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Sample records for diabetes risk factors

  1. Diabetic ketoacidosis: risk factors, mechanisms and management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetic ketoacidosis: risk factors, mechanisms and management strategies in sub-Saharan Africa: a review. ... ketoacidosis is the most common hyperglycaemic emergency in patients with diabetes mellitus, especially type 1 diabetes.

  2. Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yau, Joanne W Y; Rogers, Sophie L; Kawasaki, Ryo

    2012-01-01

    To examine the global prevalence and major risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) among people with diabetes.......To examine the global prevalence and major risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) among people with diabetes....

  3. Diabetic Foot Risk Factors in Patients with Diabetes at the

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hosseini

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives Diabetic foot problems are one of the major causes of mortality and disability in diabetic patients. It is considered one of the costliest conditions for health care systems. This study is designed to identify diabetic foot risk factors in patients with diabetes mellitus at Kamkar Hospital diabetes clinic in Qom, Iran during 2006.MethodsThis study was performed on 140 diabetes mellitus patients at the Kamkar Hospital diabetic clinic. International working Group on the Diabetic Foot (IWGDF guidelines were used for physical exam of diabetic foot in these patients. The physical exam consisted of inspection of foot appearance for deformity, skin keratosis and ulcer, and neurological and arterial pulse exam of the lower extremities of these patients. Patients in this study were divided into four risk groups based on the IWGDF guidelines. ANOVA method was used for analysis and comparison of the results with P<0.05 considered as significant. ResultsMean age of the participants in this study was 52.4±11.2 years old from which 67.1% were female, 37.1% of patients were illiterate, and 10% were active smokers. Mean duration of diabetes in these patients was 8.9 years. Mean body mass index (BMI was 29.4± 4.4 and HbA1C was 9.3 ± 1.9. Percentages of the patients with retinopathy and nephropathy were 33.6% and 17.7% respectively. 95% of the patients did not know the correct way of nail clipping, 95.5% were wearing uncomfortable shoes, and 14.3% of patients had history of foot ulcer. None of the them had any education about foot care. Physical examination with monofilament, ankle reflex and vibration perception were defected in 28.6%, 52.5%, and 32.1% of patients respectively. 37.7% of patients had a decreased lower extremity pulse that was not felt by touch. Based on the IWGDF classifications, 70% of the patients were in the higher-risk group for diabetic foot ulcer. In the high risk group, age, duration of diabetes, illiteracy was

  4. Risk factors for feline diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slingerland, L.I.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830917

    2008-01-01

    The chapters of Part I of the thesis describe the development of techniques that can be used in the assessment of risk factors for the development of diabetes mellitus (DM) in cats. The hyperglycemic glucose clamp (HGC) was developed for use in conscious cats, equipped with arterial catheters for

  5. Risk factors for developing diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Estela Willrich Boell

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study is to identify the risk factors for developing diabetic foot. A cross-sectional study, with a convenience sample, developed with 70 individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM, registered in three basic health units in the municipality of Florianópolis/SC, Brazil, in the period from November 2010 to May 2011. Biometric data was collected regarding their sociodemographic, health and illness conditions. An assessment of the feet was also carried out. The average participant age was 66.17 years and time with diagnosed disease was under ten years (61.42%. The following risk factors were identified: advanced age; time of DM diagnosis; few years of schooling; overweight/obesity; inadequate diet; physical inactivity; inadequate metabolic control; lack of proper and specific foot care; and arterial hypertension. We conclude that the majority of the population presented one or more risk factors that favor the appearance of foot-related complications. doi: 10.5216/ree.v16i2.20460.

  6. Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases among Diabetic Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Studies on cardiovascular risk factors among diabetic persons in Ethiopia are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of the cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, obesity, physical inactivity, dyslipidemia and smoking) among diabetic patients at the diabetic clinic of Jimma ...

  7. Risk factors of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Xiao-ling; WANG Fang; JI Li-nong

    2006-01-01

    Background Advances in treatment have greatly reduced the risk of blindness from this disease, but because diabetes is so common, diabetic retinopathy remains an important problem. The purpose of this study is to investigate the risk factors of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients.Methods Totally 746 type 2 diabetic patients were selected for biochemical and clinical characteristics test and examined by the retina-camera for diabetic retinopathy and the average age was 55.9 years old.Results A total of 526 patients was classified as non-DR, 159 patients as non-proliferative-DR and 61 patients as proliferative-DR. Duration of diabetes [(66.09±72.51) months vs (143.71 ±93.27) months vs (174.30±81.91)months, P=0.00], systolic blood pressure [(131.95±47.20) mmHg vs (138.71 ±21.36) mmHg vs (147.58±24.10)mmHg, P=0.01], urine albumin [(32.79± 122.29) mg/L vs (190.96±455.65) mg/L vs (362.00±552.51) mg/L,P=0.00], glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) [(8.68 ± 2.26)% vs (9.42±1.84)% vs (9.42±1.96)%, P=0.04],C-reactive protein (CRP) [(3.19±7.37) mg/L vs (6.36± 23.59) mg/L vs (3.02±4.34) mg/L, P=0.03],high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) [(1.23±0.37) mmol/L vs (1.33±0.35) mmol/L vs (1.24±0.33)mmol/L, P=0.01], uric acid (UA) [(288.51 ±90.85) mmol/L vs (300.29±101.98) mmol/L vs (337.57±115.09)mmol/L, P=0.00], creatinine (CREA) [(84.22±16.31) μmol/L vs (89.35±27.45) μmol/L vs (103.28±48.64)μmol/L, P=0.00], blood urine nitrogen (BUN) [(5.62± 1.62) mmol/L vs (6.55±2.74) mmol/L vs (8.11±3.60)mmol/L, P=0.00] were statistically different among the three groups. Logistic regression analysis showed that diabetic duration and urine albumin were two independent risk factors of DR (the OR values were 1.010 and 1.003 respectively).Conclusions Diabetic duration and urine albumin are two independent risk factors of diabetic retinopathy in elderly type 2 diabetic patients.

  8. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus in adolescents secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2 DM) in children and ... had none of the risk factors while 272(30.9%) had at least one risk factor. Using the American Diabetes Association criteria for identification of those at risk for ...

  9. Risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus in Sudanese pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Key words: Diabetes mellitus, gestation, risk factors, Sudan. INTRODUCTION. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a universal risk factor for maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality.[1] Low gestational age, neonatal macrosomia, hypoglycemia, respiratory distress syndrome are frequent complications of GDM and ...

  10. Pre-Diabetes Non-Modifiable Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Pre-diabetes Non-modifiable Risk Factors Updated:Nov 9,2015 ... This content was last reviewed August 2015. Pre-diabetes • Introduction • About Pre-diabetes • What's the Problem? Intro ...

  11. Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W.Y. Yau (Joanne W.); S.L. Rogers (Sophie); Y. Kawasaki; E.L. Lamoureux (Ecosse); J.W. Kowalski (Jonathan); T. Bek (Toke); S.-J. Chen (Shih-Jen); J.M. Dekker (Jacqueline); A.E. Fletcher (Astrid E.); J. Grauslund (Jakob); R.C.G. Haffner; U. Hamman (Ute); M.K. Ikram (Kamran); T. Kayama (Takamasa); B.E.K. Klein (Barbara); B.E.K. Klein (Barbara); S. Krishnaiah (Sannapaneni); K. Mayurasakorn (Korapat); J.P. O'Hare (Joseph); T. Orchard; M. Porta; M. Rema (Mohan); M.S. Roy (Monique); T. Sharma (Tarun); S-M. Saw (Seang-Mei); H. Taylor (Hugh); J.M. Tielsch (James); D. Varma (Dhiraj); J.J. Wang (Jie Jin); N. Wang (Ningli); S. West (Sheila); L. Zu (Liang); M. Yasuda (Maya); X. Zhang (Xinzhi); P. Mitchell (Paul); T.Y. Wong (Tien Yin)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE - To examine the global prevalence and major risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) among people with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - A pooled analysis using individual participant data from population-based studies

  12. Potential Effect of Opium Consumption on Controlling Diabetes and Some Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Diabetic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Rahimi, Najmeh; Gozashti, Mohamad Hossain; Najafipour, Hamid; Shokoohi, Mostafa; Marefati, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to this belief that opium may have beneficial effects on diabetes or cardiovascular risk factors, the present study aimed to assess the potential and possible effects of opium consumption on diabetes control and some cardiovascular risk factors in diabetic patients. Methods This study enrolled 374 diabetic subjects from diabetes care centers in Kerman, Iran, including opium user group (n = 179) and a non-opium user group (n = 195). The data were collected through a questionnair...

  13. Gestational Diabetes in Korea: Incidence and Risk Factors of Diabetes in Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hak Chul Jang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Korean women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM have a 3.5 times greater risk of developing postpartum diabetes than the general population. The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in early postpartum is reported as 10-15% in Korean women. A prospective follow-up study on Korean women with GDM showed that approximately 40% of women with previous GDM were expected to develop diabetes within 5 years postpartum. Independent risk factors for the development of diabetes in Korean women with previous GDM are pre-pregnancy body weight, gestational age at diagnosis, antepartum hyperglycemia on oral glucose tolerance test, low insulin response to oral glucose load, and family history of diabetes. Women with postpartum diabetes have greater body mass indexes, body weight, and waist circumferences than women with normal glucose tolerance. Multiple logistic regression analysis has revealed that waist circumference is the strongest obesity index along with systolic blood pressure and that triglyceride levels are a major independent risk factor for developing diabetes. These results in Korean women with previous GDM underline the importance of postpartum testing in Korean women diagnosed with GDM, and demonstrate that impaired B-cell function, obesity, and especially visceral obesity, are associated with the development of diabetes.

  14. The prevalence and risk factors for gestational diabetes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the common diabetes risk factors (or OGTT; the prevalence of GDM; and the maternal and perinatal outcomes of GDM pregnancies in a Nigerian urban antenatal population. Patients and Methods: A retrospective study of pregnant women, who attended antenatal clinic, screened for diabetes ...

  15. Risk Factors Associated with Hypercoagulability in Type 2 Diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Thrombosis, attributed to atherosclerosis, is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus. Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in diabetes mellitus is not entirely clear and conventional risk factors such as smoking, obesity, blood pressure and serum lipids fail to explain fully this ...

  16. Potential risk factors for diabetic neuropathy: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooraei Mahdi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus type II afflicts at least 2 million people in Iran. Neuropathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes and lowers the patient's quality of life. Since neuropathy often leads to ulceration and amputation, we have tried to elucidate the factors that can affect its progression. Methods In this case-control study, 110 diabetic patients were selected from the Shariati Hospital diabetes clinic. Michigan Neuropathic Diabetic Scoring (MNDS was used to differentiate cases from controls. The diagnosis of neuropathy was confirmed by nerve conduction studies (nerve conduction velocity and electromyography. The multiple factors compared between the two groups included consumption of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI, blood pressure, serum lipid level, sex, smoking, method of diabetes control and its quality. Results Statistically significant relationships were found between neuropathy and age, gender, quality of diabetes control and duration of disease (P values in the order: 0.04, 0.04, Conclusion In this study, hyperglycemia was the only modifiable risk factor for diabetic neuropathy. Glycemic control reduces the incidence of neuropathy, slows its progression and improves the diabetic patient's quality of life. More attention must be paid to elderly male diabetic patients with poor diabetes control with regard to regular foot examinations and more practical education.

  17. Risk Factors of Diabetes Mellitus in Rural Puducherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumanth Mallikarjuna Majgi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in India. Rural area constitutes 80% of India. Hence it is essential to understand the epidemiology for appropriate interventions. Objectives: to identify risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus in rural Puducherry. Methodology: Cross sectional study in two villages of Puducherry, India. 1403 subjects above 25 years from 2 villages. Study measured demographic variables, Body Mass Index (BMI, physical activity, family history of Diabetes Mellitus, smoking and alcohol consumption. Fasting blood glucose was measured for study subjects. Further, those with >126 mg/dl were subjected for Oral Glucose Tolerance Test. Univariate and multivariate analysis was done. Receiver Operating characteristic Curve was plotted to find out cut off for Diabetic Risk Score. Findings: The prevalence of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM was 5.8%. The response rate was (88%. In univariate analysis age, occupation, Socio Economic Status, BMI, physical activity, family history were significant for DM. In multivariate analysis age, BMI, family history of diabetes and occupation were significant for type 2 DM. The ‘diabetes risk score’ generated by the study using age, BMI and family history of DM, had specificity, sensitivity and accuracy of 54%, 77% and 76.2% respectively. The area under curve for scoring system was 0.784 (<0.05. Conclusions: Identified risk factors are useful for early diagnosis by using ‘diabetes risk score’ – thus uncovering the iceberg of disease.

  18. Risk factors, ulcer grade and management outcome of diabetic foot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk factors, ulcer grade and management outcome of diabetic foot ulcers in a Tropical Tertiary Care Hospital. ... Data documented included age, gender, type of DM, duration of DM, risk factors of DFU, duration of DFU ... 85.2% had type 2 DM.

  19. Risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus in Sudanese pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Sudan is less compared with international reports. Whether there is concomitant difference in the risk factors for GDM among Sudanese women is uncertain. Aim: This study investigated the common risk factors for GDM among Sudanese pregnant ...

  20. Modifiable Lifestyle Risk Factors and Incident Diabetes in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Joshua J; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Talegawkar, Sameera A; Effoe, Valery S; Okhomina, Victoria; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Hsueh, Willa A; Golden, Sherita H

    2017-11-01

    The associations of modifiable lifestyle risk factors with incident diabetes are not well investigated in African Americans (AAs). This study investigated the association of modifiable lifestyle risk factors (exercise, diet, smoking, TV watching, and sleep-disordered breathing burden) with incident diabetes among AAs. Modifiable lifestyle risk factors were characterized among 3,252 AAs in the Jackson Heart Study who were free of diabetes at baseline (2000-2004) using baseline questionnaires and combined into risk factor categories: poor (0-3 points), average (4-7 points), and optimal (8-11 points). Incidence rate ratios (IRR) for diabetes (fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL, physician diagnosis, use of diabetes drugs, or glycosylated hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5%) were estimated using Poisson regression modeling adjusting for age, sex, education, occupation, systolic blood pressure, and BMI. Outcomes were collected 2005-2012 and data analyzed in 2016. Over 7.6 years, there were 560 incident diabetes cases (mean age=53.3 years, 64% female). An average or optimal compared to poor risk factor categorization was associated with a 21% (IRR=0.79, 95% CI=0.62, 0.99) and 31% (IRR=0.69, 95% CI=0.48, 1.01) lower risk of diabetes. Among participants with BMI <30, IRRs for average or optimal compared to poor categorization were 0.60 (95% CI=0.40, 0.91) and 0.53 (95% CI=0.29, 0.97) versus 0.90 (95% CI=0.67, 1.21) and 0.83 (95% CI=0.51, 1.34) among participants with BMI ≥30. A combination of modifiable lifestyle factors are associated with a lower risk of diabetes among AAs, particularly among those without obesity. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Persistent Organic Pollutants as Risk Factors for Obesity and Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunxue; Kong, Alice Pik Shan; Cai, Zongwei; Chung, Arthur C K

    2017-11-02

    The rising prevalence of obesity and diabetes cannot be fully explained by known risk factors, such as unhealthy diet, a sedentary lifestyle, and family history. This review summarizes the available studies linking persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to obesity and diabetes and discusses plausible underlying mechanisms. Increasing evidence suggest that POPs may act as obesogens and diabetogens to promote the development of obesity and diabetes and induce metabolic dysfunction. POPs are synthesized chemicals and are used widely in our daily life. These chemicals are resistant to degradation in chemical or biological processes, which enable them to exist in the environment persistently and to be bio-accumulated in animal and human tissue through the food chain. Increasingly, epidemiologic studies suggest a positive association between POPs and risk of developing diabetes. Understanding the relationship of POPs with obesity and diabetes may shed light on preventive strategies for obesity and diabetes.

  2. Anticardiolipin antibodies in proliferative diabetic retinopathy: An additional risk factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahin, Maha; ElDiasty, Amany M; Mabed, Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    To report the prevalence of anticardiolipin antibodies in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) having high-risk criteria (HRC). Diabetic patients having PDR with HRC and diabetics free of retinopathy were compared for the presence of anticardiolipin antibodies. Among the 34 patients, 6 (17.7%) of diabetics having PDR with HRC were positive for anticardiolipin antibodies. There was no significant association of aCL antibodies with sex or type of diabetes. Using Pearson's correlation test, no significant associations of aCL antibodies with duration of diabetes or age of patients were found. All patients who were positive for anticardiolipin antibodies had PDR with HRC. The difference was statistically significant. Presence of anticardiolipin antibodies may represent an additional risk factor for PDR. (author)

  3. Mild gestational diabetes as a risk factor for congenital cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Helena E; Tapanainen, Anna E; Kaleva, Marko M

    2006-01-01

    of cryptorchidism, e.g. prematurity and weight for gestational age, abnormal maternal glucose metabolism was significantly more common in the group of cryptorchid boys [diet-treated gestational diabetes, P = 0.0001; odds ratio, 3.98 (95% confidence interval, 1.97-8.05); diet-treated gestational diabetes or only......CONTEXT: Cryptorchidism is the most common malformation in newborn boys. Maternal diabetes has previously been suggested to be a risk factor for this disorder in one epidemiological study. OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of the prevalence of maternal glucose metabolism disorders during pregnancy in newborn...... diabetes diagnosis and abnormality of the result of a 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test during pregnancy were obtained from the hospital records after delivery. RESULTS: After adjustment for possible confounding factors, i.e. maternal smoking during pregnancy, maternal age at delivery, and risk factors...

  4. Job Strain as a Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I; Heikkilä, Katriina

    2014-01-01

    with baseline questionnaires. Incident type 2 diabetes at follow-up was ascertained using national health registers, clinical screening, and self-reports. We analyzed data for each study using Cox regression and pooled the study-specific estimates in fixed-effect meta-analyses. RESULTS: There were 3,703 cases......OBJECTIVE: The status of psychosocial stress at work as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes is unclear because existing evidence is based on small studies and is subject to confounding by lifestyle factors, such as obesity and physical inactivity. This collaborative study examined whether stress...... at work, defined as "job strain," is associated with incident type 2 diabetes independent of lifestyle factors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We extracted individual-level data for 124,808 diabetes-free adults from 13 European cohort studies participating in the IPD-Work Consortium. We measured job strain...

  5. Meat Consumption as a Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal Barnard

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Disease risk factors identified in epidemiological studies serve as important public health tools, helping clinicians identify individuals who may benefit from more aggressive screening or risk-modification procedures, allowing policymakers to prioritize intervention programs, and encouraging at-risk individuals to modify behavior and improve their health. These factors have been based primarily on evidence from cross-sectional and prospective studies, as most do not lend themselves to randomized trials. While some risk factors are not modifiable, eating habits are subject to change through both individual action and broader policy initiatives. Meat consumption has been frequently investigated as a variable associated with diabetes risk, but it has not yet been described as a diabetes risk factor. In this article, we evaluate the evidence supporting the use of meat consumption as a clinically useful risk factor for type 2 diabetes, based on studies evaluating the risks associated with meat consumption as a categorical dietary characteristic (i.e., meat consumption versus no meat consumption, as a scalar variable (i.e., gradations of meat consumption, or as part of a broader dietary pattern.

  6. Genetic risk factors for type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pociot, Flemming; Lernmark, Åke

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed at the end of a prodrome of β-cell autoimmunity. The disease is most likely triggered at an early age by autoantibodies primarily directed against insulin or glutamic acid decarboxylase, or both, but rarely against islet antigen-2. After the initial appearance of one...... is generally needed. The pathogenesis can be divided into three stages: 1, appearance of β-cell autoimmunity, normoglycaemia, and no symptoms; 2, β-cell autoimmunity, dysglycaemia, and no symptoms; and 3, β-cell autoimmunity, dysglycaemia, and symptoms of diabetes. The genetic association with each one...... of the three stages can differ. Type 1 diabetes could serve as a disease model for organ-specific autoimmune disorders such as coeliac disease, thyroiditis, and Addison's disease, which show similar early markers of a prolonged disease process before clinical diagnosis....

  7. Irregular menses: an independent risk factor for gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haver, Mary Claire; Locksmith, Gregory J; Emmet, Emily

    2003-05-01

    Our purpose was to determine whether a history of irregular menses predicts gestational diabetes mellitus independently of traditional risk factors. We analyzed demographic characteristics, body mass index, and menstrual history of 85 pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus and compared them with 85 systematically selected control subjects who were matched for age, race, and delivery year. Subjects with pregestational diabetes mellitus, previous gestational diabetes mellitus, family history of diabetes mellitus, weight >200 pounds, previous macrosomic infants, or previous stillbirth were excluded. Demographic characteristics between case and control groups were similar. Mean body mass index was higher among cases (26.5 kg/m(2)) versus control subjects (24.5 kg/m(2), P =.004). Irregular cycles were more prevalent in the cases (24% vs 7%, P =.006). With the use of body mass index as a stratification factor, menstrual irregularity maintained a strong association with gestational diabetes mellitus (P =.014). A history of irregular menstrual cycles was a significant independent predictor of gestational diabetes mellitus. If selective screening is implemented for gestational diabetes mellitus, such history should be considered in the decision of whom to test.

  8. Risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus in Sudanese pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Int J Med Biomed Res 2012;1(1):79-84. 79. Risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus in Sudanese pregnant women. Mardi T.G1, Lutfi M.F2*. 1Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Omdurman Islamic University,. Sudan. 2Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, ...

  9. Risk factors for diabetic retinopathy in Kuwaiti type 2 diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Adsani, Afaf M.S.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the risk factors associated with diabetic retinopathy in Kuwaiti subjects with type 2 diabetes. Kuwaiti subjects with type 2 diabetes (n=165) attending the Diabetic Clinic at Al-sabah Hospital, Kuwait between October 2000 and March 2005 were screened for diabetic retinopathy. Any diabetic retinopathy was found in 40% while 20.6% had sight threatening retinopathy. Mild NPDR was present in 21.2%, moderate to severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) in 7.9%, and proliferative diabetic retinopathy in 3.0%. Maculopathy was present in 10.3% and 7.9 % pf patients were photocoagulated. Compared to those without retinopathy, diabetic patients with any retinopathy were significantly older (51.7+-10.3 versus 47.2+-9.5 years; p<0.005), had longer duration of diabetes (13.1+-6.3 versus 4.7 +-5.4 years; p<0.0001), higher systolic blood pressure (142.9+-23.0 versus 130.3+-20.2; p<0.0001) and poor glycemic control (Hemoglobin A1c=10.1+-2.4 versus 8.9+-2.3; p<0.005). The prevalence of hypertension and nephropathy was significantly higher in patients with any retinopathy than those without retinopathy (70.8% versus 49.5%; p<0.01 and 64.4% versus 30.8%; p<0.0001) respectively. Longer duration of diabetes and presence of nephropathy was the most significant independent factors associated with any retinopathy and sight-threatening retinopathy. Treatment with sulphonylurea or insulin, and poor glycemic control were other significant independent factors associated with any retinopathy. Longer duration of diabetes, presence of nephropathy, glycemic control and mode of treatment were the most significant independent factors of diabetic retinopathy. However, population-based study is warranted to identify the risk factors, as well as the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy. (author)

  10. Analysis of risk factors of pulmonary embolism in diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Changhui; Ma Zhihai; Zhu Lin; Chi Lianxiang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the related risk factors in diabetic patients with pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods: 58 diabetic cases underwent lower limbs 99m Tc-MAA veins imaging (and/or ultrasonography) and pulmonary perfusion imaging. The related laboratory data [fasting blood glucose (FBG), blood cholesterol, blood long chain triglycerides (LCT)] and clinic information [age, disease courses, chest symptoms (chest pain and short of breathe), lower limbs symptoms (swelling, varicose veins and diabetic foot) and acute complication (diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar non ketotic diabetic coma)] were collected simultaneously. SPSS was used for χ 2 -test and Logistic regression analysis. Results: (1) 28 patients (48.3%) were showed to be with lower limbs deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and by 99m Tc-MAA imaging, 10 cases (17.2%) with PE. The PE ratios (32.1%) of the patients with DVT was more higher than no DVT (3.3%) (χ 2 =6.53, P 2 ≥4.23, P 2 ≤2.76, P>0.05), respectively. (3) Multiplicity analysis indicated: the related risk factors for PE included chest symptoms (Score=13.316, P=0.000) and lower limbs symptoms (Score=7.780, P=0.005). No significant difference to other factors (Score≤2.494, P>0.114), respectively. Conclusion: The serious DM with chest symptoms, lower limbs symptoms and/or DVT must be controlled as early as possible by all kinds of treatment. It will decrease the PE complication. (authors)

  11. [Risks factors for the development of diabetes in women with history of gestational diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cypryk, Katarzyna; Szymczak, Wiesław; Pertyńska-Marczewska, Magdalena; Zawodniak-Szałapska, Małgorzata; Lewiński, Andrzej

    2005-01-01

    Women who suffered from impaired carbohydrate metabolism during pregnancy are more likely to develop different types of diabetes later in their lives. The aim of this paper was to study the risk factors for the development of diabetes in group of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in anamnesis. 200 women took part in this study, who had gestational diabetes diagnosed between 1980-1998. All women were divided into 4 groups depending on the type of disorders occurring at the moment of examination: DM1 - women diagnosed with type I diabetes, DM2 - women diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, IGT-women with glucose levels in OGTT, which applied to impaired glucose tolerance (acc. to WHO criteria), NDM - women with no clinical signs of diabetes, with normal result of OGTT. The risk of diabetes development is significantly higher (independently of the clinical type) in women who had had GDM include: high glucose levels at the time of GDM diagnosis, early onset of symptoms - related to weeks of gestation, and the insulin treatment during pregnancy. However multifactor analysis indicates that the only significant risk factors for DM 1 are early onset of diabetes during pregnancy and high glucose levels 2 hours after OGTT during pregnancy (p women who suffered from diabetes during pregnancy.

  12. Risk factors associated with diabetic retinopathy among type 2 diabetes patients at teaching hospital in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abougalambou, Salwa Selim Ibrahim; Abougalambou, Ayman S

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness in the United States and it is the leading cause of new cases of blindness in adults aged 20-74. It is estimated that about 20% of patients with type 2 DM have evidence of diabetic retinopathy at diagnosis with diabetes. To evaluate the prevalence of DR and to determine risk factors related to diabetic retinopathy among type 2 diabetes patients attending endocrinology clinics at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM). The study design was observational prospective longitudinal follow-up study, the study was conducted with sample of 1077 type 2 diabetes mellitus outpatient recruited via attended the diabetes clinics at HUSM. Diagnosis of retinopathy is based on finding the diagnostic signs of retinopathy on eye exams by fundoscopy. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the independent variables that affect the development of retinopathy. The prevalence of retinopathy was 39.3%. It has been noticed from this study findings, that the progression of retinopathy is been influenced by five independent risk factors such as duration of diabetes, presence neuropathy, total cholesterol at second and third visit and createnine clearance. DR is highly prevalent among type 2 DM. The progression of retinopathy is been influenced by five independent risk factors such as duration of diabetes, presence neuropathy, total cholesterol at second and third visit and createnine clearance. DR is a serious diabetic complication and public health strategies are required in order to reduce its risk factors and decrease its prevalence. Copyright © 2014 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN CHILDREN WITH TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS

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    Z ABDEYASDAN

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes melliuts is a chronic, metabolic disease that involves the macro and micro vascular complications and one of its maer ascular cowplications is the cardio vascular disease, as ,the risk of cardiovascular disease is 2-4 folds in diabetic patients in comparison with non diabetic individuals. The researches have demonstrated that the risk factors of the cardio vascular disease are formed at childhood. Therefore the preventive measures must begin from early childhood. So the present study was planned with the goals to determine and compare the cardia-vascular risk factors in the diabetic children with type 1 of diabetes mellitus. Method: This was an analytic, cross sectional study that has been done in two groups (case-control. In this research, 148 children, suffering from the typel diabetes mellitus being supported by the metabolism and endocrine research center, were chosen in the continues case manner and for the control group, 148 children, matched with the study group (according to the age and the sex, at 6-18 years old from the schools in Isfahan city randomly and at 2-6 years from the neiborhoods of the case group. The data-gathering tool was the questionnaires includes lipid profile, blood pressure, weight and height. To analyze the data we used the analytic (t student and logistic regression and descriptive (mean and standard deviation statistic methods and SPSS. Results: Findings revealed that the means of Lipid profile, systolic blood pressure and body mass index had not statistically significant differences in the two groups. But the mean of diastolic blood pressure and the mean arterial blood pressure in the control group were more than the case group and this difference was significant. The mean, 75 and 95 percentiles for cholesterol and LDL in all the age groups, mean, 75 and 95 percentile for triglyceride in all the age groups except the age group of 1-4 years in the diabetic and non diabetic groups were

  14. Risk Factors of Treatment Failure in Diabetic Foot Ulcer Patients

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    Kyung Mook Lee

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSome diabetic feet heal without complication, but others undergo amputation due to progressive wounds. This study investigates the risk factors for amputation of diabetic feet.MethodsA total of 55 patients who visited our institution from 2008 to 2012 were included in the study. The patients with abnormal fasting blood sugar levels, lower leg vascularity, and poor nutrition were excluded from the study group, and the wound states were unified. The patients were categorized into a treatment success group (n=47 and a treatment failure group (n=8, and their hemoglobin A1C (HgA1C, C-reactive protein (CRP, white blood cell count (WBC, and serum creatinine levels were analyzed.ResultsThe initial CRP, WBC, and serum creatinine levels in the treatment failure group were significantly higher than that of the treatment success group, and the initial HgA1C level was significantly higher in the treatment success group. The CRP and WBC levels of both groups changed significantly as time passed, but their serum creatinine levels did not.ConclusionsThe initial CRP, WBC, and serum creatinine levels were considered to be risk factors for amputation. Among them, the serum creatinine level was found to be the most important predictive risk factor. Because serum creatinine represents the renal function, thorough care is needed for the feet of diabetic patients with renal impairment.

  15. Common familial risk factors for schizophrenia and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Debra L; Mackinnon, Andrew; Morgan, Vera A; Watts, Gerald F; Castle, David J; Waterreus, Anna; Galletly, Cherrie A

    2016-05-01

    The co-occurrence of type 2 diabetes and psychosis is an important form of medical comorbidity within individuals, but no large-scale study has evaluated comorbidity within families. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is evidence for familial comorbidity between type 2 diabetes and psychosis. Data were analysed from an observational study of a nationally representative sample of 1642 people with psychosis who were in contact with psychiatric services at the time of survey (The 2010 Australian National Survey of Psychosis). Participants were aged 18-64 years and met World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision diagnostic criteria for a psychotic disorder (857 with schizophrenia, 319 with bipolar disorder with psychotic features, 293 with schizoaffective disorder, 81 with depressive psychosis and 92 with delusional disorder or other non-organic psychoses). Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between a family history of diabetes and a family history of schizophrenia. A positive family history of diabetes was associated with a positive family history of schizophrenia in those with a psychotic disorder (odds ratio = 1.35, p = 0.01, adjusted for age and gender). The association was different in those with an affective versus non-affective psychosis (odds ratio = 0.613, p = 0.019, adjusted for age and gender) and was significant only in those with a non-affective psychosis, specifically schizophrenia (odds ratio = 1.58, p = 0.005, adjusted for age and sex). Adjustment for demographic factors in those with schizophrenia slightly strengthened the association (odds ratio = 1.74, p = 0.001, adjusted for age, gender, diagnosis, ethnicity, education, employment, income and marital status). Elevated risk for type 2 diabetes in people with schizophrenia is not simply a consequence of antipsychotic medication; type 2 diabetes and schizophrenia share familial risk factors. © The Royal Australian and New

  16. Potential effect of opium consumption on controlling diabetes and some cardiovascular risk factors in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Najmeh; Gozashti, Mohamad Hossain; Najafipour, Hamid; Shokoohi, Mostafa; Marefati, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Due to this belief that opium may have beneficial effects on diabetes or cardiovascular risk factors, the present study aimed to assess the potential and possible effects of opium consumption on diabetes control and some cardiovascular risk factors in diabetic patients. This study enrolled 374 diabetic subjects from diabetes care centers in Kerman, Iran, including opium user group (n = 179) and a non-opium user group (n = 195). The data were collected through a questionnaire completed by interviewing, physical examination and laboratory assessment. Opium did not show any statistically significant effect on blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), fasting blood sugar (FBS), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and diastolic blood pressure. However, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and prevalence of high SBP were significantly higher in opium user group (P opium user group (P opium does not seem to have beneficial effects on diabetes control or cardiovascular risk factors. Therefore, it would not be advisable to consume opium as an anti-diabetes or cardioprotective agent.

  17. Association between type 2 diabetes mellitus and disability: What is the contribution of diabetes risk factors and diabetes complications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabesh, Maryam; Shaw, Jonathan E; Zimmet, Paul Z; Söderberg, Stefan; Koye, Digsu N; Kowlessur, Sudhir; Timol, Maryam; Joonas, Noorjehan; Sorefan, Ameena; Gayan, Praneel; Alberti, K George M M; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Magliano, Dianna J

    2018-03-06

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between type 2 diabetes and disability in Mauritius and to assess the extent to which the effect of diabetes is explained by diabetes risk factors and concomitant complications. Data from a national survey in the multiethnic nation of Mauritius, which comprises South Asians and African Creoles, were analyzed. Disability was measured using the Katz activities of daily living questionnaire in participants aged >50 years. Among 3692 participants, 487 (13.2%) had some level of disability. Diabetes was associated with significantly higher risk of disability (odds ratio [OR] 1.67; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.34-2.08). After adjusting for demographic, behavioral, and metabolic factors, as well as comorbidities, disability was significantly associated with diabetes among African Creoles (OR 2.03; 95% CI 1.16-3.56), but not South Asians (OR 1.27; 95% CI 0.98-1.66). Obesity explained much of the association between diabetes and disability (excess percentage of risk: 26.3% in South Asians and 12.1% in African Creoles). Obesity, history of cardiovascular disease (CVD), asthma-like symptoms, and depression together explained 46.5% and 29.0% of the excess risk in South Asians and African Creoles, respectively. Diabetes is associated with a 67% increased risk of disability. Diabetes risk factors and comorbidities explain more of the association between diabetes and disability among South Asians than Africans. Obesity and history of CVD explained the largest percentage of the relationship between diabetes and disability, indicating that weight and CVD management may be helpful in controlling disability related to diabetes. © 2018 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. The risk factors for diabetes mellitus after kidney transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effat Razeghi; Monireh Amerian; Peimaneh Heydarian

    2010-01-01

    Post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is an adverse complication of kidney transplantation, associated with decreased graft and patient survival. We investigated the risk factors for PTDM and their relation to graft rejection in our kidney transplant recipients. We prospectively included 109 consecutive first kidney transplant recipients transplanted at the Sina Hospital in Tehran from June 2003 to May 2004. Patients were excluded if they had diabetes at the time of transplantation either as the cause of kidney failure or as a comorbidity. PTDM was defined by fasting blood sugar =126 mg/dL or random blood sugar =200 mg/dL on two occasions and the need for insulin therapy and/or oral hypoglycemic drugs for at least two weeks. Thirty non-diabetic transplant recipients were diagnosed as having PTDM during the six month followup period after transplantation. Sixty non-PTDM controls, matched for age, sex and immun suppressive regimen, and transplanted as closely as possible to the PTDM cases, were randomly selected. The risk factors for PTDM were investigated in these 90 transplant recipients. Age older than 50 years (P = 0.04), history of hypertension (P = 0.02), polycystic kidney disease (P = 0.015), duration on dialysis more than one year (P < 0.0001), family history of diabetes mellitus (P < 0.0001), mean daily dose of prednisolone =15 mg/day (P < 0.0001) and cyclosporine =240 mg/day (P < 0.0001) were all more in the PTDM group. Also, the mean serum triglycerides was higher (P = 0.019) and there was an increased risk of graft rejection (P < 0.0001) in the PTDM group (Author).

  19. Risk factors and complications in type 2 diabetes outpatients

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    Ellen Fernandes Flávio Silva

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: Our study investigated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM outpatients attending a university hospital in Montes Claros, MG, to estimate the prevalence of risk factors and their association with diabetes complications. Method: This was a quantitative, documental, retrospective and analytical study. Medical records of 95 outpatients with T2DM treated in this hospital from 2011 to 2015 were analyzed. Data were collected according to a structured questionnaire surveying sociodemographic, anthropometric and biochemical data and clinical and lifestyle aspects. Regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between risk factor variables and complications. Results: With a mean age of 54 years, the study population showed irregular blood glucose control, despite the use of hypoglycemic medication, and did not have a healthy lifestyle. The main complication reported was high blood pressure (HBP, occurring in 70.9% of patients. The prevalence of complications was positively associated with patients receiving insulin treatment (p=0.042 and multidisciplinary monitoring (p=0.050. Conclusion: The associations identified reflect the condition of patients that were already treating diabetes and its complications, especially HBP. The characteristics of the study population indicate the need to improve clinical follow-up and increase motivation for healthy behaviors.

  20. [Identification of risk factors in relatives of type-2 diabetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas-Alvarez, Norma Angélica; Vela-Otero, Yolanda; Carrada-Brav, Teodoro

    2006-01-01

    To identify risk factors and warning signs in a sample of first-degree relatives of type-2 diabetics at the Family Medicine Unit 2 of the General Hospital in Irapuato, Guanajuato, Mexico. In a non-probabilistic sample of 360 relatives, a 14-item questionnaire was applied to measure abdominal perimeter and body mass index (obesity and overweight), eating habits, addictions and sedentarism. The questionnaire was made by general consent of experts, by applying Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient. Specific rates of prevalence by sex and age groups were estimated. 233 (65%) relatives were females. As part of their family history background, arterial hypertension was recorded in 263 (73%) and acute myocardial infarction in 97 (27%). Among the dangerous food for health consumed by the relatives of diabetics are cola drinks in 94.7%, red meat in 83%, candies in 74.7% and chips in 65.8%; only half of them consumed fresh fruits and vegetables; a quarter of them ate prickly pears or whole wheat bread. There were 163 (45.3%) persons with high-risk abdominal perimeter, and sedentarism was present in 267 (74.2%). However, obesity was 3 times more frequent in females, but excessive drinking or smoking habits were 7 times more prevailing in males. A high-risk behavior was demonstrated among relativies of diabetic patients. Therefore, a public-health educational program is required to modify risky habits. A change towards prevention rather than cure is much needed in health staff.

  1. Cognition in type 2 diabetes: Association with vascular risk factors, complications of diabetes and depression

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    Iype Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The role of variables like duration of diabetes, diabetic control and microvascular complications in the causation of cognitive decline in patients with type 2 diabetes is not well studied. The contribution of hypertension to the cognitive decline in nondemented diabetic patients is unclear. Aims: We wanted to see if cognition in patients with type 2 diabetes is associated with the duration of diabetes, control of diabetes, complications of diabetes, vascular risk factors, or depression. We also looked at association of noncompliance with cognition, and depression. Settings and Design: We recruited ambulant patients with type 2 diabetes who are 55 years or more in age from the weekly diabetic clinic. We excluded patients with past history of stroke. Methods and Material: We selected the time taken for the Trial A test, delayed recall on ten-word list from Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer′s Disease (CERAD, Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale (RUDAS and Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D screening instrument to assess these patients. Statistical Analysis Used: We utilized mean, standard deviation, Chi-square test and Pearson′s correlation for statistical analysis. We considered P < 0.05 to be significant. Results: RUDAS scores inversely correlated ( r = -0.360 with CES-D scores ( P = 0.002. Scores of the screening instrument for depression, the CES-D was associated with the duration of diabetes mellitus ( P = 0.018, fasting blood glucose ( P = 0.029 as well as with 2-hour post prandial blood glucose ( P = 0.017. Conclusions: There is correlation between depression and global cognitive score. Depression seems to be associated with duration of diabetes and control of diabetes.

  2. Diabetes mellitus: an important risk factor for reactivation of tuberculosis

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    Ernesto Solá

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus was identified as a risk factor for developing tuberculosis (TB infection, and relapse after therapy. The risk of acquiring TB is described as comparable to that of HIV population. The fact that diabetics are 3× times more prone to develop pulmonary TB than nondiabetics cannot be overlooked. With DM recognized as global epidemic, and TB affecting one-third of the world population, physicians must remain vigilant. We present a 45-year-old woman born in Dominican Republic (DR, with 10-year history of T2DM treated with metformin, arrived to our Urgency Room complaining of dry cough for the past 3months. Interview unveiled unintentional 15lbs weight loss, night sweats, occasional unquantified fever, and general malaise but denied bloody sputum. She traveled to DR 2years before, with no known ill exposure. Physical examination showed a thin body habitus, otherwise well appearing woman with stable vital signs, presenting solely right middle lung field ronchi. LDH, ESR, hsCRP and Hg A1C were elevated. Imaging revealed a right middle lobe cavitation. Sputum for AFB disclosed active pulmonary TB. Our case portrays that the consideration of TB as differential diagnosis in diabetics should be exercised with the same strength, as it is undertaken during the evaluation of HIV patients with lung cavitation. Inability to recognize TB will endanger the patient, hospital dwellers and staff, and perpetuate this global public health menace.

  3. Risk factors influencing the treatment outcome in diabetic macular oedema

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    Gupta Amod

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A multivariate analysis was done on 96 eyes to evaluate the effect of various risk factors on the final visual outcome after laser photocoagulation for clinically significant macular oedema (CSME in diabetic retinopathy. Advanced age of the patient, large size of CSME and poor baseline visual acuity were found to be significantly associated with poorer outcome (p<0.05. The association of nephropathy and hypertension with poorer visual outcome was of boderline significance (p = 0.054 and 0.07, respectively. Wavelength of the laser (argon or krypton used for treatment did not significantly influence the outcome.

  4. Selected risk factors of diabetes mellitus among road transport drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkiewicz, Andrzej; Szosland, Dorota

    2010-01-01

    Road transport drivers are one of the professional groups whose activities have a strong impact on public safety. In view of the nature of their professional activity, the drivers are at a higher risk of obesity and hypertension, and thus, indirectly, of carbohydrate metabolism disorders such as diabetes mellitus. Medical documentation was a source of data for the reported study. It derived from medical examinations of truck and bus drivers applying for the new category II driving licence or for prolongation of the one they already had. Excessive body weight was recorded in 62.6% of the study population; 45.3% had overweight and 17.4% were diagnosed with obesity. Hypertension was noted in the medical records of 36.7% drivers. The prevalence of abnormal BP values was increasing with age. Overweight was found to be a risk factor for hypertension. Hyperglycaemia was found in 47.5% of the drivers and was also increasing with age. In road transport drivers, the high prevalence of excessive body weight and elevated arterial blood pressure as the risk factors for diabetes indicates a need to undertake multidimensional actions targeted on this particular profession and involving various health care sectors. Prophylactic and detailed pre-placement examinations should be considered, depending on the rate and intensity of the disorders diagnosed. This should be coupled with an introduction of primary and secondary prophylactic activities and monitoring of relevant treatment. A close collaboration with the patient's GP is necessary.

  5. Risk factors of diabetes in North Indians with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratyush, Daliparthy D; Tiwari, Shalbha; Singh, Saurabh; Singh, Surya K

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome progresses to diabetes and determinants of this progression like hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia and genetic factors have been speculative. The present study was aimed at quantifying the insulin resistance and influence of family history of diabetes in subjects with metabolic syndrome developing prediabetes and diabetes. Consecutive subjects attending the endocrine clinic were evaluated for metabolic syndrome as per definition of International Diabetes Federation, 2005. The family history of diabetes in their first degree relatives was ascertained and Homeostasis model assessment of Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), Homeostasis model assessment for beta cell function (HOMA-B) and Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were calculated in 163 subjects enrolled. HOMA-IR was higher (pmetabolic syndrome+prediabetes or diabetes compared to metabolic syndrome with normal glucose tolerance. HOMA-B was lower and prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes was higher in metabolic syndrome subjects with family history of diabetes than in those without such family history (pmetabolic syndrome having prediabetes and diabetes had more severe insulin resistance than those with metabolic syndrome only. Beta cell dysfunction was remarkable and prevalence of prediabetes was high in metabolic syndrome subjects with family history of diabetes. Both the severity of the insulin resistance and family history of diabetes are therefore proposed to be determinants of diminished Beta cell function leading to diabetes in metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Albuminuria and associated risk factors in type II diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, R.; Ahmed, T.A.; Mushtaq, S.; Zafar, L.; Attique, M.; Khalil-ur-Rehman

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of microalbuminuria (MA) and its associated medical risk factors in type II diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: Study population included 150 type II diabetic patients (70 women, 80 men) attending outpatient department of the hospital. Patients having clinical albuminuria and with other causes of proteinuria were excluded. Results: Women and men were of comparable ages. Women (26.4 kg/m/sup 2/) had higher body mass index (BMI) than men 24.3 kg/m/sup 2/). The frequency of MA was 46.7%, higher in males (50.6%) than females (41.5%). Fasting plasma glucose HbA/sub 1c/ levels were significantly higher in patients with MA compared to those with normo albuminuria (p < 0.001). The microalbuminuria patients had significantly decreased HDL-c levels compared to normoalbuminuric subjects (p< 0.001). However, no relation of MA with age, gender, known duration of diabetes, BMI, history of smoking, hypertension and serum: total cholesterol, LDL-c, triglyceride, urea and creatinine was found. Conclusion: There is a strong association of poor glycaemic control and decreased HDL-c levels with the presence of micro albuminuria. (author)

  7. Prevalence and risk factors of diabetes mellitus foot syndrome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diabetic foot problems are common throughout the world, resulting in major economic consequences for the patients, their families, and thesociety. Diabetic foot ulcers are largely preventable by identifying people at risk of ulceration throughexamination of the feet, education and frequent follow-up of these ...

  8. Effects of contraceptive steroids on cardiovascular risk factors in women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, K R; Skouby, S O; Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We evaluated established cardiovascular risk factors within lipoprotein metabolism, hemostasis, and endothelial function in women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus who were using oral contraceptives. STUDY DESIGN: Twenty-five women with uncomplicated insulin-dependent diabetes m...

  9. Incidence of diabetic macular edema and associated risk factors in a cohort of patients with type 1 diabetes in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Malin Lundberg

    Incidence of diabetic macular edema and associated risk factors in a cohort of patients with type 1 diabetes in Denmark. Rasmussen M.L.1, Pedersen R.B. 1, Sjølie A.K. 1, Grauslund J1 1University of Southern Denmark, Department of ophthalmology, Odense University Hospital, Denmark Purpose: To eval......Incidence of diabetic macular edema and associated risk factors in a cohort of patients with type 1 diabetes in Denmark. Rasmussen M.L.1, Pedersen R.B. 1, Sjølie A.K. 1, Grauslund J1 1University of Southern Denmark, Department of ophthalmology, Odense University Hospital, Denmark Purpose......: To evaluate the 16-year incidence of diabetic macular edema (DME) in a cohort of type 1 diabetic patients and to investigate possible risk factors of developing DME. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study of Danish type 1 diabetic patients. A total of 131 patients were examined at baseline in 1995...

  10. Lifestyle factors and mortality risk in individuals with diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sluik, Diewertje; Boeing, Heiner; Li, Kuanrong

    2014-01-01

    among individuals with diabetes compared with those without was increased, with an HR of 1.62 (95% CI 1.51, 1.75). Intake of fruit, legumes, nuts, seeds, pasta, poultry and vegetable oil was related to a lower mortality risk, and intake of butter and margarine was related to an increased mortality risk...

  11. Prevalence of Diabetes and Pre-Diabetes and Associated Risk Factors among Tuberculosis Patients in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Vijay; Kumpatla, Satyavani; Aravindalochanan, Vigneswari; Rajan, Rajeswari; Chinnasamy, C.; Srinivasan, Rajan; Selvam, Jerard Maria; Kapur, Anil

    2012-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is recognised as an important risk factor to tuberculosis (TB). India has high TB burden, along with rising DM prevalence. There are inadequate data on prevalence of DM and pre-diabetes among TB cases in India. Aim was to determine diabetes prevalence among a cohort of TB cases registered under Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program in selected TB units in Tamil Nadu, India, and assess pattern of diabetes management amongst known cases. Methods 827 among the eligible patients (n = 904) underwent HbA1c and anthropometric measurements. OGTT was done for patients without previous history of DM and diagnosis was based on WHO criteria. Details of current treatment regimen of TB and DM and DM complications, if any, were recorded. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect information on sociodemographics, habitual risk factors, and type of TB. Findings DM prevalence was 25.3% (95% CI 22.6–28.5) and that of pre-diabetes 24.5% (95% CI 20.4–27.6). Risk factors associated with DM among TB patients were age (31–35, 36–40, 41–45, 46–50, >50 years vs 50 years vs <30 years) [2.24 (1.1–4.55) (p = 0.026); 6.96 (3.3–14.7); 3.44 (1.83–6.48); 4.3 (2.25–8.2) (p<0.001)], waist circumference [<90 vs. ≥90 cm (men), <80 vs. ≥80 cm (women)] [3.05 (1.35–6.9) (p = 0.007)], smoking [1.92 (1.12–3.28) (p = 0.017)] and monthly income (5000–10,000 INR vs <5000 INR) [0.59 (0.37–0.94) (p = 0.026)]. DM risk was higher among pulmonary TB [3.06 (1.69–5.52) (p<0.001)], especially sputum positive, than non-pulmonary TB. Interpretation Nearly 50% of TB patients had either diabetes or pre-diabetes. PMID:22848473

  12. Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes in Bangladesh: A Systematic Review

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    T Sal-sabil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is one of the most significant public health challenge in developing countries. The risk factors for diabetes are poorly understood among the Bangladeshi population. This study aimed to explore the potential risk factors for type 2 diabetes in Bangladesh. A systematic review was performed. Studies describing the risk factors for type 2 diabetes in Bangladesh published between 1994 to 2014 were included and summarized. Of the 35 studies identified, we included 14 studies that met the inclusion criteria. The prevalence of diabetes was higher among females compared to males. Fourteen common risk factors for diabetes in Bangladesh were identified, namely increased age, obesity, waist- hip ratio, social class, hypertension, family history, sedentary life style among others. The p otential risk factors differed by urban-rural areas and by gender. Several risk factors contribute to the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Our reviews suggest "metabolically-disadvantageous" body composition of more abdominal and visceral fat in Bangladeshi adults might cause higher diabetes risk at a lower BMI compared to Western population. Preventive strategies targeting to control risk factors for diabetes is a priority public health issue and should be considered for early intervention by clinicians and policy makers.

  13. Predictive Risk Factors in the Treatment of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

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    Lebriz Hale Aktun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study aims to investigate predictive risk factors in the treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. Patients and Methods A total of 256 pregnant women who underwent 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT during 24–28 weeks of pregnancy were included according to the World Health Organization criteria. Demographic characteristics of the patients, including age, parity, family history of diabetes, body weight before pregnancy, and body weight at the diagnosis of GDM, were recorded. Fasting insulin and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c values at the time of diagnosis were evaluated. The patients were divided into two groups: those requiring insulin treatment (insulin group, n = 89 and those receiving diet therapy (diet group, n = 167 during pregnancy according to the American Diabetes Association recommendations. Results A total of 34.76% of the pregnant women with GDM required insulin treatment. The mean age of these patients was significantly higher compared to the diet group (34.9 ± 0.6 years vs. 31.9 ± 0.6 years; P = 0.004. Body mass index before pregnancy was also significantly higher in the insulin group than that in the diet group (32 ± 0.9 kg/m 2 vs. 29 ± 0.7 kg/m 2 ; P = 0.004. Fasting blood glucose (FBG during OGTT was 105.6 ± 2.1 mg/dL and 96.7 ± 1.1 mg/dL in the insulin group and diet group, respectively ( P < 0.001. There was no significant difference in fasting plasma glucose during OGTT between the groups ( P = 0.069, while plasma glucose at two hours was 161.1 ± 6.8 mg/dL in the insulin group and 145.1 ± 3.7 mg/dL in the diet group ( P = 0.027. At the time of diagnosis, HbA1c values were significantly higher in the insulin group compared to the diet group (5.3 ± 0.1 vs. 4.9 ± 0.1; P = 0.001. There was no significant difference in FBG and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance values between the groups ( P = 0.908, P = 0.073. Conclusion Our study results suggest that age, family history of diabetes, body

  14. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Diabetic Nephropathy in Omani Type 2 Diabetics in Al-Dakhiliyah Region

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    Abdulhakeem Hamood Alrawahi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence and risk factors of diabetic nephropathy among Omani type 2 diabetics in Al-Dakhiliyah region of the Sultanate of Oman.Methods: A cross-sectional and a case control study designs were used to assess the prevalence and risk factors respectively. For the prevalence study a sample of 699 diabetic subjects were selected randomly from two polyclinics in Al-Dakhiliyah region; Sumail and Nizwa polyclinics. For the case control study, a sample consisting of 215 cases and 358 controls were randomly selected from those who were included in the cross-sectional study. A well designed questionnaire has been used to collect data regarding the disease and risk factors. Data was analyzed using SPSS19 statistical program.Results: Total prevalence of diabetic nephropathy was calculated as 42.5% (95% C.I: 38.83% - 46.15%. The difference in the prevalence in the two polyclinic catchment area was not significant. The prevalence was significantly higher among males (51.6% compared to females (36.5%. Crude analysis of the risk factors showed significant association between diabetic nephropathy and the following factors; male gender, decreased literacy, long duration of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, retinopathy, neuropathy, family history of diabetic nephropathy, poor glycemic control (high HbA1c, and hypertriglyceridemia. Multivariate analysis showed the following factors to be independent risk factors; male gender, decreased literacy, long duration of diabetes, family history of diabetic nephropathy and poor glycaemic control (high HbA1c.Conclusion: The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy in this study was 42.5% and the significant risk factors associated with it included male gender, decreased literacy, long duration of diabetes, family history of diabetic nephropathy and poor glycemic control (high HbA1c.

  15. [Incidence and clinical risk factors for the development of diabetes mellitus in women with previous gestational diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Vigo, P; Álvarez-Silvares, E; Alves-Pérez M T; Domínguez-Sánchez, J; González-González, A

    2016-04-01

    Gestational diabetes is considered a variant of diabetes mellitus as they share a common pathophysiological basis: insulin resistance in target and insufficient secretion of it by pancreatic p-cell bodies. Pregnancy is a unique physiological situation provides an opportunity to identify future risk of diabetes mellitus. To determine the long-term incidence of diabetes mellitus in women who have previously been diagnosed with gestational diabetes and identifying clinical risk factors for developing the same. nested case-control cohort study. 671 patients between 1996 and 2009 were diagnosed with gestational diabetes were selected. The incidence of diabetes mellitus was estimated and 2 subgroups were formed: Group A or cases: women who develop diabetes mellitus after diagnosis of gestational diabetes. Group B or control: random sample of 71 women with a history of gestational diabetes in the follow-up period remained normoglycemic. Both groups were studied up to 18 years postpartum. By studying Kaplan Meier survival of the influence of different gestational variables it was obtained in the later development of diabetes mellitus with time parameter and COX models for categorical variables were applied. Significant variables were studied by multivariate Cox analysis. In all analyzes the Hazard ratio was calculated with confidence intervals at 95%. The incidence of diabetes mellitus was 10.3% in patients with a history of gestational diabetes. They were identified as risk factors in the index pregnancy to later development of diabetes mellitus: greater than 35 and younger than 27 years maternal age, BMI greater than 30 kg/m2, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, insulin therapy, poor metabolic control and more than a complicated pregnancy with gestational diabetes. Clinical factors have been identified in the pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes that determine a higher probability of progression to diabetes mellitus in the medium and long term.

  16. Risk factors for necrobiosis lipoidica in Type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, E; Lilienthal, E; Hofer, S E; Schulz, S; Bollow, E; Holl, R W

    2017-01-01

    To compare the clinical and metabolic characteristics of patients with Type 1 diabetes and necrobiosis lipoidica with those of patients with Type 1 diabetes who do not have necrobiosis lipoidica. A multicentre analysis was performed. Clinical and laboratory data were obtained from 64 133 patients (aged 0-25 years) with Type 1 diabetes with and without necrobiosis lipoidica who were registered in the German/Austrian Diabetes Prospective Documentation Initiative registry. Data were analysed using multivariable regression modelling. Age, diabetes duration, treatment year and sex were considered as confounding factors. Results adjusted for demographic variables are presented. In patients with necrobiosis lipoidica, metabolic control was worse (HbA 1c 72 vs. 67 mmol/mol, 8.7% vs. 8.3%; P = 0.0065) and the duration of diabetes was longer [6.24 (3.28-9.97) vs. 5.11 (2.08-8.83) years; P = 0.014; not adjusted]. Patients with necrobiosis lipoidica required higher insulin doses than those without (1.02 vs. 0.92 U/kg/day; P 1). There was no significant difference in the frequency of microvascular complications (microalbuminuria and retinopathy) between the groups. Furthermore, 24.8% and 17.5% of patients with Type 1 diabetes with and without necrobiosis lipoidica, respectively, had elevated thyroid antibodies (P = 0.051). Necrobiosis lipoidica was correlated with coeliac disease in patients with Type 1 diabetes (3.4% vs. 1.0%; P = 0.0035). Our data indicate a strong correlation between hyperglycaemia and the development of necrobiosis lipoidica. We postulate that the underlying pathogenic processes differ from those leading to microalbuminuria and retinopathy, and additional immunological mechanisms may play a role. © 2016 Diabetes UK.

  17. Comparison of Some Risk Factors for Diabetes Across Different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the adoption of lifestyles, which enhance risk of NCDs such as diabetes, by ... was done to assess the effect of socioeconomic status on the prevalence of type 2 ..... smoking including ban on advertisements and restriction of smoking in public ...

  18. Is exposure to chronic stressors a risk factor for Type 2 diabetes?

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Shona; Ismail, Mubarak

    2014-01-01

    Background - Current policy around Type 2 diabetes (T2D) interventions to reduce rates largely invokes a bio-behavioural model. This approach is also reflected in the research literature where most research that attempts to predict the development of diabetes is restricted to conventional clinical risk factors. However, a few researchers are now suggesting that psychosocial factors (PSF), acting via the physiologic stress response (PSR) systems, increases the risk of developing diabetes. Card...

  19. A comparative study of risk factors for corneal infection in diabetic and non-diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the clinical characteristics of infectious keratopathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and non-diabetes mellitus (NDM and to investigate risk factors for infectious keratopathy in T2DM patients. METHODS: Totally 230 patients with T2DM and 168 with NDM diagnosed as infectious keratopathy were hospitalized at Qingdao Eye Hospital from 2001 to 2015. Data including sex, age, occupation, season, smoking and alcohol consumption habits, duration between onset and treatments, duration of hospitalization were collected. Initially identified indicators were analyzed with a multivariate logistic regression. Glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c in patients with T2DM was analyzed. The infectious keratopathies in the two groups were categorized and compared. RESULTS: The diabetic group consisted of 146 (63.5% males and 84 (36.5% females. The NDM group consisted of 111 (66.1% males and 57 (33.9% females. There was no signigicantly difference in sex distribution between the two groups (P>0.05. There were significant differences in age, occupation of patients, season of the onset of diseases, duration between onset and treatment, and durations of hospitalization between the two groups (P0.05. CONCLUSION: Advanced age and the summer and winter seasons are identified as risk factors for infectious keratopathy in T2DM patients, and T2DM patients are more prone to bacterial keratitis.

  20. Risk Factors for Incident Diabetic Polyneuropathy in a Cohort With Screen-Detected Type 2 Diabetes Followed for 13 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Signe T; Witte, Daniel R; Dalsgaard, Else-Marie

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study incident diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) prospectively during the first 13 years after a screening-based diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and determine the associated risk factors for the development of DPN. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We assessed DPN longitudinally in the Danish arm...... of the Anglo-Danish-Dutch study of Intensive Treatment of Diabetes in Primary Care (ADDITION) using the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument questionnaire (MNSIQ), defining DPN with scores ≥4. Risk factors present at the diabetes diagnosis associated with the risk of incident DPN were estimated using Cox...... DPN. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides further epidemiological evidence for obesity as a risk factor for DPN. Moreover, low HDL cholesterol levels and higher levels of methylglyoxal, a marker of dicarbonyl stress, are identified as risk factors for the development of DPN....

  1. Prevalence and risk factors associated with retinopathy in diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetic retinopathy is the fifth leading cause of blindness worldwide accounting for nearly 5% of all blindness. However, most of the prevalence and incidence data is from developed countries, with very limited information from sub-Saharan Africa. The study sought to determine the prevalence of, and factors associated ...

  2. Utility of Childhood Glucose Homeostasis Variables in Predicting Adult Diabetes and Related Cardiometabolic Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Quoc Manh; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Xu, Ji-Hua; Chen, Wei; Kieltyka, Lyn; Berenson, Gerald S.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study examines the usefulness of childhood glucose homeostasis variables (glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance index [homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance {HOMA-IR}]) in predicting pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes and related cardiometabolic risk factors in adulthood. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This retrospective cohort study consisted of normoglycemic (n = 1,058), pre-diabetic (n = 37), and type 2 diabetic (n = 25) adults aged 19–39 years who were followed o...

  3. Correlation of hs-CRP with environmental risk factors of nephropathy in type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Prakash Sah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the association of hs-CRP levels with environmental risk factors of diabetic nephropathy like smoking, drinking alcohol, diet, age of diabetic patient, duration of diabetes, medication of diabetes, and blood pressure medication. A hospital-based quantitative study was conducted at the Department of Clinical Biochemistry of Manipal Teaching Hospital (MTH Pokhara, Nepal, with 89 patients suffering from type 2 diabetes. Blood samples (n=89 from the patients were collected and the serums were separated. On the other hand, data on environmental risk factors of nephropathy were collected by using standard questionnaire. In this study, serum hs-CRP level was not found to be correlated with smoking (p=0.111, alcohol consumption (p=0.722, diet (p=0.496, duration of diabetes (p=0.519, age of diabetic patient (p=0.369, medication of diabetes (p=0.734, and blood pressure medication (p=0.625. Hence, our study concludes that serum hs-CRP value in type 2 diabetic patients is insignificantly correlated with the risk factors especially smoking, drinking alcohol, diet, duration of diabetes, age of diabetic patient, medication of diabetes, and medication of blood pressure.

  4. Pleiotropic effects of type 2 diabetes management strategies on renal risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muskiet, Marcel H A; Tonneijck, Lennart; Smits, Mark M; Kramer, Mark H H; Heerspink, Hiddo J Lambers; van Raalte, Daniël H

    2015-05-01

    In parallel with the type 2 diabetes pandemic, diabetic kidney disease has become the leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide, and is associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. As established in landmark randomised trials and recommended in clinical guidelines, prevention and treatment of diabetic kidney disease focuses on control of the two main renal risk factors, hyperglycaemia and systemic hypertension. Treatment of systemic hypertension with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor blockers is advocated because these drugs seem to exert specific renoprotective effects beyond blood pressure lowering. Emerging evidence shows that obesity, glomerular hyperfiltration, albuminuria, and dyslipidaemia might also adversely affect the kidney in diabetes. Control of these risk factors could have additional benefits on renal outcome in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, despite multifactorial treatment approaches, residual risk for the development and progression of diabetic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes remains, and novel strategies or therapies to treat the disease are urgently needed. Several drugs used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes are associated with pleiotropic effects that could favourably or unfavourably change patients' renal risk profile. We review the risk factors and treatment of diabetic kidney disease, and describe the pleiotropic effects of widely used drugs in type 2 diabetes management on renal outcomes, with special emphasis on antihyperglycaemic drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Risk Factors for Thyroid Dysfunction among Type 2 Diabetic Patients in a Highly Diabetes Mellitus Prevalent Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metab Al-Geffari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes and thyroid dysfunction found to exist simultaneously. In this regard, the present study looked into the prevalence of different forms of thyroid dysfunction and their risk factors among Type 2 diabetic Saudi patients. Methodology. A cross-sectional retrospective randomized hospital-based study of 411 Type 2 diabetic Saudi patients of >25 years of age was conducted to test the prevalence of different types of thyroid dysfunction and their risk factors. Results. The prevalence of different types of thyroid dysfunction is 28.5%, of which 25.3% had hypothyroidism, where 15.3%, 9.5%, and 0.5% are clinical, subclinical, and overt hypothyroidism, respectively. The prevalence of hyperthyroidism is 3.2%, of which subclinical cases accounted for 2.7% and overt hyperthyroidism accounted for 0.5%. Risk factors for thyroid dysfunction among Saudi Type 2 diabetic patients are family history of thyroid disease, female gender, and duration of diabetes of >10 years, while the risk was not significant in patients with history of goiter and patients aged >60 years. Smoking and parity show a nonsignificant reduced risk. Conclusion. Thyroid dysfunction is highly prevalent among Saudi Type 2 diabetic patients, and the most significant risk factors are family history of thyroid disease, female gender, and >10 years duration of diabetes.

