Insulin Resistance in Diabetic Male Rats

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    Darya Asgari Hazaveh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The use of herbal supplements and exercise training for the treatment of diabetic has increased.The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training and Aloe vera intake on serum vaspin and insulin resistance in diabetic male rats. Materials and Methods: During this experimental study, 32 diabetic rats with STZ Wistar were randomly divided into four groups including the control, high intensity interval training +supplement, moderate intensity interval training + supplement and supplement. Training program was planned for 8 weeks and 3 sessions per week. Each session consisted of 6 to 12 periods of 2-minute activity with the intensity of 90% and 60% with one minute rest (speed: 10m/min. In the supplement groups, 300milligrams Aloe vera solution per kilogram of body weight Gavage was given 5 sessions per week for 8 weeks. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: The results showed that high and moderate intensity interval training with supplement has no significant effect on the of serum vaspin (p=0.112. High intensity interval training with supplement had significant effects on insulin in diabetic male rats (0.000. Conclusion: .Based on the findings of this study, it seems that supplementation of Aloe vera with high intensity interval training can have better effects on serum insulin in diabetic rats.

  2. Assessment of the Anti-Hyperglycaemic, Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Activities of the Methanol Extract of Moringa Oleifera in Diabetes-Induced Nephrotoxic Male Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omodanisi, Elizabeth I; Aboua, Yapo G; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O

    2017-03-23

    Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disease of multiple aetiologies in insulin secretion. A deficiency in insulin results in hyperglycemia with metabolic disturbances of biomolecules. Moringa oleifera (MO) is endemic in the tropics with a variety of ethnomedicinal importance. The leaf of this plant has been reported to possess antioxidant and medicinal properties that may be helpful in the treatment and management of diabetes and its associated complications. Diabetes was induced intraperitoneally in rats by a single dose of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg) and treated with methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera (250 mg/kg b.wt) for six weeks. Forty-eight (48) adult male Wistar strain rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control (NC), Moringa oleifera treated control rats (NC + MO), diabetic rats (DM) and Moringa oleifera treated diabetic rats (DM + MO). Estimation of antioxidant capacity, total polyphenols, flavonoids and flavonols content of Moringa oleifera extract was performed and serum biochemical markers were evaluated. Antioxidants such as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, glutathione (GSH) and inflammatory biomarkers were determined in the kidney. Results showed high antioxidant capacities of MO extract and improved serum biochemical markers, whilst lipid peroxidation (MDA) levels were reduced in non-diabetic and diabetic rats after MO treatment when compared to normal control. Subsequent administration of MO led to an increased concentration of serum albumin, globulin and total protein with a decrease in the level of MDA, and improvements in CAT, SOD, GSH, GPx, (tumour necrosis factor-alpha)TNF-α and (interleukin-6)IL-6. MO contains potent phytochemical constituents that offer protective action against diabetic-induced renal damage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammation and could therefore play a role in reducing diabetic complications, particularly in developing countries such as in

  3. Ribavirin exposure induces histopathological changes in the seminiferous tubules of testes in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batool, A.

    2013-01-01

    Study objectives: The objectives of the study are to describe and compare histopathological changes in the seminiferous tubules of testes of rat, with different doses of Ribavirin at different time intervals. Introduction: The chemical disturbances may affect a vast number of potential sites in male reproductive system as well as its complex hormonal regulation. Testicular toxicity may reduce the fertility of the male. The current study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Ribavirin on the histological structure of seminiferous tubules in the testes of albino rats. Materials and Methods: Seventy two sexually mature adult male albino rats weighing 180-200gms were divided into four groups: A, B, C and D; each group having 18 rats. Ribavirin was administered intraperitoneally in different doses to these groups that were 20mg, 100mg and 200mg/kg body weight, while group A was control. Each group was further divided into three subgroups according to three time points which were selected for sacrifice that were 20th, 40th and 60th day from the last exposure to drug. Six randomly selected rats from each group were sacrificed on every sacrifice time. Results and Conclusion: The seminiferous tubules with degenerative changes like appearance of vacuole and necrotic material were observed in comparison to control groups, on 20th day of sacrifice in all groups. In rats sacrificed on day 40th and 60th, the sign of recovery in the form of regeneration of seminiferous epithelium was observed that was more marked in low dose groups than high dose groups which showed late recovery. We conclude that ribavirin being used as antiviral drug induces reversible degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules of testes of albino rats. (author)

  4. Biochemical and Haematological Indices of Weanly Albino Rats Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    ABSTRACT: Malnutrition is a public health problem in Nigeria accounting for more than 50% of ... weanly albino rats using nutritional, biochemical ... groundnut (16%), soy beans (16%), crayfish ... consumption was observed in rats on PC and.

  5. Measurement of genome changes of greenable albino mutation line c.v. W25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Dianxing; Xia Yingwu; Shu Qingyao; Zhang Yaozhou; Liu Guifu

    1997-01-01

    W25 was a greenable albino mutation line, which was derived from a temperature-sensitive genic male sterile rice 2177s, with 300 Gy gamma rays irradiation. During the whole growth duration, the leaves of W25 showed the following characters: white, greenism, albinism and greenism again. 70 primers were used for the detection of polymorphism, one of them gave polymorphic products. RAPD analysis of W25 and 2177s with random primer H05 indicated that there were two DNA bands differences

  6. The effects of acute gasoline vapour inhalation on some haematological indices of albino Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Chukwudi Onyeka John Okonkwo; Ailende Daniel Ehileboh; Eddy Nwobodo; Charles Chijioke Dike

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To find out if Gasoline vapour has some effects on haematological indices when inhaled by experimental rats. Methods: The standard method for laboratory operating procedure recommended by World Health Organization was used in all the analysis done. Forty two albino Wistar rats comprising twenty one males (160–220 g) and twenty one females (140–190 g) were sampled into six groups consisting of four test groups and two control groups. The test groups were exposed to gasoline vapou...

  7. Effects of Fruit of Rosa Canina L.Extract on the Level of Plasma Glucose in Male Diabet-Induced Rats

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    A Mohammad Eini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most prevalent chronic and complex metabolic diseases of human , which hyperglycemia can be mentioned as its prominent characteristic. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the hypoglycemic effects of fruit of Rosa canina (R.c. extract in healthy and diabetic rats. Method: A total of 72 Wistar male rats were divided into six group: control,  STZ (diabetic control,  R.c. control (50 mg/kg, R.c. control (100 mg/kg and two experimental groups with 50, and 100 mg/kg of extract dose. Diabetes was induced using streptozotocine (60 mg/kg; IP, and blood collection was carried out on 0, 2 and 4 hours after the oral administration of the extracts. Results: The levels of plasma glucose were determined by spectrophotometric method. In order to statistically analyze the study data, ANOVA test was performed. There was a significant difference between groups concerning the plasma glucose concentration (P<0.0001, which the lowest concentration between diabetes groups was observed in the two experimental groups. Moreover, R.c. had a marked hypoglycemic effect on diabetes mellitus. Conclusion: R.c. extract in hyperglycemic status demands to be further studied in order to control and prevent its complications.

  8. Long-lasting response to oral therapy in a young male with monogenic diabetes as part of HNF1B-related disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Carrillo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in hepatocyte nuclear factor 1β gene (HNF1B are responsible for a multisystemic syndrome where monogenic diabetes (classically known as MODY 5 and renal anomalies, mostly cysts, are the most characteristic findings. Urogenital malformations, altered liver function tests, hypomagnesemia or hyperuricemia and gout are also part of the syndrome. Diabetes in these patients usually requires early insulinization. We present the case of a young non-obese male patient with a personal history of renal multicystic dysplasia and a debut of diabetes during adolescence with simple hyperglycemia, negative pancreatic autoimmunity and detectable C-peptide levels. He also presented epididymal and seminal vesicle cysts, hypertransaminasemia, hyperuricemia and low magnesium levels. In the light of these facts we considered the possibility of a HNF1B mutation. The sequencing study of this gene confirmed a heterozygous mutation leading to a truncated and less functional protein. Genetic studies of his relatives were negative; consequently, it was classified as a de novo mutation. In particular, our patient maintained good control of his diabetes on oral antidiabetic agents for a long period of time. He eventually needed insulinization although oral therapy was continued alongside, allowing reduction of prandial insulin requirements. The real prevalence of mutations in HNF1B is probably underestimated owing to a wide phenotypical variability. As endocrinologists, we should consider this possibility in young non-obese diabetic patients with a history of chronic non-diabetic nephropathy, especially in the presence of some of the other characteristic manifestations.

  9. Food Color Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats, Rattus norvegicus

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Certain dietary constituents can induce toxicity and play a critical role in the development of several hepatic disorders. Tartrazine, metanil yellow and sunset yellow are widely used azo dyes in food products, so the present study is aimed to investigate the food color induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats. Materials and Methods: Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups, each group having six animals. Group I served as control, Group II, Group III and Group IV were ad...

  10. Chronic alcoholism-mediated metabolic disorders in albino rat testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayakhmetova, Ganna M; Bondarenko, Larysa B; Matvienko, Anatoliy V; Kovalenko, Valentina M

    2014-09-01

    There is good evidence for impairment of spermatogenesis and reductions in sperm counts and testosterone levels in chronic alcoholics. The mechanisms for these effects have not yet been studied in detail. The consequences of chronic alcohol consumption on the structure and/or metabolism of testis cell macromolecules require to be intensively investigated. The present work reports the effects of chronic alcoholism on contents of free amino acids, levels of cytochrome P450 3A2 (CYP3A2) mRNA expression and DNA fragmentation, as well as on contents of different cholesterol fractions and protein thiol groups in rat testes. Wistar albino male rats were divided into two groups: I - control (intact animals), II - chronic alcoholism (15% ethanol self-administration during 150 days). Following 150 days of alcohol consumption, testicular free amino acid content was found to be significantly changed as compared with control. The most profound changes were registered for contents of lysine (-53%) and methionine (+133%). The intensity of DNA fragmentation in alcohol-treated rat testes was considerably increased, on the contrary CYP3A2 mRNA expression in testis cells was inhibited, testicular contents of total and etherified cholesterol increased by 25% and 45% respectively, and protein SH-groups decreased by 13%. Multidirectional changes of the activities of testicular dehydrogenases were detected. We thus obtained complex assessment of chronic alcoholism effects in male gonads, affecting especially amino acid, protein, ATP and NADPH metabolism. Our results demonstrated profound changes in testes on the level of proteome and genome. We suggest that the revealed metabolic disorders can have negative implication on cellular regulation of spermatogenesis under long-term ethanol exposure.

  11. Effect of GABAB Receptor Antagonist (CGP35348 on Learning and Memory in Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quratulane Gillani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to demonstrate the potential effect of CGP 35348 (GABAB receptor antagonist on the learning, memory formation, and neuromuscular coordination in albino mouse. Mice were intrapertoneally injected with 1 mg CGP 35348/mL of distilled water/Kg body weight, while the control animals were injected with equal volume of saline solution. A battery of neurological tests was applied following the intrapertoneal injections. Results of rota rod indicated that CGP 35348 had no effect on neuromuscular coordination in both male (P=0.528 and female (P=0.125 albino mice. CGP 35348 treated females demonstrated poor exploratory behavior during open filed for several parameters (time mobile (P=0.04, time immobile (P=0.04, rotations (P=0.04, and anticlockwise rotations (P=0.038. The results for Morris water maze (MWM retention phase indicated that CGP 35348 treated male mice took shorter latency to reach the hidden platform (P=0.04 than control indicating improved memory. This observation was complemented by the swim strategies used by mice during training days in MWM as CGP 35348 treated males used more direct and focal approach to reach the platform as the training proceeded.

  12. Hypoxis hemerocallidea Significantly Reduced Hyperglycaemia and Hyperglycaemic-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Liver and Kidney Tissues of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwafemi O. Oguntibeju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypoxis hemerocallidea is a native plant that grows in the Southern African regions and is well known for its beneficial medicinal effects in the treatment of diabetes, cancer, and high blood pressure. Aim. This study evaluated the effects of Hypoxis hemerocallidea on oxidative stress biomarkers, hepatic injury, and other selected biomarkers in the liver and kidneys of healthy nondiabetic and streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 50 mg/kg of STZ to induce diabetes. The plant extract-Hypoxis hemerocallidea (200 mg/kg or 800 mg/kg aqueous solution was administered (daily orally for 6 weeks. Antioxidant activities were analysed using a Multiskan Spectrum plate reader while other serum biomarkers were measured using the RANDOX chemistry analyser. Results. Both dosages (200 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg of Hypoxis hemerocallidea significantly reduced the blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic groups. Activities of liver enzymes were increased in the diabetic control and in the diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg, whereas the 200 mg/kg dosage ameliorated hepatic injury. In the hepatic tissue, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, catalase, and total glutathione were reduced in the diabetic control group. However treatment with both doses improved the antioxidant status. The FRAP and the catalase activities in the kidney were elevated in the STZ-induced diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg of the extract possibly due to compensatory responses. Conclusion. Hypoxis hemerocallidea demonstrated antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effects especially in the liver tissue.

  13. Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you, discussing your symptoms, and going over your health history, your doctor may test for diabetes if he or she suspects you are at risk. To check for diabetes, your doctor may request the following tests: Fasting blood sugar test. This test is usually done ...

  14. Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2015-01-01

    For >30 years, insulin has been the drug of choice for the medical treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus. However, the use of oral hypoglycaemic agents has increased during the past 1–2 decades, so a recent comparison of treatment with glibenclamide, metformin or insulin in women...... with gestational diabetes mellitus is highly relevant....

  15. To determine whether first-degree male relatives of women with polycystic ovary syndrome are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, A; Vimplis, S; Sharma, A; Eid, N; Atiomo, W

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether first-degree male relatives of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) were at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes mellitus (type II DM). In a cross-sectional study, 60 women with PCOS and 112 controls were given a questionnaire. The prevalence of heart disease, stroke, diabetes and associated risk factors among fathers and brothers of women with PCOS and controls, were measured. The percentage of women with PCOS with at least one brother with a risk factor for CVD was 47.5%, around twice that seen in control women (24.71%). The prevalence of heart disease, stroke and diabetes were similar in brothers of women with PCOS and controls. In conclusion, brothers of women with PCOS may be at increased risk of CVD. They form an easily identified group, which can be targeted for primary prevention.

  16. Blastocysts production and collection in albino Syrian hamster using superovulation and intrauterine artificial insemination in non-breeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Amiri Divani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In vivo blastocyst production and collection using superovulation and intrauterine insemination was established in albino Syrian hamsters. Twenty female albino hamsters were injected pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG, 25 IU in non-breeding season and 48 h or 56 h later, 25 IU of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG were injected. Both groups were divided into two subgroups of natural mating and artificial insemination. The former group was mated with a fertile male (1 male for 2 fe-males after hCG injection and in the next morning, the hamsters with vaginal plug were regarded as pregnant. In the artificial insemination group, intrauterine artificial insemination of 1×108 sperms was done 12 h after hCG injection. Blastocysts were counted at 3.5 days after mating or insemination. However, 48 h and 56 h hCG and natural mating and 48 h hCG and artificial insemination were without blastocyst; however the method of 56 h hCG and artificial insemination produced of 15±5 (mean and standard deviation blastocysts in each albino hamster in the winter.

  17. Gallic acid and p-coumaric acid attenuate type 2 diabetes-induced neurodegeneration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Moneim, Adel; Yousef, Ahmed I; Abd El-Twab, Sanaa M; Abdel Reheim, Eman S; Ashour, Mohamed B

    2017-08-01

    The brain of diabetics revealed deterioration in many regions, especially the hippocampus. Hence, the present study aimed to evaluate the effects of gallic acid and p-coumaric acid against the hippocampal neurodegeneration in type 2 diabetic rats. Adult male albino rats were randomly allocated into four groups: Group 1 served as control ones and others were induced with diabetes. Group 2 considered as diabetic, and groups 3 and 4 were further orally treated with gallic acid (20 mg/kg b.wt./day) and p-coumaric acid (40 mg/kg b.wt./day) for six weeks. Diabetic rats revealed significant elevation in the levels of serum glucose, blood glycosylated hemoglobin and serum tumor necrosis factor-α, while the level of serum insulin was significantly declined. Furthermore, the brain of diabetic rats showed a marked increase in oxidative stress and a decrease of antioxidant parameters as well as upregulation the protein expression of Bax and downregulation the protein expression of Bcl-2 in the hippocampus. Treatment of diabetic rats with gallic acid and p-coumaric acid significantly ameliorated glucose tolerance, diminished the brain oxidative stress and improved antioxidant status, declined inflammation and inhibited apoptosis in the hippocampus. The overall results suggested that gallic acid and p-coumaric acid may inhibit hippocampal neurodegeneration via their potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. Therefore, both compounds can be recommended as hopeful adjuvant agents against brain neurodegeneration in diabetics.

  18. Antidiabetic And Antioxidant Effects Of Parsley Extract (Petroselinum Crispum) On Diabetic Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is one of the medicinal herbs in Egypt. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of parsley (10 mg/kg/day) on diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in male albino rats with a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (150 mg/kg). The volatile compounds were separated by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) for analysis of essential oils. The results showed that 18 compounds could be identified (natural antioxidants). Experimental rats were divided into four groups: control, diabetic, diabetic received parsley, and diabetic received irradiated parsley through gastric intubation for 4 weeks. A single administrative dose of alloxan (150 mg/kg) resulted in hyperglycemia, increase in AST, ALT, urea, creatinine, triglycerides, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels and decrease in body weight, serum insulin, total protein and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. Concurrent with those changes, an increased TBARS level was observed. This oxidative stress was related to a decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) levels of alloxan diabetic rats. Intake of parsley extract after diabetes ameliorated hyperglycemia, AST, ALT, body weight, total protein insulin and lipid profiles, and blunted the increase in TBARS and modulated the levels of SOD, CAT and GSH of alloxan treated rats. It could be concluded that parsley extract has a protective effect against hepatotoxicity caused by diabetes

  19. Long-lasting response to oral therapy in a young male with monogenic diabetes as part of HNF1B-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Elena; Lomas, Amparo; Pinés, Pedro J; Lamas, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Mutations in hepatocyte nuclear factor 1β gene ( HNF1B ) are responsible for a multisystemic syndrome where monogenic diabetes (classically known as MODY 5) and renal anomalies, mostly cysts, are the most characteristic findings. Urogenital malformations, altered liver function tests, hypomagnesemia or hyperuricemia and gout are also part of the syndrome. Diabetes in these patients usually requires early insulinization. We present the case of a young non-obese male patient with a personal history of renal multicystic dysplasia and a debut of diabetes during adolescence with simple hyperglycemia, negative pancreatic autoimmunity and detectable C-peptide levels. He also presented epididymal and seminal vesicle cysts, hypertransaminasemia, hyperuricemia and low magnesium levels. In the light of these facts we considered the possibility of a HNF1B mutation. The sequencing study of this gene confirmed a heterozygous mutation leading to a truncated and less functional protein. Genetic studies of his relatives were negative; consequently, it was classified as a de novo mutation. In particular, our patient maintained good control of his diabetes on oral antidiabetic agents for a long period of time. He eventually needed insulinization although oral therapy was continued alongside, allowing reduction of prandial insulin requirements. The real prevalence of mutations in HNF1B is probably underestimated owing to a wide phenotypical variability. As endocrinologists, we should consider this possibility in young non-obese diabetic patients with a history of chronic non-diabetic nephropathy, especially in the presence of some of the other characteristic manifestations. HNF1B mutations are a rare cause of monogenic diabetes, often being a part of a multisystemic syndrome.The combination of young-onset diabetes and genitourinary anomalies with slowly progressive nephropathy of non-diabetic origin in non-obese subjects should rise the suspicion of such occurrence. A family history

  20. Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... including: Blurry vision Excess thirst Fatigue Frequent urination Hunger Weight loss Because type 2 diabetes develops slowly, ... must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get ...

  1. Diabetes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — These datasets provide de-identified insurance data for diabetes. The data is provided by three managed care organizations in Allegheny County (Gateway Health Plan,...

  2. ANTI-DIABETIC EFFECTS OF TURMERIC IN ALLOXAN INDUCE D DIABETIC RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Jeevangi; Manjunath; Deepak D; Prakash G; Prashant; Chetan

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE AND BACKGROUND: Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is one of the common constituents of our daily food. The present study wa s undertaken to evaluate the anti-diabetic effects of ethanolic extract of Rhizomes of curcuma longa in alloxan induced diabetic rats and compared with of Pioglitazone, which is the standard anti-diabetic agent. METHODS: Alloxan monohydrate is used to induce diabetes mellitus in albino rats in the dose of 120mg/kg i.p. and ...

  3. Beneficial effects of origanum majorana on some biochemical and histological changes in alloxan-induced diabetic rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oaman, H.F; Abbas, O.A.

    2010-01-01

    The phyto-chemical potential of marjoram (origanum majorana)is related to its total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Marjoram is used in food preservation and in traditional medicine for the treatment of common oxidation-linked diseases such as diabetes. The present study was conducted to evaluate the protective role of gavage water extract of marjoram, given for two weeks in low and high doses of 20 and 40 mg/kg body weight, in both non diabetic and alloxan diabetic adult male albino rats. The results revealed highly significant decrease of glucose, amylase, insulin, testosterone, cholesterol, AST, ALT, urea and creatinine, in both diabetic groups treated with low and high doses of marjoram, compared to the untreated diabetic group and the values became close to control value. However, the high dose of marjoram increased ALT activity while the lower one decreased it significantly, compared to control . On the other hand , triglycerides was increased in marjoram treated groups and that increase became highly significant in the diabetic marjoram treated ones. The histopathological examination revealed that marjoram is a useful herbal remedy, especially for controlling oxidative damages of pancreas and testis tissues, oral administration of marjoram exerted noticeable amelioration of diabetes and its complications in male adult rats.

  4. The effect of vitamin C and/or E supplementations on type 2 diabetic adult males under metformin treatment: A single-blinded randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Aal, Ali Abd; El-Ghffar, Eman A Abd; Ghali, Asmaa Abu; Zughbur, Mohammed R; Sirdah, Mahmoud M

    2018-03-16

    Recently, there has been an increasing interest in the influence of antioxidant vitamins on the efficacy of oral hypoglycemic therapy in type 2 diabetic patients (T2DM). This single-blinded randomized controlled clinical trial aimed to investigate the effect of vitamin C and/or E supplementation on the efficacy of oral hypoglycemic therapy in T2DM Palestinian male patients from the Gaza Strip. Forty T2DM male patients aged 40-60 years on metformin treatment were randomly divided into four groups, each group received an additional one of the following daily oral supplements for 90 days: placebo; vitamin C; vitamin E and vitamin C plus vitamin E. After overnight fasting, venous blood specimens were collected from all individuals into K3-EDTA tubes and serum tubes for measuring the biochemical and hematological parameters of the study at baseline and after 90 days of vitamins supplementation. The results revealed that vitamin C and/or E improve fasting blood sugar (FBS), HbA1c, lipid profile, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), reduced glutathione (GSH); and Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QISCI) compared with diabetic patients group that received placebo. This study provided additional evidence on the beneficial effects of supplementing antioxidant vitamins in T2DM which could improve the clinical condition and attenuate or prevent diabetic pathogenesis and complications that, secondly to poor glycemic control, could attribute to the imbalance between the decline in the endogenous antioxidants and increasing production of the reactive oxygen species leading to the oxidant-mediated damage present in the diabetic context. Copyright © 2018 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of physical inactivity on subcutaneous adipose tissue metabolism in healthy young male offspring of patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerre, Lise; Sonne, MP; Alibegovic, AC

    2010-01-01

    . The best known environmental modifiable risk factors for type 2 diabetes are obesity and a low level of habitual physical activity (1). Even though there is substantial evidence that a change toward a healthy lifestyle halts the progression of type 2 diabetes (2), certain groups, including first......OBJECTIVE Physical inactivity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes and may be more detrimental in first-degree relative (FDR) subjects, unmasking underlying defects of metabolism. Using a positive family history of type 2 diabetes as a marker of increased genetic risk, the aim of this study...... changes in CON subjects compared with FDR subjects. Physical inactivity per se is not more deleterious in FDR subjects as compared with CON subjects with respect to derangements in AT metabolism. Type 2 diabetes is the product of a complex interplay between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors...

  6. Antidiabetic effect of Chloroxylon swietenia bark extracts on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jayaprasad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes has been increasing at an alarming rate around the world, and experts have relied on remedies from the utilization of ancient drugs that are essentially derived from plants. The present study aimed to evaluate the antidiabetic potential of Chloroxylon swietenia bark extracts on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in male albino Wistar rats by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ (50 mg/kg b.w.. The diabetic rats were administered orally with C. swietenia bark (CSB methanolic (CSBMEt and aqueous (CSBAEt (250 mg/kg b.w. extracts and glibenclamide (600 µg/kg b.w. by intragastric intubation for 45 days. The result showed a heavy loss in weight, increase in blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin level, and decline in plasma insulin and total hemoglobin content. Furthermore, glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bis phosphatase were found to be increased whereas hexokinase and glycogen contents were decreased in STZ induced diabetic rats. CSBAEt, CSBMEt and glibenclamide treated diabetic rats showed moderate reduction in blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels; in addition, plasma insulin and hemoglobin levels were elevated. The altered activities of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes and liver glycogen were improved remarkably. CSBMEt results were comparable to the standard drug glibenclamide. The present findings support the usage of the plant extracts for the traditional treatment of diabetes.

  7. Ameliorative effect of kaempferol, a flavonoid, on oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Numair, Khalid S; Chandramohan, Govindasamy; Veeramani, Chinnadurai; Alsaif, Mohammed A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of kaempferol against oxidative stress in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in male, adult albino rats of the Wistar strain, by intraperitoneal administration of STZ (40 mg/kg body weight (BW)). Kaempferol (100 mg/kg BW) or glibenclamide (600 µg/kg BW) was administered orally once daily for 45 days to normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats. The STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significantly increased levels of plasma glucose, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxides, and conjugated dienes in plasma, liver, kidney, and heart whereas they showed significantly decreased level of plasma insulin. The levels of non-enzymic antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, reduced glutathione) in plasma, liver, kidney, and heart and the activities of enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase) in liver, kidney, and heart were significantly decreased in diabetic rats. Administration of kaempferol to diabetic rats was showed brought back in plasma glucose, insulin, lipid peroxidation products, enzymatic, and non-enzymatic antioxidants to near normal. The present study indicates that kaempferol has a good antioxidant property, as evidenced by its increase of antioxidant status and decrease of lipid peroxidation markers, thus providing protection from the risks of diabetic complications.

  8. Aqueous Extract of Phyllanthus niruri Leaves Displays In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and Prevents the Elevation of Oxidative Stress in the Kidney of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelli Giribabu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available P. niruri has been reported to possess antidiabetic and kidney protective effects. In the present study, the phytochemical constituents and in vitro antioxidant activity of P. niruri leaf aqueous extract were investigated together with its effect on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes levels in diabetic rat kidney. Results. Treatment of diabetic male rats with P. niruri leaf aqueous extract (200 and 400 mg/kg for 28 consecutive days prevents the increase in the amount of lipid peroxidation (LPO product, malondialdehyde (MDA, and the diminution of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activity levels in the kidney of diabetic rats. The amount of LPO showed strong negative correlation with SOD, CAT, and GPx activity levels. P. niruri leaf aqueous extract exhibits in vitro antioxidant activity with IC50 slightly lower than ascorbic acid. Phytochemical screening of plant extract indicates the presence of polyphenols. Conclusion. P. niruri leaf extract protects the kidney from oxidative stress induced by diabetes.

  9. THERAPEUTIC DRUG TRIAL IN ALBINO MICE AGAINST TRYPANOSOMIASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ahmad, A. A. Nasir and A.H. Awan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the trypanocidal efficacy of Antrycide, Fatrybanil and Trypamedium in albino mice experimentally infected sub-cutaneously with Trypanosoma evansi. For this purpose, 25 albino mice were randomly divided into five equal groups i.e. A, B, C, D and E. Groups A, B and C were infected and then treated with Antrycide, Fatrybanil and Trypamedium, respectively. Group D was kept as infected and group E non-infected control. On the basis of blood smear examination, the efficacy of Antrycide and Fatrybanil was found 100% when used in single dose as compared to Trypamedium which was 100% effective with second dose.

  10. Phaleria macrocarpa reduces glomerular growth factor expression in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evy Sulistyoningrum

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetic nephropathy (DN is the most serious complication of diabetes, causing end-stage renal disease throughout the world. Recent studies have reported a direct role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and transforming growth factor-â (TGF-â in DN pathogenesis. VEGF and TGF-â are expressed early in glomeruli in response to hyperglycemia. Active substances of Phaleria macrocarpa (PM pericarp are known to have nephroprotective effects. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff. Boerl pericarp extract on VEGF and TGF-â expression in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods An experimental study was conducted on twenty five male albino (Sprague Dawley rats divided into five groups (of five each: normal control; diabetic; diabetic + metformin 100 mg/kgBW; diabetic + methanolic PM extract 250 mg/kgBW; and diabetic + aqueous PM extract 250 mg/kgBW. Diabetes was induced by alloxan monohydrate 150 mg/BW intraperitoneally. Treatment was given for 3 weeks. VEGF and TGF-â expression analysis was performed by means of immunohistochemical technique. Differences between groups were assessed by one-way ANOVA. Results VEGF expression in the PM extract group was significantly lower than that in the diabetic group and even metformin group (p<0.01. TGF-â expression in methanolic PM extract group was significantly lower than in diabetic and metformin group (p<0.01, but aqueous PM extract group only showed significancy when compared with diabetic group (p< 0.01. Conclusions Phaleria macrocarpa pericarp extract reduces glomerular expression of TGF-â and VEGF in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

  11. Diabetic therapeutic effects of ethyl acetate fraction from the roots of Musa paradisiaca and seeds of Eugenia jambolana in streptozotocin-induced male diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, D K; Ghosh, Debidas; Bhat, B; Talwar, S K; Jaggi, M; Mukherjee, R

    2009-11-01

    The folklore medicine of primitive people has been greatly appreciated for centuries. Many researchers study the curative efficiency and mode of action of various medicinal plants. Serum glucose level, lipid profile, glucose tolerance, hepatic and muscle glycogen contents as well as the activities of hepatic hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase recovered significantly after oral administration of ethyl acetate fractions of Eugenia jambolana (E. jambolana) or Musa paradisiaca (M. paradisiaca) in separate (E. jambolana L.: 200 mg/kg of body weight and M. paradisiaca: 100 mg/kg of body weight) or combined form for 90 days (twice a day through gavage) to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The loss in body weight of diabetic animals was reversed and serum levels of insulin as well as C-peptide, which were found to be reduced in diabetic rats, increased significantly after oral administration of the fractions. A histological study of the rats' pancreas revealed that after 90 days of oral treatment with the plant fractions in separate or combined form, the size and volume of pancreatic islets in diabetic treated rats increased significantly compared with the diabetic control group. Treatment of diabetic rats with the combined dose (300 mg/kg of body weight) of plant fractions (200 mg E. jambolana and 100 mg M. paradisiaca) was found to be more effective than treatment with the individual fraction. The doses of E. jambolana and M. paradisiaca selected for this study are the optimum antihyperglycemic doses of the plant fractions, which were determined after conducting a dose-dependent study at various dose levels (50-500 mg/kg) in our pilot experiments. The plant fractions were found to be free from metabolic toxicity. Through HPTLC finger printing, three different compounds were noted in the ethyl acetate fraction of E. jambolana L. and eight different compounds in the ethyl acetate fraction of M. paradisiaca L. Copyright 2009 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All

  12. Protection against radiation induced testicular damage in Swiss albino mice by mentha piperita (Linn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samarth, Ravindra M; Samarth, Meenakshi [Rajasthan Univ., Jaipur (India). Dept. of Zoology, Radiation and Cancer Biology Lab.

    2008-07-01

    Mentha piperita linn or peppermint (Family - Labiatae) is aromatic and has stimulant and carminative properties. The protective effects of mentha piperita (Linn) extract against radiation induced damage in testis of Swiss albino mice have been studied. Animals (Male Swiss albino mice) were given leaf extract of M. piperita orally (1 g kg{sup -1} day{sup -1}) for three consecutive days prior to radiation exposure (8 Gy gamma radiation). Mice were autopsied at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 30 days of post-irradiation to evaluate the radiomodulatory effect in terms of histological alterations, lipid peroxidation, acid and alkaline phosphatases levels in testis. There was significantly less degree of damage to testis tissue architecture and various cell populations including spermatogonia, spermatids and Leydig cells. Significant decreases in the LPO and acid phosphatase level and increase in level of alkaline phosphatase were observed in testis. The methanolic extract of M. piperita showed high amount of phenolic content, flavonoids content and flavonol. Leaf extract of M. piperita has significant radioprotective effect and the amount of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and flavonol content of extract of M. piperita may be held responsible for its radioprotective effect. (author)

  13. The protective role of damsissa (Ambroosia Maritima) against gamma irradiation in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, O.A.; Mohamed, Y.S.

