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Sample records for diabetes mellitus dm

  1. Polyuria with the Concurrent manifestation of Central Diabetes Insipidus (CDI) & Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun-Jong; Kim, Jae-Ha; Yi, Joo-Hark; Han, Sang-Woong; Kim, Ho-Jung

    2012-12-01

    We report a rare case of the concurrent manifestation of central diabetes insipidus (CDI) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). A 56 year-old man was diagnosed as a type 2 DM on the basis of hyperglycemia with polyuria and polydipsia at a local clinic two months ago and started an oral hypoglycemic medication, but resulted in no symptomatic improvement at all. Upon admission to the university hospital, the patient's initial fasting blood sugar level was 140 mg/dL, and he showed polydipsic and polyuric conditions more than 8 L urine/day. Despite the hyperglycemia controlled with metformin and diet, his symptoms persisted. Further investigations including water deprivation test confirmed the coexisting CDI of unknown origin, and the patient's symptoms including an intense thirst were markedly improved by desmopressin nasal spray (10 µg/day). The possibility of a common origin of CDI and type 2 DM is raised in a review of the few relevant adult cases in the literature.

  2. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus complications among palestinians with T2DM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abu Al-Halaweh, Ahmad; Davidovitch, Nadav; Almdal, Thomas Peter

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the prevalence of microvascular and macrovascular complications of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) among Palestinians. METHODS: 1308 diagnosed T2DM attending four main Primary Health Care Clinics on the Southern West Bank of Palestine examined by a Mobile Diabetes Clinic team. All diabetes...

  3. Management of newly diagnosed type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) in children and adolescents.

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    Copeland, Kenneth C; Silverstein, Janet; Moore, Kelly R; Prazar, Greg E; Raymer, Terry; Shiffman, Richard N; Springer, Shelley C; Thaker, Vidhu V; Anderson, Meaghan; Spann, Stephen J; Flinn, Susan K

    2013-02-01

    Over the past 3 decades, the prevalence of childhood obesity has increased dramatically in North America, ushering in a variety of health problems, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which previously was not typically seen until much later in life. The rapid emergence of childhood T2DM poses challenges to many physicians who find themselves generally ill-equipped to treat adult diseases encountered in children. This clinical practice guideline was developed to provide evidence-based recommendations on managing 10- to 18-year-old patients in whom T2DM has been diagnosed. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) convened a Subcommittee on Management of T2DM in Children and Adolescents with the support of the American Diabetes Association, the Pediatric Endocrine Society, the American Academy of Family Physicians, and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (formerly the American Dietetic Association). These groups collaborated to develop an evidence report that served as a major source of information for these practice guideline recommendations. The guideline emphasizes the use of management modalities that have been shown to affect clinical outcomes in this pediatric population. Recommendations are made for situations in which either insulin or metformin is the preferred first-line treatment of children and adolescents with T2DM. The recommendations suggest integrating lifestyle modifications (ie, diet and exercise) in concert with medication rather than as an isolated initial treatment approach. Guidelines for frequency of monitoring hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and finger-stick blood glucose (BG) concentrations are presented. Decisions were made on the basis of a systematic grading of the quality of evidence and strength of recommendation. The clinical practice guideline underwent peer review before it was approved by the AAP. This clinical practice guideline is not intended to replace clinical judgment or establish a protocol for the care of all children with T2

  4. The Nile Rat (Arvicanthis niloticus as a Superior Carbohydrate-Sensitive Model for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM

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    Avinaash Subramaniam

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a multifactorial disease involving complex genetic and environmental interactions. No single animal model has so far mirrored all the characteristics or complications of diabetes in humans. Since this disease represents a chronic nutritional insult based on a diet bearing a high glycemic load, the ideal model should recapitulate the underlying dietary issues. Most rodent models have three shortcomings: (1 they are genetically or chemically modified to produce diabetes; (2 unlike humans, most require high-fat feeding; (3 and they take too long to develop diabetes. By contrast, Nile rats develop diabetes rapidly (8–10 weeks with high-carbohydrate (hiCHO diets, similar to humans, and are protected by high fat (with low glycemic load intake. This review describes diabetes progression in the Nile rat, including various aspects of breeding, feeding, and handling for best experimental outcomes. The diabetes is characterized by a striking genetic permissiveness influencing hyperphagia and hyperinsulinemia; random blood glucose is the best index of disease progression; and kidney failure with chronic morbidity and death are outcomes, all of which mimic uncontrolled T2DM in humans. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, also described in diabetic humans, results from hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation associated with rising blood glucose. Protection is afforded by low glycemic load diets rich in certain fibers or polyphenols. Accordingly, the Nile rat provides a unique opportunity to identify the nutritional factors and underlying genetic and molecular mechanisms that characterize human T2DM.

  5. Frequency of retinopathy in newly diagnosed patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus (dm)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, K.A.; Kamran, S.M.; Qureshi, M.N.

    2015-01-01

    This study was to determine the frequency of retinopathy in newly diagnosed type-II Diabetics. Study Design: Cross sectional descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: It was conducted at Department of medicine, Military Hospital (MH), Rawalpindi from 1st Jan 2012 to 30 Jun 2012. Material and Methods: We included 200 patients of type-II DM from both genders diagnosed in last 03 months from both outdoor and indoor departments in the age range of 40 to 70 years by consecutive sampling. All patients having co morbidities affecting retina were excluded. Informed written consent was taken before enrollment. Formal approval of the study was taken from hospital ethical committee. Ocular Fundoscopy was performed with WelchAllyn Ophthalmoscope (REF 11470) as per standard protocols and both eyes were examined. The grade of DR (diabetic retinopathy) awarded as per highest changes in any of the two eyes. All tests were carried by a single person to avoid inter-observer variations. Findings of ocular fundoscopy were confirmed by ophthalmologist. All data was analyzed by using SPSS version 11. Results: Out of 200 subjects 63.5% were male and 36.5% were female. Age ranged from 40 to 70 years with mean age of 51.05+ 6.910 years. 29 (14.5%) subjects had Diabetic retinopathy. Out of 29 patients, 24 (82.8%) had preproliferative and 5 (17.2%) had proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Conclusion: A significant proportion of diabetic patients have retinopathy at the time of diagnosis of their disease which is more common in males and with increasing age. It is recommended to thoroughly screen the newly diagnosed diabetics for early detection of diabetic retinopathy and its management involving early referral to eye specialist. (author)

  6. Hypertension and related risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: During the study it was found out that 61.2%of DM patients had hypertension, 56.4% obesity, 33.5% hypercholesterolemia and 38.9% hypertriglyceredemia. In the study, hypertension was associated with age, sex, type of DM, body mass index (BMI) and hypertriglyceredemia. Conclusion: The study found out that ...

  7. Uncontrolled Hypertension and Its Determinants in Patients with Concomitant Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM in Rural South Africa.

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    Oladele Vincent Adeniyi

    Full Text Available Paucity of data on the prevalence, treatment and control of hypertension in individuals living with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in the rural communities of South Africa may undermine efforts to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular diseases. This study examines the socio-demographic and clinical determinants of uncontrolled hypertension among individuals living with T2DM in the rural communities of Mthatha, South Africa.This cross-sectional study involved a serially selected sample of 265 individuals living with T2DM and hypertension at Mthatha General Hospital, Mthatha. Uncontrolled hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure greater than or equal to 140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure greater than or equal to 90mmHg in accordance with the Eight Joint National Committee Report (JNC 8 (2014. We performed univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to identify the significant determinants of uncontrolled hypertension.Of the total participants (n = 265, the prevalence of uncontrolled hypertension was 75.5% (n = 200. In univariate analysis of all participants, male gender (p = 0.029, age≥65 years (p = 0.016, unemployed status (p<0.0001, excessive alcohol intake (p = 0.005 and consumption of western-type diet (p<0.0001 were positively associated with uncontrolled hypertension. In multivariate logistic regression (LR method analysis, unemployed status (p<0.0001, excessive alcohol intake (p = 0.007 and consumption of western-type diet (p<0.0001 were independently and significantly associated with uncontrolled hypertension. There is significant association between increasing number and classes of anti-hypertensive drugs and uncontrolled hypertension (p = 0.05 and 0.02, respectively.Prevalence of uncontrolled hypertension was high in individuals with concomitant hypertension and T2DM in the study population. Male sex, aging, clinic inertia, unemployed status and nutritional transitions are the most

  8. Lifestyle measures for primary prevention of T2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM

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    M S A Mansur Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, the number of adults with diabetes was 285 million in 2010 and it will be 439 million in the year 2030. Although the genes we inherit may influence the development of type 2 diabetes, they take a back seat to behavioral and lifestyle factors. Data from the Nurses’ Health Study suggest that 90 percent of type 2 diabetes in women can be attributed to five such factors: excess weight, lack of exercise, a less-than-healthy diet, smoking, and abstaining from alcohol. From this data it can be said that up to 90 percent of diabetes prevention is possible with behavioral and lifestyle factors intervention. This intervention should be given to the people through primary prevention. The purpose of primary prevention is to limit the number of people who develop a disease by controlling causes and risk factors for the disease.

  9. [Effect of metabolic uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (DM) on the resistance index of renal (IR) Interlobar arteries assessed with pulsed Doppler].

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    Muraira-Cárdenas, Luis Cesar; Barrios-Pérez, Martín

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic degenerative disease characterized by elevated hyperglycemia, triggering a series of processes and culminating in chronic, uncontrolled, cellular and vascular damage in different organs. To assess whether the elevated glycosylated hemoglobin, microalbuminuria, and the time evolution of more than 10 years of diabetes mellitus are associated with elevated resistance index of the interlobar renal arteries assessed with pulsed Doppler in patients with metabolic uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. Transversal-analytical, observational, prospective study that included diabetic patients attending UMAE abdominal ultrasound in 25 of IMSS, from October 15, 2014 to November 15, 2014, which was performed for pulsed Doppler index resistance of vascular interlobar renal arteries and was collected from electronic medical records: age, sex, glycated hemoglobin, and microalbuminuria. The association between metabolic uncontrolled diabetes mellitus was analyzed with the elevation of resistance index by χ(2) test or Fisher, being significant with a value of p diabetes were examined, with an average age of 52.3 ± 14.2 years, 41 were older than 50 years (65.0%), 26 with hypertension (41.2%), 32 with higher levels of glycated hemoglobin 7 (50.8%), 35 with normoalbuminuria (55.6%), 28 with microalbuminuria (44.4%), and 39 with a time evolution of diabetes of more than 10 years (61.9%). We observed a statistically significant difference between microalbuminuria and increased duration of diabetes mellitus with high resistance index. The alterations in renal microvasculature conditioned by the occurrence of microalbuminuria in diabetic nephropathy and the duration of diabetes are strongly associated with higher resistance index.

  10. RENOPROTECTION IN DIABETES MELLITUS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diabetes mellitus (DM) (Table I).1 In response to the increasing threat ... formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS); generation of advanced glycation ... There is sufficient evidence that certain therapies protect the kidneys from the long-term ...

  11. Efectividad de la educación diabetológica sistematizada en niños que debutan con Diabetes Mellitus tipo 1 Effectiveness of systematic diabetes education in children diagnosed with Diabetes Mellitus type 1 (DM1

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    Manuel Montilla-Pérez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo principal: Evaluar la efectividad de la educación diabetológica sistematizada en niños que debutan con DM1 en el Hospital Universitario de Fuenlabrada (HUF, Madrid. Metodología: Estudio comparativo entre dos muestras de niños de 0 a 14 años que debutaron con DM1 antes y después de haberse instaurado un programa de educación diabetológica Se estudió a 34 niños adscritos al HUF que ingresaron por debut de DM1. Para evaluar la efectividad del programa se realizaron análisis bivariados con el fin de encontrar relaciones entre la educación diabetológica sistematizada y las variables: días de ingreso, frecuentación a urgencias por complicaciones, permisos domiciliarios y HbA1c a los 3 y 6 meses del alta. Resultados principales: Los días de ingreso se redujeron 3 días (pObjective: Evaluate the effectiveness of systematic diabetes education in children diagnosed with Diabetes Mellitus type 1 (DM1, in Fuenlabrada University Hospital (Madrid. Methods: A comparative study of two sample groups of children aged 0 to 14 diagnosed with DM1, before and after having been inducted into the diabetes education program. 34 children, admitted with a DM1 diagnosis, both with and without ketoacidosis, and assigned to Fuenlabrada University Hospital were studied. To evaluate the effectiveness of the program, bivariable analysis was undertaken with the objective of finding relationships between systematic diabetes education and the variables. Those variables were; admission days, frequency of visits to the emergency ward due to complications, and permissions to go home and HbA1c at 3 to 6 months after discharge from the hospital. Results: The admission days was reduced 3 days (p< 0.001, the complications within the 6 month after discharge decreased 41,2% and the permissions to go home increased 23,6% (p=0.001. Conclusions: The results of the study suggest the effectiveness of systematic diabetes education.

  12. The Expression of Activating Receptor Gene of Natural Killer Cells (KLRC3 in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM

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    Dalia Shalaby

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To identify the possible role of natural killer (NK cells in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM through studying the expression of the KLRC3 gene, which encodes the NK cell activating receptor (NKG2E. Methods: This study was conducted at Alexandria University Children’s Hospital from April to October 2015. The study was conducted with 30 newly diagnosed T1DM patients (15 males and 15 females, aged 7–13 years (10.6±1.8 years and 20 non-diabetic subjects served as age- and sex-matched controls. The patients were further sub-divided into two groups; group I included patients who first presented with classical symptoms of DM (polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia without diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA and group II included patients who first presented with DKA. The expression of the KLRC3 gene was measured in each group using the real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: KLRC3 gene expression was significantly downregulated in T1DM cases compared to healthy controls (p = 0.001. Expression was more downregulated in group I patients (p = 0.008. Moreover, there was higher mean value of glycated heamoglobin and lower C-peptide levels in group I than group II. Serum pancreatic amylase showed no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusions: KLRC3 gene expression was downregulated in patients with T1DM compared to healthy controls. Downregulation of expression was greater in DKA patients compared to those who presented with classical symptoms. Expression of KLRC3 in T1DM might play a role in the pathogenesis of T1DM and could be a predictor of its severity.

  13. The Expression of Activating Receptor Gene of Natural Killer Cells (KLRC3) in Patients with 
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM)

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    Shalaby, Dalia; Saied, Marwa; Khater, Doaa; Abou Zeid, Abla

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To identify the possible role of natural killer (NK) cells in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) through studying the expression of the KLRC3 gene, which encodes the NK cell activating receptor (NKG2E). Methods This study was conducted at Alexandria University Children’s Hospital from April to October 2015. The study was conducted with 30 newly diagnosed T1DM patients (15 males and 15 females), aged 7–13 years (10.6±1.8 years) and 20 non-diabetic subjects served as age- and sex-matched controls. The patients were further sub-divided into two groups; group I included patients who first presented with classical symptoms of DM (polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia) without diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA) and group II included patients who first presented with DKA. The expression of the KLRC3 gene was measured in each group using the real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results KLRC3 gene expression was significantly downregulated in T1DM cases compared to healthy controls (p = 0.001). Expression was more downregulated in group I patients (p = 0.008). Moreover, there was higher mean value of glycated heamoglobin and lower C-peptide levels in group I than group II. Serum pancreatic amylase showed no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusions KLRC3 gene expression was downregulated in patients with T1DM compared to healthy controls. Downregulation of expression was greater in DKA patients compared to those who presented with classical symptoms. Expression of KLRC3 in T1DM might play a role in the pathogenesis of T1DM and could be a predictor of its severity. PMID:28804584

  14. Phenotypical aspects of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY diabetes) in comparison with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in children and adolescents: experience from a large multicentre database.

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    Schober, E; Rami, B; Grabert, M; Thon, A; Kapellen, Th; Reinehr, Th; Holl, R W

    2009-05-01

    To analyse and compare clinical characteristics in young patients with maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We conducted an observational investigation using the DPV-Wiss database containing clinical data on 40 757 diabetic patients MODY (0.83%); 562 patients were diagnosed as T2DM (1.4%). In 20% of cases, the diagnosis of MODY was based on clinical findings only. Of the 272 subjects where genetic testing was available, 3% did not carry mutations in the three examined MODY genes. Glucokinase-MODY was commoner than HNF1A-MODY and HNF4A-MODY. Age at diagnosis was younger in MODY patients. The body mass index of T2DM was significantly higher compared with all MODY subgroups. Macrovascular risk factors such as dyslipidaemia and hypertension were commoner in T2DM, but 23% of MODY patients had dyslipidaemia and 10% hypertension. Glycaemic control was within the therapeutic target (HbA(1c) MODY and 70% of T2DM patients. The prevalence of MODY in children and adolescents in Germany and Austria is lower than that of T2DM in this age group. Dyslipidaemia and hypertension are less frequent in MODY compared with T2DM patients, but do occur.

  15. Construction of a multisite DataLink using electronic health records for the identification, surveillance, prevention, and management of diabetes mellitus: the SUPREME-DM project.

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    Nichols, Gregory A; Desai, Jay; Elston Lafata, Jennifer; Lawrence, Jean M; O'Connor, Patrick J; Pathak, Ram D; Raebel, Marsha A; Reid, Robert J; Selby, Joseph V; Silverman, Barbara G; Steiner, John F; Stewart, W F; Vupputuri, Suma; Waitzfelder, Beth

    2012-01-01

    Electronic health record (EHR) data enhance opportunities for conducting surveillance of diabetes. The objective of this study was to identify the number of people with diabetes from a diabetes DataLink developed as part of the SUPREME-DM (SUrveillance, PREvention, and ManagEment of Diabetes Mellitus) project, a consortium of 11 integrated health systems that use comprehensive EHR data for research. We identified all members of 11 health care systems who had any enrollment from January 2005 through December 2009. For these members, we searched inpatient and outpatient diagnosis codes, laboratory test results, and pharmaceutical dispensings from January 2000 through December 2009 to create indicator variables that could potentially identify a person with diabetes. Using this information, we estimated the number of people with diabetes and among them, the number of incident cases, defined as indication of diabetes after at least 2 years of continuous health system enrollment. The 11 health systems contributed 15,765,529 unique members, of whom 1,085,947 (6.9%) met 1 or more study criteria for diabetes. The nonstandardized proportion meeting study criteria for diabetes ranged from 4.2% to 12.4% across sites. Most members with diabetes (88%) met multiple criteria. Of the members with diabetes, 428,349 (39.4%) were incident cases. The SUPREME-DM DataLink is a unique resource that provides an opportunity to conduct comparative effectiveness research, epidemiologic surveillance including longitudinal analyses, and population-based care management studies of people with diabetes. It also provides a useful data source for pragmatic clinical trials of prevention or treatment interventions.

  16. Construction of a Multisite DataLink Using Electronic Health Records for the Identification, Surveillance, Prevention, and Management of Diabetes Mellitus: The SUPREME-DM Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Jay; Elston Lafata, Jennifer; Lawrence, Jean M.; O’Connor, Patrick J.; Pathak, Ram D.; Raebel, Marsha A.; Reid, Robert J.; Selby, Joseph V.; Silverman, Barbara G.; Steiner, John F.; Stewart, W.F.; Vupputuri, Suma; Waitzfelder, Beth

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Electronic health record (EHR) data enhance opportunities for conducting surveillance of diabetes. The objective of this study was to identify the number of people with diabetes from a diabetes DataLink developed as part of the SUPREME-DM (SUrveillance, PREvention, and ManagEment of Diabetes Mellitus) project, a consortium of 11 integrated health systems that use comprehensive EHR data for research. Methods We identified all members of 11 health care systems who had any enrollment from January 2005 through December 2009. For these members, we searched inpatient and outpatient diagnosis codes, laboratory test results, and pharmaceutical dispensings from January 2000 through December 2009 to create indicator variables that could potentially identify a person with diabetes. Using this information, we estimated the number of people with diabetes and among them, the number of incident cases, defined as indication of diabetes after at least 2 years of continuous health system enrollment. Results The 11 health systems contributed 15,765,529 unique members, of whom 1,085,947 (6.9%) met 1 or more study criteria for diabetes. The nonstandardized proportion meeting study criteria for diabetes ranged from 4.2% to 12.4% across sites. Most members with diabetes (88%) met multiple criteria. Of the members with diabetes, 428,349 (39.4%) were incident cases. Conclusion The SUPREME-DM DataLink is a unique resource that provides an opportunity to conduct comparative effectiveness research, epidemiologic surveillance including longitudinal analyses, and population-based care management studies of people with diabetes. It also provides a useful data source for pragmatic clinical trials of prevention or treatment interventions. PMID:22677160

  17. Effect of garlic supplement in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM): a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

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    Wang, Juan; Zhang, Xiuming; Lan, Haili; Wang, Weijia

    2017-01-01

    The present study was designed to systematically evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of garlic supplement in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and China National Knowledge Internet (CNKI) were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) by using the terms garlic and T2DM up to April 2017. The quality of included RCTs was assessed by the Cochrane tool of risk of bias, and data of outcomes were pooled by REVMAN 5.3. Clinical factors were handled by meta-regression and subgroup analysis, and risk of publication bias was explored by inverted funnel plots. Nine RCTs involving 768 T2DM patients were included in the meta-analysis, and the dose of daily garlic (allicin) supplement ranged from 0.05g to 1.5g. A significant reduction in the level of fasting blood glucose in 1-2 weeks [SMD = -1.61, 95%CI (-2.89, -0.32)], 3-4 weeks [SMD = -2.87, 95%CI (-4.74, -1.00)], 12 weeks [SMD = -9.57, 95%CI (-12.39, -6.75)], and 24 weeks [SMD = -21.02, 95%CI (-32.47, -9.57)] was achieved in favour of the garlic group rather than the control group. Significantly decreased fructosamine and glycated hemoglobin (both in 12 and 24 weeks) were also found in garlic group. Meanwhile, significantly improved blood liquids of total cholesterol [SMD = -1.93, 95%CI (-2.98, -0.87), 3-4 weeks], high density lipoprotein [SMD = -0.41, 95%CI (-0.83, -0.00), 3-4 weeks] and low density lipoprotein [SMD = -3.47, 95%CI (-5.76, -1.18), 12 weeks] were confirmed after garlic administration. There was no significant difference in complications. Current data confirms that garlic supplement plays positive and sustained roles in blood glucose, total cholesterol, and high/low density lipoprotein regulation in the management of T2DM. Abbreviations : T2DM = type 2 diabetes mellitus; RCT = randomized controlled trial; SMD = standard mean difference; CI = confidence interval; FBG = fasting blood glucose; HbA1c = glycated

  18. Levels of 25(OHD3, IL-2, and C-peptide in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM Receiving Vitamin D3 Supplementation

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    Tjahyo Suryanto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM has become a health problem in many countries. T1DM is the consequence of autoimmune destruction process of β cells. There was relationship between vitamin D deficiency with T1DM. The destruction process was caused by an imbalance of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. One of the pro-inflammatory cytokines is IL-2. C-peptide examination to see the function of beta cells due to destruction of pancreatic beta cell. Administration of vitamin D3 supplementation still cause controversy and give varying results. This randomized clinical trial was conducted to determine the levels of 25(OHD3, IL-2, and C-peptide in people with T1DM who received vitamin D3 supplementation. The subjects were 26 children with T1DM, divided into K1 group (received vitamin D3 supplementation and K2 group (received placebo. The results showed higher levels of 25(OHD3 in the K1 group and statistically found a significant difference (p = 0.00. Higher levels of IL-2 and lower C-peptide were obtained in the K1 group and no statistically significant differences were found (p = 0.76 and p= 0.26. The insignificant relationship and the negative correlation were found between 25(OHD3 and IL-2 (p = 0.71; r = - 0.12, 25(OHD3 and C-peptide (p = 0.59; r = -0.16, also levels of IL-2 and C-peptide (p = 0.13; r = -0.44 in children with type 1 diabetes who received vitamin D3 supplementation. From this study can be concluded that administration vitamin D3 supplementation in patients with T1DM can increase levels 25(OHD3 significantly. This increase has not significantly lowered levels of IL-2 and increased levels of C-peptide. However, there was an absolute decrease in the rate of slower C-peptide in the supplemented group than in the placebo group.