  6. Diabetes prevalence and its risk factors in rural area of Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To estimate the usefulness of the Indian diabetes risk score for detecting undiagnosed diabetes in the rural area of Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in the field practice area of rural health centers (Chunampett and Annechikuppam, Tamil Nadu, covering a population of 35000 from February to March 2008 by using a predesigned and pretested protocol to find out the prevalence and the risk of diabetes mellitus in general population by using Indian diabetes risk score. Results: 1936 respondents comprising 1167 (60.27% females and 769 (39.73% males were studied. Majority 1203 (62.50% were Hindus. 1220 (63.% had studied up to higher secondary. 1200 (62% belonged to lower and lower-middle socio-economic class. A large number of the subjects 948 (50% were below 35 years of age. Most of the respondents 1411 (73% indulged in mild to moderate physical activity. 1715 (87.91% had no family history of diabetes mellitus. 750 (39.64% individuals were in the overweight category (>25 BMI. Out of these overweight persons, 64% had high diabetic risk score. It is observed that chances of high diabetic score increase with the increase in BMI. Prevalence of diabetes in studied population was 5.99%; out of these, 56% known cases of diabetes mellitus had high (>60 IDRS. Co-relation between BMI and IDRS shows that, if BMI increases from less than 18.50 to more than 30, chances of high risk for developing diabetes mellitus also significantly increase. Conclusion: This study estimates the usefulness of simplified Indian diabetes risk score for identifying undiagnosed high risk diabetic subjects in India. This simplified diabetes risk score has categorized the risk factors based on their severity. Use of the IDRS can make mass screening for undiagnosed diabetes in India more cost effective.

  7. Diabetic nephropathy and its risk factors in a society with a type 2 diabetes epidemic: a Saudi National Diabetes Registry-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al-Rubeaan

    Full Text Available The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy and its risk factors have not been studied in a society known to have diabetes epidemic like Saudi Arabia. Using a large data base registry will provide a better understanding and accurate assessment of this chronic complication and its related risk factors.A total of 54,670 patients with type 2 diabetes aged ≥ 25 years were selected from the Saudi National Diabetes Registry (SNDR and analyzed for the presence of diabetic nephropathy. The American Diabetes Association (ADA criterion was used to identify cases with microalbuminuria, macroalbuminuria and end stage renal disease (ESRD for prevalence estimation and risk factor assessment.The overall prevalence of diabetic nephropathy was 10.8%, divided into 1.2% microalbuminuria, 8.1%macroalbuninuria and 1.5% ESRD. Age and diabetes duration as important risk factors have a strong impact on the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy, ranging from 3.7% in patients aged 25-44 years and a duration of >5 years, to 21.8% in patients ≥ 65 years with a diabetes duration of ≥ 15 years. Diabetes duration, retinopathy, neuropathy, hypertension, age >45 years, hyperlipidemia, male gender, smoking, and chronologically, poor glycemic control has a significantly high risk for diabetic nephropathy.The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy is underestimated as a result of a shortage of screening programs. Risk factors related to diabetic nephropathy in this society are similar to other societies. There is thus an urgent need for screening and prevention programs for diabetic nephropathy among the Saudi population.

  8. Diabetic Nephropathy and Its Risk Factors in a Society with a Type 2 Diabetes Epidemic: A Saudi National Diabetes Registry-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rubeaan, Khalid; Youssef, Amira M.; Subhani, Shazia N.; Ahmad, Najlaa A.; Al-Sharqawi, Ahmad H.; Al-Mutlaq, Hind M.; David, Satish K.; AlNaqeb, Dhekra

    2014-01-01

    Aims The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy and its risk factors have not been studied in a society known to have diabetes epidemic like Saudi Arabia. Using a large data base registry will provide a better understanding and accurate assessment of this chronic complication and its related risk factors. Methodology A total of 54,670 patients with type 2 diabetes aged ≥25 years were selected from the Saudi National Diabetes Registry (SNDR) and analyzed for the presence of diabetic nephropathy. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) criterion was used to identify cases with microalbuminuria, macroalbuminuria and end stage renal disease (ESRD) for prevalence estimation and risk factor assessment. Results The overall prevalence of diabetic nephropathy was 10.8%, divided into 1.2% microalbuminuria, 8.1%macroalbuninuria and 1.5% ESRD. Age and diabetes duration as important risk factors have a strong impact on the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy, ranging from 3.7% in patients aged 25–44 years and a duration of >5 years, to 21.8% in patients ≥65 years with a diabetes duration of ≥15 years. Diabetes duration, retinopathy, neuropathy, hypertension, age >45 years, hyperlipidemia, male gender, smoking, and chronologically, poor glycemic control has a significantly high risk for diabetic nephropathy. Conclusion The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy is underestimated as a result of a shortage of screening programs. Risk factors related to diabetic nephropathy in this society are similar to other societies. There is thus an urgent need for screening and prevention programs for diabetic nephropathy among the Saudi population. PMID:24586457

  9. Academic Skills in Children with Early-Onset Type 1 Diabetes: The Effects of Diabetes-Related Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannonen, Riitta; Komulainen, Jorma; Riikonen, Raili; Ahonen, Timo; Eklund, Kenneth; Tolvanen, Asko; Keskinen, Paivi; Nuuja, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The study aimed to assess the effects of diabetes-related risk factors, especially severe hypoglycaemia, on the academic skills of children with early-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Method: The study comprised 63 children with T1DM (31 females, 32 males; mean age 9y 11mo, SD 4mo) and 92 comparison children without diabetes (40…

  10. Type 2 diabetes in children: Clinical aspects and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P V Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A strong link between obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome has been reported with development of a new paradigm to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, with some evidence suggesting that beta-cell dysfunction is present before the onset of impaired glucose tolerance. Differentiating type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM from T2DM is actually not very easy and there exists a number of overlapping characteristics. The autoantibody frequencies of seven antigens in T1DM patients may turn out to be actually having T2DM patients (pre-T2DM. T2DM patients generally have increased C-peptide levels (may be normal at time of diagnosis, usually no auto-antibodies, strong family history of diabetes, obese and show signs of insulin resistance (hypertension, acanthosis, PCOS. The American Academy of Paediatrics recommends lifestyle modifications ± metformin when blood glucose is 126-200 mg/dL and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c 200 mg/dL and HbA1c >8.5, with or without ketosis. Metformin is not recommended if the patient is ketotic, because this increases the risk of lactic acidosis. Metformin is currently the only oral hypoglycemic that has been approved for use in children. Knowing these subtle differences in mechanism, and knowing how to test patients for which mechanism (s are causing their diabetes mellitus, may help us eventually tailor treatment programs on an individual basis.

  11. Lifestyle factors and mortality risk in individuals with diabetes mellitus: are the associations different from those in individuals without diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluik, Diewertje; Boeing, Heiner; Li, Kuanrong; Kaaks, Rudolf; Johnsen, Nina Føns; Tjønneland, Anne; Arriola, Larraitz; Barricarte, Aurelio; Masala, Giovanna; Grioni, Sara; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Mattiello, Amalia; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; van der A, Daphne L; Sluijs, Ivonne; Franks, Paul W; Nilsson, Peter M; Orho-Melander, Marju; Fhärm, Eva; Rolandsson, Olov; Riboli, Elio; Romaguera, Dora; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Nöthlings, Ute

    2014-01-01

    Thus far, it is unclear whether lifestyle recommendations for people with diabetes should be different from those for the general public. We investigated whether the associations between lifestyle factors and mortality risk differ between individuals with and without diabetes. Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), a cohort was formed of 6,384 persons with diabetes and 258,911 EPIC participants without known diabetes. Joint Cox proportional hazard regression models of people with and without diabetes were built for the following lifestyle factors in relation to overall mortality risk: BMI, waist/height ratio, 26 food groups, alcohol consumption, leisure-time physical activity, smoking. Likelihood ratio tests for heterogeneity assessed statistical differences in regression coefficients. Multivariable adjusted mortality risk among individuals with diabetes compared with those without was increased, with an HR of 1.62 (95% CI 1.51, 1.75). Intake of fruit, legumes, nuts, seeds, pasta, poultry and vegetable oil was related to a lower mortality risk, and intake of butter and margarine was related to an increased mortality risk. These associations were significantly different in magnitude from those in diabetes-free individuals, but directions were similar. No differences between people with and without diabetes were detected for the other lifestyle factors. Diabetes status did not substantially influence the associations between lifestyle and mortality risk. People with diabetes may benefit more from a healthy diet, but the directions of association were similar. Thus, our study suggests that lifestyle advice with respect to mortality for patients with diabetes should not differ from recommendations for the general population.

  12. Risk of diabetes according to male factor infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glazer, Clara Helene; Bonde, Jens Peter; Giwercman, Aleksander

    2017-01-01

    for the entire IVF registration period (1994-2012), separate analyses were performed for men identified from the first (1994-2005) and second (2006-2012) IVF registration period owing to heterogeneity in the reporting of male factor infertility in these two time periods, because the reason for male factor...... infertility was not available from the first register. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Male factor infertility was identified from the variable 'yes' or 'no' from the first IVF register and through a diagnosis code (e.g. oligospermia, azoospermia) from the second IVF register. The reference group...... was men with male factor infertility (='no') and those with normal semen quality or sterilized men. Of the included men, 18 499 (46.8%) had male factor infertility and 21 017 (53.2%) made up the reference group. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: A total of 651 (1.6%) diabetes cases were identified...

  13. Risk Factors for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus among Children and Adolescents in Basrah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athar Abdul Samad Majeed

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Environmental factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus, many of these factors have been uncovered despite much research. A case-control study was carried out to determine the potential maternal, neonatal and early childhood risk factors for type 1 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents in Basrah.Methods: A total of 96 diabetic patients who have been admitted to the pediatric wards at 3 main hospitals in Basrah, and those who have visited primary health care centers over the period from the 4th of November 2006 to the end of May 2007 were recruited. In addition, 299 non-diabetic children were included, their age ranged from 18 months to 17 years.Results: Family history of type 1 diabetes mellitus and thyroid diseases in first and second degree relatives was found to be an independent risk factor for type 1 diabetes mellitus, (p<0.001. Regarding maternal habits and illnesses during pregnancy, the study has revealed that tea drinking during pregnancy is a risk factor for type 1 diabetes mellitus in their offspring, (p<0.05. In addition, maternal pre-eclampsia and infections were found to be significant risk factor for type 1 diabetes mellitus, (p<0.001. Neonatal infections, eczema and rhinitis during infancy were also significantly associated with development of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Moreover, the results revealed that duration of <6 months breast feeding is an important trigger of type 1 diabetes mellitus.Conclusion: Exposure to environmental risk factors during pregnancy (tea drinking, pre-eclampsia, and infectious diseases, neonatal period (respiratory distress, jaundice and infections and early infancy are thought to play an important role in triggering the immune process leading to B-cell destruction and the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  14. Is low birth weight a risk factor for the development of diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eshoj, O; Vaag, A; Borch-Johnsen, K

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate if low birth weight as a consequence of intrauterine malnutrition is a risk factor for the later development of diabetic nephropathy. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: In a case-control set-up a group of type 1 diabetic subjects with diabetic nephropathy (n = 51) and a matched control...... group with normal kidney function (n = 51) were compared. Diabetic nephropathy and normal kidney function were defined as urinary albumin excretion rate above 200 microg min-1 and below 20 microg min-1, respectively. The birth weights were all obtained from the midwives' original records. SETTING......: The patients were identified from a population-based study of chronic diabetic complications in the Funen County, Denmark. MAIN OUTCOMES: Birth weights according to the presence of diabetic nephropathy. RESULTS: The median (10-90 percentile) birth weights were 3,600 g (2,960-4,274) in the group with diabetic...

  15. Are obesity and anthropometry risk factors for diabetic retinopathy? The diabetes management project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirani, Mohamed; Xie, Jing; Fenwick, Eva; Benarous, Rehab; Rees, Gwyneth; Wong, Tien Yin; Lamoureux, Ecosse L

    2011-06-22

    To investigate the relationship between anthropometric parameters and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in adults with diabetes. Five hundred participants with diabetes were recruited prospectively from ophthalmology clinics in Melbourne, Australia. Each underwent an eye examination, anthropometric measurements, and standardized interview-administered questionnaires, and fasting blood glucose and serum lipids were analyzed. Two-field fundus photographs were taken and graded for DR. Height; weight; body mass index (BMI); waist, hip, neck, and head circumferences; and skinfold measurements were recorded. A total of 492 patients (325 men, 66.1%) aged between 26 and 90 years (median, 65) were included in the analysis: 171 (34.8%), 187 (38.0%), and 134 (27.2%) with no DR, nonproliferative DR (NPDR), and proliferative DR (PDR), respectively. After multiple adjustments, higher BMI (odds ratio [OR], 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI],1.01-1.11; P = 0.02) was significantly associated with any DR. Obese people were 6.5 times more likely to have PDR than were those with normal weight (OR, 6.52; 95% CI, 1.49-28.6; P = 0.013). Neck circumference (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.00-1.10; P = 0.03) and waist circumference (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.03-1.22; P = 0.01) were significantly associated with any DR. BMI (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.00-1.08; P = 0.04) and neck circumference (OR, 1.04 95% CI, 1.01-1.08; P = 0.04) were also positively associated with increasing severity levels of DR. Persons with diabetes with higher BMI and larger neck circumference are more likely to have DR and more severe stages of DR. These data suggest that obesity is an independent risk factor for DR.

  16. Medical and Psychological Risk Factors for Incident Hypertension in Type 1 Diabetic African-Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique S. Roy

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions. The development of hypertension in African-Americans living with type 1 diabetes appears to be multifactorial and includes both medical (overt proteinuria as well as psychological (high hostility risk factors.

  17. Risk Factors Associated with Hypercoagulability in Type 2 Diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    out a cross-sectional study to determine the risk factors and patient attributes that ... Results: Chi-square analysis revealed that .... observed to ensure uniformity, consistency, reliability ... manufactured by Human Gesellschaft of Germany were.

  18. Glucose variability for cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Shuang; Yin, Hang; Wei, Chunxiang; Xie, Linjun; He, Hua; Liu, Xiaoquan

    2017-01-01

    Aims It is consensus that glucose variability (GV) plays an important role in maccomplications of type 2 diabetes, but whether GV has a causal role is not yet clear for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study sought to explore the effect on GV for CVD risk factors with type 2 diabetes. Methods The systematic literature search was performed to identify all GV and CVD risk factors, including total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), Body Mass ...

  19. The effect of aerobic exercise on some diabetic risk factors in obese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Exercise has been shown to prevent and delay onset of diabetes. The purpose of the present study is to examine the effect of walking exercise in reducing some diabetic risk factors in sedentary obese women. Methods: Eighteen untrained obese (BMI>30) women aged 19-25 years volunteer took part in the ...

  20. Cardiovascular risk factors and diseases precede oral hypoglycaemic therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkens, JA; Herings, RMC; Stolk, RP; Spoelstra, JA; Grobbee, DE; Leufkens, HGM

    Although patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease share common risk factors, the link between these diseases remains largely unexplained. In this case-control study, the earlier use of cardiovascular drugs (before the diagnosis of diabetes) was investigated among cases with

  1. Cardiovascular risk factors and incident albuminuria in screen-detected type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webb, D. R.; Zaccardi, F.; Davies, M. J.; Griffin, S. J.; Wareham, N. J.; Simmons, R. K.; Rutten, G. E.; Sandbaek, A.; Lauritzen, T.; Borch-Johnsen, K.; Khunti, K.

    2017-01-01

    Background: It is unclear whether cardiovascular risk factor modification influences the development of renal disease in people with type 2 diabetes identified through screening. We determined predictors of albuminuria 5 years after a diagnosis of screen-detected diabetes within the ADDITION-Europe

  2. Natural Products for the Prevention and Alleviation of Risk Factors for Diabetes: Chromium and Cinnamon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural products are widespread for the alleviation and prevention of the risk factors of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes. We have shown that glucose, insulin, cholesterol, and hemoglobin A1c levels are all improved in people with type 2 diabetes following chromium supplementation in a double-b...

  3. Effects of Probiotic Yogurt Consumption on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F mohammadi

    2015-02-01

    Conclusion: Consumption of probiotic yogurt improved lipid profile and some inflammatory biomarkers in patients with type 2 diabetes. Also, probiotic yogurt caused significant decrease in HbA1c. It is suggested that probiotic yogurt may be used as an adjunct therapy to reduce the cardiovascular disease risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

  4. Low birth weight. A risk factor for development of diabetic nephropathy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, P; Tarnow, L; Nielsen, F S

    1995-01-01

    for expression of renal disease after exposure to potentially injurious renal stimuli. The aim of this study was to determine if low birth weight is a risk factor for development of diabetic nephropathy. In a case-control study, we investigated 184 (110 men) insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) patients...

  5. Risk factors for heart disease and stroke among diabetic persons, by disability status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, Catherine A; Denny, Clark H; Greenlund, Kurt J; Benjamin, Stephanie M; Strine, Tara W; Balluz, Lina S; Mokdad, Ali H

    2005-01-01

    To determine whether disabled diabetic persons have a higher prevalence of risk factors for heart disease and stroke than do diabetic persons without disability. RESEARCH, DESIGN, AND METHODS: Data were analyzed for noninstitutionalized adults in 27 states and the District of Columbia that participated in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 2001 and/or 2003. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the adjusted prevalence and odds ratios of disabled diabetic persons, by sociodemographic characteristics. The logit form of each model was used to estimate conditional marginal probabilities of risk factors for heart disease and stroke among diabetic persons, by disability status. Diabetic persons with disability were more likely than those without disability to have more risk factors for heart disease and stroke, including insufficient leisure-time physical activity or inactivity (adjusted prevalence: 75.2% vs. 63.3%; Pvs. 43.3%; Pvs. 48.4%; P=.038), and hypertension (63.9% vs. 56.6%; Ptwo or more, three or more, and four or more risk factors (97.2% vs. 95.6%, 83.5% vs. 74.0%, 56.5% vs. 41.1%, and 22.2% vs. 13.6%, respectively; Pstroke. Health care guidelines specifically targeting diabetic patients with disability may be needed to aid health care providers in addressing these risk factors.

  6. Risk Factors For Diabetic Foot In Tetouan, Morocco - A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham AOUFI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction  Diabetes is a globally major public health problem. Its evolution is insidious and silent before the appearance of serious complications as a consequence in terms of morbidity than of mortality.  Complications in the feet are among the most frequent and feared. This study helps identify factors associated with diabetic foot in diabetic patients in the province of Tetouan in public and private sector.Methods This is a case-control study in which 136 diabetic patients monitored in the public and private sector in the province of Tetouan were chosen. 68 patients had diabetic foot and 68 were diabetic patients without this complication. Data were collected from patients’ records and supplemented by interviews. The factors compared between the two groups were socio-demographic, biological and related to diabetes and lifestyle. These risk factors were determined by bivariate and multivariate analyses.Results Statistically significant associations were found between diabetic foot and several factors including: the irregular monitoring of patients: ORadjusted = 7.7 [1.9-23], the rate of glycated hemoglobin: ORadjusted = 1.7 [1.2-2.3], diabetes duration: ORadjusted = 1.2 [1.03-1.26], and physical activity ORadjusted = 1.1 [0.02-0.9]. However, no association was found between diabetic foot and the level of education or occupation.Conclusion To prevent the development of diabetic foot, more attention should be given to diabetic patients whose diabetes duration is long, patient monitoring should be regular and diabetes control should be optimal. In addition, physical activity is recommended for diabetic patients as part of promoting healthy lifestyles

  7. Physiological and behavioral risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Anamitra; Mazumdar, Sumit; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Rai, Rajesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of physiological and behavioral risk factors of diabetes in rural India is poorly understood. Using data from a health and demographic surveillance site of Birbhum district in West Bengal, India, this study aims to assess the risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A total of 7674 individuals aged ≥18 years participated in a cross-sectional study. Venous plasma glucose method was used for measuring and reporting glucose concentrations in blood, categorized as individuals with diabetes, pre-diabetes or impaired, and normoglycemic. Aside from a set of physiological and behavioral risk factors, a range of socioeconomic confounders of diabetes was computed. Bivariate analysis with χ(2) test, and multivariate ordered logit regression methods were deployed to attain the study's objective. Overall 2.95% and 3.34% of study participants were diagnosed as individuals with diabetes and pre-diabetes or impaired, respectively. Compared to the poorest, the richest have higher probability (β: 0.730; 95% CI 0.378 to 1.083) of being diagnosed with diabetes. As compared to people with normal body mass index, overweight/obese people are more prone to being diagnosed with diabetes (β: 0.388; 95% CI 0.147 to 0.628). With a decreasing level of physical activity, people are more likely to be diagnosed with diabetes. To curb the level of diabetes, this study recommends a culturally sensitive, focused intervention for the adoption of physical activity with more traditional dietary practices, to control the level of overweight/obesity. Attention should be paid to relatively older patients with diabetes or adults with pre-diabetes.

  8. Risk factors in the development of diabetic retinopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Pérez, Arianna; Mijail Tirado Martínez, Oslay; Rivas Canino, María del Carmen; Licea Puig, Manuel; Maciquez Rodríguez, Juana Elvira

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Identificar los factores de riesgo que favorecen la aparición de la retinopatía diabética. MÉTODOS: Se efectuó un estudio observacional analítico de tipo caso-control en 153 diabéticos atendidos consecutivamente en el Centro de Atención al Diabético, entre julio y diciembre del año 2008. Se estudiaron: edad, sexo, color de piel, consumo de alcohol, hábito de fumar, tipo de diabetes mellitus, tratamiento y evolución, tipo de retinopatía diabética, factores sistémicos y oculares asoci...

  9. Control to goal of cardiometabolic risk factors among Nigerians living with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, C I; Ofoegbu, E N

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors contribute to morbidity and mortality among diabetic patients. National and international guidelines on management of diabetes therefore emphasize control to goals of blood glucose, blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and obesity so as to minimize the development of complications and enhance the patients' quality of life. To evaluate the status of control to goals of cardiometabolic risk factors among the diabetic patients attending the Diabetes clinic of University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu. A survey of 233 type 2 diabetic patients recruited from the Diabetes clinic of our hospital was carried out. Standard procedures as described in the WHO STEP instrument were used to determine the waist circumference, weight, height, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Fasting blood glucose and lipid profiles were also assessed. Therapeutic goals used to define risk or poor control were values adopted by expert groups such as American diabetes association (ADA), National cholesterol education program (NCEP), American association of clinical endocrinologist (AACE) and International diabetes federation (IDF). There were 98 males and 135 females with mean (SD) duration of diabetes mellitus (DM) of 6.7 (6.3) years. Suboptimal glycemic, blood pressure control and dyslipidemia were observed in 65.7%, 51.9%, 97.1% of the subjects respectively while 60.1% of the subjects were found to be overweight/obese. Comparing the mean indices of risk factors with the recommended therapeutic goals, status of control was optimal for HDL-cholesterol, waist circumference and triglycerides. All the other risk factors were suboptimal. Control to goals of cardiovascular risk factors is poor among the patients. There is the need to identify and tackle the possible contributing factors so as to reduce the morbidity and mortality in these patients.

  10. Is autoimmune thyroid dysfunction a risk factor for gestational diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual Corrales, Eider; Andrada, Patricia; Aubá, María; Ruiz Zambrana, Alvaro; Guillén Grima, Francisco; Salvador, Javier; Escalada, Javier; Galofré, Juan C

    2014-01-01

    Some recent studies have related autoimmune thyroid dysfunction and gestational diabetes (GD). The common factor for both conditions could be the existence of pro-inflammatory homeostasis. The study objective was therefore to assess whether the presence of antithyroid antibodies is related to the occurrence of GD. Fifty-six pregnant women with serum TSH levels ≥ 2.5 mU/mL during the first trimester were retrospectively studied. Antithyroid antibodies were measured, and an O'Sullivan test was performed. GD was diagnosed based on the criteria of the Spanish Group on Diabetes and Pregnancy. Positive antithyroid antibodies were found in 21 (37.50%) women. GD was diagnosed in 15 patients, 6 of whom (10.71%) had positive antibodies, while 9 (16.07%) had negative antibodies. Data were analyzed using exact logistic regression by LogXact-8 Cytel; no statistically significant differences were found between GD patients with positive and negative autoimmunity (OR = 1.15 [95%CI = 0.28-4.51]; P=1.00). The presence of thyroid autoimmunity in women with TSH above the recommended values at the beginning of pregnancy is not associated to development of GD. However, GD prevalence was higher in these patients as compared to the Spanish general population, suggesting the need for closer monitoring in pregnant women with TSH levels ≥ 2.5 mU/mL. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. An identification of the risk factors implicated in diabetic ketoacidosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reviewed (60 type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients and 17 type 2 DM patients). Results. More juveniles ... insulin deficiency aggravated by ensu- ... for a worldwide review of all aspects of. DKA in ..... children with diabetic ketoacidosis. New.

  12. Frequency and risk factors of severe hypoglycaemia in insulin-treated Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akram, K; Pedersen-Bjergaard, U; Carstensen, B

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: The reported risk of severe hypoglycaemia in insulin-treated Type 2 diabetes is highly variable and few studies have evaluated the influence of risk factors. We assessed the incidence and the influence of potential risk factors for severe hypoglycaemia in a questionnaire survey in subjects...... with insulin-treated Type 2 diabetes receiving currently recommended multifactorial intervention. METHODS: Consecutive patients with insulin-treated Type 2 diabetes (n = 401) completed a questionnaire about occurrence of hypoglycaemia in the past, hypoglycaemia awareness and socio-demographic factors. A zero...... treatment and treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor antagonists (ARBs) were associated with reduced risk. C-peptide concentration and HbA1c were not associated with the risk of severe hypoglycaemia. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of insulin-treated Type 2...

  13. New-onset diabetes after transplant: Incidence, risk factors and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To ascertain the incidence of and clinical and genetic risk factors that predispose to NODAT, and to examine its effect on the outcome of renal transplantation. Methods. We performed a retrospective cohort review of all renal transplants at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa, between 2004 and 2008. Patients ...

  14. Diabetes is a risk factor for pulmonary tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Range, Nyagosya; PrayGod, George

    2011-01-01

    Background Diabetes and TB are associated, and diabetes is increasingly common in low-income countries where tuberculosis (TB) is highly endemic. However, the role of diabetes for TB has not been assessed in populations where HIV is prevalent. Methods A case-control study was conducted in an urban...... population in Tanzania among culture-confirmed pulmonary TB patients and non-TB neighbourhood controls. Participants were tested for diabetes according to WHO guidelines and serum concentrations of acute phase reactants were measured. The association between diabetes and TB, and the role of HIV as an effect...

  15. Population-Level Prediction of Type 2 Diabetes From Claims Data and Analysis of Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavian, Narges; Blecker, Saul; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Smith-McLallen, Aaron; Nigam, Somesh; Sontag, David

    2015-12-01

    We present a new approach to population health, in which data-driven predictive models are learned for outcomes such as type 2 diabetes. Our approach enables risk assessment from readily available electronic claims data on large populations, without additional screening cost. Proposed model uncovers early and late-stage risk factors. Using administrative claims, pharmacy records, healthcare utilization, and laboratory results of 4.1 million individuals between 2005 and 2009, an initial set of 42,000 variables were derived that together describe the full health status and history of every individual. Machine learning was then used to methodically enhance predictive variable set and fit models predicting onset of type 2 diabetes in 2009-2011, 2010-2012, and 2011-2013. We compared the enhanced model with a parsimonious model consisting of known diabetes risk factors in a real-world environment, where missing values are common and prevalent. Furthermore, we analyzed novel and known risk factors emerging from the model at different age groups at different stages before the onset. Parsimonious model using 21 classic diabetes risk factors resulted in area under ROC curve (AUC) of 0.75 for diabetes prediction within a 2-year window following the baseline. The enhanced model increased the AUC to 0.80, with about 900 variables selected as predictive (p differences between AUCs). Similar improvements were observed for models predicting diabetes onset 1-3 years and 2-4 years after baseline. The enhanced model improved positive predictive value by at least 50% and identified novel surrogate risk factors for type 2 diabetes, such as chronic liver disease (odds ratio [OR] 3.71), high alanine aminotransferase (OR 2.26), esophageal reflux (OR 1.85), and history of acute bronchitis (OR 1.45). Liver risk factors emerge later in the process of diabetes development compared with obesity-related factors such as hypertension and high hemoglobin A1c. In conclusion, population-level risk

  16. Knowledge of stroke risk factors amongst black diabetic, hypertensive and stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bogoshi

    2003-01-01

    knowledge of black patients diagnosed with hypertension, diabetes and stroke about the risk factors for stroke.  Four groups made up of 33 subjects (hypertensive, diabetic, stroke and control group were interviewed using open-ended questions and a structured questionnaire. Qualitative coding, frequencies and proportions were used to determine their knowledge.  Groups were compared with respect to percentage knowledge using the chi-square statistic at a 0.05 level of significance.  Stress was mentioned as the most important risk factor in all groups.  Although identification of stroke risk factors was  inadequate, the diabetic group was found to be significantly better in  identifying some of the risk factors (salt - p =0,05; sugar - p = 0,001; fat - p = 0,004; moderate smoking - p = 0,05; weight - p = 0,002

  17. Lifestyle risk factors and new-onset diabetes mellitus in older adults: the cardiovascular health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffarian, Dariush; Kamineni, Aruna; Carnethon, Mercedes; Djoussé, Luc; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Siscovick, David

    2009-04-27

    The combined impact of lifestyle factors on incidence of diabetes mellitus later in life is not well established. The objective of this study was to determine how lifestyle factors, assessed in combination, relate to new-onset diabetes in a broad and relatively unselected population of older adults. We prospectively examined associations of lifestyle factors, measured using repeated assessments later in life, with incident diabetes mellitus during a 10-year period (1989-1998) among 4883 men and women 65 years or older (mean [SD] age at baseline, 73 [6] years) enrolled in the Cardiovascular Health Study. Low-risk lifestyle groups were defined by physical activity level (leisure-time activity and walking pace) above the median; dietary score (higher fiber intake and polyunsaturated to saturated fat ratio, lower trans-fat intake and lower mean glycemic index) in the top 2 quintiles; never smoked or former smoker more than 20 years ago or for fewer than 5 pack-years; alcohol use (predominantly light or moderate); body mass index less than 25 (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared); and waist circumference of 88 cm for women or 92 cm for men. The main outcome measure was incident diabetes defined annually by new use of insulin or oral hypoglycemic medications. We also evaluated fasting and 2-hour postchallenge glucose levels. During 34,539 person-years, 337 new cases of drug-treated diabetes mellitus occurred (9.8 per 1000 person-years). After adjustment for age, sex, race, educational level, and annual income, each lifestyle factor was independently associated with incident diabetes. Overall, the rate of incident diabetes was 35% lower (relative risk, 0.65; 95% confidence interval, 0.59-0.71) for each 1 additional lifestyle factor in the low-risk group. Participants whose physical activity level and dietary, smoking, and alcohol habits were all in the low-risk group had an 82% lower incidence of diabetes (relative risk, 0.18; 95

  18. Thyroid Dysfunction and Associated Risk Factors among Nepalese Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj Khatiwada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To assess thyroid function and associated risk factors in Nepalese diabetes mellitus patients. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 419 diabetes mellitus patients at B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal. Information on demographic and anthropometric variables and risk factors for thyroid dysfunction was collected. Blood samples were analysed to measure thyroid hormones, blood sugar, and lipid profile. Results. Prevalence rate of thyroid dysfunction was 36.03%, with subclinical hypothyroidism (26.5% as the most common thyroid dysfunction. Thyroid dysfunction was much common in females (42.85% compared to males (30.04% p=0.008 and in type 1 diabetes (50% compared to type 2 diabetes mellitus (35.41% p=0.218. Diabetic patients with thyroid dysfunction had higher total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol in comparison to patients without thyroid dysfunction. Significant risk factors for thyroid dysfunction, specifically hypothyroidism (overt and subclinical, were smoking (relative risk of 2.56 with 95% CI (1.99–3.29, p<0.001, family history of thyroid disease (relative risk of 2.57 with 95% CI (2.0–3.31, p<0.001, and female gender (relative risk of 1.44 with 95% CI (1.09–1.91, p=0.01. Conclusions. Thyroid dysfunction is common among Nepalese diabetic patients. Smoking, family history of thyroid disease, and female gender are significantly associated with thyroid dysfunction.

  19. Clustering of risk factors in parents of patients with type 1 diabetes and nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Lena M; Forsblom, Carol; Fagerudd, Johan; Pettersson-Fernholm, Kim; Kilpikari, Riika; Groop, Per-Henrik

    2007-05-01

    To assess the impact of parental risk factors for diabetic nephropathy. This cross-sectional study included 2,355 type 1 diabetic patients from the FinnDiane (Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy) study. Diabetic nephropathy was defined as macroalbuminuria (urinary albumin excretion rate >200 microg/min or >300 mg/24 h) or end-stage renal disease. Information was available from 4,676 parents. Parental scores were calculated based on the number of various traits in the parents. Patients with diabetic nephropathy, compared with those without diabetic nephropathy, had a higher prevalence of maternal (41 vs. 35%, P = 0.046) and parental (62 vs. 55%, P = 0.044) hypertension, maternal stroke (7.6 vs. 5.1%, P = 0.044), and maternal (1.4 vs. 0.7%, P = 0.058) and parental (4.3 vs. 2.9%, P = 0.030) type 1 diabetes. If both, compared with none, of the parents had hypertension, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for diabetic nephropathy in offspring was 1.56 (95% CI 1.13-2.15). The adjusted OR for diabetic nephropathy was 2.13 (1.36-3.33) for the parental hypertension-diabetes score (3-4 vs. 0 points) and 2.13 (1.37-3.33) for the parental hypertension-cardiovascular disease (CVD)-diabetes score (4-6 vs. 0 points). Fathers of patients with diabetic nephropathy, compared with those without diabetic nephropathy, had reduced overall survival (log-rank P = 0.04) and reduced cardiovascular survival (log-rank P = 0.03). A cluster of parental hypertension, CVD, and diabetes is associated with diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetes, as is paternal mortality.

  20. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus among patients attending a rural Kenyan hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masemiano P. Chege

    2010-05-01

    Objectives: To describe the risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus among patients attending the outpatient clinics in a rural mission hospital in Kenya. Method: Forty-five diabetics and forty-five non-diabetics, resident in this rural hospital’s catchment area for at least 10 years, were randomly selected from patients attending outpatient clinics. Diabetics in a stable condition (not requiring hospitalisation, whose fasting blood sugars were below 6.1 mmol/L, were matched for age and gender with the non-diabetics who came to the hospital for outpatient services. A pilot-tested questionnaire on demography, current and past dietary habits, social habits, and family history was used to collect data. Waist circumference, height and weight were measured and BMI calculated. Data was analysed using SPSS for Windows. The Kruskal–Wallis test was used to compare the medians for the continuous variables, while the chi-squared test was used for the categorical variables. The z-test was used to calculate the relative risk. Results: Ninety participants (26 males, 64 females. The mean age was 61.8 for diabetics and 61.4 for non-diabetics. Childhood starvation (relative risk 2.08, p = 0.0090 and use of cassava for sustenance during childhood starvation (relative risk 3.12, p = 0.0090 were identified as risk factors. Diabetes in close relatives, another risk factor for this population (relative risk 2.2, p = 0.0131. Abdominal obesity was a risk factor for this population (in females relative risk 2.0, p = 0.0010. Conclusion: The risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus described in this rural population include advancing age, diabetes in a first-degree relative and abdominal obesity. This is similar to what has been cited in other studies. At variance, we found that more than 50% of the diabetics reported having suffered malnutrition/starvation in childhood, with more than half of them reporting their dependence on cassava as the only food source during starvation.

  1. Who Gets Diabetic Macular Oedema; When; and Why? Pathogenesis and Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Turgut Ozturk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic macular oedema (DMO presents an enormous rise in the last decades with an increasing number of diabetic patients. It has a negative impact on the health-related quality of life beside the related visual loss. Additionally, it incurs more health centre visits, higher health costs, and lower working performance. Therefore, early diagnosis and preventive measures gain more and more importance in the management of DMO. Risk factors for DMO can be divided into systemic and ocular risk factors. The leading systemic risk factors include age, type and duration of diabetes, insulin use, and glucose regulation. Hypertension, nephropathy, hyperlipidaemia, anaemia, cardiovascular disease, smoking, and amputation are other risk factors reported. In addition, susceptibility in cases with endothelial nitric oxide synthase polymorphism and vascular endothelial growth factor C634-G polymorphism has been reported. The severity of diabetic retinopathy, microaneurysm turnover, cataract surgery, incomplete vitreous detachment, and peripheral retinal ischaemia are among ocular risk factors. Though avoiding changes in the metabolic memory related to hyperglycaemia in the early period seems to be the most efficient treatment, nowadays close follow-up of patients with high risk and effort to control the modifiable risk factors seems to be the ideal treatment.

  2. Clinical Course and Risk Factors of Diabetic Retinopathy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Seung Yun

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWe investigated clinical course and risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM.MethodsA total of 759 patients with T2DM without DR were included from January 2001 to December 2004. Retinopathy evaluation was performed at least annually by ophthalmologists. The severity of the DR was classified into five categories according to the International Clinical Diabetic Retinopathy Severity Scales.ResultsOf the 759 patients, 523 patients (68.9% completed the follow-up evaluation. During the follow-up period, 235 patients (44.9% developed DR, and 32 patients (13.6% progressed to severe nonproliferative DR (NPDR or proliferative DR (PDR. The mean duration of diabetes at the first diagnosis of mild NPDR, moderate NPDR, and severe NPDR or PDR were 14.8, 16.7, and 17.3 years, respectively. After adjusting multiple confounding factors, the significant risk factors for the incidence of DR risk in patients with T2DM were old age, longer duration of diabetes, higher mean glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, and albuminuria. Even in the patients who had been diagnosed with diabetes for longer than 10 years at baseline, a decrease in HbA1c led to a significant reduction in the risk of developing DR (hazard ratio, 0.73 per 1% HbA1c decrement; 95% confidence interval, 0.58 to 0.91; P=0.005.ConclusionThis prospective cohort study demonstrates that glycemic control, diabetes duration, age, and albuminuria are important risk factors for the development of DR. More aggressive retinal screening for T2DM patients diagnosed with DR should be required in order to not miss rapid progression of DR.

  3. [The role of diabetes mellitus as a risk factor of acute myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiao-ren; Zhao, Yan-fang; Zou, Da-jin; Gu, Ping

    2011-06-01

    To determine the impact of elevated in-hospital glucose level on outcome of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and evaluate the role of diabetes mellitus as a risk factor of AMI. The study included a retrospective analysis of AMI patients who were admitted to No. 81 Hospital of PLA from January 2000 to May 2010. In patients without a history of diabetes, and those with fasting blood glucose (FBG)≥7.0 mmol/L at admission but returned to normal range soon after admission were defined as stress hyperglycemia of non-diabetic AMI patients. Both diabetic patients and non-diabetic patients were stratified into four mutually exclusive groups according to FBG levels: independent risk factor of death with relative odds ratio (OR) 1.03, with 95% confidence interval (95%CI) 1.01-1.16, P=0.012, and OR 1.56, 95%CI 1.09-2.23, P=0.015 in diabetic group and non-diabetic group, respectively. The incidence of congestive heart failure in diabetic group was significantly higher than that in non-diabetic group (40.0% vs. 22.4%, P=0.027). In non-diabetic group, the incidence of lung infection, congestive heart failure, serious arrhythmias and acute cerebrovascular events (51.1%, 34.0%, 27.7%, 14.9%, respectively) was increased significantly in patients with FBG≥7.0 mmol/L than that in patients with FBG<7.0 mmol/L (18.3%, 13.3%, 10.0%, 0, respectively, P<0.05 or P<0.01). This association was not seen in diabetic group. 80.0% of patients (36 cases) in diabetic group received anti-hyperglycemia treatments in which insulin therapy accounted for 63.9% (23 cases), while there was not even 1 patient who needed insulin therapy in non-diabetic patients with stress hyperglycemia. In-hospital mortality and complications were significantly increased in diabetic AMI patients and in non-diabetic AMI patients with stress hyperglycemia. Both a history of diabetes mellitus and stress hyperglycemia have strong influence on AMI prognosis. It seems to be more plausible to collaborate blood

  4. Chemical substances as risk factors of nephropathy in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Marchewka

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Although diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease, does not fall into the group of diseases induced by toxic substances or environmental pollution, there is much evidence that some chemicals have considerable importance in its development. Exposure to substances with potential renal toxicity is especially dangerous for diabetics because it accelerates and intensifies diabetic nephropathy. This paper discusses the relationship between the xenobiotics and the development of diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy with particular emphasis on those substances that causes the greatest damage to the kidneys. These are cadmium, iron, lead, arsenic, polychlorinated organic compounds, nitrogen compounds, and contrast agents. In addition, the mechanisms of diabetes mellitus induction or kidney damage by these xenobiotics are described.

  5. Diabetes and modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease: the prospective Million Women Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Elizabeth A.; Pirie, Kirstin L.; Stevens, Richard J.; Beral, Valerie; Brown, Anna; Liu, Bette; Green, Jane; Reeves, Gillian K.

    2008-01-01

    To compare the effect of potentially modifiable lifestyle factors on the incidence of vascular disease in women with and without diabetes. In 1996-2001 over one million middle-aged women in the UK joined a prospective study, providing medical history, lifestyle and socio-demographic information. All participants were followed for hospital admissions and deaths using electronic record-linkage. Adjusted relative risks (RRs) and incidence rates were calculated to compare the incidence of coronary heart disease and stroke in women with and without diabetes and by lifestyle factors. At recruitment 25,915 women (2.1% of 1,242,338) reported current treatment for diabetes. During a mean follow-up of 6.1 years per woman, 21,928 had a first hospital admission or death from coronary heart disease (RR for women with versus without diabetes = 3.30, 95% CI 3.14-3.47) and 7,087 had a first stroke (RR = 2.47, 95% CI 2.24-2.74). Adjusted incidence rates of these conditions in women with diabetes increased with duration of diabetes, obesity, inactivity and smoking. The 5-year adjusted incidence rates for cardiovascular disease were 4.6 (95% CI 4.4-4.9) per 100 women aged 50-69 in non-smokers with diabetes, 5.9 (95% CI 4.6-7.6) in smokers with diabetes not using insulin and 11.0 (95% CI 8.3-14.7) in smokers with diabetes using insulin. Non-smoking women with diabetes who were not overweight or inactive still had threefold increased rate for coronary disease or stroke compared with women without diabetes. Of the modifiable factors examined in middle aged women with diabetes, smoking causes the greatest increase in cardiovascular disease, especially in those with insulin treated diabetes

  6. risk factors for cardiovascular diseases among diabetic patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    uncommon among diabetic patients in Jimma University Specialized Hospital. Type 2 DM was a ... have been to Israel for less than 4 years (5). .... 102 (39.8%) had primary education. Sixty eight ..... Ethiopian immigrants to Israel. Diabetes care ...

  7. Treatment-dependent and treatment-independent risk factors associated with the risk of diabetes-related events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilke, Thomas; Mueller, Sabrina; Groth, Antje

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyse which factors predict the real-world macro-/microvascular event, hospitalisation and death risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, we aimed to investigate whether there exists both an under- and over-treatment risk...... of these patients. METHODS: We used a German claims/clinical data set covering the years 2010-12. Diabetes-related events were defined as (1) macro-, (2) microvascular events leading to inpatient hospitalisation, (3) other hospitalisations with type 2 diabetes mellitus as main diagnosis, (4) all-cause death and (5......) a composite outcome including all event categories 1-4. Factors associated with event risk were analysed by a Kaplan-Meier curve analysis and by multivariable Cox regression models. RESULTS: 229,042 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (mean age 70.2 years; mean CCI 6.03) were included. Among factors...

  8. Descriptive epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors and diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, George A

    2013-01-01

    Reliable data on risk factor levels, exposure history, and population distribution can help inform policies and programs for disease prevention and control. With rare exception however, ideal local data on major risk factors and causes of death and disease burden have been scarce in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Basic community surveys in some countries and recent systematic analysis of disease burden attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions of the world provide an opportunity to examine and relate diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors to mortality and burden in SSA. Rising body mass index, especially in women in Southern Africa; and rising systolic blood pressure in East Africa for both sexes, and in West Africa for women are the major cardiometabolic risk factors. Harmful use of alcohol, especially in Southern SSA, tobacco use, and physical inactivity are also important. Improving vital registration and risk factor surveillance remain major challenges. © 2013.

  9. Gestational diabetes as a risk factor for pancreatic cancer: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calderon R

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is known to be associated with cancer of the pancreas, though there is some debate as to whether it is a cause or a consequence of the disease. We investigated the incidence of pancreatic cancer in a cohort of 37926 Israeli women followed for 28–40 years for whom information on diabetes had been collected at the time they gave birth, in 1964–1976, in Jerusalem. There were 54 cases of pancreatic cancer ascertained from the Israel Cancer Registry during follow-up. Methods We used Cox proportional hazards models to adjust for age at baseline and explore effects of other risk factors, including ethnic groups, preeclampsia, birth order and birth weight of offspring. Results We observed no cases of pancreatic cancer in the women with insulin dependent diabetes; however, there were five cases in the women with gestational diabetes. The interval between the record of diabetes in pregnancy and the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer ranged from 14–35 years. Women with a history of gestational diabetes showed a relative risk of pancreatic cancer of 7.1 (95% confidence interval, 2.8–18.0. Conclusion We conclude that gestational diabetes is strongly related to the risk of cancer of the pancreas in women in this population, and that gestational diabetes can precede cancer diagnosis by many years.

  10. Risk Factors Accompanied with Nephropathy in Patients with Type II Diabetes; Test of the Biopsychosocial Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Rahimian Boogar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The study of biopsychosocial factors influencing nephropathy as a most serious complication of type II diabetes is important. This study aimed to investigate risk factors accompanied with nephropathy in patients with type II diabetes based on the biopsychosocial model. Materials & Methods: In a cross-sectional descriptive study, 295 patients with type II diabetes were selected by convenience sampling in Tehran Shariati hospital outpatient clinics. The data were collected by demographical information questionnaire along with disease characteristics and depression anxiety stress scales (dass, quality of life scale (who- qol- bref, diabetes self-management scale (dsms, and diabetes knowledge scale (dks, then analyzed by chi-square, independent t-test and logistic regression with pasw software. Results: Hypertension (OR=3.841 & P0.05.Conclusion: It is important to pay attention to hypertension, glycated hemoglobin, body mass index, diabetes self-management, depression, quality of life, and diabetes knowledge for therapeutic intervention programming and diabetes complications control protocols for diabetic patients.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;19(2:44-53

  11. Is Smoking a Risk Factor for Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 1 Diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaedt Thorlund, Mie; Borg Madsen, Mette; Green, Anders

    2013-01-01

    were asked about their smoking habits. The level of retinopathy was evaluated by ophthalmoscopy at baseline and by nine 45-degree colour field fundus photos at the follow-up. Results: In multivariate analyses there was a trend that current smokers at baseline were more likely to develop PDR......Aim: The aim was to evaluate if smoking was a risk factor for proliferative retinopathy (PDR) in a 25-year follow-up study. Methods: 201 persons from a population-based cohort of Danish type 1 diabetic patients were examined at baseline and again 25 years later. At both examinations the patients...... at the follow-up (odds ratio 1.90, 95% confidence interval 0.88-4.11, p = 0.10). Neither smoking status at the follow-up nor pack-years of smoking were associated with PDR. Conclusions: We found neither a beneficial nor a harmful effect of smoking on long-term incidence. Selective mortality among smokers...

  12. Type 2 diabetes mellitus as a risk factor for the onset of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nouwen, Arie; Winkley, Kirsty; Twisk, Jos W R

    2010-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: An earlier meta-analysis showed that diabetes is a risk factor for the development and/or recurrence of depression. Yet whether this risk is different for studies using questionnaires than for those relying on diagnostic criteria for depression has not been examined. This study...... examined the association of diabetes and the onset of depression by reviewing the literature and conducting a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies on this topic. METHODS: EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycInfo were searched for articles published up to September 2009. All studies that examined the relationship...... between type 2 diabetes and the onset of depression were included. Pooled relative risks were calculated using fixed and random effects models. RESULTS: Eleven studies met our inclusion criteria for this meta-analysis. Based on the pooled data, including 48,808 cases of type 2 diabetes without depression...

  13. [Risk factors for schizophrenia patients with type 2 diabetes: a metaanalysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Min; Xiao, Chuan; Yang, Min; Yuan, Ping; Liu, Yuanyuan

    2015-03-01

    To investigate risk factors for schizophrenia patients with complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus and to provide scientific evidence for prevention and management of this disease. Relevant studies on schizophrenia with type 2 diabetes mellitus in China were searched through PubMed, Medline, CBM, CNKI and VIP from 1997 to 2014. Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.2 soft ware. A total of 26 studies involving 6 373 participants (including 957 cases and 5 416 controls) were included. The results of Meta-analysis showed that the risk factors for schizophrenic patients with complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus were: gender (female) (OR=1.28, 95%CI: 1.09-1.50), age (≥ 40 year) (OR=6.02, 95%CI: 4.48-8.09), overweight (OR=2.32, 95%CI: 1.52-2.88), family history of diabetes (OR=6.12, 95%CI: 3.16-11.86), duration of schizophrenia (>10 years) (OR=3.60, 95%CI: 2.39-5.41), triglycerides (MD=0.38, 95%CI: 0.05-0.71). Male, old age, overweight, family history of diabetes, longer duration and high level of triglycerides are risk factors for schizophrenic patients with complication of diabetes mellitus.

  14. Phenotypic risk factors for new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODAT in renal transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Hap

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available New-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation (NODAT is defined as diabetes which developed after organ transplantation. NODAT occurs in approximately 16-20% of recipients one year after kidney transplantation and is the main factor for the increased mortality and morbidity, increased medical costs, progressive graft failure and decreased patients’ quality of life. Determination of phenotypic risk factors allows to define the scale of the risk of NODAT and can be helpful in detecting patients at risk of post-transplant diabetes. Overweight and obesity are well-known phenotypic risk factors that can be modified by lifestyle-change intervention. Adequate education about the principles of healthy lifestyle is one of the most important prevention factors. The medical staff should organize health education which should begin long before the planned transplantation, even at the stage of predialysis treatment or dialysis and be continued after transplantation. Early assessment of the risk of developing glucose metabolism disorders also allows the selection of immunosuppressive therapy less likely to affect carbohydrate metabolism. The article presents examples of simple risk scores and also principles of prevention and treatment of NODAT. The article presents the definition of NODAT, risk factors, especially overweight or obesity, risk scores and also principles of prevention and treatment of NODAT.

  15. Ways to Correct Modified Risk Factors in the Management of Diabetic Foot Syndrome

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    О.V. Marchenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents modified risk factors that influence the development and clinical course of ulcers of the feet in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM and diabetic foot syndrome (DFS. Most DM patients on admission to hospital for DFS have: prolonged decompensation of DM, lipid metabolism disorders, concomitant cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease, hypertension. It was found that the formation of sensorimotor neuropathy in patients with DM is a major risk factor for ulcers of the feet. At the time of ulcer detection, most patients have combination of sensorimotor neuropathy with other risk factors — foot deformity, presence of ulcers and/or amputations in past medical history, macroangiopathy. The presence of infection in the ulcerous defect is a significant risk factor for unfavorable course of DFS. Stable compensation of DM, the target values of blood lipids and blood pressure made it possible to achieve the healing of the ulcer in a shorter period.

  16. Diabetes and male sex are key risk factor correlates of the extent of coronary artery calcification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoll, Rachel; Zhao, Ying; Wiklund, Urban

    2017-01-01

    for CAC scoring. RESULTS: Among all patients, male sex (OR = 4.85, pdyslipidemia and smoking also showing a relationship. Among patients with CAC, age, diabetes, hypertension...... and dyslipidemia were associated with an increasing CAC score in males and females, with diabetes being the strongest dichotomous risk factor (p... males and females. To a lesser extent, hypertension and dyslipidemia were also associated in the high CAC quantiles and the low CAC quantiles respectively. CONCLUSION: In addition to age and male sex in the total population, diabetes is the most important correlate of CAC extent in both sexes....

  17. Diabetes mellitus: a risk factor in patients with Graves' orbitopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmann, R.; Mourits, M. P.

    1999-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the prevalence of dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and Graves' orbitopathy (GO) and to investigate the complications of surgery for GO in these patients. METHODS: The records of 482 consecutive patients with GO referred in a 5 year period were

  18. New-onset diabetes after transplant: Incidence, risk factors and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This open-access article is distributed under. Creative Commons ... diabetes was determined from the laboratory data (fasting plasma glucose (FPG) >7 ... The WBC membranes were then lysed with a protein denaturant (Proteinase K; ..... drafting and revision; AV contributed to design and co-ordination of the genetic study ...

  19. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and associated risk factors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Town, was recruited for a cross-sectional analytical stUdy conducted in ... and Ageing) cross- cultural studies on food habits and health in later life.s ..... Data relating to the family history of diabetes in this sample of older .... China and. Sweden.

  20. Frequency and risk factors of severe hypoglycemia in insulin-treated type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akram, Kamran; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2006-01-01

    Intensive treatment regimens including early initiation of insulin treatment are important to prevent late complications in type 2 diabetes. The assumed risk of severe hypoglycemia (SH) is a major barrier to initiation of insulin treatment. To assess the relevance of this risk we evaluated...... the frequency of SH as reported in the literature. Using Medline and Embase search we identified 11 studies (5 retrospective and 6 prospective) including at least 50 patients with insulin-treated type 2 diabetes followed for at least 6 months in which frequency of SH was reported. The incidence of SH....... Only few studies looked into the impact of risk factors on the rate of SH. Impaired hypoglycemia awareness, high age, long duration of diabetes and insulin therapy increased the risk, while no association was found with HbA1c and insulin dose. The present knowledge of SH in insulin-treated type 2...

  1. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in a Nigerian population with impaired fasting blood glucose level and diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oguoma, Victor M.; Nwose, Ezekiel U.; Ulasi, Ifeoma I.

    2017-01-01

    Background Diabetes is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and there are reports of increasing prevalence of prediabetes in Nigeria. This study therefore characterised CVDs risk factors in subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and diabetes. Methods Data from 4 population......-based cross-sectional studies on 2447 apparently healthy individuals from 18 - 89 years were analysed. Anthropometric, blood pressure and biochemical parameters were collected and classified. Individuals with IFG (prediabetes) and diabetes were merged each for positive cases of dyslipidaemia, high blood...... the need for risk assessment models for prediabetes and education of individuals at risk about factors that mitigate development of diabetes and CVDs....

  2. Soluble ST2 associates with diabetes but not established cardiovascular risk factors: a new inflammatory pathway of relevance to diabetes?

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    Ashley M Miller

    Full Text Available Preliminary data mostly from animal models suggest the sST2/IL-33 pathway may have causal relevance for vascular disease and diabetes and thus point to a potential novel inflammatory link to cardiometabolic disease. However, the characterisation of sST2 levels in terms of metabolic or vascular risk in man is completely lacking. We sought to address this gap via a comprehensive analysis of risk factor and vascular correlates of sST2 in a cross-sectional study (pSoBid. We measured sST2 in plasma in 639 subjects and comprehensively related it to cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors and imaged atherosclerosis measures. Circulating sST2 levels increased with age, were lower in women and in highest earners. After adjusting for age and gender, sST2 levels associated strongly with markers of diabetes, including triglycerides [effect estimate (EE per 1 standard deviation increase in sST2:1.05 [95%CI 1.01,1.10], liver function (alanine aminotransaminase [ALT] and γ-glutamyl transferase [GGT]: EE 1.05 [1.01,1.09] and 1.13 [1.07,1.19] respectively, glucose (1.02 [1.00,1.03] and sICAM-1 (1.05 [1.02,1.07]. However, sST2 levels were not related to smoking, cholesterol, blood pressure, or atheroma (carotid intima media thickness, plaque presence. These results suggest that sST2 levels, in individuals largely without vascular disease, are related principally to markers associated with diabetes and ectopic fat and add support for a role of sST2 in diabetes. Further mechanistic studies determining how sST2 is linked to diabetes pathways may offer new insights into the inflammatory paradigm for type 2 diabetes.

  3. Combination of diabetes risk factors and hepatic steatosis in Chinese: the Cardiometabolic Risk in Chinese (CRC Study.

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    Jun Liang

    Full Text Available Hepatic steatosis has been related to insulin resistance and increased diabetes risk. We assessed whether combination of diabetes risk factors, evaluated by the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score, was associated with risk of hepatic steatosis in an apparently healthy Chinese population.The study samples were from a community-based health examination survey in central China. In total 1,780 men and women (18-64 y were included in the final analyses. Hepatic steatosis was diagnosed by ultrasonography. We created combination of diabetes risk factors score on basis of age, Body Mass Index, waist circumference, physical activity at least 4 h a week, daily consumption of fruits, berries or vegetables, history of antihypertensive drug treatment, history of high blood glucose. The total risk score is a simple sum of the individual weights, and values range from 0 to 20.Hepatic steatosis was present 18% in the total population. In multivariate models, the odds ratios of hepatic steatosis were 1.20 (95%CI 1.15-1.25 in men and 1.25 (95%CI 1.14-1.37 in women by each unit increase in the combination of diabetes risk factors score, after adjustment for blood pressure, liver enzymes, plasma lipids, and fasting glucose. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for hepatic steatosis was 0.78 (95%CI 0.76-0.80, 0.76 in men (95%CI 0.74-0.78 and 0.83 (95%CI 0.79-0.87 in women.Our data suggest that combination of major diabetes risk factors was significantly related to risk of hepatic steatosis in Chinese adults.

  4. All-cause mortality among diabetic foot patients and related risk factors in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almashouq, Mohammad K.; Youssef, Amira M.; Al-Qumaidi, Hamid; Al Derwish, Mohammad; Ouizi, Samir; Al-Shehri, Khalid; Masoodi, Saba N.

    2017-01-01

    Background Although Diabetes mellitus is a major public health problem in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region with high rates of diabetic foot complications, there are only limited data concerning mortality among such a high risk group. Therefore, the main aim of the current study was to assess all-cause mortality and its related predictors among diabetic patients with and without diabetic foot complications. Methods Using data from the Saudi National Diabetes Registry (SNDR), a total of 840 patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes aged ≥25 years with current or past history of diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) or diabetes related lower extremity amputation (LEA) were recruited in 2007 from active patients’ files and followed up to 2013. These patients were compared with an equal number of age and gender matched diabetic patients without foot complication recruited at the same period. All patients were subjected to living status verification at 31st December 2013. Results The all-cause mortality rate among patients with DFU was 42.54 per 1000 person-years and among LEA patients was 86.80 per 1000 person-years among LEA patients for a total of 2280 and 1129 person-years of follow up respectively. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) (95% CI) was 4.39 (3.55–5.23) and 7.21 (5.70–8.72) for cases with foot ulcer and LEA respectively. The percentage of deceased patients increased by almost twofold (18.5%) among patients with diabetic foot ulcer and more than threefold (32.2%) among patients with LEA compared with patients without diabetic foot complications (10.7%). The worst survival was among patients with LEA at 0.679 and the presence of diabetic nephropathy was the only significant independent risk factor for all-cause mortality among patients with diabetic foot complications. On the other hand, obese patients have demonstrated significantly reduced all-cause mortality rate. Conclusions Diabetic patients with diabetic foot complications have an excess

  5. Prevalence of diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors in an Iranian population with acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousefizadeh Abbas

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death in industrialized countries and most patients with diabetes die from complications of atherosclerosis. The objective of this study was to determine the presence of diabetes mellitus and other conventional coronary heart disease risk factors (cigarette smoking, hypertension and hyperlipidemia in patients with acute coronary events in an Iranian population. Methods The study included 514 patients with unstable angina or myocardial infarction (MI out of 720 patients admitted to CCU ward of a general hospital from March 2003 to March 2005. History of diabetes, hypertension and cigarette smoking, demographic indices, coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus treatment, myocardial enzymes, serum triglycerides (TG and cholesterol and fasting and non fasting blood glucose levels and HbA1C of diabetics were recorded of admission sheets. The data were structured to appropriate one way ANOVA, T tests, and chi square test with SPSS 13 product for windows. Results Out of all patients 35.8% were female, 30% were diabetics (Duration 13.4 ± 8.7 years, 42% were smoker and 91% were hypertensive. Twenty four percent had MI and 76% had unstable angina. MI was significantly higher in diabetic patients (36.4% vs. 19.2%, P Conclusion In this study 19 out of 20 patients with acute coronary event have at least one of conventional cardiac risk factors. Diabetes and hypertension are leading risk factors, which may directly or indirectly interfere and predict more serious complications of coronary heart disease.

  6. Alcohol as a Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Baliunas, Dolly O.; Taylor, Benjamin J.; Irving, Hyacinth; Roerecke, Michael; Patra, Jayadeep; Mohapatra, Satya; Rehm, J?rgen

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To clarify the dose-response relationship between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A systematic computer-assisted and hand search was conducted to identify relevant articles with longitudinal design and quantitative measurement of alcohol consumption. Adjustment was made for the sick-quitter effect. We used fractional polynomials in a meta-regression to determine the dose-response relationships by sex and end point using lifetime abstainers as the...

  7. Polycystic ovary disease. A risk factor for gestational diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzone, A; Caruso, A; Di Simone, N; De Carolis, S; Fulghesu, A M; Mancuso, S

    1995-04-01

    We investigated the impact of pregestationally elevated insulin plasma levels on glycemic control in pregnant women with polycystic ovary disease (PCOD). Twelve patients with PCOD who became pregnant within six months following evaluation of their metabolic status were the study subjects. Four were obese and six (two obese) had a hyperinsulinemic response to the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). They were tested with the OGTT at 28-30 weeks of gestation. We also tested 12 normal patients and 10 consecutive patients with gestational diabetes; all were at the same gestational age. Plasma levels of insulin and glucose were determined in the samples collected for a period of four hours after glucose load (100 g). All PCOD patients significantly increased their insulin secretion in pregnancy. The hyperinsulinemic PCOD patients developed gestational diabetes (two patients) and impaired gestational glucose tolerance (three patients). The area under the insulin curve was greater in PCOD patients than in control and gestational diabetes patients (P PCOD may develop a derangement of glycemic control, probably related to their pregestational insulinemic status.

  8. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Associated Risk Factors in Patients Attending Diabetic Association Medical College Hospital in Faridpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poly Begum

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is increasing all over the world and varies widely depending on the region of the country, dietary habits and socio-economic status. The prevalence of GDM with its associated risk factors has important health complications for both mother and child. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of GDM and risk factors associated with it in women attending Diabetic Association Medical College Hospital in Faridpur for ante-natal care. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, screening for GDM was performed in 303 pregnant women. Women who consented to participate underwent a standardized 2-hour 75 gm oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. A proforma containing general information on demographic characteristics, socio-economic status, education level, parity, family history of diabetes and past history of GDM etc. was filled in. American Diabetes Association (ADA criteria for 75 gm 2-hour OGTT was used for diagnosing GDM. Results: A total of 303 women participated in the study and GDM was diagnosed in 22 (7.3% women. A single abnormal value was observed in additional 33 (10.89% women. On bivariate analysis risk factors found to be significantly associated with GDM were age, household income, parity, educational level, socio-economic status, hypertension, BMI, weight gain, acanthosis nigricans, family history of diabetes and past history of GDM; but on multivariate analysis only upper middle class and presence of acanthosis nigricans were found to be significantly associated with GDM. Conclusion: This study demonstrates a high prevalence of GDM in Bangladesh. These estimates for GDM may help for new suggestions to prevent and manage gestational diabetes.

  9. Preeclampsia as a risk factor for diabetes: a population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denice S Feig

    Full Text Available Women with preeclampsia (PEC and gestational hypertension (GH exhibit insulin resistance during pregnancy, independent of obesity and glucose intolerance. Our aim was to determine whether women with PEC or GH during pregnancy have an increased risk of developing diabetes after pregnancy, and whether the presence of PEC/GH in addition to gestational diabetes (GDM increases the risk of future (postpartum diabetes.We performed a population-based, retrospective cohort study for 1,010,068 pregnant women who delivered in Ontario, Canada between April 1994 and March 2008. Women were categorized as having PEC alone (n=22,933, GH alone (n=27,605, GDM alone (n=30,852, GDM+PEC (n=1,476, GDM+GH (n=2,100, or none of these conditions (n=925,102. Our main outcome was a new diagnosis of diabetes postpartum in the following years, up until March 2011, based on new records in the Ontario Diabetes Database. The incidence rate of diabetes per 1,000 person-years was 6.47 for women with PEC and 5.26 for GH compared with 2.81 in women with neither of these conditions. In the multivariable analysis, both PEC alone (hazard ratio [HR]=2.08; 95% CI 1.97-2.19 and GH alone (HR=1.95; 95% CI 1.83-2.07 were risk factors for subsequent diabetes. Women with GDM alone were at elevated risk of developing diabetes postpartum (HR=12.77; 95% CI 12.44-13.10; however, the co-presence of PEC or GH in addition to GDM further elevated this risk (HR=15.75; 95% CI 14.52-17.07, and HR=18.49; 95% CI 17.12-19.96, respectively. Data on obesity were not available.Women with PEC/GH have a 2-fold increased risk of developing diabetes when followed up to 16.5 years after pregnancy, even in the absence of GDM. The presence of PEC/GH in the setting of GDM also raised the risk of diabetes significantly beyond that seen with GDM alone. A history of PEC/GH during pregnancy should alert clinicians to the need for preventative counseling and more vigilant screening for diabetes. Please see later in the

  10. Risk factors for diabetes, but not for cardiovascular disease, are associated with family history of Type 2 diabetes in subjects from central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Ginez, Irma; Pérez-Fuentes, Ricardo; Baez-Duarte, Blanca G; Revilla-Monsalve, Cristina; Brambila, Eduardo

    2012-03-01

    Independent of obesity, family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (FHT2DM) is another important risk factor for developing diabetes. To establish the association among FHT2DM, risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease in subjects from central Mexico. Clinical and biochemical studies were performed in 383 first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes and 270 subjects unrelated to patients with type 2 diabetes-all subjects were from the city of Puebla in central Mexico. Logistic regressions were used to assess the association between FHT2DM and metabolic parameters. Cardiovascular risk was classified by dyslipidemia and the Framingham Risk Score (FRS). FHT2DM was associated with risk factors for diabetes, such as increased fasting insulin levels (OR = 1.731, 95% CI = 1.041-2.877), decreased insulin sensitivity (OR = 1.951, 95% CI = 1.236-3.080) and pre-diabetes (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.14-2.33). FHT2DH was not associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as dyslipidemia (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.70-1.79) and FRS (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.40-1.36) when adjusted for gender, age, smoking and obesity. Diabetic risk factors, but not cardiovascular disease risk factors, are associated with a positive family history of diabetes in subjects from central Mexico, independent of the presence of obesity.