    2003-01-01

    The present work was directed to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment with damsissa (Ambrosia maritima) for thirty consecutive days pre- irradiation exposure in controlling the post-irradiation hazards in irradiated rats. Male albino rats (Spraue Dowley strain) weighing about 120+- 10 g were used and blood samples were collected from tails of animals thirty days after treatment with damsissa and seven days post irradiation. Blood samples were subjected to biochemical analysis such as liver functions, kidney function and lipid profile. Whole body gamma irradiation of rats at 6 Gy (single dose) caused significant decrease in the contents of total proteins accompanied by significant increase of urea level as recorded on the 7th days post irradiation. Data obtained in this study revealed that whole body gamma irradiation induced significant elevation in all tested blood lipid functions. There was significant increase of aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alanine amino transferase (ALT) whole alkaline phosphatase (ALP) showed statistical significant decrease as compared with the control group. Damisissa (Ambrosia maritima) treatment exerted noticeable amelioration in the the studied biochemical parameters of the irradiated albino rats. The mechanism of action of damsissa may be due to its anti-inflammatory properties against whole body gamma irradiation

  14. Effect of Some Antioxidants on the Physical Fitness of Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, M.I.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, more attention has been paid for searching of natural antioxidants and their evaluation in either medicinal practice or as food raw materials. The aim of the present research is to assess the effect of several well-known products used as antioxidants, on body weight, haemopoesis, endocrine system and lipid profile in normal albino rats. Thirty male adult albino rats were equally arranged into 5 groups, the first group was served as control and the others received special treatments where taurine (2% in drinking water), tryptophan (100 mg/kg b.w. orally), hawthorn extract (50 mg/100 g b.w. orally) and coenzyme Q10 (50 mg/kg b.w. orally) were given for two months. Body weight was regularly recorded twice a week and at the end of the experiment, the rats were decapitated. Red blood cell count (RBCs), hemoglobin (Hb) content, reticulocytic count, white blood cell count (WBCs) and glutathione (GSH) concentration were estimated in blood, while, triiodothyronine (T 3 ), thyroxin (T 4 ), Testosterone, and corticosterone hormones besides lipid profile were estimated in the serum. The results denoted that although there is a slight improvement in the parameters tested, it does not deserve the coast of the regular use of these antioxidants and further investigations still needed

  15. Protection against radiation induced testicular damage in Swiss albino mice by mentha piperita (Linn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarth, Ravindra M.; Samarth, Meenakshi

    2008-01-01

    Mentha piperita linn or peppermint (Family - Labiatae) is aromatic and has stimulant and carminative properties. The protective effects of mentha piperita (Linn) extract against radiation induced damage in testis of Swiss albino mice have been studied. Animals (Male Swiss albino mice) were given leaf extract of M. piperita orally (1 g kg -1 day -1 ) for three consecutive days prior to radiation exposure (8 Gy gamma radiation). Mice were autopsied at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 30 days of post-irradiation to evaluate the radiomodulatory effect in terms of histological alterations, lipid peroxidation, acid and alkaline phosphatases levels in testis. There was significantly less degree of damage to testis tissue architecture and various cell populations including spermatogonia, spermatids and Leydig cells. Significant decreases in the LPO and acid phosphatase level and increase in level of alkaline phosphatase were observed in testis. The methanolic extract of M. piperita showed high amount of phenolic content, flavonoids content and flavonol. Leaf extract of M. piperita has significant radioprotective effect and the amount of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and flavonol content of extract of M. piperita may be held responsible for its radioprotective effect. (author)

  16. Effect of chronic exposure to aspartame on oxidative stress in the brain of albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyyaswamy, Ashok; Rathinasamy, Sheeladevi

    2012-09-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the chronic effect of the artificial sweetener aspartame on oxidative stress in brain regions of Wistar strain albino rats. Many controversial reports are available on the use of aspartame as it releases methanol as one of its metabolite during metabolism. The present study proposed to investigate whether chronic aspartame (75 mg/kg) administration could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain. To mimic the human methanol metabolism, methotrexate (MTX)-treated rats were included to study the aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally and studied along with controls and MTX-treated controls. The blood methanol level was estimated, the animal was sacrificed and the free radical changes were observed in brain discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein thiol levels. It was observed that there was a significant increase in LPO levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, GPx levels and CAT activity with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Moreover, the increases in some of these enzymes were region specific. Chronic exposure of aspartame resulted in detectable methanol in blood. Methanol per se and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions.

  17. Biological studies on albino rats fed with Sorghum bicolor starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Partially purified amylase was extracted from the culture medium of Rhizopus sp. grown in potato dextrose broth for 48 h at room temperature by precipitation with 96.9% ethanol. The enzyme was used to hydrolyze sorghum starch. The hydrolyzed product was afterwards formulated into rat feed, which was fed to albino rats ...

  18. Narratives of Tanzanian Albinos in Kenya and South-Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    Indexed African Journals Online: www.ajol.info ... Postdoctoral Fellow, School of Social and Government Studies, ... A network of syndicates hunting for albinos, .... tracing of PWA's residences and locations, through friends and later through head teachers and principals in secondary schools, key informants in shopping ...

  19. Cutaneous Cancers in Nigerian Albinos: A Review of 22 Cases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-20

    Apr 20, 2018 ... Context: Albinism is an inherited disorder of hypopigmentation involving the skin, eyes, and hair. ... These data include age, gender, site of the lesion, the diagnosis, no of lesions excised .... increase awareness to treatment among the albinos and their .... their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

  20. Biochemical response of normal albino rats to the addition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted to determine the biochemical effect of Hibiscus cannabinus and Murraya koenigii extracts on normal albino rats using standard methods. Analyses carried out indicated that the aqueous leaf extract of H. cannabinus and M. koenigii exhibited significant hypolipideamic activity in normal rats.

  1. Immunological evaluation of Aeromonas infection in albino rats | El ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aeromonas hydrophila is the most common bacterial species causing an acute self limiting diarrheal illness in mammals. Albino rats were categorized into treated and control groups. Treated groups were injected daily intraperitoneally with 0.2ml of bacterial suspension containing 6x106 cells/ml of 0.9% NaCl, while the ...

  2. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF CAMEL MILK AS ANTI-DIABETIC SUPPLEMENT: BIOCHEMICAL, MOLECULAR AND IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Ahmed A; Nassan, Mohammed A; Saleh, Osama M; Soliman, Mohamed M

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes is a serious disease affects human health. Diabetes in advanced stages is accompanied by general weakness and alteration in fats and carbohydrates metabolism. Recently there are some scientific trends about the usage of camel milk (CM) in the treatment of diabetes and its associated alterations. CM contains vital active particles with insulin like action that cure diabetes and its complications but how these effects occur, still unclear. Seventy-five adult male rats of the albino type divided into five equal groups. Group 1 served as a negative control (C). Group 2 was supplemented with camel milk (CM). Diabetes was induced in the remaining groups (3, 4 and 5). Group 3 served as positive diabetic control (D). Group 4 served as diabetic and administered metformin (D+MET). Group 5 served as diabetes and supplemented with camel milk (D+CM). Camel milk was supplemented for two consecutive months. Serum glucose, leptin, insulin, liver, kidney, antioxidants, MDA and lipid profiles were assayed. Tissues from liver and adipose tissues were examined using RT-PCR analysis for the changes in mRNA expression of genes of carbohydrates and lipid metabolism. Pancreas and liver were used for immunohistochemical examination using specific antibodies. Camel milk supplementation ameliorated serum biochemical measurements that altered after diabetes induction. CM supplementation up-regulated mRNA expression of IRS-2 , PK , and FASN genes, while down-regulated the expression of CPT-1 to control mRNA expression level. CM did not affect the expression of PEPCK gene. On the other hand, metformin failed to reduce the expression of CPT-1 compared to camel milk administered rats. Immunohistochemical findings revealed that CM administration restored the immunostaining reactivity of insulin and GLUT-4 in the pancreas of diabetic rats. CM administration is of medical importance and helps physicians in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  3. Dose- and time-dependent association of smoking and its cessation with glycemic control and insulin resistance in male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Fukuoka Diabetes Registry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Ohkuma

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is an important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of smoking and its cessation on glycemic control in diabetic patients has not been fully examined yet. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of smoking status with glycemic level and markers of insulin resistance and secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.A total of 2,490 Japanese male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus aged ≥20 years were divided according to smoking status, amount of cigarettes smoked and years since quitting. The associations with glycemic level and markers of insulin resistance and secretion were examined cross-sectionally.HbA1c levels increased progressively with increases in both number of cigarettes per day and pack-years of cigarette smoking compared with never smokers (P for trend = 0.001 and <0.001, respectively, whereas fasting plasma glucose did not. On the other hand, HbA1c, but not fasting plasma glucose, decreased linearly with increase in years after smoking cessation (P for trend <0.001. These graded relationships persisted significantly after controlling for the confounders, including total energy intake, current drinking, regular exercise, depressive symptoms, and BMI. In addition, a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein also showed similar trends.Smoking and its cessation showed dose- and time-dependent relationship with glycemic control and insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. These findings may highlight the importance of smoking cessation in the clinical management of diabetes mellitus.

  4. Ocular toxicity of AUY922 in pigmented and albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, Danielle; VerHoeve, James; Schadt, Heiko; Vicart, Axel; Walker, Ursula Junker; Turner, Oliver; Richardson, Terrilyn A.; Wolford, Suzanne T.; Miller, Paul E.; Zhou, Wei; Lu, Hong; Akimov, Mikhail; Kluwe, William

    2016-01-01

    AUY922, a heat shock protein 90 inhibitor is associated with ocular adverse events (AEs). To provide a better understanding of ocular AEs in patients, 4 investigative studies were performed in a step-wise approach to assess retinal structure and function in pigmented (Brown Norway) and albino (Wistar) rats. In rats administered 30 mg/kg of AUY922, the AUC 0–24 h and C max are comparable to that in patients at 70 mg/m 2 . AUY922 at ≥ 30 mg/kg was poorly tolerated by rats with morbidity or mortality generally after the third weekly treatment. Electroretinography (ERG) changes were observed at doses ≥ 30 mg/kg. The ERG changes were dose dependent, consistent with an effect on the photoreceptors, and fully reversible. The ERG effects could not be minimized by decreasing the C max while maintaining AUC. Histopathological changes were seen mainly when rats were administered AUY922 at 100 mg/kg. The 2-hour infusion of AUY922 at 100 mg/kg caused disorganization of the outer segment photoreceptor morphology in male Brown Norway rats; the severity of the disorganization increased with the number of administrations, but was reversible during a 4-week posttreatment period. There was no major difference in ocular response between Brown Norway and Wistar rats. No changes in serum iron levels, and no changes in rhodopsin, PDE6α, β-transducin concentrations, or retinal pigment epithelium-specific protein RPE65 expression were observed after single and multiple infusions of AUY922 at 100 mg/kg compared to vehicle-treated controls. AUY922 retinal toxicity in rats recapitulates and further characterizes that reported in patients and is shown to be reversible, while a precise molecular mechanism for the effect was not determined. - Highlights: • Ocular toxicity of AUY922 was assessed in Brown Norway and Wistar rats. • AUY922 at ≥ 30 mg/kg was generally not well tolerated by rats. • Electroretinography (ERG) changes were observed at doses ≥ 30 mg/kg. • ERG changes

  5. Ocular toxicity of AUY922 in pigmented and albino rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, Danielle, E-mail: danielle.roman@novartis.com [Preclinical Safety, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel (Switzerland); VerHoeve, James [Ocular Services on Demand, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI (United States); Schadt, Heiko; Vicart, Axel; Walker, Ursula Junker [Preclinical Safety, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel (Switzerland); Turner, Oliver [Preclinical Safety, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ (United States); Richardson, Terrilyn A. [Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Northeast Ohio Medical University, Rootstown, OH (United States); Wolford, Suzanne T. [Covance Laboratories Inc., Madison, WI (United States); Miller, Paul E. [Comparative Ophthalmic Research Laboratory (CORL), University of Wisconsin, Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, Madison, WI (United States); Zhou, Wei [Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ (United States); Lu, Hong [Biologics Clinical Pharmacology, Janssen BioTherapeutics at Johnson & Johnson, Spring House, PA (United States); Akimov, Mikhail [Oncology Global Development, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel (Switzerland); Kluwe, William [Preclinical Safety, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ (United States)

    2016-10-15

    AUY922, a heat shock protein 90 inhibitor is associated with ocular adverse events (AEs). To provide a better understanding of ocular AEs in patients, 4 investigative studies were performed in a step-wise approach to assess retinal structure and function in pigmented (Brown Norway) and albino (Wistar) rats. In rats administered 30 mg/kg of AUY922, the AUC{sub 0–24} {sub h} and C{sub max} are comparable to that in patients at 70 mg/m{sup 2}. AUY922 at ≥ 30 mg/kg was poorly tolerated by rats with morbidity or mortality generally after the third weekly treatment. Electroretinography (ERG) changes were observed at doses ≥ 30 mg/kg. The ERG changes were dose dependent, consistent with an effect on the photoreceptors, and fully reversible. The ERG effects could not be minimized by decreasing the C{sub max} while maintaining AUC. Histopathological changes were seen mainly when rats were administered AUY922 at 100 mg/kg. The 2-hour infusion of AUY922 at 100 mg/kg caused disorganization of the outer segment photoreceptor morphology in male Brown Norway rats; the severity of the disorganization increased with the number of administrations, but was reversible during a 4-week posttreatment period. There was no major difference in ocular response between Brown Norway and Wistar rats. No changes in serum iron levels, and no changes in rhodopsin, PDE6α, β-transducin concentrations, or retinal pigment epithelium-specific protein RPE65 expression were observed after single and multiple infusions of AUY922 at 100 mg/kg compared to vehicle-treated controls. AUY922 retinal toxicity in rats recapitulates and further characterizes that reported in patients and is shown to be reversible, while a precise molecular mechanism for the effect was not determined. - Highlights: • Ocular toxicity of AUY922 was assessed in Brown Norway and Wistar rats. • AUY922 at ≥ 30 mg/kg was generally not well tolerated by rats. • Electroretinography (ERG) changes were observed at doses ≥ 30

  6. Differences in MITF gene expression and histology between albino and normal sea cucumbers ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Heling; Yang, Hongsheng; Zhao, Huan; Liu, Shilin; Wang, Tianming

    2012-01-01

    Albino Apostichopus japonicus occur both in the wild and in captivity. The offspring of albino A. japonicus also suffer from albinism. The formation of melanin in the melanocytes is dependant on microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). To investigate the role of MITF in controlling albinism, we cloned the full-length MITF cDNA from A. japonicus and compared MITF mRNA expression in albino and normal A. japonicus. In addition, we used light and electron microscopy to compare histological samples of normal and albino A. japonicus. The body wall of albino adults was characterized by significantly lower levels of MITF expression and lower numbers of epidermal melanocytes, which also contained less melanin. In albino juvenile offspring, MITF expression levels were significantly lower 32 d after fertilization and there were fewer, and less developed, epidermal melanocytes. Thus, we conclude that albino A. japonicus have fewer melanocytes and a reduced ability to synthesize melanin, likely because of lower expression of MITF.

  7. The stagnation of the Mexican male life expectancy in the first decade of the 21st century: the impact of homicides and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; García-Guerrero, Víctor Manuel; Echarri-Cánovas, Carlos Javier

    2015-01-01

    In the first decade of the 21st century, the Mexican life expectancy changed from a long trend of increase to stagnation. These changes concur with an increase in deaths by homicides that the country experienced in that decade, and an obesity epidemic that had developed over the last decades of the 20th century. We quantify the impact of causes of death on life expectancy from 2000 to 2010. Two approaches to analyse causes of death are used: the number of life years lost due to each of the causes of death in a given year, and cause-decomposition techniques for comparisons of life expectancy from 2000 to 2010. The apparent stagnation in life expectancy is the result of an increase in deaths by homicides and diabetes mellitus on the one hand, and the positive improvements observed in other causes of death on the other. The negative impact of homicides is particularly observed for ages 15 and 50, and for that of diabetes mellitus at ages above 45 years. There is little basis for optimism regarding the future scenarios of the health of the Mexican population based on the first decade of the 21st century. Male life expectancy would have increased by 2 years if deaths by homicides and diabetes mellitus had been avoided. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. [Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms of susceptibility genes of type 2 diabetes mellitus with liability to gout among ethnic Han Chinese males from coastal region of Shandong].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lin; Xin, Ruosai; Sun, Jian; Hou, Feng; Li, Changgui; Hu, Xinlin; Liu, Zhen; Wang, Yao; Li, Xinde; Ren, Wei; Wang, Xuefeng; Jia, Zhaotong

    2015-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of susceptibility genes of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with liability to gout among ethnic Han Chinese males from coastal region of Shandong province. METHODS Seven SNPs within the susceptibility genes of T2DM, including rs10773971(G/C) and rs4766398(G/C) of WNT5B gene, rs10225163(G/C) of JAZF1 gene, rs2069590(T/A) of BDKRB2 gene, rs5745709(G/A) of HGF gene, rs1991914(C/A) of OTOP1 gene and rs2236479(G/A) of COL18A1 gene, were typed with a custom-made Illumina GoldenGate Genotyping assay in 480 male patients with gout and 480 male controls. Potential association was assessed with the chi-square test. RESULTS No significant difference was detected for the 7 selected SNPs in terms of genotypic and allelic frequencies (P > 0.05). When age and body mass index (BMI) were adjusted, the 7 genetic variants still showed no significant association with gout. CONCLUSION The genotypes of the 7 selected SNPs are not associated with gout in ethnic Han Chinese male patients from the coastal region of Shandong province. However, the results need to be replicated in larger sets of patients collected from other regions and populations.

  9. The Hypoglycemic and Antioxidant Activity of Cress Seed and Cinnamon on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetes in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaa Qusti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to estimate the stimulation of pancreas of rats with streptozotocin induced diabetes using 20% (w/w garden cress seed (Lepidium sativum and cinnamon methanol extracts. The positive control diabetic group showed a significant increase in fasting blood sugar, lipid peroxide, interleukin-6, carboxymethyl lysine, serum uric acid, urea, creatinine, immunoglobulins, and urine albumin and a significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes, sodium ions, potassium ions, and urine creatinine. Severe histopathological changes in the kidney and pancreas tissues in hyperglycemic rats were also shown in the positive control diabetic group. Meanwhile, the groups that were treated with 20% garden cress seed and cinnamon methanol extracts showed a significant decrease in fasting blood sugar and all elevated abovementioned biochemical parameters and an increase in the lowered ones restoring them nearly to the normal levels of G1. Kidney and pancreas tissues were also ameliorated and restored nearly to the normal status. Both garden cress seed and cinnamon methanol extracts succeeded in controlling hyperglycemia in rats with streptozotocin induced diabetes and ameliorated the biochemical and histopathological changes because of their antioxidant activity acquired by their possession of phenolic phytochemicals.

  10. Retardation of muscle growth in castrated male mice: further ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retardation of muscle growth in castrated male mice was studied as an evidence for the influence of hormones on the development of muscle mass. Male albino mice were castrated at 28days of age by open castration method. The weights and the muscle mass indices (mg muscle weight per gram body weight) of the ...

  11. Efficacy of standardised herbal extracts in type 1 diabetes - an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, the hypoglycemic activity of Withania somnifera Dunal, Allium sativum Linn., Gymnema sylvestre (Retz.) Schult, Ferula foetida (Bunge.) Reg. and Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. extracts have been studied in an experimental model of type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes was induced in albino rats by a single ...

  12. Neuroprotective effect of Cucumis melo Var. flexuosus leaf extract on the brains of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Doaa S

    2017-02-01

    The central nervous system is one of the most vulnerable organs affected by the oxidative stress associated with diabetes mellitus. Healthy food provides an important source for antioxidants. Therefore, the protective effect of Cucumis melo var. flexuosus (C. melo var. flexuosus) leaf extract on the brains of diabetic rats was investigated. Adult male albino rats divided into 5 groups of 6 rats each were assigned into a normal control group and four diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced in rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 60 mg/kg bw). One of the four diabetic groups was left untreated and was considered as a diabetic control group while the three other groups were treated with C. melo var. flexuosus leaf extract at the doses of 30, 60 and 120 mg/kg bw for a period of 30 days. After completion of experimental duration plasma and brains were used for evaluating biochemical changes. The obtained data showed that C. melo var. flexuosus leaf extract treatment lowered blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, brain tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin levels, brain malondialdehyde content and caspase-3 activity. Furthermore, the treatment resulted in a marked increase in plasma dopamine, melatonin, brain vascular endothelial growth factor-A levels, brain catalase and superoxide dismutase activities. From the present study, it can be concluded that the C. melo var. flexuosus leaf extract exerts a neuroprotective effect against oxidative damage associated with diabetes.

  13. Development of spermatic granuloma in albino rats following administration of water extract of Heliotropium bacciferum Forssk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Khalid; Alahmadi, Bassam A; Alhimaidi, Ahmed; Abou-Tarboush, Faisal M; Farah, Mohammad Abul; Mahmoud, Ahmed; Alfaifi, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    A spermatic granuloma is a chronic inflammatory reaction produced in response to extravasated sperm within the intertubular connective tissue. The present study investigates the possible toxic effects of water extract of Heliotropium bacciferum on the reproductive system of male albino rats and the associated potential for the development of spermatic granulomas. H. bacciferum is a herbal plant used in traditional medicine and reported to have cytotoxic effects due to pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Histological examinations revealed no changes in the tissues of the testes, although, some changes were detected in the cauda epididymis, the most important of which was the development of small lesions of spermatic granulomas. Clear gaps were observed between the epithelial linings of the epididymal tubules.

  14. Macroscopic description of the coronary arteries in Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yoldas

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A total of 25 (13 male, 12 female adult, healthy Swiss albino mice were used to investigate the origin, course and anastomoses of coronary arteries. Coloured latex was injected into the aortic arch to enable these arteries to be clearly discerned. A. coronaria sinistra was larger than A. coronaria dextra. It was divided into a Ramus interventricularis paraconalis and a Ramus circumflexus sinister. However, in 2 specimens, the septal ramus, was observed to stem directly from the left coronary artery, and only 1 ventricular branch arose from the left circumflex. The collateral branches of the paraconal interventricular ramus had a larger diameter and more extensive distribution was observed in these specimens. The A. coronaria dextra was divided into a Ramus septalis and Ramus circumflexus dexter. The Ramus interventricularis subsinuosis was not detected in this study. The ventricular branches of the left coronary artery run intramyocardially whereas the branches of the right coronary artery course subendocardially.

  15. Can preoperative serum level of creatinine predict new-onset atrial fibrillation in non-diabetic male patients undergoing open heart surgery? A retrograde view.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Jalil Mirhosseini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Renal dysfunction is a risk marker in patients who candidate for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG. Renal disorder is associated with prolonged stays in intensive care unit and hospital, morbidity and mortality. Aim of this study is specific evaluation of association between preoperative creatinine (Cr with atrial fibrillation (AF after elective off-pump CABG in non-diabetic male patients with normal ejection fraction. Two hundred non-diabetic male patients with normal ejection fraction undergoing elective off pump CABG surgery enrolled in this cross-sectional study and were stratified by present or absence of postoperative atrial fibrillation: patients with postoperative new-onset atrial fibrillation (n=100 as group 1 and patients without new-onset postoperative atrial fibrillation as group 2 (n=100. Preoperative serological test of the participants, such as serum creatinine, were recorded in their medical dossiers. Data were analyzed in SPSS-16 software and tested for association between atrial fibrillation with creatinine level by using student t test, chi-square test or logistic regression. Cr level in patients with and without AF three days before surgery were 1.8±0.3 and 1.0±0.4 respectively (P value for Cr=0.00. On surgical day, mean Cr level in patients with and without AF were 1.6±0.2 and 1.1±0.5 respectively (P value for Cr = 0.00. Of the 100, male patients with postoperative AF, duration and frequency of recurrence of AF were not associated with Cr at three days before surgery and on surgical days (P>0.05. Patients with postoperative AF had unsuitable status of renal function compare to patients without AF; however, preoperative serum creatinine cannot associate with duration and frequency of recurrence of AF.

  16. Protective role of Scoparia dulcis plant extract on brain antioxidant status and lipidperoxidation in STZ diabetic male Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Pari, Leelavinothan; Latha, Muniappan

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis on the occurrence of oxidative stress in the brain of rats during diabetes by measuring the extent of oxidative damage as well as the status of the antioxidant defense system. Methods Aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis plant was administered orally (200 mg/kg body weight) and the effect of extract on blood glucose, plasma insulin and the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance...

  17. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity of Piper longum root aqueous extract in STZ induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabi Shaik Abdul

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The available drugs for diabetes, Insulin or Oral hypoglycemic agents have one or more side effects. Search for new antidiabetic drugs with minimal or no side effects from medicinal plants is a challenge according to WHO recommendations. In this aspect, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Piper longum root aqueous extract (PlrAqe in streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in male Wister albino rats by intraperitoneal administration of STZ (50 mg/kg.b.w. Fasting blood glucose (FBG levels were measured by glucose-oxidase & peroxidase reactive strips. Serum biochemical parameters such as glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL and high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol were estimated. The activities of liver and kidney functional markers were measured. The statistical analysis of results was carried out using Student t-test and one-way analysis (ANOVA followed by DMRT. Results During the short term study the aqueous extract at a dosage of 200 mg/kg.b.w was found to possess significant antidiabetic activity after 6 h of the treatment. The administration of aqueous extract at the same dose for 30 days in STZ induced diabetic rats resulted in a significant decrease in FBG levels with the corrections of diabetic dyslipidemia compared to untreated diabetic rats. There was a significant decrease in the activities of liver and renal functional markers in diabetic treated rats compared to untreated diabetic rats indicating the protective role of the aqueous extract against liver and kidney damage and its non-toxic property. Conclusions From the above results it is concluded that the plant extract is capable of managing hyperglycemia and complications of diabetes in STZ induced diabetic rats. Hence this plant may be considered as one of the

  18. Comparative alteration in atherogenic indices and hypocholesteremic effect of palm oil and palm oil mill effluent in normal albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, John A; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Lawal, Babatunde A; Nwachukwu, Viola A; Tugbobo-Amisu, Adesewa O; Okafor, Ebelechukwu N

    2015-09-01

    The comparative hypocholesteremic effect of feeding palm oil and palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated in male albino rats. Diets were prepared and designed to contain 50% of energy as carbohydrate, 35% as fat, and 15% as protein. Groups of six rats were each fed one of these diets, while a group was fed pelletized mouse chow which served as the control. Feeding on palm oil and POME led to a significant increase (p palm oil fed rats compared to POME. These results indicate the protective potentials of palm oil against cardiovascular disease, as well as hyperlipidemia that characterize obesity and hypertension; as compared to its effluent.

  19. Effects of aspartame on the evaluation of electrophysiological responses in Wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbind Kumar Choudhary

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aspartame is a non-nutritive sweetener that is used predominantly in various ‘diet’ and ‘low-calorie’ products, such as beverages, instant breakfasts, desserts, breath mints, sugar-free chewing gum, vitamins, and pharmaceuticals, consumed by millions of people who are attempting weight loss, young adults and diabetic persons. On a weight basis, the metabolism of aspartame generates approximately 50% phenylalanine, 40% aspartic acid and 10% methanol. The detailed mechanisms of the effects of aspartame on the electrophysiological response are still unclear; therefore, this study was designed to clarify whether longer-term aspartame consumption has any effect on the electrophysiological response in Wistar albino rats. The oral administration of aspartame in a safe dose of 40 mg/kg bodyweight/day (as recommended by EFSA, 2012 was tested in Wistar albino rats for a longer period (90 days. Electrophysiological responses, including heart rate variability (HRV and electroencephalogram (EEG pattern, were assessed in a folate-deficient animal model along with control animals using BIOPAC and EEG equipment (model RMS EEG–24 brain new-plus: RMS – Recorder and Medicare systems. In this study, the folate-deficient animal model was used to mimic human methanol metabolism in rats. After 90 days of aspartame treatment, a significant alteration was observable in the time domain [Mean RR (ms SDNN (ms RMSSD (ms PNN50 (%] and the frequency domain [LF, HF, and LF/HF ratio] with significantly impaired frequency and amplitude of the fronto-parietal and occipital EEG waves at p ≤ 0.05. The results of this study clearly indicate that the oral consumption of aspartame reduced HRV, with sympathetic dominance and loss of vagal tone, and altered sympathovagal activity along with impairment of learning and memory, showing an additional effect on health within this study duration. The aspartame metabolites methanol and formaldehyde may be the causative factors

  20. Effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Rhus coriaria seed on glucose and insulin related biomarkers, lipid profile, and hepatic enzymes in nicotinamide-streptozotocin-induced type II diabetic male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Heidari, Hamid; Junghani, Majid Salehizade; Absari, Reza; Khoogar, Mehdi; Ghaedi, Ehsan

    2017-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes often leads to dislipidemia and abnormal activity of hepatic enzymes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic properties of Rhus coriaria ( R. coriaria ) seed extrac on nicotinamide-streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic mice. In this experimental study, 56 male Naval Medical Research Institute mice (30-35 g) were randomly separated into seven groups: control, diabetic group, diabetic mice treated with glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg, as standard antidiabetic drug) or R. coriaria seed extract in doses of 200 and 300 mg/kg, and control groups received these two doses of extract orally for 28 days. Induction of diabetes was done by intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide and streptozotocin. Ultimately, body weight of mice, blood levels of glucose, insulin, hepatic enzymes, leptin, and lipid profile were assayed. After induction of type 2 diabetes, level of glucose, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase increased and level of insulin and high density lipoprotein decreased remarkably. Administration of both doses of extract decreased level of glucose and cholesterol significantly in diabetic mice. LDL level decreased in treated group with dose of 300 mg/kg of the extract. Although usage of the extract improved level of other lipid profiles, insulin and hepatic enzymes, changes weren't significant. This study showed R. coriaria seeds administration has a favorable effect in controlling some blood parameters in type 2 diabetes. Therefore it may be beneficial in the treatment of diabetes.

  1. Comparative evaluation of the anti-diabetic activity of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. heartwood in alloxan induced diabetic rats using extracts obtained by optimized conventional and non conventional extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devgan, Manish; Nanda, Arun; Ansari, Shahid Husain

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-diabetic activity of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. heartwood in alloxan induced diabetic rats using extracts obtained by optimized conventional and non conventional extraction methods. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Pterocarpus marsupium heartwood were prepared by conventional methods (infusion, decoction, maceration and percolation) and non conventional methods, such as ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). The crude aqueous extracts were administered orally to both normal and alloxan induced male albino rats (Sprague-Dawley strain). The experimental set up consisted of 48 male albino rats divided into 6 groups: Normal control, diabetic control (sterile normal saline, 1 ml/100 g body weight), standard (gliclazide, 25 mg/1000g of body weight), groups 4-6 (crude aqueous percolation, optimized UAE and MAE extract, 250 mg/1000g of body weight). In acute treatment, the reduction of blood glucose level was statistically significant with the oral administration of UAE and percolation aqueous extracts to the hyperglycemic rats. In sub-acute treatment, the UAE aqueous extract led to consistent and statistically significant (p<0.001) reduction in the blood glucose levels. There was no abnormal change in body weight of the hyperglycemic animals after 10 days of administration of plant extracts and gliclazide. This study justifies the traditional claim and provides a rationale for the use of Pterocarpus marsupium to treat diabetes mellitus. The antidiabetic activity of Pterocarpus marsupium can be enhanced by extracting the heartwood by non conventional method of UAE.

  2. Vigabatrin can enhance electroretinographic responses in pigmented and albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akula, James D; Noonan, Emily R; Di Nardo, Alessia; Favazza, Tara L; Zhang, Nan; Sahin, Mustafa; Hansen, Ronald M; Fulton, Anne B

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of the antiepileptic medication vigabatrin (VGB) on the retina of pigmented rats. Scotopic and photopic electroretinograms were recorded from dark- and light-adapted Long-Evans (pigmented) and Sprague Dawley (albino) rats administered, daily, 52-55 injections of 250 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) VGB or 25-26 injections of 500 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) VGB, or a corresponding number of sham injections. Sensitivity and saturated amplitude of the rod photoresponse (S, Rm(P3)) and postreceptor response (1/σ, Vm) were derived, as were sensitivity and amplitude of the cone-mediated postreceptor response (1/σ(cone), Vm(cone)). The oscillatory potentials and responses to a series of flickering lights (6.25, 12.5, 25 and 50 Hz) were studied in the time and frequency domains. A subset of rats' eyes was harvested for Western blotting or histology. Of the parameters derived from dark-adapted ERG responses, in both pigmented and albino rats, VGB repeatedly and reliably enhanced electroretinographic parameters; no significant ERG deficits were noted. No significant alterations were observed in ER/oxidative stress or in the Akt cell death/survival pathway. There were migrations of photoreceptor nuclei toward the RPE and outgrowths of bipolar cell dendrites into the outer nuclear layer in VGB-treated rats; these were never observed in sham-treated animals. Although VGB is associated with retinal dysfunction in patients and VGB toxicity has been demonstrated by other laboratories in the albino rat, in our pigmented and albino rats, VGB did not induce deficits in, but rather enhanced, retinal function. Nonetheless, retinal neuronal dysplasia was observed.