  19. Policaptil Gel Retard significantly reduces body mass index and hyperinsulinism and may decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in obese children and adolescents with family history of obesity and T2DM.

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    Stagi, Stefano; Lapi, Elisabetta; Seminara, Salvatore; Pelosi, Paola; Del Greco, Paolo; Capirchio, Laura; Strano, Massimo; Giglio, Sabrina; Chiarelli, Francesco; de Martino, Maurizio

    2015-02-15

    Treatments for childhood obesity are critically needed because of the risk of developing co-morbidities, although the interventions are frequently time-consuming, frustrating, difficult, and expensive. We conducted a longitudinal, randomised, clinical study, based on a per protocol analysis, on 133 obese children and adolescents (n = 69 males and 64 females; median age, 11.3 years) with family history of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The patients were divided into three arms: Arm A (n = 53 patients), Arm B (n = 45 patients), and Arm C (n = 35 patients) patients were treated with a low-glycaemic-index (LGI) diet and Policaptil Gel Retard, only a LGI diet, or only an energy-restricted diet (ERD), respectively. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and the Matsuda, insulinogenic and disposition indexes were calculated at T0 and after 1 year (T1). At T1, the BMI-SD scores were significantly reduced from 2.32 to 1.80 (p 1) in Arm A and from 2.23 to 1.99 (p 13.2% to 5.6%; p 1) and B (p 1) and B (p obese children and adolescents with family history of obesity and T2DM.

  20. Diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahdi, M.; Gerdes, V. E.; Hoekstra, J. B.; Meesters, E. W.

    2012-01-01

    Currently there are over 740,000 patients with diabetes mellitus in the Netherlands, and this number will increase further in the coming years. Approximately 90% of patients has type 2 diabetes, a metabolic disorder that is often associated with obesity, hypertension and increased cholesterol

  1. Five-Year Effectiveness of the Multidisciplinary Risk Assessment and Management Programme-Diabetes Mellitus (RAMP-DM) on Diabetes-Related Complications and Health Service Uses-A Population-Based and Propensity-Matched Cohort Study.

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    Wan, Eric Yuk Fai; Fung, Colman Siu Cheung; Jiao, Fang Fang; Yu, Esther Yee Tak; Chin, Weng Yee; Fong, Daniel Yee Tak; Wong, Carlos King Ho; Chan, Anca Ka Chun; Chan, Karina Hiu Yen; Kwok, Ruby Lai Ping; Lam, Cindy Lo Kuen

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the 5-year effectiveness of a multidisciplinary Risk Assessment and Management Programme-Diabetes Mellitus (RAMP-DM) in primary care patients with type 2 diabetes. A 5-year prospective cohort study was conducted with 121,584 Chinese primary care patients with type 2 DM who were recruited between August 2009 and June 2011. Missing data were dealt with multiple imputations. After excluding patients with prior diabetes mellitus (DM)-related complications and one-to-one propensity score matching on all patient characteristics, 26,718 RAMP-DM participants and 26,718 matched usual care patients were followed up for a median time of 4.5 years. The effect of RAMP-DM on nine DM-related complications and all-cause mortality were evaluated using Cox regressions. The first incidence for each event was used for all models. Health service use was analyzed using negative binomial regressions. Subgroup analyses on different patient characteristics were performed. The cumulative incidence of all events (DM-related complications and all-cause mortality) was 23.2% in the RAMP-DM group and 43.6% in the usual care group. RAMP-DM led to significantly greater reductions in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by 56.6% (95% CI 54.5, 58.6), microvascular complications by 11.9% (95% CI 7.0, 16.6), mortality by 66.1% (95% CI 64.3, 67.9), specialist attendance by 35.0% (95% CI 33.6, 36.4), emergency attendance by 41.2% (95% CI 39.8, 42.5), and hospitalizations by 58.5% (95% CI 57.2, 59.7). Patients with low baseline CVD risks benefitted the most from RAMP-DM, which decreased CVD and mortality risk by 60.4% (95% CI 51.8, 67.5) and 83.6% (95% CI 79.3, 87.0), respectively. This naturalistic study highlighted the importance of early optimal DM control and risk factor management by risk stratification and multidisciplinary, protocol-driven, chronic disease model care to delay disease progression and prevent complications. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  2. Osteoporosis and diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Montagnani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM and osteoporotic fractures are major causes of mortality and morbidity in older subjects. Recent reports have revealed close association between fracture risk and DM types 1 and 2 (DM1 and DM2, respectively. Aim of this review is to highlight the importance of these diseases in the elderly and examine certain etiopathogenetic aspects of DM associated osteoporosis, which could be useful in management of diabetic patients. Materials and methods: We searched the Embase and PubMed databases using diabetes, osteoporosis, and bone mineral density (BMD as search terms and 1989-2009 as publication dates. Discussion: The risk of fractures seems to be increased in both types of DM although DM2 seems to be associated with normal-high BMDs compared with the normal population. This apparent paradox could reflect greater bone frailty in diabetic patients that are unrelated to adipose tissue, hyperinsulinemia, deposition of advanced glycosylation end products in collagen, reduced serum IGF-1 levels, hypercalciuria, renal failure, microangiopathy, and/or inflammation. Diabetic patients’ propensity to fall and multiple comorbidities might also explain their higher fracture rates. The effects of drugs that inhibit bone resorption in diabetic patients are probably similar to those obtained in nondiabetics although there is little information on this issue. In general, effective treatment of diabetes has positive effects on bone metabolism. Metformin acts directly on bone tissue, reducing AGE accumulation, and insulin has direct effects on osteoclast activity. In contrast, the thiazolidinediones seem to have negative effects since they orient mesenchymal progenitor cell differentiation toward adipose rather than bone tissue. Incretin therapy is a newer approach that appears to modify interactions between nutrition and bone turnover (e.g., postprandial suppression of bone resorption. Conclusions: Better understanding of how

  3. A khorasan wheat-based replacement diet improves risk profile of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM): a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Anne; Dinu, Monica; Cesari, Francesca; Gori, Anna Maria; Fiorillo, Claudia; Becatti, Matteo; Casini, Alessandro; Marcucci, Rossella; Benedettelli, Stefano; Sofi, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether a replacement diet with products made with organic ancient khorasan wheat could provide additive protective effects in reducing glucose, insulin, lipid and inflammatory risk factors, and in restoring blood redox balance in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients compared to diet with product made with modern organic wheat. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded crossover trial with two intervention phases on 21 T2DM patients (14 females, 7 males). The participants were assigned to consume products (bread, pasta, crackers and biscuits) made using semi-whole flour from organic wheat that was either from ancient khorasan wheat or modern control wheat for 8 weeks in a random order. An 8-week washout period was implemented between the interventions. Laboratory analyses were performed both at the beginning and at the end of each intervention phase. The metabolic risk profile improved only after the khorasan intervention period, as measured by a reduction in total and LDL cholesterol (mean reduction: -3.7 and -3.4 %, respectively), insulin (-16.3 %) and blood glucose (-9.1 %). Similarly, there was a significant reduction in circulating levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interleukin-1ra, and a significant increase of total antioxidant capacity (+6.3 %). No significant differences from baseline were noted after the modern control wheat intervention phase. The change (from pre- to post-intervention) between the two intervention arms was significantly different (p diet with ancient khorasan wheat consumption provided additive protection in reducing total and LDL cholesterol, insulin, blood glucose, ROS production, and some inflammatory risk factors, which are all key factors warranting of control in secondary prevention of T2DM compared to a diet with products made with modern wheat.

  4. Diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Skiadopoulos, Dionysios

    2013-01-01

    This theses on Diabetes Mellitus aims at giving an insight at various aspects of this chronic disease and the risk factors that lead to it; the varius ways it develops in the human body; the old and new approaches to treatment, both from a pharmacological and a non- pharmacologiacal point of view; ways to prevent and to manage the diabetes complications; how to improve the live of the diabetic patients who are faced with not only physical but also psychological problems; statistical data from...

  5. Monocyte functions in diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, C; Almdal, T; Bennedsen, J

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the functions of monocytes obtained from 14 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) compared with those of monocytes from healthy individuals. It was found that the total number of circulating monocytes in the 14 diabetic patients was lower than that from...... for the elucidation of concomitant infections in diabetic patients are discussed....

  6. Diabetes mellitus in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Chentli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM frequency is a growing problem worldwide, because of long life expectancy and life style modifications. In old age (≥60–65 years old, DM is becoming an alarming public health problem in developed and even in developing countries as for some authors one from two old persons are diabetic or prediabetic and for others 8 from 10 old persons have some dysglycemia. DM complications and co-morbidities are more frequent in old diabetics compared to their young counterparts. The most frequent are cardiovascular diseases due to old age and to precocious atherosclerosis specific to DM and the most bothersome are visual and cognitive impairments, especially Alzheimer disease and other kind of dementia. Alzheimer disease seems to share the same risk factors as DM, which means insulin resistance due to lack of physical activity and eating disorders. Visual and physical handicaps, depression, and memory troubles are a barrier to care for DM treatment. For this, old diabetics are now classified into two main categories as fit and independent old people able to take any available medication, exactly as their young or middle age counterparts, and fragile or frail persons for whom physical activity, healthy diet, and medical treatment should be individualized according to the presence or lack of cognitive impairment and other co-morbidities. In the last category, the fundamental rule is "go slowly and individualize" to avoid interaction with poly medicated elder persons and fatal iatrogenic hypoglycemias in those treated with sulfonylureas or insulin.

  7. Influence of CSN1S2 protein from Caprine milk Etawah Breed (EB) on histology of microglial cells in rat (Rattus norvegicus) Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rika, Margareth; Fatchiyah

    2017-11-01

    Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a degenerative disease that causes an imbalance in the metabolism. The aim of this research is to determine the influences of CSN1S2 on the structure of microglial cells in T2DM. Rats (Rattus norvegicus) were divided into eight groups of treatment with looping three times each between treatment groups (CM) Control. The control is given a milk treatment with doses of 375 mg/kg (CM375), 750 mg/kg (CM750), and 1500 mg/kg (CM1500), T2DM (DMK), and T2DM with CSN1S2 375 mg/kg dose (DM375), 750mg/kg (DM750), and 1500 mg/kg (DM1500). The animal model T2DM was induced by a high-fat diet in the form of feed followed by injection of STZ (dose of 25 mg/kg of animal treatment) and treatment of CSN1S2 for 28 days. Brain organs were taken and analysed in histopathology stained by Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and observed using Olympus BX53. Based on the results, it was concluded that CSN1S2 protein is influential for induction of microglial cell proliferation in animal models of T2DM, as immunity responds to the inflammatory condition in T2DM.

  8. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-related single nucleotide polymorphisms rs10738760 and rs6921438 are not associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR in Slovenian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifet Terzić

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR is a complication of diabetes characterized by vascular permeability, increased tissue ischemia, and angiogenesis. One of the most important proteins involved in angiogenesis is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, also known as VEGFA. A previous study demonstrated that two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, rs6921438 and rs10738760, account for nearly half the variation in circulating VEGF levels. The aim of our study was to assess the association between rs6921438 and rs10738760 and DR in Slovenian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. This case-control study enrolled 1037 unrelated Slovenian individuals (Caucasians with T2DM. DR group included 415 T2DM patients with DR, while control group included 622 T2DM patients with no clinical signs of DR. The clinical and laboratory data were obtained from the medical records of the patients. The genotyping of rs6921438 and rs10738760 SNPs was carried out with real-time PCR assays. Significant differences were observed between patients with DR and controls in the duration of diabetes (p < 0.001, insulin therapy (p < 0.001, glycated hemoglobin (p = 0.001, body mass index (p = 0.002, total cholesterol (p = 0.002, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p < 0.001. However, we did not observe significant differences in the genotype and allele distribution of the two SNPs, between DR and control group (p < 0.05. Logistic regression analysis showed that rs6921438 and rs10738760 were not independent genetic risk factors for DR in the co-dominant model adjusted for the above-mentioned clinical and laboratory data. In conclusion, VEGF-related SNPs rs10738760 and rs6921438 are not associated with DR in our group of Slovenian patients (Caucasians with T2DM.

  9. Diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Junichiro; Ito, Chikako

    1992-01-01

    It is believed that the pancreas is low sensitive to radiation. In this chapter, the effect of radiation on the pancreas is discussed in the light of the radiosensitivity of the pancreas in animal experiments and the occurrence of diabetes mellitus in A-bomb survivors. In an experiment on the whole-body irradiation with 800 rad using rats, a decrease in insulin secretion itself has not been noted, although a decrease in blood insulin and an increase in glucagon were associated with transiently increased blood glucose. In other studies, there was neither histologically nor endocrinologically abnormal findings due to several hundreds rad of radiation in the acute stage. For A-bomb survivors, blood levels of insulin tended to be slightly increased in the 40-59 age group of A-bomb survivors exposed at ≤1.5 km than those exposed at ≥3.0 km; and in the other age groups, there was no tendency for decreased blood levels of insulin. The ABCC-RERF Adult Health Study data (1958-1960) has revealed that there is no statistically significant correlation between the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and A-bomb radiation; nor has this been noted in any other study. Neither the prevalence of diabetes mellitus nor its complications is found to be independent upon distance from the hypocenter. (N.K.)

  10. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and its relationship with glomerular filtration rate and other risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Spain. DM2 HOPE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Maribel; Cos, Francesc Xavier; Álvarez-Guisasola, Fernando; Fuster, Eva

    2017-09-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness in working age population in developed countries. Albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) have been considered biomarkers for DR. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of DR and its relationship with eGFR and other risk factors in type 2 diabetic patients (T2DM) in Spain. A cross-sectional and descriptive study has been performed in 14,266 patients. Clinical records were reviewed. Demographic data, clinical diagnoses, clinical variables, and results from laboratory tests were recorded. Prevalence rates of DR were calculated. Logistic regression analysis was applied to assess predictors of the DR presence/absence. DR prevalence was 14.9%, being more prevalent in women (p = 0.0087) and in older patients (p < 0.0001). Duration of disease (OR = 5.3, IC95% = 3.8-7.4; p < 0.0001), eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m 2 (OR = 2.0, IC95% 1.6-2.4; p < 0.0001), levels of HbA1c ≥ 7% (OR = 1.9, IC95% = 1.5-2.3; p < 0.0001) and high blood pressure (OR = 1.6, IC95% = 1.2-2.1; p = 0.0032) were associated with higher risk of DR. DR was also more frequent in patients taking insulin (32,6% vs. 10,2%; p < 0.0001). Around one in seven patients with T2DM has DR after nine years since diagnosis. Time since diagnosis, insulin therapy, cardiovascular profile, and renal dysfunction are associated with DR in patients with T2DM in Spain.

  11. Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeFronzo, Ralph A; Ferrannini, Ele; Groop, Leif

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an expanding global health problem, closely linked to the epidemic of obesity. Individuals with T2DM are at high risk for both microvascular complications (including retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy) and macrovascular complications (such as cardiovascular...... that multiple antidiabetic agents, used in combination, will be required to maintain normoglycaemia. The treatment must not only be effective and safe but also improve the quality of life. Several novel medications are in development, but the greatest need is for agents that enhance insulin sensitivity, halt...

  12. Increased expression of TLR9 associated with pro-inflammatory S100A8 and IL-8 in diabetic wounds could lead to unresolved inflammation in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) cases with impaired wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kanhaiya; Agrawal, Neeraj K; Gupta, Sanjeev K; Sinha, Pratima; Singh, Kiran

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by persistent hyperglycemia which causes a chain of abrupt biochemical and physiological changes. Immune dys-regulation is the hallmark of T2DM that could contribute to prolonged inflammation causing transformation of wounds into non-healing chronic ulcers. Toll like receptor -9 (TLR9) is a major receptor involved in innate immune regulation. TLR9 activation induces release of pro-inflammatory molecules like S100A8 and interleukin-8 (IL-8) by myeloid cells causing migration of myeloid cells to the site of inflammation. We hypothesized that pro-inflammatory S100A8 and IL-8 proteins could cause persistent inflammation in chronic wounds like diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) and may contribute to impaired wound healing in T2DM patients. Expression of TLR9 and its downstream effector molecules S100A8, and IL-8 were analyzed in chronic diabetic wound and non-diabetic control wound tissue samples by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), quantitative RT-PCR, western blot and immunofluorescence. CD11b(+)CD33(+) myeloid cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. TLR9 message and protein were higher in diabetic wounds compared to control wounds (p=0.03, t=2.21 for TLR9 mRNA; p=diabetic wounds (p=0.003, t=3.1 for S100A8 mRNA; p=0.04, t=2.04 for IL-8). CD11b(+) CD33(+) myeloid cells were decreased in T2DM as compared to non-diabetic controls (p=0.001, t=3.6). DFU subjects had higher levels of CD11b(+) CD33(+) myeloid cells as compared to non-DFU T2DM control (p=0.003, t=2.8). Infection in the wound microenvironment could be the cause of increase in CD11b(+)CD33(+) myeloid cells in DFU (p=0.03, t=2.5). The up-regulation of myeloid cell-derived pro-inflammatory molecules S100A8 and IL-8 in combination with lower levels of CD11b(+) CD33(+) myeloid cells may cause the impairment of wound healing in T2DM subjects leading to chronic ulcers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prescribing Pattern of Oral Antihyperglycaemic Drugs, Rationality and Adherence to American Diabetes Association (ADA) Treatment Guidelines among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sudhaa; Tandon, Vishal R; Roshi; Mahajan, Annil

    2016-01-01

    Oral antihyperglycaemic prescription trends keep on changing and thus the drug prescription trend study may prove to be powerful exploratory tool for health care providers. To investigate trends in prescriptions of oral antihyperglycaemic drugs (OHDs) among postmenopausal women suffering from T2DM in India and evaluate the rationality and adherence to ADA treatment guidelines. An observational, cross-sectional descriptive prescription audit (n=500) was carried. Postmenopausal women were interviewed in their local language using pre-tested pre validated questionnaire after verbal informed consent at a teaching tertiary care hospital of north India. Oral antihyperglycaemic drugs (OHDs) drugs were categorized as per the pharmacological classification. Adherence to available clinical practice guidelines/recommendations issued under American Diabetes Association (ADA) 2015 Guidelines as well as rationality of these prescriptions were assessed using WHO Guide to Good Prescribing. Mean age of the study population was 58.14±12.86. Mean duration since menopause was 5.3 years and of T2DM was 9.5 years. A 93.4% of the prescriptions had only OHDs whereas 6.6% of the prescriptions had various insulin preprations + OHDs (pADA treatment guidelines was observed.

  14. Sexual dysfunction in women with diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Kristensen, Ellids; Giraldi, Annamaria

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an increasing health concern throughout the world. DM is categorized as either type 1 (DM-1) or type 2 (DM-2), where DM-1 represents a lack of insulin production, and DM-2 is characterized by a relative lack of insulin (i.e., decreased sensitivity to the effect of insulin...... for such variation in findings across studies and uses these explanations as the basis for a discussion of differences between men's and women's sexuality....

  15. A retrospective analysis of a societal experiment among the Danish population suggests that exposure to extra doses of vitamin A during fetal development may lower type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk later in life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Amélie; Ängquist, Lars; Jacobsen, Ramune

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency has been associated with impaired fetal pancreatic development and increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In 1962, mandatory margarine fortification with vitamin A was increased by 25 % in Denmark. We aimed to determine whether offspring of mothers who......) and those with lower prenatal exposure (born 1 September 1959–31 December 1960) were followed up with regard to development of T2DM before 31 December 2012 in the Danish National Diabetes Registry and National Patient Register. Logistic and Cox regression analyses were performed to determine the risk of T2...... had been exposed to the extra vitamin A from fortification during pregnancy had a lower risk of developing T2DM in adult life, compared with offspring of mothers exposed to less vitamin A. Individuals from birth cohorts with the higher prenatal vitamin A exposure (born 1 December 1962–31 March 1964...

  16. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and its relationship with glomerular filtration rate and other risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Spain. DM2 HOPE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel López

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Around one in seven patients with T2DM has DR after nine years since diagnosis. Time since diagnosis, insulin therapy, cardiovascular profile, and renal dysfunction are associated with DR in patients with T2DM in Spain.

  17. Diabetes Mellitus and Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Durmuş

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a condition of bone fragility resulting from micro-architectural deterioration and decreased bone mass. Studies on the presence of a generalized osteoporosis related to diabetes mellitus (DM are few and controversial. Factors associated with osteoporosis diabetes in which may account for the patogenesis of diabetic bone loss have been studied. This article will review the relevant litarature relating to diabetes and osteoporosis including cellular and animal models. These studies include vascular and neuropathic mechanism, poor glisemic control, abnormalities of calcium and vitamin D metabolism and hypercalciuria with secondary increase in parathyroid hormone secretion, the role of insülin and insülin like growth factor I. It appears that there is a great deal of variability in the bone mineral density and fracture rates in both type I and type II DM. This may reflect multiple factors such as the population, age, duration of diabetes and insülin use. There is need for further longitudinal studies, including the incidence and risk factors for osteoporosis in DM.

  18. Alcoholism and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Jeong Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic use of alcohol is considered to be a potential risk factor for the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, which causes insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction that is a prerequisite for the development of diabetes. However, alcohol consumption in diabetes has been controversial and more detailed information on the diabetogenic impact of alcohol seems warranted. Diabetes, especially T2DM, causes dysregulation of various metabolic processes, which includes a defect in the insulin-mediated glucose function of adipocytes, and an impaired insulin action in the liver. In addition, neurobiological profiles of alcoholism are linked to the effects of a disruption of glucose homeostasis and of insulin resistance, which are affected by altered appetite that regulates the peptides and neurotrophic factors. Since conditions, which precede the onset of diabetes that are associated with alcoholism is one of the crucial public problems, researches in efforts to prevent and treat diabetes with alcohol dependence, receives special clinical interest. Therefore, the purpose of this mini-review is to provide the recent progress and current theories in the interplay between alcoholism and diabetes. Further, the purpose of this study also includes summarizing the pathophysiological mechanisms in the neurobiology of alcoholism.

  19. Calcium homeostasis in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Changhwan; Kang, Ji-Houn; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2017-09-30

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is becoming a lifestyle-related pandemic disease. Diabetic patients frequently develop electrolyte disorders, especially diabetic ketoacidosis or nonketotic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome. Such patients show characteristic potassium, magnesium, phosphate, and calcium depletion. In this review, we discuss a homeostatic mechanism that links calcium and DM. We also provide a synthesis of the evidence in favor or against this linking mechanism by presenting recent clinical indications, mainly from veterinary research. There are consistent results supporting the use of calcium and vitamin D supplementation to reduce the risk of DM. Clinical trials support a marginal reduction in circulating lipids, and some meta-analyses support an increase in insulin sensitivity, following vitamin D supplementation. This review provides an overview of the calcium and vitamin D disturbances occurring in DM and describes the underlying mechanisms. Such elucidation will help indicate potential pathophysiology-based precautionary and therapeutic approaches and contribute to lowering the incidence of DM.

  20. Diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus (WS 331-2011)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Medical Service Specialty Standard Committee of Mi

    2012-01-01

    The criteria provide the screening and diagnosis for gestational diabetes mellitus and it should be applied to all medical institutions and health care practitioners for gestational diabetes mellitus (DM) diagnosis in China.

  1. Osteoporosis and diabetes mellitus: a modern viewpoint

    OpenAIRE

    N A Molitvoslovova; G R Galstyan

    2013-01-01

    The interrelationship between diabetes mellitus (DM) and bone disorder is still not fully understood. Whereas type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is characterized by decrease in bone density, a number of studies failed to discover such phenomenon in type 2 diabetes mel- litus (T2DM), – or even uncovered some evidence for higher density, as measured against groups of control. At the very same time both types of DM are associated with elevated risk of bone fracture, which points out at some deterio...

  2. Pharmacogenomics in diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Kaixin; Pedersen, Helle Krogh; Dawed, Adem Y.

