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Sample records for diabetes study study

  1. CLINICOMICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY OF DIABETIC FOOT ULCERS

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    Nirmal Kumar Palaniappan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease caused by a combination of lifestyle and genetic factors affecting all organs in the body. Foot ulcers are one of the common and serious long-term complications of diabetes leads to recurrent and chronic infections, which results in limb loss when treatment is delayed. The aim of this study is to find out the clinical outcome and microbiological profile in patients admitted with diabetic foot ulcers. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study conducted between November 2008 to November 2009 over 50 patients with history of foot ulceration and diabetes. 50 patients were admitted with diabetic foot ulcer over a period of one year between November 2008-2009. They were studied after getting written consent. A predesigned pro forma was used to get the parameters comprising age, gender, duration, type of diabetes mellitus, presence of neuropathy, nephropathy (serum creatinine, urine albumin, retinopathy (screening funduscopy by ophthalmologist. RESULTS Among 50 patients admitted and treated for diabetic foot ulcers with mean stay of 18 days, 29 (58% had complete healing on conservative management, 18 (36% underwent minor amputation (toes, 3 (6% had major amputation (below knee/above knee. No mortality among the study groups encountered. Gram-negative aerobes E. coli (36%, Pseudomonas (52%, Klebsiella (28%, Proteus vulgaris (20% and Acinetobacter (16% were most frequently isolated followed by gram-positive aerobes MRSA (14%, Enterococcus (6%, Strep pyogenes (4% and no anaerobic growth. CONCLUSION Diabetic foot infections are frequently polymicrobial and predominantly gram-negative aerobic bacteria at presentation. Multidrug resistance pseudomonas aeruginosa and MRSA in diabetic foot ulcer is at its emergence and life threatening. Initial aggressive multimodal approach with surgical intervention, culture specific and sensitive targeted combined broad-spectrum antibiotics decreases the morbidity and mortality

  2. STUDY OF PREVALENCE OF DRY EYE IN DIABETES

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    Vivek Mahadev Sahasrabudhe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Diabetes causes blindness in 20-74 year old persons. Blindness in diabetic patients may due to cataract or retinopathy. Dry eye is one of the ocular surface problem increasingly observed in diabetic patients. This study was performed to assess the prevalence of dry eye syndrome in type 2 diabetic patients and their contributing factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study was done between April 2016 to September 2016. 70 patients of type 2 diabetes diagnosed at Dr. Shankarrao Chavan Government Hospital, Nanded, were included in this study. Patients were assessed by questionnaire about other diseases and drugs. Dry eye syndrome was assessed with Tear Breakup Time (TBUT, Schirmer's test, lissamine green staining apart from routine ophthalmic examination. RESULTS Out of 60 patients, 32 (53% suffer from dry eye syndrome. CONCLUSION Diabetes and dry eyes appear to have a common association. Further studies need to be undertaken to establish an aetiologic relationship. As routine dilated fundus examination is an integral part of evaluation of diabetic patients in ophthalmic clinics, examination for dry eye should also be an integral part of the assessment of diabetic eye disease.

  3. Ende Diabetes Study: diabetes and its characteristics in rural area of East Nusa Tenggara

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    Sarwono Waspadji

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are only few studies about diabetes in rural area in Indonesia. Epidemiological study are needed to formulate health policy of disease management in specific area. The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of diabetes and knowledge of diabetes among the community in Nangapanda Village, Ende District, East Nusa Tenggara.Methods: A cross-sectional study “Ende Diabetes Study” was conducted in Nangapanda Village. This study use cluster random sampling method to a total number of 19756 residents in Nangapanda village. From the sampling frame of 1800 adult subjects who underwent screening with glucometer in 2008 and 2009, 125 subjects have been diagnosed as diabetes or impaired fasting glucose (IFG. All of the subjects who were diagnosed as diabetes or IFG from the previous screening and 218 subjects from control (normal subjects in the 2008 and 2009 screening were included in the present study. Each subject underwent general anamnesis, nutritional interview, complete physical examinations, and laboratory test (blood and urine. The data were analyzed using SPSS 13.0.Ressult: There were 343 subjects in this study. The prevalence of diabetes in Nangapanda using blood glucose criteria (using fasting and post-glucose load values was 2%; using post glucose load criteria, the prevalence of DM was 1.56%; while with HbA1c criteria, the prevalence was 2.83%. The prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT was 2.2%, and IFG was 6.2%. A number of 71.1% Nangapanda residents have sufficient knowledge about diabetes.Conclusion: Prevalence of diabetes in Nangapanda (using fasting and post-glucose load criteria was 2% and 1.56% (using post-glucose load values. As much as 71.1% of Nangapanda residents have sufficient knowledge about diabetes. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:30-8Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Ende Diabetes Study, prevalence, rural Indonesia

  4. Japan Diabetic Nephropathy Cohort Study: study design, methods, and implementation.

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    Furuichi, Kengo; Shimizu, Miho; Toyama, Tadashi; Koya, Daisuke; Koshino, Yoshitaka; Abe, Hideharu; Mori, Kiyoshi; Satoh, Hiroaki; Imanishi, Masahito; Iwano, Masayuki; Yamauchi, Hiroyuki; Kusano, Eiji; Fujimoto, Shouichi; Suzuki, Yoshiki; Okuda, Seiya; Kitagawa, Kiyoki; Iwata, Yasunori; Kaneko, Shuichi; Nishi, Shinichi; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Ueda, Yoshihiko; Haneda, Masakazu; Makino, Hirofumi; Wada, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    Diabetic nephropathy, leading to end-stage renal disease, has a considerable impact on public health and the social economy. However, there are few national registries of diabetic nephropathy in Japan. The aims of this prospective cohort study are to obtain clinical data and urine samples for revising the clinical staging of diabetic nephropathy, and developing new diagnostic markers for early diabetic nephropathy. The Japanese Society of Nephrology established a nationwide, web-based, and prospective registry system. On the system, there are two basic registries; the Japan Renal Biopsy Registry (JRBR), and the Japan Kidney Disease Registry (JKDR). In addition to the two basic registries, we established a new prospective registry to the system; the Japan Diabetic Nephropathy Cohort Study (JDNCS), which collected physical and laboratory data. We analyzed the data of 321 participants (106 female, 215 male; average age 65 years) in the JDNCS. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was 130.1 and 72.3 mmHg, respectively. Median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 33.3 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Proteinuria was 1.8 g/gCr, and serum levels of albumin were 3.6 g/dl. The majority of the JDNCS patients presented with preserved eGFR and low albuminuria or low eGFR and advanced proteinuria. In the JRBR and JKDR registries, 484 and 125 participants, respectively, were enrolled as having diabetes mellitus. In comparison with the JRBR and JKDR registries, the JDNCS was characterized by diabetic patients presenting with low proteinuria with moderately preserved eGFR. There are few national registries of diabetic nephropathy to evaluate prognosis in Japan. Future analysis of the JDNCS will provide clinical insights into the epidemiology and renal and cardiovascular outcomes of type 2 diabetic patients in Japan.

  5. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY IN DIABETES MELLITUS PATIENTS IN TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

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    Bhaskar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE The study objective was to examine the effect of glycaemic control and variations on the incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR among the diabetes mellitus patients visiting Medicine and Ophthalmology OPD Sapthagiri Medical college, Bangalore. MATERIALS AND METHODS 10 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, and 70 persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus, visiting the Medicine OPD of Sapthagiri Medical College and referred to Ophthalmology department of the above to detect the Diabetic Retinopathy changes in a diabetes mellitus management programme conducted for 3 months in Bangalore, participated in the study. Patients who were followed up for 6 months the same above were also included in the study. Analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between the risk factors, incidence and progression of Diabetic Retinopathy among Diabetes Mellitus patients and management. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES To determine the risk factors associated with it, stage of retinopathy diagnosed at presentation, management of it, and final visual outcome. The prevention is by strict glycaemic control, prompt use of anti-diabetic drugs and regular exercises. These included age and gender-adjusted prevalence of diabetes and diabetic retinopathy, 1 and correlation of prevalence with history-based risk factors. RESULTS The three months cumulative incidence of DR was 58 %in type I diabetes mellitus and 42 % among type II Diabetes mellitus. After controlling for known risk factors for DR,1 a high baseline haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, ethnicity, age, type of diabetes mellitus, duration were associated with the incidence of referable DR in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The age- and gender-adjusted prevalence rate of diabetes in urban Bangalore 28.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], and the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in general population was 3.5% (95% CI. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in the population with diabetes

  6. Hypertension and type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study in Morocco (EPIDIAM Study).

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    Berraho, Mohamed; El Achhab, Youness; Benslimane, Abdelilah; El Rhazi, Karima; Chikri, Mohamed; Nejjari, Chakib

    2012-01-01

    In Morocco, there are no studies that focused on the hypertension and its associated risk factors through patients with type 2 diabetes. Different findings show that the frequency of type 2 diabetes has risen rapidly in Morocco. The main objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of hypertension and its associated risk factors among a group of patients with type 2 diabetes and to examine the level of control of hypertension among type 2 diabetic patients with hypertension. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 525 type 2 diabetics in three Moroccan regions. The structured questionnaire was used to gather information on sociodemographic variables, history of hypertension, use of anti-hypertensive medications and duration of diabetes. Anthropometric measurements including weight and height were measured by trained staff. Blood pressure was measured using standardized sphygmomanometers. The prevalence of hypertension was 70.4%. The logistic regression indicated that hypertension was positively associated with age (peducation, counseling and behavioral interventions designed to modify lifestyle such as increasing physical activity and adopting recommended dietary changes, as well as compliance with medications.

  7. Living With Diabetes in Appalachia: A Focus Group Study.

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    Carpenter, Roger; Smith, Mary Jane

    This article presents an innovative holistic practice application based on evidence from a focus group study on managing diabetes. The purpose of this study addressed the research question: How do persons with type 2 diabetes describe ways of managing the challenge of living with diabetes? A second purpose was to link the findings on ways to manage diabetes to holistic nursing practice through story theory. Nine adults with type 2 diabetes living in rural West Virginia participated in 3 focus groups. Using content analysis, the study findings integrated themes with core qualities, and are as follows: living life as an evolving process is awakening to the present and doing it your way, being on guard is a vigilant ongoing responsibility, attending to bodily experience is awareness of body and facing life stress, and knowing the consequences is awareness of potential problems and taking charge. Merging the study findings with the concepts of story theory led to the development of an innovative practice application for managing diabetes. Managing diabetes in this practice application goes beyond problem-centeredness to a patient-centered approach, offering attention to individual preferences. Since managing diabetes is a major problem in Appalachia, there a need for innovative approaches. This study adds to the body of knowledge on how persons from Appalachia manage diabetes. In addition, it offers a story practice approach for managing diabetes-replacing a problem focus to a more holistic approach to practice leading to more meaningful and fulfilling outcomes.

  8. Sarcopenia in diabetic nephropathy: a cross-sectional study.

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    Çeliker, Meral; Selçuk, Mustafa Yavuz; Olt, Serdar

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between sarcopenia and diabetic nephropathy. 56 diabetic patients without complications, 50 diabetic patients with nephropathy, 53 healthy controls included in this present study. Demographic characteristics such as sex, age, anthropometric measurements such as weight, body mass index [BMI], hip circumference, waist circumference and upper arm circumference were measured. Sarcopenia diagnosis was based on European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People [EWGSOP] criteria which consist of hand grip strength, 6-meter walking test and muscle mass. The frequency of sarcopenia increased gradually from 15.1% in healthy control group to 21.4% in the diabetes group, and 34% in diabetic nephropathy group (X2 for trend, p = 0.029). The frequency of sarcopenia was similar in diabetes and diabetic nephropathy group. However, the frequency of sarcopenia was higher in diabetic nephropathy than healthy controls (OR = 2.89, CI [1.11-7.51] in logistic regression). In the present study, the prevalence of sarcopenia was higher in patients with diabetic nephropathy compared to healthy controls.

  9. Yogurt and Diabetes: Overview of Recent Observational Studies.

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    Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Díaz-López, Andrés; Babio, Nancy

    2017-07-01

    The effects of dairy consumption on the prevention of type 2 diabetes remain controversial and depend on the dairy subtype. Yogurt intake has received special attention because its association with health benefits is more consistent than that of other types of dairy products. In the present article, we review those observational studies that evaluated the association between yogurt consumption and type 2 diabetes. We also discuss the possible mechanisms involved in these associations. We found that 13 prospective studies evaluated the association between yogurt intake and type 2 diabetes, most of which showed an inverse association between the frequency of yogurt consumption and the risk of diabetes. In addition to the scientific evidence accumulated from individual prospective studies, several meta-analyses have shown that yogurt consumption has a potential role in diabetes prevention. The most recent analysis shows a 14% lower risk of type 2 diabetes when yogurt consumption was 80-125 g/d compared with no yogurt consumption. The intake of fermented dairy products, especially yogurt, has been inversely associated with variables of glucose metabolism. Yogurt may have probiotic effects that could modulate glucose metabolism. We conclude that yogurt consumption, in the context of a healthy dietary pattern, may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in healthy and older adults at high cardiovascular risk. Large-scale intervention studies and randomized clinical trials are warranted to determine if yogurt consumption has beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity and reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Living with diabetes: rationale, study design and baseline characteristics for an Australian prospective cohort study

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    Donald Maria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus is a major global public health threat. In Australia, as elsewhere, it is responsible for a sizeable portion of the overall burden of disease, and significant costs. The psychological and social impact of diabetes on individuals with the disease can be severe, and if not adequately addressed, can lead to the worsening of the overall disease picture. The Living With Diabetes Study aims to contribute to a holistic understanding of the psychological and social aspects of diabetes mellitus. Methods/Design The Living With Diabetes Study is a 5-year prospective cohort study, based in Queensland, Australia. The first wave of data, which was collected via a mailed self-report survey, was gathered in 2008, with annual collections thereafter. Measurements include: demographic, lifestyle, health and disease characteristics; quality of life (EQ-5D, ADDQoL; emotional well-being (CES-D, LOT-R, ESSI; disease self-management (PAM; and health-care utilisation and patient-assessed quality of care (PACIC. 29% of the 14,439 adults who were invited to participate in the study agreed to do so, yielding a sample size of 3,951 people. Discussion The data collected by the Living With Diabetes Study provides a good representation of Australians with diabetes to follow over time in order to better understand the natural course of the illness. The study has potential to further illuminate, and give a comprehensive picture of the psychosocial implications of living with diabetes. Data collection is ongoing.

  11. Review of research grant allocation to psychosocial studies in diabetes research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, A; Vallis, Michael; Cooke, Debbie

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: To estimate and discuss the allocation of diabetes research funds to studies with a psychosocial focus. METHODS: Annual reports and funded-research databases from approximately the last 5 years (if available) were reviewed from the following representative funding organizations, the American...... Diabetes Association, the Canadian Diabetes Association, Diabetes Australia, Diabetes UK, the Dutch Diabetes Research Foundation and the European Foundation for the Study of Diabetes, in order to estimate the overall proportion of studies allocated research funding that had a psychosocial focus. RESULTS......: An estimated mean of 8% of funded studies from our sample were found to have a psychosocial focus. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of funded studies with a psychosocial focus was small, with an estimated mean ratio of 17:1 observed between funded biomedical and psychosocial studies in diabetes research. While...

  12. [Diabetic retinopathy complications--12-year retrospective study].

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    Ignat, Florica; Davidescu, Livia

    2002-01-01

    It is analyzed, on a retrospective study on 12 years, the incidence of diabetus melitus cases, hospitalized in the Ophthalmologic Clinic from Craiova with special mention to the frequency of the diabetic retinopathy, of it's complications and in an accordance to other general diseases, especially cardiovascular's, which contributes to the aggravation of the diabetic ocular in juries evolution. The study underlines the high incidence of the new founded cases with diabetus melitus in complicated diabetes retinopathy stage; the high frequency of ocular complications is explained, according to our statistic facts and through an insufficient treatment, sometimes incorrect and many other cases total neglected by the patients.

  13. Study protocol for the Cities Changing Diabetes programme

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    Napier, A David; Nolan, John J; Bagger, Malene

    2017-01-01

    and management are improving, complications remain common, and diabetes is among the leading causes of vision loss, amputation, neuropathy and renal and cardiovascular disease worldwide. We present a research protocol for exploring the drivers of type 2 diabetes and its complications in urban settings through...... the Cities Changing Diabetes (CCD) partnership programme. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A global study protocol is implemented in eight collaborating CCD partner cities. In each city, academic institutions, municipal representatives and local stakeholders collaborate to set research priorities and plan...... Assessment explores the urban context in vulnerability to type 2 diabetes and identifies social factors and cultural determinants relevant to health, well-being and diabetes. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The protocol steers the collection of primary and secondary data across the study sites. Research ethics...

  14. Level and determinants of diabetes knowledge in patients with diabetes in Zimbabwe: a cross-sectional study

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    Mufunda, Esther; Wikby, Kerstin; Bj?rn, Albin; Hjelm, Katarina

    2012-01-01

    Introduction A previous study of beliefs about health and illness in Zimbabweans with diabetes mellitus indicated limited knowledge about diabetes and the body, affecting self-care and health-care seeking behaviour. The aim of this study was to assess the level of diabetes knowledge in Zimbabwean adults with diabetes mellitus, to determine the main gaps in knowledge and identify the socio-demographic and diabetes-related determinants that predict diabetes awareness and self-care practices. Me...

  15. The North Jutland County Diabetic Retinopathy Study (NCDRS): population characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lars Loumann; Lervang, Hans-Henrik; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren

    2006-01-01

    Background: Several population-based studies have reported blood glucose levels and blood pressure to be risk factors for the development of diabetic retinopathy. These studies were initiated more than two decades ago and may therefore reflect the treatment and population composition of a previous...... era, suggesting new studies of the present population with diabetes. Aim and methods: This cross-section study included 656 people with type 1 diabetes and 328 with type 2 diabetes. Crude prevalence rates of proliferative diabetic retinopathy, clinically significant macular oedema and several specific...... retinal lesions were assessed, together with their association to a simplified and internationally approved retinal grading. Results: The point prevalence of proliferative retinopathy was found to be 0.8% and 0.3% for type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Equivalent prevalence rates of clinically significant...

  16. A Narrative Review of Diabetes Intervention Studies to Explore Diabetes Care Opportunities for Pharmacists

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    Shamala Ayadurai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We conducted a review of current diabetes intervention studies in type 2 diabetes and identified opportunities for pharmacists to deliver quality diabetes care. Methods. A search on randomised controlled trials (RCT on diabetes management by healthcare professionals including pharmacists published between 2010 and 2015 was conducted. Results and Discussion. Diabetes management includes multifactorial intervention which includes seven factors as outlined in diabetes guidelines, namely, glycaemic, cholesterol and blood pressure control, medication, lifestyle, education, and cardiovascular risk factors. Most studies do not provide evidence that the intervention methods used included all seven factors with exception of three RCT which indicated HbA1c (glycated hemoglobin reduction range of 0.5% to 1.8%. The varied HbA1C reduction suggests a lack of standardised and consistent approach to diabetes care. Furthermore, the duration of most studies was from one month to two years; therefore long term outcomes could not be established. Conclusion. Although pharmacists’ contribution towards improving clinical outcomes of diabetes patients was well documented, the methods used to deliver structured, consistent evidence-based care were not clearly stipulated. Therefore, approaches to achieving long term continuity of care are uncertain. An intervention strategy that encompass all seven evidence-based factors will be useful.

  17. Clinical studies of cerebral arteriosclerosis in diabetic subjects. Analysis with brain MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, Makoto; Tanahashi, Hideo; Nomura, Makoto; Yamada, Yoshio; Abe, Hiroshi.

    1994-01-01

    In order to investigate the clinical characteristics of cerebral arteriosclerosis in diabetic subjects, brain MRI studies were conducted in diabetic patients and healthy subjects. The subjects were 93 diabetic patients without symptoms and signs of cerebral infarction (49 males and 44 females) with a mean age of 59 years and 73 healthy subjects (43 males and 30 females) with a mean age of 57 years. The MRI studies were performed on a General Electric 1.5-T signa system. The spin-echo technique (T2-weighted image) was used with a pulse repetition time (TR) of 2,500 msec and echo time (TE) of 80 msec. The quantitative evaluation of cerebral infarction was assessed using personal computer and image-scanner. By MRI, the incidence of cerebral infarction in diabetic patients was significantly higher than that in healthy subjects (30.1% vs. 13.7%, respectively, p<0.05). The mean age of the diabetic patients with cerebral infarctions was higher than that of those without cerebral infarctions. Hypertension and diabetic nephropathy were present more frequently in the subjects with cerebral infarctions. These data suggest that it is important to delay the onset and slow the progression of cerebral infarction in diabetic patients by strict blood glucose control and management of blood pressure. (author)

  18. Rationale and Methodology for a Community-Based Study of Diabetic Retinopathy in an Indonesian Population with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Jogjakarta Eye Diabetic Study in the Community.

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    Sasongko, Muhammad B; Agni, Angela N; Wardhana, Firman S; Kotha, Satya P; Gupta, Prateek; Widayanti, Tri W; Supanji; Widyaputri, Felicia; Widyaningrum, Rifa; Wong, Tien Y; Kawasaki, Ryo; Wang, Jie Jin; Pawiroranu, Suhardjo

    2017-02-01

    There are no available data about diabetic retinopathy (DR) in the Indonesian population. This report summarizes the rationale and study design of the Jogjakarta Eye Diabetic Study in the Community (JOGED.COM), a community-based study to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of DR in persons with type 2 diabetes in Jogjakarta, Indonesia. The JOGED.COM aimed to examine a cross-sectional sample of 1200 persons with type 2 diabetes aged 30 years and older residing in the study area. We identified 121 community health centers (CHCs) in Jogjakarta and listed 35 CHCs with non-communicable diseases facilities. Multi-stage, clustered random sampling was used to select 22 CHCs randomly. We included CHCs with coverage population >30,000, and excluded those classified as 100% rural. Lists of persons with diabetes confirmed by their family physician were provided from each CHC. Examinations procedures included detailed interviews, general and eye examinations, anthropometry and body composition scan, and dilated fundus photography. We collaborated with local health authorities, family physicians, and local health practitioners in the recruitment phase. A total of 1435 invitations were distributed, and 1184 people (82.5%) with type 2 diabetes participated in this study, of whom 1138 (79.3%) had completed data with gradable retinal images. JOGED.COM is the first epidemiologic study of DR in an Indonesian population. This study will provide key information about the prevalence and risk factors of DR in the community. These data are very important for future health promotion programs to reduce the burden of DR in the population.

  19. A study of vitiligo in type 2 diabetic patients

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    Leena Raveendra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Diabetes mellitus is associated with many skin manifestations including vitiligo. Vitiligo occurs more commonly in Type 1 diabetes mellitus. A few recent studies have shown its increased occurrence in Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Aims: This study aims to study the prevalence of vitiligo in Type 2 diabetic patients and to compare the prevalence of vitiligo in age- and sex-matched group of nondiabetic population. Settings and Design: The present study was a hospital-based cross-sectional study conducted in the Department of Dermatology in a tertiary care hospital. Subjects and Methods: Six hundred consecutive consenting patients of Type 2 diabetes were included in the study group and age- and sex-matched controls were healthy nondiabetic adult volunteers attending the Department of Dermatology. Fasting and postprandial blood sugar levels were done. A complete history, physical examination, and wood's lamp examination to detect vitiligo were conducted. In all those with vitiligo, the type of vitiligo was noted. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20.0. Comparison between the presence of vitiligo in cases and controls was done using Chi-square test with P = 0.05 for significance. Results: Vitiligo was seen in 12% of cases and 6% of control group which was statistically significant (P < 0.01. There was no significant difference between cases and controls with respect to type of vitiligo. Conclusions: Vitiligo can occur in Type 2 diabetics as seen in our study and few other recent studies. The exact pathogenesis is not very clear and needs further consideration.

  20. Type II diabetes and personality; a study to explore other psychosomatic aspects of diabetes

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    Esmaeilinasab, Maryam; Ebrahimi, Mehdi; Mokarrar, Mohsen Heidari; Rahmati, Leila; Mahjouri, Mohammad Yoosef; Arzaghi, Seyed Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background As one of the most common chronic diseases, diabetes and its control are affected by the patients? psychological and spiritual attributes. The present study investigates the relationship between glycemic control in patients with type II diabetes and personality traits, defense mechanisms and spirituality. Method The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 Iranian patients with type II diabetes, 64% were men. Participants completed the NEO Personality Inventory, the Defen...

  1. Diabetes mellitus during pregnancy: a study of fifty cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randhawa, M. S.; Moin, S.; Shoaib, F.

    2003-01-01

    To review and critically evaluated the incidence, epidemiology, clinical pattern, diagnosis, management, complications and outcome of diabetes mellitus during pregnancy in hospital based study. Results: Total number of women delivered were 11271. Fifty cases of diabetes mellitus during pregnancy were studied. Mostly the patients were more than 30 years of age, multiparous ladies with gestational diabetes in 80% of cases, Type-II diabetes in 16% and only in 4% Type-I diabetes was reported. Insulin was required in 40% of patients. Eight women out of 50 had spontaneous miscarriage, 5 underwent preterm delivery while 36 reached term with one intrauterine death. Total number of babies delivered alive were 41. There was one stillbirth and 3 neonatal deaths. Conclusion: Management of diabetes mellitus in pregnancy involves teamwork of obstetricians, physicians and neonatologists. (author)

  2. Potential risk factors for diabetic neuropathy: a case control study

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    Nooraei Mahdi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus type II afflicts at least 2 million people in Iran. Neuropathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes and lowers the patient's quality of life. Since neuropathy often leads to ulceration and amputation, we have tried to elucidate the factors that can affect its progression. Methods In this case-control study, 110 diabetic patients were selected from the Shariati Hospital diabetes clinic. Michigan Neuropathic Diabetic Scoring (MNDS was used to differentiate cases from controls. The diagnosis of neuropathy was confirmed by nerve conduction studies (nerve conduction velocity and electromyography. The multiple factors compared between the two groups included consumption of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI, blood pressure, serum lipid level, sex, smoking, method of diabetes control and its quality. Results Statistically significant relationships were found between neuropathy and age, gender, quality of diabetes control and duration of disease (P values in the order: 0.04, 0.04, Conclusion In this study, hyperglycemia was the only modifiable risk factor for diabetic neuropathy. Glycemic control reduces the incidence of neuropathy, slows its progression and improves the diabetic patient's quality of life. More attention must be paid to elderly male diabetic patients with poor diabetes control with regard to regular foot examinations and more practical education.

  3. The North Jutland County Diabetic Retinopathy Study (NCDRS). Population characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, L.L.; Lervang, H.H.; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren

    Abstract Purpose: Several population based studies have reported blood glucose levels and blood pressure to be risk factors for the development of proliferativ retinopathy and diabetic maculopathy. Despite their importance, these studies were initiated more than two decades ago and may therefore...... reflect the treatment and population composition of a previous era. Studies of the present diabetic population are therefore in demand. Methods: The present cross–section study included 656 type 1 and 328 type 2 diabetic subjects undergoing diabetic retinopathy screening. Crude prevalence rates...... for proliferative diabetic retinopathy, maculopathy, several specific lesions and non–ophthalmic findings were assessed together with their association to a simplified and internationally approved retinal grading. Results: The crude prevalence of proliferative retinopathy was found to be 5.6 % and 0.9 % for type 1...

  4. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in screening-detected diabetes mellitus: results from the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS).

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    Ponto, Katharina A; Koenig, Jochem; Peto, Tunde; Lamparter, Julia; Raum, Philipp; Wild, Philipp S; Lackner, Karl J; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Mirshahi, Alireza

    2016-09-01

    Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus may experience an asymptomatic period of hyperglycaemia, and complications may already be present at the time of diagnosis. We aimed to determine the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in patients with newly diagnosed (screening-detected) type 2 diabetes. The Gutenberg Health Study is a population-based study with 15,010 participants aged between 35 and 74 years. We determined the weighted prevalence of diabetic retinopathy by assessing fundus photographs. Screening-detected type 2 diabetes was defined as an HbA1c concentration of 6.5% (47.5 mmol/mol) or more, no medical diagnosis of diabetes and no intake of insulin or oral glucose-lowering agents. Of 14,948 participants, 1377 (9.2%) had diabetes mellitus. Of these, 347 (25.2%) had newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes detected by the screening. Overall, the weighted prevalence of screening-detected type 2 diabetes was 2.1%. Fundus photos were evaluable for 285 (82.1%) participants with newly diagnosed diabetes. The weighted prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in screening-detected type 2 diabetes was 13.0%; 12% of participants had a mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy and 0.6% had a moderate non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy was proliferative in 0.3%. No cases of severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy or diabetic maculopathy were found. Thirty (14.9%) of 202 and six (7.2%) of 83 individuals with and without concomitant arterial hypertension, respectively, had diabetic retinopathy (OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.06, 7.14). Visual acuity did not differ between individuals with and without diabetic retinopathy . In this large European study, the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in screening-detected type 2 diabetes was 13%. Only a very small proportion of participants with detected diabetic retinopathy needed treatment.

  5. Technology-Intensified Diabetes Education Study (TIDES) in African Americans with type 2 diabetes: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

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    Williams, Joni S; Lynch, Cheryl P; Knapp, Rebecca G; Egede, Leonard E

    2014-11-25

    Compared to American Whites, African Americans have a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), experiencing poorer metabolic control and greater risks for complications and death. Patient-level factors, such as diabetes knowledge, self-management skills, empowerment, and perceived control, account for >90% of the variance observed in outcomes between these racial groups. There is strong evidence that self-management interventions that include telephone-delivered diabetes education and skills training are effective at improving metabolic control in diabetes. Web-based home telemonitoring systems in conjunction with active care management are also effective ways to lower glycosylated hemoglobin A1c values when compared to standard care, and provide feedback to patients; however, there are no studies in African Americans with poorly controlled T2DM that examine the use of technology-based feedback to tailor or augment diabetes education and skills training. This study provides a unique opportunity to address this gap in the literature. We describe an ongoing 4-year randomized clinical trial, which will test the efficacy of a technology-intensified diabetes education and skills training (TIDES) intervention in African Americans with poorly controlled T2DM. Two hundred male and female AfricanAmerican participants, 21 years of age or older and with a glycosylated hemoglobin A1c level ≥ 8%, will be randomized into one of two groups for 12 weeks of telephone interventions: (1) TIDES intervention group or (2) a usual-care group. Participants will be followed for 12 months to ascertain the effect of the interventions on glycemic control. Our primary hypothesis is that, among African Americans with poorly controlled T2DM, patients randomized to the TIDES intervention will have significantly greater reduction in glycosylated hemoglobin A1c at 12 months of follow-up compared to the usual-care group. Results from this study will add to the current literature

  6. The study of Insulin Resistance in the Off Springs of Diabetics and Non Diabetic Patients

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    Ganesh Manoorkar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Insulin resistance is one of the main cause in the pathogenesis of the development of type- 2 diabetes mellitus. Elevated insulin levels and insulin resistance may be present several years prior to the development of hyperglycaemia. Hence the diagnosis of insulin resistance at the initial stages in risk group people could be used as an effective measure to prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus and its outcome, including reduction in morbidity and mortality. Though type 2 diabetes mellitus has multifactorial aetiology, genetic factor plays an important role in the development of diabetes mellitus. So we have tried to establish relation between genetic factor and insulin resistance by studying the insulin resistance in off springs of diabetics and non diabetics patients. Aims and objectives: Estimation of insulin levels in the off springs (non diabetics of diabetics and non diabetics patients. Comparision of insulin resistance in the off springs (non diabetics of diabetics and non diabetics. To find the relation between insulin resistance and genetic factor. Material and method: This study was carried out in the department of Biochemistry Grant Government Medical College Mumbai. Total 100 non diabetic people were included in the study of age above 30 years. These are divided into two groups as- Group-I includes 50 off springs (Ist degree relatives of non diabetic people. Group-II includes 50 off springs (Ist degree relatives of diabetic people. The fasting plasma glucose and serum insulin levels are estimated in the above two groups. The insulin resistance was calculated by using HOMA-IR model. Result: Fasting plasma glucose, serum insulin level and insulin resistance is significantly increased in group-II people as compared to group-I people. Conclusion: There is a strong relation between genetic factor and insulin resistance which exist prior to the development of diabetes mellitus. The people of group-II are susceptible for the

  7. Association of diabetes mellitus and dementia : The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ott, A; Stolk, RP; Hofman, A; vanHarskamp, F; Grobbee, DE; Breteler, MMB

    1996-01-01

    Dementia and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) are highly prevalent disorders in the elderly. Diabetes has repeatedly been reported to affect cognition, but its relation with dementia is uncertain. We therefore studied the association between diabetes and dementia in the Rotterdam

  8. Level and determinants of diabetes knowledge in patients with diabetes in Zimbabwe: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufunda, Esther; Wikby, Kerstin; Björn, Albin; Hjelm, Katarina

    2012-01-01

    Introduction A previous study of beliefs about health and illness in Zimbabweans with diabetes mellitus indicated limited knowledge about diabetes and the body, affecting self-care and health-care seeking behaviour. The aim of this study was to assess the level of diabetes knowledge in Zimbabwean adults with diabetes mellitus, to determine the main gaps in knowledge and identify the socio-demographic and diabetes-related determinants that predict diabetes awareness and self-care practices. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed using a standardized self-report Diabetes Knowledge Test questionnaire (DKT) of 58 respondents, 32 women and 26 men. Results were analysed with descriptive and analytic statistical methods. Results The majority of the respondents scored average knowledge on all three sub-scales: general knowledge, insulin use and total knowledge, with an overall score of 63.1± 14, 2%. Major knowledge gaps were in areas related to diet, insulin use and glycaemic control. No significant differences in mean scores were detected in the diabetes knowledge sub-scales when comparisons were made of mean knowledge scores in relation to socio-demographic and diabetes-related characteristics. However, diabetes-related complications were significantly associated with lower total and general diabetes knowledge, and female gender was an independent determinant of low general knowledge. Conclusion Knowledge gaps were evident in areas regarding insulin use, diet and glycaemic control. Low diabetes knowledge was associated with female gender and could be a risk factor for development of diabetes-related complications. Knowledge gaps need to be addressed in diabetes education to prevent development of diabetes-related complications. PMID:23396799

  9. The INTERPRET-DD study of diabetes and depression: a protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, C E; Sartorius, N; Cimino, L C; Alvarez, A; Guinzbourg de Braude, M; Rabbani, G; Uddin Ahmed, H; Papelbaum, M; Regina de Freitas, S; Ji, L; Yu, X; Gaebel, W; Müssig, K; Chaturvedi, S K; Srikanta, S S; Burti, L; Bulgari, V; Musau, A; Ndetei, D; Heinze, G; Romo Nava, F; Taj, R; Khan, A; Kokoszka, A; Papasz-Siemieniuk, A; Starostina, E G; Bobrov, A E; Lecic-Tosevski, D; Lalic, N M; Udomratn, P; Tangwongchai, S; Bahendeka, S; Basangwa, D; Mankovsky, B

    2015-07-01

    People with diabetes are at an increased risk of developing depression and other psychological disorders. However, little is known about the prevalence, correlates or care pathways in countries other than the UK and the USA. A new study, the International Prevalence and Treatment of Diabetes and Depression Study (INTERPRET-DD) aims to address this dearth of knowledge and identify optimal pathways to care across the globe. INTERPRET-DD is a 2-year longitudinal study, taking place in 16 countries' diabetes outpatients' facilities, investigating the recognition and management of depressive disorders in people with Type 2 diabetes. Clinical interviews are used to diagnose depression, with clinical and other data obtained from medical records and through patient interviews. Pathways to care and the impact of treatment for previously unrecognized (undocumented) depression on clinical outcomes and emotional well-being are being investigated. Initial evidence indicates that a range of pathways to care exist, with few of them based on available recommendations for treatment. Pilot data indicates that the instruments we are using to measure both the symptoms and clinical diagnosis of depression are acceptable in our study population and easy to use. Our study will increase the understanding of the impact of comorbid diabetes and depression and identify the most appropriate (country-specific) pathways via which patients receive their care. It addresses an important public health problem and leads to recommendations for best practice relevant to the different participating centres with regard to the identification and treatment of people with comorbid diabetes and depression. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  10. A clinical study of dermatoses in diabetes to establish its markers

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    Dependra Kumar Timshina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous manifestations of diabetes mellitus generally appear subsequent to the development of the disease, but they may be the first presenting signs and in some cases they may precede the primary disease manifestation by many years. Aims : T0 he aim of our study was to study the spectrum of dermatoses in diabetics, to know the frequency of dermatoses specific to diabetes mellitus (DM, and to establish the mucocutaneous markers of DM. Material and Methods: The study was conducted at a diabetic clinic and our department between September 2008 and June 2010. Two hundred and twenty-four diabetic patients were included in the study group and those with gestational diabetes were excluded. Healthy age- and sex-matched individuals were taken as controls. Results: The male to female ratio was 1 : 1.21. Type 2 DM was seen in 89.7% and type 1 DM in 10.3% of the patients. Dermatoses were seen in 88.3% of the diabetics compared to 36% in non-diabetic controls (P<0.05. Cutaneous infections were the most common dermatoses followed by acanthosis nigricans and xerosis in diabetics. Type 2 DM was found to have an increased risk of complications than type 1 DM. Complications of diabetes were seen in 43.7% of the diabetic cases. Diabetic dermopathy, loss of hair over the legs, diabetic foot ulcer, and so on, were found to be the cutaneous markers of DM in our group of cases. Conclusion: Dermatoses were more common in diabetics than non-diabetics. Cutaneous infections formed the largest group of dermatoses in DM.

  11. Serum calcium and incident diabetes: an observational study and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, C W; Cheng, V K F; Ho, D K C; Kung, A W C; Cheung, B M Y; Wong, I C K; Tan, K C B; Salas-Salvadó, J; Becerra-Tomas, N; Cheung, C L

    2016-05-01

    The study aimed to prospectively evaluate if serum calcium is related to diabetes incidence in Hong Kong Chinese. The results showed that serum calcium has a significant association with increased risk of diabetes. The result of meta-analysis reinforced our findings. This study aimed to evaluate the association of serum calcium, including serum total calcium and albumin-corrected calcium, with incident diabetes in Hong Kong Chinese. We conducted a retrospective cohort study in 6096 participants aged 20 or above and free of diabetes at baseline. Serum calcium was measured at baseline. Incident diabetes was determined from several electronic databases. We also searched relevant databases for studies on serum calcium and incident diabetes and conducted a meta-analysis using fixed-effect modeling. During 59,130.9 person-years of follow-up, 631 participants developed diabetes. Serum total calcium and albumin-corrected calcium were associated with incident diabetes in the unadjusted model. After adjusting for demographic and clinical variables, the association remained significant only for serum total calcium (hazard ratio (HR), 1.32 (95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.70), highest vs. lowest quartile). In a meta-analysis of four studies including the current study, both serum total calcium (pooled risk ratio (RR), 1.38 (95 % CI, 1.15-1.65); I (2) = 5 %, comparing extreme quantiles) and albumin-corrected calcium (pooled RR, 1.29 (95 % CI, 1.03-1.61); I (2) = 0 %, comparing extreme quantiles) were associated with incident diabetes. Penalized regression splines showed that the association of incident diabetes with serum total calcium and albumin-correlated calcium was non-linear and linear, respectively. Elevated serum calcium concentration is associated with incident diabetes. The mechanism underlying this association warrants further investigation.

  12. A study on the cutaneous manifestations of diabetes mellitus

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    Neerja Puri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The cutaneous manifestations of diabetes mellitus are varied. We conducted a study of fifty patients having diabetes mellitus coming from the department of dermatology and medicine. The commonest cutaneous feature of diabetes were pyodermas seen in 40% patients, dermatophytosis seen in 36% patients, pruritis diabetic thick skin seen in 20 % patients, diabetic dermopathy seen in 16% patients, diabetic bulla and rubeosis seen in 8% patients each and meralgia paraesthetica and diabetic foot seen in 4% patients each. About the associations of diabetes mellitus, achrchordons were seen in 8% patients, vitiligo and perforating dermatoses were seen in 6% patients each, granuloma annulare, eruptive xanthomas, acanthosis nigricans, necrobiosis lipoidica and oral lichen planus were seen in 4 % patients each and xanthelasma was seen in 2% patients.

  13. Psoriatic Arthritis and Diabetes: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreiher, Jacob; Freud, Tamar; Cohen, Arnon D.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Diabetes has been associated with psoriasis, but little is known about the association between psoriatic arthritis and diabetes. Methods. Patients diagnosed with psoriatic arthritis by a rheumatologist were compared to age- and sex-matched patients without psoriatic arthritis regarding the prevalence of diabetes in a population-based cross-sectional study using logistic multivariate models. The study was performed utilizing the medical database of Clalit, the largest healthcare provider organization in Israel. Results. The study included 549 patients with psoriatic arthritis ≥21 years and 1,098 patients without psoriatic arthritis. The prevalence of diabetes in patients with psoriatic arthritis was increased as compared to the prevalence in patients without psoriatic arthritis (15.3% versus 10.7%, P value = 0.008). The difference was prominent among females (18.7% versus 10.3%, P < 0.001) but not among males (11.2% in patients with and without psoriatic arthritis, P = 1.000). In a multivariate analysis, psoriatic arthritis was associated with diabetes among females (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.02–2.52, P = 0.040) but not among males (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.42–1.22, P = 0.213). Conclusion. Our study suggests a possible association between psoriatic arthritis and diabetes in women. Women with psoriatic arthritis might be candidates for diabetes screening. PMID:23843781

  14. A study of dynamic foot pressure measurement in diabetic patients

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    Milka D Madhale

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetic foot ulcer is a major source of morbidity and a leading cause of hospitalization. It is estimated that approximately 20% of hospital admissions among patients with diabetes mellitus are due to diabetic foot ulcer. It can lead to infection, gangrene, amputation, and even death if appropriate care is not provided. Overall, the lower limb amputation in diabetic patients is 15 times higher than in non-diabetics. In the majority of cases, the cause for the foot ulcer is the altered architecture of the foot due to neuropathy resulting in abnormal pressure points on the soles. Purpose: The aim of this study is to develop low cost, lightweight foot pressure scanner and check its reliability and validity which can help to prevent foot ulceration. Design/Methodology/Approach: In the present study, a low cost, lightweight foot pressure scanner is developed, and dynamic plantar pressures in a group of 110 Indian patients with diabetes with or without neuropathy and foot ulcers are measured. Practical Implications: If these pressure points can be detected, ulcers can be prevented by providing offloading footwear. Originality/Value: Differences are found in dynamic foot pressures in different study groups, namely, diabetic patients, patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, patients with foot ulcers, and nondiabetics. The differences are significant (P < 0.01, which showed the validity of the tool. Reliability and consistency of the tool was checked by test–retest method. Paper Type: Original Research work. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, it is concluded that the scanner is successfully developed and it can measure foot pressures. It is a novel device to proactively monitor foot health in diabetics in an effort to prevent and reduce diabetic foot complications.

  15. A STUDY ON ASYMPTOMATIC CARDIAC CHANGES IN TYPE 2 DIABETES PATIENTS

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    Ramchandra Rao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Majority of the time the patient of Diabetes presents with complications like Myocardial infarction, heart failure, being end stages of cardiovascular 2 disease associated with other macro and microvascular complications. If patients are screened at an early stage of Diabetes before the onset of symptoms the cardiovascular complications can be delayed and mortality can be reduced . There are only few studies in India done to screen asymptomatic diabetic individuals for cardiovascular compli cations. This study is done in view of screening the asymptomatic individuals in our area to prevent complications. With the available infrastructure, ECG, 2D ECHO were done in 50 patients who met inclusion, exclusion criterias, the changes were noted and the cardiac status was evaluated. AIM AND OBJECTIVES : “To study the asymptomatic cardiac changes in type2 Diabetes patients”. To observe the ECG changes in patients of type2 Diabetes without any symptoms of cardiac disease. To evaluate the ECG changes along with 2DECHO findings in asymptomatic cardiac patients of type 2 Diabetes. To study the correlation between these two investigations and evaluate the cardiac status of the individual. CONCLUSIONS : M ost of the patients in study group belong to 5 th decade , Males with Diabetes were almost double that of females , Most of the patients had duration of Diabetes as 5yrs , Less than half of patients had family history of Diabetes , Half of the group had alcohol, smoking habits , More than half of patients were overweight , Only 20% had good control of Diabetes , Total cholesterol is above normal in almost all of the patients, LDL is elevated in half of the patients, triglycerides in most of them, there is significant dyslipidemia in patients of Diabetes , Only 6 had normal ECG. Rest of them have LVH, ischemia , 18 patients had changes in echo including LVD, regional and global hypokinesias , t hus the present study shows patients with type 2

  16. Best herbs for managing diabetes: a review of clinical studies

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    Ahmad Ghorbani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a public health problem which leads to serious complications over time. Experimentally, many herbs have been recommended for treating diabetes. In most cases, however, the recommendations are based on animal studies and limited pieces of evidence exist about their clinical usefulness. This review focused on the herbs, the hypoglycemic actions of which have been supported by three or more clinical studies. The search was done in Google Scholar, Medline and Science Direct databases using the key terms diabetes, plants, herbs, glucose and patients. According to the clinical studies, Aegle marmelos, Allium cepa, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Nigella sativa, Ocimum sanctum, Panax quinquefolius, Salacia reticulate, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum-graecum have shown hypoglycemic and, in some cases, hypolipidemic activities in diabetic patients. Among them, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum-graecum have acquired enough reputation for managing diabetes. Thus, it seems that physicians can rely on these herbs and advise for the patients to improve management of diabetes.

  17. [Superficial mycoses: comparative study between type 2 diabetic patients and a non-diabetic control group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Humbría, Leila; Richard-Yegres, Nicole; Pérez-Blanco, Maigualida; Yegres, Francisco; Mendoza, Mireya; Acosta, Arnaldo; Hernández, Rosaura; Zárraga, Eluz

    2005-03-01

    Superficial mycoses are considered to affect more frequently patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-2), specially onychomycosis and Tinea pedis. The purpose of this study was to compare the dermatophytoses, candidiasis and Pitiriasis versicolor frequency between 40 patients with DM-2 and 40 healthy persons of either sex, 40 years old or more. Clinical, metabolic, mycologic and inmunologic studies against Candida albicans, were carried out. Both diabetics 75% (30/40) and controls 65% (26/40) presented a high frequency of superficial mycoses (no significant difference p = 0.329). Pitiriasis versicolor was not detected in diabetic patients. They presented Tinea unguium, concomitant with Tinea pedis, with a higher frequency. The predominant dermatophyte was Trichophyton rubrum 18/23 (78%) in diabetics and 8/16 (50%) in non diabetics. Candida was isolated as commensal from oral mucous: 23/40 (58%) in diabetics and 21/40 (52%) in non diabetics (serotipo A was the more frequent), and from onychomycosis: 11/40 (28%) in diabetics and 12/40 (30%) in non diabetics. The immunological response was the same in both groups: celular 100%, humoral 20%. No statistical correlation among superficial mycoses, blood glucose level, glycosylated hemoglobin values or the time suffering the disease was observed. The high susceptibility to dermatophytes and Candida sp. infection showed to be associated with age and no with the diabetic type 2 condition in those patients.

  18. Depression and incident diabetic foot ulcers: a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lisa H.; Rutter, Carolyn M.; Katon, Wayne J.; Reiber, Gayle E.; Ciechanowski, Paul; Heckbert, Susan R.; Lin, Elizabeth H.B.; Ludman, Evette J.; Oliver, Malia M.; Young, Bessie A.; Von Korff, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objective To test whether depression is associated with an increased risk of incident diabetic foot ulcers. Methods The Pathways Epidemiologic Study is a population-based prospective cohort study of 4839 patients with diabetes in 2000–2007. The present analysis included 3474 adults with type 2 diabetes and no prior diabetic foot ulcers or amputations. Mean follow-up was 4.1 years. Major and minor depression assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) were the exposures of interest. The outcome of interest was incident diabetic foot ulcers. We computed the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% CI for incident diabetic foot ulcers, comparing patients with major and minor depression to those without depression and adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, medical comorbidity, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), diabetes duration, insulin use, number of diabetes complications, body mass index, smoking status, and foot self-care. Sensitivity analyses also adjusted for peripheral neuropathy and peripheral arterial disease as defined by diagnosis codes. Results Compared to patients without depression, patients with major depression by PHQ-9 had a two-fold increase in the risk of incident diabetic foot ulcers (adjusted HR 2.00, 95% CI: 1.24, 3.25). There was no statistically significant association between minor depression by PHQ-9 and incident diabetic foot ulcers (adjusted HR 1.37, 95% CI: 0.77, 2.44). Conclusion Major depression by PHQ-9 is associated with a two-fold higher risk of incident diabetic foot ulcers. Future studies of this association should include better measures of peripheral neuropathy and peripheral arterial disease, which are possible confounders and/or mediators. PMID:20670730

  19. Gastroesophageal reflux disease in patients with diabetes: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Mariko; Miwa, Takashi; Kawai, Takashi; Odawara, Masato

    2015-03-01

    Some studies report that complications of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) occur more frequently in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) than in non-diabetic patients. This study used transnasal endoscopy to elucidate the current status of concurrent GERD in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and to examine the associations between intraesophageal pressure and GERD, as well as other neuropathic conditions. The study included 57 outpatients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mean age was 67 years and the duration of DM was 13 years. The mean hemoglobin A1c was 6.8%. Transnasal endoscopic evaluation items were (i) the presence or absence of esophagitis and its severity; (ii) intraesophageal pressure; and (iii) Helicobacter pylori status, which was evaluated by endoscopic findings, such as the presence or absence of gastritis and peptic ulcer, and by urea breath test. Of 57 patients, 24 (42.1%) were given a diagnosis of GERD based on endoscopy. Patients with concurrent GERD were younger, had shorter duration of DM, and were taller and heavier. Interestingly, no difference in body mass index was observed. There was no significant association between the presence of concurrent GERD and diabetic complications, including peripheral neuropathy, and infection or non-infection with H. pylori. Although there was no significant association between the presence of concurrent GERD and intraesophageal pressure values, we found aging, reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate, and the presence of autonomic nerve symptoms to correlate with reduced intraesophageal pressure. The results of this study could be used to answer the question of whether or not endoscopic GERD is a diabetic complication; however, further study is required. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. The DISC (Diabetes in Social Context) Study-evaluation of a culturally sensitive social network intervention for diabetic patients in lower socioeconomic groups: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissenberg, Charlotte; Nierkens, Vera; Uitewaal, Paul J M; Geraci, Diana; Middelkoop, Barend J C; Nijpels, Giel; Stronks, Karien

    2012-03-19

    Compared to those in higher socioeconomic groups, diabetic patients in lower socioeconomic groups have less favourable metabolic control and experience more diabetes-related complications. They encounter specific barriers that hinder optimal diabetes self-management, including a lack of social support and other psychosocial mechanisms in their immediate social environments. Powerful Together with Diabetes is a culturally sensitive social network intervention specifically targeted to ethnic Dutch, Moroccan, Turkish, and Surinamese diabetic patients in lower socioeconomic groups. For ten months, patients will participate in peer support groups in which they will share experiences, support each other in maintaining healthy lifestyles, and learn skills to resist social pressure. At the same time, their significant others will also receive an intervention, aimed at maximizing support for and minimizing the negative social influences on diabetes self-management. This study aims to test the effectiveness of Powerful Together with Diabetes. We will use a quasi-experimental design with an intervention group (Group 1) and two comparison groups (Groups 2 and 3), N = 128 in each group. Group 1 will receive Powerful Together with Diabetes. Group 2 will receive Know your Sugar, a six-week group intervention that does not focus on the participants' social environments. Group 3 receives standard care only. Participants in Groups 1 and 2 will be interviewed and physically examined at baseline, 3, 10, and 16 months. We will compare their haemoglobin A1C levels with the haemoglobin A1C levels of Group 3. Main outcome measures are haemoglobin A1C, diabetes-related quality of life, diabetes self-management, health-related, and intermediate outcome measures. We will conduct a process evaluation and a qualitative study to gain more insights into the intervention fidelity, feasibility, and changes in the psychosocial mechanism in the participants' immediate social environments. With this

  1. Associations of sex hormone-binding globulin and testosterone with diabetes among men and women (the Saku Diabetes study: a case control study

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    Goto Atsushi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG levels and sex hormones have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. As fatty liver has been suggested to be a major determinant of SHBG levels, we examined whether the associations of SHBG and testosterone with diabetes were independent of fatty liver. Methods We conducted a case–control study that included 300 diabetes cases (215 men and 85 women and 300 matched controls from the Saku cohort study. Diabetes was defined by either fasting plasma glucose levels ≥126 mg/dL, 2-h post-load glucose levels ≥200 mg/dL after a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, or diabetes diagnosed by physicians. We fitted conditional logistic regression models to examine the associations between SHBG and total testosterone levels with diabetes by sex. To evaluate the impact of fatty liver, we used the fatty liver index (FLI, a validated measure derived from serum triglyceride levels, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, and γ-glutamyltransferase levels. Results After adjusting for age, family history of diabetes, smoking, physical activity, BMI, and FLI, SHBG levels were inversely associated with diabetes among women (odds ratio [OR] comparing the highest with the lowest quartiles, 0.13 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.02–0.96], but not among men. Similar patterns were observed in a subgroup analysis restricted to postmenopausal women"(OR, 0.12 [95% CI, 0.01–1.17]. In contrast, testosterone levels were inversely associated with diabetes among men (OR, 0.45 [95% CI, 0.23–0.89], but not among women. Conclusions Our findings suggest that SHBG in women and testosterone in men may be inversely associated with diabetes.

  2. Atlantic DIP: Diabetes in Pregnancy: a comparative study of stress and wellbeing in women with established diabetes, gestational diabetes, and those without diabetes

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lydon, K

    2011-09-15

    Background and aims: Diabetes in pregnancy increases the risk of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The experience of diabetes during pregnancy may be a significant source of stress, both because of the impact of the illness and associated treatments on the expectant mother and because of concern about the impact on the unborn child. In order to examine stress associated with diabetes during pregnancy, we carried out a prospective study in women with pre-existing (Type 1 or Type 2) Diabetes (PDM), Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM), and non-diabetic pregnant controls (NDM).\\r\

  3. [Microalbuminuria in diabetic and hypertensive patients: a study of 979 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto Robles, Nicolás; Velasco, Joaquín; Mena, Cándido; Angulo, Enrique; Garrote, Timotea

    2006-11-25

    Microalbuminuria is a known complication of diabetes mellitus but it is also a cardiovascular risk factor commonly present among hypertensive (non diabetic) population. The prevalence of microalbuminuria is variable and it has been never estimated in our region. The aim of this study has been to determine the prevalence of microalbuminuria in hypertensive (non diabetic) and diabetic population in Extremadura (Spain). The study included diabetic patients and non-diabetic hypertensive ones randomly selected. Microalbuminuria was measured in every patient using albumin/creatinin reactive stick in fasting first morning urine. Whenever possible microalbuminuria was confirmed in laboratory by microalbuminuria/creatinina coefficient in first morning urine samples. A total of 979 patients (mean age [SD], 67.9 [10.8] years; 409 men and 570 women, 505 diabetics) were studied. The presence of microalbuminuria was found in 12.4% of hypertensive patients and in 21.4% of diabetic patients (p < 0.001). Hypertensives and normotensive diabetics showed a similar prevalence of microalbuminuria (13.3%, not significant), but it tripled in hypertensive diabetics (33.8; p < 0.01). Glicemic control was not different for microalbuminuric diabetic patients and non microalbuminuric ones. The patients receiving rennin-angiotensin axis blocking drugs do not showed less prevalence of microalbuminuria (hypertensives 10.5%, diabetics 23.5%). Microalbuminuria was confirmed in 65.4% of patients. The prevalence of microalbuminuria in Extremadura seems to be high either in diabetics or non diabetic hypertensive patients. The finding of microalbuminuria in diabetics patients correlates with hypertension but do not with glicemic control. The prevalence of microalbuminuria is high in spite of using rennin-angiotensin axis blocking drugs.

  4. Lung function in type 2 diabetes: the Normative Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litonjua, Augusto A; Lazarus, Ross; Sparrow, David; Demolles, Debbie; Weiss, Scott T

    2005-12-01

    Cross-sectional studies have noted that subjects with diabetes have lower lung function than non-diabetic subjects. We conducted this analysis to determine whether diabetic subjects have different rates of lung function change compared with non-diabetic subjects. We conducted a nested case-control analysis in 352 men who developed diabetes and 352 non-diabetic subjects in a longitudinal observational study of aging in men. We assessed lung function among cases and controls at three time points: Time0, prior to meeting the definition of diabetes; Time1, the point when the definition of diabetes was met; and Time2, the most recent follow-up exam. Cases had lower forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) at all time points, even with adjustment for age, height, weight, and smoking. In multiple linear regression models adjusting for relevant covariates, there were no differences in rates of FEV1 or FVC change over time between cases and controls. Men who are predisposed to develop diabetes have decreased lung function many years prior to the diagnosis, compared with men who do not develop diabetes. This decrement in lung function remains after the development of diabetes. We postulate that mechanisms involved in the insulin resistant state contribute to the diminished lung function observed in our subjects.

  5. Knowledge attitude and practice regarding diabetes mellitus among Nondiabetic and diabetic study participants in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatema, Kaniz; Hossain, Sharmin; Natasha, Khurshid; Chowdhury, Hasina Akhter; Akter, Jesmin; Khan, Tahmina; Ali, Liaquat

    2017-04-26

    Increased awareness amongst large population groups is a major determinant for the prevention of diabetes and its complications as well as related metabolic disorders. Knowledge and attitude are the principal markers of awareness that need to be studied in various population groups in specific racial and cultural contexts. The present study was undertaken to explore knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) regarding -diabetes mellitus (DM) among nondiabetic (nonDM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in Bangladesh. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 18,697 adults (aged 18 years and above; 7796 male and 10,901 female; 6780 nonDM and 11,917 T2DM) selected purposively from the OPD of 19 healthcare centres in and around Dhaka and in northern parts of Bangladesh. KAP were assessed by a pre-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire and categorised using predefined scores of poor (mean + 1 SD). Univariate and bivariate statistical analysis were done as appropriate. Multivariate linear regression was done to examine the association between diabetes related KAP and other covariates. The mean (±SD) age (years) of all the study participants was 46 ± 14, mean BMI 24.4 ± 4.1 and mean waist-hip ratio (WHR) was 0.93 ± 0.07. The proportion of poor, average and good knowledge scores among T2DM subjects were 17%, 68% and 15% respectively. The corresponding values for attitude score were 23%, 67% and 10% respectively. The KAP regarding diabetes was found to be better among people who were living with diabetes compared to their counterparts. DM males showed better knowledge and practice regarding diabetes, compared to nonDM counterparts (M ± SD; 44.18 ± 16.13 vs 40.88 ± 15.62, p = knowledge scores correlated strongly with education, income, residence, diabetic state, BMI and attitude. The overall level of knowledge and practice concerning diabetes among Bangladeshi population is average, but the overall level of attitude is good both in

  6. Study methodology and diabetes control in patients from the non-English diabetes management project (NEDMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirani, Mohamed; Dang, Trung M; Xie, Jing; Gnanasekaran, Sivashanth; Nicolaou, Theona; Rees, Gwyneth; Fenwick, Eva; Lamoureux, Ecosse L

    2017-03-01

    To describe the clinical characteristics of non-English speaking patients from the Diabetes Management Project (NEDMP), and compare their diabetes management and severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR) with the English-speaking DMP sample (EDMP). A prospective study was conducted on non-English speaking adults with diabetes who attended the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital. 136 (90.1%) non-English speaking adults were assessed, with a mean age of 72.2 years (range: 50-88 years); 74 (54.4%) were male. Participants completed interviewer-administered questionnaires and underwent visual acuity, fundus photography, optical coherence tomography, biochemistry and anthropometric measurements. The EDMP assessed 609 patients in 2009 using a similar protocol. Type and duration of diabetes, diabetes control and diabetic retinopathy. A total of 127 (93.4%) and 8 (5.9%) participants reported having type 2 and type 1 diabetes, respectively, with a median (IQR) duration of 17 (14) years. The proportion of patients with poor diabetes control (HbA1c ≥ 7%) in the NEDMP was similar to the EDMP (64.0% and 68.2%, respectively; P = 0.411). A significantly higher proportion of patients with DR in the NEDMP were found to have poor diabetes control (HbA1c ≥ 7%) compared to those without DR (80.9% vs. 50.0%, P = 0.003). Almost two-thirds of NEDMP patients (74/118) had DR and 23% (27/115) had diabetic macular edema. The prevalence of DR was similar between the NEDMP and EDMP studies, ranging from 25-30% and 28-29%. The clinical characteristics, diabetes control, and DR severity of English and non-English-speaking patients were similar. The high proportion of poor diabetes management in non-English speaking patients with DR suggests educational and behavioural interventions to improve glycaemic control are warranted. © 2016 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  7. Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus: prevalence and genetic diagnosis in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakatti Shankar, Roopa; Pihoker, Catherine; Dolan, Lawrence M; Standiford, Debra; Badaru, Angela; Dabelea, Dana; Rodriguez, Beatriz; Black, Mary Helen; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Hattersley, Andrew; Ellard, Sian; Gilliam, Lisa K

    2013-05-01

    Neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM) is defined as diabetes with onset before 6 months of age. Nearly half of individuals with NDM are affected by permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus (PNDM). Mutations in KATP channel genes (KCNJ11, ABCC8) and the insulin gene (INS) are the most common causes of PNDM. To estimate the prevalence of PNDM among SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth (SEARCH) study participants (2001-2008) and to identify the genetic mutations causing PNDM. SEARCH is a multicenter population-based study of diabetes in youth diabetes before 6 months of age were invited for genetic testing for mutations in the KCNJ11, ABCC8, and INS genes. Of the 15,829 SEARCH participants with diabetes, 39 were diagnosed before 6 months of age. Thirty-five of them had PNDM (0.22% of all diabetes cases in SEARCH), 3 had transient neonatal diabetes that had remitted by 18 months and 1 was unknown. The majority of them (66.7%) had a clinical diagnosis of type1 diabetes by their health care provider. Population prevalence of PNDM in youth US based on the frequency of PNDM in SEARCH. Patients with NDM are often misclassified as having type1 diabetes. Widespread education is essential to encourage appropriate genetic testing and treatment of NDM. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Prediabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and diabetes among Mexican adults: findings from the Mexican Health and Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Wong, Rebeca; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Al Snih, Soham

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the prevalence and determinants of prediabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and diabetes among Mexican adults from a subsample of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. We examined 2012 participants from a subsample of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Measures included sociodemographic characteristics, body mass index, central obesity, medical conditions, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c, and vitamin D. Logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with prediabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and self-reported diabetes. Prevalence of prediabetes, undiagnosed, and self-reported diabetes in this cohort was 44.2%, 18.0%, and 21.4%, respectively. Participants with high waist-hip ratio (1.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-2.45) and high cholesterol (1.85, 95% CI = 1.36-2.51) had higher odds of prediabetes. Overweight (1.68, 95% CI = 1.07-2.64), obesity (2.38, 95% CI = 1.41-4.02), and high waist circumference (1.60, 95% CI = 1.06-2.40) were significantly associated with higher odds of having undiagnosed diabetes. Those residing in a Mexican state with high U.S. migration had lower odds of prediabetes (0.61, 95% CI = 0.45-0.82) and undiagnosed diabetes (0.53, 95% CI = 0.41-0.70). Those engaged in regular physical activity had lower odds of undiagnosed diabetes (0.74, 95% CI = 0.57-0.97). There is a high prevalence of prediabetes and undiagnosed diabetes among Mexican adults in this subsample. Findings suggest the need for resources to prevent, identify, and treat persons with prediabetes and undiagnosed diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Frequency of diabetic retinopathy in karachi, pakistan: a hospital based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkhairy, S.; Rasheed, A.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in diabetes patients presenting to the National Institute of Diabetes and Eye out patient department of Dow University Hospital (Ohja campus), Dow University of Health Sciences. Materials and Methods: This was a cross sectional study in which known diabetics were recruited between the period of 1st July 2011 till 31st July 2012.They were then referred to the Ophthalmology unit for eye examination. Subjective refraction was done with Snellens chart, anterior segment examination and fundus examined was done using a TopCon PS-61E Slit lamp BioMicroscope. All patients were dilated with eye drop tropicamide 1% instilled every ten minutes for thirty minutes and the fundus was examined with Volk 90D lens. Classification of diabetic retinopathy was done using the International clinical diabetic retinopathy disease severity scale study. The data was analyzed using Statistical package for social Science (SPSS version 20) and a p value of < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: There were a total number of 570 patients included in this study. Amongst them 325 were males and 245 were females. Out of these patients those that who were found to have diabetic retinopathy were 315 (55.3%).The age range was between 25 and 75 years and the mean age was 52.30 ± 9.333.Patients that were found to have mild non proliferative diabetic retinopathy were 231(40.5% ) while 33 (5.8%) had moderate non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy,11(1.9%) had severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy and 40 (7.0)% had proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic Maculopathy was seen in a total number of 72(12.6%) of patients. Conclusions: Diabetic retinopathy is highly prevalent in Karachi, Pakistan thus it is vital to detect as well as manage the disease early so as to prevent the onset of blindness in relation to it. (author)

  10. DreamTel; Diabetes risk evaluation and management tele-monitoring study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobe, Sheldon W; Wentworth, Joan; Ironstand, Laurie; Hartman, Susan; Hoppe, Jackie; Whiting, Judi; Kennedy, Janice; McAllister, Colin; Kiss, Alex; Perkins, Nancy; Vincent, Lloyd; Pylypchuk, George; Lewanczuk, Richard Z

    2009-05-09

    The rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes underlines the importance of secondary strategies for the prevention of target organ damage. While access to diabetes education centers and diabetes intensification management has been shown to improve blood glucose control, these services are not available to all that require them, particularly in rural and northern areas. The provision of these services through the Home Care team is an advance that can overcome these barriers. Transfer of blood glucose data electronically from the home to the health care provider may improve diabetes management. The study population will consist of patients with type 2 diabetes with uncontrolled A1c levels living on reserve in the Battlefords region of Saskatchewan, Canada. This pilot study will take place over three phases. In the first phase over three months the impact of the introduction of the Bluetooth enabled glucose monitor will be assessed. In the second phase over three months, the development of guidelines based treatment algorithms for diabetes intensification will be completed. In the third phase lasting 18 months, study subjects will have diabetes intensification according to the algorithms developed. The first phase will determine if the use of the Bluetooth enabled blood glucose devices which can transmit results electronically will lead to changes in A1c levels. It will also determine the feasibility of recruiting subjects to use this technology. The rest of the Diabetes Risk Evaluation and Management Tele-monitoring (DreamTel) study will determine if the delivery of a diabetes intensification management program by the Home Care team supported by the Bluetooth enabled glucose meters leads to improvements in diabetes management. Protocol NCT00325624.