  3. Visceral fat dominant distribution in male type 2 diabetic patients is closely related to hepatic insulin resistance, irrespective of body type

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    Miyazaki Yoshinori

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All previous studies that investigated the association between abdominal fat distribution and insulin resistance evaluated subcutaneous and visceral fat area and/or volume, but these values were not related to the body type of each subject. In the present study we have examined the association between abdominal fat distribution and peripheral (muscle/hepatic sensitivity to insulin using the visceral to abdominal subcutaneous fat area ratio (VF/SF ratio in male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This ratio defines the predominancy of visceral or subcutaneous abdominal adiposity, independent of the body type of each individual. Methods Thirty-six type 2 diabetic male patients underwent a euglycemic insulin clamp (insulin infusion rate = 40 mU/m2·min with 3-3H-glucose to measure insulin-mediated total body (primarily reflects muscle glucose disposal (TGD and suppression of endogenous (primarily reflects liver glucose production (EGP in response to a physiologic increase in plasma insulin concentration. Abdominal subcutaneous (SF and intraabdominal visceral fat (VF areas were quantitated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI at the level of L4–5. Results TGD and TGD divided by steady state plasma insulin concentration during the insulin clamp (TGD/SSPI correlated inversely with body mass index (BMI, total fat mass (FM measured by 3H2O, SF and VF areas, while VF/SF ratio displayed no significant relationship with TGD or TGD/SSPI. In contrast, EGP and the product of EGP and SSPI during the insulin clamp (an index hepatic insulin resistance correlated positively with VF/SF ratio, but not with BMI, FM, VF or SF. Conclusion We conclude that, independent of the individual's body type, visceral fat dominant accumulation as opposed to subcutaneous fat accumulation is associated with hepatic insulin resistance, whereas peripheral (muscle insulin resistance is more closely related to general obesity (i.e. higher BMI and total FM

  4. Combined treatment with melatonin and insulin improves glycemic control, white adipose tissue metabolism and reproductive axis of diabetic male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ariclecio Cunha de; Andreotti, Sandra; Sertie, Rogério António Laurato; Campana, Amanda Baron; de Proença, André Ricardo Gomes; Vasconcelos, Renata Prado; Oliveira, Keciany Alves de; Coelho-de-Souza, Andrelina Noronha; Donato-Junior, José; Lima, Fábio Bessa

    2018-04-15

    Melatonin treatment has been reported to be capable of ameliorating metabolic diabetes-related abnormalities but also to cause hypogonadism in rats. We investigated whether the combined treatment with melatonin and insulin can improve insulin resistance and other metabolic disorders in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes during neonatal period and the repercussion of this treatment on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. At the fourth week of age, diabetic animals started an 8-wk treatment with only melatonin (0.2 mg/kg body weight) added to drinking water at night or associated with insulin (NHP, 1.5 U/100 g/day) or only insulin. Animals were then euthanized, and the subcutaneous (SC), epididymal (EP), and retroperitoneal (RP) fat pads were excised, weighed and processed for adipocyte isolation for morphometric analysis as well as for measuring glucose uptake, oxidation, and incorporation of glucose into lipids. Hypothalamus was collected for gene expression and blood samples were collected for biochemical assays. The treatment with melatonin plus insulin (MI) was capable of maintaining glycemic control. In epididymal (EP) and subcutaneous (SC) adipocytes, the melatonin plus insulin (MI) treatment group recovered the insulin responsiveness. In the hypothalamus, melatonin treatment alone promoted a significant reduction in kisspeptin-1, neurokinin B and androgen receptor mRNA levels, in relation to control group. Combined treatment with melatonin and insulin promoted a better glycemic control, improving insulin sensitivity in white adipose tissue (WAT). Indeed, melatonin treatment reduced hypothalamic genes related to reproductive function. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. EVALUATION OF THE POSSIBLE ANTIOXIDANT EFFECTS OF NIGELLA SATIVA AND CURCUMA LONGA IN AMELIORATING DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY IN RATS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OSMAN, N.N.; FARAG, M.F.S.; DARWISH, M.M

    2009-01-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia in diabetes leads to the overproduction of free radicals and the evidence is increasing because these radicals are responsible for the development of diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy is an important microvascular complication and one of the main causes of end stage renal disease. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that combined treatment with Nigella sativa (NS) and Curcuma longa (CL) is more effective than each of them alone in improving renal function and oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.Diabetes was induced in male albino rats with a single intravenous injection of alloxan (150 mg/kg). Two weeks after alloxan injection, rats were divided into five groups; control, diabetic and diabetic rats received either NS (10ml/kg/day), or CL (80mg/kg/day) and their combination by gastric intubation for 4 weeks.Diabetic rats exhibited many symptoms including loss of body weight, hyperglycemia, polyuria, renal enlargement and renal dysfunction. Significant increase in TBARS (lipid peroxidation marker) was observed in diabetic kidney. This was accompanied by a significant decrease in GSH content, SOD and CAT activities in the kidneys. Daily oral ingestion of NS and/or CL extract for 4 weeks has attenuated the oxidative stress in the kidney and reversed the adverse effect of diabetes in rats by lowering blood glucose levels, increased plasma insulin and restored body weight loss and renal function.These results confirm the role of oxidative stress in the development of diabetic nephropathy and point to the possible anti-oxidative mechanism being responsible for the nephroprotective action of NS and CL.

  6. Possibilities оf use of testosterone undecanoate in treatment in stroke male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

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    L. Yu. Morgunov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We have studied 154 men with the first hemispheric ischemic stroke. Clinical and laboratory studies have revealed the androgen deficiency in 66.3 %, with its frequency higher in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (50 % and 26.3 %, respectively. Forty-two men with diabetes mellitus type 2 and acquired androgenic deficit received replacing treatment with testosterone undecanoate. After 2 years from the beginning of treatment, there were the decrease in clinical severity of androgenic deficit, the increase of total and free testosterone levels, and muscle power in the main group compared to the controls. Body mass index, glycated hemoglobin, cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins have decreased as well. Secondary stroke has developed in 3 (7.1 % patients of the main group and in 5 (16.6 % controls. The treatment with androgens has a positive effect on risk factors of secondary ischemic stroke. It is an effective method for improvement of social adaptation of men survived after the stroke..

  7. Protective role of Scoparia dulcis plant extract on brain antioxidant status and lipidperoxidation in STZ diabetic male Wistar rats

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    Latha Muniappan

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis on the occurrence of oxidative stress in the brain of rats during diabetes by measuring the extent of oxidative damage as well as the status of the antioxidant defense system. Methods Aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis plant was administered orally (200 mg/kg body weight and the effect of extract on blood glucose, plasma insulin and the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, hydroperoxides, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and reduced glutathione (GSH were estimated in streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats. Glibenclamide was used as standard reference drug. Results A significant increase in the activities of plasma insulin, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase and reduced glutathione was observed in brain on treatment with 200 mg/kg body weight of Scoparia dulcis plant extract (SPEt and glibenclamide for 6 weeks. Both the treated groups showed significant decrease in TBARS and hydroperoxides formation in brain, suggesting its role in protection against lipidperoxidation induced membrane damage. Conclusions Since the study of induction of the antioxidant enzymes is considered to be a reliable marker for evaluating the antiperoxidative efficacy of the medicinal plant, these findings suggest a possible antiperoxidative role for Scoparia dulcis plant extract. Hence, in addition to antidiabetic effect, Scoparia dulcis possess antioxidant potential that may be used for therapeutic purposes.

  8. Protective role of Scoparia dulcis plant extract on brain antioxidant status and lipidperoxidation in STZ diabetic male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pari, Leelavinothan; Latha, Muniappan

    2004-11-02

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis on the occurrence of oxidative stress in the brain of rats during diabetes by measuring the extent of oxidative damage as well as the status of the antioxidant defense system. Aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis plant was administered orally (200 mg/kg body weight) and the effect of extract on blood glucose, plasma insulin and the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), hydroperoxides, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were estimated in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Glibenclamide was used as standard reference drug. A significant increase in the activities of plasma insulin, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase and reduced glutathione was observed in brain on treatment with 200 mg/kg body weight of Scoparia dulcis plant extract (SPEt) and glibenclamide for 6 weeks. Both the treated groups showed significant decrease in TBARS and hydroperoxides formation in brain, suggesting its role in protection against lipidperoxidation induced membrane damage. Since the study of induction of the antioxidant enzymes is considered to be a reliable marker for evaluating the antiperoxidative efficacy of the medicinal plant, these findings suggest a possible antiperoxidative role for Scoparia dulcis plant extract. Hence, in addition to antidiabetic effect, Scoparia dulcis possess antioxidant potential that may be used for therapeutic purposes.

  9. Secondary nocturnal enuresis related to central diabetes insipidus as an early manifestation of intracranial germinomatous germ cell tumors in a series of male youngsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaefthimiou, Apostolos; Kyrgios, Ioannis; Kotanidou, Eleni P; Maggana, Ioanna; Mouzaki, Konstantina; Galli-Tsinopoulou, Assimina

    2015-02-01

    Nocturnal enuresis is a common symptom in children. It is usually attributed to benign causes and diagnostic evaluation is not carried out. We report three male young patients initially presenting with short stature and nocturnal enuresis, related to diabetes insipidus, caused by intracranial germinomatous germ cell tumors. In all three cases, water deprivation tests confirmed diabetes insipidus. Extensive endocrinological investigation also showed further hormone deficiencies. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed the presence of a central nervous system lesion and histology confirmed the final diagnosis. Surgery, radiation with or without chemotherapy was conducted and the patients were treated with hormone replacement therapies. The patients after a long follow-up were free of disease. We present these cases to alert clinicians to bear in mind that the presence of an intracranial germinomatous germ cell tumor should at least be considered in a child presenting with bed wetting, especially if additional symptoms and signs, including late onset puberty and growth delay or morning hypernatremia, may coexist. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Modulatory influence of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced hepatic lesions in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harsha, Radha; Purohit, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    The major objectives in radiobiology has been the development of agents that can mitigate the damage produced by ionizing radiation to normal tissues and thus reduces the side effects caused by radiation and improvement of cancer radiotherapy. The various agents have drawn attention of researchers as they provide wider acceptability and least side effects. The current study was aimed to investigate the protective effect of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced changes in the liver of Swiss albino mice. For the study healthy male Swiss albino mice (6 to 8 weeks old) were selected from an inbred colony and kept in polypropylene cages. They were provided with standard mice feed and tap water ad libitum. The animals were exposed to 3.0 and 6.0 Gy of gamma radiation with or without cadmium chloride treatment. The animals of experimental groups were administered Aloe vera juice seven days prior to irradiation or cadmium chloride treatment. The animals of each group were autopsied at each post treatment interval of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days of treatment. The various biochemical parameters estimated were total proteins, glycogen, cholesterol, acid and alkaline phosphatase activities, DNA and RNA. After routine procedure, histopathological changes were also observed. The changes in various biochemical parameters were observed in the form of increase of decrease in values. The histopathological changes observed on day-1 after exposure to 3.0 Gy were distortion of hepatic architecture, intracellular oedema, narrower sinusoids, cytoplasmic degranulation, vacuolation and pycnotic nuclei. The changes were more marked on day-4 and continued up to day-14. But on day-28 the sign of recovery was observed. After exposure to a higher dose (6.0 Gy) similar changes were noticed but they were more pronounced and there was late manifestation of recovery. In the combined treatment of radiation and cadmium chloride synergistic effects were observed. The liver of Aloe vera treated

  11. Microbiome of the pre-epithelial biofilm of the colon of albino rats with experimental thyrotoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.I. Sydorchuk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. The microbiome of the pre-epithelial biofilm of the large intestine in direct contact with the body also interacts with the immune and other systems that emphasizes the urgency of its study in various diseases. The purpose of the study was to determine the taxonomic composition, population level, analytical microecological indicators and the degree of microecological disorders of the pre-epithelial biofilm of the large intestine in albino rats with thyrotoxicosis. Materials and methods. Experiments were carried out on 25 mature male albino rats weighing 220–240 g, of which 15 animals were included to the control group (intact animals, and 10 rats — to the main group. The experimental thyrotoxicosis was simulated by intragastric administration of L-thyroxine for 14 days. Under sterile conditions, a laparotomy was performed, a segment (up to 3 cm of the large intestine with its contents was taken. The washed portion of the intestine was homogenized with a sterile 0.9% NaCl solution. A series of ten-fold dilutions with 10–2 to 10–7 concentrations of the initial mixture were prepared. From each tube, 0.01 ml were seeded on solid optimal nutrient media with subsequent isolation and identification of microbes according to morphological, tinctorial, cultural and biochemical properties. Results. In some animals, bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, as well as bacteroides and escherichia, are eliminated. A significant deficiency of not only bifidobacteria by 48.50 % and lactobacillus by 94.59 %, but also of bacteroides by 44.85 % was established. Determination of the quantitative dominance of each taxon showed that the dominant role of bifidobacteria in the microbiocenosis is reduced by 82.76 %, lactobacillus — by 2.20 times, and the role of bacteroides in the microbiocenosis of the epithelial biofilm of the large intestine of albino rats with the experimental thyrotoxicosis — by 43.04 %, E.coli — by 7.18 %, but the role of

  12. Anti-hyperglycemic effect and glucose tolerance of guajava (Psidium guajava L.) leaf ethanol extract in diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanis Musdja, Muhammad; Mahendra, Feizar; Musir, Ahmad

    2017-12-01

    Traditionally guava (Psidium guajava L) leaf is used for treatment of various ailments like diarrhea, wounds, rheumatism, anti-allergy, ant-spasmodic, etc, as folk medicine. The aim of this research is to know the effect of hypoglycemia and glucose tolerance of ethanol extract of guava leaf against male white rat. The guajava leaf was obtained from Balitro Bogor. Preparation of guajava leaf extract was done by cold maceration extraction technique using ethanol 70%. Male albino rats were made into diabetics using the alloxan method. Rats were divided into 6 groups, as a comparative drug for anti-hyperglycemic used glibenclamid and as a comparative drug for glucose tolerance used acarbose. The result of blood glucometer test showed that ethanol extract 70% of guajava leaf had effect as anti-hyperglycemic and glucose tolerance with no significant difference with glibenclamid drug as anti-hyperglycemic and acarbose as glucose tolerance drug.

  13. Prevention of radiation and cadmium induced haematological alternations in the Swiss albino mice by Aloe Vera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Manisha; Songara, Venkteshwar; Singariya, Seema; Meena, Dinesh; Chakrawarti, Aruna; Purohit, R.K.

    2013-01-01

    The development of effective radio protectors and radio recovery drugs is of great importance in view of their potential application during both planned (i.e., radiotherapy) and unplanned radiation exposure (i.e., in the nuclear industry and natural background radiation). The combined effect of radiation and cadmium further increases the causation of damages to organs and tissues. Aloe vera has enjoyed a reputation as a healer for millennia, based primarily on anecdotal evidence. For the last 40 years concerted efforts by the scientific research community has brought Aloe vera out of the realm of folk medicine, providing it solid medical and scientific foundation. Haematopoietic organs are among the most radiosensitive cells in the living organisms. Therefore, present study was carried out to study the modulatory influence of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced hematological changes in the Swiss albino mice. For the study, six to eight weeks old male Swiss albino mice were procured and kept in polypropylene cages.The animals were exposed 3.5 Gy and 7.0 Gy of gamma radiation with or without cadmium chloride treatment. The Aloe vera was administered seven days prior to irradiation or cadmium chloride treatment. Five animals from each group were autopsied by cervical dislocation at each post treatment interval of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days. Blood was collected in heparinized tubes to estimate various haematological parameters viz. RBC, WBC, PCV, Haemoglobin and MCV. Radiation exposure resulted in a significant decline in RBC, WBC, PCV, Haemoglobin and MCV up to day-14 in peripheral blood, thereafter it increased up to day-28 without reaching to normal. After combined treatment of radiation and cadmium chloride the more severe changes were noticed showing synergistic or additive effect. An early and fast recovery was seen in Aloe vera pretreatment groups. Thus, it may be concluded from above observation that Aloe vera has the potential of combating the

  14. Nutritional Intake in Low Body Mass Index (BMI Males with Type 1 Diabetes and Fibrocalcific Pancreatic Diabetes: What are the Unmet Needs? A Cross-Sectional Study from a South Indian Tertiary Care Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mini Joseph

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is paucity of data on the nutritional intake in low Body Mass Index (BMI Asian Indians with diabetes. Aim: To study the difference in the nutrient intake pattern in low-BMI Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM and Fibrocalcific Pancreatic Diabetes (FCPD patients. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study consisted of T1DM (n=40 and FCPD (n=20 male patients with similar BMI. Nutritional data was collected using the 24 hour recall method and food diaries. Fasting blood samples were analysed for lipid profile, serum creatinine, glycosylated haemoglobin, albumin, calcium and vitamin D. Stool samples were analysed for pancreatic elastase. Percentage analysis, Independent sample t-test and Pearson coefficient correlation were used to analyse the data. A p-value<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The FCPD patients, on biochemical analysis, had significantly lower vitamin D levels compared to the T1DM group (p=0.035. However, haemoglobin, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins, creatinine, albumin and calcium were similar between the groups. In the nutrient data, FCPD patients had a significant higher intake of fat (p=0.039, fibre (p<0.001, calcium (p=0.047, phosphorous (p=0.035, and niacin (p=0.001 and calories from fat (p=0.047. The T1DM group had a significantly higher intake of thiamine (p=0.047 and carbohydrates (p=0.014. Conclusion: T1DM and FCPD groups have similar dietary pattern deficit in fibre, calories, macronutrients and micronutrients. Malabsorption and poor glycaemic control in FCPD patients can be attributed to a higher dietary fat intake. A balanced diet can ensure better glycaemic control.

  15. Negative effects of bisphenol A on testicular functions in albino rats and their abolitions with Tribulus terristeris L.

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    Bushra Munir

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to find out the ameliorative properties of Tribulus terristeris L (TT on BPA induced spermatotoxicity in male albino rats. Mature male albino rats were divided into five groups, Group A was taken as control for comparison group, whereas the other four groups namely B(vehicle control, C (toxic, D (preventive control and Group E (amelioration group received distilled water, olive oil, BPA, TT, and (TT + BPA respectively. Macroscopic results revealed decreased body weight of rats, weight of testes, and the relative tissue weight index (RTWI in BPA induced group. Hormonal (testosterone assay results revealed the decreased values of BPA treated group. Microscopic examination of testis of BPA treated rats showed reduction in leydig cells, decreased diameter of seminiferous tubules and low values of Johnsen’s scoring. Histological examination showed discontinuity and irregularity of basement membrane and sloughing of the germinal cell linage. Group E showed the body weights of rats, weight of testes, RTWI, and increased, while reduced level of testosterone, reduced number of Leydig cells, decreased diameter of seminiferous tubules and low values of Johnsen’s scoring were restored near to normal. These results demonstrate that TT might be beneficial in combating the spermatotoxicity, induced by BPA.

  16. Genotoxic and biochemical effects of Yohimbe after short-term treatment in somatic and germ cells of Swiss Albino Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Yahya, Abdulaziz A.

    2006-01-01

    Yohimbe was evaluated for its effects on cytological and biochemical toxicity in male Swiss albino mice. Adult male mice were mice were treated with different doses (750, 1500 and 3000 mg yohombe/kg., body weight/day) in form of an aqueous suspension for 7 consecutive days by gavage. The following parameters were evaluated: (i) cytological studies on micronucleus test, (ii) cytological analysis of spermatozoa abnormalities, (iii) Cytogentic analysis of meiotic chromosomes in the tests, (iv) quantification of proteins, ribose nucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) in hepatic and testicular cells and (v) estimation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nonprotein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) in hepatic and testicular cells. The treatment caused significant changes in the frequency of micronuclei in the femoral cells and induced spermatozoal abnormalities and testicular chromosomal aberrations. The study on biochemical parameters showed an increase of MDA and depletion of NP-SH, proteins, RNA and DNA in both hepatic and testicular cells. The data elucidated the role of free radical species in cytological and biochemical changes in both somatic and germ cells of Swiss albino mice. The exact mechanism of the genesis of lipid peroxides is not known, however, this might be related to the influence of yohimbine (the principal constituent of yohimbe) to enhance some catecholamines, including norepineprine which possess destructive stimuli on biological systems. It is suggested that, in view of the observed cytological and biochemical effects of yohimbe, it may be subjected to a thorough evaluation of toxicity before making it available for human use. (author)

  17. Effect of acacia nilotica leaves extract on hyperglycaemia, lipid profile and platelet aggregation in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asad, M.; Munir, T.A.; Nadeem, A.

    2011-01-01

    To consider new hypoglycaemic, anti-hyperlipidaemic and anti-platelet aggregation sources, aqueous methanol extract of Acacia Nilotica (AN) leaves was investigated in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes mellitus was induced in 90 out of 120 male albino rats by administering 50 mg/Kg body weight (bw) streptozotocin intraperitoneal y, and was confirmed by measuring fasting blood glucose level >200 mg/dL on fourth post-induction day. The rats were equally divided into 4 groups, A (normal control), B (diabetic control), C (diabetics rats treated with plant extract) and group D (diabetics rats treated with glyburide). The rats of group C and D were given single dose of 300 mg/Kg bw, An extract, and 900 micro g/Kg bw glyburide respectively for 3 weeks. Blood glucose levels were measured by gluco meter, platelet aggregation by Dia Med method, beta-thrombo globulin and insulin by ELISA technique, and lipid components were measured by enzymatic calorimetric method. Results: Significant differences (p<0.05) were noticed in blood glucose, serum insulin, platelet aggregation and triglyceride levels in diabetic rats treated with AN extract and glyburide as compared to diabetic controlled rats. A significant difference (p<0.05) in beta-thrombo globulin and LDL levels was also noticed in rats treated with glyburide than the diabetic controlled rats. The levels of fasting blood glucose, beta-thrombo globulin and platelet aggregation were significantly reduced (p<0.05) in diabetic rats treated with glyburide than AN extract treated rats. Conclusions: Administration of AN leaves extract showed hypoglycaemic and anti-platelet aggregation activity in diabetic rats as that of glyburide. (author)

  18. A murine model of type 2 diabetes mellitus developed using a combination of high fat diet and multiple low doses of streptozotocin treatment mimics the metabolic characteristics of type 2 diabetes mellitus in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Sayantan; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar; Choudhury, Yashmin

    A murine model of type 2 diabetes mellitus was used to compare the antidiabetic effects of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitor vildagliptin and biguanide, metformin. Swiss albino mice (n=20 males; n=25 females) were given high fat diet (HFD) ad libitum for 3weeks followed by low dose (40mgkg -1 body weight, bw daily) of streptozotocin (STZ) intraperitoneally five times from the 22nd day of treatment onwards, with HFD continued up to 26th day. Controls (n=15 males; n=15 females) were fed normal balanced diet without administration of STZ. Successful induction of diabetes mellitus was confirmed by testing for fasting blood glucose, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance and intraperitoneal insulin sensitivity. Diabetic mice were administered vildagliptin (10mgkg -1 bw daily) and metformin (50mgkg -1 bw daily) orally for 4weeks. Control, diabetic, vildagliptin and metformin-treated diabetic mice were evaluated for alterations in lipid profile using blood serum and histopathology and oxidative stress using tissues including liver, kidney and heart. Diabetic mice showed significant alterations in lipid profile, tissue histopathology, impaired glucose tolerance, lower insulin sensitivity and elevated lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation, with depressed catalase activity, when compared to age and gender-matched controls. Metformin and vildagliptin ameliorated the abovementioned diabetic conditions, with vildagliptin found to be more effective. A murine model developed by the combination of HFD and multiple low dose of STZ mimics the metabolic characteristics of type 2 diabetes mellitus in humans, and may be useful for antidiabetic drug screening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Possible hepatotoxic consequence of nevirapine use in juvenile albino rats

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    Elias Adikwu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: Nevirapine (NVP is used in human immunodeficiency virus exposed neonates. This could present safety concern due to decreased liver metabolizing enzymes activity and renal clearance in neonates. Aims: To determine the hepatotoxic effect of NVP in juvenile albino rats. Methods: Juvenile albino rats were weighed, divided into groups and treated orally with 4-32 mg/kg/day of NVP for 14 days including a recovery group. The control groups were treated with water (placebo and normal saline (solvent. At the end of NVP treatment, rats were weighed and sacrificed, blood was collected and serum extracted. Serum was analyzed for alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, total bilirubin (TB and conjugated bilirubin (CB. The liver was harvested via dissection, weighed and evaluated for AST, ALT, ALP, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione (GSH, malondialdehyde (MDA levels and histological damage. Results: The body, absolute and relative liver weights of rats in NVP treated groups were not significantly different (p>0.05 when compared to placebo. However, serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP, TB and CB were significantly increased (p<0.05 in a dose-dependent manner in NVP-treated groups. Furthermore, liver levels of ALT, ALP, AST and MDA were significantly increased (p<0.05 while SOD, CAT, and GSH were decreased in a dose dependent manner in NVP-treated groups. NVP-treated rats were characterized by varying degrees of hepatic morphological alterations. However, in the recovery group, the effects of NVP were reversed. Conclusions: This study observed dose-dependent and reversible hepatotoxicity in nevirapine- treated juvenile albino rats.

  20. Effect of Schizandra chinensis lignans on cell division in the corneal epithelium and tongue of albino rats exposed to chronic cold stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mel'nik, E.I.; Lupandin, A.V.; Timoshin, S.S.

    1985-01-01

    The authors study the possibility of correcting cellular manifestations of disadaptation following chronic exposure to cold stress by means of preparations of Sch. chinensis. The model of chronic stress was cooling male albino rats daily for 1.5 h to a temperature of 28-30 C for 28 days. Since differences between levels of proliferation in intact animals and in the rats receiving 1.9% ethanol solution were absent, values obtained in the group of intact animals are presented in a table as the control. The animals underwent euthanasia 48 hours after the final exposure to the cold. The rats received an injection of tritium-thymidine one hour before sacrifice. It is shown that the results confirm those in previous studies of stimulation of DNA synthesis and mitotic activity in the corneal and lingual epithelium of albino rats during chronic exposure to stress

  1. Cardiovascular Response Of Diabetic And Non-Diabetic Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the cardiovascular responses of diabetic and non-diabetic subjects to a single bout of bicycle ergometry. Ten male volunteer diabetics and ten male non-diabetic healthy subjects constituted the study and control groups respectively. The subjects exercised for ten minutes on a bicycle ergometer.

  2. Effects of Hydro-alcoholic Extract from Arctium lappa L. (Burdock) Root on Gonadotropins, Testosterone, and Sperm Count and Viability in Male Mice with Nicotinamide/ Streptozotocin-Induced Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Oroojan, Ali Akbar; Heidari, Hamid; Ghaedi, Ehsan; Taherkhani, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive dysfunction is a complication of diabetes. Arctium lappa (burdock) root has hypoglycemic and antioxidative properties, which are traditionally used for treatment of impotence and sterility. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of its hydro alcoholic extract on gonadotropin, testosterone, and sperm parameters in nicotinamide/ streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. In this experimental study, 56 adult male Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice (30-35 g) were randomly divided into seven groups: control, diabetes, diabetes + glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg), diabetes + extract (200 or 300 mg/kg), and extract (200 or 300 mg/kg). Diabetes was induced with intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide (NA) and streptozotocin (STZ). Twenty-four hours after the last extract and drug administration, serum samples, testes, and cauda epididymis were removed immediately for experimental assessment. Body weight, serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and testosterone levels, and sperm count (P lappa plant has an effect on the health of the reproductive system in order to improve diabetic conditions.

  3. Effects of multiple low dose radiation on the apoptosis of splenocytes and immune factor in male diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yanbo; Guo Caixia; Dong Lihua; Wang Jianfeng; Liu Shuchun; Lu Zhe; Gong Shouliang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of multiple low dose radiation (LDR) on the apoptosis of splenocytes and immune factors in diabetes mellitus (DM) rats. Methods: The rats were randomly divided into control, DM and DM + LDR groups. The irradiation doses were 25, 50 and 75 mGy, and the irradiated times were 15. At the fourth weekend after the DM rats irradiated, the apoptotic rate and TCRαβ percentage of splenocytes were detected by flow cytometry, and the content of IL-2 in both serum and supernatant of cultured splenocytes were detected by ELISA. Results: Compared with that in the control, the body weight (BW) decreased in the DM and DM + LDR groups,particularly in DM group. The blood glucose (BG) level in the DM + LDR groups was higher than that in the control, but decreased significantly as compared with that in the DM group (P < 0.01). As compared with those in the control, the apoptotic rate in DM + 50 mGy (P < 0.05) and the content of serum IL-2 in DM + 75 mGy group (P < 0.01) all increased significantly, while the content of IL-2 in supernatant of cultured splenocytes decreased significantly in the DM + LDR groups. Compared with those in the DM group, the apoptotic rate and the percentage of TCRαβ in splenocytes in the DM + LDR groups (P < 0.01-P < 0.001) and the content of IL-2 in serum in DM + 50 mGy group (P < 0.01) decreased significantly. Conclusions: The multiple LDR could weaken the loss of BW and increase of BG caused by DM, decrease the splenocyte apoptosis induced by DM, and regulate the immune factors. (authors)

  4. EFFECT OF THIOPROPANOL ON AMINO ACID TURNOVER AND REDOX STATUS IN ALLOXAN DIABETIC RAT LIVER

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    Vickram

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Decreased cellular thiol levels seen in diabetes mellitus (DM may be in part attributed to increased free radical generation. The free radical mediated oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of DM and its complications. The relative deficiency or non-availability of insulin in DM affects the metabolism of biomolecules, specifically the carbohydrate metabolism. The insulin-mimicking actions of various thiols have been studied. In our previous study, we have documented that 3-mercapto- 1-propanol (Thiopropanol, a low molecular weight thiol, at the dosage employed has increased glucose utilisation in alloxandiabetic rat liver tissue probably by favouring utilisation of glucose through glycolysis and HMP pathway. It is known that insulin inhibits gluconeogenesis by inhibiting the key enzymes of the same and by controlling the channelling of amino acids for the glucose biosynthesis through gluconeogenic pathway. A study was undertaken to assess the effects of thiopropanol (TP on amino acid turnover and the redox status in alloxan diabetic rat liver. METHODS Male albino rats weighing 150-250 g were used. Diabetes was induced using alloxan monohydrate. Rats were divided into normal and diabetic groups. Levels of amino acid nitrogen (AAN, alanine, total thiol (-SH groups, TBARS (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and activities of alanine transaminase (ALT and aspartate transaminase (AST were estimated in liver specimens of normal, control-alloxan diabetic and TP-exposed-alloxan-diabetic rats. RESULTS The results showed a significant increase (p<0.001 in AAN levels, alanine levels, and total -SH groups concentration; and a significant decrease (p<0.001 in TBARS levels, ALT and AST activities in TP-exposed-alloxan diabetic liver slices as compared to control-alloxan diabetic liver slices. CONCLUSIONS Hence, it may be concluded that TP, at the concentration employed, inhibits gluconeogenesis from amino acids probably by

  5.  Miners’ magic: artisanal mining, the albino fetish and murder in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryceson, Deborah; Jønsson, Jesper Bosse; Sherrington, Richard

    2010-01-01

    purchase the albino charms, the waganga healers renowned for their healing, divination and sorcery skills who prescribe and sell the charms, and the albino murder victims. The agrarian background, miners’ ambitions and a clash of values comprise our starting point for understanding the victimisation...

  6. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome components, individually and in combination, in male patients admitted with acute coronary syndrome, without previous diagnosis of diabetes mellitus

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    Abdurrazzak Gehani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mortality from cardiovascular disease in the Middle East is projected to increase substantially in the coming decades. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS in acute coronary syndrome (ACS continues to raise interest, but data from the Middle East is limited, especially in non-diabetic patients. This study was conducted to ascertain the prevalence of MS and frequency of its components, individually and in combination, in a male population presenting with ACS, but without a previous diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (DM. Methods: This is a prospective study of 467 consecutive male patients hospitalized for ACS. They were categorized according to the specific criteria stated in the latest joint statement for the global definition of MS. Results: The mean age was (49.7±10.7 years. Of the 467 patients, 324 (69.4% fulfilled the criteria for MS. ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI was identified in 178 patients (54.9%, and non-ST elevation ACS (NSTE-ACS in 146 patients (45.1%. These proportions were not significantly different from those without MS (STEMI 51.7% vs. NSTE-ACS 48.3%, respectively. However, patients with MS were older (50.6±10 vs. 47.9±11 years; p=0.012, and more than half of those with MS were above 50 years. The most common abnormal metabolic components were reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c; 94.1%, elevated fasting blood glucose (FBG; 89.8%, and elevated triglycerides (81.8%, followed by increased waist circumference (61.7% and raised blood pressure (40.4%. The majority of patients with MS had three or more metabolic components (326 patients, 69.4%, and 102 (21.8% had two components, but only 37 (8.4% had a single component. Conclusions: In ACS patients, without previous history of DM, MS is highly prevalent. Reduced HDL, elevated FBG and triglycerides were the most frequent metabolic components. The majority had multiple components. These findings raise alarm and show that drug therapy alone may

  7. Food Color Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats, Rattus norvegicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    Certain dietary constituents can induce toxicity and play a critical role in the development of several hepatic disorders. Tartrazine, metanil yellow and sunset yellow are widely used azo dyes in food products, so the present study is aimed to investigate the food color induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats. Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups, each group having six animals. Group I served as control, Group II, Group III and Group IV were administered with 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg body weight blend of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine for 30 days. Hepatotoxicity in rats treated with a blend of these food colors was studied by assessing parameters such as serum total protein, serum albumin, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) were assessed. Significantly increased concentrations of serum total protein, serum albumin, serum ALP and hepatic MDA and significantly lowered levels of SOD, reduced GSH and CAT in the liver tissue of treated animals were observed when compared with control animals. The alteration in the liver includes necrosis of hepatocytes, infiltration and vacuolation. The result indicates that consumption of food color in diet induces liver tissue damage. The used doses of food color were mostly attributable to hepatocellular damage and drastic alteration in antioxidant defense system.