    2016-01-01

    . We highlight mechanistic insights from the study of adverse effects and the efficacy of antidiabetic drugs. The identification of extreme sulfonylurea sensitivity in patients with diabetes mellitus owing to heterozygous mutations in HNF1A represents a clear example of how pharmacogenetics can direct...... patient care. However, pharmacogenomic studies of response to antidiabetic drugs in T2DM has yet to be translated into clinical practice, although some moderate genetic effects have now been described that merit follow-up in trials in which patients are selected according to genotype. We also discuss how...

  3. Physical activity and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskarabhatla, Krishna V; Birrer, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM), a metabolic syndrome consisting of two main groups, type 1 and 2, is characterized by absolute or relative insulin deficiency or insulin resistance. Individuals with DM take part in physical activity for health promotion, disease management, and or recreational or competitive sports. Several studies confirm the beneficial role of physical activity in favorably altering the prognosis of DM. Exercise as a therapeutic strategy has potential risks, too. Hence, sports medicine physicians caring for athletes with diabetes have several important responsibilities. Diabetic education; pre-participatory evaluation for vascular, neurological, retinal or joint disease; diabetic status and control; promotion of blood glucose self-monitoring; and individualized dietary, medication, and physical activity plans are essential to achieve safe and enjoyable outcomes in individuals with diabetes who are embarking on physical activity.

  4. Effects of the Multidisciplinary Risk Assessment and Management Program for Patients with Diabetes Mellitus (RAMP-DM) on biomedical outcomes, observed cardiovascular events and cardiovascular risks in primary care: a longitudinal comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Fang Fang; Fung, Colman Siu Cheung; Wong, Carlos King Ho; Wan, Yuk Fai; Dai, Daisy; Kwok, Ruby; Lam, Cindy Lo Kuen

    2014-08-21

    To assess whether the Multidisciplinary Risk Assessment and Management Program for Patients with Diabetes Mellitus (RAMP-DM) led to improvements in biomedical outcomes, observed cardiovascular events and predicted cardiovascular risks after 12-month intervention in the primary care setting. A random sample of 1,248 people with diabetes enrolled to RAMP-DM for at least 12 months was selected and 1,248 people with diabetes under the usual primary care were matched by age, sex, and HbA1c level at baseline as the usual care group. Biomedical and cardiovascular outcomes were measured at baseline and at 12-month after the enrollment. Difference-in-differences approach was employed to measure the effect of RAMP-DM on the changes in biomedical outcomes, proportion of subjects reaching treatment targets, observed and predicted cardiovascular risks. Compared to the usual care group, RAMP-DM group had lower cardiovascular events incidence (1.21% vs 2.89%, P = 0.003), and net decrease in HbA1c (-0.20%, P risks (total CVD risk, -2.06%, P risk, -1.43%, P risk, -0.71%, P risks. The RAMP-DM resulted in greater improvements in HbA1c and reduction in observed and predicted cardiovascular risks at 12 months follow-up, which indicated a risk-stratification multidisciplinary intervention was an effective strategy for managing Chinese people with diabetes in the primary care setting. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02034695.

  5. Osteoporosis and diabetes mellitus: a modern viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Alexandrovna Molitvoslovova

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The interrelationship between diabetes mellitus (DM and bone disorder is still not fully understood. Whereas type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is characterized by decrease in bone density, a number of studies failed to discover such phenomenon in type 2 diabetes mel- litus (T2DM, ? or even uncovered some evidence for higher density, as measured against groups of control. At the very same time both types of DM are associated with elevated risk of bone fracture, which points out at some deterioration of bone tissue ?quality?. Current article discusses various mechanisms of bone damaging in DM, as well as possible causes for difference in the severity of bone disorders, known between the two types of DM. Regarding higher risk of foot fracture in patients with DM, we specifically address distal polyneuropathy as a plausible factor for bone tissue deterioration.

  6. A retrospective analysis of a societal experiment among the Danish population suggests that exposure to extra doses of vitamin A during fetal development may lower type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk later in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Amélie; Ängquist, Lars; Jacobsen, Ramune; Vaag, Allan; Heitmann, Berit L

    2017-03-01

    Vitamin A deficiency has been associated with impaired fetal pancreatic development and increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In 1962, mandatory margarine fortification with vitamin A was increased by 25 % in Denmark. We aimed to determine whether offspring of mothers who had been exposed to the extra vitamin A from fortification during pregnancy had a lower risk of developing T2DM in adult life, compared with offspring of mothers exposed to less vitamin A. Individuals from birth cohorts with the higher prenatal vitamin A exposure (born 1 December 1962-31 March 1964) and those with lower prenatal exposure (born 1 September 1959-31 December 1960) were followed up with regard to development of T2DM before 31 December 2012 in the Danish National Diabetes Registry and National Patient Register. Logistic and Cox regression analyses were performed to determine the risk of T2DM by vitamin A exposure level. A total of 193 803 individuals were followed up until midlife. Our results showed that individuals exposed prenatally to extra vitamin A from fortified margarine had a lower risk of developing T2DM than those exposed to lower levels: OR 0·88; 95 % CI 0·81, 0·95, P=0·001, after adjustment for sex. Fetal exposure to small, extra amounts of vitamin A from food fortification may reduce the risk of T2DM. These results may have public health relevance, as they demonstrate that one of the most costly chronic diseases may be prevented by food fortification - a simple and affordable public health nutrition intervention.

  7. Ocular complications of diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nihat Sayin; Necip Kara; Gokhan Pekel

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a important health problemthat induces ernestful complications and it causessignificant morbidity owing to specific microvascularcomplications such as, retinopathy, nephropathy andneuropathy, and macrovascular complications such as,ischaemic heart disease, and peripheral vasculopathy.It can affect children, young people and adults and isbecoming more common. Ocular complications associatedwith DM are progressive and rapidly becoming theworld's most significant cause of morbidity and arepreventable with early detection and timely treatment.This review provides an overview of five main ocularcomplications associated with DM, diabetic retinopathyand papillopathy, cataract, glaucoma, and ocular surfacediseases.

  8. Mortality patterns among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Ilorin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-01-15

    Jan 15, 2010 ... Keywords: causes of death; longevity; type 2 diabetes; Nigeria. Introduction. The incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) has continued ... accounted for the majority of deaths from diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).

  9. Periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrato, Carlos Antonio; Tarzia, Olinda; Jovanovič, Lois; Chinellato, Luiz Eduardo Montenegro

    2013-01-01

    Periodontal disease (PD) is one of the most commonly known human chronic disorders. The relationship between PD and several systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus (DM) has been increasingly recognized over the past decades. The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with knowledge concerning the relationship between PD and DM. Many articles have been published in the English and Portuguese literature over the last 50 years examining the relationship between these two chronic diseases. Data interpretation is often confounded by varying definitions of DM, PD and different clinical criteria were applied to determine the prevalence, extent and severity of PD, levels of glycemic control and diabetes-related complications. This paper provides a broad overview of the predominant findings from research conducted using the BBO (Bibliografia Brasileira de Odontologia), MEDLINE, LILACS and PubMed for Controlled Trials databases, in English and Portuguese languages published from 1960 to October 2012. Primary research reports on investigations of relationships between DM/DM control, PD/periodontal treatment and PD/DM/diabetes-related complications identified relevant papers and meta-analyses published in this period. This paper describes the relationship between PD and DM and answers the following questions: 1- The effect of DM on PD, 2- The effects of glycemic control on PD and 3- The effects of PD on glycemic control and on diabetes-related complications. The scientific evidence reviewed supports diabetes having an adverse effect on periodontal health and PD having an adverse effect on glycemic control and on diabetes-related complications. Further research is needed to clarify these relationships and larger, prospective, controlled trials with ethnically diverse populations are warranted to establish that treating PD can positively influence glycemic control and possibly reduce the burden of diabetes-related complications.

  10. Periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    NEGRATO, Carlos Antonio; TARZIA, Olinda; JOVANOVIČ, Lois; CHINELLATO, Luiz Eduardo Montenegro

    2013-01-01

    Periodontal disease (PD) is one of the most commonly known human chronic disorders. The relationship between PD and several systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus (DM) has been increasingly recognized over the past decades. Objective: The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with knowledge concerning the relationship between PD and DM. Many articles have been published in the english and Portuguese literature over the last 50 years examining the relationship between these two chronic diseases. Data interpretation is often confounded by varying definitions of DM, PD and different clinical criteria were applied to determine the prevalence, extent and severity of PD, levels of glycemic control and diabetes-related complications. Methods: This paper provides a broad overview of the predominant findings from research conducted using the BBO (Bibliografia Brasileira de Odontologia), MEDLINE, LILACS and PubMed for Controlled Trials databases, in english and Portuguese languages published from 1960 to October 2012. Primary research reports on investigations of relationships between DM/DM control, PD/periodontal treatment and PD/DM/diabetes-related complications identified relevant papers and meta-analyses published in this period. Results: This paper describes the relationship between PD and DM and answers the following questions: 1- The effect of DM on PD, 2- The effects of glycemic control on PD and 3- The effects of PD on glycemic control and on diabetes-related complications. Conclusions: The scientific evidence reviewed supports diabetes having an adverse effect on periodontal health and PD having an adverse effect on glycemic control and on diabetes-related complications. Further research is needed to clarify these relationships and larger, prospective, controlled trials with ethnically diverse populations are warranted to establish that treating PD can positively influence glycemic control and possibly reduce the burden of diabetes

  11. Study on the relationship between blood glucose level and insulin resistance as pancreatic β-cell function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Xiaoping; Huang Huijian; Xu Ning; Huang Haibo; Zhuang Huiqin; Su Cainu; Hao Zhiqiang; He Haoming

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between serum immuno-reactive peptide (IR-CP) and true insulin (TI), pro-insulin (PI), immuno-reactive insulin (IR-I) contents and to calculate the insulin resistance (Home-IR), β-cell function (Homa-β) from these data in DM2 patients with different levels of fasting blood sugar (FBG<8.8 and ≥8.8 mmol/L). Methods: Fasting and 2h post- prandial serum TI, PI (with ELISA), IR-I, IR-CP (with RIA) contents were measured in 73 patients with DM2 and Homa-IR, Homa-β were calculated with Homa-model from these data, The 73 DM2 patients were of two groups: Group A, FBG≥8.8 mmol/L, n=46; Group B, FBG<8.8 mmol/L, n=27. Results: The Homa-β calculated from either TI or IR-I was significantly different in Group A and Group B patients. Homa-IR calculated from IR-I was also significantly different in the two groups of patients; however, Homa-IR calculated from TI was about the same in the two groups. relationship between C peptide and TI, PI, IR-I was less obvious in Group A than that in Group B. Both fasting and 2h TI in Group B were significantly higher than those in Group A; the other parameters tested were not much different. Conclusion: The higher FBG levels developed in Group A patients were mostly due to deterioration of β-cell function rather than increase of insulin resistance, as Homa-IR calculated from TI was not much different in the two groups. Further study on the management of diabetes should lay more emphasis on the change of β-cell function. (authors)

  12. Superimposed effect of ovariectomy on type 2 diabetes mellitus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Minerva K. Fahmy

    Aim: The present study investigated the overlaid effect of ovariectomy on T2DM and the possible under- ... Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a progressive chronic meta- ..... worsened glucose metabolism disturbance (as indicated by.

  13. Effects of Clear Kefir on Biomolecular Aspects of Glycemic Status of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM Patients in Bandung, West Java [Study on Human Blood Glucose, c Peptide and Insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judiono J

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM triggers an excessive reaction of free-radicals. It increases reactive oxygen species and reduces antioxidants status as well as the β cell damage. Clear kefir was used for DM therapies, however it limited biomolecular exploration of its bioactive roles. Research aimed to investigate the effects of clear kefir on the biomolecular nature of the glycemic status of T2DM in Bandung. Methods: The randomized pretest-posttest control group was conducted by 106 T2DM patients. Research was done in several hospitals in Bandung and Cimahi, West Java from 2012–2013. Samples were divided randomly into three groups: (1 T2DM with HbA1c 7 fed standard diet and supplemented 200 ml/day by clear kefir, (3 T2DM with HbA1c was fed a standard diet as a control group. Dose response was obtained from a preeliminary vivo study, and then converted to human dosage by year 2011. Intervention was effectively done for 30 days. HbA1c was measured by HPLC. Fasting blood glucose (FBG and Postprandial blood glucose levels (PBG were measured by enzymes levels. C Peptide and insulin were measured by Elisa. Data was analyzed by a statictics programme by significance p<0,05. Study was approved by ethic committee. Results : HbA1c was significantly reduced in delta level (p<0.01 and FBG (p<0.015 among kefir groups. PBG was not significantly reduced among groups. C-Peptide was significantly increased in delta level, except in control group (p<0.014. Insulin was reduced significantly, except in control group (p<0.003. Conclusions : Supplementation of clear kefir reduced blood glucose levels (HbA1c, FBG, PBG and increased c-peptide. Clear kefir’s biomolecular mechanisms and chemistry characterization is a challenge for future studies.

  14. Genetics of monegenic forms of diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Leonidovna Kuraeva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is universally recognized that autoimmune type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM is not the only form of this disease in children. Increasingly more children andadolescents present with DM2, MODY, and rarer syndromal forms of DM. The actual prevalence of DM other than DM1 in children and adolescentsis unknown but may be estimated at 10%. Despite rare occurrence of genetic syndromes, they collectively account for almost 5% of DM cases amongchildren. The rapid upgrowth of molecular biology opens up a wide range of possibilities for designating various symptom complexes as nosologically selfconsistentforms. New genetic syndromes associated with DM are annually described. It is important both to adequately identify and treat manifestationsand complications of these syndromes in children and to provide relevant medico-genetic counseling and recommendations to the parents.Key words: non-immune diabetes mellitus, MODY, Wolfram syndrome, neonatal, syndromal forms

  15. Genetics of monegenic forms of diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Leonidovna Kuraeva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is universally recognized that autoimmune type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM is not the only form of this disease in children. Increasingly more children and adolescents present with DM2, MODY, and rarer syndromal forms of DM. The actual prevalence of DM other than DM1 in children and adolescents is unknown but may be estimated at 10%. Despite rare occurrence of genetic syndromes, they collectively account for almost 5% of DM cases among children. The rapid upgrowth of molecular biology opens up a wide range of possibilities for designating various symptom complexes as nosologically selfconsistent forms. New genetic syndromes associated with DM are annually described. It is important both to adequately identify and treat manifestations and complications of these syndromes in children and to provide relevant medico-genetic counseling and recommendations to the parents. Key words: non-immune diabetes mellitus, MODY, Wolfram syndrome, neonatal, syndromal forms

  16. Sulphonylurea monotherapy for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Bianca; Schroll, Jeppe B; Lund, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing health problem worldwide. Whether sulphonylureas show better, equal or worse therapeutic effects in comparison with other antidiabetic interventions for patients with T2DM remains controversial.......Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing health problem worldwide. Whether sulphonylureas show better, equal or worse therapeutic effects in comparison with other antidiabetic interventions for patients with T2DM remains controversial....

  17. Kost, diabetes mellitus og parodontal inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian; Holmstrup, Palle

    2016-01-01

    Nærværende artikel præsenterer en oversigt over den foreliggende viden om kostens betydning for diabetes mellitus (DM) og parodontal inflammation. Der er i vekslende grad dokumentation for sammenhænge mellem kost, DM og marginal parodontitis (MP). Med baggrund i forøget viden om kostens betydning...

  18. Kost, diabetes mellitus og parodontal inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian; Holmstrup, Palle

    2017-01-01

    Nærværende artikel præsenterer en oversigt over den foreliggende viden om kostens betydning for diabetes mellitus (DM) og parodontal inflammation. Der er i vekslende grad dokumentation for sammenhænge mellem kost, DM og marginal parodontitis (MP). Med baggrund i forøget viden om kostens betydning...

  19. Misconceptions about diabetes mellitus among adult male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major public health problem in Saudi Arabia. Its prevalence is on the increase, being as high as 23.7% among adult citizens. Misconceptions and wrong beliefs regarding DM and its management among those attending primary health care centres (PHCCs) can result in poor control, ...

  20. Antioxidant plants and diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Nasri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM is increasing rapidly and it is expected to increase by 2030. Other than currently available therapeutic options, there are a lot of herbal medicines, which have been recommended for its treatment. Herbal medicines have long been used for the treatment of DM because of the advantage usually having no or less side-effects. Most of these plants have antioxidant activities and hence, prevent or treat hard curable diseases, other than having the property of combating the toxicity of toxic or other drugs. In this review other than presenting new findings of DM, the plants, which are used and have been evaluated scientifically for the treatment of DM are introduced.

  1. Changing trends in diabetes mellitus in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khalifeh, A

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify any changing trends in the incidence and caesarean section (CS) rate of pre-gestational diabetes mellitus (DM) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) over a 10- year period, between 1999 and 2008. Although the incidence of pre-gestational DM has not significantly changed over the course of the last 10 years, there is an obvious rising trend in the incidence of GDM. Despite an increase in the overall CS rate during this time period, a parallel increase in the CS rate has not been observed among women whose pregnancies are complicated either by gestational or by pre-gestational diabetes (PGD).

  2. Association of ABO blood groups with diabetes mellitus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... We studied the association of ABO blood groups with DM type 2. Patients and methodology: It was ... dent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM or type 2), characterized by elevated insulin levels ... diabetic ketoacidosis. Sample size was ...

  3. Intermittent Vagal Nerve Block for Improvements in Obesity, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: 2-Year Results of the VBLOC DM2 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikora, Scott A; Toouli, James; Herrera, Miguel F; Kulseng, Bård; Brancatisano, Roy; Kow, Lilian; Pantoja, Juan P; Johnsen, Gjermund; Brancatisano, Anthony; Tweden, Katherine S; Knudson, Mark B; Billington, Charles J; Billingto, Charles J

    2016-05-01

    One-year results of the VBLOC DM2 study found that intermittent vagal blocking (VBLOC therapy) was safe among subjects with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and led to significant weight loss and improvements in glycemic parameters and cardiovascular risk factors. Longer-term data are needed to determine whether the results are sustained. VBLOC DM2 is a prospective, observational study of 28 subjects with T2DM and body mass index (BMI) between 30 and 40 kg/m(2) to assess mid-term safety and weight loss and improvements in glycemic parameters, and other cardiovascular risk factors with VBLOC therapy. Continuous outcome variables are reported using mixed models. At 24 months, the mean percentage of excess weight loss was 22% (95% CI, 15 to 28, p Fasting plasma glucose declined by 15 mg/dL (95% CI, 0 to 29, p = 0.0564) on average from 151 mg/dL at baseline. Among subjects who were hypertensive at baseline, systolic blood pressure declined 10 mmHg (95% CI, 2 to 19, p = 0.02), diastolic blood pressure declined by 6 mmHg (95% CI, 0 to 12, p = 0.0423), and mean arterial pressure declined 7 mmHg (95% CI, 2 to 13, p = 0.014). Waist circumference was significantly reduced by 7 cm (95% CI, 4 to 10, p obesity and glycemic control were largely sustained after 2 years of treatment with VBLOC therapy with a well-tolerated risk profile.

  4. Uveitis and diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothova, A.; Meenken, C.; Michels, R. P.; Kijlstra, A.

    1988-01-01

    Of 340 patients with anterior uveitis, 20 (6%) had diabetes mellitus. This is significantly higher than the prevalence of 1.4% in the normal Dutch population (P less than .001). Of 128 patients with idiopathic anterior uveitis, 16 (12.5%) had diabetes mellitus compared to only four (1.9%) of 212

  5. Mechanisms of diabetes mellitus-induced bone fragility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Napoli, Nicola; Chandran, Manju; Pierroz, Dominique D

    2017-01-01

    The risk of fragility fractures is increased in patients with either type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Although BMD is decreased in T1DM, BMD in T2DM is often normal or even slightly elevated compared with an age-matched control population. However, in both T1DM...... and T2DM, bone turnover is decreased and the bone material properties and microstructure of bone are altered; the latter particularly so when microvascular complications are present. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying bone fragility in diabetes mellitus are complex, and include hyperglycaemia......-induced hypoglycaemia, certain antidiabetic medications with a direct effect on bone and mineral metabolism (such as thiazolidinediones), as well as an increased propensity for falls, all contribute to the increased fracture risk in patients with diabetes mellitus....

  6. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension and albuminuria in rural Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jon B; Thomsen, Jakúp A; Rossing, Peter

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess albuminuria in rural Zambia among patients with diabetes mellitus only (DM group), hypertension only (HTN group) and patients with combined DM and HTN (DM/HTN group). METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted at St. Francis Hospital in the Eastern province of Zambia...... of DM or HTN. RESULTS: A total of 193 participants were included (DM group: n = 33; HTN group: n = 92; DM/HTN group: n = 68). The participants in the DM group used insulin more frequently as diabetes medication than the DM/HTN group (P

  7. Pengendalian status gizi, kadar glukosa darah, dan tekanan darah melalui terapi gizi medis pada pasien diabetes mellitus (DM tipe 2 rawat jalan di RSU Mataram NTB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaema Suhaema

    2010-11-01

    Conclusion: Intake of nutrient, nutrition status, blood glucose level and blood pressure of type 2 DM patients that got MNT was more controllable than of those that got conventional nutrition counseling.

  8. Spices in the management of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xinyan; Lim, Joseph; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2017-02-15

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) remains a major health care problem worldwide both in developing and developed countries. Many factors, including age, obesity, sex, and diet, are involved in the etiology of DM. Nowadays, drug and dietetic therapies are the two major approaches used for prevention and control of DM. Compared to drug therapy, a resurgence of interest in using diet to manage and treat DM has emerged in recent years. Conventional dietary methods to treat DM include the use of culinary herbs and/or spices. Spices have long been known for their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-diabetic properties. This review explores the anti-diabetic properties of commonly used spices, such as cinnamon, ginger, turmeric, and cumin, and the use of these spices for prevention and management of diabetes and associated complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Tuğrul, Armağan

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension is a major worldwide health problem. Its prevalence is 1.5-2 times higher in diabetic population than that in non-diabetic individuals. Its pathogenesis depends on diabetic nephropathy in type 1, whereas may be multifactorial in type 2 diabetes mellitus. In diabetics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors are most widely preferred in the treatment of hypertension because of their numerous desirable effects. In this article, the most recent data are presented on the relationshi...