  11. Diabetes and necrotizing soft tissue infections-A prospective observational cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosén, A; Arnell, P; Madsen, M B

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs) are rare but carry a high morbidity and mortality. The multicenter INFECT project aims to improve the understanding of the pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and prognosis of NSTIs. This article describes the study outline and...... with diabetes type 1 and 2 as well as between insulin-treated and non-insulin-treated diabetes patients will be made. Clinical data for diabetic patients with NSTI will be reported. CONCLUSION: The study will provide important data on patients with NSTI and diabetes....

  12. The DISC (Diabetes in Social Context Study-evaluation of a culturally sensitive social network intervention for diabetic patients in lower socioeconomic groups: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vissenberg Charlotte

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compared to those in higher socioeconomic groups, diabetic patients in lower socioeconomic groups have less favourable metabolic control and experience more diabetes-related complications. They encounter specific barriers that hinder optimal diabetes self-management, including a lack of social support and other psychosocial mechanisms in their immediate social environments. Powerful Together with Diabetes is a culturally sensitive social network intervention specifically targeted to ethnic Dutch, Moroccan, Turkish, and Surinamese diabetic patients in lower socioeconomic groups. For ten months, patients will participate in peer support groups in which they will share experiences, support each other in maintaining healthy lifestyles, and learn skills to resist social pressure. At the same time, their significant others will also receive an intervention, aimed at maximizing support for and minimizing the negative social influences on diabetes self-management. This study aims to test the effectiveness of Powerful Together with Diabetes. Methods/Design We will use a quasi-experimental design with an intervention group (Group 1 and two comparison groups (Groups 2 and 3, N = 128 in each group. Group 1 will receive Powerful Together with Diabetes. Group 2 will receive Know your Sugar, a six-week group intervention that does not focus on the participants' social environments. Group 3 receives standard care only. Participants in Groups 1 and 2 will be interviewed and physically examined at baseline, 3, 10, and 16 months. We will compare their haemoglobin A1C levels with the haemoglobin A1C levels of Group 3. Main outcome measures are haemoglobin A1C, diabetes-related quality of life, diabetes self-management, health-related, and intermediate outcome measures. We will conduct a process evaluation and a qualitative study to gain more insights into the intervention fidelity, feasibility, and changes in the psychosocial mechanism in the

  13. How Adolescents with Diabetes Experience Social Support from Friends: Two Qualitative Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louk W. H. Peters

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-management of diabetes is challenging, especially for adolescents who face multiple changes, including closer peer relationships. Few studies have explored how friends can provide constructive support in this effort. The present research investigated, in two qualitative studies, the perceptions of adolescents with diabetes and their friends with respect to the positive social support that friends can offer. In study 1, 28 adolescents aged 12–15 with type 1 diabetes participated in online focus groups. In study 2, 11 of these adolescents were interviewed in person together with their best friends. The data were analysed by means of content analysis. In study 1, the adolescents with diabetes identified various supportive behaviours of friends, particularly concerning emotional support: treating them normally, showing interest, having fun, providing a distraction, and taking their diabetes into account. They differed in their attitude towards support, and this influenced which behaviours they perceived as supportive. Study 2 showed that the adolescents with diabetes and their friends often had similar opinions on the desired degree of support. Fear of stigmatization and sense of autonomy withheld some adolescents with diabetes from soliciting more support. These insights can be useful in patient education aiming to promote social support.

  14. Diabetes and cardiometabolic risk factors in Cambodia: Results from two screening studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Julie; Naranjo, Diana; Khun, Touch; Seng, Serey; Horn, Ien S; Suttiratana, Sakinah C; Keuky, Lim

    2018-02-01

    Despite growing attention to diabetes throughout Asia, data from Southeast Asia are limited. This article reports rates of diabetes, hypertension, and obesity in Cambodia. Two studies were conducted across different regions of Cambodia: (i) a 2012 screening study across urban, semi-urban, and rural areas that used point-of-care capillary glucose for determination of diabetes (n = 13 997); and (ii) a 2005 epidemiological study with random selection from two main urban areas that used oral glucose tolerance tests for determination of diabetes (n = 1863). Blood pressure and anthropometrics were also measured. In the screening study, rates of diabetes were significantly higher in urban than rural sites, with intermediate rates in semi-urban areas. There was a significant dose-response effect for urbanicity on overweight, obesity, and waist:hip ratio, with higher rates for urban versus semi-urban and for semi-urban versus rural locales. Rural sites had the lowest rates of hypertension, followed by urban and semi-urban sites. Among people who screened positive for diabetes, there was a dose-response effect for urbanicity on undiagnosed diabetes; rates of previously undiagnosed diabetes were lowest in urban (51%), followed by semi-urban (55%) and rural (67%) locales. Rural participants reported the highest rates of smoking and alcohol use. In the urban epidemiological study, prevalence rates of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance were approximately 10%, indicating a prevalence of total glucose intolerance of approximately 20%. In Cambodia, diabetes rates are high among urban residents and undiagnosed diabetes is highest among rural residents. A country-wide public health response is urgently needed; as development continues, rates of diabetes are expected to rise. © 2017 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. STUDY ON KAP OF OCULAR COMPLICATIONS DUE TO DIABETES AMONG TYPE II DIABETICS VISITING A TERTIARY TEACHING HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Koshy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is a major public health problem worldwide. Diabetic patients are at risk of developing blindness from diabetic retinopathy. While occurrence of diabetic retinopathy cannot be prevented, its complications can be minimized. This requires awareness of the sight-threatening potential of diabetes and the need for regular eye examinations. Aim: To study the knowledge of ocular complications of diabetes, among type II diabetics visiting a tertiary level hospital. Settings and Design: This was a prospective study in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Methods and Material: This was a questionnaire based study on 350 type II diabetics. All patients were interviewed by the same investigator. Statistical analysis used: The data was analysed using chi square test. Results: With increase in the duration of illness, the awareness about diabetic retinopathy is more. Even though the awareness of the disease increased with increasing duration of the disease, 51.4% of the diabetics did not know how diabetes can affect the eye, 49.7% of diabetics did not know if diabetic retinopathy can be treated and 67.4% had not heard of any treatment modality for diabetic retinopathy. This shows that lack of knowledge about the disease was significant. Conclusions: Prevention of non-communicable disease through increased awareness needs to be the thrust of the effort in resource poor contexts, where the treatment can be prohibitively costly. These measures would help to bring about more awareness and understanding about the disease among the patients and therefore prevent sight-threatening complications by timely intervention and management.

  16. Diabetic retinopathy in pregnancy: a population-based study of women with pregestational diabetes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Egan, Aoife M

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this observational study was to evaluate screening and progression of diabetic retinopathy during pregnancy in women with pregestational diabetes attending five antenatal centres along the Irish Atlantic seaboard. An adequate frequency of screening was defined as at least two retinal evaluations in separate trimesters. Progression was defined as at least one stage of deterioration of diabetic retinopathy and\\/or development of diabetic macular edema on at least one eye. Women with pregestational diabetes who delivered after 22 gestational weeks (n = 307) were included. In total, 185 (60.3%) had an adequate number of retinal examinations. Attendance at prepregnancy care was associated with receiving adequate screening (odds ratio 6.23; CI 3.39-11.46 (P < 0.001)). Among those who received adequate evaluations (n = 185), 48 (25.9%) had retinopathy progression. Increasing booking systolic blood pressure (OR 1.03, CI 1.01-1.06, P = 0.02) and greater drop in HbA1c between first and third trimesters of pregnancy (OR 2.05, CI 1.09-3.87, P = 0.03) significantly increased the odds of progression. A significant proportion of women continue to demonstrate retinopathy progression during pregnancy. This study highlights the role of prepregnancy care and the importance of close monitoring during pregnancy and identifies those patients at the highest risk for retinopathy progression.

  17. Fruit and vegetable intake and pre-diabetes: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safabakhsh, Maryam; Koohdani, Fariba; Bagheri, Fariba; Siassi, Fereydoun; Khajehnasiri, Farahnaz; Sotoudeh, Gity

    2017-12-04

    Few studies have evaluated the association of fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and pre-diabetes. However, these studies are very limited and incomplete. Therefore, the aim of our study was to compare FV consumption and their subgroups between pre-diabetic and control subjects. This case-control study included 300 individuals, 150 subjects with normal fasting blood glucose (FBG), and 150 pre-diabetic subjects who were matched for sex and age. We collected the participants' anthropometric and physical activity data and measured their blood glucose level. A 168 items semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used for estimating the FV intake. After adjustment for confounding variables, participants in the lower quartiles of FV and total fruit intake were more likely to experience pre-diabetes compared with those in the higher quartiles (p trend < 0.007). In addition, cruciferous vegetables, other vegetables, and berries were inversely associated with pre-diabetes (p < 0.05), although a distinct dose-response relationship was not found. Unexpectedly, higher intake of dark yellow vegetables was significantly associated with a higher chance of pre-diabetes (p trend = 0.006). Other vegetable and fruit subgroups did not show any significant relationship with this disorder. Our findings suggest that higher intake of total FV and total fruits might be associated with lower odds ratio of pre-diabetes.

  18. DreamTel; Diabetes risk evaluation and management tele-monitoring study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiss Alex

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes underlines the importance of secondary strategies for the prevention of target organ damage. While access to diabetes education centers and diabetes intensification management has been shown to improve blood glucose control, these services are not available to all that require them, particularly in rural and northern areas. The provision of these services through the Home Care team is an advance that can overcome these barriers. Transfer of blood glucose data electronically from the home to the health care provider may improve diabetes management. Methods and design The study population will consist of patients with type 2 diabetes with uncontrolled A1c levels living on reserve in the Battlefords region of Saskatchewan, Canada. This pilot study will take place over three phases. In the first phase over three months the impact of the introduction of the Bluetooth enabled glucose monitor will be assessed. In the second phase over three months, the development of guidelines based treatment algorithms for diabetes intensification will be completed. In the third phase lasting 18 months, study subjects will have diabetes intensification according to the algorithms developed. Discussion The first phase will determine if the use of the Bluetooth enabled blood glucose devices which can transmit results electronically will lead to changes in A1c levels. It will also determine the feasibility of recruiting subjects to use this technology. The rest of the Diabetes Risk Evaluation and Management Tele-monitoring (DreamTel study will determine if the delivery of a diabetes intensification management program by the Home Care team supported by the Bluetooth enabled glucose meters leads to improvements in diabetes management. Trial Registration Protocol NCT00325624

  19. Strategies for improving participation in diabetes education. A qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar Schäfer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Diabetes mellitus is highly prevalent and can lead to serious complications and mortality. Patient education can help to avoid negative outcomes, but up to half of the patients do not participate. The aim of this study was to analyze patients' attitudes towards diabetes education in order to identify barriers to participation and develop strategies for better patient education. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative study. Seven GP practices were purposively selected based on socio-demographic data of city districts in Hamburg, Germany. Study participants were selected by their GPs in order to increase participation. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 14 patients. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. The sample size was determined by data saturation. Data were analysed by qualitative content analysis. Categories were determined deductively and inductively. RESULTS: The interviews yielded four types of barriers: 1 Statements and behaviour of the attending physician influence the patients' decisions about diabetes education. 2 Both, a good state of health related to diabetes and physical/psychosocial comorbidity can be reasons for non-participation. 3 Manifold motivational factors were discussed. They ranged from giving low priority to diabetes to avoidance of implications of diabetes education as being confronted with illness narratives of others. 4 Barriers also include aspects of the patients' knowledge and activity. CONCLUSIONS: First, physicians should encourage patients to participate in diabetes education and argue that they can profit even if actual treatment and examination results are promising. Second, patients with other priorities, psychic comorbidity or functional limitations might profit more from continuous individualized education adapted to their specific situation instead of group education. Third, it might be justified that patients do not participate in diabetes education if

  20. Strategies for improving participation in diabetes education. A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Ingmar; Pawels, Marc; Küver, Claudia; Pohontsch, Nadine Janis; Scherer, Martin; van den Bussche, Hendrik; Kaduszkiewicz, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is highly prevalent and can lead to serious complications and mortality. Patient education can help to avoid negative outcomes, but up to half of the patients do not participate. The aim of this study was to analyze patients' attitudes towards diabetes education in order to identify barriers to participation and develop strategies for better patient education. We conducted a qualitative study. Seven GP practices were purposively selected based on socio-demographic data of city districts in Hamburg, Germany. Study participants were selected by their GPs in order to increase participation. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 14 patients. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. The sample size was determined by data saturation. Data were analysed by qualitative content analysis. Categories were determined deductively and inductively. The interviews yielded four types of barriers: 1) Statements and behaviour of the attending physician influence the patients' decisions about diabetes education. 2) Both, a good state of health related to diabetes and physical/psychosocial comorbidity can be reasons for non-participation. 3) Manifold motivational factors were discussed. They ranged from giving low priority to diabetes to avoidance of implications of diabetes education as being confronted with illness narratives of others. 4) Barriers also include aspects of the patients' knowledge and activity. First, physicians should encourage patients to participate in diabetes education and argue that they can profit even if actual treatment and examination results are promising. Second, patients with other priorities, psychic comorbidity or functional limitations might profit more from continuous individualized education adapted to their specific situation instead of group education. Third, it might be justified that patients do not participate in diabetes education if they have slightly increased blood sugar values only and no

  1. Outcomes in type 1 diabetic pregnancies: a nationwide, population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte; Damm, Peter; Moelsted-Pedersen, Lars

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare pregnancy outcomes in type 1 diabetic pregnancies with the background population.......The aim of this study was to compare pregnancy outcomes in type 1 diabetic pregnancies with the background population....

  2. Association between diabetes and causes of dementia: Evidence from a clinicopathological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Niures Pimentel dos Santos Matioli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Background: Diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for dementia, especially for vascular dementia (VaD, but there is no consensus on diabetes as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD and other causes of dementia. Objective: To explore the association between diabetes and the neuropathological etiology of dementia in a large autopsy study. Methods: Data were collected from the participants of the Brain Bank of the Brazilian Aging Brain Study Group between 2004 and 2015. Diagnosis of diabetes was reported by the deceased's next-of-kin. Clinical dementia was established when CDR ≥ 1 and IQCODE > 3.41. Dementia etiology was determined by neuropathological examination using immunohistochemistry. The association of diabetes with odds of dementia was investigated using multivariate logistic regression. Results: We included 1,037 subjects and diabetes was present in 279 participants (27%. The prevalence of dementia diagnosis was similar in diabetics (29% and non-diabetics (27%. We found no association between diabetes and dementia (OR = 1.22; 95%CI = 0.81-1.82; p = 0.34 on the multivariate analysis. AD was the main cause of dementia in both groups, while VaD was the second-most-frequent cause in diabetics. Other mixed dementia was the second-most-common cause of dementia and more frequent among non-diabetics (p = 0.03. Conclusion: Diabetes was not associated with dementia in this large clinicopathological study.

  3. Analysis of cognitive disorders in older people with diabetes – preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Kozieł

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Diabetes is a growing public health problem. Epidemiological studies indicate that the disease shortens life and significantly deteriorates its quality. The impact of diabetes on physical health of patients is well documented, but its impact on cognitive abilities has not been studied in detail so far. The deficit of reports regarding this problem among Polish researchers was an inspiration to start new studies. Aim of the research: To evaluate mild cognitive disorders in elderly patients with diabetes. Material and methods: The study was conducted in 2015. The study group included 7 elderly people with type 2 diabetes for more than 10 years. The control group consisted of 7 individuals of the same age without diabetes. The research tool was a self-made questionnaire to examine the cognitive abilities. An analysis of cognitive functions such as short-term memory, performing analysis and synthesis processes, understanding and creating metaphorical examples, narration and performing metalinguistic operations was performed. Results : Differences in cognitive functioning in the field of the studied variables were observed between examined groups. Elderly people with diabetes achieved significantly lower scores in all examined cognitive functions than healthy respondents. Conclusions : Elderly patients with type 2 diabetes are particularly susceptible to mild cognitive impairment. It is necessary to take this group of patients under diagnosis and early secondary prevention in order to prevent the negative impact of the disease.

  4. Comparing the oral health status of diabetic and non-diabetic children from Puerto Rico: a case-control pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López del Valle, Lydia M; Ocasio-López, Carlos

    2011-09-01

    Children with type 1 diabetes have infrequently been the subjects of studies examining oral health status (caries and gingival diseases); in addition, no study of this type has ever been on Puerto Rican children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the oral health status of Puerto Rican children (ranging in age from 6 to 12 years) either with or without type 1 diabetes and compare the two groups with regard to that status. This was a matched case-control study. A convenience sample of 25 children with type 1 diabetes (cases) and 25 non-diabetic children (controls), all ranging in age from 6 to 12 years and matched by age and gender, was evaluated by a calibrated dentist for caries, bleeding on probing, and plaque and calculus indexes. A sample of saliva was taken from each subject and analyzed to determine Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus counts. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test, and t-test were used to describe and assess the data. We used the caries index to evaluate the teeth of the children participating in our study; we found significant differences in the number of lesions in the permanent teeth of diabetic children compared to the number found in the permanent teeth of non-diabetic children (1.43 and 0.56, respectively; p = 0.05). The mean number of sites of bleeding on probing for diabetic children was 23.9; for non-diabetic children it was 4.2. Diabetic children had more plaque than did the control children (plaque index = 2.5 vs. 0.8; p = 0.007) and more bleeding on probing (p = 0.001). High levels of glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetic children were statistically significantly associated with a greater number of sites with bleeding on probing. Diabetic children are at higher risk for caries and gum disease than are non-diabetic children.

  5. Study design of DIACORE (DIAbetes COhoRtE – a cohort study of patients with diabetes mellitus type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörhöfer Lena

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2 is highly associated with increased risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD, end stage renal disease (ESRD and cardiovascular morbidity. Epidemiological and genetic studies generate hypotheses for innovative strategies in DM2 management by unravelling novel mechanisms of diabetes complications, which is essential for future intervention trials. We have thus initiated the DIAbetes COhoRtE study (DIACORE. Methods DIACORE is a prospective cohort study aiming to recruit 6000 patients of self-reported Caucasian ethnicity with prevalent DM2 for at least 10 years of follow-up. Study visits are performed in University-based recruiting clinics in Germany using standard operating procedures. All prevalent DM2 patients in outpatient clinics surrounding the recruiting centers are invited to participate. At baseline and at each 2-year follow-up examination, patients are subjected to a core phenotyping protocol. This includes a standardized online questionnaire and physical examination to determine incident micro- and macrovascular DM2 complications, malignancy and hospitalization, with a primary focus on renal events. Confirmatory outcome information is requested from patient records. Blood samples are obtained for a centrally analyzed standard laboratory panel and for biobanking of aliquots of serum, plasma, urine, mRNA and DNA for future scientific use. A subset of the cohort is subjected to extended phenotyping, e.g. sleep apnea screening, skin autofluorescence measurement, non-mydriatic retinal photography and non-invasive determination of arterial stiffness. Discussion DIACORE will enable the prospective evaluation of factors involved in DM2 complication pathogenesis using high-throughput technologies in biosamples and genetic epidemiological studies.

  6. A Multi-Center Diabetes Eye Screening Study in Community Settings: Study Design and Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchison, Ann P; Friedman, David S; Gower, Emily W; Haller, Julia A; Lam, Byron L; Lee, David J; McGwin, Gerald; Owsley, Cynthia; Saaddine, Jinan; Insight Study Group

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is the leading cause of new cases of blindness among adults aged 20-74 years within the United States. The Innovative Network for Sight Research group (INSIGHT) designed the Diabetic Eye Screening Study (DESS) to examine the feasibility and short-term effectiveness of non-mydriatic diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening for adults with diabetes in community-based settings. Study enrollment began in December 2011 at four sites: an internal medicine clinic at a county hospital in Birmingham, Alabama; a Federally-qualified community healthcare center in Miami-Dade County, Florida; a university-affiliated outpatient pharmacy in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and a medical home in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. People 18 years or older with previously diagnosed diabetes were offered free DR screening using non-mydriatic retinal photography that was preceded by a brief questionnaire addressing demographic information and previous eye care use. Visual acuity was also measured for each eye. Images were evaluated at a telemedicine reading center by trained evaluators using the National Health System DR grading classification. Participants and their physicians were sent screening report results and telephoned for a follow-up survey 3 months post-screening to determine whether participants had sought follow-up comprehensive eye care and their experiences with the screening process. Target enrollment at each site was a minimum of 500 persons. Three of the four sites met this enrollment goal. The INSIGHT/DESS is intended to establish the feasibility and short-term effectiveness of DR screening using non-mydriatic retinal photography in persons with diabetes who seek services in community-based clinic and pharmacy settings.

  7. Vejle Diabetes Biobank - a resource for studies of the etiologies of diabetes and its comorbidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Eva Rabing Brix; Nielsen, Aneta Aleksandra; Christensen, Henry

    2016-01-01

    as numerous original and pertinent bioclinical hypotheses related to human disease etiology and prognosis. The objective of the present study was to present the baseline data, design, and methods used for the establishment of the Vejle Diabetes Biobank. Further aims included assessment of the prevalence...... of diabetes and quality of diabetes treatment in a specified Danish region. METHODS: The Vejle Diabetes Biobank was established from 2007 to 2010 as a regional Biobank containing blood, DNA, and urine samples from patients with diabetes and a gender- and age-matched control population aged 25-75 years...... individuals and 3,320 patients with diabetes were included. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients had a higher body mass index (30 kg/m(2)) than type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients (25 and 26 kg/m(2) in women and men, respectively) and control subjects (25 and 27 kg/m(2) in women and men, respectively). Fasting levels...

  8. HAVE WE DONE ENOUGH WITH DIABETIC EDUCATION? A PILOT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHAIRANI O

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients’ education and empowerment are essential parts of a disease management. Patients have to be educated on the disease as well as lifestyle changes that they need to practise for a holistic and consistent improvement in their disease status. This study examined patients’ knowledge on diabetes and nutrition as well as the role of dietician in the patient education. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of patients aged more than 18 years, in a primary care centre in Kuala Lumpur. Patients responded to a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire which contains socio-demographic profiles of patients, knowledge on diabetes and nutrition. Patients were also asked on dietician consultation and the number of dietician visits. Patients were conveniently selected on the data collection days. Only consented patients and those who could understand Malay or English language were selected. Results: There were 110 patients who participated in the study. Overall the patients had good knowledge on diabetes and nutrition. The mean total knowledge score was 71.2% ± 9.34. Domains such as diabetes complications, exercise, meal practice, food sources and proportion need reinforcement. Only 60 (54.9% patients had seen a dietician. Patients who had seen dietician showed significantly higher level of knowledge score (p=0.04. However frequent meeting with the dietician did not show any significant improvement in the knowledge (p=0.10. Factors such as patients’ gender, ethnicity, level of education, employment status, glycaemic level, duration of illness and body mass index did not show any significant association with the overall diabetic and nutrition knowledge. Conclusion: There is still a need to improve the overall diabetic education particularly in areas that patients were lacking such as diabetes complications, exercise, meal practice, food sources and proportion. It is equally necessary to encourage all diabetics to see a dietician

  9. Comparative study on calcium, magnesium and cobalt in diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative study on calcium, magnesium and cobalt in diabetic and non diabetic patients (males) in Punjab, Pakistan. A Anjum, M Yousaf, M Zuber, HB Ahmad, AF Zahoor, ZI Khan, K Ahmad, S Naheed, KG Ali, A Jabbar, TH Bukhari, S Hina, S Ahmad, MK Mukhtar, M Arshad, A Hussain ...

  10. Statins and New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetic Complications: A Retrospective Cohort Study of US Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansi, Ishak; Frei, Christopher R; Wang, Chen-Pin; Mortensen, Eric M

    2015-11-01

    Statin use is associated with increased incidence of diabetes and possibly with increased body weight and reduced exercise capacity. Data on the long-term effects of these associations in healthy adults, however, are very limited. In addition, the relationship between these effects and diabetic complications has not been adequately studied. To examine the association between statin use and new-onset diabetes, diabetic complications, and overweight/obesity in a cohort of healthy adults. This was a retrospective cohort study. Subjects were Tricare beneficiaries who were evaluated between October 1, 2003 and March 1, 2012. Patients were divided into statin users and nonusers. We excluded patients who, at baseline, had a preexisting disease indicative of cardiovascular diseases, any positive element of the Charlson comorbidity index (including diabetes mellitus), or life-limiting chronic diseases. Using 42 baseline characteristics, we generated a propensity score to match statin users and nonusers. Outcomes assessed included new-onset diabetes, diabetic complications, and overweight/obesity. A total of 25,970 patients (3982 statin users and 21,988 nonusers) were identified as healthy adults at baseline. Of these, 3351 statins users and 3351 nonusers were propensity score-matched. Statin users had higher odds of new-onset diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 1.87; 95 % confidence interval [95 % CI] 1.67-2.01), diabetes with complications (OR 2.50; 95 % CI 1.88-3.32), and overweight/obesity (OR 1.14; 95 % CI 1.04-1.25). Secondary and sensitivity analyses demonstrated similar findings. Diabetes, diabetic complications, and overweight/obesity were more commonly diagnosed among statin-users than similar nonusers in a healthy cohort of adults. This study demonstrates that short-term clinical trials might not fully describe the risk/benefit of long-term statin use for primary prevention.

  11. Social and economic impact of diabetics in Bangladesh: protocol for a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariful Islam, Sheikh Mohammed; Lechner, Andreas; Ferrari, Uta; Froeschl, Guenter; Niessen, Louis W; Seissler, Jochen; Alam, Dewan Shamsul

    2013-12-21

    Diabetes affects both individuals and their families and has an impact on economic and social development of a country. Information on the availability, cost, and quality of medical care for diabetes is mostly not available for many low- and middle-income countries including Bangladesh. Complications from diabetes, which can be devastating, could largely be prevented by wider use of several inexpensive generic medicines, simple tests and monitoring and can be a cost saving intervention. This study will provide an in-depth and comprehensive picture of social and economic impacts of diabetes in Bangladesh and propose clear recommendations for improving prevention and management of diabetes. The objectives of the study are: 1) To study the association between diabetes and other health problems and its social impacts. 2) To estimate the economic impact of diabetes including total direct and indirect costs. 3) To measure the impact of diabetes on quality of life among diabetes patients in Bangladesh. 4) To study the impact of diabetes on the health care system This is a case-control study comparing cases with type 2 diabetes to controls without diabetes matched on age, sex and place of residence. 564 cases and 564 controls will be selected from the outpatient department of a tertiary hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data on socioeconomic status, health utility index, direct and indirect costs for diabetes, medication adherence, quality of life, treatment satisfaction, diet, physical activity, mental state examination, weight, height, hip and waist circumference, blood pressure, pulse, medication history, laboratory data and physical examination will be conducted. The primary outcome measures will be association between diabetes and other health problems, cost of diabetes, impact of diabetes on quality of life and secondary outcome measures are impact of diabetes on healthcare systems in Bangladesh. This study will provide an in-depth and comprehensive picture of social

  12. Ethnic differences in prediabetes and diabetes in the Suriname Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnadath, Ingrid S K; Nahar-van Venrooij, Lenny M; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Toelsie, Jerry R

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is increasing worldwide, and information on risk factors to develop targeted interventions is limited. Therefore, we analyzed data of the Suriname Health Study to estimate the prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes. We also explored whether ethnic differences in prediabetes or diabetes risk could be explained by biological, demographic, lifestyle, anthropometric, and metabolic risk factors. The study was designed according to the WHO Steps guidelines. Fasting blood glucose levels were measured in 3393 respondents, aged 15-65 years, from an Amerindian, Creole, Hindustani, Javanese, Maroon or Mixed ethnic background. Prediabetes was defined by fasting blood glucose levels between 6.1 and 7.0 mmol/L and diabetes by fasting blood glucose levels ≥7.0 mmol/L or 'self-reported diabetes medication use.' For all ethnicities, we analyzed sex, age, marital status, educational level, income status, employment, smoking status, residence, physical activity, body mass index, waist circumference, hypertension, and the levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. The prevalence of prediabetes was 7.4%, while that of diabetes was 13 0%. From these diabetes cases, 39.6% were not diagnosed previously. No ethnic differences were observed in the prevalence of prediabetes. For diabetes, Hindustanis (23.3%) had twice the prevalence compared to other ethnic groups (4.7-14.2%). The associations of the risk factors with prediabetes or diabetes varied among the ethnic groups. The differences in the associations of ethnic groups with prediabetes or diabetes were partly explained by these risk factors. The prevalence of diabetes in Suriname is high and most elevated in Hindustanis. The observed variations in risk factors among ethnic groups might explain the ethnic differences between these groups, but follow-up studies are needed to explore this in more depth.

  13. Rationale and protocol of a trial for prevention of diabetic atherosclerosis by using antiplatelet drugs: study of Diabetic Atherosclerosis Prevention by Cilostazol (DAPC study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawamori Ryuzo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secondary treatment of arteriosclerosis may be applicable for the primary prevention of atherosclerosis in diabetic patients. This prospective, 2-year follow-up study was designed to determine the efficacy and safety of antiplatelet therapy in the prevention of atherosclerosis of diabetic subjects. Methods Patients with type 2 diabetes and arteriosclerosis obliterans from the Eastern Asian countries were registered online and randomly assigned either to the aspirin group (81–100 mg/day or the cilostazol group (100–200 mg/day in this international, 2-year, prospective follow-up interventional study. Results The primary study endpoint was changes in right and left maximum intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery. Secondary endpoints include changes in right and left maximum intima-media thickness of the internal carotid artery; semiquantitative evaluation of cerebral infarction by magnetic resonance imaging; cardiovascular events including sudden death, stroke, transient cerebral ischemic attacks, acute myocardial infarction, angina, and progression of arteriosclerosis obliterans; overall death; withdrawal; and change in ankle-brachial pressure index. Conclusion This is the first study to use an online system that was developed in Asian countries for pooling data from an international clinical trial. These findings are expected to help in the prevention of diabetic atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease.

  14. Gestational diabetes insipidus: a morphological study of the placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglione, F; Buccoliero, A M; Garbini, F; Gheri, C F; Moncini, D; Poggi, G; Saladino, V; Rossi Degl'Innocenti, D; Gheri, R G; Taddei, G L

    2009-12-01

    Gestational diabetes insipidus (GDI) refers to the state of excessive water intake and hypotonic polyuria. Those cases manifesting in pregnancy and referred to as GDI may persist thereafter or may be a transient latent form that resolves after delivery. Microscopic examination of affected subjects has not been previously reported. In the literature, there are various case reports and case series on diabetes insipidus in pregnancy. In this study, we present a case that had transient diabetes insipidus during pregnancy in which the placenta was examined.

  15. Depression among patients with diabetes: A community-based study in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi S Aminu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Depression is one of the more common mental health conditions found among people suffering from chronic diseases. Its presence in patients with type 2 diabetes could hinder the adherence to and effectiveness of treatment. Most studies on depression among patients with diabetes are hospital-based suggesting the need for a community-based study to assess the correlates of depression among patients with diabetes. Aim: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and to identify the factors influencing depression among patients with type 2 diabetes in Udupi taluk situated in southern India. Subjects and Methods: This study recruited 200 patients with type 2 diabetes from both rural and urban areas. Demographic, clinical, and diabetes-related information were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. Depression was assessed using Patient Health Questionnaire-9; a standardized questionnaire developed in the United States of America and validated in the Indian population. Results: The prevalence of depression among patients with diabetes in the community was found to be 37.5%. Most frequently, depression was mild (42, 21% in nature with severe depression (9, 4.5% seen the least. Several factors were found to be positively associated with depression including female gender, rural residence, unemployment, and the status of being unmarried. The presence of diabetic complications and other chronic diseases such as hypertension and obesity also were found to be associated with depression. Conclusion: Depression was found to be particularly high among the study population. Since depression could significantly hinder patient's adherence to treatment, there is an urgent need for early diagnosis and treatment. This calls for the integration of mental health care into the management of diabetes.

  16. Profile of Nigerians with diabetes mellitus - Diabcare Nigeria study group (2008: Results of a multicenter study

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    Sunday Chinenye

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes Mellitus is the commonest endocrine-metabolic disorder in Nigeria similar to the experience in other parts of the world. The aim was to assess the clinical and laboratory profile, and evaluate the quality of care of Nigerian diabetics with a view to planning improved diabetes care. Materials and Methods: In a multicenter study across seven tertiary health centers in Nigeria, the clinical and laboratory parameters of diabetic out-patients were evaluated. Clinical parameters studied include type of diabetes, anthropometry, and blood pressure (BP status, chronic complications of diabetes, and treatment types. Laboratory data assessed included fasting plasma glucose (FPG, 2-h post-prandial (2-HrPP glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, urinalysis, serum lipids, electrolytes, urea, and creatinine. Results: A total of 531 patients, 209 (39.4% males and 322 (60.6% females enrolled. The mean age of the patients was 57.1 ± 12.3 years with the mean duration of diabetes of 8.8 ± 6.6 years. Majority (95.4% had type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM compared to type 1 DM (4.6%, with P < 0.001. The mean FPG, 2-HrPP glucose, and HbA1c were 8.1 ± 3.9 mmol/L, 10.6 ± 4.6 mmol/L, and 8.3 ± 2.2%, respectively. Only 170 (32.4% and 100 (20.4% patients achieved the ADA and IDF glycemic targets, respectively. Most patients (72.8% did not practice self-monitoring of blood glucose. Hypertension was found in 322 (60.9%, with mean systolic BP 142.0 ± 23.7 mmHg, and mean diastolic BP 80.7 ± 12.7 mmHg. Diabetic complications found were peripheral neuropathy (59.2%, retinopathy (35.5%, cataracts (25.2%, cerebrovascular disease (4.7%, diabetic foot ulcers (16.0%, and nephropathy (3.2%. Conclusion: Most Nigerian diabetics have suboptimal glycemic control, are hypertensives, and have chronic complications of DM. Improved quality of care and treatment to target is recommended to reduce diabetes-related morbidity and mortality.

  17. [Is cancer incidence different between type 2 diabetes patients compared to non-diabetics in hemodialysis? A study from the REIN registry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guillou, Aurélie; Pladys, Adelaide; Kihal, Wahida; Siebert, Muriel; Haddj-Elmrabet, Atman; Cernon, Charlotte; Bernard, Anne; Charasse, Christophe; Mandart, Lise; Hamel, Didier; Tanquerel, Tugdual; Strullu, Bernard; Richer, Christine; Siohan, Pascale; Sawadogo, Théophile; Baleynaud, Juliette; Baluta, Simona; Bayat, Sahar; Vigneau, Cécile

    2018-05-01

    In France, diabetes mellitus is now the second cause of end stage renal disease. In a large previous French national study, we observed that dialyzed diabetics have a significant lower risk of death by cancer. This first study was focused on cancer death but did not investigate cancer incidence. In this context, the aim of this second study was to compare the incidence of cancer in diabetic dialyzed patients compared to non-diabetic dialyzed patients in a French region. This epidemiologic multicentric study included 588 diabetic and non-diabetic patients starting hemodialysis between 2002 and 2007 in Bretagne. Data were issued from REIN registry and cancer incidence were individually collected from medical records. Diabetics and non-diabetics were matched one by one on age, sex and year of dialysis initiation. During the follow-up, we observed 28 cancers (9.4%) in diabetic patients and 26 cancers (8.9%) in non-diabetics patients. The cumulative incidence to develop a cancer 2 years after the dialysis start was approximately 6% in both diabetics and non-diabetics patients. In univariate Fine and Gray analysis, BMI, hemoglobin, statin use had P-value<0.2. However, in the adjusted model, these variables were not significantly associated with cancer incidence. This study lead on a little number of dialyzed patients did not show any significant difference on cancer incidence between diabetic and non-diabetic patients after hemodialysis start. Copyright © 2017 Société francophone de néphrologie, dialyse et transplantation. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. German new onset diabetes in the young incident cohort study: DiMelli study design and first-year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thümer, Leonore; Adler, Kerstin; Bonifacio, Ezio; Hofmann, Frank; Keller, Manfred; Milz, Christine; Munte, Axel; Ziegler, Anette-Gabriele

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes incidence in childhood and youth is increasing worldwide, including autoimmune and non-autoimmune cases. Recent findings suggest that there is a larger than expected proportion of type 2 diabetes in youth, and potential cases of intermediate diabetes phenotypes. Most pediatric diabetes registries focus on type 1 diabetes. Also, there is an absence of reliable data on type 2 diabetes incidence in youth. The DiMelli study aims to establish a diabetes incidence cohort registry of patients in Germany, diagnosed with diabetes mellitus before age 20 years. It will be used to characterize diabetes phenotypes by immunologic, metabolic, and genetic markers. DiMelli will assess the contribution of obesity and socio-demographic factors to the development of diabetes in childhood and youth. Recruitment of patients started in 2009, and is expected to continue at a rate of 250 patients per year. 84% of the 216 patients recruited within the first year were positive for multiple islet autoantibodies, 12% for one islet autoantibody, and 4% were islet autoantibody-negative. Patients with multiple islet autoantibodies were younger and had lower fasting C-peptide levels, compared to islet autoantibody-negative patients (median age 10.0 vs. 14.1 years, p < 0.01). Results from the first year of the study show that DiMelli will help to reveal new knowledge on the etiology of diabetes, and the contribution of genetic predisposition and environmental risk factors to the different types of diabetes.

  19. Adult-Onset Type 1 Diabetes: A Qualitative Study of Decision-Making Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jull, Janet; Witteman, Holly O; Ferne, Judi; Yoganathan, Manosila; Stacey, Dawn

    2016-04-01

    Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease resulting from insulin deficiency and must be carefully managed to prevent serious health complications. Diabetes education and management strategies usually focus on meeting the decision-making needs of children and their families, but little is known about the decisional needs of people with adult-onset type 1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to explore the diabetes-related decision-making needs of people diagnosed with adult-onset type 1 diabetes. An interpretive descriptive qualitative study was conducted. Participants who self-identified as having adult-onset type 1 diabetes were interviewed using a semistructured interview guide. Transcripts were coded to identify needs, supports and barriers using thematic analysis. Participating in the study were 8 adults (2 men, 6 women), ages 33 to 57, with type 1 diabetes for durations of 1 to 20 or more years. Their decision-making needs are summarized in 6 broad themes: 1) people diagnosed with type 1 diabetes are launched into a process of decision-making; 2) being diagnosed with type 1 diabetes means you will always have to make decisions; 3) knowledge is crucial; 4) personal preferences matter; 5) support is critical for decisions about self-care in type 1 diabetes; 6) living with type 1 diabetes means making very individualized decisions about daily life. The findings describe the sudden and ubiquitous nature of type 1 diabetes decision-making and the need to tailor approaches for making care decisions in type 1 diabetes. People diagnosed with adult-onset type 1 diabetes require access to reliable information, support and opportunities for participation in decision-making. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Albuminuria and Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology And Molecular Genetic Study (SN-DREAMS, report 12

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    Rani Padmaja K

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concordance of microalbuminuria and diabetic retinopathy (DR has been well reported in persons with type 1 diabetes; however, for type 2 diabetes, there is paucity of data especially from population-based studies. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of albuminuria (micro - and macroalbuminuria among persons with type 2 diabetes and determine its role as a risk factor for presence and severity of DR. Methods A population-based cross sectional study was conducted in cohort of 1414 subjects with type 2 diabetes from Chennai metropolis. All the subjects underwent comprehensive eye examination including 45 degrees four-field stereoscopic digital photography. DR was clinically graded using Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study scales. A morning urine sample was tested for albuminuria. Subjects were considered to have microalbuminuria, if the urinary albumin excretion was between 30 and 300 mg/24 hours, and macroalbuminuria at more than 300 mg/24 hours. The statistical software used was SPSS for Windows, Chicago, IL. Student t-test for comparing continuous variables, and χ2 test, to compare proportions amongst groups were used. Results The prevalence of microalbuminuria in the study subjects was 15.9% (226/1414, and that of macroalbuminuria, 2.7% (38/1414. Individuals with macroalbuminuria in comparison to micro- or normoalbuminuria showed a greater prevalence of DR (60.5% vs. 31.0% vs. 14.1%, p Conclusions Every 6th individual in the population of type 2 diabetes is likely to have albuminuria. Subjects with microalbuminuria were around 2 times as likely to have DR as those without microalbuminuria, and this risk became almost 6 times in the presence of macroalbuminuria.

  1. Implementing nurse prescribing: a case study in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, Karen; Carey, Nicola; Courtenay, Molly

    2010-03-01

    This paper is a report of a study exploring the views of nurses and team members on the implementation of nurse prescribing in diabetes services. Nurse prescribing is adopted as a means of improving service efficiency, particularly where demand outstretches resources. Although factors that support nurse prescribing have been identified, it is not known how these function within specific contexts. This is important as its uptake and use varies according to mode of prescribing and area of practice. A case study was undertaken in nine practice settings across England where nurses prescribed medicines for patients with diabetes. Thematic analysis was conducted on qualitative data from 31 semi-structured interviews undertaken between 2007 and 2008. Participants were qualified nurse prescribers, administrative staff, physicians and non-nurse prescribers. Nurses prescribed more often following the expansion of nurse independent prescribing rights in 2006. Initial implementation problems had been resolved and few current problems were reported. As nurses' roles were well-established, no major alterations to service provision were required to implement nurse prescribing. Access to formal and informal resources for support and training were available. Participants were accepting and supportive of this initiative to improve the efficiency of diabetes services. The main factors that promoted implementation of nurse prescribing in this setting were the ability to prescribe independently, acceptance of the prescribing role, good working relationships between doctors and nurses, and sound organizational and interpersonal support. The history of established nursing roles in diabetes care, and increasing service demand, meant that these diabetes services were primed to assimilate nurse prescribing.

  2. [Prevalence of the Diabetic Retinopathy and Genetic Factors Significance in the Development of Diabetic Retinopathy in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus type I and II in Slovakia (DIARET SK study). Overview of Actual Findings and Design of the Epidemiological DIARET SK Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krásnik, V; Štefaničková, J; Fabková, J; Bucková, D; Helbich, M

    2015-09-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the second most common microvascular complication and the most common cause of blindness in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Despite the ongoing research, the findings of diabetic retinopathy epidemiological and risk factors are, until now, not consistent. More finding may be revealed by epidemiological studies, consistently mapping DR epidemiology under the current possibilities of investigations and treatment of the DM. DIARET SK Study, with 5 000 enrolled patients with diabetes mellitus in the Slovak Republic, is, until now, the largest epidemiological study to set the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy. The primary aim is to establish the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in patients with diabetes mellitus type I and II, according to the duration of the disease. The secondary aim is to establish prevalence of the different stages of the DR and diabetic macular edema (DME) and analysis of the risk factors influence. Included are patients with DM type I and II regardless to the ocular complications history and the period of DM duration. Each enrolled patient has both complex diabetic and ophthalmic examinations.Projects to establish DR prevalence: Tens of projects concerned with diabetic retinopathy epidemiology with different approaches to establish the prevalence and with different patients population. Results from different studies vary significantly (from 12.3 % to 66.9 %). The results depend on the design of the study and the patients recruitment, used examination methods, specific patients population with regard to the geography, prevalence of risk factors, period of diabetes duration, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) level, blood pressure, and is higher in type I diabetic patients. The most accurate results are from population epidemiological studies with well-controlled patient recruitment and uniform complex examination that are similar to the DIARET SK study. The DIARET SK study represents the largest epidemiological study

  3. REFRACTOMETRY AS A TOOL IN DIABETIC STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, S.; Murthy, V.R.

    2006-01-01

    The refractive index as well as molar refraction, is the true index of purity of substance and plays a vital role in solution chemistry. A small addition of a foreign substance either in solid state of liquid form is going to effect the refractive index. As such the variation of refractive indices in pure glucose solution as a function of concentration is studied in detail and this principle is extended to the study of the refractive indices of urine solution of diabetic patients. The refractive indices are measured by spectrometry and abbe refractometry. A detailed study of variation of refractive indices of urine samples containing different sugar concentrations, of patients of different age groups revealed that the increase in refractive index follows a linear scale and can be explained by the equation, n=no [l+0.00251og (a s)1/4] [l+0.031og0.011C]. These study provided an opportunity to project refractometry as an effective tool in diagnosing the diabetic level of a patient by making use of a simple calibration curve of increment in refractive index ‘Δn, as a function of level of the disease. PMID:22557211

  4. A Danish diabetes risk score for targeted screening: the Inter99 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glümer, Charlotte; Carstensen, Bendix; Sandbaek, Annelli; Lauritzen, Torsten; Jørgensen, Torben; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2004-03-01

    To develop a simple self-administered questionnaire identifying individuals with undiagnosed diabetes with a sensitivity of 75% and minimizing the high-risk group needing subsequent testing. A population-based sample (Inter99 study) of 6,784 individuals aged 30-60 years completed a questionnaire on diabetes-related symptoms and risk factors. The participants underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. The risk score was derived from the first half and validated on the second half of the study population. External validation was performed based on the Danish Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment in People with Screen Detected Diabetes in Primary Care (ADDITION) pilot study. The risk score was developed by stepwise backward multiple logistic regression. The final risk score included age, sex, BMI, known hypertension, physical activity at leisure time, and family history of diabetes, items independently and significantly (Pscreening strategy for type 2 diabetes, decreasing the numbers of subsequent tests and thereby possibly minimizing the economical and personal costs of the screening strategy.

  5. Medication adherence in type 2 diabetes patients: study of patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medication adherence in type 2 diabetes patients: study of patients in ... impact of medication adherence on the clinical outcomes of type 2 diabetes patients at ... the review of case notes of one-hundred and fifty two randomly selected patients.

  6. Clinical study of diabetic dermoangiopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MPS Sawhney

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and twenty three diabetic patients and 100 non- diabetic controls were examined for lesions of diabetic dermoangiopathy. Twenty two (17.9% lesions, while simildr lesions were found in only 2 (2% controls. Age of the patients with opathy was sipifirandy higher than those derm without dermopathy, and it was more common in the fifth to the seventh decade. No statistically siicant relationship could be established with the sex, type, serverity control or duration of diabetes, diatetic neuropathy, larize vessel disease like CAD, PVD or CVA or with metabolic complications of diabetes. However, a higher percentage (59.1% of patients with dermopathy were found to have a poor control of their diabetes as compared to those without microangiopathy (50.7%. Dermopathy was also more common (23% 9 the duration of diabetes was more than 5 years, than if it was less than 5 years (14.1%. The percentage (33.3% of patients with retinopathy having dermopathy. Rubeosis was seen in 4 (3.2% patients.

  7. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in youth with diabetes in USA: the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lenna L; Lawrence, Jean M; Davis, Cralen; Liese, Angela D; Pettitt, David J; Pihoker, Catherine; Dabelea, Dana; Hamman, Richard; Waitzfelder, Beth; Kahn, Henry S

    2010-02-01

    Obesity's association with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is well established, but is less clear with type 1 diabetes (T1DM). We calculated the prevalence of overweight and obesity among diabetic youth in the USA from a six-center, population-based study of racially and ethnically diverse youth with diabetes, and we compared these rates with estimates among nondiabetic youth. Diabetic participants were examined in 2001-2004 for the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study (SEARCH) and nondiabetic participants were examined during the same years of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). 3953 diabetic youth and 7666 nondiabetic youth aged 3-19 yr. Overweight was defined as body mass index (BMI) from the 85th to obesity defined as > or = 95th percentile. Diabetes type was categorized as T1DM or T2DM based on physician diagnosis. Among youth with T2DM, the prevalence of overweight was 10.4% and obesity was 79.4%. Among youth with T1DM, 22.1% were overweight. The prevalence of overweight among youth with T1DM was higher than among those without diabetes overall (22.1% vs. 16.1%) (P obesity rate for T1DM was 12.6% overall (range Non-Hispanic White 10.7%-African-American 20.1%). As expected, most of the youth with T2DM were obese. Youth with T1DM had a higher prevalence of overweight, but not of obesity, than nondiabetic youth. Future studies of obesity among youth with diabetes of all types will further our understanding of the impact of obesity on diabetes both as a risk factor and a comorbidity.

  8. Risk of atrial fibrillation in diabetes mellitus: A nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallisgaard, Jannik L; Schjerning, Anne-Marie; Lindhardt, Tommi B; Procida, Kristina; Hansen, Morten L; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Gislason, Gunnar H

    2016-04-01

    Diabetes has been associated with atrial fibrillation but the current evidence is conflicting. In particular knowledge regarding young diabetes patients and the risk of developing atrial fibrillation is sparse. The aim of our study was to investigate the risk of atrial fibrillation in patients with diabetes compared to the background population in Denmark. Through Danish nationwide registries we included persons above 18 years of age and without prior atrial fibrillation and/or diabetes from 1996 to 2012. The study cohort was divided into a background population without diabetes and a diabetes group. The absolute risk of developing atrial fibrillation was calculated and Poisson regression models adjusted for sex, age and comorbidities were used to calculate incidence rate ratios of atrial fibrillation. The total study cohort included 5,081,087 persons, 4,827,713 (95%) in the background population and 253,374 (5%) in the diabetes group. Incidence rates of atrial fibrillation per 1000 person years were stratified in four age groups from 18 to 39, 40 to 64, 65 to 74 and 75 to 100 years giving incidence rates (95% confidence intervals) of 0.02 (0.02-0.02), 0.99 (0.98-1.01), 8.89 (8.81-8.98) and 20.0 (19.9-20.2) in the background population and 0.13 (0.09-0.20), 2.10 (2.00-2.20), 8.41 (8.10-8.74) and 20.1 (19.4-20.8) in the diabetes group, respectively. The adjusted incidence rate ratios in the diabetes group with the background population as reference were 2.34 (1.52-3.60), 1.52 (1.47-1.56), 1.20 (1.18-1.23) and 0.99 (0.97-1.01) in the four age groups, respectively. Diabetes is an independent risk factor for developing atrial fibrillation/flutter, most pronounced in young diabetes patients. Routine screening for atrial fibrillation/flutter in diabetes patients might be beneficial and have therapeutic implications, especially in younger diabetes patients. Diabetes increases the risk of developing atrial fibrillation and especially young diabetes patients have a high

  9. Association of HCV with diabetes mellitus: an Egyptian case-control study

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    Esmat Gamal G

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The highest Hepatitis C Virus (HCV prevalence in the world occurs in Egypt. Several studies from different parts of the world have found that 13% to 33% of patients with chronic HCV have associated diabetes, mostly type II Diabetes Mellitus (DM. In Egypt the prevalence of DM is 25.4% among HCV patients. Therefore, it is important to identify the magnitude of the problem of diabetes in order to optimize the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Methods The objective of this case-control study was to evaluate the prevalence of DM and other extrahepatic (EH manifestations among patients with different HCV morbidity stages including asymptomatic, chronic hepatic and cirrhotic patients. In this study, 289 HCV patients older than 18 were selected as cases. Also, 289 healthy controls were included. Laboratory investigations including Liver Function tests (LFT and blood glucose level were done. Also serological assays including cryoglobulin profile, rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibody, HCV-PCR were performed. Results Out of 289 HCV cases, 40 (13.84% were diabetic. Out of 289 healthy controls, 12 (4.15% were diabetic. It was found that the diabetic HCV group mean age was [48.1 (± 9.2]. Males and urbanians represented 72.5% and 85% respectively. Lower level of education was manifested in 52.5% and 87.5% were married. In the nondiabetic HCV group mean age was [40.7 (± 10.4]. Males and urbanians represented 71.5% and 655% respectively. secondary and higher level of education was attained in 55.4% and 76.7% were married. Comparing between the diabetic HCV group and the non diabetic HCV group, age, residence and alcohol drinking were the only significant factors affecting the incidence of diabetes between the two groups. There was no significant difference regarding sonar findings although cirrhosis was more prevalent among diabetic HCV cases and the fibrosis score was higher in diabetic HCV patients than among the non diabetic HCV cases

  10. Social and economic impact of diabetics in Bangladesh: protocol for a case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetes affects both individuals and their families and has an impact on economic and social development of a country. Information on the availability, cost, and quality of medical care for diabetes is mostly not available for many low- and middle-income countries including Bangladesh. Complications from diabetes, which can be devastating, could largely be prevented by wider use of several inexpensive generic medicines, simple tests and monitoring and can be a cost saving intervention. This study will provide an in-depth and comprehensive picture of social and economic impacts of diabetes in Bangladesh and propose clear recommendations for improving prevention and management of diabetes. The objectives of the study are: 1) To study the association between diabetes and other health problems and its social impacts 2) To estimate the economic impact of diabetes including total direct and indirect costs 3) To measure the impact of diabetes on quality of life among diabetes patients in Bangladesh 4) To study the impact of diabetes on the health care system Methods This is a case–control study comparing cases with type 2 diabetes to controls without diabetes matched on age, sex and place of residence. 564 cases and 564 controls will be selected from the outpatient department of a tertiary hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data on socioeconomic status, health utility index, direct and indirect costs for diabetes, medication adherence, quality of life, treatment satisfaction, diet, physical activity, mental state examination, weight, height, hip and waist circumference, blood pressure, pulse, medication history, laboratory data and physical examination will be conducted. Outcome measures: The primary outcome measures will be association between diabetes and other health problems, cost of diabetes, impact of diabetes on quality of life and secondary outcome measures are impact of diabetes on healthcare systems in Bangladesh. Discussion This study will provide an

  11. Study the Prevalence of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome in Women with Type 2 Diabetes Referring to Kerman Diabetes Clinic

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    Fatemeh Mirzaie

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a heterogeneous disorder that affects 5-10% of women of reproductive age patients with this syndrome one of the high risk groups for type 2 diabetes mellitus in future. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of PCOS in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials & Methods: One hundred women under 45 years with type 2 diabetes treating with diet or hypoglycemic drugs, referred to Kerman diabetic center in 2005 were identified. Women with galactorrhea or history of thyroid dysfunction were excluded from the study. Data were collected through interview and then data of 92 women were analyzed using t-test and x2. Results: Ninety two women enrolled in the study and 18 cases (19.5% had clinical symptoms of PCOS. The mean of age was 38 years (38.76±5.92 years. The mean age of women with PCOS was 34.89±3.96 and that of normal women was 39.7±5.96 years (P0.05. Conclusion: This study indicated women with type 2 diabetes mellitus had a higher prevalence of polycystic syndrome. Android obesity is associated with the increased risk of type 2 diabetes in women with PCOS.

  12. Study the Prevalence of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome in Women with Type 2 Diabetes Referring to Kerman Diabetes Clinic

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    F. Mirzaie

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a heterogeneous disorder that affects 5-10% of women of reproductive age patients with this syndrome one of the high risk groups for type 2 diabetes mellitus in future. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of PCOS in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials & Methods: One hundred women under 45 years with type 2 diabetes treating with diet or hypoglycemic drugs, referred to Kerman diabetic center in 2005 were identified. Women with galactorrhea or history of thyroid dysfunction were excluded from the study. Data were collected through interview and then data of 92 women were analyzed using t-test and x2. Results: Ninety two women enrolled in the study and 18 cases (19.5% had clinical symptoms of PCOS. The mean of age was 38 years (38.76±5.92 years. The mean age of women with PCOS was 34 and that of normal women was 39 years (P0.05. Conclusion: This study indicated women with type 2 diabetes mellitus had a higher prevalence of polycystic syndrome. Android obesity is associated with the increased risk of type 2 diabetes in women with PCOS.

  13. Resveratrol and diabetes: A critical review of clinical studies.

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    Öztürk, Ebru; Arslan, Ayşe Kübra Karaboğa; Yerer, Mükerrem Betül; Bishayee, Anupam

    2017-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia. The disease results from the defects of insulin secretion and/or action. Resveratrol is a non-flavonoid polyphenol that naturally occurs as phytoalexin. The shell and stem of Vitis vinifera L. (Vitaceae) are the richest source of this compound. In addition to various in vitro and in vivo studies revealing the effectiveness of resveratrol in DM, there are many clinical trials indicating that resveratrol has the potential to benefit in DM patients. The therapeutic action of this compound in relation to diabetes is complex and involves in several beneficial roles. In view of this, clinical studies are necessary to elucidate these roles. In the near future, the use of resveratrol, alone or in combination with current anti-diabetic therapies, might be a conventional approach to effectively manage DM or its complications. This mini-review provides a critical overview of currently available clinical studies examining the effects of resveratrol in DM last decade. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. A STUDY ON CUTANEOUS FUNGAL DISORDERS IN DIABETES MELLITUS

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    Sampath Kumar G

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Skin problems are usually not considered and never attended in diabetics. They are usually neglected and they are only taken note of when they pose problems. Many of these skin problems that go undiagnosed diabetic patients later complicate diabetes and its treatment. The common skin infections that can cause major problems and are associated with increased blood glucose levels and Advanced Glycation Products (AGPs. Skin disorders in diabetics are usually consistent as in the medical literature, but the data is limited with respect to early stage skin disorders in diabetic patients. Awareness is needed for better understanding the importance of skin disorders in diabetes patients for prevention and management. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was done in the Department of Dermatology, Travancore Medical College, Kollam. The study was done from June 2015 to December 2015. Sixty patients were identified and the study was conducted. INCLUSION CRITERIA The patients were known diabetic for at least five years. EXCLUSION CRITERIA Patients who were treated with immune suppressant drugs were not included in the present study. Skin scrapings were taken and were subjected to KOH preparation. The result that was available was taken for statistical analysis. The statistical analysis was done using the latest SPSS software 2015 (California. RESULTS In the present study, maximum number of fungal infections was seen in male sex, which amounted to forty one cases and was as in the female sex the number was nineteen. Out of the forty one male cases, maximum number of cases belonged to age group of forty to sixty years, which amounted to sixteen cases followed by age group sixty to eighty years, which amounted to fourteen cases followed by twenty to forty years, which amounted to seven cases. Age group zero to twenty years and age group of more than eighty years amounted to two cases each. In cases of females, age group forty to sixty years had maximum

  15. Nutritional determinants of worldwide diabetes: an econometric study of food markets and diabetes prevalence in 173 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David; McKee, Martin; Galea, Gauden

    2013-01-01

    Ageing and urbanization leading to sedentary lifestyles have been the major explanations proposed for a dramatic rise in diabetes worldwide and have been the variables used to predict future diabetes rates. However, a transition to Western diets has been suggested as an alternative driver. We sought to determine what socio-economic and dietary factors are the most significant population-level contributors to diabetes prevalence rates internationally. Multivariate regression models were used to study how market sizes of major food products (sugars, cereals, vegetable oils, meats, total joules) corresponded to diabetes prevalence, incorporating lagged and cumulative effects. The underlying social determinants of food market sizes and diabetes prevalence rates were also studied, including ageing, income, urbanization, overweight prevalence and imports of foodstuffs. Data were obtained from 173 countries. Population-based survey recipients were the basis for diabetes prevalence and food market data. We found that increased income tends to increase overall food market size among low- and middle-income countries, but the level of food importation significantly shifts the content of markets such that a greater proportion of available joules is composed of sugar and related sweeteners. Sugar exposure statistically explained why urbanization and income have been correlated with diabetes rates. Current diabetes projection methods may estimate future diabetes rates poorly if they fail to incorporate the impact of nutritional factors. Imported sugars deserve further investigation as a potential population-level driver of global diabetes.

  16. Barriers to postpartum screening for type 2 diabetes: a qualitative study of women with previous gestational diabetes.

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    Rafii, Forough; Rahimparvar, Seyedeh Fatemeh Vasegh; Mehrdad, Neda; Keramat, Afsaneh

    2017-01-01

    Risk of developing type 2 diabetes is increased in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Postpartum glycemic screening is recommended in women with recent GDM. But this screening rate is low and the reasons are unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of Iranian women with recent GDM on barriers of postpartum screening for diabetes. This qualitative study was conducted in Tehran, Iran in 2016. Semi-structured interview was used for data collection. 22 women with recent GDM were interviewed. These women gave birth in Tehran hospitals at a minimum of 6 months before interview. The missed screening defined as not attending to laboratory for Fasting Blood Sugar and/or Oral Glucose Tolerance Test, 6 week to 6 month after their child birthing. The data was analyzed by content analysis method. Themes and sub-themes that illustrated the barriers to postpartum diabetes screening were: inadequate education (about developing diabetes in the future, implementation of the screening, and glucometer validity in diagnosis of diabetes), perceiving the screening as difficult (feeling comfortable with the glucometer, poor laboratory conditions, issues related to the baby/babies, and financial problems), improper attitudes toward the screening (unwilling to get diagnosed, not giving priority to oneself, having false beliefs) and procrastination (gap to intention and action, self-deception and self-regulation failure). Women with recent GDM reported several barriers for postpartum diabetes screening. This study help to develop the evidence-based interventions for improving this screening rate.

  17. Type 2 diabetes genes – Present status and data from Norwegian studies

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    Jens K. Hertel Hertel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide rise in prevalence of type 2 diabetes has led to an intense search for the genetic risk factors of this disease. In type 2 diabetes and other complex disorders, multiple genetic and environmental factors, as well as the interaction between these factors, determine the phenotype. In this review, we summarize present knowledge, generated by more than two decades of efforts to dissect the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes. Initial studies were either based on a candidate gene approach or attempted to fine-map signals generated from linkage analysis. Despite the detection of multiple genomic regions proposed to be linked to type 2 diabetes, subsequent positional fine-mapping of candidates were mostly inconclusive. However, the introduction of genome-wide association studies (GWAS, applied on thousands of patients and controls, completely changed the field. To date, more than 50 susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes have been detected through the establishment of large research consortia, the application of GWAS on intermediary diabetes phenotypes and the use of study samples of different ethnicities. Still, the common variants identified in the GWAS era only explain some of the heritability seen for type 2 diabetes. Thus, focus is now shifting towards searching also for rare variants using new high-throughput sequencing technologies. For genes involved in the genetic predisposition to type 2 diabetes the emerging picture is that there are hundreds of different gene variants working in a complex interplay influencing pancreatic beta cell function/mass and, only to a lesser extent, insulin action. Several Norwegian studies have contributed to the field, extending our understanding of genetic risk factors in type 2 diabetes and in diabetes-related phenotypes like obesity and cardiovascular disease.

  18. Adult-onset diabetes among Arabs and Jews in Israel: a population-based study.

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    Kalter-Leibovici, O; Chetrit, A; Lubin, F; Atamna, A; Alpert, G; Ziv, A; Abu-Saad, K; Murad, H; Eilat-Adar, S; Goldbourt, U

    2012-06-01

    To study the age at presentation and factors associated with adult-onset diabetes (≥ 20 years) among Arabs and Jews in Israel. Participants (n = 1100) were randomly selected from the urban population of the Hadera District in Israel. The study sample was stratified into equal groups according to sex, ethnicity (Arabs and Jews) and age. Information on age at diabetes presentation, family history of diabetes, history of gestational diabetes, socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics was obtained through personal interviews. Self reports of diabetes were compared with medical records and were found reliable (κ = 0.87). The risk for diabetes was calculated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Factors associated with diabetes in both ethnic groups were studied using Cox proportional hazard model. The prevalence of adult-onset diabetes was 21% among Arabs and 12% among Jews. Arab participants were younger than Jews at diabetes presentation. By the age of 57 years, 25% of Arabs had diagnosed diabetes; the corresponding age among Jews was 68 years, a difference of 11 years (P Arabs was independent of lifestyle factors, family history of diabetes and, among women, history of gestational diabetes; adjusted hazard ratio 1.70; 95% confidence interval 1.19-2.43. Arabs in Israel are at greater risk for adult-onset diabetes than Jews and are younger at diabetes presentation. Culturally sensitive interventions aimed at maintaining normal body weight and active lifestyle should be targeted at this population. Possible genetic factors and gene-environmental interactions underlying the high risk for diabetes among Arabs should be investigated. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2011 Diabetes UK.

  19. Non-diabetic renal disease in patients with type 2 diabetes: a single centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jian-Zhen; Wang, Rong

    2018-04-01

    Non-diabetic renal disease (NDRD) has been widely known in diabetic patients. The clinical differentiation between diabetic nephropathy (DN) and NDRD is still not so clear and effective. To analyse the pathological characteristics and distribution of renal injury in selected type 2 diabetic patients. Comparison between DN and NDRD in clinical characteristics, to find important predictors for NDRD. To conduct retrospective analysis of clinical, laboratory and pathohistological data of type 2 diabetic patients in whom renal biopsies were performed from March 2010 to September 2014 in Shandong Provincial Hospital affiliated to Shandong University (n = 88). According to the findings of renal biopsy, the incidences of DN, NDRD and DN complicated with NDRD were 20.46, 72.73 and 6.82% respectively. The most common NDRD found were: membranous nephropathy, followed by IgA nephropathy and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. In multivariate logistic-analysis, fasting blood glucose (odds ratio (OR) 0.714; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.543-0.939; P = 0.016) and absence of diabetic retinopathy (OR 18.602; 95% CI = 2.176-159.018; P = 0.003) were independent predictors of NDRD. This study confirmed a considerably high prevalence of NDRD in type 2 diabetic patients with renal injury. As some cases of NDRD are readily treatable or remittable, we should consider renal biopsy in selected diabetic patients with renal involvement, especially in those with effective blood glucose control and the absence of diabetic retinopathy. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  20. PAI-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism in association with diabetes and diabetic complications susceptibility: a meta-analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kuanfeng; Liu, Xiaoyun; Yang, Fan; Cui, Dai; Shi, Yun; Shen, Chong; Tang, Wei; Yang, Tao

    2013-01-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to assess the association between the PAI-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism and susceptibility to diabetes mellitus (DM), diabetic nephropathy (DN), diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic coronary artery disease (CAD). A literature-based search was conducted to identify all relevant studies. The fixed or random effect pooled measure was calculated mainly at the allele level to determine heterogeneity bias among studies. Further stratified analyses and sensitivity analyses were also performed. Publication bias was examined by the modified Begg's and Egger's test. Twenty published articles with twenty-seven outcomes were included in the meta-analysis: 6 studies with a total of 1,333 cases and 3,011 controls were analyzed for the PAI-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism with diabetes risk, 7 studies with 1,060 cases and 1,139 controls for DN risk, 10 studies with 1,327 cases and 1,557 controls for DR and 4 studies with 610 cases and 1,042 controls for diabetic CAD risk respectively. Using allelic comparison (4G vs. 5G), the PAI-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism was observed to have no significant association with diabetes (REM OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.96, 1.20), DN (REM OR 1.10, 95% CI 0.98, 1.25), DR (REM OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.97, 1.22) or diabetic CAD risk (REM OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.81, 1.42), and similar results were obtained in the dominant, recessive and co-dominant models. Our meta-analyses suggest that the PAI-1 -675 4G/5G polymorphism might not be a risk factor for DM, DN, DR or diabetic CAD risk in the populations investigated. This conclusion warrants confirmation by further studies.