  8. Antidiarrheal Activity of Three Medicinal Plants in Swiss Albino Mice

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    MD. Ashrafuzzaman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different parts of Allamanda neriifolia (AN, Crinum latifolium (CL, and Bruguiera cylindrical (BC are used in folk medicine to treat diarrhea. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate and compare possible antidiarrheal activity of methanol extracts from barks, stems, and roots of AL, CL, and BC in Swiss albino mice. Methods: Antidiarrheal activities of extracts were evaluated at three doses (100mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400mg/kg and compared with Loperamide in a castor oil-induced diarrhea and charcoal meal test model in the Swiss albino mice. Results: The aqueous extract of CL and BC administered at doses of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg showed 0%, 24.5%, 62.26% and 5.66%, 37.11%, and 62.26% diarrhea inhibition, respectively (Table 2. This reduction in diarrheal episodes is significant, and maximum effect was observed at the dose of 400mg/kg similarly in the alcohol extracts of both CL and BC. AN administered at the dose of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg showed 55.97%, 74.84% and 74.84% diarrhea inhibition, respectively. Conclusion: The antidiarrheal effect of the AN extract, in contrast to CL and BC, against the castor oil-induced diarrhea model prove its efficacy in an extensive range of diarrheal conditions.

  9. Melanoma maligno em búfalos (Bubalus bubalis albinos

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    Maria Cecília Florisbal Damé

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se melanomas múltiplos em dois búfalos albinos da raça Murrah no Sul do Brasil. Macroscopicamente havia múltiplos tumores enegrecidos no músculo esquelético, pulmões, linfonodos, saco pericárdio, cápsula renal, mediastino e pleura. Microscopicamente foram observadas células epitelióides poliédricas dispostas em ninhos sólidos ou fascículos entrelaçados sustentadas por um estroma colagenoso fino e esparso. O citoplasma era eosinofílico e por vezes continham quantidades variáveis de pigmento de melanina. A taxa de mitose foi baixa. Na imuno-histoquímica houve imunomarcação positiva utilizando anticorpo anti-tirosinase, anti-Melan-A, anti-vimentina, anti-proteína S-100 e antineurofilamento. É possível que o polimorfismo relacionado com o gene da pigmentação em búfalos albinos tenha contribuído para o maior risco de desenvolvimento de melanomas, como foi sugerido em humanos.

  10. Food Color Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats, Rattus norvegicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Certain dietary constituents can induce toxicity and play a critical role in the development of several hepatic disorders. Tartrazine, metanil yellow and sunset yellow are widely used azo dyes in food products, so the present study is aimed to investigate the food color induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats. Materials and Methods: Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups, each group having six animals. Group I served as control, Group II, Group III and Group IV were administered with 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg body weight blend of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine for 30 days. Hepatotoxicity in rats treated with a blend of these food colors was studied by assessing parameters such as serum total protein, serum albumin, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) were assessed. Results: Significantly increased concentrations of serum total protein, serum albumin, serum ALP and hepatic MDA and significantly lowered levels of SOD, reduced GSH and CAT in the liver tissue of treated animals were observed when compared with control animals. The alteration in the liver includes necrosis of hepatocytes, infiltration and vacuolation. Conclusion: The result indicates that consumption of food color in diet induces liver tissue damage. The used doses of food color were mostly attributable to hepatocellular damage and drastic alteration in antioxidant defense system. PMID:26862277

  11. The effect of the ginger on the apoptosis of hippochampal cells according to the expression of BAX and Cyclin D1 genes and histological characteristics of brain in streptozotocin male diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molahosseini, A; Taghavi, M M; Taghipour, Z; Shabanizadeh, A; Fatehi, F; Kazemi Arababadi, M; Eftekhar Vaghefe, S H

    2016-10-31

    Diabetes is the most common endocrine disorder in humans with multiple complications including nervous system damages. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of ginger extract on apoptosis of the neurons of hippocampus, via evaluation of BAX and Cyclin D1 and also histological analysis, in male diabetic rats. In this experimental study, 60 Wistar rats (220 ± 30gr) were conducted in 5 groups as follow: diabetic group treated with saline (group 1), normal group treated with saline (group 2), diabetic group treated with ginger (group 3), diabetic group treated with ginger-insulin (group 4), diabetic group treated with insulin (group 5). STZ (60 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally used to induce the diabetes. Expression levels of BAX and Cyclin D1 were examined using Real-Time PCR technique and the normality of neurons was evaluated using H&E staining method. The results showed that blood glucose level significantly decreased in group 4 when compared to group 1. In molecular analysis, there was no significant difference between groups regarding the expression of BAX gens, while, the expression of Cyclin D1 were significantly decreased in group 4 compared with group 1. Histological analysis revealed that pathological symptoms were lower in group 4 than the other diabetic groups. The results of present study showed that the ginger in addition to lowering blood sugar level, changes the expression of Cyclin D1 gene and histological characteristics in a positive manner. This means that the ginger may protects neurons of the hippocampus from apoptosis in diabetic patients.

  12. Influence of kaempferol, a flavonoid compound, on membrane-bound ATPases in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Numair, Khalid S; Veeramani, Chinnadurai; Alsaif, Mohammed A; Chandramohan, Govindasamy

    2015-01-01

    Kaempferol is a flavonoid found in many edible plants (e.g. tea, cabbage, beans, tomato, strawberries, and grapes) and in plants or botanical products commonly used in traditional medicine. Numerous preclinical studies have shown that kaempferol have a wide range of pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, and antidiabetic activities. The present study investigates the effect of kaempferol on membrane-bound ATPases in erythrocytes and in liver, kidney, and heart of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced into adult male albino rats of the Wistar strain, by intraperitoneal administration of STZ (40 mg/kg body weight (BW)). Kaempferol (100 mg/kg BW) or glibenclamide (600 µg/kg BW) was administered orally once daily for 45 d to normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats. The effects of kaempferol on membrane-bound ATPases (total ATPase, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase, and Mg(2+)-ATPase) activity in erythrocytes and in liver, kidney, and heart were determined. In our study, diabetic rats had significantly (p kaempferol (100 mg/kg BW) or glibenclamide (600 µg/kg BW) for a period of 45 d resulted in significant (p kaempferol has the potential to restore deranged activity of membrane-bound ATPases in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Further detailed investigation is necessary to discover kaempferol's action mechanism.

  13. The effect of Urtica dioica extract on the number of astrocytes in the dentate gyrus of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanshahi, M; Golalipour, M J; Afshar, M

    2009-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with cerebral alterations in both human and animal models of the disease. These alterations include abnormal expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides and hippocampal astrogliosis. Urtica dioica (Nettle) is among several species listed for their use against diabetes in folk medicine. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the astrocyte number in the dentate gyrus of diabetic rats after treatment with nettle. A total of 21 male albino Wistar rats were used in the present study. The animals were divided into three groups: control, nettle-untreated diabetic, and nettle treated diabetic. Hyperglycaemia was induced by streptozotocin (80 mg/kg) in the animals of the diabetic and treatment groups. One week after injection of the streptozotocin, the animals in the treatment group received a hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica (100 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks intraperitoneally. After a 5-week survival period, all the rats were sacrificed and coronal sections were taken from the dorsal hippocampal formation of the right cerebral hemispheres. The area densities of the astrocytes were measured and compared between the three groups (p < 0.05). The number of astrocytes increased in the diabetic rats (24.06 +/- 9.57) compared with the controls (17.52 +/- 6.66). The densities in the treated rats (19.50 +/- 6.16) were lower than in the diabetic rats. Furthermore, the control and treated rats showed similar densities. We concluded that U. dioica extract helped compensate for astrocytes in the treatment rats dentate gyrus in comparison with diabetic rats.

  14. EFFECTIVITY OF EXTRACT RED BETEL LEAF (Piper crocatum WITH WEIGHT INCREASE OF MALE WHITE MICE (Rattus novergicus IN CONDUTION DIABETES WHICH INDUCE ALLOXAN

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    I Nengah Kerta Besung

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this research is to learn the level of effectiveness of ethanol extract from red betel leaf (Piper crocatum within increase weight of male white mouse in condition for diabetes mellitus. 20 male white mice (Rattus novergicus in 3 mounth with weight between 190-250 gram which adapted during 2 weeks. It classified to be 5 groups random, each group consisty by 4 mice. The first treatment as a negative control (healty mouse whitout giving treatment. The second treatment as alloxan positive control, the third treatment alloxan added by 2% suspension of ethaol extract from red betel leaf (dose 100 mg/kg bb per oral. The fifth treatment is alloxan added by 0.02% suspension glibenclamide (dose 1 ml/kg bb per oral. Giving extract betel leaf is done by oral with used sonde. Giving treatment at treatment III, IV and V is done everyday start from day 3 until the end of the day (21 day. The weight of mouse is measure at day 7, 14 and day 21 used analytical balanced. The result of this research show up that giving 2% ethanol extract from red betel leaf (Piper crocatum with dose (50 mg/kg bb, dose (100 mg/kg bb and glibenclamide 0,02% ( 1 ml/kg bb with significant can increase weight (P<0,05 of white mice which induce alloxan. Result of this research could be conclude that ethanol extract of red betel leaf (Piper crocatum can used for increase the weight.

  15. Skin cancers among Albinos at a University teaching hospital in Northwestern Tanzania: a retrospective review of 64 cases

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    Mabula Joseph B

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skin cancers are a major risk associated with albinism and are thought to be a major cause of death in African albinos. The challenges associated with the care of these patients are numerous and need to be addressed. The aim of this study was to outline the pattern and treatment outcome of skin cancers among albinos treated at our centre and to highlight challenges associated with the care of these patients and proffer solutions for improved outcome. Methods This was a retrospective study of all albinos with a histopathological diagnosis of skin cancer seen at Bugando Medical Centre from March 2001 to February 2010. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results A total of 64 patients were studied. The male to female ratio was 1.5:1. The median age of patients was 30 years. The median duration of illness at presentation was 24 months. The commonest reason for late presentation was financial problem. Head and the neck was the most frequent site afflicted in 46(71.8% patients. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common histopathological type in 75% of cases. Surgical operation was the commonest modality of treatment in 60 (93.8% patients. Radiotherapy was given in 24(37.5% patients. Twenty-seven (42.2% of the patients did not complete their treatment due to lack of funds. Local recurrence following surgical treatment was recorded in 6 (30.0% patients. Only thirty-seven (61.7% patients were available for follow-up at 6–12 months and the remaining patients were lost to follow-up. Conclusions Skin cancers are the most common cancers among albinos in our environment. Albinism and exposure to ultraviolet light appears to be the most important risk factor in the development of these cancers. Late presentation and failure to complete treatment due to financial difficulties and lack of radiotherapy services at our centre are major challenges in the care of these patients. Early institution of preventive

  16. Effects of Junk Foods on Brain Neurotransmitters (Dopamine and Serotonin) and some Biochemical Parameters in Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Elmonem, H.A.; Ali, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    Nutritional Habits have changed significantly and junk foods have become widely popular, in recent years. The present study aimed to shed the light on the effect of potato chips and / or ketchup consumption on some biochemical parameters. Sixty four male and female albino rats were used in the study. Animals were maintained on 0.25 g potato chips/ rat and / or 0.125 g ketchup / rat, 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Potato chips showed the lowest body wt gain in the male rats after 4 weeks but, ketchup modulated this negative effect of the potato chips in the group of male animals fed on potato chips plus ketchup. Potato chips significantly decreased brain serotonin, liver glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) in both sexes; brain dopamine, serum total proteins, albumin, total globulins, α 2 - and β 1 -globulins in the females and serum thyroxine (T 4 ) in the male rats. Ketchup apparently affected serum T 4 and A / G ratio in both sexes, brain dopamine and liver GSH in the males in addition to brain serotonin, serum total globulins and ?1-globulin in the female rats. Potato chips plus ketchup significantly changed T 4 , dopamine, GSH, CAT, α 1 and α 2 -globulins in both sexes; serotonin and β 1 -globulin in the male rats, total proteins and albumin in the females. It could be concluded that potato chips consumption might induce numerous adverse effects in various body organs

  17. The Role of Yeast Beta Glucan on Blood Coagulation in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes and Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kashoury, M.M.A.; Abdel Fattah, S.M.; Ramadan, L.A.; El-Denshary, E.S.

    2016-01-01

    Clotting abnormalities are observed after exposure to ionizing radiation as well as in diabetes melittus. The objective of this study is to elucidate the role of yeast beta glucan (YBG) in the modulation of some biochemical variations observed in γ-irradiated, diabetic and diabeticγγ-irradiated rats. Gamma-irradiation was performed through the whole body exposure of rats to 6 Gy administered in four fractions of 1.5 Gy two times per week for two weeks. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg body weight). YBG was given orally to male albino rats (1 g/kg body weight) for two weeks post irradiation and/or induction of diabetes. Animals were divided into 4 main groups: 1- control, 2- γ-irradiated, 3- diabetic and 4- diabetic-γ-irradiated rats. Each group was subdivided into 2 subgroups (a) untreated and (b) treated. The 3rd and 14th day, after the last dose of radiation in the irradiated groups and after the induction of diabetes in diabetic groups, were chosen to evaluate the effect of oral YBG in irradiated and/or diabetic rats. The results revealed that the body weight decreased significantly in irradiated, diabetic and diabetic–irradiated rats. The loss of weight was accompanied by a reduction in the pancreas weight. Glucose concentration was significantly increased in diabetic group at the two time intervals. It is worth noting that, radiation ameliorated blood glucose level in diabetic-γ-irradiated group. Radiation exposure and/or diabetes caused an oxidative stress manifested by a significant increase of malondialdhyde (MDA) accompanied by a significant decrease in glutathione (GSH) level. This oxidative stress caused disturbances in the measured clotting parameters by enhancing platelet aggregation (PA) induced by arachidonic acid and increased thrombin level as concluded from the significant shortening of prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). Also, exposure to radiation

  18. Role of Spirulina in mitigating hemato-toxicity in Swiss albino mice exposed to aluminum and aluminum fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shweta; Sharma, K P; Sharma, Subhasini

    2016-12-01

    Aluminum is ingested through foods, water, air, and even drugs. Its intake is potentiated further through foods and tea prepared in aluminum utensils and Al salt added in the drinking water for removal of suspended impurities and also fluoride in the affected areas. The ameliorating role of a blue green alga Spirulina is well documented to various pollutants in the animal models. We, therefore, examined its protective role (230 mg/kg body weight) on the hematology of male Swiss albino mice treated with aluminum (sub-acute = 78.4 mg/kg body weight for 7 days, sub-chronic = 7.8 mg/kg body weight for 90 days) and aluminum fluoride (sub-acute = 103 mg/kg body weight, sub-chronic = 21 mg/kg body weight), along with their recovery after 90 days of sub-chronic exposure. This study revealed significant reduction in the values of RBC (5-18 %), Hb (15-17 %), PCV (8-14 %), and platelets (26-36 %), and increase in WBC (54-124 %) in the treated mice, particularly after sub-acute exposure. Aluminum fluoride was comparatively more toxic than aluminum. Further, Spirulina supplement not only alleviated toxicity of test chemicals in Swiss albino mice but also led to their better recovery after withdrawal.

  19. Ascorbic acid treatment elevates follicle stimulating hormone and testosterone plasma levels and enhances sperm quality in albino Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okon, Uduak Akpan; Utuk, Ikponoabasi Ibanga

    2016-01-01

    Infertility issues have been linked to the effect of oxidative reaction in the reproductive system. This study evaluated the effect of ascorbic acid, on fertility parameters of male albino Wistar rats was studied. Eighteen albino Wistar rats weighed between 178 g and 241 g were used, randomly assigned into three groups. Group 1 was the control group; oral gavaged 5 ml of distilled water; Groups 2 and 3 were administered medium dose (250 mg/kg) and high dose of ascorbic acid (400 mg/kg), respectively; twice daily for 21 days. Blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture, and blood serum was obtained for hormonal assay, and the testes were harvested for sperm analysis. Follicle stimulating hormone levels significantly increased in the high-dose group as compared to both the control and medium dose groups. Luteinizing hormone levels in the medium dose group decreased significantly as compared to the control group. Testosterone significantly increased in both the medium- and high-dose groups as compared to the control group. Sperm motility increased significantly in the high-dose group as compared to both control and medium-dose groups. Percentage sperm concentration decreased significantly in the medium-dose group when compared to the control and increased significantly in the high-dose group as compared to the medium-dose group. For percentage normal morphology, there was a dose-dependent increase in the test groups when compared to control group. These results are indicative of a positive influence of ascorbic acid on male fertility modulators and may therefore, serve as a potential adjuvant treatment for male infertility cases.

  20. Origins of albino and hooded rats: implications from molecular genetic analysis across modern laboratory rat strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kuramoto

    Full Text Available Albino and hooded (or piebald rats are one of the most frequently used laboratory animals for the past 150 years. Despite this fact, the origin of the albino mutation as well as the genetic basis of the hooded phenotype remained unclear. Recently, the albino mutation has been identified as the Arg299His missense mutation in the Tyrosinase gene and the hooded (H locus has been mapped to the ∼460-kb region in which only the Kit gene exists. Here, we surveyed 172 laboratory rat strains for the albino mutation and the hooded (h mutation that we identified by positional cloning approach to investigate possible genetic roots and relationships of albino and hooded rats. All of 117 existing laboratory albino rats shared the same albino missense mutation, indicating they had only one single ancestor. Genetic fine mapping followed by de novo sequencing of BAC inserts covering the H locus revealed that an endogenous retrovirus (ERV element was inserted into the first intron of the Kit gene where the hooded allele maps. A solitary long terminal repeat (LTR was found at the same position to the ERV insertion in another allele of the H locus, which causes the so called Irish (h(i phenotype. The ERV and the solitary LTR insertions were completely associated with the hooded and Irish coat patterns, respectively, across all colored rat strains examined. Interestingly, all 117 albino rat strains shared the ERV insertion without any exception, which strongly suggests that the albino mutation had originally occurred in hooded rats.

  1. The 'evil albino' stereotype: an impediment to the right to equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mswela, Maureen

    2013-03-01

    This article address the 'evil albino' plot device or albino bias as portrayed in films and explores how such labelling stimulates societal intolerance and discrimination against People Living With Albinism. The article reveals how media perpetuates stereotypes of albinism through their portrayal of role players and argues that the continued existence of such stereotypes is a failure to see albinism for what it is: a medical condition. The article further discusses Albinism related stigma and discrimination against the backdrop of the 'evil albino' plot device.

  2. Duration Effect of Acacia Nilotica Leaves Extract and Glibenclamide as Hypolipidaemic and Hypoglycaemic Activity in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asad, M.; Shah, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the duration and effects of aqueous methanol Acacia-nilotica leaves extract and glibenclamide as hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic activity in diabetic rats. Methods: The experimental study was conducted at Shifa International Hospital in collaboration with National Institute of Health, Islamabad, from September 2010 to August 2011.Male Sprague Dawley albino rats were taken and divided into 8 equal groups. Groups I and II were the normal and diabetic control rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced in group II to VIII by administering 110 mg/kg body weight alloxan and at day 4, fasting blood glucose level of >200 mg/dl confirmed diabetes. Acacia-nilotica leaves extract was given to group III, IV and V and glibenclamide to group VI to VIII for a period of 1-3 weeks. Blood samples were analysed for lipid profile using enzymatic calorimetric method and serum insulin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on days 0, 7, 14, and 21. Results: There were 64 rats in the study, with 8(12.5 percent) in each group. Statistically significant decreases in fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, phospholipids, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein and an increase in high density lipoprotein and serum insulin levels were observed in diabetic rats compared to diabetic controls after 2 weeks of treatment with plant extract and glibenclamide (p<0.05 each).When plant extract and drug treated diabetic rats were compared, a significant difference in the levels of blood glucose, insulin, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were noted after 2 and 3 weeks of treatment. Conclusion: Acacia-nilotica leaves extract resulted in hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats similar to glibenclamide. (author)

  3. Immuno-chemistry of hydroxyl radical modified GAD-65: A possible role in experimental and human diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moinuddin; Ansari, Nadeem A; Shahab, Uzma; Habeeb, Safia; Ahmad, Saheem

    2015-10-01

    The repertoire of known auto-antigens is limited to a very small proportion of all human proteins, and the reason why only some proteins become auto-antigens is unclear. The 65 kDa isoform of the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD-65) is a major auto-antigen in type I diabetes, and in various neurological diseases. Most patients with type I diabetes (70-80%) have auto-antibodies against GAD-65, which often appear years before clinical onset of the autoimmune diabetes. Thus, the aim of the study is to focus on the immunogenicity of GAD65 and its reactive oxygen species (ROS) conformer in STZ-induced diabetic rats and on human diabetic patients. In the present study, GAD-65 was modified by hydroxyl radical following Fenton's reaction. The modifications in the structure of the GAD-65 are supported by UV-vis and fluorescence spectral studies. Immunogenicity of both native and hydroxyl radical modified GAD-65 (ROS-GAD-65) was studied in experimental rabbits and was confirmed by inducing type I diabetes in experimental male albino rats using streptozotocin (45 mg/kg). We found that ROS-GAD-65 was a better immunogen as compared to the native GAD-65. A considerable high binding to ROS-GAD-65 was observed as compared to native GAD-65 in both the serum antibodies from diabetes animal models and as well as in the serum samples of type I diabetes. Hydrogen peroxide under the exposure of UV light produces hydroxyl radical (·OH) which is most potent oxidant, and could cause protein damage (GAD-65) to the extent of generating neo-epitopes on the molecule, thus making it immunogenic. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  4. The granule cell density of the dentate gyrus following administration of Urtica dioica extract to young diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, S A; Gharravi, A M; Ghafari, S; Jahanshahi, M; Golalipour, M J

    2008-08-01

    Urtica dioica L. Stinging nettle has long been known worldwide as a medicinal plant. To study the benefits of the nettle in diabetic encephalopathy, the granule cell density of the dentate gyrus of diabetic rats was studied following administration of Urtica dioica extract. A total of 24 male albino Wistar rats were allocated equally to normal, diabetic, preventive and treatment groups. Hyperglycaemia was induced by streptozotocin (80 mg/kg) in the animals of the diabetic and treatment groups. One week after injection of the streptozotocin the animals in the treatment group received a hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica (100 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks intraperitoneally. The rats of the preventive group received hydroalcoholic extract of U. dioica (100 mg/kg/day) IP for the first 5 days and an injection of streptozotocin (80 mg/kg) on the 6th day. After 5 weeks of study all the rats were sacrificed and coronal sections were taken from the dorsal hippocampal formation of the right cerebral hemispheres and stained with cresyl violet. The area densities of the granule cells were measured and compared in the four groups. The density was lower in the diabetic rats compared with the controls (p > 0.05). The preventive group showed lower cell density than the controls (p > 0.05). The densities in the treated rats were higher than in the diabetic rats (p > 0.05). Furthermore, the control and treated rats showed similar densities (p > 0.05). It seems that U. dioica extract can help compensate for granule cell loss in the diabetic rat dentate gyrus, which can ameliorate cognitive impairment in diabetes. However, preventive use of the extract showed no significant benefit.

  5. Autoradiographic localization of tritiated dihydrotestosterone in the flank organ of the albino hamster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucky, A.W.; Eisenfeld, A.J.; Visintin, I.

    1985-01-01

    In the hamster flank organ, the growth of hair and growth of sebaceous glands are androgen-dependent functions. Although dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is known to be a potent stimulator of flank organ growth, there is no information about localization of DHT receptor sites in this organ. The purpose of this study was to use steroid autoradiography to localize DHT receptors in the hamster flank organ. Because steroid hormones are functional when translocated to nuclear receptors, nuclear localization by autoradiography defines receptor sites. In order to be able to visualize autoradiographic grains from radiolabeled androgens around hair follicles, albino hamsters were studied to avoid confusion between the grains and pigment granules which are abundant in the more common Golden Syrian hamster. Mature male hamsters castrated 24 hours earlier were given tritium-labeled dihydrotestosterone ( [ 3 H]DHT). Using the technique of thaw-mount steroid autoradiography, 4-micron unfixed frozen sections were mounted in the dark onto emulsion-coated glass slides and allowed to develop for 4-6 months. [ 3 H]DHT was found to be concentrated over sebocyte nuclei. The label was present peripherally as well as in differentiating sebocytes. There was no nuclear localization of [ 3 H]DHT in animals pretreated with excessive quantities of unlabeled DHT. Steroid metabolites of [ 3 H] DHT were assessed by thin-layer chromatography in paired tissue samples. Most of the label remained with DHT. Uptake was inhibited in the flank organ of hamsters pretreated with unlabeled DHT

  6. Radiation induced cerebellum impairments in Swiss albino mice and its modulation by dietary Prunus domestica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Garima; Sisodia, Rashmi

    2012-01-01

    To study the biochemical, quantitative histopathological and behavioural changes after 5 Gy whole body irradiation and its modulation by supplementation of Prunus domestica extract (PDE) for 15 consecutive days on male Swiss albino. For this study healthy mice from an inbred colony were divided into five groups: (i) Control; (ii) PDE treated - mice in this group were orally supplemented with PDE (400 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day) once daily for 15 consecutive days; (iii) Irradiated-mice were whole body exposed to 5 Gy irradiated; (iv) PDE + irradiated-mice in this group were orally supplemented PDE for 15 days (once a day) prior to irradiation; and (v) irradiated+PDE -mice in this group were administered PDE orally for 15 days (once a day) consequently after irradiation. Marked radiation induced changes in the amount of cerebellar lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione (GSH), protein, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and histopathological changes (molecular layer, granular layer and purkinje cell numbers) could be significantly ameliorated supplementation of PDE prior/post irradiation. Radiation induced deficits in learning and memory were also significantly ameliorated. PDE was found to have strong radical scavenging activity in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and also showed in vitro radioprotective activity. The result of present study showed that prior/post-supplementation of Prunus domestica has radioprotective potential as well as neuroprotective properties against the radiation. (author)

  7. Effects of gamma radiation on hard dental tissues of albino rats: investigation by light microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Faramawy, Nabil; Ameen, Reham; El-Haddad, Khaled; El-Zainy, Medhat

    2013-08-01

    The present work aims at studying the effect of gamma radiation on the hard dental tissues. Eighty adult male albino rats with weights of about 250 g were used. The rats were irradiated at 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 Gy whole-body gamma doses. The effects on hard dental tissue samples were investigated after 48 h in histological and ground sections using light microscopy. Areas of acid phosphatase activity were detected using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) stains. Observation of histological sections revealed disturbance in predentin thickness and odontoblastic layer as the irradiation dose increased. In cementum, widened cementocytes lacunae were occasionally detected even with low irradiated doses. On the other hand, relatively homogenous enamel was detected with darkened areas in enamel surface at doses over than 0.5 Gy. TRAP-positive cells were detected on the surface of the dentin of irradiated groups as well as cementum surface. Minimal detectable changes were observed in ground sections.

  8. Effects of split fast neutron doses on the liver cells of albino Swiss mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelmeguid, N.; Ramadan, A.A.; El-Khatib, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of neutron doses from a compact D-T neutron generator on the liver cells of adult male and female albino Swiss mice was investigated. Fast neutrons (14.5 MeV) were delivered to the whole body in a single dose or in two, four, six or eight equal doses separated by 3-day intervals. The lowest dose, 100 rem, was given over an exposure time of 6 hours and was then steadily raised to 912 rem over an exposure time of 48 hours. During exposure the neutron flux was controlled by the activation foil technique. The animals were killed for testing after each irradiation. Histological examination of the hepatocytes with a light microscope showed marked degenerative changes only after the longer irradiation periods (24, 36 and 48 h). Electron microscopy showed cytological (cytoplasmic and nuclear) changes in the hepatocytes after only 12 hours' irradiation. Densitometric scans of electron micrographs of control and 12 h-irradiated livers indicated that the control hepatocyte interphase nucleus contains approximately 72% heterochromatin, while the irradiated nucleus contains only 64% heterochromatin. (author). 13 figs., 1 tab., 18 refs

  9. Evaluation of Carrot Pomace (Daucus carota L. as Hypocholesterolemic and Hypolipidemic Agent on Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El-Moneim M.R. AFIFY

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined the attenuating influence of dietary carrot pomace powder (CaPP on hypercholesterolemia and various oxidative stress-associated with biochemical parameters in hypercholesterolemic rats. Thirty two male albino rats weighing 110±10 g were divided into four groups, the first group received the basal diet only and served as (negative control, the second group received the hypercholesterolemic diet and served as positive control, the other groups received hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with 10%, 20% CaPP for six weeks. The obtained results revealed that groups supplemented with 10% and 20% CaPP significantly decrease total lipid, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, liver enzymes: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase compared to positive and negative groups. Organs weight, body weight gain significantly decreased compared with positive control. Moreover dietary carrot pomace powder can used to reduce the body weight and reducing hypercholesterolemic complications. In addition, dietary carrot pomace powder serves to improve the blood picture and to reduce the blood glucose level in hypercholesterolemic rats and could use in obese people for body loss. Data of kidney function (Urea record an increase in CaPP 20% level (26.9±2.96 but this increase was non significant with the negative control group (26.6±3.1.

  10. Effect of parsley (Petroselinum crispum, Apiaceae) juice against cadmium neurotoxicity in albino mice (Mus musculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maodaa, Saleh N; Allam, Ahmed A; Ajarem, Jamaan; Abdel-Maksoud, Mostafa A; Al-Basher, Gadah I; Wang, Zun Yao

    2016-02-04

    Parsley was employed as an experimental probe to prevent the behavioral, biochemical and morphological changes in the brain tissue of the albino mice following chronic cadmium (Cd) administration. Non-anesthetized adult male mice were given parsley juice (Petroselinum crispum, Apiaceae) daily by gastric intubation at doses of 10 and 20 g/kg/day. The animals were divided into six groups: Group A, mice were exposed to saline; Groups B and C, were given low and high doses of parsley juice, respectively; Group D, mice were exposed to Cd; Groups E and F, were exposed to Cd and concomitantly given low and high doses of parsley, respectively. Cd intoxication can cause behavioral abnormalities, biochemical and histopathological disturbances in treated mice. Parsley juice has significantly improved the Cd-associated behavioral changes, reduced the elevation of lipid peroxidation and normalized the Cd effect on reduced glutathione and peroxidase activities in the brain of treated mice. Histological data have supported these foundations whereas Cd treatment has induced neuronal degeneration, chromatolysis and pyknosis in the cerebrum, cerebellum and medulla oblongata. The low dose (5 g/kg/day) of parsley exhibited beneficial effects in reducing the deleterious changes associated with Cd treatment on the behavior, neurotransmitters level, oxidative stress and brain neurons of the Cd-treated mice.