  10. Does 'Honeymoon period' exist in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM Ashrafuzzaman

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Temporary remission of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM occurs following initiation of insulin therapy. This period of temporary remission without insulin therapy is called ‘honeymoon period’. But no such temporary remission usually occurs in type 2 diabetes (T2DM. We report here two cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus where such honey moon period was observed. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2008; 2(2: 67-69

  11. The effect of Liuwei Dihuang decoction on PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in liver of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Bing; Wu, Qinxuan; Zeng, Chengxi; Zhang, Jiani; Cao, Luting; Xiao, Zizeng; Yang, Menglin

    2016-11-04

    Liuwei Dihaung decoction (LWDHT) is a well-known classic traditional Chinese medicine formula, consists of six herbs including Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch.(family: Scrophulariaceae), Cornus officinalis Sieb.(family: Cornaceae), Dioscorea opposite Thunb.(family: Dioscoreaceae), Alisma orientale(G. Samuelsson) Juz (family: Alismataceae), Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf (family: Polyporaceae) and Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews (family: Paeoniaceae). It has been used in the treatment of many types of diseases with signs of deficiency of Yin in the kidneys in China clinically. This study is aimed at investigating the effect of Liuwei dihuang decoction on PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in liver of T2DM rats with insulin resistance. T2DM model was induced in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats by high sugar and high fat diets combined with small dose of streptozocin (STZ) injection. The successful T2DM rats were randomly allocated three group--vehicle group, positive control group and Liuwei Dihuang decoction group. After 12-weeks treatment with distilled water, rosiglitazone and LWDHT by intragastric administration respectively, the rats were put to death in batches. The variance of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and fasting insulin (FINS) in serum were determined, the pathological changes of each rats' liver were observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, the expression of insulin receptor substrate 2(IRS2), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinas B (Akt) involving the canonical PI3K/Akt signaling pathway were detected by Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (RT-PCR), and the expression level of IRS2, PI3K, Akt protein and phosphorylated IRS2, PI3K, Akt protein were evaluated by Western Blot. All the data were analyzed by SPSS 17.0. Four weeks of treatment with LWDHT could significantly decrease the level of FBG and FINS in serum, improve the cellular morphology of liver, kidney, pancreas tissue, and the expression of IRS2, PI3K, Akt mRNA and phosphorylated IRS2, PI3K, Akt

  12. Emerging technologies to achieve oral delivery of GLP-1 and GLP-1 analogs for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengwu Ma

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 is a gastrointestinal (GI peptide hormone that stimulates insulin secretion, gene expression and β-cell proliferation, representing a potentially novel and promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of T2DM. DPP-IV-resistant, long-acting GLP-1 analogs have already been approved by FDA as injectable drugs for treating patients with T2DM. Oral delivery of therapeutic peptides and proteins would be preferred owing to advantages of lower cost, ease of administration and greater patient adherence. However, oral delivery of proteins can be affected by rapid enzymatic degradation in the GI tract and poor penetration across the intestinal membrane, which may require amounts that exceed practical consideration. Various production strategies have been explored to overcome challenges associated with the oral delivery of therapeutic peptides and proteins. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the current state of progress made towards the oral delivery of GLP-1 and its analogs in the treatment of T2DM, with special emphasis on the development of plant and food-grade bacterial delivery systems. Recently, genetically engineered plants and food-grade bacteria have been increasingly explored as novel carrier systems for the oral delivery of peptide and protein drugs. These have a largely unexplored potential to serve both as an expression system and as a delivery vehicle for clinically relevant, cost effective therapeutics. As such, they hold great promise for human biopharmaceuticals and novel therapies against various diseases.

  13. Antioxidant Enzymes Activity in Patients with Peripheral Vascular Disease, with and without Presence of Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Jandrić-Balen, Marica; Božikov, Veljko; Bistrović, Dragica; Jandrić, Ivan; Božikov, Jadranka; Romić, Željo; Balen, Ivan

    2003-01-01

    The study evaluated antioxidant status in patients with peripheral vascular disease (PVD), with and without concomitant diabetes mellitus (DM). 211 participants were divided into standardized 4 groups: patients with PVD and DM (PVD+DM+), patients with PVD without DM (PVD+DM-), patients without PVD with DM (PVD-DM+) and patients without PVD and DM (PVD-DM-). The diagnosis of PVD was established by Doppler sonography analysis, including determination of the ankle brachial index (...

  14. Early insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a progressive disease characterised by beta cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. Beta cell dysfunction progresses to beta cell failure. Many patients with T2DM are managed with oral agents until complications develop. 'Clinical inertia' in T2DM, defined as lack of initiation or ...

  15. Retrograde ejaculation and sexual dysfunction in men with diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedder, J; Kaspersen, Maja Døvling; Brandslund, I

    2013-01-01

    Retrograde ejaculation (RE) and erectile dysfunction may be caused by diabetes mellitus (DM), but the prevalence of RE among DM patients is unknown. A prospective, blinded case-control study comparing men with DM with matched controls according to RE and erectile dysfunction was performed. Twenty...

  16. Diabetes mellitus among tuberculosis patients: a cross sectional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The co-occurrence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and tuberculosis (TB) is largely associated with high frequency of morbidity. Objective: To determine the prevalence of DM among TB patients and describe the socio-demographic and behavioral factors associated with TB-DM co-occurrence . Methods: We enrolled ...

  17. Teenage pregnancy in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, David; Doyle, Aoife; Firth, Richard G R; Byrne, Maria M; Daly, Sean; Mc Auliffe, Fionnuala; Foley, Micheal; Coulter-Smith, Samuel; Kinsley, Brendan T

    2010-03-01

    Younger maternal age at delivery has been linked to adverse reproductive outcomes. Pregnancy complicated by type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Optimising diabetic glycaemic control prior to pregnancy is known to reduce the rate of congenital abnormalities and improve pregnancy outcomes. Teenage pregnancies are not usually planned and little data exist on teenage pregnancy complicated by T1DM. We sought to identify the glycemic control achieved in teenage pregnancy with T1DM and to clarify if there is an associated increase in adverse pregnancy outcomes compared to those seen in older women with T1DM. We compared outcomes in 18 teenagers (TG) with 582 older women with T1DM (CON) from 1995-2007. TG booked to the combined diabetes-obstetrical service at a median gestational age of 11 weeks (range 6-22) compared to 7 weeks in CON (range 4-40, p teenage women with T1DM book later to specialised care and have worse glycaemic control in pregnancy compared to older women with T1DM. This group also appear to be more insulin resistant than older women in early pregnancy. Our data would suggest that teenagers with type 1 diabetes mellitus may constitute a high-risk group for adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  18. Low dose radiation and diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hongguang; Gong Shouliang; Cai Lu

    2006-01-01

    Induction of hormesis and adaptive response by low-dose radiatio (LDR) has been extensively indicated. It's mechanism may be related with the protective protein and antioxidants that LDR induced, which take effects on the diabetes mellitus (DM) and other diseases. This review will summarize available dat with emphasis on three points: the preventive effect of LDR on the development of diabetes, the therapeutic effect of LDR on diabetic complications and possible mechanisms by which LDR prevents the development of diabetes and diabetic complications. Finally, the perspectives of LDR clinical, diabetes-related implication are discussed. (authors)

  19. Risk factors for feline diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slingerland, L.I.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830917

    2008-01-01

    The chapters of Part I of the thesis describe the development of techniques that can be used in the assessment of risk factors for the development of diabetes mellitus (DM) in cats. The hyperglycemic glucose clamp (HGC) was developed for use in conscious cats, equipped with arterial catheters for

  20. Prothrombotic changes in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Olivier; Jesel, Laurence; Abbas, Malak; Morel, Nicolas

    2013-07-01

    Although our understanding of vascular pathology has greatly improved in recent years, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the enhanced thrombotic propensity in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remain incompletely characterized. Detrimental interactions between activated vascular cells (i.e., platelets, leukocytes, endothelial cells) and the vulnerable atheromatous plaque are a major determinant of the increased atherothrombotic burden in T2DM patients. Endothelial damage and accelerated senescence, impairment of the endothelial progenitor cell repair system, plaque neovascularization and inflammation, decreased clearance of detrimental molecules within the plaque, and increased expression of matrix metalloproteinases may collectively contribute to intraplaque hemorrhage and subsequent rupture. Notably, recent data demonstrates the central importance of the tissue factor-microparticle-mediated pathway in diabetic thrombophilia and cardiovascular complications. Acting as detrimental amplifiers of various biological responses (including thrombogenicity and plaque remodeling), microparticles have also emerged as a key marker of global vascular damage in T2DM patients. Available evidence suggests that targeting the tissue factor-microparticle pathway may be a promising approach for reducing the burden of the atherosclerotic complications of diabetes. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  1. Early insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an insulin-insufficient disease characterised ... complications.1–4 Early in the onset of T2DM there is development of relative insulin ..... position statement of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and.

  2. Prevalence and awareness of type 2 diabetes mellitus among adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) prevalence is increasing rapidly around the world. This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence and awareness of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mwanza city, Tanzania. A multistage random sampling technique was used to obtain representative subjects. Information ...

  3. Tuberculous pyomyositis in a patient with diabetes Mellitus | Edo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pyomyositis is a pyogenic infection of the skeletal muscle which can cause significant morbidity and mortality if not properly treated. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a well recognized risk factor for development of pyomyositis. The usual causative pathogen of pyomyositis in diabetes mellitus is Staphylococcus aureus. Tuberculous ...

  4. Metabolic effect of Gum Arabic (Acacia Senegal in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM: Randomized, placebo controlled double blind trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Babiker

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:Gum Arabic (GA is a water-soluble dietary fiber, indigestible to both humans and animals. While GAcurrently does not have any therapeutic potential, ithas nutritional value andsome effects on metabolism of glucose and lipids. Thus, theaim of this study is to assess the effect of GA on serum level of glucose, lipids,and the BMI in type 2 diabetic patients.Methods:A double-blind randomizedplacebo-controlled trial took placeat Academy Charity Teaching Hospital (ACTH in Sudan between August 2014 to February 2015. The trial was conducted intype 2 diabetic patients who were on regular oral hypoglycemicdrugs andhad HbA1C ≥ 6.5%. Patients excluded from the study included those on insulin, any patient with a metabolic or gastrointestinal disease,and any patient with history of drug addiction and alcoholism. Other patients excluded were patients who had previous allergic reactionsto GA in addition topatients who were pregnant or plannedfor conception within 6 months. 120 patients were invited to participate in this trial. 100 patients gave consent and wererandomizedto GA and placebo groups. The GA group was given 30 g of Acacia Senegaland the placebo group was given 5 g of placebodaily for 3 months. The outcomesassessedwereprimarily the effect of GA on glucose levels in addition to the effects on levels of lipids and BMI in type 2 diabetic patients.Results:The GA group showed significant reduction in fasting plasma glucose (FPG andHbA1c(P<0.05 within the GA group. Moreover, GA supplementation improvedlipid profiles; decreasedLDL-Cholesterol by 5.95%, total Cholesterol by 8.28% and triglyceride by 10.95% from baseline levels. HDL-Cholesterol showedsignificant increase by 19.89% within GA group(P<0.05, BMI was decreased significantly by 2.06% (95% CI: −0.98; −0.16, P<0.05.Conclusions:Gum Arabic is a dietary supplement for improving nutrition of type 2 diabetic patients; it has demonstrateda good effect on improving their poor glycemic

  5. Diabetes mellitus and Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Gennaro; Polychronis, Sotirios; Wilson, Heather; Giordano, Beniamino; Ferrara, Nicola; Niccolini, Flavia; Politis, Marios

    2018-05-08

    To investigate whether diabetes mellitus is associated with Parkinson-like pathology in people without Parkinson disease and to evaluate the effect of diabetes mellitus on markers of Parkinson pathology and clinical progression in drug-naive patients with early-stage Parkinson disease. We compared 25 patients with Parkinson disease and diabetes mellitus to 25 without diabetes mellitus, and 14 patients with diabetes mellitus and no Parkinson disease to 14 healthy controls (people with no diabetes mellitus or Parkinson disease). The clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus was confirmed by 2 consecutive fasting measurements of serum glucose levels >126 mL/dL. Over a 36-month follow-up period, we then investigated in the population with Parkinson disease whether the presence of diabetes mellitus was associated with faster motor progression or cognitive decline. The presence of diabetes mellitus was associated with higher motor scores ( p Parkinson disease. In patients with diabetes but without Parkinson disease, the presence of diabetes mellitus was associated with lower striatal dopamine transporter binding ( p Parkinson disease, the presence of diabetes mellitus was associated with faster motor progression (hazard ratio = 4.521, 95% confidence interval = 1.468-13.926; p Parkinson-like pathology, and when present in patients with Parkinson disease, can induce a more aggressive phenotype. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  6. Catarata e diabetes mellitus tipo 1

    OpenAIRE

    Pizzol,Melissa Manfroi Dal; Esteves,Jorge Freita; Sccoco,Caio Augusto; Roggia,Murilo Felix; Rosa,Carolina Maurente da; Lambert,José Humberto Franco; Canani,Luís Henrique

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência de catarata e seus fatores de risco em uma população portadora de diabetes mellitus tipo 1 (DM1). MÉTODOS: Estudo de casos e controles de um banco de dados de 181 pacientes (362 olhos) com diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus tipo 1. Os pacientes foram classificados como casos quando apresentavam diagnóstico de catarata. As variáveis estudadas foram a presença ou não de retinopatia diabética, tratamento com panfotocoagulação, presença de hipertensão arterial sistêm...

  7. Physical activity level and exercise in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Camila Kümmel; Almeida, Jussara Carnevale de; Merker, Aline Juliana Schneider; Brauer, Fabiane de Oliveira; Rodrigues, Ticiana da Costa

    2012-01-01

    To compare physical activity level (PAL) and care related to exercise in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). DM outpatients (adult, insulin-user patients) were assessed for PAL (international questionnaire; moderate- and high-level activities, as well as walking, over a typical week) and questioned about formal exercise practice, self-care, and hypoglycemic episodes related to exercise or reasons for not exercising. Two hundred twenty five patients were assessed: 107 (47.6%) had type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and 118 (52.4%) had type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1), with a larger percentage of patients with DM2 being classified as poorly active [33 (30.7%) versus 12 (10.3%)] and a lower percentage being classified as highly active [9 (8.7%) versus 29 (25%)], compared with patients having DM1. Patients who do not exercise (n = 140) gave different reasons for not doing so: patients with DM2 claimed that they "felt uncomfortable", "presented medical restrictions", and "did not like it"; DM1 patients claimed that they "had no time to exercise", "were lazy", and "had hypoglycemic episodes". Only 85 patients exercised regularly, regardless of the PAL, and 38.8% performed self-care, such as eating, stretching, and capillary glucose monitoring. Patients with DM2 [5 (14.3%)] reported a lower number of hypoglycemic episodes related to exercise than those with DM1 [17 (34%)]. Patients with DM2 have different PAL and behavior related to exercise than those seen in DM1 patients.

  8. Lixisenatide for type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mikkel; Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an increasing health problem worldwide. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are an expanding drug class that target several of the pathophysiological traits of T2DM. Lixisenatide is a GLP-1 receptor agonist in development for once......-daily treatment of T2DM. Areas covered: Pharmacological, preclinical and clinical evidence demonstrating the applicability of lixisenatide for the treatment of T2DM are reviewed. Available data and pending clinical development are summarized, critically appraised and compared to competitor drugs. The most...... relevant papers and meeting abstracts published up to November 2010 are used as sources for this review. Expert opinion: Efficacy and safety in T2DM are demonstrated with lixisenatide in monotherapy and in combination with metformin. However, limited data with the intended once-daily 20 µg subcutaneous...

  9. Diabetic Cystopathy In A Type 2 DM Patient *Omosule | Omosule ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetic cystopathy is a well -recognized but often overlooked complication of diabetes mellitus which usually develops in middle age or at least ten years after the onset of hyperglycemia. In this case report, we present a 48 year old man, diagnosed diabetic ten years before, who presented with painless abdominal swelling ...

  10. History of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Awad M

    2002-04-01

    Clinical features similar to diabetes mellitus were described 3000 years ago by the ancient Egyptians. The term "diabetes" was first coined by Araetus of Cappodocia (81-133AD). Later, the word mellitus (honey sweet) was added by Thomas Willis (Britain) in 1675 after rediscovering the sweetness of urine and blood of patients (first noticed by the ancient Indians). It was only in 1776 that Dobson (Britain) firstly confirmed the presence of excess sugar in urine and blood as a cause of their sweetness. In modern time, the history of diabetes coincided with the emergence of experimental medicine. An important milestone in the history of diabetes is the establishment of the role of the liver in glycogenesis, and the concept that diabetes is due to excess glucose production Claude Bernard (France) in 1857. The role of the pancreas in pathogenesis of diabetes was discovered by Mering and Minkowski (Austria) 1889. Later, this discovery constituted the basis of insulin isolation and clinical use by Banting and Best (Canada) in 1921. Trials to prepare an orally administrated hypoglycemic agent ended successfully by first marketing of tolbutamide and carbutamide in 1955. This report will also discuss the history of dietary management and acute and chronic complications of diabetes.

  11. Cardiovascular burden of diabetes mellitus: a review | Dodiyi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is rapidly on the increase worldwide and is gradually becoming a major public health problem for developing nations. Diabetes in all its forms is one of the main cardiovascular risk factors. Cardiovascular complications are a leading cause of death in diabetic patients ...

  12. Current Trends In The Management Of Diabetes Mellitus: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic, non-communicable disease with concomitant oral manifestations that impact on dental care. Approximately 40-80 persons in 2,000 adult population visiting dental practice are diabetic and about half are unaware of their condition. The average dentist attends to over 100 diabetic patients ...

  13. Prevalence of hypertension amongst persons with diabetes mellitus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of hypertension amongst persons with diabetes mellitus (DM) in Benin city. Materials and Methods: Four hundred and fifty diabetic subjects were evaluated for hypertension by measuring their blood pressure using a sphygmomanometer at the diabetes clinics of the University of Benin ...

  14. Genetic Counseling for Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Stephanie A.; Maloney, Kristin L.; Pollin, Toni I.

    2014-01-01

    Most diabetes is polygenic in etiology, with (type 1 diabetes, T1DM) or without (type 2 diabetes, T2DM) an autoimmune basis. Genetic counseling for diabetes generally focuses on providing empiric risk information based on family history and/or the effects of maternal hyperglycemia on pregnancy outcome. An estimated one to five percent of diabetes is monogenic in nature, e.g., maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY), with molecular testing and etiology-based treatment available. However, recent studies show that most monogenic diabetes is misdiagnosed as T1DM or T2DM. While efforts are underway to increase the rate of diagnosis in the diabetes clinic, genetic counselors and clinical geneticists are in a prime position to identify monogenic cases through targeted questions during a family history combined with working in conjunction with diabetes professionals to diagnose and assure proper treatment and familial risk assessment for individuals with monogenic diabetes. PMID:25045596

  15. Nailfold capillaroscopy in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, G; Guerrero, R; Paredes, C; Ríos, C

    2017-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia states and the development of specific microvascular disorders such as retinopathy and nephropathy. Conventional methods are used to study the vascular compromise of this entity, however, the use of capillaroscopy for the evaluation of capillary microarchitecture is not frequently used. Observational and descriptive study of 65 patients with an established diagnosis of DM and a control group that underwent an initial capillaroscopy examination. The parameters considered were: Capillary diameter (ectasia and giant capillaries), cross-linked, tortuous, arborified capillaries, avascular zones, haemorrhages, dominant morphology, visibility of the subpapillary venous plexus (SPVP), cuticulitis and SD pattern. Capillaroscopy was performed in 65 patients, the findings were: tortous capillaries (63%), crosslinked capillaries (59%), avascular areas (48%), ectasias (39%), giant capillaries (11%). The capillaroscopic findings were evident in the majority of the studied population, 83%, compared to 17% who did not have capillaroscopic alterations. Significant capillaroscopic changes were demonstrated in patients with DM, in turn, we described a specific pattern consisting of: capillary dilatation, avascular zones and tortuous capillaries. Patients with more comorbidities and evolution of the disease showed greater microvascular damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Psychological interventions for diabetes-related distress in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chew, Boon How; Vos, Rimke C; Metzendorf, Maria-Inti; Scholten, Rob Jpm; Rutten, Guy Ehm

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) experience a psychosocial burden and mental health problems associated with the disease. Diabetes-related distress (DRD) has distinct effects on self-care behaviours and disease control. Improving DRD in adults with T2DM could enhance

  17. Type 1 diabetes mellitus and atopic diseases in children.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    Nancy S. Elbarbary. Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. Background. Diabetes mellitus type 1 (T1DM) is a complex disease resulting from the interplay of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors.1 Worldwide,. T1DM epidemic represents an increasing global.

  18. Superimposed effect of ovariectomy on type 2 diabetes mellitus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Estrogen deprivation in the postmenopausal women plays a critical role in progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Aim: The present study investigated the overlaid effect of ovariectomy on T2DM and the possible underlying mechanism. Materials: Forty female Wistar rats were divided into four groups ...

  19. Diabetes mellitus: preliminary health-promotion activity based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of a service-learning-based health promotion elective in influencing knowledge of diabetes mellitus (DM) and ways to prevent it. Method: A computer-based quiz, an information poster, interactive models and a take-home information leaflet on DM were developed as part of an exhibit ...

  20. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the rural southern Free State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the rural southern Free State. ... The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of DM in the rural southern Free State and to investigate the contribution of risk ... A need for intervention regarding the identification and treatment of DM in these rural areas has been identified.

  1. Periodontitis, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease : A Bermuda Triangle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teeuw, W.J.

    2017-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis contributes to the understanding of the complex relationship between periodontitis and diabetes mellitus (DM), and periodontitis and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD). It was observed that a substantial number of suspected new DM patients could be

  2. Superimposed effect of ovariectomy on type 2 diabetes mellitus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Minerva K. Fahmy

    Pancreas. Oxidative stress. Inflammatory response. Menopause. a b s t r a c t. Background: Estrogen deprivation in the postmenopausal women plays a critical role in progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Aim: The present study investigated the overlaid effect of ovariectomy on T2DM and the possible under-.

  3. Mortality patterns among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Ilorin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: People living with diabetes mellitus (DM) are prone to varied forms of complications which often lead to their premature death. The vulnerability has the greatest impact in type 2 DM because of larger numerical strength, insidious onset and late recognition especially in resourcepoor nations like Nigeria. This study ...

  4. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients seeking medical care at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a key metabolic endocrine disorder escalating in the course of rapid population growth, aging, urbanization, and increasing prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity. This study was conducted to assess prevalence of DM and associated risk factors among outpatients seeking ...

  5. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in newly diagnosed pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Data regarding the association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and tuberculosis (TB) in Africa are scarce. DM screening among TB patients in Mozambique was carried out. Methods: The study was implemented from January to August 2016 in three Urban Health Centers in Beira, Mozambique and recruited ...

  6. Association of ABO blood groups with diabetes mellitus | Kamil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: So far no studies have been performed in Malaysia to look at association of diabetes mellitus (DM) with blood groups. We studied the association of ABO blood groups with DM type 2. Patients and methodology: It was a case control study conducted at Kepala Batas Hospital Batas, Penang, Malaysia in the year ...

  7. Cardiovascular consequences of diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Baan (Caroline)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractDiabetes mellitus comprises a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders that have one common feature: abnormally high levels of glucose in the blood. The most common form is non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NlDDM); about 80-90% of all diabetic patients has

  8. Teenage pregnancy in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carmody, David

    2010-03-01

    Younger maternal age at delivery has been linked to adverse reproductive outcomes. Pregnancy complicated by type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Optimising diabetic glycaemic control prior to pregnancy is known to reduce the rate of congenital abnormalities and improve pregnancy outcomes. Teenage pregnancies are not usually planned and little data exist on teenage pregnancy complicated by T1DM. We sought to identify the glycemic control achieved in teenage pregnancy with T1DM and to clarify if there is an associated increase in adverse pregnancy outcomes compared to those seen in older women with T1DM. We compared outcomes in 18 teenagers (TG) with 582 older women with T1DM (CON) from 1995-2007. TG booked to the combined diabetes-obstetrical service at a median gestational age of 11 weeks (range 6-22) compared to 7 weeks in CON (range 4-40, p < 0.02). Glycaemic was worse in TG compared to CON at 13, 26 and 35 weeks gestation, despite higher insulin doses. First trimester miscarriage rate did not differ between groups. Major congenital anomaly rate was 6.2% (1\\/16) compared to 3.2% in CON. This preliminary study has demonstrated that pregnant teenage women with T1DM book later to specialised care and have worse glycaemic control in pregnancy compared to older women with T1DM. This group also appear to be more insulin resistant than older women in early pregnancy. Our data would suggest that teenagers with type 1 diabetes mellitus may constitute a high-risk group for adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  9. Increased risk of common infections in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, L.M.A.J.; Gorter, K.J.; Hak, E.; Goudzwaard, W.L.; Schellevis, F.G.; Hoepelman, A.I.M.; Rutten, G.E.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Clinical data on the association of diabetes mellitus with common infections are virtually lacking, not conclusive, and often biased. We intended to determine the relative risks of common infections in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM1 and DM2, respectively).

  10. Prevalence of cutaneous manifestations of diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, K.; Muhammad, Z.; Qayum, I.