  11. Risk factors for plantar foot ulcer recurrence in neuropathic diabetic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaijman, Roelof; de Haart, Mirjam; Arts, Mark L. J.; Wever, Daniel; Verlouw, Anke J. W. E.; Nollet, Frans; Bus, Sicco A.

    2014-01-01

    Recurrence of plantar foot ulcers is a common and major problem in diabetes but not well understood. Foot biomechanics and patient behavior may be important. The aim was to identify risk factors for ulcer recurrence and to establish targets for ulcer prevention. As part of a footwear trial, 171

  12. Peroxiredoxin isoforms are associated with cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Eter, E. [Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Cardiovascular Research Group, Faculty of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt); Al-Masri, A.A. [Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Cardiovascular Research Group, Faculty of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-03-03

    The production of oxygen free radicals in type 2 diabetes mellitus contributes to the development of complications, especially the cardiovascular-related ones. Peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) are antioxidant enzymes that combat oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between the levels of PRDX isoforms (1, 2, 4, and 6) and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Fifty-three patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (28F/25M) and 25 healthy control subjects (7F/18M) were enrolled. We measured the plasma levels of each PRDX isoform and analyzed their correlations with cardiovascular risk factors. The plasma PRDX1, -2, -4, and -6 levels were higher in the diabetic patients than in the healthy control subjects. PRDX2 and -6 levels were negatively correlated with diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, and hemoglobin A1c. In contrast, PRDX1 levels were positively correlated with low-density lipoprotein and C-reactive protein levels. PRDX4 levels were negatively correlated with triglycerides. In conclusion, PRDX1, -2, -4, and -6 showed differential correlations with a variety of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. These results should encourage further research into the crosstalk between PRDX isoforms and cardiovascular risk factors.

  13. Mexican American Parents' Perceptions of Childhood Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Barbara J.; Barr, Kathleen L.; Baker, Sharon K.

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify the norms, values, and perceptions of urban immigrant Mexican American (MA) parents of school children relative to physical activity, healthy eating, and child risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Investigators facilitated five focus groups in an urban elementary school setting and analyzed data using qualitative…

  14. Peroxiredoxin isoforms are associated with cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Eter, E.; Al-Masri, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    The production of oxygen free radicals in type 2 diabetes mellitus contributes to the development of complications, especially the cardiovascular-related ones. Peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) are antioxidant enzymes that combat oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between the levels of PRDX isoforms (1, 2, 4, and 6) and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Fifty-three patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (28F/25M) and 25 healthy control subjects (7F/18M) were enrolled. We measured the plasma levels of each PRDX isoform and analyzed their correlations with cardiovascular risk factors. The plasma PRDX1, -2, -4, and -6 levels were higher in the diabetic patients than in the healthy control subjects. PRDX2 and -6 levels were negatively correlated with diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, and hemoglobin A1c. In contrast, PRDX1 levels were positively correlated with low-density lipoprotein and C-reactive protein levels. PRDX4 levels were negatively correlated with triglycerides. In conclusion, PRDX1, -2, -4, and -6 showed differential correlations with a variety of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. These results should encourage further research into the crosstalk between PRDX isoforms and cardiovascular risk factors

  15. Diabetic retinopathy in Tanzania: prevalence and risk factors at entry into a regional screening programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Charles R; Burton, Matthew J; Hall, Claudette; Hall, Anthony; Courtright, Paul; Makupa, William U; Philippin, Heiko

    2016-03-01

    The number of adults with diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is expected to almost double by 2035. This study investigated the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and its risk factors at entry into a community-based screening programme. All persons with diabetes screened for retinopathy at entry into a screening programme in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania between November 2010 and December 2014 were included. Fundus photographs were taken with a Topcon retinal camera following pupil dilation. Data were collected on BP, random blood sugar, duration of diabetes, BMI and visual acuity on entry. A total of 3187 persons were screened for DR. The prevalence of any DR was 27.9% (95%CI 26.4-29.5%) with background diabetic retinopathy (BDR), pre-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PPDR) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) having a prevalence of 19.1% (95% CI 17.7-20.4%), 6.0% (95%CI 5.2-6.8%) and 2.9% (95%CI 2.3-3.5%), respectively. Maculopathy was present in 16.1% (95%CI 14.8-17.4%) of participants. Multivariable logistic regression analysis for the presence of any DR found independent associations with duration of diabetes (P planning of DR screening and treatment services in the African region. The study highlights the importance of managing comorbidities within DR screening programmes. © 2015 The Authors Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Effect of a group-based rehabilitation programme on glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes patients: The Copenhagen Type 2 Diabetes Rehabilitation Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadstrup, Eva Soelberg; Frølich, Anne; Perrild, Hans Jørgen Duckert

    2011-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of a group-based rehabilitation programme with an individual counselling programme at improving glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk factors among patients with type 2 diabetes.......To compare the effectiveness of a group-based rehabilitation programme with an individual counselling programme at improving glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk factors among patients with type 2 diabetes....

  17. The Thai DMS Diabetes Complications (DD.Comp.) project: prevalence and risk factors of diabetic retinopathy in Thai patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongsareejit, Amporn; Potisat, Somkiat; Krairittichai, Udom; Sattaputh, Charnvate; Arunratanachote, Woranut

    2013-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Thailand and their associated risk factors. A cross-sectional, multi-sites, hospital-based study was carried out between June and December 2006. Diabetic patients from the outpatient department of seven public hospitals (3 tertiary, 2 secondary and 2 community hospital) in Thailand were performed by retinal specialist. One thousand seven of 1,120 diabetic patients received retinal examination using indirect ophthalmoscope. Patients were divided into two groups (absent and present DR). Most patients in both groups were female (72.7 and 68.0%). The prevalence of DR was 24.0% (n = 242), mild NPDR 9.4% (n = 95), moderate NPDR 10.5% (n = 106), severe NPDR 1.3% (n = 13), and proliferative (PDR) 2.8% (n = 28). Age at onset, duration of DM, systolic blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), HbA1c, Triglyceride (TG), alcohol consumption, foot ulcer, and proteinuria were recorded. Metformin and insulin taking were statistically, significantly different among these groups. There is more prevalent NPDR and PDR in insulin-taking than non-insulin-taking groups. The grading of diabetic retinopathy is associated with the duration of diabetes. In multivariate regression analysis, associated risk factors of DR patients were the duration of DM, HbA1c levels, and proteinuria. Diabetic retinopathy was present in about one fourth of type 2 diabetic patients in this study. Associated risk factors of DR were the duration of DM, HbA1c levels, and proteinuria. Regular screening for DR especially in T2DM with associated risk factor should be done for early treatment.

  18. Strengths, Risk Factors, and Resilient Outcomes in Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilliard, Marisa E; Hagger, Virginia; Hendrieckx, Christel

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the challenges of living with type 1 diabetes, many adolescents achieve "resilient outcomes": high engagement in self-management behaviors such as self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG), good quality of life (QOL), and within-target glycemic outcomes (HbA1c). Adaptive diabetes...... factors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 471 Australian adolescents with type 1 diabetes (mean age 15.7 ± 1.9 years; diabetes duration 6.9 ± 4.2 years; 62% female; 53% using insulin pumps) completed a national cross-sectional survey about their diabetes-related strengths, risk factors (depressive....../anxiety symptoms, family conflict), and resilient outcomes (SMBG frequency, general QOL, HbA1c). RESULTS: Greater diabetes strengths were significantly related to resilient outcomes: more frequent SMBG (r = 0.39), lower HbA1c (r = -0.31), and higher general QOL (r = 0.50), as well as to lower risks: fewer...

  19. Risk factors for periodontal diseases among Yemeni type II diabetic patients. A case-control study.

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    Anas Shamala

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic periodontal diseases are one of diabetes mellitus complications. The present study aims to compare the periodontal status of type II diabetic patients to a control group and assess the role of risk factors in both groups. Materials and methods: A case-control study was conducted of 270 individuals (132 type II diabetics and 138 non-diabetics. Full mouth periodontal examination including plaque index, gingival bleeding, gingival recession, clinical attachment loss (CAL, tooth mobility, furcation involvement and the number of missing teeth. The case group was subdivided according to glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c status (poorly controlled HbA1c >8 and well controlled HbA1c≤8 Likewise, the duration of diabetes mellitus as short or long duration (DM≤10 or >10. The diabetic group was also subdivided according to smoking and Khat chewing habits. Result: The severity of periodontal disease among type II diabetic patients were significantly higher compared to the control group regarding the plaque index 2.6 (1.6-4.3, bleeding on probing 3.5 (2.3-13.0, gingival recession 2.0 (1.2-3.4, furcation involvement 4.0 (2.3-6.7, clinical attachment loss 5.7 (3.1-10.5, tooth mobility 2.0 (1.2-3.4, and number of missing teeth 4.4 (2.3-8.5. In addition, poorly controlled type II DM and long duration had higher CAL and number of missing teeth than well-controlled DM and short duration. No significant differences were found between smokers/nonsmokers and Khat chewers/non-chewers among the diabetic group. Conclusion: Type II diabetic patients have severe periodontal destruction and tooth loss compared to non-diabetic people and there were no differences within the diabetic group in regards to smoking and Khat chewing habits.

  20. Diabetic ketoacidosis: risk factors, mechanisms and management strategies in sub-Saharan Africa: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otieno, C F; Kayima, J K; Omonge, E O; Oyoo, G O

    2005-12-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis is the most common hyperglycaemic emergency in patients with diabetes mellitus, especially type 1 diabetes. It carries very high mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, both in the treated patients and those who are presenting to hospital with diabetes for the first time. To review the risk factors, mechanisms and management approaches in diabetes ketoacidosis in published literature and to discuss them in the context of why a significant proportion of patients who develop diabetic ketoacidosis in sub-Saharan Africa still have high mortality. Literature review of relevant published literature from both Africa and the rest of the world. The main causes or precipitants of DKA in patients in SSA are newly diagnosed diabetes, missed insulin doses and infections. The major underlying mechanism is insulin deficiency. Treated patients miss insulin doses for various reasons, for example, inaccessibility occasioned by; unavailability and unaffordability of insulin, missed clinics, perceived ill-health and alternative therapies like herbs, prayers and rituals. Infections also occur quite often, but are not overt, like urinary tract, tuberculosis and pneumonia. Due to widespread poverty of individuals and nations alike, the healthcare systems are scarce and the few available centres are unable to adequately maintain a reliable system of insulin supply and exhaustively investigate their hospitalised patients. Consequently, there is little guarantee of successful outcomes. Poor people may also have sub-optimal nutrition, caused or worsened by diabetes, more so, at first presentation to hospital. Intensive insulin therapy in such individuals mimics 're-feeding syndrome', an acute anabolic state whose outcome may be unfavourable during the period of treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. Although mortality and morbidity from diabetic ketoacidosis remains high in sub-Saharan Africa, improved healthcare systems and reliable insulin supply can reverse the trend, at least

  1. Diabetic foot complications and their risk factors from a large retrospective cohort study.

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    Khalid Al-Rubeaan

    Full Text Available Foot complications are considered to be a serious consequence of diabetes mellitus, posing a major medical and economical threat. Identifying the extent of this problem and its risk factors will enable health providers to set up better prevention programs. Saudi National Diabetes Registry (SNDR, being a large database source, would be the best tool to evaluate this problem.This is a cross-sectional study of a cohort of 62,681 patients aged ≥ 25 years from SNDR database, selected for studying foot complications associated with diabetes and related risk factors.The overall prevalence of diabetic foot complications was 3.3% with 95% confidence interval (95% CI of (3.16%-3.44%, whilst the prevalences of foot ulcer, gangrene, and amputations were 2.05% (1.94%-2.16%, 0.19% (0.16%-0.22%, and 1.06% (0.98%-1.14%, respectively. The prevalence of foot complications increased with age and diabetes duration predominantly amongst the male patients. Diabetic foot is more commonly seen among type 2 patients, although it is more prevalent among type 1 diabetic patients. The Univariate analysis showed Charcot joints, peripheral vascular disease (PVD, neuropathy, diabetes duration ≥ 10 years, insulin use, retinopathy, nephropathy, age ≥ 45 years, cerebral vascular disease (CVD, poor glycemic control, coronary artery disease (CAD, male gender, smoking, and hypertension to be significant risk factors with odds ratio and 95% CI at 42.53 (18.16-99.62, 14.47 (8.99-23.31, 12.06 (10.54-13.80, 7.22 (6.10-8.55, 4.69 (4.28-5.14, 4.45 (4.05-4.89, 2.88 (2.43-3.40, 2.81 (2.31-3.43, 2.24 (1.98-2.45, 2.02 (1.84-2.22, 1.54 (1.29-1.83, and 1.51 (1.38-1.65, respectively.Risk factors for diabetic foot complications are highly prevalent; they have put these complications at a higher rate and warrant primary and secondary prevention programs to minimize morbidity and mortality in addition to economic impact of the complications. Other measurements, such as decompression of lower

  2. Diabetic Foot Complications and Their Risk Factors from a Large Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rubeaan, Khalid; Al Derwish, Mohammad; Ouizi, Samir; Youssef, Amira M.; Subhani, Shazia N.; Ibrahim, Heba M.; Alamri, Bader N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Foot complications are considered to be a serious consequence of diabetes mellitus, posing a major medical and economical threat. Identifying the extent of this problem and its risk factors will enable health providers to set up better prevention programs. Saudi National Diabetes Registry (SNDR), being a large database source, would be the best tool to evaluate this problem. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of a cohort of 62,681 patients aged ≥25 years from SNDR database, selected for studying foot complications associated with diabetes and related risk factors. Results The overall prevalence of diabetic foot complications was 3.3% with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of (3.16%–3.44%), whilst the prevalences of foot ulcer, gangrene, and amputations were 2.05% (1.94%–2.16%), 0.19% (0.16%–0.22%), and 1.06% (0.98%–1.14%), respectively. The prevalence of foot complications increased with age and diabetes duration predominantly amongst the male patients. Diabetic foot is more commonly seen among type 2 patients, although it is more prevalent among type 1 diabetic patients. The Univariate analysis showed Charcot joints, peripheral vascular disease (PVD), neuropathy, diabetes duration ≥10 years, insulin use, retinopathy, nephropathy, age ≥45 years, cerebral vascular disease (CVD), poor glycemic control, coronary artery disease (CAD), male gender, smoking, and hypertension to be significant risk factors with odds ratio and 95% CI at 42.53 (18.16–99.62), 14.47 (8.99–23.31), 12.06 (10.54–13.80), 7.22 (6.10–8.55), 4.69 (4.28–5.14), 4.45 (4.05–4.89), 2.88 (2.43–3.40), 2.81 (2.31–3.43), 2.24 (1.98–2.45), 2.02 (1.84–2.22), 1.54 (1.29–1.83), and 1.51 (1.38–1.65), respectively. Conclusions Risk factors for diabetic foot complications are highly prevalent; they have put these complications at a higher rate and warrant primary and secondary prevention programs to minimize morbidity and mortality in addition to economic impact

  3. Ischemic Stroke and Its Risk Factors in a Registry-Based Large Cross-Sectional Diabetic Cohort in a Country Facing a Diabetes Epidemic

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    Khalid Al-Rubeaan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and risk factors of ischemic stroke among diabetic patients registered in the Saudi National Diabetes Registry (SNDR database. A cross-sectional sample of 62,681 diabetic patients aged ≥25 years was used to calculate ischemic stroke prevalence and its risk factors. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the roles of different risk factors. The prevalence of ischemic stroke was 4.42% and was higher in the older age group with longer diabetes duration. Poor glycemic control and the presence of chronic diabetes complications were associated with a high risk of ischemic stroke. History of smoking and type 2 diabetes were more frequent among stroke patients. Obesity significantly decreased the risk for ischemic stroke. Regression analysis for ischemic stroke risk factors proved that age ≥45 years, male gender, hypertension, coronary artery disease (CAD, diabetes duration ≥10 years, insulin use, and hyperlipidemia were significant independent risk factors for ischemic stroke. We conclude that ischemic stroke is prevalent among diabetic individuals, particularly among those with type 2 diabetes. Good glycemic, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia control, in addition to smoking cessation, are the cornerstones to achieve a significant reduction in ischemic stroke risk.

  4. Depression as a risk factor for the onser of type 2 diabetes mellitus. A meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, M.J.; Twisk, J.W.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Heine, R.J.; Snoek, F.J.; Pouwer, F.

    2006-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: Evidence strongly suggests that depression and type 2 diabetes are associated, but the direction of the association is still unclear. Depression may occur as a consequence of having diabetes, but may also be a risk factor for the onset of type 2 diabetes. This study examined the

  5. Cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Mai, Caiyuan; Hou, Minming; Chen, Rong; Duan, Dongmei; Xu, Huikun; Lin, Xiaohong; Wen, Jiying; Lv, Lijuan; Lei, Qiong; Niu, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Women with a history of gestational diabetes (GDM) are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases compared with normal women. This study aimed to evaluate the cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese women with GDM. Methods: 453 women with GDM (cases) and 1,180 healthy women (controls) were included in this study. The post-partum examinations included 2 h 75 g oral glucose tolerance tests, lipid profiles, anthropometric measurements (blood pressure, height, weight) and ...

  6. "It is not possible for me to have diabetes"-community perceptions on diabetes and its risk factors in Rural Purworejo District, Central Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujilestari, Cahya Utamie; Ng, Nawi; Hakimi, Mohammad; Eriksson, Malin

    2014-06-12

    Accumulating evidence suggests that negative perceptions towards diabetes can limit the management and prevention of the disease. The negative perceptions towards diabetes are prevalent in many different settings, especially among rural communities. Few qualitative studies have been performed to understand how the community views diabetes and its associated risk factors. This study aimed to explore general community perceptions of diabetes and its risk factors in rural Indonesia. A total of 68 participants were recruited to 12 focus group discussions (FGDs) comprised of different age groups and sexes. The FGDs were conducted in six villages in rural Purworejo District, Central Java, Indonesia, from 2011 to 2012. All FGDs were recorded and transcribed. Qualitative content analysis was performed to describe and analyse how the rural community perceived diabetes and its risk factors. Diabetes was perceived as a visible and scary sugar disease, and the affected individuals themselves were blamed for getting the disease. Recognised as 'sugar' or 'sweet-pee' disease with terrifying effects, diabetes was believed to be a disease with no cure. The participants seemed to have an unrealistic optimism with regards to the diabetes risk factors. They believed that diabetes would not affect them, only others, and that having family members with diabetes was necessary for one to develop diabetes. Our findings demonstrate that rural communities have negative perceptions about diabetes and at the same time individuals have unrealistic optimism about their own risk factors. Understanding how such communities perceive diabetes and its risk factors is important for planning prevention strategies. Health messages need to be tailored to health-related behaviours and the local culture's concepts of diseases and risk factors.

  7. A COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS DIABETES OF RISK FACTORS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC PANCREATITIS

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    M. A. Kunitsyna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim – to perform comprehensive analysis of the risk factors of diabetes mellitus (DM in patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP. Materials and methods. All examined patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP were divided into 2 groups. The first group – 38 patients with the progression of the diabetes in the first 3 years of the CP, the second – 44 people with no diabetes after 10 years of disease. Formation of CP etiologic groups based on the mandatory presence of one of two factors: alcohol abuse, the presence of disease of biliary system. The combination of two etiological factors wasl exclusion criteria. Results and conclusion. Among the examined patients biliary form of CP occurred in 52 patients, alcohol – in 30 patients. It was found that in the first three years of CP risk of diabetes is not associated with family history, obesity, number of exacerbations, but in the form of alcoholic CP DM formed almost two times more often than in the biliary. When combined with CP in patients with diabetes were significantly more common strain of the main flow and structural changes in the tail of the pancreas.

  8. A Korean multicenter study of prenatal risk factors for overt diabetes during the postpartum period after gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Na-Ri; Yoon, So-Yeon; Cho, Geum Joon; Choi, Suk-Joo; Kwon, Han-Sung; Hong, Soon Cheol; Kwon, Ja-Young; Oh, Soo-Young

    2016-03-01

    To identify prenatal risk factors for postpartum diabetes among pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). In a retrospective study, baseline characteristics and data from a postpartum 75-g glucose tolerance test (GTT) were reviewed for patients with GDM who had delivered in four Korean tertiary institutions from 2006 to 2012. Clinical characteristics were compared between women with and those without postpartum diabetes. Cutoffs to predict postpartum diabetes and diagnostic values were calculated from receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Of 1637 patients with GDM, 498 (30.4%) underwent a postpartum 75-g GTT. Postpartum diabetes was diagnosed in 40 (8.0%) patients and impaired glucose intolerance in 157 (31.5%). Women with postpartum diabetes had higher glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels at GDM diagnosis (P=0.008) and higher 100-g GTT values (Pdiabetes were 0.058 for HbA1c level and 5.3 mmol/L (fasting), 10.9 mmol/L (1h), 10.2 mmol/L (2h), and 8.6 mmol/L (3h) for 100-g GTT. The highest sensitivity was observed for 3-h 100-g GTT (76.9%) and the highest positive predictive value was for HbA1c at diagnosis (15.2%). HbA1c level at GDM diagnosis and 100-g GTT values could be used to identify patients at high risk of postpartum diabetes who should undergo postpartum screening. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Diabetic retinopathy and its risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes attending rural primary healthcare facilities in Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrick, Tony; Kaur, Prabhdeep; Murhekar, Manoj V; Jayaraman, Yuvaraj; Kolandaswamy, K; Rao, Sudha Ramachandra; David, Joseph K

    2016-01-01

    India has a high burden of diabetic retinopathy ranging from 12.2% to 20.4% among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A T2DM management programme was initiated in the public sector in Tamil Nadu. We estimated the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and its associated risk factors. We did a cross-sectional survey among patients with T2DM attending two primary health centres for treatment and follow-up in Kancheepuram, Tamil Nadu in January- March 2013. We did a questionnaire-based survey, and measured blood pressure and biochemical parameters (serum creatinine, plasma glucose, etc.) of the patients. We examined their eyes by direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy and defined diabetic retinopathy using a modified classification by Klein et al. We calculated the proportion and 95% CI for the prevalence and adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for risk factors associated with diabetic retinopathy. Among the 270 patients, the mean (SD) age was 54.5 (10) years. The median duration of T2DM was 48 months. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 29.6%. Overall, 65.9% of patients had hypertension, 14.4% had nephropathy (eGFR 5 years (AOR 6.5, 95% CI 3.6-11.7), poor glycaemic control (AOR 2.4, 95% CI 1.4-4.4), and nephropathy (AOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-4.6). There was a high burden of undetected retinopathy and other comorbid conditions among patients with T2DM. Early detection of comorbid conditions and glycaemic control can be improved by training care-providers and educating patients.

  10. Chronic Kidney Disease and Associated Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Chinese with Type 2 Diabetes

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    Qing-Lin Lou

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundTo determine the frequency of chronic kidney disease (CKD and its associated risk factors in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients, we conducted a cross-sectional study in Nanjing, China, in the period between January 2008 and December 2009.MethodsPatients with type 2 diabetes under the care by Jiangsu Province Official Hospital, Nanjing, China were invited for assessment. CKD was defined as the presence of albuminuria or estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Albuminuria was defined as urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g.ResultsWe recruited 1,521 urban Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes (mean age, 63.9±12.0 years. The frequency of CKD and albuminuria was 31.0% and 28.9%, respectively. After adjusted by age and sex, hypertension, anemia and duration of diabetes were significantly associated with CKD with odds ratio (95% confidence interval being 1.93 (1.28 to 2.93, 1.70 (1.09 to 2.64, and 1.03 (1.00 to 1.06, respectively.ConclusionIn conclusion, CKD was common in the urban Nanjing Chinese with type 2 diabetes. Strategies to prevent or delay progression of kidney disease in diabetes should be carried out at the early disease course of type 2 diabetes.

  11. Early-adulthood cardiovascular disease risk factor profiles among individuals with and without diabetes in the Framingham Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, Sarah Rosner; Pencina, Michael J; Mann, Devin M; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Savage, Peter J; Fox, Caroline S

    2013-06-01

    Many studies of diabetes have examined risk factors at the time of diabetes diagnosis instead of considering the lifetime burden of adverse risk factor levels. We examined the 30-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor burden that participants have up to the time of diabetes diagnosis. Among participants free of CVD, incident diabetes cases (fasting plasma glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL or treatment) occurring at examinations 2 through 8 (1979-2008) of the Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort were age- and sex-matched 1:2 to controls. CVD risk factors (hypertension, high LDL cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol, high triglycerides, obesity) were measured at the time of diabetes diagnosis and at time points 10, 20, and 30 years prior. Conditional logistic regression was used to compare risk factor levels at each time point between diabetes cases and controls. We identified 525 participants with new-onset diabetes who were matched to 1,049 controls (mean age, 60 years; 40% women). Compared with those without diabetes, individuals who eventually developed diabetes had higher levels of hypertension (odds ratio [OR], 2.2; P = 0.003), high LDL (OR, 1.5; P = 0.04), low HDL (OR, 2.1; P = 0.0001), high triglycerides (OR, 1.7; P = 0.04), and obesity (OR, 3.3; P < 0.0001) at time points 30 years before diabetes diagnosis. After further adjustment for BMI, the ORs for hypertension (OR, 1.9; P = 0.02) and low HDL (OR, 1.7; P = 0.01) remained statistically significant. CVD risk factors are increased up to 30 years before diagnosis of diabetes. These findings highlight the importance of a life course approach to CVD risk factor identification among individuals at risk for diabetes.

  12. THE RISK FACTORS OF DIABETES MELLITUS IN ADOLESCENT SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL IN MALANG CITY

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    Dyah Widodo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is a disease caused by a hormonal disorder that affects insulin. 5.7% of the total population of Indonesia, including teenagers is a big challenge for the health sector to do the step in anticipation of the complexity of health problems caused by diabetes mellitus in Indonesia. This study aims to analyze the risk factors of diabetes mellitus in adolescent senior high school in the city of Malang. Method: This research was correlational research design, sampled in this study was partly teenagers is high school class in Malang city area drawn at random sampling with a large sample of 375 respondents. Research conducted at government senior high school 6 and 9 (SMU Negeri 6 and SMU Negeri 9 in the city of Malang, in May–August, 2011. Data collection techniques using questionnaires; measurements: weight, height, abdominal circumference/waist, blood pressure and food consumption survey (Recording of Present Food Intake of the diet for three days. Data was analyzed by descriptive and analytic Spearman Rho correlation with alpha 0.05. Result:  The results showed that a BMI (body mass index and waist circumference (central obesity related to the risk of diabetes mellitus in teens senior high school in Malang with 0.000 p-values < α 0.05. However, there is no relationship between blood pressure, physical activity, frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption, family history of diabetes mellitus and the risk of diabetes mellitus in teens senior high school in Malang. Discussion: Recommended for teens to pay attention to healthy eating and balanced, in order to awake the ideal body weight and abdominal circumference are normal, so that avoid the risk of diabetes mellitus.

  13. Body Mass Index: A Risk Factor for Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

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    Snježana Kaštelan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate whether body mass index (BMI independently or in correlation with other risk factors is associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR progression. The study included 545 patients with type 2 diabetes. According to DR status, they were divided into three groups: group 1 (no retinopathy; n=296, group 2 (mild/moderate nonproliferative DR; n=118, and group 3 (severe/very severe NPDR or proliferative DR; n=131. Patients without DR were younger than those with signs of retinopathy at time of diabetes onset whilst diabetes duration was longer in groups with severe NPDR and PDR. DR progression was correlated with diabetes duration, BMI, HbA1c, hypertension, and cholesterol. Statistical analyses showed that the progression of retinopathy increased significantly with higher BMI (gr. 1: 26.50 ± 2.70, gr. 2: 28.11 ± 3.00, gr. 3: 28.69 ± 2.50; P<0.01. We observed a significant deterioration of HbA1c and a significant increase in cholesterol and hypertension with an increase in BMI. Correlation between BMI and triglycerides was not significant. Thus, BMI in correlation with HbA1c cholesterol and hypertension appears to be associated with the progression of DR in type 2 diabetes and may serve as a predictive factor for the development of this important cause of visual loss in developed countries.

  14. [Risk factors for lower extremity amputation in patients with diabetic foot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, B; Yang, C Z; Wu, S B; Zhang, D; Wang, L N; Xiao, L; Chen, Y; Wang, C R; Tong, A; Zhou, X F; Li, X H; Guan, X H

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To explore the risk factors for lower extremity amputation in patients with diabetic foot. Methods: The clinical data of 1 771 patients with diabetic foot at the Air Force General Hospital of PLA from November 2001 to April 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into the non-amputation and amputation groups. Within the amputation group, subjects were further divided into the minor and major amputation subgroups. Binary logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between risk factors and lower extremity amputation. Results: Among 1 771 patients with diabetic foot, 323 of them (18.24%) were in the amputation group (major amputation: 41; minor amputation: 282) and 1 448 (81.76%) in the non-amputation group. Compared with non-amputation patients, those in the amputation group had a longer hospital stay and higher estimated glomerular filtration rate(eGFR)levels. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), C-reaction protein (CRP), ESR, ferritin, fibrinogen and WBC levels of the amputation group were higher, while hemoglobin albumin, transferrin, TC, TG, HDL-C and LDL-C were lower than those of the non-amputation group (all P diabetic foot. Conclusion: Wagner's grade, ischemia of lower limbs and infection are closely associated with amputation of diabetic foot patients.

  15. Risk Factors and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Back to Patient Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Even people who look healthy and ... Blood Pressure , high cholesterol, diabetes, and thyroid disease. Risk Factors For Arrhythmias and Heart Disease The following ...

  16. Urban-Rural Differences in the Prevalence of Self-Reported Diabetes and its Risk Factors: The WHO STEPS Iranian Noncommunicable Disease Risk Factor Surveillance in 2011

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    Zahra Khorrami

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The high prevalence of diabetes in Iran and other developing countries is chiefly attributed to urbanization. The objectives of the present study were to assess the prevalence of self-reported diabetes and to determine its associated risk factors. This study is a part of the national noncommunicable disease risk factor surveillance, conducted in 31 provinces of Iran in 2011. First, 10069 individuals, between 20 and 70 years old (3036 individuals from rural and 7033 from urban areas, were recruited. The major risk factors were studied using a modified WHO STEPS approach. Diabetes was considered based on self-reported diabetes. The prevalence of self-reported diabetes was 10% overall. The prevalence in the rural and urban settings was 7.4% and 11.1%, respectively. Moderate physical activity (OR=0.45, 95% CI=0.29–0.71 and family history of diabetesOR=6.53, 95% CI=4.29–9.93 were the most important risk factors among the rural residents and systolic blood pressure (OR=1.01, 95% CI=1–1.02, waist circumference (OR=1.02, 95% CI=1.01–1.03, and overweight (OR=1.36, 95% CI= 1–1.84 were significantly associated with self-reported diabetes in the urban residents. The prevalence of self-reported diabetes in the urban setting was higher than that in the rural setting. Physical inactivity, abdominal obesity, and high blood pressure were the most important risk factors associated with self-reported diabetes in Iran.

  17. Fracture risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and possible risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Moayeri A

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ardeshir Moayeri,1 Mahmoud Mohamadpour,2 Seyedeh Fatemeh Mousavi,3 Ehsan Shirzadpour,2 Safoura Mohamadpour,3 Mansour Amraei4 1Department of Anatomy, 2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, 3Department of Epidemiology, Prevention of Psychosocial Injuries Research Center, 4Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran Aim: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM have an increased risk of bone fractures. A variable increase in fracture risk has been reported depending on skeletal site, diabetes duration, study design, insulin use, and so on. The present meta-analysis aimed to investigate the association between T2DM with fracture risk and possible risk factors.Methods: Different databases including PubMed, Institute for Scientific Information, and Scopus were searched up to May 2016. All epidemiologic studies on the association between T2DM and fracture risk were included. The relevant data obtained from these papers were analyzed by a random effects model and publication bias was assessed by funnel plot. All analyses were done by R software (version 3.2.1 and STATA (version 11.1.Results: Thirty eligible studies were selected for the meta-analysis. We found a statistically significant positive association between T2DM and hip, vertebral, or foot fractures and no association between T2DM and wrist, proximal humerus, or ankle fractures. Overall, T2DM was associated with an increased risk of any fracture (summary relative risk =1.05, 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 1.06 and increased with age, duration of diabetes, and insulin therapy.Conclusion: Our findings strongly support an association between T2DM and increased risk of overall fracture. These findings emphasize the need for fracture prevention strategies in patients with diabetes. Keywords: diabetes mellitus, fractures, bone, osteoporosis, risk factors, meta-analysis

  18. Liver cirrhosis and diabetes: Risk factors, pathophysiology, clinical implications and management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diego Garcia-Compean; Joel Omar Jaquez-Quintana; Jose Alberto Gonzalez-Gonzalez; Hector Maldonado-Garza

    2009-01-01

    About 30% of patients with cirrhosis have diabetes mellitus (DM). Nowadays, it is a matter for debate whether type 2 DM in the absence of obesity and hypertriglyceridemia may be a risk factor for chronic liver disease. DM,which develops as a complication of cirrhosis, is known as "hepatogenous diabetes". Insulin resistance in muscular and adipose tissues and hyperinsulinemia seem to be the pathophysiologic bases of diabetes in liver disease. An impaired response of the islet β-cells of the pancreas and hepatic insulin resistance are also contributory factors. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, alcoholic cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and hemochromatosis are more frequently associated with DM. Insulin resistance increases the failure of the response to treatment in patients with CHC and enhances progression of fibrosis. DM in cirrhotic patients may be subclinical.Hepatogenous diabetes is clinically different from that of type 2 DM, since it is less frequently associated with microangiopathy and patients more frequently suffer complications of cirrhosis. DM increases the mortality of cirrhotic patients. Treatment of the diabetes is complex due to liver damage and hepatotoxicity of oral hypoglycemic drugs. This manuscript will review evidence that exists in relation to: type 2 DM alone or as part of the metabolic syndrome in the development of liver disease;factors involved in the genesis of hepatogenous diabetes;the impact of DM on the clinical outcome of liver disease; the management of DM in cirrhotic patients and the role of DM as a risk factor for the occurrence and exacerbation of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  19. Retinopathy risk factors among diabetics in a tertiary care military hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nizi, M.K.; Ameen, S.S.; Saeed, K.; Yaqub, M.A.; Khan, M.D.; Arain, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency and risk factors for severity of retinopathy in diabetic patients referred to a tertiary military hospital. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and duration of study: Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology, Rawalpindi from Jun 2008 to Dec 2009. Patients and Methods: Diabetic patients aged 40 to 79, referred for suspected diabetic retinopathy (DR) on fundoscopy from medical outpatient clinic of Military Hospital Rawalpindi were randomly included in the study. Participants underwent a standardized interview and examination. Retinopathy was assessed through dilated pupils, and graded into absent retinopathy, mild to moderate, or advanced. Presence of clinically significant macular edema (CSME) was also recorded. To evaluate the simultaneous effect of significant risk factors on the different stages of DR, multivariate regression analysis was carried out. Results: Out of five hundred and ten patients, DR was confirmed in 63% cases with advanced retinopathy in 21.3%. In univariate analysis, duration of diabetes, fasting blood glucose, and presence of macular oedema were significantly associated with retinopathy (P<0.005). On multivariate analysis, however, only duration of diabetes (Odds Ratio 6.15 for 5 to 10 years and 38.29 for more than 10 years) and macular oedema (OR 6.617 95% CI 3.95-11.07) remained significant. CSME was present in 173 (33%) patients and its frequency increased with the severity of DR (P <0.001). Conclusion: The frequency of DR among military personnel and their dependants was high with strong association to duration of diabetes. This underscores the importance of regular retinal examination to detect DR in the early stages and timely intervention to prevent diabetes related blindness. (author)

  20. THE FREQUENCY AND ASSOCIATION OF RISK FACTORS IN DEVELOPMENT OF CORONARY HEART DISEASE IN DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Sokolović

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The coronary heart disease (CHD is a leading cause of lethality in both sexes. The risk for development of CHD is 2-4 times higher in non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM than in nondiabetics, and annual rate of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular diseases in NIDDM is 2-5%. The etiology of CHD is still unknown until the risk factors connected to the development of CHD are well known.The purpose of this research was to establish the frequency and importance of the risk factors in development of CHD in NIDDM.The research included 60 patients with NIDDM who were by presence of CHD classified into two groups. We determined body mass index and waist hip ratio, total and HDL cholesterol, triglicerides, LDL cholesterols, uric acid and fibrinogen.Values of BMI were statistically higher in patients with CHD than in diabetics without CHD 29.67+3.31 vs. 27.87±3.17 kg/m2 (p<0.05. Raised risk levels of cholesterol had90% with CHD and 76% without CHD (Hi2=6.12, p<0.05. Larger percentage of patients in group with CHD had raised lipid risk levels of triglicerides 70% than in patients without CHD 56.5% (Hi2=4.36, p<0.05. The obesity was relatively rare in patients without CHD than in diabetics with CHD (13.6% vs. 76%, p<0.01.The frequency of risk factors was very high in NIDDM patients, which clearly points at their cumulative effect in development of CHD in diabetics.

  1. Post-Renal Transplant Diabetes Mellitus in Korean Subjects: Superimposition of Transplant-Related Immunosuppressant Factors on Genetic and Type 2 Diabetic Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Chul Lee

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Postrenal transplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM, or new-onset diabetes after organ transplantation, is an important chronic transplant-associated complication. Similar to type 2 diabetes, decreased insulin secretion and increased insulin resistance are important to the pathophysiologic mechanism behind the development of PTDM. However, β-cell dysfunction rather than insulin resistance seems to be a greater contributing factor in the development of PTDM. Increased age, family history of diabetes, ethnicity, genetic variation, obesity, and hepatitis C are partially accountable for an increased underlying risk of PTDM in renal allograft recipients. In addition, the use of and kinds of immunosuppressive agents are key transplant-associated risk factors. Recently, a number of genetic variants or polymorphisms susceptible to immunosuppressants have been reported to be associated with calcineurin inhibition-induced β-cell dysfunction. The identification of high risk factors of PTDM would help prevent PTDM and improve long-term patient outcomes by allowing for personalized immunosuppressant regimens and by managing cardiovascular risk factors.

  2. Diabetes mellitus: fatores de risco em trabalhadores de enfermagem Diabetes mellitus: factores de riesgo en trabajadores de enfermería Diabetes mellitus: risk factors for nursing workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Fernandes Vilarinho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Identificar os fatores de risco para o diabetes mellitus tipo 2, entre trabalhadores de enfermagem do Instituto Estadual de Diabetes e Endocrinologia Luiz Capriglione. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com aplicação de dois instrumentos de coleta de dados que incluíram questões abertas e fechadas relativas ao estado de saúde e estilo de vida de 100 trabalhadores de enfermagem dessa instituição de saúde. Foram ainda verificados dados de natureza bioquímica e antropométrica. RESULTADOS: Os resultados confirmaram a ocorrência de importantes fatores de risco de natureza reversível, destacando-se o sedentarismo e a obesidade. CONCLUSÃO: Considera-se a importância do desenvolvimento de ações visando a promoção da saúde com enfoque na prevenção de doenças crônicas, a serem realizadas no próprio ambiente de trabalho.OBJETIVOS: Identificar los factores de riesgo para la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 entre trabajadores de enfermería del Instituto Estatal de Diabetes e Endocrinología Luiz Capriglione. MÉTODOS: Se trata de un estudio transversal con aplicación de dos instrumentos de recolección de datos que incluyeron preguntas abiertas y cerradas relacionadas al estado de salud y estilo de vida de 100 trabajadores de enfermería de esa institución de salud. Fueron también verificados datos de naturaleza bioquímica y antropométrica. RESULTADOS: Los resultados confirmaron la ocurrencia de importantes factores de riesgo de naturaleza reversible, destacándose el sedentarismo y la obesidad. CONCLUSIÓN: Se considera importante desarrollar acciones que tengan por objetivo la promoción de la salude con enfoque en la prevención de enfermedades crónicas, a ser realizadas en el propio ambiente de trabajo.OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus, among nursing workers at the State Institute of Diabetes and Endocrinology Luiz Capriglione. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study in which were applied two

  3. High – Sensitivity C - reactive protein is associated with Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Indians with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Asegaonkar, Shilpa B; Bavikar, Jayashree Suhas; Marathe, Amruta; Tekade, Mangesh; Asegaonkar, Balaji N.; Jayashree, Bardapurkar

    2013-01-01

    Background: India is experiencing twin epidemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases imposing huge toll on healthcare system. In type 2 diabetes 65-80% deaths occur due to cardiovascular disease whose etiology cannot be explained by chronic hyperglycemia, dyslipedemia and traditional cardiac risk factors. To improve risk stratification serum high-sensitivity C- reactive protein estimation is an adjunct to other risk factors. Study design: O.P.D. based Cross sectional study....

  4. Risk factors for new onset diabetes mellitus after liver transplantation: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Da-Wei; Lu, Tian-Fei; Hua, Xiang-Wei; Dai, Hui-Juan; Cui, Xiao-Lan; Zhang, Jian-Jian; Xia, Qiang

    2015-05-28

    To determine the risk factors for new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) after liver transplantation by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. We electronically searched the databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library from January 1980 to December 2013 to identify relevant studies reporting risk factors for NODM after liver transplantation. Two authors independently assessed the trials for inclusion and extracted the data. Discrepancies were resolved in consultation with a third reviewer. All statistical analyses were performed with the RevMan5.0 software (The Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, United Kingdom). Pooled odds ratios (OR) or weighted mean differences (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using either a fixed effects or a random effects model, based on the presence (I (2) 50%) of significant heterogeneity. Twenty studies with 4580 patients were included in the meta-analysis, all of which were retrospective. The meta-analysis identified the following significant risk factors: hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (OR = 2.68; 95%CI: 1.92-3.72); a family history of diabetes (OR = 1.69, 95%CI: 1.09-2.63, P diabetes (OR = 1.69; 95%CI: 1.09-2.63; P = 0.02); use of tacrolimus (OR = 1.34; 95%CI: 1.03-1.76; P = 0.03) and body mass index (BMI)(WMD = 1.19, 95%CI: 0.69-1.68, P diabetes, male gender, tacrolimus and BMI are risk factors for NODM after liver transplantation.

  5. Prevalence and associated factors of diabetes mellitus in Puerto Rican adults: behavioral risk factor surveillance system, 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cardona, C; Pérez-Perdomo, R

    2001-06-01

    To estimate the self-reported weighted prevalence of diabetes mellitus among different population subgroups and determine associated factors in Puerto Rico. Data gathered from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS) during 1999 was analyzed. The weighted prevalence in Puerto Rico in 1999 was 9.6% (95% CI: 8.5%-10.7%), highest than reported nationally. It was higher among individuals with increasing age, female sex, decreasing annual income, decreasing educational attainment, being non-employed, having a health care coverage, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, and increasing body mass index. Health behaviors and co-morbid conditions significantly associated with diabetes among individuals aged less than 65 years were high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, obesity and low educational attainment. However, the only significant characteristic associated with diabetes in individuals aged 65 years or more was female sex. Analysis of the data gathered in the diabetes module revealed that nearly 35% were using insulin, 57.4% were using insulin once a day, 14.4% self-monitored their blood glucose one to three times per day, 18.3% reported they have heard of the glycosylated hemoglobin test, and of these, 71.8% had their test performed between one and six times within the past year. Nearly 42% reported their feet were checked and 54.1% had a dilated eye examination last year. The high prevalence of diabetes in Puerto Rico underscores the need for developing integrated management strategies for improving quality of diabetes care.

  6. Clinical risk factors, DNA variants, and the development of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyssenko, Valeriya; Jonsson, Anna Elisabet; Almgren, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is thought to develop from an interaction between environmental and genetic factors. We examined whether clinical or genetic factors or both could predict progression to diabetes in two prospective cohorts.......Type 2 diabetes mellitus is thought to develop from an interaction between environmental and genetic factors. We examined whether clinical or genetic factors or both could predict progression to diabetes in two prospective cohorts....

  7. Cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes mortality burden of cardiometabolic risk factors from 1980 to 2010: a comparative risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danaei, Goodarz; Lu, Yuan; Singh, Gitanjali M.; Carnahan, Emily; Stevens, Gretchen A.; Cowan, Melanie J.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Lin, John K.; Finucane, Mariel M.; Rao, Mayuree; Khang, Young-Ho; Riley, Leanne M.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Lim, Stephen S.; Ezzati, Majid; Aamodt, Geir; Abdeen, Ziad; Abdella, Nabila A.; Rahim, Hanan F. Abdul; Addo, Juliet; Aekplakorn, Wichai; Afifi, Mustafa M.; Agabiti-Rosei, Enrico; Salinas, Carlos A. Aguilar; Agyemang, Charles; Ali, Mohammed K.; Ali, Mohamed M.; Al-Nsour, Mohannad; Al-Nuaim, Abdul R.; Ambady, Ramachandran; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Aro, Pertti; Azizi, Fereidoun; Babu, Bontha V.; Bahalim, Adil N.; Barbagallo, Carlo M.; Barbieri, Marco A.; Barceló, Alberto; Barreto, Sandhi M.; Barros, Henrique; Bautista, Leonelo E.; Benetos, Athanase; Bjerregaard, Peter; Björkelund, Cecilia; Bo, Simona; Bobak, Martin; Bonora, Enzo; Botana, Manuel A.; Bovet, Pascal; Breckenkamp, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Background High blood pressure, blood glucose, serum cholesterol, and BMI are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and some of these factors also increase the risk of chronic kidney disease and diabetes. We estimated mortality from cardiovascular diseases, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes

  8. Risk factors for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in college students: association with sociodemographic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adman Câmara Soares Lima

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: identify the modifiable risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus in college students and associate these factors with their sociodemographic variables.METHOD: cross-sectional study, involving 702 college students from Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, physical exercise data and blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose levels were collected.RESULTS: the most prevalent risk factor was sedentariness, followed by overweight, central obesity, high fasting plasma glucose and arterial hypertension. A statistically significant association was found between overweight and sex (p=0.000, age (p=0.004 and marital status (p=0.012, as well as between central obesity and age (p=0.018 and marital status (p=0.007 and between high fasting plasma glucose and sex (p=0.033.CONCLUSION: distinct risk factors were present in the study population, particularly sedentariness and overweight.

  9. Burden of cardiovascular risk factors and disease among patients with type 1 diabetes: results of the Australian National Diabetes Audit (ANDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, Anthony; Earnest, Arul; Ranasinha, Sanjeeva; Nanayakkara, Natalie; Liew, Danny; Wischer, Natalie; Andrikopoulos, Sofianos; Zoungas, Sophia

    2018-06-02

    Cardiovascular risk stratification is complex in type 1 diabetes. We hypothesised that traditional and diabetes-specific cardiovascular risk factors were prevalent and strongly associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) among adults with type 1 diabetes attending Australian diabetes centres. De-identified, prospectively collected data from patients with type 1 diabetes aged ≥ 18 years in the 2015 Australian National Diabetes Audit were analysed. The burden of cardiovascular risk factors [age, sex, diabetes duration, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), blood pressure, lipid profile, body mass index, smoking status, retinopathy, renal function and albuminuria] and associations with CVD inclusive of stroke, myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass graft surgery/angioplasty and peripheral vascular disease were assessed. Restricted cubic splines assessed for non-linearity of diabetes duration and likelihood ratio test assessed for interactions between age, diabetes duration, centre type and cardiovascular outcomes of interest. Discriminatory ability of multivariable models were assessed with area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Data from 1169 patients were analysed. Mean (± SD) age and median diabetes duration was 40.0 (± 16.7) and 16.0 (8.0-27.0) years respectively. Cardiovascular risk factors were prevalent including hypertension (21.9%), dyslipidaemia (89.4%), overweight/obesity (56.4%), ever smoking (38.5%), albuminuria (31.1%), estimated glomerular filtration rate  7.0% (53 mmol/mol) (81.0%). Older age, longer diabetes duration, smoking and antihypertensive therapy use were positively associated with CVD, while high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and diastolic blood pressure were negatively associated (p < 0.05). Association with CVD and diabetes duration remained constant until 20 years when a linear increase was noted. Longer diabetes duration also had the highest population attributable risk of 6.5% (95% CI 1

  10. Risk Factors for Hypogonadism in Male Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rendong; Cao, Lin; Cao, Wen; Chu, Xiaoqiu; Hu, Yongxin; Zhang, Huifeng; Xu, Juan; Sun, Hongping; Bao, Weiping; Liu, Kemian; Liu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Background. Male hypogonadism is an endocrine disease characterized by low levels of serum testosterone and is closely related to the development of diabetes. The purpose of the present study was to observe the risk factors for hypogonadism in male patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. A total of 213 patients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled and divided into a low total testosterone (TT) group (=75) and a normal TT group (=138). The patients' blood glucose, blood lipids, serum insulin, and sex hormones were measured. The correlations between the patients' metabolic index and sex hormone levels were analyzed. Results. Compared with the normal TT group, body mass index (BMI), fasting insulin (FINS), and HOMA insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) levels were significantly higher, but the luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were significantly lower in the low TT group (p hypogonadism. BMI, metabolic syndrome (MS), HOMA-IR, and LH are independent risk factors for hypogonadism in male patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:27006953

  11. Canine diabetes mellitus risk factors: A matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöppl, Alan Gomes; de Carvalho, Guilherme Luiz Carvalho; Vivian, Itatiele Farias; Corbellini, Luis Gustavo; González, Félix Hilário Díaz

    2017-10-01

    Different subtypes of canine diabetes mellitus (CDM) have been described based on their aetiopathogenesis. Therefore, manifold risk factors may be involved in CDM development. This study aims to investigate canine diabetes mellitus risk factors. Owners of 110 diabetic dogs and 136 healthy controls matched by breed, sex, and age were interviewed concerning aspects related to diet, weight, physical activity, oral health, reproductive history, pancreatitis, and exposure to exogenous glucocorticoids. Two multivariate multivariable statistical models were created: The UMod included males and females without variables related to oestrous cycle, while the FMod included only females with all analysed variables. In the UMod, "Not exclusively commercial diet" (OR 4.86, 95%CI 2.2-10.7, Pdiet" (OR 4.14, 95%CI 1.3-12.7, P=0.01), "Table scraps abuse" (OR 3.62, 95%CI 1.1-12.2, P=0.03), "Overweight" (OR 3.91, 95%CI 1.2-12.6, P=0.02), and "Dioestrus" (OR 5.53, 95%CI 1.9-16.3, P=0.002) were statistically significant. The findings in this study support feeding not exclusively balanced commercial dog food, overweight, treats abuse, and diestrus, as main CDM risk factors. Moreover, those results give subside for preventive care studies against CDM development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Neighborhood level risk factors for type 1 diabetes in youth: the SEARCH case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liese Angela D

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background European ecologic studies suggest higher socioeconomic status is associated with higher incidence of type 1 diabetes. Using data from a case-control study of diabetes among racially/ethnically diverse youth in the United States (U.S., we aimed to evaluate the independent impact of neighborhood characteristics on type 1 diabetes risk. Data were available for 507 youth with type 1 diabetes and 208 healthy controls aged 10-22 years recruited in South Carolina and Colorado in 2003-2006. Home addresses were used to identify Census tracts of residence. Neighborhood-level variables were obtained from 2000 U.S. Census. Multivariate generalized linear mixed models were applied. Results Controlling for individual risk factors (age, gender, race/ethnicity, infant feeding, birth weight, maternal age, number of household residents, parental education, income, state, higher neighborhood household income (p = 0.005, proportion of population in managerial jobs (p = 0.02, with at least high school education (p = 0.005, working outside the county (p = 0.04 and vehicle ownership (p = 0.03 were each independently associated with increased odds of type 1 diabetes. Conversely, higher percent minority population (p = 0.0003, income from social security (p = 0.002, proportion of crowded households (0.0497 and poverty (p = 0.008 were associated with a decreased odds. Conclusions Our study suggests that neighborhood characteristics related to greater affluence, occupation, and education are associated with higher type 1 diabetes risk. Further research is needed to understand mechanisms underlying the influence of neighborhood context.

  13. [A brief of gestational diabetes mellitus, risk factors and current criteria of diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aissa, Zahra; Hadarits, Orsolya; Rosta, Klára; Zóka, András; Rigó, János; Firneisz, Gábor; Somogyi, Anikó

    2017-02-01

    Diabetes is one of the most common metabolic disorders that may cause pathological pregnancy. Treating diabetes recognized during pregnancy results in lowering maternal and fetal complications. These patients present higher risk for excessive weight gain, preeclampsia, delivery with cesarean sections, high risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the future. Fetuses of mothers with gestational diabetes are at higher risk for macrosomia and birth trauma, after delivery they present higher risk of developing neonatal hypoglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and respiratory distress syndrome. There is still no consensus in the recommendations for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus by expert committees. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(8), 283-290.

  14. Potential risk factors for dental caries in Type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almusawi, M A; Gosadi, I; Abidia, R; Almasawi, M; Khan, H A

    2018-05-11

    Diabetic patients are known to be at higher risk for dental caries. However, the role of potential risk factors such as blood glucose, salivary glucose and glycaemic control in the occurrence of dental caries in type 2 diabetes (T2D) is not clearly understood so far, and therefore, it was evaluated in this study. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 T2D patients from Saudi Arabia. The caries risk assessment was evaluated using the guidelines of Caries Management by Risk Assessment (CAMBRA). Cariogenic bacteria load in saliva was determined by a chair-side test kit. The levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), salivary glucose and HbA1c were analysed. Majority of the patients had dental caries (84%), exposed root surfaces (92%) and heavy plaque (73%), whereas 66% of patients suffered from xerostomia. The frequency of patients with high counts of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli (LB) were 78% and 42%, respectively. There were significant associations between dental caries risk and FBG, HbA1c and salivary glucose. After categorizing the patients into 3 categories of glycaemic control, we observed a significant association between glycaemic control and dental caries risk. Type 2 diabetes patients are at high risk for dental caries, which is directly associated with FBG, HbA1c and salivary glucose. This is the first study measuring dental caries and its risk factors in T2D patients from Saudi Arabia. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Study on risk factors associated with diabetic retinopathy among the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthilvel Vasudevan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To find the severities status of diabetic retinopathy(DRamong the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and to determine the association of the severities of diabetic retinopathy with duration of DR, HbA1C levels, history of hypertension, age and gender in the study population.METHODS:Hospital based cross-sectional studies with sample of 100 patients with DR were selected by using simple random sampling technique with a structured questionnaire was conducted in May to June 2012. The study participants those who with DR aged ≥35 years were included in this study and an oral consent was also collected from the study participants. Descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariate ordinal logistic regression analysis were performed. MS Excel spread sheet was used for data entry and data analysis was done by using SPSS 21.0 version. Statistical significance was taken as PRESULTS:Out of 100 patients, mean age of the patient was found as 53.16±10.81(range 35-78y. By univariate analysis, there was a positive relationship between diabetic retinopathy severity and age(PPPPP>0.05 by Mann Whitney u-test. All these factors were found as independent risk factors with the severity of DR except the factor age.CONCLUSION:This study was concluded that the duration of DM, HbA1C levels, family history of DM, History of hypertension and gender were independently associated with severity of DR. However, the factors like age and HDL weren't significant with severity of DR in multivariate analysis. Therefore, by using the availability of the existing treatments and controlling in time, which can prevent and free from the vision threatening diseases or delay the occurrence of DR in their life.

  16. Assessment of prevalence and risk factors of peripheral arterial disease in diabetic foot ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulasikumar G

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic foot ulcer(DFU is very common yet challenging complication of diabetes worldwide. These ulcers are biologically compromised majorly by ischemia and neuropathy. Ischemia has gained recognition as a significant cause of DFU. The association of peripheral arterial disease(PAD largely impacts the treatment outcomes of DFU in terms of ulcer healing, lower limb amputations and mortality. The burden of PAD in DFU in South Indian population has not been assessed adequately in the recent years. A multidisciplinary approach to DFU and prompt diagnosis of ischemia will decrease the loss of limb and life. The objective of the study was to assess the peripheral arterial disease and associated risk factors in patients with diabetic foot ulcer. A total of 100 patients were evaluated in this study. The patients were subjected to detailed history and clinical examination which included distal pulse assessment, ankle-brachial index(ABI and duplex scan to evaluate PAD. The data was subjected to statistical analysis to find out association between parameters of interest. The prevalence of PAD in DFU was found to be 36%. It was more prevalent in males and in age>40 years and higher with increasing age. PAD was associated almost equally with plantar and dorsal ulcers, more often whole of foot was involved. There is significant association of PAD with longer diabetic duration(p<0.0001 with mean disease duration of 10 years. Previous studies aimed to study prevalence of PAD in diabetes irrespective of foot ulcer. The present study analyzed various factors coexisting with DFU and PAD. The results conclude that peripheral arterial disease is a potential risk factor for major limb amputations.

  17. A prospective study of risk factors for foot ulceration: The West of Ireland Diabetes Foot Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hurley, L

    2013-09-25

    BackgroundThis is the first study to examine risk factors for diabetic foot ulceration in Irish general practice.AimTo determine the prevalence of established risk factors for foot ulceration in a community-based cohort, and to explore the potential for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to act as a novel risk factor.DesignA prospective observational study.MethodsPatients with diabetes attending 12 (of 17) invited general practices were invited for foot screening. Validated clinical tests were carried out at baseline to assess for vascular and sensory impairment and foot deformity. Ulcer incidence was ascertained by patient self-report and medical record. Patients were re-assessed 18 months later. ResultsOf 828 invitees, 563 (68%) attended screening. On examination 23-25% had sensory dysfunction and 18-39% had evidence of vascular impairment. Using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network risk stratification system we found the proportion at moderate and high risk of future ulceration to be 25% and 11% respectively. At follow-up 16\\/383 patients (4.2%) developed a new foot ulcer (annual incidence rate of 2.6%). We observed an increasing probability of abnormal vascular and sensory test results (pedal pulse palpation, doppler waveform assessment, 10g monofilament, vibration perception and neuropathy disability score) with declining eGFR levels. We were unable to show an independent association between new ulceration and reduced eGFR [Odds ratio 1.01; p=0.64].ConclusionsOur data show the extent of foot complications in a representative sample of diabetes patients in Ireland. Use of eGFR did not improve identification of patients at risk of foot ulceration.

  18. RISK FACTORS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF CARDIOVASCULAR COMPLICATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC RENAL DISEASE AND DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataradžija, Amra; Resić, Halima; Rašić, Senija; Kukavica, Nihad; Masnić, Fahrudin

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases are the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic renal disease. The aim of our paper is to evaluate the risk factors of cardiovascular complications in patients with various stages of chronic renal disease (CRD), with or without diabetes mellitus (DM). Patients and methods: The study included 98 patients with different stages of the CRD, with creatinine clearance homocysteine, BNP, cholesterol, LDL, HDL, HbA1c, Body Mass Index (BMI). First group comprised 49 patients with DM, age 50-82 years, M 28/F 21. Second group comprised 49 patients without DM, age 35-80 years, M 18/F 31. The IMT (intima media thickness) was measured by B-mode ultrasonography, and all patients had echocardiography examination done by 2D Doppler ultrasonography. Results: The IMT values in diabetic patients had statistically significant positive correlation with homocysteine values of r=0,9393, p0,05). 47,4% of diabetics had arteriosclerotic changes on carotid arteries, 8,5% had stenosis of ACC, and 22,0% had rhythm abnormalities on ECG. A positive correlation between IMT and BMI was found in diabetics, but was not statistically significant r=0,111, p>0,05. In the diabetics group a significantly higher (phomocystein, BNP and cholesterol. PMID:20433431

  19. Cardiovascular alcification in diabetic nephropathy patients in uremic stage and analysis on its risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Yang; Lin Shan; Jia Junya; Yan Tiekun

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of arterial vascular calcification (VC) in uremic patients undergoing diabetic nephropathy (DN) and explore its risk factors. Methods: Demographic and clinical data were collected in the patients latest diagnosed as uremia and not received dialysis treatment. The uremic patients were divided into DN group and non-diabetic nephropathy (NDN) group. And 20 healthy subjects were chosen as control group from the Physical Examination Room. The patients'sex and ages were similar in the 3 groups. VC was semi-quantitatively evaluated by plain radiographic films from abdomen, pelvis and hands. The clinical and laboratorial parameters related to VC were detected and analyzed. Results: 1)The present study included 20 (51.28%) DN uremic patients and 19 (48.72%) NDN uremic patients. The average diabetic duration in the DN patients was (8.11 ± 7.39) years. 2)Among the 39 uremic patients, VC was found on radiographic films in 29 cases (74.36%), including 23 cases (58.97%) with the con-score 1-3 and 6 cases (15.38%) with 3-6 scores. And VC was not detected in control group. Bone density analysis showed that osteopenia occupied 14 cases (35.90%) in all and the T-score was-0.81 ± 0.87. 3)Linear correlation analysis revealed that VC was correlated with serum calcium and phosphate (r=0.026, P 0.05). VC score was significantly correlated with the diabetic duration (r=0.790, P<0.001). Logistic regression revealed that the diabetes duration was the independent risk factors (P<0.05) for VC. The reflections of serum calcium and phosphate were rejected. 4)The prevalence of VC in DN group (95.0%) was higher than that in NDN group (42.1%, P<0.05). And the VC score in DN group(3.18 ± 1.77) was higher than that in NDN group (1.56 ± 0.97, P<0.05). Conclusion: There is a higher VC prevalence rate and more VC severity in DN uremic patients than in NDN patients. Diabetes duration is an independent risk factor for VC. Preventing from the high serum glucose

  20. The Effects of Chronic Aerobic Exercise on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Persons with Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, Emily M; Headley, Samuel A E

    2017-09-12

    Aerobic exercise training is a component of diabetes mellitus (DM) care guidelines due to its favorable effects on glycemic control and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The purpose of this review is to outline the recent evidence regarding the clinical effects of chronic aerobic exercise on CVD risk factors in persons with DM and to compare the effects of varying intensities and types of exercise. Among individuals with DM, all types of aerobic exercise training can impact positively on some traditional and non-traditional risk factors for CVD. Training programs with a higher volume or intensity induce greater improvements in vascular function, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and lipid profiles. The beneficial outcomes of aerobic training include improvements in glycemic control, endothelial function, oxidative stress, dyslipidemia, myocardial function, adiposity, and CRF. Findings regarding markers of inflammation are discrepant and further research should focus on the role of exercise to impact upon the chronic inflammation associated with DM.

  1. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in a Nigerian population with impaired fasting blood glucose level and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguoma, Victor M; Nwose, Ezekiel U; Ulasi, Ifeoma I; Akintunde, Adeseye A; Chukwukelu, Ekene E; Bwititi, Phillip T; Richards, Ross S; Skinner, Timothy C

    2017-01-06

    Diabetes is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and there are reports of increasing prevalence of prediabetes in Nigeria. This study therefore characterised CVDs risk factors in subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and diabetes. Data from 4 population-based cross-sectional studies on 2447 apparently healthy individuals from 18 - 89 years were analysed. Anthropometric, blood pressure and biochemical parameters were collected and classified. Individuals with IFG (prediabetes) and diabetes were merged each for positive cases of dyslipidaemia, high blood pressure (HBP) or obesity. Optimal Discriminant and Hierarchical Optimal Classification Tree Analysis (HO-CTA) were employed. Overall prevalence of IFG and diabetes were 5.8% (CI: 4.9 - 6.7%) and 3.1% (CI: 2.4 - 3.8%), respectively. IFG co-morbidity with dyslipidaemia (5.0%; CI: 4.1 - 5.8%) was the highest followed by overweight/obese (3.1%; CI: 2.5 - 3.8%) and HBP (1.8%; CI: 1.3 - 2.4%). The predicted age of IFG or diabetes and their co-morbidity with other CVD risk factors were between 40 - 45 years. Elevated blood level of total cholesterol was the most predictive co-morbid risk factor among IFG and diabetes subjects. Hypertriglyceridaemia was an important risk factor among IFG-normocholesterolaemic-overweight/obese individuals. The higher prevalence of co-morbidity of CVD risk factors with IFG than in diabetes plus the similar age of co-morbidity between IFG and diabetes highlights the need for risk assessment models for prediabetes and education of individuals at risk about factors that mitigate development of diabetes and CVDs.