  11. Acute toxicity study of Vilocym Premix (herbal growth promoter for Livestockin Wistar Albino Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Ahmad

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study with the objective of safety evaluation of Vilocym Premix, herbal growth promoter for Livestock (supplied by Ayurvet Ltd., Baddi, India, was done as per standard guidelines of OECD-423 for acute toxicity testing. Vilocym Premix is a scientifically developed combination of herbs that contains herbal ingredients namely Azadirachta indica, Curcuma longa & many more alongwith natural zeolites. The study was done in 3 males and 3 female Wistar Albino rats, which were administered an initial dose of 50 mg/kg body weight followed by dose rates of 300, 500 & 5000 mg/kg body weight of test compound. The animals were observed for signs of convulsions, tremors, circling, depression, excitement and mortality. Body weight was recorded at 0,7th and 14th day and plasma total protein, albumin; AST and ALT were measured after 3rd day of experiment. No abnormal sign of symptoms were observed in any of the animal fed with Vilocym Premix at the dose rate of 50, 300, 500 & 5000 mg/kg. No mortality was observed indicating safety of herbal premix. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000: 100-102

  12. Influence of chewing behaviour on memory and spatial learning in albino BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre Siancas, E E

    2017-05-01

    Since the relationship between chewing and cognitive functions has not been fully elucidated, this study aimed to determine the impact of chewing behaviour on spatial learning and memory in albino male BALB/c mice. Twenty mice aged 8 weeks were divided into 2 equal groups. The regular chewing group was fed with uncrushed grains (the same diet given to all 20 mice since they were weaned) and the limited chewing group was fed with crushed grains. At 16 weeks of age, the mice were evaluated over 5 days, including a 4-day acquisition phase prior to a probe test of spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze on the fifth day. A comparison of the regular chewing group and the limited chewing group found no significant differences in either the acquisition phase or the probe test. However, there were significant differences in the acquisition phase for just the regular chewing group when comparing results from the first day to those from the other 3 days. The results suggest that regular chewing affects spatial learning and memory since mice in the regular chewing group decreased their times to find the hidden platform during the acquisition phase. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Protective effects of fennel oil extract against sodium valproate-induced hepatorenal damage in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael M. Al-Amoudi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Foeniculum vulgare (Apiaceae is commonly known as fennel. This herb is well-known worldwide and traditionally used as curative herbal therapy for the treatment of epileptic disease, seizurescarminative, digestive, lactogogue, diuretic, treating respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders. The aim of present study is to investigate the possible effect of fennel oil against the toxicity of Sodium-Valproic (SVP in albino rats. In order to assess the protection of fennel oil on SVP induced hepato- and nephro-toxicity, male albino rats were treated with 1 ml/kg b.w fennel oil 3 days/week for 6 weeks. The biochemical analyses of hepatic enzymes were evaluated by estimating blood biomarkers of liver and renal damage along with histological examination. The results obtained from this work showed that treating animals with SVP lead to many histopathological alterations in the liver and kidney tissues. The effect appeared in the liver tissue include leukocyte infiltrations, cytoplasmic vacuolization of the hepatocytes, fatty degeneration and congestion of blood vessels. This commonly used chemical (SVP caused some unwanted effects on the kidney cortex which histologically observed as degeneration in renal tubules, atrophy of the glomeruli and edema. Biochemical results also revealed an abnormal increase in the enzyme level of AST, SAT, ALP, bilirubin, creatinine and urea-nitrogen, with a noticed decrease in total protein content. However, the results of treated rats with SVP plus fennel oil showed some positive histopathological changes in both the liver and kidney tissues. These results have confirmed that fennel oil has positive effects on the histological structure of the liver and kidney and the biochemical levels of AST, ALT, ALP, bilirubin, total proteins, creatinine and urea. It is concluded that fennel oil has various pharmacological properties including antioxidant, anti-cancer activity, anti-inflammatory. These valuable effects might be due to

  14. Influence of Monosodium Glutamate on Radiation-Induced Biochemical Alterations in Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saada, H. N.; Said, U. Z.; Shedid, S.M.; Mahdy, E. M. E.; Elmezayen, H. E.

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of foods and beverages containing additives has intensely increased over the past decades. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is one of the main flavor enhancer that can be consumed in high concentrations. Also, human exposure to ionizing radiation (RAD) has become inevitable with its vast application in diagnosis and industry. Humans are frequently exposed to RAD and MSG from various food additives, therapeutic treatments and the environment. Although the use of additives and exposure to RAD in therapeutic treatments are believed to be relatively safe, their combined effects remain unclear. The present study proposed to investigate neurotoxic potentials of exposure to MSG and/or RAD on oxidative stress, neurotransmitters disturbance and metabolic disorders in the rat’s brain tissue. MSG was supplemented daily by gavages to rats at a dose of 450 mg/Kg bwt/day (equivalent to 5 g/day human consumption) for 7 days pre- and 21 days post-exposure to whole body gamma rays at doses of 2 Gy/week up to a total dose of 8 Gy. Exposure to MSG and/or RAD -induced oxidative stress, neurotransmitters disturbance and metabolic disorders. Oxidative stress was manifested by a significant increase in lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) and decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione content. The administration of MSG daily during exposure to gamma radiation has potentiated oxidative stress regarding each single treatment. MSG-exposure induced a highly significant decrease of serotonin (P<0.01) and a slight non significant increase (P>0.05) of aspartic and glutamic acids levels while in RAD- group the decrease of serotonin and the increase of amino acids were very highly significant (P<0.001). MSG + RAD-exposure had potentiated the decrease of serotonin and produced an additive effect on the increase of neurotransmitters amino acids. MSG as well as RAD-exposure increased (P<0.05) glucose and insulin levels with no effect on insulin resistance and their co-administration produces an additive effect compared to each single treatment. Regarding lipid profile, MSG as well as RAD-exposure induced hyperlipidaemia more noticeable in case of irradiation. Their co-administration had potentiated hyperlipidaemia compared to each single treatment. It is concluded that exposure to MSG together with RAD increased oxidative stress and neurotransmitter alteration in the brain and the risk of metabolic syndrome. It is thus recommended to limit the intake of MSG when human are at risk of overexposure to ionizing radiation.

  15. The role of a certain biological treatment on certain sexual parameters in irradiated male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabr, S.A.M.A.

    1995-01-01

    The present work aims at the investigation of the following : - Assessment of radiation induced damage on thyroid gland includes: - Serum triiodothyronine (T-3) hormone. - Serum tetraiodothyronine (T-4) hormone. - Assessment of radiation induced change on testis including: - Serum testosterone. - Histopathological study on testis. - Investigation of the radioprotective role of ''estradiol benzate''estrogen as a female sex hormone on the radiation induced changes in the above mentioned parameters at single and fractionated doses tested either before and after radiation exposure. Also its selected the beneficial dose of estrogen as a protective agent on the parameters selected for the present study in irradiated rate. The result obtained from such a study would anticipate certain incidences which would happen in case of humans.6 tabs.,22 figs.,180 refs

  16. Curcumin ameliorates diclofenac sodium-induced nephrotoxicity in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ahmady Y; Gad, Amany M; El-Raouf, Ola M Abd

    2017-10-01

    Exposure to drugs often results in toxicity in the kidney which represents the major control system maintaining homeostasis of the body and thus is especially susceptible to xenobiotics. Nephrotoxicity is a life-threatening side-effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Diclofenac is one of the most frequently prescribed NSAIDs and have been reported to cause multiple organs damage. Curcumin (CUR) exhibits nephroprotective properties. Therefore, rats were divided into four groups; rats of groups 3 and 4 received diclofenac (100 mg/kg, i.m.), whereas rats of groups 2 and 4 received CUR (100 mg/kg, p.o.) for 3 days. Diclofenac revealed a significant increase in urea and creatinine levels and malondialdehyde concentration and marked reduction in catalase activity and reduced glutathione concentration. Histopathologically, diclofenac produced fatty changes and eosinophilic casts were detected in the renal tubules, those were attenuated by administration of CUR prior diclofenac. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Anti-Gastric Ulcer Effect of Betulinic Acid in Male Albino Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    which is in a dose- dependent manner compared to the control group. There was significant ... Animal studies reveal that BA lack toxicity even at ... mechanisms of the anti-ulcer effect of betulinic acid. In this ... control and was treated with DMSO in normal saline. Groups 2, 3 ..... Gutteridge JMC and Wilkins C (1982): Copper.

  18. physiological changes induced by inhalation of unleaded gasoline in adult male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, E.A.R.

    2006-01-01

    air pollution is the most dangerous form of pollution as it can expose a person to about 10.000 times more mass of an environmental pollutant than does food or water gasoline is the primary product of petroleum refining and it perhaps the most widely used energy source in the world. in addition to industrial applications, the ready availability of gasoline to power automotive engines, there are increasing opportunities for occupational and environment exposure to this liquid fuel. with the removal of lead from gasoline and the use of new technologies, it is very important to conduct studies of toxic effects of reformulated gasoline (unleaded gasoline) which will shed the light on this new formula and either it is more or less benefit than the old one. the objective of this work was to asses the health effects of unleaded gasoline refined and used in Egypt

  19. Effect of honey consumption on intestinal motility in male albino rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    fed on rat feed, water and honey ( 1 ml of honey to every 10 ml initial drinking water daily) for twenty two (22) weeks after which the rats were starved over night before the experiment and sacrificed by stunning. .... stand for 30 minutes after which it settled into three .... with sucrose and a sugar-free diet on neutrophil.

  20. Aggravation of Irradiation Induced Impairment in Protein Metabolism in Albino Rate Subjected to Oral Injection of Kelthane Miticide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousri, R.M.; Abu Ghadeer, A.R.M.; Abbady, M.M.; Helmy, A.S.; Abdallah, N.M.

    1998-01-01

    The combined effect of both whole body gamma radiation exposure and administration of organo chlorine miticide k elthane o n protein metabolism was investigated in male albino rats. Kelthane was orally given at a dose level of 100 mg/kg body weight over a period of seven days. Irradiation process permitted the rats to receive one Gray every other day at a weekly cumulative dose of 3 Gy up to a total dose of 15 Gy. The biochemical assays included total proteins, protein fractions, free amino acids (FAAS) and urea level in blood serum as well as protein content and its FAAS in urine . The data revealed significant changes in the protein parameters due to whole body gamma irradiation. These changes were shown to be dose and time dependent which reached their maximum at the end of the experimentation period. The alterations were more pronounced in animal groups exposed to gamma radiation and received keltane pesticide

  1. Mineral absorption by albino rats as affected by some types of dietary pectins with different degrees of esterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Zoghbi, M; Sitohy, M Z

    2001-04-01

    Male albino rats were fed diets contained 6.85% mineral salts for 2 weeks (adaptation condition). Then they were fed the dietary pectin administered diet for 6 weeks to evaluate the effect of administration of pectin on the absorption of some monovalent, bivalent and heavy metals in the serum of rats. The experimental parameters included, monovalent minerals (K, Na), bivalent minerals (Zn, Cu, Ca, Fe), heavy metals (Pb, Cd), serum uric acid and serum creatinine. The obtained results indicated that the serum contents of monovalent minerals were negatively affected by pectin administration. The low degree of esterification of pectin was more effective on the absorption of bivalent minerals. Also, the rat serum levels of lead and cadmium were reduced by pectin administration. Serum total proteins were reduced by pectin administration. The level of rat serum of uric acid and creatinine fed different sources of pectin were within normal levels and were insignificantly lower than that recorded for control samples.

  2. Impairment of blood lipids pattern in gamma irradiated albino mice and prophylactic role of thiols and W R-2721

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EL-dighidy, E A.M.; El-Kady, M H.R. [National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1987-12-31

    The present work aims to investigate the effect of shot doses of whole body gamma irradiation at the levels, 6, 7.5, 11, 25 and 15 Gy, on the blood lipids pattern in male swiss albino mice. This has been manifested by the levels of total lipids, triglycerides, phospholipids and cholesterol. The radioprotective capacities of two sulfhydryl compounds: thiols and W R-2721, against impairment in blood lipids pattern, have been evaluated in mice received the higher shot radiation dose-level at 15 Gy. Significant increases in the levels of blood total lipid, phospholipids, triglycerides and cholesterol have been recorded on the third day post exposure under the experiment conditions, the data indicated more efficient protection of blood lipid pattern exerted by W R-2721 than in case of thiols. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Impairment of blood lipids pattern in gamma irradiated albino mice and prophylactic role of thiols and W R-2721

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-dighidy, E.A.M.; El-Kady, M.H.R.

    1986-01-01

    The present work aims to investigate the effect of shot doses of whole body gamma irradiation at the levels, 6, 7.5, 11, 25 and 15 Gy, on the blood lipids pattern in male swiss albino mice. This has been manifested by the levels of total lipids, triglycerides, phospholipids and cholesterol. The radioprotective capacities of two sulfhydryl compounds: thiols and W R-2721, against impairment in blood lipids pattern, have been evaluated in mice received the higher shot radiation dose-level at 15 Gy. Significant increases in the levels of blood total lipid, phospholipids, triglycerides and cholesterol have been recorded on the third day post exposure under the experiment conditions, the data indicated more efficient protection of blood lipid pattern exerted by W R-2721 than in case of thiols. 2 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Toxicological parameters of albino rats fed with extruded snacks from Aerial yam (Dioscoria bulbifera) and African breadfruit seed (Treculia africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatoye, Kazeem K; Arueya, Gibson L

    2018-01-01

    In this study, safety of novel food from aerial yam and Treculia africana , underutilized food materials with high-nutritive value and health benefits were investigated. Animal experiment involving the use of thirty (30) male albino rats was conducted for 28 days.Thereafter, rats in all groups were sacrificed and blood samples collected for biochemical analysis and hematological assay. Some vital organs were harvested and used for histological analysis. Biochemical and hematological parameters were not significantly p  ≤ .05 different among the treatment and controls. However there was an increase in monocytes, which is a reflection of immune boosting potential of the novel snack. No significant pathological changes were observed in liver and kidney of rats fed with this snack. Rats showed no signs of toxicity within the study period. These findings suggest that product may be safe and useful as an Immune adjuvant.

  5. The protective effect of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and insulin on nitric oxide inhibition and pathology in experimental diabetic rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozden, H.; Guven, G.; Tekin, N.; Akyuz, F.; Gurer, F.; Kucuk, F.; Ustuner, Mehmet C.; Yaylak, F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective was to determine on protective role of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and insulin on the liver in streptoozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. This study was performed in the Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey in 2007. Forty male Wistar albino rats were divided into 5 groups. These were untreated, diabetic control, STZ+insulin, STZ+L-NAME and STZ+insulin+L-NAME induced groups. The STZ was intraperitonally injected into 3 groups and includes insulin, L-NAME and their joint administrations as protective agents. The blood glucose and nitric oxide (NO) levels were determined. The tissue samples were obtained at the end of the fourth week. The liver tissue distortions were evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin staining. The serum glucose level was significantly higher in diabetic control (p=0.000), than the untreated group. The focal pseudo lobular structures without vena centralis increased portal fibrillary necrosis and bile duct stenosis with voagulation necrosis of the peripheral hepatocytes were more observed in diabetic group than the protective agent groups. In addition, insulin and L-NAME lead to hepatocyte regeneration and minimal mononuclear cell infiltration was noted. NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester inhibits NO level in STZ+L-NAME induced group. NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester either alone or with insulin combination significantly attenuates the liver morphological disarrangements in STZ induced diabetic rats. (author)

  6. Capsaicin induced histological and ultrastructural changes in the submandibular salivary gland of albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mahmoud Halawa

    2016-06-01

    From the present work, it could be concluded that chronic capsaicin intake was associated with noticeable histological and ultrastructural changes in acini, granular convoluted tubules and excretory ducts of the SMSG in albino rats.

  7. Heredity, physiology and malt quality analysis of albino-lemma barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Ting; Wu Kuanran; Yang Jianming; Jia Qiaojun; Wang Junmei; Hua Wei; Chen He; Qiao Hailong

    2013-01-01

    The barley 0601 is a spontaneous albino-lemma mutant from beer barley cultivar Supi3. Genetic control of albino-lemma trait in the mutant 0601 and, the agronomic traits (thousand kernel weight, kernel plumpness), physiological traits (chlorophyll content, proanthocyanidin content) and major malt qualities (diastatic power, malt extract, Kolbach index) were investigated. The results showed that the albino-lemma trait is controlled by one recessive gene, and there were significant differences between the mutant and its wild-type in thousand kernel weight, kernel plumpness, chlorophyll content, diastatic power, and the malt extract, whereas no significant difference in proanthocyanidin content was found. These results provide the basis on mapping and cloning the albino-lemma gene and also provide good material for genetic research. (authors)

  8. Consequences of Mesobuthus tamulus gangeticus (Pocock, 1900 envenomation in albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MK Chaubey

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Mesobuthus tamulus gangeticus Pocock (Buthidae venom on albino mice (NIH strain. Whole venom was obtained by electrical stimulation and its toxicity was determined in albino mice by subcutaneous envenomation. The venom LD50 was 2.5 mg kg-1 of mouse body weight. Toxic effects on different biochemical and enzymatic parameters in blood serum and other tissues of albino mice were determined after experimental envenomation with sublethal doses of M. tamulus gangeticus venom. Increased levels of glucose, uric acid and cholesterol, as well as decreased serum total proteins, were observed at 2 and 4 hours after the envenomation. In the liver and muscles, glycogen content dropped after venom injection. Moreover, M. tamulus gangeticus venom elevated the enzymatic activity of acid phosphatase (ACP, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH and alanine aminotransferase (ALT in the serum of albino mice. In conclusion, M. tamulus gangeticus can be considered a lethal scorpion species.

  9. Case Report: Locally advanced skin cancer in an albino, a treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case Report: Locally advanced skin cancer in an albino ... headache, anorexia, weight loss, night sweats, dizziness, change in ... This was the case with our patient, whose five ... We need more interventional studies in treatment of locally.

  10. The Effect of High Intensity Interval Training on Hormonal Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axisand Fertility in Type 2 Diabetic Male Rats

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    Mohammad Parastesh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Diabetes mellitus is associated with reductions in fertility indices. Interval training, on the other hand, through reducing the adverse effects of diabetes, exerts a positive impact on diabetic individuals.The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of ten weeks of High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT on reproductive hormones and sperm parameters in Wistar rats with diabetes mellitus type 2. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 36 Wistar rats with mean weight of 200±48 were randomly assigned to healthy control, diabetic control and diabetic + high intensity interval training groups. The diabetic training group received ten weeks of HIIT training by treadmill following the induction of diabetes. Twenty-four hours after the last training session, left epididymis of the rats was examined for studying sperm parameters and blood serum samples were examined for evaluating reproductive hormones. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test at a significant level of 0.05%. Results: Ten weeks of HIIT training reduces fasting blood glucose (p=0.001 and significantly increases serum testosterone (p=0.001, LH (p=0.042 and FSH (p=0.024 levels in the HIIT training group in comparison to the diabetic group. In addition, sperm parameters (sperm count, survival rate and motility presented significant improvements compared to the diabetic group (p<0.05. Conclusion: It seems that HIIT training can improve sperm count, survival rate and motility, through increasing serum testosterone, LH and FSH levels (reproductive hormones in rats with diabetes mellitus type 2.

  11. Effect of rifampicin on the lipid profile of albino rats | Peters | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to investigate the effect of rifampicin on the lipid profile and histopathology of the heart of albino rats. Albino rats (42) were used and rifampicin was administered at 1.10mg/120g body weight (BW) and 0.55mg/120g BW for intervals of 20, 40 and 60days. Result from the study revealed that there was ...

  12. Effect of rifampicin on the kidney of albino rats | Peters | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to investigate the effect of rifampicin on the kidney biomarkers and histopathology of kidney of albino rats. 42 albino rats were used and rifampicin was administered at 1.10mg/120gBW and 0.55mg/120gBW for intervals of 20, 40 and 60days.Animals were sacrificed 24 hours after the last day of ...

  13. Modulation of antioxidant status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male wistar rats following intake of red palm oil and/or rooibos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ademola Ayeleso; Nicole Brooks; Oluwafemi Oguntibeju

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the role of red palm oil(RPO), rooibos tea extract(RTE) and their combined treatment(RPO+RTE) on antioxidant status in streptozotocin(STZ)-induced diabetic rats.Methods:Diabetes mellitus was induced by a single administration of streptozotocin(50 mg/kg) and the rats were treated for7 weeks.Antioxidant enzymes [catalase(CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase(SOD)], antioxidant capacity [trolox equivalence antioxidant capacity (TEAC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity(ORAC)] as well as total protein, albumin, globulin, total glutathione, conjugated diene and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances(TBARS) were investigated.Results:Treatment withRPO,RTE andRPO+RTE significantly(p>0.05) improved liverSOD and plasmaORAC in the diabetic rats.Similarly, diabetic rats treated withRTE and RPO+RTE enhanced liverGPx.A significant(P<0.05) increase in the plasmaTBARS in the diabetic control group was observed when compared with the normal control group.Treatment of diabetic rats withRTE andRPO+RTE reduced plasmaTBARS to a level not significantly different atP<0.05 from the normal control group. Conclusions:The results revealed the anti-oxidative potentials of red palm oil, rooibos and their combination in diabetic conditions and hence, they could be useful in the management of diabetes and its complications.

  14. Factors Predictive of Knowledge and Self-Management Behaviors among Male Military Veterans with Diabetes Residing in a Homeless Shelter for People Recovering from Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Guyler, Liliana; Inniss-Richter, Zipporah M.; Lee, Rebecca; Bernard, Amy; King, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes disproportionately affects individuals with lower income in the U.S. (CDC, 2012). Specifically the control of diabetes through self-management has been found to be sub-par and an important contributor to complications (Seligman, Davis, Schillinger, & Wolf, 2010). People experiencing homelessness also experience barriers. One such…

  15. Deficiency in plasma protein synthesis caused by x-ray-induced lethal albino alleles in mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, R.C.; Satrustegui, J.; Gluecksohn-Waelsch, S.; Cori, C.F.

    1976-01-01

    Plasma protein synthesis was studied in mice bearing x-ray induced lethal mutations at the albino locus. Newborn albino mutants showed a decrease in each of the three principal plasma proteins, albumin, α-fetoprotein, and transferrin, when compared with colored littermate controls. Incorporation of [ 14 C] leucine into plasma proteins of the newborn albinos 30 min after injection was only 1 / 5 that of the controls, but incorporation into total liver protein was only slightly diminished. Incorporation of [ 14 C] leucine into an albumin fraction obtained by immunoprecipitation from livers incubated in vitro in an amino acid mixture was also strongly diminished. Thus, the liver of 18-day-old albino fetuses incorporated into this fraction 1 / 3 and that of newborn albinos 1 / 8 as much as the controls, but in both cases the incorporation into total liver protein was only 25 percent less than in the respective controls. These results indicate that the rather severe structural abnormalities observed in the mutants in the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus are not associated with a general deficiency of hepatic protein synthesis. Instead the data from this and previous work show that the progressive deficiency from fetal life to birth involves certain specific proteins represented by several perinatally developing enzymes and by plasma proteins. It is suggested that the mutational effects observed in these mice are due to deletions involving regulatory rather than structural genes at or near the albino locus

  16. The effect of olive-pomace oil on different blood parameters in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousaf, M.J.; Naveed, A.K.; Khan, S.; Shah, S.Z.H.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effects of olive-pomace oil on glycemic status and lipid profile in diabetes. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi in collaboration with Centre for Research in Experimental and Applied Medicine, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi and National Institute of Health, Islamabad from March 2010 to June 2011. Material and Methods: Seventy male albino rats of Sprague-Dawley strain were randomly divided into two groups of 35 rats each. Rats were rendered diabetic by injecting streptozotocin. Group 1 and group 2 were given normal rodent diet and olive pomace oil supplemented diet respectively for 6 weeks. At the end of the experiment fasting blood glucose and lipid profile were measured for comparison. Results: There was significant increase in high density lipoprotein and significant decrease of blood glucose, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein of group II rats when compared with group I (control). Conclusion: Olive pomace oil can significantly improve fasting blood glucose and lipid profile in diabetic rats. (author)

  17. Comparison between the Hypolipidemic Activity of Parsley and Carob in Hypercholesterolemic Male Rats

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    Haddad A. El Rabey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is commonly associated with obesity that leads to heart diseases and diabetes. The hepatocardioprotective activity of parsley and carob methanol extract was tested in hypercholesterolemic male rats. Twenty-four male albino rats were divided into four groups (n=6. Group 1 was the negative control group fed with fat rich diet, group 2 (G2 was hypercholesterolemic rats fed with fat rich diet with 2% cholesterol, and group 3 and group 4 (G3 and G4 were hypercholesterolemic rats supplemented with 2% cholesterol and cotreated with 20% w/w parsley seed methanol extract and 20% w/w carob legume methanol extract, respectively. The experiment was conducted for eight weeks. The positive hypercholesterolemic rats showed significant increase in serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine kinase-mb, liver function enzymes, and decrease in the high density lipoproteins (HDL. Moreover, heart and liver tissues were ameliorated and nearly restored their normal appearance. It could be concluded that both parsley and carob extracts supplementations have a protective effect against hyperlipidemia and improved the histological alteration in heart and liver tissues. The methanol extract of parsley appeared to be more efficient than that of carob in lowering hypercholesterolemia.

  18. Comparison between the Hypolipidemic Activity of Parsley and Carob in Hypercholesterolemic Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Seeni, Madeha N.; Al-Ghamdi, Habibah B.

    2017-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is commonly associated with obesity that leads to heart diseases and diabetes. The hepatocardioprotective activity of parsley and carob methanol extract was tested in hypercholesterolemic male rats. Twenty-four male albino rats were divided into four groups (n = 6). Group 1 was the negative control group fed with fat rich diet, group 2 (G2) was hypercholesterolemic rats fed with fat rich diet with 2% cholesterol, and group 3 and group 4 (G3 and G4) were hypercholesterolemic rats supplemented with 2% cholesterol and cotreated with 20% w/w parsley seed methanol extract and 20% w/w carob legume methanol extract, respectively. The experiment was conducted for eight weeks. The positive hypercholesterolemic rats showed significant increase in serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase-mb, liver function enzymes, and decrease in the high density lipoproteins (HDL). Moreover, heart and liver tissues were ameliorated and nearly restored their normal appearance. It could be concluded that both parsley and carob extracts supplementations have a protective effect against hyperlipidemia and improved the histological alteration in heart and liver tissues. The methanol extract of parsley appeared to be more efficient than that of carob in lowering hypercholesterolemia. PMID:29094044

  19. Mesenchymal stem cells and differentiated insulin producing cells are new horizons for pancreatic regeneration in type I diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domouky, Ayat M; Hegab, Ashraf S; Al-Shahat, Amal; Raafat, Nermin

    2017-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus has become the third human killer following cancer and cardiovascular disease. Millions of patients, often children, suffer from type 1 diabetes (T1D). Stem cells created hopes to regenerate damaged body tissues and restore their function. This work aimed at clarifying and comparing the therapeutic potential of differentiated and non-differentiated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a new line of therapy for T1D. 40 Female albino rats divided into group I (control): 10 rats and group II (diabetic), III and IV, 10 rats in each, were injected with streptozotocin (50mg/kg body weight). Group III (MSCs) were transplanted with bone marrow derived MSCs from male rats and group IV (IPCs) with differentiated insulin producing cells. Blood and pancreatic tissue samples were taken from all rats for biochemical and histological studies. MSCs reduced hyperglycemia in diabetic rats on day 15 while IPCs normalizes blood glucose level on day 7. Histological and morphometric analysis of pancreas of experimental diabetic rats showed improvement in MSCs-treated group but in IPCs-treated group, β-cells insulin immunoreactions were obviously returned to normal, with normal distribution of β-cells in the center and other cells at the periphery. Meanwhile, most of the pathological lesions were still detected in diabetic rats. MSCs transplantation can reduce blood glucose level in recipient diabetic rats. IPCs initiate endogenous pancreatic regeneration by neogenesis of islets. IPCs are better than MSCs in regeneration of β-cells. So, IPCs therapy can be considered clinically to offer a hope for patients suffering from T1D. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Pathophysiological Effects of Acrylamide in Albino Wister Rats

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    Shler Akram Faqe Mahmood

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the pathophysiological effects of suspected compounds are conducted in rodent species, especially rats and mice, to determine the potential toxic effects of a particular compound. In the assessment of acrylamide (ACR which is available as a dietary compound in daily food stuffs, the potential toxicity was determined following the method described earlier. In this study, Albino Wister rats were used and were observed for clinical abnormalities, changes in food consumption, a n d s y m p t o m s o f toxicity over a period of two months following the oral administration of ACR. Among the parameters used to assess the effect of ACR were include ovarian histopathology, blood sugar, haemogram and lipid profile. The most notable clinical abnormalities observed in a few rats were a rough coat and decreased activity. None of the rats died or howedbehavioural change resulting from treatment with ACR. The concentration of serum biochemical parameters and haemogram showed significant differences between normal and treated rats. Histological examination of the ovaries of the treated rats showed great abnormalities as well. In fact, oral ACR doses are practically toxic with regard to rats after exposure for two months at a dose rate of 30 mg/kg, suggesting the compound is quite non-innocuous.

  1. Neurotoxic impact of organophosphate pesticide phosphomedon on the albino rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Ranjit

    2014-03-01

    Organophosphate pesticide phosphomedon was exposed to albino rat at a concentration of 35 ppm in the time interval of 30, 45 and 60 days. During the exposure period neurobehavioral symptoms such as reduce food intake, weight loss, increase water intake, low defecation frequency, increase locomotion frequency at high dose were observed. Locomotion frequency were less initially but higher in increasing dose concentration. The result was also different in both the sexes. A decrease social interaction and increase force swimming with increasing dose concentration, which was not significant as comparison to control. A significant histopathological changes observed in three dose concentrations. In 30 days phosphomedon exposure the nuclear shape changes to oval, pear shaped along with fibrosis, lipidosis, 45 days exposure showed the increase number of nucleus, Chromatolysis, inflammatory nucleus, pyknosis. In 60 days test group histopathological picture showed the swelling of cell body, lipidosis, demylination, necrosis in brain cells. Over all result indicated that due to impact of O. P pesticide phosphomedon a severe histopathological changes occurs which was distinctly observed in neurobehavioural changes.

  2. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2) deletion protects against multiple low dose streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes in adult male mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkharusi, Amira; Mirecki-Garrido, Mercedes; Ma, Zuheng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes type 1 is characterized by the failure of beta cells to produce insulin. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins are important regulators of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway. Previous studies have shown that GH can...... prevent the development of type I diabetes in mice and that SOCS2 deficiency mimics a state of increased GH sensitivity. Methodology: The elevated sensitivity of SOCS2-/- mice to GH and possibly to PRL was the rationale to analyze the effects of multiple low dose streptozotocin (MLDSTZ)-induced diabetes...... in SOCS2-/- mice. Results: We show that 6-month-old SOCS2-/- mice, but not 2-month-old mice, were less sensitive to MLDSTZ-induced diabetes, compared to controls. MLDSTZ treatment induced glucose intolerance in both SOCS2+/+ and SOCS2-/- mice, as shown by glucose tolerance tests, with SOCS2+/+ mice...

  3. Evaluation of Antinociceptive Activity of Aqueous Extract of Bark of Psidium Guajava in Albino Rats and Albino Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasree, T.; Ubedulla, Shaikh; Dixit, Rohit; V S, Manohar; J, Shankar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Psidium guajava is commonly known as guava. Psidium guajava is a medium sized tree belonging to the family Myrtaceae found throughout the tropics. All the parts of the plant, the leaves, followed by the fruits, bark and the roots are used in traditional medicine. The traditional uses of the plant are Antidiarrheal, Antimicrobial Activity, Antimalarial/Antiparasitic Activity, Antitussive and antihyperglycaemic. Leaves are used as Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antinociceptive effects. Aim: To evaluate the antinociceptive activity of aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava in albino rats with that of control and standard analgesic drugs aspirin and tramadol. Materials and Methods: Mechanical (Tail clip method) and thermal (Tail flick method using Analgesiometer), 0.6% solution of acetic acid writhing models of nociception were used to evaluate the extract antinociceptive activity. Six groups of animals, each consists of 10 animals, first one as control, second and third as standard drugs, Aspirin and Tramadol, fourth, fifth and sixth groups as text received the extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/ kg) orally 60 min prior to subjection to the respective test. Results: The results obtained demonstrated that aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava produced significant antinociceptive response in all the mechanical and thermal-induced nociception models. Conclusion: AEPG antinociceptive activity involves activation of the peripheral and central mechanisms. PMID:25386462

  4. Evaluation of antinociceptive activity of aqueous extract of bark of psidium guajava in albino rats and albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, N Chandra; Jayasree, T; Ubedulla, Shaikh; Dixit, Rohit; V S, Manohar; J, Shankar

    2014-09-01

    Psidium guajava is commonly known as guava. Psidium guajava is a medium sized tree belonging to the family Myrtaceae found throughout the tropics. All the parts of the plant, the leaves, followed by the fruits, bark and the roots are used in traditional medicine. The traditional uses of the plant are Antidiarrheal, Antimicrobial Activity, Antimalarial/Antiparasitic Activity, Antitussive and antihyperglycaemic. Leaves are used as Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antinociceptive effects. To evaluate the antinociceptive activity of aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava in albino rats with that of control and standard analgesic drugs aspirin and tramadol. Mechanical (Tail clip method) and thermal (Tail flick method using Analgesiometer), 0.6% solution of acetic acid writhing models of nociception were used to evaluate the extract antinociceptive activity. Six groups of animals, each consists of 10 animals, first one as control, second and third as standard drugs, Aspirin and Tramadol, fourth, fifth and sixth groups as text received the extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/ kg) orally 60 min prior to subjection to the respective test. The results obtained demonstrated that aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava produced significant antinociceptive response in all the mechanical and thermal-induced nociception models. AEPG antinociceptive activity involves activation of the peripheral and central mechanisms.

  5. Impact of ginger aqueous extract on carbimazole induced testicular degenerative alterations and oxidative stress in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Abdel-Rahman Sakr

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale aqueous extract, a natural herb, with antioxidant properties, on testicular toxicity and oxidative stress induced by the antithyroid drug carbimazole in albino rats. Methods: Four groups of male albino rats were used. Group I served as control. Group II rats were treated with ginger aqueous extract (24 mg/mL. Group III rats were given orally carbimazole (1.35 mg/kg bw. Group IV rats were given carbimazole and ginger extract. Animals were sacrificed and their testes were removed and stained with H&E for histological examination. Sperms were collected from epididymis for detection of sperm head abnormalities. Immunohistochemical expression of PCNA and Bax was detected in the testes. MDA, CAT and GSH were measured in the sera. Results: Treating rats with carbimazole revealed significant alterations in the tissue of testis including decreased seminiferous epithelium height, decreased diameter of seminiferous tubule and changes in the spermatogenic layers arrangement. Intertubular hemorrhage and congested blood vessels were noted. An increase in sperm head abnormalities was recorded. Decreased cell proliferation was reflected by a decrease in PCNA expression, while the increase in apoptotic rate was accompanied with an increase in Bax expression. Oxidative stress was demonstrated by an increase in malondialdehyde and decrease in activity of catalase and glutathione. Combined treatment of carbimazole and aqueous ginger extract led to an improvement in histological, morphometrical, immunohistochemical changes and oxidative stress induced by carbimazole. Conclusions: The ameliorative effects of ginger extract could be due to its antioxidant properties.