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a clinical syndrome characterized by hyperglycaemia due to absolute or relative insulin deficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of skin manifestations in patients with diabetes mellitus of this area. This descriptive study was conducted in medical out patient door of District Headquarter Hospital Battgram from January 2008 to July 2008. A total of 350 diabetic (types 1 and 2) patients over 15 years of age attending the medical OPD of DHQ Hospital were examined in detail for skin manifestations of the disease. Three hundred and fifty diabetic (type-1 and type-2) patients (193 females and 157 males) enrolled in this study. Mean age of the patients was 54+-8.53 years. Duration of diabetes was between 1-12 years; 320 patients had type-2 and 30 patients had type-1 diabetes mellitus. Patients with uncontrolled disease were 327 and 23 patients showed adequate glycaemic control. Seventy-six percent of patients had cutaneous manifestations. The skin manifestations observed were: skin infections 30.9%, foot gangrene and ulcers 12.9%, pruritus 7.1%, vitiligo 5.7%, yellow skin 4.2%, diabetic dermopathy 4.2%, skin tags 3.7%, acanthosis nigricans 2.9%, eruptive xanthomas 2.6%, necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum 1.4%, diabetic bullae 0.6%, and pigmented purpuras in 0.3% patients. Cutaneous manifestations were quite Common in the diabetics of this area. (author)

  11. Diabetes knowledge among Greek Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulimeneas, Dimitrios; Grammatikopoulou, Maria G; Bougioukli, Vasiliki; Iosifidou, Parthena; Vasiloglou, Maria F; Gerama, Maria-Assimina; Mitsos, Dimitrios; Chrysanthakopoulou, Ioanna; Tsigga, Maria; Kazakos, Kyriakos

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes knowledge has been shown to improve glycemic control and associate with several demographic parameters. In Greece, a country with high obesity rates, disease knowledge has never been evaluated in diabetic patients. This cross sectional study aimed to assess diabetes knowledge and its associations between social and demographic parameters, among Greek type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. One hundred fifty nine patients with T2DM were recruited from an urban and a rural clinic in Greece. Diabetes knowledge was assessed with the Brief Diabetes Knowledge Test (DKT). Basic anthropometry was performed. Data regarding glycemic control and sociodemographic characteristics were collected from the patients' medical files. Greek T2DM patients demonstrated poor disease knowledge (mean DKT score 8.3±2.2/14.0 and mean DKT as a percent of correct answers 59.6±15.8%). No differences were observed between sex, place of residence, or glycemic control, among subjects. Patients with higher education demonstrated greater diabetes knowledge. Simple obesity with concurrent central obesity or suboptimal glycemic control decreased diabetes knowledge among participants. Additionally, waist circumference was inversely correlated to diabetes knowledge. Based on the DKT, Greek patients exhibit poor diabetes knowledge. This study provides evidence for the need for better diabetes education in order to ameliorate disease outcome. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Diabetes mellitus in childhood cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rauf, F

    2012-02-03

    Since 1984, five patients in the cystic fibrosis (CF) clinic at Cork Regional Hospital have developed diabetes mellitus (DM) and were treated with Insulin. None had received systemic corticosteroids but two had high calorie naso-gastric feeding regimes. Two died from lung disease. A fifteen year old boy developed bilateral cataracts. In nine other paediatric CF clinics in the Republic of Ireland (total: 420 patients), three patients have DM, two receiving Insulin. Abnormal glucose tolerance is becoming more common in CF as patients survive longer. The possible role of corticosteroid treatment and intensive carbohydrate feeding regimes in development of glucose intolerance must be considered. DM in CF differs from the usual childhood DM. Regular screening and early Insulin supplementation may be beneficial.

  13. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and Cognitive Impairments: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Huang, Edgar; Gao, Sujuan

    2017-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a major subtype of diabetes and is usually diagnosed at a young age with insulin deficiency. The life expectancy of T1DM patients has increased substantially in comparison with that three decades ago due to the availability of exogenous insulin, though it is still shorter than that of healthy people. However, the relation remains unclear between T1DM and dementia as an aging-related disease. We conducted a systematic review of existing literature on T1DM and cognition impairments by carrying out searches in electronic databases Medline, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. We restricted our review to studies involving only human subjects and excluded studies on type 2 diabetes mellitus or non-classified diabetes. A meta-analysis was first performed on the relationship between T1DM and cognitive changes in youths and adults respectively. Then the review focused on the cognitive complications of T1DM and their relation with the characteristics of T1DM, glycemic control, diabetic complications, comorbidities, and others. First, age at onset, disease duration, and glycemic dysregulation were delineated for their association with cognitive changes. Then diabetic ketoacidosis, angiopathy, and neuropathy were examined as diabetic complications for their involvement in cognitive impairments. Lastly, body mass index and blood pressure were discussed for their relations with the cognitive changes. Future studies are needed to elucidate the pathogenesis of T1DM-related cognitive impairments or dementia.

  14. Radiation retinopathy in diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhir, S.P.; Joshi, A.V.; Banerjee, A.K.

    1982-01-01

    A case of radiation retinopathy in a diabetic individual who received a total dose of 45 Gy for lymphoblastic lymphoma of the orbit is reported. The relationship between radiation retinopathy and diabetes mellitus is discussed. (Auth.)

  15. "COMPARISON OF MATERNAL AND FETAL/NEONATAL COMPLICATIONS IN GESTATIONAL AND PRE-GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS "

    OpenAIRE

    F. Akhlaghi A. B. Hamedi

    2005-01-01

    Presence of maternal diabetes mellitus (DM) during pregnancy has important consequences for both mother and child. To determine maternal and fetal/neonatal complications of gestational DM and compare them with pre-gestational DM, a prospective study was performed in 100 diabetic women delivered in our hospital from January 2001 to April 2002. Pregnancy outcome in 27 women with gestational DM and 73 women with pre-gestational DM and their offspring were studied and analyzed. The mean age of wo...

  16. Causes of visual disability among Central Africans with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mvitu Muaka, M; Longo-Mbenza, B

    2012-06-01

    Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) remains a common and one of the major causes of blindness in the developed and western societies. The same situation is shown in emerging economic areas (5,6). In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) however, the issues of visual disability due to diabetes mellitus (DM) are overshadowed by the presence of the prevalent and common nutritional deficiency diseases and eye infections This clinic-based study was conducted to determine whether diabetic retinopathy is independently related to visual disability in black patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) from Kinshasa, Congo. A total of 299 urban patients with DM and low income including 108 cases of visual disability and matched for time admission and DM type to 191 controls, were assessed. Demographic, clinical, and ophthalmic data were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses. Age ≥60 years, female sex, presence of diabetic retinopathy (DR), proliferative DR, shorter DM duration, glaucoma, macular oedema, diabetic nephropathy were the univariate risk factors of visual disability. Using logistic regression model, visual disability was significantly associated with female sex and diabetic retinopathy. The risk of visual disability is 4 times higher in patients with diabetic retinopathy and 2 times higher in females with DM. Therefore, to prevent further increase of visual disability, the Congolese Ministry of Health should prioritize the eye care in patients with DM.

  17. Frequency of Atherogenic Risk in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... diabetes, hypertension, contraceptive use and certain genetic predisposing factors. ... Objectives: Was to assess the degree of atherogenic risk in type 2 DM and ... hundred (100) type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and ninety-two (92) healthy ...

  18. [Prevalence of fibromyalgia in diabetes mellitus and obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patucchi, Emanuele; Fatati, Giuseppe; Puxeddu, Adolfo; Coaccioli, Stefano

    2003-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of fibromyalgia in diabetes mellitus and obesity, 121 consecutive patients have been observed: 27 with obesity (6 males and 21 females; mean age 57 years, range 20-57; mean body mass index [BMI] 34); 88 with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM; 40 males and 48 females; mean age 63 years, range 44-78; mean BMI 28.8; mean glycated haemoglobin [HbA1c] in the last year 8.3%); 6 with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM; 2 males and 4 females; mean age 52 years, range 26-76; mean BMI 24.5; mean HbA1c BMI less that 26 the diagnosis of fibromyalgia was negative. Our data seem to reveal the presence of a significant clinical association between obesity, diabetes mellitus and fibromyalgia.

  19. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Proteomics Literature on the Response of Human Skeletal Muscle to Obesity/Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) Versus Exercise Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisawat, Kanchana; Shepherd, Sam O; Lisboa, Paulo J; Burniston, Jatin G

    2017-11-11

    We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of proteomics literature that reports human skeletal muscle responses in the context of either pathological decline associated with obesity/T2DM and physiological adaptations to exercise training. Literature was collected from PubMed and DOAJ databases following PRISMA guidelines using the search terms 'proteom*', and 'skeletal muscle' combined with either 'obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance' or 'exercise, training'. Eleven studies were included in the systematic review, and meta-analysis was performed on a sub-set (four studies) of the reviewed literature that reported the necessary primary data. The majority of proteins ( n = 73) more abundant in the muscle of obese/T2DM individuals were unique to this group and not reported to be responsive to exercise training. The main response of skeletal muscle to exercise training was a greater abundance of proteins of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, tricarboxylic acid cycle and mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I assembly. In total, five proteins were less abundant in muscle of obese/T2DM individuals and were also reported to be more abundant in the muscle of endurance-trained individuals, suggesting one of the major mechanisms of exercise-induced protection against the deleterious effects of obesity/T2DM occurs at complex I of the electron transport chain.

  20. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntyre, H David; Jensen, Dorte M; Jensen, Richard C

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To define the prevalence and pregnancy outcomes related to elevated fasting venous plasma glucose (FVPG) in a Danish pregnancy cohort. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was an observational cohort study including 1,516 women without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) by Danish criteria....... FVPG measured at 28 weeks' gestation was related to pregnancy outcomes. RESULTS: With use of the World Health Organization 2013 threshold of FVPG ≥5.1 mmol/L, 40.1% of the cohort qualified as having GDM. There was no evidence of excess fetal growth, hypertension in pregnancy, or caesarean delivery...

  1. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus in adolescents secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2 DM) in children and ... had none of the risk factors while 272(30.9%) had at least one risk factor. Using the American Diabetes Association criteria for identification of those at risk for ...

  2. Sensor Augmented Pump Therapy Use in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carolan, E

    2016-11-01

    Tight metabolic control in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) reduces incidence and delays progression of micro-vascular complications. Severe hypoglycaemia remains a significant barrier to achieving optimal diabetes control. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) systems refine insulin delivery with programmable basal rates and mealtime bolusing

  3. Update on diagnosis, pathogenesis and management of ketosis-prone Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Smiley, Dawn; Chandra, Prakash; Umpierrez, Guillermo E

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) has been considered a key clinical feature of Type 1 diabetes mellitus; however, increasing evidence indicates that DKA is also a common feature of Type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Many cases of DKA develop under stressful conditions such as trauma or infection but an increasing number of cases without precipitating cause have been reported in children and adults with T2DM. Such patients present with severe hyperglycemia and ketosis as in Type 1 diabetes mellitus but can di...

  4. Mechanisms of diabetes mellitus-induced bone fragility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Nicola; Chandran, Manju; Pierroz, Dominique D; Abrahamsen, Bo; Schwartz, Ann V; Ferrari, Serge L

    2017-04-01

    The risk of fragility fractures is increased in patients with either type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Although BMD is decreased in T1DM, BMD in T2DM is often normal or even slightly elevated compared with an age-matched control population. However, in both T1DM and T2DM, bone turnover is decreased and the bone material properties and microstructure of bone are altered; the latter particularly so when microvascular complications are present. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying bone fragility in diabetes mellitus are complex, and include hyperglycaemia, oxidative stress and the accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts that compromise collagen properties, increase marrow adiposity, release inflammatory factors and adipokines from visceral fat, and potentially alter the function of osteocytes. Additional factors including treatment-induced hypoglycaemia, certain antidiabetic medications with a direct effect on bone and mineral metabolism (such as thiazolidinediones), as well as an increased propensity for falls, all contribute to the increased fracture risk in patients with diabetes mellitus.

  5. Menu variations for diabetes mellitus patients using Goal Programming model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhoruri, Atmini; Lestari, Dwi; Ratnasari, Eminugroho

    2017-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) was a chronic metabolic disease characterized by higher than normal blood glucose level (normal blood glucose level = = 80 -120 mg/dl). In this study, type 2 DM which mostly caused by unhealthy eating habits would be investigated. Related to eating habit, DM patients needed dietary menu planning with an extracare regarding their nutrients intake (energy, protein, fat and carbohydrate). Therefore, the measures taken were by organizing nutritious dietary menu for diabetes mellitus patients. Dietary menu with appropriate amount of nutrients was organized by considering the amount of calories, proteins, fats and carbohydrates. In this study, Goal Programming model was employed to determine optimal dietary menu variations for diabetes mellitus patients by paying attention to optimal expenses. According to the data obtained from hospitals in Yogyakarta, optimal menu variations would be analyzed by using Goal Programming model and would be completed by using LINGO computer program.

  6. CARDIAC REHABILITATION IN PATIENTS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Saeidi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractINTRODUCTION: Prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD is 19.4% in Iran anddiabetes mellitus is an important CVD risk factor in this country. Non-insulin-dependentdiabetes mellitus (type II DM is associated with increased morbidity and mortality due toatherosclerosis. With cardiac rehabilitation (CR we can modify CVD risk factors such astype II DM and play an important role in decreasing its mortality and morbidity. Weinvestigated the effects of CR on cardiac patients with and without type II DM.METHODS: In this retrospective before-and-after study we analyzed data from 496 cardiacpatients (419 with type II DM and 77 without type II DM. All of the subjects completeddemographic data questionnaires and underwent weight and height measurement, exercisetest to assess exercise capacity (EC, echocardiography, and blood test to assess lipidprofile and fasting blood glucose. The subjects then participated in a 24-session CRprogram. Each session consisted of 10 minutes warm-up, 40 minutes aerobic exercise, 10minutes cool-down and 20 minutes relaxation. They also took part in 8 educational sessionson life style modification, diet therapy and stress management supervised by CR team (acardiologist, a physician, a physiotherapist, a nurse, a nutritionist and a psychiatrist. At theend of the program, all measurements, exams and tests were repeated. Data were analyzedwith SPSS11.5 using independent t-test at level of P<0.05.RESULTS: We studied 419 non-diabetics (mean age: 55.61±9.41 years and 77 diabetics(mean age: 58.59±7.76 years. Mean EC increased significantly after CR in both groups. Inthe diabetic group, EC increased significantly compared to the non-diabetic group(62.21±133.40 vs. 33.68±31/42, P=0.02. Mean levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, LDLcholesterol,as well as body mass index and heart rate decreased significantly after CR inboth groups. However, no significant difference was seen between the two groups in respectof these variables

  7. Plasma amino acid and metabolite signatures tracking diabetes progression in the UCD-T2DM rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevations of plasma concentrations of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are observed in human insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); however, there has been some controversy with respect to the passive or causative nature of the BCAA phenotype. Using untargeted metabolomics, plasm...

  8. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors Associated With Risk of Progression From Gestational Diabetes Mellitus to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, Wei; Tobias, Deirdre K; Bowers, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at substantially increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The identification of important modifiable factors could help prevent T2DM in this high-risk population. OBJECTIVE: To examine the role of physical...... activity and television watching and other sedentary behaviors, and changes in these behaviors in the progression from GDM to T2DM. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Prospective cohort study of 4554 women from the Nurses' Health Study II who had a history of GDM, as part of the ongoing Diabetes & Women......'s Health Study. These women were followed up from 1991 to 2007. EXPOSURES: Physical activity and television watching and other sedentary behaviors were assessed in 1991, 1997, 2001, and 2005. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURE: Incident T2DM identified through self-report and confirmed by supplemental...

  9. General aspects of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Uazman; Asghar, Omar; Azmi, Shazli; Malik, Rayaz A

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by hyperglycemia due to an absolute or relative deficit in insulin production or action. The chronic hyperglycemia of diabetes mellitus is associated with end organ damage, dysfunction, and failure, including the retina, kidney, nervous system, heart, and blood vessels. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) estimated an overall prevalence of diabetes mellitus to be 366 million in 2011, and predicted a rise to 552 million by 2030. The treatment of diabetes mellitus is determined by the etiopathology and is most commonly subdivided in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. There is a greater propensity towards hyperglycemia in individuals with coexisting genetic predisposition or concomitant drug therapy such as corticosteroids. The screening for diabetes mellitus may either be in the form of a 2hour oral glucose tolerance test, or via HbA1c testing, as recently recommended by the American Diabetes Association (ADA). Strong associations have been shown in observational studies suggesting poor clinical outcomes both with chronic hyperglycemia and acutely in intensive care settings. However, tight glycemic control in this setting is a contentious issue with an increased incidence of hypoglycemia and possible increase in morbidity and mortality. In a critically ill patient a glucose range of 140-180mg/dL (7.8-10.0mmol/L) should be maintained via continuous intravenous insulin infusion.

  10. Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus is associated with increased risk of complications for mother and child. Along with the growing epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes, the prevalence of gestational diabetes is expected to rise. With adequate and timely treatment, the risk of complications is reduced.

  11. Diabetes mellitus in Friedreich Ataxia: A case series of 19 patients from the German-Austrian diabetes mellitus registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappa, Angeliki; Häusler, Martin G; Veigel, Andreas; Tzamouranis, Konstantina; Pfeifer, Martin W; Schmidt, Andreas; Bökamp, Martin; Haberland, Holger; Wagner, Siegfried; Brückel, Joachim; de Sousa, Gideon; Hackl, Lukas; Bollow, Esther; Holl, Reinhard W

    2018-05-12

    Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is a multisystem autosomal recessive disease with progressive clinical course involving the neuromuscular and endocrine system. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one typical non-neurological manifestation, caused by beta cell failure and insulin resistance. Because of its rarity, knowledge on DM in FRDA is limited. Based on data from 200 301 patients with DM of the German-Austrian diabetes registry (DPV) and two exemplary patient reports, characteristics of patients with DM and FRDA are compared with classical type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Diabetes phenotype in FRDA is intermediate between type 1 and type 2 diabetes with ketoacidosis being frequent at presentation and blood glucose levels similar to T1Dm but higher than in T2Dm (356 ±165 and 384± 203 mg/dl). 63.2% of FRDA patients received insulin monotherapy, 21% insulin plus oral antidiabetics and 15.8% lifestyle change only, applying similar doses of insulin in all three groups. FRDA patients did not show overweight and HbA1c levels were even lower than in T1Dm or T2Dm patients, respectively, indicating good overall diabetes control. FRDADm can be controlled by individualized treatment regimen with insulin or oral antidiabetics. Patients with DM in FRDA may show a relevant risk to ketoacidotic complications, which should be avoided. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Risk Factors of Diabetes Mellitus in Rural Puducherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumanth Mallikarjuna Majgi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in India. Rural area constitutes 80% of India. Hence it is essential to understand the epidemiology for appropriate interventions. Objectives: to identify risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus in rural Puducherry. Methodology: Cross sectional study in two villages of Puducherry, India. 1403 subjects above 25 years from 2 villages. Study measured demographic variables, Body Mass Index (BMI, physical activity, family history of Diabetes Mellitus, smoking and alcohol consumption. Fasting blood glucose was measured for study subjects. Further, those with >126 mg/dl were subjected for Oral Glucose Tolerance Test. Univariate and multivariate analysis was done. Receiver Operating characteristic Curve was plotted to find out cut off for Diabetic Risk Score. Findings: The prevalence of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM was 5.8%. The response rate was (88%. In univariate analysis age, occupation, Socio Economic Status, BMI, physical activity, family history were significant for DM. In multivariate analysis age, BMI, family history of diabetes and occupation were significant for type 2 DM. The ‘diabetes risk score’ generated by the study using age, BMI and family history of DM, had specificity, sensitivity and accuracy of 54%, 77% and 76.2% respectively. The area under curve for scoring system was 0.784 (<0.05. Conclusions: Identified risk factors are useful for early diagnosis by using ‘diabetes risk score’ – thus uncovering the iceberg of disease.

  13. Aldose reductase, oxidative stress and diabetic mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waiho eTang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a complex metabolic disorder arising from lack of insulin production or insulin resistance 1. DM is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed world, particularly from vascular complications such as atherothrombosis in the coronary vessels. Aldose reductase (AR [ALR2; EC 1.1.1.21], a key enzyme in the polyol pathway, catalyzes NADPH-dependent reduction of glucose to sorbitol, leading to excessive accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS in various tissues of DM including the heart, vasculature, neurons, eyes and kidneys. As an example, hyperglycemia through such polyol pathway induced oxidative stress, may have dual heart actions, on coronary blood vessel (atherothrombosis and myocardium (heart failure leading to severe morbidity and mortality (reviewed in 2. In cells cultured under high glucose conditions, many studies have demonstrated similar AR-dependent increases in ROS production, confirming AR as an important factor for the pathogenesis of many diabetic complications. Moreover, recent studies have shown that AR inhibitors may be able to prevent or delay the onset of cardiovascular complications such as ischemia/reperfusion injury, atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis. In this review, we will focus on describing pivotal roles of AR in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases as well as other diabetic complications, and the potential use of AR inhibitors as an emerging therapeutic strategy in preventing DM complications.

  14. Incretin-based therapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina; Holst, Jens J

    2009-01-01

    This review article focuses on the therapeutic potential of the incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), in treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). T2DM is characterized by insulin resistance, impaired glucose-induced insulin...... secretion and inappropriately regulated glucagon secretion which in combination eventually result in hyperglycemia and in the longer term microvascular and macrovascular diabetic complications. Traditional treatment modalities--even multidrug approaches--for T2DM are often unsatisfactory at getting patients...

  15. Monogenic diabetes mellitus in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Oddmund Søvika; Henrik Underthun Irgens; Janne Molnes; Jørn V. Sagena; Lise Bjørkhaug; Helge Ræder; Anders Molveng; Pål R. Njølstad

    2013-01-01

    Here, we review data on monogenic diabetes mellitus in Norway based on the Norwegian MODY Registry at Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen. This registry comprises established or suspected cases of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) referred to our laboratory for genetic testing. We also present data on neonatal diabetes, another group of monogenic diabetes. To date, we have genetically diagnosed nearly 500 MODY cases in Norway. Mutations in the HNF1A gene (MODY3) were detected in a...

  16. MODEL PENGENDALIAN KADAR GULA DARAH PENDERITA DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisavina Juwita

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF there are 382 million people living with diabetes in the world by 2013. It is estimated that of the 382 million people, 175 million of whom remain undiagnosed, so the danger of developing progressive complications unwittingly and without prevention. Complications from diabetes can be prevented or delayed by keeping blood sugar levels are in the normal category so that metabolism can be well controlled. Blood sugar levels can be maintained by a healthy lifestyle. The purpose of this study was to determine the control of blood sugar levels by making healthy lifestyle in patients with diabetes mellitus type II in London in 2017: a grounded theory study. Participants in the study of 18 people. Intake of participants in this study begins with purposive sampling. The results showed the main concept of grounded theory is "Behavior Control Blood Sugar Levels". Forms of behavior in blood sugar control in this study consisted of a the body's response to changes result DM, b forms of motivation patients with DM, c Physical Activity DM patients, d Compliance diet, e Management DM therapy, f Compliance controls, g A healthy lifestyle DM family, h Impact of changes in lifestyle. The results of this study can serve as a reference, especially for people with diabetes mellitus and family in order to implement the behavior of controlling blood sugar levels.  Menurut International Diabetes Federation (IDF terdapat 382 juta orang yang hidup dengan diabetes di dunia pada tahun 2013. Diperkirakan dari 382 juta orang tersebut, 175 juta diantaranya belum terdiagnosis, sehingga terancam berkembang progresif menjadi komplikasi tanpa disadari dan tanpa pencegahan. Komplikasi akibat diabetes dapat dicegah atau ditunda dengan menjaga kadar gula darah berada dalam kategori normal sehingga metabolisme dapat dikendalikan dengan baik.  Kadar gula darah dapat dijaga dengan melakukan gaya hidup yang sehat. Tujuan

  17. Diabetes care and outcomes for American Indians and Alaska natives in commercial integrated delivery systems: a SUrveillance, PREvention, and ManagEment of Diabetes Mellitus (SUPREME-DM) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmittdiel, Julie A; Steiner, John F; Adams, Alyce S; Dyer, Wendy; Beals, Janette; Henderson, William G; Desai, Jay; Morales, Leo S; Nichols, Gregory A; Lawrence, Jean M; Waitzfelder, Beth; Butler, Melissa G; Pathak, Ram D; Hamman, Richard F; Manson, Spero M

    2014-01-01

    To compare cardiovascular disease risk factor testing rates and intermediate outcomes of care between American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) patients with diabetes and non-Hispanic Caucasians enrolled in nine commercial integrated delivery systems in the USA. We used modified Poisson regression models to compare the annual testing rates and risk factor control levels for glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and systolic blood pressure (SBP); number of unique diabetes drug classes; insulin use; and oral diabetes drug medication adherence between insured AI/AN and non-Hispanic white adults with diabetes aged ≥18 in 2011. 5831 AI/AN patients (1.8% of the cohort) met inclusion criteria. After adjusting for age, gender, comorbidities, insulin use, and geocoded socioeconomic status, AI/AN patients had similar rates of annual HbA1c, LDL-C, and SBP testing, and LDL-C and SBP control, compared with non-Hispanic Caucasians. However, AI/AN patients were significantly more likely to have HbA1c >9% (>74.9 mmol/mol; RR=1.47, 95% CI 1.38 to 1.58), and significantly less likely to adhere to their oral diabetes medications (RR=0.90, 95% CI 0.88 to 0.93) compared with non-Hispanic Caucasians. AI/AN patients in commercial integrated delivery systems have similar blood pressure and cholesterol testing and control, but significantly lower rates of HbA1c control and diabetes medication adherence, compared with non-Hispanic Caucasians. As more AI/ANs move to urban and suburban settings, clinicians and health plans should focus on addressing disparities in diabetes care and outcomes in this population.