  2. Risk factors for coronary heart disease and actual diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus

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    Mitrović-Perišić Nataša

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Recent studies indicate that the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM type 2 is increasing in the world. Chronic hyperglycemia in DM is associated with a long term damage, dysfunction and failure of various organs, especially retina, kidney, nerves and, in addition, with an increased risk of cardiovasclar disease. For a long time the illness has been unknown. Early diagnosis of diabetes could suspend the development of diabetic complications. The aim of the study was to establish risk for the development of coronary disease in the patients evaluated by the use of new diagnostic criteria for DM. Methods. The study included 930 participants without diagnosis of DM, hypertension, dyslipidemia, nor coronary heart disease two years before the study. The patients went through measuring of fasting plasma glycemia, erythrocytes, hematocrit, cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. In the group with hyperglycemia the 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test was performed. We analyzed ECG and made blood pressure monitoring, and also measured body mass, height, waist and hip circumference. We analyzed life style, especially smoking, and exercise and family history. Results. Diabetes prevalence was 2.68%, and prevalences of impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and DM were 12.15%. Average age of males and females was 38 and 45 years, respectively. In the healthy population there was higher frequency of smokers (55% vs 42%, but in the population with hyperglycemia there were more obesity (23% vs 10.5%, hypertension (39% vs 9%, hypercholesterolemia (76% vs 44.1%, lower HDL-C (52.2% vs 25.7%. Cummulative risk factor in healthy subjects, and those with hyperglycemia were 5.6% and 14%, respectively. Conclusion. Subjects with hyperglicemia without diagnosis of DM have higher risk factors for coronary heart disease.

  3. Factores de riesgos asociados a retinopatía diabética Risk factors associated to diabetic retinopathy

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    Julio César Molina Martín

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La retinopatía diabética continúa siendo una de las causas de ceguera más frecuentes en el mundo. Es por eso que decidimos realizar una amplia revisión acerca de los factores de riesgos más importantes relacionados con ella, con el objetivo de actualizar los conocimientos existentes sobre este tema. En el trabajo se recoge que el tiempo de duración de la diabetes mellitus constituye el factor de riesgo más importante para desencadenar y desarrollar la retinopatía diabética. También se han descrito otros factores de gran significación: el control metabólico de la glicemia, las cifras de tensión arterial, los niveles de lípidos en sangre, la presencia de microalbuminuria y nefropatía, el tipo de tratamiento usado, entre otros. En la revisión se evidencia que con un estricto control y seguimiento de estos factores de riesgos, ayudaremos a prevenir o atenuar en gran medida la aparición y posterior desarrollo de es este tipo de retinopatíaDiabetic retinopathy is one of the most frequent cause of blindness in the word, this is the reason why we decided to make an extensive review on the most important risk factors associated to this illness in order to update our knowledge on this topic. The duration of diabetes is the most important factor to develop diabetic retinopathy. Other factors of great significance such as metabolic control of glycemia, blood pressure levels, serum lipid levels, microalbuminuria, nephropathy, treatment type, among others, have also been described. This review evidenced that the strict control and follow-up of these risk factors will help to prevent or greatly reduce the occurence and further development of this type of retinopathy

  4. Does high sugar consumption exacerbate cardiometabolic risk factors and increase the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease?

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    David E. Laaksonen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of sugar has been relatively high in the Nordic countries; the impact of sugar intake on metabolic risk factors and related diseases has been debated. The objectives were to assess the effect of sugar intake (sugar-sweetened beverages, sucrose and fructose on association with type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and related metabolic risk factors (impaired glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia, blood pressure, uric acid, inflammation markers, and on all-cause mortality, through a systematic review of prospective cohort studies and randomised controlled intervention studies published between January 2000 and search dates. The methods adopted were as follows: the first search was run in PubMed in October 2010. A second search with uric acid as risk marker was run in April 2011. The total search strategy was rerun in April 2011 in SveMed+. An update was run in PubMed in January 2012. Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion from the 2,743 abstracts according to predefined eligibility criteria. The outcome was that out of the 17 studies extracted, 15 were prospective cohort studies and two were randomised controlled crossover trials. All of the studies included only adults. With respect to incident type 2 diabetes (nine studies, four of six prospective cohort studies found a significant positive association for sugar-sweetened beverage intake. In general, larger cohort studies with longer follow-up more often reported positive associations, and BMI seemed to mediate part of the increased risk. For other metabolic or cardiovascular risk factors or outcomes, too few studies have been published to draw conclusions. In conclusion, data from prospective cohort studies published in the years 2000–2011 suggest that sugar-sweetened beverages probably increase the risk of type 2 diabetes. For related metabolic risk factors, cardiovascular disease or all-cause mortality and other types of sugars, too few studies

  5. Risk Factors for Development of Cardiovascular Complications in Patients with Chronic Renal Disease and Diabetic Nephropathy

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    Amra Mataradžija

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Cardiovascular diseases are the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic renal disease. The aim of our paper is to evaluate the risk factors of cardiovascular complications in patients with various stages of chronic renal disease (CRD, with or without diabetes mellitus (DM.Patients and methods:The study included 98 patients with different stages of the CRD, with creatinine clearance <60 ml/min/1,73m2, and laboratory parameters monitored: homocysteine, BNP, cholesterol, LDL, HDL, HbA1c, Body Mass Index (BMI. First group comprised 49 patients with DM, age 50-82 years, M 28/F 21. Second group comprised 49 patients without DM, age 35-80 years, M 18/F 31. The IMT (intima media thickness was measured by B-mode ultrasonography, and all patients had echocardiography examination done by 2D Doppler ultrasonography.Results:The IMT values in diabetic patients had statistically significant positive correlation with homocysteine values of r=0,9393, p<0,034, and cholesterol r=0,289, p<0,05, compared to non-diabetics. A significant negative correlation was found between the ejection fraction (EF and BMI in both groups, more prominent in non-diabetics r=0,289, p<0,044 (diabetics r=0,162, p>0,05. 47,4% of diabetics had arteriosclerotic changes on carotid arteries, 8,5% had stenosis of ACC, and 22,0% had rhythm abnormalities on ECG. A positive correlation between IMT and BMI was found in diabetics, but was not statistically significant r=0,111, p>0,05. In the diabetics group a significantly higher (p<0,05 values of BNP, HbA1c, proteinuria, BMI, and cholesterol were found, and significantly lowered EF (p<0,0001.Conclusion:Risk factors for cardiovascular complications in patients with DM are various, and the most pronounced significance was found in the values of homocystein, BNP and cholesterol.

  6. Prevalence and risk factors of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in Nauru

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    Dan Li

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No comprehensive assessment of diabetes prevalence in Nauru has been conducted since an extreme prevalence was documented more than two decades ago. This study aims to determine the prevalence and risk factors of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose. Methods A nationwide survey in 2004 of people aged 15- 64 years (n = 1592. Fasting plasma glucose levels were used to defined diabetes (≥7.0 mmol/l or 126 mg/dl and prediabetes (6.1-6.9 mmol/l or 110-125 mg/dl. Results The sex-standardized prevalence of diabetes was 13.0% (95% CI: 10.6, 15.4 in men, 14.4% (11.9, 16.9 in women, and 13.7% (12.0, 15.4 combined. The sex-standardized prevalence of prediabetes was 6.4% (4.6, 8.2 for men, 5.5% (3.9, 7.2 for women, and 6.0% (4.8, 7.3 combined. The prevalence of diabetes for individuals 15-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54 and 55-64 years was 4.5%, 7.6%, 24.1%, 32.9%, and 42.7%, respectively. The prevalence of prediabetes for the same age categories was 4.2%, 8.8%, 5.9%, 6.6%, 7.1%, respectively. Multivariable, multinomial logit modeling found risk factors for prediabetes were high cholesterol levels (OR: 2.02, 95% CI: 1.66, 2.47 and elevated waist circumference (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.08, and for diabetes were age in years (OR: 1.06; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.07, cholesterol levels (OR: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.58, 2.14 and waist circumference (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.07. Conclusions Diabetes remains a major public health problem in Nauru, affecting one out of every ten people. While the prevalence of diabetes has declined, its burden has persisted among the old but also extended towards the younger age groups.

  7. Excess BMI in Childhood: A Modifiable Risk Factor for Type 1 Diabetes Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Christine Therese; Geyer, Susan Michelle; Liu, Yuk-Fun; Evans-Molina, Carmella; Libman, Ingrid M; Besser, Rachel; Becker, Dorothy J; Rodriguez, Henry; Moran, Antoinette; Gitelman, Stephen E; Redondo, Maria J

    2017-05-01

    We aimed to determine the effect of elevated BMI over time on the progression to type 1 diabetes in youth. We studied 1,117 children in the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention cohort (autoantibody-positive relatives of patients with type 1 diabetes). Longitudinally accumulated BMI above the 85th age- and sex-adjusted percentile generated a cumulative excess BMI (ceBMI) index. Recursive partitioning and multivariate analyses yielded sex- and age-specific ceBMI thresholds for greatest type 1 diabetes risk. Higher ceBMI conferred significantly greater risk of progressing to type 1 diabetes. The increased diabetes risk occurred at lower ceBMI values in children <12 years of age compared with older subjects and in females versus males. Elevated BMI is associated with increased risk of diabetes progression in pediatric autoantibody-positive relatives, but the effect varies by sex and age. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  8. Diabetes related risk factors did not explain the increased risk for urinary incontinence among women with diabetes. The Norwegian HUNT/EPINCONT study

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    Midthjell Kristian

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown an association between diabetes mellitus (DM and urinary incontinence (UI in women, especially severe UI. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether diabetes related variables could explain this association. Methods The study is part of the EPINCONT study, which is based on the large Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 2 (HUNT 2, performed in the county of Nord-Trøndelag, Norway, during the years 1995 - 1997. Questions on diabetes and UI were answered by a total of 21 057 women aged 20 years and older. Of these 685 were identified as having diabetes, and thus comprise the population of our study. A variety of clinical and biochemical variables were recorded from the participants. Results Blood-glucose, HbA1c, albumine:creatinine ratio (ACR, duration of diabetes, diabetes treatment, type of diabetes, cholesterol and triglycerides did not significantly differ in women with and without UI in crude analyses. However, the diabetic women with UI had more hospitalizations during the last 12 months, more homecare, and a higher prevalence of angina and use of oestrogene treatment (both local and oral/patch. After adjusting for age, BMI, parity and smoking, there were statistically significant associations between any UI and angina (OR 1.89; 95% CI: 1.22 - 2.93, homecare (OR 1.72; 95% CI: 1.02 - 2.89, and hospitalization during the last 12 months (OR 1.67; 95% CI: 1.18 - 2.38. In adjusted analyses severe UI was also significantly associated with the same variables, and also with diabetes drug treatment (OR 2.10; 95% CI: 1.07 - 4.10 and stroke (OR 2.47; 95% CI: 1.09 - 5.59. Conclusion No single diabetes related risk factor seems to explain the increased risk for UI among women with diabetes. However, we found associations between UI and some clinical correlates of diabetes.

  9. Life Style Related Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Its Increased Prevalence in Saudi Arabia: A Brief Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Fareed; Nasir Salam; Abdullah T Khoja; Mahmoud Abdulrahman Mahmoud; Maqusood Ahamed

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Role of life style related risk factors is very important in the pathogenesis and progression of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The aim of this article is to review the disease burden of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among the population of Saudi Arabia due to unhealthy life style. Methods: In this review, the information was collected from published literatures related to risk factors like unhealthy dietary pattern and sedentary life style leading to T2DM. Additionally, some e...

  10. Health risk factor modification predicts incidence of diabetes in an employee population: results of an 8-year longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolando, Lori; Byrne, Daniel W; McGown, Paula W; Goetzel, Ron Z; Elasy, Tom A; Yarbrough, Mary I

    2013-04-01

    To understand risk factor modification effect on Type 2 diabetes incidence in a workforce population. Annual health risk assessment data (N = 3125) in years 1 through 4 were used to predict diabetes development in years 5 through 8. Employees who reduced their body mass index from 30 or more to less than 30 decreased their chances of developing diabetes (odds ratio = 0.22, 95% confidence interval: 0.05 to 0.93), while those who became obese increased their diabetes risk (odds ratio = 8.85, 95% confidence interval: 2.53 to 31.0). Weight reduction observed over a long period can result in clinically important reductions in diabetes incidence. Workplace health promotion programs may prevent diabetes among workers by encouraging weight loss and adoption of healthy lifestyle habits.

  11. Improved survival and renal prognosis of patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy with improved control of risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrésdóttir, Gudbjörg; Jensen, Majken; Carstensen, Bendix

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate long-term survival, development of renal end points, and decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in patients with type 2 diabetes and diabetic nephropathy (DN) after renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibition and multifactorial treatment of cardiovascular risk factors ha...

  12. Risk factors for development of impaired renal function in Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in primary care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naushahi, M.J.; Grauw, W.J.C. de; Avery, A.J.; Gerwen, W.H.E.M. van; Lisdonk, E.H. van de; Weel, C. van

    2004-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate risk factors for the development of an impaired renal function, defined as a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by Cockcroft-Gault formula < 50.5 ml/min, in primary care patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A case-control study of Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with

  13. Effects of liraglutide on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dejgaard, Thomas F; Johansen, Nanna B; Frandsen, Christian S

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the short-term effect of adding liraglutide 1.8 mg once daily to insulin treatment on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 1 diabetes. In total, 100 overweight (BMI ≥25 kg/m(2) ) adult patients (age ≥18 years) with type 1 diabetes and HbA1c ≥ 8% (64 mmol/mol) were....... In conclusion, in patients with long-standing type 1 diabetes, liraglutide as add-on to insulin increased heart rate and did not improve other cardiovascular risk factors after 24 weeks of treatment....... randomized to liraglutide 1.8 mg or placebo added to insulin treatment in a 24-week double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. At baseline and after 24 weeks of treatment, 24-hour blood pressure and heart rate, pulse pressure, pulse wave velocity and carotid intima-media thickness were evaluated. Compared...

  14. Prevalence of self-reported diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and associated risk factors in a national survey in the US population: SHIELD (Study to Help Improve Early evaluation and management of risk factors Leading to Diabetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Harold E; Bazata, Debbra D; Clark, Nathaniel G; Gavin, James R; Green, Andrew J; Lewis, Sandra J; Reed, Michael L; Stewart, Walter; Chapman, Richard H; Fox, Kathleen M; Grandy, Susan

    2007-10-03

    Studies derived from continuous national surveys have shown that the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes mellitus in the US is increasing. This study estimated the prevalence in 2004 of self-reported diagnosis of diabetes and other conditions in a community-based population, using data from the Study to Help Improve Early evaluation and management of risk factors Leading to Diabetes (SHIELD). The initial screening questionnaire was mailed in 2004 to a stratified random sample of 200,000 households in the US, to identify individuals, age > or = 18 years of age, with diabetes or risk factors associated with diabetes. Follow-up disease impact questionnaires were then mailed to a representative, stratified random sample of individuals (n = 22,001) in each subgroup of interest (those with diabetes or different numbers of risk factors for diabetes). Estimated national prevalence of diabetes and other conditions was calculated, and compared to prevalence estimates from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002. Response rates were 63.7% for the screening, and 71.8% for the follow-up baseline survey. The SHIELD screening survey found overall prevalence of self-reported diagnosis of diabetes (either type 1 or type 2) was 8.2%, with increased prevalence with increasing age and decreasing income. In logistic regression modeling, individuals were more likely to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes if they had abdominal obesity (odds ratio [OR] = 3.50; p or =28 kg/m2 (OR = 4.04; p self-report only) to those from NHANES 1999-2002 (self-report, clinical and laboratory evaluations), the prevalence of diabetes was similar. SHIELD allows the identification of respondents with and without a current diagnosis of the illness of interest, and potential longitudinal evaluation of risk factors for future diagnosis of that illness.

  15. Risk factors of foot ulceration in patients with Diabetes Mellitus type 2

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    Patricia Bañuelos-Barrera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Identify the risk factors for foot ulceration in patients with diabetes type 2 (DM2 who attended a primary care center in the city of Colima (Mexico. Methodology. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted during 2012 with the participation of 87 patients with DM2 from both sexes and older than 30 years of age. Socio-demographic, anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical variables were measured. The study inquired about prior evaluation of the feet and prior education on diabetes by the healthcare team. Results. The mean age was 59 years and 70% were women. The average number of years since diagnosis was nine years; only 35% had good glycemia control; 66% engage in exercise; 51% wear open shoes; none had temperature differences in the feet; 82% had some type of dermatological abnormality; 50% had deformities in their feet. A total of 24% had been diagnosed with peripheral neuropathy and another 11% had peripheral vascular disease. Sixty percent of all the patients had risk of foot ulceration. Only 23% of the participants had had previous foot exams. One of every three diabetic patients had received education about the disease. Conclusion. An important proportion of the patients had risk of foot ulceration, contrary to the insufficient percentage of individuals with previous inspection and education about foot care. For nursing, it is an area of opportunity in this level of care to improve the inspection and education on diabetes, specifically on foot care, mainly in those patients with a prolonged evolution of the disease, deficient glycemia control, and risk of ulceration.

  16. Gestational diabetes mellitus risk factors in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Mahnaz; Sheikhan, Fatemeh; Arabipoor, Arezoo; Hosseini, Roya; Nourbakhsh, Fereshteh; Zolfaghari, Zahra

    2014-10-01

    To compare the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Iranian infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and women without PCOS after pregnancies resulting from either assisted reproductive technology (ART) or spontaneous as well as to determine the risk factors of GDM in PCOS women. In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated medical records of 234 spontaneous pregnant women without PCOS in Akbarabadi Women's Hospital affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran, along with 234 pregnant women with PCOS and 234 pregnant non-PCOS women with ART conception who were treated at Royan institute, Tehran, Iran, at the same period of time, 2012 to February 2013. Exclusion criteria were as following: maternal age ≥40, family history of diabetes in first-degree relatives, pre-pregnancy diabetes and history of gestational diabetes, history of stillbirth, recurrent miscarriage, birth weight baby ≥4kg (macrosomia), parity >4, Cushing's syndrome, congenital adrenal hyperplasia and overt hypothyroidism. The GDM diagnosis was according to American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria. Incidence and the risk factors for GDM were evaluated. The incidence rates of GDM were 44.4%, 29.9% and 7.3% for PCOS ART, non-PCOS ART and non-PCOS spontaneous pregnant women, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression was used for determining risk factors of GDM in PCOS women with adjusted odds ratios for age, parity and hypothyroidism, the results revealed the most important and significant predictors for development of GDM in PCOS women as follow: menstrual irregularity (OR=4.2; 95% CI=1.7-10.6), serum triglycerides level ≥150mg/dL (OR=1.9; 95% CI=1.07-3.6) and pregestational metformin use (OR=0.4; 95% CI=0.2-0.7). Pregnant Iranian women with a history of infertility and PCOS are at increased risk for developing GDM. It is recommendable to perform screening test for GDM in PCOS women with ART treatment, irregular menses and high serum

  17. Identification of Risk Factors Affecting Impaired Fasting Glucose and Diabetes in Adult Patients from Northeast China

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    Yutian Yin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Besides genetic factors, the occurrence of diabetes is influenced by lifestyles and environmental factors as well as trace elements in diet materials. Subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG have an increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus (DM. This study aimed to explore risk factors affecting IFG and diabetes in patients from Northeast China. Methods: A population-based, cross-sectional survey of chronic diseases and related risk factors was conducted in Jilin Province of Northeast China. All adult residents, aged 18–79, were invited to participate in this survey using the method of multistage stratified random cluster sampling. One hundred thirty-four patients with IFG or DM and 391 healthy control subjects were recruited. We compared demographic factors, body size measurements, healthy-related behaviors, and hair metallic element contents between IFG/diabetes patients and healthy individuals. Results: IFG/diabetes patients had a greater weight, waist, hip, and body mass index (BMI than control subjects. Significant differences in the content of zinc (Zn, potassium (K, copper (Ca, and sodium (Na as well as Cu/Zn ratios between IFG or DM patients and control subjects (p < 0.05 were also observed. Hair Cu, selenium (Se, and Na contents were positively correlated with blood glucose levels (Cu: rs = 0.135, p = 0.002; Se: rs = 0.110, p = 0.012; Na: rs = 0.091, p = 0.038. Polytomous logistic regression adjusting for age, sex, family history of diabetes and BMI, showed that subjects with high BMI were more likely to develop IFG and DM (IFG: OR = 1.15, OR 95% CI = 1.02–1.29; DM: OR = 1.15, OR 95% CI = 1.01–1.33. Moreover, rarely or never eating fruits was a risk factor for DM (OR = 5.46, OR 95% CI = 1.87–15.98 but not for IFG (OR = 1.70, OR 95% CI = 0.72–4.02. Subjects with abdominal obesity or DM history were more susceptible to DM (abdominal obesity: OR = 2.99, OR 95% CI = 1.07–8.37; DM history: OR = 2.69, OR 95

  18. Higher prevalence of risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus and subsequent higher incidence in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almdal, T.; Scharling, H.; Jensen, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study investigates risk factors and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM) in both sexes of a northern European population. Methods: A total of 14,223 randomly selected men and women were studied from 1976 to 1978. Patients with diabetes (self-reported type 2 DM......, non-fasting blood glucose and triglycerides. Significantly more men (242, 5.4%) than women (152, 2.5%) developed type 2 DM. The odds ratio (OR) for developing diabetes with a BMI above 30 kg/m(2) compared to a BMI of 20-25 kg/m(2) was 8.1 in women and 6.3 in men; for a non-fasting plasma glucose of 8.......4-11.0 mmol/l compared to a plasma glucose of 5.5-6.4, the ORs were 7.8 in women and 4.7 in men. The OR for developing diabetes in persons with a non-fasting triglyceride level above 2.0 mmol/l compared to 1.0-2.0 mmol/l was 1.8 in both sexes; women with non -fasting triglycerides below 1.0 mmol/l had...

  19. Dental caries-associated risk factors and type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Norma; Mello, Sandra; Alves, Cresio

    2011-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is associated with various oral complications. However there is no consensus regarding the association of T1DM and caries. Critical revision of dental caries-associated risk factors and type 1 diabetes mellitus. Search of the MEDLINE and LILACS databases from 2000 to 2010, using, in different combination, the key words "dental caries", "diabetes mellitus" and "type 1 diabetes mellitus". The association between T1DM and dental caries remains controversial. Although some studies demonstrate a higher prevalence of caries due to the increased concentration of salivary glucose, acidity of the oral cavity, salivary viscosity, reduced salivary flow rate, and salivary gland dysfunction; other studies report a reduction of caries levels, probably caused by decreased ucrose ingestion. Although patients with uncontrolled T1DM and poor oral hygiene may present increased prevalence of dental caries, the literature does not describe a consistent relationship between T1DM and dental caries. Further investigations are warranted. If a true association is substantiated, intervention studies to prevent or reduce the occurrence of caries in this population should follow.

  20. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in youth with type 1 diabetes and elevated body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, Maria J; Foster, Nicole C; Libman, Ingrid M; Mehta, Sanjeev N; Hathway, Joanne M; Bethin, Kathleen E; Nathan, Brandon M; Ecker, Michelle A; Shah, Avni C; DuBose, Stephanie N; Tamborlane, William V; Hoffman, Robert P; Wong, Jenise C; Maahs, David M; Beck, Roy W; DiMeglio, Linda A

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in children with type 1 diabetes and elevated BMI in the USA is poorly defined. We aimed to test the hypothesis that children with type 1 diabetes who are overweight or obese have increased frequencies of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and micro-/macroalbuminuria compared to their healthy weight peers. We studied 11,348 children 2 to 18 years of age enrolled in T1D Exchange between September 2010 and August 2012 with type 1 diabetes for ≥1 year and BMI ≥ 5th age-/sex-adjusted percentile (mean age 12 years, 49 % female, 78 % non-Hispanic White). Overweight and obesity were defined based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria. Diagnoses of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and micro-/macroalbuminuria were obtained from medical records. Logistic and linear regression models were used to assess factors associated with weight status. Of the 11,348 participants, 22 % were overweight and 14 % obese. Hypertension and dyslipidemia were diagnosed in 1.0 % and 3.8 % of participants, respectively; micro-/macroalbuminuria was diagnosed in 3.8 % of participants with available data (n = 7,401). The odds of either hypertension or dyslipidemia were higher in obese than healthy weight participants [OR 3.5, 99 % confidence interval (CI) 2.0-6.1 and 2.2, 99 % CI 1.6-3.1, respectively]. Obese participants tended to be diagnosed with micro-/macroalbuminuria less often than healthy weight participants (OR 0.6, 99 % CI 0.4-1.0). Obese children with type 1 diabetes have a higher prevalence of hypertension and dyslipidemia than healthy weight children with type 1 diabetes. The possible association of obesity with lower micro-/macroalbuminuria rates warrants further investigation.

  1. Diabetes mellitus in Jamaica: sex differences in burden, risk factors, awareness, treatment and control in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham-Myrie, Colette; Younger-Coleman, Novie; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall; McFarlane, Shelly; Francis, Damian; Ferguson, Trevor; Gordon-Strachan, Georgiana; Wilks, Rainford

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to provide valid estimates of the burden of and risk factors for diabetes mellitus by sex in Jamaica, a predominantly Black, middle-income and developing country. The Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey 2008 examined a nationally representative sample of 2848 Jamaicans aged 15-74. Parameter estimates and 95% confidence intervals [CI] were weighted for non-response as well as age and sex of the source population. Sex differences in risk factors and diabetes prevalence, awareness, treatment and control were estimated in multivariable models. Population-attributable fractions (PAFs) of obesity on diabetes mellitus were estimated in both sexes. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 7.9% (95% CI: 6.7-9.1%), significantly higher in women than men 9.3% vs. 6.4% (P = 0.02) and increasing with age. Seventy-six percentage of persons with diabetes mellitus were aware of their status; urban women and rural men were less likely to be aware. Diabetes control (43% overall) was less common in higher-income men, but more common in higher-income women. Persons without health insurance were less likely to control their diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes risk factors was higher in women than men. Increased waist circumference (≥94 cm [men]/≥80 cm [women]), overweight/obesity (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2)) and low physical activity/inactivity were associated with PAFs for diabetes mellitus of 27%, 37% and 15%, respectively, in men and 77%, 54% and 24%, respectively, in women. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and its risk factors is high in Jamaica, especially among women, and national programmes to stem the diabetes mellitus epidemic should take these sex differences into consideration. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Diabetes and Cirrhosis Are Risk Factors for Hepatocellular Carcinoma After Successful Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenstierna, Magnus; Nangarhari, Ali; Weiland, Ola; Aleman, Soo

    2016-09-15

    Successful treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection reduces the risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but a risk remains. Current guidelines recommend continued HCC surveillance after sustained virologic response (SVR) has been achieved. This study aimed to investigate risk factors and incidence rates for HCC after SVR in HCV patients with pretreatment advanced liver disease (Metavir stage F3/F4). All patients with advanced liver disease successfully treated for HCV at Karolinska University Hospital during 1992-2013 (n = 399) were followed up for a median of 7.8 years. Data from national registries were used to minimize loss to follow-up. Incidence rates and hazard ratios (HRs) for development of HCC were calculated by Cox regression analysis. Seventeen patients developed HCC during 3366 person-years (PY) of follow-up. The HCC incidence rate was 0.95 (95% confidence interval [CI], .57-1.6) and 0.15 (95% CI, .05-.49) per 100 PY for patients with pretreatment F4 and F3, respectively. Patients with pretreatment cirrhosis and diabetes had a HR to develop HCC of 6.3, and an incidence rate of 7.9 per 100 PY (95% CI, 3.3-19) during the first 2 years of follow-up. The risk for HCC decreased significantly 2 years after SVR had been achieved. Diabetes mellitus and cirrhosis are strong risk factors for HCC development after SVR has been achieved. The risk to develop HCC diminishes significantly 2 years after SVR. Patients without cirrhosis have a low risk to develop HCC after SVR, and the benefit of HCC surveillance for this group is questionable. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Impact of clinical inertia on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, David L; Al-Anjawi, Hussam A; Al-Baharna, Marwa M

    2014-07-01

    To determine whether clinical inertia is associated with simpler interventions occurring more often than complex changes and the association between clinical inertia and outcomes. Prevalence of clinical inertia over a 30 month period for hyperglycaemia, hypertension and dyslipidaemia was calculated in a random sample (n=334) of patients attending a diabetes clinic. Comparisons between prevalence of clinical inertia and outcomes for each condition were examined using parametric tests of association. There was less clinical inertia in hyperglycaemia (29% of consultations) compared with LDL (80% of consultations) and systolic BP (68% of consultations). Consultations where therapy was intensified had a greater reduction in risk factor levels than when no change was made. No association was found between treatment intensity scores and changes in HbA1c, LDL or blood pressure over 30 months. Physicians are no more likely to intervene in conditions where simple therapeutic changes are necessary as opposed to complex changes. Greater clinical inertia leads to poorer outcomes. There continues to be substantial clinical inertia in routine clinical practice. Physicians should adopt a holistic approach to cardiovascular risk reduction in patients with diabetes, adhere more closely to established management guidelines and emphasize personal individualized target setting. Copyright © 2013 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigation on risk factors of dry eye in type 2 diabetes patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu-Xing Shen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To estimate the correlation between diabetic duration, blood glucose levels, plasma C-peptide and dry eye, and the risk factors for dry eye in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DMMETHODS: The clinical data of 51 patients(102 eyeswith type 2 diabetes diagnosed by the Department of Endocrinology, Jiangsu Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine was collected, in that 44 cases(88 eyesof patients diagnosed with dry eye. Those patients were detected for the levels of glycosylated hemoglobin A1c(HbA1c, fasting blood-glucose(FBG, postprandial 2h blood-glucose(2h PBG, fasting plasma C-peptide and insulin, 1h C-peptide and insulin. Corneal fluorescein staining(FL, tear break-up time(BUTand Schirmer Ⅰ test(SⅠtwere collected from all subjects. Compared biochemistry index and ocular surface index. The multiple Logistic regression was used to analyze the risk factors for dry eye in patients with T2DM. RESULTS: There was no significant differences between the patients with different diabetic duration, on BUT, SⅠt, winking frequency, vision, FL and the scores of dry eye symptoms(P>0.05. HbA1c was significantly correlated with FL(P0.05. There were significant differences in FL among patients with HbA1c in 8.1% to 11.8%(P0.01. FBG was significantly correlated with FL and winking frequency(P0.05. The 2h PBG was significantly correlated with tear secretion and vision(P0.05. Plasma C-peptide was significantly correlated with BUT(PP0.05. FBG and plasma C-peptide in T2DM patients were risk factors for occurrence of dry eye(P0.05. CONCLUSION: Poor function of insulin secretion and poor control of blood glucose in T2DM patients are risk factors for dry eye. Both of them can decline tear film stability. High blood glucose levels easily lead to decrease of tear secretion, vision and corneal epithelial defect.

  5. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Malaysia: current trends and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, E-S; Yap, R W K

    2017-07-01

    This review discussed the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Malaysia and the associated major risk factors, namely overweight/obesity, dietary practices and physical activity in both adults and school children. Detailed analyses of such information will provide crucial information for the formulation and implementation of programmes for the control and prevention of T2DM in the country. National studies from 1996-2015, and other recent nation-wide studies were referred to. The current prevalence of DM in 2015 is 17.5%, over double since 1996. Females, older age group, Indians, and urban residents had the highest risk of DM. The combined prevalence of overweight/obesity in 2015 is 47.7% for adults. Adults did not achieve the recommended intakes for majority of the foods groups in the Malaysian Food Pyramid especially fruits and vegetables. Adults also had moderate physical activity level. Three nation-wide studies showed a prevalence ranging from 27 to 31% for combined overweight/obesity in school children. The prevalence was higher among boys, primary school age, Indian ethnicity, and even rural children are not spared. Physical activity level was also low among school children. There must be serious systematic implementation of action plans to combat the high prevalence of diabetes and associated risk factors.

  6. Prevalence, trends and risk factors for the diabetes epidemic in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Hui; Shi, Zumin; Hussain, Akhtar

    2014-04-01

    To describe the prevalence and trends of diabetes and to quantitatively assess its risk factors in mainland China. Thirty-one epidemiological studies were identified by a systematic search of four databases. Prevalence estimates were mapped and summarized by meta-analysis in each region of China. The pooled ORs and 95% CIs of risk factors for diabetes were also calculated. There was a large geographical imbalance with regard to the prevalence of diabetes. Region-pooled prevalence was highest in the eastern region (8.0%, 95% CI: 6.1-10.0%) and lowest in the western region (4.6%, 95% CI: 3.3-6.0%), which was consistent with regional levels of economic development. The overall prevalence of diabetes has been increasing since 1980. Traditional risk factors such as age, family history of diabetes, obesity, hypertension and elevated triglycerides were found to be associated with diabetes. In addition, urban residence and being from ethnic minorities were also significantly associated. Based on the meta-analyses, we found that the prevalence of diabetes is different in different parts of China but it has been increasing sharply during the last three decades. Some risk factors were quantitatively derived in the study, which are free from the diversity of a single sample. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Is hypertension a major independent risk factor for retinopathy in type 1 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Deckert, T

    1991-01-01

    Hypertension is an established risk factor for retinopathy. Whether it is an independent risk factor or acts only by association with nephropathy is not known. Therefore, we studied 273 Type 1 diabetic patients. They were divided into four groups. Group 1 (n = 55) were normotensive...... and normoalbuminuric, group 2 (n = 51) had hypertension but were normoalbuminuric, group 3 (n = 33) had nephropathy but were normotensive, and group 4 (n = 134) had nephropathy and hypertension. Hypertensive patients with normoalbuminuria (blood pressure 146 +/- 19 (+/-SD)/87 +/- 12 mmHg) had the same prevalence...... of retinopathy as normoalbuminuric normotensive patients (123 +/- 12/75 +/- 5 mmHg). Hypertensive nephropathic patients (blood pressure 147 +/- 18/87 +/- 8 mmHg) had more retinopathy than hypertensive normoalbuminuric patients despite similar blood pressure (normal retina/advanced retinopathy: 3%/73% vs 46...

  8. Diabetes as a risk factor for hepatic encephalopathy in cirrhosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter; Watson, Hugh; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: It remains unclear whether diabetes increases the risk for hepatic encephalopathy (HE) in cirrhotic patients. We examined this question using data from three randomized trials of satavaptan, a vasopressin receptor antagonist that does not affect HE risk, in cirrhotic patients...... with ascites. METHODS: The trials included 1198 patients, and we excluded those with HE before or at randomization and followed the remaining patients for the one year duration of the trials. They were examined for HE regularly, and we compared rates of first-time overt HE between diabetics and non-diabetic......Com comorbidity score. RESULTS: We included 862 patients of whom 193 (22%) had diabetes. In total, they experienced 115 first-time episodes of overt HE during the follow-up. Fewer diabetics than non-diabetic patients were in Child-Pugh class C at baseline (13% vs. 23%), yet they had higher cumulative risk...

  9. [Cardiovascular risk factor control in a population with longstanding diabetes attending endocrinology departments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comi-Diaz, Cristina; Miralles-García, José M; Cabrerizo, Lucio; Pérez, María; Masramon, Xavier; De Pablos-Velasco, Pedro

    2010-12-01

    To determine the degree of control of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in a sample of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) attending Endocrinology and Nutrition Departments in Spain. An epidemiological, cross-sectional, multicenter and observational study involving 41 Departments of Endocrinology and Nutrition in Spain. Each department selected patients with DM with over 10 years of evolution, which were treated in outpatient settings. Demographic, anthropometric, clinical and biochemical data, including medication, were collected for each participant. 1159 patients who met the inclusion criteria were recruited. 52% of the participants were patients with type 2 DM. The mean duration of DM was 19.6 years. A proportion of 37%, 44%, 27.6% and 25.5% had good control of their blood pressure (BP), low density cholesterol (LDLc), lipids and glucose, respectively, and only 4.3% did well in all factors evaluated. The percentage of poorly controlled BP was four times higher in type 2 than in type 1 DM. Obesity, low cultural level and aggregation of cardiovascular risk factors were associated with poorer control. The degree of control of CVRF in diabetic patients with long disease duration is insufficient. Copyright © 2010 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of risk factors in obese patients with coronary artery disease, with and without diabetes mellitus type two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Danjela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus type 2 is one of the leading chronic diseases in the world and in our country, which is an important risk factor for development of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Objective. The aim of this research was making the estimation of risk factors in the etiology of coronary heart disease in obese patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. The study included 82 obese patients, of which 52 with diabetes mellitus and 30 without diabetes mellitus, in all of them coronary artery disease proven by coronary angiography. All were examined by clinical examination, laboratory tests and echocardiography. Based on the test results we found that the distribution of risk factors such as hypertension, family burden coronary artery disease, smoking, alcohol intake was the same in the obese patients with diabetes mellitus, and of those without diabetes mellitus. Echocardiography showed significantly larger left ventricle, lower ejection fraction, larger left atrium and significant mitral regurgitation. Also, in a group of patients with diabetes mellitus, there was significantly higher number of patients with multiple vessel coronary disease. Despite the small sample, we can conclude that the present of diabetes mellitus in obese patients is crucial for severe forms of coronary artery disease. Severity is expressed through significant structural and functional changes in the left ventricle and the number of diseased coronary arteries.

  11. Adding Salt to Meals as a Risk Factor of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Case–Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Radzeviciene

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is thought to arise from the complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors. It is important to identify modifiable risk factors that may help to reduce the risk of diabetes. Data on salt intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes are limited. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between adding salt to prepared meals and the risk of type 2 diabetes. Methods: In a case–control study, we included 234 cases, all of whom were patients aged 35–86 years with a newly confirmed diagnosis of T2DM, and 468 controls that were free of the disease. Cases and controls (ratio 1:2 were matched by gender and age (±5 years. A questionnaire was used to collect information on possible risk factors for diabetes. Adding salt to prepared meals was assessed according to: Never, when there was not enough, or almost every time without tasting. The odds ratios (OR, and 95% confidence intervals (CI for type 2 diabetes was calculated using a conditional logistic regression. Results: The cases had a higher body mass index and a significantly lower education level compared to the controls. Variables such as waist circumference, body mass index, eating speed, smoking, family history of diabetes, arterial hypertension, plasma triglycerides, educational level, occupational status, morning exercise, marital status, daily urine sodium excretion, and daily energy intake were retained in the models as confounders. After adjusting for possible confounders, an approximately two-fold increased risk of type 2 diabetes was determined in subjects who add salt to prepared meals when “it is not enough” or “almost every time without tasting” (1.82; 95% CI 1.19–2.78; p = 0.006 compared with never adding salt. Conclusion: Presented data suggest the possible relationship between additional adding of salt to prepared meals and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes.

  12. Bacteriology of diabetic foot in tertiary care hospital; frequency, antibiotic susceptibility and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjad, S.S.; Shams, N.

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic foot being one of the frequent and disabling complications of diabetes. In view of widespread regional variation in causative organisms and antimicrobial susceptibility, the current study aimed to determine frequency of causative organisms, their antimicrobial susceptibility and associated risk factors. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 6 months' duration at dept. of Medicine; PIMS Hospital Islamabad. Type 2 Diabetes mellitus patients with diabetic foot ulcer were enrolled after informed consent. Patients already receiving antibiotics, having no growth on culture and >3 weeks' duration of ulcer were excluded. Sample from wound was sent for culture and sensitivity. Antibiotic susceptibility testing identified the susceptible and resistant strains of organisms. Results: Among 114 patients (66.67% males and 33.33% females); mean age was 55.11+-11.96 years. Staphylococcus aureus was identified in 46%, E. coli in 28%, Pseudomonas in 6%, Klebsiella in 3.5% and other organisms in 17%. 92% of S. aureus was sensitive to Vancomycin and 67% to Clindamycin. Amongst E. coli, 81% showed sensitivity to Imipenem, 69% to Aminoglycosides and 31% to Quinolones. Glycaemic control was unsatisfactory in 65.8%. Peripheral vascular disease was found in 46% patients and sensory neuropathy in 94%. Conclusion: Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent isolate amongst gram positive organisms while E. coli amongst gram-negatives. Vancomycin is suggested to be the drug of choice for gram positive and Imipenem for gram negative organisms. Appropriate antimicrobial therapy according to susceptibility patterns would reduce the morbidity and emergence of multidrug resistant organisms in diabetic foot infections. (author)

  13. Analysis of risk factors for neuropathic foot ulceration in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, P J; Stocks, A E; Whittam, D J

    1996-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus affects about one in 25 Australians. Neuropathic foot ulceration is a frequent complication in persons with diabetes. This study evaluates the importance of different risk factors for the development of this condition. The role of nonenzymatic glycosylation and pressure beneath the sole of the foot in the pathogenesis of neuropathic foot ulcers was investigated. Twenty-seven subjects with diabetes with a recent history of neuropathic foot ulceration were matched by age and sex with a group of 50 control subjects without neuropathy or history of foot ulceration. The degree of nonenzymatic glycosylation was assessed by analyzing the average level of glycosylated hemoglobin in the 3 years prior to the development of the foot ulcer and a goniometer assessment of peripheral joint (hand and ankle) flexibility. Dynamic pressure of the plantar aspect of the foot was recorded using a Musgrave Footprint System pedobarograph during a normal gait cycle. There was no significant difference in age, sex, body mass index, and duration or type of diabetes between the ulcer and control groups. The pressure of the plantar aspect of the foot was significantly elevated (p < 0.01). Ankle joint flexibility was reduced (p < 0.01) in cases with neuropathic foot ulceration compared with the control group. There was a trend toward elevation of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c fraction) or HbA1c in the ulcer group (p = 0.06). The results suggested that nonenzymatic glycosylation occurs at a more significant level in patients with diabetes with a history of neuropathic foot ulceration.

  14. Control of glycemia and other cardiovascular disease risk factors in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: data from the Adult Diabetes Control and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazlina, Shariff-Ghazali; Mastura, Ismail; Ahmad, Zaiton; Cheong, Ai-Theng; Adam, Bujang-Mohamad; Jamaiyah, Haniff; Lee, Ping-Yein; Syed-Alwi, Syed-Abdul-Rahman; Chew, Boon-How; Sriwahyu, Taher

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess the control of glycemia and other cardiovascular disease risk factors, and the association between age and these controls among older adults with type 2 diabetes in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was carried out using cases notified to the Adult Diabetes Control and Management database between 1 January and 31 December 2009. A total of 10 363 people aged over 60 years with type 2 diabetes mellitus were included in the analyses. A standard online case report form was used to record demographic data, clinical factors (diabetes duration, comorbid condition and treatment modalities), cardiovascular disease risk factors, diabetes complications and laboratory assessments. The cardiovascular disease risk factors controls assessed included glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) control of cardiovascular disease risk factors was suboptimal in older adults with type 2 diabetes. The oldest elderly were more likely to achieve target HbA(1c) (<7.0%) and triglycerides (<1.7 mmol/L) than older adults aged 60-69 years. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  15. Menstrual and reproductive factors and type 2 diabetes risk: the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanri, Akiko; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Goto, Atsushi; Sawada, Norie; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2018-04-18

    Menstrual and reproductive factors, including age at menarche, parity, and breastfeeding, have been linked to type 2 diabetes risk. We prospectively investigated the association between these factors and type 2 diabetes risk in a large Japanese cohort. Participants were 37,511 women aged 45-75 years who participated in the baseline (1990-1993), second (1995-1998), and third surveys (2000-2003) of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study and who had no history of diabetes at the second survey. Menstrual and reproductive history was ascertained using questionnaires at the baseline and second surveys. Odds ratios of self-reported, physician-diagnosed type 2 diabetes over the 5-year period from the second survey were estimated using logistic regression. At the third survey, 513 new cases of type 2 diabetes were self-reported. The odds ratios of type 2 diabetes tended to increase with the number of parity, after adjustment for covariates other than body mass index (P for trend = 0.029). The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of type 2 diabetes for women with ≥3 births was 1.56 (0.96-2.53) compared to those who were nulliparous. The association between parity and type 2 diabetes risk was attenuated after additional adjustment for body mass index (P for trend = 0.12). No factors other than parity were significantly associated with type 2 diabetes risk. Higher parity may be associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes among Japanese women, partly through increasing body weight. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of classical risk factors of type 2 diabetes among Asian Indian, Chinese and Japanese populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, L; Tuomilehto, J; Qiao, Q; Söderberg, S; Daimon, M; Chambers, J; Pitkäniemi, J

    2015-11-01

    This review investigated the population impact of major modifiable type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk factors, with special focus on native Asian Indians, to estimate population attributable risks (PARs) and compare them with estimates from Chinese and Japanese populations. Information was obtained on risk factors in 21,041 Asian Indian, 17,774 Chinese and 17,986 Japanese populations from multiple, large, cross-sectional studies (the DECODA project) of T2D. Crude and adjusted PARs were estimated for the major T2D risk factors. Age had the highest crude and adjusted PARs among Asian Indians and Chinese in contrast to waist-hip ratio among Japanese. After adjusting for age, the PAR for body mass index (BMI) in Asian Indians (41.4% [95% CI: 37.2%; 45.4%]) was second only to triglycerides (46.4% [95% CI: 39.5%; 52.8%]) compared with 35.8% [95% CI: 29.9%; 41.4%] in Japanese and 38.4% [95% CI: 33.5%; 43.2%] in Chinese people. The PAR for BMI adjusted for age, LDL and triglycerides (39.7% [95% CI: 31.6%; 47.2%]) was higher than for any other factor in Asian Indians, and was much higher than in the Chinese (16.8% [95% CI: 3.0%; 30.9%]) and Japanese (30.4% [95% CI: 17.5%; 42.2%]) populations. This review provides estimates of the association between major risk factors and prevalences of T2D among Asian populations by examining their PARs from large population-based samples. From a public-health point of view, the importance of BMI in Asian Indians is especially highlighted in comparison to the other Asian populations. Given these results and other recent findings on the causality link between BMI and T2D, it can be postulated that obesity may be involved in the aetiology of T2D through interaction with ethnic-specific genetic factors, although ethnicity itself is not a direct risk factor for T2D as people of all ethnic backgrounds develop diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Urinary tract infections in Romanian patients with diabetes: prevalence, etiology, and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiţă T

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Teodora Chiţă,1,2 Bogdan Timar,1,2 Delia Muntean,1,2 Luminiţa Bădiţoiu,1,3 Florin Horhat,1,2 Elena Hogea,1 Roxana Moldovan,1,3 Romulus Timar,1,2 Monica Licker1,2 1Victor Babes University of Medicine and Pharmacy Timisoara, 2Pius Brinzeu Emergency Hospital, 3Regional Centre of Public Health, Timisoara, Romania Aim: Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM have an increased risk of infections, especially urinary tract infections (UTIs. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and etiology of UTIs and identify the risk factors for their development in patients with DM. Patients and methods: In this retrospective, noninterventional study, the medical records of 2,465 adult patients with DM who were hospitalized in a Diabetes Clinic were reviewed. Data regarding the presence of UTI and possible associated risk factors were collected and their possible relation was analyzed. The study protocol and procedures were approved by the Ethics Committee of Timişoara Emergency Hospital. All data were collected and analyzed using SPSS v.17 statistical software. Results: The prevalence of UTIs in patients with DM was 12.0% (297 cases, being higher in females than in males and higher in patients with type 2 DM compared with patients with type 1 DM. In univariate logistic regression analysis, risk factors associated with UTIs were female gender, age, type 2 DM, longer duration of DM, and the presence of chronic kidney disease and coronary artery disease. Multivariate analysis identified age, duration of DM, and metabolic control (hemoglobin A1c levels as independent risk factors for UTIs. The gram-negative bacilli from the Enterobacteriaceae family were predominant, with Escherichia coli being the most frequent of them (70.4%. Conclusion: UTIs are a frequent condition associated with DM. It is necessary to improve the care and the screening of UTIs in patients with DM to prevent the occurrence of possible associated severe renal complications

  18. Diabetes mellitus in Zambia and the Western Cape province of South Africa: Prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Sarah Lou; Ayles, Helen; Beyers, Nulda; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter; Muyoyeta, Monde; du Toit, Elizabeth; Yudkin, John S; Floyd, Sian

    2016-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of and risk factors for diabetes mellitus and examine its diagnosis and management in the study communities. This is a population-based cross-sectional study among adults in 24 communities from Zambia and the Western Cape (WC) province of South Africa. Diabetes is defined as a random blood glucose concentration (RBG)⩾11.1mmol/L, or RBGdiabetes diagnosis. For individuals with a prior diagnosis of diabetes, RBGprevalence of diabetes was 3.5% and 7.2% respectively. The highest risk groups identified were those of older age and those with obesity. Of those identified to have diabetes, 34.5% in Zambia and 12.7% in WC were previously unaware of their diagnosis. Among Zambian participants with diabetes, this proportion was lower among individuals with better education or with higher household socio-economic position. Of all those with previously diagnosed diabetes, 66.0% in Zambia and 59.4% in WC were not on any diabetes treatment, and 34.4% in Zambia and 32.7% in WC had a RBG concentration beyond the recommended level, ⩾7.8mmol/L. The diabetes risk factor profile for our study communities is similar to that seen in high-income populations. A high proportion of individuals with diabetes are not on diabetes treatment and of those on treatment a high proportion have high glycaemic concentrations. Such data may assist in healthcare planning to ensure timely diagnosis and management of diabetes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Trends for type 2 diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors in Mexico from 1993-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalpando, Salvador; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Rojas, Rosalba; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A

    2010-01-01

    To describe the trends in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D), and other cardiovascular risk factors in three national health surveys (1993, 2000 and 2006). The databases of three surveys: ENEC 1993, ENSA 2000 and ENSANUT 2006 were gathered. Calculations of published data were reprocessed to do appropriate adjustments to assure comparability among surveys. From 1993 to 2006 the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (6.7-14.4%), metabolic syndrome (26.6-36.8%), hypertension (23.8-30.7%), hypercholesterolemia (27-43.6%), and high LDL-cholesterol (31.6-46%) increased rapidly. The prevalence of low HDL cholesterol was very high (60.5-63%) in all surveys and remained remarkably unchanged among surveys. This increasing trends for the prevalence of T2D and cardiovascular risk factors predicts larger increments in the near future for T2D and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Intensification of the preventive and remedy strategies is mandatory in order curve the foreseen dramatic increment in the disease burden.

  20. Awareness and Knowledge Towards Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Risk Factors in Northern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Bin Ahmed

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a major public health problem in Saudi Arabia and it is a risk factor for many comorbid diseases. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the awareness and knowledge towards type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM risk factors in Northern Saudi Arabia. Methodology: This is a crosssectional survey conducted in the city of Hail, Northern Saudi Arabia. Data of T2DM awareness was obtained from 1530 Saudi volunteers living in the city of Hail. Results: Out of the 1530 participants, around 59% were males and 41% were females. Out of 1530 participants 60.8% know nothing about DM and about 48% were not sure whether they know something about symptoms of DM. The lack of knowledge about the relationship between obesity and DM was statistically significant among this study group, p<0.001. Conclusion: There is low awareness and knowledge levels toward baseline DM related information among Northern Saudi Arabian population, which necessitates the need for comprehensive awareness program. Women are more in need to be targeted by DM prevention and control programs

  1. Association of Parental History of Diabetes with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Children with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Jennifer R; Stafford, Jeanette M; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Badaru, Angela; Crume, Tessa L; Dabelea, Dana; Dolan, Lawrence M; Lawrence, Jean M; Pettitt, David J; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J

    2015-01-01

    Aims Determine if parental diabetes(DM) is associated with unhealthier cardiovascular disease(CVD) risk profiles in youth with type 2 diabetes(T2D), and whether associations differed by race/ethnicity. Methods Family history was available for 382 youth with T2D from 2001 prevalent and 2002–2005 incident SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth cohorts. Parental DM was evaluated two ways two-category— any parent vs. no parent DM (evaluated overall and stratified by race/ethnicity); four-category— both parents, mother only, father only, or no parent DM (evaluated overall only). Associations with hemoglobin A1c(HbA1c), fasting lipids, blood pressure(BP), and urine albumin:creatinine ratio(ACR) were examined using regression models. Results Overall, sample characteristics included: 35.9% male, 19.1% non-Hispanic white(NHW), mean T2D duration 26.6 ± 22.2 months, mean HbA1c 7.9 ± 2.5% (62.6 ± 27.8mmol/mol). Unadjusted two-category comparisons showed youth with parental DM had higher HbA1c, higher DBP, and higher frequency of elevated ACR. Adjusted two-category comparisons showed associations remaining in non-stratified analysis for ACR [OR95%CI)=2.3(1.1, 5.0)] and in NHW youth for HbA1c [6.8% ± 0.4 v. 8.0 ± 0.4 (51.1±4.8mmol/mol v.63.9 ± 4.2), p=.015], DBP (67.7% ± 4.5 v. 76.9 ± 4.4 mmHg, p=.014) and lnTG (4.7±0.3 v. 5.3±0.3, p=.008). There were no significant findings in the adjusted four-category evaluation. Conclusions Parental history of diabetes may be associated with unhealthier CVD risk factors in youth with T2D. PMID:25784087

  2. Assessment of risk factors for development of Type-II diabetes mellitus among working women in Berhampur, Orissa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malini D

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: 1 Assess general health condition and anthropological parameters of the working women. 2 Identify prevalence of Type-II Diabetes among them. 3 Assess risk factors associated with development of diabetes. 4 Educate them about Life Style Modifications. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out in six educational institutes. A total of 100 working women were selected as study population. During the two-month study period, Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS was estimated to identify the diabetics and the Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT. Information from the study population was collected through pre-tested questionnaire using several anthropometric measurements. Results: Out of 100 women, 24 were having FBS compatible with IGT or diabetes. The incidence was highest in 46 to 55 yr age group. 75% of women with diabetes or IGT were in higher income group. Body Mass Index was more than 25 kg/m 2 in maximum (75% women having diabetes or IGT. 92% women with diabetes or IGT had their Waist Hip Ratio ≥0.85. Moreover, orientation towards healthy life style modification to control diabetes and its prevention was poor among the study population. Conclusion: Prevalence of diabetes and IGT was higher among urban working women and is increasing with increase in age. Obesity plays a major role in development of Type 2 diabetes. Several long- and short-term steps should be taken for promotion of healthy life style modifications to prevent diabetes and emergence of its complications.

  3. UKPDS 59: hyperglycemia and other potentially modifiable risk factors for peripheral vascular disease in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Amanda I; Stevens, Richard J; Neil, Andrew; Stratton, Irene M; Boulton, Andrew J M; Holman, Rury R

    2002-05-01

    To determine the role of hyperglycemia in prospective analyses of peripheral vascular disease (PVD) in type 2 diabetes, taking into account other potential risk factors. Potential risk factors for the development of PVD were examined in 3,834 of 5,102 individuals enrolled in the U.K. Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) without PVD at diagnosis of diabetes, followed for 6 years, and for whom relevant data were available. PVD was defined as two of the following: ankle-arm blood pressure index < 0.8, absence of both dorsalis pedis and posterior tibial pulses to palpation in one or both legs, and intermittent claudication. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between potential risk factors measured 3-4 months after diagnosis of diabetes and incident PVD. The prevalence of PVD at 3-year intervals to 18 years was determined. Hyperglycemia, assessed as HbA(1c), was associated with an increased risk for incident PVD, independent of other risk factors including age, increased systolic blood pressure, reduced HDL cholesterol, smoking, prior cardiovascular disease, peripheral sensory neuropathy, and retinopathy. Each 1% increase in HbA(1c) was associated with a 28% increased risk of PVD (95% CI 12-46), and each 10-mmHg increase in systolic blood pressure with a 25% increase in risk (95% CI 10-43). Hyperglycemia, as well as smoking, dyslipidemia, and blood pressure are potentially modifiable risk factors for the development of PVD.

  4. Vitamin D deficiency: a new risk factor for type 2 diabetes?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezza, T; Muscogiuri, G; Sorice, G P; Prioletta, A; Salomone, E; Pontecorvi, A; Giaccari, A

    2012-01-01

    Recent compelling evidence suggests a role of vitamin D deficiency in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and insulin secretion derangements, with a consequent possible interference with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanism of this link is incompletely understood. In fact, vitamin D deficiency is usually detected in obesity in which insulin resistance is also a common finding. The coexistence of insulin resistance and vitamin D deficiency has generated several hypotheses. Some cross-sectional and prospective studies have suggested that vitamin D deficiency may play a role in worsening insulin resistance; others have identified obesity as a risk factor predisposing individuals to exhibit both vitamin D deficiency and insulin resistance. The available data from intervention studies are largely confounded, and inadequate considerations of seasonal effects on 25(OH)D concentrations are also a common design flaw in many studies. On the contrary, there is strong evidence that obesity might cause both vitamin D deficiency and insulin resistance, leaving open the possibility that vitamin D and diabetes are not related at all. Although it might seem premature to draw firm conclusions on the role of vitamin D supplementation in reducing insulin resistance and preventing type 2 diabetes, this manuscript will review the circumstances leading to vitamin D deficiency and how such a deficiency can eventually independently affect insulin sensitivity. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Dietary Magnesium and Genetic Interactions in Diabetes and Related Risk Factors: A Brief Overview of Current Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Adela; McKeown, Nicola M.; Song, Yiqing; Djoussé, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional genomics has exploded in the last decade, yielding insights—both nutrigenomic and nutrigenetic—into the physiology of dietary interactions and our genes. Among these are insights into the regulation of magnesium transport and homeostasis and mechanisms underlying magnesium’s role in insulin and glucose handling. Recent observational evidence has attempted to examine some promising research avenues on interaction between genetics and dietary magnesium in relation to diabetes and diabetes risk factors. This brief review summarizes the recent evidence on dietary magnesium’s role in diabetes and related traits in the presence of underlying genetic risk, and discusses future potential research directions. PMID:24322525

  6. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ouk Ha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundGastrointestinal symptoms are common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD in Korea appears to be increasing. Some studies have shown that T2DM is a risk factor for symptomatic GERD. However, this possibility is still debated, and the pathogenesis of GERD in T2DM is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence and risk factors (including autonomic neuropathy of GERD in patients with T2DM.MethodsThis cross-sectional case-control study enrolled T2DM patients (n=258 and healthy controls (n=184. All participants underwent physical examinations and laboratory tests. We evaluated medical records and long-term diabetes complications, including peripheral and autonomic neuropathy in patients with T2DM. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy was performed in all patients. The Los Angeles (LA classification was used to grade GERD. GERD was defined as LA grade A (or higher or minimal change with GERD symptoms. GERD symptoms were examined using a frequency scale. Data were expressed as mean±standard error. Independent t-tests or chi-square tests were used to make comparisons between groups.ResultsThe prevalence of GERD (32.6% vs. 35.9%, P=0.266 and GERD symptoms (58.8% vs. 59.2%, P=0.503 was not significantly different between T2DM patients and controls. We found no significant differences between T2DM patients with GERD and T2DM patients without GERD with respect to diabetic complications, including autonomic neuropathy, peripheral neuropathy, duration of DM, and glucose control.ConclusionThe prevalence of GERD in patients with T2DM showed no difference from that of controls. GERD was also not associated with peripheral and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy, age, or duration of DM in patients with T2DM.

  7. Diastolic blood pressure is a potentially modifiable risk factor for preeclampsia in women with pre-existing diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørgaard, Sidse Kjærhus; Vestgaard, Marianne Jenlev; Jørgensen, Isabella Lindegaard; Ásbjörnsdóttir, Björg; Ringholm, Lene; McIntyre, Harold David; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth Reinhardt

    2018-04-01

    To identify early clinical, modifiable risk factors for preeclampsia present at first antenatal visit and assess the prevalence of pregnancy-related hypertensive disorders in women with pre-existing diabetes treated with tight glycemic and blood pressure (BP) control. A population-based cohort study of 494 women with pre-existing diabetes (307 and 187 women with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively), included at their first antenatal visit from 2012 to 2016. The prevalence of chronic hypertension (without diabetic nephropathy or microalbuminuria), gestational hypertension and preeclampsia was recorded. Diabetic microangiopathy included presence of nephropathy, microalbuminuria and/or retinopathy. Treatment target was BP preeclampsia developed in 8% (9% vs. 7%). Presence of diabetic microangiopathy (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 4.35 (confidence interval 2.12-8.93)) and diastolic BP (adjusted OR 1.72 per 10 mmHg (1.05-2.82)) at the first antenatal visit were independent risk factors for preeclampsia. At the first antenatal visit, diastolic BP was the only independent, potentially modifiable risk factor for preeclampsia in women with pre-existing diabetes in the context of tight glycemic and BP control. One out of four women had hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Are Eating Disorders Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Martínez, Ramfis; González-Rivas, Juan P; Medina-Inojosa, José R; Florez, Hermes

    2017-11-22

    Eating disorders (ED) affect energy intake modifying body fat depots. Prior evidence suggests that binge eating disorder (BED) and bulimia nervosa (BN) could increase the risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D), while anorexia nervosa (AN) could reduce it. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to evaluate if ED are risk factors for T2D. Ten studies were selected out of 1057 screened. Meta-analysis of six studies with T2D as outcome is reported. Among cross-sectional studies, both BED (OR 3.69, 95% CI [1.12-12.12]) and BN (OR 3.45 [1.92-6.1]) increased the risk of T2D, while AN was not associated with lower risk (OR 0.87 [0.40-1.88]). Cohort studies showed increased risk of T2D with BN (RR 1.7 [1.2-2.5]), and decreased risk with AN (RR 0.71 [0.52-0.98]), but for BED the association was less clear (OR 3.34 [0.85-13.12]). Limitations of studies and recommendations for future research are presented.

  9. Type 2 diabetes and cognition: Neuropsychological sequelae of vascular risk factors in the ageing brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, E.

    2009-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with slowly progressive changes in the brain, a complication referred to as diabetic encephalopathy. Previous studies have shown that patients with T2DM show mild to moderate decrements in cognitive functioning and an increased risk of dementia. The

  10. Direct linkage of mitochondrial genome variation to risk factors for type 2 diabetes in conplastic strains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravenec, Michal; Hyakukoku, M.; Houštěk, Josef; Zídek, Václav; Landa, Vladimír; Mlejnek, Petr; Mikšík, Ivan; Mothejzíková-Dudová, Kristýna; Pecina, Petr; Vrbacký, Marek; Drahota, Zdeněk; Vojtíšková, Alena; Mráček, Tomáš; Kazdová, L.; Oliyarnyk, O.; Wang, Ji.; Ho, Ch.; Qi, N.; Sugimoto, K.; Kurtz, T.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 9 (2007), s. 1319-1326 ISSN 1088-9051 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; GA ČR(CZ) GA301/06/0028; GA ČR GA303/07/0781 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 24/2005; GA UK(CZ) 26/2005; National Institutes of Health(US) HL35018; National Institutes of Health(US) HL56028; National Institutes of Health(US) HL63709; EURATOOLS(XE) LSHG-CT-2005-019015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : mitochondrial genome * conplastic strains * risk factors for type 2 diabetes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 11.224, year: 2007

  11. Prevalence and biochemical risk factors of diabetic peripheral neuropathy with or without neuropathic pain in Taiwanese adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Yen-Wei; Lin, Ching-Heng; Lee, I-Te; Chang, Ming-Hong

    To investigate the prevalence and risk factors for diabetic peripheral neuropathy with or without neuropathic pain in Taiwanese. A cross-sectional, hospital-based observational study was conducted. We enrolled 2837 adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy with or without pain were diagnosed using 2 validated screening tools, namely the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument and Douleur Neuropathique 4 questionnaire. In our sample, 2233 participants had no neuropathy, 476 had diabetic peripheral neuropathy without pain, and 128 had diabetic peripheral neuropathy with neuropathic pain, representing an overall diabetic peripheral neuropathy prevalence of 21.3%, and the prevalence of neuropathic pain in diabetic peripheral neuropathy was 21.2%. Multivariate analysis revealed that older age (Pperipheral neuropathy, whereas older age (Pperipheral neuropathy with neuropathic pain. During clinical visits involving biochemical studies, the risk for diabetic peripheral neuropathy with neuropathic pain should be considered for people with older age, elevated glycated haemoglobin, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and overt proteinuria, with particular attention given to increased levels of albuminuria while concerning neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Aggressive Approach to the Multiple Risk Factors for Diabetic Nephropathy on Proteinuria Reduction in Diabetes Type 2 Patients

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    Belma Aščić – Buturović

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Dietary interventions with protein and salt restriction, good glucose control, smoking cessation, aggressive blood pressure control, good control of cholesterol and triglycerides, use of ACE inhibitors and ARBs can delay the progression of diabetic nephropathy.The aim of this study was to present the effects of aggressive treatment of the multiple risk factors for diabetic nephropathy on proteinuria in patients with type 2 diabetes. In this study we included 15 patients with diabetes type 2 and insufficient regulation of glycaemia. The patients were followed for three months period. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, postprandial plasma glucose (PPG, blood pressure, cholesterol and triglycerides and proteinuria were followed prior and after the study. Prior the study patients were treated with premix insulin divided in two daily doses + metformin after the lunch and they had insufficient regulation of glycaemia. During the study patients were treated with one daily dose of basal insulin, three doses of metformin (2550 mg, one daily dose of atorvastatin (20 mg and one daily dose of ramipril (5 to 10 mg. Doses of insulin were titrated separately for each patients (0,7-1,0 IU/kg. Patients were advised to start with lifestyle modification, increased physical activity and dietary interventions with protein and salt restriction, energy restricted diet and smoking cessation. A total of 20 patients (male 12 and female 8 with diabetes type 2 were studied. The mean age of the subjects was 53±5,25 years. The mean diabetes duration was 4,05±1,96 years. The mean body mass index decreased from 28,1±1,67 kg/m2 to 25,9 ±1,22 kg/m2 after the study. Mean HbA1c decreased from 8,82 ± 0,53 % to 7,15 ± 0,23 % (p<0,05. Mean fasting glycemia decreased from 8,79±0,58 mmol/dm3 to 7,03±0,18 mmol/dm3 (p < 0,05. Mean postmeal glycemia decreased from 9,93 ± 0,77 mmol/dm3 to 7,62 ± 0,42 mmol/dm3 (p<0,05. The mean cholesterol level decreased

  13. Age and homocystein were risk factor for peripheral arterial disease in elderly with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuswardhani, R A Tuty; Suastika, Ketut

    2010-04-01

    to find out the magnitude of risk of some traditional and non-traditional risk factors for PAD event in the elderly with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. a case-control study involved 40 subjects of each arms (case and control group) at Geriatric Outpatient Clinic Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia was conducted. the study showed that compared to patients without PAD, patients with PAD had higher age (70.7 vs. 65.0 years; phomocystein levels (13.4 vs. 11.5 mmol/L, p=0.023); while other variables revealed no any significantly difference between two groups. Although no any significant difference, subjects with PAD tend to do exercise less prevalent, consumed anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-thrombotic more frequent compared to subjects without PAD. High age (70-80 years) has risk 7.4 time than those lower age (60-69 years), and high homocystein level (> or =11 mmol/L) has risk 2.5 time than those with lower level to develop PAD. By multivariate analysis (logistic regression), only age has a role in PAD event, while homocystein tend to be risk factor for PAD event. some traditional risk factors and non-traditional risk factors unproved as risk factors for PAD event in the elderly with type 2 diabetes. Older age and homocystein level were risk factors for PAD event in the elderly with type 2 diabetes subjects.