  6. Protective effect of Emblica against radiation and cadmium induced histopathological changes in the brain of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Pankaj Kumar; Purohit, R.K.; Basu, Arindam; Bhartiya, K.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study six to eight weeks old male Swiss albino mice were exposed to 2.0 and 4.0 Gy of gamma rays with or without cadmium chloride treatment. The animals of experimental groups were administered Emblica for seven days prior to radiation or cadmium chloride treatment. After routine procedure of histology the histopathological changes were observed in the brain of Swiss albino mice. The histopathological changes observed were pycnotic nuclei and crenated cells with condensation of nuclear material resulting into hyperchromatic cells. Hydrocephaly with enlarged lateral ventricles was also noted. Corpus callosum was seen malformed. Thickened meninges and venous congestion were also noticed. In the irradiated brains cytoarchitectonic layers were reduced in depth and showed some degree of intermixing of cells of various laminae. Hematoma was present between the cortex and medulla with numerous pycnotic and necrotic nuclei. Disarray of the cortical tissue with disorientation of cell processes was also evident. Damage in the cortex was noticed in the form of karyolysis, pycnosis and spongy degeneration of the connective tissue with the thickening of meninges. Dilation of blood vessels was also observed at certain places. Quality of these changes remaining the same, but their magnitude increased with dose. With an increase in the dose, time of the onset of recovery is delayed and the time required for complete recovery is longer. After the combined exposure of gamma rays and cadmium chloride, the histological changes were similar but showed higher magnitude than the individual exposure of gamma rays and cadmium chloride. The brain of Emblica treated animals exhibited less severe damage as compared to non-drug treated animals at all the corresponding intervals. An early and fast recovery was also noticed in Emblica pretreated animals. (author)

  7. Amelioration of excision wounds by topical application of green synthesized, formulated silver and gold nanoparticles in albino Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naraginti, Saraschandra; Kumari, P Lakshmi; Das, Raunak Kumar; Sivakumar, A; Patil, Sagar Hindurao; Andhalkar, Vaibhav Vilas

    2016-05-01

    Wound healing, a complex biological process, has attained a lot of attention as dermatologists are primarily interested in stimulated wound closure without formation of scar or a faint scar. The recent upsurgence of nanotechnology has provided novel therapeutic materials in the form of silver and gold nanoparticles which accelerate the wound healing process. The effect of formulated nanoparticles using Coleus forskohlii root extract (green synthesized) has been tried out for ameliorating full thickness excision wounds in albino Wistar male rats. The evaluation of in vivo activity of nanoparticles in wound healing was carried out on open wounds made by excision on the dorsal sides of albino Wistar rats under anesthesia, and the healing of the wounds was assessed. Histological aspects of the healing process were studied by a HE (Hematoxylin and Eosin) staining method to assess various degrees of re-epithelialization and the linear alignment of the granulation tissue whereas Van Gieson's histochemical staining was performed to observe collagen fibers. The healing action shown by the formulated nanoparticles was remarkable during the early stages of wound healing, which resulted in the substantial reduction of the whole healing period. Topical application of formulated gold nanoparticles was found to be more effective in suppressing inflammation and stimulating re-epithelialization compared to silver nanoparticles during the healing process. The results throw light on the amelioration of excision wounds using nanoparticles which could be a novel therapeutic way of improving wound healing in clinical practice. The mechanism of advanced healing action of both types of nanoparticles could be due to their antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Effect of ingestion of microwaved foods on serum anti-oxidant enzymes and vitamins of albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedict C. Eke, BSc, MSc

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ingestion of microwaved foods on serum antioxidant enzymes and vitamins in albino rats was investigated. In the study, thirty two (32 male wistar albino rats were obtained and grouped into four groups (A, B, C and D of eight animals each. The animals were acclimatized for 7 days on commercial rat feed. The animals in groups B, C and D were all fed ad libitum with porridge yam, porridge beans and jellof rice with meat/fish reheated for 2 min, 4 min and 6 min for groups B, C and D respectively for 42 days. Group A was fed with un-microwaved food and water for the duration of the study (42 days and served as control. Antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, Catalase (CAT activities, vitamins A and E concentrations were determined using standard methods. Result obtained from the study showed that microwaved food consumption resulted in a significant (P < 0.05 decrease in SOD and CAT activity in rats fed with the microwaved food. Furthermore, antioxidant enzyme activity were more significantly (P < 0.05 reduced in rats exposed to food microwaved for 6 min compared to the control group (A. Also, serum vitamins A and E concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05 decreased in rats fed with food exposed to microwaves for 6 min as compared to the control group. Microwaves and increased microwaving time resulted to a significant reduction in SOD, CAT, vitamin A and E in fed rats. Therefore our study demonstrated that consumption of microwaved foods resulted in a significant decrease in antioxidant protection and may be implicated in the pathogenesis of oxidative stress and degenerative diseases.

  9. Mitigation by Aloe Vera of cadmium chloride and radiation induced biochemical changes in the brain of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrawarti, Aruna; Kanwar, Om; Nayak, Kamal Kumar; Ranga, Deepti; Jangir, Ashok; Ram, Purkha

    2013-01-01

    Whole body exposure to ionizing radiation provokes oxidative damage, organ dysfunction and metabolic disturbance. Herbal drugs offer an alternative to the synthetic radioprotective compounds which are either non-toxic or less toxic. Aloe vera rich in polyphenolic compound is known to possess antioxidant properties. In the context, the present study, effect of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced changes in the brain of Swiss albino mice. For the purpose, six to eight weeks old male Swiss albino mice were selected and divided into seven groups:- Group I (Sham-irradiated), Group II (treated with cadmium chloride 20 ppm), Group III (Irradiated with 7.0 Gy gamma rays), Group IV (Both irradiated and treated with cadmium chloride solution), Group V (Cadmium and Aloe vera treated), Group VI (radiation and Aloe vera treated), Group VII (radiation, and cadmium chloride and Aloe vera treated). The animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at each post-treatment intervals of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days. The brain (cerebral cortex) was taken out and quantitatively analyzed for different biochemical parameters such as total proteins, glycogen, cholesterol, acid phosphatase activity, alkaline phosphatase activity, DNA and RNA. The value of cholesterol, glycogen, RNA, acid phosphatase activity, and alkaline phosphatase activity increased up to day-14 in non drug-treated groups and day-7 in Aloe vera treated groups and thereafter decreased up to day-28. The value of total proteins and DNA decreased up to day-14 in non drug-treated groups and day-7 in the drug treated groups then increased in all groups. In only cadmium chloride (Without and with drug) treated animals (Groups II and V) the value of cholesterol decreased during early intervals (days-14 and 7 respectively) and increased thereafter. Severe changes were observed after combined exposure to radiation and cadmium chloride showing synergistic effect. Aloe vera reduced the severity of damage and made the

  10. Protective role of Carica papaya (Linn.) in electron beam radiation induced hematological and cytogenetic damages in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yogish Somayaji, T.; Suchetha Kumari, N.

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya (Linn.) is known to possess various biomedical applications. It has remarkable antioxidant properties. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the leaf extracts of Carica papaya (Linn.) on hematologic and cytogenetic changes occurring due to irradiation of mice to sub-lethal doses of Electron Beam Radiation (EBR). Analysis of hematological changes occurring due to irradiation of mice to sub-lethal doses of EBR, and the effects of Carica papaya (Linn.) extract on the same. The Assessment of hematopoietic stress by spleen colony forming unit and spleen body weight index. The analysis of cell proliferation and immunomodulation with response to the effects of Carica papaya (Linn.) extract by estimation of IL-6. The estimation of serum total antioxidants, lipid peroxidation and analyzing the activities of enzymes like SOD, ALP, and AST. Male Swiss albino mice were fed orally with papaya aqueous leaf extract for 15 days. They were irradiated with a whole body dose of 6 Gy Electron Beam radiation. The mice were dissected for liver, kidney, bone marrow, spleen and brain. The hematological studies were done using blood cell count in an automated cell counter. The biochemical estimations like urea, creatinine, SGOT, SGPT, Total Protein, Albumin, Bilirubin were done using the serum and homogenates. The total antioxidant capacity, the antioxidant enzymes were estimated. The Interleukin-6 levels were estimated in serum to assess immune modulation. The results show a decrease in the hematological parameters in radiated animals. The papaya treated groups have shown modulation in the hematological parameters. The extract has also reduced the suppression of the bone marrow induced by radiation. The radiation induced liver damage is also reduced in papaya treated groups. The aqueous extract of Carica papaya (Linn.) has shown protective effects in electron beam radiation induced tissue damages in Swiss Albino mice (author)

  11. PENGARUH TRITERPEN TOTAL PEGAGAN (Centella asiatica (L Urban TERHADAP FUNGSI KOGNITIF BELAJAR DAN MENGINGAT PADA MENCIT JANTAN ALBINO (Mus musculus YANG DIHAMBAT DENGAN SKOPOLAMIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlina

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Pegagan (Centella asiatica (L Urban has been described to posses CNS effects such as improving cognitive function, learning and memory. The aim of the research was to evaluate the effects of total triterpen’s pegagan extract on cognitive functions as the learning and memory performance in male albino mice (Mus musculus inhibited by scopolamine. The research design was Complete Randomized Design (RAL – factorial on thirty six mice divided into 4 groups. One control group received only aquabidest (negative control. Three treatment groups received total triterpen 16 mg/kg BW, 32 mg/kg BW orally and piracetam 500 mg/kg BW by intra peritoneally (positive control for 21 days. Data indicating learning and memory process of all subjects were obtained from one-trial passive avoidance test. Data were analyzed by two way ANOVA and BNT (p0,05. In conclusion, total triterpen from pegagan (Centella asiatica (L Urban improved learning ability and memory of male albino mice (Mus musculus even though, it was inhibited by scopolamine.

  12. Micronuclei frequency in albino rats exposed to high natural radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aneesh, D.; Godwin Wesley, S.

    2013-01-01

    Genotoxicity and DNA damage endpoints are used to evaluate results in the context of cell survival. Genotoxicity in mammalian cells is monitored mostly by using cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. The score of micronuclei (MN) in peripheral blood lymphocytes can be used as a biomarker and also as a bio-dosimeter of radiation exposure. In the present study the effect of natural radiation on albino rats has been investigated, to find out if there is any increase in MN frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Animals at the age of 2-3 weeks were exposed to natural radiation, at the dose of 10.38 μGyh -1 for a period of 6 months. A parallel control set was also maintained (0.12 μGy h -1 '). Blood samples were collected from both test (exposed to natural radiation) and control rats. Lymphocyte culture was done following 'microculture techniques' for 72 h. Cytochalasin B, at a concentration of 6.0 μg/ml, was added to the lymphocyte cultures at 44 h to block cytokinesis. The frequency of MN was evaluated by scoring a total of 1000 binucleated (BN) cells from one slide. The frequency of MN among the rats exposed to natural radiation was found to be 1.83±0.05 per 1000 BN cells and in the control it was 1.82±0.07 per 1000 BN cells. No statistically significant difference in the MN frequencies of exposed and control groups (p>0.05) was seen. The lower MN frequency in natural radiation exposed rats could be an indication of adaptive response. (author)

  13. Radioprotection of Swiss albino mice by Adhatoda vesica leaf extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The radioprotective role of aqueous extract of Adhatoda vesica leaf extract against radiation induced hematological alterations in peripheral blood of Swiss albino mice was studied at various post-irradiation intervals between 6 hrs to 30 days. Oral administration of Adhatoda vesica leaf extract (800 mg / kg body weight) prior to whole-body irradiation showed a significant protection in terms of survival percentage and hematological parameters. Mice exposed to radiation (8 Gy) without Adhatoda vesica leaf extract pre-treatment exhibited signs of radiation sickness like anorexia, lethargicity, ruffled hairs and diarrhoea and such animals died within 26 days post-irradiation. The dose reduction factor (DRF=1.6) for Adhatoda vesica leaf extract was calculated from LD50/30 values. A significant decline in hematological constituents (RBCs, WBCs, Hb and Hct) was evident till day 15, at later period of observation (day 15 onwards), no animals could survive from control group whereas, in Adhatoda vesica leaf extract pre-treated irradiated group, a gradual recovery was noted in the hematological values. However, these hematological values remained significantly below the normal even till day 30. A significant decrease in GSH was recorded in control animals. Experimental animals showed a significant increase in GSH content (blood as well as liver) with respect to control, but such values remained below normal. A significant increase in TBARS level in liver and serum was evident in control animals. Although, no significant difference was noticed in such levels in normal and Adhatoda vesica leaf extract treated animals. But, a significant decrease was registered in Adhatoda vesica leaf extract pretreated irradiated animals. The results from the present study suggest that Adhatoda vesica leaf extract has radioprotective role in stimulating/protecting the hematopoietic system thereby enhancing the survival and increasing the hematological constituents in peripheral

  14. Hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity of gasoline fumes in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folarin O. Owagboriaye

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxic effects of gasoline fumes have been reported, but evidence of its hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity are rare. Therefore, this study assesses hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity of gasoline fumes on forty Albino rats randomly assigned to five experimental treatments (T with eight rats per treatment (T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5. T1(Control was housed in a section of experimental animal house free from gasoline fumes while T2, T3, T4 and T5 were exposed to gasoline fumes in exposure chambers for one, three, five and nine hours daily respectively for twelve weeks. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and histopathological examination of the liver tissues were used as diagnostic markers to assess liver dysfunction. Genotoxicity test was conducted on the lung tissues using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting polymerase chain reaction (RAPD PCR technique. Significant increase (p < 0.05 in the level of ALT, AST and ALP for T2, T3, T4 and T5 compared to T1 were recorded. Photomicrograph examination of the liver sections of T1 showed hepatic tissue with normal liver cell architecture while that of T2, T3, T4 and T5 revealed degenerative changes in the ultrastructural integrity of the hepatic cells. Genotoxicity test revealed DNA bands at a reducing intensity from T1 to T5. Dendrogram showed DNA damage in the lungs of T3, T4 and T5 were closely similar and the genotoxic impact was more in T3. Frequent exposure to gasoline fumes was observed to induce hepatoxicity and genotoxicity, hence impairing the normal liver function and gene structure.

  15. Effectiveness of grape seed extract on gamma radiation-induced hazards in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El Azime, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of grape seed extract (GSE), rich in proanthocyanidins against gamma radiation-induced oxidative stress associated to serum metabolic disorders in the liver, heart and pancreas tissues of rats. Male albino rats received GSE (100 mg/day/Kg body weight), by gavages, for 14 successive days before whole body exposure to 5 Gy gamma radiation (shot dose). Animals were sacrificed 1, 14, and 28 days post radiation exposure. The results showed that in the irradiated group, tissues superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were decreased significantly, while thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content was increased, which was in parallel with significant increases in the activity of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT). Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlipidaemia, decreases in red blood cells count (RBCs) count and hemoglobin (Hb) content were also observed in irradiated rats. n the GSE-treated irradiated group, significant increases of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px activities with significant reduction of TBARS levels were observed in cardiac, liver, and pancreas tissues, in parallel to significant decreases in the activity of serum LDH, CPK, AST, and ALT compared with their corresponding values in the irradiated group. Moreover, serum glucose and insulin contents, RBCs count and Hb content were significantly improved in the GSE-treated irradiated rats. Furthermore, the marked increase in serum triglycerides and total cholesterol observed in irradiated rats, along with elevated LDL-C and decreased HDL-C levels were significantly improved in GSE treated rats. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate that GSE through its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties attenuates ionizing radiation-induced oxidative injury suggesting that it may be a potential

  16. Effectiveness of grape seed extract on gamma radiation-induced hazards in albino rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd El Azime, A S [Radiation Biology Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2008-07-01

    The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of grape seed extract (GSE), rich in proanthocyanidins against gamma radiation-induced oxidative stress associated to serum metabolic disorders in the liver, heart and pancreas tissues of rats. Male albino rats received GSE (100 mg/day/Kg body weight), by gavages, for 14 successive days before whole body exposure to 5 Gy gamma radiation (shot dose). Animals were sacrificed 1, 14, and 28 days post radiation exposure. The results showed that in the irradiated group, tissues superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were decreased significantly, while thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content was increased, which was in parallel with significant increases in the activity of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT). Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlipidaemia, decreases in red blood cells count (RBCs) count and hemoglobin (Hb) content were also observed in irradiated rats. n the GSE-treated irradiated group, significant increases of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px activities with significant reduction of TBARS levels were observed in cardiac, liver, and pancreas tissues, in parallel to significant decreases in the activity of serum LDH, CPK, AST, and ALT compared with their corresponding values in the irradiated group. Moreover, serum glucose and insulin contents, RBCs count and Hb content were significantly improved in the GSE-treated irradiated rats. Furthermore, the marked increase in serum triglycerides and total cholesterol observed in irradiated rats, along with elevated LDL-C and decreased HDL-C levels were significantly improved in GSE treated rats. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate that GSE through its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties attenuates ionizing radiation-induced oxidative injury suggesting that it may be a potential

  17. Protective role of ginseng against gentamicin induced changes in kidney of albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, M.; Saeed, F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Use of gentamicin is now limited due to its toxic effects, mainly on kidney and vestibular system. Herbal products including ginseng has been reported to possess protective effects against drugs induced nephrotoxicity in experimental animals. The current investigation was designed to evaluate the effects of ginseng on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity. Methods: Eighteen male albino mice of 6-8 weeks age, were divided into 3 groups. Group-A served as control and was given normal mouse diet; Group-B was given 80 mg/Kg/day of gentamicin intraperitoneally dissolved in 1 ml of distilled water for fifteen days. Group-C was given 80 mg/Kg/day of gentamicin intraperitoneally dissolved in 1 ml of distilled water along with 100 mg/Kg/day of ginseng orally dissolved in 1 ml of distilled water, also for fifteen days. At the end of the experiment, blood was drawn from each animal by cardiac puncture for renal function tests. Each animal was then sacrificed and kidneys removed for routine histological studies. Results: In group B, weight of the animals and kidneys decreased and there was significant increase in mean serum urea, creatinine and intraluminal diameter (p<0.001) of proximal convoluted tubules as compared to the controls (group-A). Moderate to severe necrotic and degenerative changes in proximal convoluted tubules were seen in this group. When the Ginseng and gentamicin were given together (group-C), a statistically significant improvement in the mean body and kidney weight along with improvement in renal function tests and tubular diameter were seen (p<0.001). Conclusion: It appears that Ginseng has some protective role against gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity. (author)

  18. Effect of Unripe Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Blood Glucose, Body Weight and Feed Intake of Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Iroaganachi; C O, Eleazu; P N, Okafor; N, Nwaohu

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effect of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) on blood glucose (BG), feed intake (FI) and weight of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Twenty four male albino rats were used and were divided into 4 groups of 6 rats each. Group 1 (non-diabetic) and Group 2 (diabetic) received standard rat feed; Group 3 received unripe plantain incorporated feed (810 /kg body weight) and Group 4 received unripe plantain+ginger incorporated feed (710:100 g/kg body weight). The weights and FI of the rats were measured daily throughout the experimentation. Groups 3 and 4 rats had 159.52% and 71.83% decreases in BG but 24.91% and 35.32% decreases in weights compared with groups 1 and 2 rats that had 2.09% and 22.94% increases in BG with 13.42% increase and 45.36% decrease in weights respectively. The FI of the experimental rats did not differ significantly from each other (P>0.05) at the end of experimentation. The standard rat feed contained higher amounts of Ca but lower amounts of Mg and Fe compared with the unripe plantain and unripe plantain+ginger incorporated feeds. Combination of unripe plantain and ginger at the dose used in the management of diabetes was not very effective compared with unripe plantain alone.

  19. Reversible lacrimal gland-protective regulatory T-cell dysfunction underlies male-specific autoimmune dacryoadenitis in the non-obese diabetic mouse model of Sjögren syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Scott M; Kreiger, Portia A; Koretzky, Gary A

    2015-01-01

    CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells are required to maintain immunological tolerance; however, defects in specific organ-protective Treg cell functions have not been demonstrated in organ-specific autoimmunity. Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice spontaneously develop lacrimal and salivary gland autoimmunity and are a well-characterized model of Sjögren syndrome. Lacrimal gland disease in NOD mice is male-specific, but the role of Treg cells in this sex-specificity is not known. This study aimed to determine if male-specific autoimmune dacryoadenitis in the NOD mouse model of Sjögren syndrome is the result of lacrimal gland-protective Treg cell dysfunction. An adoptive transfer model of Sjögren syndrome was developed by transferring cells from the lacrimal gland-draining cervical lymph nodes of NOD mice to lymphocyte-deficient NOD-SCID mice. Transfer of bulk cervical lymph node cells modelled the male-specific dacryoadenitis that spontaneously develops in NOD mice. Female to female transfers resulted in dacryoadenitis if the CD4+ CD25+ Treg-enriched population was depleted before transfer; however, male to male transfers resulted in comparable dacryoadenitis regardless of the presence or absence of Treg cells within the donor cell population. Hormone manipulation studies suggested that this Treg cell dysfunction was mediated at least in part by androgens. Surprisingly, male Treg cells were capable of preventing the transfer of dacryoadenitis to female recipients. These data suggest that male-specific factors promote reversible dysfunction of lacrimal gland-protective Treg cells and, to our knowledge, form the first evidence for reversible organ-protective Treg cell dysfunction in organ-specific autoimmunity. PMID:25581706

  20. Clinicopathologic features of hepatic diabetic microangiopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王征

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the clinicopathological features of diabetic microangiopathy in liver and diabetic hepatosclerosis(DHS) of elderly male with type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM).Methods One hundred and twenty autopsy cases with T2DM (diabetic group) and contemporary 48 cases,non-diabetic

  1. Biocompatible zinc oxide nanocrystals stabilized via hydroxyethyl cellulose for mitigation of diabetic complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Jihan; El-Banna, Mona; Razik, Tay Abdel; El-Naggar, Mehrez E

    2018-02-01

    The vascular complications of diabetes are the most serious manifestations of the disease. The hyperglycemia can directly promote an inflammatory state where the increase C-reactive (CRP) and cytokines, such as interleukins (IL-1 and IL-6), which contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases. The current study was aimed to evaluate the role of environmentally-synthesized zinc oxide nanocrystals (ZnO-NPs) in augmentation of hyperglycemia and its complications, as well as the preservation of asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA) level as a specific marker for endothelial dysfunction in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. ZnO-NPs was chemically-synthesized using environmental benign biodegradable hydroxyl ethyl cellulose (HES) as both a stabilizing and directing agent in the presence of potassium hydroxide. HES is a biomaterial compound used in many biomedical applications due to its biodegradability and biocompatibility in nature. Particle size, morphological structure, purity, and crystallinity of the as-prepared ZnO-NPs were evaluated through different techniques, such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy connected to energy-dispersive X-ray spectra (SEM-EDS). Sixty male albino rats were used in this study and divided into four groups: control, ZnO-NPs, diabetic and treated groups; after the experimental period, CRP and interleukin-1 (IL-1α) were determined by ELISA. ADMA was estimated by RP-HPLC using a fluorescence detector. The results obtained indicate that CRP, IL-1α, and ADMA levels increased significantly concomitant with a reduction in NO level in the diabetic group, whereas ZnO-NPs supplementation significantly attenuated these parameters. Based on these encouraging results, the reported approach of environmental synthesis and application has the potential of leading to a new generation of nanometerials for treatment of diabetic complications with considerably enhanced

  2. Effect of Unripe Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Renal Dysfunction in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iroaganachi, Mercy; Eleazu, Chinedum; Okafor, Polycarp

    2015-03-20

    Although unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) are used as single plants to manage diabetes mellitus in Nigeria, the possibility of combining them in a typical diabetic diet and the glycemic response elicited as a result of such combination has not been investigated. To determine the effect of unripe plantain and ginger on serum total proteins, albumin, creatinine and urea levels of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Twenty four male albino rats were used and were divided into 4 groups of 6 rats each. Group 1 (non-diabetic) received standard rat feeds; Group 2 (diabetic) received standard rat feeds; Group 3 received unripe plantain pellets and Group 4 received unripe plantain+ginger pellets. There were significant increases (P=0.045) of both serum urea and creatinine, but significant decreases (P=0.045) of both serum total protein and albumin levels, in Group 2 rats compared with Group 1. There were significant decreases (P=0.033) of both serum urea and creatinine levels of Group 3 and 4 rats compared with Group 2. In addition, there were significant increases of both serum total protein and albumin levels (P=0.033) in Group 3 rats compared with Group 2, but the comparison of serum total protein and albumin levels between Group 4 and Group 2 did not reach the significant level (P=0.056 and P=0.065 for serum total protein and albumin levels, respectively. Combination of unripe plantain and ginger at the ratio used in the management of renal dysfunction in diabetics was not very effective compared with unripe plantain alone.

  3. Potential impact of Paracentrotus lividus extract on diabetic rat models induced by high fat diet/streptozotocin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel M. Soliman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant therapy has been thought to be effectual for the prevention and treatment of various diseases including diabetes. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the potency of Paracentrotus lividus extract (PLE for alleviating the complications that resulted after induction of the diabetic rat models (T1DM and T2DM using high fat diet (HFD/streptozotocin (STZ. Thirty six male Wistar albino rats were assigned into normal control, T1DM and T2DM untreated, and PLE treated diabetic rat groups. Induction of T1DM was performed by streptozotocin injection (60 mg/kg of dissolved in sodium citrate buffer, 0.1 mol/L, i.p. T2DM induction through 4 weeks of high fat diet (HFD intervention was followed by a single low dosage of STZ (30 mg/kg dissolved in 0.1 mol/L citrate buffer at pH 4.5, i.p. Both diabetic rat models showed a significant increase in serum; levels of fasting glucose, total protein, bilirubin, activities of arginase, transaminases (AST and ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, γ glutamyl transferase (GGT, lipid profile parameters, and liver malondialdehyde (MDA. However, T1DM and T2DM rats have decreased levels of serum insulin, and liver glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD, glutathione reduced (GSH, nitric oxide (NO, and antioxidant enzymes. Furthermore, the present study showed the hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant potency of the PLE as confirmed by its ability for ameliorating most of the alterations caused in the studied parameters of diabetic rats. In conclusion, PLE may be useful as therapy against oxidative stress and liver damage in both types of diabetes mellitus and is therefore recommended for further studies.

  4. Biochemical Response Of Normal Albino Rats To The Addition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science World Journal Vol 9 (No 1) 2014 ... to arrest such disorder; thereby reducing the burden of cost of treatment ... occur in diabetes resulting in morbidity and death ... vegetable, blood tonic and remedy for liver diseases and ..... be good appetizer and flavor (Afonne et al., 2002; .... year 2000 and projections for 2030.

  5. Biological studies on albino rats fed with Sorghum bicolor starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-17

    Jun 17, 2008 ... ghum and millets. It consists of amylopectin, a branched- chain polymer of glucose, and amylose, a straight-chain .... diamine tetracetic acid (EDTA) tubes for hematological studies. .... cially for people with diabetes such foods are known to ... consists of oligosaccharides, vitamins, essential amino acids ...

  6. Evaluation of androgenic activity of Mucuna pruriens in male rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanolic extract of Mucuna pruriens seed was tested for their possible androgenic activity in Wister male albino rats. The methanolic extract of M. pruriens plant was gavaged separately into 2 group of rat at similar doses of 1000 mg/kg b.wt and 1500 mg/kg b.wt for 30 days. At the end of the treatment, the animals were ...

  7. Effects of aerobic training on FBS, HbA1C, Fructosamine and plasma lipid profile in male with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Ghalavand

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Regular exercise represents an effective strategy to prevent and treat type 2 Diabetes.The present study examined the effects of aerobic exercise on glycemic control and serum lipid profile in men with type 2 diabetes.20 men with type 2 diabetes (age:45.05 ± 3.8 were randomly div ided into aerobic exercise group (n=10 and control group(n=10. Exercise Group participated in aerobic training program at 50 -70 % HRR for 8 weeks and 3 sessions per week. Fasting blood sugar (FBS,Fructosamine, HbA1C, Triglyceride (TG, cholesterol (TC, high density lipoproteins (HDL, low density lipoproteins (LDL and very low density lipoprotein(VLDL were measured before and after 8 weeks. Paired and independent t tests were used for data analysis ( P0.05.Also there was a significant difference in FBS (p=0.03 and HDL levels (p=0.04 between 2 groups.Aerobic trainings effectively improve lipid profile and lead to better glycemic control in men with type 2 diabetes.

  8. Co-administration of caffeine and hydromethanolic fraction of Citrullus lanatus seeds improved testicular functions in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.I. Onyeso

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: The present study showed that co-administration of caffeine and hydromethanolic fraction of C. lanatus seed extract have hypoglycemic effect and may consequently ameliorate the impaired testicular general architecture and inhibits sperm death or testicular damage caused by alloxan-induced diabetes.

  9. The Effect of Different Intensities of Acute Aerobic Exercise on Plasma Resistin Concentration and Insulin Resistance Index in Type 2 Diabetic Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziba Davoudi

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: It can be stated that acute exercise with different intensities does not affect resistin action in individuals with diabetes. These results may be due to the constant energy cost which is equivalent to 300 kcal per session, having no influence on the study variables.

  10. Antidiarrhoeal efficacy of Mangifera indica seed kernel on Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, S; Suganya, H; Thirunalasundari, T; Jeeva, S

    2012-08-01

    To examine the antidiarrhoeal activity of alcoholic and aqueous seed kernel extract of Mangifera indica (M. indica) on castor oil-induced diarrhoeal activity in Swiss albino mice. Mango seed kernels were processed and extracted using alcohol and water. Antidiarrhoeal activity of the extracts were assessed using intestinal motility and faecal score methods. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of M. indica significantly reduced intestinal motility and faecal score in Swiss albino mice. The present study shows the traditional claim on the use of M. indica seed kernel for treating diarrhoea in Southern parts of India. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (FGF21, Free Fatty Acid (FFA, High Sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hsCRP and Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR Among Indonesian Obese Non-Diabetic Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yani Lina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21 is known as an important endocrine and paracrine regulator of metabolic homeostasis. Recent studies have shown that FGF21 attenuates lipolysis in human adipocytes, which is suggested as a FGF21's mechanism as anti-hyperlipidemia, anti-hyperglycemia and anti-obesity. The aim of this study was to measure the correlation between FGF21, FFA, hsCRP and HOMA-IR among Indonesian obese non diabetic males. METHODS: The study was observational with cross sectional design. The analysis was done in 137 subjects aged 30-60 years with non diabetic abdominal obesity. We measured the biochemical markers FGF21, FFA, hsCRP, fasting insulin and fasting glucose. We also measured weight, height, waist circumrefence (WC, creatinine, serum glutamin oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT, and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT, systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP. Correlation between markers was measured using Pearson and Spearman's analysis. RESULTS: There were significant positive correlations between FGF21-HOMA-IR (r=0.314, p=0.000; FGF21-WC (r=0.173, p=0.043; FFA=hsCRP r=0.270, p=0.001; and WC-HOMA-IR (r=0.279, p=0.001. There was significant negative correlation between FGF21-FFA (r=-0.038, p=0.657 and FGF21-hsCRP (r=-0.061, p=0.482. CONCLUSIONS: In this study we found that although there was no significant correlation, FGF21 might act as an anti-lipolytic and anti-inflammation agent among Indonesian obese non-diabetic males. Our findings agree with results of previous studies that the positive correlation between FGF21-WC and FGF21-HOMA-IR might occur as a compensatory mechanism or resistance to FGF21 in obesity. KEYWORDS: obesity, FGF21, FFA, hsCRP, HOMA-IR.

  12. Phytochemical Screening and Acute Toxicity of Aqueous Extract of Leaves of Conocarpus erectus Linnaeus in Swiss Albino Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Dayane K D; Souza, Ivone A DE; Oliveira, Antônio F M DE; Barbosa, Mariana O; Santana, Marllon A N; Pereira, Daniel F; Lira, Eduardo C; Vieira, Jeymesson R C

    2016-09-01

    Mangroves represent areas of high biological productivity and it is a region rich in bioactive substances used in medicine production. Conocarpus erectus (Combretaceae) known as button mangrove is one of the species found in mangroves and it is used in folk medicine in the treatment of anemia, catarrh, conjunctivitis, diabetes, diarrhea, fever, gonorrhea, headache, hemorrhage, orchitis, rash, bumps and syphilis. The present study aimed to investigate the acute toxicity of aqueous extract of leaves of C. erectus in Swiss albino mice. The plant material was collected in Vila Velha mangroves, located in Itamaracá (PE). The material was subjected to a phytochemical screening where extractive protocols to identify majority molecules present in leaves were used. The evaluation of acute toxicity of aqueous extract of C. erectus followed the model of Acute Toxicity Class based on OECD 423 Guideline, 2001. The majority molecules were identified: flavonoids, tannins and saponins. The LD50 was estimated at 2,000 mg/kg bw. Therefore, the aqueous extract showed low acute toxicity classified in category 5.