  1. A Multiethnic Study of Pre-Diabetes and Diabetes in LMIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jia; Kondal, Dimple; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Irazola, Vilma; Gutierrez, Laura; Miranda, J Jaime; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Lazo-Porras, María; Levitt, Naomi; Steyn, Krisela; Bobrow, Kirsten; Ali, Mohammed K; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Tandon, Nikhil

    2016-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Approximately three-quarters of people with diabetes live in low- and middle-income countries, and these countries are projected to experience the greatest increase in diabetes burden. We sought to compare the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of diabetes in 3 urban and periurban regions: the Southern Cone of Latin America and Peru, South Asia, and South Africa. In addition, we examined the relationship between diabetes and pre-diabetes with known cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors. A total of 26,680 participants (mean age, 47.7 ± 14.0 years; 45.9% male) were enrolled in 4 sites (Southern Cone of Latin America = 7,524; Peru = 3,601; South Asia = 11,907; South Africa = 1,099). Detailed demographic, anthropometric, and biochemical data were collected. Diabetes and pre-diabetes were defined as a fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dl and 100 to 125 mg/dl, respectively. Diabetes control was defined as fasting plasma glucose diabetes and pre-diabetes was 14.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 13.2% to 14.8%) and 17.8% (95% CI: 17.0% to 18.7%) in the Southern Cone of Latin America, 9.8% (95% CI: 8.8% to 10.9%) and 17.1% (95% CI: 15.9% to 18.5%) in Peru, 19.0% (95% CI: 18.4% to 19.8%) and 24.0% (95% CI: 23.2% to 24.7%) in South Asia, and 13.8% (95% CI: 11.9% to 16.0%) and 9.9% (95% CI: 8.3% to 11.8%) in South Africa. The age- and sex-specific prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetes for all countries increased with age (p Peru, and South Africa the prevalence of pre-diabetes rose sharply at 35 to 44 years. In South Asia, the sharpest rise in pre-diabetes prevalence occurred younger at 25 to 34 years. The prevalence of diabetes rose sharply at 45 to 54 years in the Southern Cone of Latin America, Peru, and South Africa, and at 35 to 44 years in South Asia. Diabetes and pre-diabetes prevalence increased with body mass index. South Asians had the highest prevalence of diabetes and

  2. Illness perception, diabetes knowledge and self-care practices among type-2 diabetes patients: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugbey, Nuworza; Oppong Asante, Kwaku; Adulai, Korkor

    2017-08-10

    Self-care practices among persons living with type-2 diabetes are very crucial in diabetes manages as poor self-care results in complications. However, little research exists within the Ghanaian context. This study examined whether type-2 diabetes patients' illness perception and diabetes knowledge significantly predict diabetes self-care practices. A cross-sectional survey design was employed and a total of 160 participants (45 males and 115 females) were sampled from a general hospital in Accra. A self-administered questionnaire measuring illness perception, diabetes knowledge and diabetes self-care practices as well as demographic checklist were used collect data. Results showed that illness perception and diabetes knowledge significantly predicted overall diabetes self-care practices. Analysis of domain specific self-care practices showed that patients' diet was significantly predicted by illness perception and diabetes knowledge. Exercise was significantly predicted by only illness perception while blood sugar testing and diabetes foot-care were significantly predicted by diabetes knowledge. Cognitive and emotional representation of diabetes and diabetes knowledge are key determinants of patients' diabetes self-care practices. It is therefore important that appropriate psychosocial interventions are developed to help patients' adherence to recommended self-care practices.

  3. A prevalence study of pulmonary tuberculosis in hospital visited diabetes patients

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    Chung, Ho Keun; Lee, Hang Young; Joo, Kyung Bin [Eui-Ji Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kun Sang [College of Medicine, Chung Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-12-15

    We reviewed the records of randomly selected 320 diabetic out-patients at EuiJi Hospital from April 1981 through March 1983. Fasting blood sugar (FBS) of 140 mg/dl or more was taken as a criteria of diabetes according to the report of National Diabetes Data Group. The results are as follows: 1. Mean age of study group was 50.8 years-old and the FBS mean value was 222.4 mg/dl. 2. There was no significant difference of FBS values of tuberculosis and non-tuberculosis patients. 3. Prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis evaluated by chest films was 13.4 percent in diabetes patients. This value is lower than those of other studies but higher than that of urban population in Korea (p<0.05)

  4. A prevalence study of pulmonary tuberculosis in hospital visited diabetes patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Ho Keun; Lee, Hang Young; Joo, Kyung Bin; Kim, Kun Sang

    1983-01-01

    We reviewed the records of randomly selected 320 diabetic out-patients at EuiJi Hospital from April 1981 through March 1983. Fasting blood sugar (FBS) of 140 mg/dl or more was taken as a criteria of diabetes according to the report of National Diabetes Data Group. The results are as follows: 1. Mean age of study group was 50.8 years-old and the FBS mean value was 222.4 mg/dl. 2. There was no significant difference of FBS values of tuberculosis and non-tuberculosis patients. 3. Prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis evaluated by chest films was 13.4 percent in diabetes patients. This value is lower than those of other studies but higher than that of urban population in Korea (p<0.05)

  5. Correlates of Dietary Intake in Youth with Diabetes: Results from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortsov, Andrey; Liese, Angela D.; Bell, Ronny A.; Dabelea, Dana; D'Agostino, Ralph B., Jr.; Hamman, Richard F.; Klingensmith, Georgeanna J.; Lawrence, Jean M.; Maahs, David M.; McKeown, Robert; Marcovina, Santica M.; Thomas, Joan; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore demographic, socioeconomic, diabetes-related, and behavioral correlates of dietary intake of dairy, fruit, vegetables, sweetened soda, fiber, calcium, and saturated fat in youth with diabetes. Methods: Cross-sectional study of youth 10-22 years old with type 1 (T1DM, n = 2,176) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM, n = 365). Association…

  6. Type II diabetes and personality; a study to explore other psychosomatic aspects of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilinasab, Maryam; Ebrahimi, Mehdi; Mokarrar, Mohsen Heidari; Rahmati, Leila; Mahjouri, Mohammad Yoosef; Arzaghi, Seyed Masoud

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most common chronic diseases, diabetes and its control are affected by the patients' psychological and spiritual attributes. The present study investigates the relationship between glycemic control in patients with type II diabetes and personality traits, defense mechanisms and spirituality. The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 Iranian patients with type II diabetes, 64% were men. Participants completed the NEO Personality Inventory, the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) and the Spiritual Assessment Inventory (SAI) and then underwent a blood sampling for the assessment of HbA1C levels. Of the five personality traits, extraversion ( r =  -0.13 and P impression management had significant relationship with glycemic control ( r =  0.17 and P <  0.001). According to data, Extraversion and conscientiousness can help control blood sugar while anxiety and negative emotions have detrimental effects on glycemic control. As a result considering psychological counselling beside medical interventions can help to better treatment.

  7. Risk Factors For Diabetic Foot In Tetouan, Morocco - A Case-Control Study

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    Hicham AOUFI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction  Diabetes is a globally major public health problem. Its evolution is insidious and silent before the appearance of serious complications as a consequence in terms of morbidity than of mortality.  Complications in the feet are among the most frequent and feared. This study helps identify factors associated with diabetic foot in diabetic patients in the province of Tetouan in public and private sector.Methods This is a case-control study in which 136 diabetic patients monitored in the public and private sector in the province of Tetouan were chosen. 68 patients had diabetic foot and 68 were diabetic patients without this complication. Data were collected from patients’ records and supplemented by interviews. The factors compared between the two groups were socio-demographic, biological and related to diabetes and lifestyle. These risk factors were determined by bivariate and multivariate analyses.Results Statistically significant associations were found between diabetic foot and several factors including: the irregular monitoring of patients: ORadjusted = 7.7 [1.9-23], the rate of glycated hemoglobin: ORadjusted = 1.7 [1.2-2.3], diabetes duration: ORadjusted = 1.2 [1.03-1.26], and physical activity ORadjusted = 1.1 [0.02-0.9]. However, no association was found between diabetic foot and the level of education or occupation.Conclusion To prevent the development of diabetic foot, more attention should be given to diabetic patients whose diabetes duration is long, patient monitoring should be regular and diabetes control should be optimal. In addition, physical activity is recommended for diabetic patients as part of promoting healthy lifestyles

  8. H. pylori seroprevalence and risk of diabetes: An ancillary case-control study nested in the diabetes prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Saud; Nelson, Jason; Moss, Steven F; Paulus, Jessica K; Knowler, William C; Pittas, Anastassios G

    2017-10-01

    To determine the association between H. pylori infection and risk of incident diabetes in adults at high risk for diabetes who participated in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) study. In a nested case-control study conducted among 421 adults with newly diagnosed diabetes and 421 matched controls, we examined the association between serological status of H. pylori at baseline and risk of incident diabetes over a mean follow-up period of 2.6years. Using data from the baseline visit of the DPP, we also examined the cross-sectional association between presence of H. pylori antibodies and insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and the disposition index-like measure after a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). At baseline, H. pylori antibodies were present in 40% of participants who developed diabetes and 39% of controls. After adjusting for matching factors, there was no association between exposure to H. pylori and incident diabetes (odds ratio [OR] of 1.04 (95% CI, 0.77 to 1.40). In cross-sectional analyses, H. pylori status was not significantly associated with insulin sensitivity and disposition index-like measure from OGTT. In adults at high risk for diabetes, H. pylori seropositivity was not associated with risk of developing diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Study protocol for the Cities Changing Diabetes programme: a global mixed-methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, A David; Nolan, John J; Bagger, Malene; Hesseldal, Louise; Volkmann, Anna-Maria

    2017-11-08

    Urban living has been shown to affect health in various ways. As the world is becoming more urbanised and almost two-thirds of people with diabetes now live in cities, research into the relationship between urban living, health and diabetes is key to improving the lives of many. The majority of people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes, a subset linked to overweight and obesity, decreased physical activity and unhealthy diets. Diabetes has significant consequences for those living with the condition as well as their families, relationships and wider society. Although care and management are improving, complications remain common, and diabetes is among the leading causes of vision loss, amputation, neuropathy and renal and cardiovascular disease worldwide. We present a research protocol for exploring the drivers of type 2 diabetes and its complications in urban settings through the Cities Changing Diabetes (CCD) partnership programme. A global study protocol is implemented in eight collaborating CCD partner cities. In each city, academic institutions, municipal representatives and local stakeholders collaborate to set research priorities and plan implementation of findings. Local academic teams execute the study following the global study protocol presented here. A quantitative Rule of Halves analysis obtains measures of the magnitude of the diabetes burden, the diagnosis rates in each city and the outcomes of care. A qualitative Diabetes Vulnerability Assessment explores the urban context in vulnerability to type 2 diabetes and identifies social factors and cultural determinants relevant to health, well-being and diabetes. The protocol steers the collection of primary and secondary data across the study sites. Research ethics board approval has been sought and obtained in each site. Findings from each of the local studies as well as the result from combined multisite (global) analyses will be reported in a series of core scientific journal papers. © Article author

  10. Work stress is associated with diabetes and pre-diabetes: cross-sectional results from the MIPH Industrial Cohort Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.; Jarczok, M.N.; Loerbroks, A.; Schöllgen, I.; Siegrist, J.; Bosch, J.A.; Wilson, M.G.; Mauss, D.; Fischer, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is rapidly rising globally, and the relation of psychosocial stress in workplace to diabetes and prediabetes is not well investigated. Purpose: The aim of the study was to examine the association of work stress with diabetes and prediabetes in a sample of German industrial

  11. Eating habits in elderly diabetic subjects: assessment in the InCHIANTI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannucci, E; Bartali, B; Molino Lova, R; Papucci, M; Lauretani, F; Luisi, M L; Pietrobelli, A; Macchi, C

    2008-05-01

    Nutritional therapy is a cornerstone of the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess differences in dietary habits between subjects with and without known type 2 diabetes. In a sample of 1242 predominantly elderly subjects enrolled in the InCHIANTI study, total energy and macronutrient intake was assessed cross-sectionally using the EPIC self-reported questionnaire. Results were compared in subjects with (N=109) and without known diabetes, and differences were adjusted for age, sex, and reported comorbidities. Subjects with known diabetes reported a significantly lower (pmodification of dietary habits. These data suggest that the diagnosis of diabetes could induce some changes in nutritional style. However, corrections in dietary habits do not appear to be consistent with current guidelines and recommendations.

  12. Studying Cat (Felis catus Diabetes: Beware of the Acromegalic Imposter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stijn J M Niessen

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring diabetes mellitus (DM is common in domestic cats (Felis catus. It has been proposed as a model for human Type 2 DM given many shared features. Small case studies demonstrate feline DM also occurs as a result of insulin resistance due to a somatotrophinoma. The current study estimates the prevalence of hypersomatotropism or acromegaly in the largest cohort of diabetic cats to date, evaluates clinical presentation and ease of recognition. Diabetic cats were screened for hypersomatotropism using serum total insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1; radioimmunoassay, followed by further evaluation of a subset of cases with suggestive IGF-1 (>1000 ng/ml through pituitary imaging and/ or histopathology. Clinicians indicated pre-test suspicion for hypersomatotropism. In total 1221 diabetic cats were screened; 319 (26.1% demonstrated a serum IGF-1>1000 ng/ml (95% confidence interval: 23.6-28.6%. Of these cats a subset of 63 (20% underwent pituitary imaging and 56/63 (89% had a pituitary tumour on computed tomography; an additional three on magnetic resonance imaging and one on necropsy. These data suggest a positive predictive value of serum IGF-1 for hypersomatotropism of 95% (95% confidence interval: 90-100%, thus suggesting the overall hypersomatotropism prevalence among UK diabetic cats to be 24.8% (95% confidence interval: 21.2-28.6%. Only 24% of clinicians indicated a strong pre-test suspicion; most hypersomatotropism cats did not display typical phenotypical acromegaly signs. The current data suggest hypersomatotropism screening should be considered when studying diabetic cats and opportunities exist for comparative acromegaly research, especially in light of the many detected communalities with the human disease.

  13. Marital quality and diabetes: results from the Health and Retirement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisman, Mark A; Li, Angela; Sbarra, David A; Raison, Charles L

    2014-08-01

    Poor marital quality is associated with many different indicators of poor health, including immunologic and metabolic responses that have relevance for distal disease outcomes such as diabetes. We conducted this study to evaluate whether poor marital quality was associated with the prevalence of diabetes in a population-based sample of Americans over the age of 50. Participants were married adults from the 2006 (N = 3,898) and 2008 (N = 3,452) waves of the Health and Retirement Study. Participants completed an interview and a self-report questionnaire, and current use of diabetes medication and glycosylated hemoglobin obtained from blood spot samples were used to index diabetes status. Marital quality was assessed with items regarding perceived frequency of positive and negative exchanges with partner. Decreasing frequency of positive exchanges and increasing frequency of negative exchanges with one's spouse were associated with higher prevalence of diabetes among men, but not women at both waves; gender significantly moderated the associations between partner exchanges and diabetes status for the 2006 data. The association between frequency of partner exchanges and diabetes status generally remained significant in men after accounting for demographic characteristics and other risk factors (obesity, hypertension, low physical activity). Poor marital quality as operationalized by rates of positive and negative partner exchanges was associated with increased prevalence of diabetes in men. These results are consistent with prior work on marriage and health, and suggest that poor marital quality may be a unique risk factor for diabetes.

  14. Knowledge attitude and practice regarding diabetes mellitus among Nondiabetic and diabetic study participants in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaniz Fatema

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased awareness amongst large population groups is a major determinant for the prevention of diabetes and its complications as well as related metabolic disorders. Knowledge and attitude are the principal markers of awareness that need to be studied in various population groups in specific racial and cultural contexts. The present study was undertaken to explore knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP regarding -diabetes mellitus (DM among nondiabetic (nonDM and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients in Bangladesh. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 18,697 adults (aged 18 years and above; 7796 male and 10,901 female; 6780 nonDM and 11,917 T2DM selected purposively from the OPD of 19 healthcare centres in and around Dhaka and in northern parts of Bangladesh. KAP were assessed by a pre-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire and categorised using predefined scores of poor (mean + 1 SD. Univariate and bivariate statistical analysis were done as appropriate. Multivariate linear regression was done to examine the association between diabetes related KAP and other covariates. Results The mean (±SD age (years of all the study participants was 46 ± 14, mean BMI 24.4 ± 4.1 and mean waist-hip ratio (WHR was 0.93 ± 0.07. The proportion of poor, average and good knowledge scores among T2DM subjects were 17%, 68% and 15% respectively. The corresponding values for attitude score were 23%, 67% and 10% respectively. The KAP regarding diabetes was found to be better among people who were living with diabetes compared to their counterparts. DM males showed better knowledge and practice regarding diabetes, compared to nonDM counterparts (M ± SD; 44.18 ± 16.13 vs 40.88 ± 15.62, p = <0.001; 66.00 ± 29.68 vs 64.21 ± 31.79, p < 0.001, respectively. Females showed better attitude score compared to males. Overall KAP were found to be significantly higher (p < 0.001 in middle aged (31

  15. Association of diabetes and cancer mortality in American Indians: the Strong Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Lyle G; García-Esquinas, Esther; Yeh, Jeun-Liang; Yeh, Fawn; Zhang, Ying; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V; Farley, John H; Welty, Thomas K; Rhoades, Dorothy A; Rhoades, Everett R; Umans, Jason G; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2015-11-01

    The metabolic abnormalities that accompany diabetes mellitus are associated with an increased risk of many cancers. These associations, however, have not been well studied in American Indian populations, which experience a high prevalence of diabetes. The Strong Heart Study is a population-based, prospective cohort study with extensive characterization of diabetes status. Among a total cohort of 4,419 participants who were followed for up to 20 years, 430 cancer deaths were identified. After adjusting for sex, age, education, smoking status, drinking status, and body mass index, participants with diabetes at baseline showed an increased risk of gastric (HR 4.09; 95% CI 1.42-11.79), hepatocellular (HR 2.94; 95% CI 1.17-7.40), and prostate cancer mortality (HR 3.10; 95% CI 1.22-7.94). Further adjustment for arsenic exposure showed a significantly increased risk of all-cause cancer mortality with diabetes (HR 1.27; 95% CI 1.03-1.58). Insulin resistance among participants without diabetes at baseline was associated with hepatocellular cancer mortality (HR 4.70; 95% CI 1.55-14.26). Diabetes mellitus, and/or insulin resistance among those without diabetes, is a risk factor for gastric, hepatocellular, and prostate cancer in these American Indian communities, although relatively small sample size suggests cautious interpretation. Additional research is needed to evaluate the role of diabetes and obesity on cancer incidence in American Indian communities as well as the importance of diabetes prevention and control in reducing the burden of cancer incidence and mortality in the study population.

  16. Effect of a polyherbal formulation cream on diabetic neuropathic pain among patients with type 2 diabetes – A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Vijay; Rajsekar, Seena; Selvaraj, Bamila; Kumpatla, Satyavani

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Painful diabetic neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes and can severely limit patients’ daily functions. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the safety and effect of using a polyherbal formulation in reducing the symptoms of diabetic neuropathic pain in comparison with placebo among patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: A total of 50 (M:F = 33:17) consecutive type 2 diabetes patients with painful diabetic neuropathy were enrolled in this study. All these patients had either two or more symptoms of diabetic neuropathy such as pain, burning and pricking sensations and numbness in their feet. They were randomly assigned to two groups: group 1 (n = 26) patients were treated with polyherbal formulation cream and group 2 (n = 24) patients were administered placebo. The patients were followed up for six months. Changes in the symptoms of painful diabetic neuropathy of each patient were recorded at baseline, third and sixth month using the Diabetic Neuropathic Score. Results: The mean age of the patients, duration of diabetes and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) were similar in both groups at baseline. During follow up visits, there was a decrease in the HbA1c levels in the study and control groups. The symptoms of painful diabetic neuropathy were also similar in both groups at baseline. A significant decrease in symptoms of neuropathic pain was observed among the group of patients treated with polyherbal formulation cream (76.9 per cent) compared to the placebo-treated group (12.5 per cent) (P<0.001), at the end of the final follow up. Interpretation & conclusions: In this pilot study polyherbal formulation cream was found to be effective as well as safe to treat painful diabetic neuropathy. However, its long term use needs to be evaluated for any further effectiveness and side effects. PMID:27934800

  17. Pregnancy outcomes in youth with type 2 diabetes: The TODAY Study experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated pregnancy outcomes, maternal and fetal/neonatal, during the Treatment Options for type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) study. The TODAY study was a randomized controlled trial comparing three treatment options for youth with type 2 diabetes. Informed consent included the req...

  18. Metabolic footprint of diabetes: a multiplatform metabolomics study in an epidemiological setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Suhre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolomics is the rapidly evolving field of the comprehensive measurement of ideally all endogenous metabolites in a biological fluid. However, no single analytic technique covers the entire spectrum of the human metabolome. Here we present results from a multiplatform study, in which we investigate what kind of results can presently be obtained in the field of diabetes research when combining metabolomics data collected on a complementary set of analytical platforms in the framework of an epidemiological study. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 40 individuals with self-reported diabetes and 60 controls (male, over 54 years were randomly selected from the participants of the population-based KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg study, representing an extensively phenotyped sample of the general German population. Concentrations of over 420 unique small molecules were determined in overnight-fasting blood using three different techniques, covering nuclear magnetic resonance and tandem mass spectrometry. Known biomarkers of diabetes could be replicated by this multiple metabolomic platform approach, including sugar metabolites (1,5-anhydroglucoitol, ketone bodies (3-hydroxybutyrate, and branched chain amino acids. In some cases, diabetes-related medication can be detected (pioglitazone, salicylic acid. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study depicts the promising potential of metabolomics in diabetes research by identification of a series of known and also novel, deregulated metabolites that associate with diabetes. Key observations include perturbations of metabolic pathways linked to kidney dysfunction (3-indoxyl sulfate, lipid metabolism (glycerophospholipids, free fatty acids, and interaction with the gut microflora (bile acids. Our study suggests that metabolic markers hold the potential to detect diabetes-related complications already under sub-clinical conditions in the general population.

  19. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in patients with screen-detected type 2 diabetes in Denmark: the ADDITION study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bek, Toke; Lund-Andersen, Henrik; Hansen, Anja Bech

    2009-01-01

    . There was no significant difference between age, sex and visual acuity among patients with and without retinopathy. However, the patients with retinopathy had significantly higher HbA1c and systolic and diastolic blood pressure than the patients without retinopathy. CONCLUSION: Patients with screen-detected diabetes have......BACKGROUND: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing, but the exact prevalence of the disease and its accompanying late complications are unknown. In the Anglo-Danish-Dutch study of Intensive Treatment in People with Screen-detected Diabetes in Primary Care (ADDITION study), patients...... with hitherto undiagnosed type 2 diabetes are identified using a stepwise screening strategy in selected general practices. This article reports the occurrence of diabetic retinopathy in this population. METHODS: In Arhus and Copenhagen counties, a total of 12,708 of the persons invited by mail were screened...

  20. Incidence of type 1 diabetes in China, 2010-13: population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jianping; Zhou, Zhiguang; Guo, Lixin; Zhu, Dalong; Ji, Linong; Luo, Xiaoping; Mu, Yiming; Jia, Weiping

    2018-01-03

    To estimate the incidence of type 1 diabetes in all age groups in China during 2010-13. Population based, registry study using data from multiple independent sources. National registration system in all 505 hospitals providing diabetes care, and communities of patients with diabetes in 13 areas across China, covering more than 133 million person years at risk, approximately 10% of the whole population. 5018 people of all ages with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes and resident in the study areas from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2013. Incidence of type 1 diabetes per 100 000 person years by age, sex, and study area. Type 1 diabetes was doctor diagnosed and further validated by onsite follow-up. Completeness of case ascertainment was assessed using the capture mark recapture method. 5018 cases of newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes were ascertained: 1239 participants were aged China was 1.01 (95% confidence interval 0.18 to 1.84). Incidence per 100 000 persons years by age group was 1.93 (0.83 to 3.03) for 0-14 years, 1.28 (0.45 to 2.11) for 15-29 years, and 0.69 (0.00 to 1.51) for ≥30 years, with a peak in age group 10-14 years. The incidence in under 15s was positively correlated with latitude (r=0.88, PChina occurred among adults. The incidence of type 1 diabetes in Chinese children was among the lowest reported in the study. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. STUDIES ON BACTERIAL INFECTIONS OF DIABETIC FOOT ULCER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Oboro VO

    Microbial study for aerobic organisms from 100 cases of diabetic foot ulcers was carried out to determine the ... affect 239 million people world wide. ... cause the breakdown of the skin. ... complications, such as peripheral vascular disease,.

  2. Genetic studies of type 2 diabetes in South Asians: a systematic overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Ritam; Narayan, Kabayam M Venkat; Zabetian, Azadeh; Raj, Suraja; Tabassum, Rubina

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus, which affects 366 million people worldwide, is a leading cause of mortality, morbidity, and loss of quality of life. South Asians, comprising 24% of the world's population, suffer a large burden of type 2 diabetes. With intriguing risk phenotypes, unique environmental triggers, and potential genetic predisposition, South Asians offer a valuable resource for investigating the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Genomics has proven its potential to underpin some of the etiology of type 2 diabetes by identifying a number of susceptibility genes, but such data are scarce and unclear in South Asians. We present a systematic review of studies on the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes or its complications in South Asians published between 1987-2012, and discuss the findings and limitations of the available data. Of the 91 eligible studies meeting our inclusion criteria, a vast majority included Indian populations, followed by a few in those of Pakistani origin, while other South Asian countries were generally under-represented. Though a large number of studies focused on the replication of findings from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in European populations, a few studies explored new genes and pathways along with GWAS in South Asians and suggested the potential to unravel population- specific susceptibility genes in this population. We find encouraging improvements in study designs, sample sizes and the numbers of genetic variants investigated over the last five years, which reflect the existing capacity and scope for large-scale genetic studies in South Asians.

  3. A preliminary study of levels of selected nutrients for neonates born to diabetic and non-diabetic mothers in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, A.M.S.; Chhowdhury, S.A.; Rahman, M.A.; Ali, S.M.K.; Huda, A.S.N.

    2006-01-01

    To investigate some selected nutrients status in the neonates born to diabetic and non-diabetic mothers a prospective study was carried out. From the Obstetric Unit of Bangladesh Institute of Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic disorder (BIRDEM) Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 236 newborns were recruited; 74 from diabetic, 59 from gestational diabetic and 103 from non-diabetic mothers group for this study. Cord-serum levels of Cu, Zn, Fe, Mg, Ca and ascorbic acid were investigated, and some anthropometric measurements were recorded to correlate with the nutrient levels. Fe was found significantly higher (p<0.05) whereas, ascorbic acid was found significantly lower (p<0.05) in diabetic group compared with other two groups. However, Mg and Ca levels were found significantly higher (p<0.05) in non-diabetic group. There was no significant difference observed in Cu, Zn levels for the 3 groups. Ca level was significantly correlated with birth weight and length of the neonates. These data suggests that diabetes has some effects on fetal growth and its nutritional status that also reflect the socio-economical status of the families of the neonates. (author)

  4. A clinical study of serum phosphate and magnesium in type II diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revathi.R, Julius Amaldas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To assess serum phosphate and magnesium level in type-2 diabetic patients in comparison with those of control subjects. Methodology: There were 100 diabetic patients and 100 age matched non-diabetic (control subjects included in this study. Serum phosphate, serum magnesium and fasting and postprandial blood sugar measured among the diabetic and control groups using SPSS version 16.0 for analysis. Results: Serum phosphate level was significantly lower in diabetic patients (2.92 ± 0.75 as compared to control subjects (3.38 ± 0.49. Serum magnesium levels were significantly lower in diabetic patients (0.9 ± 0.15 compared to controls (2.75 ± 0.46 Conclusion: The study reveals that hyperglycemia may reduce serum levels of magnesium and phosphorus.

  5. Heritability of the severity of diabetic retinopathy: the FIND-Eye study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arar, Nedal H; Freedman, Barry I; Adler, Sharon G; Iyengar, Sudha K; Chew, Emily Y; Davis, Mathew D; Satko, Scott G; Bowden, Donald W; Duggirala, Ravi; Elston, Robert C; Guo, Xiuxing; Hanson, Robert L; Igo, Robert P; Ipp, Eli; Kimmel, Paul L; Knowler, William C; Molineros, Julio; Nelson, Robert G; Pahl, Madeleine V; Quade, Shannon R E; Rasooly, Rebekah S; Rotter, Jerome I; Saad, Mohammed F; Scavini, Marina; Schelling, Jeffrey R; Sedor, John R; Shah, Vallabh O; Zager, Philip G; Abboud, Hanna E

    2008-09-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic nephropathy (DN) are serious microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus. Correlations between severity of DR and DN and computed heritability estimates for DR were determined in a large, multiethnic sample of diabetic families. The hypothesis was that (1) the severity of DR correlates with the presence and severity of nephropathy in individuals with diabetes mellitus, and (2) the severity of DR is under significant familial influence in members of multiplex diabetic families. The Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes (FIND) was designed to evaluate the genetic basis of DN in American Indians, European Americans, African Americans, and Mexican Americans. FIND enrolled probands with advanced DN, along with their diabetic siblings who were concordant and discordant for nephropathy. These diabetic family members were invited to participate in the FIND-Eye study to determine whether inherited factors underlie susceptibility to DR and its severity. FIND-Eye participants underwent eye examinations and had fundus photographs taken. The severity of DR was graded by using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Classification (ETDRS). Sib-sib correlations were calculated with the SAGE 5.0 program FCOR, to estimate heritability of retinopathy severity. This report summarizes the results for the first 2368 diabetic subjects from 767 families enrolled in FIND-Eye; nearly 50% were Mexican American, the largest single ethnicity within FIND. The overall prevalence of DR was high; 33.4% had proliferative DR; 7.5%, 22.8%, and 9.5% had severe, moderate, and mild nonproliferative DR, respectively; 26.6% had no DR. The severity of DR was significantly associated with severity of DN, both by phenotypic category and by increasing serum creatinine concentration (chi(2) = 658.14, df = 20; P FIND-Eye sample. These data confirm that the severity of DR parallels the presence and severity of nephropathy in individuals with diabetes

  6. Prevalence of type-II diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy: the gaddap study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahar, P.S.; Awan, Z.; Manzar, N.; Memon, S.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the frequency of type-II Diabetes mellitus (DM) in the endogenous population of Gaddap town and also to evaluate the status of Diabetic retinopathy (DR) in this group. This community based study of subjects of either gender was carried out in the Gaddap town. Three primary eye care centres were established in the existing primary health care (PHC) facilities, to screen the target Population aged 30 years and above, and who met other inclusion criteria for DM and DR respectively. Patients requiring intervention were managed accordingly. Data was entered and analyzed using Microsoft Visual Basic 6 and Microsoft Access. Out of the cohort of 19211 subjects, 1677 patients were found Diabetic, giving the prevalence of DM in Gaddap town at 8.73%, with 1258 (6.55%) known and 419 (2.18%) newly diagnosed cases. DR was seen in 460 (27.43%) of the Diabetic cases with 126 (7.51%) patients requiring urgent intervention for vision threatening complications. The result validates the importance of early screening of DR in people suffering from DM for possible management and prevention of sight threatening complications in the early stage of the disease and advocates the inclusion of primary eye care as a part of PHC system. (author)

  7. Prospective validation of American Diabetes Association risk tool for predicting pre-diabetes and diabetes in Taiwan-Taichung community health study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ing Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A simple diabetes risk tool that does not require laboratory tests would be beneficial in screening individuals at higher risk. Few studies have evaluated the ability of these tools to identify new cases of pre-diabetes. This study aimed to assess the ability of the American Diabetes Association Risk Tool (ADART to predict the 3-year incidence of pre-diabetes and diabetes in Taiwanese. METHODS: This was a 3-year prospective study of 1021 residents with normoglycemia at baseline, gathered from a random sample of residents aged 40-88 years in a metropolitan city in Taiwan. The areas under the curve (AUCs of three models were compared: ADART only, ADART plus lifestyle behaviors at baseline, and ADART plus lifestyle behaviors and biomarkers at baseline. The performance of ADART was compared with that of 16 tools that had been reported in the literature. RESULTS: The AUCs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs were 0.60 (0.54-0.66 for men and 0.72 (0.66-0.77 for women in model 1; 0.62 (0.56-0.68 for men and 0.74 (0.68-0.80 for women in model 2; and 0.64 (0.58-0.71 for men and 0.75 (0.69-0.80 for women in model 3. The AUCs of these three models were all above 0.7 in women, but not in men. No significant difference in either women or men (p = 0.268 and 0.156, respectively was observed in the AUC of these three models. Compared to 16 tools published in the literature, ADART had the second largest AUC in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: ADART is a good screening tool for predicting the three-year incidence of pre-diabetes and diabetes in females of a Taiwanese population. The performance of ADART in men was similar to the results with other tools published in the literature. Its performance was one of the best among the tools reported in the literature.

  8. Dairy product consumption is associated with pre-diabetes and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes in the Lifelines Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, E.M.; Sluik, D.; Singh-Povel, C.M.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies show associations between dairy product consumption and type 2 diabetes, but only a few studies conducted detailed analyses for a variety of dairy subgroups. Therefore, we examined cross-sectional associations of a broad variety of dairy subgroups with pre-diabetes and newly

  9. “Silent” Diabetes and Clinical Outcome After Treatment With Contemporary Drug-Eluting Stents : The BIO-RESORT Silent Diabetes Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Birgelen, Clemens; Kok, Marlies M.; Sattar, Naveed; Zocca, Paolo; Doelman, Cees; Kant, Gert D.; Löwik, Marije M.; van der Heijden, Liefke C.; Sen, Hanim; van Houwelingen, Gert K.; Stoel, Martin G.; Louwerenburg, J. (Hans) W.; Hartmann, Marc; de Man, Frits H.A.F.; Linssen, Gerard C.M.; Doggen, Carine J.M.; Tandjung, Kenneth

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: This study sought to assess the prevalence and clinical impact of silent diabetes and pre-diabetes in “nondiabetic” percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) all-comers. Background: Patients with undetected and thus untreated (silent) diabetes may have higher event risks after PCI with

  10. Clinical impact of the temporal relationship between depression and type 2 diabetes: the Fremantle diabetes study phase II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Bruce

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The clinical features of type 2 diabetes may differ depending on whether first depression episode precedes or follows the diagnosis of diabetes. METHODS: Type 2 patients from the observational community-based Fremantle Diabetes Study Phase II underwent assessment of lifetime depression using the Brief Lifetime Depression Scale (developed and validated for this study supplemented by information on current depression symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire, 9-item version and use of antidepressants. Patients were categorized as never depressed (Group 1, having had depression before diabetes diagnosis (Group 2, diagnosed with depression and diabetes within 2 years of each other (Group 3 and having depression after diabetes diagnosis (Group 4. RESULTS: Of 1391 patients, 20.8% were assigned to Group 2, 6.0% to Group 3 and 14.5% to Group 4. In Group 2, depression occurred a median 15.6 years before diabetes onset at age 37.2±14.7 years. These patients had similar clinical characteristics to never depressed patients except for reduced self-care behaviours and having more symptomatic peripheral arterial disease. In Group 4, depression occurred a median 9.9 years after diabetes onset at age 59.8±13.0 years. These patients had long duration diabetes, poor glycaemic control, more intensive management and more diabetic complications. Group 4 patients had more current depression than Group 2 but were less likely to be receiving antidepressants. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The clinical features of depression and type 2 diabetes are heterogeneous depending on their temporal relationship. There may be corresponding differences in the pathogenesis of depression in diabetes that have implications for diagnosis and management.

  11. Is Diabetes Associated with Lower Vitamin C Status in Pregnant Women? A Prospective Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, B.; Lauszus, Finn; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Abstract.Few studies have examined how vitamin C status is affected in diabetic pregnancy and no comparison between normal and diabetic pregnancies has been found. This study evaluated vitamin C status prospectively during pregnancy in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (n=76), in non......-diabetic women (n=60), and in their respective neonates. Vitamin C was lower in diabetic women throughout all trimesters compared to controls (p...-diabetic women, vitamin C levels were lower in 3rd trimester compared to 1st and 2nd trimester (both pvitamin C status - defined as a plasma concentration vitamin C...

  12. Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs second study (DAWN2™)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolucci, Antonio; Kovacs Burns, K; Holt, Richard I G

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: The second Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs (DAWN2) study aimed to assess psychosocial outcomes in people with diabetes across countries for benchmarking. METHODS: Surveys included new and adapted questions from validated questionnaires that assess health-related quality of life, self......-management, attitudes/beliefs, social support and priorities for improving diabetes care. Questionnaires were conducted online, by telephone or in person. RESULTS: Participants were 8596 adults with diabetes across 17 countries. There were significant between-country differences for all benchmarking indicators; no one...... (17.2-67.6%). Overall quality of life was rated 'poor' or 'very poor' by 12.2% of participants (7.6-26.1%). Diabetes had a negative impact on all aspects investigated, ranging from 20.5% on relationship with family/friends to 62.2% on physical health. Approximately 40% of participants (18...

  13. CONSTITUTIONAL STUDY OF PATIENTS OF DIABETES MELLITUS VIS-À-VIS MADHUMEHA

    OpenAIRE

    Bharti,; Singh, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    With the changing life style and sedentary habits of the modern era, incidence of diabetes mellitus is increasing throughout the world. The present study was launched to investigate the constitutional and socioeconomic features of diabetic patients and their clinical significance.

  14. Study of change of sex hormone receptors in diabetic impotent patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong; Chen Weizhen; Zhang Zikang; Hu Xiaoke

    2002-01-01

    To study the relationship between diabetic impotence and sex hormones as well as sex hormone receptors. 32 diabetic impotent patients, 32 diabetic patients with normal sex function, 32 impotent patients without diabetes, and 40 healthy men were enrolled. The plasma sex hormone levels were examined by radioimmunoassay, and sex hormone receptors in white blood cells by radioreceptor assay. Compared with healthy men and impotent patients without diabetes, PRL levels in both diabetic impotent patients and diabetic patients with normal sex function increased markedly, T and AR levels decreased, and the ratio of E 2 /T and ER/AR increased. Compared with diabetic patients with normal sex function, while there was no significant difference in PRL, T and E 2 /T ratio, the AR level of diabetic impotent patients further decreased, and the ER/AR ratio further increased. Negative correlation was found between age and AR as well as T. The decline of AR and the increase of ER/AR ratio might be one main cause of diabetic impotence. And the decline of T and AR might be an important cause of the increase of diabetic impotence incidence with age

  15. New insights on diabetes in Turner syndrome: results from an observational study in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Gasparini, Daniela; Altieri, Paola; Scarano, Emanuela; Perri, Annamaria; Morselli-Labate, Antonio M; Pagotto, Uberto; Mazzanti, Laura; Pasquali, Renato; Gambineri, Alessandra

    2018-03-01

    To explore the characteristics of diabetes mellitus in adults with Turner syndrome. Observational study consisting of a prospective phase after the access of adults with Turner syndrome to the Endocrinology Unit (median period of follow-up 15.6, interquartile range: 12.0-24.5 months) and a retrospective collection of data from the diagnosis of Turner syndrome until the time of access to the Endocrinology Unit. A total of 113 Italian Turner syndrome patients were included in the study. During the prospective phase of the study, each patient underwent physical examination, fasting blood sampling, and an oral glucose tolerance test on a yearly basis. Oral glucose tolerance test was used to perform the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Before access to the Endocrinology Unit, diabetes mellitus was diagnosed in two Turner syndrome patients. Another five cases of diabetes mellitus were diagnosed at the first access to the Endocrinology Unit, whereas seven new cases of diabetes mellitus were diagnosed during the prospective phase of the study. At the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, only one patient had fasting glucose above 126 mg/dL, and only two had an HbA1c value >6.5% (48 mmol/mol). When compared to normo-glucose tolerant patients, the diabetic patients had a significantly lower insulin-to-glucose ratio at 30 and 60 min of the oral glucose tolerance test. In the regression analyses, only age was associated with the development of diabetes mellitus. This study confirms that diabetes mellitus is frequent in Turner syndrome and suggests that it is specific to the syndrome. In addition, this study demonstrates that oral glucose tolerance test is a more sensitive test than HbA1c for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in Turner syndrome.

  16. Clinical study on insulin receptors of mononuclear cells in diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalimunthe, D [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1980-12-01

    /sup 125/I-insulin binding activity to mononuclear cells was studied in 75 noninsulin-dependent diabetic subjects and 31 normal subjects and the following results were obtained. 1. /sup 125/I-insulin binding is directly proportional to the mononuclear cell concentrations. There is a linear increase of specific /sup 125/I-insulin binding. 2. The binding of /sup 125/I-insulin to mononuclear cells is displaced by the increasing concentration of native insulin. 3. The /sup 125/I-insulin degradation in the incubation medium after incubation of mononuclear cells for 24 hours at 4/sup 0/C was almost 5% in this study. 4. The insulin binding activity in diabetic subjects was lower than that in normal subjects (P < 0.001) without any significant difference in affinity constant. 5. The relationship of binding activity to age of diabetics (r = 0.06, N.S), relative body weitht (r = 0.06, N.S) and duration of diabetes from onset was not significant. 6. In untreated noninsulin-dependent diabetics the insulin binding activity was inversely correlated to fasting blood glucose level (r = 0.78, P < 0.001) and slightly inversely correlated to serum insulin level (r = 0.47, P < 0.01). A slight inverse correlation was also observed in serum triglyceride level (r = 0.53, P < 0.01) and in total cholesterol level (r = 0.29, P < 0.05). 7. No significant difference between the binding activity was observed by grade of diabetic retinopathy. 8. After treatment with diet and/or sulfonylurea, the diabetics exhibited a significant increase in insulin binding activity (P < 0.005) but no significant difference in plasma insulin level, body weight and plasma lipid levels was observed.

  17. [Population-based study of diabetic retinopathy in Wolfsburg].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, L; Grüsser, M; Hoffstadt, K; Jörgens, V; Hartmann, P; Kroll, P

    2001-11-01

    Since November 1997 the complete documentation of an ophthalmological examination of diabetics has been annually subsidized by the Volkswagen Corporation Health Maintenance Organization (VW-HMO). The results of an annual ophthalmological examination were recorded in a standardised history sheet developed by the Initiative Group for Early Detection of Diabetic Eye Diseases. These data included visual acuity, intraocular pressure, lens status and a description of fundus abnormalities. Within 26 months ophthalmological examinations of 2,801 patients were completed which represented 4.5% of all VW-HMO insured patients. On average, patients suffered from diabetes for 9.6 years (SD +/- 8.3), artificial intraocular lenses were present in 357 eyes (6.4%) and 1,216 eyes (12.0%) were diagnosed with cataract or posterior capsule opacification impairing visual acuity. Out of 263 patients younger than 40 years old, 18.8% had a mild or moderate and 3.3% a severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR). A proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) was found in 2.2% of the younger patients. Of 2,228 patients aged 40 years and older, 11.9% had a mild or moderate and 2.6% a severe NPDR. In 0.9% of this group PDR was diagnosed. An annual ophthalmological screening based on a survey sheet of the Initiative Group was successfully introduced. For the first time a population-based evaluation on the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was carried out for inhabitants of a German city. The prevalence of PDR was found to be lower than previously published in comparable studied.

  18. A STUDY ON PLACENTAL MORPHOLOGY IN GESTATIONAL DIABETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katadi Venkata Sudha Madhuri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM refers to any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. Maternal diabetes constitutes an unfavourable environment for embryonic and foetoplacental development. The histomorphological changes in the placenta are associated with increased perinatal morbidity, increased risk of diabetes in the offspring and the mother in the ensuing years of life. Present study aims to study the morphological changes in the placenta along with maternal and foetal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by GDM. MATERIALS AND METHODS A descriptive observational case-controlled study was conducted from January 2013 to November 2016 in King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam. Hundred and sixty four women diagnosed with GDM and hundred women with normal gestation were enrolled in the study. Foetal surveillance was done by Doppler ultrasound and kick count technique during the gestation. Foetal and maternal outcome was evaluated and compared to the outcome of normal gestation. Placental specimens from term gestations (38-42 weeks diagnosed with GDM and normal full-term gestations were studied to assess the morphological parameters. Statistical analysis was done using descriptive statistical measures. RESULTS In the present study, 62.19% of the GDM cases terminated as normal gestations. Recurrent UTI was the most common complication (14.02% during the antenatal period. 17.68% of the foetuses from GDM mothers presented with macrosomia, however, there were no cases of congenital anomalies or shoulder dystocia. Placental tissue from the GDM cases was larger, heavier and more cotyledonous as compared to placenta from normal subjects. The umbilical cord showed eccentric and central attachment in all the controls and most of the cases and 5.48% of the cases showed marginal attachment of the umbilical cord. CONCLUSION The study describes the various maternal, foetal and placental outcomes in pregnancies

  19. Clinical study of the oral manifestations and related factors in type 2 diabetics patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Maria Goretti de Menezes; Costa, Antonio de Lisboa Lopes; Roncalli, Angelo Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is reported with and associated to oral alterations, with conflicting results. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of oral soft tissue alterations in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Socioeconomic variables, gender, heredity, capillary glucose control and local factors (prosthesis, dry mouth sensation) were analyzed in 196 diabetic and non-diabetic patients enrolled in HIPERDIA, at 41 Health units of Natal, Brazil. A case study. The last blood glucose mean was 177.0 mg/dl for diabetics and 89.46 mg/dl for non-diabetics. Mean capillary blood glucose was elevated in diabetics (215.95 mg/dl); it was 102.31 mg/dl in non-diabetics. The family history confirmed the heredity nature of the disease in 68.8% of diabetic patients (n = 66) (p salivary flow was 49% (n = 47) in diabetics, and 34% (n = 34) in non-diabetics. Candidiasis was present in 30.5% of diabetic patients (n=29) and 36% of non-diabetics (n=36). Both groups had lesions in the palate - 81.4% (n = 35) in diabetics, and 71.1% in non-diabetics (n = 27) (p = 0.68). The alterations are not related to diabetes and are present independently of having or not type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

  20. Type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes are associated with obstructive sleep apnea in extremely obese subjects: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Røislien Jo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a common yet underdiagnosed condition. The aim of our study is to test whether prediabetes and type 2 diabetes are associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA in extremely obese (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2 subjects. Methods One hundred and thirty seven consecutive extremely obese patients (99 females from a controlled clinical trial [MOBIL-study (Morbid Obesity treatment, Bariatric surgery versus Intensive Lifestyle intervention Study (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00273104] underwent somnography with Embletta® and a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. OSA was defined by an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI ≥ 5 events/hour. Patients were categorized into three groups according to criteria from the American Diabetes Association: normal glucose tolerance, pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify possible determinants of OSA. Results The patients had a mean (SD age of 43 (11 years and a body mass index (BMI of 46.9 (5.7 kg/m2. Males had significantly higher AHI than females, 29 (25 vs 12 (17 events/hour, p Conclusions Type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes are associated with OSA in extremely obese subjects. Trial registration MOBIL-study (Morbid Obesity treatment, Bariatric surgery versus Intensive Lifestyle intervention Study (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00273104

  1. Esophageal transit in patients bearing diabetes mellitus: contribution to its study with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maliska, C.M.; Almeida Cruz, M.G. de; Lima, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Among the disorders brought about by diabetes mellitus one may include the involvement of the esophageal innervation, which leads to motor disturbances of the esophagus even in non-symptomatic phases. Taking into consideration how simple and sensitive the scintigraphic method is, in the study of esophageal motility, the authors have proposed to compare the duration of esophageal transit with radionuclide in patients bearing diabetes mellitus and in normal individuals. Thirty-three diabetic patients and 26 controls were studied. The patients were divided into two groups: group A (insulin dependents, 11 patients): group B (insulin non dependents, 22 patients). The study showed that the alterations in the time of esophageal transit predominated in groups of diabetics that were insulin non dependents, having no connection with the duration of the disease. In the group of insulin dependents the abnormalities found were related to the duration of the disease. The results obtained showed the importance of this method in the study of diabetic patients with a possible involvement of esophageal motility. (author)

  2. Study of Self Medication In Patients With Diabetes Using Path Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rezaei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-medication is a behavior in which one tries to solve his/her health condition or problem without professional help. With regard to mortality and severe complications of diabetes, inappropriate self- medication can have severe consequences but proper planning can control this behavior to improve the patient′s health. In this study, the effect of each factor on self-medication in patients with diabetes is determined using path analysis technique. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Kermanshah diabetes center. The number of patients with diabetes interviewed were 500. Each patient′s score of self-medication were determined according to a questionnaire, with a higher score showing greater self-medication. Demographic information and scores of trust to doctors, medical expenses, others′ recommendations and busy work environment as predictor variables were measured and analyzed using SPSS 16.0. Based on the questionnaire scores, two patients (0.4% largely, 191 (38.7% moderately and 300 (60.9% slightly were on self-medication. The variable; mistrust of doctors only directly, variables; age, the duration of diabetes and family history of heart disease only indirectly and variables; busy work environment, medical expenses, others′ recommendations and family history of hypertension directly and indirectly were related to self-medication. The results of this study showed that more than 60% of patients with diabetes had low self-medication, which represents the success of education principles and methods. Extracting causal relationships among the complexity of factors influencing a disease requires powerful statistical tools such as path analysis.

  3. A study of diabetes mellitus within a large sample of Australian twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Condon, Julianne; Shaw, Joanne E; Luciano, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    with type 2 diabetes (T2D), 41 female pairs with gestational diabetes (GD), 5 pairs with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and one pair with MODY. Heritabilities of T1D, T2D and GD were all high, but our samples did not have the power to detect effects of shared environment unless they were very large......Twin studies of diabetes mellitus can help elucidate genetic and environmental factors in etiology and can provide valuable biological samples for testing functional hypotheses, for example using expression and methylation studies of discordant pairs. We searched the volunteer Australian Twin...... Registry (19,387 pairs) for twins with diabetes using disease checklists from nine different surveys conducted from 1980-2000. After follow-up questionnaires to the twins and their doctors to confirm diagnoses, we eventually identified 46 pairs where one or both had type 1 diabetes (T1D), 113 pairs...

  4. Podiatric care for diabetic patients with foot problems: an observational study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, P.M.; Dekker, J.; Lankhorst, G.J.; Dekker, E.; Bakker, K.; Dooren, J.; Rauwerda, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    The aims of this study were to describe podiatric care for diabetic patients with foot problems and to explore the changes in knowledge, self-care behaviour and physical functioning after podiatric care. the treatment characteristics of 26 diabetic patients referred to podiatry were assessed. Prior

  5. Diabetes related risk factors did not explain the increased risk for urinary incontinence among women with diabetes. The Norwegian HUNT/EPINCONT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midthjell Kristian

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown an association between diabetes mellitus (DM and urinary incontinence (UI in women, especially severe UI. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether diabetes related variables could explain this association. Methods The study is part of the EPINCONT study, which is based on the large Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 2 (HUNT 2, performed in the county of Nord-Trøndelag, Norway, during the years 1995 - 1997. Questions on diabetes and UI were answered by a total of 21 057 women aged 20 years and older. Of these 685 were identified as having diabetes, and thus comprise the population of our study. A variety of clinical and biochemical variables were recorded from the participants. Results Blood-glucose, HbA1c, albumine:creatinine ratio (ACR, duration of diabetes, diabetes treatment, type of diabetes, cholesterol and triglycerides did not significantly differ in women with and without UI in crude analyses. However, the diabetic women with UI had more hospitalizations during the last 12 months, more homecare, and a higher prevalence of angina and use of oestrogene treatment (both local and oral/patch. After adjusting for age, BMI, parity and smoking, there were statistically significant associations between any UI and angina (OR 1.89; 95% CI: 1.22 - 2.93, homecare (OR 1.72; 95% CI: 1.02 - 2.89, and hospitalization during the last 12 months (OR 1.67; 95% CI: 1.18 - 2.38. In adjusted analyses severe UI was also significantly associated with the same variables, and also with diabetes drug treatment (OR 2.10; 95% CI: 1.07 - 4.10 and stroke (OR 2.47; 95% CI: 1.09 - 5.59. Conclusion No single diabetes related risk factor seems to explain the increased risk for UI among women with diabetes. However, we found associations between UI and some clinical correlates of diabetes.

  6. Glaucoma incidence in an unselected cohort of diabetic patients: is diabetes mellitus a risk factor for glaucoma? DARTS/MEMO collaboration. Diabetes Audit and Research in Tayside Study. Medicines Monitoring Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J D; Evans, J M; Ruta, D A; Baines, P S; Leese, G; MacDonald, T M; Morris, A D

    2000-11-01

    To evaluate whether diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for the development of primary open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension (OHT). A historical cohort study of an unselected population comprising all residents of the Tayside region of Scotland was performed using record linkage techniques followed by case note review. Ascertainment of prevalent diabetes was achieved using the Diabetes Audit and Research in Tayside Study (DARTS) validated regional diabetes register. Glaucoma and treated OHT were defined by encashment of community prescriptions and the statutory surgical procedure coding database. The study population comprised 6631 diabetic subjects and 166 144 non-diabetic subjects aged >40 years without glaucoma or OHT at study entry. 65 patients with diabetes and 958 without diabetes were identified as new cases of glaucoma or treated OHT during the 24 month study period, yielding a standardised morbidity ratio of 127 (95% CI, 96-158). Case note review demonstrated non-differential misclassification of prevalent glaucoma and OHT as incident disease (diabetic cohort 20%, non-diabetic cohort 24%; p=0.56) primarily as a result of non-compliance in medically treated disease. Removing misclassified cases and adjusting for age yielded an incidence of primary open angle glaucoma in diabetes of 1.1/1000 patient years (95% CI, 0.89-1. 31) compared to 0.7/1000 patient years (95% CI, 0.54-0.86) in the non-diabetic cohort; RR 1.57 (95% CI, 0.99-2.48). This study failed to confirm an association between diabetes mellitus and primary open angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. A non-significant increase in diagnosed and treated disease in the diabetic population was observed, but evidence was also found that detection bias contributes to this association.

  7. Systemic perturbations of key metabolites in diabetic rats during the evolution of diabetes studied by urine metabonomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi Guan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elucidation of metabolic profiles during diabetes progression helps understand the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. In this study, urine metabonomics was used to identify time-related metabolic changes that occur during the development of diabetes mellitus and characterize the biochemical process of diabetes on a systemic, metabolic level. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Urine samples were collected from diabetic rats and age-matched controls at different time points: 1, 5, 10, and 15 weeks after diabetes modeling. (1H nuclear magnetic resonance ((1H NMR spectra of the urine samples were obtained and analyzed by multivariate data analysis and quantitative statistical analysis. The metabolic patterns of diabetic groups are separated from the controls at each time point, suggesting that the metabolic profiles of diabetic rats were markedly different from the controls. Moreover, the samples from the diabetic 1-wk group are closely associated, whereas those of the diabetic 15-wk group are scattered, suggesting that the presence of various of complications contributes significantly to the pathogenesis of diabetes. Quantitative analysis indicated that urinary metabolites related to energy metabolism, tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle, and methylamine metabolism are involved in the evolution of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results highlighted that the numbers of metabolic changes were related to diabetes progression, and the perturbed metabolites represent potential metabolic biomarkers and provide clues that can elucidate the mechanisms underlying the generation and development of diabetes as well as its complication.

  8. Arsenic Exposure, Arsenic Metabolism, and Incident Diabetes in the Strong Heart Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Barbara V.; Umans, Jason G.; Gribble, Matthew O.; Best, Lyle G.; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Goessler, Walter; Lee, Elisa; Guallar, Eliseo; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Little is known about arsenic metabolism in diabetes development. We investigated the prospective associations of low-moderate arsenic exposure and arsenic metabolism with diabetes incidence in the Strong Heart Study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 1,694 diabetes-free participants aged 45–75 years were recruited in 1989–1991 and followed through 1998–1999. We used the proportions of urine inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsonate (MMA), and dimethylarsinate (DMA) over their sum (expressed as iAs%, MMA%, and DMA%) as the biomarkers of arsenic metabolism. Diabetes was defined as fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL, 2-h glucose ≥200 mg/dL, self-reported diabetes history, or self-reported use of antidiabetic medications. RESULTS Over 11,263.2 person-years of follow-up, 396 participants developed diabetes. Using the leave-one-out approach to model the dynamics of arsenic metabolism, we found that lower MMA% was associated with higher diabetes incidence. The hazard ratios (95% CI) of diabetes incidence for a 5% increase in MMA% were 0.77 (0.63–0.93) and 0.82 (0.73–0.92) when iAs% and DMA%, respectively, were left out of the model. DMA% was associated with higher diabetes incidence only when MMA% decreased (left out of the model) but not when iAs% decreased. iAs% was also associated with higher diabetes incidence when MMA% decreased. The association between MMA% and diabetes incidence was similar by age, sex, study site, obesity, and urine iAs concentrations. CONCLUSIONS Arsenic metabolism, particularly lower MMA%, was prospectively associated with increased incidence of diabetes. Research is needed to evaluate whether arsenic metabolism is related to diabetes incidence per se or through its close connections with one-carbon metabolism. PMID:25583752

  9. Prevalence of Diabetic retinopathy in Kashmir, India - A hospital based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Qureshi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To assess the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among Kashmiri population. Material and Method In a cross-sectional hospital based study, 500 patients with established diabetes who attended eye OPD at Govt Medical College Srinagar were evaluated for the presence or absence of retinopathy. Relevant clinical examination was done and the findings were recorded at one point of time. No follow-up findings of the patients were included in this study. Direct Ophthalmoscope (Heinzand slit lamp bio-microscope (Zeiss were used for examination. Statistical package for Social Sciences (SPSS was used for statistical analysis. p60 yrs of age and 49 patients (36.2% were between 40-68 yrs of age. 33 (24.5% were males and 102 (75.5% were females. 30 patients (12.8% with diabetes of = 15 yr. Mild DR was present in 67 (37.4% patients, moderate to severe DR in 46 (9.2% patients, proliferative DR in 5(1% patients and diabetic maculopathy in 17(3.4%patients. Patients who were managed with insulin, either alone or with oral hypoglycemic drugs, had more prevalence of DR. Conclusion The present study concluded that DR is highly prevalent in this part

  10. Genome-wide association study of retinopathy in individuals without diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Jensen

    Full Text Available Mild retinopathy (microaneurysms or dot-blot hemorrhages is observed in persons without diabetes or hypertension and may reflect microvascular disease in other organs. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS of mild retinopathy in persons without diabetes.A working group agreed on phenotype harmonization, covariate selection and analytic plans for within-cohort GWAS. An inverse-variance weighted fixed effects meta-analysis was performed with GWAS results from six cohorts of 19,411 Caucasians. The primary analysis included individuals without diabetes and secondary analyses were stratified by hypertension status. We also singled out the results from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs previously shown to be associated with diabetes and hypertension, the two most common causes of retinopathy.No SNPs reached genome-wide significance in the primary analysis or the secondary analysis of participants with hypertension. SNP, rs12155400, in the histone deacetylase 9 gene (HDAC9 on chromosome 7, was associated with retinopathy in analysis of participants without hypertension, -1.3±0.23 (beta ± standard error, p = 6.6×10(-9. Evidence suggests this was a false positive finding. The minor allele frequency was low (∼2%, the quality of the imputation was moderate (r(2 ∼0.7, and no other common variants in the HDAC9 gene were associated with the outcome. SNPs found to be associated with diabetes and hypertension in other GWAS were not associated with retinopathy in persons without diabetes or in subgroups with or without hypertension.This GWAS of retinopathy in individuals without diabetes showed little evidence of genetic associations. Further studies are needed to identify genes associated with these signs in order to help unravel novel pathways and determinants of microvascular diseases.

  11. Incidence of chronic kidney disease among people with diabetes: a systematic review of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koye, D N; Shaw, J E; Reid, C M; Atkins, R C; Reutens, A T; Magliano, D J

    2017-07-01

    The aim was to systematically review published articles that reported the incidence of chronic kidney disease among people with diabetes. A systematic literature search was performed using MEDLINE, Embase and CINAHL databases. The titles and abstracts of all publications identified by the search were reviewed and 10 047 studies were retrieved. A total of 71 studies from 30 different countries with sample sizes ranging from 505 to 211 132 met the inclusion criteria. The annual incidence of microalbuminuria and albuminuria ranged from 1.3% to 3.8% for Type 1 diabetes. For Type 2 diabetes and studies combining both diabetes types, the range was from 3.8% to 12.7%, with four of six studies reporting annual rates between 7.4% and 8.6%. In studies reporting the incidence of eGFR Disease (MDRD) equation, apart from one study which reported an annual incidence of 8.9%, the annual incidence ranged from 1.9% to 4.3%. The annual incidence of end-stage renal disease ranged from 0.04% to 1.8%. The annual incidence of microalbuminuria and albuminuria is ~ 2-3% in Type 1 diabetes, and ~ 8% in Type 2 diabetes or mixed diabetes type. The incidence of developing eGFR kidney disease, there was only modest variation in incidence rates. These findings may be useful in clinical settings to help understand the risk of developing kidney disease among those with diabetes. © 2017 Diabetes UK.

  12. Diabetes and Prediabetes and Risk of Hospitalization: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Andrea L C; Kalyani, Rita R; Golden, Sherita; Stearns, Sally C; Wruck, Lisa; Yeh, Hsin Chieh; Coresh, Josef; Selvin, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    To examine the magnitude and types of hospitalizations among persons with prediabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and diagnosed diabetes. This study included 13,522 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study (mean age 57 years, 56% female, 24% black, 18% with prediabetes, 4% with undiagnosed diabetes, 9% with diagnosed diabetes) with follow-up in 1990-2011 for hospitalizations. Participants were categorized by diabetes/HbA1c status: without diagnosed diabetes, HbA1c prediabetes, 5.7 to prediabetes had 1.3 times higher rates of hospitalization than those without diabetes and HbA1c prediabetes are at a significantly elevated risk of hospitalization compared with those without diabetes. Substantial excess rates of hospitalizations in persons with diagnosed diabetes were for endocrine, infection, and iatrogenic/injury causes, which may be preventable with improved diabetes care. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  13. A 4-year prospective study on long-term complications of type 2 diabetic patients: the Thai DMS diabetes complications (DD.Comp.) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potisat, Somkiat; Krairittichai, Udom; Jongsareejit, Amporn; Sattaputh, Charnvate; Arunratanachote, Woranut

    2013-06-01

    To assess the clinical course of long-term diabetic complications; diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, and foot problems in Thai patients with type 2 diabetes. Patients with type 2 diabetes were followed for four years between March 2006 and September 2010. Seven hospitals in all levels of care under the Ministry of Public Health Thailand were included in the present study. A physical examination and a diabetic complications assessment were performed each year during the study period, by physician specialists in the related areas. Among 1,120 patients who participated in the present study, 705 (62.95%) patients completed the 4-year follow-up time. There were 88 (7.86%) patients reported deaths during the present study period. The mean age was 59.14 +/- 10.12 years. The average duration of diabetes was 7.30 +/- 6.14 years. Approximately 57.32% of patients had a family history of diabetes. The average plasma glucose level and HbA1C were 153 to 160 mg/dl and 8.25 to 8.75%. Moreover less than one-fourth of patients had HbA1C below 7%. The prevalence for diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy were approximately 23.7% and 38.3%. In addition, more than 15% of patients had diabetic foot problems, loss of protective sensation and pedal pulse deficit. Finally, the incidence rates were 80.1 per 1,000 person-years (95% CI 69.7, 91.8) for diabetic retinopathy, and 91.1 per 1,000 person-years (95% CI 78.8, 105.1) for diabetic nephropathy Problems regarding poor diabetes control exist in Thai diabetes patients. It results in high prevalence and incidence of diabetic complications. As such, it is crucial to establish the country's diabetes management plan as well as evaluate the long-term complications in diabetic patients annually, in order for patients to receive the benefits of early treatment and prevent further complications.