  14. Cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Caiyuan; Hou, Minming; Chen, Rong; Duan, Dongmei; Xu, Huikun; Lin, Xiaohong; Wen, Jiying; Lv, Lijuan; Lei, Qiong; Niu, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Women with a history of gestational diabetes (GDM) are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases compared with normal women. This study aimed to evaluate the cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese women with GDM. 453 women with GDM (cases) and 1,180 healthy women (controls) were included in this study. The post-partum examinations included 2 h 75 g oral glucose tolerance tests, lipid profiles, anthropometric measurements (blood pressure, height, weight) and documentation of medical history, diet, and lifestyle. Compared with controls, the risks of abnormal glucose metabolism, obesity, hypertension, metabolic syndrome in women with a history of GDM were 4.61, 1.30, 1.57 and 3.52, respectively. Fasting blood glucose, progestational body mass index (pBMI) and antenatal insulin resistance at antenatal visit were predictors for abnormal glucose metabolism. pBMI and antenatal diastolic blood pressure were predictors for hypertension. pBMI and weight gain during pregnancy were predictors for obesity/overweight. pBMI, antenatal systolic blood pressure and antenatal triglyceride were predictors for metabolic syndrome. Women with a history of GDM have increased rates of cardiovascular disease risk factors including abnormal glucose metabolism, obesity, hypertension, metabolic syndrome. pBMI is the common independent predictors of cardiometabolic disease in the post-partum.

  15. A Survey on Prevalence of Ocular Complications and It’s Risk Factors in Diabetic Patients of Diabetic Center of Nader Kazemi Clinic Shiraz- Iran 1998-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM Kashfi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: With respect to an increase in diabetes prevalence, and the likelihood of ocular complications among them, this study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and risk factors and incidence of the ocular complications in patients of Nader Kazemi, Shiraz Diabetic center from 1998 to 2010.Materials & Methods: In a cross sectional study , subjects were selected based on a systematic random sampling to investigate the incidence of the ocular complications and the influence of factors such as age, sex, types of diabetes, job, education, blood triglyceride (TG and cholesterol level, Family history of diabetes, history of hypertension, history of participation in educational classes, methods of treatment, duration of diabetes and fasting blood sugar were considered on them.Results: Ocular complications were found among 229 diabetic patients (32.6%. patients having type II diabetic have more ocular complications comparing with patients with type I diabetes (P<0. 005. Factors such as job (P=0. 022, history of participation in educational classes (P<0. 001, education (P<0. 001, family history of diabetes (P<0. 001, blood triglyceride (TG (P=0. 021, duration of diabetes(P<0. 001,age (P<0. 001, method of treatment(P<0. 001and fasting blood sugar (P<0. 001 had a significant relationship with the occurrence of ocular complication. However, other risk factors such as hypertension,gender and cholesterol levels were not statistically significant relationship with the occurrence of ocular complication.Conclusion: Given the prevalence of ocular complications, educating diabetics’ patients can have a significant influence in reducing the occurrence of ocular complications.

  16. Risk factors of gestational diabetes mellitus using results of a prospective population-based study in Iranian pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Ferdos; Nouhjah, Sedigheh; Shahbazian, Hajieh; Shahbazian, Nahid; Latifi, Seyed Mahmoud; Jahanshahi, Alireza

    2018-04-21

    Early identification of at-risk groups is an important step in preventing gestational diabetes and its subsequent side effects. This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors of gestational diabetes based on the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria in Ahvaz. In a cross-sectional case control study, 520 pregnant women involving life after gestational diabetes Ahvaz cohort study (LAGAs) were investigated for risk factors of gestational diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of overweight and obesity were 40% and25.8% in the GMD group and in 35.8% and 16.2% in the control group respectively (p = 0.002). According to NCEP-ATP III criteria, 16.9% of women with GDM and 6.9% of mothers in the control group had metabolic syndrome in first visit of pregnancy (p diabetes[OR = 1.86(95% CI, 1.19-2.94)] (p = 0.006), pre-pregnancy BMI [OR = 1.05(95% CI, 1.007-1.11)] (p = 0.04) and metabolic syndrome in first visit of pregnancy[OR = 2.34 (95% CI, 1.038-5.30)] (p = 0.04) with GDM. Factors including maternal age, previous GDM, family history of diabetes, pre-pregnancy BMI reported in previous studies around the world. A significant association between metabolic syndrome in the first visit of pregnancy and GDM is novel finding of this study. Therefore screening of pre-pregnancy metabolic syndrome in women at risk of gestational diabetes is recommended. Copyright © 2018 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Retinopathy and risk factors in diabetic patients from Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Sisi A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed F El-Bab1, Nashaat Shawky2, Ali Al-Sisi3, Mohamed Akhtar31Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia; 2Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, Taibah University, Faculty of Medicine, El-Mansoura University, El-Mansoura, Egypt; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Ohud Hospital, Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: Diabetes mellitus is accompanied by chronic and dangerous microvascular changes affecting most body systems, especially the eye, leading to diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy without appropriate management is emerging as one of the leading causes of blindness. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the early diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy, reduce the risk of blindness, and identify relevant risk factors.Methods: This descriptive study was designed to estimate the prevalence of retinopathy and its staging in diabetic patients attending the diabetes clinic at King Fahd Hospital in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from 2008 to 2010. Patients completed a questionnaire, underwent a full medical assessment carried out by the treating clinicians, and were examined for evidence of diabetic retinopathy using standard ophthalmic outpatient instruments.Results: In total, 690 randomly selected diabetic patients of mean age 46.10 ± 11.85 (range 16–88 years were included, comprising 395 men (57.2% of mean age 46.50 ± 11.31 years and 295 women (42.8% of mean age 45.55 ± 12.53 years. The mean duration of diabetes mellitus was 11.91 ± 7.92 years in the women and 14.42 ± 8.20 years in the men, and the mean total duration of known diabetes mellitus was 13.35 ± 8.17 years. Glycated hemoglobin was higher in men (8.53% ± 1.81% than in women (7.73% ± 1.84%, and this difference was statistically significant (P ≤ 0.0001. Of the 690 diabetic patients, 249 (36.1% had retinopathy. Mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy was present in 13.6% of patients

  18. Lack of acculturation is a risk factor for diabetes in arab immigrants in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Linda A; Brown, Morton B; Hammad, Adnan; Zhu, Qian; Herman, William H

    2003-07-01

    To examine the relationship between dysglycemia (impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, and diabetes) and acculturation, physical activity, and perceived stress in Arab immigrants in the U.S. In a cross-sectional population-based study, we examined 520 Arab Americans, aged 20-75 years, who were born in the Middle East and immigrated to southeastern Michigan. Dysglycemia was assessed by history and with a 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Acculturation, physical activity, and perceived stress were measured with standardized questionnaires. Associations were found between dysglycemia in men and older age at immigration, unemployment, speaking Arabic with friends, being less active in Arabic organizations, more frequent consumption of Arabic food, and less integration into American society. Dysglycemia in women was associated with being raised in rural areas of the Middle East, older age at immigration, longer length of stay in the U.S., not being employed outside the home, less than high school education, not attending Arabic or American schools, and not being able to read Arabic. Among men, older age at immigration, shorter length of stay in the U.S., less activity in Arab organizations, and eating Arabic food were associated with dysglycemia independent of age and BMI. Among women, acculturation was very low and was confounded with age and BMI as powerful risk factors for dysglycemia. No association was found between physical activity, perceived stress, and the risk of dysglycemia in either sex. Lack of acculturation is an important risk factor for dysglycemia in immigrant Arab Americans. Intervention programs aimed at diabetes prevention should consider the acculturation process.

  19. Decrease of hemostatic cardiovascular risk factors by aggressive vs. conventional atorvastatin treatment in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ree, M.A. van de; Maat, M.P. de; Kluft, C.; Meinders, A.E.; Princen, H.M.; Huisman, M.V.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus have increased levels of hemostatic risk variables for cardiovascular disease, such as fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor (VWF), factor (F)VIIa, d-dimer and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of aggressive

  20. Identifying non-pharmacological risk factors for falling in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravesande, Janelle; Richardson, Julie

    2017-07-01

    To identify the non-pharmacological risk factors for falling in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). A systematic review of randomized controlled trials, prospective cohort studies, cross-sectional studies and before/after studies was conducted. Eligible studies identified non-pharmacological risk factors for falling in older adults with DM2. Medline, Embase, Pubmed and CINAHL were searched for relevant studies published through December 2015. Reference lists were also searched for relevant studies. Search terms were DM2, risk factors, falls and falling, older adults, aging, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, accidental falls and trip. Publication language was restricted to English. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria: four cross-sectional, six prospective cohorts, two randomized controlled trials and one before/after study. These studies included a total of 13,104 participants, ≥50 years. The most common risk factors for falling were impaired balance, reduced walking velocity, peripheral neuropathy and comorbid conditions. However, lower extremity pain, being overweight and comorbid conditions had the greatest impact on fall risk. Interventions to reduce falling in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus should focus on reducing lower extremity pain, reducing body weight and managing comorbid conditions. Implications for Rehabilitation    Diabetes mellitus:   • Older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) have a higher risk for falling than older adults without.   • Older adults with DM2 are more likely to suffer serious injuries when they fall.   • Comprehensive risk factor identification is necessary for rehabilitation professionals to accurately determine whether their clients are at risk for falling.   • Rehabilitation professionals also need to tailor interventions based on the client's risk factors in order to effectively reduce falls and fall-related injuries.

  1. Depression as a risk factor for the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus. A meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knol, M J; Twisk, Jos W R; Beekman, Aartjan T F

    2006-01-01

    the latter association by reviewing the literature and conducting a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies on this topic. METHODS: Medline and PsycInfo were searched for articles published up to January 2005. All studies that examined the relationship between depression and the onset of type 2 diabetes were...... included. Pooled relative risks were calculated using fixed and random effects models. To explore sources of heterogeneity between studies, subgroup analyses and meta-regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: Nine studies met our inclusion criteria for this meta-analysis. The pooled relative risk was 1......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Evidence strongly suggests that depression and type 2 diabetes are associated, but the direction of the association is still unclear. Depression may occur as a consequence of having diabetes, but may also be a risk factor for the onset of type 2 diabetes. This study examined...

  2. Impact of dietary fiber intake on glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors and chronic kidney disease in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Fukuoka Diabetes Registry

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Hiroki; Iwase, Masanori; Ohkuma, Toshiaki; Ogata-Kaizu, Shinako; Ide, Hitoshi; Kikuchi, Yohei; Idewaki, Yasuhiro; Joudai, Tamaki; Hirakawa, Yoichiro; Uchida, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Nakamura, Udai; Kitazono, Takanari

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary fiber is beneficial for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, although it is consumed differently in ethnic foods around the world. We investigated the association between dietary fiber intake and obesity, glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors and chronic kidney disease in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Methods A total of 4,399 patients were assessed for dietary fiber intake using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire. The associations betwee...

  3. Serum vitamin D levels, diabetes and cardio-metabolic risk factors in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maple-Brown, Louise J; Hughes, Jaquelyne T; Lu, Zhong X; Jeyaraman, Kanakamani; Lawton, Paul; Jones, Graham Rd; Ellis, Andrew; Sinha, Ashim; Cass, Alan; MacIsaac, Richard J; Jerums, George; O'Dea, Kerin

    2014-01-01

    Low levels of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D), have been associated with development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD); however there are limited data on serum 25(OH)D in Indigenous Australians, a population at high risk for both diabetes and CVD. We aimed to assess levels of serum 25(OH)D in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and to explore relationships between 25(OH)D and cardio-metabolic risk factors and diabetes. 592 Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander Australian participants of The eGFR (estimated glomerular filtration rate) Study, a cross-sectional analysis of a cohort study performed in 2007-2011, from urban and remote centres within communities, primary care and tertiary hospitals across Northern Territory, Far North Queensland and Western Australia. Assessment of serum 25(OH)D, cardio-metabolic risk factors (central obesity, diabetes, hypertension, history of cardiovascular disease, current smoker, low HDL-cholesterol), and diabetes (by history or HbA1c ≥6.5%) was performed. Associations were explored between 25(OH)D and outcome measures of diabetes and number of cardio-metabolic risk factors. The median (IQR) serum 25(OH)D was 60 (45-77) nmol/L, 31% had 25(OH)D 72 nmol/L, respectively) after adjusting for known cardio-metabolic risk factors. The percentage of 25(OH)D levels Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians from Northern and Central Australia. Low 25(OH)D level was associated with adverse cardio-metabolic risk profile and was independently associated with diabetes. These findings require exploration in longitudinal studies.

  4. Functional Investigations of HNF1A Identify Rare Variants as Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes in the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najmi, Laeya Abdoli; Aukrust, Ingvild; Flannick, Jason; Molnes, Janne; Burtt, Noel; Molven, Anders; Groop, Leif; Altshuler, David; Johansson, Stefan; Njølstad, Pål Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    Variants in HNF1A encoding hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF-1A) are associated with maturity-onset diabetes of the young form 3 (MODY 3) and type 2 diabetes. We investigated whether functional classification of HNF1A rare coding variants can inform models of diabetes risk prediction in the general population by analyzing the effect of 27 HNF1A variants identified in well-phenotyped populations (n = 4,115). Bioinformatics tools classified 11 variants as likely pathogenic and showed no association with diabetes risk (combined minor allele frequency [MAF] 0.22%; odds ratio [OR] 2.02; 95% CI 0.73–5.60; P = 0.18). However, a different set of 11 variants that reduced HNF-1A transcriptional activity to diabetes in the general population (combined MAF 0.22%; OR 5.04; 95% CI 1.99–12.80; P = 0.0007). Our functional investigations indicate that 0.44% of the population carry HNF1A variants that result in a substantially increased risk for developing diabetes. These results suggest that functional characterization of variants within MODY genes may overcome the limitations of bioinformatics tools for the purposes of presymptomatic diabetes risk prediction in the general population. PMID:27899486

  5. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Profile in Individuals With Diabetes Compared With Non-Diabetic Subjects in North-East of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niroumand, Shabnam; Dadgarmoghaddam, Maliheh; Eghbali, Babak; Abrishami, Maryam; Gholoobi, Arash; Bahrami Taghanaki, Hamid Reza; Khajedaluee, Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus is assumed to be a strong risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and is frequently associated with other CVD risk factors. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of different patterns of dyslipidemia in individuals with diabetes compared with non-diabetic subjects and evaluate other accompanied CVD risk factors between the two groups. This was an analytical cross-sectional study on 230 participants, aged 28 - 66 years old, who were referred to different urban health centers of Khorasan Razavi province (north-east of Iran). Data from the participants were collected during their first visit by primary care physicians. Statistical package for social science (version 11.5) was used to analyze the data. The chi-square or Fisher's exact, student's t or the Mann-Whitney U and correlation tests were used in the analysis. The age and gender of the participants were not different between the two groups (P = 0.1 and P = 0.4, respectively). The most common patterns of dyslipidemia in both groups were isolated dyslipidemia followed by combined dyslipidemia. Prevalence of dyslipidemia as a whole (one, two or three lipid profile abnormalities) in patients with diabetes and non-diabetic participants was 89.3% and 82.6%, respectively and the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (P = 0.1). Subjects with diabetes had higher systolic blood pressure (P index (P = 0.09) compared to non-diabetics. Moreover, they were more likely to have higher levels of total cholesterol (P = 0.01), triglycerides (P = 0.001) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.009) and lower levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.2). Cardiovascular diseases risk factors are more common in patients with diabetes; however, non-diabetic individuals also had a high prevalence of risk factors in our region, predisposing them to diabetes. Therefore, further attention by the medical community is necessary to choose effective

  6. Association of dyslipidemia and other risk factors with diabetic retinopathy among patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasul, A.; Rashid, A.; Waheed, P.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To study the association of diabetic retinopathy (DR) with dyslipidemia in patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus and to evaluate other associated risk factors. Study Design: Cross sectional comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Centre for Research in Experimental and Applied Medicine-1 (CREAM-1), Department of Biochemistry and Molecular biology Army Medical College, Rawalpindi in collaboration with Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology (AFIO) from Apr 2016 to Jun 2016. Material and Method: Total 180 subjects were enrolled in two groups. Group I comprised of 90 patients of diabetic retinopathy and group II of 90 healthy normal controls. Demographic and clinical data were collected. Fasting venous blood samples (5 ml) were drawn and checked for blood glucose, HbA1c and lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoproteins and low density lipoproteins). Data collected was analyzed by SPSS version 22. Results: Mean age of the patients was 56 ± 6 years and that of controls was 53 ± 7 years. Mean duration of DM was 14 ± 5 years. Mean systolic blood pressure of group-I was 146 ± 15 mm Hg compared to 127 ± mm Hg of group-II. Mean diastolic BP of patients was 93 ± 8 mm Hg while that of controls was 77 ± 6 mm Hg. Mean body mass index (BMI) of subjects of group-I was 28.8 ± 2.9 while for group-II, it was 25.1 ± 1.4. Mean fasting plasma glucose was 10.2 ± 3.4 mmol/l for group-I and 5.0 ± 0.6 mmol/l for group-II. HbA1c was also considerably higher for group-I with a mean of 7.2 ± 0.8 percent while for group-II, its mean was 5.2 ± 0.5. Total cholesterol (group-I 5.7 ± 0.9 mmol/l versus group-II 4.8 ± 0.6 mmol/l), triglycerides (group-I 3.7 ± 0.9 mmol/l and group-II 2.0 ± 0.2 mmol/l), and low density lipoproteins (group-I 3.08 ± 0.49 mmol/l and group-II 2.17 ± 0.3 mmol/l) of both the groups were compared and found significantly higher among patients of diabetic retinopathy. DR was positively

  7. A longitudinal analysis of the risk factors for diabetes and coronary heart disease in the Framingham Offspring Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhargava Alok

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent trends in sedentary life-styles and weight gain are likely to contribute to chronic conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. The temporal sequence and pathways underlying these conditions can be modeled using the knowledge from the biomedical and social sciences. Methods The Framingham Offspring Study in the U.S. collected information on 5124 subjects at baseline, and 8, 12, 16, and 20 years after the baseline. Dynamic random effects models were estimated for the subjects' weight, LDL and HDL cholesterol, and blood pressure using 4 time observations. Logistic and probit models were estimated for the probability of diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD events. Results The subjects' age, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and cigarettes smoked were important predictors of the risk factors. Moreover, weight and height were found to differentially affect the probabilities of diabetes and CHD events; body weight was positively associated with the risk of diabetes while taller individuals had lower risk of CHD events. Conclusion The results showed the importance of joint modeling of body weight, LDL and HDL cholesterol, and blood pressure that are risk factors for diabetes and CHD events. Lower body weight and LDL concentrations and higher HDL levels achieved via physical exercise are likely to reduce diabetes and CHD events.

  8. Mortality after percutaneous coronary revascularization: Prior cardiovascular risk factor control and improved outcomes in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noman, Awsan; Balasubramaniam, Karthik; Alhous, M Hafez A; Lee, Kelvin; Jesudason, Peter; Rashid, Muhammad; Mamas, Mamas A; Zaman, Azfar G

    2017-06-01

    To assess the mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) according to their insulin requirement and PCI setting (elective, urgent, and emergency). DM is a major risk factor to develop coronary artery disease (CAD). It is unclear if meticulous glycemic control and aggressive risk factor management in patients with DM has improved outcomes following PCI. Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data on 9,224 patients treated with PCI at a regional tertiary center between 2008 and 2011. About 7,652 patients were nondiabetics (non-DM), 1,116 had non-insulin treated diabetes mellitus (NITDM) and 456 had ITDM. Multi-vessel coronary artery disease, renal impairment and non-coronary vascular disease were more prevalent in DM patients. Overall 30-day mortality rate was 2.4%. In a logistic regression model, the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals [CI]) for 30-day mortality were 1.28 (0.81-2.03, P = 0.34) in NITDM and 2.82 (1.61-4.94, P diabetes, this study reveals higher mortality only in insulin-treated diabetic patients following PCI for stable coronary artery disease and acute coronary syndrome. Importantly, diabetic patients with good risk factor control and managed on diet or oral hypoglycemics have similar outcomes to the non-diabetic population. © 2016 The Authors Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Evaluation of "care of the foot" as a risk factor for diabetic foot ulceration: the role of internal physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguejiofor, O C; Oli, J M; Odenigbo, C U

    2009-03-01

    Several risk factors predispose the diabetic patient to foot ulceration, including "inadequate care of the foot". This risk factor for foot ulceration has not been previously evaluated among Nigeria diabetic patients and is the objective of this study. One hundred and twenty (120) diabetic patients with and without symptoms of peripheral neuropathy receiving care at the medical outpatient department (MOPD) and the diabetic clinic of the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi were recruited consecutively as they presented. They were administered structured questionnaires to assess some variables concerning care of their feet as provided to them by their physicians. Among the 120 diabetic participants, 83 (69.2%) had neuropathic symptoms (the symptomatic participants) while 37 (30.8%) were asymptomatic (the asymptomatic participants). Eighty (80; 96.4%) of the symptomatic vs 36 (97.3%) of the asymptomatic participants had never had their feet examined by their physician. Also, 26 (31.3%) of the symptomatic vs 12 (32.4%) of the asymptomatic participants had never received any form of advice on how to take special care of their feet by their physician, and 26 (31.3%) of the symptomatic vs 6 (16.2%) of the asymptomatic participants walked unshod most times in their immediate surroundings. Physicians do not provide adequate care to the feet of their diabetic patients irrespective of the presence or absence of neuropathic symptoms, making this variable a critical risk factor for diabetic foot ulceration and amputation. Continuing medical education to health care providers emphasizing adequate "care of the foot" of the diabetic patient, will reduce avoidable loss of limbs to diabetes.

  10. Modifiable lifestyle and social factors affect chronic kidney disease in high-risk individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkler, Daniela; Kohl, Maria; Heinze, Georg; Teo, Koon K; Rosengren, Annika; Pogue, Janice; Gao, Peggy; Gerstein, Hertzel; Yusuf, Salim; Oberbauer, Rainer; Mann, Johannes F E

    2015-04-01

    This observational study examined the association between modifiable lifestyle and social factors on the incidence and progression of early chronic kidney disease (CKD) among those with type 2 diabetes. All 6972 people from the Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET) with diabetes but without macroalbuminuria were studied. CKD progression was defined as decline in GFR of more than 5% per year, progression to end-stage renal disease, microalbuminuria, or macroalbuminuria at 5.5 years. Lifestyle/social factors included tobacco and alcohol use, physical activity, stress, financial worries, the size of the social network and education. Adjustments were made for known risks such as age, diabetes duration, GFR, albuminuria, gender, body mass index, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin-receptor blockers use. Competing risk of death was considered. At study end, 31% developed CKD and 15% had died. The social network score (SNS) was a significant independent risk factor of CKD and death, reducing the risk by 11 and 22% when comparing the third to the first tertile of the SNS (odds ratios of CKD 0.89 and death 0.78). Education showed a significant association with CKD but stress and financial worries did not. Those with moderate alcohol consumption had a significantly decreased CKD risk compared with nonusers. Regular physical activity significantly decreased the risk of CKD. Thus, lifestyle is a determinant of kidney health in people at high cardiovascular risk with diabetes.

  11. Lifestyle Factors and Gender-Specific Risk of Stroke in Adults with Diabetes Mellitus: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian; Guan, Tianjia; Shen, Ying; Chao, Baohua; Li, Mei; Wang, Longde; Liu, Yuanli

    2018-07-01

    The lifestyle interventions are effective preventive measures for stroke in general population, and the stroke risk with lifestyle factors may be modified by gender, health conditions, etc. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study to investigate the gender-specific association between stroke risk and lifestyle factors in adults with diabetes based on the China National Stroke Screening Survey. Structured questionnaires were used to collect demographic data and information regarding lifestyle factors, history of chronic medical conditions, and family history of stroke and the status of treatment. The case group comprised individuals diagnosed with first-ever stroke in 2013-2014 screening period. Their corresponding controls (frequency-matched for age group and urban/rural ratio) were randomly selected from individuals with diabetes without stroke. There were 170 total stroke cases (500 controls) and 152 ischemic stroke cases (456 controls) among men with diabetes, and 183 total stroke cases (549 controls) and 168 ischemic stroke cases (504 controls) among women with diabetes. We found that physical inactivity was significantly associated with increased risk of total stroke (odds ratio [OR] = 1.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-2.21) and of ischemic stroke (OR = 1.57, 95% CI 1.04-2.36) in women with diabetes. We found no significant association of smoking, overweight/obesity, or physical inactivity with risk of total or ischemic stroke in men with diabetes. Among the lifestyle factors of smoking, overweight/obesity, and physical inactivity, physical inactivity might increase the risk of total and ischemic stroke in women with diabetes. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Diabetes Mellitus and Younger Age Are Risk Factors for Hyperphosphatemia in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rameez Imtiaz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Hyperphosphatemia has been associated with adverse outcomes in patients with end stage kidney disease (ESKD. The purpose of this study was to determine risk factors for hyperphosphatemia in ESKD patients treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD. This information will be used to develop a patient specific phosphate binder application to facilitate patient self-management of serum phosphate. Adult PD patients documented their food, beverage, and phosphate binder intake for three days using a dietitian developed food journal. Phosphate content of meals was calculated using the ESHA Food Processor SQL Software (ESHA Research, Salem, UT, USA. Clinic biochemistry tests and an adequacy assessment (Baxter Adequest program were done. Univariate logistic regression was used to determine predictors of serum phosphate >1.78 mmol/L. A multivariable logistic regression model was then fit including those variables that achieved a significance level of p < 0.20 in univariate analyses. Sixty patients (38 men, 22 women completed the protocol; they were 60 ± 17 years old, 50% had a history of diabetes mellitus (DM and 33% had hyperphosphatemia (PO4 > 1.78 mmol/L. In univariate analysis, the variables associated with an increased risk of hyperphosphatemia with a p-value < 0.2 were male gender (p = 0.13, younger age (0.07, presence of DM (0.005, higher dose of calcium carbonate (0.08, higher parathyroid serum concentration (0.08, lower phosphate intake (0.03, lower measured glomerular filtration rate (0.15, higher phosphate excretion (0.11, and a higher body mass index (0.15. After multivariable logistic regression analysis, younger age (odds ratio (OR 0.023 per decade, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.00065 to 0.455; p = 0.012, presence of diabetes (OR 11.40, 95 CI 2.82 to 61.55; p = 0.0003, and measured GFR (OR 0.052 per mL/min decrease; 95% CI 0.0025 to 0.66 were associated with hyperphosphatemia. Our results support that younger age and diabetes mellitus are

  13. Potential Explanatory Factors for Higher Incident Hip Fracture Risk in Older Diabetic Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa S. Strotmeyer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is associated with higher fracture risk. Diabetes-related conditions may account for this risk. Cardiovascular Health Study participants (N=5641; 42.0% men; 15.5% black; 72.8±5.6 years were followed 10.9 ± 4.6 years. Diabetes was defined as hypoglycemic medication use or fasting glucose (FG ≥126 mg/dL. Peripheral artery disease (PAD was defined as ankle-arm index <0.9. Incident hip fractures were from medical records. Crude hip fracture rates (/1000 person-years were higher for diabetic vs. non-diabetic participants with BMI <25 (13.6, 95% CI: 8.9–20.2 versus 11.4, 95% CI: 10.1–12.9 and BMI ≥25 to <30 (8.3, 95% CI: 5.7–11.9 versus 6.6, 95% CI: 5.6–7.7, but similar for BMI ≥30. Adjusting for BMI, sex, race, and age, diabetes was related to fractures (HR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.01–1.78. PAD (HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 0.92–1.57 and longer walk time (HR = 1.07 (95% CI: 1.04–1.10 modified the fracture risk in diabetes (HR = 1.17 (95% CI: 0.87–1.57. Diabetes was associated with higher hip fracture risk after adjusting for BMI though this association was modified by diabetes-related conditions.

  14. Diabetes, insulin and cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xi-Lin; Chan, Juliana CN

    2012-01-01

    There is a consensus that both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are associated with a spectrum of cancers but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. On the other hand, there are ongoing debates about the risk association of insulin use with cancer. We have briefly reviewed recent related research on exploration of risk factors for cancer and pharmacoepidemiological investigations into drug use in diabetes on the risk of cancer, as well as the current understanding of metabolic pathways impl...

  15. Genetic Sharing with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Diabetes Reveals Novel Bone Mineral Density Loci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjur Reppe

    Full Text Available Bone Mineral Density (BMD is a highly heritable trait, but genome-wide association studies have identified few genetic risk factors. Epidemiological studies suggest associations between BMD and several traits and diseases, but the nature of the suggestive comorbidity is still unknown. We used a novel genetic pleiotropy-informed conditional False Discovery Rate (FDR method to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with BMD by leveraging cardiovascular disease (CVD associated disorders and metabolic traits. By conditioning on SNPs associated with the CVD-related phenotypes, type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, triglycerides and waist hip ratio, we identified 65 novel independent BMD loci (26 with femoral neck BMD and 47 with lumbar spine BMD at conditional FDR < 0.01. Many of the loci were confirmed in genetic expression studies. Genes validated at the mRNA levels were characteristic for the osteoblast/osteocyte lineage, Wnt signaling pathway and bone metabolism. The results provide new insight into genetic mechanisms of variability in BMD, and a better understanding of the genetic underpinnings of clinical comorbidity.

  16. Higher prevalence of risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus and subsequent higher incidence in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almdal, Thomas; Scharling, Henrik; Jensen, Jan Skov

    2008-01-01

    , non-fasting blood glucose and triglycerides. Significantly more men (242, 5.4%) than women (152, 2.5%) developed type 2 DM. The odds ratio (OR) for developing diabetes with a BMI above 30 kg/m(2) compared to a BMI of 20-25 kg/m(2) was 8.1 in women and 6.3 in men; for a non-fasting plasma glucose of 8.......4-11.0 mmol/l compared to a plasma glucose of 5.5-6.4, the ORs were 7.8 in women and 4.7 in men. The OR for developing diabetes in persons with a non-fasting triglyceride level above 2.0 mmol/l compared to 1.0-2.0 mmol/l was 1.8 in both sexes; women with non -fasting triglycerides below 1.0 mmol/l had...... or non-fasting plasma glucose >11.1 mmol/l) were excluded. Some 6154 women and 4733 men were studied and followed up in 1981-1983 or in 1991-1994. The significance of risk factors was examined by multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Initially, a higher proportion of men than women had high...

  17. Bacterial genus is a risk factor for major amputation in patients with diabetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Natália Anício; Cisneiros, Lígia DE Loiola; Machado, Carla Jorge; Cenedezi, Juliana Merlin; Procópio, Ricardo Jayme; Navarro, Túlio Pinho

    2017-01-01

    to evaluate whether bacterial genus is a risk factor for major amputation in patients with diabetic foot and infected ulcer. we conducted a case-control, observational study of 189 patients with infected ulcers in diabetic feet admitted to the Vascular Surgery Service of the Risoleta Tolentino Neves Hospital, from January 2007 to December 2012. The bacteriological evaluation was performed in deep tissue cultures from the lesions and amputation was considered major when performed above the foot'smiddle tarsus. the patients'mean age was 61.9±12.7 years; 122 (64.6%) were men. The cultures were positive in 86.8%, being monomicrobial in 72% of the cases. In patients with major amputation, Acinetobacter spp. (24.4%), Morganella spp. (24.4%), Proteus spp. (23.1%) and Enterococcus spp. (19.2%) were the most frequent types of bacteria. The most commonly isolated species were Acinetobacter baumannii, Morganella morganii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis. As predictors of major amputation, we identified the isolation of the generaAcinetobacter spp. and Klebsiella spp., serum creatinine ≥1.3mg/dl and hemoglobin creatinina ≥1,3mg/dl e de hemoglobina <11g/dl. os gêneros bacterianos Acinetobacter spp. e Klebsiella spp. identificados nas úlceras infectadas dos pacientes com pé diabético associaram-se a maior incidência de amputação maior.

  18. Risk factors associated with the development of overt nephropathy in type 2 diabetes patients: A 12 years observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Vijay; Tilak, Priyanka; Kumpatla, Satyavani

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease in developing countries. Early detection and risk reduction measures can prevent DN. The aim of the study was to determine the risk factors for the development of proteinuria over a period of 12 years of follow up in normoalbuminuric type 2 diabetes patients attending a specialized centre. Methods: Of the 2630 type 2 diabetes subjects newly registered in 1996, 152 (M:F;92:60) normoalbuminuric subjects had baseline and subsequent measurements of anthropometric, haemodynamic and biochemical details spanning 12 years. The subjects were divided into 2 groups based on the renal status during follow up visits. Group 1 (non-progressors) had persistent normoalbuminuria and group 2 (progressors) had persistent proteinuria. Presence of other diabetic complications during follow up and details on antidiabetic and antihypertensive agents were noted. Results: During median follow up of 11 years in subjects with normal renal function at baseline, 44.1 per cent developed proteinuria at follow up. Glucose levels, HbA1c, systolic blood pressure (SBP), triglycerides, and urea levels were significantly higher at baseline among progressors than non-progressors. Progressors had a longer duration of diabetes and significant fall in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) levels at follow up. In Cox's regression analysis, baseline age, duration of diabetes, baseline HbA1c and mean values of HbA1c, triglycerides, SBP and presence of retinopathy showed significant association with the development of macroalbuminuria. Interpretation & conclusions: Type 2 diabetes patients with uncontrolled diabetes and increase in blood pressure are at high risk of developing nephropathy. Age, long duration of diabetes, elevated BP, poor glycaemic control and presence of retinopathy were significantly associated with the progression of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:22885263

  19. Workplace bullying and violence as risk factors for type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Tianwei; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Lange, Theis

    2018-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this multicohort study was to examine whether employees exposed to social stressors at work, such as workplace bullying and violence, have an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: The study included 45,905 men and women (40-65 years of age and free of diabetes...... at baseline) from four studies in Sweden, Denmark and Finland. Workplace bullying and violence were self-reported at baseline. Incident diabetes was ascertained through national health and medication records and death registers. Marginal structural Cox models adjusted for age, sex, country of birth, marital...... status and educational level were used for the analyses. RESULTS: Nine per cent of the population reported being bullied at work and 12% were exposed to workplace violence or threats of violence. Bullied participants had a 1.46 (95% CI 1.23, 1.74) times higher risk of developing diabetes compared...

  20. Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus: prevalence and risk factors among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus in an Urban District of Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Fahad Javaid; Avan, Bilal Iqbal; Mahmud, Sadia; Nanan, Debra J; Jabbar, Abdul; Assam, Pryseley Nkouibert

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the prevalence of, and factors associated with, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (UDM) in a community setting in Pakistan. A single-center, cross-sectional study, conducted in a community-based specialized care center (SCC) for diabetes in District Central Karachi, in 2003, registered 452 type 2 DM participants, tested for HbA1c and interviewed face-to-face for other information. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with UDM. Prevalence of UDM among diabetes patients was found to be 38.9% (95% CI: 34.4-43.4%). Multivariable logistic regression model analysis indicated that age diabetes information from a doctor or nurse only (vs. multiple sources) (OR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.2-2.9), higher monthly treatment cost (OR: 1.3; 95% CI: 1.1-1.6; for every extra 500 PKR), and higher consumption of tea (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0-2.2; for every 2 extra cups) were independently associated with UDM. The prevalence of UDM was approximately 39% among persons with type 2 diabetes visiting a community based SCC for diabetes. Modifiable risk factors such as sources of diabetes information and black tea consumption can be considered as potential targets of interventions in Karachi. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Preeclampsia: A risk factor for gestational diabetes mellitus in subsequent pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joohyun Lee

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia and gestational diabetes (GDM have several mechanisms in common. The aim of this study was to determine whether women with preeclampsia have an increased risk of GDM in a subsequent pregnancy. Study data were collected from the Korea National Health Insurance Claims Database of the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service for 2007-2012. Patients who had their first delivery in 2007 and a subsequent delivery between 2008 and 2012 in Korea were enrolled. A model of multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed with GDM as the final outcome to evaluate the risk of GDM in the second pregnancy. Among the 252,276 women who had their first delivery in 2007, 150,794 women had their second delivery between 2008 and 2012. On the multivariate regression analysis, women with preeclampsia alone in the first pregnancy had an increased risk of GDM in the second pregnancy when compared with women who had neither of these conditions in their first pregnancy (OR 1.2, 95% CI, 1.1-1.3. Women with GDM alone in the first pregnancy were at an increased risk for GDM in the second pregnancy (OR 3.3, 95% CI 3.1-3.4. The co-presence of preeclampsia and GDM in the first pregnancy further increased the risk of GDM in the second pregnancy (OR 5.9, 95% CI, 4.0-8.6. Our study showed that a history of preeclampsia may serve as an additional risk factor for GDM in a subsequent pregnancy.

  2. Type 2 diabetes is not a risk factor for asymptomatic ischemic brain lesion. The Funagata study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitoh, Tamotsu; Daimon, Makoto; Eguchi, Hideyuki; Hosoya, Takaaki; Kawanami, Toru; Kurita, Keiji; Tominaga, Makoto; Kato, Takeo [Yamagata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify whether type 2 diabetes (DM) is a risk factor for asymptomatic (silent) ischemic brain lesion, which is controversial at present. The subjects (n=187), who showed normal results on both neurological and neuropsychological examinations, underwent a 75-g OGTT and were examined by brain MRI on T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and FLAIR (fluid-attenuated inversion recovery) images. Their brain MRIs were evaluated quantitatively with the ischemia rating scale defined here. The subjects were grouped based on their glucose tolerance: normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (n=48), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) (n=62), and DM (n=65). The subjects with DM were further divided based on their duration of illness: 20 with short duration (short DM: 1.3{+-}0.8 years) and 45 with long duration (long DM; 8.9{+-}5.4 years). Ages were matched among the groups. The percentages of individuals with asymptomatic ischemic brain lesion were 81% in NGT, 74% in IGT, 65% in short DM, and 78% in long DM. No significant difference was observed among the groups in terms of the percentage. Namely, even in individuals with a long history of DM without clinical stroke, the prevalence of asymptomatic ischemic brain lesion was not different from that of the other groups. Multiple regression and multiple logistic regression analyses showed that age and hypertension were significant independent risk factors for asymptomatic ischemic brain lesion, whereas hypercholesterolemia, smoking, and glucose intolerance, including IGT, short DM and long DM, were not. DM is not a risk factor for asymptomatic ischemic brain lesion. (author)

  3. Type 2 diabetes is not a risk factor for asymptomatic ischemic brain lesion. The Funagata study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, Tamotsu; Daimon, Makoto; Eguchi, Hideyuki; Hosoya, Takaaki; Kawanami, Toru; Kurita, Keiji; Tominaga, Makoto; Kato, Takeo

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify whether type 2 diabetes (DM) is a risk factor for asymptomatic (silent) ischemic brain lesion, which is controversial at present. The subjects (n=187), who showed normal results on both neurological and neuropsychological examinations, underwent a 75-g OGTT and were examined by brain MRI on T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and FLAIR (fluid-attenuated inversion recovery) images. Their brain MRIs were evaluated quantitatively with the ischemia rating scale defined here. The subjects were grouped based on their glucose tolerance: normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (n=48), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) (n=62), and DM (n=65). The subjects with DM were further divided based on their duration of illness: 20 with short duration (short DM: 1.3±0.8 years) and 45 with long duration (long DM; 8.9±5.4 years). Ages were matched among the groups. The percentages of individuals with asymptomatic ischemic brain lesion were 81% in NGT, 74% in IGT, 65% in short DM, and 78% in long DM. No significant difference was observed among the groups in terms of the percentage. Namely, even in individuals with a long history of DM without clinical stroke, the prevalence of asymptomatic ischemic brain lesion was not different from that of the other groups. Multiple regression and multiple logistic regression analyses showed that age and hypertension were significant independent risk factors for asymptomatic ischemic brain lesion, whereas hypercholesterolemia, smoking, and glucose intolerance, including IGT, short DM and long DM, were not. DM is not a risk factor for asymptomatic ischemic brain lesion. (author)

  4. Differences in traditional and non-traditional risk factors with special reference to nutritional factors in patients with coronary artery disease with or without diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namita P Mahalle

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is an increase in awareness about the role of nutritional factors in chronic non-communicable diseases. We therefore conducted this study with an aim to assess the relationship between nutritional factor (vitamin B12 and homocysteine [Hcy] and its association with insulin resistance and inflammatory markers, and differences in traditional and non-traditional risk factors among diabetics and non-diabetics in known cases of coronary artery disease (CAD. Materials and Methods: Three hundred consecutive patients with known coronary disease on coronary angiography, who were >25 years old were included in this study. All cases were interviewed using a questionnaire. Blood samples were analyzed for insulin, vitamin B12, Hcy and inflammatory markers (highly sensitive C-reactive protein [hsCRP], interleukin-6 [IL-6], Tumor necrosis factor-alfa [TNF-α]. Insulin resistance was calculated with homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. Results: Mean age of the patients was 60.95 ± 12.3 years. Body mass index and waist hip ratio were comparable in both groups. Triglyceride, very low-density lipoprotein and HbA1C were significantly higher and high-density lipoprotein (HDL was significantly lower in patients with diabetes. Patients with diabetes had significantly high levels of IL-6, hsCRP and TNF-α compared with non-diabetic patients. Insulin resistance was twofold higher in diabetic patients. Serum vitamin B12 levels were significantly lower and Hcy was significantly higher in the diabetic group compared with the non-diabetic patients. HbA1C, HOMA-IR and Hcy levels were positively correlated with inflammatory markers in the total study population and in the non-diabetic patients; but, in diabetic patients, HbA1C and Hcy showed this relation. Conclusions: Vitamin B12 deficiency is common in the diabetic population. Hcy levels were higher in diabetics compared with non-diabetics, and were related to glycemic level and

  5. Diabetes as a risk factor to cancer: Functional role of fermented papaya preparation as phytonutraceutical adjunct in the treatment of diabetes and cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aruoma, Okezie I., E-mail: oaruoma@auhs.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, American University of Health Sciences, Signal Hill, CA (United States); Somanah, Jhoti [ANDI Center for Biomedical and Biomaterials Research, University of Mauritius, MSIRI Building, Réduit (Mauritius); Bourdon, Emmanuel; Rondeau, Philippe [Groupe d’Etude sur l’Inflammation Chronique et l’Obésité (GEICO), Université de La Réunion, Plateforme CYROI, Saint Denis (France); Bahorun, Theeshan, E-mail: tbahorun@uom.ac.mu [ANDI Center for Biomedical and Biomaterials Research, University of Mauritius, MSIRI Building, Réduit (Mauritius)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Cancer incidence and mortality is linked to hyperglycemia and some anti-diabetes drugs. • FPP is a safe nutraceutical adjunct for augmenting therapeutic regimens in diabetes and cancer management. • FPP through its hypoglycemic and antioxidant sensing may impact and mitigate the side effects of anticancer drugs. • FPP can diminish the intensity of side effects associated with acute radiation therapy. • FPP can maintain the integrity of erythrocyte during cancer chemotherapy augmenting compliance of treatment. - Abstract: Oncologists and diabetologists quote scientific data from epidemiological and in vitro studies to show that high levels of insulin and glucose, in combination with oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, can heighten the risk of developing cancer amongst patients with diabetes. Although the cancers that have been consistently associated with type 2 diabetes include pancreatic, colorectal, breast and liver cancer, the preponderance of the disease risk factors such as obesity, inflammation, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinaemia (as a result of insulin resistance and oxidative β-cell damage) and the indirect influence of anti-diabetic medications are increasingly being defined. Fermented papaya preparation (FPP) has defined antioxidant and immune-modulating potentials. The ability of FPP influence signaling cascades associated with cell growth and survival presents a rational for chemopreventive adjunct that can be used in combination with traditional redox based therapies that target oxidative stress in the cancer micro environment. It is further suggested that the demonstrated efficacy FPP to control blood glucose, excessive inflammation and modulate free radical-induced oxidative damage which are triggers of liver, bladder, breast and prostate cancers in type 2 diabetics, may favorably mitigate the side effects of ensuing diabetes and cancer therapy. What remains paramount is early cancer detection and early determination of

  6. Diabetes as a risk factor to cancer: Functional role of fermented papaya preparation as phytonutraceutical adjunct in the treatment of diabetes and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aruoma, Okezie I.; Somanah, Jhoti; Bourdon, Emmanuel; Rondeau, Philippe; Bahorun, Theeshan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Cancer incidence and mortality is linked to hyperglycemia and some anti-diabetes drugs. • FPP is a safe nutraceutical adjunct for augmenting therapeutic regimens in diabetes and cancer management. • FPP through its hypoglycemic and antioxidant sensing may impact and mitigate the side effects of anticancer drugs. • FPP can diminish the intensity of side effects associated with acute radiation therapy. • FPP can maintain the integrity of erythrocyte during cancer chemotherapy augmenting compliance of treatment. - Abstract: Oncologists and diabetologists quote scientific data from epidemiological and in vitro studies to show that high levels of insulin and glucose, in combination with oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, can heighten the risk of developing cancer amongst patients with diabetes. Although the cancers that have been consistently associated with type 2 diabetes include pancreatic, colorectal, breast and liver cancer, the preponderance of the disease risk factors such as obesity, inflammation, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinaemia (as a result of insulin resistance and oxidative β-cell damage) and the indirect influence of anti-diabetic medications are increasingly being defined. Fermented papaya preparation (FPP) has defined antioxidant and immune-modulating potentials. The ability of FPP influence signaling cascades associated with cell growth and survival presents a rational for chemopreventive adjunct that can be used in combination with traditional redox based therapies that target oxidative stress in the cancer micro environment. It is further suggested that the demonstrated efficacy FPP to control blood glucose, excessive inflammation and modulate free radical-induced oxidative damage which are triggers of liver, bladder, breast and prostate cancers in type 2 diabetics, may favorably mitigate the side effects of ensuing diabetes and cancer therapy. What remains paramount is early cancer detection and early determination of

  7. Beverage-consumption patterns and associations with metabolic risk factors among low-income Latinos with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Monica L; Lemon, Stephenie C; Olendzki, Barbara; Rosal, Milagros C

    2013-12-01

    In the United States, Latinos experience disproportionately higher rates of type 2 diabetes and diabetes-related complications than non-Latino whites. Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is strongly associated with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Reducing caloric intake, particularly from energy-dense, low-nutrient foods or beverages, can be an effective and key strategy for metabolic and weight control. However, little is known about the contribution of various types of beverages, including but not limited to SSBs, to total caloric intake among Latinos with type 2 diabetes. Low-income Latinos (87.7% Puerto Rican) participating in a diabetes self-management intervention trial (N=238) provided cross-sectional, descriptive data on beverage-consumption patterns, anthropometric outcomes, and metabolic characteristics. Beverages accounted for one fifth of the total daily caloric intake. SSBs and milk beverages, respectively, contributed 9.6% of calories to overall daily caloric intake. Interventions directed at diabetes risk factors among low-income Latinos with diabetes can benefit from consideration of beverage-consumption behaviors as an important strategy to reduce caloric and sugar intake. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Gestational diabetes mellitus in sub-Saharan Africa: systematic review and meta-regression on prevalence and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwanri, A.W.; Kinabo, J.L.; Ramaiya, K.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We systematically reviewed publications on prevalence and risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the 47 countries of sub-Saharan Africa. Methods We conducted a systematic search in PUBMED and reviewed articles published until June 2014 and searched the references of

  9. Risk factors of impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes in Yaounde, Cameroon : a cross sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kufe, Clement Nyuyki; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Leopold, Fezeu; Assah, Felix; Ngufor, George; Mbeh, George; Mbanya, Vivian Nchanchou; Mbanya, Jean Claude

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of diabetes is increasing worldwide, particularly in low and middle income countries, where treatment and control are often unavailable and inaccessible. Information on risk factors at local and regional levels is of utmost importance for tailored prevention programmes to

  10. Diabetes and pre-diabetes are associated with cardiovascular risk factors and carotid/femoral intima-media thickness independently of markers of insulin resistance and adiposity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paccaud Fred

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impaired glucose regulation (IGR is associated with detrimental cardiovascular outcomes such as cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVD risk factors or intima-media thickness (IMT. Our aim was to examine whether these associations are mediated by body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (waist or fasting serum insulin (insulin in a population in the African region. Methods Major CVD risk factors (systolic blood pressure, smoking, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, were measured in a random sample of adults aged 25–64 in the Seychelles (n = 1255, participation rate: 80.2%. According to the criteria of the American Diabetes Association, IGR was divided in four ordered categories: 1 normal fasting glucose (NFG, 2 impaired fasting glucose (IFG and normal glucose tolerance (IFG/NGT, 3 IFG and impaired glucose tolerance (IFG/IGT, and 4 diabetes mellitus (DM. Carotid and femoral IMT was assessed by ultrasound (n = 496. Results Age-adjusted levels of the major CVD risk factors worsened gradually across IGR categories (NFG Conclusion We found graded relationships between IGR categories and both major CVD risk factors and carotid/femoral IMT. These relationships were only partly accounted for by BMI, waist and insulin. This suggests that increased CVD-risk associated with IGR is also mediated by factors other than the considered markers of adiposity and insulin resistance. The results also imply that IGR and associated major CVD risk factors should be systematically screened and appropriately managed.

  11. Retrospective cohort study on risk factors for development of gestational diabetes among mothers attending antenatal clinics in Nairobi County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adoyo, Maureen Atieno; Mbakaya, Charles; Nyambati, Venny; Kombe, Yeri

    2016-01-01

    World Health Organization estimates that deaths resulting from diabetes will rise above 50% by the year 2020; hence urgent action is needed to reverse the trend notably through nutrition and lifestyle intervention among populations at risks. Studies have established that nutritional environment and physiology of the mother affects neonate's health at infancy and later in life thus this study sought to investigate the risk factors for development of gestational diabetes focusing age, weight, family history and pre-existing medical condition which could be modified to improve population health. A retrospective cohort study design was used. Subjects were sampled from selected maternity facilities in Nairobi and were subjected to oral glucose test to ascertain Gestational Diabetes mellitus (GDM) status. A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 238 respondents. Quantitative data was then analyzed as descriptive statistic, univariate and multivariate regression. Average age for mothers with GDM was high with a mean of 33.06 (95% C.I: 31.59-34.52) compared to a mean of 27.9 (95% C.I: 27.01-28.78) for non-GDM mothers. Weight before pregnancy was high with mean of 74.04 (95% C.I: 70.82-77.30) among mothers with GDM compared to mean of 60.27 (95% C.I:58.59-61.96) among non-GDM mothers. Mothers with diabetic history in the family had twice the risk of developing GDM (OR= 2.27; 95% C.I: 1.23-4.17) compared to those who did not observe diabetic history in the family. Gestational diabetes cases are relatively high. Age advancement; high weight and diabetic history in family are determining factors for development of diabetes among pregnant women.

  12. Health insurance status and control of diabetes and coronary artery disease risk factors on enrollment into the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, Mary; Jenkins, Margaret; Sansing, Veronica V; MacGregor, Joan; Brooks, Maria Mori; Julien-Williams, Patricia; Amendola, Angela; Abbott, J Dawn

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine measures of chronic disease severity and treatment according to insurance status in a clinical trial setting. Baseline insurance status of 776 patients with type 2 diabetes and stable coronary artery disease (CAD) enrolled in the United States in the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) trial was analyzed with regard to measures of metabolic and cardiovascular risk factor control. Compared with patients with private or public insurance, the uninsured were younger, more often female, and less often white non-Hispanic. Uninsured patients had the greatest burden of CAD. Patients with public insurance were treated with the greatest number of medications, had the greatest self-reported functional status, and the lowest mean glycosylated hemoglobin and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol values. Overall, for 5 measured risk factor targets, the mean number above goal was 2.49 ± 1.18. After adjustment for demographic and clinical variables, insurance status was not associated with a difference in risk factor control. In the BARI 2D trial, we did not observe a difference in baseline cardiovascular risk factor control according to insurance status. An important observation, however, was that risk factor control overall was suboptimal, which highlights the difficulty in treating type 2 diabetes and CAD irrespective of insurance status.

  13. Type 2 diabetes mellitus as a risk factor for dementia in a Mexican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Rosa María; Hiriart, Marcia; Acosta, Isaac; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Prince, Martin J

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and dementia increase with age. Different studies have explored their association, but the possible relationship between them is still unclear. This is an analysis of the 10/66 Dementia Research Group (DRG) Mexico database; the sample comprised 1193 subjects ≥65 years old followed-up for three years. We calculated the incidence of dementia in subjects with diabetes using three models of analysis. T2DM patients have nearly twice the risk of developing dementia (RR 1.9; 95% CI 1.3-2.6) after three years of follow-up. The incidence of dementia is higher in subjects with undiagnosed diabetes. Higher serum glucose levels have a stronger association with dementia. It is important to implement early evaluation and monitoring cognitive performance in elders with diabetes to identify minor cognitive impairment and undertake timely interventions to prevent or delay the onset of dementia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Frequency and risk factors associated with hypomagnesaemia in hypokalemic type-2 diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shardha, A.K.; Vaswani, A.S.; Fraz, A.; Alam, M.T.; Kumar, P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency and factors associated with hypomagnesaemia in hypokalemic type-2 diabetic patients presenting at Civil Hospital, Karachi. Study Design: A cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Medicine and Diabetic Clinic of Civil Hospital and Dow Medical College, Karachi, from November 2010 to May 2011. Methodology: A total of 358 adult type-2 diabetics with hypokalemia were selected for this study. With aseptic measures, venous blood was collected for serum magnesium, potassium, HDLc, LDLc Triglyceride (TGs) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) from each subject after an overnight fasting and was analyzed on Roche Hitachi 820 Photo Spectrometry. The data was analyzed on SPSS version 17 to determine the factors associated with hypomagnesaemia like duration of diabetes, Body Mass Index (BMI), diabetic nephropathy, HDLc, LDLc Triglyceride (TGs) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level. Results: Mean age of study population was 55.62 +- 9.9 years. Most of them (n=228, 63.7%) were males. Out of the 358 subjects, 198 (55.3%) had hypomagnesaemia. There was significant association between hypomagnesaemia with duration of diabetes, Body Mass Index (BMI), diabetic nephropathy, HDLc, LDLc Triglyceride (TGs) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level. Conclusion: Hypomagnesaemia is very common in type-2 diabetic hypokalemic patients. Therefore, it should be routinely sought by the clinicians. Early recognition and subsequent treatment of hypomagnesaemia may help in better glycemic control, may delay the chronic complications and decrease the mortality in diabetic hypokalemic patients. (author)

  15. Incident rate and risk factors for tuberculosis among patients with type 2 diabetes: retrospective cohort study in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hanbo; Shi, Yan; Li, Yanyun; Shen, Xin; Li, Rui; Yang, Qundi; Pan, Qichao; Yan, Fei

    2017-07-01

    To examine the incident rate of tuberculosis (TB) and its associates among adults with type 2 diabetes in Shanghai, China. We conducted a retrospective cohort study among 170 399 patients with type 2 diabetes aged ≥18 years who were registered in Shanghai community-based diabetes management system between 2004 and 2009. Their TB status was tracked until 31 December 2014. Cox regression was performed to identify the risk factors for TB. We documented 785 new TB cases during 654 977 person-years of follow-up. The incident rate of TB was 224.20 (206.69, 243.16) per 100 000 person-years among men and 51.34 (44.75, 58.92) per 100 000 person-years among women. A 1-unit increase of BMI was associated with a risk reduction in 16% (P < 0.01) for men and a 14% (P < 0.01) reduction for women. TB cases were more likely to be insulin-dependent [men: hazard ratio = 2.13 (1.29, 3.53); women: 3.28 (1.28, 8.39)] and had a poor glucose level initially [men: 1.21 (1.15, 1.27); women: 1.27 (1.18, 1.37)]. The risk factor for TB specific to men was a young age at diagnosis of diabetes, and the protective factor specific to women was actively engaging in physical activity. TB incident rate among patients with type 2 diabetes was substantially higher among men than among women. The risk of TB was reversely associated with initial BMI. The severity of poor glucose control among patients with diabetes was also linearly associated with the risk of TB. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Work Disability among Employees with Diabetes: Latent Class Analysis of Risk Factors in Three Prospective Cohort Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Virtanen

    Full Text Available Studies of work disability in diabetes have examined diabetes as a homogeneous disease. We sought to identify subgroups among persons with diabetes based on potential risk factors for work disability.Participants were 2,445 employees with diabetes from three prospective cohorts (the Finnish Public Sector study, the GAZEL study, and the Whitehall II study. Work disability was ascertained via linkage to registers of sickness absence and disability pensions during a follow-up of 4 years. Study-specific latent class analysis was used to identify subgroups according to prevalent comorbid disease and health-risk behaviours. Study-specific associations with work disability at follow-up were pooled using fixed-effects meta-analysis.Separate latent class analyses for men and women in each cohort supported a two-class solution with one subgroup (total n = 1,086; 44.4% having high prevalence of chronic somatic diseases, psychological symptoms, obesity, physical inactivity and abstinence from alcohol and the other subgroup (total n = 1,359; 55.6% low prevalence of these factors. In the adjusted meta-analyses, participants in the 'high-risk' group had more work disability days (pooled rate ratio = 1.66, 95% CI 1.38-1.99 and more work disability episodes (pooled rate ratio = 1.33, 95% CI 1.21-1.46. These associations were similar in men and women, younger and older participants, and across occupational groups.Diabetes is not a homogeneous disease in terms of work disability risk. Approximately half of people with diabetes are assigned to a subgroup characterised by clustering of comorbid health conditions, obesity, physical inactivity, abstinence of alcohol, and associated high risk of work disability; the other half to a subgroup characterised by a more favourable risk profile.

  17. Diabetes Mellitus, a New Risk Factor for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: A Case–Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Asadian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients with spinal stenosis and lumbar vertebral disk degeneration, and the correlation of diabetes with these diseases. Study Design This is a cross-sectional study. Methods This case–control study was performed during 2012–2014 with 110 patients suffering from lumbar spinal stenosis and 110 patients with lumbar disk herniation, who were diagnosed using clinical and radiological evidences. Additionally, 110 participants who were referred to the clinic and did not show clinical signs of degenerative diseases of the lumbar spine entered the study as a control group. Demographic data and medical histories of the patients were collected using checklists. Results A total of 50 patients (15.2% were diagnosed with diabetes, which comprised 32 (29.1% in the stenosis group, 7 (6.4% in the lumbar disk herniation group, and 11 (10% in the control group. The prevalence of diabetes in women with spinal stenosis and women with lumbar disk herniation was 35.9% and 10.3%, respectively, whereas prevalence of diabetes in women was 10.9% in the control group. This difference was statistically significant in the spinal stenosis group in comparison with the controls ( P < 0.0001. Conversely, no significant difference was found in men. Conclusions There is an association between diabetes and lumbar spinal stenosis. Diabetes mellitus may be a predisposing factor for the development of lumbar spinal stenosis.

  18. A longitudinal study of structural risk factors for obesity and diabetes among American Indian young adults, 1994-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Tennille L; Metzger, Molly W

    2015-05-07

    American Indian young adults have higher rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes than the general US population. They are also more likely than the general population to have higher rates of structural risk factors for obesity and diabetes, such as poverty, frequent changes of residence, and stress. The objective of this study was to investigate possible links between these 2 sets of problems. Data from the American Indian subsample of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) were used to examine potential links between obesity and type 2 diabetes and structural risk factors such as neighborhood poverty, housing mobility, and stress. We used logistic regression to explore explanatory factors. American Indians in the subsample had higher rates of poor health, such as elevated hemoglobin A1c levels, self-reported high blood glucose, self-reported diabetes, and overweight or obesity. They also had higher rates of structural risk factors than non-Hispanic whites, such as residing in poorer and more transient neighborhoods and having greater levels of stress. Self-reported stress partially mediated the increased likelihood of high blood glucose or diabetes among American Indians, whereas neighborhood poverty partially mediated their increased likelihood of obesity. Neighborhood poverty and stress may partially explain the higher rates of overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes among American Indian young adults than among non-Hispanic white young adults. Future research should explore additional neighborhood factors such as access to grocery stores selling healthy foods, proximity and safety of playgrounds or other recreational space, and adequate housing.

  19. Psychological risk factors of micro- and macrovascular outcomes in primary care patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nefs, Giesje; Pouwer, François; Denollet, Johan

    2010-01-01

    tests and physical examinations, and pharmacy medication records. The DiaDDZoB Study uses data that have been collected during the original baseline assessment in 2005 (M0; N = 2,460) and the 2007 (M1; N = 2,225) and 2008 (M2; N = 2,032) follow-up assessments. DISCUSSION: The DiaDDZoB Study is expected......BACKGROUND: Depression is a common psychiatric complication of diabetes, but little is known about the natural course and the consequences of depressive symptoms in primary care patients with type 2 diabetes. While depression has been related to poor glycemic control and increased risk....... METHODS/DESIGN: This prospective cohort study will examine: (1) the course of depressive symptoms in primary care patients with type 2 diabetes; (2) whether depressive symptoms and Type D personality are associated with the development of microvascular and/or macrovascular complications and with the risk...

  20. Prevalence and risk factors for the development of diabetes mellitus in Swedish cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sallander Marie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence and risk factors for the development of feline diabetes mellitus (FDM in Swedish cats have not previously been reported. The objective of the present pilot study was to indicate prevalence and possible risk factors for FDM in Swedish cats. Twenty diabetic cats from the database at the University Animal Hospital in Uppsala participated in the study, and these were matched with 20 healthy controls on sex and age. A mail-and-telephone questionnaire focusing on diet, activity and obesity was used. Results The prevalence of FDM during the years 2000–2004 based on the results of the hospital records in the present study was 21 per 10,000 cats. The diabetic cats were on average 9 years old when the disease signs were discovered (median, min-max 2–15. Among FDM cases, it was more common to be male (n=17 males vs n=3 females; P≤0.05. Ten out of twenty owners to cases (50% reported their cats to be obese at the time of the diagnosis (median 9 years, min-max 2–15, as compared to five out of twenty (25% controls at the same age. The median BW at the time for diagnosis was 5.5 kg (min-max 2.0-9.0 for cases, and 5.0 kg (min-max 3.0-8.0 kg for controls, respectively. Despite that both cases and controls had the same median age at the time of the study (13 years, min-max 3–18, a significantly higher number of controls were alive at that age (n=16 controls vs 8 cases; P≤0.05. A significantly higher proportion of cases that were obese at the time of the FDM diagnosis were dead at the time of the study compared to the proportion of controls that were obese at a similar age (P≤0.05. The diets given at the time for diagnosis for cases compared to diet of the controls at a similar time were mainly commercial foods, and controls consumed a higher proportion of dry foods compared to cases (medians 79 vs 44% of DM intake/d, respectively; P≤0.05. Cases were less active compared to the controls (2.3 and 3.2 h

  1. Marine food pollutants as a risk factor for hypoinsulinemia and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Henriksen, Jan Erik; Choi, Anna L

    2011-01-01

    Some persistent environmental chemicals are suspected of causing an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, a disease particularly common after the age of 70. This concern was examined in a cross-sectional study of elderly subjects from a fishing population with elevated contaminant exposures...