  13. Phytochemical Screening and Acute Toxicity of Aqueous Extract of Leaves of Conocarpus erectus Linnaeus in Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAYANE K.D. NASCIMENTO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mangroves represent areas of high biological productivity and it is a region rich in bioactive substances used in medicine production. Conocarpus erectus (Combretaceae known as button mangrove is one of the species found in mangroves and it is used in folk medicine in the treatment of anemia, catarrh, conjunctivitis, diabetes, diarrhea, fever, gonorrhea, headache, hemorrhage, orchitis, rash, bumps and syphilis. The present study aimed to investigate the acute toxicity of aqueous extract of leaves of C. erectus in Swiss albino mice. The plant material was collected in Vila Velha mangroves, located in Itamaracá (PE. The material was subjected to a phytochemical screening where extractive protocols to identify majority molecules present in leaves were used. The evaluation of acute toxicity of aqueous extract of C. erectus followed the model of Acute Toxicity Class based on OECD 423 Guideline, 2001. The majority molecules were identified: flavonoids, tannins and saponins. The LD50 was estimated at 2,000 mg/kg bw. Therefore, the aqueous extract showed low acute toxicity classified in category 5.

  14. Prophylactic role of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced histological alterations in the kidney of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarti, A.; Prajapat, T.R.; Ojha, S.; Kanwar, Om; Nayak, K.; Ram, Purkha; Bhartiya, K.M.; Gupta, M.L.; Jangir, A.

    2012-01-01

    Protection of biological systems against radiation damage is of paramount importance during accidental and unavoidable exposure of radiation. Thus, development of novel and effective approaches using non toxic radioprotectors is of considerable interest for not only in the protection of normal tissue during radio therapy of tumors but also for defence (nuclear wars), nuclear industries, radiation accidents, space flights etc. Adult male Swiss albino mice were exposed to 5.0 Gy gamma radiations in the presence or absence of the Aloe vera. For this purpose 6 to 8 week old male mice were divided into seven groups; group I (sham-irradiated), group II (cadmium chloride), group III (irradiated with 5Gy. Gamma rays), group IV (radiation and cadmium chloride), group V (cadmium chloride and Aloe vera), group VI (radiation and Aloe vera), group VII (radiation, cadmium chloride and Aloe vera). Animals from all the above groups were autopsied at 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days post treatment intervals. For histopathological studies kidney was taken out and it's pieces were fixed in Bouins fixative for 24 hours. The tissue was washed in clean water to remove excess of the fixative, dehydrated in graded series of alcohol, cleared in xylene and embedded in paraffin wax. Sections were cut at 5 μm and stained in Harris haematoxyline and alcoholic eosine. In the present experiment histopathological changes were found in the kidney of Swiss albino mice. Severe changes seen in the renal architecture after exposure of 5 Gy of gamma rays were: blurred renal architecture, intracellular oedema, damaged tubules, cytoplasmic degranulation, vacuolation and pycnotic nuclei in the cortical and medullary part. The changes were more marked on day 7, but on day 14 the signs of recovery were observed and on day 28 comparatively better renal architecture was observed. In cadmium chloride treated animals the changes observed were: cytoplasmic degranulation, vacuolation, crenated and pycnotic nuclei. The

  15. A tripeptide Diapin effectively lowers blood glucose levels in male type 2 diabetes mice by increasing blood levels of insulin and GLP-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jifeng Zhang

    Full Text Available The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D is rapidly increasing worldwide. Effective therapies, such as insulin and Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, require injections, which are costly and result in less patient compliance. Here, we report the identification of a tripeptide with significant potential to treat T2D. The peptide, referred to as Diapin, is comprised of three natural L-amino acids, GlyGlyLeu. Glucose tolerance tests showed that oral administration of Diapin effectively lowered blood glucose after oral glucose loading in both normal C57BL/6J mice and T2D mouse models, including KKay, db/db, ob/ob mice, and high fat diet-induced obesity/T2D mice. In addition, Diapin treatment significantly reduced casual blood glucose in KKay diabetic mice in a time-dependent manner without causing hypoglycemia. Furthermore, we found that plasma GLP-1 and insulin levels in diabetic models were significantly increased with Diapin treatment compared to that in the controls. In summary, our findings establish that a peptide with minimum of three amino acids can improve glucose homeostasis and Diapin shows promise as a novel pharmaceutical agent to treat patients with T2D through its dual effects on GLP-1 and insulin secretion.

  16. Evaluation of antidiabetic property of Andrographis paniculata powder in high fat and sucrose-induced type-2 diabetic adult male rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Williams Augustine

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antidiabetic effect of the aerial part of Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata powder (500 mg/kg body weight in high fat and sucrose-induced type-2 diabetic rat model. Methods: The fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, serum insulin, lipid profile, mRNA and protein levels of insulin signaling molecules, 14C-2 deoxy glucose uptake and 14C glucose oxidation in liver were checked. Results: In the type-2 diabetes-induced group, the fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance, serum insulin, lipid profile, glucose uptake and oxidation, Akt and glucose transporter 2 mRNA, insulin receptor and glucose transporter 2 protein (both cytosolic and plasma membrane and phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 and Akt were impaired. A. paniculata was able to successfully reinstate this impairment. In addition to this, A. paniculata did not cause a hypoglycemic condition in normal rat, affirming its activity in hyperglycemic state alone. Conclusions: A. paniculata possesses significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activities in high fat and sucrose-induced type-2 diabetic rat and the molecular actions at the level of insulin signaling molecules in liver reinforce it.

  17. Lipid Lowering Efficacy of Pennisetum glaucum Bran in Hyperlipidemic Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Javed*, B. Aslam, M. Z. Khan1, Zia-Ur-Rahman, F. Muhammad and M. K. Saleemi1

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine lipid lowering efficacy of Pennisetum (P glaucum (Pearl millet, locally known as bajra, bran in hyperlipidemia albino rats. Simvastatin, (Tablet survive®, was used as cholesterol lowering synthetic drug. The period of 0-15 days was considered as a lead-in period to induce hyperlipidemia with atherogenic diet in albino rats. P. glaucum bran at dose rate of 2, 4 and 6 g/kg BW showed lipid lowering efficacy in hyperlipidemic rats at post-treatment days 30, 45 and 60. At the level of 6 g/kg, P. glaucum bran was able to produce a significant (P<0.05 increase in HDL- cholesterol (47% and fall in other lipid profile parameters i.e. total lipids (41%, triglycerides(48%, total cholesterol (39% and LDL- cholesterol (55%. P. glaucum 6 g/kg also reduced total cholesterol in liver tissue and increased fecal bile acid secretion. The results of present study suggest that 6 g/kg P. glaucum bran and 0.6 mg/kg Simvastatin were equally effective in treating hyperlipidemia in albino rats. Moreover, the potency of P. glaucum for stimulating fecal bile acid secretion in albino rats may safely be conceived, at least, as a part of mechanisms for its antihyperlipidemic efficacy.

  18. Biochemical Changes in the Serum and Liver of albino rats exposed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical changes in the serum and liver of albino rats chronically exposed to rats administered 5gk-1 , 7.5gk-1 and 15gk-1 of gasoline , kerosine and crude petroleum(bonny light) respectively were studied. The petroleum samples were administered intraperitoneally and the biochemical changes in the rat serum and the ...

  19. Influence of continuous microwave irradiation of low intensity on the behaviour of albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rynskov, V.V.

    1985-01-01

    A study was made of a single 10 min exposure of albino rats to microwaves (6 GHz, 0.2 MW/cm 2 ) on their orientative-trying reaction. The locomotive activity, attentiveness and trying activity of the experimental animals were found to increase

  20. Effect of calcium bentonite on lipid parameters in Wistar albino rat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vivo effect of Nigerian calcium bentonite clay on rat plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels of Wistar albino rats was investigated. The rats were fed for a period of four weeks with varying concentrations of the bentonite clay, and the cholesterol and triglyceride levels determined using spectrophotometric methods.

  1. Effects of dietary protein quality and quantity on albino rat tissue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of dietary protein quality and quantity on albino rat tissue serum protein, erythrocyte fragility and bone mineral content. ... The 20% protein diet was a commercial diet better in nutrient composition and quality than the diet containing 17 and 15% protein formulated in our laboratory. At the end of 21 days, kidney, testes, ...

  2. Ostracism of an albino individual by a group of pigmented catfish.

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    Ondřej Slavík

    Full Text Available Physiological and behavioural constraints hinder albino individuals. Albino animals are rare in the wild; this trait is associated with easy detection by predators, non-native or damaged environments, and exclusively aphotic environments in total darkness. The social aspect of albinism is reported only for human beings, and the effect is distinguishable in time and space when social benefits, are used to a limited the extent. Thus far, the social consequences of albinism for animals remain unknown. We used socially established groups of the pigmented catfish, (Silurus glanis, to observe space and temporal distance detachment of albino specimens in laboratory conditions. The albino fish were separated at larger distances from the group than pigmented individuals with the same social status determined by familiarity, and this asymmetry also varied in time. Albinism-related ostracism results in a solitary existence, usually followed by enhanced predation risk. The motivation for an individual's exclusion from a group appears to be the avoidance of the predation risk that increases not only for an odd individual but also for conspecifics within a group. Our findings indicate a role for albinism in behavioural processes related to sociality in a group of conspecifics.

  3. Effect of Cassava based diet on lipids concentration in albino rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Environ. Manage. March 2013. Vol. 17 (1) 15-19. Full-text Available Online at ... compared with Petroleum fed albino rats (P<0.05) suggesting that gari ... and sugar) during processing. ). ... It was mixed and incubated for 5 minutes at 370C.

  4. Effect of antiretroviral drug (arved) on hepatic enzymes in albino rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... with very little or no laboratory monitory, limited attention has been given to side effects ... A total of fifty two (52) albino rats were randomly divided into four groups ... The mean value of ALT activity for the drug in dose dependent manner was ...

  5. Effect of ovariectomy on the levels of plasma sex hormones in albino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to evaluate the levels of sex hormones (testosterone, progesterone & estradiol), six weeks post normal ovariectomy as against estimating the levels immediately or less 48 hours after operation. 28 adult female albino rats of Wistar strain were used. They were fed twice a day with Guinea pellets and ...

  6. Effects of bentonite on plasma urea and creatinine of wistar albino rats.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vivo effect of Nigerian calcium bentonite clay on wistar albino rat plasma urea and creatinine levels were investigated. The rats were fed for a period of four weeks with varying concentrations of the bentonite clay, and the urea and creatinine levels determined using spectrophotometric methods. Test results showed ...

  7. Retroauricular Approach for Targeted Cochlear Therapy Experiments in Wistar Albino Rats

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    Selçuk Mülazımoğlu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: As the idea of stem cell technology in the treatment of sensorial hearing loss has emerged over the past decades, the need for in vivo models for related experiments has become explicit. One of the most common experimental models for inner ear stem cell delivery experiments is the Wistar albino rat. Aims: To investigate the surgical anatomy of the temporal bone of the Wistar albino rat with respect to the dissection steps, operative techniques and potential pitfalls of surgery. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Adult Wistar albino rats were operated on via the retroauricular approach under an operation microscope. The anatomy of the temporal bone, the surgical route to the temporal bulla and the inner ear were investigated. Technical details of surgical steps, complications and potential pitfalls during the surgery were noted. Results: The study group consisted of 40 adult Wistar albino rats. The mean times to reach the bulla and to achieve cochleostomy were 4.3 (2-13 min and 7.5 min (3.5-22 min, respectively. The mean width of the facial nerve was 0.84 mm (0.42-1.25 mm. The stapedial artery lay nearly perpendicular to the course of the facial nerve (88-93 °C. There were three major complications: two large cochleostomies and one massive bleed from the stapedial artery. Conclusion: The facial nerve was the key anatomical landmark in locating the bulla. By retrograde tracing of the facial nerve, it was possible to find the bulla ventral (inferior to the main trunk. The facial nerve trunk was the upper limit when drilling the bulla. By dissecting the main trunk of the facial nerve and retracting cranially, a large drilling space could be achieved. Our results suggest that the retroauricular approach is an effective, feasible route for inner ear drug delivery experiments in Wistar albino rats

  8. Effect of electromagnetic irradiation produced by 3G mobile phone on male rat reproductive system in a simulated scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Nirala, Jay Prakash; Behari, J; Paulraj, R

    2014-09-01

    Reports of declining male fertility have renewed interest in assessing the role of electromagnetic fields (EMFs). Testicular function is particularly susceptible to the radiation emitted by EMFs. Significant decrease in sperm count, increase in the lipid peroxidation damage in sperm cells, reduction in seminiferous tubules and testicular weight and DNA damage were observed following exposure to EMF in male albino rats. The results suggest that mobile phone exposure adversely affects male fertility.

  9. Antihyperlipidemic effect of crude extract of saffron stigma (Crocus sativus) in healthy male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Iliass Lahmass; Sabir Ouahhoud; Assia Sabouni; Mohammed Elyoubi; Redouane Benabbas; Rachid Elmoussaoui; Mohammed Choukri; Ennouamane Saalaoui

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated for the first time the antihyperlipidemic ef-fects of crude extract of stigmas from Crocus sativus (saffron) against hyperlipidemia induced by tartrazine (synthetic dye) in normal male rats. Thirty adult male albino rats weighing about 150 - 200 g, were divided into 5 groups (n = 6) and daily treatment was given orally. Clinical biochemis-try and metabolic parameters were evaluated at the end of the experiment and after 105 days. (n=6, for all groups). Our data ...

  10. Radiation and cadmium induced biochemical changes in the kidney of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bissa, Prashant; Purohit, Suresh; Purohit, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation causes deleterious effects in all forms of life due to increasing utilization and production of modern technology, a simultaneous exposure of organisms to heavy metals is also unavoidable. The concomitant exposure to cadmium chloride and ionizing radiation might produce deleterious effect upon biological system. The total environmental burden of toxicants may have greater effect as against their individual impact as expected by their nature. So interaction between radiation and other toxicants represents a field of great potential importance. Therefore, the present study was planned to evaluate the effect of cadmium and radiation alone or in combination, on the kidney of Swiss albino mice. In the present investigation, adult male mice were divided into four groups. Group I included Sham irradiated normal mice. Group II was treated with Cadmium Chloride at the dose of 20 ppm while Group III was exposed to 5.0 Gy of gamma rays. Animals of Group IV were treated with both Cadmium Chloride and 5.0 Gy of gamma radiation. The animals from each group were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at each post treatment interval of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days. In Cadmium Chloride treated group the values of total proteins and cholesterol declined up to day-14 thereafter the values increased up to day-28 without reaching to the normal. The values of glycogen, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase activities increased up to day-14 then decreased up to day-28 without reaching to the norma. Mice exposed to 5.0 Gy of gamma rays showed increased in the values of total proteins, glycogen, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase activities increased up to day-24 and declined thereafter up to day-28 . Whereas the value of cholesterol decreased up to day-14 and then increased up to day-28 without reaching to the normal level. Combined exposure to Cadmium chloride and radiation registered similar pattern of decrease and increase but the changes were more pronounced in all the

  11. Effect of Fluoxetine on the Hippocampus of Wistar Albino Rats in Cold Restraint Stress Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Saikarthik; Raghunath, Gunapriya; Ilango, Saraswathi; Vijayakumar, J; Vijayaraghavan, R

    2017-06-01

    Stress has been known to be a potential modulator of learning and memory. Long term stress can lead to depression. Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor group of drug used in the treatment of depression. The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential of Fluoxetine on cold restraint induced stress in the hippocampus of Wistar rats. A total of 18 male wistar albino rats were divided randomly into three groups (n=6). Group 1 was the control group which were kept in normal laboratory conditions. Group 2 was the negative control group which were given cold restraint stress for period of four weeks. Group 3 was the experimental group, where the animals were pretreated with fluoxetine 10 mg/kg for a period of one week followed by cold restraint stress for 30 minutes and cotreated with fluoxetine 10 mg/kg for a period of four weeks. The whole study was done for a period of five weeks followed by behavioural studies and subsequently sacrificed with removal of brain for various histological, Immunohistochemical (IHC), neurochemical and antioxidant analysis. The values were expressed as Mean±SEM. One-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's multiple comparisons test was used for the comparison of means. A probability of 0.05 and less was taken as statistically significant using Prism Graphpad software version 6.01. The results show there was significant improvement in the Morris water maze test after treatment with fluoxetine in Group 2. Similar results were also noted in the levels of neurotransmitters and antioxidant levels in brain and also in the number of cells counted in IHC and histological studies by H&E when Group 3 was compared with Group 2. The treatment reversed the damage in Group 2 which was comparable with the control group. The results revealed that administration of fluoxetine 10 mg/kg given orally has a potential antistressor effect by improving the neurogenic and neuroprotective effect on the cold restraint stress induced

  12. Effects of royal jelly on genotoxicity and nephrotoxicity induced by valproic acid in albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaa R. Galaly

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological diseases affecting at least 50 million people worldwide. Valproic acid (VPA is a widely used antiepileptic medication for both generalized and partial seizures of epilepsy. The objective of the study was to investigate the anti-mutagenic and anti-histopathologic effects of royal jelly (RJ on VPA-induced genotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in male albino mice (Mus musculus. 80 Mice were used for 21 days; they were divided into eight groups, (G1 served as normal control group, G2 received VPA (100 mg/kg and (G3–G5 received RJ at doses 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg respectively. While (G6–G8 were administrated RJ simultaneously with VPA. In RJ treated mice at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg, the kidney sections showed normal histological structure with non significant changes in chromosomal aberrations (CA and mitotic index (MI, while RJ at dose of 200 mg/kg showed mild inflammatory cells infiltration and hyperemic glomeruli but not highly significant changes in CA and MI. The cortex of VPA treated mice revealed congested glomeruli with inflammatory cells infiltration, and marked degeneration of almost structures of the glomeruli including some vacuoles in mesangial cells with dark mesangial substances on the ultrastructure level. Some proximal tubules showed degeneration of microvilli on the apical parts of some cells. Cells of the distal tubules attained obliterated lumen and vacuolated lining epithelium. The results also revealed that valproic acid induced a high frequency of CA in bone marrow cells of mice and MI was significantly decreased indicating bone marrow cytotoxicity. The treatment of mice with RJ at doses 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for 21 days simultaneously with VPA resulted in abating the histological alterations in renal tissues with significant reduction in chromosomal aberrations, for doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg, and elevation in mitotic index (P < 0.05. RJ at doses 50 and 100 mg/kg appeared

  13. Protective effect of zinc aspartate against acetaminophen induced hepato-renal toxicity in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, E.T.; Said, A.I.; El-Sayed, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Zinc is an essential nutrient that is required in humans and animals for many physiological functions, including antioxidant functions. The evidence to date indicates that zinc is an important element that links antioxidant system and tissue damage. Acetaminophen (AP), a widely used analgesic and antipyretic, produces hepatocyte and renal tubular necrosis in human and animals following overdose. In human, AP is one of the most common causes of acute liver failure as a result of accidental or deliberate overdose. Moreover, the initial event in AP toxicity is a toxic metabolic injury with the release of free radicals and subsequent cellular death by necrosis and apoptosis. This study was designed to evaluate the potential protective role of zinc aspartate in case of acetaminophen induced hepato-renal toxicity in rats. A total number of 32 adult male albino rats were divided into 4 equal groups: group I (control group), group II (zinc aspartate treated group), group III (acetaminophen treated group; by a single oral dose of 750 mg/kg body weight) and group IV acetaminophen plus zinc treated group; (zinc aspartate was intraperitoneally given one hour after acetaminophen administration in a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight). Serum levels of: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, direct bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid, xanthine oxidase (XO), glutathione (GSH), malonaldehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) were assessed in all groups. The results of this study showed that treatment with acetaminophen alone (group III) produced a significant increase in serum levels of the liver enzymes and direct bilirubin. Moreover, in the same group there was a significant increase in the blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine compared to the control group. In addition, there was a significant increase in XO and MDA and a significant decrease in GSH and NO level. Injection of rats with zinc aspartate after acetaminophen treatment could produce a

  14. Effect of methimazole-induced hypothyroidism on histological characteristics of parotid gland of albino rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayat, N.Q.; Tahir, M.; Sami, W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The current study was carried out to investigate the effect of hypothyroidism on the histological structure of parotid salivary gland of the rat. Methods: Twenty male albino rats, weighing between 130-150 grams, were used which were divided into two groups; control group (A) and an experimental group (B), each containing 10 animals. Group B was rendered hypothyroid by giving methimazole (MMI) as 0.02% solution in drinking water daily for 3 weeks. On day 22 parotid and thyroid glands were removed, weighed and processed for light microscopy. Salivary gland was fixed in Bouin's solution, H and E and Toluidine blue stains were used for histological examination. Serum T /sub 3/, T/sub 4/ and TSH levels were determined by enzyme immunoassay. Results: In group A, serum concentration of T/sub 3/, T/sub 4/ and TSH was 12.58+-3.05 mu g/ml, 4.72 +- 1.20 macro g/dl, and 0.25 +- 0.24 macro IU/ml respectively, where as in group B it was 2.14+-1.83 mu g/ml, 1.04 +- 0.44 macro g/dl and 1.44+-0.20 mu U/ml respectively. When differences between T/sub 3/, T/sub 4/ and TSH of the groups were compared, the p-value was <0.000, <0.000, and <0.000 respectively. Mean thyroid weight significantly increased in group B (44.1 0+-1.66 mg) when compared to that in group A (33.70+-1.56 mg). These findings established the occurrence of hypothyroid state in the experimental group. There was a statistically significant reduction in the parotid gland weight in the animals of the experimental group (38.30 +- 1.15 mg) when compared to the control group (39.60 +- 0.84 mg), (p<0.01). With light microscopy, group A showed a normal structure of parotid salivary gland, whereas multiple histological changes were observed in parotrid gland of the experimental group. Number of mast cells in parotid gland was also significantly higher (p<0.017) in group B (3.70 +- 1.11/mm/sup 2/) than in group A (2.25 +- 1.34/mm/sup 2/). Conclusion: The level of T/sub 3/ T/sub 4/ decreased and that of TSH increased

  15. Effect of an aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis on blood glucose, plasma insulin and some polyol pathway enzymes in experimental rat diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Latha

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of an aqueous extract of the plant Scoparia dulcis (200 mg/kg on the polyol pathway and lipid peroxidation were examined in the liver of streptozotocin adult diabetic male albino Wistar rats. The diabetic control rats (N = 6 presented a significant increase in blood glucose, sorbitol dehydrogenase, glycosylated hemoglobin and lipid peroxidation markers such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and hydroperoxides, and a significant decrease in plasma insulin and antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and reduced glutathione (GSH compared to normal rats (N = 6. Scoparia dulcis plant extract (SPEt, 200 mg kg-1 day-1 and glibenclamide (600 µg kg-1 day-1, a reference drug, were administered by gavage for 6 weeks to diabetic rats (N = 6 for each group and significantly reduced blood glucose, sorbitol dehydrogenase, glycosylated hemoglobin, TBARS, and hydroperoxides, and significantly increased plasma insulin, GPx, GST and GSH activities in liver. The effect of the SPEt was compared with that of glibenclamide. The effect of the extract may have been due to the decreased influx of glucose into the polyol pathway leading to increased activities of antioxidant enzymes and plasma insulin and decreased activity of sorbitol dehydrogenase. These results indicate that the SPEt was effective in attenuating hyperglycemia in rats and their susceptibility to oxygen free radicals.

  16. Effect of an aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis on blood glucose, plasma insulin and some polyol pathway enzymes in experimental rat diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha, M; Pari, L

    2004-04-01

    The effects of an aqueous extract of the plant Scoparia dulcis (200 mg/kg) on the polyol pathway and lipid peroxidation were examined in the liver of streptozotocin adult diabetic male albino Wistar rats. The diabetic control rats (N = 6) presented a significant increase in blood glucose, sorbitol dehydrogenase, glycosylated hemoglobin and lipid peroxidation markers such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydroperoxides, and a significant decrease in plasma insulin and antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and reduced glutathione (GSH) compared to normal rats (N = 6). Scoparia dulcis plant extract (SPEt, 200 mg kg-1 day-1) and glibenclamide (600 microg kg-1 day-1), a reference drug, were administered by gavage for 6 weeks to diabetic rats (N = 6 for each group) and significantly reduced blood glucose, sorbitol dehydrogenase, glycosylated hemoglobin, TBARS, and hydroperoxides, and significantly increased plasma insulin, GPx, GST and GSH activities in liver. The effect of the SPEt was compared with that of glibenclamide. The effect of the extract may have been due to the decreased influx of glucose into the polyol pathway leading to increased activities of antioxidant enzymes and plasma insulin and decreased activity of sorbitol dehydrogenase. These results indicate that the SPEt was effective in attenuating hyperglycemia in rats and their susceptibility to oxygen free radicals.

  17. Women show a closer association between educational level and hypertension or diabetes mellitus than males: a secondary analysis from the Austrian HIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kautzky-Willer Alexandra

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lifestyle diseases and cardiovascular complications are dramatically increasing, but little is known about the impact of educational level and health behaviour in men and women in different populations. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association between educational level (EL and self-reported chronic diseases and health behaviour in both sexes. Methods Data were derived from the Austrian Health Interview Surveys 2006/2007, which includes 13 558 persons (50.9% females. The associations between EL and the risk of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, myocardial infarction, stroke and anxiety disorders or depression, nutrition, exercise, and smoking were evaluated. University education served as the reference category (EL4, the lowest educational level was required schooling only (EL0. Results Only among women did the risk for diabetes mellitus and hypertension increase with decreasing educational level with the highest rates for EL0 OR [95% CI] adjusted for age, income, family status and lifestyle: 3.7 [1.7-8.0], and 2.5 [1.8-3.5], respectively. Only among the men, however, did the risk for stroke increase with decreasing educational level adjusted OR for EL0: 8.5 [1.7-42.7]. For anthropometric measures and lifestyle factors in both sexes the risk increased with decreasing EL. Conclusion EL affects lifestyle, overweight and obesity in both sexes. The apparent sex-specific differences in the association between the prevalence of some chronic disease with EL call for further investigation.

  18. Six months of daily treatment with vardenafil improves parameters of endothelial inflammation and of hypogonadism in male patients with type 2 diabetes and erectile dysfunction: a randomized, double-blind, prospective trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Daniele; Granata, Antonio R M; Guidi, Alessandro; Pignatti, Elisa; Trenti, Tommaso; Roli, Laura; Bozic, Roberto; Zaza, Stefano; Pacchioni, Chiara; Romano, Stefania; Nofer, Jerzy Roch; Rochira, Vincenzo; Carani, Cesare; Simoni, Manuela

    2016-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with endothelial dysfunction, characterized by a reduction of nitric oxide (NO)-mediated relaxation. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5i) improve NO levels. The aim of the study was to investigate whether long-term, chronic treatment with the PDE5i vardenafil improves systemic endothelial function in diabetic men. A prospective, investigator-initiated, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, clinical trial was conducted. In total, 54 male patients affected by T2DM, diagnosed within the last 5 years, and erectile dysfunction were enrolled, regardless of testosterone levels. In all, 26 and 28 patients were assigned to verum and placebo groups respectively. The study consisted of an enrollment phase, a treatment phase (24 weeks) (vardenafil/placebo 10  mg twice in a day) and a follow-up phase (24 weeks). Parameters evaluated were as follows: International Index of Erectile Function 15 (IIEF-15), flow-mediated dilation (FMD), serum interleukin 6 (IL6), endothelin 1 (ET-1), gonadotropins and testosterone (measured by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry). IIEF-15 erectile function improved during the treatment (Ptreatment both FMD (P=0.040) and IL6 (P=0.019) significantly improved. FMD correlated with serum testosterone levels (R(2)=0.299; Ptreatment and returned in the eugonadal range only in hypogonadal men (n=13), without changes in gonadotropins. Chronic vardenafil treatment did not result in relevant side effects. This is the first double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial designed to evaluate the effects of chronic treatment of vardenafil on endothelial health-related parameters and sexual hormones in patients affected by a chronic disease. Chronically administered vardenafil is effective and improves endothelial parameters in T2DM patient. Moreover, chronic vardenafil therapy improves hypogonadism in diabetic, hypogonadal men. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  19. Protective role of ginkgo Biloba extract against gamma radiation and alcohol induced liver damage in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmy, N. M.; Mohamed, E.T.; Mansour, H.H; Hafez, H.F.

    2007-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) is a standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves that promotes vasodilatation and improves blood flow through arteries, veins and capillaries and has antioxidant properties as a tree radical scavenger. This study was designed to evaluate the protective efficacy of EGb 761 against gamma radiation and/ or alcohol induced disorders in the liver of male albino rats. EGb 761 was given orally at a dose level of 100 mg/ kg body wt for 4 days, absolute alcohol was administered orally at a dose level of 1ml/ rat for 4 days and the dose of gamma radiation was 6.5 Gy. All animals were subjected to the following investigations: nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malonaldehyde (MDA). reduced glutathion (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) in the liver tissue. In irradiated and/ or alcoholic animal groups, there was a highly significant decrease in liver NO and GSH content and in the activities of GSHPx and SOD. On the other hand, significant increase in MDA content was observed. Treatment with EGb 761 before irradiation and/or alcohol causes significant increase in NO and GSH content and in the activities of GSHPx and SOD and significant decrease in MDA content compared to the irradiated and/ or alcoholic groups. Based on these observations, one could conclude that pre-treatment of rats with EGb 761 could partly protect liver from gamma rays and/ or absolute alcohol injurious and this protection may be induced, at least partly, through antioxidant mechanisms

  20. Effect of aspirin and prostaglandins on the carbohydrate metabolism in albino rats.: glucose oxidation through different pathways and glycolytic enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, A.; Ramakrishnan, S.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of chronic and acute doses of aspirin and prostaglandins F2α and E2 individually on the oxidation of glucose through Embden Meyerhof-TCA cycle and pentose phosphate pathways and some key glycolytic enzymes of liver were studied in male albino rats. Studies were extended to find the combined effect of PGF2α and E2 with an acute dose of aspirin. There was increased utilisation of both 1- 14 C glucose and 6- 14 C glucose on aspirin treatment. However, the metabolism through the EM-TCA pathway was more pronounced as shown by a reduced ratio of 14 CO 2 from 1- 14 C and 6- 14 C glucose. Two hepatic key glycolytic enzymes viz. hexokinase and pyruvate kinase were increased due to aspirin treatment. Withdrawal of aspirin corrected the above impaired carbohydrate metabolism in liver. Prostaglandin F2α also caused a reduction in the utilisation of 1- 14 C glucose, while PGE2 recorded an increase in the utilisation of both 1- 14 C and 6- 14 C glucose when compared to controls, indicating that different members of prostaglandins could affect metabolisms and differently. Administration of the PGs and aspirin together showed an increase in the utilisation of 6- 14 C glucose. (auth.)

  1. Effect of Fractionated Low Doses of Gamma Radiation on Some Haematological and Immunological Parameters in Albino Rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahgat, M.M.; Abdel-Khalek, L.G.

    2003-01-01

    This study was performed on 30 mature male albino rats to evaluate the direct effect of fractionated low doses (0.5 Gy twice weekly) gamma radiation and delayed effect (one month post-irradiation) on some haematological and immunological parameters. The rats were divided into three equal groups, Control and two whole body gamma-irradiated groups the irradiated groups were subjected to total doses of 4 and 8 Grays over a period of one and two months, respectively. The blood samples and peritoneal macrophages were taken twice from each irradiated rats at the end of their irradiation period and after one month post irradiation. Activated peritoneal macrophages in all groups showed significant decrease as compared to control group denoting that irradiation may cause receptor alteration and/or decrease in the phagocytic power of macrophages lasting for a longer time. Throughout the whole experiment there was wide variation in platelet count with no significant or minimal changes in other blood elements. Moreover, in the post irradiation group after two months irradiation, all the haematological parameters tested, except the Hct, were increased as compared to the control group. These results pointed to that the bone marrow and lymphoid organs of the animals can tolerate fractionated low dose irradiation through rapid recovery and/or compensatory stimulation. The presence of many target cells in the post irradiated group increases the red blood cell fragility

  2. Effect of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) and ethanol on the Albino rat testis: a scanning electron microscopic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasankaran, T G; Udayakumar, R; Elanchezhiyan, C; Sabhanayakam, Selvi

    2008-02-01

    The effects of sildenafil citrate with ethanol on the rat testis was studied using scanning electron microscopy. Male Albino rats were divided into 8 groups, each being treated for a maximum of 45 days as follows. In the 4 short-term treatment groups, control rats were administered normal saline orally, whereas experimental animals were fed sildenafil citrate (Viagra) 1 microg/g with 18% ethanol (5 g/kg body weight), which was given orally as a single dose. After 1, 2.5, 4 and 24h the rats were killed. In the 4 long-term treatment groups, daily continuous doses of drug and ethanol with a single dosage were given for 15, 30 and 45 days and the animals killed 4h after the last dosage. Changes in the testis were compared with the normal healthy rat testis. The use of a scanning electron microscope for evaluation of the changes in the testis is more suitable for observation of the surface and morphological shapes of the tissue structures.