  14. Pre-diabetes and well-controlled diabetes are not associated with periodontal disease: the SHIP Trend Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowall, Bernd; Holtfreter, Birte; Völzke, Henry; Schipf, Sabine; Mundt, Torsten; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Kocher, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    To examine associations of pre-diabetes and well-controlled diabetes with periodontitis. The Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP)-Trend is a cross-sectional survey in North-Eastern Germany including 3086 participants (49.4% men; age 20-82 years). Clinical attachment loss (CAL) and periodontal probing depth (PPD) were assessed applying a random half-mouth protocol. The number of teeth was determined. Pre-diabetes comprised impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance. Previously known diabetes was defined as well controlled if glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was diabetes, newly detected type 2 diabetes (T2DM), known T2DM with HbA1cdiabetes was neither associated with mean CAL and PPD in multivariable adjusted linear regression models nor with edentulism (OR = 1.09 (95%-CI: 0.69-1.71)) and number of teeth (OR = 0.96 (95%-CI: 0.75-1.22), lowest quartile versus higher quartiles) in logistic regression models. Associations with mean CAL and edentulism were stronger in poorly controlled previously known diabetes than in well-controlled previously known diabetes (for edentulism: OR = 2.19 (95%-CI: 1.18-4.05), and OR = 1.40 (95%-CI: 0.82-2.38), respectively, for comparison with NGT). Periodontitis and edentulism were associated with poorly controlled T2DM, but not with pre-diabetes and well-controlled diabetes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN HYDROFIBER DRESSING & POVIDONE DRESSING IN DIABETIC FOOT ULCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rithin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Diabetic Foot Ulcer (DFU is the most common complication of Diabetes Mellitus (DM. It occurs in 15% of all patients with DM. Major increase in mortality among diabetic patients, observed over the past 20 years is considered to be due to the development of macro and micro vascular complications, including failure of the wound healing process. Non-healing chronic diabetic ulcers are often treated with extracellular matrix replacement therapy.so far, it is a common trend in diabetic foot care domain to use advanced moist wound therapy. At present, there are various categories of moist dressings available such as povidone dressings, adhesive backing film, silicone coated foam, hydrogels, hydrocolloids etc. AIMS & OBJECTIVES 1 To study efficacy of hydrofiber dressings and wound healing in diabetic foot ulcers. 2 To compare the safety, final outcome and patient compliance in hydrofiber and povidone dressing. MATERIALS & METHODS This prospective, observational study is carried in our department from September 2014 to September 2015. All the patients with age of 30 years and above were admitted in AJIMS satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria were taken into the study. The patients were followed until the ulcer is treated. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Data are presented as Mean and Standard Deviation (SD. Fischer’s exact test and Chi-Square Test were used as appropriate. GraphPad Prism Version 6.0h was used to analyze data and to prepare graphs. A ‘P’ value below the level of 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. RESULTS Among the patients who were studied, hydrofiber dressings helped in the better & faster healing of DFU. CONCLUSION In comparison with povidone gauze dressings to hydrofiber dressings in diabetic foot ulcers, the latter is more efficacious in controlling the infection, minimal usage of antibiotics, faster healing rate and patient compliance during dressings.

  16. AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY ON COMPLICATIONS OF CHRONIC DIABETES ENCOUNTERED IN A PULMONOLOGIST CLINIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vinod Kumar Viswanathan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND With the ever increasing prevalence of diabetes, complications of diabetes are encountered across all specialities. Hence, it is imperative that all specialists should have a working knowledge of diabetes mellitus. This study was done to understand the prevalence and complications of diabetes among patients attending a pulmonologist OPD. Knowledge of diabetes and its complications will help pulmonary medicine specialists to identify and manage the complications of diabetes better. MATERIALS AND METHODS All patients attending a pulmonologist’s clinic for a period of one month were enquired regarding their diabetes status and patients with known history of diabetes were questioned using a standard questionnaire and their available records examined regarding their complications pertaining to diabetes and the results analysed. RESULTS In this study, 18.7% of patients attending pulmonologist clinic had diabetes mellitus and 13.5% of patients had diabetes of more than 10 years duration. Most of the patients were in the age group of 40 to 60 years and were predominantly male. Among the diabetic patients, 71.9% had complications due to diabetes. Infections were the most commonly associated complication followed by pulmonary and cardiovascular complications. Many cases of pulmonary tuberculosis were observed among these patients. Other respiratory infections observed included pneumonias and flu. Cardiovascular complications like systemic hypertension, coronary artery disease and dyslipidaemia were observed. CONCLUSION With the rising prevalence of diabetes mellitus, such cases are frequently observed across all medical specialities. Hence, it is vital that all specialists should be trained in a management of diabetes, which is a frequent comorbidity observed by all specialists. Knowledge of diabetes, identifying diabetes early and management of complications will go a long way in reducing the morbidity and mortality due to diabetes and also

  17. Diabetes mellitus defined by hemoglobin A1c value: Risk characterization for incidence among Japanese subjects in the JPHC Diabetes Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Masayuki; Takahashi, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Yumi; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Inoue, Manami; Kadowaki, Takashi; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Noda, Mitsuhiko

    2011-10-07

    Aims/Introduction:  Although several risk factors for type 2 diabetes have been identified, most of them have been identified in studies on Western populations, and they should be evaluated in a Japanese population. In 2010, new diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus using hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were released and its use in epidemiological studies has many advantages. The aim of the present study was to evaluate risk factors for type 2 diabetes defined based on HbA1c values in a Japanese population.   A total of 9223 subjects (3076 men and 6147 women) were followed up for 5 years. Diabetes was defined based on self-report or HbA1c value. Risk factors for diabetes were evaluated as odds ratios adjusted for potential confounding factors by logistic regression.   During the 5-year follow-up period, we documented 518 incident cases of diabetes (232 men and 286 women). Of the 518 incident cases, 310 cases were diagnosed by HbA1c alone. Among the men, age, smoking (both past smoking and current smoking) and family history of diabetes significantly increased the risk of diabetes. Among the women, body mass index, family history of diabetes and hypertension significantly increased the risk of diabetes. These results did not change markedly after adjustment for the baseline HbA1c values, and the baseline HbA1c value itself was a significant risk factor for diabetes mellitus.   Known risk factors for diabetes established in Western populations also increased the risk of diabetes in a Japanese population defined on the basis of HbA1c values. (J Diabetes Invest, doi: 10.1111/j.2040-1124.2011.00119.x, 2011).

  18. Et Patientperspektivistisk Studie i Brug af Alternativ Behandling hos Danske Patienter med Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerbild, Helle Nygaard

    2008-01-01

    clients, however, are positioned as user of both complementary and alternative medicine and conventional treatments, such as biological, homeopathic, and traditional Chinese medicine. The main factors that drive them to this are the aim, the hope, the belief, and knowledge how to cure diabetes. Conclusion......: The study shows that the decisive difference of how diabetics are positioned as to complementary and alternative self-care is the way in which they have the strength and hope, believe and knowledge of how to cure disease which by people in general is regarded as chronic.......Background and objectives: There have not earlier been studies focusing on experiences of Danish diabetic patients using Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) – considered from the patients’ point of view. The existing studies mostly based on quantitative methods of patients with diabetes...

  19. Diabetes Education Needs of Chinese Australians: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Tammie S. T.; Walker, Karen Z.; Ralston, Robin A.; Palermo, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate a type 2 diabetes education programme for Chinese Australians, based on the experience of participants and by exploring the unique needs of Chinese patients, their health beliefs and their cultural behaviours. Design and setting: A qualitative ethnographic study was undertaken in a community health…

  20. Bacterial meningitis in diabetes patients: a population-based prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veen, Kiril E. B.; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with increased infection rates. We studied clinical features and outcome of community-acquired bacterial meningitis in diabetes patients. Patients were selected from a nationwide, prospective cohort on community-acquired bacterial meningitis performed from March 2006 to October 2014. Data on patient history, symptoms and signs on admission, treatment, and outcome were prospectively collected. A total of 183 of 1447 episodes (13%) occurred in diabetes patients. The incidence of bacterial meningitis in diabetes patients was 3.15 per 100,000 patients per year and the risk of acquiring bacterial meningitis was 2.2-fold higher for diabetes patients. S. pneumoniae was the causative organism in 139 of 183 episodes (76%) and L. monocytogenes in 11 of 183 episodes (6%). Outcome was unfavourable in 82 of 183 episodes (45%) and in 43 of 183 episodes (23%) the patient died. Diabetes was associated with death with an odds ratio of 1.63 (95% CI 1.12–2.37, P = 0.011), which remained after adjusting for known predictors of death in a multivariable analysis (OR 1.98 [95% CI 1.13–3.48], P = 0.017). In conclusion, diabetes is associated with a 2-fold higher risk of acquiring bacterial meningitis. Diabetes is a strong independent risk factor for death in community-acquired adult bacterial meningitis. PMID:27845429

  1. Urinary proteomics predict onset of microalbuminuria in normoalbuminuric type 2 diabetic patients, a sub-study of the DIRECT-Protect 2 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, Morten; Persson, Frederik; Zürbig, Petra

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early prevention of diabetic nephropathy is not successful as early interventions have shown conflicting results, partly because of a lack of early and precise indicators of disease development. Urinary proteomics has shown promise in this regard and could identify those at high risk...... who might benefit from treatment. In this study we investigate its utility in a large type 2 diabetic cohort with normoalbuminuria. METHODS: We performed a post hoc analysis in the Diabetic Retinopathy Candesartan Trials (DIRECT-Protect 2 study), a multi centric randomized clinical controlled trial...... = 0.002; cNRI 0.10, P = 0.043). CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes and normoalbuminuria from a large intervention study, the CKD273-classifier was an independent predictor of microalbuminuria. This may help identify high-risk normoalbuminuric patients for preventive...

  2. Study of serum soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 levels in type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic retinopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fangdu; Chu Qiaomei

    2002-01-01

    To study the change and the correlation of serum soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sV-CAM-1) levels with diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetic patients, serum sVCAM-1 levels were measured in duplicate by ELISA in 85 type 2 diabetic patients; fundus examination was performed by an ophthalmologist using ophthalmoscope or fundus fluorescein angiography, and the findings were graded as: no signs of diabetic retinopathy (NDR), background diabetic retinopathy (BDR) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Serum sVCAM-1 levels were significantly higher in the PDR and BDR groups than those in the control and NDR groups respectively (P<0.01). NDR group showed significantly increased serum sVCAM-levels compared with control group (P<0.01). In contrast, serum sVCAM-1 levels were not related to the presence of blood glucose, serum insulin levels or known diabetic duration. Authors' results suggest that serum sVCAM-1 might be implicated in the development of the diabetic retinopathy, and could assess the severity of diabetic retinopathy. The measurement of serum sVCAM-1 levels in 2 type diabetic patients may be clinically useful for early diagnosis or treatment of diabetic retinopathy

  3. Diabetes-related distress over the course of illness: results from the Diacourse study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasteleyn, M.J.; Vries, L. de; Puffelen, A.L. van; Schellevis, F.G.; Rijken, M.; Vos, R.C.; Rutten, G.E.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To investigate the relationship between diabetes duration and diabetes-related distress and to examine the impact of micro- and macrovascular complications and blood glucose-lowering treatment on this relationship. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in people with Type 2 diabetes who

  4. Diabetic nephropathy and its risk factors in a society with a type 2 diabetes epidemic: a Saudi National Diabetes Registry-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al-Rubeaan

    Full Text Available The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy and its risk factors have not been studied in a society known to have diabetes epidemic like Saudi Arabia. Using a large data base registry will provide a better understanding and accurate assessment of this chronic complication and its related risk factors.A total of 54,670 patients with type 2 diabetes aged ≥ 25 years were selected from the Saudi National Diabetes Registry (SNDR and analyzed for the presence of diabetic nephropathy. The American Diabetes Association (ADA criterion was used to identify cases with microalbuminuria, macroalbuminuria and end stage renal disease (ESRD for prevalence estimation and risk factor assessment.The overall prevalence of diabetic nephropathy was 10.8%, divided into 1.2% microalbuminuria, 8.1%macroalbuninuria and 1.5% ESRD. Age and diabetes duration as important risk factors have a strong impact on the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy, ranging from 3.7% in patients aged 25-44 years and a duration of >5 years, to 21.8% in patients ≥ 65 years with a diabetes duration of ≥ 15 years. Diabetes duration, retinopathy, neuropathy, hypertension, age >45 years, hyperlipidemia, male gender, smoking, and chronologically, poor glycemic control has a significantly high risk for diabetic nephropathy.The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy is underestimated as a result of a shortage of screening programs. Risk factors related to diabetic nephropathy in this society are similar to other societies. There is thus an urgent need for screening and prevention programs for diabetic nephropathy among the Saudi population.

  5. Diabetic Nephropathy and Its Risk Factors in a Society with a Type 2 Diabetes Epidemic: A Saudi National Diabetes Registry-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rubeaan, Khalid; Youssef, Amira M.; Subhani, Shazia N.; Ahmad, Najlaa A.; Al-Sharqawi, Ahmad H.; Al-Mutlaq, Hind M.; David, Satish K.; AlNaqeb, Dhekra

    2014-01-01

    Aims The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy and its risk factors have not been studied in a society known to have diabetes epidemic like Saudi Arabia. Using a large data base registry will provide a better understanding and accurate assessment of this chronic complication and its related risk factors. Methodology A total of 54,670 patients with type 2 diabetes aged ≥25 years were selected from the Saudi National Diabetes Registry (SNDR) and analyzed for the presence of diabetic nephropathy. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) criterion was used to identify cases with microalbuminuria, macroalbuminuria and end stage renal disease (ESRD) for prevalence estimation and risk factor assessment. Results The overall prevalence of diabetic nephropathy was 10.8%, divided into 1.2% microalbuminuria, 8.1%macroalbuninuria and 1.5% ESRD. Age and diabetes duration as important risk factors have a strong impact on the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy, ranging from 3.7% in patients aged 25–44 years and a duration of >5 years, to 21.8% in patients ≥65 years with a diabetes duration of ≥15 years. Diabetes duration, retinopathy, neuropathy, hypertension, age >45 years, hyperlipidemia, male gender, smoking, and chronologically, poor glycemic control has a significantly high risk for diabetic nephropathy. Conclusion The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy is underestimated as a result of a shortage of screening programs. Risk factors related to diabetic nephropathy in this society are similar to other societies. There is thus an urgent need for screening and prevention programs for diabetic nephropathy among the Saudi population. PMID:24586457

  6. Diabetes among non-obese Filipino Americans: Findings from a large population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Roy, Adity; Chan, Keith Tsz-Kit; Kobayashi, Karen M

    2017-04-20

    Filipino Americans form the second-largest Asian American and Pacific Islanders subgroup. Growing evidence suggests that Filipino Americans have higher rates of diabetes than non-Hispanic whites. The key objectives of this study are 1) to determine the prevalence of diabetes in non-obese Filipino Americans compared to non-obese non-Hispanic whites, and 2) to identify risk factors for diabetes in non-obese Filipino men and women. Secondary analysis of population-based data from combined waves (2007, 2009 and 2011) of the adult California Health Interview Survey (CHIS). The study sample was restricted to non-obese Filipino Americans (n = 1629) and non-Hispanic whites (n = 72 072). Non-obese Filipino Americans had more than twice the odds of diabetes compared to non-Hispanic whites, even after correcting for several known risk factors (OR = 2.80, p < 0.001). For non-obese Filipino men, older age, poverty, cigarette smoking, and being overweight are associated with increased odds for diabetes, while older age was the only factor associated with diabetes among Filipina women. Diabetes prevention approaches need to be targeted towards non-obese Filipino Americans, due to their high risk of diabetes.

  7. Moessbauer study of hemoglobin of diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Aiguo; Ni Xinbo; Cai Yingwen; Zhang Guilin; Zhang Hongde; Ge Yongxin

    2000-01-01

    The hemoglobins from normal adults (Gly-Hb 5%), people infected with diabetes (Gly-Hb 10%) and serious diabetics (Gly-Hb 15%) were investigated by Moessbauer spectroscopy at liquid nitrogen temperature. All the experimental spectra of hemoglobin are composed of three doublets corresponding to oxy-hemoglobin (Oxy-Hb), deoxy-hemoglobin (Deoxy-Hb) and low-spin hemo-chrome (Ls-Hemo) respectively. It is found that Oxy-Hb is decreasing but Deoxy-hb increasing for diabetes. Experimental results also indicate that the line-width of Moessbauer spectra of Oxy-Hb for diabetics is narrower than that for normal adults, showing that while Fe on Oxy-Hb exists in pile-up of some similar states for normal adults, but it becomes in single state for serious diabetes

  8. An ethnobotanical study of plants used for the treatment of diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the commonest diseases affecting the citizens of both developed and poor countries. In South Africa, the number of people suffering from diabetes is believed to be rising steadily. An ethnobotanical study of plants used by the traditional healers, herbalists and rural dwellers for the treatment of ...

  9. Diabetes Mellitus, a New Risk Factor for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: A Case–Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Asadian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients with spinal stenosis and lumbar vertebral disk degeneration, and the correlation of diabetes with these diseases. Study Design This is a cross-sectional study. Methods This case–control study was performed during 2012–2014 with 110 patients suffering from lumbar spinal stenosis and 110 patients with lumbar disk herniation, who were diagnosed using clinical and radiological evidences. Additionally, 110 participants who were referred to the clinic and did not show clinical signs of degenerative diseases of the lumbar spine entered the study as a control group. Demographic data and medical histories of the patients were collected using checklists. Results A total of 50 patients (15.2% were diagnosed with diabetes, which comprised 32 (29.1% in the stenosis group, 7 (6.4% in the lumbar disk herniation group, and 11 (10% in the control group. The prevalence of diabetes in women with spinal stenosis and women with lumbar disk herniation was 35.9% and 10.3%, respectively, whereas prevalence of diabetes in women was 10.9% in the control group. This difference was statistically significant in the spinal stenosis group in comparison with the controls ( P < 0.0001. Conversely, no significant difference was found in men. Conclusions There is an association between diabetes and lumbar spinal stenosis. Diabetes mellitus may be a predisposing factor for the development of lumbar spinal stenosis.

  10. Glucocorticoid treatment and impaired mood, memory and metabolism in people with diabetes: the Edinburgh Type 2 Diabetes Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Rebecca M; Labad, Javier; Sears, Alison V; Williamson, Rachel M; Strachan, Mark W J; Deary, Ian J; Lowe, Gordon D O; Price, Jackie F; Walker, Brian R

    2012-01-01

    Objective Both type 2 diabetes and glucocorticoid therapy are highly prevalent. Although people with type 2 diabetes may be more susceptible to adverse effects of glucocorticoids, and it is recommended that glucocorticoid therapy is avoided for fear of worsening glycaemic control, the extent to which this advice is followed and the consequences when glucocorticoids are prescribed are poorly documented. The aim was to assess the characteristics of people with type 2 diabetes prescribed glucocorticoids in a real-world setting and to quantify resulting adverse effects. Design Cross-sectional cohort study. Methods Cardiometabolic variables, body fat distribution, cognitive function and mood were studied in the 1066 participants of the Edinburgh Type 2 Diabetes Study, of whom 162 (15%) were taking systemic, topical or inhaled glucocorticoids. Results Glucocorticoid therapy was more common in women and in smokers but was not avoided in patients with diabetic complications or cardiovascular risk factors. People taking glucocorticoids were more centrally obese with slightly higher HbA1c and total serum cholesterol but were no more likely to have hepatic steatosis or hypertension. Glucocorticoid treatment was associated with substantially lower mood and greater anxiety. Women taking glucocorticoid therapy were twice as likely to report depressive symptoms compared with those not taking treatment. Glucocorticoid therapy was also associated with poorer cognitive function among those with subclinical atherosclerosis, as indicated by low ankle–brachial pressure index. Conclusions Glucocorticoids are prescribed commonly for people with type 2 diabetes despite being associated with adverse indices of glycaemic control, cardiovascular risk factors, mood and cognitive function. PMID:22408122

  11. Protocol and baseline data from The Inala Chronic Disease Management Service evaluation study: a health services intervention study for diabetes care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew, Deborah A; Jackson, Claire L; Ware, Robert S; Russell, Anthony

    2010-05-24

    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is one of the most disabling chronic conditions worldwide, resulting in significant human, social and economic costs and placing huge demands on health care systems. The Inala Chronic Disease Management Service aims to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of care for patients with type 2 diabetes who have been referred by their general practitioner to a specialist diabetes outpatient clinic. Care is provided by a multidisciplinary, integrated team consisting of an endocrinologist, diabetes nurse educators, General Practitioner Clinical Fellows (general practitioners who have undertaken focussed post-graduate training in complex diabetes care), and allied health personnel (a dietitian, podiatrist and psychologist). Using a geographical control, this evaluation study tests the impact of this model of diabetes care provided by the service on patient outcomes compared to usual care provided at the specialist diabetes outpatient clinic. Data collection at baseline, 6 and 12-months will compare the primary outcome (glycaemic control) and secondary outcomes (serum lipid profile, blood pressure, physical activity, smoking status, quality of life, diabetes self-efficacy and cost-effectiveness). This model of diabetes care combines the patient focus and holistic care valued by the primary care sector with the specialised knowledge and skills of hospital diabetes care. Our study will provide empirical evidence about the clinical effectiveness of this model of care. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12608000010392.

  12. Buccodental pathology in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles-Jorda, L; Silvestre-Donat, F J; Grau Garcia-Moreno, D M; Hernandez-Mijares, A

    2002-01-01

    A study is made to determine whether patients with type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus (IDDM) suffer oral complications attributable to the disease, or whether some disorder of the oral cavity can be regarded as pathognomonic of diabetes. Thirty juvenile diabetics and 30 healthy individuals were evaluated for dental caries and oral mucosal lesions, with the performance of basal and stimulated sialometry in all cases, to assess possible alterations in salivary flow. In addition, an study of periodontal variables was made such as the presence of bacterial plaque, gingival status and attachment losses. The diabetics were found to have significantly greater periodontal attachment loss, even though oral hygiene was significantly better among these patients. There were no differences between the two groups in terms of the number of caries, the presence of mucosal lesions or salivary flow.

  13. Evaluation of atrophy of foot muscles in diabetic neuropathy -- a comparative study of nerve conduction studies and ultrasonography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Kaare; Andersen, Henning

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relation between the findings at nerve conduction studies and the size of small foot muscles determined by ultrasonography. METHODS: In 26 diabetic patients the size of the extensor digitorum brevis muscle (EDB) and of the muscles between the first and second metatarsal...... related to the size of the small foot muscles as determined by ultrasonography. SIGNIFICANCE: In diabetic patients motor nerve conduction studies can reliably determine the size of small foot muscles. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Oct....... RESULTS: Seventeen patients fulfilled the criteria for diabetic neuropathy. The cross-sectional area of the EDB muscle and the thickness of the MIL muscle were 116 +/- 65 mm2 and 29.6 +/- 8.2 mm, respectively. Close relations were established between muscle size and the amplitude of the CMAP...

  14. Serum calcium and incident type 2 diabetes: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Mary R; Pankow, James S; Sibley, Shalamar D; Selvin, Elizabeth; Reis, Jared P; Michos, Erin D; Lutsey, Pamela L

    2016-10-01

    Elevated serum calcium has been associated with a variety of metabolic abnormalities and may be associated with a greater risk of diabetes. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that serum calcium concentration is positively and independently associated with the incidence of diabetes and to evaluate the association of calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) gene single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1801725 with incident diabetes. Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study participants free of diabetes at baseline (n = 12,800; mean age: 53.9 y; 22.6% black) were studied for incident diabetes. Serum calcium was measured at baseline and corrected for serum albumin. Diabetes was defined by use of glucose concentrations, self-report, or medication use. Cox proportional hazards regression was used. During a mean 8.8 y of follow-up, 1516 cases of diabetes were reported. Participants in the highest compared with lowest calcium quintile were at greater risk of incident diabetes after adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors [HR (95% CI): 1.34 (1.14, 1.57); P-trend across quintiles 1] and with further adjustment for waist circumference and body mass index [1.26 (1.07, 1.48); P-trend = 0.004]. Additional adjustment for biomarkers on the metabolic pathway (e.g., 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone, phosphorus) had little impact. The calcium-diabetes association was statistically significant in blacks [1.48 (1.11, 1.98); P-trend = 0.002] but not whites [1.17 (0.96, 1.43); P-trend = 0.17] after adjustment for adiposity. In whites, CaSR gene SNP rs1801725 was associated with serum calcium but not with risk of diabetes. Consistent with 3 previous cohort studies, elevated serum calcium was found to be associated with a greater risk of type 2 diabetes. Further research is needed to understand the role, if any, that calcium plays in the pathogenesis of diabetes. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Study of Women, Infant feeding, and Type 2 diabetes mellitus after GDM pregnancy (SWIFT, a prospective cohort study: methodology and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunderson Erica P

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women with history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM are at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes within 5 years after delivery. Evidence that lactation duration influences incident type 2 diabetes after GDM pregnancy is based on one retrospective study reporting a null association. The Study of Women, Infant Feeding and Type 2 Diabetes after GDM pregnancy (SWIFT is a prospective cohort study of postpartum women with recent GDM within the Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC integrated health care system. The primary goal of SWIFT is to assess whether prolonged, intensive lactation as compared to formula feeding reduces the 2-year incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus among women with GDM. The study also examines whether lactation intensity and duration have persistent favorable effects on blood glucose, insulin resistance, and adiposity during the 2-year postpartum period. This report describes the design and methods implemented for this study to obtain the clinical, biochemical, anthropometric, and behavioral measurements during the recruitment and follow-up phases. Methods SWIFT is a prospective, observational cohort study enrolling and following over 1, 000 postpartum women diagnosed with GDM during pregnancy within KPNC. The study enrolled women at 6-9 weeks postpartum (baseline who had been diagnosed by standard GDM criteria, aged 20-45 years, delivered a singleton, term (greater than or equal to 35 weeks gestation live birth, were not using medications affecting glucose tolerance, and not planning another pregnancy or moving out of the area within the next 2 years. Participants who are free of type 2 diabetes and other serious medical conditions at baseline are screened for type 2 diabetes annually within the first 2 years after delivery. Recruitment began in September 2008 and ends in December 2011. Data are being collected through pregnancy and early postpartum telephone interviews, self

  16. Jenkins study does not refute BfR statement on the needlessness of diabetic foods

    OpenAIRE

    German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment

    2009-01-01

    In a new study, the Canadian researchers Jenkins et al. again review the effects of diets for individuals suffering from diabetes mellitus type 2. In the study, the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet with a low glycaemic index (GI) compared with a diet high in dietary fibre on the health of patients were examined. 210 diabetics (diabetes mellitus type 2) received one of the two diets for six months. The risk factors for high blood glucose level and cardiovascular diseases were studied. From ...

  17. Vaccinations and childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Eileen; Halliday, Sophia R; Campbell, Gemma R; Cardwell, Chris R; Patterson, Chris C

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between routine vaccinations and the risk of childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus by systematically reviewing the published literature and performing meta-analyses where possible. A comprehensive literature search was performed of MEDLINE and EMBASE to identify all studies that compared vaccination rates in children who subsequently developed type 1 diabetes mellitus and in control children. ORs and 95% CIs were obtained from published reports or derived from individual patient data and then combined using a random effects meta-analysis. In total, 23 studies investigating 16 vaccinations met the inclusion criteria. Eleven of these contributed to meta-analyses which included data from between 359 and 11,828 childhood diabetes cases. Overall, there was no evidence to suggest an association between any of the childhood vaccinations investigated and type 1 diabetes mellitus. The pooled ORs ranged from 0.58 (95% CI 0.24, 1.40) for the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination in five studies up to 1.04 (95% CI 0.94, 1.14) for the haemophilus influenza B (HiB) vaccination in 11 studies. Significant heterogeneity was present in most of the pooled analyses, but was markedly reduced when analyses were restricted to study reports with high methodology quality scores. Neither this restriction by quality nor the original authors' adjustments for potential confounding made a substantial difference to the pooled ORs. This study provides no evidence of an association between routine vaccinations and childhood type 1 diabetes.

  18. Diabetes induces changes in neuroretina before retinal vessels: a spectral-domain optical coherence tomography study

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Eduardo B?chele; Urias, M?ller Gon?alves; Penha, Fernando Marcondes; Badar?, Emmerson; Novais, Eduardo; Meirelles, Rodrigo; Farah, Michel Eid

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate retinal changes prior to vascular signs in patients with type 2 diabetes without diabetic retinopathy or with mild non proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in three groups: patients without diabetes, patients with type 2 diabetes without diabetic retinopathy, and patients with diabetes with mild diabetic retinopathy. Analysis of retinal layers was performed objectively with the Cirrus Review Software 6.0 (Carl Zeiss Meditec, ...

  19. Associations among health literacy, diabetes knowledge, and self-management behavior in adults with diabetes: results of a Dutch cross-sectional study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, I. van der; Uiters, E.; Rademakers, J.; Struijs, J.N.; Schuit, A.J.; Baan, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have examined the association between health literacy and self-management behavior, but few have explored ways through which this occurs. The present study examines to what extent health literacy is associated with diabetes self-management behavior and to what extent diabetes

  20. Associations among health literacy, diabetes knowledge, and self-management behavior in adults with diabetes: results of a dutch cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, I.; Uiters, E.; Rademakers, J.; Struijs, J.N.; Schuit, A.J.; Baan, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have examined the association between health literacy and self-management behavior, but few have explored ways through which this occurs. The present study examines to what extent health literacy is associated with diabetes self-management behavior and to what extent diabetes

  1. Associations among health literacy, diabetes knowledge, and self-management behavior in adults with diabetes : Results of a dutch cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, Iris; Uiters, Ellen; Rademakers, Jany; Struijs, Jeroen N; Schuit, A.J.; Baan, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have examined the association between health literacy and self-management behavior, but few have explored ways through which this occurs. The present study examines to what extent health literacy is associated with diabetes self-management behavior and to what extent diabetes

  2. Rationale, design, and method of the Diabetes & Women's Health study – a study of long-term health implications of glucose intolerance in pregnancy and their determinants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Cuilin; Hu, Frank B; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2014-01-01

    or public health interventions in relation to the transition of gestational diabetes mellitus to type 2 diabetes mellitus. To achieve the goal efficiently, we are applying a hybrid design enrolling and collecting data longitudinally from approximately 4000 women with a medical history of gestational...... in determining the transition from gestational diabetes mellitus to overt type 2 diabetes mellitus. These critical data gaps served as the impetus for this Diabetes & Women's Health study with the overall goal of investigating genetic factors and their interactions with risk factors amenable to clinical...... diabetes mellitus in two existing prospective cohorts, the Nurses' Health Study II and the Danish National Birth Cohort. Women who had a medical history of gestational diabetes mellitus in one or more of their pregnancies are eligible for the present study. After enrollment, we follow study participants...

  3. Design of a randomized trial of diabetes genetic risk testing to motivate behavior change: the Genetic Counseling/lifestyle Change (GC/LC) Study for Diabetes Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Richard W; Meigs, James B; Florez, Jose C; Park, Elyse R; Green, Robert C; Waxler, Jessica L; Delahanty, Linda M; O'Brien, Kelsey E

    2011-10-01

    The efficacy of diabetes genetic risk testing to motivate behavior change for diabetes prevention is currently unknown. This paper presents key issues in the design and implementation of one of the first randomized trials (The Genetic Counseling/Lifestyle Change (GC/LC) Study for Diabetes Prevention) to test whether knowledge of diabetes genetic risk can motivate patients to adopt healthier behaviors. Because individuals may react differently to receiving 'higher' vs 'lower' genetic risk results, we designed a 3-arm parallel group study to separately test the hypotheses that: (1) patients receiving 'higher' diabetes genetic risk results will increase healthy behaviors compared to untested controls, and (2) patients receiving 'lower' diabetes genetic risk results will decrease healthy behaviors compared to untested controls. In this paper we describe several challenges to implementing this study, including: (1) the application of a novel diabetes risk score derived from genetic epidemiology studies to a clinical population, (2) the use of the principle of Mendelian randomization to efficiently exclude 'average' diabetes genetic risk patients from the intervention, and (3) the development of a diabetes genetic risk counseling intervention that maintained the ethical need to motivate behavior change in both 'higher' and 'lower' diabetes genetic risk result recipients. Diabetes genetic risk scores were developed by aggregating the results of 36 diabetes-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms. Relative risk for type 2 diabetes was calculated using Framingham Offspring Study outcomes, grouped by quartiles into 'higher', 'average' (middle two quartiles) and 'lower' genetic risk. From these relative risks, revised absolute risks were estimated using the overall absolute risk for the study group. For study efficiency, we excluded all patients receiving 'average' diabetes risk results from the subsequent intervention. This post-randomization allocation strategy was

  4. Resilient, Empowered, Active Living with Diabetes (REAL Diabetes) study: Methodology and baseline characteristics of a randomized controlled trial evaluating an occupation-based diabetes management intervention for young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatak, Elizabeth A; Carandang, Kristine; Vigen, Cheryl; Blanchard, Jeanine; Sequeira, Paola A; Wood, Jamie R; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Whittemore, Robin; Peters, Anne L

    2017-03-01

    This paper describes the study protocol used to evaluate the Resilient, Empowered, Active Living with Diabetes (REAL Diabetes) intervention and reports on baseline characteristics of recruited participants. REAL Diabetes is an activity-based intervention designed to address the needs of young adults diagnosed with type 1 (T1D) or type 2 diabetes (T2D) from low socioeconomic status or racial/ethnic minority backgrounds. The REAL intervention incorporates tailored delivery of seven content modules addressing various dimensions of health and well-being as they relate to diabetes, delivered by a licensed occupational therapist. In this pilot randomized controlled trial, participants are assigned to the REAL Diabetes intervention or an attention control condition. The study's primary recruitment strategies included in-person recruitment at diabetes clinics, mass mailings to clinic patients, and social media advertising. Data collection includes baseline and 6-month assessments of primary outcomes, secondary outcomes, and hypothesized mediators of intervention effects, as well as ongoing process evaluation assessment to ensure study protocol adherence and intervention fidelity. At baseline, participants (n=81) were 51% female, 78% Latino, and on average 22.6years old with an average HbA1c of 10.8%. A majority of participants (61.7%) demonstrated clinically significant diabetes distress and 27.2% reported symptoms consistent with major depressive disorder. Compared to participants with T1D, participants with T2D had lower diabetes-related self-efficacy and problem-solving skills. Compared to participants recruited at clinics, participants recruited through other strategies had greater diabetes knowledge but weaker medication adherence. Participants in the REAL study demonstrate clinically significant medical and psychosocial needs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Study of Knowledge and Practice of Patient Self directed Care among Diabetics Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Abedini

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and ObjectivesDiabetic patients play the main role in the management of their disease. Adequate knowledge of this disease state and self directed patient care will improve the health of these patients. Some studies have indicated a high prevalence of diabetes complication are due to the lack of knowledge of self directed patient care and practice in diabetic patient group. The objective of this study is to measure the knowledge level of self directed patient care and practice in order to evaluate their effects on improvement of diabetic patients' health in the city of Qom, Iran.MethodsIn this cross sectional study 1004 patients with diabetes participated (During year 2006. Data were collected from patients of General Hospital metabolism and endocrine research center.An interviewing method was used to asses the demographics data, history of disease, and knowledge of self directed patient care in these patients. Data were analyzed using a descriptive statistic, chi-square, and Pearson correlation coefficient, and SPSS software.ResultsOut of 1004 observed case, 154 patients were with Diabetes type I and 850 patients with Diabetes type II. The knowledge of self directed patient care and practice level of with both types of diabetes were determined to be mostly at an intermediate level. In type I diabetic patients there was a significant relation between knowledge level of self directed patient care and gender of the patients (P=0.01. Also, there was a significant correlation between practice and age (P=0.03(, and economical status (P=0.06 of the patients. In type II diabetic patients there was a significant relation between knowledge level of self directed patient care and educational level (P=0.00(, and economical status (P=0.01 of the patients. The practice level of self directed patient care was significantly related to economical status (p=0.03 in this group of patients. ConclusionThese results indicate that an increase in knowledge

  6. Diabetes knowledge translation status in developing countries: A mixed method study among diabetes researchers in case of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Valinejadi; Farahnaz Sadoughi; Masoud Salehi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite considerable investment in research, the existing research evidence is frequently not implemented and/or leads to useless or detrimental care in healthcare. The knowledge-practice gap proposed as one of the main causes of not achieving the treatment goals in diabetes. Iran also is facing a difference between the production and utilization of the knowledge of diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the status of diabetes knowledge translation (KT) in Iran. Methods...

  7. A clinical study on insulin receptors of mononuclear cells in diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalimunthe, D.

    1980-01-01

    125 I-insulin binding activity to mononuclear cells was studied in 75 noninsulin-dependent diabetic subjects and 31 normal subjects and the following results were obtained. 1. 125 I-insulin binding is directly proportional to the mononuclear cell concentrations. There is a linear increase of specific 125 I-insulin binding. 2. The binding of 125 I-insulin to mononuclear cells is displaced by the increasing concentration of native insulin. 3. The 125 I-insulin degradation in the incubation medium after incubation of mononuclear cells for 24 hours at 4 0 C was almost 5% in this study. 4. The insulin binding activity in diabetic subjects was lower than that in normal subjects (P < 0.001) without any significant difference in affinity constant. 5. The relationship of binding activity to age of diabetics (r = 0.06, N.S), relative body weitht (r = 0.06, N.S) and duration of diabetes from onset was not significant. 6. In untreated noninsulin-dependent diabetics the insulin binding activity was inversely correlated to fasting blood glucose level (r = 0.78, P < 0.001) and slightly inversely correlated to serum insulin level (r = 0.47, P < 0.01). A slight inverse correlation was also observed in serum triglyceride level (r = 0.53, P < 0.01) and in total cholesterol level (r = 0.29, P < 0.05). 7. No significant difference between the binding activity was observed by grade of diabetic retinopathy. 8. After treatment with diet and/or sulfonylurea, the diabetics exhibited a significant increase in insulin binding activity (P < 0.005) but no significant difference in plasma insulin level, body weight and plasma lipid levels was observed. (author)

  8. Congenital Heart Diseases in the Newborns of Diabetic Mothers: an Echocardiographic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rahimpour

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite the discovery of insulin and current improvement in diabetics care, congenital malformations in diabetics are still more frequent than in the general population. The aim of this study was to identify congenital heart dieases (CHD in the newborns of diabetic mothers (IDMS. Methods: In our prospective study, color doppler echocardiography was performed in 75 consecutive full- term newborns of diabetic mothers by GE Vivid3 echocardiographic device. Newborns were classified into two subgroups according to the type of the mothers’ diabetes: pre-gestational and gestational. They were also those were classified into three subgroups according to their birth weight: appropriate, large and small for gestational age. Data analysis was made by Fisher exact test and Chi-Square test. Results: Forty nine (65% and thirty six (35% of subjects were infants of gestational (IGDM and pre-gestational diabetic mothers (IPDM, respectively. Fifty five Newborns (73% were apropriate, fourteen (19% were large and six (8% were small for gestational age. The most common echocardiographic findings included: patent ductus arteriosus (PDA: 54.7%, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCMP: 24%, ventricular septal defect (VSD: 4%, atrial septal defect (ASD: 2.7%, transposition of great arteries (TGA: 1.3% and coarctation of the Aorta (COA: 1.3%. Overall incidence of congenital heart diseases was 9.3 after exclusion of PDA and HCMP cases. The incidence of congenital heart diseases was higher in macrosomic than nonmacrosomic infants of diabetic mothers (P<0.001. Congenital heart diseases were more common in infants of pre-gestational than gestational diabetic mothers (P=0.004. Conclusion: Our results showed that diabetic mothers are at increased risk of giving birth to a newborn with congenital heart disease, and transthoracic echocardiography is recommended for all infants of diabetic mothers.

  9. Study of the pathogenesis and treatment of diabetes mellitus through animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito-Casillas, Yeray; Melián, Carlos; Wägner, Ana María

    2016-01-01

    Most research in diabetes mellitus (DM) has been conducted in animals, and their replacement is currently a chimera. As compared to when they started to be used by modern science in the 17th century, a very high number of animal models of diabetes is now available, and they provide new insights into almost every aspect of diabetes. Approaches combining human, in vitro, and animal studies are probably the best strategy to improve our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of diabetes, and the choice of the best model to achieve such objective is crucial. Traditionally classified based on pathogenesis as spontaneous or induced models, each has its own advantages and disadvantages. The most common animal models of diabetes are described, and in addition to non-obese diabetic mice, biobreeding diabetes-prone (BB-DP) rats, streptozotocin-induced models, or high-fat diet-induced diabetic C57Bl/6J mice, new valuable models, such as dogs and cats with spontaneous diabetes, are described. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. The relationship between hypomagnesemia, metformin therapy and cardiovascular disease complicating type 2 diabetes: the Fremantle Diabetes Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten E Peters

    Full Text Available Low serum magnesium concentrations have been associated with cardiovascular disease risk and outcomes in some general population studies but there are no equivalent studies in diabetes. Metformin may have cardiovascular benefits beyond blood glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes but its association with hypomagnesemia appears paradoxical. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between metformin therapy, magnesium homoeostasis and cardiovascular disease in well-characterized type 2 patients from the community.We studied 940 non-insulin-treated patients (mean ± SD age 63.4 ± 11.6 years, 49.0% males from the longitudinal observational Fremantle Diabetes Study Phase I (FDS1 who were followed for 12.3 ± 5.3 years. Baseline serum magnesium was measured using stored sera. Multivariate methods were used to determine associates of prevalent and incident coronary heart disease (CHD and cerebrovascular disease (CVD as ascertained from self-report and linked morbidity/mortality databases. 19% of patients were hypomagnesemic (serum magnesium <0.70 mmol/L. Patients on metformin, alone or combined with a sulfonylurea, had lower serum magnesium concentrations than those on diet alone (P<0.05. There were no independent associations between serum magnesium or metformin therapy and either CHD or CVD at baseline. Incident CVD, but not CHD, was independently and inversely associated with serum magnesium (hazard ratio (95% CI 0.28 (0.11-0.74; P=0.010, but metformin therapy was not a significant variable in these models.Since hypomagnesemia appears to be an independent risk factor for CVD complicating type 2 diabetes, the value of replacement therapy should be investigated further, especially in patients at high CVD risk.

  11. Prevalence of dyslipidemia in adult Indian diabetic patients: A cross sectional study (SOLID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrish Mithal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: India leads the world with largest number of diabetic patients and is often referred to as the diabetes capital of the world. Diabetic dyslipidemia in India is one of the main cause for Coronary Artery Disease (CAD mortality. Although diabetes continues to be a major lifestyle condition in India, there is a lack of studies in India on whether dyslipidemia in Indian diabetics is being adequately controlled. Our study provides critical insights into the insights into proportion of diabetes patients achieving lipid goal in India. Aims: The primary objective of our study was to assess the control of dyslipidemia in the Indian diabetic population treated with lipid lowering drugs (LLDs, as per American Diabetes Association (ADA 2010 guidelines. Settings and Design: The study was carried out in a real world Indian clinical setting involving 178 sites. This is a multicenter, noninterventional, and cross-sectional observational study. Materials and Methods: A total of 5400 adult subjects with established type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and dyslipidemia were recruited for the study. Patients in the study were on LLD at a stable dose for at least last 3 months before the designated study visit. Routine lipid profile tests were conducted for all patients. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics was used to analyze qualitative and discrete variables. Chi-square test and t-test were conducted to assess the existence of statistically significant association between the variables. Results: A total of 5400 patients with T2DM from 178 centers across India were recruited. Out of the total population, 56.75% (N = 3065 of them were males. Primary end-point of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C level below ADA 2010 target was achieved in a total of 48.74% (N = 2632 patients. Gender was significantly associated with lipid levels and age was significantly (P < 0.05 correlated with all lipid levels. Control rates of other lipid parameters like

  12. Study on the changes of three renal functional parameters in patients with diabetic retinopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Rong; Li Sumei; Zhang Li; Ye Shandong; Jin Chunyan; Ren An; Chen Ruoping; Chen Chao

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between development of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and changes of urinary albumin (UAlb),urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR), glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (SCr), 24 hours UAlb, ACR, radionuclide renal dynamic imaging (for GFR determination) and bilatera1 retinal photography were examined in 124 patients with type 2 diabetes. Of them 51 were without diabetic retinopathy(group A), 50 were with simple retinopathy(group B) and 23 were complicated with proliferate retinopathy(group C). Results: The UAlb, ACR in the patients with complicated diabetic retinopathy were significantly higher than those in the other two groups, while the GFR was significantly lower (P<0.05). Correlationship studies revealed that UAlb, ACR and GFR were independent risk factors of diabetic retinopathy. Conclusion: The severity of type 2 diabetes retinopathy is closely linked with the increase of UAlb, ACR and the decrease of GFR. Radionuclide renal dynamic imaging is helpful for the diagnosis of early stage of diabetic nephropathy (DN). (authors)

  13. Diabetes and Cognitive Decline in Older Adults: The Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Priya; Carlson, Michelle C; Crum, Rosa M; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Sharrett, A Richey; Yasar, Sevil; Nahin, Richard L; DeKosky, Steven T; Snitz, Beth; Lopez, Oscar; Williamson, Jeff D; Furberg, Curt D; Rapp, Stephen R; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2017-12-12

    Previous studies have shown that individuals with diabetes exhibit accelerated cognitive decline. However, methodological limitations have limited the quality of this evidence. Heterogeneity in study design, cognitive test administration, and methods of analysis of cognitive data have made it difficult to synthesize and translate findings to practice. We analyzed longitudinal data from the Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory Study to test our hypothesis that older adults with diabetes have greater test-specific and domain-specific cognitive declines compared to older adults without diabetes. Tests of memory, visuo-spatial construction, language, psychomotor speed, and executive function were administered. Test scores were standardized to z-scores and averaged to yield domain scores. Linear random effects models were used to compare baseline differences and changes over time in test and domain scores among individuals with and without diabetes. Among the 3,069 adults, aged 72-96 years, 9.3% reported diabetes. Over a median follow-up of 6.1 years, participants with diabetes exhibited greater baseline differences in a test of executive function (trail making test, Part B) and greater declines in a test of language (phonemic verbal fluency). For the composite cognitive domain scores, participants with diabetes exhibited lower baseline executive function and global cognition domain scores, but no significant differences in the rate of decline. Identifying cognitive domains most affected by diabetes can lead to targeted risk modification, possibly in the form of lifestyle interventions such as diet and physical activity, which we know to be beneficial for improving vascular risk factors, such as diabetes, and therefore may reduce the risk of executive dysfunction and possible dementia. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Adherence to healthy lifestyle and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cuilin; Tobias, Deirdre K; Chavarro, Jorge E; Bao, Wei; Wang, Dong; Ley, Sylvia H; Hu, Frank B

    2014-09-30

    To quantify the association between a combination of healthy lifestyle factors before pregnancy (healthy body weight, healthy diet, regular exercise, and not smoking) and the risk of gestational diabetes. Prospective cohort study. Nurses' Health Study II, United States. 20,136 singleton live births in 14,437 women without chronic disease. Self reported incident gestational diabetes diagnosed by a physician, validated by medical records in a previous study. Incident first time gestational diabetes was reported in 823 pregnancies. Each lifestyle factor measured was independently and significantly associated with risk of gestational diabetes. The combination of three low risk factors (non-smoker, ≥ 150 minutes a week of moderate to vigorous physical activity, and healthy eating (top two fifths of Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010 adherence score)) was associated with a 41% lower risk of gestational diabetes compared with all other pregnancies (relative risk 0.59, 95% confidence interval 0.48 to 0.71). Addition of body mass index (BMI) diabetes compared with all other pregnancies (relative risk 0.48, 0.38 to 0.61). Compared with pregnancies in women who did not meet any of the low risk lifestyle factors, those meeting all four criteria had an 83% lower risk of gestational diabetes (relative risk 0.17, 0.12 to 0.25). The population attributable risk percentage of the four risk factors in combination (smoking, inactivity, overweight, and poor diet) was 47.5% (95% confidence interval 35.6% to 56.6%). A similar population attributable risk percentage (49.2%) was observed when the distributions of the four low risk factors from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-10) data were applied to the calculation. Adherence to a low risk lifestyle before pregnancy is associated with a low risk of gestational diabetes and could be an effective strategy for the prevention of gestational diabetes. © Zhang et al 2014.

  15. Gender disparities in diabetes and coronary heart disease medication among patients with type 2 diabetes: results from the DIANA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krämer Heike U

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary heart disease (CHD is one of the most common long-term complications in people with type 2 diabetes. We analyzed whether or not gender differences exist in diabetes and CHD medication among people with type 2 diabetes. Methods The study was based on data from the baseline examination of the DIANA study, a prospective cohort study of 1,146 patients with type 2 diabetes conducted in South-West Germany. Information on diabetes and CHD medication was obtained from the physician questionnaires. Bivariate and multivariate analyses using logistic regression were employed in order to assess associations between gender and prescribed drug classes. Results In total, 624 men and 522 women with type 2 diabetes with a mean age of 67.2 and 69.7 years, respectively, were included in this analysis. Compared to women, men had more angiopathic risk factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption and worse glycemic control, and had more often a diagnosed CHD. Bivariate analyses showed higher prescription of thiazolidinediones and oral combination drugs as well as of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors, calcium channel blockers and aspirin in men than in women. After full adjustment, differences between men and women remained significant only for ACE inhibitors (OR = 1.44; 95%-confidence interval (CI: 1.11 – 1.88 and calcium channel blockers (OR = 1.42, 95%-CI: 1.05 – 1.91. Conclusions These findings contribute to current discussions on gender differences in diabetes care. Men with diabetes are significantly more likely to receive oral combination drugs, ACE inhibitors and calcium channel blockers in the presence of coronary heart disease, respectively. Our results suggest, that diabetic men might be more thoroughly treated compared to women. Further research is needed to focus on reasons for these differences mainly in treatment of cardiovascular diseases to improve quality of care.

  16. Globalization, immigration and diabetes self-management: an empirical study amongst immigrants with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabit, H; Shah, S; Nash, M; Brema, I; Nolan, J J; Martin, G

    2009-10-01

    We have previously reported that immigrants in Ireland have poorer glycemic control compared with a matched population of Irish patients. This may be associated with poor diabetes self-care and low health literacy. To compare the diabetes self-care profile of non-Irish-national patients i.e. immigrant patients (IM) and Irish patients (IR) attending a hospital diabetes clinic and to evaluate differences in health literacy between the two cohorts. We studied the differences in diabetes self-management between 52 randomly selected non-Irish-national patients with type 2 diabetes and 48 randomly selected Irish/Caucasian patients. Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) was used to assess health literacy. IM had poorer glycemic control than IR (HbA1c 8.0 +/- 1.9 vs. 6.9 +/- 1.4%, P diabetes care; 65.9% can only provide information on simple or familiar topics about their diabetes. Health literacy was found to be lower in the IM groups when assessed using REALM (52.7 vs. 61.4, P = 0.01). Those providing diabetes education and care need to be aware of differing patient expectations regarding family involvement in the care of their diabetes and the possible contribution of language problems and lower health literacy to a limited understanding of diabetes self-care.

  17. Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin and Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 1 Diabetic Patients in a Four-Year Follow-Up Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine Elkjaer; Hansen, Henrik Post; Jensen, Berit Ruud

    2010-01-01

    Background: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), a marker of renal tubular damage, predicts progression in non-diabetic chronic kidney. We evaluated urinary (u)-NGAL as a predictor of progression in diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients. Methods: As a substudy of a 4......-year randomized, intervention study evaluating low-protein diet in T1D patients with diabetic nephropathy, 78 patients were studied with yearly measurements of u-NGAL (ELISA, BioPorto). Outcome: Decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) ((51)Cr-EDTA), and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or death...

  18. Factors associated with numbers of remaining teeth among type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jui-Chu; Peng, Yun-Shing; Fan, Jun-Yu; Jane, Sui-Whi; Tu, Liang-Tse; Chang, Chang-Cheng; Chen, Mei-Yen

    2013-07-01

    To explore the factors associated with the numbers of remaining teeth among type 2 diabetes community residents. Promoting oral health is an important nursing role for patients with diabetes, especially in disadvantaged areas. However, limited research has been carried out on the relationship between numbers of remaining teeth, diabetes-related biomarkers and personal oral hygiene among diabetic rural residents. A cross-sectional, descriptive design with a simple random sample was used. This study was part of a longitudinal cohort study of health promotion for preventing diabetic foot among rural community diabetic residents. It was carried out in 18 western coastal and inland districts of Chiayi County in central Taiwan. In total, 703 participants were enrolled in this study. The findings indicated that a high percentage of the participants (26%) had no remaining natural teeth. Nearly three quarters (74%) had fewer than 20 natural teeth. After controlling for the potential confounding factors, multivariate analysis demonstrated that the factors determining numbers of remaining teeth were age (p teeth were less tooth-brushing with dental floss, abnormal ankle brachial pressure and poor glycemic control. This study highlights the importance of nursing intervention in oral hygiene for patients with type 2 diabetes. It is necessary to initiate oral health promotion activities when diabetes is first diagnosed, especially for older diabetic residents of rural or coastal areas who are poorly educated. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Canine diabetes mellitus risk factors: A matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöppl, Alan Gomes; de Carvalho, Guilherme Luiz Carvalho; Vivian, Itatiele Farias; Corbellini, Luis Gustavo; González, Félix Hilário Díaz

    2017-10-01

    Different subtypes of canine diabetes mellitus (CDM) have been described based on their aetiopathogenesis. Therefore, manifold risk factors may be involved in CDM development. This study aims to investigate canine diabetes mellitus risk factors. Owners of 110 diabetic dogs and 136 healthy controls matched by breed, sex, and age were interviewed concerning aspects related to diet, weight, physical activity, oral health, reproductive history, pancreatitis, and exposure to exogenous glucocorticoids. Two multivariate multivariable statistical models were created: The UMod included males and females without variables related to oestrous cycle, while the FMod included only females with all analysed variables. In the UMod, "Not exclusively commercial diet" (OR 4.86, 95%CI 2.2-10.7, Pdiet" (OR 4.14, 95%CI 1.3-12.7, P=0.01), "Table scraps abuse" (OR 3.62, 95%CI 1.1-12.2, P=0.03), "Overweight" (OR 3.91, 95%CI 1.2-12.6, P=0.02), and "Dioestrus" (OR 5.53, 95%CI 1.9-16.3, P=0.002) were statistically significant. The findings in this study support feeding not exclusively balanced commercial dog food, overweight, treats abuse, and diestrus, as main CDM risk factors. Moreover, those results give subside for preventive care studies against CDM development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Can ultrasound abdomen help in early diagnosis of diabetes mellitus? an observational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, J.; Aamir, M.O.; Imdad, Z.U.H.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common disease. Similarly, ultrasound findings of fatty change and renal crystals are commonly seen on ultrasound. In the personal observation of the main author over the past so many years it was noticed that Diabetes Mellitus, Fatty liver and renal crystals all sit well together. This study tries to establish a relationship between diabetes mellitus renal echogenic foci and fatty liver. This study is first of its kind, as nobody has ever before investigated an association between the renal echogenic foci and fatty liver in relation to diabetes mellitus. Methods: This cross-sectional, observational study was conducted at Radiology Department Combined Military Hospital, Kohat From 2nd June 2013 to 30th May 2014. Three hundred patients were collected on the basis of having fatty liver and renal echogenic foci on ultrasound and three hundred more patients were collected who had no fatty liver or renal echogenic foci on ultrasound. Their labs were done for diabetes mellitus. Results: The patients having renal echogenic foci together with fatty liver had 83% positive rate of being diabetics, while patients with no fatty liver and no echogenic foci on ultrasonography had only 0.6% Positive rate of being diabetics. Conclusion: Our results provided the first demonstration of an association between renal echogenic foci together with fatty liver with the diabetes mellitus. Thus ultrasound examination of abdomen can be helpful in its early diagnosis if we make a protocol of doing fasting and random blood sugars in all those patients who have positive renal echogenic foci and fatty liver on their ultrasound examination. (author)

  1. Napping and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a population-based prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hublin, Christer; Lehtovirta, Mikko; Partinen, Markku; Koskenvuo, Markku; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2016-01-01

    Some studies indicate an association between napping and increased risk of type 2 diabetes. We studied this prospectively in a sample representative of general population. A questionnaire was administered to the Finnish Twin Cohort in 1990 (response rate 77%, age 33-60 years). The study population included 12,244 subjects who replied to the question "Do you sleep during the daytime (take naps)?" with five response alternatives ranging from "no need" to "every or almost every day." Information on incident cases of diabetes was obtained by linkage to nationwide registers. Logistic regression models were used to obtain odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence intervals) for incident type 2 diabetes risk in 1991-2004 by napping category. Adjustments were made for 11 socio-demographic and lifestyle covariates. For subjects aged 33-45 years at baseline, a questionnaire in 2011 provided information on prevalent diabetes. Thirty-four per cent had no need for napping, and 15% did so on ≥3 days weekly. There were 356 incident type 2 diabetes cases during the follow-up. Using the 'no need' category as the reference, the risk of type 2 diabetes was significantly increased only among those napping most frequently [OR 1.86 (1.29-2.67), age- and sex-adjusted]. After adjusting for other covariates, the results were essentially the same, but when adjusted for body mass index, the association decreased (to about 1.3) and was statistically non-significant. Analysis of 2011 self-reported type 2 diabetes was in line with the register data. Frequent napping is associated with future risk of type 2 diabetes. This association is largely explained by obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Self-perception in Iranian adolescents with diabetes: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Shahnaz; Parsa-Yekta, Zahra; Najafi-Ghezeljeh, Tahereh; Vanaki, Zohreh; Zarea, Kourosh

    2015-01-01

    It is obvious that self-perception can play an important role in the development of self-management behaviours among adolescents with diabetes to promote their health and quality of life. This study seeks to explain self-perception in adolescents with diabetes. This qualitative study, which is of "grounded theory" type, was performed in 2013 in Ahvaz, Iran, through semi-structured interviews with ten adolescents with type 1 diabetes, two parents and a nurse, who were chosen objectively. Data analysis was performed using Strauss and Corbin 1998 method. Four main theme was obtained from the analysis of data, and the consequence theme was inferred as follows: getting insight (knowledge acquisition and belief management), perceiving similarities with others (not hiding the disease, showing the illness is normal, and accepting an active role in the family), and self-care management (independent control of food and treatment regimen and understanding of capabilities to manage the future of life and manage the daily activities of life), and life satisfaction (perception of being healthy and having a normal life). Getting insight into the disease is the most important part of perceiving similarities with others and offering self-care, which can provide a person's positive perception of himself/herself and the illness, as well as life satisfaction for their adolescent over time. These results are an operational guide for personnel providing health care services, especially diabetes specialist nurses.

  3. Determinants of Intravascular Resistance in Indian Diabetic Nephropathy Patients: A Hospital-Based Study

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    Anubhav Thukral

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives. Metabolic dysregulation has failed to explain clinical variability of patients with diabetic nephropathy and hence a renewed interest emerged in haemodynamic factors as determinant of progression and development of diabetic nephropathy. We therefore studied for various factors which can correlate with raised renal vascular resistance in diabetic nephropathy. Material and Methods. Renal vascular resistance was measured in patients with established and incipient diabetic nephropathy and compared with controls using noninvasive color Doppler examinations of intrarenal vasculature. Results. Renal vascular resistance correlated with age, duration of disease, GFR, serum creatinine, and stage of retinopathy. Renal vascular resistance was significantly reduced in patients on treatment with RAAS inhibitors and insulin, than those on OHA and antihypertensives other than RAAS inhibitors. Conclusion. The study implies that renal vascular resistance may help identify diabetics at high risk of developing nephropathy, and these set of patients could be candidates for RAAS inhibition and early insulin therapy even in patients without albuminuria.

  4. Impairment of Colour Vision in Diabetes with No Retinopathy: Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology and Molecular Genetics Study (SNDREAMS- II, Report 3.

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    Laxmi Gella

    Full Text Available To assess impairment of colour vision in type 2 diabetics with no diabetic retinopathy and elucidate associated risk factors in a population-based cross-sectional study.This is part of Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology and Molecular-genetics Study (SN-DREAMS II which was conducted between 2007-2010. FM 100 hue-test was performed in 253 subjects with no clinical evidence of diabetic retinopathy. All subjects underwent detailed ophthalmic evaluation including cataract grading using LOCS III and 45° 4-field stereoscopic fundus photography. Various ocular and systemic risk factors for impairment of colour vision (ICV were assessed in subjects with diabetes but no retinopathy. P value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.The mean age of the study sample was 57.08 ± 9.21 (range: 44-86 years. Gender adjusted prevalence of ICV among subjects with diabetes with no retinopathy was 39.5% (CI: 33.5-45.5. The mean total error score in the study sample was 197.77 ± 100 (range: 19-583. The risk factors for ICV in the study were women OR: 1.79 (1.00-3.18, increased resting heart rate OR: 1.04 (1.01-1.07 and increased intraocular pressure OR: 1.12 (1.00-1.24. Significant protective factor was serum high-density lipoprotein OR: 0.96 (0.93-0.99.Acquired ICV is an early indicator of neurodegenerative changes in the retina. ICV found in diabetic subjects without retinopathy may be of non-vascular etiology.

  5. Diabetes risk in women with gestational diabetes mellitus and a history of polycystic ovary syndrome: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, R; Pace, R; Rahme, E; Dasgupta, K

    2017-12-01

    To investigate whether polycystic ovary syndrome further increases postpartum diabetes risk in women with gestational diabetes mellitus and to explore relationships between polycystic ovary syndrome and incident diabetes in women who do not develop gestational diabetes. This retrospective cohort study (Quebec Physician Services Claims; Hospitalization Discharge Databases; Birth and Death registries) included 34 686 women with gestational diabetes during pregnancy (live birth), matched 1:1 to women without gestational diabetes by age group, year of delivery and health region. Diagnostic codes were used to define polycystic ovary syndrome and incident diabetes. Cox regression models were used to examine associations between polycystic ovary syndrome and incident diabetes. Polycystic ovary syndrome was present in 1.5% of women with gestational diabetes and 1.2% of women without gestational diabetes. There were more younger mothers and mothers who were not of white European ancestry among those with polycystic ovary syndrome. Those with polycystic ovary syndrome more often had a comorbidity and a lower proportion had a previous pregnancy. Polycystic ovary syndrome was associated with incident diabetes (hazard ratio 1.52; 95% CI 1.27, 1.82) among women with gestational diabetes. No conclusive associations between polycystic ovary syndrome and diabetes were identified (hazard ratio 0.94; 95% CI 0.39, 2.27) in women without gestational diabetes. In women with gestational diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome confers additional risk for incident diabetes postpartum. In women without gestational diabetes, an association between PCOS and incident diabetes was not observed. Given the already elevated risk of diabetes in women with a history of gestational diabetes, a history of both polycystic ovary syndrome and gestational diabetes signal a critical need for diabetes surveillance and prevention. © 2017 Diabetes UK.

  6. Effects of gestational and pregestational diabetes mellitus on the foetal heart: a cross-sectional study.

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    Dervisoglu, Pinar; Kosecik, Mustafa; Kumbasar, Serkan

    2018-04-01

    We examined the foetal cardiac structural and functional characteristics in diabetic pregnancies versus non-diabetic, healthy pregnancies. Between August 2015 and April 2016, 32 pregnant women with pregestational diabetes, 36 pregnant women with gestational diabetes, and 42 healthy pregnant women were scheduled to have foetal echocardiograms to assess cardiac structure and function. In the diabetic groups, the foetal interventricular septum (IVS) thickness was significantly greater than in non-diabetics (p 2 SD from normal. The peak velocity of tricuspid E, and the E/A ratio were significantly lower in the diabetic groups (p diabetic group than in the control group (p  .05). Interventricular septal hypertrophy is the most common structural abnormality in diabetic pregnancies. These changes do not pose a risk to the foetal unless they cause functional impairment. Thus, we believe that it is important for diabetic pregnant women to be monitored for foetal cardiac diastolic dysfunction. Impact statement What is already known on this subject? Pregestational insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is a relatively common condition in pregnancy, affecting up to 0.5% of the pregnant population. Foetuses of diabetic mothers are at an increased risk of perinatal morbidity and death. Gestational diabetes mellitus is under-recognised and affects up to 4% of pregnancies. Although diabetes mellitus is known to increase the risk of cardiovascular defects and structural changes (myocardial hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction) due to foetal hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinism, similar data in women with gestational diabetes is scarce. Moreover, the effect of maternal hyperglycaemia on foetal cardiac structure and function is unclear because of discordant results from previous studies. What do the results of this study add? In this study, we have used foetal echocardiography, two-dimensional US, pulsed wave Doppler and TDI to characterise the foetal cardiac structure and

  7. The Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Memory in Diabetes Study (ACCORD-MIND): rationale, design, and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Jeff D; Miller, Michael E; Bryan, R Nick; Lazar, Ronald M; Coker, Laura H; Johnson, Janice; Cukierman, Tali; Horowitz, Karen R; Murray, Anne; Launer, Lenore J

    2007-06-18

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus and cognitive impairment are 2 of the most common chronic conditions found in persons aged > or = 60 years. Clinical studies have shown a greater prevalence of global cognitive impairment, incidence of cognitive decline, and incidence of Alzheimer disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. To date, there have been no randomized trials of the effects of long-term glycemic control on cognitive function and structural brain changes in patients with type 2 diabetes. The primary aim of the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) Memory in Diabetes Study (ACCORD-MIND) is to test whether there is a difference in the rate of cognitive decline and structural brain change in patients with diabetes treated with standard-care guidelines compared with those treated with intensive-care guidelines. This comparison will be made in a subsample of 2,977 patients with diabetes participating in the ongoing ACCORD trial, a clinical trial sponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) with support from the National Institute on Aging (NIA). Data from this ACCORD substudy on the possible beneficial or adverse effects of intensive treatment on cognitive function will be obtained from a 30-minute test battery, administered at baseline and 20-month and 40-month visits. In addition, full-brain magnetic resonance imaging will be performed on 630 participants at baseline and at 40 months to assess the relation between the ACCORD treatments and structural brain changes. The general aim of ACCORD-MIND is to determine whether the intensive treatment of diabetes, a major risk factor for Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia, can reduce the early decline in cognitive function that could later evolve into more cognitively disabling conditions. This report presents the design, rationale, and methods of the ACCORD-MIND substudy.