  18. A Systematic Review: Family Support Integrated with Diabetes Self-Management among Uncontrolled Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Pamungkas, Rian Adi; Chamroonsawasdi, Kanittha; Vatanasomboon, Paranee

    2017-01-01

    The rate of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is dramatically increasing worldwide. Continuing diabetes mellitus (DM) care needs effective self-management education and support for both patients and family members. This study aimed to review and describe the impacts of diabetes mellitus self-management education (DSME) that involve family members on patient outcomes related to patient health behaviors and perceived self-efficacy on self-management such as medication adherence, blood glucose moni...

  19. Prevalence of obesity in nigerians with type 2 diabetes mellitus seen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Obesity increases the cardiovascular disease burden in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). There are few reports on obesity in type 2 DM patients in Edo State, Midwestern Nigeria. Objective: To determine the prevalence of obesity in Nigerians with type 2 DM seen in a secondary medical center. Methods: This was ...

  20. The influence of diabetes mellitus on midregional proadrenomedullin concentrations and prognostic value in heart failure outpatients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmager, Pernille; Schou, Morten; Egstrup, Michael

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with an adverse outcome in heart failure (HF). Increased concentrations of midregional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) have been associated with DM and are predictors of mortality in HF patients. The aim of this study was to elucidate the impact of DM...

  1. Kandungan Flavonoid, Total Fenol, Dan Antioksidan Snack Bar Sorgum Sebagai Alternatif Makanan Selingan Penderita Diabetes Mellitus Tipe 2

    OpenAIRE

    Isdamayani, Linda; Panunggal, Binar

    2015-01-01

    Latar Belakang: Sorgum merupakan pangan lokal yang mengandung komponen antioksidan seperti favonoid dan total fenol. Konsumsi sorgum dapat diolah menjadi produk makanan selingan berupa snack bar. Kandungan antioksidan pada sorgum bermanfaat sebagai pangan sumber antioksidan bagi penderita diabetes mellitus (DM) tipe 2. Diabetes mellitus (DM) tipe 2 ditandai dengan hiperglikemia yang meningkatkan stres oksidatif. Stress oksidatif dapat berkembang menjadi komplikasi makro maupun mikrovaskuler. ...

  2. Radionuclide study of the liver macrophage system in diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavnov, V.M.; Savich, O.A.; Markov, V.V.

    2002-01-01

    The functional state of the liver macrophage system (MS) in diabetes mellitus (DM) and to analyze the functional disturbances depending of the type of DM, presence of complications, duration of the disease and the age of the patients was studied. The obtained data suggest the necessity of radionuclide study of the liver MS with the purpose to reveal pre-clinical disturbances and administer timely treatment

  3. Periodontitis, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease: A Bermuda Triangle

    OpenAIRE

    Teeuw, W.J.

    2017-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis contributes to the understanding of the complex relationship between periodontitis and diabetes mellitus (DM), and periodontitis and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD). It was observed that a substantial number of suspected new DM patients could be found in patients with periodontitis. Furthermore, periodontitis patients showed increased C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and more arterial stiffness compared to controls, reflecting an increased at...

  4. Features of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Combination with Hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    T.Yu. Yuzvenko

    2015-01-01

    Background. The last decades are characterized by the considerable increase in the prevalence of endocrine disorders with the change of the structure, and first of all cases of polyendocrinopathy, the special place among which is occupied by combination of diabetes mellitus (DM) and thyroid diseases. Increase in the incidence of DM type 2 associated with hypothyroidism affects the clinical course of this pathology, remains topical problem of modern medical science. The objective: to study the...

  5. Complicaciones cronicas de la diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Isla Pera, Ma. Pilar (María Pilar)

    2012-01-01

    La diabetes mellitus (DM) es una de las enfermedades con mayor impacto sociosanitario, no sólo por su elevada prevalencia, sino, sobre todo, por las consecuencias de las complicaciones crónicas que genera. La hiperglucemia ocasiona daño tanto en el ámbito de la microcirculación como en los grandes vasos provocando lesiones macroangiopáticas y microangiopáticas. Las complicaciones macroangiopáticas se originan a partir de alteraciones o lesiones en los grandes vasos arteriales siendo las más i...

  6. Arrhythmias in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Agarwal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hyperglycaemia of Type 2 diabetes mellitus causes long term damage to heart resulting in coronary artery disease (CAD, myocardial infarction (MI, congestive heart failure (CHF, and sudden death from arrhythmias. AIMS: To study the prevalence of different types of arrhythmias in T2DM, particularly in association with Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy (CAN. METHODS: A cross-sectional study including 100 patients of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM presenting with cardiac arrhythmias, was done at our hospital over 2 years. Detailed history along with physical examination and tests for CAN were done. Routine investigations along with echocardiography, stress test, Holter monitoring were done. RESULTS: Sinus Tachycardia (ST was the commonest arrhythmia, found in 32% of patients. 20% had Complete Heart Block (CHB, 15% had Sinus Bradycardia (SB, and 15% had Atrial Fibrillation (AF. Ventricular Premature Complex (VPC was found in 10% and 3% had Atrial Premature Complex (APC. 3% had first degree AV block, whereas 1% had Paroxysmal Supra Ventricular Tachycardia (PSVT, and another 1% had Ventricular Tachycardia (VT. Poorly controlled diabetes and co-morbidities was associated with higher incidence of arrhythmias. 62% of patients had prolonged QTc, majority of which had CAN. Most of the patients responded to standard therapy.

  7. The Association between Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Gyun Seo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing worldwide. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is also increasing. Therefore, we aimed to analyze the effect of T2DM on thyroid cancer. Methods. A case-control study was performed. A total of 415 healthy controls with thyroid ultrasound screening and physician consultation were selected from the Thyroid Cancer Longitudinal Study (T-CALOS. Among patients with thyroid cancer who were enrolled in T-CALOS, 415 patients were matched to the control group according to age and sex. We assessed the effects of T2DM, T2DM duration, and T2DM medication on thyroid cancer. Results. Women with T2DM had lower odds of thyroid cancer than women without T2DM (odds ratio [OR]: 0.40, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.20–0.81. Individuals receiving T2DM medication had higher odds of thyroid cancer compared to those without T2DM medication (OR: 5.21, 95% CI: 1.58–17.15. Individuals with T2DM duration <6 years had lower odds of thyroid cancer compared to those without T2DM (OR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.34–0.97. Conclusions. Individuals with early T2DM are presumed to have a low incidence of thyroid cancer, and this effect seems to last up to 6 years after diagnosis of T2DM.

  8. Diabetes mellitus en adultos mayores costarricenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosero-Bixby, Luis

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del artículo es describir la prevalencia de la diabetes mellitus (DM entre los adultos mayores costarricenses. Se analiza la magnitud de la prevalencia, los problemas de medición de la misma, así como los factores asociados con la enfermedad, la enfermedad controlada, y el tener niveles altos de hemoglobina glicosilada (HbA1C entre la población sin diagnóstico previo de DM. Una cuarta parte de los adultos mayores de Costa Rica padecen de DM y cerca de la mitad de los que la padecen, no la tienen controlada. Los factores asociados con la prevalencia de la enfermedad son los usuales destacados por la literatura científica: actividad física, obesidad e historia familiar de DM. Se halla evidencia de un posible problema de acceso diferencial a servicios de control de DM, ya que los adultos mayores que habitan fuera de la gran área metropolitana de San José tienen un riesgo menor de tener controlada su enfermedad. Los adultos mayores sin pensión también tienen un riesgo mayor de tener niveles altos de HbA1C.

  9. Diabetes mellitus en adultos mayores costarricenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Brenes-Camacho

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del artículo es describir la prevalencia de la diabetes mellitus (DM entre los adultos mayores costarricenses. Se analiza la magnitud de la prevalencia, los problemas de medición de la misma, así como los factores asociados con la enfermedad, la enfermedad controlada, y el tener niveles altos de hemoglobina glicosilada (HbA1C entre la población sin diagnóstico previo de DM. Una cuarta parte de los adultos mayores de Costa Rica padecen de DM y cerca de la mitad de los que la padecen, no la tienen controlada. Los factores asociados con la prevalencia de la enfermedad son los usuales destacados por la literatura científica: actividad física, obesidad e historia familiar de DM. Se halla evidencia de un posible problema de acceso diferencial a servicios de control de DM, ya que los adultos mayores que habitan fuera de la gran área metropolitana de San José tienen un riesgo menor de tener controlada su enfermedad. Los adultos mayores sin pensión también tienen un riesgo mayor de tener niveles altos de HbA1C.

  10. Diabetes mellitus, maar welk type?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, J. B.; de Koning, E. J.

    2004-01-01

    In three patients with an unusual presentation of diabetes mellitus, the classification of their diabetes was troublesome. An adolescent male with slightly elevated blood-glucose levels turned out to have excellent glycaemic control on sulphonylurea derivatives only. When he was 40 years of age, his

  11. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma and diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotna, T.

    2015-01-01

    Impaired glucose tolerance or frank diabetes mellitus is known to occur more frequently in patients with pancreatic cancer than in the general population. At the time of the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, more than 70% of patients taking the glucose tolerance test show diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance (1). Relationship among diabetes mellitus and pancreatic cancer is vague but sure, although neither the nature nor the sequence of the possible cause – effect relationship has been established. The reason for the high frequency of glucose intolerance in patients with pancreatic cancer remains controversial. (author)

  12. Lymphocyte apoptosis in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    biochemical features.2 It is a coordinated series of events for the ... sex matched subjects with no clinical or laboratory signs or family history of ... Keywords: lymphocyte apoptosis; CD95 system; type 1 DM; prediabetes. Eman M. ..... percentage among complicated and non-complicated cases of type-1 diabetes mellitus.

  13. Phospholipid transfer protein activity and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, Ali; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2015-01-01

    The plasma activity of phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP), which has multifaceted functions in lipoprotein metabolism and in inflammatory responses, is elevated in insulin resistant conditions. We determined the association of plasma PLTP activity with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

  14. Steroid induced diabetes mellitus in patients receiving prednisolone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Steroids are a useful component of combination chemotherapy or as a single agent in the treatment of haematological disorders even though there are adverse effects associated with its use. Methods: We report four patients who developed diabetes mellitus (DM) during treatment with steroids for ...

  15. Diabetes mellitus: a risk factor in patients with Graves' orbitopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmann, R.; Mourits, M. P.

    1999-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the prevalence of dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and Graves' orbitopathy (GO) and to investigate the complications of surgery for GO in these patients. METHODS: The records of 482 consecutive patients with GO referred in a 5 year period were

  16. Recent advances in childhood diabetes mellitus | Ayoola | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a syndrome characterized by disturbed metabolism of carbohydrate, protein, and fat. It is a chronic metabolic disorder caused by an absolute or relative deficiency of insulin. It presents with very different medical and psychosocial issues in children. Epidemiological studies indicate that there is ...

  17. Metabolomics: Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) develops over many years, providing an opportunity to consider early prognostic tools that guide interventions to thwart disease. Advancements in analytical chemistry enable quantitation of hundreds of metabolites in biofluids and tissues (metabolomics), providing in...

  18. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients with acromegaly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreval, A V; Trigolosova, I V; Misnikova, I V; Kovalyova, Y A; Tishenina, R S; Barsukov, I A; Vinogradova, A V; Wolffenbuttel, B H R

    2014-01-01

    Early carbohydrate metabolism disorders (ECMDs) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are frequently associated with acromegaly. We aimed to assess the prevalence of ECMDs in patients with acromegaly and to compare the results with those in adults without acromegaly using two population-based epidemiologic

  19. Sulfonylureas in type 2 diabetes mellitus: current evidence, conflicts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: We sought to explore the current state of evidence on sulfonylurea therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and critically examine the recommendations of major practice guidelines,and the overall ramifications of the issues thereof in current clinical practice. Method: We searched PUBMED, MEDLINE and ...

  20. Surgical Results of Laparoscopic Loop Duodenojejunal Bypass with Sleeve Gastrectomy (LDJB-SG in Obese Asians (BMI ≥ 27.5 kg/m2 with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM: A New Promising Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voraboot Taweerutchana, M.D. F.R.C.S.T.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To demonstrate surgical outcomes, safety and complications in obese Asians (BMI > 27.5 kg/m2 who underwent LDJB-SG in our center. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed ninety-one patients who underwent LDJB-SG from October 2011 to March 2014. One-year surgical outcomes regarding the efficacy of weight loss, safety as well as complications of this procedure were demonstrated. Remission of T2DM and co-morbidities resolution after one year were also analyzed. Results: The median duration of T2DM was 60 months and the median operative time was 140 min. Interestingly, the mean/median preoperative BMI, HbA1C and FPG levels dropped significantly from 30.7 kg/m2 , 8.9%, and 139.0 mg% to 23.7 kg/m2 , 6.2%, and 95.0 mg% respectively at 1 year after operation (p<0.001. Furthermore, 61.5% of patients who had completed 1 year follow-up showed complete diabetic remission and 92.3% experienced glycemic control (HbA1c<7% without any medication. The postoperative complications were intra-abdominal bleeding (4.4%, leakage (1.1%, stricture (3.3% and port site hernia (2.2%. Conclusion: LDJB-SG is a safe and feasible bariatric and metabolic surgery, which has demonstrated excellent outcomes in terms of weight reduction, co-morbidities resolution as well as glycemic control in short-term follow-up.

  1. Diabetes mellitus and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.T. Daminova

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, an increasing importance is given to the study of the problem of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, which is observed in a significant number of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM type 1 and 2 and can potentially affect the compensation of DM. The mechanism of reducing the external secretion of the pancreas in DM is associated with an imbalance of inhibitory and stimulating pancreatic secretion of hormones, with fibrosis of the gland as a result of diabetic angiopathy. In type 2 DM, the mechanisms that result from the metabolic syndrome are involved in the pathogenesis of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Enzyme replacement the­rapy should be considered as one of the promising methods of treating DM patients.

  2. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida Marcelino de Nazareth

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Both Alzheimer's disease (AD and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM are two common forms of disease worldwide and many studies indicate that people with diabetes, especially DM, are at higher risk of developing AD. AD is characterized by progressive cognitive decline and accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ forming senile plaques. DM is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia in the context of insulin resistance and relative lack of insulin. Both diseases also share common characteristics such as loss of cognitive function and inflammation. Inflammation resulting from Aβ further induces production of Aβ1-42 peptides. Inflammation due to overnutrition induces insulin resistance and consequently DM. Memory deficit and a decrease in GLUT4 and hippocampal insulin signaling have been observed in animal models of insulin resistance. The objective of this review was to show the shared characteristics of AD and DM.

  3. Insulin oedema in a 9 year old child with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insulin oedema in a 9 year old child with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a case report. ... with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) however, its clinical use is associated with ... in 1928.1 In the 1960's it was reported in two series from East Africa.2-3 and ...

  4. E-healthcare for diabetes mellitus type 2 patients – a randomised controlled trial in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iljaž Rade

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Telemonitoring and web-based interventions are increasingly used in primary-care practices in many countries for more effective management of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM. A new approach in treating patients with diabetes mellitus in family practices, based on ICT use and nurse practitioners, has been introduced and evaluated in this study.

  5. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Post-partum Risk and Follow Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poola-Kella, Silpa; Steinman, Rachel A; Mesmar, Bayan; Malek, Rana

    2018-01-31

    Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at an increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and cardiovascular disease. In this review, we will discuss postpartum cardiovascular and diabetes risk in women with a history of GDM and different ways to improve postpartum screening. This review involves a comprehensive literature review on gestational diabetes and postpartum risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus as well as post-partum screening methods. Cardiovascular risk post-partum is potentiated by increased inflammatory markers leading to worsening atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events downstream. Decreased insulin sensitivity and β cell compensation, recurrent GDM, maternal factors such as pre and post-partum weight gain and lactation may contribute to T2DM risk. Postpartum glucose testing is essential in screening women as hyperglycemia in pregnancy has long term effects on both cardiovascular disease and diabetes risk on the mother. Long and short term improvement to post-partum glucose testing is essential to decreasing cardiometabolic and diabetes risk in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. DERMATOGLYPHIC PATTERNS IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-28

    Feb 28, 2018 ... COMMENTARY. DERMATOGLYPHIC PATTERNS IN TYPE 2 DIABETES. MELLITUS ... contributions in diabetes mellitus and in various medical disorders. Hence dermatoglyphic .... female cases. These findings are similar to ...

  7. High risk of coagulopathy among Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus clients at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diabetes mellitus (T2DM) clients at a municipal hospital in Ghana. Methods: A hospital-based .... tions of the American Heart Association.12 Hypertension was graded as normal when ..... employ animal models are recommended to ascertain.

  8. An improved early detection method of type-2 diabetes mellitus using multiple classifier system

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jia; Xie, Qing; Zheng, Kai

    2015-01-01

    The specific causes of complex diseases such as Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) have not yet been identified. Nevertheless, many medical science researchers believe that complex diseases are caused by a combination of genetic, environmental

  9. Forecasting future prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ali, Radwan; Mzayek, Fawaz; Rastam, Samer; M Fouad, Fouad; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon; Maziak, Wasim

    2013-05-25

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasingly becoming a major public health problem worldwide. Estimating the future burden of diabetes is instrumental to guide the public health response to the epidemic. This study aims to project the prevalence of T2DM among adults in Syria over the period 2003-2022 by applying a modelling approach to the country's own data. Future prevalence of T2DM in Syria was estimated among adults aged 25 years and older for the period 2003-2022 using the IMPACT Diabetes Model (a discrete-state Markov model). According to our model, the prevalence of T2DM in Syria is projected to double in the period between 2003 and 2022 (from 10% to 21%). The projected increase in T2DM prevalence is higher in men (148%) than in women (93%). The increase in prevalence of T2DM is expected to be most marked in people younger than 55 years especially the 25-34 years age group. The future projections of T2DM in Syria put it amongst countries with the highest levels of T2DM worldwide. It is estimated that by 2022 approximately a fifth of the Syrian population aged 25 years and older will have T2DM.

  10. Study of 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial imaging in diabetics. Comparison between patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and those with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawanaka, Masahiro

    2000-01-01

    Myocardial accumulation of MIBG was studied in forty diabetic patients, including 17 with type 1 diabetes mellitus (type 1 DM, mean age 52.1±17 y.) and 23 with type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM, mean age 61.6±12 y.). Sixteen nondiabetic normal volunteers without hypertension (mean age 54.6±16 y.) were studied as controls. Type 2 DM patients showed a significantly lower heart-to-mediastinum ratio (15 min.: 2.34±0.35, 3 hr.: 2.27±0.41) than control subjects (15 min.: 2.73±0.25, 3 hr.: 2.95±0.40) (p<0.05), but Type 2 DM patients did not. Type 2 DM patients showed higher washout rate of MIBG (31.7±12%) than control subjects (19.3±7.4%) (p<0.05), but type 2 DM patients did not. Thirteen of the 17 type 1 DM patients (76.4%) and 12 of the 23 type 2 DM patients (52.2%) showed regional defects on MIBG SPECT. Myocardial MIBG defects in diabetics were mainly found in the inferior, septal and lateral regions of the myocardium. In type 1 DM, the patients with MIBG defects had longer duration of the disease, showed much more decrease of the systolic pressure with standing and lower CV level of the R-R interval on ECG than the patients without MIBG defects, but not in type 2 DM patients. These results show that type 1 DM patients show much more abnormal MIBG accumulation than type 2 DM patients. It suggests that the glycemic control including the early stage of diabetes influences the cardiac sympathetic function in diabetics. (author)

  11. Restless Legs Syndrome in Patients with Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabic, Adela; Sinanovic, Osman; Sabic, Dzevad; Galic, Gordan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze frequency of restless legs syndrome (RLS) in patients with hypertension and diabetes mellitus. It was analyzed 120 subjects (from Health Center Živinice/Family Medicine Department) through a survey conducted in the period from March to June 2015, of which 30 (8 men/22 women). Subjects were 30 patients with longtime hypertension (HT)(18 men/12 women), 30 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) type I or II (9 men/21 women), 30 patients with long standing DM type I or II and HT (12 men /18 women), and 30 control subjects (12 men/18 women). RLS were evaluated by questionnaire - International RLS Study Group Criteria. The average age of patients in the group with HT was 58.70 ± 9.07, in the group with DM 48.43 ± 15.37, and in the group of patients with HT and DM 63.90 ± 7.49 years. In the control group mean age was 52.76 ± 14.83 years. Statistical data were analyzed in Excel and SSPS statistical program. RLS was identified in 10 (30%) of those with HT; 7 (21%) in patients with DM, and 10 (30%) in patients with HT+DM. In the control group RLS was verified in 4 (12%) patients. Comparing the results, it was observed significant difference between the HT and the control group (p=0.0012) and HT+ DM and control group (p=0.0012). The frequency of RLS between DM and the control group was not significantly significant (p=0.107). RLS is frequent in patients with hypertension (30%), hypertension+ diabetes mellitus (30%), and patients with DM (21%).

  12. PURWARUPA SISTEM PAKAR UNTUK MENENTUKAN JUMLAH KALORI DIET BAGI PENDERITA DIABETES MELLITUS

    OpenAIRE

    Rifky Indra Perwira

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is one of the chronic diseases. People from all ages can suffer Diabetes Mellitus, but usually suffered the people who do not care about a healthy diet. Despite of taking drugs, the main treatment for DM is healthy diet with balanced food composition. The diet arrangement for the patient is hard to be created because it needs the knowledge from the nutritionists (expert) and calculation so that needs program to make it easier and give alternative solution...