  3. Effects of gamma radiation on hard dental tissues of albino rats using scanning electron microscope - Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Faramawy, Nabil; Ameen, Reham; El-Haddad, Khaled; Maghraby, Ahmed; El-Zainy, Medhat

    2011-12-01

    In the present study, 40 adult male albino rats were used to study the effect of gamma radiation on the hard dental tissues (enamel surface, dentinal tubules and the cementum surface). The rats were irradiated at 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 Gy gamma doses. The effects of irradiated hard dental tissues samples were investigated using a scanning electron microscope. For doses up to 0.5 Gy, there was no evidence of the existence of cracks on the enamel surface. With 1 Gy irradiation dose, cracks were clearly observed with localized erosive areas. At 2 Gy irradiation dose, the enamel showed morphological alterations as disturbed prismatic and interprismatic areas. An increase in dentinal tubules diameter and a contemporary inter-tubular dentine volume decrease were observed with higher irradiation dose. Concerning cementum, low doses,<0.5 Gy, showed surface irregularities and with increase in the irradiation dose to≥1 Gy, noticeable surface irregularities and erosive areas with decrease in Sharpey's fiber sites were observed. These observations could shed light on the hazardous effects of irradiation fields to the functioning of the human teeth.

  4. Dosis letal 50 de lorazepam en ratón (Mus musculus Albino, cepa suizo-icr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Alejandro Múnera G.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The lethal dose 50 (LD50 of  lorazepam in albino mice (Musmusculus, swiss ICR strain, was determined as a first step in the study of the conjoint toxicity of admixtures of scopolamine and benzodiazepines ("new burundanga". Method: Sixty adult male mice were randomly assigned to five experimental groups and to a control one. The dose of lorazepam administered intraperitoneally to each group was: group 1,10 mg kg_1; group 11,20 mg kgI; group 111,40mg kgL; group IV,80mgkg'; group V,160mg kg-l.The control group received only the vehicle solution. Mortality was recorded during 15 days after injection. Necropsies were performed to all the mice dead during the assay and to the survivors. Data were processed using probit analysis and survival analysis. Results: Estimated LD50 were 90.71 mg kg- 1, with 95% confidence range of 65,02to 150,13mg kg- 1.Deaths occurred within the first six days after injection of doses higher than 80 mg kg:', mostly during the first 48 hours. Conclusions: The estimated LD50 of  lorazepam in this experiment almost doubles the reported one, this finding suggests a higher resistance of the mice strain used in this experiment The critic period for lorazepam poisoning spans the first 48 hours.

  5. Bioactivity of diosmetin glycosides isolated from the epicarp of date fruits, Phoenix dactylifera, on the biochemical profile of alloxan diabetic male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Helana Naguib; Salib, Josline Yehia; Eskander, Emad Fawzi

    2013-05-01

    The new natural flavonoid compounds - diosmetin 7-O-β-L-arabinofuranosyl (1 → 2) β-D-apiofuranoside (1) and diosmetin 7-O-β-D-apiofuranoside (2) - were isolated from the acetone extract of date fruits epicarp belonging to family Arecaceae (Palmae). Elucidation of their chemical structures was determined by different spectroscopic methods in addition to the chemical and physical methods of analysis. These compounds were assessed for their biological activity on alloxan diabetic rats. A dose of 1.5 ml of (1) and (2) suspensions/100 gm b. wt were orally administrated to alloxan diabetic rats for 30 days. The treatment of diabetic rats with these compounds resulted in marked improvement of the different biochemical results, i.e. the serum glucose level (highly significant, from 330 + 5.5 mg/dL to 140 + 1.2 mg/dL) treated with (1); liver functions markedly developed both by AST and ALT levels, (reduced significantly from 68.3 + 4.8 μ/L to 54 + 5.5 μ/L and from 61.0 + 3.6 μ/L to 40.1 + 3.6 μ/L, respectively) treated with (2), accompanying with mild decrease in both cholesterol and triglycerides levels with (1) or (2). Decrease of TBARS level was observed in whole blood when treated with (1) or (2), while levels of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were increased in liver. Serum testosterone level was highly significantly increased (from 705.1 + 3.6 mg/100 ml to 720 + 4.7 mg/100 ml), total acid phosphatase and prostate acid phosphatase activities were highly significantly decreased (from 16.9 + 0.28 μ/L to 10.7 + 1.2 μ/L and from 9.7 + 0.7 μ/L to 6.5 + 1 μ/L, respectively) for compound (1). Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Chemo preventive action of Liv.52 against radiation and cadmium induced histopathological changes in the jejunum of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, R.K.; Sunita; Bhati, Sharwan; Isran, Rakesh; Ranga, Deepti; Meena, Dinesh; Pyarelal

    2012-01-01

    The present century has been an ever-increasing use of nuclear technologies in different fields raising the alarming problem of radiation hazards to living beings including man. An increasing body of evidence indicates that human activities are responsible for global climatic changes, which, in turn, may be directly or indirectly increasing human exposure to environmental hazards. On the other hand, all forms of cadmium are poisonous leading cadmium intoxication under appropriate circumstances. The interaction between radiation and other toxicants represents a field of immense potential importance as their total environmental burden may have greater effects than expected from the sum of their individual impact. In the present study six to eight weeks old male Swiss albino mice were exposed to 2.5 and 5.0 Gy of gamma rays with or without cadmium chloride treatment. The animals of experimental groups were administered Liv.52 for seven days prior to radiation or cadmium chloride treatment. After routine procedure of histology the histopathological changes were observed in the jejunum of Swiss albino mice. The changes included loosened sub-mucosa with hydropic degeneration. Lamina propria exhibited hydropic degeneration, abnormal mitotic figures, pyknotic nuclei and cytoplasmic degranulation in crypt cells, loosened tips and shortened villi. Leucocytic infiltration appeared in lamina propria. Few mitotic figures were observed during the early intervals but were not normal and resulted in mitotic death. Recovery started on day-14 in non-drug treated groups and day-7 in Liv.52 treated groups. After irradiation with various doses of gamma rays, histological changes depend upon the dose of radiation delivered. The important radio-lesions were looseness of musculature, hydropic degeneration in sub-mucosa and lamina propria, hyperaemia and haemorrhage in sub-mucosa, pyknotic cells, cytoplasmic degranulation and vacuolation, abnormal mitotic figures. Karyolysis, karyorrhexis

  7. Protective potential of Emblica Officinalis Linn. against radiation and lead induced hepatic lesion in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, R.K.; Bhartiya, K.M.; Isran, Rakesh; Bhati, Sharwan; Pyarelal; Basu, Arindam

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of living systems to ionizing radiation causes a variety of damages to DNA and membranes due to generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species. So there is a need of hour is to search for an ideal radioprotector which could minimize the deleterious and damaging effects caused by ionizing radiation. Radioprotectors are agents which reduce the radiation effects on cell when applied prior to exposure of radiation. The aim of this study was to access the efficacy of Emblica officinalis in reducing radiation and lead induced changes in mice liver. For the present experiment, healthy male Swiss albino mice (6-8 weeks) were selected and maintained under standard conditions of temperature and light. Fruit extract of Emblica was fed orally at the dose of 0.01 ml/animal/day.The animal were divided into seven groups according to the treatment i.e. lead acetate solution as drinking water (group-II) or exposed to 3.5 or 7.0 Gy gamma radiation (group-III) or combined treatment of radiation and lead acetate (group-IV). The animals of experimental groups were administered Emblica extract seven days prior to radiation or lead acetate treatment (group V, VI and VII) respectively. The animals from all the groups were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at each post-treatment intervals of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days. After sacrificing the animals pieces of liver were taken out and some of them were kept at -20℃ for different biochemical parameters. The histopathological changes included cytoplasmic degranulation, vacuolation, hyperaemia, pycnotic and crenated nuclei. The changes observed in the control groups were compared with the respective experimental groups. An increase in the value of total proteins, glycogen, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase activity and RNA was observed up to day - 14 in the non drug treated group and day 7 in the Emblica treated groups, thereafter value declined up to day - 28 without reaching to normal. Whereas the value of

  8. Acute endocrine correlates of attack by lactating females in male mice: effects on plasma prolactin, luteinizing hormone and corticosterone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broida, J; Michael, S D; Svare, B

    1984-05-01

    Immediately following defeat inflicted by lactating Rockland-Swiss (R-S) albino mice, adult R-S male mice exhibited significant reductions in circulating prolactin (PRL) and luteinizing hormone (LH), but not corticosterone (CORT). These results suggest that acute neuroendocrine responses to intersex competition may be as dramatic as those previously reported for intermale encounters.

  9. Protective role of aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced biochemical changes in the jejunum of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, R.K.; Bhartiya, K.M.; Agarwal, Manisha; Swami, Rajesh; Chakrawarti, Aruna; Meena, Dharmpal

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The extensive use of atomic energy now a days in various branches of natural economy, science and technology, radio diagnosis, radiotherapy, industries, agriculture, nuclear research etc. has made radiation injury an urgent problem attracting the attention not only of specialists in a variety of clinical disciplines but also of a vast army of theoretical scientists. Metals like cadmium have always been intrinsic components of earth crust with the continuing trends towards and increasing human activities involving man may become exposed to concentration of toxic metals presenting a potential threat for survival. The severity of the damage can be modulated by treating the animals with antioxidants. In view of the potential for practical application, a variety of compounds are being tested for their radio protective activities. Among these, Aloe vera hold a great promise. Aloe vera juice was obtained from Millennium Agro Company, Goregaon (W) Mumbai. It is a herbal drug and known to contain well over 100 separate ingredients or constituents between those found in the leaf and mucilaginous gel inside the leaf. In light of the above, the present study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced biochemical changes in the jejunum Swiss albino mice. For this purpose, healthy adult male Swiss albino mice were divided into seven groups. Group I included sham-irradiated normal mice. Group II was administered CdCl 2 at the dose of 20ppm, while Group III was exposed to 5.0 Gy of gamma radiation. Animals of Group IV were treated with both CdCl 2 and 5.0 Gy of gamma rays. The animals of Group V and VI were treated with CdCl 2 + Aloe vera and 5.0Gy + Aloe vera respectively, whereas Group VII was treated with CdCl 2 +5.0Gy+ Aloe vera. In the groups V, VI and VII the Aloe vera was given seven days prior to the treatment of CdCl 2 or gamma rays. Three animals from all the experimental groups were sacrificed by cervical

  10. Diabetes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - diabetes ... The following sites provide further information on diabetes: American Diabetes Association -- www.diabetes.org Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International -- www.jdrf.org National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion -- ...

  11. Hematological changes in opium addicted diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadikaram, Gholamreza; Sirati-Sabet, Majid; Asiabanha, Majid; Shahrokhi, Nader; Jafarzadeh, Abdollah; Khaksari, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Chronic opioid treatment in animal models has shown to alter hematological parameters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological effects of opium on the number of peripheral blood cells and red blood cells (RBCs) indices in diabetic rats. Peripheral blood samples were collected from diabetic, opium-addicted, diabetic opium-addicted and normal male and female rats and hematological parameters were measured. The mean number of white blood cells (WBCs) was significantly higher in diabetic opium-addict females compared to diabetic non-addict female group. In both male and female, the mean number of neutrophils was significantly higher and the mean number of lymphocytes was lower in diabetic opium-addicted rats than those observed in diabetic non-addicted group. In diabetic opium-addicted male group the mean counts of RBC significantly increased as compared with diabetic male group. However, in diabetic addicted female, the mean number of RBCs was significantly lower than diabetic non-addicted female group. In both males and females, the mean number of platelets was significantly lower in diabetic addict rats compared to diabetic non-addict group. Generally, the results indicated that opium addiction has different effects on male and female rats according to the number of WBC, RBC and RBC indices. It could also be concluded that in the opium-addicts the risk of infection is enhanced due to the weakness of immune system as a result of the imbalance effect of opium on the immune cells.

  12. Glomerular size- and charge selectivity in type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gall, M A; Rossing, P; Kofoed-Enevoldsen, A

    1994-01-01

    In an attempt to evaluate the mechanisms of proteinuria in diabetic kidney disease, we measured the renal clearances of albumin, total IgG, and IgG4 in 20 male Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with diabetic glomerulosclerosis (biopsy proven), in 10 male Type 2 diabetic patients...

  13. Cinnamon extract inhibits α-glucosidase activity and dampens postprandial glucose excursion in diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background α-glucosidase inhibitors regulate postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG) by impeding the rate of carbohydrate digestion in the small intestine and thereby hampering the diet associated acute glucose excursion. PPHG is a major risk factor for diabetic vascular complications leading to disabilities and mortality in diabetics. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, a spice, has been used in traditional medicine for treating diabetes. In this study we have evaluated the α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of cinnamon extract to control postprandial blood glucose level in maltose, sucrose loaded STZ induced diabetic rats. Methods The methanol extract of cinnamon bark was prepared by Soxhlet extraction. Phytochemical analysis was performed to find the major class of compounds present in the extract. The inhibitory effect of cinnamon extract on yeast α-glucosidase and rat-intestinal α-glucosidase was determined in vitro and the kinetics of enzyme inhibition was studied. Dialysis experiment was performed to find the nature of the inhibition. Normal male Albino wistar rats and STZ induced diabetic rats were treated with cinnamon extract to find the effect of cinnamon on postprandial hyperglycemia after carbohydrate loading. Results Phytochemical analysis of the methanol extract displayed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, coumarins and anthraquinones. In vitro studies had indicated dose-dependent inhibitory activity of cinnamon extract against yeast α-glucosidase with the IC 50 value of 5.83 μg/ml and mammalian α-glucosidase with IC 50 value of 670 μg/ml. Enzyme kinetics data fit to LB plot pointed out competitive mode of inhibition and the membrane dialysis experiment revealed reversible nature of inhibition. In vivo animal experiments are indicative of ameliorated postprandial hyperglycemia as the oral intake of the cinnamon extract (300 mg/kg body wt.) significantly dampened the postprandial hyperglycemia by 78.2% and 52.0% in maltose and sucrose

  14. Cinnamon extract inhibits α-glucosidase activity and dampens postprandial glucose excursion in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirumurugan Kavitha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background α-glucosidase inhibitors regulate postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG by impeding the rate of carbohydrate digestion in the small intestine and thereby hampering the diet associated acute glucose excursion. PPHG is a major risk factor for diabetic vascular complications leading to disabilities and mortality in diabetics. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, a spice, has been used in traditional medicine for treating diabetes. In this study we have evaluated the α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of cinnamon extract to control postprandial blood glucose level in maltose, sucrose loaded STZ induced diabetic rats. Methods The methanol extract of cinnamon bark was prepared by Soxhlet extraction. Phytochemical analysis was performed to find the major class of compounds present in the extract. The inhibitory effect of cinnamon extract on yeast α-glucosidase and rat-intestinal α-glucosidase was determined in vitro and the kinetics of enzyme inhibition was studied. Dialysis experiment was performed to find the nature of the inhibition. Normal male Albino wistar rats and STZ induced diabetic rats were treated with cinnamon extract to find the effect of cinnamon on postprandial hyperglycemia after carbohydrate loading. Results Phytochemical analysis of the methanol extract displayed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, coumarins and anthraquinones. In vitro studies had indicated dose-dependent inhibitory activity of cinnamon extract against yeast α-glucosidase with the IC 50 value of 5.83 μg/ml and mammalian α-glucosidase with IC 50 value of 670 μg/ml. Enzyme kinetics data fit to LB plot pointed out competitive mode of inhibition and the membrane dialysis experiment revealed reversible nature of inhibition. In vivo animal experiments are indicative of ameliorated postprandial hyperglycemia as the oral intake of the cinnamon extract (300 mg/kg body wt. significantly dampened the postprandial hyperglycemia by 78.2% and 52

  15. Assessment of anti-nociceptive efficacy of costus speciosus rhizome in swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sanjib; Nagaich, Upendra

    2010-01-01

    Present study attempts to evaluate the anti-nociceptive activity of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of Costus speciosus rhizome (CPA and CPE) in Swiss albino mice. The maceration extracts were evaluated for anti-nociceptive activity by acetic acid-induced writhing and tail flick method in mice. The anti-nociceptive screening revealed significant peripheral anti-nociceptive actions of both extracts against acetic acid induced writhing in mice. Aqueous extract (CPA) significantly inhibited writhes at the dose of 75 and 150 mg/kg body weight, while ethanol extract (CPE) produced significant protection at the dose of 150 mg/kg body weight. However, in tail flick method only the ethanol extract (CPE) showed significant central analgesic action, while aqueous extract was totally ineffective. The present investigation demonstrates that the rhizome extracts of C. speciosus exhibited significant anti-nociceptive effects in Swiss albino mice.

  16. Assessment of anti-nociceptive efficacy of Costus Speciosus rhizome in swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjib Bhattacharya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Present study attempts to evaluate the anti-nociceptive activity of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of Costus speciosus rhizome (CPA and CPE in Swiss albino mice. The maceration extracts were evaluated for anti-nociceptive activity by acetic acid-induced writhing and tail flick method in mice. The anti-nociceptive screening revealed significant peripheral anti-nociceptive actions of both extracts against acetic acid induced writhing in mice. Aqueous extract (CPA significantly inhibited writhes at the dose of 75 and 150 mg/kg body weight, while ethanol extract (CPE produced significant protection at the dose of 150 mg/kg body weight. However, in tail flick method only the ethanol extract (CPE showed significant central analgesic action, while aqueous extract was totally ineffective. The present investigation demonstrates that the rhizome extracts of C. speciosus exhibited significant anti-nociceptive effects in Swiss albino mice.

  17. Prolactin effect on the insulin content of albino rats in different physiological states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megahed, Y.M.; Abdel-Wahab, M.F.; El-Mougi, S.M.; El-Sayed, F.B.; Kuwait Univ.)

    1980-01-01

    The metabolic action of prolactin on insulin levels in plasma and pancreas has been studied. Prolactin was injected in a single dose or single daily doses on 4 successive days into albino rats in six different physiological states. Insulin was determined by radioimmunoassay using 125 I insulin. From the results it is concluded that prolactin injected i.p. influences the output of insulin and stimulates the pancreas to secrete insulin into the plasma. (author)

  18. Delayed nootropic effects of arginine vasopressin after early postnatal chronic administration to albino rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, P A; Voskresenskaya, O G; Kamensky, A A

    2009-06-01

    Intranasal administration of arginine vasopressin (10 microg/kg) to albino rat pups had a strong nootropic effect during training with positive and negative reinforcement. This effect was different in animals of various age groups: training with positive reinforcement was improved in "adolescent" rats and pubertal animals, while during training with negative reinforcement, the nootropic effect of the peptide was more prolonged and persisted also in adult animals.

  19. PHARMACOLOGICAL VALIDATION OF Musa paradisiaca BHASMA FOR ANTIULCER ACTIVITY IN ALBINO RATS - A PRELIMINARY STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadivelan, R; Elango, K; Suresh, B; Ramesh, B R

    2006-01-01

    Siddha system of medicine is one of the ancient systems of medicine in India. According to Siddhars, peptic ulcer is known as Valigunmam with its signs and symptoms as detailed in Siddha literature matching modern terminology of peptic ulcer. Bhasma refers to calcinated metals and minerals. During this study the Bhasma of Musa paradisiaca Linn, is prepared and evaluated for its antiulcer effect in albino wistar rats which could not be attempted by researchers earlier.

  20. Evaluation of Musa (Paradisiaca Linn. cultivar)--"Puttubale" stem juice for antilithiatic activity in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, K V; Bharathi, K; Srinivasan, K K

    1993-10-01

    The fresh juice of Musa stem (Puttubale) was tested for its antilithiatic activity. Zinc discs were implanted in the urinary bladder of albino rats to induce urolithiasis. The stones formed were mainly of magnesium ammonium phosphate with traces of calcium oxalate. Musa stem juice (3 mL/rat/day orally) was found to be effective in reducing the formation and also in dissolving the pre-formed stones.

  1. PHARMACOLOGICAL VALIDATION OF Musa paradisiaca BHASMA FOR ANTIULCER ACTIVITY IN ALBINO RATS – A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadivelan, R.; Elango, K.; Suresh, B.; Ramesh, B. R.

    2006-01-01

    Siddha system of medicine is one of the ancient systems of medicine in India. According to Siddhars, peptic ulcer is known as Valigunmam with its signs and symptoms as detailed in Siddha literature matching modern terminology of peptic ulcer. Bhasma refers to calcinated metals and minerals. During this study the Bhasma of Musa paradisiaca Linn, is prepared and evaluated for its antiulcer effect in albino wistar rats which could not be attempted by researchers earlier. PMID:22557209

  2. Analysis of inorganic elements in blood of albino rabbit using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metairon, Sabrina; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Medeiros, Ilca M.M.A.

    2009-01-01

    In this work Br, Cl, K and Na concentrations in albino rabbit blood were determinate using NAA. They are the first indicative interval for reference values in whole blood and they could be used for checking the clinical status of this specie when it will be used was animal model. The results when compared with human whole blood estimation suggest compatibility for Br, Cl and K considering 95% of confidence interval but, for Na the levels are altered, suggesting physiologic differences. (author)

  3. Beliefs and practices concerning twins, hermaphrodites, and albinos among the Bamana and Maninka of Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperato, Gavin H; Imperato, Pascal James

    2006-06-01

    The Bamana and Maninka of Mali greatly value twins, and have elaborated a range of cultural beliefs and practices to assure their survival. Rates of twinning among these two ethnic groups average from 15.2/1000 to 17.9/1000 births compared to 10.5/1000 births (without assisted reproduction) in the United States and Great Britain. Twins (flaniw) are regarded as extraordinary beings with unusual powers, and as a gift from the supreme deity. A small altar (sinzin) is maintained in the home of twins, and periodic sacrifices of chicken blood, kola nuts, millet paste and millet beer regularly made to assure their protection. Albinos (yéfeguéw) and true and pseudo-hermaphrodites (tyéténousotéw) are also considered twin beings. However, they are believed to be the result of aberrant parental social behavior. The Bamana and Maninka believe that all four groups (twins, albinos, hermaphrodites, and pseudo-harmaphrodites) are closely linked to Faro, an androgynous supernatural being who provides equilibrium in the world. Faro is the original albino and hermaphrodite who gave birth to the first pair of twins after self-impregnation. Whenever a twin dies, a small wooden statue is sculpted called a flanitokélé (twin that remains). This commemorative figure is kept close to the surviving twin, reflecting a belief in the inseparability of twins. Eventually, the surviving twin takes responsibility for the figure. When a surviving twin marries, another figure is often sculpted in the opposite sex from the deceased twin, and placed with the original sculpture. Such commemorative sculptures are not created upon the death of those who are albinos, hermaphrodites, or pseudo-hermaphrodites. In recent years, transformational belief patterns have evolved as increasing numbers of Bamana and Maninka embrace Islam. Traditional beliefs are often given Islamic myths of origin. However, even in this Islamic context, many practices that assure twin survival are maintained.

  4. Tartrazine induced changes in physiological and biochemical parameters in Swiss albino mice, Mus musculus

    OpenAIRE

    Arefin, Sayema; Hossain, Mohammad Salim; Akter Neshe, Shamme; Rashid, Md. Mamun Or; Amin, Mohammad Tohidul; Hussain, Md. Saddam

    2017-01-01

    Now-a-days synthetic food dyes are being used most commonly as food colorant in confectionaries, drugs and cosmetics. Present study was designed to evaluate the toxic effect of tartrazine, a widely used azo dye, on Swiss Albino mice. Experimental animals were treated with tested dye at a dose level 200mg/kg & 400mg/kg body weight along with normal diet. Various physiological and biochemical parameters were assessed to study the toxic effect of tartrazine. Our study rev...

  5. Ocular distribution of topically applied adrenaline in albino and pigmented rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urtti, A.; Periviita, L.; Salminen, L.

    1984-01-01

    Systemic absorption, ocular distribution and ocular metabolism in albino and pigmented rabbit of topically applied 1% [ 3 H]1-adrenaline eye drops was studied by liquid scintillation counting and thin layer chromatography. The effect of adrenaline on the pupillary diameter was also registered. The peak plasma level of adrenaline was reached at 150 min. The corneal adrenaline metabolism was substantial, but did not vary with the rabbit strain. At 30 min after instillation, the total adrenaline concentration of pigmented iris and ciliary body exceeded that of corresponding albino tissues. At 180 min the drug concentration of the iris and ciliary body did not differ between the rabbit strains. Th time course of adrenaline induced mydriasis was equal in both rabbit strains. Since neither total adrenaline concentration at 180 min nor the time course of adrenaline induced mydriasis differed between the rabbit strains, the higher initial adrenaline uptake by pigmented tissues is not explained by pigment binding. It is proposed that the increased initial binding of adrenaline by pigmented tissues is caused by a difference between pigmented and albino tissues in the number of adrenergic neurones; this is also supported by the literature. (author)

  6. STUDY OF HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF EMBLICA OFFICINALIS (AMLA IN ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinmoyee Deori

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The study has been undertaken to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of fruits extract of Emblica officinalis on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity on Albino rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was conducted in the Department of Pharmacology. The required amount of fresh fruits of Emblica officinalis were collected and prepared by percolation method using 90% ethyl alcohol. Oral toxicity test was performed as per OECD 423 guidelines. Liver damage was induced in Albino rats with carbon tetrachloride at the dose of 0.5 mL/kg/body weight subcutaneously. All the animals used for the experiment were kept under observation for daily food intake and body weight were measured after 7 days. The drugs were administered to the animals in the dose of 200 mg/kg/body weights by means of an intragastric feeding tube. The experiment was carried out for the period of 14 days. RESULTS The study was carried out with an attempt to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Emblica officinalis in carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury in albino rats and was compared with standard drug Silymarin. The statistical significance between groups was analysed using one way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s test. The significance was expressed by ‘p’ values as mentioned in the tables. P value of <0.05 was considered significant. CONCLUSION From this study, it can be seen that Emblica officinalis has significant hepatoprotective activity in rats with CCL4-induced liver injury.

  7. Effect of Mucuna pruriens (Linn.) on mitochondrial dysfunction and DNA damage in epididymal sperm of streptozotocin induced diabetic rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Sekar; Prithiviraj, Elumalai; Lakshmi, Nagella Venkata; Ganesh, Mohanraj Karthik; Ganesh, Lakshmanan; Prakash, Seppan

    2013-01-09

    Mucuna pruriens Linn. (M. pruriens) is a leguminous plant that has been recognized as an herbal medicine for improving fertility and related disorders in the Indian traditional system of medicine, however without proper scientific validations. To study the effect of ethanolic seed extract of M. pruriens on mitochondrial dysfunction and the DNA damage in hyperglycemic rat epididymal spermatozoa. Male Wistar albino rats were divided as control (Sham), diabetes induced [streptozotocin 60 mg/kg of body weight (b.w.) in 0.1M citrate buffer] (STZ), diabetic rats administered with 200mg/kg b.w. of extract (STZ+MP) and normal rats administered with 200mg/kg b.w. of extract (Sham+MP). M. pruriens was administered (gavage) once daily for a period of 60 days. On 60th day animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation sperm were collected from epididymis and subjected various analysis like antioxidants, ROS, lipid peroxidation (LPO), DNA damage, chromosomal integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Significant reduction in the sperm count, motility, viability and significant increase in the number of abnormal sperm in STZ compared to sham was noticed. STZ rat sperm showed significant increase in LPO and DNA damage. Both the enzymic and non-enzymic were decreased; MMP and the mitochondrial functions were severely affected in STZ group. The diabetic rats supplemented with M. pruriens showed a remarkable recovery in antioxidant levels and reduced LPO with well preserved sperm DNA. MMP and mitochondrial function test were also preserved in STZ+MP rat sperm. The present study has clearly demonstrated the potency of M. pruriens to reduce the diabetic induced sperm damage induced by oxidative stress (OS). These observations are encouraging to perform similar studies in human. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Intact Regulation of the AMPK Signaling Network in Response to Exercise and Insulin in Skeletal Muscle of Male Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: Illumination of AMPK Activation in Recovery From Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjøbsted, Rasmus; Pedersen, Andreas J T; Hingst, Janne R; Sabaratnam, Rugivan; Birk, Jesper B; Kristensen, Jonas M; Højlund, Kurt; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P

    2016-05-01

    Current evidence on exercise-mediated AMPK regulation in skeletal muscle of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is inconclusive. This may relate to inadequate segregation of trimeric complexes in the investigation of AMPK activity. We examined the regulation of AMPK and downstream targets ACC-β, TBC1D1, and TBC1D4 in muscle biopsy specimens obtained from 13 overweight/obese patients with T2D and 14 weight-matched male control subjects before, immediately after, and 3 h after exercise. Exercise increased AMPK α2β2γ3 activity and phosphorylation of ACCβ Ser(221), TBC1D1 Ser(237)/Thr(596), and TBC1D4 Ser(704) Conversely, exercise decreased AMPK α1β2γ1 activity and TBC1D4 Ser(318)/Thr(642) phosphorylation. Interestingly, compared with preexercise, 3 h into exercise recovery, AMPK α2β2γ1 and α1β2γ1 activity were increased concomitant with increased TBC1D4 Ser(318)/Ser(341)/Ser(704) phosphorylation. No differences in these responses were observed between patients with T2D and control subjects. Subjects were also studied by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps performed at rest and 3 h after exercise. We found no evidence for insulin to regulate AMPK activity. Thus, AMPK signaling is not compromised in muscle of patients with T2D during exercise and insulin stimulation. Our results reveal a hitherto unrecognized activation of specific AMPK complexes in exercise recovery. We hypothesize that the differential regulation of AMPK complexes plays an important role for muscle metabolism and adaptations to exercise. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  9. RADIOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF LYCOPENE IN GAMMA IRRADIATED ALBINO RATS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MOHAMED, M.I.; ALI, S.E.; HAGGAG, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The present study was designed to explore the radioprotective potential of lycopene in gamma irradiated male rats. Four groups, each of sixteen rats, were assigned as follows: the first was untreated (control group), the second fed on chow diet mixed with 300 mg lycopene/kg diet (lycopene group), the third exposed to 6.5 Gy gamma radiation (irradiated group) and the fourth fed on chow mixed with 300 mg lycopene/kg and exposed to 6.5 Gy gamma radiation (irradiated and treated group). Animals exposed to ionizing radiation experienced decline in their body weights, increased ALT and AST enzymes and decreased serum albumin level. The study also showed decline in hemoglobin, total white blood cells count and blood platelets count. Bone marrow examination revealed profound hypoplasis and reduction of the cellular elements. Histological examination of liver, spleen, testis and intestine showed disruption of normal architecture of these organs. Irradiated and treated animals maintained a more or less steady body weight, and improved serum ALT, AST and albumin in comparison with those irradiated. The results also showed increased hemoglobin, total white blood cells, platelets count and partial improvement of bone marrow cellularity. Lycopene was also capable of partial preservation of normal architecture of liver, spleen, intestine and testis in gamma irradiated group.In conclusion, lycopene seems to be a useful radioprotector probably because of its potent antioxidant property

  10. Male Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal glands. Low testosterone (male hypogonadism) and other hormonal problems have a number of possible underlying causes. Defects of tubules that transport sperm. Many ... syndrome — in which a male is born with two X chromosomes and one ...

  11. Effects of canola oil supplemented with atherogenic element and nigella sativa (kalonji) on serum lipids in albino rats - an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.; Farooq, M.; Kousar, N.

    2015-01-01

    To compare effects of canola oil supplemented with atherogenic element and Nigella sativa on serum lipids in albino rats. Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted at Pathology Department of Postgraduate Medical Institute, for 12 weeks. Study Design: Laboratory based randomized controlled trials. Material and Methods: Seventy two albino rats were selected and randomly divided into six groups of twelve animals with equal number of male and female in each. Fourteen days after acclimatization to the environment and basal diet, fasting blood samples (zero week) were collected by heart puncture under ether anesthesia and experimental diets were started which were continued for 12 weeks. All parameters were measured using enzymatic colorimetric methods. Results: Estimations of serum lipids showed increase in total cholesterol (TC) and High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-c) levels but fall in LDL-c concentrations in groups fed on canola oil diet. On the other hand, even atherogenic supplemented groups had decrease in cardio-protective HDL-c and raised LDL-c; although statistically non-significant. Thus canola oil diets were not hyperlipidaemic and prevented adiposity. Nigella sativa (NS) diets significantly decreased serum total cholesterol and LDL-c while HDL-c was raised but non-significantly. Thus Nigella sativa prevented deposition of lipids in tissues, thus preventing tendency to obesity and atherogenesis by decreasing LDL-c in serum. Conclusion: Nigella sativa produces antilipidaemic and anti-obesity effects by decreasing low density lipoprotein cholesterol level which is statistically significant in two out of the three groups fed on Ns; it also increased high density cholesterol which was however non-significant in comparison with Canola oil alone. (author)