  8. Vejle Diabetes Biobank – a resource for studies of the etiologies of diabetes and its comorbidities

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    Petersen ERB

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Eva Rabing Brix Petersen,1,2 Aneta Aleksandra Nielsen,1 Henry Christensen,1 Torben Hansen,3 Oluf Pedersen,3 Cramer Kjeldahl Christensen,4 Ivan Brandslund1,2 1Department of Clinical Immunology and Biochemistry, Lillebaelt Hospital, Vejle, 2Faculty of Health Sciences, Institute of Regional Health Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, 3Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Section of Metabolic Genetics, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 4Department of Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, Lillebaelt Hospital, Vejle, Denmark Aims: Carefully designed and established biobanks are considered one of the most essential resources to foster biomedical research as they provide cost-effective and rapid access to a vast variety of biological materials and related anthropometrics allowing for testing of various biomarkers as well as numerous original and pertinent bioclinical hypotheses related to human disease etiology and prognosis. The objective of the present study was to present the baseline data, design, and methods used for the establishment of the Vejle Diabetes Biobank. Further aims included assessment of the prevalence of diabetes and quality of diabetes treatment in a specified Danish region.Methods: The Vejle Diabetes Biobank was established from 2007 to 2010 as a regional Biobank containing blood, DNA, and urine samples from patients with diabetes and a gender- and age-matched control population aged 25–75 years. Anthropometrics were obtained by physical examination, questionnaires, and interviews at the time of inclusion into the Biobank. The cohort was linked to the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish National Patient Registry, and the Danish National Prescription Registry.Results: In total, 4,255 nondiabetic individuals and 3,320 patients with diabetes were included. Type 2 diabetes (T2D patients had a higher body mass index (30 kg/m2 than type 1 diabetes

  9. Metabolomics applied to diabetes-lessons from human population studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liggi, Sonia; Griffin, Julian L

    2017-12-01

    The 'classical' distribution of type 2 diabetes (T2D) across the globe is rapidly changing and it is no longer predominantly a disease of middle-aged/elderly adults of western countries, but it is becoming more common through Asia and the Middle East, as well as increasingly found in younger individuals. This global altered incidence of T2D is most likely associated with the spread of western diets and sedentary lifestyles, although there is still much debate as to whether the increased incidence rates are due to an overconsumption of fats, sugars or more generally high-calorie foods. In this context, understanding the interactions between genes of risk and diet and how they influence the incidence of T2D will help define the causative pathways of the disease. This review focuses on the use of metabolomics in large cohort studies to follow the incidence of type 2 diabetes in different populations. Such approaches have been used to identify new biomarkers of pre-diabetes, such as branch chain amino acids, and associate metabolomic profiles with genes of known risk in T2D from large scale GWAS studies. As the field develops, there are also examples of meta-analysis across metabolomics cohort studies and cross-comparisons with different populations to allow us to understand how genes and diet contribute to disease risk. Such approaches demonstrate that insulin resistance and T2D have far reaching metabolic effects beyond raised blood glucose and how the disease impacts systemic metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. DIABETIC FOOT DISEASE IN KING GEORGE HOSPITAL, VISHAKAPATNAM: A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY ON 100 PATIENTS

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    Kishore Babu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic foot as the leading cause of lower limb amputation is one of the most important complications of diabetes mellitus. Effective treatment and formulation of prevention guidelines for diabetic foot require a thorough understanding of characteristics of diabetic foot patients and their ulcers, so we conducted this study to investigate these characteristics . INTRODUCTION : Necessary data was collected from case sheets of 100 diabetic foot patients admitted in King Goerge Hospital, Vishakapatnam in the year 2014

  11. Expression study of GLUT4 translocation-related genes in a porcine pre-diabetic model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thea; Fredholm, Merete; Cirera Salicio, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a world-wide exponentially growing health problem that increases the risk of co-morbidities including metabolic syndrome, pre-diabetes, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), and cancer. These co-morbidities are all complex conditions constituting a big challenge when searching for susceptib......Obesity is a world-wide exponentially growing health problem that increases the risk of co-morbidities including metabolic syndrome, pre-diabetes, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), and cancer. These co-morbidities are all complex conditions constituting a big challenge when searching...... for susceptibility genes. Identification of relevant genes, which could contribute to an earlier identification of individuals prone to develop diabetes, is urgently needed as many long-term complications can be avoided by preventive measures. Pre-diabetes is mainly associated with hyperglycemia; thus studying...... this phenotype might provide knowledge on relevant genes implicated in molecular mechanisms underlying pre-diabetes, and contributing to the development of T2DM. In the present study, two groups of pigs with high (HGG, N = 6) and low (NGG, N = 6) fasting plasma glucose level respectively were selected from...

  12. Validating self-report of diabetes use by participants in the 45 and up study: a record linkage study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Prevalence studies usually depend on self-report of disease status in survey data or administrative data collections and may over- or under-estimate disease prevalence. The establishment of a linked data collection provided an opportunity to explore the accuracy and completeness of capture of information about diabetes in survey and administrative data collections. Methods Baseline questionnaire data at recruitment to the 45 and Up Study was obtained for 266,848 adults aged 45 years and over sampled from New South Wales, Australia in 2006–2009, and linked to administrative data about hospitalisation from the Admitted Patient Data Collection (APDC) for 2000–2009, claims for medical services (MBS) and pharmaceuticals (PBS) from Medicare Australia data for 2004–2009. Diabetes status was determined from response to a question ‘Has a doctor EVER told you that you have diabetes’ (n = 23,981) and augmented by examination of free text fields about diagnosis (n = 119) or use of insulin (n = 58). These data were used to identify the sub-group with type 1 diabetes. We explored the agreement between self-report of diabetes, identification of diabetes diagnostic codes in APDC data, claims for glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in MBS data, and claims for dispensed medication (oral hyperglycaemic agents and insulin) in PBS data. Results Most participants with diabetes were identified in APDC data if admitted to hospital (79.3%), in MBS data with at least one claim for HbA1c testing (84.7%; 73.4% if 2 tests claimed) or in PBS data through claim for diabetes medication (71.4%). Using these alternate data collections as an imperfect ‘gold standard’ we calculated sensitivities of 83.7% for APDC, 63.9% (80.5% for two tests) for MBS, and 96.6% for PBS data and specificities of 97.7%, 98.4% and 97.1% respectively. The lower sensitivity for HbA1c may reflect the use of this test to screen for diabetes suggesting that it is less useful in identifying

  13. Joint associations of insomnia and sleep duration with prevalent diabetes: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cespedes, Elizabeth M; Dudley, Katherine A; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Zee, Phyllis C; Daviglus, Martha L; Shah, Neomi A; Talavera, Gregory A; Gallo, Linda C; Mattei, Josiemer; Qi, Qibin; Ramos, Alberto R; Schneiderman, Neil; Espinoza-Giacinto, Rebeca A; Patel, Sanjay R

    2016-05-01

    Inadequate sleep quantity and quality are associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes. This relationship is not well-examined in U.S. Hispanics/Latinos, and prior analyses may be confounded by sleep apnea. This cross-sectional study examined joint associations of sleep duration and insomnia with diabetes among diverse U.S. Hispanic/Latinos. Baseline data on sleep quantity and quality were obtained from 15,227 participants (mean age 41; range 18-74 years) from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. Complex survey multinomial logistic regression was used to examine associations between prevalent diabetes and six phenotypes defined by cross-classifying sleep duration (short ≤6 h, average >6-9 h, long >9 h) and insomnia, adjusting for sex, age, site and Hispanic/Latino background interaction, education, physical activity, diet quality, and sleep apnea. In the weighted population, 14% had diabetes, 28% had insomnia, 9% were short sleepers, and 19% were long sleepers. Compared with those with average sleep and no insomnia, those with short sleep and insomnia were more likely to have diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 1.46; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02, 2.11). Average sleepers with insomnia (1.28; 95% CI 1.02, 1.61) and long sleepers without insomnia (1.33; 95% CI 1.07, 1.65) also had elevated odds of diabetes. Further adjustment for body mass index attenuated associations, except with long sleep without insomnia. Both decreased quantity and quality of sleep are associated with diabetes in Hispanic/Latinos, with the greatest odds among those with short sleep duration and insomnia. The association is largely explained by obesity. © 2015 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Predictors of glycemic control among patients with Type 2 diabetes: A longitudinal study

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    Philis-Tsimikas Athena

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is the sixth leading cause of death and results in significant morbidity. The purpose of this study is to determine what demographic, health status, treatment, access/quality of care, and behavioral factors are associated with poor glycemic control in a Type 2 diabetic, low-income, minority, San Diego population. Methods Longitudinal observational data was collected on patients with Type 2 diabetes from Project Dulce, a program in San Diego County designed to care for an underserved diabetic population. The study sample included 573 patients with a racial/ethnic mix of 53% Hispanic, 7% black, 18% Asian, 20% white, and 2% other. We utilized mixed effects models to determine the factors associated with poor glycemic control using hemoglobin A1C (A1C as the outcome of interest. A multi-step model building process was used resulting in a final parsimonious model with main effects and interaction terms. Results Patients had a mean age of 55 years, 69% were female, the mean duration of diabetes was 7.1 years, 31% were treated with insulin, and 57% were obese. American Diabetes Association (ADA recommendations for blood pressure and total cholesterol were met by 71% and 68%, respectively. Results of the mixed effects model showed that patients who were uninsured, had diabetes for a longer period of time, used insulin or multiple oral agents, or had high cholesterol had higher A1C values over time indicating poorer glycemic control. The younger subjects also had poorer control. Conclusion This study provides factors that predict glycemic control in a specific low-income, multiethnic, Type 2 diabetic population. With this information, subgroups with high risk of disease morbidity were identified. Barriers that prevent these patients from meeting their goals must be explored to improve health outcomes.

  15. The Sydney Diabetes Prevention Program: A community-based translational study

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    Farrell Louise

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 diabetes is a major public health problem in Australia with prevalence increasing in parallel with increasing obesity. Prevention is an essential component of strategies to reduce the diabetes burden. There is strong and consistent evidence from randomised controlled trials that type 2 diabetes can be prevented or delayed through lifestyle modification which improves diet, increases physical activity and achieves weight loss in at risk people. The current challenge is to translate this evidence into routine community settings, determine feasible and effective ways of delivering the intervention and providing on-going support to sustain successful behavioural changes. Methods/Design The Sydney Diabetes Prevention Program (SDPP is a translational study which will be conducted in 1,550 participants aged 50-65 years (including 100 indigenous people aged 18 years and older at high risk of future development of diabetes. Participants will be identified through a screening and recruitment program delivered through primary care and will be offered a community-based lifestyle modification intervention. The intervention comprises an initial individual session and three group sessions based on behaviour change principles and focuses on five goals: 5% weight loss, 210 min/week physical activity (aerobic and strength training exercise, limit dietary fat and saturated fat to less than 30% and 10% of energy intake respectively, and at least 15 g/1000 kcal dietary fibre. This is followed by 3-monthly contact with participants to review progress and offer ongoing lifestyle advice for 12 months. The effectiveness and costs of the program on diabetes-related risk factors will be evaluated. Main outcomes include changes in weight, physical activity, and dietary changes (fat, saturated fat and fibre intake. Secondary outcomes include changes in waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, blood pressure, lipids, quality of life

  16. Validity and reliability of self-reported diabetes in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Andrea L C; Pankow, James S; Heiss, Gerardo; Selvin, Elizabeth

    2012-10-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the validity of prevalent and incident self-reported diabetes compared with multiple reference definitions and to assess the reliability (repeatability) of a self-reported diagnosis of diabetes. Data from 10,321 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study who attended visit 4 (1996-1998) were analyzed. Prevalent self-reported diabetes was compared with reference definitions defined by fasting glucose and medication use obtained at visit 4. Incident self-reported diabetes was assessed during annual follow-up telephone calls and was compared with reference definitions defined by fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and medication use obtained during an in-person visit attended by a subsample of participants (n = 1,738) in 2004-2005. The sensitivity of prevalent self-reported diabetes ranged from 58.5% to 70.8%, and specificity ranged from 95.6% to 96.8%, depending on the reference definition. Similarly, the sensitivity of incident self-reported diabetes ranged from 55.9% to 80.4%, and specificity ranged from 84.5% to 90.6%. Percent positive agreement of self-reported diabetes during 9 years of repeat assessments ranged from 92.7% to 95.4%. Both prevalent self-reported diabetes and incident self-reported diabetes were 84%-97% specific and 55%-80% sensitive as compared with reference definitions using glucose and medication criteria. Self-reported diabetes was >92% reliable over time.

  17. Periodontal status among type II diabetic and nondiabetic individuals in Chennai, India: A comparative study

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    R Kesavan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Periodontitis is referred to as the sixth complication of diabetes mellitus. If left untreated, periodontitis can lead to tooth loss, thereby compromising a patient's ability to maintain a proper diet and affecting the quality of life. Aim: To assess the periodontal status among type II diabetic and nondiabetic individuals in Chennai city. Materials and Methods: A hospital based cross-sectional comparative study was conducted among diabetics and nondiabetic population attending a government hospital in Chennai city. The WHO Oral Health Assessment Form (1997 was used to assess the periodontal status. The final sample size of the study was 1000 which included 500 diabetics and 500 nondiabetics. Results: This study showed a significant association between the diabetic status and periodontal disease. The severity of periodontal disease was high among diabetics when compared to nondiabetics. The mean number of sextants with shallow pockets was 0.76 ± 1.20 among diabetics and 0.49 ± 0.86 among nondiabetics (P < 0.0001. The mean number of sextants with Loss of Attachment score of 1 (4–5 mm was 0.67 ± 1.05 among diabetics and 0.32 ± 0.70 among nondiabetics. Conclusion: Periodontal disease was more frequent and severe in diabetic patients as compared to nondiabetics although there are a number of questions need to be answered in future research.

  18. Erectile dysfunction and cardiovascular events in diabetic men: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

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    Tomohide Yamada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that erectile dysfunction (ED influences the risk of cardiovascular events (CV events. However, a meta-analysis of the overall risk of CV events associated with ED in patients with diabetes has not been performed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We searched MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library for pertinent articles (including references published between 1951 and April 22, 2012. English language reports of original observational cohort studies and cross-sectional studies were included. Pooled effect estimates were obtained by random effects meta-analysis. A total of 3,791 CV events were reported in 3 cohort studies and 9 cross-sectional studies (covering 22,586 subjects. Across the cohort studies, the overall odds ratio (OR of diabetic men with ED versus those without ED was 1.74 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.34-2.27; P0.05. Moreover, meta-regression analysis found no relationship between the method used to assess ED (questionnaire or interview, mean age, mean hemoglobin A(1c, mean body mass index, or mean duration of diabetes and the risk of CV events or CHD. In the cross-sectional studies, the OR of diabetic men with ED versus those without ED was 3.39 (95% CI: 2.58-4.44; P<0.001 for CV events (N = 9, 3.43 (95% CI: 2.46-4.77; P<0.001 for CHD (N = 7, and 2.63 (95% CI: 1.41-4.91; P = 0.002 for peripheral vascular disease (N = 5. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: ED was associated with an increased risk of CV events in diabetic patients. Prevention and early detection of cardiovascular disease are important in the management of diabetes, especially in view of the rapid increase in its prevalence.

  19. Innovative ways of studying the effect of migration on obesity and diabetes beyond the common designs: lessons from the RODAM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyemang, Charles; Beune, Erik; Meeks, Karlijn; Addo, Juliet; Aikins, Ama de-Graft; Bahendeka, Silver; Danquah, Ina; Mockenhaupt, Frank P; Schulze, Matthias B; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Smeeth, Liam; Stronks, Karien

    2017-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes and obesity are major global public health problems, with migrant populations in high-income countries being particularly affected. Type 2 diabetes and obesity are also major threats in low- and middle-income countries, from which most migrant populations originate. Transitioning of societies and the resulting changes in lifestyles are thought to be major driving forces, but the key specific factors within this broad category still need to be determined. Migrant studies provide a unique opportunity to understand the potential underlying causes of these conditions, but current research is mainly geared toward analyzing the differences between migrants and the host populations in the countries of settlement. For better understanding, there is a need to extend migrant health research across national boundaries. This review discusses innovative ways of studying the effect of migration on type 2 diabetes and obesity beyond the common designs and the relevance of extending migrant health studies across national boundaries in the current era of increasing global migration. Specifically, we describe the burden and different methods for conducting migrant studies. We use the Research on Obesity and Diabetes among African Migrants (RODAM) study as a case study, discussing the methods, some results, and lessons learned, including challenges and an essential recipe for success that may guide future migrant health research. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  20. Microperimetry and fundus autofluorescence in diabetic macular edema: subthreshold micropulse diode laser versus modified early treatment diabetic retinopathy study laser photocoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujosevic, Stela; Bottega, Elisa; Casciano, Margherita; Pilotto, Elisabetta; Convento, Enrica; Midena, Edoardo

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare microperimetry and fundus autofluorescence (FAF) after subthreshold micropulse diode laser versus modified Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study photocoagulation for clinically significant diabetic macular edema. A prospective randomized clinical trial including 62 eyes (50 patients) with untreated, center-involving, clinically significant diabetic macular edema was performed. All patients underwent best-corrected visual acuity determination (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution), slit-lamp biomicroscopy, FAF, optical coherence tomography, microperimetry (macular sensitivity), and fluorescein angiography before and after treatment. Best-corrected visual acuity, optical coherence tomography, microperimetry, and FAF were repeated at 1-, 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-up examinations. Fluorescein angiography was performed at baseline and at 6 and 12 months. Before treatment, demographic and macular parameters were not different between the two treatment groups. At 12 months, best-corrected visual acuity remained stable in both groups (P = 0.41 and P = 0.82), mean central retinal thickness decreased in both groups (P = 0.0002 and P autofluorescence never changed in the micropulse diode laser group even after retreatment. In the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study group, FAF increased up to 9 months and decreased in 6 eyes (20%) at 12 months. Micropulse diode laser seems to be as effective as modified Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study laser photocoagulation in the treatment of clinically significant diabetic macular edema. Micropulse diode laser treatment does not determine any change on FAF showing (at least) nonclinically visible damage of the retinal pigment epithelium. Microperimetry data encourage the use of a new, less aggressive laser therapeutic approach in the treatment of clinically significant diabetic macular edema.

  1. Opthalmic problems in diabetic patients: a statistical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salahuddin; Asim, S.M.; Iqbal, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Odds ratio analysis were performed to look at the association of diabetic retinopathy with Duration of diabetes, Type of diabetes, Hypertension, Intra Ocular Pressure (lOP), Age, Sex, and Family history of diabetes. The analysis suggested that longer duration of diabetes, Type-2 diabetes, hypertension and old age (40 years or more) were significant risk factors for the occurrence of diabetic retinopathy, whereas Intra Ocular Pressure (lOP), Sex and Family history were not significant risk factors. (author)

  2. History of having a macrosomic infant and the risk of diabetes: the Japan public health center-based prospective diabetes study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Kabeya

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to test a hypothesis that a history of having a macrosomic infant (≥ 4000 g is associated with the risk of diabetes. METHODS: Data on the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective diabetes cohort were analyzed, which is a population-based cohort study on diabetes. The survey of diabetes was performed at baseline and at the 5-year follow-up. A history of having a macrosomic infant was assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. A cross-sectional analysis was performed among 12,153 women who participated in the 5-year survey of the cohort. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between a history of having a macrosomic infant and the presence of diabetes. A longitudinal analysis was also conducted among 7,300 women without diabetes who participated in the baseline survey. Logistic regression was used to investigate the relationship between a history of having a macrosomic infant and the incidence of diabetes between the baseline survey and the 5-year survey. RESULTS: In the cross-sectional analysis, parous women with a positive history were more likely to have diabetes in relation to parous women without (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.13-1.83. The longitudinal analysis showed a modest but non-significant increased risk of developing diabetes among women with a positive history (OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.80-1.94. CONCLUSIONS: An increased risk of diabetes was implied among women with a history of having a macrosomic infant although the longitudinal analysis showed a non-significant increased risk.

  3. A nationwide follow-up study of children of women with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijpert, M.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that children of women with type 1 diabetes are at risk for cardiometabolic diseases later in life, such as obesity, hypertension and type 2 diabetes. However, most of these studies have been performed in children of mixed cohorts of women with type 1, type 2 and/or

  4. Comparing the mortality risks of nursing professionals with diabetes and general patients with diabetes: a nationwide matched cohort study

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    Hsiu-Ling Huang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nursing professionals have received comprehensive medical education and training. However, whether these medical professionals exhibit positive patient care attitudes and behaviors and thus reduce mortality risks when they themselves are diagnosed with chronic diseases is worth exploring. This study compared the mortality risks of female nurses and general patients with diabetes and elucidated factors that caused this difference. Methods A total of 510,058 female patients newly diagnosed with diabetes between 1998 and 2006 as recorded in the National Health Insurance Research Database were the participants in this study. Nurses with diabetes and general population with diabetes were matched with propensity score method in a 1:10 ratio. The participants were tracked from the date of diagnosis to 2009. The Cox proportional hazards model was utilized to compare the mortality risks in the two groups. Results Nurses were newly diagnosed with diabetes at a younger age compared with the general public (42.01 ± 12.03 y vs. 59.29 ± 13.11 y. Nevertheless, the matching results showed that nurses had lower mortality risks (HR: 0.53, 95 % CI: 0.38–0.74 and nurses with diabetes in the < 35 and 35–44 age groups exhibited significantly lower mortality risks compared with general patients (HR: 0.23 and 0.36. A further analysis indicated that the factors that influenced the mortality risks of nurses with diabetes included age, catastrophic illnesses, and the severity of diabetes complications. Conclusion Nurses with diabetes exhibited lower mortality risks possibly because they had received comprehensive medical education and training, may had more knowledge regarding chronic disease control and change their lifestyles. The results can serve as a reference for developing heath education, and for preventing occupational hazards in nurses.

  5. Disturbed eating behavior in Iranian adolescent and young females with type-1 diabetes compared to non diabetic peers: A cross-sectional study

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    Hamid Reza Roohafza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: An association of eating disorder with diabetes mellitus may lead to a serious lack of metabolic control, higher mortality and morbidity. There is no recent study conducted in the Iranian population about eating disorder and its variants. The aim of the present study is investigation of frequency of disturbed eating behaviors in adolescent girls with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM compared to non-diabetics. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, disturbed eating behavior were evaluated and compared in two groups of 12-22 year old adolescent and young females (126 with diabetes and 325 without diabetes. A self-report questionnaire including demographic data, Children′s Depression Inventory (CDI, and Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26 was used for data gathering. Independent t-test, Chi-square test, and logistic regression [odds ratio (OR] were used for data analyses in SPSS 15. Results: Findings revealed that higher percentage of diabetic girls are likely to have eating disturbances (67.9% vs. 53.8%, P = 0.01. Diabetic group obtained higher scores in both dieting (14.95 ± 6.28 vs. 11.79 ± 5.62, P < 0.001 and bulimia scales (4.9 ± 3.13 vs. 4.12 ± 2.89, P = 0.017, which supports a role for T1DM in inducing the symptoms. Diabetic girls were at more than double the risk of developing eating disturbance. Conclusions: The results indicate that a significantly higher percentage of diabetic girls are likely to have eating disturbances. Also, diabetic subjects had an increased probability of getting higher scores in all three EAT-26 subscales. Therefore, healthcare professionals, especially diabetic nurses, should be aware of the potential effects of the subclinical and clinical eating behaviors on adolescents with T1DM and evaluate them for these disturbances.

  6. Loss of temporal peripapillary retinal nerve fibers in prediabetes or type 2 diabetes without diabetic retinopathy: The Maastricht Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Clerck, E.E.B.; Schouten, J.S.A.G.; Berendschot, T.T.J.M.; Beckers, H.J.M.; Schaper, N.C.; Schram, M.T.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Webers, C.A.B.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess thinning of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in prediabetes or type 2 diabetes without diabetic retinopathy (DM2 w/o DRP) compared with that in individuals with normal glucose metabolism (NGM). Methods: We measured sectoral and mean

  7. Delivery of care to diabetic patients with foot ulcers in daily practice: results of the Eurodiale Study, a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prompers, L.; Huijberts, M.; Apelqvist, J.

    2008-01-01

    Aims To determine current management and to identify patient-related factors and barriers that influence management strategies in diabetic foot disease. Methods The Eurodiale Study is a prospective cohort study of 1232 consecutive individuals presenting with a new diabetic foot ulcer in 14 centres...... suggest that current guidelines are too general and that healthcare organizational barriers and personal beliefs result in underuse of recommended therapies. Action should be undertaken to overcome these barriers and to guarantee the delivery of optimal care for the many individuals with diabetic foot...... across Europe. We determined the use of management strategies: referral, use of offloading, vascular imaging and revascularization. Results Twenty-seven percent of the patients had been treated for > 3 months before referral to a foot clinic. This varied considerably between countries (6-55%). At study...

  8. Benfotiamine in the treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy--a three-week randomized, controlled pilot study (BEDIP study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, E; Ledermann, H; Köpcke, W

    2005-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of benfotiamine administered over three weeks (allithiamine; a lipid-soluble vitamin B1 prodrug with high bioavailability) to patients with diabetic polyneuropathy in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, two-center pilot study. Forty inpatients (23 male, 18 female, age range 18 - 70 years) with a history of type 1 or 2 diabetes and polyneuropathy of not longer than two years, were included in the study. Twenty Patients received two 50 mg benfotiamine tablets four times daily and 20 patients received placebo over the three-week study period. Two clinical units were involved with 10 patients receiving placebo and 10 patients benfotiamine in each. The neuropathy score according to Katzenwadel et al. [1987] was used to evaluate symptoms of polyneuropathy, vibration perception threshold and both the physician's and the patient's own assessment were documented. A statistically significant (p = 0.0287) improvement in the neuropathy score was observed in the group given active drug when compared to the placebo-treated controls. There was no statistically significant change observed in the tuning fork test. The most pronounced effect on complaints was a decrease in pain (p = 0.0414). More patients in the benfotiamine-treated group than in the placebo group considered their clinical condition to have improved (p = 0.052). No side effects attributable to benfotiamine were observed. The differences between the groups cannot be attributed to a change in metabolic parameters since there were no significant alterations in the HbA1 levels and blood sugar profiles. The body mass index of the two groups did not differ. This pilot investigation (BEDIP Study) has confirmed the results of two earlier randomized controlled trials and has provided further evidence for the beneficial effects of benfotiamine in patients with diabetic neuropathy.

  9. Does knowledge on diabetes management influence glycemic control? A nationwide study in patients with type 1 diabetes in Brazil

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    Gomes MB

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Marilia Brito Gomes,1 Deborah Conte Santos,1 Marcela H Pizarro,1 Bianca Senger V Barros,1 Laura G Nunes de Melo,2 Carlos A Negrato3 1Department of Internal Medicine, Diabetes Unit, State University Hospital of Rio de Janeiro, 2Department of Ophthalmology, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Bauru’s Diabetics Association, Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil Objective: The purpose of this study is to establish demographic and clinical data associated with the knowledge on diabetes management and its influence on glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes.Methods: This was a retrospective, observational, multicenter study conducted with 1,760 patients between August 2011 and August 2014 in 10 cities of Brazil.Results: Overall, 1,190 (67.6% patients knew what glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c means. These patients were older, had longer disease duration, longer follow-up in each center, reported lower frequency of self-reported hypoglycemia, and were more frequently Caucasians and at glycemic goal. Multivariate analysis showed that knowledge on what HbA1c means was related to more years of school attendance, self-reported ethnicity (Caucasians, severe hypoglycemia, economic status, follow-up time in each center, and participation on diabetes educational programs. Good glycemic control was related to older age, more years of school attendance, higher frequency of daily self-monitoring of blood glucose, higher adherence to diet, and knowledge on what HbA1c means.Conclusion: Patients with a knowledge on what HbA1c means had a better chance of reaching an adequate glycemic control that was not found in the majority of our patients. Diabetes care teams should rethink the approaches to patients and change them to more proactive schedules, reinforcing education, patients’ skills, and empowerment to have positive attitudes toward reaching and maintaining a better glycemic control. Finally, the glucocentric

  10. Passive smoking and risk of type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

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    Ying Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUNDS/OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of diabetes is increasing rapidly all over the world. However, studies on passive smoking and type 2 diabetes have not been systematically assessed. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to explore whether an association exists between passive smoking and risk of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library and Web of Science up to April 9(th, 2013, to identify prospective cohort studies that assessed passive smoking and risk of type 2 diabetes. The fixed-effect model was used to calculate the overall relative risk (RR. RESULT: 4 prospective cohort studies were included for analysis, with a total of 112,351 participants involved. The pooled RR was 1.28 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.14 to 1.44 comparing those who were exposed to passive smoking with those who were not. Subgroup, sensitivity analysis and publication bias test suggested the overall result of this analysis was robust. CONCLUSIONS: Passive smoking is associated with a significantly increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Further well-designed studies are warranted to confirm this association.

  11. Psychosocial working conditions and diabetes self-management at work: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loerbroks, Adrian; Nguyen, Xuan Quynh; Vu-Eickmann, Patricia; Krichbaum, Michael; Kulzer, Bernhard; Icks, Andrea; Angerer, Peter

    2018-03-31

    We conducted a qualitative study to expand our current understanding of the potential link between psychosocial working conditions and diabetes self-management at work. Thirty employed adults with diabetes mellitus living in Germany (n = 19 with type 1, n = 11 with type 2, 57% female, aged 24-64 years) were recruited. Using a topic guide, we carried out in-depth interviews in face-to-face contact or by telephone. Interviews were transcribed and content-analyzed using MaxQDA. Psychosocial working conditions perceived to detrimentally affect self-management activities included, amongst others, a high workload, poor job control, unhygienic working environments, the requirement to work under high or fluctuating temperature, perceived social norms at the workplace, and the attitude to prioritize work-related demands as opposed to diabetes-related demands. The types of self-management activities considered to be adversely affected related to glucose monitoring, insulin injections, dietary control, the ability to recognize hypoglycemia and health care use. Various types of occupational psychosocial factors may determine diabetes self-management practices at the workplace. Quantitative studies are needed to confirm our observations. Subsequently, interventions could be developed and evaluated to improve opportunities to adequately engage into diabetes self-management at work. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence of Diabetic retinopathy in Kashmir, India -A hospital based study

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    Tariq Qureshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To assess the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among Kashmiri population. MaterialandMethod Inacross-sectionalhospitalbasedstudy,500patientswith established diabetes who attended eye OPD at Govt Medical College Srinagar were evaluated for the presence or absence of retinopathy. Relevant clinical examination was done and the findings were recorded at one point of time. No follow-up findings of the patients were included in this study. Direct Ophthalmoscope (Heinzand slit lamp bio-microscope (Zeiss were used for examination. Statistical package for Social Sciences (SPSS was used for statistical analysis. p60 yrs of age and 49 patients (36.2% were between 40-68 yrs of age. 33 (24.5% were males and 102 (75.5% were females. 30 patients (12.8% with diabetes of = 15 yr. Mild DR was present in 67 (37.4% patients, moderate to severe DR in 46 (9.2% patients, proliferative DR in 5(1% patients and diabetic maculopathy in 17(3.4%patients. Patients who were managed with insulin, either alone or with oral hypoglycemic drugs, had more prevalence of DR. Conclusion The present study concluded that DR is highly prevalent in this part of the world and needs early detection and appropriate treatment to prevent blindness due to this condition.

  13. Effect of Urtica dioica on morphometric indices of kidney in streptozotocin diabetic rats--a stereological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golalipour, Mohammad Jafar; Gharravi, Anneh Mohammad; Ghafari, Sorya; Afshar, Mohammad

    2007-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Urtica dioica on Morphometric indices of kidney in diabetic rats. Thirty male adult albino wistar rats of 125-175 g divided into control, diabetic and Urtica dioica treatment groups. In treatment Group, diabetic rats received 100 mg kg(-1) daily hydroalcoholic extract of U. dioica intraperitoneally for 4 weeks. After the animals had been sacrified, the kidneys were removed and fixed by formaldehyde, cut horizontally into 1 mm slices and processed, Stained with H and E. Stereological study performed using light microscope and the image projected on a table of olysa software. Cavalieri principle was used to estimate the volume of cortex, medulla and whole kidney. All the grouped data statistically evaluated using Student's t-test, expressed as the Mean +/- SE. Ration of kidney weight/body weight in diabetes (0.51) and diabetes-extract group (0.67) were higher then control group (0.42). Ratio of kidney volume/body weight in diabetes (350) and diabetes-extract group (348) were higher then control group (323). Volume Ratio of cortex/medulla in diabetes-extract group (1.65) was higher then control (1.34) and diabetes group (1.33). Glomerular area and diameter and proximal tubule diameter in diabetes-Extract group was higher than control and diabetes groups. This study revealed that Urtica dioica has no effect on renal morphometric indices in induced diabetic rats.

  14. Mastication and risk for diabetes in a Japanese population: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Toru; Yamori, Masashi; Asai, Keita; Nakano-Araki, Ikuko; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Takahashi, Katsu; Sekine, Akihiro; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Kosugi, Shinji; Nakayama, Takeo; Inagaki, Nobuya; Bessho, Kazuhisa

    2013-01-01

    Associations between mastication and insufficient nutrient intake, obesity, and glucose metabolism have been shown in previous studies. However, the association between mastication and diabetes has not been clarified. Our objective was to examine the association between mastication, namely masticatory performance or rate of eating, and diabetes in a population-based cohort. We conducted a cross-sectional study of the association between mastication and diabetes in the Nagahama Prospective Cohort Study, an ongoing study which recruits citizens of Nagahama City in Shiga Prefecture, central Japan. 2,283 male and 4,544 female residents aged 40-74 years were enrolled from July 2009 to November 2010. Masticatory performance was evaluated by spectrophotometric measurement of color changes after masticating color-changeable chewing gum. Categorical rate of eating (fast, intermediate or slow) was self-assessed using a questionnaire. 177 males (7.7%) and 112 (2.4%) females were diagnosed with diabetes. We divided participants into four groups by quartile of masticatory performance, namely Q1 (lowest), 2, and 3 and 4 (highest). Compared to the lowest performance group, the multivariable adjusted odds ratio (OR) of diabetes was 0.91 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.58-1.4) in Q2, 0.77 (95% CI, 0.48-1.2) in Q3, and 0.53 (95% CI, 0.31-0.90) in the highest group in males, and 1.2 (95% CI, 0.73-2.0), 0.95 (95% CI, 0.54-1.6) and 0.56 (95% CI, 0.30-1.0) in females. We also estimated ORs of diabetes by rate of eating. Compared to the fast eating group, ORs in males were 0.87 (95% CI, 0.61-1.2) in the intermediate group and 0.38 (95% CI, 0.16-0.91) in the slow group, and ORs in females were 0.92 (95% CI, 0.59-1.4) and 1.5 (95% CI, 0.73-3.0). These findings support the hypothesis that higher masticatory performance and slow eating prevent the occurrence of diabetes.

  15. Diabetes related knowledge among residents and nurses: a multicenter study in Karachi, Pakistan

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    Ahmed Asma

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessment of knowledge among resident trainees and nurses is very important since majority of patients admitted in hospital have underlying diabetes which could lead to adverse clinical outcomes if not managed efficiently. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the knowledge related to the management of diabetes among registered nurses (RN and trainee residents of internal medicine (IMR, family medicine (FMR and surgery (SR at tertiary care hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods A validated questionnaire consisting of 21 open ended questions related to diabetes awareness was acquired through a study done at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia with the permission of primary author. Results 169 IMR, 27 FMR, 86 SR and 99 RN completed a questionnaire that assessed the knowledge related to different aspects of management of diabetes. The results were further stratified by participant's specialty and level of training. The percentage of knowledge based questions answered correctly was found to be low. The overall mean correct percentage among all the participants was 50% +/- 21. There was no statistical difference in terms of knowledge between IMR & FMR residents (64% +/- 14 vs. 60% +/- 16, p = 0.47 respectively. The total scores of SR and RN were quite low (40% +/- 16 & 31% +/- 15 respectively.SR and RN were found to have profound deficit in both inpatient and outpatient knowledge of diabetes. We did not observe any improvement in level of knowledge of FMR & SR with increase in duration of their training (p = 0.47 & 0.80 respectively. In contrast, improvement in the level of knowledge of IMR was observed from first to second year of their training (p = 0.03 with no further improvement thereafter. RN's didn't respond correctly on most of the items related to in-patient management of diabetes (Mean score 40% +/- 20. Conclusion As there are no prior studies in our setting

  16. Diabetes related knowledge among residents and nurses: a multicenter study in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Asma; Jabbar, Abdul; Zuberi, Lubna; Islam, Muhammad; Shamim, Khusro

    2012-09-11

    Assessment of knowledge among resident trainees and nurses is very important since majority of patients admitted in hospital have underlying diabetes which could lead to adverse clinical outcomes if not managed efficiently. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the knowledge related to the management of diabetes among registered nurses (RN) and trainee residents of internal medicine (IMR), family medicine (FMR) and surgery (SR) at tertiary care hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. A validated questionnaire consisting of 21 open ended questions related to diabetes awareness was acquired through a study done at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia with the permission of primary author. 169 IMR, 27 FMR, 86 SR and 99 RN completed a questionnaire that assessed the knowledge related to different aspects of management of diabetes. The results were further stratified by participant's specialty and level of training. The percentage of knowledge based questions answered correctly was found to be low. The overall mean correct percentage among all the participants was 50% +/- 21. There was no statistical difference in terms of knowledge between IMR & FMR residents (64% +/- 14 vs. 60% +/- 16, p = 0.47) respectively. The total scores of SR and RN were quite low (40% +/- 16 & 31% +/- 15 respectively).SR and RN were found to have profound deficit in both inpatient and outpatient knowledge of diabetes. We did not observe any improvement in level of knowledge of FMR & SR with increase in duration of their training (p = 0.47 & 0.80 respectively). In contrast, improvement in the level of knowledge of IMR was observed from first to second year of their training (p = 0.03) with no further improvement thereafter. RN's didn't respond correctly on most of the items related to in-patient management of diabetes (Mean score 40% +/- 20). As there are no prior studies in our setting evaluating knowledge related to diabetes management among

  17. Association between type 1 diabetes mellitus and risk of epilepsy: A meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dandan; Zhao, Enfa; Zhang, Hong; Luo, Xiaohui; Du, Yajuan

    2017-01-01

    A potential association between type 1 diabetes mellitus and subsequent epilepsy emerged in recent studies. This study aimed to evaluate the possible relationship between type 1 diabetes mellitus and epilepsy using meta-analysis. Pubmed, ISI Web of Knowledge, Embase and Cochrane Library were searched for potential studies of the association between type 1 diabetes mellitus and epilepsy from inception to February 1, 2017. Two investigators independently screened studies for inclusion and extracted related data; discrepancies were solved by consensus. Random effects model of Hazard Ratio (HR) was used to estimate the strength of association. We identified 13 papers from potentially relevant articles of which 3 cohort studies met the inclusion criteria. Random effects meta-analysis showed that type 1 diabetes mellitus was associated with an increased risk of epilepsy with HR = 3.29 (95% CI: 2.61-4.14; I 2 = 0, p = 0.689). Similar results were observed in type 1 diabetes mellitus patents younger than 18-years-old with HR = 2.96 (95% CI: 2.28-3.84; I 2 = 0, p = 0.571). Meta-analysis of 2 studies that adjusted for potential confounders yielded an increased risk of epilepsy with HR = 2.89 (95% CI: 2.26-3.70; I 2 = 0, p = 0.831). The meta-analysis indicates that type 1 diabetes mellitus is associated with a statistically significant increased risk for epilepsy compared to those without type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  18. Baseline characteristics in PRIORITY study: Proteomics and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism for prevention of diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tofte, Nete

    diabetic nephRopathy In TYpe 2 diabetic patients with normoalbuminuria) trial, the aim is to confirm that CKD273 can predict microalbuminuria prospectively, and to test whether mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism (MRA) delays progression to microalbuminuria. Here we report the association between CKD273...... and traditional risk factors for diabetic nephropathy at baseline. Materials and methods PRIORITY is an investigator-initiated, prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled multicentre clinical trial and observational study in normoalbuminuric type 2 diabetic patients. Patients are stratified...... is development of microalbuminuria. Results In total 2277 type 2 diabetic patients have been screened over a time period of 2.5 years and 1811 are included from 15 sites. Table 1 shows the baseline characteristics. 224 (12.4%) have the high-risk CKD273 pattern. The high- and low-risk populations differ...

  19. Study protocol of the Diabetes and Depression Study (DAD): a multi-center randomized controlled trial to compare the efficacy of a diabetes-specific cognitive behavioral group therapy versus sertraline in patients with major depression and poorly controlled diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrak, Frank; Herpertz, Stephan; Albus, Christian; Hermanns, Norbert; Hiemke, Christoph; Hiller, Wolfgang; Kronfeld, Kai; Kruse, Johannes; Kulzer, Bernd; Ruckes, Christian; Müller, Matthias J

    2013-08-06

    Depression is common in diabetes and associated with hyperglycemia, diabetes related complications and mortality. No single intervention has been identified that consistently leads to simultaneous improvement of depression and glycemic control. Our aim is to analyze the efficacy of a diabetes-specific cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBT) compared to sertraline (SER) in adults with depression and poorly controlled diabetes. This study is a multi-center parallel arm randomized controlled trial currently in its data analysis phase. We included 251 patients in 70 secondary care centers across Germany. Key inclusion criteria were: type 1 or 2 diabetes, major depression (diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, SCID) and hemoglobin A1C >7.5% despite current insulin therapy. During the initial phase, patients received either 50-200 mg/d sertraline or 10 CBT sessions aiming at the remission of depression and enhanced adherence to diabetes treatment and coping with diabetes. Both groups received diabetes treatment as usual. After 12 weeks of this initial open-label therapy, only the treatment-responders (50% depression symptoms reduction, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, 17-item version [HAMD]) were included in the subsequent one year study phase and represented the primary analysis population. CBT-responders received no further treatment, while SER-responders obtained a continuous, flexible-dose SER regimen as relapse prevention. Adherence to treatment was analyzed using therapeutic drug monitoring (measurement of sertraline and N-desmethylsertraline concentrations in blood serum) and by counting the numbers of CBT sessions received. Outcome assessments were conducted by trained psychologists blinded to group assignment. Group differences in HbA1c (primary outcome) and depression (HAMD, secondary outcome) between 1-year follow-up and baseline will be analyzed by ANCOVA controlling for baseline values. As primary hypothesis we expect that CBT

  20. Effects of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) on the liver of diabetic rats: a morphological and biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolkent, S; Yanardag, R; Ozsoy-Sacan, O; Karabulut-Bulan, O

    2004-12-01

    Parsley is used by diabetics in Turkey to reduce blood glucose. The present study aims to investigate both the morphological and biochemical effects of parsley on liver tissue. Rat hepatocytes were examined by light and electron microscopy. Degenerative changes were observed in the hepatocytes of diabetic rats. These degenerative changes were significantly reduced or absent in the hepatocytes of diabetic rats treated with parsley. Blood glucose levels, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase were observed to be raised in diabetic rats. Diabetic rats treated with parsley demonstrated significantly lower levels of blood glucose, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase. The present study suggests that parsley demonstrates a significant hepatoprotective effect in diabetic rats. 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Knowledge of complications of diabetes mellitus among patients visiting the diabetes clinic at Sampa Government Hospital, Ghana: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaa Obirikorang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus (DM appears to be a global epidemic and an increasingly major non-communicable disease threatening both affluent and non-affluent society. The study aimed to determine the knowledge of diabetic complications among diabetes mellitus clients visiting the Diabetic Clinical at Sampa Government Hospital, Ghana. Method This questionnaire-based descriptive study recruited a total 630 patients visiting the Diabetes Clinic at the Sampa Government Hospital. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain information such as socio-demographic and knowledge on complications of diabetes. Results Out of a total of 630 participants, 325 (51.5 % knew diabetic foot as the most common complication followed by hypertension 223(35.4 %, neuropathy 184 (29.2 %, hypoactive sexual arousal 160(25.4 %, arousal disorder 135(21.5 %, eye diseases 112(17.7 %, heart disease 58(9.2 %, and renal disease 34(5.4 %. Comprehensive assessment of level of knowledge on the complications showed that majority 378(60.0 % of T2D patients did not have knowledge on diabetes complications, 169(26.9 % had inadequate knowledge on diabetics complication while 82(13.1 % had adequate knowledge. The risk factors associated with the level of knowledge of diabetic complications were female gender adjusted odd ratio (AOR =2.31 (1.56–3.41 married participants AOR = 3.37 (1.44–7.93, widowed AOR = 2.98 (1.10–8.08, basic level of education AOR =0.18 (0.082–0.50, Junior High School (JHS and above of education level AOR = 0.035(0.017–0.75, 5–9 years of T2D duration AOR = 0.31(0.018–0.57, ≥10 years T2D duration AOR = 0.042 (0.02–0.10 and urban dwellers AOR = 0.36 (0.22–0.68 respectively. Conclusion Participants knew the individual complication of diabetic mellitus but lack an in-depth knowledge on the complications. Further expansion of diabetic educative programs like using mass media and involving national curriculum

  2. Knowledge of complications of diabetes mellitus among patients visiting the diabetes clinic at Sampa Government Hospital, Ghana: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obirikorang, Yaa; Obirikorang, Christian; Anto, Enoch Odame; Acheampong, Emmanuel; Batu, Emmanuella Nsenbah; Stella, Agyemang Duah; Constance, Omerige; Brenya, Peter Kojo

    2016-07-26

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) appears to be a global epidemic and an increasingly major non-communicable disease threatening both affluent and non-affluent society. The study aimed to determine the knowledge of diabetic complications among diabetes mellitus clients visiting the Diabetic Clinical at Sampa Government Hospital, Ghana. This questionnaire-based descriptive study recruited a total 630 patients visiting the Diabetes Clinic at the Sampa Government Hospital. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain information such as socio-demographic and knowledge on complications of diabetes. Out of a total of 630 participants, 325 (51.5 %) knew diabetic foot as the most common complication followed by hypertension 223(35.4 %), neuropathy 184 (29.2 %), hypoactive sexual arousal 160(25.4 %), arousal disorder 135(21.5 %), eye diseases 112(17.7 %), heart disease 58(9.2 %), and renal disease 34(5.4 %). Comprehensive assessment of level of knowledge on the complications showed that majority 378(60.0 %) of T2D patients did not have knowledge on diabetes complications, 169(26.9 %) had inadequate knowledge on diabetics complication while 82(13.1 %) had adequate knowledge. The risk factors associated with the level of knowledge of diabetic complications were female gender adjusted odd ratio (AOR) =2.31 (1.56-3.41) married participants AOR = 3.37 (1.44-7.93), widowed AOR = 2.98 (1.10-8.08), basic level of education AOR =0.18 (0.082-0.50), Junior High School (JHS) and above of education level AOR = 0.035(0.017-0.75), 5-9 years of T2D duration AOR = 0.31(0.018-0.57), ≥10 years T2D duration AOR = 0.042 (0.02-0.10) and urban dwellers AOR = 0.36 (0.22-0.68) respectively. Participants knew the individual complication of diabetic mellitus but lack an in-depth knowledge on the complications. Further expansion of diabetic educative programs like using mass media and involving national curriculum of education can improve self-regulatory awareness of

  3. Mental health service users' experiences of diabetes care by Mental Health Nurses: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, M

    2014-10-01

    This paper is a report of a study exploring mental health service users' (MHSUs') experiences of diabetes care. Diabetes is a growing clinical concern in mental health nursing practice. However, little is known about MHSUs' experience of diabetes care. This is a descriptive qualitative study. Semi-structured telephone interviews were held between June and October 2011, with seven MHSUs who had diabetes. Participants reported experiences of stigma and diagnostic overshadowing (DO) when reporting symptoms of diabetes or when feeling unwell. Participants also encountered a split between their mental health and diabetes care needs, which resulted in a lack of holistic or integrated care. All participants mentioned experiencing complications of diabetes even to the extent of diabetic ketoacidosis. Mental health nurses (MHNs) must critically reflect on their attitudes towards service users that report physical symptoms to ensure that stigma and DO do not constitute barriers to appropriate screening and treatment. The complex relationship that exists between mental illness and diabetes requires MHNs to ensure physical and mental health care are wholly integrated and not split. Education needs are apparent so that symptoms and complications can be recognized and treated accordingly. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Associations of coronary artery calcified plaque density with mortality in type 2 diabetes: the Diabetes Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffield, Laura M; Cox, Amanda J; Criqui, Michael H; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Terry, James G; Xu, Jianzhao; Freedman, Barry I; Carr, J Jeffrey; Bowden, Donald W

    2018-05-11

    Coronary artery calcified plaque (CAC) is strongly predictive of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and mortality, both in general populations and individuals with type 2 diabetes at high risk for CVD. CAC is typically reported as an Agatston score, which is weighted for increased plaque density. However, the role of CAC density in CVD risk prediction, independently and with CAC volume, remains unclear. We examined the role of CAC density in individuals with type 2 diabetes from the family-based Diabetes Heart Study and the African American-Diabetes Heart Study. CAC density was calculated as mass divided by volume, and associations with incident all-cause and CVD mortality [median follow-up 10.2 years European Americans (n = 902, n = 286 deceased), 5.2 years African Americans (n = 552, n = 93 deceased)] were examined using Cox proportional hazards models, independently and in models adjusted for CAC volume. In European Americans, CAC density, like Agatston score and volume, was consistently associated with increased risk of all-cause and CVD mortality (p ≤ 0.002) in models adjusted for age, sex, statin use, total cholesterol, HDL, systolic blood pressure, high blood pressure medication use, and current smoking. However, these associations were no longer significant when models were additionally adjusted for CAC volume. CAC density was not significantly associated with mortality, either alone or adjusted for CAC volume, in African Americans. CAC density is not associated with mortality independent from CAC volume in European Americans and African Americans with type 2 diabetes.

  5. Actos Now for the prevention of diabetes (ACT NOW study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reaven Peter D

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT is a prediabetic state. If IGT can be prevented from progressing to overt diabetes, hyperglycemia-related complications can be avoided. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether pioglitazone (ACTOS® can prevent progression of IGT to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in a prospective randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial. Methods/Design 602 IGT subjects were identified with OGTT (2-hour plasma glucose = 140–199 mg/dl. In addition, IGT subjects were required to have FPG = 95–125 mg/dl and at least one other high risk characteristic. Prior to randomization all subjects had measurement of ankle-arm blood pressure, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, HbA1C, lipid profile and a subset had frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT, DEXA, and ultrasound determination of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT. Following this, subjects were randomized to receive pioglitazone (45 mg/day or placebo, and returned every 2–3 months for FPG determination and annually for OGTT. Repeat carotid IMT measurement was performed at 18 months and study end. Recruitment took place over 24 months, and subjects were followed for an additional 24 months. At study end (48 months or at time of diagnosis of diabetes the OGTT, FSIVGTT, DEXA, carotid IMT, and all other measurements were repeated. Primary endpoint is conversion of IGT to T2DM based upon FPG ≥ 126 or 2-hour PG ≥ 200 mg/dl. Secondary endpoints include whether pioglitazone can: (i improve glycemic control (ii enhance insulin sensitivity, (iii augment beta cell function, (iv improve risk factors for cardiovascular disease, (v cause regression/slow progression of carotid IMT, (vi revert newly diagnosed diabetes to normal glucose tolerance. Conclusion ACT NOW is designed to determine if pioglitazone can prevent/delay progression to diabetes in high risk IGT subjects, and to define the mechanisms (improved insulin

  6. Renal echo-3D and microalbuminuria in children of diabetic mothers: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuccini, B; Torlone, E; Ferri, C; Arnone, S; Troiani, S; Bini, V; Bellomo, G; Barboni, G; Di Renzo, G

    2013-08-01

    Maternal diabetes has assumed epidemic relevance in recent years and animal studies have provided some evidence that it may cause abnormalities in renal development and a reduction in nephron endowment in the offspring; however, human data are lacking. The renal cortex contains ∼95% of the glomeruli and its volume could be taken as a surrogate measure of glomerular number; based on this assumption, we measured renal cortex volume and in addition, microalbuminuria in a homogeneous sample of 42 children of diabetic (pregestational, n = 13, and gestational, n = 29) mothers, compared with 21 healthy children born of non-diabetic mothers. The offspring of diabetic mothers showed a significant reduction of renal cortex volume and higher albumin excretion compared with controls, possibly attributable to a reduction in the number of nephrons and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Although further studies on a larger sample are necessary, our preliminary findings suggest that maternal diabetes may affect renal development with sequelae later in life, requiring closer monitoring and follow-up. Furthermore, the importance of strict maternal diabetes management and control must be emphasized.

  7. Academic Achievement in Primary School in Offspring Born to Mothers With Type 1 Diabetes (the EPICOM Study): A Register-Based Prospective Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Sine; Clausen, Tine D; Vlachová, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effect of maternal pregestational type 1 diabetes on offspring primary school performance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed a prospective combined clinical and register-based cohort study comparing primary school performance in offspring (n = 707......) of women with pregestational type 1 diabetes with matched control offspring (n = 60,341). We also examined the association between HbA1c levels during pregnancy and later school performance among offspring born to women with pregestational type 1 diabetes. RESULTS: Offspring of mothers with pregestational...

  8. A Qualitative Study of Vulnerable Patient Views of Type 2 Diabetes Consumer Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Daniel R; Crabtree, Benjamin F; Pellerano, Maria B; Howard, Jenna; Saver, Barry; Hannan, Edward L; Lee, Justin; Lundberg, Michael T; Sabo, Roy

    2016-06-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) mandates the release of publicly available consumer reports to highlight differences in quality of care and reduce healthcare disparities. However, little is known about patient perceptions of the value of such reports. This study aims to identify whether vulnerable populations with type 2 diabetes perceive consumer reports as helpful in making decisions about diabetes care. We conducted a brief demographic survey and qualitative study of 18 focus groups: six each of African American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic White consumers diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (n = 92). We analysed focus group transcripts to identify recurring themes, which were summarized and compared across population groups. Participants expressed minimal interest in currently available consumer reports. They instead listed personal referrals and interpersonal interactions among the most important factors when choosing a physician. Further, in place of information to aid in physician selection, participants articulated strong desires for more basic, straightforward disease-specific information that would promote diabetes self-management. This study's results call into question the value of consumer reports as defined by the ACA. Participants reported little interest in comparative provider performance data. Instead, they were more interested in information to assist in diabetes self-management. This suggests that consumer reports may not be as important a tool to improve outcomes and reduce health disparities as policy makers imagine them to be.

  9. Skin, a mirror reflecting diabetes mellitus: A longitudinal study in a tertiary care hospital in Gujarat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahora, Roshni; Thakkar, Sejal; Marfatia, Yogesh

    2013-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most common of the endocrine disorders. Mucocutaneous manifestations of diabetes mellitus are many and vary from trivial to life-threatening. Sometimes, mucocutaneous disorders may herald the onset of diabetes. To study the pattern of mucocutaneous manifestations in diabetics and role of it in diagnosing diabetes mellitus and its complications. It was a longitudinal observational study of patients having diabetes with skin complaints attending skin outdoor department or admitted in wards for any reason in a tertiary care hospital. Total 300 patients were included in the study. Detailed history, clinical examination, and relevant investigations were done to diagnose the mucocutaneous disorders, diabetes, and diabetic complications. The data was analyzed by using Epi info software. Demographic profile shown majority of cases (78.66%) in more than 40 years of age with almost equal male and female preponderance. Mucocutaneous manifestations as presenting feature of diabetes were observed in 21.67% cases. Infections were most common in 119 (39.66%) cases, followed by acanthosis nigricans in 46 (15.33%) cases. Various associated complications like hypertension, retinopathy, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease, neuropathy, nephropathy, and diabetic ketoacidosis were observed in 160 (53.3%). Skin is the mirror, which reflects internal diseases; this aptly applies to skin and diabetes mellitus. Through awareness about cutaneous manifestations of DM, dermatologist can not only take credit for detecting DM but also facilitate early diagnosis of systemic complications of DM. This is immensely beneficial to patients in long run.

  10. Macular thinning in prediabetes or type 2 diabetes without diabetic retinopathy: the Maastricht Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clerck, Eline E B; Schouten, Jan S A G; Berendschot, Tos T J M; Goezinne, Fleur; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Schaper, Nicolaas C; Schram, Miranda T; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Webers, Carroll A B

    2018-03-01

    To assess macular thinning in individuals with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes without diabetic retinopathy (DM2 w/o DR) compared with individuals with normal glucose metabolism (NGM). Using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), we measured macular thickness in six subfields as defined by the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) in 1838 participants from The Maastricht Study, a population-based cohort study (mean age 59 ± 8 years, 49% men, 1087 NGM, 279 prediabetes, 472 DM2 w/o DR). Multivariable linear regression was used to assess the association between macular thickness and glucose metabolism status. After adjustment for age, sex and spherical equivalent, individuals with prediabetes showed a significant decrease in pericentral superior macular thickness [β = -2.14 μm (95% confidence interval (CI): -4.24 to -0.03), p < 0.05] compared with individuals with NGM. In individuals with DM2 w/o DR, the fovea [β = -4.05 μm (95% CI: -6.30 to -1.79), p < 0.001] and the four pericentral quadrants (range: β = -4.64 to -5.29 μm, p < 0.001) were significantly thinner compared with individuals with NGM. There was a significant linear trend of macular thinning with severity of glucose metabolism status in five subfields (p < 0.001). Macular thickness is reduced in prediabetes and a greater reduction occurs in DM2, even before DR is clinically present. About half of the thinning observed in DM2 w/o DR was already found in prediabetes. Generalized thinning of the macula could be related to thinning of the temporal side of the optic nerve head through the connecting papillo-macular bundle. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A Genome-Wide Association Study of Diabetic Kidney Disease in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Zuydam, Natalie R; Ahlqvist, Emma; Sandholm, Niina

    2018-01-01

    complementary dichotomous and quantitative DKD phenotypes: the principal dichotomous analysis involved 5,717 T2D subjects, 3,345 with DKD. Promising association signals were evaluated in up to 26,827 subjects with T2D (12,710 with DKD). A combined (T1D+T2D) GWAS was performed using complementary data available......Identification of sequence variants robustly associated with predisposition to diabetic kidney disease (DKD) has the potential to provide insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of DKD in type 2 diabetes (T2D) using eight...... for subjects with T1D, which, with replication samples, involved up to 40,340 diabetic subjects (and 18,582 DKD cases).Analysis of specific DKD phenotypes identified a novel signal near GABRR1 (rs9942471, p=4.5×10-8) associated with 'microalbuminuria' in European T2D cases. However, no replication...

  12. Epidemiological studies of exercise in diabetes prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Gang; Lakka, Timo A; Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas

    2007-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is one of the fastest growing public health problems in both developed and developing countries. It is estimated that the number of people with diabetes in the world will double in coming years, from 171 million in 2000 to 366 million in 2030. Cardiovascular disease accounts...... and increase in physical activity) can prevent type 2 diabetes. Our review of the scientific evidence confirms that 30 min/d of moderate- or high-level physical activity is an effective and safe way to prevent type 2 diabetes in all populations....

  13. Prevalence and Cardiovascular Associations of Diabetic Retinopathy and Maculopathy: Results from the Gutenberg Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raum, Philipp; Lamparter, Julia; Ponto, Katharina A; Peto, Tunde; Hoehn, René; Schulz, Andreas; Schneider, Astrid; Wild, Philipp S; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Mirshahi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness in people of working age. The purpose of this paper is to report the prevalence and cardiovascular associations of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy (DMac) in Germany. The Gutenberg Health Study (GHS) is a population-based study with 15,010 participants aged between 35 at 74 years from the city of Mainz and the district of Mainz-Bingen. We determined the weighted prevalence of DR and DMac by assessing fundus photographs of persons with diabetes from the GHS data base. Diabetes was defined as HbA1c ≥ 6.5%, known diagnosis diabetes mellitus or known diabetes medication. Furthermore, we analysed the association between DR and cardiovascular risk factors and diseases. Overall, 7.5% (1,124/15,010) of the GHS cohort had diabetes. Of these, 27.7% were unaware of their disease and thus were newly diagnosed by their participation in the GHS. The prevalence of DR and DMac was 21.7% and 2.3%, respectively among patients with diabetes. Vision-threatening disease was present in 5% of the diabetic cohort. In the multivariable analysis DR (all types) was associated with age (Odds Ratio [95% confidence interval]: 0.97 [0.955-0.992]; p = 0.006) arterial hypertension (1.90 [1.190-3.044]; p = 0.0072) and vision-threatening DR with obesity (3.29 [1.504-7.206]; p = 0.0029). DR (all stages) and vision-threatening DR were associated with duration of diabetes (1.09 [1.068-1.114]; pdiabetic retinal disease in Germany [corrected].Prevalence of DR was lower in the GHS compared to East-Asian studies. Associations were found with age, arterial hypertension, obesity, and duration of diabetes mellitus.

  14. Diabetes risk assessment among squatter settlements in Pakistan: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiesha Ishaque

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM has evolved as a major public health concern worldwide, as its prevalence is increasing exponentially. Pakistan now ranks seventh among the countries with the highest burden of DM. It is expected to become one of the major causes of morbidity within the next 25 years. Therefore, finding an effective way to identify individuals at risk of developing diabetes is a necessity. The Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC has proved to be an effective noninvasive screening tool for identifying individuals at risk for developing diabetes. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of individuals who are at risk for developing DM and their risk of developing DM over the next 10 years using the FINDRISC tool.

  15. Strategies for glucose control in a study population with diabetes, renal disease and anemia (Treat study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrauch, Larry A; D'Elia, John A; Finn, Peter; Lewis, Eldrin F; Desai, Akshay S; Claggett, Brian L; Cooper, Mark E; McGill, Janet B

    2016-03-01

    Glucose lowering medication use among patients with type 2 diabetes and advanced renal disease (eGFRrenal disease advances, most of the oral anti-diabetic agents requiring renal clearance must be reduced or discontinued. The potential for prolonged hypoglycemia, fluid/volume overload and congestive heart failure may complicate medication choices. In order to evaluate patterns of glycemia management we describe glucose lowering medication use among patients with advanced renal disease and type 2 diabetes in a large multinational outcome trial designed to focus on patients with eGFRrenal function when compared with standard populations with normal kidney function. The use of multiple oral agents, or oral agents plus insulin was quite common. While gender did not appear to play a role in medication choices, there were significant regional variations. For example, oral agents were used more in North America compared with other regions (Latin America, Australia/Western Europe, Russia/Eastern Europe). Patients enrolled at more advanced ages were less likely to be on a regimen of rapid-acting insulin alone consistent with recommendations that suggest a preference for longer-acting preparations in the geriatric population (1). Higher degrees of obesity were associated more complex treatment regimens. Despite this population being at high risk for cardiovascular events, the use of beta blockers (50%), statins (64%) and aspirin (48%) were relatively low, especially in the group that did not require medications to achieve adequate glycemic control. Current attempts to compare strategies for diabetes therapy must control for baseline demographic group differences influencing treatment choice. Future recommendations for glycemic control in patients with Grade 3 or higher chronic kidney disease require additional studies, with matched populations. We suggest that evaluation of studies similar to TREAT will assist in determining the optimal therapeutic regimens for populations

  16. Healing of excisional wound in alloxan induced diabetic sheep: A planimetric and histopathologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Sarrafzadeh-Rezaei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Healing of skin wound is a multi-factorial and complex process. Proper treatment of diabetic wounds is still a major clinical challenge. Although diabetes mellitus can occur in ruminants, healing of wounds in diabetic ruminants has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate healing of ovine excisional diabetic wound model. Eight 4-month-old Iranian Makoui wethers were equally divided to diabetic and nondiabetic groups. Alloxan monohydrate (60 mg kg-1, IV was used for diabetes induction. In each wether, an excisional wound was created on the dorsum of the animal. Photographs were taken in distinct times for planimetric evaluation. Wound samples were taken on day 21 post-wounding for histopathologic evaluations of epidermal thickness, number of fibroblasts and number of new blood vessels. The planimetric study showed slightly delay in wound closure of diabetic animals, however, it was not significantly different from nondiabetic wounds (p ≥ 0.05. Furthermore, epidermal thickness, number of fibroblasts and number of blood vessels were significantly lower in diabetic group (p < 0.05. We concluded that healing of excisional diabetic wounds in sheep may be compromised, as seen in other species. However, contraction rate of these wounds may not be delayed due to metabolic features of ruminants and these animals might go under surgeries without any serious concern. However, healing quality of these wounds may be lower than normal wounds.

  17. Chronic comorbidities in children with type 1 diabetes : a population-based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazelifarsani, Soulmaz; Souverein, Patrick C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/243074948; van der Vorst, Marja M J; Knibbe, Catherijne A J; de Boer, Anthonius|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075097346; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/266775098

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of chronic comorbidities among children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and to compare incidences with a group of children without diabetes. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: Dutch PHARMO database (1998-2010). PATIENTS: All patients (<19 years old) with

  18. The Diabetes Care Project: an Australian multicentre, cluster randomised controlled trial [study protocol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Matthew J; Segal, Leonie; Esterman, Adrian; Armour, Caroline; McDermott, Robyn; Fountaine, Tim

    2013-12-20

    Diabetes mellitus is an increasingly prevalent metabolic disorder that is associated with substantial disease burden. Australia has an opportunity to improve ways of caring for the growing number of people with diabetes, but this may require changes to the way care is funded, organised and delivered. To inform how best to care for people with diabetes, and to identify the extent of change that is required to achieve this, the Diabetes Care Project (DCP) will evaluate the impact of two different, evidence-based models of care (compared to usual care) on clinical quality, patient and provider experience, and cost. The DCP uses a pragmatic, cluster randomised controlled trial design. Accredited general practices that are situated within any of the seven Australian Medicare Locals/Divisions of General Practice that have agreed to take part in the study were invited to participate. Consenting practices will be randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups for approximately 18 to 22 months: (a) control group (usual care); (b) Intervention 1 (which tests improvements that could be made within the current funding model, facilitated through the use of an online chronic disease management network); or (c) Intervention 2 (which includes the same components as Intervention 1, as well as altered funding to support voluntary patient registration with their practice, incentive payments and a care facilitator). Adult patients who attend the enrolled practices and have established (≥12 month's duration) type 1 diabetes mellitus or newly diagnosed or established type 2 diabetes mellitus are invited to participate. Multiple outcomes will be studied, including changes in glycosylated haemoglobin (primary outcome), changes in other biochemical and clinical metrics, incidence of diabetes-related complications, quality of life, clinical depression, success of tailored care, patient and practitioner satisfaction, and budget sustainability. This project responds to a need for robust

  19. A retrospective study of secondary diabetes prevalence in Pheochromocytoma, Cushing and Acromegal patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastan Hagh M

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Some of the endocrinologic diseases, especially Acromegaly, Cushing and Pheochromocytoma have multiple effects on blood glucose metabolism and regulation in non-diabetic patients. In this retrospective survey, records of patients of Tehran Medical Sciences University hospitals have been reviewd. Of 124 Acromegals, GTT was performed for 51 patients, being impaired in 18%. To evaluate diabetes, FBS and BS of 90 patients were checked, overt diabetes was detected in 27%. Among 90 Cushing patients, blood glucose was checked in 60 cases, 47% of these patients had levels above the normal range, and 39% had glucosuria. Among 80 Pheochromocytoma patients, 16 cases (26.5% had overt diabetes. In comparison with other studied, we have obtained a little different results concerning diabetes and impaired GTT prevalence

  20. Cross-sectional pilot study about the health status of diabetic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    presentation of the data. Results: 87% of ... data. Results. Types of DM and family history. The majority of the diabetic cases (87.3%) belonged ..... The limitation of this study was the small number ... Tuomilehto J, Lindstrom J, Eriksson JG, et al:.