  2. Investigation of Factors Contributing to Diabetes Risk in American Indian/Alaska Native Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam-Zwart, Kayleen; Cawston, Alvina

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between family history, sedentary behaviors, and childhood risk for type 2 diabetes. Participants were 480 students attending schools on or near an American Indian reservation. Data were collected through survey and BMI measurement. Children who frequently watched television or played video games did not…

  3. Alteraciones electrocardiográficas y factores de riesgo cardiovascular en pacientes con diabetes tipo 2 Electrocardiographic abnormalities and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Rodríguez-Morán

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar cuáles son las alteraciones del ritmo y la conducción cardiaca más frecuentes en pacientes con diabetes tipo 2 sin cardiopatía previa y establecer su asociación con los factores de riesgo cardiovascular. Material y métodos. Se incluyeron pacientes con diabetes tipo 2 sin presencia o antecedentes de cardiopatía. Se determinaron los factores de riesgo cardiovascular, el índice de masa corporal y los niveles séricos de glucosa, colesterol y triglicéridos. Se registró electrocardiograma convencional en reposo. La asociación de las variables en estudio con la ocurrencia de arritmias se calculó con un modelo de análisis multivariado ajustado por sexo. Resultados. Se integraron 199 pacientes: 113 mujeres (56.8% y 86 hombres (43.2%, y se identificó algún tipo de alteración electrocardiográfica en 29.1% de los sujetos. El hemibloqueo fascicular anterior (HFA y el bloqueo completo de rama derecha del Haz de His (BRDHH, constituyeron 75.9% de las alteraciones identificadas. Los pacientes con trastornos del ritmo y la conducción tienen niveles más elevados de colesterol y triglicéridos. La aparición de arritmias se relaciona directamente con el incremento de la edad (r= 0.75, p= 0.01. En el análisis multivariado ajustado por sexo la hipercolesterolemia y la edad se asociaron significativamente con las alteraciones del ritmo y la conducción: RM 1.5, IC95% 1.1-4.6, pObjective. To determine the most frequent alterations in rhythm and cardiac conduction in patients with type 2 diabetes without previous cardiopathy, and to establish the association of this disease with cardiovascular risk factors. Material and methods. Subjects with type 2 diabetes, without cardiopathy antecedents were included in the study. Cardiovascular risk factors, body mass index and serum glucose, cholesterol and trygliceride levels were determined. A resting electrocardiogram was recorded. The association between the variables under study and

  4. Influence of Age at Diagnosis and Time-Dependent Risk Factors on the Development of Diabetic Retinopathy in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes

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    Luis Forga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the influence of age at onset of type 1 diabetes and of traditional vascular risk factors on the development of diabetic retinopathy, in a cohort of patients who have been followed up after onset. Methods. Observational, retrospective study. The cohort consists of 989 patients who were followed up after diagnosis for a mean of 10.1 (SD: 6.8 years. The influence of age at diagnosis, glycemic control, duration of diabetes, sex, blood pressure, lipids, BMI, and smoking is analyzed using Cox univariate and multivariate models with fixed and time-dependent variables. Results. 135 patients (13.7% developed diabetic retinopathy. The cumulative incidence was 0.7, 5.9, and 21.8% at 5-, 10-, and 15-year follow-up, respectively. Compared to the group with onset at age 44 years, respectively. During follow-up we also observed an association between diabetic retinopathy and HbA1c levels, HDL-cholesterol, and diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion. The rate of diabetic retinopathy is higher in patients who were older at type 1 diabetes diagnosis. In addition, we confirmed the influence of glycemic control, HDL-cholesterol, and diastolic blood pressure on the occurrence of retinopathy.

  5. Risk Factors

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    ... cells do not invade nearby tissues or spread. Risk Factors Key Points Factors That are Known to ... chemicals . Factors That are Known to Increase the Risk of Cancer Cigarette Smoking and Tobacco Use Tobacco ...

  6. AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS AND ITS RISK FACTORS IN RURAL AREA OF KATIHAR

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    Om Narayan Yadav

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic, debilitating disease characterised by insulin resistance, impaired insulin secretion and hyperglycaemia. It is the most prevalent metabolic condition and one amongst major health and socioeconomic problems worldwide. It represents more than 90% of total prevalence of diabetes in the world and is responsible for 9% of the global mortality corresponding to four million deaths per year. The aim of the study is to- 1. Determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus type 2 in a rural population of age 30 years and above. 2. Study the association of various risk factors with diabetes mellitus type 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in population 30 years and above at Hazipur village in the district of Katihar in Bihar. During the study period of 1 st January to 31 st December 2015, in which 910 persons aged 30 years or more living in this village were included in study. RESULTS Total sample size in this study was 910 and out of this, 37 (4.06% were found to have type 2 diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 45.94% among sedentary and only 13.52% among heavy worker subjects. According to literacy of subjects, the prevalence among illiterate, primary, middle, secondary, higher secondary and above was 24.33%, 32.43%, 16.22%, 13.51% and 13.51%, respectively. Among vegetarians and non-vegetarians, the prevalence was 18.91% and 81.09%, respectively. Among subjects with type 2 DM, 54.06% were overweight and 72.97% were hypertensive. Smoking habit was found among 54.05% subjects. CONCLUSION This study shows that the prevalence of diabetes is high in the subjects having sedentary lifestyle, poor literacy status, overweight, non-vegetarians, hypertension and smoking habit. Control of type 2 diabetes mellitus mandates lifestyle modification and control of risk factors.

  7. Prenatal exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus as an independent risk factor for long-term neuropsychiatric morbidity of the offspring.

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    Nahum Sacks, Kira; Friger, Michael; Shoham-Vardi, Ilana; Abokaf, Hanaa; Spiegel, Efrat; Sergienko, Ruslan; Landau, Daniella; Sheiner, Eyal

    2016-09-01

    diabetes mellitus was found to be an independent risk factor for long-term neuropsychiatric disease of the offspring (gestational diabetes mellitus A1 [adjusted odds ratio, 1.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.53-2.19] and gestational diabetes mellitus A2 [adjusted odds ratio, 1.64; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-2.27]). Within the limits of our database, our findings also point to a possible association between in utero exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus and autistic spectrum disorder of the offspring (adjusted odds ratio, 4.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.55-12.69), which was found significant also after controlling for time-to-event, maternal age, gestational age at delivery, and offspring weight at birth. Exposure to maternal gestational diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for long-term neuropsychiatric morbidity in the offspring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Diabetes in the Cape Coast metropolis of Ghana: an assessment of risk factors, nutritional practices and lifestyle changes.

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    Gato, Worlanyo E; Acquah, Samuel; Apenteng, Bettye A; Opoku, Samuel T; Boakye, Blessed K

    2017-09-01

    Despite the significant increase in the incidence of diabetes in Ghana, research in this area has been lagging. The purpose of the study was to assess the risk factors associated with diabetes in the Cape Coast metropolis of Ghana, and to describe nutritional practices and efforts toward lifestyle change. A convenient sample of 482 adults from the Cape Coast metropolis was surveyed using a self-reported questionnaire. The survey collected information on the demographic, socioeconomic characteristics, health status and routine nutritional practices of respondents. The aims of the study were addressed using multivariable regression analyses. A total of 8% of respondents reported that they had been diagnosed with diabetes. Older age and body weight were found to be independently associated with diabetes. Individuals living with diabetes were no more likely than those without diabetes to have taken active steps at reducing their weight. The percentage of self-reported diabetes in this population was consistent with what has been reported in previous studies in Ghana. The findings from this study highlight the need for more patient education on physical activity and weight management. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Current smoking is an independent risk factor for new-onset diabetes mellitus during highdose glucocorticoid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Takao; Sugimoto, Toyohiko; Suzuki, Sawako; Sato, Yuta; Tanaka, Tomoaki; Tatsuno, Ichiro

    2015-08-01

    Although high-dose glucocorticoids have been reported to cause new-onset diabetes mellitus (glucocorticoid-induced diabetes mellitus), its risk factors have remained to be determined. We investigated the risk factors related to glucocorticoid-induced diabetes mellitus diagnosed within 2 months after the high-dose treatment (newly treated with an initial high dose of > 20 mg prednisolone (PSL) equivalent per day for at least more than 6 months) in collagen vascular diseases. A total of 2,631 patients with collagen vascular diseases was registered between 1986 and 2006 in the Chiba-Shimoshizu Rheumatic Cohort. We analyzed 681 patients newly treated with high-dose glucocorticoid who did not have diabetes mellitus and/or its previous diagnosis (age: 46.3 ± 16.7 years, PSL dose: 40.0 ± 14.1 mg/day). Glucocorticoid-induced diabetes mellitus was diagnosed by two or more glucose measurements in patients with fasting glycaemia ≥ 7 mmol/L and 120 minutes post-load glycaemia ≥ 11.1 mmol/L. Glucocorticoid-induced diabetes mellitus was observed in 26.3% of patients, and the glucocorticoid-induced diabetes mellitus group had higher age, higher BMI, lower rates of females and systemic lupus erythematosus, higher rates of smoking, alcohol use, and microscopic polyangiitis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the risk of glucocorticoid-induced diabetes mellitus was independently higher in every 10-year increment of initial age with adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.556 (95% confidence interval: 1.359 - 1.783), in every 1 kg/m2 increment of BMI with OR 1.062 (1.002 - 1.124), in current smoking with OR 1.664 (1.057 - 2.622), and in every 10 mg increment of initial dose of prednisolone with OR 1.250 (1.074 - 1.454). High-dose glucocorticoids caused diabetes mellitus with high prevalence within a short period, and current smokers should be considered at higher risk of glucocorticoidinduced diabetes mellitus in addition to age, BMI, and initial dose.

  10. Perceptions of risk factors for diabetes among Norwegian-Pakistani women participating in a culturally adapted intervention.

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    Råberg Kjøllesdal, Marte K; Hjellset, Victoria T; Bjørge, Benedikte; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Wandel, Margareta

    2011-06-01

    To explore perceptions of diabetes risk factors among Pakistani immigrant women, as part of their explanatory model of the disease, and the changes in these perceptions after a culturally adapted intervention. Intervention study, carried out in Oslo, Norway, comprising 198 women. At baseline, about 75% of the women perceived sugar to be a risk factor for diabetes, about 30% mentioned physical inactivity and stress and close to 20% mentioned overweight. Twelve per cent could not identify any risk factors. When asked about foods to include in a diet to prevent diabetes, vegetables were mentioned by 45%, while 33% did not know any foods to include. Among those attending ≥60% of the educational sessions, the proportions mentioning little physical activity (pfood to include was reduced to 10% (p=0.004). Except for little physical activity, similar changes in responses were not registered in the control group. There is a need for improved knowledge about diabetes prevention among Pakistani immigrant women, and a culturally adapted intervention may contribute to this.

  11. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Distributions of the Ankle-Brachial Index among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

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    Badaruddoza Doza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of present study is to observe the association between the levels of ankle-brachial index (ABI and cardiovascular risk factors among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus in north India. A cross-sectional study was carried out at a centre for heart and diabetic clinic in the state of Punjab on 1121 subjects (671 males and 450 females with type 2 diabetes mellitus. History of symptoms related to cardiovascular diseases was noted, and blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were recorded. Ankle-brachial index (ABI was measured using ultrasonic Doppler flow detector. Subjects with ABI ≤0.9 and ≥1.30 were classified as having low and high ABI, respectively. Females had a higher BMI and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (<0.001. Whereas, males had higher diastolic blood pressure and duration of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The differences of systolic blood pressure and ankle-brachial index were not found significant between the sexes. The prevalence of low ABI (<0.9 was 4.47% in men and 4.67% in women and high ABI (≥1.30 was prevalent in 14% of men and 10.45% of women. Age, BMI, baPWV, and blood pressures were significantly associated with ABI value in both sexes. The results suggested that the ABI might be used as a strong indicator for cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetic subjects.

  12. Influence of arterial hypertension, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors on ALS outcome: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moglia, Cristina; Calvo, Andrea; Canosa, Antonio; Bertuzzo, Davide; Cugnasco, Paolo; Solero, Luca; Grassano, Maurizio; Bersano, Enrica; Cammarosano, Stefania; Manera, Umberto; Pisano, Fabrizio; Mazzini, Letizia; Dalla Vecchia, Laura A; Mora, Gabriele; Chiò, Adriano

    2017-11-01

    To assess the prognostic influence of pre-morbid type 2 diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension and cardiovascular (CV) risk profile on ALS phenotype and outcome in a population-based cohort of Italian patients. A total of 650 ALS patients from the Piemonte/Valle d'Aosta Register for ALS, incident in the 2007-2011 period, were recruited. Information about premorbid presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension was collected at the time of diagnosis. Patients' CV risk profile was calculated according to the Joint British Societies' guidelines on prevention of cardiovascular disease in clinical practice (JBS2). At the univariate analysis, the presence of pre-morbid arterial hypertension was associated with a higher age at onset of ALS and a shorter survival, and patients with a high CV risk profile had a worse prognosis than those with a low CV risk profile. The Cox multivariable analysis did not confirm such findings. Type 2 diabetes mellitus did not modify either the phenotype or the prognosis of ALS patients. This study performed on a large population-based cohort of ALS patients has demonstrated that arterial hypertension, type 2 diabetes and CV risk factors, calculated using the Framingham equation, do not influence ALS phenotype and prognosis.

  13. Diabetes mellitus and arthritis: is it a risk factor or comorbidity?: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qing; Liu, Hua; Yang, Daren; Zhang, Yunyan

    2017-05-01

    Investigators have explored the association between diabetes mellitus and arthritis for a long time; however, there are uncertainties and inconsistencies among various studies. In this study, we tried to explore the relationship between diabetes mellitus and the overall risk of arthritis, as well as the potential modifiers for this relationship. We conducted a comprehensive literature search through PubMed and identified 36 eligible studies. The overall analyses, subgroup analyses, as well as sensitivity analyses, were conducted to illustrate the association between diabetes mellitus and arthritis. Study quality was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. All statistical analyses were conducted using STATA SE version 13.0. In our study, 36 eligible studies were identified and involved in the meta-analysis. The overall association between diabetes mellitus and arthritis is 1.61 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14-2.28, P = .007). The association exists only in nongouty arthritis, where we observed the estimated odds ratio (OR) 1.33 (95% CI: 1.05-1.67, P 1). The opposite point estimates from different types of diabetes may indicate possible different associations for type I (OR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.18-5.39, P = .985) or type II diabetes (OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 0.88-1.84, P = .194). Diabetes mellitus performs more likely as a comorbidity of arthritis rather than a risk factor; however, more studies will be helpful to increase the confidence of identifying the association between diabetes and arthritis.

  14. 10-year incidence of diabetes and associated risk factors in Greece: the ATTICA study (2002-2012).

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    Koloverou, Efi; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Pitsavos, Christos; Chrysohoou, Christina; Georgousopoulou, Ekavi N; Pitaraki, Evangelia; Metaxa, Vassiliki; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of diabetes in the general population is increasing world-wide. The increase is attributed to the consumption of saturated fatty acids, obesity, lack of physical activity, genetic predisposition, and other factors, but knowledge about the reasons, biological mechanisms, and late complications is insufficient. It is therefore important to clarify the reasons more exactly through long-term clinical trials to stop the rise of diabetes and its complications. To evaluate the 10-year incidence of type 2 diabetes in apparently healthy Greek adults. In 2001-2002, a random sample of 1514 men (18-87 years old) and 1528 women (18-89 years old) was selected to participate in the ATTICA study. During 2011-2012, the 10-year follow-up was performed. Patients diagnosed with diabetes at baseline (n = 210) and those lost at the 10-year follow-up (n = 1347) were excluded, yielding a final sample of 1485 participants. During the period of investigation, diabetes was diagnosed in 191 cases corresponding to a 12.9% incidence (95%CI: 10.4-15.4), with 13.4% (95%CI: 10.8-16) in men and 12.4% (95%CI: 10.1-14.7) in women. A relative increase was observed in the second half of the 10-year follow-up when age became significant. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age (OR = 1.14, 95%CI: 1.09-1.19), abnormal waist-to-height ratio (OR = 3.27, 95%CI: 1.07-10.0), fasting blood glucose (OR per 1 mg/dl = 0.05, 95%CI: 1.02-1.08), energy intake (OR per 500 kcal = 1.02, 95%CI: 1.01-1.35), and family history of diabetes (OR = 2.8, 95%CI: 1.30-6.03) were the most significant baseline predictors for diabetes, after adjusting for potential confounders. Waist-to-height ratio showed the best explanatory power of all anthropometric variables. Physical activity exerts an effect on risk factors. Being active was found to eliminate the aggravating effect of diabetes family history and fasting blood glucose. The findings confirm the escalating increase of type 2 diabetes incidence in

  15. Study of differences in presentation, risk factors and management in diabetic and nondiabetic patients with acute coronary syndrome

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    Krishna Kumar Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare clinical characteristics, treatment, and utilization of evidence-based medicines at discharge from hospital in acute coronary syndrome (ACS patients with or without diabetes at a tertiary care cardiac center in India. Methods: We performed an observational study in consecutive patients discharged following management of ACS. We obtained demographic details, comorbid conditions, and cardiovascular risk factors, physical and biochemical parameters, and management. Descriptive statistics are reported. Results: We enrolled 100 patients (diabetics = 28 with mean age of 59.0 ± 10.8 years (diabetics 59.3 ± 11.6, nondiabetics 58.9 ± 8.5. Forty-nine patients had ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI (diabetics = 14, 28.7% while 51 had nonSTEMI/unstable angina (diabetics = 14, 27.4% (P = nonsignificant. Among diabetics versus nondiabetics there was greater prevalence (% of hypertension (78.6% vs. 44.4%, obesity (25.0% vs. 8.3%, abdominal obesity (85.7% vs. 69.4% and sedentary activity (89.2% vs. 77.8%, and lower prevalence of smoking/tobacco use (10.7% vs. 25.0% (P < 0.05. In STEMI patients 28 (57.1% were thrombolysed (diabetes 17.8% vs. 31.9%, percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI was in 67.8% diabetics versus 84.7% nondiabetics and coronary bypass surgery in 21.4% versus 8.3%. At discharge, in diabetics versus nondiabetics, there was similar use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (67.9% vs. 69.4% and statins (100.0% vs. 98.6% while use of dual antiplatelet therapy (85.7% vs. 95.8% and beta-blockers (64.3% vs. 73.6% was lower (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Diabetic patients with ACS have greater prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors (obesity, abdominal obesity, and hypertension as compared to nondiabetic patients. Less diabetic patients undergo PCIs and receive lesser dual anti-platelet therapy and beta-blockers.

  16. Serum levels of interleukin-22, cardiometabolic risk factors and incident type 2 diabetes: KORA F4/FF4 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herder, Christian; Kannenberg, Julia M; Carstensen-Kirberg, Maren; Huth, Cornelia; Meisinger, Christa; Koenig, Wolfgang; Peters, Annette; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Roden, Michael; Thorand, Barbara

    2017-01-31

    Interleukin-22 (IL-22) has beneficial effects on body weight, insulin resistance and inflammation in different mouse models, but its relevance for the development of type 2 diabetes in humans is unknown. We aimed to identify correlates of serum IL-22 levels and to test the hypothesis that higher IL-22 levels are associated with lower diabetes incidence. Cross-sectional associations between serum IL-22, cardiometabolic risk factors and glucose tolerance status were investigated in 1107 persons of the population-based KORA F4 study. The prospective association between serum IL-22 and incident type 2 diabetes was assessed in 504 initially non-diabetic study participants in both the KORA F4 study and its 7-year follow-up examination KORA FF4, 76 of whom developed diabetes. Male sex, current smoking, lower HDL cholesterol, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher serum interleukin-1 receptor antagonist were associated with higher IL-22 levels after adjustment for confounders (all P < 0.05). Serum IL-22 showed no associations with glucose tolerance status, prediabetes or type 2 diabetes. Baseline serum IL-22 levels (median, 25th/75th percentiles) for incident type 2 diabetes cases and non-cases were 6.28 (1.95; 12.35) and 6.45 (1.95; 11.80) pg/ml, respectively (age and sex-adjusted P = 0.744). The age and sex-adjusted OR (95% CI) per doubling of IL-22 for incident type 2 diabetes of 1.02 (0.85; 1.23) was almost unchanged after consideration of further confounders. High serum levels of IL-22 were positively rather than inversely associated with several cardiometabolic risk factors. However, these associations did not translate into an increased risk for type 2 diabetes. Thus, our data argue against the utility of IL-22 as biomarker for prevalent or incident type 2 diabetes in humans, but identify potential determinants of IL-22 levels which merits further research in the context of cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Racial and ethnic disparities in the control of cardiovascular disease risk factors in Southwest American veterans with type 2 diabetes: the Diabetes Outcomes in Veterans Study

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    Duckworth William C

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Racial/ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease complications have been observed in diabetic patients. We examined the association between race/ethnicity and cardiovascular disease risk factor control in a large cohort of insulin-treated veterans with type 2 diabetes. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional observational study at 3 Veterans Affairs Medical Centers in the American Southwest. Using electronic pharmacy databases, we randomly selected 338 veterans with insulin-treated type 2 diabetes. We collected medical record and patient survey data on diabetes control and management, cardiovascular disease risk factors, comorbidity, demographics, socioeconomic factors, psychological status, and health behaviors. We used analysis of variance and multivariate linear regression to determine the effect of race/ethnicity on glycemic control, insulin treatment intensity, lipid levels, and blood pressure control. Results The study cohort was comprised of 72 (21.3% Hispanic subjects (H, 35 (10.4% African Americans (AA, and 226 (67% non-Hispanic whites (NHW. The mean (SD hemoglobin A1c differed significantly by race/ethnicity: NHW 7.86 (1.4%, H 8.16 (1.6%, AA 8.84 (2.9%, p = 0.05. The multivariate-adjusted A1c was significantly higher for AA (+0.93%, p = 0.002 compared to NHW. Insulin doses (unit/day also differed significantly: NHW 70.6 (48.8, H 58.4 (32.6, and AA 53.1 (36.2, p Conclusion In our cohort, insulin-treated minority veterans, particularly AA, had poorer glycemic control and received lower doses of insulin than NHW. However, we found no differences for control of other cardiovascular disease risk factors. The diabetes treatment disparity could be due to provider behaviors and/or patient behaviors or preferences. Further research with larger sample sizes and more geographically diverse populations are needed to confirm our findings.

  18. Sex differences in risk factors for retinopathy in non-diabetic men and women: The Tromso Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, G.; Peto, T.; Lindekleiv, H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence and risk factors for retinopathy in a nondiabetic population. Methods: The study population included 5869 participants without diabetes aged 38-87years from the TromsO Eye Study, a substudy of the population-based TromsO Study in Norway. Retinal images from both...... eyes were graded for retinopathy. We collected data on risk factors from self-report questionnaires, clinical examinations, laboratory measurements and case note reviews. The cross-sectional relationship between potential risk factors and retinopathy was assessed using logistic regression analysis...... excretion (urinary albumin/creatinine ratio >0.43mg/mmol). Conclusion: This study confirms results from previous studies on the strong association between blood pressure and retinopathy. A novel finding is the sex differences in risk factors for retinopathy, suggesting a sex difference in the pathogenesis...

  19. Trajectories of metabolic risk factors and biochemical markers prior to the onset of type 2 diabetes : the population-based longitudinal Doetinchem study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, G; Spijkerman, A M W; van der Schouw, Y T; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Gansevoort, R T; Smit, H A; Verschuren, W M M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Risk factors often develop at young age and are maintained over time, but it is not fully understood how risk factors develop over time preceding type 2 diabetes. We examined how levels and trajectories of metabolic risk factors and biochemical markers prior to diagnosis differ between

  20. Changes in diet, cardiovascular risk factors and modelled cardiovascular risk following diagnosis of diabetes: 1-year results from the ADDITION-Cambridge trial cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savory, L A; Griffin, S J; Williams, K M; Prevost, A T; Kinmonth, A-L; Wareham, N J; Simmons, R K

    2014-02-01

    To describe change in self-reported diet and plasma vitamin C, and to examine associations between change in diet and cardiovascular disease risk factors and modelled 10-year cardiovascular disease risk in the year following diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes. Eight hundred and sixty-seven individuals with screen-detected diabetes underwent assessment of self-reported diet, plasma vitamin C, cardiovascular disease risk factors and modelled cardiovascular disease risk at baseline and 1 year (n = 736) in the ADDITION-Cambridge trial. Multivariable linear regression was used to quantify the association between change in diet and cardiovascular disease risk at 1 year, adjusting for change in physical activity and cardio-protective medication. Participants reported significant reductions in energy, fat and sodium intake, and increases in fruit, vegetable and fibre intake over 1 year. The reduction in energy was equivalent to an average-sized chocolate bar; the increase in fruit was equal to one plum per day. There was a small increase in plasma vitamin C levels. Increases in fruit intake and plasma vitamin C were associated with small reductions in anthropometric and metabolic risk factors. Increased vegetable intake was associated with an increase in BMI and waist circumference. Reductions in fat, energy and sodium intake were associated with reduction in HbA1c , waist circumference and total cholesterol/modelled cardiovascular disease risk, respectively. Improvements in dietary behaviour in this screen-detected population were associated with small reductions in cardiovascular disease risk, independently of change in cardio-protective medication and physical activity. Dietary change may have a role to play in the reduction of cardiovascular disease risk following diagnosis of diabetes. © 2013 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Diabetes UK.

  1. Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88-deficiency increases risk of diabetes in mice.

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    Toru Hosoi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple lines of evidence suggest innate immune response pathways to be involved in the development of obesity-associated diabetes although the molecular mechanism underling the disease is unknown. Recent observations suggest that saturated fatty acids can act as a ligand for toll-like receptor (TLR 4, which is thought to mediate obesity-associated insulin resistance. Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88 is an adapter protein for TLR/IL-1 receptor signaling, which is involved in the activation of inflammatory pathways. To evaluate molecular mechanisms linking obesity-associated diabetes down-stream of TLR4, we investigated physiological role of MyD88 in high-fat diet (HFD-induced obesity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we found MyD88-deficient mice fed a HFD had increased circulating levels of insulin, leptin and cholesterol, as well as liver dysfunction (increased induction of ALT levels, increased activation of JNK and cleavage of PARP, which were linked to the onset of severe diabetes. On the other hand, TNF-alpha would not be involved in HFD-induced diabetes in MyD88-deficient mice, because TNF-alpha level was attenuated in MyD88-deficient mice fed with HFD. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present finding of an unexpected role for MyD88 in preventing diabetes may provide a potential novel target/strategy for treating metabolic syndrome.

  2. Identification and Progression of Heart Disease Risk Factors in Diabetic Patients from Longitudinal Electronic Health Records

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    Jitendra Jonnagaddala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Therefore, assessing the risk of its occurrence is a crucial step in predicting serious cardiac events. Identifying heart disease risk factors and tracking their progression is a preliminary step in heart disease risk assessment. A large number of studies have reported the use of risk factor data collected prospectively. Electronic health record systems are a great resource of the required risk factor data. Unfortunately, most of the valuable information on risk factor data is buried in the form of unstructured clinical notes in electronic health records. In this study, we present an information extraction system to extract related information on heart disease risk factors from unstructured clinical notes using a hybrid approach. The hybrid approach employs both machine learning and rule-based clinical text mining techniques. The developed system achieved an overall microaveraged F-score of 0.8302.

  3. Life Style Related Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Its Increased Prevalence in Saudi Arabia: A Brief Review

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    Mohammad Fareed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Role of life style related risk factors is very important in the pathogenesis and progression of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The aim of this article is to review the disease burden of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM among the population of Saudi Arabia due to unhealthy life style. Methods: In this review, the information was collected from published literatures related to risk factors like unhealthy dietary pattern and sedentary life style leading to T2DM. Additionally, some epidemiological information for the prevalence of T2DM in Saudi Arabia was also collected. Results: Earlier studies have depicted that unhealthy life style and dietary patterns are risk factors involved in the development of insulin resistance in the body cells. In Saudi Arabia, rapid economic growth has provided a luxurious life style to the masses eventually leading to decrease in the physical activities and adoption of unhealthy dietary patterns. The increased prevalence of T2DM in Saudi Arabia is very much implicated to the life style related risk factors which needs to be improvise for the prevention of this disease. Conclusion: Since the increased prevalence of T2DM is associated with the sedentary life style and unhealthy dietary pattern, so it is recommended that creating awareness about the life style related risk factors for T2DM among general population and patients, will effectively contribute in lowering its incidence rate.

  4. Evaluation of Frequency and Risk Factors of Soft Tissue Rheumatism of Upper Limbs in Diabetic Patients in Kerman in 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Shakibi

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that affect different systems in human. Wide range of musculoskeletal syndromes have been described in association with diabetes. To determine the prevalence of upper limb soft tissue rheumatism in diabetes patients. In a cross sectional study 300 diabetic patients was examined by COPCORD questionnaire. The examination was performed by internist and rheumatologist . Data was analyzed by logistic regression. 73.3% of patients were female. Average age of cases was 51.2±13.7 years and mean of duration of disease was 7±6.4 years. 152 cases (50.7% had soft tissue rheumatism in upper limbs. 66 cases had carpal tannel syndrome, 23 cases with Dupuytren’s disease, 23 cases with Flexortenosynovitis, 91 cases with shoulder periarthritis, 4 cases had limited joint mobility and 12 had Elbow Epicandititis. Logestic regression analysis showed that type 2 diabetes, weak control of blood sugur and duration of disease>5years were risk factors for incidence of soft tissue rheumatism in upper limbs. Results have showed the high prevalence of soft tissue rheumatism in diabetic patients.

  5. Impact of dietary fiber intake on glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors and chronic kidney disease in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Fukuoka Diabetes Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Hiroki; Iwase, Masanori; Ohkuma, Toshiaki; Ogata-Kaizu, Shinako; Ide, Hitoshi; Kikuchi, Yohei; Idewaki, Yasuhiro; Joudai, Tamaki; Hirakawa, Yoichiro; Uchida, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Nakamura, Udai; Kitazono, Takanari

    2013-12-11

    Dietary fiber is beneficial for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, although it is consumed differently in ethnic foods around the world. We investigated the association between dietary fiber intake and obesity, glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors and chronic kidney disease in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. A total of 4,399 patients were assessed for dietary fiber intake using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire. The associations between dietary fiber intake and various cardiovascular risk factors were investigated cross-sectionally. Body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, triglyceride and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein negatively associated with dietary fiber intake after adjusting for age, sex, duration of diabetes, current smoking, current drinking, total energy intake, fat intake, saturated fatty acid intake, leisure-time physical activity and use of oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin. The homeostasis model assessment insulin sensitivity and HDL cholesterol positively associated with dietary fiber intake. Dietary fiber intake was associated with reduced prevalence of abdominal obesity, hypertension and metabolic syndrome after multivariate adjustments including obesity. Furthermore, dietary fiber intake was associated with lower prevalence of albuminuria, low estimated glomerular filtration rate and chronic kidney disease after multivariate adjustments including protein intake. Additional adjustments for obesity, hypertension or metabolic syndrome did not change these associations. We demonstrated that increased dietary fiber intake was associated with better glycemic control and more favorable cardiovascular disease risk factors including chronic kidney disease in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetic patients should be encouraged to consume more dietary fiber in daily life.

  6. Leisure-time physical activity and risk of type 2 diabetes in patients with established vascular disease or poorly controlled vascular risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, B.G.; Graaf, van der Y.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Wassink, A.M.J.; Visseren, F.L.J.

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of leisure-time physical activity on the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in patients with manifest arterial disease, or poorly controlled risk factors. METHODS: We examined 3940 patients with manifest arterial disease, hypertension or hyperlipidemia, aged

  7. Contribution of modifiable risk factors for hypertension and type-2 diabetes in Peruvian resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Gilman, Robert H; Checkley, William; Smeeth, Liam; Miranda, J Jaime

    2016-01-01

    It is important to understand the local burden of non-communicable diseases including within-country heterogeneity. The aim of this study was to characterise hypertension and type-2 diabetes profiles across different Peruvian geographical settings emphasising the assessment of modifiable risk factors. Analysis of the CRONICAS Cohort Study baseline assessment was conducted. Cardiometabolic outcomes were blood pressure categories (hypertension, prehypertension, normal) and glucose metabolism disorder status (diabetes, prediabetes, normal). Exposures were study setting and six modifiable factors (smoking, alcohol drinking, leisure time and transport-related physical activity levels, TV watching, fruit/vegetables intake and obesity). Poisson regression models were used to report prevalence ratios (PR). Population attributable risks (PAR) were also estimated. Data from 3238 participants, 48.3% male, mean age 45.3 years, were analysed. Age-standardised (WHO population) prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension was 24% and 16%, whereas for prediabetes and type-2 diabetes it was 18% and 6%, respectively. Outcomes varied according to study setting (pdiabetes. PAR showed that obesity was an important determinant for hypertension (15.7%) and type-2 diabetes (23.9%). There is an evident heterogeneity in the prevalence of and risk factors for hypertension and diabetes within Peru. Prehypertension and prediabetes are highly prevalent across settings. Our results emphasise the need of understanding the epidemiology of cardiometabolic conditions to appropriately implement interventions to tackle the burden of non-communicable diseases. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Glaucoma incidence in an unselected cohort of diabetic patients: is diabetes mellitus a risk factor for glaucoma? DARTS/MEMO collaboration. Diabetes Audit and Research in Tayside Study. Medicines Monitoring Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J D; Evans, J M; Ruta, D A; Baines, P S; Leese, G; MacDonald, T M; Morris, A D

    2000-11-01

    To evaluate whether diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for the development of primary open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension (OHT). A historical cohort study of an unselected population comprising all residents of the Tayside region of Scotland was performed using record linkage techniques followed by case note review. Ascertainment of prevalent diabetes was achieved using the Diabetes Audit and Research in Tayside Study (DARTS) validated regional diabetes register. Glaucoma and treated OHT were defined by encashment of community prescriptions and the statutory surgical procedure coding database. The study population comprised 6631 diabetic subjects and 166 144 non-diabetic subjects aged >40 years without glaucoma or OHT at study entry. 65 patients with diabetes and 958 without diabetes were identified as new cases of glaucoma or treated OHT during the 24 month study period, yielding a standardised morbidity ratio of 127 (95% CI, 96-158). Case note review demonstrated non-differential misclassification of prevalent glaucoma and OHT as incident disease (diabetic cohort 20%, non-diabetic cohort 24%; p=0.56) primarily as a result of non-compliance in medically treated disease. Removing misclassified cases and adjusting for age yielded an incidence of primary open angle glaucoma in diabetes of 1.1/1000 patient years (95% CI, 0.89-1. 31) compared to 0.7/1000 patient years (95% CI, 0.54-0.86) in the non-diabetic cohort; RR 1.57 (95% CI, 0.99-2.48). This study failed to confirm an association between diabetes mellitus and primary open angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. A non-significant increase in diagnosed and treated disease in the diabetic population was observed, but evidence was also found that detection bias contributes to this association.

  9. Bilirubin as a potential causal factor in type 2 diabetes risk: a Mendelian randomization study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Ali; Deetman, Petronella E.; Corpeleijn, Eva; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Gans, Rijk O.B.; Hillege, Hans L.; van der Harst, Pim; Stolk, Ronald P.; Navis, Gerjan; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Bakker, Stephan J.L.

    2014-01-01

    Circulating bilirubin, a natural antioxidant, is associated with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the nature of the relationship remains unknown. We performed Mendelian randomization in a prospective cohort of 3,381 participants free of diabetes at baseline (aged 28-75 years; women, 52.6%). We used rs6742078 located in UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT1A1) locus as instrumental variable (IV) to study a potential causal effect of serum total bilirubin on T2D risk. T2D developed in a total of 210 (6.2%) participants during a median follow-up of 7.8 years. In adjusted analyses, rs6742078, which explained 19.5% of bilirubin variation, was strongly associated with total bilirubin (a 0.68-SD increase in bilirubin levels per T allele; Pbilirubin levels, we observed a 25% (OR 0.75 [95%CI, 0.62-0.92]; P=0.004) lower risk of T2D. In Mendelian randomization analysis, the causal risk reduction for T2D was estimated to be 42% (causal ORIVestimation per 1-SD increase in log-transformed bilirubin 0.58 [95%CI, 0.39-0.84]; P=0.005), which was comparable to the observational estimate (Durbin-Wu-Hausman chi-square test Pfor difference =0.19). These novel results provide evidence that elevated bilirubin is causally associated with risk of T2D and support its role as a protective determinant. PMID:25368098

  10. Elevated fasting plasma cortisol is associated with ischemic heart disease and its risk factors in people with type 2 diabetes: the Edinburgh type 2 diabetes study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Rebecca M; Labad, Javier; Strachan, Mark W J; Braun, Anke; Fowkes, F Gerry R; Lee, Amanda J; Frier, Brian M; Seckl, Jonathan R; Walker, Brian R; Price, Jackie F

    2010-04-01

    Increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may underlie the metabolic syndrome, but whether circulating cortisol levels predict cardiovascular end points is less clear. People with type 2 diabetes are at increased cardiovascular disease risk and thus are suitable to study associations of plasma cortisol with cardiovascular risk. We aimed to assess whether altered HPA axis activity was associated with features of the metabolic syndrome and ischemic heart disease in people with type 2 diabetes. We conducted a cross-sectional cohort study in the general community, including 919 men and women aged 67.9 (4.2) yr with type 2 diabetes (the Edinburgh Type 2 Diabetes Study). We measured fasting morning plasma cortisol. Associations between cortisol levels, features of the metabolic syndrome, obesity, and ischemic heart disease were determined. Elevated plasma cortisol levels were associated with raised fasting glucose and total cholesterol levels (P cortisol levels were associated with prevalent ischemic heart disease (>800 vs. cortisol is also associated with a greater prevalence of ischemic heart disease, independent of conventional risk factors. Understanding the role of cortisol in the pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease merits further exploration.

  11. Diastolic blood pressure is a potentially modifiable risk factor for preeclampsia in women with pre-existing diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Sidse Kjærhus; Vestgaard, Marianne Jenlev; Jørgensen, Isabella Lindegaard

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: To identify early clinical, modifiable risk factors for preeclampsia present at first antenatal visit and assess the prevalence of pregnancy-related hypertensive disorders in women with pre-existing diabetes treated with tight glycemic and blood pressure (BP) control. METHODS: A population...... and preeclampsia was recorded. Diabetic microangiopathy included presence of nephropathy, microalbuminuria and/or retinopathy. Treatment target was BP ... women with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. At the first antenatal visit, the prevalence of microalbuminuria was 6% (6% vs. 6%), nephropathy 2% (1% vs. 2%) and chronic hypertension 6% (3% vs. 10%, p = 0.03). Gestational hypertension developed in 8% (9% vs. 6%) and preeclampsia developed in 8% (9% vs. 7...

  12. Alterations in retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in early stages of diabetic retinopathy and potential risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rui; Guo, Zhonglan; Wang, Feng; Li, Rong; Zhao, Lei; Lin, Rong

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the loss of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in type-2 diabetic patients with early-stage diabetic retinopathy (DR) and to identify potential risk factors accounting for these alterations. In this cross-sectional study, 158 type-2 diabetic patients were divided into three groups based on their DR status. RNFL thickness and other optic disc parameters were obtained by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and then compared among different groups. We investigated the potential association between RNFL loss and systemic risk factors for DR, including diabetes duration, body mass index (BMI), serum lipids, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR). One-way ANOVA was carried out to compare RNFL thickness among different groups, Pearson correlation and multivariate linear regression analysis were performed to determine potential risk factors related to RNFL thickness in these patients. There were significant differences in the average (F = 8.872, P = 0.003), superior (F = 8.769, P = 0.004), and inferior (F = 8.857, P = 0.003) RNFL thickness of both eyes among the groups, but no obvious difference in optic disc parameters was found. Diabetic duration, BMI, TG, High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), HbA1c, and ACR were found negatively related to the RNFL thickness in both or single eye according to Pearson correlation analysis. After controlling for age, gender, and axis length (AL) in multivariate linear regression analysis, the diabetic duration was associated significantly with RNFL thickness of superior in both eye (right eye: p = 0.016, left eye: p = 0.024), BMI was related to the nasal quadrant of the right eye (p = 0.034), and TG was related to the inferior of the right eye (p = 0.037), HbA1c (p = 0.026) was associated significantly with the average RNFL thickness of the right eye. In addition, ACR was found negatively related to average (p = 0.042) and inferior quadrant (p = 0.014) of the left eye

  13. Nutritional status, glycemic control and its associated risk factors among a sample of type 2 diabetic individuals, a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayyeh Firouzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in Malaysia, with most patients poorly controlled. Hence, this study aimed to determine nutritional and metabolic status as well as blood pressure of Malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and identify associated risk factors for poor glycemic control. Materials and Methods: A total of 104 type 2 diabetic patients were recruited and completed a questionnaire covering socio-demographic status, 3-day diet records, and physical activity. Anthropometry and glycemic control parameters, lipid profile and blood pressure were also measured. Results: Subjects were on average 56.7±9.9 years old with a mean duration of diabetes of 6.5 ± 5.0 years. The mean hemoglobin A1c of the subjects was 7.6% ± 1.4%, with only 20.2% achieving the target goal of <6.5% with no significant differences between genders. The mean body mass index was 26.9 ± 4.7 kg/m 2 , with 86.5% either were overweight or obese. Only 10.6% of the subjects exercised daily. The proportions of macronutrients relative to total energy intake were consistent with the recommendations of most diabetes associations. The adjusted odds of having poor glycemic control were 3.235 (1.043-10.397 (P < 0.05 higher among those who had high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels below the normal range. Those taking one or two types of oral anti-diabetic drugs had 19.9 (2.959-87.391 (P < 0.01 and 14.3 (2.647-77.500 (P < 0.01 higher odds of poor glycemic control respectively compared to those who were being treated by diet alone. Conclusion: Poor glycemic control was prevalent among Malaysian diabetic patients, and this could be associated with low levels of HDL and being treated with oral anti-diabetes agents.

  14. Nutritional status, glycemic control and its associated risk factors among a sample of type 2 diabetic individuals, a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firouzi, Somayyeh; Barakatun-Nisak, Mohd Yusof; Azmi, Kamaruddin Nor

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in Malaysia, with most patients poorly controlled. Hence, this study aimed to determine nutritional and metabolic status as well as blood pressure of Malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and identify associated risk factors for poor glycemic control. A total of 104 type 2 diabetic patients were recruited and completed a questionnaire covering socio-demographic status, 3-day diet records, and physical activity. Anthropometry and glycemic control parameters, lipid profile and blood pressure were also measured. Subjects were on average 56.7±9.9 years old with a mean duration of diabetes of 6.5 ± 5.0 years. The mean hemoglobin A1c of the subjects was 7.6% ± 1.4%, with only 20.2% achieving the target goal of 10.6% of the subjects exercised daily. The proportions of macronutrients relative to total energy intake were consistent with the recommendations of most diabetes associations. The adjusted odds of having poor glycemic control were 3.235 (1.043-10.397) (P types of oral anti-diabetic drugs had 19.9 (2.959-87.391) (P 1) and 14.3 (2.647-77.500) (P 1) higher odds of poor glycemic control respectively compared to those who were being treated by diet alone. Poor glycemic control was prevalent among Malaysian diabetic patients, and this could be associated with low levels of HDL and being treated with oral anti-diabetes agents.

  15. Nutritional status, glycemic control and its associated risk factors among a sample of type 2 diabetic individuals, a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firouzi, Somayyeh; Barakatun-Nisak, Mohd Yusof; Azmi, Kamaruddin Nor

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in Malaysia, with most patients poorly controlled. Hence, this study aimed to determine nutritional and metabolic status as well as blood pressure of Malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and identify associated risk factors for poor glycemic control. Materials and Methods: A total of 104 type 2 diabetic patients were recruited and completed a questionnaire covering socio-demographic status, 3-day diet records, and physical activity. Anthropometry and glycemic control parameters, lipid profile and blood pressure were also measured. Results: Subjects were on average 56.7±9.9 years old with a mean duration of diabetes of 6.5 ± 5.0 years. The mean hemoglobin A1c of the subjects was 7.6% ± 1.4%, with only 20.2% achieving the target goal of exercised daily. The proportions of macronutrients relative to total energy intake were consistent with the recommendations of most diabetes associations. The adjusted odds of having poor glycemic control were 3.235 (1.043-10.397) (P < 0.05) higher among those who had high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels below the normal range. Those taking one or two types of oral anti-diabetic drugs had 19.9 (2.959-87.391) (P < 0.01) and 14.3 (2.647-77.500) (P < 0.01) higher odds of poor glycemic control respectively compared to those who were being treated by diet alone. Conclusion: Poor glycemic control was prevalent among Malaysian diabetic patients, and this could be associated with low levels of HDL and being treated with oral anti-diabetes agents. PMID:25767521

  16. Risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients according to World Health Organization, Third Report National Cholesterol Education Program, and International Diabetes Federation definitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Rodríguez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Angel Rodríguez1, Helena Delgado-Cohen1, Jesús Reviriego1, Manuel Serrano-Ríos21Clinical Research Department, Eli Lilly and Company, Madrid, Spain; 2Department of Internal Medicine II, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Madrid, SpainBackground: The availability of several definitions of the metabolic syndrome has created potential confusion concerning its prognostic utility. At present, little data exist about the risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome in diabetic patients.Aim: To identify risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus according to three diagnostic criteria: World Health Organization (WHO, Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults – Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III, and International Diabetes Federation (IDF.Subjects and methods: A logistic regression model was used to identify demographic, clinical, and lifestyle variables related with metabolic syndrome (N = 1259.Results: Hypertension, dyslipidemia, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c ≥7% were associated with increased risk of WHO-defined metabolic syndrome (odds ratio [OR], 2.33; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.60–3.40; OR, 1.79 95% CI: 1.25–2.55; and OR, 1.58; 95% CI: 1.12–2.22, respectively. The risk of presenting metabolic syndrome according to NCEP-ATP III criteria was increased in female patients (OR, 2.02; 95% CI: 1.37–2.97, elevated fasting glucose levels (OR, 5.99; 95% CI: 3.56–10.07, dyslipidemia (OR, 2.28; 95% CI: 1.57–3.32, hypertension (OR, 2.36; 95% CI: 1.59–3.53, and endocrine disorders (OR, 1.64; 95% CI: 1.06–2.57. For the IDF criteria, female patients and patients with left ventricular hypertrophy or insulin treatment were at higher risk of metabolic syndrome (OR, 4.00; 95% CI: 2.35–6.80; OR, 2.72 95% CI: 1.22–6.04; and OR, 1.96 95% CI: 1.24–3.11, respectively.Conclusions: The

  17. Non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors and diabetes among adults living in slum areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Lal B; Biswas, Tuhin; Khandker, Nusrat Nausheen; Saha, Shekhar Ranjan; Bidat Chowdhury, Mohammed Mahiul; Khan, Abdullah Nurus Salam; Chowdhury, Enamul Hasib; Renzaho, Andre

    2017-01-01

    Despite one-third of the urban population in Bangladesh living in urban slums and at increased risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), little is known about the NCD risk profile of this at-risk population. The aim of the study was to identify the prevalence of the NCD risk factors and the association of NCD risk factors with socio-demographic factors among the adults of urban slums in Dhaka, Bangladesh. A cross-sectional study was conducted among adult slum dwellers (aged 25 and above) residing in three purposively selected urban slums of Dhaka for at least six months preceding the survey. The risk factors assessed were- currently smoking, fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, hypertension and body mass index (BMI). Information on self-reported diabetes was also taken. A total of 507 participants (252 females; 49.7%) were interviewed and their physical measures were taken using the WHO NCD STEPS instrument. The overall prevalence of NCD risk factors was: 36.0% (95% CI: 31.82-40.41) for smoking; 95.60% (95% CI: 93.60-97.40) for insufficient fruit and vegetable intake; 15.30% (95% CI:12.12-18.71) for low physical activity;13.70% (95% CI: 10.71-16.92) for hypertension; 22.70% (95% CI: 19.31-26.02) for overweight or obesity; and 5.00% (95%: 3.20-7.00) for self-reported diabetes. In the logistic regression model, the clustering of three or more NCD risk factors was positively associated with younger age groups (p = 0.02), no formal education (p slum adults. These findings are important to support the formulation and implementation of NCD-related polices and plan of actions that recognize urban slum populations in Bangladesh as a priority sub-population.

  18. Placental peptides metabolism and maternal factors as predictors of risk of gestational diabetes in pregnant women. A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngala, Robert Amadu; Fondjo, Linda Ahenkorah; Gmagna, Peter; Ghartey, Frank Naku; Awe, Martin Akilla

    2017-01-01

    Gestational diabetes is a risk factor for perinatal complications; include shoulder dystocia, birth injuries such as bone fractures and nerve palsies. It is associated with later development of type 2 diabetes, the risk of macrosomia and other long-term health effects of infants born to diabetic mothers. The study assesses placental peptides and maternal factors as potential predictors of gestational diabetes among pregnant women. A total of 200 pregnant women were recruited for the study, 150 pregnant women without pre gestational diabetes including 50 women with low risk factors of diabetes as controls and 50 other pregnant women with pregestational diabetes as control. Fasting blood glucose and the lipid profile were determined by enzymatic methods using Envoy® 500 reagents (Vital Diagnostics, USA). Glycated haemoglobin was assessed using the Cation Exchange resin method. Leptin and the Human Placenta Lactogen were assayed using the Sandwich-ELISA technique. Beta chorionic gonadotrophin, insulin, progesterone and estradiol were determined using chemilumiscence imunoassay technique on MAGLUMI 600 analyzer. Anthropometry, including BMI and blood pressure were also measured. Fasting plasma glucose (FBG), insulin, insulin resistance, glycated haemoglobin and Human Placenta Lactogen(HPL)were significantly (p0.05) in estradiol, insulin, insulin resistance and HPL between the pregnant women who developed gestational diabetes and those who did not. Leptin, progesterone and FBG were significantly increased in those who developed GDM. The risk of developing gestational diabetes increased with overweight (OR = 1.76, P = 0.370) and family history of diabetes (OR = 2.18, P = 0.282). Leptin, progesterone, estradiol estimated in this study were increased in the gestational diabetes mellitus women and fairly predicted gestational diabetes in the non-diabetics pregnant women. Obesity, aging and family history of diabetes were strongly predictive of gestational diabetes.

  19. Evaluation of Posttransplantation Diabetes Mellitus After Liver Transplantation: Assessment of Insulin Administration as a Risk Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Kristin E; Baker, William L; Rochon, Caroline; May, Scott T; Sheiner, Patricia A; Martin, Spencer T

    2016-05-01

    Impaired glucose regulation posttransplantation can affect allograft survival and may lead to the development of posttransplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM). The primary purpose of this study is to assess the difference in insulin burden between liver transplant patients who develop PTDM and patients who do not. This was a single-center, retrospective study. Adult liver transplant recipients transplanted between January 1, 2005, and August 1, 2013, were included. PTDM was defined as: (1) use of an oral antihyperglycemic agent for ≥30 consecutive days after transplant, (2) use of insulin ≥30 consecutive days after transplant, or (3) hemoglobin A1C≥6.5 any time after transplant. Of the 114 patients included, 48 (42%) developed PTDM. The average 24-hour insulin requirement on the medical floors was 17.2 ± 14.5 units in the PTDM group and 11.3 ± 12.2 units in the PTDM-free group;P= 0.02. The average blood glucose level on the medical floor was 184.7 ± 31.5 mg/dL in the PTDM group and 169.3 ± 31.4 mg/dL in the PTDM-free group;P= 0.013. Multivariate analysis revealed that experiencing rejection was positively associated with the development of PTDM: adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.237; 95% CI = 1.214-8.633. Basiliximab was negatively associated with the development of PTDM: AOR = 0.182; 95% CI = 0.040-0.836. Univariate analyses suggest that insulin burden is a positive risk factor for the development of PTDM; this association is lost in multivariate analyses. Rejection was a positive predictor, and use of basiliximab was a negative predictor for the development of PTDM. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Insulin resistance: an additional risk factor in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Tushar P; Rawal, Komal; Bagchi, Ashim K; Akolkar, Gauri; Bernardes, Nathalia; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Gupta, Sarita; Singal, Pawan K

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary life style and high calorie dietary habits are prominent leading cause of metabolic syndrome in modern world. Obesity plays a central role in occurrence of various diseases like hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, which lead to insulin resistance and metabolic derangements like cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) mediated by oxidative stress. The mortality rate due to CVDs is on the rise in developing countries. Insulin resistance (IR) leads to micro or macro angiopathy, peripheral arterial dysfunction, hampered blood flow, hypertension, as well as the cardiomyocyte and the endothelial cell dysfunctions, thus increasing risk factors for coronary artery blockage, stroke and heart failure suggesting that there is a strong association between IR and CVDs. The plausible linkages between these two pathophysiological conditions are altered levels of insulin signaling proteins such as IR-β, IRS-1, PI3K, Akt, Glut4 and PGC-1α that hamper insulin-mediated glucose uptake as well as other functions of insulin in the cardiomyocytes and the endothelial cells of the heart. Reduced AMPK, PFK-2 and elevated levels of NADP(H)-dependent oxidases produced by activated M1 macrophages of the adipose tissue and elevated levels of circulating angiotensin are also cause of CVD in diabetes mellitus condition. Insulin sensitizers, angiotensin blockers, superoxide scavengers are used as therapeutics in the amelioration of CVD. It evidently becomes important to unravel the mechanisms of the association between IR and CVDs in order to formulate novel efficient drugs to treat patients suffering from insulin resistance-mediated cardiovascular diseases. The possible associations between insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases are reviewed here.

  1. Risk factors for cerebral oedema in children and adolescents with diabetic ketoacidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Y. Yaneva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral oedema (CO is a rare life-threatening complication of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA in children. We analysed the biochemical and therapeutic risk factors for CO in DKA by a retrospective review of 256 children hospitalized for DKA between February 2003 and March 2015. The demographic characteristics, biochemical variables and therapeutic interventions were compared between the patients with and without CO. CO was observed in 22 (8.6% of the 256 subjects included in the study. One of these patients (5% had a fatal outcome and two patients (9% survived with neurological consequences. CO was significantly associated with severe DKA: lower initial venous pH (p < 0.001 and bicarbonate (p < 0.001, higher initial blood glucose (p < 0.01, urea level (p < 0.05 and baseline serum osmolality (р < 0.05. During the treatment of DKA, low serum phosphate level was found to be significantly associated with CO (p < 0.05. We also found significant dependence between the development of CO and the initiation of treatment for DKA in another facility before hospitalization in our hospital (p < 0.05, bicarbonate application (p < 0.001, higher fluid volume infused initially (p < 0.01 and delayed potassium substitution (p < 0.01. Severe ketoacidosis, hyperglycaemia and dehydration at presentation, and low serum phosphate during treatment are significantly related to CO formation in children with DKA. The initial severe acidosis and hyperglycaemia probably cause brain injury which progresses into CO in the course of developing hypophosphatemia and cerebral hypervolemia.

  2. Prevalence and screening for risk factors of type 2 diabetes in Rize, Nourtheast Turkey: findings from a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayındır Çevik, A; Metin Karaaslan, M; Koçan, S; Pekmezci, H; Baydur Şahin, S; Kırbaş, A; Ayaz, T

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to determine the prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes, risk factors affecting the healthy population, and factors that increase diabetes risk in the adult northeast Turkish population. Using population proportional cluster sampling, 930 adults were selected. After excluding people with diabetes, risk screening was conducted in the healthy population (n: 825) using the Information Form and FINDRISK questionnaire. Fasting venous blood and biochemical parameters were measured. Prevalence of diabetes was 13.6% (new % 2.3), translating to approximately 44 thousand adults. Among the healthy population, 37.5% had high risk. Prevalence of not exercising (78.2%), obesity (36.1%), and hypertension (24.5%) were high. Predictors of risk of diabetes were aging (OR 1.09), low education (OR 0.51), familial diabetes history (OR 15.27), not exercising (OR 0.41), obesity (OR 5.17), high waist circumference (OR 1.05), heart disease (OR 4.81), and hypertension (OR 2.60). This study can stimulate early screening for cardiovascular diseases and hypertension and initiating aggressive treatments in people with high diabetes risk. In primary health services, number of doctors and nurses trained in diabetes should be increased and dieticians should be involved. People with high risk should receive lifestyle regulations training. Copyright © 2015 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cardiovascular disease, diabetes and established risk factors among populations of sub-Saharan African descent in Europe: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Graft Aikins Ama

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most European countries are ethnically and culturally diverse. Globally, cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death. The major risk factors for CVD have been well established. This picture holds true for all regions of the world and in different ethnic groups. However, the prevalence of CVD and related risk factors vary among ethnic groups. Methods This article provides a review of current understanding of the epidemiology of vascular disease, principally coronary heart disease (CHD, stroke and related risk factors among populations of Sub-Sahara African descent (henceforth, African descent in comparison with the European populations in Europe. Results Compared with European populations, populations of African descent have an increased risk of stroke, whereas CHD is less common. They also have higher rates of hypertension and diabetes than European populations. Obesity is highly prevalent, but smoking rate is lower among African descent women. Older people of African descent have more favourable lipid profile and dietary habits than their European counterparts. Alcohol consumption is less common among populations of African descent. The rate of physical activity differs between European countries. Dutch African-Suriname men and women are less physically active than the White-Dutch whereas British African women are more physically active than women in the general population. Literature on psychosocial stress shows inconsistent results. Conclusion Hypertension and diabetes are highly prevalent among African populations, which may explain their high rate of stroke in Europe. The relatively low rate of CHD may be explained by the low rates of other risk factors including a more favourable lipid profile and the low prevalence of smoking. The risk factors are changing, and on the whole, getting worse especially among African women. Cohort studies and clinical trials are therefore needed among these groups to

  4. Sandy Lake Health and Diabetes Project: A Community-Based Intervention Targeting Type 2 Diabetes and Its Risk Factors in a First Nations Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakekagumick, Kara E.; Naqshbandi Hayward, Mariam; Harris, Stewart B.; Saksvig, Brit; Gittelsohn, Joel; Manokeesic, Gary; Goodman, Starsky; Hanley, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    The Sandy Lake Health and Diabetes Project (SLHDP) was initiated in 1991 as a partnership between Sandy Lake First Nation and researchers interested in addressing the high rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the community. Following the expressed wishes of the community, the SLHDP has encompassed a variety of community-wide interventions and activities including: community surveys to document T2DM prevalence and risk factors, the Northern Store program aimed at increasing the availability and knowledge of healthy food options, a home visit program for the prevention and management of T2DM, a local diabetes radio show, a school diabetes curriculum for grades 3 and 4, a community-wide walking trail to encourage increased physical activity, youth diabetes summer camps, and a variety of community events focusing on nutrition and physical activity. Over the 22 year existence of the SLHDP, the community has taken ownership of the program and activities have evolved in alignment with community needs and priorities. This paper discusses the history, implementation, evaluation, and outcomes of the SLHDP and describes its sustainability. The SLHDP is a model of culturally appropriate participatory research that is iterative, with reciprocal capacity building for both key community stakeholders and academic partners. PMID:24302919

  5. Sandy Lake Health and Diabetes Project: A community-based intervention targeting type 2 diabetes and its risk factors in a First Nations community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara Elizabeth Kakekagumick

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Sandy Lake Health and Diabetes Project (SLHDP was initiated in 1991 as a partnership between Sandy Lake First Nation and researchers interested in addressing the high rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in the community. Following the expressed wishes of the community, the SLHDP has encompassed a variety of community-wide interventions and activities including: community surveys to document T2DM prevalence and risk factors, the Northern Store program aimed at increasing the availability and knowledge of healthy food options, a home visit program for the prevention and management of T2DM, a local diabetes radio show, a school diabetes curriculum for grades 3 and 4, a community-wide walking trail to encourage increased physical activity, youth diabetes summer camps, and a variety of community events focusing on nutrition and physical activity. Over the twenty-two year existence of the SLHDP, the community has taken ownership of the program and activities have evolved in alignment with community needs and priorities. This paper discusses the history, implementation, evaluation and outcomes of the SLHDP and describes its sustainability. The SLHDP is a model of culturally appropriate participatory research that is iterative, with reciprocal capacity building for both key community stakeholders and academic partners.

  6. A Practical and Time-Efficient High-Intensity Interval Training Program Modifies Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors in Adults with Risk Factors for Type II Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethan E. Phillips

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionRegular physical activity (PA can reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, but adherence to time-orientated (150 min week−1 or more PA guidelines is very poor. A practical and time-efficient PA regime that was equally efficacious at controlling risk factors for cardio-metabolic disease is one solution to this problem. Herein, we evaluate a new time-efficient and genuinely practical high-intensity interval training (HIT protocol in men and women with pre-existing risk factors for type 2 diabetes.Materials and methodsOne hundred eighty-nine sedentary women (n = 101 and men (n = 88 with impaired glucose tolerance and/or a body mass index >27 kg m−2 [mean (range age: 36 (18–53 years] participated in this multi-center study. Each completed a fully supervised 6-week HIT protocol at work-loads equivalent to ~100 or ~125% V˙O2 max. Change in V˙O2 max was used to monitor protocol efficacy, while Actiheart™ monitors were used to determine PA during four, weeklong, periods. Mean arterial (blood pressure (MAP and fasting insulin resistance [homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR] represent key health biomarker outcomes.ResultsThe higher intensity bouts (~125% V˙O2 max used during a 5-by-1 min HIT protocol resulted in a robust increase in V˙O2 max (136 participants, +10.0%, p < 0.001; large size effect. 5-by-1 HIT reduced MAP (~3%; p < 0.001 and HOMA-IR (~16%; p < 0.01. Physiological responses were similar in men and women while a sizeable proportion of the training-induced changes in V˙O2 max, MAP, and HOMA-IR was retained 3 weeks after cessation of training. The supervised HIT sessions accounted for the entire quantifiable increase in PA, and this equated to 400 metabolic equivalent (MET min week−1. Meta-analysis indicated that 5-by-1 HIT matched the efficacy and variability of a time-consuming 30-week PA program on V˙O2 max, MAP, and HOMA-IR.ConclusionWith a total time-commitment of

  7. Diagnosis of coronary artery disease using myocardial perfusion SPECT in patients with diabetes mellitus: analysis of risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Ji Hyoung; Kang, Seong Min; Bae, Jin Ho; Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Sang Woo; Yoo, Jeong Soo; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Jae Tae

    2006-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a critical disease with higher rates of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality due to myocardial ischemia and infarction. There is growing interest in how to determine high-risk patients who are candidates for screening testing. This study was performed to evaluate the incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in diabetic patients detected by Tc-99m MIBI myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) and to assess risk factors of CAD and cardiac hard events. 203 diabetic patients (64 male, mean age 64.1 ± 9.0 years) who underwent MPS were included between Jan 2000 and July 2004. Cardiac death and nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) were considered as hard events, and coronary angioplasty and bypass surgery >60 days after testing were considered as soft events. The mean follow-up period was 36 ± 18 months. Patients underwent exercise (n=6) or adenosine stress (n=197) myocardial perfusion SPECT. Perfusion defects on MPS were detected in 28.6% (58/203) of the patients. There was no cardiac death but 11 hard events were observed. The annual cardiac hard event rate was 1.1%. In univariate analysis of clinical factors, typical anginal pain, peripheral vascular disease, peripheral polyneuropathy, and resting ECG abnormality were significantly associated with the occurrence of hard events. Anginal pain, peripheral vascular disease, and resting ECG abnormality remained independent predictors of nonfatal MIs with multivariate analysis. Abnormal SPECT results were significantly associated with high prevalence of hard events but not independent predictors on uni- and multivariate analyses. patients who were male, had longer diabetes duration (especially over 20 years), peripheral vascular disease, peripheral polyneuropathy, or resting ECG abnormality had higher incidence of CAD. Among clinical factors in diabetic patients, typical angina, peripheral vascular disease, peripheral polyneuropathy, and resting ECG abnormality were strong predictors of hard events

  8. Diagnosis of coronary artery disease using myocardial perfusion SPECT in patients with diabetes mellitus: analysis of risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Ji Hyoung; Kang, Seong Min; Bae, Jin Ho; Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Sang Woo; Yoo, Jeong Soo; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Jae Tae [Kyungpook National University, Daegu, (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    Diabetes mellitus is a critical disease with higher rates of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality due to myocardial ischemia and infarction. There is growing interest in how to determine high-risk patients who are candidates for screening testing. This study was performed to evaluate the incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in diabetic patients detected by Tc-99m MIBI myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) and to assess risk factors of CAD and cardiac hard events. 203 diabetic patients (64 male, mean age 64.1 {+-} 9.0 years) who underwent MPS were included between Jan 2000 and July 2004. Cardiac death and nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) were considered as hard events, and coronary angioplasty and bypass surgery >60 days after testing were considered as soft events. The mean follow-up period was 36 {+-} 18 months. Patients underwent exercise (n=6) or adenosine stress (n=197) myocardial perfusion SPECT. Perfusion defects on MPS were detected in 28.6% (58/203) of the patients. There was no cardiac death but 11 hard events were observed. The annual cardiac hard event rate was 1.1%. In univariate analysis of clinical factors, typical anginal pain, peripheral vascular disease, peripheral polyneuropathy, and resting ECG abnormality were significantly associated with the occurrence of hard events. Anginal pain, peripheral vascular disease, and resting ECG abnormality remained independent predictors of nonfatal MIs with multivariate analysis. Abnormal SPECT results were significantly associated with high prevalence of hard events but not independent predictors on uni- and multivariate analyses. patients who were male, had longer diabetes duration (especially over 20 years), peripheral vascular disease, peripheral polyneuropathy, or resting ECG abnormality had higher incidence of CAD. Among clinical factors in diabetic patients, typical angina, peripheral vascular disease, peripheral polyneuropathy, and resting ECG abnormality were strong predictors of hard events.