  13. Metabolic endotoxemia and diabetes mellitus: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Júnia Maria Geraldo; Costa, Jorge de Assis; Alfenas, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves

    2017-03-01

    In this systematic review we analyzed studies that assessed serum concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and/or lipopolysacharide-binding protein (LBP) in diabetic patients compared with healthy people. Articles were selected using PubMed and Scopus. Search terms used were endotoxemia, endotoxins, LPS, LBP, diabetes mellitus (DM), type 1 (T1DM), type 2 (T2DM), insulin resistance, humans, epidemiologic studies, population-based, survey, representative, cross-sectional, case-control studies, observational, and clinical trials. Two authors independently extracted articles using predefined data fields, including study quality indicators. There was a great variability in the estimates of metabolic endotoxemia among the studies. Most of the studies observed higher LPS or LBP concentrations in diabetic subjects than in healthy controls. T1DM and T2DM subjects presented higher mean fasting LPS of 235.7% and 66.4% compared with non-diabetic subjects, respectively. Advanced complications (e.g. macroalbuminuria) and disease onset exacerbate endotoxemia. Antidiabetic medications decrease fasting LPS concentrations. Among these medications, rosiglitazone and insulin present higher and lower effects, respectively, compared with other treatments. T1DM and T2DM seem to increase metabolic endotoxemia. However, some confounders such as diet, age, medication, smoking and obesity influence both diabetes and endotoxemia manifestation. A better understanding of the interaction of these factors is still needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and prediabetes in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yan-Yan; Liang, Li; Fu, Jun-Fen; Wang, Xiu-Min

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the incident and prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and prediabetes in obese children in the last ten years. The clinical data of hospitalized children with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus (DM) or obesity between October 2000 and September 2011 were retrospectively studied. A total of 503 newly onset cases were diagnosed as DM in the past ten years, of which 31 were diagnosed as T2DM. The prevalence of T2DM in the second five-year duration increased significantly compared with that in the first five-year duration (0.18‰ vs 0.05‰; P1). The number of cases of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and T2DM increased by 1.35 fold and 4.20 fold, respectively in the second five-year duration. A total of 1301 obese patients received oral glucose tolerance tests, and 29 cases were diagnosed with T2DM and 255 cases with prediabetes. Of the 255 cases of prediabetes, 133 had dyslipidemia, 138 had non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and 53 had hypertension. The prevalence rates of T1DM and T2DM increased significantly in the last 5 years. The prevalence of T2DM increased more significantly than T1DM. There was a higher prevalence of prediabetes in obese children. Childhood obesity predicts a higher risk of T2DM and cardiovascular disease in the future.

  15. Nutrición en la Diabetes Mellitus 2

    OpenAIRE

    González González, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    La Diabetes Mellitus (DM), junto con la obesidad, es considerada como uno de los mayores problemas a nivel mundial. Se caracteriza por una alteración en la producción de insulina y una elevación en los niveles plasmáticos de glucosa. Dicha alteración, si es por déficit absoluto en la producción se conoce como DM tipo 1 o insulinodependiente. Si la alteración se refiere a un déficit relativo en la producción, hablamos de DM tipo 2. En otras ocasiones existe resistencia a la insulina. Los altos...

  16. The effect of ileal interposition surgery on enteroendocrine cell numbers in the UC Davis type 2 diabetes mellitus rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carl Frederik; Vassiliadis, Efstathios; Vrang, Niels

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the short-term effect of ileal interposition (IT) surgery on gut morphology and enteroendocrine cell numbers in the pre-diabetic UC Davis type 2 diabetes mellitus (UCD-T2DM) rat.......To investigate the short-term effect of ileal interposition (IT) surgery on gut morphology and enteroendocrine cell numbers in the pre-diabetic UC Davis type 2 diabetes mellitus (UCD-T2DM) rat....

  17. Preventing microvascular complications in type 1 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Viswanathan, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Patients with complications of diabetes such as retinopathy, nephropathy, and cardiovascular complications have increased hospital stay with greater economic burden. Prevention of complications should be started before the onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) by working on risk factors and thereafter by intervention upon confirmatory diagnosis which can prevent further damage to β-cells. The actual risk of getting microvascular complications like microalbuminuria and retinopathy progressi...

  18. SGLT2 Inhibitors in Diabetes Mellitus Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Guzman, Juan; Rosas-Saucedo, Juan; Romero-Garcia, Alma R J

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic illness with high prevalence in Mexico, Latin- America, and the world and is associated to high morbidity, disability, and mortality rate, especially in developing countries. T2DM physiopathology is very complex; insulin resistance in the muscle, liver, and adipose tissue, a reduction in the production of incretins (mainly GLP-1) in the intestine, increased glucagon synthesis, an insufficient response of insulin generation, and increased glucose reabsorption in the kidney lead all together to an hyperglycemic state, which has been closely associated with the development of micro and macrovascular complications. Sodium Glucose Linked Transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are the most recent therapeutic class available for treating T2DM. SGLT2i central effect is a glycosuric action, and they can reverse the deleterious effect of tubular reabsorption of glucose in the diabetic patient resulting in greater hyperglycemia. Because their mechanism of action is completely different to current drugs, they can be considered as monotherapy or in combination with any other oral or parenteral medication, including different types of insulin or its analogues. This therapeutic synergy accomplishes a greater percentage of patients achieving glycemic control goals. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Knowledge of diabetes mellitus and safe practices during Ramadan fasting among Muslim patients with diabetes mellitus in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainudin, Sueziani Binte; Ang, Dun Yong; Soh, Abel Wah Ek

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to explore the level of knowledge of Muslim patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) regarding DM and the self-management of DM when fasting during Ramadan. Muslim patients with DM attending the Diabetes Centre of Singapore General Hospital, Singapore, were surveyed on their knowledge of DM and self-management of DM when fasting during Ramadan. Data on patient demographics, DM history and management of DM during the previous Ramadan was also collected. A total of 92 patients (34 male, 58 female) were surveyed. The mean age of the patients was 53.4 ± 13.3 years. The patients were either Malay (91.3%) or Indian (8.7%), and most (66.3%) had at least a secondary school education. Most (89.1%) had Type 2 DM. The mean duration of DM was 8.7 ± 5.1 years and mean pre-Ramadan haemoglobin A1c was 8.4% ± 1.8%. DM treatment consisted of insulin therapy (37.0%), oral glucose-lowering drugs (35.9%) and combined therapy (22.8%). The mean DM knowledge score was 58.8% for general knowledge and 75.9% for fasting knowledge. During the previous Ramadan, although 71.4% of the patients consulted their physicians, 37.3% did not monitor their blood glucose levels and 47.0% had hypoglycaemic episodes. Among those who had hypoglycaemia, 10.8% continued to fast. Unsafe self-management practices were observed among DM patients who fasted during Ramadan. Efforts should be made to bridge the gap between knowledge of DM and self-management of DM. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association

  20. duration diabetes mellitus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... group, type of diabetes, age of onset and duration of diabetes), presence of retinopathy, markers of nephropathy and biochemical variables. ... type 2 diabetes and for each ethnic group. Results. ... time of diabetes diagnosis in blacks than Indians. In the type ... countries, minority groups and disadvantaged communities in.

  1. A Different Perspective for Management of Diabetes Mellitus: Controlling Viral Liver Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yingying; Xing, Huichun

    2017-01-01

    Knowing how to prevent and treat diabetes mellitus (DM) earlier is essential to improving outcomes. Through participating in synthesis and catabolism of glycogen, the liver helps to regulate glucose homeostasis. Viral related liver diseases are associated with glycometabolism disorders, which means effective management of viral liver diseases may be a therapeutic strategy for DM. The present article reviews the correlation between DM and liver diseases to give an update of the management of DM rooted by viral liver diseases.

  2. Epidemiologie des Diabetes mellitus Typ 2 in sub-Sahara Afrika

    OpenAIRE

    Danquah, Ina

    2018-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) constitutes an emerging health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Up to date, the characteristics of DM2, the associated lifestyle factors, and the potential interactions with the prevailing infectious diseases are only poorly understood. Therefore, this piece of work aimed at i) describing the characteristics of DM2 in Ghana, ii) examining the associated lifestyle factors for DM2 in Ghana, particularly dietary behavior, and iii) investigating potential interactions...

  3. The skin landscape in diabetes mellitus. Focus on dermocosmetic management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piérard GE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Gérald E Piérard,1 Sophie Seité,2 Trinh Hermanns-Lê,3 Philippe Delvenne,3 André Scheen,4 Claudine Piérard-Franchimont3 1Laboratory of Skin Bioengineering and Imaging (LABIC, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium; 2La Roche-Posay Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Asnières, France; 3Department of Dermatopathology, Unilab Lg, Liège University Hospital, Liège, Belgium; 4Department of Diabetology, Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases, and Clinical Pharmacology Unit, Liège University Hospital, Liège, Belgium Background: Some relationships are established between diabetes mellitus (DM and a series of cutaneous disorders. Specific dermatoses are markers for undiagnosed DM. Other disorders represent supervening complications in an already treated DM patient. Objective: To review the information about dermocosmetic care products and their appropriate use in the management and prevention of dermatoses related to DM. Method: The peer-reviewed literature and empiric findings are covered. Owing to the limited clinical evidence available for the use of dermocosmetics, a review of the routine practices and common therapies in DM-related dermatoses was conducted. Results: Some DM-related dermatoses (acanthosis nigricans, pigmented purpuric dermatosis are markers of macrovascular complications. The same disorders and some others (xerosis, Dupuytren's disease have been found to be more frequently associated with microangiopathy. Other skin diseases (alopecia areata, vitiligo were found to be markers of autoimmunity, particularly in type 1 DM. Unsurprisingly, using dermocosmetics and appropriate skin care has shown objective improvements of some DM-related dermatoses, such effects improve the quality of life. The most common skin manifestations of DM fall along continuum between "dry skin," xerosis, and acquired ichthyosis, occurring predominately on the shins and feet. Dermocosmetic products improve the feeling of well-being for DM patients. Keywords: diabetes

  4. Diagnostic criteria of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotan, I; Hellman, M A; Steiner, I

    2015-10-01

    The possibility of co-association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) has long been a focus of interest as well as of clinical significance. As CIDP is a potentially treatable condition, it is diagnosis in the context of DM is of great importance. However, diagnostic criteria to identify CIDP in patients with diabetes are not available. We propose a diagnostic tool that should help clinicians to decide what is the probability that a patient with diabetes might have CIDP. We list several clinical, electrophysiological, and laboratory parameters that, when combined, have the power of discriminating an immune-mediated neuropathy in patients with DM. By summing the points assigned to each of these parameters, we define four levels of probability for a patient with diabetes to have CIDP. To analyze the validity of the diagnostic toll, we applied it in three different patient populations: (i) Patients with diabetes with peripheral neuropathy, (ii) Patients with CIDP without DM, and (iii) Patients with diabetes with CIDP. The scores of patients with diabetes without CIDP ranged from -7 to 2, while those of patients with DM-CIDP ranged from 2 to 20. The scores of non-diabetic patients with CIDP were similar to those of patients with DM-CIDP and ranged from 6 to 16. The mean score of patients with DM-CIDP was 9.083, while the score of patients with CIDP was 11.16 and that of patients with diabetic polyneuropathy was -3.59. These results show that this diagnostic tool is able to identify patients with diabetes with overlapping CIDP. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Diabetes mellitus type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Desta, Semere Tekeste

    2017-01-01

    Høgskulen på Vestlandet Avdeling for helsefag for sykepleiere Tittel: Diabetes type 1 Bakgrunn for val av tema: I 2000 var det ca. 130 000 personer i Norge med diabetes, av disse hadde ca. 20 000 diabetes type 1. I dag er det ca. 230 000 personer som har diabetes i Norge. Av disse ca. 28 000 type 1 diabetes. Tallet viser hvor alvorlig sykdommen er, fordi det har vært og fortsatt er, en økning av antall diabetikere i Norge. Type 1 diabetes kan komme i alle aldersgrupper, men vanligvis...

  6. Should we screen for emotional distress in type 2 diabetes mellitus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouwer, Francois

    2009-01-01

    Emotional problems such as depression, anxiety and diabetes-specific distress are common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) but often remain unrecognized and thus untreated. The present Review focuses on the extent of this problem and discusses whether we should screen for depression......DM have shown that screening for depression does not improve outcomes. On the other hand, collaborative care approaches for depression in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) or T2DM seem to be effective. Intervention studies for anxiety or diabetes-specific emotional distress are currently...... assessments of emotional well-being in patients with T2DM. However, this recommendation is not based on strong evidence, as the effects of screening (case-finding) on psychological outcomes and diabetes outcomes have not been tested in a randomized controlled study. Results from studies in patients without T2...

  7. Hand functions in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akpinar Pinar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. Hand functions have an enormous impact on activities of daily living in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM, such as self-care, administering insulin injections, and preparing and eating meals. The aim of the study was to evaluate hand functions and grip strength in patients with type 1 and type 2 DM. Methods. This was an observational case-control study investigating the hand functions and grip strength in patients with type 1 and type 2 DM. The study comprised 41 patients with type 1 DM aged 25–50 years sex- and age-matched, 40 non-diabetic controls, and 91 patients with type 2 DM aged 40–65 years sex- and age-matched 60 non-diabetic controls. Patients with documented history of diabetic sensorimotor neuropathy and adhesive capsulitis were excluded. The Duruoz Hand Index was used to assess the functional hand disability. Grip strength was tested with a calibrated Jamar dynamometer. Results. The Duruoz Hand Index scores in patients with type 2 DM were significantly higher than in persons in the control group (p 0.05. Grip strength values of patients with type 1 DM were significantly lower compared to those in the control group (p < 0.05, whereas there was no significant difference between patients with type 2 DM and their control group. There was a negatively significant correlation between grip strength and the Duruoz Hand Index scores in patients with both type 1 and type 2 DM (p < 0.05. Conclusion. Patients with type 1 DM and type 2 DM have different degrees of hand disability as compared to healthy control groups.

  8. Gestational diabetes mellitus in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Lynge; Olesen, Jesper; Jørgensen, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Within the last 20 years, the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been reported to be increasing worldwide in correlation with ethnic and geographic variations. The actual prevalence of GDM throughout all of Greenland remains unknown. Objective. The aim of this study...

  9. Glukagonomsyndrom uden diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Carsten Sauer; Mikkelsen, Dorthe Bisgaard; Vestergaard, Vibeke

    2008-01-01

    without diabetes. Glucagonoma syndrome is characterized by glucagon overproduction, diabetes, depression, deep venous thrombosis and necrolytic migrating erythema. Glucagonoma is frequently diagnosed late which increases the risk of metastases. It is important not to rule out glucagonoma in patients...... with a relevant clinical picture but without diabetes. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Nov-17...

  10. Undiagnosed diabetes mellitus and associated factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Undiagnosed diabetes mellitus cases are at higher risk for diabetic related complications. In low-income African countries, patients with undiagnosed diabetes mellitus account for 75% of diabetes cases. Psychiatric disorders have a greater impact on the global burden of diseases and disability associated with ...

  11. Diabetes Mellitus and Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrke, Michael; Marx, Nikolaus

    2017-06-01

    Epidemiologic and clinical data from the last 2 decades have shown that the prevalence of heart failure in diabetes is very high, and the prognosis for patients with heart failure is worse in those with diabetes than in those without diabetes. Experimental data suggest that various mechanisms contribute to the impairment in systolic and diastolic function in patients with diabetes, and there is an increased recognition that these patients develop heart failure independent of the presence of coronary artery disease or its associated risk factors. In addition, current clinical data demonstrated that treatment with the sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor empagliflozin reduced hospitalization for heart failure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and high cardiovascular risk. This review article summarizes recent data on the prevalence, prognosis, pathophysiology, and therapeutic strategies to treat patients with diabetes and heart failure. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Management of type 2 diabetes mellitus associated with pituitary gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Omar; Banerjee, Swati; Kelly, Daniel F; Lee, Phillip D K

    2007-01-01

    Pituitary gigantism, a condition of endogenous growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion prior to epiphyseal closure, is a rare condition. In the adult condition of GH excess, acromegaly, the occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) have been reported, with resolution following normalization of GH levels. We report the case of a 16-year-old male with pituitary gigantism due to a large invasive suprasellar adenoma who presented with T2DM and DKA. Despite surgical de-bulking, radiotherapy and medical treatment with cabergoline and pegvisomant, GH and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels remained elevated. However, the T2DM and recurrent DKA were successfully managed with metformin and low-dose glargine insulin, respectively. We review the pathophysiology of T2DM and DKA in growth hormone excess and available treatment options.

  13. Influence of diabetes mellitus on heart failure risk and outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Belle Eric

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Our aim is to summarize and discuss the recent literature linking diabetes mellitus with heart failure, and to address the issue of the optimal treatment for diabetic patients with heart failure. The studies linking diabetes mellitus (DM with heart failure (HF The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in heart failure populations is close to 20% compared with 4 to 6% in control populations. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an increased risk of heart failure in diabetics; moreover, in diabetic populations, poor glycemic control has been associated with an increased risk of heart failure. Various mechanisms may link diabetes mellitus to heart failure: firstly, associated comorbidities such as hypertension may play a role; secondly, diabetes accelerates the development of coronary atherosclerosis; thirdly, experimental and clinical studies support the existence of a specific diabetic cardiomyopathy related to microangiopathy, metabolic factors or myocardial fibrosis. Subgroup analyses of randomized trials demonstrate that diabetes is also an important prognostic factor in heart failure. In addition, it has been suggested that the deleterious impact of diabetes may be especially marked in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. Treatment of heart failure in diabetic patients The knowledge of the diabetic status may help to define the optimal therapeutic strategy for heart failure patients. Cornerstone treatments such as ACE inhibitors or beta-blockers appear to be uniformly beneficial in diabetic and non diabetic populations. However, in ischemic cardiomyopathy, the choice of the revascularization technique may differ according to diabetic status. Finally, clinical studies are needed to determine whether improved metabolic control might favorably influence the outcome of diabetic heart failure patients.

  14. Features of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Combination with Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Yu. Yuzvenko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. The last decades are characterized by the considerable increase in the prevalence of endocrine disorders with the change of the structure, and first of all cases of polyendocrinopathy, the special place among which is occupied by combination of diabetes mellitus (DM and thyroid diseases. Increase in the incidence of DM type 2 associated with hypothyroidism affects the clinical course of this pathology, remains topical problem of modern medical science. The objective: to study the prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients with type 2 DM and to establish clinical features of DM type 2 in combination with hypothyroidism. Materials and methods. We have examined 179 patients with DM associated with primary hypothyroidism, including 64 patients with DM type 1 and 115 patients with type 2 DM. Comparison group consisted of 62 patients with DM without hypothyroidism (27 of them — with DM type 1, 35 — with DM type 2. Thyroid function was assessed by determining the basal concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone and free thyroxine fraction. Results. It was found that patients with DM type 2 and hypothyroidism belonged to an older age group than patients with DM type 1 and hypothyroidism. Thus, the age of patients with DM type 1 and hypothyroidism was 35.3 ± 9.5 years, and in patients with type 2 DM and hypothyroidism — 47.6 ± 11.0 years. In all groups of patients, the percentage of women was much higher than men. The significant differences were detected in terms of the amplitude of glycemic index, namely its increase in patients with DM type 1 and hypothyroidism. When DM type 2 was combined with hypothyroidism, lipid metabolism indices were higher than in DM type 2 without thyroid disease. This confirms the effect of hypothyroidism on lipid metabolism and causes increased risk of progression of cardiovascular events at the presence of two diseases. Conclusions. Among examined patients, hypothyroidism occurred 2.4 times more often

  15. Maternal Lipids May Predict Fetal Growth in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstevska, Brankica; Jovanovska, Sasha Misevska; Krstevska, Slagjana Simeonova; Nakova, Valentina Velkoska; Serafimoski, Vladimir

    2016-11-01

    During diabetic pregnancy, complex metabolic changes occur in the lipid profile. The aim of the study was to determine the predictive values of maternal serum lipid levels on large-for-gestational age newborns during the third trimester in pregnancies of women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Data of forty three pregnancies of women with DM2 and two hundred women with GDM were analyzed. The analysis encompassed the following parameters: age, body mass index (BMI), lipid parameters, HbA1c in first, second and third trimester of pregnancy, preeclampsia and baby birth weight. DM2 and GDM groups showed statistically significant differences in the following variables: total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, BMI, age, baby birth weight, incidence of SGA and preterm delivery (9.4 ± 2.3 vs. 11.0 ± 2.3 mmol/L, 2.4 ± 1.4 vs. 3.4 ± 1.6 mmol/L, 5.5 ± 1.2 vs. 6.4 ± 1.4 mmol/L, 30.6 ± 5.4 vs. 26.9 ± 5.2 kg/m2, 34 ± 7.8 vs. 31.5 ± 5.6 years, 3183 ± 972 vs. 3533 ± 699 g., 20% vs. 7.5%, 27.9 vs. 14%, respectively, p DM2 and GDM pregnancies. Thus, the maternal serum triglycerides and LDL-C levels determined in the maternal blood taken in the third trimester of pregnancy may indentify women who will give birth to LGA newborns.

  16. Foot disorders in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Y. Tokmakova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world. According to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF, by 2035 the number of diabetes patients will reach 592 million people. Various disorders of the structure and function of the soft tissues and skeleton of the lower extremities is the most common reason that patients seek medical care. The paper presents the modern concept of the pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapeutic and prevention tactics used in the specialized endocrinological and surgical clinics.

  17. Diabetes Mellitus in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villena, Jaime E

    2015-01-01

    Peru is an upper medium-income developing country with an increasing prevalence of chronic diseases, including diabetes. To review and describe the epidemiology, drivers, and diabetes care plan in Peru. The medical literature was reviewed based on systematic searching of PubMed, Scielo, and various gray literature from the International Diabetes Federation, World Health Organization, and local Peruvian agencies. In Peru, diabetes affects 7% of the population. Type 2 diabetes accounts for 96.8% of outpatients visits with this condition. Type 1 diabetes has an incidence of 0.4/100,000 per year, and gestational diabetes affects 16% of pregnancies. The prevalence of glucose intolerance is 8.11% and that of impaired fasting glucose 22.4%. The prevalence of overweight, obesity, and metabolic syndrome in adults is 34.7%, 17.5%, and 25%, respectively. Metabolic syndrome prevalence is greater in women and the elderly and at urban and low-altitude locations. Diabetes is the eighth cause of death, the sixth cause of blindness, and the leading cause of end-stage kidney disease and nontraumatic lower limb amputation. In Peru, diabetes accounts for 31.5% of acute myocardial infarctions and 25% of strokes. Infections, diabetic emergencies, and cardiovascular disorders are the main causes for admissions, with a mortality rate Diabetes is a major health care issue in Peru that exposes difficult challenges and shortcomings. The national strategy for tackling diabetes includes promotion of healthy lifestyles; training primary care physicians and providing them with evidence-based clinical practice guidelines, safe and effective medications, and tools for monitoring treatment; and, finally, construction of a comprehensive health care network for early referral in order to prevent, detect, and treat diabetic complications. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Investigation of role of plasma endothelin in diabetes mellitus patients complicated with angiocardiopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cong Jingbo; Wang Zhihua; Niu Aijun

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the role of plasma endothelin in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients complicated with angiocardiopathy. Methods: Plasma endothelin levels were determined by radioimmunoassay in 34 diabetics, 27 diabetics complicated with angiocardiopathy and in 30 controls. Results: Plasma endothelin levels in both diabetic groups were significantly higher than those in normal subjects (p < 0.01); plasma endothelin levels in DM patients complicated with angiocardiopathy were significantly higher than those in patients with diabetes only (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Plasma endothelin was of important role in the pathogenesis of DM complicated with angiocardiopathy and could be used as an early and sensitive marker

  19. Imaging of the brain in children with type I diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L.; Glaser, Nicole S.

    2007-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) affects about 1 in 500 children and can cause damage to multiple organ systems. In recent years, growing attention has been given to the effects of type 1 DM on the brain. In this article we review important imaging features of the brain in children with type 1 DM, including (1) imaging the child in diabetic ketoacidosis and the child with hypoglycemia, (2) syndromes associated with type 1 DM, and (3) long-term effects of type 1 DM on brain structure. (orig.)

  20. Imaging of the brain in children with type I diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L. [University of California, Davis Medical Center, Department of Radiology, UC Davis Children' s Hospital, Sacramento, CA (United States); Glaser, Nicole S. [University of California, Davis Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, UC Davis Children' s Hospital, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) affects about 1 in 500 children and can cause damage to multiple organ systems. In recent years, growing attention has been given to the effects of type 1 DM on the brain. In this article we review important imaging features of the brain in children with type 1 DM, including (1) imaging the child in diabetic ketoacidosis and the child with hypoglycemia, (2) syndromes associated with type 1 DM, and (3) long-term effects of type 1 DM on brain structure. (orig.)