  1. Psychiatric comorbidity in diabetes type 1: a cross-sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Ana Claudia C de Ornelas; Braga, Arthur de Azevedo; Paes, Flávia; Machado, Sérgio; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Silva, Adriana Cardoso da

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders, i.e., the presence of signs and symptoms of anxiety and depression in type 1 diabetic patients, as well as to investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in insulin dependent patients. A cross-sectional observational study of 110 diabetic outpatients (mean = 58.3, SD = 14.5; 50 male and 60 female) was conducted in a public health clinic with patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus who were under the medical supervision of an endocrinologist. The patients were evaluated through the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale(HADS). With respect to anxiety symptoms, we found a prevalence of 60% (n = 66) among patients, while in depression symptoms we found a prevalence of 53.6% (n = 59) concerning the 110 patients evaluated. More specifically, we found 28.2% (n = 31) of patients without depression or anxiety, 13.6% (n = 15) of patients with depression, 16.4% (n = 18) of patients with anxiety and 41.8% (n = 46) of patients with depression combined with anxiety. The most remarkable data were generalized anxiety disorder (22.7%), dysthymia (18.2%), panic disorder (8.2%) and social phobia (5.5%). The need for accurate assessments about the presence of symptoms related to psychopathology in patients with type 1 diabetes is evident.

  2. Psychiatric comorbidity in diabetes type 1: a cross-sectional observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia C. de Ornelas Maia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study aims to investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders, i.e., the presence of signs and symptoms of anxiety and depression in type 1 diabetic patients, as well as to investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in insulin dependent patients. Methods A cross-sectional observational study of 110 diabetic outpatients (mean = 58.3, SD = 14.5; 50 male and 60 female was conducted in a public health clinic with patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus who were under the medical supervision of an endocrinologist. The patients were evaluated through the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale(HADS. Results With respect to anxiety symptoms, we found a prevalence of 60% (n = 66 among patients, while in depression symptoms we found a prevalence of 53.6% (n = 59 concerning the 110 patients evaluated. More specifically, we found 28.2% (n = 31 of patients without depression or anxiety, 13.6% (n = 15 of patients with depression, 16.4% (n = 18 of patients with anxiety and 41.8% (n = 46 of patients with depression combined with anxiety. The most remarkable data were generalized anxiety disorder (22.7%, dysthymia (18.2%, panic disorder (8.2% and social phobia (5.5%. Conclusion The need for accurate assessments about the presence of symptoms related to psychopathology in patients with type 1 diabetes is evident.

  3. Case-control studies in diabetes. Do they really use a case-control design?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Analía; Mendoza, Lilian Cristina; Rabasa, Fernanda; Bolíbar, Ignasi; Puig, Teresa; Corcoy, Rosa

    2017-07-01

    Studies defined as case-control do not always use this design. We aimed to estimate the frequency of mislabelled case-control studies in published articles in the area of diabetes and to identify the predictors of incorrect labelling. We searched Medline and Web of Science for articles with "diabetes" and "case control" in title and filtered for language (English/Romance) and period (January 2010-December 2014). Inclusion criteria were: (1) statement to use a case-control design in title, (2) to be a final full-length publication and (3) to have original data in the area of diabetes. Three independent reviewers went through titles, looked for full texts and reviewed them. Discrepancies were settled with a fourth reviewer. Expert epidemiologist advice was requested in case of doubt. case-control mislabelling; addressed predictors: publication year, journal impact factor and journal subject. proportion of mislabelled CC articles and assessment of predictors by multivariate logistic regression analysis. We retrieved 362 articles, 251 of them fulfilling inclusion criteria. The proportion of mislabelled CC studies was 43.8% (confidence interval 95% 37.7-50.0%). Most mislabelled studies had a cross-sectional design (82.7%). Predictors of mislabelling were publication year, journal impact factor and journal area. A relevant subset of studies defined as case-control in the area of diabetes correspond to mislabelled cross-sectional studies. Incorrect labelling misleads readers regarding the interpretation of results and the cause-effect hypothesis. Researchers, reviewers and editors should be aware of and commit to settle this issue.

  4. An epidemiological study of diabetes mellitus amongst high risk age group population in urban and Rural areas of kanpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Ahmad

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Research Question : - What is the magnitude of Diabetes mellitus in the urban and rural areas of Kanpur.Objectives:To study the prevalence of diabetes mellitus amongst high risk age group population in urban and rural areas of Kanpur.To compare the magnitude of problem of diabetes mellitus between urban and rural areas of Kanpur.To study the possible associates and socio-demographic variables related to diabetes mellitus.Study Design : Cross sectional study.Setting : The study was performed on three thousand population each in urban and rural areas of Kanpur.Participants : High risk age group population i.e. 45 years and above.Study variables : Age, Sex. impaired glucose tolerance. Body mass index, Education, Working status. Social class, family history of diabetes.Statistical analysis : Chi-square lest, percentagesResults From a total of 676 persons of high risk age group i.e. 45 years and above, the overall prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the study areas was observed lobe 7. l%with 9.94% in urban and 3.61% in rural areas, the maximum percetage of diabetes cases (41.66% was in the age group of 56-60 years. Higher prevalence of diabetes was observed in the obese (56.25% and sedentary (87.5% persons. The family history' of diabetes mellitus was present in (35.41% of diabetes mellitus cases.

  5. Multimodal optical measurement for study of lower limb tissue viability in patients with diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dremin, Viktor V.; Zherebtsov, Evgeny A.; Sidorov, Victor V.; Krupatkin, Alexander I.; Makovik, Irina N.; Zherebtsova, Angelina I.; Zharkikh, Elena V.; Potapova, Elena V.; Dunaev, Andrey V.; Doronin, Alexander A.; Bykov, Alexander V.; Rafailov, Ilya E.; Litvinova, Karina S.; Sokolovski, Sergei G.; Rafailov, Edik U.

    2017-08-01

    According to the International Diabetes Federation, the challenge of early stage diagnosis and treatment effectiveness monitoring in diabetes is currently one of the highest priorities in modern healthcare. The potential of combined measurements of skin fluorescence and blood perfusion by the laser Doppler flowmetry method in diagnostics of low limb diabetes complications was evaluated. Using Monte Carlo probabilistic modeling, the diagnostic volume and depth of the diagnosis were evaluated. The experimental study involved 76 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. These patients were divided into two groups depending on the degree of complications. The control group consisted of 48 healthy volunteers. The local thermal stimulation was selected as a stimulus on the blood microcirculation system. The experimental studies have shown that diabetic patients have elevated values of normalized fluorescence amplitudes, as well as a lower perfusion response to local heating. In the group of people with diabetes with trophic ulcers, these parameters also significantly differ from the control and diabetes only groups. Thus, the intensity of skin fluorescence and level of tissue blood perfusion can act as markers for various degrees of complications from the beginning of diabetes to the formation of trophic ulcers.

  6. Cross-sectional analysis of adult diabetes type 1 and type 2 patients with diabetic microvascular complications from a German retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happich, M; Breitscheidel, L; Meisinger, C; Ulbig, M; Falkenstein, P; Benter, U; Watkins, J

    2007-06-01

    To obtain epidemiological data on the prevalence of predefined stages of diabetic microvascular complications from a representative cross-section of patients with existing microvascular complications of type 1 or type 2 diabetes in Germany. A cross-sectional, retrospective study of medical records of 705 type 1 and 1910 type 2 adult diabetic patients with a diagnosis of retinopathy and/or peripheral neuropathy and/or nephropathy before 2002 and treated in 2002 in Germany. Of 376 patients with type 1 diabetes having retinopathy, 59.3% had mild or moderate non-proliferative retinopathy without macular oedema, 27.1% had macular oedema, and 13.6% had severe retinopathy without macular oedema. In 862 patients with type 2 diabetes, the distribution of retinopathy/maculopathy classes was 56.8%, 35.5%, and 7.7%, respectively. Of 381 type 1 diabetes patients with observed peripheral neuropathy, 81.4% had sensorimotor neuropathy, 8.9% had diabetic foot conditions, and 9.7% had lower extremity amputations because of diabetes. In 1005 patients with type 2 diabetes, the distribution of neuropathy classes was 78.2%, 12.1%, and 9.7%, respectively. The proportions of patients with renal insufficiency in type 1 and type 2 diabetes groups were 15.3% versus 13.5%, respectively. The study suggests that there are considerable proportions of patients with progressive stages of microvascular complications related to type 1 and type 2 diabetes in Germany. This underlines the importance of improvement of optimal quality of care and frequent screening for preventing late diabetic microvascular complications and the necessity of effective intervention strategies to tackle this major public health problem.

  7. Age at menopause in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus : the OVADIA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yarde, F.; van der Schouw, Y. T.; de Valk, H. W.; Franx, A.; Eijkemans, M. J. C.; Spierings, W.; Fauser, Bart; Broekmans, F. J. M.

    STUDY QUESTION: Is type 1 diabetes a determinant of advanced ovarian ageing, resulting in an early age at natural menopause? SUMMARY ANSWER: No clear evidence was provided that type 1 diabetes is a determinant of accelerated ovarian ageing resulting in an early menopause. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The

  8. Regional differences in the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy: a multi center study in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Karla Rezende Guerra; Malerbi, Fernando Korn; Morales, Paulo Henrique; Mattos, Tessa Cerqueira Lemos; Pinheiro, André Araújo; Mallmann, Felipe; Perez, Ricardo Vessoni; Leal, Franz Schubert Lopes; de Melo, Laura Gomes Nunes; Gomes, Marília Brito

    2018-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy has a significant impact in every healthcare system. Despite that fact, there are few accurate estimates in the prevalence of DR in Brazil's different geographic regions, particularly proliferative DR and diabetic macular edema. This study aims to determine the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in Brazil's five continental regions and its determinant factors. This multi center, cross-sectional, observational study, conducted between August 2011 and December 2014, included patients with type 1 diabetes from the 5 Brazilian geographic regions (South, Southeast, North, Northeast and Midwest). During a clinical visit, a structured questionnaire was applied, blood sampling was collected and each patient underwent mydriatic binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy evaluation. Data was obtained from 1644 patients, aged 30.2 ± 12 years (56.1% female, 54.4% Caucasian), with a diabetes duration of 15.5 ± 9.3 years. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 242 (36.1%) in the Southeast, 102 (42.9%) in the South, 183 (29.9%) in the North and Northeast and 54 (41.7%) in the Midwest. Multinomial regression showed no difference in the prevalence of non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy in each geographic region, although, prevalence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (p = 0.022), and diabetic macular edema (p = 0.003) was higher in the Midwest. Stepwise analyses reviled duration of diabetes, level of HbA1c and hypertension as independent variables. The prevalence of non proliferative diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 1 diabetes was no different between each geographic region of Brazil. The Midwest presented higher prevalence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema. Duration of DM and glycemic control is of central importance to all. Hypertension is another fundamental factor to every region, at special in the South and Southeast. Glycemic control and patients in social and economic vulnerability deserves

  9. Perceived racism and incident diabetes in the Black Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Kathryn L; Stuver, Sherri O; Cozier, Yvette C; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn; Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A

    2017-11-01

    Our aim was to assess the association of perceived racism with type 2 diabetes, and the possible mediating influence of diet and BMI. The Black Women's Health Study, a follow-up of 59,000 African-American women, began in 1995. Over 16 years 5344 incident cases of diabetes occurred during 576,577 person-years. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimated HRs and 95% CIs for categories of 'everyday racism' (interpersonal racism in daily life) and 'lifetime racism' (reporting ever treated unfairly due to race with respect to police, housing or work) and incident type 2 diabetes. Models were adjusted for age, questionnaire cycle, marital status, socioeconomic status, education, family history of diabetes, physical activity, alcohol use and smoking status, with and without inclusion of terms for dietary patterns and adult BMI. Compared with women in the lowest quartile of exposure, women in the highest quartile of exposure to everyday racism had a 31% increased risk of diabetes (HR 1.31; 95% CI 1.20, 1.42) and women with the highest exposure to lifetime racism had a 16% increased risk (HR 1.16; 95% CI 1.05, 1.27). Mediation analysis estimated that BMI accounted for half of the association between either the everyday or lifetime racism measure and incident diabetes. Perceived everyday and lifetime racism were associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes in this cohort of African-American women and appear to be at least partly mediated by BMI.

  10. A pilot study on the effects of a polyherbal formulation cream on diabetic foot ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Vijay; Kesavan, Rajesh; Kavitha, K.V.; Kumpatla, Satyavani

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Diabetic foot ulcers are the most common cause of non-traumatic lower extremity amputations in developing countries. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the safety of using a polyherbal formulation in healing diabetic foot ulcers in comparison with standard silver sulphadiazine cream among patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: A total of 40 (M:F=29:14) consecutive type 2 diabetes patients with foot ulcers were enrolled in this study. They were randomly assigned to two groups of 20 each; Group 1 was treated with polyherbal formulation and group 2 with silver sulphadiazine cream. All the patients were followed up for a period of 5 months. The baseline ulcer size was noted and photograph of the wound was taken at the baseline and at each follow up visit. Number of days taken for healing of the wound was recorded. Results: The mean age of patients, duration of diabetes and HbA1c% were similar in both the study groups. The mean length and width of the ulcers was also similar in both the groups at baseline visit. There was a significant decrease in the size of the wound (length and width) in both the study groups (P<0.001). The mean time taken for the healing of the ulcer was around 43 days in both groups. Interpretation & conclusions: Diabetic wound cream prepared by using polyherbal formulation was found to be effective as well as safe in healing diabetic foot ulcers like the standard silver sulphadiazine cream. PMID:21911968

  11. Studies on the antidiabetic activities of Momordica charantia fruit juice in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mona F; El Ashry, Fatma El Zahraa Z; El Maraghy, Nabila N; Fahmy, Ahmed

    2017-12-01

    Momordica charantia Linn (Cucurbitaceae) (MC) is used in folk medicine to treat various diseases including diabetes mellitus. This study investigates the antidiabetic activities of Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) on streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats. Male Wister rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups. Group I, Normal control; Group II, STZ diabetic; Group III and IV, Momordica charantia fruit juice was orally administered to diabetic rats (10 mL/kg/day either as prophylaxis for 14 days before induction of diabetes then 21 days treatment, or as treatment given for 21 days after induction of diabetes). The effects of MC juice were studied both in vivo and in vitro by studying the glucose uptake of isolated rat diaphragm muscles in the presence and absence of insulin. Histopathological examination of pancreas was also performed. This study showed that MC caused a significant reduction of serum glucose (135.99 ± 6.27 and 149.79 ± 1.90 vs. 253.40* ± 8.18) for prophylaxis and treatment respectively, fructosamine (0.99 ± 0.01 and 1.01 ± 0.04 vs. 3.04 ± 0.07), total cholesterol, triglycerides levels, insulin resistance index (1.13 ± 0.08 and 1.19 ± 0.05 vs. 1.48 ± 1.47) and pancreatic malondialdehyde content (p Momordica charantia presents excellent antidiabetic and antioxidant activities and thus has great potential as a new source for diabetes treatment whether it is used for prophylaxis or treatment.

  12. Increased circulating heat shock protein 70 (HSPA1A) levels in gestational diabetes mellitus: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garamvölgyi, Zoltán; Prohászka, Zoltán; Rigó, János; Kecskeméti, András; Molvarec, Attila

    2015-07-01

    Recent data indicate that serum Hsp70 (HSPA1A) levels are increased in type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is no report in the literature on circulating Hsp70 levels in gestational diabetes mellitus. In this pilot study, we measured serum Hsp70 levels in 11 pregnant women with pregestational diabetes, 38 women with gestational diabetes, and 40 healthy pregnant women with ELISA. Plasma glucose levels, serum insulin concentrations, HbA1c values, and the Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) index were also determined. According to our results, serum Hsp70 concentrations were significantly higher in women with pregestational and gestational diabetes mellitus than in healthy pregnant women. In addition, pregestational diabetic women had significantly higher Hsp70 levels than those with gestational diabetes. Furthermore, in the group of women with gestational diabetes mellitus, serum Hsp70 levels showed a significant positive correlation with HbA1c values. However, there was no other relationship between clinical features and metabolic parameters of the study subjects and their serum Hsp70 levels in either study group. In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time in the literature that serum Hsp70 levels are increased and correlate with HbA1c values in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to determine whether circulating Hsp70 plays a causative role in the pathogenesis of gestational diabetes or elevated serum Hsp70 levels are only consequences of the disease.

  13. Skin, a mirror reflecting diabetes mellitus: A longitudinal study in a tertiary care hospital in Gujarat

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    Roshni Vahora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Diabetes mellitus (DM is the most common of the endocrine disorders. Mucocutaneous manifestations of diabetes mellitus are many and vary from trivial to life-threatening. Sometimes, mucocutaneous disorders may herald the onset of diabetes. Aims: To study the pattern of mucocutaneous manifestations in diabetics and role of it in diagnosing diabetes mellitus and its complications. Settings and Design: It was a longitudinal observational study of patients having diabetes with skin complaints attending skin outdoor department or admitted in wards for any reason in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: Total 300 patients were included in the study. Detailed history, clinical examination, and relevant investigations were done to diagnose the mucocutaneous disorders, diabetes, and diabetic complications. Statistical Analysis Used: The data was analyzed by using Epi info software. Results: Demographic profile shown majority of cases (78.66% in more than 40 years of age with almost equal male and female preponderance. Mucocutaneous manifestations as presenting feature of diabetes were observed in 21.67% cases. Infections were most common in 119 (39.66% cases, followed by acanthosis nigricans in 46 (15.33% cases. Various associated complications like hypertension, retinopathy, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease, neuropathy, nephropathy, and diabetic ketoacidosis were observed in 160 (53.3%. Conclusions: Skin is the mirror, which reflects internal diseases; this aptly applies to skin and diabetes mellitus. Through awareness about cutaneous manifestations of DM, dermatologist can not only take credit for detecting DM but also facilitate early diagnosis of systemic complications of DM. This is immensely beneficial to patients in long run.

  14. Children's experiences of managing Type 1 diabetes in everyday life: a thematic synthesis of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, D; Harden, J; Jepson, R; Lawton, J

    2017-08-01

    To explore the everyday experiences of children (aged ≤ 12 years) with Type 1 diabetes to identify factors that help or hinder diabetes self-management practices. Eight databases (Embase, Medline, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsychInfo, ASSIA, ERIC and ProQuest Dissertations) were searched in 2016 to identify qualitative studies exploring children's views about self-managing diabetes. Data were extracted, coded and analysed using thematic synthesis. Eighteen studies from five countries were included in the review. Synthesis of studies' findings resulted in the identification of three overarching analytical themes. The first theme, 'Understandings of diabetes and involvement in self-management', outlines ways in which children understand diabetes and develop self-management responsibilities. The second theme, 'Disruption to life and getting on with it', reports children's frustrations at disruptions to everyday life when managing diabetes, and how attempts to appear normal to family and friends affect self-management practices. The third theme, 'Friends' support', describes how friends' reactions and responses to diabetes affect children's ability to appear normal and willingness to disclose information about diabetes, and support provided by 'informed friends', or peers with diabetes. Although the synthesis has identified how children's everyday life experiences inform ways in which they undertake diabetes self-management, it was not possible to determine new ways to provide support. To help children optimise their glycaemic control, further work should be undertaken to identify their need for support and which takes into account the potential ways in which parents, friends and peers can offer assistance. © 2017 Diabetes UK.

  15. Circadian gene variants and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes: a pilot study.

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    M Ann Kelly

    Full Text Available Disruption of endogenous circadian rhythms has been shown to increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, suggesting that circadian genes might play a role in determining disease susceptibility. We present the results of a pilot study investigating the association between type 2 diabetes and selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in/near nine circadian genes. The variants were chosen based on their previously reported association with prostate cancer, a disease that has been suggested to have a genetic link with type 2 diabetes through a number of shared inherited risk determinants.The pilot study was performed using two genetically homogeneous Punjabi cohorts, one resident in the United Kingdom and one indigenous to Pakistan. Subjects with (N = 1732 and without (N = 1780 type 2 diabetes were genotyped for thirteen circadian variants using a competitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction method. Associations between the SNPs and type 2 diabetes were investigated using logistic regression. The results were also combined with in silico data from other South Asian datasets (SAT2D consortium and white European cohorts (DIAGRAM+ using meta-analysis. The rs7602358G allele near PER2 was negatively associated with type 2 diabetes in our Punjabi cohorts (combined odds ratio [OR] = 0.75 [0.66-0.86], p = 3.18 × 10(-5, while the BMAL1 rs11022775T allele was associated with an increased risk of the disease (combined OR = 1.22 [1.07-1.39], p = 0.003. Neither of these associations was replicated in the SAT2D or DIAGRAM+ datasets, however. Meta-analysis of all the cohorts identified disease associations with two variants, rs2292912 in CRY2 and rs12315175 near CRY1, although statistical significance was nominal (combined OR = 1.05 [1.01-1.08], p = 0.008 and OR = 0.95 [0.91-0.99], p = 0.015 respectively.None of the selected circadian gene variants was associated with type 2 diabetes with study-wide significance after meta-analysis. The nominal

  16. The Effect of Diabetes Medication on Cognitive Function: Evidence from the PATH Through Life Study

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    Pushpani M. Herath

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the effect of diabetes treatment on change of measures of specific cognitive domains over 4 years. Research Design and Methods. The sample was drawn from a population-based cohort study in Australia (the PATH Through Life Study and comprised 1814 individuals aged 65–69 years at first measurement, of whom 211 were diagnosed with diabetes. Cognitive function was measured using 10 neuropsychological tests. The effect of type of diabetes treatment (diet, oral hypoglycemic agents, and insulin on measures of specific cognitive domains was assessed using Generalized Linear Models adjusted for age, sex, education, smoking, physical activity level, BMI, and hypertension. Results. Comparison of cognitive function between diabetes treatment groups showed no significant effect of type of pharmacological treatment on cognitive function compared to diet only group or no diabetes group. Of those on oral hypoglycaemic treatment only, participants who used metformin alone had better cognitive function at baseline for the domains of verbal learning, working memory, and executive function compared to participants on other forms of diabetic treatment. Conclusion. This study did not observe significant effect from type of pharmacological treatment for diabetes on cognitive function except that participants who only used metformin showed significant protective effect from metformin on domain of verbal learning, working memory, and executive function.

  17. Association between particulate matter 2.5 and diabetes mellitus: A meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dian; Wu, Shaowen; Zhao, Haiping; Qiu, Hongyan; Fu, Yang; Li, Xingming; He, Yan

    2017-09-01

    The present meta-analysis was carried out to assess the association between exposure to the level of atmospheric particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5; fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) and type 2 diabetes mellitus or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We searched the Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane and Web of Science databases to obtain articles according to the responding literature search strategies. Among a total of 279 identified articles, 55 were reviewed in depth, of which 10 articles (11 cohort studies) satisfied the inclusion criteria. Only cohort studies that disclosed the association between PM2.5 and type 2 diabetes mellitus or GDM were included in this article. A fixed-effects model was selected if P > 0.1 and I 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 diabetes mellitus and GDM). The relative risk was used to estimate the association between PM2.5 and diabetes mellitus. The positive associations between PM2.5 and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus were found in the long-term exposure period (relative risk 1.25, 95% confidence interval 1.10-1.43), which showed that with every 10-μg/m 3 increase in PM2.5, the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus would increase by 25% in the long-term exposure. Although the significant associations were not identified between maternal exposure to PM2.5 and GDM in the first trimester, the second trimester and the entire pregnancy periods, we could conclude that maternal exposure to PM2.5 in the entire pregnancy period would be more likely to lead to developing GDM (relative risk 1.162, 95% confidence interval 0.806-1.675) than the other two periods. Long-term exposure to PM2.5 would be more likely to lead to developing type 2 diabetes mellitus, but more studies would be required to confirm the association between PM2.5 and GDM. It might be a wise to take effective measures to reduce PM2.5 exposure in vulnerable populations, especially for pregnant women. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation

  18. Study on risk factors associated with diabetic retinopathy among the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in South India

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    Senthilvel Vasudevan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To find the severities status of diabetic retinopathy(DRamong the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and to determine the association of the severities of diabetic retinopathy with duration of DR, HbA1C levels, history of hypertension, age and gender in the study population.METHODS:Hospital based cross-sectional studies with sample of 100 patients with DR were selected by using simple random sampling technique with a structured questionnaire was conducted in May to June 2012. The study participants those who with DR aged ≥35 years were included in this study and an oral consent was also collected from the study participants. Descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariate ordinal logistic regression analysis were performed. MS Excel spread sheet was used for data entry and data analysis was done by using SPSS 21.0 version. Statistical significance was taken as PRESULTS:Out of 100 patients, mean age of the patient was found as 53.16±10.81(range 35-78y. By univariate analysis, there was a positive relationship between diabetic retinopathy severity and age(PPPPP>0.05 by Mann Whitney u-test. All these factors were found as independent risk factors with the severity of DR except the factor age.CONCLUSION:This study was concluded that the duration of DM, HbA1C levels, family history of DM, History of hypertension and gender were independently associated with severity of DR. However, the factors like age and HDL weren't significant with severity of DR in multivariate analysis. Therefore, by using the availability of the existing treatments and controlling in time, which can prevent and free from the vision threatening diseases or delay the occurrence of DR in their life.

  19. Photobiomodulation Mitigates Diabetes-Induced Retinopathy by Direct and Indirect Mechanisms: Evidence from Intervention Studies in Pigmented Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, Alexandra; Du, Yunpeng; Liu, Haitao; Patel, Shyam; Roberts, Robin; Berkowitz, Bruce A; Kern, Timothy S

    2015-01-01

    Daily application of far-red light from the onset of diabetes mitigated diabetes-induced abnormalities in retinas of albino rats. Here, we test the hypothesis that photobiomodulation (PBM) is effective in diabetic, pigmented mice, even when delayed until weeks after onset of diabetes. Direct and indirect effects of PBM on the retina also were studied. Diabetes was induced in C57Bl/6J mice using streptozotocin. Some diabetics were exposed to PBM therapy (4 min/day; 670 nm) daily. In one study, mice were diabetic for 4 weeks before initiation of PBM for an additional 10 weeks. Retinal oxidative stress, inflammation, and retinal function were measured. In some mice, heads were covered with a lead shield during PBM to prevent direct illumination of the eye, or animals were treated with an inhibitor of heme oxygenase-1. In a second study, PBM was initiated immediately after onset of diabetes, and administered daily for 2 months. These mice were examined using manganese-enhanced MRI to assess effects of PBM on transretinal calcium channel function in vivo. PBM intervention improved diabetes-induced changes in superoxide generation, leukostasis, expression of ICAM-1, and visual performance. PBM acted in part remotely from the retina because the beneficial effects were achieved even with the head shielded from the light therapy, and because leukocyte-mediated cytotoxicity of retinal endothelial cells was less in diabetics treated with PBM. SnPP+PBM significantly reduced iNOS expression compared to PBM alone, but significantly exacerbated leukostasis. In study 2, PBM largely mitigated diabetes-induced retinal calcium channel dysfunction in all retinal layers. PBM induces retinal protection against abnormalities induced by diabetes in pigmented animals, and even as an intervention. Beneficial effects on the retina likely are mediated by both direct and indirect mechanisms. PBM is a novel non-pharmacologic treatment strategy to inhibit early changes of diabetic retinopathy.

  20. Radionuclide study of the liver macrophage system in diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavnov, V.M.; Savich, O.A.; Markov, V.V.

    2002-01-01

    The functional state of the liver macrophage system (MS) in diabetes mellitus (DM) and to analyze the functional disturbances depending of the type of DM, presence of complications, duration of the disease and the age of the patients was studied. The obtained data suggest the necessity of radionuclide study of the liver MS with the purpose to reveal pre-clinical disturbances and administer timely treatment

  1. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for monitoring diabetic foot ulcer - A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Suresh; Sujatha, N.; Narayanamurthy, V. B.; Seshadri, V.; Poddar, Richa

    2014-02-01

    Foot ulceration due to diabetes mellitus is a major problem affecting 12-25% of diabetic subjects in their lifetime. An untreated ulcer further gets infected which causes necrosis leading to amputation of lower extremities. Early identification of risk factors and treatment for these chronic wounds would reduce health care costs and improve the quality of life for people with diabetes. Recent clinical investigations have shown that a series of factors including reduced oxygen delivery and disturbed metabolism have been observed on patients with foot ulceration due to diabetes. Also, these factors can impair the wound healing process. Optical techniques based on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy provide characteristic spectral finger prints shed light on tissue oxygenation levels and morphological composition of a tissue. This study deals with the application of diffuse reflectance intensity ratios based on oxyhemoglobin bands (R542/R580), ratios of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin bands (R580/R555), total hemoglobin concentration and hemoglobin oxygen saturation between normal and diabetic foot ulcer sites. Preliminary results obtained are found to be promising indicating the application of reflectance spectroscopy in the assessment of foot ulcer healing.

  2. Vitamin D Intake and Risk of Type 1 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

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    Li-Qiang Qin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is suggested to have protective effects against type 1 diabetes. However, the results from observational studies have been inconsistent. We aimed to examine their association by conducting a meta-analysis of observational studies. Multiple databases were searched in June 2013 to identify relevant studies including both case-control and cohort studies. Either a fixed- or random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled risk estimate. We identified eight studies (two cohort studies and six case-control studies on vitamin D intake during early life and three studies (two cohort studies and one case-control study on maternal vitamin D intake during pregnancy. The pooled odds ratio for type 1 diabetes comparing vitamin D supplementation with non-supplementation during early life was 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51–0.98. Similar results were observed in the case-control subgroup analysis but not in the cohort subgroup analysis. The pooled odds ratio with maternal intake of vitamin D during pregnancy was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.66–1.36. In conclusion, vitamin D intake during early life may be associated with a reduced risk of type 1 diabetes. However, there was not enough evidence for an association between maternal intake of vitamin D and risk of type 1 diabetes in the offspring.

  3. Study of fatigue, depression, and associated factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus in industrial workers

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    Akhilesh Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a significant health problem and imposes great physical, financial and psychological burden among the affected population. Among people with diabetes, fatigue is a pervasive and distressing complaint, which is further accentuated by presence of depression. Objective: To assess the prevalence of fatigue and depression and associated clinical and socio demographic correlates in type 2diabetes. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study included 100 patients of diabetes type 2 and equal number of healthy controls between the ages of 18 to 70 years . A detailed evaluation of socio demographic and clinical parameters was made. Participants were also assessed for presence of depression and fatigue using PHQ-9 and Fatigue Severity Scale(FSSrespectively. Results: Fatigue and depression was found in 68 % and 53 % of diabetic participants. Diabetic patients were 10.37 times and 4.80 times more likely to suffer from fatigue and depression respectively. Both fatigue and depression were found to be significantly associated with duration of illness, fasting and post prandial blood glucose level ,diabetic complications and Body Mass Index (BMI. Fatigue was also strongly correlated with depression in study sample. Conclusions: Fatigue and depression are reasonably correlated with type 2 diabetes. Various clinical parameters of diabetes are strongly associated with both fatigue and depression. Fatigue itself has significant correlation with depression in type 2 diabetes. Regular monitoring of biochemical parameters are paramount to predict the development of fatigue and depression in type 2 diabetes.

  4. Quality of diabetic care in an urban slum area of Mysore: A community based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhu, B; Srinath, K M; Chandresh, Swathi; Ashok, N C; Basavanagowdappa, H; Rama, H V

    2016-01-01

    Community based cross sectional study was conducted in an urban slum of Mysore. Data was collected between July and August 2011. Known diabetics residing in this area were included in the study. Socio-demographic information of diabetic patients, history, physicians advice and the extent of compliance of patients towards treatment were assessed. Descriptive statistics, like percentages were calculated. Study comprised of 104 patients. Mean fasting and post prandial blood glucose was 163±70mg/dl and 239±89mg/dl respectively. Common co-morbid conditions were hypertension and obesity. Key process indicators of care, indicated that adherence to medication advice was maximum and less than one fourth of them had an annual Hba1c and lipid profile examinations. To prevent long term complications associated with diabetes, doctors must adhere to the guidelines. There is a need to improve the health system, in terms of developing facilities to provide annual eye examination, annual lipid profile, urea, creatinine testing for diabetic patient. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Psychological and personality factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus, presenting the rationale and exploratory results from The Maastricht Study, a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dooren, Fleur E P; Denollet, Johan; Verhey, Frans R J; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Sep, Simone J S; Henry, Ronald M A; Kremers, Stef P J; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Schaper, Nicolaas C; van der Kallen, Carla J H; Koster, Annemarie; Pouwer, Frans; Schram, Miranda T

    2016-01-27

    Strong longitudinal evidence exists that psychological distress is associated with a high morbidity and mortality risk in type 2 diabetes. Little is known about the biological and behavioral mechanisms that may explain this association. Moreover, the role of personality traits in these associations is still unclear. In this paper, we first describe the design of the psychological part of The Maastricht Study that aims to elucidate these mechanisms. Next, we present exploratory results on the prevalence of depression, anxiety and personality traits in type 2 diabetes. Finally, we briefly discuss the importance of these findings for clinical research and practice. We measured psychological distress and depression using the MINI diagnostic interview, the PHQ-9 and GAD-7 questionnaires in the first 864 participants of The Maastricht Study, a large, population-based cohort study. Personality traits were measured by the DS14 and Big Five personality questionnaires. Type 2 diabetes was assessed by an oral glucose tolerance test. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations of depression, anxiety and personality with type 2 diabetes, adjusted for age, sex and education level. Individuals with type 2 diabetes had higher levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms, odds ratios (95 % CI) were 3.15 (1.49; 6.67), 1.73 (0.83-3.60), 1.50 (0.72-3.12), for PHQ-9 ≥ 10, current depressive disorder and GAD-7 ≥ 10, respectively. Type D personality, social inhibition and negative affectivity were more prevalent in type 2 diabetes, odds ratios were 1.95 (1.23-3.10), 1.35 (0.93-1.94) and 1.70 (1.14-2.51), respectively. Individuals with type 2 diabetes were less extraverted, less conscientious, less agreeable and less emotionally stable, and similar in openness to individuals without type 2 diabetes, although effect sizes were small. Individuals with type 2 diabetes experience more psychological distress and have different personality traits compared to individuals

  6. Exercise in patients with Type 2 diabetes: Facilitators and barriers - A qualitative study

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    T S Advika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes is a major noncommunicable disease affecting more than 65 million Indians. Although treatment algorithms suggest lifestyle measures (diet and exercise along with medications data regarding adherence to exercise as well as facilitators and barriers to the practice of physical activity in such patients are limited. Hence, this qualitative study was conducted. Objectives: The objective of this study is to describe the factors which (1 Facilitated and (2 hindered the practice of regular exercise in patients with Type 2 diabetes. Methodology: The study was conducted on 13 diabetic patients admitted to a tertiary care center in Bengaluru - St. John's Medical College Hospital, to explore factors that acted as facilitators and barriers to physical activity. Data saturation with the coded themes was achieved on interviewing 13 patients, after which, thematic analysis was done, and final themes reported. Results: The age of the study participants (7 males, 6 females ranged from 40 to 80 years. Among those who did exercise, factors such as awareness regarding the benefits of exercise and complications linked with diabetes, positive family support, and emphasis by nursing staff emerged as facilitators. Lack of time, obligations to others, inability to link exercise with blood sugar control, lack of perception of obesity as a health issue, inadequate emphasis by physicians, social/cultural issues, lack of infrastructure, and physical restriction were the factors that acted as barriers to physical activity. In addition to the above, a clear lack of adherence to standard guidelines, while advising patients by physicians was also noted. Conclusion: A comprehensive approach by both doctors and nurses, based on standard guidelines, could help in implementing adherence to exercise in patients with diabetes.

  7. Early myocardial dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice: a study using in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI

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    Chandrasekaran Suresh

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is associated with a cardiomyopathy that is independent of coronary artery disease or hypertension. In the present study we used in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and echocardiographic techniques to examine and characterize early changes in myocardial function in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes. Methods Diabetes was induced in 8-week old C57BL/6 mice with two intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin. The blood glucose levels were maintained at 19–25 mmol/l using intermittent low dosages of long acting insulin glargine. MRI and echocardiography were performed at 4 weeks of diabetes (age of 12 weeks in diabetic mice and age-matched controls. Results After 4 weeks of hyperglycemia one marker of mitochondrial function, NADH oxidase activity, was decreased to 50% of control animals. MRI studies of diabetic mice at 4 weeks demonstrated significant deficits in myocardial morphology and functionality including: a decreased left ventricular (LV wall thickness, an increased LV end-systolic diameter and volume, a diminished LV ejection fraction and cardiac output, a decreased LV circumferential shortening, and decreased LV peak ejection and filling rates. M-mode echocardiographic and Doppler flow studies of diabetic mice at 4 weeks showed a decreased wall thickening and increased E/A ratio, supporting both systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that MRI interrogation can identify the onset of diabetic cardiomyopathy in mice with its impaired functional capacity and altered morphology. The MRI technique will lend itself to repetitive study of early changes in cardiac function in small animal models of diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  8. Early myocardial dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice: a study using in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xichun; Tesiram, Yasvir A; Towner, Rheal A; Abbott, Andrew; Patterson, Eugene; Huang, Shijun; Garrett, Marion W; Chandrasekaran, Suresh; Matsuzaki, Satoshi; Szweda, Luke I; Gordon, Brian E; Kem, David C

    2007-01-01

    Background Diabetes is associated with a cardiomyopathy that is independent of coronary artery disease or hypertension. In the present study we used in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and echocardiographic techniques to examine and characterize early changes in myocardial function in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes. Methods Diabetes was induced in 8-week old C57BL/6 mice with two intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin. The blood glucose levels were maintained at 19–25 mmol/l using intermittent low dosages of long acting insulin glargine. MRI and echocardiography were performed at 4 weeks of diabetes (age of 12 weeks) in diabetic mice and age-matched controls. Results After 4 weeks of hyperglycemia one marker of mitochondrial function, NADH oxidase activity, was decreased to 50% of control animals. MRI studies of diabetic mice at 4 weeks demonstrated significant deficits in myocardial morphology and functionality including: a decreased left ventricular (LV) wall thickness, an increased LV end-systolic diameter and volume, a diminished LV ejection fraction and cardiac output, a decreased LV circumferential shortening, and decreased LV peak ejection and filling rates. M-mode echocardiographic and Doppler flow studies of diabetic mice at 4 weeks showed a decreased wall thickening and increased E/A ratio, supporting both systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that MRI interrogation can identify the onset of diabetic cardiomyopathy in mice with its impaired functional capacity and altered morphology. The MRI technique will lend itself to repetitive study of early changes in cardiac function in small animal models of diabetic cardiomyopathy. PMID:17309798

  9. Influence of comorbidities on therapeutic progression of diabetes treatment in Australian veterans: a cohort study.

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    Agnes I Vitry

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study assessed whether the number of comorbid conditions unrelated to diabetes was associated with a delay in therapeutic progression of diabetes treatment in Australian veterans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A retrospective cohort study was undertaken using data from the Australian Department of Veterans' Affairs (DVA claims database between July 2000 and June 2008. The study included new users of metformin or sulfonylurea medicines. The outcome was the time to addition or switch to another antidiabetic treatment. The total number of comorbid conditions unrelated to diabetes was identified using the pharmaceutical-based comorbidity index, Rx-Risk-V. Competing risk regression analyses were conducted, with adjustments for a number of covariates that included age, gender, residential status, use of endocrinology service, number of hospitalisation episodes and adherence to diabetes medicines. Overall, 20,134 veterans were included in the study. At one year, 23.5% of patients with diabetes had a second medicine added or had switched to another medicine, with 41.4% progressing by 4 years. The number of unrelated comorbidities was significantly associated with the time to addition of an antidiabetic medicine or switch to insulin (subhazard ratio [SHR] 0.87 [95% CI 0.84-0.91], P<0.001. Depression, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, dementia, and Parkinson's disease were individually associated with a decreased likelihood of therapeutic progression. Age, residential status, number of hospitalisations and adherence to anti-diabetic medicines delayed therapeutic progression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Increasing numbers of unrelated conditions decreased the likelihood of therapeutic progression in veterans with diabetes. These results have implications for the development of quality measures, clinical guidelines and the construction of models of care for management of diabetes in elderly people with comorbidities.

  10. Readiness for diabetes prevention and barriers to lifestyle change in women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus: rationale and study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscombe, Lorraine L; Banerjee, Ananya Tina; McTavish, Sarah; Mukerji, Geetha; Lowe, Julia; Ray, Joel; Evans, Marilyn; Feig, Denice S

    2014-10-01

    Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have a high risk of future diabetes, which can be prevented with lifestyle modification. Prior diabetes prevention programmes in this population have been limited by lack of adherence. The aim of this study is to evaluate readiness for behaviour change at different time points after GDM diagnosis and identify barriers and facilitators, to inform a lifestyle modification programme specifically designed for this group. The objective of this paper is to present the rationale and methodological design of this study. The ongoing prospective cohort study has recruited a multi-ethnic cohort of 1353 women with GDM from 7 Ontario, Canada hospitals during their pregnancy. A questionnaire was developed to evaluate stage of readiness for behaviour change, and sociodemographic, psychosocial, and clinical predictors of healthy diet and physical activity. Thus far, 960 women (71%) have completed a baseline survey prior to delivery. Prospective postpartum follow-up is ongoing. We are surveying women at 2 time-points after delivery: 3-12 months postpartum, and 13-24 months postpartum. Survey data will be linked to health care administrative databases for long-term follow-up for diabetes. Qualitative interviews were conducted in a subset of women to gain a deeper understanding of barriers and facilitators to lifestyle change. Our study is a fundamental first step in effectively addressing diabetes prevention in women with GDM. Our findings will aid in the design of a diabetes prevention intervention specifically targeted to women with recent GDM, which can then be evaluated in a clinical trial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Incidence and predictors of hospitalization for bacterial infection in community-based patients with type 2 diabetes: the fremantle diabetes study.

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    Emma J Hamilton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The few studies that have examined the relationship between diabetes and bacterial infections have utilized administrative databases and/or have had limited/incomplete data including recognized infection risk factors. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and associates of bacterial infection severe enough to require hospitalization in well-characterized community-based patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We studied a cohort of 1,294 patients (mean±SD age 64.1±11.3 years from the longitudinal observational Fremantle Diabetes Study Phase I (FDS1 and 5,156 age-, gender- and zip-code-matched non-diabetic controls. The main outcome measure was incident hospitalization for bacterial infection as principal diagnosis between 1993 and 2010. We also examined differences in statin use in 52 FDS1 pairs hospitalized with pneumonia (cases or a contemporaneous non-infection-related cause (controls. During 12.0±5.4 years of follow-up, 251 (19.4% patients were hospitalized on 368 occasions for infection (23.7/1,000 patient-years. This was more than double the rate in matched controls (incident rate ratio (IRR (95% CI, 2.13 (1.88-2.42, P<0.001. IRRs for pneumonia, cellulitis, and septicemia/bacteremia were 1.86 (1.55-2.21, 2.45 (1.92-3.12, and 2.08 (1.41-3.04, respectively (P<0.001. Among the diabetic patients, older age, male sex, prior recent infection-related hospitalization, obesity, albuminuria, retinopathy and Aboriginal ethnicity were baseline variables independently associated with risk of first hospitalization with any infection (P≤0.005. After adjustment for these variables, baseline statin treatment was not significant (hazard ratio (95% CI, 0.70 (0.39-1.25, P = 0.22. Statin use at hospitalization for pneumonia among the case-control pairs was similar (23.1% vs. 13.5%, P = 0.27. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of severe infection is increased among type 2 diabetic patients and is not reduced by statin

  12. Safety and effectiveness of tofogliflozin in elderly Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A post-marketing study (J-STEP/EL Study).

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    Utsunomiya, Kazunori; Shimmoto, Naoki; Senda, Masayuki; Kurihara, Yuji; Gunji, Ryoji; Fujii, Shoko; Kakiuchi, Seigo; Fujiwara, Hisataka; Kameda, Hiroyuki; Tamura, Masahiro; Kaku, Kohei

    2017-11-01

    Although sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors are a promising treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus, they are associated with concerns about specific adverse drug reactions. We carried out a 1-year post-marketing study of tofogliflozin, a novel agent in this class, in Japanese elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This was a prospective, observational and multicenter post-marketing study carried out in the context of routine clinical practice. The study included all type 2 diabetes patients aged ≥65 years who started treatment with tofogliflozin during the first 3 months after its launch on 23 May 2014. Of 1,535 patients registered, 1,507 patients whose electronic case report forms were collected and who had at least one follow-up visit were included in the safety analysis. A total of 270 of 1,507 patients (17.92%) had at least one adverse drug reaction to tofogliflozin. The incidences of adverse drug reactions of special interest, namely, polyuria/pollakiuria, volume depletion-related events, urinary tract infection, genital infection, hypoglycemia and skin disorders were 2.92, 3.85, 2.06, 1.33, 1.06 and 2.39%, respectively. Among those patients evaluable for clinical effectiveness, the mean change in glycated hemoglobin and bodyweight from baseline to last visit was -0.46% (P < 0.0001) and -2.71 kg (P < 0.0001), respectively. The present study showed that the incidence of adverse drug reactions to tofogliflozin in this study of elderly patients aged ≥65 years differed little from the incidence in the preapproval clinical trials. It was shown that tofogliflozin significantly decreased glycated hemoglobin levels. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Egg consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a case-control study.

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    Radzevičienė, Lina; Ostrauskas, Rytas

    2012-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus appears to involve an interaction between susceptible genetic backgrounds and environmental factors including highly calorific diets. As it is important to identify modifiable risk factors that may help reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, the aim of the present study was to determine the association between egg consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. A specifically designed questionnaire was used to collect information on possible risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals for type 2 diabetes mellitus were calculated by conditional logistic regression. A case-control study in a Lithuanian out-patient clinic was performed in 2001. A total of 234 cases with a newly confirmed diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and 468 controls free of the disease. Variables such as BMI, family history of diabetes, cigarette smoking, education, morning exercise and plasma TAG level were retained in multivariate logistic regression models as confounders because their inclusion changed the value of the odds ratio by more than 10 % in any exposure category. After adjustment for possible confounders more than twofold increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus was determined for individuals consuming 3-4·9 eggs/week (OR = 2·60; 95 % CI 1·34, 5·08) and threefold increased risk of the disease was determined for individuals consuming ≥5 eggs/week (OR = 3·02; 95 % CI 1·14, 7·98) compared with those eating diabetes mellitus.

  14. Association between Serum Cystatin C and Diabetic Foot Ulceration in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Jie Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum cystatin C (CysC has been identified as a possible potential biomarker in a variety of diabetic complications, including diabetic peripheral neuropathy and peripheral artery disease. We aimed to examine the association between CysC and diabetic foot ulceration (DFU in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D. 411 patients with T2D were enrolled in this cross-sectional study at a university hospital. Clinical manifestations and biochemical parameters were compared between DFU group and non-DFU group. The association between serum CysC and DFU was explored by binary logistic regression analysis. The cut point of CysC for DFU was also evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve. The prevalence of coronary artery disease, diabetic nephropathy (DN, and DFU dramatically increased with CysC (P<0.01 in CysC quartiles. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the significant risk factors for DFU were serum CysC, coronary artery disease, hypertension, insulin use, the differences between supine and sitting TcPO2, and hypertension. ROC curve analysis revealed that the cut point of CysC for DFU was 0.735 mg/L. Serum CysC levels correlated with DFU and severity of tissue loss. Our study results indicated that serum CysC was associated with a high prevalence of DFU in Chinese T2D subjects.

  15. Association between Serum Cystatin C and Diabetic Foot Ulceration in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Zhao, Jie; Deng, Wuquan; Zhang, Yuping; Zheng, Yanling; Zhou, Lina; Boey, Johnson; Armstrong, David G.; Yang, Gangyi

    2016-01-01

    Serum cystatin C (CysC) has been identified as a possible potential biomarker in a variety of diabetic complications, including diabetic peripheral neuropathy and peripheral artery disease. We aimed to examine the association between CysC and diabetic foot ulceration (DFU) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). 411 patients with T2D were enrolled in this cross-sectional study at a university hospital. Clinical manifestations and biochemical parameters were compared between DFU group and non-DFU group. The association between serum CysC and DFU was explored by binary logistic regression analysis. The cut point of CysC for DFU was also evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The prevalence of coronary artery disease, diabetic nephropathy (DN), and DFU dramatically increased with CysC (P < 0.01) in CysC quartiles. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the significant risk factors for DFU were serum CysC, coronary artery disease, hypertension, insulin use, the differences between supine and sitting TcPO2, and hypertension. ROC curve analysis revealed that the cut point of CysC for DFU was 0.735 mg/L. Serum CysC levels correlated with DFU and severity of tissue loss. Our study results indicated that serum CysC was associated with a high prevalence of DFU in Chinese T2D subjects. PMID:27668262

  16. [DiabeTIC website: a pilot study of satisfaction and impact on metabolic control].

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    Carral San Laureano, Florentino; Ayala Ortega, María del Carmen; Jiménez Millán, Ana Isabel; Piñero Zaldivar, Antonia; García Calzado, Concepción; Prieto Ferrón, Matilde; Silva Rodríguez, Juan José

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate satisfaction and short-term impact on metabolic control of diabetes monitoring through the DiabeTIC website. A prospective, uncontrolled intervention study was conducted in 32 patients aged 29.7±9.7 years (65% female) incorporated to the telemedicine platform DiabeTIC between March and September 2012. All patients completed a satisfaction questionnaire in the first month, and impact on metabolic control was evaluated at three and six months. In the satisfaction survey conducted in the first month of follow-up, the following mean scores (0-10) were obtained: overall impression with the platform: 8.6±1.8; ease of use: 8.1±1.5; intuitive navigation: 6.7±3.0; value of measurements: 9.1±1.1; importance of the platform in diabetes management: 9.5±0.9; sense of security: 9.5±0.8; value of the library: 9.4±1.1; value of messages: 9.1±1.4, and recommendation to use the platform: 9.4±0.9. Glycosilated hemoglobin concentrations significantly improved at six months as compared to study start (7.0±0.8 versus 8.1±1.9; p=0.007). Nine patients were discharged from DiabeTIC before completing six months of follow-up. Patients with diabetes monitored through the DiabeTIC website report a high degree of satisfaction, showing improved metabolic control at short-term follow-up. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Opium consumption and coronary atherosclerosis in diabetic patients: a propensity score-matched study.

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    Hosseini, Seyed Kianoosh; Masoudkabir, Farzad; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ali; Alipour-Parsa, Saeed; Sheikh Fathollahi, Mahmood; Rahimi-Foroushani, Abbas; Hakki, Elham; Goodarzynejad, Hamidreza; Eftekhar, Hassan

    2011-11-01

    There is a traditional belief among Eastern people that opium may have ameliorating effects on cardiovascular risk factors, especially diabetes; thus, it is widely used among diabetic patients. We attempted to investigate the association of opium consumption with coronary artery disease (CAD) in diabetic patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted on diabetic patients undergoing coronary angiography in our center. Out of 1925 diabetic patients included in the study, 228 were opium users, and the remaining 1697 non-opium users were used as a pool of potential comparators. Propensity scores were used to match the 228 opium consumers with 228 matched comparators for age, sex, and smoking status. The Gensini score and extent score were respectively used to assess the angiographic severity and extent of CAD. The mean Gensini score (86.9 ± 62.7 vs. 59.6 ± 43.4, p opium user diabetic patients than in non-opium users. After adjustment for potential confounders, a dose-response relationship was observed between dose of opium and the Gensini score ( β = 0.27, p = 0.04). There were no significant differences between the routes of opium administration (inhalation vs. oral) regarding the severity and extent of CAD. In conclusion, exposure to opium in diabetic patients may be positively associated with the risk of CAD, and with the angiographically determined severity and extent of the disease. Furthermore, dosage of opium consumption may correlate with severity of CAD. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. An ethnographic study of diabetes health beliefs and practices in Sri Lankan adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekara, A A T D; Fongkaew, W; Turale, S; Wimalasekara, S W; Chanprasit, C

    2014-12-01

    Globally, type 2 diabetes is increasingly prevalent; however, unique cultural contexts in each country might affect these diabetes control behaviours. Diabetes is a serious health issue in Sri Lanka and little is known about the impact of sociocultural context on diabetes health behaviours. This first-time qualitative Sri Lankan study explored the health beliefs and practices of adults with diabetes to enhance current nursing care and medical treatment. An ethnographic approach was used to collect data through participant observations, in-depth interviews with 14 key informants in their homes and field notes. Data were analysed by thematic analysis. Findings revealed unique, informative insights into sociocultural worlds of the participants from three Sinhalese, Tamils and Moor ethnic groups. Findings are described under five themes: gaining religious support, changing food habits is a struggle, exercising is challenging, Western medicine causes long-term consequences and Ayurveda/traditional treatments can cure. In Sri Lankans, the impact of sociocultural context on glycaemic control behaviours is significant and should be taken in consideration when health professionals provide care, treatment and health education. Study informants were selected from three ethnic groups and just two communities. Further in-depth research is required using both qualitative and quantitative approaches in individual groups. Culturally relevant policies and protocols for community care and treatment of people with diabetes are urgently required in Sri Lanka to enhance cultural treatment and care and reduce the epidemic of diabetes. These policies need to take into account traditional beliefs and practices of various ethnic groups. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.

  19. Estudios de intervención dirigidos a disminuir el riesgo de padecer diabetes mellitus tipo 2 Intervention studies aimed at lowering the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus

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    José Luis Valenciaga Rodríguez

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios de intervención en población de riesgo, dirigidos a disminuir la frecuencia de la aparición de la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM 2, son considerados orientadores para el enfoque del trabajo con esos pacientes. El objetivo del presente estudio es revisar los resultados de investigaciones dirigidas a disminuir el riesgo de padecer DM 2. Los sujetos estudiados presentaban alguna de las siguientes condiciones: glucosa alterada en ayunas (GAA o tolerancia a la glucosa alterada (TGA, antecedente personal de diabetes gestacional y síndrome metabólico. Se citan, entre otros, DPP (diabetes prevention program, DPS (diabetes prevention study, STOP-NIDDM (study to prevent non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, Hiperglucemia en ayunas, DAISI (dutch acarbose intervention trial, Da Quing (estudio chino, TRIPOD (troglitazone In the prevention of diabetes, intervención, XENDOS (xenical in the prevention of diabetes in obese subjects, WOSCOPS (west of scotland coronary prevention study, EDIT (early diabetes intervención trial, NAVIGATOR (nateglinide and valsartan in impaired glucose tolerance outcomes research, DREAM (diabetes reduction assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone medication. Estos consistían en cambios de estilo de vida (fundamentalmente ejercicios físicos sistemáticos y orientaciones nutricionales y/o intervenciones terapéuticas. Se concluye que en personas con 25 o más años de edad de ambos sexos, con riesgo de padecer DM 2, la adopción de un estilo de vida saludable logra disminuir el riesgo de padecer el síndrome diabético. En sujetos con alto riesgo de DM 2, los fármacos que reportan mejores y más consistentes resultados son el metformin y la acarbosa. Otros como la nateglidina, rosiglitazona, ramipril y valsartan, se están investigando actualmente.Intervention studies on population at risk aimed at lowering the frequency of occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus(DM2 are considered as guiding lines for the work

  20. Central blood pressure and pulse wave velocity: relationship to target organ damage and cardiovascular morbidity-mortality in diabetic patients or metabolic syndrome. An observational prospective study. LOD-DIABETES study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Marcos, Manuel A; Recio-Rodríguez, José I; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Emiliano; Castaño-Sánchez, Yolanda; de Cabo-Laso, Angela; Sánchez-Salgado, Benigna; Rodríguez-Martín, Carmela; Castaño-Sánchez, Carmen; Gómez-Sánchez, Leticia; García-Ortiz, Luis

    2010-03-18

    Diabetic patients show an increased prevalence of non-dipping arterial pressure pattern, target organ damage and elevated arterial stiffness. These alterations are associated with increased cardiovascular risk.The objectives of this study are the following: to evaluate the prognostic value of central arterial pressure and pulse wave velocity in relation to the incidence and outcome of target organ damage and the appearance of cardiovascular episodes (cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, chest pain and stroke) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus or metabolic syndrome. This is an observational prospective study with 5 years duration, of which the first year corresponds to patient inclusion and initial evaluation, and the remaining four years to follow-up. The study will be carried out in the urban primary care setting. Consecutive sampling will be used to include patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes between 20-80 years of age. A total of 110 patients meeting all the inclusion criteria and none of the exclusion criteria will be included. Patient age and sex, family and personal history of cardiovascular disease, and cardiovascular risk factors. Height, weight, heart rate and abdominal circumference. Laboratory tests: hemoglobin, lipid profile, creatinine, microalbuminuria, glomerular filtration rate, blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, blood insulin, fibrinogen and high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Clinical and 24-hour ambulatory (home) blood pressure monitoring and self-measured blood pressure. Common carotid artery ultrasound for the determination of mean carotid intima-media thickness. Electrocardiogram for assessing left ventricular hypertrophy. Ankle-brachial index. Retinal vascular study based on funduscopy with non-mydriatic retinography and evaluation of pulse wave morphology and pulse wave velocity using the SphygmoCor system. The medication used for diabetes, arterial hypertension and hyperlipidemia will be registered, together

  1. Metabolic control targets in Sudanese adults with type 1 diabetes: A population-based study

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    Ahmed O Almobarak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type 1 diabetes is a challenging metabolic disorder for health authorities in Sudan. The objective of this study was to assess the level of glycemic control and to determine the prevalence of dyslipidemia and complications among individuals with type 1 diabetes in Sudan. Materials and Methods: Individuals with type 1 diabetes, who were having the disease for at least 1 year, were invited to participate in this study. Data were collected from two diabetes centers, in the Capital Khartoum and Atbara City, North of Sudan. Participants were interviewed using standardized pretested questionnaire to record medical history, sociodemographic data, and life style characteristics. Blood pressure, body mass index, and waist circumference were measured. Blood samples were taken for measurement of lipid profile and glycosylated hemoglobin. Results: A total of eighty individuals with type 1 diabetes volunteered to participate in this study, 37.5% of males and 62.5% of females. Majority of the patients were aged between 40 and 70 years old. There was poor glycemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin> 7%, in 83.8%. Age and sex were significant factors associated with poor glycemic control in this cohort. High cholesterol, triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein were seen in 76.2%, 27.5%, and 48.8% of participants, respectively. Low high density lipoprotein was seen in 33.8%. Hypertension was determined in 21.3%. Peripheral neuropathy, visual impairment, diabetic foot, and myocardial infarction were seen in 50%, 48.8%, 18.8%, and 2.5% of patients, respectively. Conclusion: Sudanese adults with type 1 diabetes have poor glycemic control, high prevalence of dyslipidemia, and long-term complications.

  2. Losartan and diabetic nephropathy: commentaries on the RENAAL study

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    Tenenbaum Alexander

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The RENAAL (Reduction of Endpoints in NIDDM with the Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan study is a multinational, double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial which was recently published. It was aimed to evaluate the effect of the angiotensin receptor blocker losartan in patients with diabetic nephropathy. The primary efficacy measure was the time to the first event of the composite end point of a doubling of serum creatinine, end-stage renal disease, or death. The conclusion was that losartan led to significant improvement in renal outcomes, that was beyond that attributable to blood pressure control in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. The perusal of the report raises concern, regarding to both the patient population as well as the outcome measures. At randomization, the placebo group included more patients with angina, myocardial infarction and lipid disorders than the losartan group. Information on glucose metabolism was disregarded, and data on antihyperglycemic therapy – which may have undesirable influences on cardiac performance – were not included in a multivariate analysis. In addition, only data on first hospitalization were reported, whilst information on total specific-cause hospitalizations was disregarded, thus potentially masking further unfavorable events. Furthermore, creatinine seems not to be a reliable surrogate end point. Based on its mechanism of action, losartan may possess favorable renoprotective properties. However, due to the methodological flaws and the incomplete data in the RENAAL study, the question of the effectiveness and safety of this drug in diabetic nephropathy remains yet unanswered.

  3. Hearing thresholds in adult Nigerians with diabetes mellitus: a case–control study

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    Nwosu JN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Jones Ndubuisi Nwosu, Ethel Nkechi Chime Department of Otorhinolaryngology, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu, Nigeria Objectives: To determine the prevalence, types and severity of hearing loss and associated factors in a hospital population of adult Nigerians with diabetes mellitus.Subjects and methods: This study was a prospective hospital-based study conducted at the Otorhinolaryngology and Diabetic Clinics of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu, for a period of 12 months. Consecutively presenting eligible adult diabetics and their age- and sex-matched healthy controls were recruited. Each case and control participant had clinical and otologic examination, followed by pure tone audiometry. Data were analyzed using descriptive and comparative statistics.Results: There were 224 patients and 192 control participants. The patients comprised 112 males and 112 females (sex ratio=1:1, whose mean age was 47.6 years (range: 26–80 years. The prevalence of hearing loss was 46.9%. This comprised 43.8% sensorineural and 3.1% conductive hearing losses. The distribution of hearing loss by severity was mild 25.0%, moderate 15.6% and severe 6.3%. The controls comprised 96 males and 96 females whose mean age was 44.6 years (range: 25–79 years. The prevalence of hearing loss was significantly higher overall and by type (sensorineural hearing loss, conductive hearing loss in cases compared with controls.Conclusion: The prevalence of hearing loss among diabetic adults at UNTH, Enugu, is comparatively high. Hearing loss is predominantly sensorineural and often mild to moderate in severity. Routine audiometric evaluation of all adult diabetics at UNTH is recommended. Keywords: adults, diabetes mellitus, hearing threshold

  4. Performance of the first combined smartwatch and smartphone diabetes diary application study.

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    Årsand, Eirik; Muzny, Miroslav; Bradway, Meghan; Muzik, Jan; Hartvigsen, Gunnar

    2015-05-01

    Wearable computing has long been described as the solution to many health challenges. However, the use of this technology as a diabetes patient self-management tool has not been fully explored. A promising platform for this use is the smartwatch-a wrist-worn device that not only tells time but also provides internet connection and ability to communicate information to and from a mobile phone. Over 9 months, the design of a diabetes diary application for a smartwatch was completed using agile development methods. The system, including a two-way communication between the applications on the smartwatch and mobile phone, was tested with 6 people with type 1 diabetes. A small number of participants was deliberately chosen due to ensure an efficient use of resources on a novel system. The designed smartwatch system displays the time, day, date, and remaining battery time. It also allows for the entry of carbohydrates, insulin, and blood glucose (BG), with the option to view previously recorded data. Users were able to record specific physical activities, program reminders, and automatically record and transfer data, including step counts, to the mobile phone version of the diabetes diary. The smartwatch system can also be used as a stand-alone tool. Users reported usefulness, responded positively toward its functionalities, and also provided specific suggestions for further development. Suggestions were implemented after the feasibility study. The presented system and study demonstrate that smartwatches have opened up new possibilities within the diabetes self-management field by providing easier ways of monitoring BG, insulin injections, physical activity and dietary information directly from the wrist. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  5. The relationship between insulin resistance/β-cell dysfunction and diabetic retinopathy in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Desheng Diabetic Eye Study.

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    Li, Yun-Yun; Yang, Xiu-Fen; Gu, Hong; Snellingen, Torkel; Liu, Xi-Pu; Liu, Ning-Pu

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between insulin resistance (IR)/β-cell dysfunction and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and to explore further whether there were differences in the relationship among diabetic patients with higher and lower body mass index (BMI). Cross-sectional study. A total of 1466 subjects with T2DM were recruited in a local Desheng Community of urban Beijing from November 2009 to June 2012 for the cohort of Beijing Desheng Diabetic Eye Study. Standardized evaluation was carried out for each participant, including questionnaire, ocular and anthropometric examinations, and laboratory tests. Seven fields 30° color fundus photographs were used for DR grading according to the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study protocols. Homeostatis Model Assessment (HOMA) method was employed for IR and β-cell function assessment. After excluding those participants who were treated with insulin ( n =352) or had missing data of fasting insulin ( n =96), and further excluding those with poor quality of retinal photographs ( n =10), a total of 1008 subjects were included for the final analysis, 406 (40.3%) were men and 602 (59.7%) were women, age ranging from 34 to 86 (64.87±8.28)y. Any DR (levels 14 and above) was present in 278 (27.6%) subjects. After adjusting for possible covariates, the presence of any DR did not correlate with HOMA IR [odds ratio (OR) 1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87-2.61, P =0.14] or HOMA β-cell (OR 0.71, 95%CI 0.40-1.26, P =0.25). After stratification by BMI, the presence of any DR was associated positively with HOMA IR (OR 2.46, 95%CI: 1.18-5.12, P =0.016), and negatively with HOMA β-cell (OR 0.40, 95%CI: 0.19-0.87, P =0.021) in the group of patients with higher BMI (≥25 kg/m 2 ). In the group of patients with lower BMI (diabetic patients with higher BMI. However, this association is not statistically significant in diabetic patients with lower BMI.