  9. Maternal age at delivery and order of birth are risk factors for type 1 diabetes mellitus in Upper Silesia, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polańska, Joanna; Jarosz-Chobot, Przemysława

    2006-04-01

    Parental age and birth order as risk factors for childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus were investigated using data from the Regional Diabetic Center for Upper Silesia, Poland, in a population-based study of 398 children with type 1 DM aged 0-14 years born between 1979-1996. Noting differences in the proportions of children of different birth order between cases and controls, the data were stratified by birth order. For each stratum, odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated to assess risks related to the mother's age. The homogeneity of the odds ratios related to the mother's age between strata was evaluated by the Mantel-Haenszel method. Risks related to mother's age and birth order were also estimated jointly by multivariable logistic regression. Decreased risk in later children compared with firstborns was noted. Increased maternal age was found to be a risk factor for type 1 DM. An increase in the mother's age by one year increases the risk of the child being affected by type 1 DM 1.07 times, and children born as the nth in the family are 1.59 times less exposed to the same risk than those born as the (n-1)th. Children of different birth order have different risks of being affected by type 1 DM. Increased maternal age at the time of delivery is a risk factor for type 1 DM in Upper Silesia, Poland. To avoid bias in estimating risks, the mother's age and child's sequence number should be analyzed jointly.

  10. The Age-Specific Quantitative Effects of Metabolic Risk Factors on Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes: A Pooled Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzadfar, Farshad; Stevens, Gretchen A.; Woodward, Mark; Wormser, David; Kaptoge, Stephen; Whitlock, Gary; Qiao, Qing; Lewington, Sarah; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; vander Hoorn, Stephen; Lawes, Carlene M. M.; Ali, Mohammed K.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Ezzati, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Background The effects of systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum total cholesterol (TC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and body mass index (BMI) on the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been established in epidemiological studies, but consistent estimates of effect sizes by age and sex are not available. Methods We reviewed large cohort pooling projects, evaluating effects of baseline or usual exposure to metabolic risks on ischemic heart disease (IHD), hypertensive heart disease (HHD), stroke, diabetes, and, as relevant selected other CVDs, after adjusting for important confounders. We pooled all data to estimate relative risks (RRs) for each risk factor and examined effect modification by age or other factors, using random effects models. Results Across all risk factors, an average of 123 cohorts provided data on 1.4 million individuals and 52,000 CVD events. Each metabolic risk factor was robustly related to CVD. At the baseline age of 55–64 years, the RR for 10 mmHg higher SBP was largest for HHD (2.16; 95% CI 2.09–2.24), followed by effects on both stroke subtypes (1.66; 1.39–1.98 for hemorrhagic stroke and 1.63; 1.57–1.69 for ischemic stroke). In the same age group, RRs for 1 mmol/L higher TC were 1.44 (1.29–1.61) for IHD and 1.20 (1.15–1.25) for ischemic stroke. The RRs for 5 kg/m2 higher BMI for ages 55–64 ranged from 2.32 (2.04–2.63) for diabetes, to 1.44 (1.40–1.48) for IHD. For 1 mmol/L higher FPG, RRs in this age group were 1.18 (1.08–1.29) for IHD and 1.14 (1.01–1.29) for total stroke. For all risk factors, proportional effects declined with age, were generally consistent by sex, and differed by region in only a few age groups for certain risk factor-disease pairs. Conclusion Our results provide robust, comparable and precise estimates of the effects of major metabolic risk factors on CVD and diabetes by age group. PMID:23935815

  11. Risk factors for incident peripheral arterial disease in type 2 diabetes: results from the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation in type 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althouse, Andrew D; Abbott, J Dawn; Forker, Alan D; Bertolet, Marnie; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Thurston, Rebecca C; Mulukutla, Suresh; Aboyans, Victor; Brooks, Maria Mori

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article was to define risk factors for incidence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in a large cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), overall and within the context of differing glycemic control strategies. The Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation in Type 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) randomized controlled trial assigned participants to insulin-sensitizing (IS) therapy versus insulin-providing (IP) therapy. A total of 1,479 participants with normal ankle-brachial index (ABI) at study entry were eligible for analysis. PAD outcomes included new ABI ≤0.9 with decrease at least 0.1 from baseline, lower extremity revascularization, or lower extremity amputation. Baseline risk factors within the overall cohort and time-varying risk factors within each assigned glycemic control arm were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. During an average 4.6 years of follow-up, 303 participants (20.5%) experienced an incident case of PAD. Age, sex, race, and baseline smoking status were all significantly associated with incident PAD in the BARI 2D cohort. Additional baseline risk factors included pulse pressure, HbA1c, and albumin-to-creatinine ratio (P < 0.05 for each). In stratified analyses of time-varying covariates, changes in BMI, LDL, HDL, systolic blood pressure, and pulse pressure were most predictive among IS patients, while change in HbA1c was most predictive among IP patients. Among patients with T2DM, traditional cardiovascular risk factors were the main predictors of incident PAD cases. Stratified analyses showed different risk factors were predictive for patients treated with IS medications versus those treated with IP medications.

  12. Outcomes of combined cardiovascular risk factor management strategies in type 2 diabetes: the ACCORD randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Karen L; O'Connor, Patrick J; Morgan, Timothy M; Buse, John B; Cohen, Robert M; Cushman, William C; Cutler, Jeffrey A; Evans, Gregory W; Gerstein, Hertzel C; Grimm, Richard H; Lipkin, Edward W; Narayan, K M Venkat; Riddle, Matthew C; Sood, Ajay; Goff, David C

    2014-06-01

    To compare effects of combinations of standard and intensive treatment of glycemia and either blood pressure (BP) or lipids in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial. ACCORD enrolled 10,251 type 2 diabetes patients aged 40-79 years at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. Participants were randomly assigned to hemoglobin A1c goals of risk of the primary outcome was lower in the groups intensively treated for glycemia (hazard ratio [HR] 0.67; 95% CI 0.50-0.91), BP (HR 0.74; 95% CI 0.55-1.00), or both (HR 0.71; 95% CI 0.52-0.96) compared with combined standard BP and glycemia treatment. For secondary outcomes, MI was significantly reduced by intensive glycemia treatment and stroke by intensive BP treatment; most other HRs were neutral or favored intensive treatment groups. In the lipid trial, the general pattern of results showed no evidence of benefit of intensive regimens (whether single or combined) compared with combined standard lipid and glycemia treatment. The mortality HR was 1.33 (95% CI 1.02-1.74) in the standard lipid/intensive glycemia group compared with the standard lipid/standard glycemia group. In the ACCORD BP trial, compared with combined standard treatment, intensive BP or intensive glycemia treatment alone improved major CVD outcomes, without additional benefit from combining the two. In the ACCORD lipid trial, neither intensive lipid nor glycemia treatment produced an overall benefit, but intensive glycemia treatment increased mortality. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association.

  13. High prevalence of type 2 diabetes melitus and its risk factors among the rural population of Pondicherry, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Saurabh RamBihariLal; Ghorpade, Arun Gangadhar

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to assess the prevalence of type-2 diabetes in rural Pondicherry and to study the determinants of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) in the rural population of Pondicherry, south Induia. It was a cross-sectional community-based study conducted from November 2010 to January 2012 in two of the field practice villages affiliated to a Medical College in Pondicherry. Sample size was calculated using open source software, Open Epi Version 2.3.10. The sampling frame comprised individuals aged above 25 years and single stage cluster random sampling was carried out. After obtaining the verbal informed consent each of the study participants were interviewed face-to-face using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using the SPSS version 16. The age of the study participants ranged from 25 to 98 years with mean of 42.6 (±13.7) and majority of the study participants 339 (32.5%) from the age-group of 30-39 years. The prevalence of diabetes was 19.8% (60-69 years), 17.1% (40-49 years), 16.8% (50-59 years), and 13.6% (>69 years) among study subjects. In univariate analysis, higher age, being educated, unemployed and poor was associated with higher risk of diabetes mellitus (DM). Furthermore, a high triglyceride level was significantly associated with increase in the risk of DM (adjusted odds ratio: 3.01; 95% CI: 1.86, 4.86). Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an important public health problem in the adults of rural Pondicherry. Among non-modifiable factors, higher age, better socio-educational background and positive family history of diabetes was significantly associated with T2DM.

  14. Factors Motivating Individuals to Consider Genetic Testing for Type 2 Diabetes Risk Prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Wessel

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify attitudes and perceptions of willingness to participate in genetic testing for type 2 diabetes (T2D risk prediction in the general population. Adults (n = 598 were surveyed on attitudes about utilizing genetic testing to predict future risk of T2D. Participants were recruited from public libraries (53%, online registry (37% and a safety net hospital emergency department (10%. Respondents were 37 ± 11 years old, primarily White (54%, female (69%, college educated (46%, with an annual income ≥$25,000 (56%. Half of participants were interested in genetic testing for T2D (52% and 81% agreed/strongly agreed genetic testing should be available to the public. Only 57% of individuals knew T2D is preventable. A multivariate model to predict interest in genetic testing was adjusted for age, gender, recruitment location and BMI; significant predictors were motivation (high perceived personal risk of T2D [OR = 4.38 (1.76, 10.9]; family history [OR = 2.56 (1.46, 4.48]; desire to know risk prior to disease onset [OR = 3.25 (1.94, 5.42]; and knowing T2D is preventable [OR = 2.11 (1.24, 3.60], intention (if the cost is free [OR = 10.2 (4.27, 24.6]; and learning T2D is preventable [OR = 5.18 (1.95, 13.7] and trust of genetic testing results [OR = 0.03 (0.003, 0.30]. Individuals are interested in genetic testing for T2D risk which offers unique information that is personalized. Financial accessibility, validity of the test and availability of diabetes prevention programs were identified as predictors of interest in T2D testing.

  15. Is diabetes a risk factor for a severe clinical presentation of dengue?--review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Htun, Nan Shwe Nwe; Odermatt, Peter; Eze, Ikenna C; Boillat-Blanco, Noémie; D'Acremont, Valérie; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

    2015-04-01

    The mean age of acute dengue has undergone a shift towards older ages. This fact points towards the relevance of assessing the influence of age-related comorbidities, such as diabetes, on the clinical presentation of dengue episodes. Identification of factors associated with a severe presentation is of high relevance, because timely treatment is the most important intervention to avert complications and death. This review summarizes and evaluates the published evidence on the association between diabetes and the risk of a severe clinical presentation of dengue. A systematic literature review was conducted using the MEDLINE database to access any relevant association between dengue and diabetes. Five case-control studies (4 hospital-based, 1 population-based) compared the prevalence of diabetes (self-reported or abstracted from medical records) of persons with dengue (acute or past; controls) and patients with severe clinical manifestations. All except one study were conducted before 2009 and all studies collected information towards WHO 1997 classification system. The reported odds ratios were formally summarized by random-effects meta-analyses. A diagnosis of diabetes was associated with an increased risk for a severe clinical presentation of dengue (OR 1.75; 95% CI: 1.08-2.84, p = 0.022). Large prospective studies that systematically and objectively obtain relevant signs and symptoms of dengue fever episodes as well as of hyperglycemia in the past, and at the time of dengue diagnosis, are needed to properly address the effect of diabetes on the clinical presentation of an acute dengue fever episode. The currently available epidemiological evidence is very limited and only suggestive. The increasing global prevalence of both dengue and diabetes justifies further studies. At this point, confirmation of dengue infection as early as possible in diabetes patients with fever if living in dengue endemic regions seems justified. The presence of this co-morbidity may

  16. Changing pattern in the risk factors for diabetes in young adults from the rural area of baluchistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawad, A.; Alvi, S.F.D.; Hakeem, R.; Basit, A.; Ahmedani, M.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To observe changing pattern in the risk factors for diabetes as overweight, obesity, smoking, hypertension and family history of diabetes in young adults in the rural area of Baluchistan. Methods: A community based observational study was carried out in the rural area of Baluchistan by conducting two surveys, in the years 2002 and 2009 respectively. The survey was further subdivided into two groups i.e. young adults (15-25 years) and adults (>25 years). In this study, data of young adults was analyzed. Data obtained in 2002 was also analyzed according to the current guidelines and compared with 2009 survey. Results: A total of 230 and 197 young adults participated in 2002 and 2009 surveys respectively. Obesity increased significantly (p <0.001) from 20 (10.15%) young adults in the year 2002 to 64 (27.82%) in 2009. Similarly 15 (7.61%) young adults were overweight in 2002 which increased to 24 (10.43%) in 2009 (p <0.317). Smoking increased from 8 (4.06%) to 49 (21.3%) in 2009 (p <0.001). Family history of diabetes mellitus also showed a significant increase (p <0.005). Hypertension increased from 13 (6.6%) young adults in 2002 survey to 17 (7.39%) in 2009, the increase was not statistically significant (p <0.749). Conclusion: The present study showed that risk factors for diabetes such as overweight, obesity, smoking, hypertension and family history of diabetes increased over time in the young adults of rural Baluchistan. (author)

  17. [Prevalence and risk factors of extra-coronary artery disease in patients with diabetes which confirmed atherosclerosis of coronary arteries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracheva, S A; Biragova, M S; Glazunova, A M; Klefortova, I I; Melkozerov, K V; Shamkhalova, M Sh; Dzhavelidze, M I; Soldatova, T V; Il'in, A V; Deev, A D; Shestakova, M V; Tugeeva, E F; Buziashvili, Iu I

    2014-01-01

    To assess prevalence and risk factors of extra-coronary artery disease (peripheral artery (PA) disease (D) of lower extremities (LE), brachiocephalic arterial (BCA) stenosis (S), renal arterial (RA) S in type 1 and 2 (T1 and T2) diabetes (D) patients (P) with confirmed atherosclerosis of coronary arteries (CA). 100 P (48 with T2D, 18 with T1D, 34 without diabetes - PWD), with hemodynamically significant atherosclerosis of CA confirmed by coronary angiography. All patients underwent duplex ultrasonography of PA LE, BCA, RA. Other studies included assessment of clinical characteristics and measurement of the following parameters: profibrogenic cytokines (transforming growth factor [TGF] beta1, matrix metalloproteinase 9 [MMP9], monocyte chemotactic protein-1 [MCP-1], regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted [RANTES), markers of endothelial dysfunction (von Willebrand factor [VWF], homocystein [HCYST], plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 [PAI-1], vascular cell adhesion molecule [VCAM], soluble intercellular adhesion molecules-1 [sICAM], vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], asymmetric dimethylarginine [ADMAD, N-terminal fragment of pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro BNP), fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23), and fibrinogen. Portions of P with multivessel CA disease were similar in all three groups (T1D - 88.9, T2D - 85.5, WD - 82.3%). Coexistence of atherosclerosis in 2 or more vascular beds was identified in 85.3% of T2D and in 50% of WD P (p = 0.005). In T1D group 61.1 and 11.1% of P had atherosclerosis in 2 and 3 vascular beds, respectively. Levels of profibrogenic cytokines and factors of endothelial activation (RANTES, MMP-9, PAI-I, VCAM, sICAM, ADMA) were significantly higher in P with diabetes vs P WD. P with diabetes and multifocal atherosclerosis demonstrated significant increases of CRP, fibrinogen, NT-proBNP, VWF, PAI-1, ADMA, sICAM, and decrease of GFR compared with P with atherosclerosis in 1 vascular bed. Logistic regression

  18. Added sugars and risk factors for obesity, diabetes and heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippe, J M; Angelopoulos, T J

    2016-03-01

    The effects of added sugars on various chronic conditions are highly controversial. Some investigators have argued that added sugars increase the risk of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, few randomized controlled trials are available to support these assertions. The literature is further complicated by animal studies, as well as studies which compare pure fructose to pure glucose (neither of which is consumed to any appreciable degree in the human diet) and studies where large doses of added sugars beyond normal levels of human consumption have been administered. Various scientific and public health organizations have offered disparate recommendations for upper limits of added sugar. In this article, we will review recent randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies. We conclude that the normal added sugars in the human diet (for example, sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup and isoglucose) when consumed within the normal range of normal human consumption or substituted isoenergetically for other carbohydrates, do not appear to cause a unique risk of obesity, diabetes or cardiovascular disease.

  19. Hypertriglyceridemia, an important and independent risk factor for acute pancreatitis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albai O

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Oana Albai,1 Deiana Roman,2 Mirela Frandes2 1Second Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Functional Sciences, “Victor Babes” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Timisoara, Romania Purpose: Acute pancreatitis (AP is a frequent inflammatory disease of the pancreas with multiple causes, among which high triglyceride (TG level is the most common. The main purpose of this study has been to research the prevalence of AP in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM and to underline the importance of hypertriglyceridemia (HTG as a risk factor in triggering AP. The possible link between AP and glycemic control has been studied also, alongside some cardiovascular risk factors and long-term diabetes complications.Patients and methods: The patient cohort comprised 1,586 patients with DM, admitted to the Internal Medicine Clinic of Diabetes, Nutrition and Metabolic Disease within the Emergency Hospital in Timisoara between January and August 2016. Following a series of clinical and biological investigations, these patients were diagnosed with AP. The patients’ antidiabetic treatment and chronic diabetes-related complications have also been recorded.Results: The prevalence of pancreatitis in this group of patients was 3.7%. The presence of pancreatitis was associated with a higher HbA1c (8.5% vs 7.7%; P<0.001, fasting glycemia (167.5 vs 95 mg/dL; P<0.001, postprandial glycemia (244.5 vs 118 mg/dL; P<0.001, total cholesterol (256.5 vs 189.5 mg/dL; P<0.001, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc (208.7 vs 112.8 mg/dL; P<0.001, and TGs (495 vs 161 mg/dL; P<0.001. HDL cholesterol (HDLc was found to be a significant protective factor against the risk of pancreatitis. On the contrary, high LDLc values were a significant risk factor for pancreatitis along with high non-HDLc and high TG values, respectively.Conclusion: The development of AP events in patients with DM is associated with unsatisfactory glycemic control, HTG, hypertension, and the

  20. Incidence of cardiovascular diseases and associated risk factors among subjects with type 2 diabetes – An 11-year follow up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Umamahesh

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Smoking and heavy alcohol consumption were significantly associated with CVD, and increased BMI was significantly associated with hypertension and dyslipidemia among subjects with type 2 diabetes in this study population. These findings emphasize the need for early identification and modification of risk factors associated with CVD events in patients with diabetes.

  1. Risk Factors for Macro- and Microvascular Complications among Older Adults with Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes: Findings from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tracey, Marsha L

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To explore risk factors for macro- and microvascular complications in a nationally representative sample of adults aged 50 years and over with type 2 diabetes in Ireland. Methods. Data from the first wave of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) (2009-2011) was used in cross-sectional analysis. The presence of doctor diagnosis of diabetes, risk factors, and macro- and microvascular complications were determined by self-report. Gender-specific differences in risk factor prevalence were assessed with the chi-squared test. Binomial regression analysis was conducted to explore independent associations between established risk factors and diabetes-related complications. Results. Among 8175 respondents, 655 were classified as having type 2 diabetes. Older age, being male, a history of smoking, a lower level of physical activity, and a diagnosis of high cholesterol were independent predictors of macrovascular complications. Diabetes diagnosis of 10 or more years, a history of smoking, and a diagnosis of hypertension were associated with an increased risk of microvascular complications. Older age, third-level education, and a high level of physical activity were protective factors (p < 0.05). Conclusions. Early intervention to target modifiable risk factors is urgently needed to reduce diabetes-related morbidity in the older population in Ireland.

  2. Change in cardiovascular risk factors following early diagnosis of type 2 diabetes: a cohort analysis of a cluster-randomised trial

    OpenAIRE

    Black, James A; Sharp, Stephen J; Wareham, Nicholas J; Sandbæk, Annelli; Rutten, Guy EHM; Lauritzen, Torsten; Khunti, Kamlesh; Davies, Melanie J; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Griffin, Simon J; Simmons, Rebecca K

    2014-01-01

    Background There is little evidence to inform the targeted treatment of individuals found early in the diabetes disease trajectory. Aim To describe cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profiles and treatment of individual CVD risk factors by modelled CVD risk at diagnosis; changes in treatment, modelled CVD risk, and CVD risk factors in the 5 years following diagnosis; and how these are patterned by socioeconomic status. Design and setting Cohort analysis of a cluster-randomised trial (ADDITION-...

  3. Maternal obesity as a risk factor for early childhood type 1 diabetes: a nationwide, prospective, population-based case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Lindell, Nina; Carlsson, Annelie; Josefsson, Ann; Samuelsson, Ulf

    2018-01-01

    Genetic and environmental factors are believed to cause type 1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain on the subsequent risk of childhood type 1 diabetes. Children in the Swedish National Quality Register for Diabetes in Children were matched with control children from the Swedish Medical Birth Register. Children were included whose mothers had data available on BMI in early pregnancy and gestational weight gain, giving a t...

  4. Obesity, islet cell autoimmunity, and cardiovascular risk factors in youth at onset of type 1 autoimmune diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedillo, Maribel; Libman, Ingrid M; Arena, Vincent C; Zhou, Lei; Trucco, Massimo; Ize-Ludlow, Diego; Pietropaolo, Massimo; Becker, Dorothy J

    2015-01-01

    The current increase in childhood type 1 diabetes (T1D) and obesity has led to two conflicting hypotheses and conflicting reports regarding the effects of overweight on initiation and spreading of islet cell autoimmunity vs earlier clinical manifestation of preexisting autoimmune β-cell damage driven by excess weight. The objective of the study was to address the question of whether the degree of β-cell autoimmunity and age are related to overweight at diabetes onset in a large cohort of T1D youth. This was a prospective cross-sectional study of youth with autoimmune T1D consecutively recruited at diabetes onset. The study was conducted at a regional academic pediatric diabetes center. Two hundred sixty-three consecutive children younger than 19 years at onset of T1D participated in the study. Relationships between body mass index and central obesity (waist circumference and waist to height ratio) and antigen spreading (islet cell autoantibody number), age, and cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors examined at onset and/or 3 months after the diagnosis were measured. There were no significant associations between number of autoantibodies with measures of adiposity. Age relationships revealed that a greater proportion of those with central obesity (21%) were in the youngest age group (0-4 y) compared with those without central obesity (6%) (P = .001). PATIENTS with central obesity had increased CVD risk factors and higher onset C-peptide levels (P obesity accelerates progression of autoantibody spreading once autoimmunity, marked by standard islet cell autoantibody assays, is present. Central obesity was present in almost one-third of the subjects and was associated with early CVD risk markers already at onset.

  5. Self-management levels of diet and metabolic risk factors according to disease duration in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sukyung; Kim, Minkyeong; Park, Kyong

    2018-02-01

    Metabolic risk factors should be managed effectively in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) to prevent or delay diabetic complications. This study aimed to compare the self-management levels of diet and metabolic risk factors in patients with T2DM, according to the duration of illness, and to examine the trends in self-management levels during the recent decades. Data were collected from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES, 1998-2014). In our analysis, 4,148 patients with T2DM, aged ≥ 30 years, were categorized according to the duration of their illness (accounting for the complex survey design of the KNHANES. In the multivariable adjusted models, patients with a longer duration (≥ 10 years) of T2DM had a higher prevalence of hyperglycemia than those with a shorter duration of T2DM (management has been found in those with a longer disease duration. These findings suggest the need for well-planned and individualized patient education programs to improve self-management levels and quality of life by preventing or delaying diabetic complications.

  6. Diabetes mellitus: fatores de risco, ocorrência e cuidados entre trabalhadores de enfermagem Diabetes mellitus: factores de riesgo, ocurrencia y cuidados entre trabajadores de enfermería Diabetes mellitus: occurrence of risk factors and care among nursing workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darlene Mara dos Santos Tavares

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar a ocorrência de Diabetes Mellitus (DM, os fatores de risco, o estresse e o cuidado com a saúde realizado pelos trabalhadores de enfermagem diabéticos. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo realizado com 418 profissionais de enfermagem de um hospital universitário. Os dados foram coletados por meio de instrumento semiestruturado e analisado, utilizando-se a distribuição de freqüência, teste qui-quadrado (pOBJETIVO: Identificar la ocurrencia de Diabetes Mellitus (DM, los factores de riesgo, el estrés y el cuidado con la salud realizado por los trabajadores de enfermería que son diabéticos. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo realizado con 418 profesionales de enfermería de un hospital universitario. Los datos fueron recolectados - por medio de un instrumento semi-estructurado - y analizados, utilizando la distribución de frecuencias, prueba chi-cuadrado (pOBJECTIVE: To identify the occurrence of Diabetes Mellitus (DM, risk factors, stress and health-care activities performed by diabetic nursing workers. METHODS: This is a descriptive study with 418 professional nurses, working at a university hospital. Data were collected through a semi-structured instrument and were analyzed using the frequency distribution, the chi-square test (p <0.05 and the odds ratio. RESULTS: Most of the professionals were female and had between 20 and 30 years of age. All risk factors for DM were present, including the factors that can be modified. It was found a larger proportion of diabetic workers that had: overweight; arterial hypertension and capillary blood glucose altered, when compared to those without the disease. It was not found an increased likelihood of developing DM among nursing workers who reported stress. The workers with DM did not attend to the monthly follow up(69.2%; they were treated in private services (70%; and, they did not participate in educational activities (92.3%. CONCLUSION: It is necessary to develop health actions aimed

  7. Prevalence of and risk factors for hepatic steatosis and nonalcoholic Fatty liver disease in people with type 2 diabetes: the Edinburgh Type 2 Diabetes Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Rachel M; Price, Jackie F; Glancy, Stephen; Perry, Elisa; Nee, Lisa D; Hayes, Peter C; Frier, Brian M; Van Look, Liesbeth A F; Johnston, Geoffrey I; Reynolds, Rebecca M; Strachan, Mark W J

    2011-05-01

    Type 2 diabetes is an established risk factor for development of hepatic steatosis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We aimed to determine the prevalence and clinical correlates of these conditions in a large cohort of people with type 2 diabetes. A total of 939 participants, aged 61-76 years, from the Edinburgh Type 2 Diabetes Study (ET2DS)-a large, randomly selected population of people with type 2 diabetes-underwent liver ultrasonography. Ultrasound gradings of steatosis were compared with magnetic resonance spectroscopy in a subgroup. NAFLD was defined as hepatic steatosis in the absence of a secondary cause (screened by questionnaire assessing alcohol and hepatotoxic medication use, plasma hepatitis serology, autoantibodies and ferritin, and record linkage to determine prior diagnoses of liver disease). Binary logistic regression was used to analyze independent associations of characteristics with NAFLD. Hepatic steatosis was present in 56.9% of participants. After excluding those with a secondary cause for steatosis, the prevalence of NAFLD in the study population was 42.6%. Independent predictors of NAFLD were BMI, lesser duration of diabetes, HbA(1c), triglycerides, and metformin use. These remained unchanged after exclusion of participants with evidence of hepatic fibrosis from the group with no hepatic steatosis. Prevalences of hepatic steatosis and NAFLD were high in this unselected population of older people with type 2 diabetes, but lower than in studies in which ultrasound gradings were not compared with a gold standard. Associations with features of the metabolic syndrome could be used to target screening for this condition.

  8. Glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk factor management in patients with diabetes with and without coronary artery disease: insights from the diabetes mellitus status in Canada survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Jasmine; Leiter, Lawrence A; Langer, Anatoly; Goldin, Lianne; Teoh, Hwee; Connelly, Kim A; Cheng, Alice Y Y; Tan, Mary K; Fitchett, David; McGuire, Darren K; Goodman, Shaun G; Yan, Andrew T

    2016-10-01

    Current diabetes guidelines recommend an individualized approach to glycaemic control. There are limited data on the contemporary and comprehensive management of patients with diabetes in relation to coronary artery disease (CAD). The Diabetes Mellitus Status in Canada (DM-SCAN) survey included 5123 patients with type 2 diabetes seen in primary care in November 2012. Primary care physicians (PCPs) collected clinical data and specified the A1C target for each patient on standardized forms. We compared management strategies and achievement of treatment targets in patients with and without CAD. Among the 4994 patients with data on CAD history, 22.5% had CAD. Primary care physicians were more likely to select a higher A1C target for patients with CAD (≤7.5 or ≤8.0%) versus without (≤7.0%). There was no difference in median A1C or in the proportion of patients with A1C ≤7.0% between the two groups. Compared with the group without known CAD, patients with CAD had a higher reported prevalence of hypoglycaemia in the preceding 6 months; more frequently received aspirin, statins, ACE inhibitors, or angiotensin receptor blockers, and were more likely to achieve blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol targets. Only 15.4 and 12.0% of patients with and without CAD (P = 0.002), respectively, achieved all three guideline-recommended targets. Compared with patients with diabetes without CAD, those with CAD more frequently had a less stringent A1C target selected by their PCPs but achieved similar glycaemic control. Overall, risk factor management remained suboptimal in both groups. There remains an important opportunity to improve the care and outcome of patients with diabetes.

  9. Urinary incontinence in Emirati women with diabetes mellitus type 2: prevalence, risk factors and impact on life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani-issa, Wegdan; Fakhry, Randa; Al Momani, Fida

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate prevalence, risk factors for urinary incontinence and its impact on lives of Emirati women with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). Risk factors examined were age, parity, history of urinary tract infections, body mass index (BMI) and DM2 duration. Incontinence is a known complication of DM2 with impact on women's lives. Less is known about incontinence problem among Emirati women with DM2. A cross-sectional survey design using probability sampling approach was employed to assess urinary incontinence in Emirati women with DM2. A total of 300 women with DM2, aged 20-65 years, were recruited from six healthcare centres. Data were collected over an 18-month period. A standardised incontinence questionnaire was used to assess type and frequency of incontinence within the past 12 months. Presence of weekly incontinence was the main outcome. Of the 300 women, 188 (63%) reported any incontinence, of which 48% had at least weekly episode. Both stress (n = 154, 51·3%) and urge (n = 181, 60·3%) were reported by participants, with 48 (31·1%) reporting at least weekly stress and 85 (46·9%) expressing at least weekly urge incontinence. Diabetes duration was a significant risk factor for any, stress and urge incontinence followed by age for only any and stress incontinence. BMI was a risk factor for urge incontinence. Women perceived incontinence as bothersome, disturbing their social activities and daily prayers. The prevalence of incontinence in Emirati women with DM2 is higher than that reported by women in other cultures. Risk factors identified were DM2 duration, age and obesity. Emirati women found incontinence to be a bothersome problem influencing their daily lives and prayers. Nurses in general practice should be alert to the incontinence problem by considering it as part of the routine diabetes evaluation of women, especially of those with longer duration of diabetes, obese and older. Cultural knowledge, sensitivity and individualised treatment plans need

  10. High Prevalence of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Beijing: Effect of Maternal Birth Weight and Other Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei-Wei; Yang, Hui-Xia; Wang, Chen; Su, Ri-Na; Feng, Hui; Kapur, Anil

    2017-01-01

    Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with both short- and long-term adverse health consequences for both the mother and her offspring. The aim was to study the prevalence and risk factors for GDM in Beijing. Methods: The study population consisted of 15,194 pregnant women attending prenatal care in 15 hospitals in Beijing, who delivered between June 20, 2013, and November 30, 2013, after 28 weeks of gestation. The participants were selected by cluster sampling from the 15 hospitals identified through random systematic sampling based on the number of deliveries in 2012. A questionnaire was designed to collect information. Results: A total of 2987 (19.7%) women were diagnosed with GDM and 208 (1.4%) had diabetes in pregnancy (DIP). Age (OR: 1.053, 95% CI: 1.033–1.074, P diabetes mellitus (OR: 1.481, 95% CI: 1.254–1.748, P < 0.01), prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) (OR: 1.481, 95% CI: 1.254–1.748, P < 0.01), BMI gain before 24 weeks (OR: 1.126, 95% CI: 1.075–1.800, P < 0.01), maternal birth weight (P < 0.01), and fasting plasma glucose at the first prenatal visit (P < 0.01) were identified as risk factors for GDM. In women with birth weight <3000 g, GDM rate was significantly higher. Conclusions: One out of every five pregnant women in Beijing either had GDM or DIP and this constitutes a huge health burden for health services. Prepregnancy BMI and weight gain before 24th week are important modifiable risk factors for GDM. Ensuring birth weight above 3000 g may help reduce risk for future GDM among female offsprings. PMID:28469095

  11. Preventable coronary heart disease events from control of cardiovascular risk factors in US adults with diabetes (projections from utilizing the UKPDS risk engine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Nathan D; Patao, Christopher; Malik, Shaista; Iloeje, Uchenna

    2014-04-15

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) carries significant risks for coronary heart disease (CHD). We examined the potential US population impact of single and composite risk factor control. Among US adults with diagnosed T2DM aged≥30 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007 to 2012, we assessed CHD events preventable using the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study CHD risk engine. We examined in all those not at goal the impact of statistical control of smoking, glycated hemoglobin, systolic blood pressure, and total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, according to the predefined criteria setting risk factors at different levels of control representing (1) "All to Goal," (2) at "Nominal Control," or (3) at "Aggressive Control." Preventable CHD events represented the difference between the number of events estimated from the control of these risk factors versus current levels of the risk factors. Of 606 men (representing 6.2 million) and 603 women (6.3 million) with DM and no previous CHD, 1.3 million men and 0.7 million women would develop a CHD event within 10 years if left uncontrolled. Controlling all risk factors to goal was projected to prevent 35% and 45% of CHD events in men and women, respectively. Nominal risk factor control was projected to prevent 36% and 38% and aggressive control 51% and 61% of CHD events, respectively. In conclusion, a significant proportion of CHD events in adults with T2DM could be prevented from composite control of risk factors often not at goal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Is the number of fast-food outlets in the neighbourhood related to screen-detected type 2 diabetes mellitus and associated risk factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodicoat, Danielle H; Carter, Patrice; Comber, Alexis; Edwardson, Charlotte; Gray, Laura J; Hill, Sian; Webb, David; Yates, Thomas; Davies, Melanie J; Khunti, Kamlesh

    2015-06-01

    We investigated whether a higher number of fast-food outlets in an individual's home neighbourhood is associated with increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and related risk factors, including obesity. Cross-sectional study. Three UK-based diabetes screening studies (one general population, two high-risk populations) conducted between 2004 and 2011. The primary outcome was screen-detected type 2 diabetes. Secondary outcomes were risk factors for type 2 diabetes. In total 10 461 participants (mean age 59 years; 53% male; 21% non-White ethnicity). There was a higher number of neighbourhood (500 m radius from home postcode) fast-food outlets among non-White ethnic groups (Pfast-food outlets was associated with significantly increased odds for diabetes (OR=1.02; 95% CI 1.00, 1.04) and obesity (OR=1.02; 95% CI 1.00, 1.03). This suggests that for every additional two outlets per neighbourhood, we would expect one additional diabetes case, assuming a causal relationship between the fast-food outlets and diabetes. These results suggest that increased exposure to fast-food outlets is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity, which has implications for diabetes prevention at a public health level and for those granting planning permission to new fast-food outlets.

  13. Disparities in Cardiovascular Disease and Type 2 Diabetes Risk Factors in Blacks and Whites: Dissecting Racial Paradox of Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwame Osei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVD remain as the leading cause of mortality in the western world and have become a major health threat for developing countries. There are several risk factors that account for the CVD and the associated mortality. These include genetics, type 2 diabetes (T2DM, obesity, physical inactivity, hypertension, and abnormal lipids and lipoproteins. The constellation of these risk factors has been termed metabolic syndrome (MetS. MetS varies among racial and ethnic populations. Thus, race and ethnicity account for some of the differences in the MetS and the associated CVD and T2DM. Furthermore, the relationships among traditional metabolic parameters and CVD differ, especially when comparing Black and White populations. In this regard, the greater CVD in Blacks than Whites have been partly attributed to other non-traditional CVD risk factors, such as subclinical inflammation (C-reactive protein, homocysteine, increased low-density lipoprotein oxidation, lipoprotein a, adiponectin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, etc. Thus, to understand CVD and T2DM differences in Blacks and Whites with MetS, it is essential to explore the contributions of both traditional and non-traditional CVD and T2DM risk factors in Blacks of African ancestry and Whites of Europoid ancestry. Therefore, in this mini review, we propose that non-traditional risk factors should be integrated in defining MetS as a predictor of CVD and T2DM in Blacks in the African diaspora in future studies.

  14. Factores de riesgos asociados a retinopatía diabética Risk factors associated to diabetic retinopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Julio César Molina Martín; Yaimara Hernández Silva; Luis Alberto Molina Martín

    2006-01-01

    La retinopatía diabética continúa siendo una de las causas de ceguera más frecuentes en el mundo. Es por eso que decidimos realizar una amplia revisión acerca de los factores de riesgos más importantes relacionados con ella, con el objetivo de actualizar los conocimientos existentes sobre este tema. En el trabajo se recoge que el tiempo de duración de la diabetes mellitus constituye el factor de riesgo más importante para desencadenar y desarrollar la retinopatía diabética. También se han des...

  15. Regional differences of undiagnosed type 2 diabetes and prediabetes prevalence are not explained by known risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tamayo

    Full Text Available We have previously found regional differences in the prevalence of known type 2 diabetes between northeastern and southern Germany. We aim to also provide prevalence estimates for prediabetes (isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG, isolated glucose intolerance (i-IGT, combined IFG and IGT and unknown type 2 diabetes for both regions.Prevalence (95%CI of prediabetes (i-IFG: fasting glucose 5.6-6.9 mmol/l; i-IGT: 2 h postchallenge glucose 7.8-11.0 mmol/l, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, ≥ 8 h overnight fasting and unknown diabetes were analyzed in two regional population-based surveys (age group 35-79 years: SHIP-TREND (Study of Health in Pomerania (northeast, 2008-2012 and KORA F4 (Cooperative Health Research in the region of Augsburg (south, 2006-2008. Both studies used similar methods, questionnaires, and identical protocols for OGTT. Overall, 1,980 participants from SHIP-TREND and 2,617 participants from KORA F4 were included.Age-sex-standardized prevalence estimates (95%CI of prediabetes and unknown diabetes were considerably higher in the northeast (SHIP-TREND: 43.1%; 40.9-45.3% and 7.1%; 5.9-8.2% than in the south of Germany (KORA F4: 30.1%; 28.4-31.7% and 3.9%; 3.2-4.6%, respectively. In particular, i-IFG (26.4%; 24.5-28.3% vs. 17.2%; 15.7-18.6% and IFG+IGT (11.2%; 9.8-12.6% vs. 6.6%; 5.7-7.5% were more frequent in SHIP-TREND than in KORA. In comparison to normal glucose tolerance, the odds of having unknown diabetes (OR, 95%CI: 2.59; 1.84-3.65 or prediabetes (1.98; 1.70-2.31 was higher in the northeast than in the south after adjustment for known risk factors (obesity, lifestyle.The regional differences of prediabetes and unknown diabetes are in line with the geographical pattern of known diabetes in Germany. The higher prevalences in the northeast were not explained by traditional risk factors.

  16. High Prevalence of Diabetes and Prediabetes and Their Coexistence with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a Hispanic Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Suárez, Erick; Guzmán, Manuel; Ortiz, Ana Patricia

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and association of diabetes mellitus (DM) and prediabetes with cardiovascular risk factors among Puerto Ricans adults. Data from a household survey of 857 adults aged 21–79 years who underwent interviews, physical exams, and blood draws were analyzed. Prevalence of total DM and prediabetes was estimated using American Diabetes Association diagnostic criteria of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Poisson regression models were used to estimate the prevalence ratio for each cardiovascular risk factor under study. Age-standardized prevalence of total DM and prediabetes, detected by FPG and/or HbA1c, was 25.5 and 47.4 %, respectively. Compared with participants with normoglycemia, those with previously diagnosed DM, undiagnosed DM, and prediabetes had more adverse cardiovascular risk factor profiles, characterized by a higher prevalence of general and abdominal obesity, hypertension, low HDL cholesterol, elevated LDL cholesterol, elevated triglycerides, and elevated plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (p < 0.05). The high prevalence of DM and prediabetes calls for public health actions to plan and implement lifestyle interventions to prevent or delay the onset of DM and cardiovascular disease. PMID:24781780

  17. Diet, intermediate risk markers and risk of type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, I.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis aimed to study the relation of diet with risk of type 2 diabetes and intermediate risk markers of diabetes. We investigated the effect of cis9, trans11 conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11 CLA) supplementation on pulse wave velocity and cardiovascular risk factors in a randomized, controlled

  18. Annotating risk factors for heart disease in clinical narratives for diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Amber; Uzuner, Özlem

    2015-12-01

    The 2014 i2b2/UTHealth natural language processing shared task featured a track focused on identifying risk factors for heart disease (specifically, Cardiac Artery Disease) in clinical narratives. For this track, we used a "light" annotation paradigm to annotate a set of 1304 longitudinal medical records describing 296 patients for risk factors and the times they were present. We designed the annotation task for this track with the goal of balancing annotation load and time with quality, so as to generate a gold standard corpus that can benefit a clinically-relevant task. We applied light annotation procedures and determined the gold standard using majority voting. On average, the agreement of annotators with the gold standard was above 0.95, indicating high reliability. The resulting document-level annotations generated for each record in each longitudinal EMR in this corpus provide information that can support studies of progression of heart disease risk factors in the included patients over time. These annotations were used in the Risk Factor track of the 2014 i2b2/UTHealth shared task. Participating systems achieved a mean micro-averaged F1 measure of 0.815 and a maximum F1 measure of 0.928 for identifying these risk factors in patient records. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Inequalities in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and its risk factors in Sri Lanka: a lower middle income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, Ambepitiyawaduge Pubudu; De Silva, Sudirikku Hennadige Padmal; Haniffa, Rashan; Liyanage, Isurujith Kongala; Jayasinghe, Saroj; Katulanda, Prasad; Wijeratne, Chandrika Neelakanthi; Wijeratne, Sumedha; Rajapaksa, Lalini Chandika

    2018-04-17

    Explorations into quantifying the inequalities for diabetes mellitus (DM) and its risk factors are scarce in low and lower middle income countries (LICs/LMICs). The aims of this study were to assess the inequalities of DM and its risk factors in a suburban district of Sri Lanka. A sample of 1300 participants, (aged 35-64 years) randomly selected using a stratified multi-stage cluster sampling method, were studied employing a cross sectional descriptive design. The socioeconomic indicators (SEIs) of the individual were education level and occupational category, and at the household level, the household income, social status level and area deprivation level. DM was diagnosed if the fasting plasma glucose was ≥126 and a body mass index (BMI) of > 27.5 kg/m 2 was considered high. Asian cut-off values were used for high waist circumference (WC). Validated tools were used to assess the diet and level of physical activity. The slope index of inequality (SII), relative index of inequality (RII) and concentration index (CI) were used to assess inequalities. The prevalence of DM and its risk factors (at individual or household level) showed no consistent relationship with the three measures of inequality (SII, RII and CI) of the different indices of socio economic status (education, occupation, household income, social status index or area unsatisfactory basic needs index). The prevalence of diabetes showed a more consistent pro-rich distribution in females compared to males. Of the risk factors in males and females, the most consistent and significant pro-rich relationship was for high BMI and WC. In males, the significant positive relationship with high BMI for SII ranged from 0.18 to 0.35, and RII from 1.56 to 2.25. For high WC, the values were: SII from 0.13 to 0.27 and RII from 1.9 to 3.97. In females the significant positive relationship with high BMI in SII ranged from 0.13 to 0.29, and RII from 2.3 to 4.98. For high WC the values were: SII from 028 to 0.4 and

  20. Clinical decisions in patients with diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors. A statement of the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Huelgas, R; Pérez-Jiménez, F; Serrano-Ríos, M; González-Santos, P; Román, P; Camafort, M; Conthe, P; García-Alegría, J; Guijarro, R; López-Miranda, J; Tirado-Miranda, R; Valdivielso, P

    2014-05-01

    Although the mortality associated to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has been reduced in the last decades, CVD remains the main cause of mortality in Spain and they are associated with an important morbidity and a huge economic burden. The increasing prevalence of obesity and diabetes could be slowing down the mortality reduction in Spain. Clinicians have often difficulty making clinical decisions due to the multiple clinical guidelines available. Moreover, in the current context of economic crisis it is critical to promote an efficient use of diagnostic and therapeutic proceedings to ensure the viability of public health care systems. The Spanish Society of Internal Medicine (SEMI) has coordinated a consensus document to answer questions of daily practice with the aim of facilitating physicians' decision-making in the management of diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors from a cost-efficiency point of view. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  1. Risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennery, M.; Dupont, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the development of risk management in the gas sector business: why a risk factor legal mention must precede any published financial information? Do gas companies have to face new risks? Is there specific risks bound to gas activities? Why companies want to master their risks? Is it mandatory or just a new habit? Do they expect a real benefit in return? These are the risk management questions that are analyzed in this article which is based on the public communication of 15 gas companies randomly selected over the world. The information comes from their annual reports or from documents available on their web sites. The intention of this document is not to be exhaustive or to make statistics but only to shade light on the risk factors of the gas sector. (J.S.)

  2. Diabetes mellitus as the major risk factor for mucormycosis in Mexico: Epidemiology, diagnosis, and outcomes of reported cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corzo-León, Dora E; Chora-Hernández, Luis D; Rodríguez-Zulueta, Ana P; Walsh, Thomas J

    2018-01-01

    Mucormycosis is an emerging infectious disease with high rates of associated mortality and morbidity. Little is known about the characteristics of mucormycosis or entomophthoromycosis occurring in Mexico. A search strategy was performed of literature published in journals found in available databases and theses published online at Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) library website reporting clinical cases or clinical case series of mucormycosis and entomophthoromycosis occurring in Mexico between 1982 and 2016. Among the 418 cases identified, 72% were diabetic patients, and sinusitis accounted for 75% of the reported cases. Diabetes mellitus was not a risk factor for entomophthoromycosis. Mortality rate was 51% (125/244). Rhizopus species were the most frequent isolates (59%, 148/250). Amphotericin B deoxycholate was used in 89% of cases (204/227), while surgery and antifungal management as combined treatment was used in 90% (172/191). In diabetic individuals, this combined treatment approach was associated with a higher probability of survival (95% vs 66%, OR = 0.1, 95% CI, 0.02-0.43' P = .002). The most common complications were associated with nephrotoxicity and prolonged hospitalization due to IV antifungal therapy. An algorithm is proposed to establish an early diagnosis of rhino-orbital cerebral (ROC) mucormycosis based on standardized identification of warning signs and symptoms and performing an early direct microbiological exam and histopathological identification through a multidisciplinary medical and surgical team. In summary, diabetes mellitus was the most common risk factor for mucormycosis in Mexico; combined antifungal therapy and surgery in ROC mucormycosis significantly improved survival. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Gram-negative diabetic foot osteomyelitis: risk factors and clinical presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón-Sánchez, Javier; Lipsky, Benjamin A; Lázaro-Martínez, Jose L

    2013-03-01

    Osteomyelitis frequently complicates infections in the feet of patients with diabetes. Gram-positive cocci, especially Staphylococcus aureus, are the most commonly isolated pathogens, but gram-negative bacteria also cause some cases of diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO). These gram-negatives require different antibiotic regimens than those commonly directed at gram-positives. There are, however, few data on factors related to their presence and how they influence the clinical picture. We conducted a retrospective study to determine the variables associated with the isolation of gram-negative bacteria from bone samples in cases of DFO and the clinical presentation of these infections. Among 341 cases of DFO, 150 had a gram-negative isolate (alone or combined with a gram-positive isolate) comprising 44.0% of all patients and 50.8% of those with a positive bone culture. Compared with gram-positive infections, wounds with gram-negative organisms more often had a fetid odor, necrotic tissue, signs of soft tissue infection accompanying osteomyelitis, and clinically severe infection. By multivariate analysis, the predictive variables related to an increased likelihood of isolating gram-negatives from bone samples were glycated hemoglobin gram-negatives had a statistically significantly higher prevalence of leukocytosis and higher white blood cell counts than those without gram-negatives. In conclusion, gram-negative organisms were isolated in nearly half of our cases of DFO and were associated with more severe infections, higher white blood cell counts, lower glycated hemoglobin levels, and wounds of traumatic etiology.

  4. Severe hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetes: impact of the renin-angiotensin system and other risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik

    2009-01-01

    this thesis was conducted to assess the significance of severe hypoglycaemia as a clinical problem in the type 1 diabetic population, to evaluate the impact of known risk factors on occurrence of severe hypoglycaemia, and to identify new markers that could contribute to improved prediction of, and inspire...... targets and thereby open for prevention of severe hypoglycaemia. Furthermore, subjects with elevated renin-angiotensin system activity and a high rate of severe hypoglycaemia might benefit from pharmacological blockade of the renin-angiotensin system by ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers...

  5. Influence of diabetes mellitus and risk factors in activating latent tuberculosis infection: a case for targeted screening in malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarna Nantha, Y

    2012-10-01

    A review of the epidemiology of tuberculosis, its contributing risk factors (excluding HIV) and the role of screening latent tuberculosis infection in Malaysia was done. Despite the global and domestic decrease in prevalence rates of tuberculosis in the past decade, there is an alarming increase in the trend of non communicable diseases in the country. High prevalence rates of major risk factors leading to reactivation of tuberculosis were seen within the population, with diabetes mellitus being in the forefront. The rising numbers in the ageing population of Malaysia poses a further threat of re-emergence of tuberculosis in the years to come. Economically, screening of diabetic patients with comorbidities for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) using two major techniques, namely tuberculin sensitivity (TST) and Interferon gamma release assay tests (IGRA) could be a viable option. The role of future research in the detection of LTBI in the Malaysian setting might be necessary to gauge the disease reservoir before implementing prophylactic measures for high risk groups involved.

  6. Risk perception for diabetes in Appalachian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Ishveen; Chopra, Avijeet

    2017-01-01

    The social and economic burden of diabetes is large and growing. Diabetes is a significant public health issue in the Appalachian region; women constitute approximately 50% of those diagnosed with diabetes. This cross-sectional study examined the relationship among sociodemographic, anthropometric, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors (cognitive and affective representations) and perceived risk of diabetes in non-diabetic, non-elderly (21-50 years) Appalachian women residing in West Virginia (N = 202). Participants were recruited through social media, flyers, and a newsletter from the West Virginia University Extension. The final survey was conducted from March 2015 to June 2015. Bivariate analyses were used to examine unadjusted relations among sociodemographic, anthropometric, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors and comparative perceived risk of diabetes. In a multivariable logistic regression model, we found that younger age, higher body mass index, non-White race, greater diabetes knowledge, personal control, and moderate amounts of physical activity were significantly, positively associated with higher diabetes risk perception (p related to diabetes risk perception among Appalachian women. Understanding perceived diabetes-related risk may aid in the development of effective intervention strategies to reduce the burden of diabetes among Appalachian and other populations. These cross-sectional findings need further evaluation in longitudinal studies.

  7. High cumulative insulin exposure: a risk factor of atherosclerosis in type 1 diabetes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muis, Marian J.; Bots, Michiel L.; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Hoogma, Roel P. L. M.; Hoekstra, Joost B. L.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Stolk, Ronald P.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Since insulin therapy might have an atherogenic effect, we studied the relationship between cumulative insulin dose and atherosclerosis in type 1 diabetes. We have focused on patients with type 1 diabetes instead of type 2 diabetes to minimise the effect of insulin resistance as a

  8. High cumulative insulin exposure : a risk factor of atherosclerosis in type 1 diabetes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muis, MJ; Bots, ML; Bilo, HJG; Hoogma, RPLM; Hoekstra, JBL; Grobbee, DE; Stolk, RP

    Background: Since insulin therapy might have an atherogenic effect, we studied the relationship between cumulative insulin dose and atherosclerosis in type 1 diabetes. We have focused on patients with type 1 diabetes instead of type 2 diabetes to minimise the effect of insulin resistance as a

  9. Genetic sharing with cardiovascular disease risk factors and diabetes reveals novel bone mineral density loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Reppe (Sjur); Y. Wang (Yunpeng); W.K. Thompson (Wesley K.); L.K. McEvoy (Linda K.); N.J. Schork (Nicholas); V. Zuber (Verena); M. Leblanc (Marissa); F. Bettella (Francesco); I.G. Mills (Ian G.); R.S. Desikan (Rahul S.); S. Djurovic (Srdjan); K.M. Gautvik (Kaare); A.M. Dale (Anders); O.A. Andreassen (Ole); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); U. Styrkarsdottir (Unnur); E. Evangelou (Evangelos); Y.-H. Hsu (Yi-Hsiang); E.L. Duncan (Emma); E.E. Ntzani (Evangelia); L. Oei (Ling); O.M.E. Albagha (Omar M.); N. Amin (Najaf); J.P. Kemp (John); D.L. Koller (Daniel); G. Li (Guo); C.-T. Liu (Ching-Ti); R.L. Minster (Ryan); A. Moayyeri (Alireza); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); D. Willner (Dana); S.-M. Xiao (Su-Mei); L.M. Yerges-Armstrong (Laura); H.-F. Zheng (Hou-Feng); N. Alonso (Nerea); J. Eriksson (Joel); C.M. Kammerer (Candace); S. Kaptoge (Stephen); P.J. Leo (Paul); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); S.G. Wilson (Scott); J.F. Wilson (James F); V. Aalto (Ville); M. Alen (Markku); A.K. Aragaki (Aaron); T. Aspelund (Thor); J.R. Center (Jacqueline); Z. Dailiana (Zoe); C. Duggan; M. Garcia (Melissa); N. Garcia-Giralt (Natàlia); S. Giroux (Sylvie); G. Hallmans (Göran); L.J. Hocking (Lynne); L.B. Husted (Lise Bjerre); K. Jameson (Karen); R. Khusainova (Rita); G.S. Kim (Ghi Su); C. Kooperberg (Charles); T. Koromila (Theodora); M. Kruk (Marcin); M. Laaksonen (Marika); A.Z. Lacroix (Andrea Z.); S.H. Lee (Seung Hun); P.C. Leung (Ping C.); J.R. Lewis (Joshua); L. Masi (Laura); S. Mencej-Bedrac (Simona); T.V. Nguyen (Tuan); X. Nogues (Xavier); M.S. Patel (Millan); J. Prezelj (Janez); L.M. Rose (Lynda); S. Scollen (Serena); K. Siggeirsdottir (Kristin); G.D. Smith; O. Svensson (Olle); S. Trompet (Stella); O. Trummer (Olivia); N.M. van Schoor (Natasja); J. Woo (Jean); K. Zhu (Kun); S. Balcells (Susana); M.L. Brandi; B.M. Buckley (Brendan M.); S. Cheng (Sulin); C. Christiansen; C. Cooper (Charles); G.V. Dedoussis (George); I. Ford (Ian); M. Frost (Morten); D. Goltzman (David); J. González-Macías (Jesús); M. Kähönen (Mika); M. Karlsson (Magnus); E.K. Khusnutdinova (Elza); J.-M. Koh (Jung-Min); P. Kollia (Panagoula); B.L. Langdahl (Bente); W.D. Leslie (William D.); P. Lips (Paul); O. Ljunggren (Östen); R. Lorenc (Roman); J. Marc (Janja); D. Mellström (Dan); B. Obermayer-Pietsch (Barbara); D. Olmos (David); U. Pettersson-Kymmer (Ulrika); D.M. Reid (David); J.A. Riancho (José); P.M. Ridker (Paul); M.F. Rousseau (Francois); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); N.L.S. Tang (Nelson L.S.); R. Urreizti (Roser); W. Van Hul (Wim); J. Viikari (Jorma); M.T. Zarrabeitia (María); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); M.C. Castaño Betancourt (Martha); E. Grundberg (Elin); L. Herrera (Lizbeth); T. Ingvarsson (Torvaldur); H. Johannsdottir (Hrefna); T. Kwan (Tony); R. Li (Rui); R.N. Luben (Robert); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); S.T. Palsson (Stefan Th); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); G. Sigurdsson (Gunnar); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); D.J. Verlaan (Dominique); F.M. Williams (Frances); A.R. Wood (Andrew); Y. Zhou (Yanhua); T. Pastinen (Tomi); S. Raychaudhuri (Soumya); J.A. Cauley (Jane); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); G.R. Clark (Graeme); S.R. Cummings (Steven R.); P. Danoy (Patrick); E.M. Dennison (Elaine); R. Eastell (Richard); J.A. Eisman (John); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); A. Hofman (Albert); R.D. Jackson (Rebecca); G. Jones (Graeme); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); K.T. Khaw; T. Lehtimäki (Terho); Y. Liu (YongMei); M. Lorentzon (Mattias); E. McCloskey (Eugene); B.D. Mitchell (Braxton); K. Nandakumar (Kannabiran); G.C. Nicholson (Geoffrey); B.A. Oostra (Ben); M. Peacock (Munro); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); R.L. Prince (Richard); O. Raitakari (Olli); I.R. Reid (Ian); J. Robbins (John); P.N. Sambrook (Philip); P.C. Sham (Pak Chung); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); F.A. Tylavsky (Frances); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); N.J. Wareham (Nicholas J.); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); M.J. Econs (Michael); D.M. Evans (David); T.B. Harris (Tamara B.); A.W.C. Kung (Annie Wai Chee); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); J. Reeve (Jonathan); T.D. Spector (Timothy); E.A. Streeten (Elizabeth); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); C. Ohlsson (Claes); D. Karasik (David); J.B. Richards (Brent); M.A. Brown (Matthew); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); S.H. Ralston (Stuart); J.P.A. Ioannidis (John P.A.); D.P. Kiel (Douglas P.); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBone Mineral Density (BMD) is a highly heritable trait, but genome-wide association studies have identified few genetic risk factors. Epidemiological studies suggest associations between BMD and several traits and diseases, but the nature of the suggestive comorbidity is still unknown.

  10. Is poor glycaemic control in diabetic patients a risk factor of myopia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, N.; Jensen, H.; Lund-Andersen, H.

    2008-01-01

    haemoglobin (HbA(1c)), insulin dosage and myopia in diabetic patients. Methods: All type 1 diabetic patients aged 16-26 years [mean age 22.0, standard deviation (SD) 2.9] attending the eye clinic at Steno Diabetes Center, Copenhagen, in 1995-1997 were included in the study (n = 393). The following data were...... collected from the medical records from baseline to 2005: age at diabetes onset, age at baseline, sex, weight, HbA(1c), insulin dosage, refractive error, visual acuity and ocular diabetes complications. Results: The prevalence of myopia [spherical equivalent (SE) 0.5 D] was 53.3% [95% confidence...

  11. Environmental Risk Factors for Developing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tashi Dendup

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Different elements of the environment have been posited to influence type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. This systematic review summarizes evidence on the environmental determinants of T2DM identified in four databases. It proposes a theoretical framework illustrating the link between environment and T2DM, and briefly discusses some methodological challenges and potential solutions, and opportunities for future research. Walkability, air pollution, food and physical activity environment and roadways proximity were the most common environmental characteristics studied. Of the more than 200 reported and extracted relationships assessed in 60 studies, 82 showed significant association in the expected direction. In general, higher levels of walkability and green space were associated with lower T2DM risk, while increased levels of noise and air pollution were associated with greater risk. Current evidence is limited in terms of volume and study quality prohibiting causal inferences. However, the evidence suggests that environmental characteristics may influence T2DM prevention, and also provides a reasonable basis for further investigation with better quality data and longitudinal studies with policy-relevant environmental measures. This pursuit of better evidence is critical to support health-orientated urban design and city planning.

  12. Environmental Risk Factors for Developing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dendup, Tashi; Feng, Xiaoqi; Clingan, Stephanie; Astell-Burt, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Different elements of the environment have been posited to influence type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This systematic review summarizes evidence on the environmental determinants of T2DM identified in four databases. It proposes a theoretical framework illustrating the link between environment and T2DM, and briefly discusses some methodological challenges and potential solutions, and opportunities for future research. Walkability, air pollution, food and physical activity environment and roadways proximity were the most common environmental characteristics studied. Of the more than 200 reported and extracted relationships assessed in 60 studies, 82 showed significant association in the expected direction. In general, higher levels of walkability and green space were associated with lower T2DM risk, while increased levels of noise and air pollution were associated with greater risk. Current evidence is limited in terms of volume and study quality prohibiting causal inferences. However, the evidence suggests that environmental characteristics may influence T2DM prevention, and also provides a reasonable basis for further investigation with better quality data and longitudinal studies with policy-relevant environmental measures. This pursuit of better evidence is critical to support health-orientated urban design and city planning. PMID:29304014

  13. Obstructive sleep apnea as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan P

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Preethi Rajan, Harly Greenberg Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Hofstra-North Shore LIJ School of Medicine, New Hyde Park, NY, USA Abstract: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is independently associated with cardiovascular and cardiometabolic risk in several large epidemiologic studies. OSA leads to several physiologic disturbances such as intermittent hypoxia, sleep fragmentation, and increase in autonomic tone. These disturbances have been associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in animal and human studies. Studies also suggest a bidirectional relationship between OSA and T2DM whereby T2DM itself might contribute to the features of OSA. Moreover, successful treatment of OSA may reduce these risks, although this is controversial. The purpose of this article is to review 1 the links and bidirectional associations between OSA and T2DM; 2 the pathogenic mechanisms that might link these two disease states; 3 the role of continuous positive airway pressure therapy in improving glucose tolerance, sensitivity, and resistance; and 4 the implications for clinical practice. Keywords: Insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, sleep disordered breathing, intermittent hypoxia

  14. Hyperphosphataemia is associated with the diabetes-related cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Ishtiaq; Rahman, Zillur; Keka, Shamima Islam; Devnath, Sudip; Masum, Nuruzzaman; Masum, Nuruzzam; Hossain, Shahdat

    2011-01-01

    The serum phosphorus level is recently considered as one of the foretelling markers for the severity of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). We therefore investigated whether the serum phosphorus level in the diabetic patients against healthy individuals could act as a possible marker for identification of vulnerability to cardiovascular disease. One hundred and thirty two human subjects were involved in the study among which one hundred and four subjects are CVD patients and twenty eight were healthy individuals. The levels of the lipid profile and the glycemic status were significantly increased in the patients than those of the control subjects (Fasting glucose, FS=8.3 ± 0.3 vs. 6.1 ± 0.0 mmol/L; blood glucose 2 h after breakfast (STAB)=12.0 ± 0.5 vs. 8.5 ± 0.7, mmol/L; HbA1c (%),6.7 ± 0.2 vs. 5.4 ± 0.3; and Total cholesterol (TC)=189 ± 4.0 vs. 162 ± 7.0; low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), 111 ± 3.8 vs. 96 ± 5.0; triacyglycerol (TG), 202 ± 9.0 vs. 118 ± 5.3 mg/dL, respectively. The serum phosphorus level was significantly increased in CVD patients (mg/dL, patient vs. control, 5.1 ± 0.10 vs. 3.7 ± 0.1). Simple regression analyses revealed a highly significant positive correlation between serum phosphorus and TC, TG and FG. Thus the results demonstrate that the serum phosphorus level might be another parameter which is closely associated with diabetes and could also be used as a possible marker for the risk of CVD.

  15. The Impact of Dietary and Metabolic Risk Factors on Cardiovascular Diseases and Type 2 Diabetes Mortality in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Otto, Marcia C.; Afshin, Ashkan; Micha, Renata; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Fahimi, Saman; Singh, Gitanjali; Danaei, Goodarz; Sichieri, Rosely; Monteiro, Carlos A; Louzada, Maria L. C.; Ezzati, Majid; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2016-01-01

    Background Trends in food availability and metabolic risk factors in Brazil suggest a shift toward unhealthy dietary patterns and increased cardiometabolic disease risk, yet little is known about the impact of dietary and metabolic risk factors on cardiometabolic mortality in Brazil. Methods Based on data from Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study, we used comparative risk assessment to estimate the burden of 11 dietary and 4 metabolic risk factors on mortality due to cardiovascular diseases and diabetes in Brazil in 2010. Information on national diets and metabolic risks were obtained from the Brazilian Household Budget Survey, the Food and Agriculture Organization database, and large observational studies including Brazilian adults. Relative risks for each risk factor were obtained from meta-analyses of randomized trials or prospective cohort studies; and disease-specific mortality from the GBD 2010 database. We quantified uncertainty using probabilistic simulation analyses, incorporating uncertainty in dietary and metabolic data and relative risks by age and sex. Robustness of findings was evaluated by sensitivity to varying feasible optimal levels of each risk factor. Results In 2010, high systolic blood pressure (SBP) and suboptimal diet were the largest contributors to cardiometabolic deaths in Brazil, responsible for 214,263 deaths (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 195,073 to 233,936) and 202,949 deaths (95% UI: 194,322 to 211,747), respectively. Among individual dietary factors, low intakes of fruits and whole grains and high intakes of sodium were the largest contributors to cardiometabolic deaths. For premature cardiometabolic deaths (before age 70 years, representing 40% of cardiometabolic deaths), the leading risk factors were suboptimal diet (104,169 deaths; 95% UI: 99,964 to 108,002), high SBP (98,923 deaths; 95%UI: 92,912 to 104,609) and high body-mass index (BMI) (42,643 deaths; 95%UI: 40,161 to 45,111). Conclusion suboptimal diet, high SBP, and high

  16. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in Mexican adult from different socio-economic levels. Highlights and achievements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valencia Juillerat, M E [Centro de Investigacion en Alimentacion y Desarrollo (CIAD), Sonara (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    Obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are a major concern in many parts of the world. In northern Mexico, these problems have been reported to be higher than in the rest of the country. To assess the different risk factors based on body status (body composition, body size, fat distribution) and lifestyle factors (diet and physical activity) for the development of type 2 diabetes and CVD in men and women from different socioeconomic levels in north-west Mexico.