  6. Long Term Exposure to NO2 and Diabetes Incidence in the Black Women's Health Study

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    Coogan, Patricia F.; White, Laura F.; Yu, Jeffrey; Burnett, Richard T.; Marshall, Julian D.; Seto, Edmund; Brook, Robert D.; Palmer, Julie R.; Rosenberg, Lynn; Jerrett, Michael

    2016-01-01

    While laboratory studies show that air pollutants can potentiate insulin resistance, the epidemiologic evidence regarding the association of air pollution with diabetes incidence is conflicting. The purpose of the present study was to assess the association of the traffic-related nitrogen dioxide (NO2) with the incidence of diabetes in a longitudinal cohort study of African American women. We used Cox proportional hazards models to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for diabetes associated with exposure to NO2 among 43,003 participants in the Black Women's Health Study (BWHS). Pollutant levels at participant residential locations were estimated with 1) a land use regression model for participants living in 56 metropolitan areas, and 2) a dispersion model for participants living in 27 of the cities. From 1995-2011, 4387 cases of diabetes occurred. The hazard ratios per interquartile range of NO2 (9.7 ppb), adjusted for age, metropolitan area, education, vigorous exercise, body mass index, smoking, and diet, were 0.96 (95% CI 0.88-1.06) using the land use regression model estimates and 0.94 (95% CI 0.80, 1.10) using the dispersion model estimates. The present results do not support the hypothesis that exposure to NO2 contributes to diabetes incidence in African American women. PMID:27124624

  7. Alcohol Drinking, Dyslipidemia, and Diabetes: A Population-based Prospective Cohort Study among Inner Mongolians in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhu; Qiu, Qiao Yan; Wu, Jia Hui; Zhou, Jing Wen; Xu, Tian; Zhang, Ming Zhi; Zhang, Yong Hong; Zhang, Shao Yan

    2016-08-01

    No previous studies have evaluated the association between dyslipidemia, alcohol drinking, and diabetes in an Inner Mongolian population. We aimed to evaluate the co-effects of drinking and dyslipidemia on diabetes incidence in this population. The present study was based on 1880 participants from a population-based prospective cohort study among Inner Mongolians living in China. Participants were classified into four subgroups according to their drinking status and dyslipidemia. Multivariate logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to evaluate the association between alcohol drinking, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. During the follow-up period, 203 participants were found to have developed diabetes. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for the incidence of non-dyslipidemia/drinkers, dyslipidemia/non-drinkers, and dyslipidemia/drinkers in diabetic patients were 1.40 (0.82-2.37), 1.73 (1.17-2.55), and 2.31 (1.38-3.87), respectively, when compared with non-dyslipidemia/non-drinkers. The area under the ROC curve for a model containing dyslipidemia and drinking status along with conventional factors (AUC=0.746) was significantly (P=0.003) larger than the one containing only conventional factors (AUC=0.711). The present study showed that dyslipidemia was an independent risk factor for diabetes, and that drinkers with dyslipidemia had the highest risk of diabetes in the Mongolian population. These findings suggest that dyslipidemia and drinking status may be valuable in predicting diabetes incidence. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of gall bladder stones among type 2 diabetic patients in Benghazi Libya: a case-control study

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    Behieh A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus and gall bladder stones are both common and costly diseases.Increasing age, female gender, overweight, familial history of the disease and type 2 diabetes mellitusis all associated with an increased risk of gallstones. Several studies from around the world reportedan increased prevalence of gall bladder stones in patients with diabetes mellitus. Aims andobjectives: The aim of this study was to define the frequency of gall bladder stones among Libyandiabetics and to evaluate the possible associated risk factors in these patients. Patients andmethods: A case-control study was performed during 2007 at Benghazi Diabetes and endocrinologyCenter. The study involved 161 randomly selected type-2 diabetic patients under regular follow up atthe center, and 166 age and sex matched non-diabetic outpatients at the 7th of October teachinghospital. Real-time abdominal ultrasound was performed by two radiologists to examine the abdomenafter an overnight fast. Results: About 40% of the diabetic cohort had gall bladder stones ascompared to 17.5% of non-diabetic patients. Females were significantly more affected than males.Patients with gall bladder stones were significantly older and had a significantly higher body massindex than those without stones. Conclusion: The prevalence of gallstones in Libyan diabeticpatients is higher than the rates reported in other parts of the world. Libyan diabetic patients withgallstones tend to be older and more obese than those without gallstones. Duration of diabetesmellitus and type of treatment does not seem to influence the frequency of gall bladder stones amongLibyan diabetics.

  9. Work, diabetes and obesity: a seven year follow-up study among Danish health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Kjeld; Cleal, Bryan; Clausen, Thomas; Andersen, Lars L

    2014-01-01

    The rise in prevalence of diabetes is alarming and research ascribes most of the increase to lifestyle. However, little knowledge exists about the influence of occupational factors on the risk for developing diabetes. This study estimates the importance of work and lifestyle as risk factors for developing diabetes mellitus among healthcare workers and explores the association of work factors and obesity, which is a risk factor for diabetes. Questionnaire-based prospective cohort study among 7,305 health care workers followed for seven years in the Danish National Diabetes Register. We used bivariate comparisons to give an unadjusted estimate of associations, followed by adjusted survival analysis and logistic regression models to estimate the influences of potential risk factors related to job, health and lifestyle on diabetes and obesity. During seven years of follow up, 3.5% of participants developed diabetes, associated with obesity (HR  =  6.53; 95% CI 4.68-9.10), overweight (HR  =  2.89; CI 2.11-3.96) age 50-69 y (HR  =  2.27; 95% CI 1.57-3.43) and high quality of leadership (HR  =  1.60; CI 1.19-2.16). Obesity at baseline was most common among the youngest employees, and was mainly associated with developing diabetes (OR  =  3.84; CI 2.85-5.17), impaired physical capacity and physical inactivity. In the occupational setting, obesity was associated with shift work, severe musculoskeletal pain, low influence, but also by good management, fewer role conflicts and a positive work-life balance. Looking only at non-smokers, removed the influence of age and pain. However, non-smokers also had higher depression scores and more role conflicts. Confirming obesity as the strongest risk factor for developing diabetes, the present study identified few occupational risk factors. However, obesity, the key risk factor for diabetes, had a more variable relation with work than did diabetes.

  10. Work, diabetes and obesity: a seven year follow-up study among Danish health care workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjeld Poulsen

    Full Text Available The rise in prevalence of diabetes is alarming and research ascribes most of the increase to lifestyle. However, little knowledge exists about the influence of occupational factors on the risk for developing diabetes. This study estimates the importance of work and lifestyle as risk factors for developing diabetes mellitus among healthcare workers and explores the association of work factors and obesity, which is a risk factor for diabetes.Questionnaire-based prospective cohort study among 7,305 health care workers followed for seven years in the Danish National Diabetes Register. We used bivariate comparisons to give an unadjusted estimate of associations, followed by adjusted survival analysis and logistic regression models to estimate the influences of potential risk factors related to job, health and lifestyle on diabetes and obesity.During seven years of follow up, 3.5% of participants developed diabetes, associated with obesity (HR  =  6.53; 95% CI 4.68-9.10, overweight (HR  =  2.89; CI 2.11-3.96 age 50-69 y (HR  =  2.27; 95% CI 1.57-3.43 and high quality of leadership (HR  =  1.60; CI 1.19-2.16. Obesity at baseline was most common among the youngest employees, and was mainly associated with developing diabetes (OR  =  3.84; CI 2.85-5.17, impaired physical capacity and physical inactivity. In the occupational setting, obesity was associated with shift work, severe musculoskeletal pain, low influence, but also by good management, fewer role conflicts and a positive work-life balance. Looking only at non-smokers, removed the influence of age and pain. However, non-smokers also had higher depression scores and more role conflicts.Confirming obesity as the strongest risk factor for developing diabetes, the present study identified few occupational risk factors. However, obesity, the key risk factor for diabetes, had a more variable relation with work than did diabetes.

  11. A prospective study of the impact of diabetes mellitus on restrictive and obstructive lung function impairment: The Saku study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Nao; Morimoto, Akiko; Tatsumi, Yukako; Asayama, Kei; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Izawa, Satoshi; Ohno, Yuko

    2018-05-01

    To assess the impact of diabetes on restrictive and obstructive lung function impairment. This 5-year prospective study included 7524 participants aged 40-69years without lung function impairment at baseline who underwent a comprehensive medical check-up between April 2008 and March 2009 at Saku Central Hospital. Diabetes was defined by fasting plasma glucose ≥7.0mmol/l (126mg/dl), HbA1c≥6.5% (48mmol/mol), or a history of diabetes, as determined by interviews conducted by the physicians. Restrictive and obstructive lung function impairment were defined as forced vital capacity (FVC) impairment or until March 2014. During the follow-up period, 171 and 639 individuals developed restrictive and obstructive lung function impairment, respectively. Individuals with diabetes had a 1.6-fold higher risk of restrictive lung function impairment than those without diabetes after adjusting for sex, age, height, abdominal obesity, smoking status, exercise habits, systolic blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol, log-transformed high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and baseline lung function [multivariable-adjusted HR and 95% CI; 1.57 (1.04-2.36)]. In contrast, individuals with diabetes did not have a significantly higher risk of obstructive lung function impairment [multivariable-adjusted HR and 95% CI; 0.93 (0.72-1.21)]. Diabetes was associated with restrictive lung function impairment but not obstructive lung function impairment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. A STUDY OF OXIDATIVE STRESS IN DIABETES

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    Babu Rao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Non - enzymatic free radical mediated oxidation of biological molecules, membranes and tissues is associated with a variety of pathological events such as cancer, aging and diabetes mellitus . [1] Increased oxidative stress is seen in both types of diabetes me llitus namely type 1 and type 2, irrespective of duration, complications and treatment. In diabetes mellitus, oxidative stress seems primarily due to both an increased plasma free radical concentration and a sharp decline in antioxidant defences . [1] Among the causes of enhanced free radical production, hyperglycemia and hyper insulinemia seem to play a major role , [2,3] Hyperglycemia is the more easily modifiable factor among the two and good glycemic control can reduce the oxidative stress. Controversy pers ists regarding the other possible mechanisms of increased oxidative stress in diabetes and whether oxidative stress normalizes with adequate metabolic control alone. The role of oxidative stress and diabetic complications has been extensively investigated. Oxidative stress has been suggested to be involved in the genesis of both macro and micro angiopathy [4,5] Prospective trials are now underway addressing the controversial issues of possible role of pharmacological antioxidants in preventing or at least de laying the onset of diabetic complications.

  13. How adolescents with diabetes experience social support from friends: two qualitative studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Louk W. H.; Nawijn, Laura; van Kesteren, Nicole M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Self-management of diabetes is challenging, especially for adolescents who face multiple changes, including closer peer relationships. Few studies have explored how friends can provide constructive support in this effort. The present research investigated, in two qualitative studies, the perceptions

  14. Development and progression of nephropathy in type 2 diabetes: the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS 64).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Amanda I; Stevens, Richard J; Manley, Sue E; Bilous, Rudy W; Cull, Carole A; Holman, Rury R

    2003-01-01

    The progression of nephropathy from diagnosis of type 2 diabetes has not been well described from a single population. This study sought to describe the development and progression through the stages of microalbuminuria, macroalbuminuria, persistently elevated plasma creatinine or renal replacement therapy (RRT), and death. Using observed and modeled data from 5097 subjects in the UK Prospective Diabetes Study, we measured the annual probability of transition from stage to stage (incidence), prevalence, cumulative incidence, ten-year survival, median duration per stage, and risk of death from all-causes or cardiovascular disease. From diagnosis of diabetes, progression to microalbuminuria occurred at 2.0% per year, from microalbuminuria to macroalbuminuria at 2.8% per year, and from macroalbuminuria to elevated plasma creatinine (>or=175 micromol/L) or renal replacement therapy at 2.3% per year. Ten years following diagnosis of diabetes, the prevalence of microalbuminuria was 24.9%, of macroalbuminuria was 5.3%, and of elevated plasma creatinine or RRT was 0.8%. Patients with elevated plasma creatinine or RRT had an annual death rate of 19.2% (95% confidence interval, CI, 14.0 to 24.4%). There was a trend for increasing risk of cardiovascular death with increasing nephropathy (P < 0.0001), with an annual rate of 0.7% for subjects in the stage of no nephropathy, 2.0% for those with microalbuminuria, 3.5% for those with macroalbuminuria, and 12.1% with elevated plasma creatinine or RRT. Individuals with macroalbuminuria were more likely to die in any year than to develop renal failure. The proportion of patients with type 2 diabetes who develop microalbuminuria is substantial with one quarter affected by 10 years from diagnosis. Relatively fewer patients develop macroalbuminuria, but in those who do, the death rate exceeds the rate of progression to worse nephropathy.

  15. Family clustering of secondary chronic kidney disease with hypertension or diabetes mellitus. A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Fernando Antonio; Ciambelli, Giuliano Serafino; Bertoco, André Luz; Jurado, Marcelo Mai; Siqueira, Guilherme Vasconcelos; Bernardo, Eder Augusto; Pavan, Maria Valeria; Gianini, Reinaldo José

    2015-02-01

    In Brazil hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus are responsible for 60% of cases of end-stage renal disease in renal replacement therapy. In the United States studies have identified family clustering of chronic kidney disease, predominantly in African-Americans. A single Brazilian study observed family clustering among patients with chronic kidney disease when compared with hospitalized patients with normal renal function. This article aims to assess whether there is family clustering of chronic kidney disease in relatives of individuals in renal replacement therapy caused by hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus. A case-control study with 336 patients in renal replacement therapy with diabetes mellitus or hypertension for at least 5 years (cases) and a control matched sample group of individuals with hypertension or diabetes mellitus and normal renal function (n = 389). Individuals in renal replacement therapy (cases) had a ratio of 2.35 (95% CI 1.42-3.89, p hypertension or diabetes mellitus).

  16. Risk factors of gestational diabetes mellitus using results of a prospective population-based study in Iranian pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Ferdos; Nouhjah, Sedigheh; Shahbazian, Hajieh; Shahbazian, Nahid; Latifi, Seyed Mahmoud; Jahanshahi, Alireza

    2018-04-21

    Early identification of at-risk groups is an important step in preventing gestational diabetes and its subsequent side effects. This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors of gestational diabetes based on the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria in Ahvaz. In a cross-sectional case control study, 520 pregnant women involving life after gestational diabetes Ahvaz cohort study (LAGAs) were investigated for risk factors of gestational diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of overweight and obesity were 40% and25.8% in the GMD group and in 35.8% and 16.2% in the control group respectively (p = 0.002). According to NCEP-ATP III criteria, 16.9% of women with GDM and 6.9% of mothers in the control group had metabolic syndrome in first visit of pregnancy (p diabetes[OR = 1.86(95% CI, 1.19-2.94)] (p = 0.006), pre-pregnancy BMI [OR = 1.05(95% CI, 1.007-1.11)] (p = 0.04) and metabolic syndrome in first visit of pregnancy[OR = 2.34 (95% CI, 1.038-5.30)] (p = 0.04) with GDM. Factors including maternal age, previous GDM, family history of diabetes, pre-pregnancy BMI reported in previous studies around the world. A significant association between metabolic syndrome in the first visit of pregnancy and GDM is novel finding of this study. Therefore screening of pre-pregnancy metabolic syndrome in women at risk of gestational diabetes is recommended. Copyright © 2018 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Study of antihyperglycaemic activity of medicinal plant extracts in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanayake, Anoja P; Jayatilaka, Kamani A P W; Pathirana, Chitra; Mudduwa, Lakmini K B

    2013-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus, for a long time, has been treated with plant derived medicines in Sri Lanka. The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy and dose response of oral antihyperglycaemic activity of eight Sri Lankan medicinal plant extracts, which are used to treat diabetes in traditional medicine in diabetic rats. Medicinal plants selected for the study on the basis of documented effectiveness and wide use among traditional Ayurveda physicians in the Southern region of Sri Lanka for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The effect of different doses of aqueous stem bark extracts of Spondias pinnata (Anacardiaceae), Kokoona zeylanica (Celastraceae), Syzygium caryophyllatum (Myrtaceae), Gmelina arborea (Verbenaceae), aerial part extracts of Scoparia dulcis (Scrophulariaceae), Sida alnifolia (Malvaceae), leaf extract of Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae) and root extract of Languas galanga (Zingiberaceae) on oral glucose tolerance test was evaluated. A single dose of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 2.00 g/kg of plant extract was administered orally to alloxan induced (150 mg/kg, ip) diabetic Wistar rats (n = 6). Glibenclamide (0.50 mg/kg) was used as the standard drug. The acute effect was evaluated over a 4 h period using area under the oral glucose tolerance curve. The results were evaluated by analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test. The eight plant extracts showed statistically significant dose dependent improvement on glucose tolerance (P dulcis, S. alnifolia, L. galanga and C. grandis possess potent acute antihyperglycaemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

  18. Central blood pressure and pulse wave velocity: relationship to target organ damage and cardiovascular morbidity-mortality in diabetic patients or metabolic syndrome. An observational prospective study. LOD-DIABETES study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castaño-Sánchez Carmen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic patients show an increased prevalence of non-dipping arterial pressure pattern, target organ damage and elevated arterial stiffness. These alterations are associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The objectives of this study are the following: to evaluate the prognostic value of central arterial pressure and pulse wave velocity in relation to the incidence and outcome of target organ damage and the appearance of cardiovascular episodes (cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, chest pain and stroke in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus or metabolic syndrome. Methods/Design Design: This is an observational prospective study with 5 years duration, of which the first year corresponds to patient inclusion and initial evaluation, and the remaining four years to follow-up. Setting: The study will be carried out in the urban primary care setting. Study population: Consecutive sampling will be used to include patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes between 20-80 years of age. A total of 110 patients meeting all the inclusion criteria and none of the exclusion criteria will be included. Measurements: Patient age and sex, family and personal history of cardiovascular disease, and cardiovascular risk factors. Height, weight, heart rate and abdominal circumference. Laboratory tests: hemoglobin, lipid profile, creatinine, microalbuminuria, glomerular filtration rate, blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, blood insulin, fibrinogen and high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Clinical and 24-hour ambulatory (home blood pressure monitoring and self-measured blood pressure. Common carotid artery ultrasound for the determination of mean carotid intima-media thickness. Electrocardiogram for assessing left ventricular hypertrophy. Ankle-brachial index. Retinal vascular study based on funduscopy with non-mydriatic retinography and evaluation of pulse wave morphology and pulse wave velocity using the SphygmoCor system. The

  19. A longitudinal study of plasma insulin and glucagon in women with previous gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P; Kühl, C; Hornnes, P

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether plasma insulin or glucagon predicts later development of diabetes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The subjects studied were 91 women with diet-treated GDM and 33 healthy women. Plasma insulin and glucagon during a 50...... at follow-up (2 had insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, 13 had non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and 12 had impaired glucose tolerance). Compared with the control subjects, women with previous GDM had relatively impaired insulin secretion (decreased insulinogenic index and delayed peak insulin...... for subsequent development of overt diabetes (logistic regression analysis). CONCLUSIONS: Women who develop GDM have a relative insulin secretion deficiency, the severity of which is predictive for later development of diabetes. Furthermore, our data indicate that their relatively reduced beta-cell function may...

  20. Lack of individualized perspective: a qualitative study of diabetes care for immigrants in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brämberg, Elisabeth Björk; Dahlborg-Lyckhage, Elisabeth; Määttä, Sylvia

    2012-06-01

    This study describes the care provided by a diabetes nurse specialist, and the care needs expressed by people with type 2 diabetes mellitus and an immigrant background. Clinical encounters between a diabetes nurse specialist and 10 people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus were observed and analyzed by means of qualitative content analysis. One theme, "the diabetes nurse specialist as the conductor of the visit", and four categories emerged from the findings, illustrating the power imbalance between the patients and the diabetes nurse specialist, as well as the lack of an individual perspective. Shifting from a medical perspective to one of openness towards the people's experiences provides a possibility for caregivers to empower patients suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus. The medical perspective seemed to steer the visit towards curative activities. Thus, technique-centered care should be developed by including individualized care. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. High prevalence of type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes in adult Zoroastrians in Yazd, Iran: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalilzadeh, Saeedhossein; Afkhami-Ardekani, Mohammad; Afrand, Mohammadhosain

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) varies among ethnic groups. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) for the first time in an ethnic population, specifically Zoroastrian citizens in Yazd, Iran whose ages were 30 or older. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, participants aged≥30 years were selected using systematic random sampling. An inventory, including socio-demographic data, was completed. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure (BP) were measured using standard methods. Also, blood levels of glucose, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), urea, creatinine (Cr), and uric acid were measured. The latest criteria established by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) were used to diagnose DM. Results: The mean age of the participants (n=403) was 56.9±12.8 years. The total prevalence of diabetes, including previously diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes, IFG, and IGT was 26.1%, 18.6%, 7.5%, 34.7% and 25.8%, respectively. Participants with diabetes had higher fasting blood sugar (FBS) (PZoroastrian population of Yazd, Iran. One-third of the total cases with diabetes were undiagnosed. PMID:26052411

  2. Peripheral arterial disease among adult diabetic patients attending a large outpatient diabetic clinic at a national referral hospital in Uganda: a descriptive cross sectional study.

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    Raymond Mbayo Mwebaze

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD is one of the recognised diabetic macro vascular complications. It is a marker of generalised systemic atherosclerosis and is closely associated with symptomatic coronary and cerebrovascular disease, hence significant morbidity and mortality. Among African adult diabetic populations, screening and diagnosis of PAD is frequently suboptimal. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated clinical factors of PAD in adult ambulatory diabetic patients attending the outpatient diabetic clinic of Mulago national referral and teaching hospital, Kampala Uganda. METHODS: In this descriptive cross sectional study, 146 ambulatory adult diabetic patients were studied. Information about their socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, fasting lipid profile status, blood pressure, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c levels and presence of albuminuria was collected using a pre tested questionnaire. Measurement of ankle brachial index (ABI to assess for PAD, defined as a ratio less than 0.9 was performed using a portable 5-10 MHz Doppler device. Clinical factors associated with PAD were determined by comparing specific selected characteristics in patients with PAD and those without. RESULTS: The mean age/standard deviation of the study participants was 53.9/12.4 years with a male predominance (75, 51.4%. PAD was prevalent in 57 (39% study participants. Of these, 34 (59.6% had symptomatic PAD. The noted clinical factors associated with PAD in this study population were presence of symptoms of intermittent claudication and microalbuminuria. CONCLUSIONS: This study documents a high prevalence of PAD among adult ambulatory Ugandan diabetic patients. Aggressive screening for PAD using ABI measurement in adult diabetic patients should be emphasised in Uganda especially in the presence of symptoms of intermittent claudication and microalbuminuria.

  3. Beliefs about Racism and Health among African American Women with Diabetes: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Julie A.; Osborn, Chandra Y.; Mendenhall, Emily A.; Budris, Lisa M.; Belay, Sophia; Tennen, Howard A.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to racism has been linked to poor health outcomes. Little is known about the impact of racism on diabetes outcomes. This study explored African American (AA) women’s beliefs about how racism interacts with their diabetes self-management and control. Four focus groups were conducted with a convenience sample of 28 adult AA women with type 2 diabetes who were recruited from a larger quantitative study on racism and diabetes. The focus group discussions were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by the authors. Women reported that exposure to racism was a common phenomenon, and their beliefs did in fact link racism to poor health. Specifically, women reported that exposure to racism caused physiological arousal including cardiovascular and metabolic perturbations. There was consensus that physiological arousal was generally detrimental to health. Women also described limited, and in some cases maladaptive, strategies to cope with racist events including eating unhealthy food choices and portions. There was consensus that the subjective nature of perceiving racism and accompanying social prohibitions often made it impossible to address racism directly. Many women described anger in such situations, and the tendency to internalize anger and other negative emotions, only to find that the negative emotions would be reactivated repeatedly with exposure to novel racial stressors, even long after the original racist event remitted. AA women in this study believed that racism affects their diabetes self-management and control. Health beliefs can exert powerful effects on health behaviors and may provide an opportunity for health promotion interventions in diabetes. PMID:21528110

  4. Improving diabetes management with a patient portal: a qualitative study of diabetes self-management portal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urowitz, Sara; Wiljer, David; Dupak, Kourtney; Kuehner, Zachary; Leonard, Kevin; Lovrics, Emily; Picton, Peter; Seto, Emily; Cafazzo, Joe

    2012-11-30

    Effective management and care of diabetes is crucial to reducing associated risks such as heart disease and kidney failure. With increasing access and use of the Internet, online chronic disease management is being explored as a means of providing patients with support and the necessary tools to monitor and manage their disease. The objective of our study was to evaluate the experience of patients and providers using an online diabetes management portal for patients. Participants were recruited from a large sample population of 887 for a follow-up questionnaire to be completed after 6 months of using the patient portal. Participants were presented with the option to participate in an additional interview and, if the participant agreed, a time and date was scheduled for the interview. A 5-item, open-ended questionnaire was used to capture providers' opinions of the patient portal. Providers included general practitioners (GPs), nurses, nurse practitioners (NPs), dieticians, diabetes educators (DECs), and other clinical staff. A total of 854 patients were consented for the questionnaire. Seventeen (8 male, 9 female) patients agreed to participate in a telephone interview. Sixty-four health care providers completed the five open-ended questions; however, an average of 48.2 responses were recorded per question. Four major themes were identified and will be discussed in this paper. These themes have been classified as: facilitators of disease management, barriers to portal use, patient-provider communication and relationship, and recommendations for portal improvements. This qualitative study shows that online chronic disease management portals increase patient access to information and engagement in their health care, but improvements in the portal itself may improve usability and reduce attrition. Furthermore, this study identifies a grey area that exists in the roles that GPs and AHPs should play in the facilitation of online disease management.

  5. Photobiomodulation Mitigates Diabetes-Induced Retinopathy by Direct and Indirect Mechanisms: Evidence from Intervention Studies in Pigmented Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Saliba

    Full Text Available Daily application of far-red light from the onset of diabetes mitigated diabetes-induced abnormalities in retinas of albino rats. Here, we test the hypothesis that photobiomodulation (PBM is effective in diabetic, pigmented mice, even when delayed until weeks after onset of diabetes. Direct and indirect effects of PBM on the retina also were studied.Diabetes was induced in C57Bl/6J mice using streptozotocin. Some diabetics were exposed to PBM therapy (4 min/day; 670 nm daily. In one study, mice were diabetic for 4 weeks before initiation of PBM for an additional 10 weeks. Retinal oxidative stress, inflammation, and retinal function were measured. In some mice, heads were covered with a lead shield during PBM to prevent direct illumination of the eye, or animals were treated with an inhibitor of heme oxygenase-1. In a second study, PBM was initiated immediately after onset of diabetes, and administered daily for 2 months. These mice were examined using manganese-enhanced MRI to assess effects of PBM on transretinal calcium channel function in vivo.PBM intervention improved diabetes-induced changes in superoxide generation, leukostasis, expression of ICAM-1, and visual performance. PBM acted in part remotely from the retina because the beneficial effects were achieved even with the head shielded from the light therapy, and because leukocyte-mediated cytotoxicity of retinal endothelial cells was less in diabetics treated with PBM. SnPP+PBM significantly reduced iNOS expression compared to PBM alone, but significantly exacerbated leukostasis. In study 2, PBM largely mitigated diabetes-induced retinal calcium channel dysfunction in all retinal layers.PBM induces retinal protection against abnormalities induced by diabetes in pigmented animals, and even as an intervention. Beneficial effects on the retina likely are mediated by both direct and indirect mechanisms. PBM is a novel non-pharmacologic treatment strategy to inhibit early changes of diabetic

  6. Comparative study of telmisartan with pioglitazone on insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Qayyum, A.; Khan, B.T.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the effects of telmisartan and pioglitazone on peripheral insulin resistance in diabetic mice. Study Design: Randomized control trail. Place and Duration of Study: National Institute of Health, Islamabad and pharmacology dept, Army Medical College, from 17th March to 17th June 2014. Material and Methods: Twenty four BALB/c mice, both male and female, of 35 to 40 grams were used for this study. Animals were randomly divided into four groups. Two were taken as control groups, one was normal control and the other was diabetic control. Two were taken as interventional groups and received either pioglitazone or telmisartan for four weeks after induction of diabetes. Results: After treatment, pioglitazone reduced all the biochemical parameters significantly when compared with diabetic control. Negative correlation between glucose and insulin was changed into positive correlation (r-value, 0.92) with significant p-value (0.015) in pioglitazone treated group, while telmisartan only managed to convert a negative correlation between insulin and glucose into statistically non-significant positive. Conclusion: Telmisartan although reduces glucose levels and improves beta cell mass but the effect is statistically non-significant as compared to pioglitazone. In hypertensive type 2 diabetics a combination of these two drugs may help in reducing the dose of pioglitazone and consequently the cardiovascular adverse effects of pioglitazone. (author)

  7. Multimodal MRI for early diabetic mild cognitive impairment: study protocol of a prospective diagnostic trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Ying; Sun, Qian; Yan, Lin-Feng; Hu, Yu-Chuan; Nan, Hai-Yan; Yang, Yang; Liu, Zhi-Cheng; Wang, Wen; Cui, Guang-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for dementia. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI), an intermediary state between normal cognition and dementia, often occurs during the prodromal diabetic stage, making early diagnosis and intervention of MCI very important. Latest neuroimaging techniques revealed some underlying microstructure alterations for diabetic MCI, from certain aspects. But there still lacks an integrated multimodal MRI system to detect early neuroimaging changes in diabetic MCI patients. Thus, we intended to conduct a diagnostic trial using multimodal MRI techniques to detect early diabetic MCI that is determined by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). In this study, healthy controls, prodromal diabetes and diabetes subjects (53 subjects/group) aged 40-60 years will be recruited from the physical examination center of Tangdu Hospital. The neuroimaging and psychometric measurements will be repeated at a 0.5 year-interval for 2.5 years’ follow-up. The primary outcome measures are 1) Microstructural and functional alterations revealed with multimodal MRI scans including structure magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI), and three-dimensional pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (3D-pCASL); 2) Cognition evaluation with MoCA. The second outcome measures are obesity, metabolic characteristics, lifestyle and quality of life. The study will provide evidence for the potential use of multimodal MRI techniques with psychometric evaluation in diagnosing MCI at prodromal diabetic stage so as to help decision making in early intervention and improve the prognosis of T2DM. This study has been registered to ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02420470) on April 2, 2015 and published on July 29, 2015

  8. Dairy product consumption is associated with pre-diabetes and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes in the Lifelines Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M; Sluik, Diewertje; Singh-Povel, Cecile M; Feskens, Edith J M

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies show associations between dairy product consumption and type 2 diabetes, but only a few studies conducted detailed analyses for a variety of dairy subgroups. Therefore, we examined cross-sectional associations of a broad variety of dairy subgroups with pre-diabetes and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (ND-T2DM) among Dutch adults. In total, 112 086 adults without diabetes completed a semi-quantitative FFQ and donated blood. Pre-diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose (FPG) between 5·6 and 6·9 mmol/l or HbA1c% of 5·7-6·4 %. ND-T2DM was defined as FPG ≥7·0 mmol/l or HbA1c ≥6·5 %. Logistic regression analyses were conducted by 100 g or serving increase and dairy tertiles (T1ref), while adjusting for demographic, lifestyle and dietary covariates. Median dairy product intake was 324 (interquartile range 227) g/d; 25 549 (23 %) participants had pre-diabetes; and 1305 (1 %) had ND-T2DM. After full adjustment, inverse associations were observed of skimmed dairy (OR100 g 0·98; 95 % CI 0·97, 1·00), fermented dairy (OR100 g 0·98; 95 % CI 0·97, 0·99) and buttermilk (OR150 g 0·97; 95 % CI 0·94, 1·00) with pre-diabetes. Positive associations were observed for full-fat dairy (OR100 g 1·003; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·06), non-fermented dairy products (OR100 g 1·01; 95 % CI 1·00, 1·02) and custard (ORserving/150 g 1·13; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·24) with pre-diabetes. Moreover, full-fat dairy products (ORT3 1·16; 95 % CI 0·99, 1·35), non-fermented dairy products (OR100 g 1·05; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·09) and milk (ORserving/150 g 1·08; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·15) were positively associated with ND-T2DM. In conclusion, our data showed inverse associations of skimmed and fermented dairy products with pre-diabetes. Positive associations were observed for full-fat and non-fermented dairy products with pre-diabetes and ND-T2DM.

  9. Erectile dysfunction among diabetic patients in Saudi Arabia: A hospital-based primary care study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef A Al-Turki

    2007-01-01

    Conclusions: Complete (severe and partial erectile dysfunction was quite common among adult diabetic patients in a hospital-based primary care setting in Saudi Arabia. It is important for primary care physicians to diagnose erectile dysfunction in diabetic patients, and to counsel them early, as most patients are hesitant to discuss their concern during a consultation. Further studies are recommended to evaluate the effect of other risk factors on erectile dysfunction in diabetic patients.

  10. Maternal age at birth and childhood type 1 diabetes: a pooled analysis of 30 observational studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardwell, Chris R; Stene, Lars C; Joner, Geir

    2009-01-01

    for potential confounders. Meta-analysis techniques were used to derive combined odds ratios and to investigate heterogeneity among studies. RESULTS: Data were available for 5 cohort and 25 case-control studies, including 14,724 cases of type 1 diabetes. Overall, there was, on average, a 5% (95% CI 2......OBJECTIVE: The aim if the study was to investigate whether children born to older mothers have an increased risk of type 1 diabetes by performing a pooled analysis of previous studies using individual patient data to adjust for recognized confounders. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Relevant studies...... published before June 2009 were identified from MEDLINE, Web of Science, and EMBASE. Authors of studies were contacted and asked to provide individual patient data or conduct prespecified analyses. Risk estimates of type 1 diabetes by maternal age were calculated for each study, before and after adjustment...

  11. MRS studies of muscle and heart in obesity and diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prompers, J.J.; Nicolay, K.

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has reached epidemic proportions and is a major threat to global public health. In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) allows the noninvasive study of tissuemetabolism and hasmade major contributions to our understanding of the etiology of insulin resistance and T2D.

  12. Patient characteristics associated with measurement of routine diabetes care: an observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arna L Van Doorn-Klomberg

    Full Text Available Non-modifiable patient characteristics, including age, gender, ethnicity as well as the occurrence of multi-morbidities, are associated with processes and outcomes of diabetes care. Information on these factors can be used in case mix adjustment of performance measures. However, the practical relevance of such adjustment is not clear. The aim of this study was to assess the strength of associations between patient factors and diabetes care processes and outcomes.We performed an observational study based on routinely collected data of 12,498 diabetes patients in 59 Dutch primary care practices. Data were collected on patient age, gender, whether the patient lived in a deprived area, body mass index and the co-occurrence of cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, depression or anxiety. Outcomes included 6 dichotomous measures (3 process and 3 outcome related regarding glycosylated hemoglobin, systolic blood pressure and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol. We performed separate hierarchical logistic mixed model regression models for each of the outcome measures.Each of the process measure models showed moderate effect sizes, with pooled areas under the curve that varied between 0.66 and 0.76. The frequency of diabetes related consultations as a measure of patient compliance to treatment showed the strongest association with all process measures (odds ratios between 5.6 and 14.5. The effect sizes of the outcome measure models were considerably smaller than the process measure models, with pooled areas under the curve varying from 0.57 to 0.61.Several non-modifiable patient factors could be associated with processes and outcomes of diabetes care. However, associations were small. These results suggest that case-mix correction or stratification in assessing diabetes care has limited practical relevance.

  13. Beating Diabetes Together: A Mixed-Methods Analysis of a Feasibility Study of Intensive Lifestyle Intervention for Youth with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Elizabeth; Rand, Danielle; McNeill, Caitlin; Brown, Sarah; Senechal, Martin; Wicklow, Brandy; Dart, Allison; Sellers, Elizabeth; Dean, Heather; Blydt-Hansen, Tom; McGavock, Jonathan

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and lived experiences of an intensive group-based lifestyle intervention for youth with type 2 diabetes (Beating Diabetes Together) (BDT). The study included 12 Indigenous youth with type 2 diabetes (mean age, 14 years; n=9 girls); they participated in a 16-week pilot study of an intensive, group-based lifestyle intervention. We conducted a mixed-methods investigation of the cardiometabolic responses and lived experiences in the intervention. Of the 12 youth with cardiometabolic risk data, 5 youth and 2 mothers participated in semistructured interviews. Interview participants were purposely selected based on the frequency of attendance and availability. The intervention was well attended (>75% retention), and youth perceived significant benefits from participation. Thematic analysis of the interviews revealed 3 major themes. First, youth and parents described living with type 2 diabetes as being emotionally challenging. They described this experience as being isolating and connected to feelings of guilt and defeat. Second, youth and parents discussed benefits of participating in BDT. They shared the significance of positive relationships and experiences and how those have helped to manage their illness. Third, youth described the aspects that they most enjoyed at BDT. Peer support was an important determinant of physical activity, but they considered dietary changes to be individual behaviours. Glycemic control, blood pressure and anthropometric measures were not different following the intervention. Our findings support the importance of maintaining an inclusive environment and relationship building when designing strategies to promote behaviour modification for Indigenous youth living with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Pediatric diabetes consortium type 1 diabetes new onset (NeOn) study: Factors associated with HbA1c levels one year after diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    To identify determinants of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels 1 yr after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in participants in the Pediatric Diabetes Consortium (PDC) T1D New Onset (NeOn) Study. Diabetes-specific as well as socioeconomic factors during the first year following diagnosis were analyze...

  15. Multisystem Morbidity and Mortality in Offspring of Women With Type 1 Diabetes (The EPICOM Study): A Register-Based Prospective Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Sine; Krag, Kirstine Stochholm; Vlachová, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    admissions. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed a prospective combined clinical and register-based cohort study comparing mortality, hospital admissions, and use of medication in offspring (n = 1,326) of women with pregestational type 1 diabetes (index children) with matched control subjects (n = 131......OBJECTIVE: This study examined the long-term consequences for offspring born to mothers with pregestational type 1 diabetes regarding mortality, hospital admissions, and medication. We also examined the association between HbA1c levels during pregnancy and mortality and incidence of hospital...... associated with maternal HbA1c before pregnancy and in the first trimester. In addition, the overall use of medication was increased in index children (IRR 1.13, 95% CI 1.07-1.19, P Type 1 diabetes during pregnancy has long-term implications on the health of offspring, with increased...

  16. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy in Filipino vs Caucasian Americans: a retrospective cross-sectional epidemiologic study of two convenience samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáles, Christopher S; Lee, Roland Y; Agadzi, Anthony K; Hee, Michael R; Singh, Kuldev; Lin, Shan C

    2012-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in Filipino and Caucasian Americans in two clinic populations. Retrospective cross-sectional epidemiologic study of two convenience samples. Five hundred twelve Filipino and 600 Caucasian patients aged 40 years or older examined by two community-based comprehensive ophthalmology clinics during a one-year period. The prevalence of self-reported type 2 diabetes mellitus among Filipino (F) and Caucasian Americans (C) was 40.6% and 24.8%, respectively (PFilipino; 149 Caucasian), there was a statistically insignificant higher prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among Filipino diabetics compared to Caucasians (F vs C: all forms of diabetic retinopathy, 24.5% vs 16.8%, P=.08; non-proliferative retinopathy, 17.3% vs 12.8%, P=.24; proliferative retinopathy, 7.2% vs. 4.0%, P=.21). In multivariate analyses of the diabetic subpopulation, Filipino ethnicity was not a significant predictor of diabetic retinopathy. Filipino Americans may have a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy than Caucasian Americans. Among those with type 2 diabetes, however, Filipino Americans were not found to be more likely to show manifestations of diabetic retinopathy than Caucasian Americans.

  17. Diabetic foot complications and their risk factors from a large retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al-Rubeaan

    Full Text Available Foot complications are considered to be a serious consequence of diabetes mellitus, posing a major medical and economical threat. Identifying the extent of this problem and its risk factors will enable health providers to set up better prevention programs. Saudi National Diabetes Registry (SNDR, being a large database source, would be the best tool to evaluate this problem.This is a cross-sectional study of a cohort of 62,681 patients aged ≥ 25 years from SNDR database, selected for studying foot complications associated with diabetes and related risk factors.The overall prevalence of diabetic foot complications was 3.3% with 95% confidence interval (95% CI of (3.16%-3.44%, whilst the prevalences of foot ulcer, gangrene, and amputations were 2.05% (1.94%-2.16%, 0.19% (0.16%-0.22%, and 1.06% (0.98%-1.14%, respectively. The prevalence of foot complications increased with age and diabetes duration predominantly amongst the male patients. Diabetic foot is more commonly seen among type 2 patients, although it is more prevalent among type 1 diabetic patients. The Univariate analysis showed Charcot joints, peripheral vascular disease (PVD, neuropathy, diabetes duration ≥ 10 years, insulin use, retinopathy, nephropathy, age ≥ 45 years, cerebral vascular disease (CVD, poor glycemic control, coronary artery disease (CAD, male gender, smoking, and hypertension to be significant risk factors with odds ratio and 95% CI at 42.53 (18.16-99.62, 14.47 (8.99-23.31, 12.06 (10.54-13.80, 7.22 (6.10-8.55, 4.69 (4.28-5.14, 4.45 (4.05-4.89, 2.88 (2.43-3.40, 2.81 (2.31-3.43, 2.24 (1.98-2.45, 2.02 (1.84-2.22, 1.54 (1.29-1.83, and 1.51 (1.38-1.65, respectively.Risk factors for diabetic foot complications are highly prevalent; they have put these complications at a higher rate and warrant primary and secondary prevention programs to minimize morbidity and mortality in addition to economic impact of the complications. Other measurements, such as decompression of lower

  18. Dietary sodium intake and incidence of diabetes complications in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes: analysis of the Japan Diabetes Complications Study (JDCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Chika; Yoshimura, Yukio; Kamada, Chiemi; Tanaka, Shiro; Tanaka, Sachiko; Hanyu, Osamu; Araki, Atsushi; Ito, Hideki; Tanaka, Akira; Ohashi, Yasuo; Akanuma, Yasuo; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Sone, Hirohito

    2014-10-01

    Many guidelines recommend that patients with type 2 diabetes should reduce their dietary sodium intake. However, the relationship between dietary sodium intake and incidence of diabetic complications in patients with type 2 diabetes has not been explored. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between dietary sodium intake and incidence of diabetes complications. The study was of a nationwide cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes aged 40 to 70 years with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥6.5%. After excluding nonresponders to a dietary survey, 1588 patients were analyzed. Baseline dietary intake was assessed by the Food Frequency Questionnaire based on food groups. Primary outcomes were times to cardiovascular disease (CVD), overt nephropathy, diabetic retinopathy, and all-cause mortality. Mean daily dietary sodium intake in quartiles ranged from 2.8 to 5.9 g. After adjustment for confounders, hazard ratios for CVD in patients in the second, third, and fourth quartiles of sodium intake compared with the first quartile were 1.70 (95% confidence interval, 0.98-2.94), 1.47 (0.82-2.62), and 2.07 (1.21-3.90), respectively (trend P sodium intake was dramatically elevated compared with patients with HbA1c sodium intake. Findings suggested that high dietary sodium intake is associated with elevated incidence of CVD in patients with type 2 diabetes and that there is a synergistic effect between HbA1c values and dietary sodium intake for the development of CVD.

  19. Study on Association of Pentraxin 3 and Diabetic Nephropathy in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehai Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is a serious microvascular complication of diabetes. Compared with other therapies for diabetic patients, islet transplantation can effectively prevent and reverse diabetes-induced microvascular disease, such as diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy. PTX3 is the only long pentraxin that can be detected in renal tissue. In this study, we investigated the expression of PTX3 when early DN was reversed after islet transplantation. Methods. Diabetes was induced in rats by injecting streptozotocin (STZ. Twelve weeks later, the diabetic rats were divided into 2 groups: the islet transplantation group (IT and the diabetic nephropathy group (DN. Renal injury, renal function, and the expression of PTX3 in the plasma and the kidneys were assessed with urinalysis, immunohistochemical staining, and Western blot, respectively. Results. The expression of PTX3 in the kidney was significantly decreased in the DN group but increased in the IT group because of the reversal of DN. Conclusions. Our data showed that the level of PTX3 in renal tissue is closely related to renal injury in DN. This may be used to quantify the extent of renal injury in DN, provide a potential early indicator of renal tubular injury in early DN patients, and assess DN clinical progression.

  20. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among self-reported adult diabetics in districts of Eastern Nepal in a community based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Lalit T; Agarwal, Nisha

    2017-07-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness among working age adults around the world. Each year more and more people live with this condition, which can result in life-changing complications. To determine the prevalence and risk factors of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in a large community based screening programme, in order to estimate the future burden of the disease. A cross sectional community based study was conducted between 1st January and 31st December 2014 in a purposive sample of adults with selfreported diabetes mellitus (DM) from Morang and Sunsari district of Nepal. A structured questionnaire was used to collect patient data. Ophthalmological evaluation was done and fundus was examined for grading DR using direct and indirect ophthalmoscope. Among the 698 diabetic patients, mean age was 55.02±11.8 years (ranging from 24 to 91 years). 12.3% of diabetic were not under any treatment. Only 69.3% of patients had visited eye specialist for diabetic retinopathy screening. Prevalence of DR was found to be 15.3%; 13.9% had non-proliferative DR and 1.4% had proliferative DR. Prevalence of diabetic macular edema was 2.1%. In Morang district prevalence of DR was 14.2% and in Sunsari district it was 16.2%. In the binary-logistic regression analysis, duration of diabetes was associated with significantly increased risk of DR (OR: 1.13; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09 to 1.17; p<0.001). History of absence of arterial hypertension decreased the risk of DR (OR: 0.56; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.87; p=0.01). One sixth of the patients with diabetes in the Eastern region of Nepal have retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy risk increased with duration of diabetes and decreased with history of no co-existing arterial hypertension. © NEPjOPH.

  1. Digital Health Interventions for Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: Qualitative Study of Patient Perspectives on Diabetes Self-Management Education and Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Kingshuk; Dack, Charlotte; Ross, Jamie; Michie, Susan; May, Carl; Stevenson, Fiona; Farmer, Andrew; Yardley, Lucy; Barnard, Maria; Murray, Elizabeth

    2018-01-29

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing globally, and health services in many countries are struggling with the morbidity, mortality, and costs associated with the complications of this long-term condition. Diabetes self-management education (DSME) and behavioral support can reduce the risks of developing diabetes-related complications and improve glycemic control. However, their uptake is low. Digital health interventions (DHI) can provide sustained support and may overcome challenges associated with attending diabetes self-management sessions. They have the potential for delivery at multiple locations at convenient times, anonymity, and presentation of content in attractive and tailored formats. This study investigates the needs and wants of patients with type 2 diabetes to inform the development of digital self-management education and support. The objective of this study was to explore patient perspectives on unmet needs for self-management and support and the role of DHI in adults living with type 2 diabetes. This study used a qualitative approach based on data generated from 4 focus groups with 20 patients. The data generated by the focus groups illustrated the significant burden that the diagnosis of diabetes places on many patients and the negative impacts on their emotional well-being, work, social life, and physical health. Although patients' experiences of the health care services varied, there was agreement that even the best services were unable to meet all users' needs to support the emotional regulation, psychological adjustment, and behavioral changes needed for successful self-management. By focusing on medical management and information provision, existing health care services and education programs may not be adequately meeting all the needs of patients with type 2 diabetes. DHIs have the potential to improve access to DSME and behavioral support and extend the range of content offered by health services to fit with a wider range of

  2. Diabetes and risk of cancer incidence: results from a population-based cohort study in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballotari, Paola; Vicentini, Massimo; Manicardi, Valeria; Gallo, Marco; Chiatamone Ranieri, Sofia; Greci, Marina; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2017-10-25

    Aim of this study was to compare cancer incidence in populations with and without diabetes by cancer site. Furthermore, we aimed at comparing excess risk of cancer according to diabetes type, diabetes duration and treatment, the latter as regards Type 2 diabetes. By use of the Reggio Emilia diabetes registry we classified the resident population aged 20-84 at December 31 st 2009 into two groups: with and without diabetes. By linking with the cancer registry we calculated the 2010-2013 cancer incidence in both groups. The incidence rate ratios (IRR) by cancer site, type of diabetes, diabetes duration, and as concerns Type 2 diabetes, by treatment regimen were computed using Poisson regression model and non-diabetic group as reference. The cohort included 383,799 subjects without diabetes and 23,358 with diabetes. During follow-up, we identified 1464 cancer cases in subjects with diabetes and 9858 in the remaining population. Overall cancer incidence was higher in subjects with diabetes than in those without diabetes (IRR = 1.22, 95%CI 1.15-1.29), with similar results focusing on subjects with at least 2-year diabetes duration. Cancer sites driving overall increased risk were liver, pancreas, Colon rectum, and bladder in both sexes, corpus uteri for females. There was also suggestion of an increased risk for kidney cancer in females and a decreased risk for prostate cancer. Excess risk was found in patients with Type 2 diabetes, more marked among insulin users, especially with combined therapy. We observed an increasing risk for diabetes duration up to 10 years from diagnosis (IRR = 1.44, 95%CI 1.29-1.61) and a subsequent decrease to moderate-higher risk (IRR = 1.15, 95%CI 1.04-1.30). Our study indicates that the strength of association depends on specific cancer site. Insulin, monotherapy or combined therapy, per se or as an indication of poor blood glucose control, in addition to diabetes duration, may play a role in the association of diabetes and

  3. Data collection of patients with diabetes in family medicine: a study in north-eastern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaona, Alberto; Del Zotti, Franco; Girotto, Sandro; Marafetti, Claudio; Rigon, Giulio; Marcon, Alessandro

    2017-08-16

    Studies on data collection and quality of care in Italian family medicine are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the completeness of data collection of patients with diabetes in a large sample of family physicians in the province of Verona, Veneto region, a benchmark for the Italian National Health System. We extracted the data on all the patients with diabetes from the electronic health records of 270 family physicians in 2006 and 2009. We reported the percentage of patients with data recorded for 12 indicators of performance derived from the National Institute for Clinical Excellence diabetes guidelines. Secondarily, we assessed quality of care using the Q-score (the lower the score, the greater the risk of cardiovascular events). Patients with diabetes were 18,507 in 2006 and 20,744 in 2009, and the percentage of patients registered as having diabetes was 4.9% and 5.4% of the total population, respectively (p Data collection improved for all the indicators between 2006 and 2009 but the performance was still low at the end of the study period: patients with no data recorded were 42% in 2006 and 32% in 2009, while patients with data recorded for ≥5 indicators were 9% in 2006 and 17% in 2009. The Q-score improved (mean ± SD, 20.7 ± 3.0 in 2006 vs 21.3 ± 3.6 in 2009, p data collection and quality of care for patients with diabetes during the study period. Nonetheless, data collection was still unsatisfactory in comparison with international benchmarks in 2009. Structural interventions in the organization of family medicine, which have not been implemented since the study period, should be prioritised in Italy.

  4. Peritoneal Water Transport Characteristics of Diabetic Patients Undergoing Peritoneal Dialysis: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ana; Ribera-Sanchez, Roi; Rodríguez-Carmona, Ana; López-Iglesias, Antía; Leite-Costa, Natacha; Pérez Fontán, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Volume overload is frequent in diabetics undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD), and may play a significant role in the excess mortality observed in these patients. The characteristics of peritoneal water transport in this population have not been studied sufficiently. Following a prospective, single-center design we made cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons of peritoneal water transport in 2 relatively large samples of diabetic and nondiabetic PD patients. We used 3.86/4.25% glucose-based peritoneal equilibration tests (PET) with complete drainage at 60 min, for these purposes. We scrutinized 59 diabetic and 120 nondiabetic PD patients. Both samples showed relatively similar characteristics, although diabetics were significantly more overhydrated than nondiabetics. The baseline PET disclosed lower ultrafiltration (mean 439 mL diabetics vs. 532 mL nondiabetics, p = 0.033) and sodium removal (41 vs. 53 mM, p = 0.014) rates in diabetics. One hundred and nine patients (36 diabetics) underwent a second PET after 12 months, and 45 (14 diabetics) underwent a third one after 24 months. Longitudinal analyses disclosed an essential stability of water transport in both groups, although nondiabetic patients showed a trend where an increase in free water transport (p = 0.033) was observed, which was not the case in diabetics. Diabetic patients undergoing PD present lower capacities of ultrafiltration and sodium removal than their nondiabetic counterparts. Longitudinal analyses disclose an essential stability of water transport capacities, both in diabetics and nondiabetics. The clinical significance of these differences deserves further analysis. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Ovarian markers and irregular menses among women with type 1 diabetes in the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C; Miller, R S; Braffett, B H; Pan, Y; Arends, V L; Saenger, A K; Barnie, A; Sarma, A V

    2018-03-01

    Women with type 1 diabetes have increased risk of infertility compared to women without diabetes even after adjustment for irregular menses, but aetiologies are incompletely understood. Our aim was to examine the prevalence of abnormalities in ovarian markers consistent with polycystic ovary syndrome in women with type 1 diabetes and associations with irregular menses and diabetes-specific variables. We conducted a secondary analysis of women in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications Study (DCCT/EDIC), a randomized trial and observational follow-up of intensive insulin therapy for type 1 diabetes. We included women with anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) measurements among women not using oral contraceptives (n = 187). Initial AMH and testosterone measures were performed between EDIC years 1 and 4. History of irregular menses was assessed annually. The median age of women was 35 (interquartile ratio 29, 40) years; 133 (35%) had elevated AMH and 62 (17%) reported irregular menses. Twelve per cent of women had relative elevations in total testosterone. In multivariable models, lower insulin dosages were associated with higher AMH concentrations (P = .0027), but not diabetes duration, glycemic control, body mass index or irregular menses. Neither irregular menses nor diabetes-specific variables were associated with testosterone concentrations. Among women with type 1 diabetes in their thirties, abnormalities in ovarian markers are common and not associated with irregular menses and thus may partially account for decreased fecundity in women with type 1 diabetes. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Association between depression and diabetes amongst adults in Bangladesh: a hospital based case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A matched case–control study was conducted among 591 consecutive patients with diabetes attending a tertiary hospital in Dhaka and 591 controls matched for age, sex and area of residence without diabetes not related with the index–case. Depression was measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire–9. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to examine the association between depression and diabetes

  7. Birth order and childhood type 1 diabetes risk: a pooled analysis of 31 observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardwell, Chris R; Stene, Lars C; Joner, Geir; Bulsara, Max K; Cinek, Ondrej; Rosenbauer, Joachim; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Svensson, Jannet; Goldacre, Michael J; Waldhoer, Thomas; Jarosz-Chobot, Przemyslawa; Gimeno, Suely Ga; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Roberts, Christine L; Parslow, Roger C; Wadsworth, Emma Jk; Chetwynd, Amanda; Brigis, Girts; Urbonaite, Brone; Sipetic, Sandra; Schober, Edith; Devoti, Gabriele; Ionescu-Tirgoviste, Constantin; de Beaufort, Carine E; Stoyanov, Denka; Buschard, Karsten; Radon, Katja; Glatthaar, Christopher; Patterson, Chris C

    2011-04-01

    The incidence rates of childhood onset type 1 diabetes are almost universally increasing across the globe but the aetiology of the disease remains largely unknown. We investigated whether birth order is associated with the risk of childhood diabetes by performing a pooled analysis of previous studies. Relevant studies published before January 2010 were identified from MEDLINE, Web of Science and EMBASE. Authors of studies provided individual patient data or conducted pre-specified analyses. Meta-analysis techniques were used to derive combined odds ratios (ORs), before and after adjustment for confounders, and investigate heterogeneity. Data were available for 6 cohort and 25 case-control studies, including 11,955 cases of type 1 diabetes. Overall, there was no evidence of an association prior to adjustment for confounders. After adjustment for maternal age at birth and other confounders, a reduction in the risk of diabetes in second- or later born children became apparent [fully adjusted OR = 0.90 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.83-0.98; P = 0.02] but this association varied markedly between studies (I² = 67%). An a priori subgroup analysis showed that the association was stronger and more consistent in children birth order, particularly in children aged < 5 years. This finding could reflect increased exposure to infections in early life in later born children.

  8. Mobile diabetes intervention study: testing a personalized treatment/behavioral communication intervention for blood glucose control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Charlene C; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L; Shardell, Michelle; Weed, Kelly; Clough, Suzanne S; Peeples, Malinda; Terrin, Michael; Bronich-Hall, Lauren; Barr, Erik; Lender, Dan

    2009-07-01

    National data find glycemic control is within target (A1ccommunication system, using mobile phones and patient/physician portals to allow patient-specific treatment and communication. All physicians receive American Diabetes Association (ADA) Guidelines for diabetes care. Patients with poor diabetes control (A1c> or =7.5%) at baseline (n=260) are enrolled in study groups based on PCP randomization. All study patients receive blood glucose (BG) meters and a year's supply of testing materials. Patients in three treatment groups select one of two mobile phone models, receive one-year unlimited mobile phone data and service plan, register on the web-based individual patient portal and receive study treatment phone software based on study assignment. Control group patients receive usual care from their PCP. The primary outcome is mean change in A1c over a 12-month intervention period. Traditional methods of disease management have not achieved adequate control for BG and other conditions important to persons with diabetes. Tools to improve communication between patients and PCPs may improve patient outcomes and be satisfactory to patients and physicians. This RCT is ongoing.

  9. Diabetes and modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease: the prospective Million Women Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Elizabeth A.; Pirie, Kirstin L.; Stevens, Richard J.; Beral, Valerie; Brown, Anna; Liu, Bette; Green, Jane; Reeves, Gillian K.

    2008-01-01

    To compare the effect of potentially modifiable lifestyle factors on the incidence of vascular disease in women with and without diabetes. In 1996-2001 over one million middle-aged women in the UK joined a prospective study, providing medical history, lifestyle and socio-demographic information. All participants were followed for hospital admissions and deaths using electronic record-linkage. Adjusted relative risks (RRs) and incidence rates were calculated to compare the incidence of coronary heart disease and stroke in women with and without diabetes and by lifestyle factors. At recruitment 25,915 women (2.1% of 1,242,338) reported current treatment for diabetes. During a mean follow-up of 6.1 years per woman, 21,928 had a first hospital admission or death from coronary heart disease (RR for women with versus without diabetes = 3.30, 95% CI 3.14-3.47) and 7,087 had a first stroke (RR = 2.47, 95% CI 2.24-2.74). Adjusted incidence rates of these conditions in women with diabetes increased with duration of diabetes, obesity, inactivity and smoking. The 5-year adjusted incidence rates for cardiovascular disease were 4.6 (95% CI 4.4-4.9) per 100 women aged 50-69 in non-smokers with diabetes, 5.9 (95% CI 4.6-7.6) in smokers with diabetes not using insulin and 11.0 (95% CI 8.3-14.7) in smokers with diabetes using insulin. Non-smoking women with diabetes who were not overweight or inactive still had threefold increased rate for coronary disease or stroke compared with women without diabetes. Of the modifiable factors examined in middle aged women with diabetes, smoking causes the greatest increase in cardiovascular disease, especially in those with insulin treated diabetes

  10. A Controlled Study on the Correlation between Tear Film Volume and Tear Film Stability in Diabetic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, Iman M; Khalil, Noha M; El-Gendy, Heba A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the tear film quantity and correlate it with the quality and stability of the tear film in diabetics and compare them to age matched controls. Introduction. Diabetes affects tear film parameters in multiple ways. Poor metabolic control and neuropathy are postulated factors. To further understand how diabetes affects tear film parameters this study was conducted. Subjects and Methods. Tear meniscus height was measured by anterior segment OCT, along with tear thinning time, a subtype of noninvasive tear break-up time, and blinking rate per minute which were all recorded for 22 diabetic patients. Correlations between these tear film parameters were studied and then compared to 16 age matched controls. Results. A statistically significant difference was found in blinking rate between the diabetic and the control group (P = 0.002), with higher blinking rate among diabetics. All tear film parameters were negatively correlated with duration of diabetes. A positive correlation was found between tear film volume and stability. Conclusion. Diabetes affects the tear film in various ways. Diabetics should be examined for dry eye signs even in absence of symptoms which may be masked by associated neuropathy. Duration of diabetes has an impact on tear film status.

  11. Update of the German Diabetes Risk Score and external validation in the German MONICA/KORA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlenbruch, Kristin; Ludwig, Tonia; Jeppesen, Charlotte; Joost, Hans-Georg; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Meisinger, Christine; Peters, Annette; Boeing, Heiner; Thorand, Barbara; Schulze, Matthias B

    2014-06-01

    Several published diabetes prediction models include information about family history of diabetes. The aim of this study was to extend the previously developed German Diabetes Risk Score (GDRS) with family history of diabetes and to validate the updated GDRS in the Multinational MONItoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular Diseases (MONICA)/German Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) study. We used data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam study for extending the GDRS, including 21,846 participants. Within 5 years of follow-up 492 participants developed diabetes. The definition of family history included information about the father, the mother and/or sibling/s. Model extension was evaluated by discrimination and reclassification. We updated the calculation of the score and absolute risks. External validation was performed in the MONICA/KORA study comprising 11,940 participants with 315 incident cases after 5 years of follow-up. The basic ROC-AUC of 0.856 (95%-CI: 0.842-0.870) was improved by 0.007 (0.003-0.011) when parent and sibling history was included in the GDRS. The net reclassification improvement was 0.110 (0.072-0.149), respectively. For the updated score we demonstrated good calibration across all tenths of risk. In MONICA/KORA, the ROC-AUC was 0.837 (0.819-0.855); regarding calibration we saw slight overestimation of absolute risks. Inclusion of the number of diabetes-affected parents and sibling history improved the prediction of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, we updated the GDRS algorithm accordingly. Validation in another German cohort study showed good discrimination and acceptable calibration for the vast majority of individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The incidence risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in female nurses: a nationwide matched cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Ling Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is one of the most common chronic illnesses worldwide. This study was to assess whether the incidence risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus between female nurses and female non-nurses. Methods Study data were obtained from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Research Database, and nurses were sampled from the Registry for medical personnel. Nurses and non-nurses with similar traits and health conditions were selected via 1:1 propensity score matching. A total of 111,670 subjects were selected (55,835 nurses and 55,835 non-nurses. Stages of diabetes development were monitored until December 31, 2009. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to discuss risks and influencing factors related to diabetes. Poisson distribution methods were used to examine the incidence rate of diabetes per 1,000 person-years. Results The propensity matching results show that on average, female nurses who were diagnosed with diabetes were younger compared with the non-nurses (46.98 ± 10.80 vs. 48.31 ± 10.43, p <0.05. However, the results of the Cox proportional hazards model show that the nurses showed a lower risk of developing diabetes compared with the non-nurses (Adj. HR = 0.84, 95 % CI: 0.79–0.90. Factors influencing diabetes development risks among the nurses include advanced age and high Charlson Comorbidity Index levels. Conclusion The low degree of diabetes development among the nurses may be attributable to the fact that nurses possess substantial knowledge on health care and on healthy behaviors. The results of this study can be used as a reference to assess occupational risks facing nursing staff, to prevent diabetes development, and to promote health education.

  13. Cord blood insulinoma-associated protein 2 autoantibodies are associated with increased risk of type 1 diabetes in the population-based Diabetes Prediction in Skåne study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Markus; Lynch, Kristian; Larsson, Christer; Elding Larsson, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of cord blood autoantibodies on the risk for type 1 diabetes in children followed prospectively from birth. The Diabetes Prediction in Skåne (DiPiS) study consists of 35,853 children from the general population born during 2000-2004. Samples were collected at birth and analysed for HLA genotypes and autoantibodies to glutamate decarboxylase 65 (GAD65), insulin and insulinoma-associated protein 2 (IA-2). After adjusting for HLA, sex, maternal age and parental type 1 diabetes, independent associations with risk of diabetes were assessed using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. In total, 151 children (0.4%) had developed type 1 diabetes by the end of 2013 at a median age of 5.8 years (0.8-12.2 years). In the multivariate analysis, the presence of IA-2 autoantibodies (IA-2A) in cord blood (HR 6.88, 95% CI 1.46,32.4; p = 0.003), but not maternal diabetes (HR 1.38, 95% CI 0.24,7.84; p = 0.71), was associated with risk of developing type 1 diabetes. No increased risk could be seen for the presence of autoantibodies to GAD65 or insulin. Our study indicates that the presence of cord blood IA-2A superimposes maternal diabetes and other cord blood islet autoantibodies as a predictor of type 1 diabetes development in the child. These findings may be of significance for future screening and study protocols on type 1 diabetes prediction.

  14. AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS AND ITS RISK FACTORS IN RURAL AREA OF KATIHAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Narayan Yadav

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic, debilitating disease characterised by insulin resistance, impaired insulin secretion and hyperglycaemia. It is the most prevalent metabolic condition and one amongst major health and socioeconomic problems worldwide. It represents more than 90% of total prevalence of diabetes in the world and is responsible for 9% of the global mortality corresponding to four million deaths per year. The aim of the study is to- 1. Determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus type 2 in a rural population of age 30 years and above. 2. Study the association of various risk factors with diabetes mellitus type 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in population 30 years and above at Hazipur village in the district of Katihar in Bihar. During the study period of 1 st January to 31 st December 2015, in which 910 persons aged 30 years or more living in this village were included in study. RESULTS Total sample size in this study was 910 and out of this, 37 (4.06% were found to have type 2 diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 45.94% among sedentary and only 13.52% among heavy worker subjects. According to literacy of subjects, the prevalence among illiterate, primary, middle, secondary, higher secondary and above was 24.33%, 32.43%, 16.22%, 13.51% and 13.51%, respectively. Among vegetarians and non-vegetarians, the prevalence was 18.91% and 81.09%, respectively. Among subjects with type 2 DM, 54.06% were overweight and 72.97% were hypertensive. Smoking habit was found among 54.05% subjects. CONCLUSION This study shows that the prevalence of diabetes is high in the subjects having sedentary lifestyle, poor literacy status, overweight, non-vegetarians, hypertension and smoking habit. Control of type 2 diabetes mellitus mandates lifestyle modification and control of risk factors.

  15. Vitamin D insufficiency, preterm delivery and preeclampsia in women with type 1 diabetes - an observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestgaard, Marianne; Secher, Anna L; Ringholm, Lene

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether vitamin D insufficiency is associated with preterm delivery and preeclampsia in women with type 1 diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An observational study of 198 pregnant women with type 1 diabetes. 25-Hydroxy-Vitamin D and HbA1c were meas...

  16. Integrating CHWs as part of the team leading diabetes group visits: A randomized controlled feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of integrating Community Health Workers (CHWs) as part of the team leading diabetes group visits. This was a randomized controlled study that integrated CHWs as part of the team leading diabetes group visits for low-income Hispanic adults (n=5...

  17. Knowledge and practice of patients with diabetes mellitus in Lebanon: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaoui, Lamis R; Deeb, Mary E; Nasser, Layal; Hallit, Souheil

    2018-04-20

    The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and practice of Lebanese patients living with diabetes mellitus in regards to their diabetes self- management. A cross-sectional study, conducted between January and June 2015, enrolled 207 urban adult patients with diabetes mellitus from community pharmacies while purchasing their diabetes medications. Their knowledge and self-management practices were assessed using a structured anonymous interview survey questionnaire. The mean age of the participants was 60.2 ± 15.5 years, and the Male/Female ratio was 1.38. The mean knowledge score was 2.34 ± 0.88 points (out of 6). Very few participants (17.4%) knew their current medication side effects. The mean practice score was 5.86 ± 1.77 points (out of 8). Only 15.9% of patients reported current physical activity. A multiple linear analysis showed that those with a university degree had a significantly higher knowledge (Beta = 0.448, p = 0.001) and practice score (Beta = 0.523 p = 0.047) than those with intermediate or primary schooling. Those who reported following a special diabetes diet had a higher knowledge score (Beta = 0.482, p Knowledge score and practice score were highly correlated (Beta = 0.844, p knowledge and practice scores. The knowledge and practice scores of patients with diabetes mellitus were not satisfactory. Well-targeted interventions are needed, such as improving the communication between the pharmacist and people living with diabetes. The observed low adherence to physical exercise among patients with diabetes should also be addressed.

  18. Sex Differences in Cardiovascular Mortality in Diabetics and Nondiabetic Subjects: A Population-Based Study (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Ballotari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to assess the impact of diabetes on cardiovascular mortality, focusing on sex differences. The inhabitants of Reggio Emilia province on December 31, 2009, aged 20–84 were followed up for three years for mortality. The exposure was determined using Reggio Emilia diabetes register. The age-adjusted death rates were estimated as well as the incidence rate ratios using Poisson regression model. Interaction terms for diabetes and sex were tested by the Wald test. People with diabetes had an excess of mortality, compared with nondiabetic subjects (all cause: IRR = 1.68; 95%CI 1.60–1.78; CVD: IRR = 1.61; 95%CI 1.47–1.76; AMI: IRR = 1.59; 95%CI 1.27–1.99; renal causes: IRR = 1.71; 95%CI 1.22–2.38. The impact of diabetes is greater in females than males for all causes (P=0.0321 and for CVD, IMA, and renal causes. Further studies are needed to investigate whether the difference in cardiovascular risk profile or in the quality of care delivered justifies the higher excess of mortality in females with diabetes compared to males.

  19. Sex differences in cardiovascular mortality in diabetics and nondiabetic subjects: a population-based study (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballotari, Paola; Ranieri, Sofia Chiatamone; Luberto, Ferdinando; Caroli, Stefania; Greci, Marina; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Manicardi, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the impact of diabetes on cardiovascular mortality, focusing on sex differences. The inhabitants of Reggio Emilia province on December 31, 2009, aged 20-84 were followed up for three years for mortality. The exposure was determined using Reggio Emilia diabetes register. The age-adjusted death rates were estimated as well as the incidence rate ratios using Poisson regression model. Interaction terms for diabetes and sex were tested by the Wald test. People with diabetes had an excess of mortality, compared with nondiabetic subjects (all cause: IRR = 1.68; 95%CI 1.60-1.78; CVD: IRR = 1.61; 95%CI 1.47-1.76; AMI: IRR = 1.59; 95%CI 1.27-1.99; renal causes: IRR = 1.71; 95%CI 1.22-2.38). The impact of diabetes is greater in females than males for all causes (P = 0.0321) and for CVD, IMA, and renal causes. Further studies are needed to investigate whether the difference in cardiovascular risk profile or in the quality of care delivered justifies the higher excess of mortality in females with diabetes compared to males.

  20. Attitudes and barriers to exercise in adults with a recent diagnosis of type 1 diabetes: a qualitative study of participants in the Exercise for Type 1 Diabetes (EXTOD) study

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Amy; Narendran, Parth; Andrews, Robert C; Daley, Amanda; Greenfield, Sheila M

    2018-01-01

    Objectives To explore attitudes and barriers to exercise in adults with new-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Design Qualitative methodology using focus group (n=1), individual face-to-face (n=4) and telephone interviews (n=8). Thematic analysis using the Framework Method. Setting Nineteen UK hospital sites. Participants Fifteen participants in the Exercise for Type 1 Diabetes study. We explored current and past levels of exercise, understanding of exercise and exercise guidelines, barri...

  1. Cigarette smoking and risk of gestational diabetes: a systematic review of observational studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belizán José M

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gestational diabetes is a prevalent disease associated with adverse outcomes of pregnancy. Smoking as been associated with glucose intolerance during pregnancy in some but not all studies. Therefore, we aimed to systematically review all epidemiological evidence to examine the association between cigarette smoking during pregnancy and risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus. Methods We conducted a systematic review of articles published up to 2007, using PubMed, Embase, LILACS e CINAHL to identify the articles. Because this review focuses on studies of smoking during pregnancy, we excluded studies evaluating smoking outside pregnancy. Two investigators independently abstracted information on participant's characteristics, assessment of exposure and outcome, and estimates for the association under study. We evaluated the studies for publication bias and performed heterogeneity analyses. We also assessed the effect of each study individually through sensitivity analysis. Results We found and critically reviewed 32 studies, of which 12 met the criteria for inclusion in the review. Most of the studies provided only unadjusted measurements. Combining the results of the individual studies, we obtained a crude odds ratio of 1.03 (99% CI 0.85–1.25. Only 4 studies presented adjusted measurements of association, and no association was found when these alone were analyzed (OR 0.95; 99% CI 0.85–1.07. Subgroup analysis could not be done due to small sample size. Conclusion The number of studies is small, with major heterogeneity in research design and findings. Taken together, current data do not support an association between cigarette smoking during pregnancy and the risk of gestational diabetes.

  2. Conjoint Associations of Gestational Diabetes and Hypertension With Diabetes, Hypertension, and Cardiovascular Disease in Parents: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Romina; Brazeau, Anne-Sophie; Meltzer, Sara; Rahme, Elham; Dasgupta, Kaberi

    2017-11-15

    The conjoint association of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and gestational hypertension (GH) with cardiometabolic disease has not been well studied. We evaluated a combined GDM/GH risk indicator in both mothers and fathers because of shared spousal behaviors and environments. In the present population-based retrospective cohort study, GH was identified in matched pairs of mothers with GDM or without GDM (matched on age group, health region, and year of delivery) who had singleton live births in Quebec, Canada (1990-2007). A total of 64,232 couples were categorized based on GDM/GH status (neither, either, or both). Associations with diabetes, hypertension, and a composite of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality were evaluated using Cox proportional hazard models (from 12 weeks postpartum to March 2012). Compared with having neither GDM nor GH, having either was associated with incident diabetes (hazard ratio (HR) = 14.7, 95% confidence interval (CI): 12.9, 16.6), hypertension (HR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.8, 2.0), and CVD/mortality (HR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.2, 1.7). We found associations of greater magnitude among participants who had both (for diabetes, HR = 36.9, 95% CI: 26.0, 52.3; for hypertension, HR = 5.7, 95% CI: 4.9, 6.7; and for CVD/mortality, HR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.6, 3.5). Associations with diabetes were also observed in fathers (for either, HR = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.3; for both, HR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.4, 2.3). In conclusion, we found associations of a combined GDM/GH indicator with cardiometabolic disease in mothers and with diabetes in fathers, with stronger associations when both GDM and GH were present. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

  3. Self-monitoring of Blood Glucose in Non-Insulin Treated Type 2 Diabetes (The SMBG Study): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Sharon; Luzio, Stephen; Bain, Stephen; Harvey, John; McKenna, Jillian; Khan, Atir; Rice, Sam; Watkins, Alan; Owens, David R

    2017-01-26

    The benefit of Self-monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG) in people with non-insulin treated type 2 diabetes remains unclear with inconsistent evidence from randomised controlled trials fuelling the continued debate. Lack of a consistent finding has been attributed to variations in study population and design, including the SMBG intervention. There is a growing consensus that structured SMBG, whereby the person with diabetes and health care provider are educated to detect patterns of glycaemic abnormality and take appropriate action according to the blood glucose profiles, can prove beneficial in terms of lowering HbA1c and improving overall well-being. Despite this, many national health agencies continue to issue guidelines restricting the use of SMBG in non-insulin treated type 2 diabetes. The SMBG Study is a 12 month, multi-centre, randomised controlled trial in people with type 2 diabetes not on insulin therapy who have poor glycaemic control (HbA1c ≥58 mmol/mol / 7.5%). The participants will be randomised into three comparative groups: Group 1 will act as a control group and receive their usual diabetes care; Group 2 will undertake structured SMBG with clinical review every 3 months; Group 3 will undertake structured SMBG with additional monthly telecare support from a trained study nurse. A total of 450 participants will be recruited from 16 primary and secondary care sites across Wales and England. The primary outcome measure will be HbA1c at 12 months with secondary measures to include weight, BMI, total cholesterol and HbA1c levels at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Participant well-being and attitude towards SMBG will be monitored throughout the course of the study. Recruitment began in December 2012 with the last participant visit due in September 2016. This study will attempt to answer the question of whether structured SMBG provides any benefits to people with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes who are not being treated with insulin. The data will also

  4. Diabetes-related symptoms and negative mood in participants of a targeted population-screening program for type 2 diabetes: the Hoorn screening study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaanse, M.C.; Dekker, J.M.; Spijkerman, A.M.W.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Nijpels, M.G.A.A.M.; van der Ploeg, H.M.; Heine, R.J.; Snoek, F.J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the level of diabetes-related symptom distress and its association with negative mood in subjects participating in a targeted population-screening program, comparing those identified as having type 2 diabetes vs. those who did not. Research design and methods: This study was

  5. Study of prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension in overweight and obese people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Mandal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: In recent years, there has been a marked change in life-style of South Asian countries caused by economic growth, affluence, urbanization and dietary westernization. Few studies on the prevalence of obesity, hypertension and diabetes in the Indian population have been reported. However, there has been scarce literature on the study of prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM and Hypertension in overweight and obese people in India with criteria suggested by World Health Organization (WHO for Asians. Information on such public health issues would provide evidence based data to develop guidelines and policies on this subject. Aim: The aim of this article is to determine the prevalence of hypertension and type 2 DM in overweight and obese people. Setting and Design: A cross-sectional study consisted of people selected from the out-patient department and indoors of a large defense hospital in a semi urban area of Assam. Materials and Methods: Patients with overweight and obesity, reporting for consultation and medical examination were taken into the study. The data collected was analyzed using the criteria for overweight, obesity, diabetes and hypertension defined by WHO, Joint National Committee VII and International Diabetes Federation, American Diabetes Association. A descriptive statistical analysis has been carried out in the study. Results: A total of 300 people were the subject population of this study. Among the subject population, there were 97 overweight and 203 obese. The 56 subjects were found to be diabetic. The prevalence of type 2 DM in overweight subjects was 15.5% and in obese was 20.2% and overall was 18.7%. Prevalence of hypertension in the overweight population was 8.2% and in obese was 22.2% and overall found to be 17.7%. Conclusions: The prevalence of type 2 DM, hypertension in the obese group of the study population were found to be 20.2%, 22.2% and in the overweight population were 15.5% and 8.2%, respectively

  6. Predictors of Sustained Walking among Diabetes Patients in Managed Care: The Translating Research into Action for Diabetes (TRIAD) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerzoff, Robert B.; Brown, Arleen F.; Karter, Andrew J.; Kim, Catherine; Kountz, David; Narayan, K. M. Venkat; Schneider, Stephen H.; Tseng, Chien-Wen; Waitzfelder, Beth; Mangione, Carol M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although patients with diabetes may benefit from physical activity, few studies have examined sustained walking in this population. OBJECTIVE To examine the factors associated with sustained walking among managed care patients with diabetes. DESIGN Longitudinal, observational cohort study with questionnaires administered 2.5 years apart. PARTICIPANTS Five thousand nine hundred thirty-five patients with diabetes walking at least 20 minutes/day at baseline. MEASUREMENTS The primary outcome was the likelihood of sustained walking, defined as walking at least 20 minutes/day at follow-up. We evaluated a logistic regression model that included demographic, clinical, and neighborhood variables as independent predictors of sustained walking, and expressed the results as predicted percentages. RESULTS The absence of pain was linked to walking behavior, as 62% of patients with new pain, 67% with ongoing pain, and 70% without pain were still walking at follow-up (p = .03). Obese patients were less likely (65%) to sustain walking than overweight (71%) or normal weight (70%) patients (p = .03). Patients ≥65 years (63%) were less likely to sustain walking than patients between 45 and 64 (70%) or ≤44 (73%) years (p = .04). Only 62% of patients with a new comorbidity sustained walking compared with 68% of those who did not (p walking in this cohort of active walkers. CONCLUSIONS Pain, obesity, and new comorbidities were moderately associated with decreases in sustained walking. Whereas controlled intervention studies are needed, prevention, or treatment of these adverse conditions may help patients with diabetes sustain walking behavior. PMID:18452046

  7. Risk factors for periodontal diseases among Yemeni type II diabetic patients. A case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Shamala

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic periodontal diseases are one of diabetes mellitus complications. The present study aims to compare the periodontal status of type II diabetic patients to a control group and assess the role of risk factors in both groups. Materials and methods: A case-control study was conducted of 270 individuals (132 type II diabetics and 138 non-diabetics. Full mouth periodontal examination including plaque index, gingival bleeding, gingival recession, clinical attachment loss (CAL, tooth mobility, furcation involvement and the number of missing teeth. The case group was subdivided according to glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c status (poorly controlled HbA1c >8 and well controlled HbA1c≤8 Likewise, the duration of diabetes mellitus as short or long duration (DM≤10 or >10. The diabetic group was also subdivided according to smoking and Khat chewing habits. Result: The severity of periodontal disease among type II diabetic patients were significantly higher compared to the control group regarding the plaque index 2.6 (1.6-4.3, bleeding on probing 3.5 (2.3-13.0, gingival recession 2.0 (1.2-3.4, furcation involvement 4.0 (2.3-6.7, clinical attachment loss 5.7 (3.1-10.5, tooth mobility 2.0 (1.2-3.4, and number of missing teeth 4.4 (2.3-8.5. In addition, poorly controlled type II DM and long duration had higher CAL and number of missing teeth than well-controlled DM and short duration. No significant differences were found between smokers/nonsmokers and Khat chewers/non-chewers among the diabetic group. Conclusion: Type II diabetic patients have severe periodontal destruction and tooth loss compared to non-diabetic people and there were no differences within the diabetic group in regards to smoking and Khat chewing habits.

  8. Preliminary study of urine metabolism in type two diabetic patients based on GC-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ning; Geng, Fang; Hu, Zhong-Hua; Liu, Bin; Wang, Ye-Qiu; Liu, Jun-Cen; Qi, Yong-Hua; Li, Li-Jing

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Comparative study of type 2 diabetes and healthy controls by metabolomics methods to explore the pathogenesis of Type II diabetes. Methods: Gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with a variety of multivariate statistical analysis methods to the healthy control group 58 cases, 68 cases of Type II diabetes group were analyzed. Chromatographic conditions: DB-5MS column; the carrier gas He; flow rate of 1 mL·min-1, the injection volume 1 uL; split ratio is 100: 1. MS condition...

  9. Diabetic retinopathy in a remote Indigenous primary healthcare population: a Central Australian diabetic retinopathy screening study in the Telehealth Eye and Associated Medical Services Network project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazionis, L; Jenkins, A; Keech, A; Ryan, C; Brown, A; Boffa, J; Bursell, S

    2018-05-01

    To determine diabetic retinopathy prevalence and severity among remote Indigenous Australians. A cross-sectional diabetic retinopathy screening study of Indigenous adults with Type 2 diabetes was conducted by locally trained non-ophthalmic retinal imagers in a remote Aboriginal community-controlled primary healthcare clinic in Central Australia and certified non-ophthalmic graders in a retinal grading centre in Melbourne, Australia. The main outcome measure was prevalence of any diabetic retinopathy and sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy. Among 301 participants (33% male), gradable image rates were 78.7% (n = 237) for diabetic retinopathy and 83.1% (n = 250) for diabetic macular oedema, and 77.7% (n = 234) were gradable for both diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular oedema. For the gradable subset, the median (range) age was 48 (19-86) years and known diabetes duration 9.0 (0-24) years. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 47% (n = 110) and for diabetic macular oedema it was 14.4% (n = 36). In the fully gradable imaging studies, sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy prevalence was 16.2% (n = 38): 14.1% (n = 33) for clinically significant macular oedema, 1.3% (n = 3) for proliferative diabetic retinopathy and 0.9% (n = 2) for both. Sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy had been treated in 78% of detected cases. A novel telemedicine diabetic retinopathy screening service detected a higher prevalence of 'any' diabetic retinopathy and sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy in a remote primary care setting than reported in earlier surveys among Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations. Whether the observed high prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was attributable to greater detection, increasing diabetic retinopathy prevalence, local factors, or a combination of these requires further investigation and, potentially, specific primary care guidelines for diabetic retinopathy management in remote Australia. Clinical Trials registration number: Australia and

  10. Candida Carriage Rate and Growth Characteristics of Saliva in Diabetes Mellitus Patients: A Case‒Control Study

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    Preethi Balan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. The aim of this study was to establish a relationship between salivary glucose levels and Candidacarriage rate in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and assess the growth characteristics and acid production of Candidain glucose-supplemented saliva. Materials and methods. A total of 90 subjects, 30 with controlled type 2 diabetes, 30 with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes and 30 without diabetes (control subjects, aged 30‒60 years, participated in the study. Unstimulated saliva was collected and investigated for glucose levels (GOD-POD method, colony-forming units (CFU of Candida and salivary pH, using Indikrom paper strips. Analysis of statistical significance of salivary glucose and PH levels was carried out using post hoc Tukey HSD test. Correlation of Candida carriage rate with salivary glucose and salivary PH in the study groups and control group was made using Pearson’s correlation. Results. Candida CFUs were significantly higher in diabetic subjects, with a significant and positive correlation with salivary glucose levels. There was a negative correlation between salivary PH levels and Candida carriage rate. Conclusion. Increased salivary glucose was associated with increased prevalence of oral Candida in diabetic subjects. The growth of Candida in saliva was accompanied by a rapid decline in PH, which in turn favored their growth.

  11. Progression to impaired glucose regulation and diabetes in the population-based Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Susanne; Vistisen, Dorte; Lau, Cathrine

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the progression rates to impaired glucose regulation (impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance) and diabetes in the Danish population-based Inter99 study and in a high-risk subpopulation, separately. Research Design and Methods: From a population-based primary...... glucose regulation using the current World Health Organization classification criteria were calculated for the first time in a large European population-based study. The progression rates to diabetes show the same pattern as seen in the few similar European studies....... prevention study, the Inter99 study, 4,615 individuals without diabetes at baseline and with relevant follow-up data were divided into a low- and a high-risk group based on a risk estimate of ischemic heart disease or the presence of risk factors (smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity...... estimated directly from baseline to 5-year follow-up for all the participants, and from baseline through 1- and 3-, to 5-year follow-up for the high-risk individuals, separately. Results: In the combined low- and high-risk group, 2.1 per 100 person-years progressed from normal glucose tolerance to impaired...

  12. Type 2 diabetes in Vietnam: a cross-sectional, prevalence-based cost-of-illness study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le NTD

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nguyen Tu Dang Le, Luyen Dinh Pham, Trung Quang Vo Department of Pharmacy Administration, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy at Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam Background: According to the International Diabetes Federation, total global health care expenditures for diabetes tripled between 2003 and 2013 because of increases in the number of people with diabetes as well as in the average expenditures per patient. This study aims to provide accurate and timely information about the economic impacts of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in Vietnam. Method: The cost-of-illness estimates followed a prospective, prevalence-based approach from the societal perspective of T2DM with 392 selected diabetic patients who received treatment from a public hospital in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, during the 2016 fiscal year. Results: In this study, the annual cost per patient estimate was US $246.10 (95% CI 228.3, 267.2 for 392 patients, which accounted for about 12% (95% CI 11, 13 of the gross domestic product per capita in 2017. That includes US $127.30, US $34.40 and US $84.40 for direct medical costs, direct nonmedical expenditures, and indirect costs, respectively. The cost of pharmaceuticals accounted for the bulk of total expenditures in our study (27.5% of total costs and 53.2% of direct medical costs. A bootstrap analysis showed that female patients had a higher cost of treatment than men at US $48.90 (95% CI 3.1, 95.0; those who received insulin and oral antidiabetics (OAD also had a statistically significant higher cost of treatment compared to those receiving OAD, US $445.90 (95% CI 181.2, 690.6. The Gradient Boosting Regression (Ensemble method and Lasso Regression (Generalized Linear Models were determined to be the best models to predict the cost of T2DM (R2=65.3, mean square error [MSE]=0.94; and R2=64.75, MSE=0.96, respectively. Conclusion: The findings of this study serve as a reference for policy decision making in diabetes

  13. New Zealand Diabetes Cohort Study cardiovascular risk score for people with Type 2 diabetes: validation in the PREDICT cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Tom; Elley, C Raina; Wells, Sue; Robinson, Elizabeth; Kenealy, Tim; Pylypchuk, Romana; Bramley, Dale; Arroll, Bruce; Crengle, Sue; Riddell, Tania; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Metcalf, Patricia; Drury, Paul L

    2012-09-01

    New Zealand (NZ) guidelines recommend treating people for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk on the basis of five-year absolute risk using a NZ adaptation of the Framingham risk equation. A diabetes-specific Diabetes Cohort Study (DCS) CVD predictive risk model has been developed and validated using NZ Get Checked data. To revalidate the DCS model with an independent cohort of people routinely assessed using PREDICT, a web-based CVD risk assessment and management programme. People with Type 2 diabetes without pre-existing CVD were identified amongst people who had a PREDICT risk assessment between 2002 and 2005. From this group we identified those with sufficient data to allow estimation of CVD risk with the DCS models. We compared the DCS models with the NZ Framingham risk equation in terms of discrimination, calibration, and reclassification implications. Of 3044 people in our study cohort, 1829 people had complete data and therefore had CVD risks calculated. Of this group, 12.8% (235) had a cardiovascular event during the five-year follow-up. The DCS models had better discrimination than the currently used equation, with C-statistics being 0.68 for the two DCS models and 0.65 for the NZ Framingham model. The DCS models were superior to the NZ Framingham equation at discriminating people with diabetes who will have a cardiovascular event. The adoption of a DCS model would lead to a small increase in the number of people with diabetes who are treated with medication, but potentially more CVD events would be avoided.

  14. Choosing preclinical study models of diabetic retinopathy: key problems for consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Xue-Song; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Ding, Yong; Zhong, Jing-Xiang; So, Kwok-Fai

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most common complication of diabetes mellitus in the eye. Although the clinical treatment for DR has already developed to a relative high level, there are still many urgent problems that need to be investigated in clinical and basic science. Currently, many in vivo animal models and in vitro culture systems have been applied to solve these problems. Many approaches have also been used to establish different DR models. However, till now, there has not been a single study model that can clearly and exactly mimic the developmental process of the human DR. Choosing the suitable model is important, not only for achieving our research goals smoothly, but also, to better match with different experimental proposals in the study. In this review, key problems for consideration in choosing study models of DR are discussed. These problems relate to clinical relevance, different approaches for establishing models, and choice of different species of animals as well as of the specific in vitro culture systems. Attending to these considerations will deepen the understanding on current study models and optimize the experimental design for the final goal of preventing DR. PMID:25429204

  15. Diagnosed diabetes and premature death among middle-aged Japanese: results from a large-scale population-based cohort study in Japan (JPHC study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Masayuki; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Goto, Atsushi; Takahashi, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Yumi; Nanri, Akiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Inoue, Manami; Sawada, Norie; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2015-05-03

    To examine the association between diabetes and premature death for Japanese general people. Prospective cohort study. The Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study (JPHC study), data collected between 1990 and 2010. A total of 46,017 men and 53,567 women, aged 40-69 years at the beginning of baseline survey. Overall and cause specific mortality. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate the HRs of all cause and cause specific mortality associated with diabetes. The median follow-up period was 17.8 years. During the follow-up period, 8223 men and 4640 women have died. Diabetes was associated with increased risk of death (856 men and 345 women; HR 1.60, (95% CI 1.49 to 1.71) for men and 1.98 (95% CI 1.77 to 2.21) for women). As for the cause of death, diabetes was associated with increased risk of death by circulatory diseases (HR 1.76 (95% CI 1.53 to 2.02) for men and 2.49 (95% CI 2.06 to 3.01) for women) while its association with the risk of cancer death was moderate (HR 1.25 (95% CI 1.11 to 1.42) for men and 1.04 (95% CI 0.82 to 1.32) for women). Diabetes was also associated with increased risk of death for 'non-cancer, non-circulatory system disease' (HR 1.91 (95% CI 1.71 to 2.14) for men and 2.67 (95% CI 2.25 to 3.17) for women). Diabetes was associated with increased risk of death, especially the risk of death by circulatory diseases. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Study of 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial imaging in diabetics. Comparison between patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and those with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawanaka, Masahiro

    2000-01-01

    Myocardial accumulation of MIBG was studied in forty diabetic patients, including 17 with type 1 diabetes mellitus (type 1 DM, mean age 52.1±17 y.) and 23 with type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM, mean age 61.6±12 y.). Sixteen nondiabetic normal volunteers without hypertension (mean age 54.6±16 y.) were studied as controls. Type 2 DM patients showed a significantly lower heart-to-mediastinum ratio (15 min.: 2.34±0.35, 3 hr.: 2.27±0.41) than control subjects (15 min.: 2.73±0.25, 3 hr.: 2.95±0.40) (p<0.05), but Type 2 DM patients did not. Type 2 DM patients showed higher washout rate of MIBG (31.7±12%) than control subjects (19.3±7.4%) (p<0.05), but type 2 DM patients did not. Thirteen of the 17 type 1 DM patients (76.4%) and 12 of the 23 type 2 DM patients (52.2%) showed regional defects on MIBG SPECT. Myocardial MIBG defects in diabetics were mainly found in the inferior, septal and lateral regions of the myocardium. In type 1 DM, the patients with MIBG defects had longer duration of the disease, showed much more decrease of the systolic pressure with standing and lower CV level of the R-R interval on ECG than the patients without MIBG defects, but not in type 2 DM patients. These results show that type 1 DM patients show much more abnormal MIBG accumulation than type 2 DM patients. It suggests that the glycemic control including the early stage of diabetes influences the cardiac sympathetic function in diabetics. (author)

  17. Diabetes and neurodegeneration in Wolfram syndrome: a multicenter study of phenotype and genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohayem, Julia; Ehlers, Christian; Wiedemann, Bärbel; Holl, Reinhard; Oexle, Konrad; Kordonouri, Olga; Salzano, Giuseppina; Meissner, Thomas; Burger, Walter; Schober, Edith; Huebner, Angela; Lee-Kirsch, Min Ae

    2011-07-01

    To describe the diabetes phenotype in Wolfram syndrome compared with type 1 diabetes, to investigate the effect of glycemic control on the neurodegenerative process, and to assess the genotype-phenotype correlation. The clinical data of 50 patients with Wolfram syndrome-related diabetes (WSD) were reviewed and compared with the data of 24,164 patients with type 1 diabetes. Patients with a mean HbA1c during childhood and adolescence of ≤7.5 and >7.5% were compared with respect to the occurrence of additional Wolfram syndrome symptoms. The wolframin (WFS1) gene was screened for mutations in 39 patients. WFS1 genotypes were examined for correlation with age at onset of diabetes. WSD was diagnosed earlier than type 1 diabetes (5.4±3.8 vs. 7.9±4.2 years; P7.5% (P=0.031). Thirteen novel WSF1 mutations were identified. Predicted functional consequence of WFS1 mutations correlated with age at WSD onset (P=0.028). Endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated decline of β-cells in WSD occurs earlier in life than autoimmune-mediated β-cell destruction in type 1 diabetes. This study establishes a role for WFS1 in determining the age at onset of diabetes in Wolfram syndrome and identifies glucose toxicity as an accelerating feature in the progression of disease.

  18. [Monitoring the use of health-related quality of life measurements in Korean studies of patients with diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Hyun; Kim, Chun-Ja; Cho, Soo-Yeon; Chae, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Sunhee; Kim, Eun Jung

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to monitor the use of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) instruments in Korean studies of patients with diabetes. Of 86 Korean studies initially identified, 17 studies met the inclusion criteria. For each study, a description of the instrument and its psychometric properties were monitored by the Instrument Review Criteria of the Scientific Advisory Committee. These criteria include conceptual definition, attributes, taxonomy, reliability, validity, responsiveness, administrative mode, and language adaptations. Five generic and one diabetes specific type questionnaires were identified from the 17 studies. Of those studies, conceptual definitions with the attributes of multi-dimension and subjectiveness were provided for 11 studies (71%). In the analysis of conceptual taxonomy, only 6 studies were classified as HRQOL, while other studies were done as QOL or health status. In monitoring of psychometric properties, reliability, validity, and responsiveness were reported for 88.2%, 64.7%, and 29.4%, respectively. One generic instrument was developed with a Korean population, while the other instruments were developed for Western countries. However, language adaptations were performed for only a few of the instruments. The psychometric properties including responsiveness of most instruments warrants further research, and the development of diabetes-specific HRQOL measurements should be sought to facilitate intervention outcomes across Korean studies of patients with diabetes.

  19. Diabetes Knowledge Translation Status in Developing Countries: A Mixed Method Study Among Diabetes Researchers in Case of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valinejadi, Ali; Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Salehi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Despite considerable investment in research, the existing research evidence is frequently not implemented and/or leads to useless or detrimental care in healthcare. The knowledge-practice gap proposed as one of the main causes of not achieving the treatment goals in diabetes. Iran also is facing a difference between the production and utilization of the knowledge of diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the status of diabetes knowledge translation (KT) in Iran. This was a survey that executed in 2015 by concurrent mixed methods approach in a descriptive, cross-sectional method. The research population was 65 diabetes researchers from 14 diabetes research centers throughout Iran. The research was carried out via the self-assessment tool for research institutes (SATORI), a valid and reliable tool. Focus group discussions were used to complete this tool. The data were analyzed using quantitative (descriptive method by Excel software) and qualitative approaches (thematic analysis) based on SATORI-extracted seven themes. The mean of scores "the question of research," "knowledge production," "knowledge transfer," "promoting the use of evidence," and all aspects altogether were 2.48, 2.80, 2.18, 2.06, and 2.39, respectively. The themes "research quality and timeliness" and "promoting and evaluating the use of evidence" received the lowest (1.91) and highest mean scores (2.94), respectively. Except for the theme "interaction with research users" with a relatively mediocre scores (2.63), the other areas had scores below the mean. The overall status of diabetes KT in Iran was lower than the ideal situation. There are many challenges that require great interventions at the organizational or macro level. To reinforce diabetes KT in Iran, it should hold a more leading and centralized function in the strategies of the country's diabetes research system.

  20. Serum uric acid as a predictor for development of diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetes: an inception cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovind, Peter; Rossing, Peter; Tarnow, Lise

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Experimental and clinical studies have suggested that uric acid may contribute to the development of hypertension and kidney disease. Whether uric acid has a causal role in the development of diabetic nephropathy is not known. The objective of the present study is to evaluate uric acid...

  1. Glycaemic control status among type 2 diabetic patients and the role of their diabetes coping behaviours: a clinic-based study in Tripoli, Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashur, Sana Taher; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Bosseri, Soad; Fah, Tong Seng; Shamsuddin, Khadijah

    2016-01-01

    Achieving good glycaemic control is important in diabetes management. However, poor glycaemic control is widely reported. This article assessed the prevalence of uncontrolled and poor glycaemic control among Libyans with type 2 diabetes and examined the relative contribution of diabetes coping behaviours to their glycaemic control status. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in 2013 in a large diabetes centre in Tripoli. The study included 523 respondents. Diabetes coping behaviours were measured using the revised version of the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities measure (SDSCA) and the eight-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8(©)), while glycaemic control status was based on the HbA1c level. Mean HbA1c was 8.9 (±2.1), and of the 523 patients, only 114 (21.8%) attained the glycaemic control target of HbAc1 of less than 7.0%. Females (OR=1.74, 95% CI=1.03-2.91), patients on insulin and oral hypoglycaemic agents (OR=1.92, 95% CI=1.05-3.54), patients on insulin (OR=3.14, 95% CI=1.66-6.03), and low-medication adherents (OR=2.25, 95% CI=1.36-3.73) were more likely to have uncontrolled and poor glycaemic control, while exercise contributed to glycaemic control status as a protective factor (OR=0.85, 95% CI=0.77-0.94). The findings from this study showed the considerable burden of uncontrolled and poor glycaemic control in one of the largest diabetes care settings in Libya. Medication adherence as well as exercise promotion programs would help in reducing the magnitude of poor glycaemic control.

  2. Circulating cellular adhesion molecules and risk of diabetes: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankow, J S; Decker, P A; Berardi, C; Hanson, N Q; Sale, M; Tang, W; Kanaya, A M; Larson, N B; Tsai, M Y; Wassel, C L; Bielinski, S J

    2016-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that soluble cellular adhesion molecules would be positively and independently associated with risk of diabetes. Soluble levels of six cellular adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, E-selectin, VCAM-1, E-cadherin, L-selectin and P-selectin) were measured in participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a prospective cohort study. Participants were then followed for up to 10 years to ascertain incident diabetes. Sample sizes ranged from 826 to 2185. After adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, BMI and fasting glucose or HbA1c , four cellular adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, E-selectin, VCAM-1 and E-cadherin) were positively associated with incident diabetes and there was a statistically significant trend across quartiles. Comparing the incidence of diabetes in the highest and lowest quartiles of each cellular adhesion molecule, the magnitude of association was largest for E-selectin (hazard ratio 2.49; 95% CI 1.26-4.93) and ICAM-1 (hazard ratio 1.76; 95% CI 1.22-2.55) in fully adjusted models. Tests of effect modification by racial/ethnic group and sex were not statistically significant for any of the cellular adhesion molecules (P > 0.05). The finding of significant associations between multiple cellular adhesion molecules and incident diabetes may lend further support to the hypothesis that microvascular endothelial dysfunction contributes to risk of diabetes. © 2016 Diabetes UK.

  3. Napping is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes: the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Kin-Bong Hubert; Jiang, Chao Qiang; Thomas, G Neil; Arora, Teresa; Zhang, Wei Sen; Taheri, Shahrad; Adab, Peymané; Lam, Tai Hing; Cheng, Kar Keung

    2010-03-01

    Intentional napping is very common, particularly in China. However, there are limited data regarding its potential health effects. We therefore examined the possible relationship between napping and type 2 diabetes. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study. Community-based elderly association in Guangzhou, China. 19,567 Chinese men and women aged 50 years or older. Self-reported frequency of napping was obtained by questionnaire and type 2 diabetes was assessed by fasting blood glucose and/or self-reports of physician diagnosis or treatment. Participants reporting frequent naps (4-6 days/week and daily) were 42% to 52% more likely to have diabetes. The relationships remained essentially unchanged after adjustments were made for demographics, lifestyle and sleep habits, health status, adiposity, and metabolic markers (odds ratio for diabetes 1.36 [95% CI 1.17-1.57] in 4-6 days/week, 1.28 [1.15-1.44] in daily nappers). Similar associations were found between napping and impaired fasting glucose. Removal of those with potential ill health and daytime sleepiness did not alter the observed associations. Napping is associated with elevated prevalence of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in this older Chinese sample. Our finding suggests that it is less likely that diabetes leads to daytime sleepiness. This raises the possibility that napping may increase the risk of diabetes. Confirmation by longitudinal studies is needed.

  4. BONE-DENSITY IN NON-INSULIN-DEPENDENT DIABETES-MELLITUS - THE ROTTERDAM STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDAELE, PLA; STOLK, RP; BURGER, H; ALGRA, D; GROBBEE, DE; HOFMAN, A; BIRKENHAGER, JC; POLS, HAP

    1995-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relation between noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and bone mineral density at the lumbar spine and hip. Design: Population-based study with a cross-sectional survey, Setting: A district of Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Participants: 5931 residents (2481 men, 3450

  5. Do patients and physicians agree on diabetes management? A study conducted in Public Healthcare Centres in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Figueiredo, R.C.; Snoek, F.J.; Barreto, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore to what extent patients with diabetes agree with their physicians on diabetes management and whether the agreement varies according to patients' socio-demographic characteristics. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients with diabetes and their Family

  6. Evaluation of Salivary Glucose, IgA and Flow Rate in Diabetic Patients: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bakianian Vaziri, P.; Vahedi, M.; Mortazavi, H.; Abdollahzadeh, Sh.; Hajilooi, M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: An association between diabetes mellitus and alterations in the oral cavity has been noted. In this study, we evaluated differences between salivary IgA, glucose and flow rate in diabetic patients compared with healthy controls. Materials and Methods: Forty patients with type 1 diabetes, 40 patients with type 2 diabetes and 40 healthy controls were selected. Whole unstimulated saliva samples were collected by the standard method and the salivary flow rate was determined. Nephelomet...

  7. A Controlled Study on the Correlation between Tear Film Volume and Tear Film Stability in Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman M. Eissa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the tear film quantity and correlate it with the quality and stability of the tear film in diabetics and compare them to age matched controls. Introduction. Diabetes affects tear film parameters in multiple ways. Poor metabolic control and neuropathy are postulated factors. To further understand how diabetes affects tear film parameters this study was conducted. Subjects and Methods. Tear meniscus height was measured by anterior segment OCT, along with tear thinning time, a subtype of noninvasive tear break-up time, and blinking rate per minute which were all recorded for 22 diabetic patients. Correlations between these tear film parameters were studied and then compared to 16 age matched controls. Results. A statistically significant difference was found in blinking rate between the diabetic and the control group (P=0.002, with higher blinking rate among diabetics. All tear film parameters were negatively correlated with duration of diabetes. A positive correlation was found between tear film volume and stability. Conclusion. Diabetes affects the tear film in various ways. Diabetics should be examined for dry eye signs even in absence of symptoms which may be masked by associated neuropathy. Duration of diabetes has an impact on tear film status.

  8. End-stage renal disease and survival in people with diabetes: a national database linkage study

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, S.; Fletcher, E.H.; Brady, I.; Looker, H.C.; Levin, D.; Joss, N.; Traynor, J.P.; Metcalfe, W.; Conway, B.; Livingstone, S.; Leese, G.; Philip, S.; Wild, S.; Halbesma, N.; Sattar, N.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Increasing prevalence of diabetes worldwide is projected to lead to an increase in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT).Aim: To provide contemporary estimates of the prevalence of ESRD and requirement for RRT among people with diabetes in a nationwide study and to report associated survival.Methods: Data were extracted and linked from three national databases: Scottish Renal Registry, Scottish Care Initiative-Diabetes Collaboration...

  9. Diabetic Foot Complications and Their Risk Factors from a Large Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rubeaan, Khalid; Al Derwish, Mohammad; Ouizi, Samir; Youssef, Amira M.; Subhani, Shazia N.; Ibrahim, Heba M.; Alamri, Bader N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Foot complications are considered to be a serious consequence of diabetes mellitus, posing a major medical and economical threat. Identifying the extent of this problem and its risk factors will enable health providers to set up better prevention programs. Saudi National Diabetes Registry (SNDR), being a large database source, would be the best tool to evaluate this problem. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of a cohort of 62,681 patients aged ≥25 years from SNDR database, selected for studying foot complications associated with diabetes and related risk factors. Results The overall prevalence of diabetic foot complications was 3.3% with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of (3.16%–3.44%), whilst the prevalences of foot ulcer, gangrene, and amputations were 2.05% (1.94%–2.16%), 0.19% (0.16%–0.22%), and 1.06% (0.98%–1.14%), respectively. The prevalence of foot complications increased with age and diabetes duration predominantly amongst the male patients. Diabetic foot is more commonly seen among type 2 patients, although it is more prevalent among type 1 diabetic patients. The Univariate analysis showed Charcot joints, peripheral vascular disease (PVD), neuropathy, diabetes duration ≥10 years, insulin use, retinopathy, nephropathy, age ≥45 years, cerebral vascular disease (CVD), poor glycemic control, coronary artery disease (CAD), male gender, smoking, and hypertension to be significant risk factors with odds ratio and 95% CI at 42.53 (18.16–99.62), 14.47 (8.99–23.31), 12.06 (10.54–13.80), 7.22 (6.10–8.55), 4.69 (4.28–5.14), 4.45 (4.05–4.89), 2.88 (2.43–3.40), 2.81 (2.31–3.43), 2.24 (1.98–2.45), 2.02 (1.84–2.22), 1.54 (1.29–1.83), and 1.51 (1.38–1.65), respectively. Conclusions Risk factors for diabetic foot complications are highly prevalent; they have put these complications at a higher rate and warrant primary and secondary prevention programs to minimize morbidity and mortality in addition to economic impact

  10. The multinational second Diabetes, Attitudes, Wishes and Needs study: results of the French survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reach G

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Gérard Reach,1,2 Silla M Consoli,3,4 Serge Halimi,5 Claude Colas,6 Martine Duclos,7–9 Pierre Fontaine,10 Caroline Martineau,11 Carole Avril,12 Catherine Tourette-Turgis,13 Sylvie Pucheu,4 Olivier Brunet14 1Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Avicenne Hospital, Bobigny, 2EA 3412, CRNH-IDF, Paris 13 University, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Bobigny, 3Paris Descartes University, Paris Sorbonne Cité, Faculty of Medicine, Paris, 4University Service of Adult and Elderly Psychiatry, European Georges-Pompidou Hospital, Paris, 5Department of Diabetology, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Joseph Fourier University and CHU Grenoble, Grenoble, 6Department of Diabetology, Hôtel-Dieu Hospital, Paris, 7Department of Sport Medicine and Functional Explorations, Montpied Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand, 8Department of Human Nutrition, Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Clermont-Ferrand, 9Department of Human Nutrition, University of Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand, 10Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Huriez Hospital, Lille 2 University, Lille, 11Department of Dietetics, Larrey Hospital, CHU Toulouse, 12French Diabetics Federation, Paris, 13UPMC-Sorbonne Universités, Paris, 14General practitioner, Seraincourt, France Aim: The second Diabetes, Attitudes, Wishes and Needs (DAWN2™ multinational cross-sectional study was aimed at generating insights to facilitate innovative efforts by people with diabetes (PWD, family members (FMs, and health care professionals (HCPs to improve self-management and psychosocial support in diabetes. Here, the French data from the DAWN2™ study are described.Methods: In France, 500 PWD (80 with type 1 diabetes [T1] and 420 with type 2 diabetes [T2], 120 FMs, and 288 HCPs were recruited. The questionnaires assessed the impact of diabetes on quality of life and mood, self-management, attitudes/beliefs, and care/support.Results: Diabetes

  11. Patients' management of type 2 diabetes in Middle Eastern countries: review of studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsairafi, Zahra Khalil; Taylor, Kevin Michael Geoffrey; Smith, Felicity J; Alattar, Abdulnabi T

    2016-01-01

    The increased prevalence of diabetes in Middle Eastern countries is a health policy priority. Important risk factors for diabetes have been identified. Lifestyle interventions and adherence to medications are central to disease prevention and management. This review focuses on the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Middle Eastern countries. The aim is to identify the ways in which knowledge, health beliefs, and social and cultural factors influence adherence to medication and lifestyle measures. Thirty-four studies were identified following a systematic search of the literature. The studies describe the influence of knowledge, health beliefs, culture, and lifestyle on the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Middle East. Findings indicate a lack of health knowledge about diabetes among populations, which has implications for health behaviors, medication adherence, and treatment outcomes. Many identified health beliefs and cultural lifestyle factors, such as religious beliefs, beliefs about fasting during Ramadan, and sedentary lifestyles played a role in patients' decisions. For better management of this disease, a collaborative approach between patients, their families, health care professionals, and governments should be adopted. Implementing behavioral strategies and psychological interventions that incorporate all health care professionals in the management process have been shown to be effective methods. Such services help patients change their behavior. However, the utilization of such services and interventions is still limited in Arabian countries. Physicians in the Middle East are the health care professionals most involved in the care process.

  12. Age and diabetes related changes of the retinal capillaries: An ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Enrica; Ripandelli, Guido; Taurone, Samanta; Feher, Janos; Plateroti, Rocco; Kovacs, Illes; Magliulo, Giuseppe; Orlando, Maria Patrizia; Micera, Alessandra; Battaglione, Ezio; Artico, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Normal human aging and diabetes are associated with a gradual decrease of cerebral flow in the brain with changes in vascular architecture. Thickening of the capillary basement membrane and microvascular fibrosis are evident in the central nervous system of elderly and diabetic patients. Current findings assign a primary role to endothelial dysfunction as a cause of basement membrane (BM) thickening, while retinal alterations are considered to be a secondary cause of either ischemia or exudation. The aim of this study was to reveal any initial retinal alterations and variations in the BM of retinal capillaries during diabetes and aging as compared to healthy controls. Moreover, we investigated the potential role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and pro-inflammatory cytokines in diabetic retina.Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed on 46 enucleated human eyes with particular attention to alterations of the retinal capillary wall and Müller glial cells. Inflammatory cytokines expression in the retina was investigated by immunohistochemistry.Our electron microscopy findings demonstrated that thickening of the BM begins primarily at the level of the glial side of the retina during aging and diabetes. The Müller cells showed numerous cytoplasmic endosomes and highly electron-dense lysosomes which surrounded the retinal capillaries. Our study is the first to present morphological evidence that Müller cells start to deposit excessive BM material in retinal capillaries during aging and diabetes. Our results confirm the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β within the retina as a result of diabetes.These observations strongly suggest that inflammatory cytokines and changes in the metabolism of Müller glial cells rather than changes in of endothelial cells may play a primary role in the alteration of retinal capillaries BM during aging and diabetes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Type 1 diabetes genome-wide association studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pociot, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    Genetic studies have identified >60 loci associated with the risk of developing type 1 diabetes (T1D). The vast majority of these are identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) using large case-control cohorts of European ancestry. More than 80% of the heritability of T1D can be explained...... by GWAS data in this population group. However, with few exceptions, their individual contribution to T1D risk is low and understanding their function in disease biology remains a huge challenge. GWAS on its own does not inform us in detail on disease mechanisms, but the combination of GWAS data...... with other omics-data is beginning to advance our understanding of T1D etiology and pathogenesis. Current knowledge supports the notion that genetic variation in both pancreatic β cells and in immune cells is central in mediating T1D risk. Advances, perspectives and limitations of GWAS are discussed...

  14. The Danish Centre for Strategic Research in Type 2 Diabetes (DD2) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Reimar Wernich; Nielsen, Jens Steen; Ulrichsen, Sinna Pilgaard

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the baseline data collected in the nationwide Danish Centre for Strategic Research in Type 2 Diabetes (DD2) project. The paper presents descriptive data from the first 580 patients enrolled in the DD2. The DD2 database will contain detailed interview data......, clinical examination data, and urine and blood samples from up to 10,000 patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes each year, collected from general practitioners and hospital outpatient clinics in all of Denmark. Of the first DD2 patients enrolled, blood and urine samples have been obtained from 97...... database represents a valuable source for outcome studies in type 2 diabetes....

  15. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Diabetic Patients - A Cross Sectional Study in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Mysore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, M Suresh; Gowdappa, H Basavana; Kalpana, T; Vidyalaxmi, K; Nikhil, B; Chakravarthy, T

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence rates of diabetes are rising rapidly both in urban and rural India with the present prevalence in urban India being 12-19% and in rural India 4 - 10% in different published Indian studies.1 All involved in diabetes care agree that patients play a major role in the successful management of diabetes. There is an increasing amount of evidence that patient education is the most effective way to lessen the diabetic complications and its management.2 Education is likely to be effective if we know the characteristics of the patients in terms of knowledge, attitude and practices about diabetes. This study was conducted in Mysore to know the knowledge, attitude and practices of diabetic patients attending JSS Hospital. A total of 900 patients were included in the study. Five hundred sixteen (57.3%) patients were males, while 384 (42.7%) patients were females. Four hundred twenty-three (47%) patients were from urban area, while 477 (53%) were from rural area. Five hundred sixty-five (62.5%) diabetic patients were unaware of the diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus, 661 (73.4%) patients about cause of diabetes, 264 (29.3%) patients about common symptoms of diabetes, 256 (28.4%) patients about symptoms of hypoglycemia. Diabetes is a chronic disease which can affect many systems in the body like the heart, eyes, kidneys and nerves contributing to increased morbidity and mortality. 29%, 30.7%, 31.2% and 35.7% of diabetic patients were not aware of the diabetic complications to heart, eyes, kidneys and nerves respectively. Even patients with diabetes for more than 10 years, 18.8% were not aware of the heart complications while 21.5% were not aware of the diabetes complications to eyes, kidneys and nerves. 834 (92.6%) diabetic patients were not aware of HbA1C. 790 (87.7%) diabetic patients did not know that fruits can be eaten by diabetics. Eight hundred seventeen (90.8%) diabetic patients had not attended a formal diabetic education class. This possibly is a

  16. Factors associated with adherence to diabetes care recommendations among children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes: a facility-based study in two urban diabetes clinics in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyokunzire C

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Catherine Kyokunzire,1 Nicholas Matovu2,3 1Department of Community Health and Behavioural Sciences, School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; 2Department of Community Health, Division of Noncommunicable Diseases, Ministry of Health – Uganda, Kampala, Uganda; 3Global Health Corps Fellowship Program 2017/2018, New York, NY, USA Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the level of adherence and the factors associated with adherence to diabetes care recommendations among type 1 diabetic children and adolescents at two urban diabetes clinics in Kampala, Uganda.Research design and methods: A facility-based cross-sectional study was carried out among 200 children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes at two major diabetes clinics in Kampala. Caretakers of the children and adolescents were interviewed using pretested questionnaires to provide information on sociodemographic characteristics, diabetes care, knowledge, attitudes, and adherence to diabetes care recommendations in type 1 diabetes. Prevalence rate ratios (PRRs at the 95% confidence interval (CI were used to establish the factors associated with adherence using modified Poisson regression, with robust standard errors. The data were analyzed by using STATA Version 13.0.Results: The overall prevalence of adherence to diabetes care recommendations was at 37%. However, evaluating adherence to specific treatment parameters showed that 52%, 76.5%, and 29.5% of the children and adolescents adhered to insulin, blood glucose monitoring, and dietary recommendations, respectively. In the final adjusted model, active diet monitoring (adjusted PRR [APRR]: 1.95; 95% CI: 1.01, 3.78, being under care of a sibling (APRR: 1.66; 95% CI: 1.61, 1.71, being under care of a married caretaker (APRR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.14 and a separated or divorced caretaker (APRR: 1.60; 95% CI: 1.12, 2.27, taking three or less tests of blood glucose per day (APRR: 0

  17. Common mental disorders associated with 2-year diabetes incidence : The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atlantis, Evan; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Cashman, Kara; Penninx, Brenda J. W. H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Few prospective cohort studies describe the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus associated with depression or anxiety. The aim of this study was to determine the 2-year diabetes incidence and pattern of explanatory factors associated with depressive and/or anxiety disorders. Methods: A

  18. Case Finding and Medical Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes among Different Ethnic Minority Groups: The HELIUS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, Marieke B.; Agyemang, Charles; Peters, Ron J.; Stronks, Karien; Ujcic-Voortman, Joanna K.; van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.

    2017-01-01

    Aims. Prevention of diabetes complications depends on the level of case finding and successful treatment of diabetes, which may differ between ethnicities. Therefore, we studied the prevalence by age, awareness, treatment, and control of type 2 diabetes, among a multiethnic population. Methods. We

  19. Diabetes that impacts on routine activities predicts slower recovery after total knee arthroplasty: an observational study

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    Nurudeen Amusat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Question: In the 6 months after total knee arthroplasty (TKA, what is the pattern of pain resolution and functional recovery in people without diabetes, with diabetes that does not impact on routine activities, and with diabetes that does impact on routine activities? Is diabetes that impacts on routine activities an independent predictor of slower resolution of pain and functional recovery after TKA? Design: Community-based prospective observational study. Participants: A consecutive cohort of 405 people undergoing primary TKA, of whom 60 (15% had diabetes. Participants with diabetes were also asked preoperatively whether diabetes impacted on their routine activities. Participants were categorised into three groups: no diabetes (n = 345, diabetes with no impact on activities (n = 41, and diabetes that impacted activities (n = 19. Outcome measures: Pain and function were measured using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index within the month before surgery and 1, 3 and 6 months after surgery. Demographic, medical and surgical factors were also measured, along with depression, social support and health-related quality of life. Results: No baseline differences in pain and function were seen among the three groups (p > 0.05. Adjusting for age, gender and contralateral joint involvement across the 6 postoperative months, participants with diabetes that impacted on routine activities had pain scores that were 8.3 points higher (indicating greater pain and function scores that were 5.4 points higher (indicating lower function than participants without diabetes. Participants with diabetes that doesn’t impact on routine activities had similar recovery to those without diabetes. Conclusion: People undergoing TKA who report preoperatively that diabetes impacts on their routine activities have less recovery over 6 months than those without diabetes or those with diabetes that does not impact on routine activities

  20. Association between diabetic retinopathy and subclinical atherosclerosis in China: Results from a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Teng, Xiangyu; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Ruifeng; Liu, Wei

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the association of diabetic retinopathy with subclinical atherosclerosis in middle-aged and elderly Chinese with type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional community-based study was performed among 1607 patients aged 40 years or older in Shanghai. Non-mydriatic digital fundus photography examination was used in diabetic retinopathy detection. Presence of elevated carotid intima-media thickness or carotid plaque was defined as subclinical atherosclerosis. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 15.1% in total patients. Patients with diabetic retinopathy were more likely to have elevated carotid intima-media thickness, carotid plaque and subclinical atherosclerosis than those without diabetic retinopathy (37.9% vs 30.7%, 57.6% vs 49.6% and 64.6% vs 57.1%, respectively). The presence of diabetic retinopathy was significantly associated with increased odds of subclinical atherosclerosis (odds ratio = 1.93, 95% confidence interval = 1.03-3.60) after full adjustments. The presence of diabetic retinopathy was significantly associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in middle-aged and elderly patients with type 2 diabetics in China. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Knowledge, attitude, practices and their associated factors towards diabetes mellitus among non diabetes community members of Bale Zone administrative towns, South East Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassahun, Chanyalew Worku; Mekonen, Alemayehu Gonie

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes kills more than 4.9 million adults per year. It becomes rapidly increasing, non-communicable disease-a major threat to global public health particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. Though previous studies among diabetic patients were focused in health institution, limited knowledge, attitude and practice were seen. There is no study conducted about diabetes related to knowledge, attitudes, practice and associated factors in the community level. The study assessed knowledge, attitude, practices, and its associated factors towards diabetes mellitus among non diabetic community members of Bale Zone, Ethiopia. Community based cross-sectional study was conducted from November 15 to December 15, 2015 among 605 non diabetic community members of Bale Zone administrative towns. Data was collected using pretested structured face-to-face interview after taking informed written consent. Respondents were selected by systematic random sampling. The data was entered into EPI data version 3.1 and analyzed using Statistical package for social sciences version 20. Odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were calculated and Pknowledge, attitude and practice. Response rate of the study was 98.2%. About 52.5% of participants were knowledgeable, 55.9% and 56.6% had good attitude and practice respectively. Earning average monthly family income of ≤500 Ethiopian birr (AOR = 0.4, CI = 0.2, 0.6) and 501-1000 (AOR = 0.4, CI = 0.2, 0.7), heard about diabetes (AOR = 4.4, CI = 1.9, 10.2), had diabetes health education exposure (AOR = 5, CI = 2.5, 9.7) resulted to have good diabetes knowledge. Student, (AOR = 5.1, CI = 2.1,12), government/private employee (AOR = 3,CI = 1.4,6.7), merchant (AOR = 2,CI = 1.1,3.6) and Knowledgeable (AOR = 3, CI = 2.1, 4.7) subjects had positive attitude towards diabetes. Having college and above educational level (AOR = 0.33, CI = 0.16, 0.7), having good attitude towards diabetes (AOR = 2, CI = 1.3, 3) had good practiced. Considerable limited knowledge

  2. Birth order and childhood type 1 diabetes risk: a pooled analysis of 31 observational studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardwell, Chris R; Stene, Lars C; Joner, Geir

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence rates of childhood onset type 1 diabetes are almost universally increasing across the globe but the aetiology of the disease remains largely unknown. We investigated whether birth order is associated with the risk of childhood diabetes by performing a pooled analysis...... and after adjustment for confounders, and investigate heterogeneity. RESULTS: Data were available for 6 cohort and 25 case-control studies, including 11¿955 cases of type 1 diabetes. Overall, there was no evidence of an association prior to adjustment for confounders. After adjustment for maternal age...... at birth and other confounders, a reduction in the risk of diabetes in second- or later born children became apparent [fully adjusted OR¿=¿0.90 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.83-0.98; P¿=¿0.02] but this association varied markedly between studies (I(2)¿=¿67%). An a priori subgroup analysis showed...

  3. PM2.5 and Diabetes and Hypertension Incidence in the Black Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogan, Patricia F; White, Laura F; Yu, Jeffrey; Burnett, Richard T; Seto, Edmund; Brook, Robert D; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn; Jerrett, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Clinical studies have shown that exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) can increase insulin resistance and blood pressure. The epidemiologic evidence for an association of PM2.5 exposure with the incidence of type 2 diabetes or hypertension is inconsistent. Even a modest association would have great public health importance given the ubiquity of exposure and high prevalence of the conditions. We used Cox proportional hazards models to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident type 2 diabetes and hypertension associated with exposure to PM2.5 in a large cohort of African American women living in 56 metropolitan areas across the US, using data from the Black Women's Health Study. Pollutant levels were estimated at all residential locations over follow-up with a hybrid model incorporating land use regression and Bayesian Maximum Entropy techniques. During 1995 to 2011, 4,387 cases of diabetes and 9,570 cases of hypertension occurred. In models controlling for age, questionnaire cycle, and metro area, there were positive associations with diabetes (HR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.04, 1.24) and hypertension (HR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.00, 1.12) per interquartile range of PM2.5 (2.9 μg/m). Multivariable HRs, however, were 0.99 (95% CI = 0.90, 1.09) for diabetes and 0.99 (95% CI = 0.93, 1.06) for hypertension. Our results provide little support for an association of PM2.5 with diabetes or hypertension incidence.

  4. Effect of Tai Chi Exercise on Type 2 Diabetes: A Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chwan-Li Shen Dr.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This feasibility study investigated the effects of Tai Chi, a mind-body exercise, on management of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. A total of 25 subjects (20–70 years were recruited to participate in two 60-minute instructed Tai Chi exercise sessions each week for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measures (physiological variables were hemoglobin A 1 C (HbA1c taken at baseline and after 12 weeks of intervention, and self-reported fasting blood glucose level measured at baseline, 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks of intervention. The secondary outcome measures (psychosocial variables were Diabetes Quality of Life Questionnaire (Diabetes-39 and Exercise Self-Efficacy administered at baseline and 12 weeks. A semi-structured interview was conducted at the end of the study (week 12. Paired t -tests was employed to determine all pre- and post-intervention measurement changes, while individual growth curves were generated to show changes in fasting blood glucose levels during the study period. A rather high attrition rate of 48% was observed among the participants. The data showed no significant effect of Tai Chi on HbA1c and self-reported fasting blood glucose, although there seemed to be a trend of lowered HbA1c. Analysis of subjects’ response suggested a positive experience for those who completed the intervention.

  5. 15 years epidemiological studies of diabetes mellitus in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Chikako; Tsubota, Motoki; Kawate, Ryoso.

    1978-01-01

    Diabetes millitus was studied in 49,176 to 113,853 a-bomb survivors per year from 1963 to 1977. Three to 4 times as many men as women had an abnormal amount of sugar in their urine. In 15 years this abnormal amount increased 2.2 times in men and 2.5 times in women. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed on 19,990 survivors. The incidence of diabetes mellitus in women was 2 to 4 times as high as that in men. In 1977 it increased five times in men and 2.7 times in women, compared to that in 1964. (Tsunoda, M.)

  6. Association between Genetic Variants and Diabetes Mellitus in Iranian Populations: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaeian, Mehrnoosh; Enayati, Samaneh; Tabatabaei-Malazy, Ozra; Amoli, Mahsa M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Diabetes mellitus as the most prevalent metabolic disease is a multifactorial disease which is influenced by environmental and genetic factors. In this systematic review, we assessed the association between genetic variants and diabetes/its complications in studies with Iranian populations. Methods. Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, and Persian web databases were systematically searched up to January 2014. The search terms were “gene,” “polymorphism,” “diabetes,” and “diabetic complications”; nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy, foot ulcer, and CAD (coronary artery diseases); and Persian equivalents. Animal studies, letters to editor, and in vitro studies were excluded. Results. Out of overall 3029 eligible articles, 88 articles were included. We found significant association between CTLA-4, IL-18, VDR, TAP2, IL-12, and CD4 genes and T1DM, HNFα and MODY, haptoglobin, paraoxonase, leptin, TCF7L2, calreticulin, ERα, PPAR-γ2, CXCL5, calpain-10, IRS-1 and 2, GSTM1, KCNJ11, eNOS, VDR, INSR, ACE, apoA-I, apo E, adiponectin, PTPN1, CETP, AT1R, resistin, MMP-3, BChE K, AT2R, SUMO4, IL-10, VEGF, MTHFR, and GSTM1 with T2DM or its complications. Discussion. We found some controversial results due to heterogeneity in ethnicity and genetic background. We thought genome wide association studies on large number of samples will be helpful in identifying diabetes susceptible genes as an alternative to studying individual candidate genes in Iranian populations. PMID:26587547

  7. Red Blood Cell Fatty Acids and Incident Diabetes Mellitus in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William S Harris

    Full Text Available The relations between dietary and/or circulating levels of fatty acids and the development of type 2 diabetes is unclear. Protective associations with the marine omega-3 fatty acids and linoleic acid, and with a marker of fatty acid desaturase activity delta-5 desaturase (D5D ratio have been reported, as have adverse relations with saturated fatty acids and D6D ratio.To determine the associations between red blood cell (RBC fatty acid distributions and incident type 2 diabetes.Prospective observational cohort study nested in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study.General population.Postmenopausal women.Self-reported incident type 2 diabetes.There were 703 new cases of type 2 diabetes over 11 years of follow up among 6379 postmenopausal women. In the fully adjusted models, baseline RBC D5D ratio was inversely associated with incident type 2 diabetes [Hazard Ratio (HR 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.81-0.95 per 1 SD increase. Similarly, baseline RBC D6D ratio and palmitic acid were directly associated with incident type 2 diabetes (HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.04-1.25; and HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.14-1.35, respectively. None of these relations were materially altered by excluding incident cases in the first two years of follow-up. There were no significant relations with eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic or linoleic acids.Whether altered fatty acid desaturase activities or palmitic acid levels are causally related to the development of type 2 diabetes cannot be determined from this study, but our findings suggest that proportions of certain fatty acids in RBC membranes are associated with risk for type 2 diabetes.

  8. Red Blood Cell Fatty Acids and Incident Diabetes Mellitus in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, William S; Luo, Juhua; Pottala, James V; Margolis, Karen L; Espeland, Mark A; Robinson, Jennifer G

    2016-01-01

    The relations between dietary and/or circulating levels of fatty acids and the development of type 2 diabetes is unclear. Protective associations with the marine omega-3 fatty acids and linoleic acid, and with a marker of fatty acid desaturase activity delta-5 desaturase (D5D ratio) have been reported, as have adverse relations with saturated fatty acids and D6D ratio. To determine the associations between red blood cell (RBC) fatty acid distributions and incident type 2 diabetes. Prospective observational cohort study nested in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study. General population. Postmenopausal women. Self-reported incident type 2 diabetes. There were 703 new cases of type 2 diabetes over 11 years of follow up among 6379 postmenopausal women. In the fully adjusted models, baseline RBC D5D ratio was inversely associated with incident type 2 diabetes [Hazard Ratio (HR) 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81-0.95) per 1 SD increase. Similarly, baseline RBC D6D ratio and palmitic acid were directly associated with incident type 2 diabetes (HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.04-1.25; and HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.14-1.35, respectively). None of these relations were materially altered by excluding incident cases in the first two years of follow-up. There were no significant relations with eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic or linoleic acids. Whether altered fatty acid desaturase activities or palmitic acid levels are causally related to the development of type 2 diabetes cannot be determined from this study, but our findings suggest that proportions of certain fatty acids in RBC membranes are associated with risk for type 2 diabetes.

  9. A cross-sectional study of QOL of diabetic patients at tertiary care hospitals in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Yogesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to WHO estimates India will be the global capital of diabetes by 2025, accounting for 57.2 million diabetics. Worsening the situation is the fact that diabetes affects the economically productive age-group (45-65 years in developing countries. Objective : To measure quality of life (QOL and study the clinical profiles and associated sociodemographic factors affecting diabetic patients aged 20 years and above. Materials and Methods: We conducted a hospital-based cross-sectional study using a generic instrument, Short-Form 36 (SF-36 of the Medical Outcome Study Group to measure QOL of diabetic subjects aged ≥20 years. Two hundred and sixty diabetics, including 91 males and 169 females, were selected from the clinics of SSK Hospital and Dr RML Hospital of New Delhi. Data was analysed using SPSS for Windows, version 12. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 49.7 years, with 80% of respondents being in the age-group of 40-69 years. The majority (52.1% of female respondents were illiterate and 91.1% were economically dependent. Of the male respondents, 65.9% were skilled workers. Substance abuse was present among 41.8% male subjects. Type 2 diabetes was the commonest, with 94.6% of the subjects having this form. The mean duration of diabetes was 6.96 ± 6.08 years. Oral hypoglycemic agents were being taken by 70.77% of the respondents. Among the diabetics the most common comorbidity was hypertension (30.8% and the commonest complication was neuropathy (26.2%. We calculated the body mass index (BMI of all subjects and found that, 46.2% of the male and 59.8% of the female respondents were either overweight or obese. As predicted by the waist/hip ratio (WHR, 53.8% of the male and 66.9% of the female respondents