  17. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in Mexican adult from different socio-economic levels. Highlights and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia Juillerat, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    Obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are a major concern in many parts of the world. In northern Mexico, these problems have been reported to be higher than in the rest of the country. To assess the different risk factors based on body status (body composition, body size, fat distribution) and lifestyle factors (diet and physical activity) for the development of type 2 diabetes and CVD in men and women from different socioeconomic levels in north-west Mexico

  18. The characteristics of pre-diabetic patients associated with body composition and cardiovascular disease risk factors in the Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Gholi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different populations have shown various patterns of association between impaired fasting glucose (IFG and body composition parameters and risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD. The current study aimed at investigating the differences between persons with prediabetes and healthy people in terms of CVD risk factors including body composition parameters, blood pressure, and lipid profile in a sample of the Iranian population. Materials and Methods: In a case-control setting, a sample containing 386 (193 prediabetic subjects and 193 normal subjects of the first-degree relatives of diabetic patients aged 35-55 years were investigated. Samples were assessed using glucose tolerance categories. Prediabetes was defined according to the American Diabetes Association (ADA criteria. Body composition parameters, blood pressure, glucose parameters, and lipid profile were measured and compared between the two groups. Results: Prediabetic patients had higher body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, and body fat (BF in comparison to the control group (P < 0.05. In addition, prediabetic subject had a higher intake of energy, carbohydrate, protein, fat, and cholesterol and it seems that these patients had an unhealthy dietary intake (P < 0.05. Fasting blood glucose (FBG (P < 0.001, total cholesterol (P = 0.007, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and triglyceride (P = 0.021 were higher in prediabetic patients (P < 0.05 than in the controls. Conclusion: Both the risk factors of CVD and body composition parameters were different between the prediabetic and normal groups; total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, and FBS were predictors of the risk of prediabetes.

  19. Opportunities for diabetes prevention: risk factors for diabetes and cost-effectiveness of interventions = Mogelijkheden voor diabetespreventie : risicofactoren voor diabetes en kosteneffectiviteit van interventies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs-van der Bruggen, M.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes is already one of the most common chronic diseases in the Dutch population and a substantial further increase in the number of people with diabetes is expected in the near future. A large part of the burden of diabetes can be ascribed to the cardiovascular complications of diabetes which

  20. Ankle-brachial index and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity are risk factors for ischemic stroke in patients with Type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of ischemic stroke in patients with diabetes is increasing. While brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (BaPWV and ankle-brachial index (ABI are known to be associated with ischemic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, whether these measures predict the risk of ischemic cerebrovascular disease in diabetic patients remains unclear. 117 patients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled in this study. According to the results of head magnetic resonance imaging, the patients were divided into a diabetes-only group (n = 55 and a diabetes and ischemic stroke group (n = 62. We then performed ABI and BaPWV examinations for all patients. Compared with the diabetes-only group, we found decreased ABI and increased BaPWV in the diabetes and ischemic stroke group. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that BaPWV and ABI were risk factors for ischemic stroke in patients with type 2 diabetes. Our findings indicate that decreased ABI and increased BaPWV are objective indicators of increased risk of ischemic stroke in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  1. A Comparison between Decision Tree and Random Forest in Determining the Risk Factors Associated with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaily, Habibollah; Tayefi, Maryam; Doosti, Hassan; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Nezami, Hossein; Amirabadizadeh, Alireza

    2018-04-24

    We aimed to identify the associated risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using data mining approach, decision tree and random forest techniques using the Mashhad Stroke and Heart Atherosclerotic Disorders (MASHAD) Study program. A cross-sectional study. The MASHAD study started in 2010 and will continue until 2020. Two data mining tools, namely decision trees, and random forests, are used for predicting T2DM when some other characteristics are observed on 9528 subjects recruited from MASHAD database. This paper makes a comparison between these two models in terms of accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and the area under ROC curve. The prevalence rate of T2DM was 14% among these subjects. The decision tree model has 64.9% accuracy, 64.5% sensitivity, 66.8% specificity, and area under the ROC curve measuring 68.6%, while the random forest model has 71.1% accuracy, 71.3% sensitivity, 69.9% specificity, and area under the ROC curve measuring 77.3% respectively. The random forest model, when used with demographic, clinical, and anthropometric and biochemical measurements, can provide a simple tool to identify associated risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Such identification can substantially use for managing the health policy to reduce the number of subjects with T2DM .

  2. Diabetes, Triglyceride Levels, and Other Risk Factors for Glaucoma in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Fang; Boland, Michael V; Gupta, Priya; Gadkaree, Shekhar K; Vitale, Susan; Guallar, Eliseo; Zhao, Di; Friedman, David S

    2016-04-01

    To determine risk factors for glaucoma in a population-based study in the United States. Participants age 40 and older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey underwent questionnaires, physical examination, laboratory tests, and vision tests including fundus imaging. Glaucoma was determined based on expert grading of fundus photographs. Regression modeling of glaucoma risk factors was performed. Participants with glaucoma (172) were older (mean age 68.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 65.6-70.7] vs. 56.4 years [95% CI 55.6-57.2, P glucose, insulin dependence, body mass index, cholesterol levels, diastolic hypertension, systolic hypotension, obstructive sleep apnea, and marijuana were not associated with glaucoma. Multivariable modeling showed associations between glaucoma and older age (odds ratio [OR] 1.09 per year, 95% CI 1.04-1.14), black race (OR 4.40, 95% CI 1.71-11.30), and poverty (OR 3.39, 95% CI 1.73-6.66). Diabetes was no longer associated with glaucoma after adjustment for triglyceride levels. Sex, education, insurance status, body mass index, blood pressure, obstructive sleep apnea, and smoking were not associated with glaucoma. People who are older, of black race, and with lower income levels have a higher prevalence of glaucoma. A novel association between diabetes, triglyceride levels, and glaucoma is also identified.

  3. Diabetes and cardiometabolic risk factors in Cambodia: Results from two screening studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Julie; Naranjo, Diana; Khun, Touch; Seng, Serey; Horn, Ien S; Suttiratana, Sakinah C; Keuky, Lim

    2018-02-01

    Despite growing attention to diabetes throughout Asia, data from Southeast Asia are limited. This article reports rates of diabetes, hypertension, and obesity in Cambodia. Two studies were conducted across different regions of Cambodia: (i) a 2012 screening study across urban, semi-urban, and rural areas that used point-of-care capillary glucose for determination of diabetes (n = 13 997); and (ii) a 2005 epidemiological study with random selection from two main urban areas that used oral glucose tolerance tests for determination of diabetes (n = 1863). Blood pressure and anthropometrics were also measured. In the screening study, rates of diabetes were significantly higher in urban than rural sites, with intermediate rates in semi-urban areas. There was a significant dose-response effect for urbanicity on overweight, obesity, and waist:hip ratio, with higher rates for urban versus semi-urban and for semi-urban versus rural locales. Rural sites had the lowest rates of hypertension, followed by urban and semi-urban sites. Among people who screened positive for diabetes, there was a dose-response effect for urbanicity on undiagnosed diabetes; rates of previously undiagnosed diabetes were lowest in urban (51%), followed by semi-urban (55%) and rural (67%) locales. Rural participants reported the highest rates of smoking and alcohol use. In the urban epidemiological study, prevalence rates of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance were approximately 10%, indicating a prevalence of total glucose intolerance of approximately 20%. In Cambodia, diabetes rates are high among urban residents and undiagnosed diabetes is highest among rural residents. A country-wide public health response is urgently needed; as development continues, rates of diabetes are expected to rise. © 2017 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Hepatitis C as a risk factor for diabetes type 2: lack of evidence in a hospital in central-west Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luce Marina Freires Corrêa da Costa

    Full Text Available In order to assess the importance of HCV infection as a possible risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus, a case-control study was conducted, comparing the prevalence of HCV infection among diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Diabetic outpatients attending to a University Hospital in Central-West Brazil were evaluated between April and October 2005. A control group composed by patients from the same institution was matched by gender and age. Candidates to control group were included only if fasting glucose measures were under 100 mg/dL. Diabetics and controls had blood samples taken in order to test for antibodies against HCV (anti-HCV by enzyme-immunoassay. Polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot were performed to confirm the anti-HCV status. Each group included 206 participants. Despite of the groups were in general comparable. The diabetics had a greater body mass average and smaller family income. The prevalence of confirmed anti-HCV in the diabetic group was of 1.4%, which was similar to the controls (1%. Finding statistical difference may have been hampered by the low frequency of HCV infection in both groups. It was not possible to demonstrate a role of HCV as an etiologic factor in type 2 diabetes, since HCV infected patients represented a small portion of the overall diabetes cases. This finding does not allow to recommend regular screening for HCV infection in type 2 diabetics in this region.

  5. Type 1 diabetes mellitus and associated risk factors in patients with or without CHD: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björk, Anna; Svensson, Ann-Marie; Fard, Mir Nabi Pirouzi; Eriksson, Peter; Dellborg, Mikael

    2017-05-29

    Approximately 1% of children are born with CHD, and 90-95% reach adulthood. Increased exposure to infections and stress-strain can contribute to an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes mellitus. CHD may increase the risk of more serious infections, stress-strain, and increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes mellitus. We analysed the onset of and the risk of mortality and morbidity associated with concurrent CHD in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus compared with patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus without CHD. The study combined data from the National Diabetes Register and the National Patient Register. A total of 104 patients with CHD and type 1 diabetes mellitus were matched with 520 controls. Patients with CHD and type 1 diabetes mellitus had an earlier onset of diabetes (13.9 versus 17.4 years, p1), longer duration of diabetes (22.4 versus 18.1 years, p1), higher prevalence of retinopathy (64.0 versus 43.0%, p=0.003), higher creatinine levels (83.5 versus 74.1 µmol/L, p=0.03), higher mortality (16 versus 5%, p=0.002), and after onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus higher rates of co-morbidity (5.28 versus 3.18, p⩽0.01), heart failure (9 versus 2%, p=0.02), and stroke (6 versus 2%, p=0.048) compared with controls. From a nationwide register of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, the coexistence of CHD and type 1 diabetes mellitus was associated with an earlier onset, a higher frequency of microvascular complications, co-morbidity, and mortality.

  6. Risk Factor Knowledge, Perceived Threat, and Protective Health Behaviors: Implications for Type 2 Diabetes Control in Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, Samantha R; Bonnar, Kelly K; Black, David R; Coster, Daniel C

    2018-02-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore how perceived threat of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is shaped by risk factor knowledge and promotes the engagement of protective health behaviors among rural adults. Methods Participants (N = 252) completed a cross-sectional mixed-mode survey. Chi-squared analyses were computed to examine differences in perceived threat by demographic factors and knowledge of T2D risk factors. Logistic regressions were conducted to examine the relationship between T2D perceived threat and engagement in physical activity and health screenings. Results Perceived threat and knowledge of T2D risk factors were high. Perceived susceptibility was significantly higher among women, whites, and respondents with high body mass index (BMI). Respondents reporting physical activity most/almost every day had low perceived susceptibility to T2D. Perceived severity was significantly higher among respondents with high BMI. Blood cholesterol and glucose screenings were associated with greater T2D perceived susceptibility and severity. Higher BMI was associated with receiving a blood glucose screening. Conclusion Health education specialists and researchers should further explore the implications of using audience segmented fear appeal messages to promote T2D control through protective health behaviors.

  7. Pleiotropic effects of type 2 diabetes management strategies on renal risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muskiet, Marcel H. A.; Tonneijck, Lennart; Smits, Mark M.; Kramer, Mark H. H.; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo; van Raalte, Danil H.

    In parallel with the type 2 diabetes pandemic, diabetic kidney disease has become the leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide, and is associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. As established in landmark randomised trials and recommended in clinical guidelines,

  8. Gestational diabetes mellitus: risk factors development, occurrence, diagnostics and treatment (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostenko I.V.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes is defined as a violation of carbohydrate metabolism resulting in hyperglycemia of varying severity, firstly revealed or developed during the pregnancy. The article presents current data on the occurrence, etiology and pathogenesis of gestational diabetes, as well as methods for screening and diagnostics of disorders of carbohydrate metabolism during pregnancy. It explains the basic principles of diet therapy

  9. Continuing disparities in cardiovascular risk factors and complications between aboriginal and Anglo-Celt Australians with type 2 diabetes: the Fremantle Diabetes Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Timothy M E; Hunt, Kerry; McAullay, Daniel; Chubb, Stephen A P; Sillars, Brett A; Bruce, David G; Davis, Wendy A

    2012-10-01

    To determine whether disparities in the nature and management of type 2 diabetes persist between Aboriginal and the majority Anglo-Celt patients in an urban Australian community. Baseline data from the observational Fremantle Diabetes Study collected from 1993 to 1996 (phase I) and from 2008 to 2011 (phase II) were analyzed. Patients characterized as Aboriginal or Anglo-Celt by self-report and supporting data underwent comprehensive assessment, including questionnaires, examination, and biochemical testing in a single laboratory. Generalized linear modeling with age/sex adjustment was used to examine differences in changes in variables in the two groups between phases I and II. The indigenous participants were younger at entry and at diabetes diagnosis than the Anglo-Celt participants in both phases. They were also less likely to be educated beyond primary level and were more likely to be smokers. HbA(1c) decreased in both groups over time (Aboriginal median 9.6% [interquartile range 7.8-10.7%] to 8.4% [6.6-10.6%] vs. Anglo-Celt median 7.1% [6.2-8.4%] to 6.7% [6.2-7.5%]), but the gap persisted (P = 0.65 for difference between phases I and II by ethnic group). Aboriginal patients were more likely to have microvascular disease in both phases. The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (ankle-brachial index ≤0.90 or lower-extremity amputation) increased in Aboriginal but decreased in Anglo-Celt participants (15.8-29.7 vs. 30.7-21.5%; P = 0.055). Diabetes management has improved for Aboriginal and Anglo-Celt Australian patients, but disparities in cardiovascular risk factors and complications persist.

  10. Are blood pressure and diabetes additive or synergistic risk factors? outcome in 8494 subjects randomly recruited from 10 populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehestedt, Thomas; Hansen, Tine W; Li, Yan

    2011-01-01

    were not different from those of diabetic patients (P-values for interaction, 0.09¿P¿0.72). In conclusion, in a large international population-based database, both diabetes mellitus and BP contributed equally to the risk of cardiovascular complications without evidence for a synergistic effect...

  11. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy is associated with macrovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleischer, Jesper; Yderstræde, Knud Bonnet; Gulichsen, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    peripheral neuropathy (P = .041). Among type 2 diabetes patients CAN was independently associated with high pulse pressure (P ...The objective was to identify the presence of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in a cohort of individuals with diabetes in outpatient clinics from 4 different parts of Denmark and to explore the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes in relation to CAN. The DAN-Study is a Danish...... multicenter study focusing on diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Over a period of 12 months, 382 type 1 and 271 type 2 individuals with diabetes were tested for CAN. Patients were randomly recruited and tested during normal visits to outpatient clinics at 4 Danish hospitals. The presence of CAN was quantified...

  12. A Modified Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System to Assess Diabetes Self-management Behaviors and Diabetes Care in Monterrey Mexico: A Cross-sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco González-Salazar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is one of the leading causes of death from worldwide non-communicable diseases. The prevalence of diabetes in the Mexico (MX–United States border states exceeds the national rate in both countries. The economic burden of diabetes, due to decreased productivity, disability, and medical costs, is staggering and increases significantly when T2DM-related complications occur. The purpose of this study was to use a modified behavioral risk factor surveillance system (BRFSS to describe the T2DM self-management behaviors, diabetes care, and health perception of a convenience sample of adults with T2DM in Monterrey, MX. This cross-sectional study design, with convenience sampling, was conducted with a convenience sample (n = 351 of adults in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, MX who self-reported a diagnosis of T2DM. Potential participants were recruited from local supermarkets. Twenty-six diabetes and health-related items were selected from the BRFSS and administered in face-to-face interviews by trained data collectors. Data analysis was conducted using descriptive statistics. The mean age was 47 years, and the mean length of time with T2DM was 12 years. The majority was taking oral medication and 34% required insulin. Daily self-monitoring of feet was performed by 56% of the participants; however, only 8.8% engaged in blood glucose self-monitoring. The mean number of health-care provider visits was 9.09 per year, and glycated hemoglobin level (HbA1c was assessed 2.6 times per year. Finally, only 40.5% of the participants recalled having a dilated eye exam. We conclude the modified BRFSS survey administered in a face-to-face interview format is an appropriate tool for assessing engagement in T2DM self-management behaviors, diabetes care, and health perception. Extension of the use of this survey in a more rigorous design with a larger scale survey is encouraged.

  13. Cardiovascular Risk Factors (Diabetes, Hypertension, Hypercholesterolemia and Metabolic Syndrome) in Older People with Intellectual Disability: Results of the HA-ID Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Winter, C. F.; Bastiaanse, L. P.; Hilgenkamp, T. I. M.; Evenhuis, H. M.; Echteld, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and the metabolic syndrome are important risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). In older people with intellectual disability (ID), CVD is a substantial morbidity risk. The aims of the present study, which was part of the Healthy Ageing in Intellectual Disability (HA-ID) study, were (1) to…

  14. Continuing Disparities in Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Complications Between Aboriginal and Anglo-Celt Australians With Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Timothy M.E.; Hunt, Kerry; McAullay, Daniel; Chubb, Stephen A.P.; Sillars, Brett A.; Bruce, David G.; Davis, Wendy A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether disparities in the nature and management of type 2 diabetes persist between Aboriginal and the majority Anglo-Celt patients in an urban Australian community. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Baseline data from the observational Fremantle Diabetes Study collected from 1993 to 1996 (phase I) and from 2008 to 2011 (phase II) were analyzed. Patients characterized as Aboriginal or Anglo-Celt by self-report and supporting data underwent comprehensive assessment, including questionnaires, examination, and biochemical testing in a single laboratory. Generalized linear modeling with age/sex adjustment was used to examine differences in changes in variables in the two groups between phases I and II. RESULTS The indigenous participants were younger at entry and at diabetes diagnosis than the Anglo-Celt participants in both phases. They were also less likely to be educated beyond primary level and were more likely to be smokers. HbA1c decreased in both groups over time (Aboriginal median 9.6% [interquartile range 7.8–10.7%] to 8.4% [6.6–10.6%] vs. Anglo-Celt median 7.1% [6.2–8.4%] to 6.7% [6.2–7.5%]), but the gap persisted (P = 0.65 for difference between phases I and II by ethnic group). Aboriginal patients were more likely to have microvascular disease in both phases. The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (ankle-brachial index ≤0.90 or lower-extremity amputation) increased in Aboriginal but decreased in Anglo-Celt participants (15.8–29.7 vs. 30.7–21.5%; P = 0.055). CONCLUSIONS Diabetes management has improved for Aboriginal and Anglo-Celt Australian patients, but disparities in cardiovascular risk factors and complications persist. PMID:22815295

  15. Micro-RNA Binding Site Polymorphisms in the WFS1 Gene Are Risk Factors of Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elek, Zsuzsanna; Németh, Nóra; Nagy, Géza; Németh, Helga; Somogyi, Anikó; Hosszufalusi, Nóra; Sasvári-Székely, Mária; Rónai, Zsolt

    2015-01-01

    The absolute or relative lack of insulin is the key factor in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. Although the connection between loss of function mutations of the WFS1 gene and DIDMOAD-syndrome including diabetes mellitus underpins the significance of wolframin in the pathogenesis, exact role of WFS1 polymorphic variants in the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes has not been discovered yet. In this analysis, 787 patients with diabetes and 900 healthy people participated. Genotyping of the 7 WFS1 SNPs was carried out by TaqMan assays. Association study was performed by χ 2-test in combination with correction for multiple testing. For functional analysis, the entire 3’ UTR of the WFS1 gene was subcloned in a pMIR-Report plasmid and relative luciferase activities were determined. Linkage disequilibrium analysis showed a generally high LD within the investigated region, however the rs1046322 locus was not in LD with the other SNPs. The two miR-SNPs, rs1046322 and rs9457 showed significant association with T1DM and T2DM, respectively. Haplotype analysis also confirmed the association between the 3’ UTR loci and both disease types. In vitro experiments showed that miR-185 reduces the amount of the resulting protein, and rs9457 miRSNP significantly influences the rate of reduction in a luciferase reporter assay. Genetic variants of the WFS1 gene might contribute to the genetic risk of T1DM and T2DM. Furthermore demonstrating the effect of rs9457 in binding of miR-185, we suggest that the optimal level of wolframin protein, potentially influenced by miR-regulation, is crucial in normal beta cell function. PMID:26426397

  16. Micro-RNA Binding Site Polymorphisms in the WFS1 Gene Are Risk Factors of Diabetes Mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Elek

    Full Text Available The absolute or relative lack of insulin is the key factor in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. Although the connection between loss of function mutations of the WFS1 gene and DIDMOAD-syndrome including diabetes mellitus underpins the significance of wolframin in the pathogenesis, exact role of WFS1 polymorphic variants in the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes has not been discovered yet. In this analysis, 787 patients with diabetes and 900 healthy people participated. Genotyping of the 7 WFS1 SNPs was carried out by TaqMan assays. Association study was performed by χ2-test in combination with correction for multiple testing. For functional analysis, the entire 3' UTR of the WFS1 gene was subcloned in a pMIR-Report plasmid and relative luciferase activities were determined. Linkage disequilibrium analysis showed a generally high LD within the investigated region, however the rs1046322 locus was not in LD with the other SNPs. The two miR-SNPs, rs1046322 and rs9457 showed significant association with T1DM and T2DM, respectively. Haplotype analysis also confirmed the association between the 3' UTR loci and both disease types. In vitro experiments showed that miR-185 reduces the amount of the resulting protein, and rs9457 miRSNP significantly influences the rate of reduction in a luciferase reporter assay. Genetic variants of the WFS1 gene might contribute to the genetic risk of T1DM and T2DM. Furthermore demonstrating the effect of rs9457 in binding of miR-185, we suggest that the optimal level of wolframin protein, potentially influenced by miR-regulation, is crucial in normal beta cell function.

  17. Risk Factors for Incident Diabetes in a Cohort Taking First-Line Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor-Based Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamchand, Sumanth; Leisegang, Rory; Schomaker, Michael; Maartens, Gary; Walters, Lourens; Hislop, Michael; Dave, Joel A; Levitt, Naomi S; Cohen, Karen

    2016-03-01

    Efavirenz is the preferred nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) in first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens in low- and middle-income countries, where the prevalence of diabetes is increasing. Randomized control trials have shown mild increases in plasma glucose in participants in the efavirenz arms, but no association has been reported with overt diabetes. We explored the association between efavirenz exposure and incident diabetes in a large Southern African cohort commencing NNRTI-based first-line ART. Our cohort included HIV-infected adults starting NNRTI-based ART in a private sector HIV disease management program from January 2002 to December 2011. Incident diabetes was identified by the initiation of diabetes treatment. Patients with prevalent diabetes were excluded. We included 56,298 patients with 113,297 patient-years of follow-up (PYFU) on first-line ART. The crude incidence of diabetes was 13.24 per 1000 PYFU. Treatment with efavirenz rather than nevirapine was associated with increased risk of developing diabetes (hazard ratio 1.27 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-1.46)) in a multivariate analysis adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, baseline CD4 count, viral load, NRTI backbone, and exposure to other diabetogenic medicines. Zidovudine and stavudine exposure were also associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes. We found that treatment with efavirenz, as well as stavudine and zidovudine, increased the risk of incident diabetes. Interventions to detect and prevent diabetes should be implemented in ART programs, and use of antiretrovirals with lower risk of metabolic complications should be encouraged.

  18. Prevalence and risk factors of gestational diabetes in Punjab, North India: results from a population screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Geeti P; Thaman, Richa G; Prasad, Rashmi B; Almgren, Peter; Brøns, Charlotte; Groop, Leif C; Vaag, Allan A

    2015-08-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has in 2013 changed the diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) to acknowledge the putative effect of mildly elevated fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels on pregnancy outcomes. We aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of GDM comparing the previous WHO 1999 criteria to the WHO 2013 criteria in North India. In a population-based screening programme, 5100 randomly selected North Indian women were studied using a cross-sectional design with a questionnaire, venous FPG and 2-h capillary plasma glucose (PG) after a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test performed between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. The prevalence of GDM was 35% using WHO 2013 criteria vs 9% using WHO 1999 criteria. FPG measurements identified 94% of WHO 2013 GDM cases as opposed to 11% of WHO 1999 GDM cases. In contrast, 2-h PG measurements identified only 13% of WHO 2013 GDM cases compared with 96% of the WHO 1999 GDM cases. Using logistic regression with backward elimination, urban habitat, illiteracy, non-vegetarianism, increased BMI, Hindu religion and low adult height were all independent risk factors of GDM using the 1999 criteria, whereas only urban habitat, low adult height and increased age were independent risk factors of GDM using the 2013 criteria. Intervention studies are needed to justify the WHO 2013 GDM criteria increasing the prevalence four fold to include more than one third of North Indian pregnant women. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  19. [Prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose regulation in Chengdu populations and associated dietary risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hua; Chen, Li-Yu; Li, Shuang-Qing

    2014-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of type 2 DM and impaired glucose regulation (IGR) in Chengdu populations and to identify dietary risk factors associated with DM and IGR. Two communities in Chengdu were selected for this study. Fasting blood-glucose (FBG) and 2-hour post-meal blood glucose (2 hGlu) tests were performed in the community residents. The participants were asked to complete a questionair recording their daily food intaking. The total calorie of food, percentage of different kinds of food, and intake of electrolyte, vietamine and micro minerals were calculated and compared between those with and without type 2 DM or IGR. Of the study participants, 18.59% had type 2 DM and 24.22% had IGR. Those with DM had higher levels of intake of calorie,fat,protein and sodium, and lower levels of intake of cellulose, carbohydrates, Iron, zinc, selenium,manganese and vietamine C and E compared with those without DM/IGR (P vitamine C and E compared with those without DM/IGR (P Vitamine E was identified as a protective factor of type 2 DM (OR = 0.733) and IGR (OR = 0.990). Chengdu has a higher than national average prevalence of type 2 DM and IGR. The high percentage of dietary fat and low levels of Vitamine E are major risk factors of type 2 DM and IGR.

  20. Severe hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetes: impact of the renin-angiotensin system and other risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik

    2009-01-01

    Hypoglycaemia is an unavoidable side effect to insulin therapy of diabetes. In daily life some hypoglycaemic episodes are recognised by the patients and corrected by ingestion of glucose, but occasionally unrecognised episodes progress into severe hypoglycaemia with cognitive impairment and the n......Hypoglycaemia is an unavoidable side effect to insulin therapy of diabetes. In daily life some hypoglycaemic episodes are recognised by the patients and corrected by ingestion of glucose, but occasionally unrecognised episodes progress into severe hypoglycaemia with cognitive impairment...... both subjects at low and at high risk within a one-year period were identified. Preliminary data suggest that this is explained by impaired capability of subjects with high renin-angiotensin system activity to maintain cognitive function during hypoglycaemia. The clinical implications of this finding...... which, however, must await additional independent confirmation, include prediction and possibly some prevention of severe hypoglycaemia. An evaluation of renin-angiotensin system activity may - together with assessment of other risk factors - contribute to rational individualized setting of glycaemic...

  1. A Survey on Prevalence of Ocular Complications and It’s Risk Factors in Diabetic Patients Referred to Diabetic Center of Nader Kazemi Clinic Shiraz- Iran 1998-2010

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    ali khani jeihooni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: With respect to increasing prevalence of diabetes, the chance for incidence of ocular complications among diabetics, this study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for the incidence of the ocular complications in the patients referred to the Nader Kazemi Shiraz Diabetic center from 1998 to 2010.Materials & Methods: In a cross sectional study , subjects were selected based on a systematic random sampling to investigate the incidence of the ocular complications and factors influencing like wise age, sex, type of diabet, job, education, blood triglyceride (TG and cholesterol level, Family history of diabetes, history of hypertension, history of participation in educational classes, method of treatment, duration of diabetes and fasting blood sugar were considered.Results: Ocular complications were found among 229 diabetic patients (32.6%. Ocular complications of type II diabetic patients than in patients with type I diabetes (P<0. 005. Factors such as job(P=0. 022, history of participation in educational classes(P<0. 001, education(P<0. 001, Family history of diabetes(P<0. 001, blood triglyceride (TG (P=0. 021, duration of diabetes(P<0. 001,age (P<0. 001, method of treatment(P<0. 001and fasting blood sugar (P<0. 001 had a significant relationship with the occurrence of ocular complication. But other risk factors such as hypertension, gender and cholesterol levels were not statistically significant relationship with the occurrence of ocular complication.Conclusion: Given the prevalence of ocular complications, continuing education on the disease of diabetes complications, it can have a role in reducing the occurrence of ocular complications.

  2. Prevalence and risk factors of gestational diabetes in Punjab, North India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arora, Geeti P; Thaman, Richa G; Prasad, Rashmi B

    2015-01-01

    of GDM comparing the previous WHO 1999 criteria to the WHO 2013 criteria in North India. METHODS: In a population-based screening programme, 5100 randomly selected North Indian women were studied using a cross-sectional design with a questionnaire, venous FPG and 2-h capillary plasma glucose (PG) after...... criteria, whereas only urban habitat, low adult height and increased age were independent risk factors of GDM using the 2013 criteria. CONCLUSIONS: Intervention studies are needed to justify the WHO 2013 GDM criteria increasing the prevalence four fold to include more than one third of North Indian...... pregnant women....

  3. Cardiovascular risk factors, micro and macrovascular complications at diagnosis in patients with young onset type 2 diabetes in India: CINDI 2

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    Bhavana Sosale

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in young adults is increasing in India. Data on the prevalence of cardiovascular (CV risk factors and complications associated with young-onset T2DM (YOD at the time of diagnosis of diabetes are limited. This data can aid in aggressive diabetes management, CV risk reduction, and prevention of complications. Aim: To determine the prevalence of CV risk factors, micro and macrovascular complications in patients with newly diagnosed YOD. To assess the percentage of patients who require statin therapy based on current American Diabetes Association (ADA guidelines. Settings and Design: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study of 1500 patients with newly detected YOD across seven centers from 2013 to 2015. Designs and Methods: Patients were evaluated for complications of diabetes and CV risk factors such as body mass index (BMI, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and smoking. Statistical Analysis: Measurements have been presented as mean ± standard deviation; results on categorical measurements have been presented in percentages. Results: The mean age, glycated hemoglobin and BMI were 34.7 ± 4.2 years, 9.9 ± 2.4%, and 26.8 ± 4.7 kg/m2. Hypertension, dyslipidemia, BMI >23 kg/m2, and smoking were presented in 27.6%, 62.4%, 84.2%, and 24%. Diabetic retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy were seen in 5.1%, 13.2%, and 0.9%. Ischemic heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, and stroke were presented in 0.7%, 2%, and 0.1%. As per current guidelines, 95.33% needed statin therapy. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that patients with YOD have micro and macrovascular complications at diagnosis. Nearly, every patient required a statin to reduce CV risk. This highlights the importance of screening patients with YOD for CV risk factors and complications of diabetes at the time of diagnosis.

  4. Novel risk factors for premature peripheral arterial occlusive disease in non-diabetic patients: a case-control study.

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    Annie M Bérard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of genetic and environmental vascular risk factors in non diabetic patients with premature peripheral arterial disease, either peripheral arterial occlusive disease or thromboangiitis obliterans, the two main entities of peripheral arterial disease, and to established whether some of them are specifically associated with one or another of the premature peripheral arterial disease subgroups. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study included 113 non diabetic patients with premature peripheral arterial disease (diagnosis <45-year old presenting either a peripheral arterial occlusive disease (N = 64 or a thromboangiitis obliterans (N = 49, and 241 controls matched for age and gender. Both patient groups demonstrated common traits including cigarette smoking, low physical activity, decreased levels of HDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (active form of B6 vitamin and zinc. Premature peripheral arterial occlusive disease was characterized by the presence of a family history of peripheral arterial and carotid artery diseases (OR 2.3 and 5.8 respectively, 95% CI, high lipoprotein (a levels above 300 mg/L (OR 2.3, 95% CI, the presence of the factor V Leiden (OR 5.1, 95% CI and the glycoprotein Ia(807T,837T,873A allele (OR 2.3, 95% CI. In thromboangiitis obliterans group, more patients were regular consumers of cannabis (OR 3.5, 95% CI and higher levels in plasma copper has been shown (OR 6.5, 95% CI. CONCLUSIONS: According to our results from a non exhaustive list of study parameters, we might hypothesize for 1 a genetic basis for premature peripheral arterial occlusive disease development and 2 the prevalence of environmental factors in the development of thromboangiitis obliterans (tobacco and cannabis. Moreover, for the first time, we demonstrated that the 807T/837T/873A allele of platelet glycoprotein Ia may confer an additional risk for development of peripheral

  5. Factores de riesgo en el desarrollo de la retinopatía diabética Risk factors in the development of diabetic retinopathy

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    Arianna Hernández Pérez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar los factores de riesgo que favorecen la aparición de la retinopatía diabética. MÉTODOS: Se efectuó un estudio observacional analítico de tipo caso-control en 153 diabéticos atendidos consecutivamente en el Centro de Atención al Diabético, entre julio y diciembre del año 2008. Se estudiaron: edad, sexo, color de piel, consumo de alcohol, hábito de fumar, tipo de diabetes mellitus, tratamiento y evolución, tipo de retinopatía diabética, factores sistémicos y oculares asociados. Se aplicó Odds Ratio para valorar la influencia de factores de riesgo en probabilidad de aparición de la complicación. RESULTADOS: Predominaron los diabéticos tipo 2 (72,5 % en grupo estudio y 79,4 % en grupo control, la retinopatía diabética no proliferativa moderada (31,4 %, las mujeres (70,6 % en grupo estudio y 61,8 % en grupo control mayores de 40 años y piel blanca. La hipertensión arterial (OR= 2,83, p= 0,003 se presentó en 52,9 y 28,4 %, respectivamente. En el grupo estudio, el 43,1 % eran fumadores (OR= 2,76, p= 0,005 y el 72,5 % tenían más de 15 años de evolución de la diabetes (OR= 17,91, p= 0,000 mientras 62,8 % del grupo control llevaban entre 5 y 15 años de diabéticos. Resultaron significativos el antecedente de oclusión venosa retiniana (OR= 4,92, p= 0,001, cirugía de catarata (OR= 2,85, p= 0,012, cicatriz coriorretiniana (OR= 0,12, p= 0,015 y glaucoma primario de ángulo abierto (OR= 0,18, p=0,013. CONCLUSIONES: Los factores de riesgo asociados fueron: tiempo de evolución de la diabetes mellitus en pacientes con tiempo de evolución de la enfermedad mayor de 15 años, la hipertensión arterial, el hábito de fumar, antecedentes de cirugía de catarata y oclusiones venosas. El glaucoma primario de ángulo abierto y cicatrices coriorretinianas parecen ser factores protectores significativos.OBJECTIVE: To identify the risk factors favoring the appearance of the diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: A case

  6. Screening for type 2 diabetes in a multiethnic setting using known risk factors to identify those at high risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gray, Laura J.; Tringham, Jennifer R.; Davies, Melanie J.

    2010-01-01

    population to identify those with abnormal glucose tolerance. ethods: A sample of individuals aged 25-75 years (40-75 white European) with at least one risk factor for T2DM were invited for screening from 17 Leicestershire (UK) general practices or through a health awareness campaign. All participants...... received a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, cardiovascular risk assessment, detailed medical and family histories and anthropometric measurements. Results: In the 3,225 participants who were screened. 640 (20%) were found to have some form of abnormal glucose tolerance of whom 4% had T2DM, 3% impaired...

  7. Predicting type 2 diabetes using genetic and environmental risk factors in a multi-ethnic Malaysian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, N; Abdul Murad, N A; Mohd Haniff, E A; Syafruddin, S E; Attia, J; Oldmeadow, C; Kamaruddin, M A; Abd Jalal, N; Ismail, N; Ishak, M; Jamal, R; Scott, R J; Holliday, E G

    2017-08-01

    Malaysia has a high and rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). While environmental (non-genetic) risk factors for the disease are well established, the role of genetic variations and gene-environment interactions remain understudied in this population. This study aimed to estimate the relative contributions of environmental and genetic risk factors to T2D in Malaysia and also to assess evidence for gene-environment interactions that may explain additional risk variation. This was a case-control study including 1604 Malays, 1654 Chinese and 1728 Indians from the Malaysian Cohort Project. The proportion of T2D risk variance explained by known genetic and environmental factors was assessed by fitting multivariable logistic regression models and evaluating McFadden's pseudo R 2 and the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC). Models with and without the genetic risk score (GRS) were compared using the log likelihood ratio Chi-squared test and AUCs. Multiplicative interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors was assessed via logistic regression within and across ancestral groups. Interactions were assessed for the GRS and its 62 constituent variants. The models including environmental risk factors only had pseudo R 2 values of 16.5-28.3% and AUC of 0.75-0.83. Incorporating a genetic score aggregating 62 T2D-associated risk variants significantly increased the model fit (likelihood ratio P-value of 2.50 × 10 -4 -4.83 × 10 -12 ) and increased the pseudo R 2 by about 1-2% and AUC by 1-3%. None of the gene-environment interactions reached significance after multiple testing adjustment, either for the GRS or individual variants. For individual variants, 33 out of 310 tested associations showed nominal statistical significance with 0.001 variation in Malaysian population groups. If gene-environment interactions involving common genetic variants exist, they are likely of small effect, requiring substantially larger samples for

  8. The prevalence of impaired fasting glucose and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus and associated risk factors among adults living in a rural Koladiba town, northwest Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Worede, Abebaw; Alemu, Shitaye; Gelaw, Yalemzewod Assefa; Abebe, Molla

    2017-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is becoming a big public health challenge, particularly in developing countries like Ethiopia. It is a manageable disease if early screening and follow up is made. However, as studies in Ethiopia are limited and unorganized, determining the magnitude of prediabetes and diabetes and identifying associated risk factors is quite essential. Methods A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted from February to April 2015 among adults (aged ?20?years) in a rur...

  9. A group randomized trial of a complexity-based organizational intervention to improve risk factors for diabetes complications in primary care settings: study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Noel Polly H; Culler Steven D; Pugh Jacqueline A; Parchman Michael L; Arar Nedal H; Romero Raquel L; Palmer Raymond F

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Most patients with type 2 diabetes have suboptimal control of their glucose, blood pressure (BP), and lipids – three risk factors for diabetes complications. Although the chronic care model (CCM) provides a roadmap for improving these outcomes, developing theoretically sound implementation strategies that will work across diverse primary care settings has been challenging. One explanation for this difficulty may be that most strategies do not account for the complex adapti...

  10. A cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of obesity and other risk factors for type 2 diabetes among school children in Trinidad, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batson, Yvonne Ann; Teelucksingh, Surujpal; Maharaj, Rohan G; Cockburn, Brian N

    2014-08-01

    Our previous work has shown that type 2 diabetes mellitus is a problem in the school-aged population of Trinidad, West Indies. The current study evaluated the prevalence in this population of selected risk factors for diabetes, viz: obesity, family history of diabetes and acanthosis nigricans. To assess the prevalence of the following risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in school children in Trinidad: obesity, family history of diabetes in first- or second-degree relatives and the presence of acanthosis nigricans (AN). A cross-sectional survey was performed among school children aged 7-18 years from September 2009 to June 2010. A convenience sample was selected from a random sample of 32 schools drawn from all educational districts. A self-administered questionnaire was employed to record family history, gender and ethnicity. AN was assessed and scored clinically at the neck and obesity was measured by anthropometry and bio-impedance. There were 2130 participants in the study. Fifteen per cent were obese and 17% were overweight. Primary school children had a higher prevalence of obesity (22·9% vs 11·0%) and overweight (20·0% vs 15·6%) than secondary school children (Pobesity as measured by BMI for age (35·8 vs 29·4%, P18% of all school children have a degree of AN greater than grade 2, which clinically is readily recognisable. Females displayed this physical sign more commonly than males (Pdiabetes in first- and second-degrees relatives were 11·0% and 1·1%, respectively. Forty-three per cent had one risk factor for diabetes, 23·1% had two and 2·9% had three. Risk factors for T2DM are very common among school children in Trinidad. More than 40% had at least one risk factor. Strategies aimed at reducing risk factors for T2DM, especially obesity, among Trinidadian school children are urgently warranted.

  11. Type 2 diabetes mellitus might be a risk factor for mild cognitive impairment progressing to Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li W

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Wei Li,1,2 Tao Wang,1,2 Shifu Xiao1,2 1Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders Center, 2Department of Geriatric Psychiatry, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Background: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is the prodromal stage of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, so identification of the related risk factors can be helpful. Although the association between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and these modest changes in cognition is well established, whether T2DM will promote the transformation of MCI into AD is not a unified conclusion.Objective: This study aims to explore the relationship between T2DM and MCI in the elderly population living in the community in Shanghai, People’s Republic of China.Methods: A total of 197 participants were included in the study. They were screened for T2DM, hyperlipidemia, traumatic brain injury, and family history of dementia. The Mini-Mental State Examination and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment were used to assess cognitive function. The diagnosis of AD was made according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, whereas the diagnosis of MCI was made according to Petersen’s criteria. Then, we investigated the relation between T2DM and MCI.Results: A total of 82 (41.6% participants had no cognitive impairment, 82 (41.6% participants had MCI, and 33 (16.8% participants had AD. Multivariate logistic regression models demonstrated that T2DM was a risk factor for AD (odds ratio =49.723, 95% CI =21.173–111.987.Conclusion: T2DM might be a risk factor for MCI progressing into AD. Keywords: T2DM, AD, MCI, risk factor

  12. Sex differences in risk factors for retinopathy in non-diabetic men and women: the Tromsø Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsen, Geir; Peto, Tunde; Lindekleiv, Haakon; Schirmer, Henrik; Solbu, Marit D; Toft, Ingrid; Sjølie, Anne Katrin; Njølstad, Inger

    2014-06-01

      To determine the prevalence and risk factors for retinopathy in a nondiabetic population.   The study population included 5869 participants without diabetes aged 38-87 years from the Tromsø Eye Study, a substudy of the population-based Tromsø Study in Norway. Retinal images from both eyes were graded for retinopathy. We collected data on risk factors from self-report questionnaires, clinical examinations, laboratory measurements and case note reviews. The cross-sectional relationship between potential risk factors and retinopathy was assessed using logistic regression analysis.   The overall prevalence of retinopathy was 14.8%. Men had a higher prevalence of retinopathy compared with women (15.9% versus 14.0%, p=0.04). In men, retinopathy was associated with hypertension (odds ratio [OR], 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-2.04) and HbA1c (OR per %, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.01-1.96). In women, retinopathy was associated with age (OR per 10 years, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.14-1.52), log-transformed urinary albumin excretion (OR per log unit, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.14-1.87) and hypertension (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.08-1.71). In women, retinopathy was associated with very low levels of urinary albumin excretion (urinary albumin/creatinine ratio >0.43 mg/mmol).   This study confirms results from previous studies on the strong association between blood pressure and retinopathy. A novel finding is the sex differences in risk factors for retinopathy, suggesting a sex difference in the pathogenesis leading to retinopathy. © 2013 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Type 2 diabetes mellitus unawareness, prevalence, trends and risk factors: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nana; Yang, Xin; Zhu, Xiaolin; Zhao, Bin; Huang, Tianyi; Ji, Qiuhe

    2017-04-01

    Objectives To determine whether the associations with key risk factors in patients with diagnosed and undiagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are different using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 to 2010. Methods The study analysed the prevalence and association with risk factors of undiagnosed and diagnosed T2DM using a regression model and a multinomial logistic regression model. Data from the NHANES 1999-2010 were used for the analyses. Results The study analysed data from 10 570 individuals. The overall prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed T2DM increased significantly from 1999 to 2010. The prevalence of undiagnosed T2DM was significantly higher in non-Hispanic whites, in individuals 130-159 mg/dl) or very high (≥220 mg/dl) non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared with diagnosed T2DM. Body mass index, low economic status or low educational level had no effect on T2DM diagnosis rates. Though diagnosed T2DM was associated with favourable diet/carbohydrate intake behavioural changes, it had no effect on physical activity levels. Conclusion The overall T2DM prevalence increased between 1999 and 2010, particularly for undiagnosed T2DM in patients that were formerly classified as low risk.

  14. Type 2 diabetes mellitus unawareness, prevalence, trends and risk factors: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nana; Yang, Xin; Zhu, Xiaolin; Zhao, Bin; Huang, Tianyi

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether the associations with key risk factors in patients with diagnosed and undiagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are different using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 to 2010. Methods The study analysed the prevalence and association with risk factors of undiagnosed and diagnosed T2DM using a regression model and a multinomial logistic regression model. Data from the NHANES 1999–2010 were used for the analyses. Results The study analysed data from 10 570 individuals. The overall prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed T2DM increased significantly from 1999 to 2010. The prevalence of undiagnosed T2DM was significantly higher in non-Hispanic whites, in individuals educational level had no effect on T2DM diagnosis rates. Though diagnosed T2DM was associated with favourable diet/carbohydrate intake behavioural changes, it had no effect on physical activity levels. Conclusion The overall T2DM prevalence increased between 1999 and 2010, particularly for undiagnosed T2DM in patients that were formerly classified as low risk. PMID:28415936

  15. Gestational diabetes mellitus in sub-Saharan Africa: systematic review and metaregression on prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwanri, Akwilina W; Kinabo, Joyce; Ramaiya, Kaushik; Feskens, Edith J M

    2015-08-01

    We systematically reviewed publications on prevalence and risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the 47 countries of sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a systematic search in PUBMED and reviewed articles published until June 2014 and searched the references of retrieved articles. We explored sources of heterogeneity among prevalence proportions with metaregression analysis. Of 1069 articles retrieved 22 studies were included. Half were from West Africa, specifically Nigeria, five from South Africa and six from East and Central Africa. There were differences in screening methods and diagnosis criteria used, even between studies carried out in the same country and same time period. Metaregression analysis indicated high heterogeneity among the studies (I(2) = 100, P 30 years. There are few studies on prevalence and risk factors for GDM in Sub-Saharan Africa and heterogeneity is high. Prevalence was up to about 14% when high-risk women were studied. Preventive actions should be taken to reduce the short- and long-term complications related to GDM in Sub-Saharan Africa. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Parental History of Diabetes, Positive Affect, and Diabetes Risk in Adults: Findings from MIDUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsenkova, Vera K; Karlamangla, Arun S; Ryff, Carol D

    2016-12-01

    Family history of diabetes is one of the major risk factors for diabetes, but significant variability in this association remains unexplained, suggesting the presence of important effect modifiers. To our knowledge, no previous work has examined whether psychological factors moderate the degree to which family history of diabetes increases diabetes risk. We investigated the relationships among parental history of diabetes, affective states (positive affect, negative affect, and depressed affect), and diabetes in 978 adults from the MIDUS 2 national sample. As expected, parental history of diabetes was associated with an almost threefold increase in diabetes risk. We found a significant interaction between positive affect and parental history of diabetes on diabetes (p = .009): higher positive affect was associated with a statistically significant lower relative risk for diabetes in participants who reported having a parental history of diabetes (RR = .66 per unit increase in positive affect; 95 % CI = .47; .93), but it did not influence diabetes risk for participants who reported no parental history of diabetes (p = .34). This pattern persisted after adjusting for an extensive set of health and sociodemographic covariates and was independent of negative and depressed affect. These results suggest that psychological well-being may protect individuals at increased risk from developing diabetes. Understanding such interactions between non-modifiable risk factors and modifiable psychological resources is important for delineating biopsychosocial pathways to diabetes and informing theory-based, patient-centered interventions to prevent the development of diabetes.

  17. Risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus Factores de riesgo en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 Fatores de risco em pacientes com diabetes mellitus tipo 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idalina Diair Regla Carolino

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the risk factors of type 2 diabetic patients through sociodemographic data, habits of health, anthropometric and biochemist profiles, assisted at a basic public health care unit in Maringá, Paraná. Sixty-six patients, 56 women aged over than 50 years-old were interviewed. High prevalence factors for cardiovascular risk were observed, such as: overweight and obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, sedentariness and inadequate diet. Data suggested the need for multidisciplinary intervention programs in health care units associated to educative programs, adjusted diet intake and regular physical activity for these diabetic patients.El objetivo de este estudio fue verificar los factores de riesgo de las complicaciones de la diabetes mellitus tipo 2, por medio del levantamiento de datos sociodemográficos, hábitos de salud, perfil antropométrico y bioquímico, de pacientes diabéticos tipo 2 atendidos en una Unidad Básica de Salud en la ciudad de Maringá, Paraná. Fueron entrevistados y evaluados 66 pacientes con más de 50 años; 56 eran del sexo femenino. Se verificó una elevada presencia de factores de riesgo cardiovascular en los pacientes investigados: sobrepeso y obesidad, hipertensión, dislipidemia, sedentarismo y dieta no saludable. Los resultados indican la necesidad de la implantación de programas de intervención multidisciplinares en unidades básicas de la salud asociada a prácticas educativas, estimulando la adopción de una dieta saludable y la práctica de actividad física regular para estos pacientes.O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar os fatores de risco das complicações do diabetes mellitus tipo 2, por meio de levantamento de dados sociodemográficos, hábitos de saúde, perfil antropométrico e bioquímico de pacientes diabéticos tipo 2, atendidos em Unidade Básica de Saúde, na cidade de Maringá, Paraná. Foram entrevistados e avaliados 66 pacientes acima de 50 anos, sendo 56

  18. A modified portfolio diet complements medical management to reduce cardiovascular risk factors in diabetic patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Mary; Kuliszewski, Michael A; Liao, Christine; Peeva, Valentina; Ahmed, Mavra; Tran, Susan; Sorokin, Kevin; Jenkins, David J; Errett, Lee; Leong-Poi, Howard

    2015-06-01

    Secondary prevention can improve outcomes in high risk patients. This study investigated the magnitude of cardiovascular risk reduction associated with consumption of a modified portfolio diet in parallel with medical management. 30 patients with type II diabetes, 6 weeks post bypass surgery received dietary counseling on a Modified Portfolio Diet (MPD) (low fat, 8 g/1000 kcal viscous fibres, 17 g/1000 kcal soy protein and 22 g/1000 kcal almonds). Lipid profiles, endothelial function and markers of glycemic control, oxidative stress and inflammation were measured at baseline and following two and four weeks of intervention. Seven patients with no diet therapy served as time controls. Consumption of the MPD resulted in a 19% relative reduction in LDL (1.9 ± 0.8 vs 1.6 ± 0.6 mmol/L, p managed, high risk patients resulted in important reductions in risk factors. Clinical Trials registry number NCT00462436. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  19. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus as a Risk Factor for Female Breast Cancer in the Population of Northern Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Ifrah; Mahmood, Humera; Faheem, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    There has been much research work in the past to ascertain the association between type 2 diabetes mellitus and breast cancer, but definitive evidence has been scanty. The present study was carried out to determine the association of type 2 diabetes mellitus with breast cancer in the female population of Northern Pakistan. This casecontrol study was carried out in the Oncology Department of NORI Hospital. A total of 400 patients were included. Data were entered into PSPP 0.8.1. Twotailed significance tests were used and a pvalue of 0.05 was considered significant. There were a higher percentage of postmenopausal women in the diabetic breast cancer patients' group as compared to the nondiabetic subset. The odds ratio for the association between diabetes and risk of developing breast cancer was elevated with statistical significance (OR = 2.96; 95 % CI =1.36.3; pvalue=0.004). The results of our study showed that diabetes is associated with a risk of developing breast cancer, especially in postmenopausal women (OR = 4.928; 95 % CI = 2.111.3; pvalue=0.001). The association was particularly marked in obese subjects (OR = 31.49; 95 % CI = 1.8 536; p value=0.01), as compared to nonobese subjects (OR = 0.642; 95 % CI = 0.21.7). Diabetes is strongly associated with obesity and it tends to increase the risk of breast Cancer, especially in postmenopausal women. A highrisk subset for breast cancer comprised postmenopausal, diabetic and overweight women.

  20. Risk factors and direct medical cost of early versus late unplanned readmissions among diabetes patients at a tertiary hospital in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Png, May Ee; Yoong, Joanne; Chen, Cynthia; Tan, Chuen Seng; Tai, E Shyong; Khoo, Eric Y H; Wee, Hwee Lin

    2018-02-20

    To examine the risk factors and direct medical costs associated with early (≤30 days) versus late (31-180 days) unplanned readmissions among patients with type 2 diabetes in Singapore. Risk factors and associated costs among diabetes patients were investigated using electronic medical records from a local tertiary care hospital from 2010 to 2012. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated with early and late unplanned readmissions while a generalized linear model was used to estimate the direct medical cost. Sensitivity analysis was also performed. A total of 1729 diabetes patients had unplanned readmissions within 180 days of an index discharge. Length of index stay (a marker of acute illness burden) was one of the risk factors associated with early unplanned readmission while patient behavior-related factors, like diabetes-related medication adherence, were associated with late unplanned readmission. Adjusted mean cost of index admission was higher among patients with unplanned readmission. Sensitivity analysis yielded similar results. Existing routinely captured data can be used to develop prediction models that flag high risk patients during their index admission, potentially helping to support clinical decisions and prevent such readmissions.

  1. Risk factor screening to identify women requiring oral glucose tolerance testing to diagnose gestational diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis and analysis of two pregnancy cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Farrar

    Full Text Available Easily identifiable risk factors including: obesity and ethnicity at high risk of diabetes are commonly used to indicate which women should be offered the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT to diagnose gestational diabetes (GDM. Evidence regarding these risk factors is limited however. We conducted a systematic review (SR and meta-analysis and individual participant data (IPD analysis to evaluate the performance of risk factors in identifying women with GDM.We searched MEDLINE, Medline in Process, Embase, Maternity and Infant Care and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL up to August 2016 and conducted additional reference checking. We included observational, cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies reporting the performance characteristics of risk factors used to identify women at high risk of GDM. We had access to IPD from the Born in Bradford and Atlantic Diabetes in Pregnancy cohorts, all pregnant women in the two cohorts with data on risk factors and OGTT results were included.Twenty nine published studies with 211,698 women for the SR and a further 14,103 women from two birth cohorts (Born in Bradford and the Atlantic Diabetes in Pregnancy study for the IPD analysis were included. Six studies assessed the screening performance of guidelines; six examined combinations of risk factors; eight evaluated the number of risk factors and nine examined prediction models or scores. Meta-analysis using data from published studies suggests that irrespective of the method used, risk factors do not identify women with GDM well. Using IPD and combining risk factors to produce the highest sensitivities, results in low specificities (and so higher false positives. Strategies that use the risk factors of age (>25 or >30 and BMI (>25 or 30 perform as well as other strategies with additional risk factors included.Risk factor screening methods are poor predictors of which pregnant women will be diagnosed with GDM. A simple

  2. Trends of increases in potential risk factors and prevalence rates of diabetes mellitus in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavasit, V; Kriengsinyos, W; Photi, J; Tontisirin, K

    2017-07-01

    Over the past three decades, undernutrition in Thailand has drastically reduced by over seven times. However, since 1995 the number of patients afflicted with non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, has rapidly increased, even among the young. Unhealthy life styles due to urbanization are a major reason for this increase. Less physical activity and low consumption of fruits and vegetables, as well as high consumption of added free sugar, are common. Every year, the Thai people increase their consumption of energy from fat and protein, while lowering their intake of energy from complex carbohydrates. Per capita and on average, a Thai individual consumes up to 20% of total energy from added free sugar. Barker's hypothesis and Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis (DOHaD) can partially explain the increase in diabetes mellitus at this rapid rate. To alleviate the problem, the main strategy has been consumer education to reduce diabetes mellitus prevalence. Sugar elimination from infant formula is mandatory and sugar taxation is being considered. Simplified nutrition labeling is voluntarily as part of consumer education, as well as encouraging food industries to produce healthier food products. Currently, a multi-sectoral approach is used for alleviating diabetes mellitus in Thailand.

  3. Risk factors and treatment of pediatric chronic diseases : Type 1 diabetes, asthma and allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmadizar, F.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic diseases such as type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and asthma are leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The increase in the number of children with chronic diseases is a major concern. Early detection through improved screening and diagnostic tests, better diagnosis based on updated

  4. Early pregnancy clinical risk factors for preeclampsia in women with type 1 and type 2 diabete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Sidse Kjærhus; Vestergaard, Marianne; Ásbjörnsdóttir, Björg

    Aim: To assess the prevalence of pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders and to identify early clinical, modifiable predictors of preeclampsia in women with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Methods: A population-based cohort study of 494 women with pre-existing diabetes (307 type 1 and 187 type 2...... diabetes), included at their first antenatal visit at 11±6 gestational weeks (mean±SD) from 2012 to 2016. Predictors of preeclampsia present at first antenatal visit were sought identified. Results: At the first antenatal visit HbA1c was 6.9±2.3 % (51±10 mmol/mol) vs. 6.8±2.6 % (49±14 mmol/mol) and blood...... pressure 120±12/76±8 mmHg vs. 122±14/79±10 mmHg, (p=0.16/p=0.001) in women with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively. Preeclampsia developed in 40 women at 36±3 gestational weeks with delivery 8±9 days later. The prevalence of preeclampsia was 8% (9% vs. 7%) and gestational hypertension 8% (9% vs. 6...

  5. Effect of peer support interventions on cardiovascular disease risk factors in adults with diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sonal J; Ruppar, Todd; Koopman, Richelle J; Lindbloom, Erik J; Elliott, Susan G; Mehr, David R; Conn, Vicki S

    2018-03-23

    Peer support by persons affected with diabetes improves peer supporter's diabetes self-management skills. Peer support interventions by individuals who have diabetes or are affected by diabetes have been shown to improve glycemic control; however, its effects on other cardiovascular disease risk factors in adults with diabetes are unknown. We aimed to estimate the effect of peer support interventions on cardiovascular disease risk factors other than glycemic control in adults with diabetes. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing peer support interventions to a control condition in adults affected by diabetes that measured any cardiovascular disease risk factors [Body Mass Index, smoking, diet, physical activity, cholesterol level, glucose control and blood pressure]. Quality was assessed by Cochrane's risk of bias tool. We calculated standardized mean difference effect sizes using random effects models. We retrieved 438 citations from multiple databases including OVID MEDLINE, Cochrane database and Scopus, and author searches. Of 233 abstracts reviewed, 16 articles met inclusion criteria. A random effects model in a total of 3243 participants showed a positive effect of peer support interventions on systolic BP with a pooled effect size of 2.07 mmHg (CI 0.35 mmHg to 3.79 mmHg, p = 0.02); baseline pooled systolic blood pressure was 137 mmHg. There was a non-significant effect of peer support interventions on diastolic blood pressure, cholesterol, body mass index, diet and physical activity. Cardiovascular disease risk factors other than glycemic control outcomes were secondary outcomes in most studies and baseline values were normal or mildly elevated. Only one study reported smoking outcomes. We found a small (2 mmHg) positive effect of peer support interventions on systolic blood pressure in adults with diabetes whose baseline blood pressure was on average minimally elevated. Additional studies need to

  6. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are positively associated with the risk of chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Eun-Sil; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Park, Ji Eun; Choi, Young Ju; Huh, Kap Bum; Kim, Wha Young

    2010-07-01

    Chronic low-grade inflammation may induce chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. This study investigated the relation between inflammatory biomarkers and chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes, which has not yet been reported in Asian populations. A cross-sectional study was performed in 543 patients recruited from diabetic clinics for an ongoing, prospective study. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between inflammatory biomarkers and the presence of chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate Disease equation using plasma creatinine). The risk of chronic kidney disease increased in the highest quartiles of C-reactive protein (CRP) [multivariate odds ratio (OR) = 3.73; 95% CI = 1.19-1.70] and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (multivariate OR = 4.45; 95% CI = 1.63-12.11) compared to the lowest quartiles after adjustments for age, sex, zinc intake, and other putative risk factors for chronic kidney disease. Our results suggest that CRP and tumor necrosis factor-alpha may be independent risk factors for chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. A causal mechanism of this association should be evaluated in a followup study of Korean patients with type 2 diabetes.

  7. Population-based incidence of Type 2 diabetes and its associated risk factors: results from a six-year cohort study in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadat Navid

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Middle East is estimated to have the largest increase in prevalence of diabetes by 2030; yet there is lack of published data on the incidence of Type 2 diabetes in this region. This study aimed to estimate Type 2 diabetes incidence and its associated risk factors in an Iranian urban population. Methods Among 3307 non-diabetics ≥ 20 years (mean age 42 ± 13 years, 42% males, glucose tolerance test was performed at baseline in 1999–2001 and at two consecutive phases in 2001–2005 and 2005–2008. Diabetes and glucose tolerance status were defined according to the ADA 1997 criteria. Logistic regression was used to determine the independent variables associated with incident diabetes and their odds ratios (OR. Results After median follow-up of 6 years, 237 new cases of diabetes were ascertained corresponding to an age and sex standardized cumulative incidence of 6.4% (95%CI: 5.6–7.2 and incidence rate of 10.6 (9.2–12.1 per 1000 person years. Besides classical diabetes risk factors, female sex and low education level significantly increased risk of diabetes in age adjusted models. In full model, the independent predictors were age [OR, 95%CI: 1.2 (1.1–1.3], family history of diabetes [1.8 (1.3–2.5], body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2 [2.3 (1.5–3.6], abdominal obesity [1.9 (1.4–2.6], high triglyceride [1.4 (1.1–1.9], Isolated impaired fasting glucose (IFG [7.4 (3.6–15.0], Isolated impaired glucose tolerance (IGT [5.9 (4.2–8.4] and combined IFG and IGT [42.2 (23.8–74.9]. Conclusion More than 1% of the Iranian urban population older than 20 years develops Type 2 diabetes each year. Combination of IFG and IGT was the strongest predictor of incident diabetes among the modifiable risk factors.

  8. Age modifies the risk factor profiles for acute kidney injury among recently diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chia-Ter; Wang, Jui; Wu, Hon-Yen; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Chien, Kuo-Liong

    2018-04-01

    The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) rises with age and is associated with multiple risk factors. Here, we compared the risk factors for AKI between younger and older incident diabetic patients to examine the trends in risk alteration for individual factors across different age groups. Between 2007 and 2013, we selected all incident type 2 diabetic adults from the Taiwan National Health Insurance registry, stratified based on age: young (< 65 years), old (≥ 65 but < 75 years), and older-old (≥ 75 years). All factors with potential renal influence (e.g., comorbidities, medications, and diagnostics/procedures) were recorded during the study period, with a nested case-controlled approach utilized to identify independent risk factors for AKI in each age group. Totally, 930,709 type 2 diabetic patients were categorized as young (68.7%), old (17.7%), or older-old (13.6%). Older-old patients showed a significantly higher incidence of AKI than the old and the young groups. Cardiovascular morbidities (hypertension, atrial fibrillation, acute coronary syndrome, and cerebrovascular disease) were shown to increase the risk of AKI, although the risk declined with increasing age. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and receiving cardiac catheterization elevated the risk of AKI preferentially in the older-old/old and older-old group, respectively, while the administration of angiotensin-converting enzyme/α-blocker and angiotensin receptor blocker/calcium channel blocker reduced the risk of AKI preferentially in the older-old and older-old/old group, respectively. In conclusion, our findings highlight the importance of devising age-specific risk factor panels for AKI in patients with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

  9. Interactions among insulin resistance, inflammation factors, obesity-related gene polymorphisms, environmental risk factors, and diet in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yang; Jiang, Chen-Dong; Chang, Ai-Min; Shi, Ying; Gao, Junjun; Zhu, Linlin; Zhang, Zhan

    2018-03-08

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlations and interactions between the polymorphisms of insulin resistance-related genes (ADIPOQ rs2241766), inflammation factors (TNF-α rs1800629, IL-6 rs1800795), obesity-related genes (GNB3 rs5443, ADRB rs1042714), and risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) such as diet structure in the development of GDM. This research was conducted among women who visited the third-affiliate hospital of Zhengzhou University for pregnancy checkups from 1 June 2014 to 30 December 2014. Based on the results of a 75-g glucose tolerance test (OGTT), 140 pregnant women with GDM were randomly selected as a part of the GDM group and140 healthy, pregnant women as part of the control group. Relevant clinical and laboratory data for the child and the mother including her pregnancy outcomes and the delivery mode were collected for the epidemiological survey. The results showed that risk factors for GDM are advanced age, the hepatitis B virus, family history of diabetes, high body mass index before pregnancy, and weight gain of ≥10 kg before 24-week gestation. We found that diet structures were severely unbalanced. The polymorphisms rs2241766 and rs5443 were found to potentially be associated with GDM; moreover, a positive interaction was demonstrated between rs2241766 and age, and a negative interaction was demonstrated with weight gain of ≥10 kg before 24-week gestation. Our findings demonstrate that both environmental risk factors and genetic background contribute to the development of GDM.

  10. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and its relationship with glomerular filtration rate and other risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Spain. DM2 HOPE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Maribel; Cos, Francesc Xavier; Álvarez-Guisasola, Fernando; Fuster, Eva

    2017-09-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness in working age population in developed countries. Albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) have been considered biomarkers for DR. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of DR and its relationship with eGFR and other risk factors in type 2 diabetic patients (T2DM) in Spain. A cross-sectional and descriptive study has been performed in 14,266 patients. Clinical records were reviewed. Demographic data, clinical diagnoses, clinical variables, and results from laboratory tests were recorded. Prevalence rates of DR were calculated. Logistic regression analysis was applied t