  1. Infantile onset diabetes mellitus in developing countries - India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadarajan, Poovazhagi

    2016-01-01

    Infantile onset diabetes mellitus (IODM) is an uncommon metabolic disorder in children. Infants with onset of diabetes mellitus (DM) at age less than one year are likely to have transient or permanent neonatal DM or rarely type 1 diabetes. Diabetes with onset below 6 mo is a heterogeneous disease caused by single gene mutations. Literature on IODM is scanty in India. Nearly 83% of IODM cases present with diabetic keto acidosis at the onset. Missed diagnosis was common in infants with diabetes (67%). Potassium channel mutation with sulphonylurea responsiveness is the common type in the non-syndromic IODM and Wolcott Rallison syndrome is the common type in syndromic diabetes. Developmental delay and seizures were the associated co-morbid states. Genetic diagnosis has made a phenomenal change in the management of IODM. Switching from subcutaneous insulin to oral hypoglycemic drugs is a major clinical breakthrough in the management of certain types of monogenic diabetes. Mortality in neonatal diabetes is 32.5% during follow-up from Indian studies. This article is a review of neonatal diabetes and available literature on IODM from India. PMID:27022444

  2. Diabetes mellitus type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Tøraasen, Lisa Vangen; Al-Sultan, Zainab

    2014-01-01

    Bacheloroppgave i sykepleie, 2014 Hvert år blir rundt 600 nordmenn diagnostisert med sykdommen diabetes type 1, og Norge er et av landene i verden med størst andel av barnediabetes. I dag er det 15 000- 20 000 personer i Norge som har diabetes type 1, og antall barn som får diabetes har fordoblet seg de siste 30 årene (Diabetesforbundet, 2014). Problemstillingen vår gikk ut på hvordan sykepleiere kan veilede og undervise ungdom med nyoppdaget diabetes type på sykehus. Ut i fra litteraturst...

  3. Diabetes mellitus type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Tøraasen, Lisa Vangen; Al-Sultan, Zainab

    2014-01-01

    Hvert år blir rundt 600 nordmenn diagnostisert med sykdommen diabetes type 1, og Norge er et av landene i verden med størst andel av barnediabetes. I dag er det 15 000- 20 000 personer i Norge som har diabetes type 1, og antall barn som får diabetes har fordoblet seg de siste 30 årene (Diabetesforbundet, 2014). Problemstillingen vår gikk ut på hvordan sykepleiere kan veilede og undervise ungdom med nyoppdaget diabetes type på sykehus. Ut i fra litteraturstudiet har vi arbeidet oss frem for å ...

  4. Interventions to Improve Rate of Diabetes Testing Postpartum in Women With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Maureen S; Werner, Erika F

    2017-02-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common medical complications of pregnancy. In the USA, four million women are screened annually for GDM in pregnancy in part to improve pregnancy outcomes but also because diagnosis predicts a high risk of future type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Therefore, among women with GDM, postpartum care should be focused on T2DM prevention. This review describes the current literature aimed to increase postpartum diabetes testing among women with GDM. Data suggest that proactive patient contact via a health educator, a phone call, or even postal mail is associated with higher rates of postpartum diabetes testing. There may also be utility to changing the timing of postpartum diabetes testing. Despite the widespread knowledge regarding the importance of postpartum testing for women with GDM, testing rates remain low. Alternative testing strategies and large randomized trials addressing postpartum testing are warranted.

  5. Wolfram syndrome: A rare mimic of type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Gutch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wolfram syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a constellation of disorders also known as diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus (DM, optic atrophy, and deafness. Patients present with DM and optic atrophy in the first decade, diabetes insipidus and sensorineural deafness in the second decade, and renal outflow tract anomalies and other neurological manifestations later in life. We report a case of a 14-year-old boy who was diagnosed with insulin-dependent DM and subsequently discovered to have optic atrophy, sensorineural hearing loss, and cardiovascular defect with a positive family history. Such cases need to be evaluated thoroughly with respect to Wolfram syndrome and its associated anomalies.

  6. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy associated with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Fatehi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Various forms of neuropathy are seen diabetic patients; chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP seems not to be infrequent neuropathy in patients suffering from diabetes and it seems to be more common than in the general population; on the contrary, some authorities do not support pathogenetic association between diabetes mellitus (DM and CIDP. Also, there are some controversies on the subject of CIDP treatment in diabetic patients. Some studies showed that patients with CIDP-DM considerably had recovered following treatment with immunotherapeutic modalities like (Intravenous immunoglobulin IVIG and conversely, some else have argued against the prescription of IVIG in this group and recommend treatment with corticosteroids and provided that resistant, rituximab may be beneficial. The main limitation in most studies is the inadequate number of cases and as a result, problematic decision making in treatment. This article represents an inclusive review of diabetic CIDP presentation and treatment.

  7. PROFIL URINALISIS PENGGUNAAN IMUNAX PADA PASIEN DIABETES MELITUS (DM RAWAT JALAN DI RSU PKU MUHAMMADIYAH BANTUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a metabolic disease characterized by the onset of hyperglycemia due to secretion disorders, as well as resistance of insulin. Chronic hyperglycemic and other DM metabolic disorders will cause tissue and organ damage, such as the eyes, kidneys and vascular system. Some studies show that immunax (MBJH: minyak biji jinten hitam has antidibetic benefits. This study aims to determine the description of urinalysis and proteinuria in DM patients who get immunax. The study design was randomized controlled trial. MBJH is given in 2 dosage levels, 2x1 soft capsule and 2x2 soft capsul given for 20 days on the subject. Urine data taken before and after administration of immunax preparations. The results showed that based on sex, age, education, occupation, marital status and the type of therapy used there was no significant difference in the characteristics and types of therapy used by the study subjects (patients at risk of metabolic syndrome between the treatment groups and the placebo group. The result of urinalysis test showed that there was no difference of urinalysis image in the three groups. The conclusion of this study was that there was no significant effect (p value> 0,05 on immunax (MBJH on the urinalysis profile in patients with metabolic syndrome risk, both dose 2x1, 2x2, and control group

  8. Reproductive disturbances among Saudi adolescent girls and young women with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Braham, Rim; Robert, Asirvatham Alwin; Musallam, Maha Ali; Alanazi, Abdulaziz; Swedan, Nawaf Bin; Al Dawish, Mohamed Abdulaziz

    2017-01-01

    AIM To identify reproductive disturbances among adolescent girls and young women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in Saudi Arabia. METHODS This cross sectional study was conducted among 102 female with T1DM, (aged 13-29 years) who attended the Diabetes Clinic at Diabetes Treatment Center, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Saudi Arabia between April 2015 to March 2016. Clinical history, anthropometric characteristics and reproductive disturbance were collected through a questionnaire. R...

  9. Diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in urban adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Rodrigues Júnior

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Estimating the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT in the urban population aged between 30 and 69 years in the municipality of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Methods: Population-based cross-sectional study conducted between October/2009 and February/2011. The investigation included the determination of fasting glucose and participants with blood glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL were considered diabetic. Nondiabetic patients, which showed blood glucose ≥ 100 mg/dL and < 200 mg/dL, underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT to investigate whether they had DM or IGT. Results: 1.429 individuals participated in this investigation. The general prevalence, adjusted for sex and age, were: 12.3% for DM (95%CI: 10.5 to 13.9% and 7.1% for IGT (95%CI: 5.7 to 8.4%. There was a higher prevalence of DM with increasing age in people with low educational level, family history of diabetes, overweight, obesity and central obesity. Among diabetic patients (n = 195, 25% were unaware they had the disease and were diagnosed through investigation. Among patients who already knew they had DM (n = 146, 37% were unaware of the potential chronic complications. Conclusion: This study confirms the increased prevalence of DM in Brazil and emphasizes the need for early diagnosis, as well as the importance of strict adherence to medical treatment in order to prevent its much feared complications.

  10. Trabecular bone histomorphometry in humans with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Laura A G; Akhter, Mohammed P; Drincic, Andjela; Recker, Robert R

    2012-01-01

    Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) have markedly increased risk of fracture, but little is known about abnormalities in bone microarchitecture or remodeling properties that might give insight into the pathogenesis of skeletal fragility in these patients. We report here a case-control study comparing bone histomorphometric and micro-CT results from iliac biopsies in 18 otherwise healthy subjects with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus with those from healthy age- and sex-matched non-diabetic control subjects. Five of the diabetics had histories of low-trauma fracture. Transilial bone biopsies were obtained after tetracycline labeling. The biopsy specimens were fixed, embedded, and scanned using a desktop μCT at 16 μm resolution. They were then sectioned and quantitative histomorphometry was performed as previously described by Recker et al. [1]. Two sections, >250 μm apart, were read from the central part of each biopsy. Overall there were no significant differences between diabetics and controls in histomorphometric or micro-CT measurements. However, fracturing diabetics had structural and dynamic trends different from nonfracturing diabetics by both methods of analysis. In conclusion, Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus does not result in abnormalities in bone histomorphometric or micro-CT variables in the absence of manifest complications from the diabetes. However, diabetics suffering fractures may have defects in their skeletal microarchitecture that may underlie the presence of excess skeletal fragility. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prediction of Methionine and Homocysteine levels in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats as a T2DM animal model after consumption of a Methionine-rich diet

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Nayoung; Chae, Jung-woo; Jeon, Jihyun; Lee, Jaeyeon; Back, Hyun-moon; Song, Byungjeong; Kwon, Kwang-il; Kim, Sang Kyum; Yun, Hwi-yeol

    2018-01-01

    Background Although alterations in the methionine metabolism cycle (MMC) have been associated with vascular complications of diabetes, there have not been consistent results about the levels of methionine and homocysteine in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of the current study was to predict changes in plasma methionine and homocysteine concentrations after simulated consumption of methionine-rich foods, following the development of a mathematical model for MMC in Zucker Diabetic Fat...

  12. Radionuclide study of the hepatobiliary system function in patients with diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavnov, V.M.; Savich, O.A.; Markov, V.V.

    2002-01-01

    The functional state of the liver parenchyma, concentration and motor functions of the gallbladder in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) was studied. To analyze hepatobiliary system disorders depending on the type of DM, presence of complications, duration of the disease and the age of the patients

  13. Bone scan in diagnosis of inflammatory processes of the foot bones in diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavnov, V.M.; Markov, V.V.; Bolgars'ka, S.V.

    2003-01-01

    The radionuclide technique for early diagnosis of inflammatory process in the bones of the foot was developed for diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. The most important diagnostic criterion of the bone lesion in patients with DM is area asymmetry and total activity percentage between the lesion focus and symmetrical zone

  14. Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Self-Management Experiences in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cássia Sparapani, Valéria; Liberatore, Raphael D. R., Jr.; Damião, Elaine B. C.; de Oliveira Dantas, Isa R.; de Camargo, Rosangela A. A.; Nascimento, Lucila C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) need to perform self-management activities at school and in other environments. Learning about their experiences at school is crucial to assist them in this challenging task. Methods: Qualitative interviews were conducted with children with T1DM, aged between 7 and 12. A scenario was…

  15. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Case Decisions: Health-Related Service Considerations for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Ara J.; Wodrich, David L.; Lazar, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic illness that can impact learning and often requires medical management in the school setting. School psychologists must therefore be knowledgeable of special service eligibility criteria associated with T1DM, the health-related services often required of such students, and what health-related services…

  16. The impact of metabolic syndrome and CRP on vascular phenotype in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alizadeh Dehnavi, R.; Beishuizen, E.D.; Ree, M.A. van de; Le Cessie, S.; Huisman, M.V.; Kluft, C.; Princen, H.M.G.; Tamsma, J.T.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The burden of cardiovascular disease in diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) patients is variable. We hypothesize that metabolic syndrome (MS) and low-grade systemic inflammation modify the extent of atherosclerosis in DM2. Methods: Vascular phenotype was determined using the following

  17. Urinary tract infections in patients with diabetes mellitus: epidemiology, pathogenesis and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, Suzanne E.

    2008-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have a higher prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) compared with patients without DM. They also more often have bacteraemia, with the urinary tract as the most common focus for these infections, as well as

  18. Factores de riesgo de diabetes mellitus tipo 2 en mujeres postmenopaúsicas

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta Naranjo, William Daniel; Esnal, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    La Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2 (DM 2) es una enfermedad con impacto socio sanitario por su elevada frecuencia y mortalidad cardiovascular. En Uruguay, como en la población mundial, la DM2 es más frecuente en mujeres. Este trabajo describe factores de riesgo en mujeres postmenopaúsicas que nosotros, los investigadores de este manuscrito, atendemos.

  19. What employees with diabetes mellitus need to cope at work: views of employees and health professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Detaille, Sarah I.; Haafkens, Joke A.; Hoekstra, Joost B.; van Dijk, Frank J. H.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify and compare patient and professional perspectives on what enables employees with diabetes mellitus (DM) to maintain their position in the workplace. To provide information on how professionals can help DM patients cope at work. METHODS: Qualitative study using concept-mapping

  20. Age, Sex and Atherogenic Risk in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to assess the degree of atherogenic risk in type 2 DM and non-DM patients and to relate age and sex with atherogenic risk of the patients. A total of 192 participants, consisting of one hundred (100) type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and ninety-two (92) healthy controls were randomly selected ...

  1. Screening and intervention of diabetes mellitus in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in poverty zones in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qiuzhen; Han, Xiuxia; Ma, Aiguo

    2012-01-01

    The merging epidemics of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and diabetes mellitus (DM) have been raised concerns by many experts but no large scale screening and intervention have been launched yet, especially in low-income areas. The current study aims to understand the prevalence of DM in active PTB...

  2. Novel targets for the development of drugs for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sotiriou, Alexandros

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a modern metabolic disorder. T2DM is related with modern lifestyle and results when the body is unable to produce sufficient insulin or respond properly to insulin, which is the hormone that regulates the levels of glucose in blood. The aim of this project was

  3. Dietary Inflammatory Index and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Adults: The Diabetes Mellitus Survey of Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar; Muñoz-Aguirre, Paloma; Shivappa, Nitin; Hébert, James R; Tolentino-Mayo, Lizbeth; Batis, Carolina; Barquera, Simón

    2018-03-21

    Diet and inflammation are both associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In the present study, we aimed to assess the relation between the dietary inflammatory index (DII) and the presence of T2DM in Mexican adults participating in the Diabetes Mellitus Survey administered in Mexico City (DMS-MC). The study involved 1174 subjects (48.5% men) between 20-69 years of age. A validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was employed to evaluate dietary intake and to compute DII. The DII is based on scientific evidence about the association between dietary compounds and six established inflammatory biomarkers. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of DII in relation to T2DM. Our results suggest that subjects in the highest quintile of the DII had higher odds of T2DM (OR = 3.02; 95% CI: 1.39, 6.58; p = 0.005) compared to subjects in the lowest quintile of DII scores. Assessing possible effect modification, an association with T2DM was evident when comparing DII quintile 5 to quintile 1 for participants aged ≥ 55 years (OR = 9.77; 95% CI: 3.78, 25.50; p = 0.001). These results suggest that a pro-inflammatory diet is associated with significantly higher odds of T2DM among adult Mexicans.

  4. Skin, a mirror reflecting diabetes mellitus: A longitudinal study in a tertiary care hospital in Gujarat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahora, Roshni; Thakkar, Sejal; Marfatia, Yogesh

    2013-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most common of the endocrine disorders. Mucocutaneous manifestations of diabetes mellitus are many and vary from trivial to life-threatening. Sometimes, mucocutaneous disorders may herald the onset of diabetes. To study the pattern of mucocutaneous manifestations in diabetics and role of it in diagnosing diabetes mellitus and its complications. It was a longitudinal observational study of patients having diabetes with skin complaints attending skin outdoor department or admitted in wards for any reason in a tertiary care hospital. Total 300 patients were included in the study. Detailed history, clinical examination, and relevant investigations were done to diagnose the mucocutaneous disorders, diabetes, and diabetic complications. The data was analyzed by using Epi info software. Demographic profile shown majority of cases (78.66%) in more than 40 years of age with almost equal male and female preponderance. Mucocutaneous manifestations as presenting feature of diabetes were observed in 21.67% cases. Infections were most common in 119 (39.66%) cases, followed by acanthosis nigricans in 46 (15.33%) cases. Various associated complications like hypertension, retinopathy, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease, neuropathy, nephropathy, and diabetic ketoacidosis were observed in 160 (53.3%). Skin is the mirror, which reflects internal diseases; this aptly applies to skin and diabetes mellitus. Through awareness about cutaneous manifestations of DM, dermatologist can not only take credit for detecting DM but also facilitate early diagnosis of systemic complications of DM. This is immensely beneficial to patients in long run.

  5. Autoradiographic thyroid evaluation in short-term experimental diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento-Saba C.C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that in vitro thyroid peroxidase (TPO iodide oxidation activity is decreased and thyroid T4-5'-deiodinase activity is increased 15 days after induction of experimental diabetes mellitus (DM. In the present study we used thyroid histoautoradiography, an indirect assay of in vivo TPO activity, to determine the possible parallelism between the in vitro and in vivo changes induced by experimental DM. DM was induced in male Wistar rats (about 250 g body weight by a single ip streptozotocin injection (45 mg/kg, while control (C animals received a single injection of the vehicle. Seven and 30 days after diabetes induction, each diabetic and control animal was given ip a tracer dose of 125I (2 µCi, 2.5 h before thyroid excision. The glands were counted, weighed, fixed in Bouin's solution, embedded in paraffin and cut. The sections were stained with HE and exposed to NTB-2 emulsion (Kodak. The autohistograms were developed and the quantitative distribution of silver grains was evaluated with a computerized image analyzer system. Thyroid radioiodine uptake was significantly decreased only after 30 days of DM (C: 0.38 ± 0.05 vs DM: 0.20 ± 0.04%/mg thyroid, P<0.05 while in vivo TPO activity was significantly decreased 7 and 30 days after DM induction (C: 5.3 and 4.5 grains/100 µm2 vs DM: 2.9 and 1.6 grains/100 µm2, respectively, P<0.05 . These data suggest that insulin deficiency first reduces in vivo TPO activity during short-term experimental diabetes mellitus

  6. [Endurance capabilities of triathlon competitors with type 1 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehncke, S; Poettgen, K; Maser-Gluth, C; Reusch, J; Boehncke, W-H; Badenhoop, K

    2009-04-01

    Treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) aims to prevent complications by strictly optimizing blood glucose levels. Although physical exercise is an important part of metabolic control, endurance sports are considered hazardous for patients with type 1 diabetes because of the extreme physiological stress they represent. To further elucidate the metabolic challenge this form of exercise presented we investigated the performance of triathlon competitors with type 1 diabetes. Ten patients (32-61 years) with type 1 diabetes (disease duration 2-35 years) were followed for three years, during which each year they participated in one triathlon long-distance competitions (2.4 miles swimming, 26.2 miles running and 112 miles cycling; Ironman Germany 2005-2007). Glucose, cortisol, aldosterone, renin, thyroid hormones, testosterone, growth hormone and catecholamines were measured in blood and saliva. Five non-diabetic competitors served as controls. The performance equalled those of age-matched healthy athletes. Several participants experienced hyperglycemia early in the bike leg, whereas all of them developed low blood glucose levels during the marathon leg. Basal insulin supply was reduced up to 50 % on race day. Hormone levels in athletes with type 1 DM and healthy controls were similar. Patients with type 1 DM can successfully sustain extreme endurance challenges. Physiological alterations of the metabolic state complicated by type 1 DM can readily be compensated by adapting intensified insulin therapy and nutritional modifications. Thus 1 DM should not be regarded a contraindication to participating in high endurance sports.

  7. Decision-making in diabetes mellitus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustad, James K; Musselman, Dominique L; Skyler, Jay S; Matheson, Della; Delamater, Alan; Kenyon, Norma S; Cáceda, Ricardo; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2013-01-01

    Decreased treatment adherence in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 (type 1 DM) may reflect impairments in decision-making and underlying associated deficits in working memory and executive functioning. Other factors, including comorbid major depression, may also interfere with decision-making. The authors sought to review the clinically relevant characteristics of decision-making in type 1 DM by surveying the literature on decision-making by patients with type 1 DM. Deficiencies in decision-making in patients with type 1 DM or their caregivers contribute to treatment nonadherence and poorer metabolic control. Animal models of type 1 DM reveal deficits in hippocampal-dependent memory tasks, which are reversible with insulin. Neurocognitive studies of patients with type 1 DM reveal lowered performance on ability to apply knowledge to solve problems in a new situation and acquired scholarly knowledge, psychomotor efficiency, cognitive flexibility, visual perception, speed of information-processing, and sustained attention. Other factors that might contribute to poor decision-making in patients with type 1 DM, include "hypoglycemia unawareness" and comorbid major depression (given its increased prevalence in type 1 DM). Future studies utilizing novel treatment strategies to help patients with type 1 DM make better decisions about their disease may improve their glycemic control and quality of life, while minimizing the impact of end-organ disease.

  8. Changes in the internal structure of the human crystalline lens with diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiemer, N.G.M.; Dubbelman, M.; Hermans, E.A.; Ringens, P.J.; Polak, B.C.P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of diabetes mellitus (DM) type 1 and type 2 on the internal structure of the lens. Design: Observational cross-sectional study. Participants and Controls: One hundred seven patients with DM type 1, 106 patients with DM type 2, and 75 healthy control subjects.

  9. Diabetes mellitus and oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common non-communicable chronic diseases, which is the combined action of genetic factors, environmental factors and lifestyle. Specific conditions occur in the oral cavity in the course of diabetes that cause changes in all oral tissues with different symptoms and signs. Increased salivary glucose level is followed by increased accumulation of dental plaque and decreased resistance to noxious agents. The most common oral manifestations in diabetic patients include higher prevalence of periodontal desease, burning mouth syndrome, disruption in salivary flow, opportunistic infections, higher prevalence of denture stomatitis, oral lichen planus, fissured tongue, angular cheilitis etc. Dental interventions in patients with well-controlled diabetes are not different from those applied to nondiabetic patients. Regular monitoring of these patients is required because of the complications that can occur.

  10. Diabetes mellitus type 2 and subsite-specific colorectal cancer risk in men and women: results from the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, S. de; Simons, C.C.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.; Arts, I.C.; Bruine, A.P.; Janssen-Heijnen, M.L.; Sanduleanu, S.; Masclee, A.A.; Weijenberg, M.P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC); however, studies differentiating between subsites of CRC are limited. We investigated how diabetes mellitus (DM) was associated with subsite-specific CRC risk in men and women. Methods: The

  11. Comparative Healthcare: Diabetes Mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Mohammed Ali

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In the third in this series of ‘comparative healthcare’ medical practitioners explore the approach to diabetes inBangaldesh and Australia respectively. The social and medical consequences of this chronic conditionare highlighted through the approach to patients at various stages of the disease from two nationalperspectives. An astonishing 7% of the 153 million people are reported to have diabetes in Bangladesh. Manyremain undiagnosed. Delays in diagnosis or management of diabetes have life limiting consequences for thosewho can ill afford private health care in the poorer nation. Screening and early intervention appear to bedenied to many in the developing country. The context is very different with Australians very fortunate to havea coordinated primary health care sector. The outlook for Bangladeshis with uncontrolled diabetes or withtreatable sequela would be unacceptable in Australia. At every stage in the disease trajectory the doctorsemphasise the importance of life style modification, a particular challenge in affluent Australia with its growingincidence of life style related pre morbid conditions in an increasingly sedentary population. A corner stone ofthe support of people with diabetes is the role of nurses and allied health professionals. With a fundedcommitment to multidisciplinary care in the community people with diabetes in Australia have access tosupport closer to home whereas those in Bangladesh remain heavily dependent on specialist, hospital basedservices. One can only speculate how Bangladesh will cope as its population ages and there are an everincreasing proportion of people who require urgent and expensive medical interventions. At the very leastthere is a strong case for greater investment in primary care especially to limit the economic consequences ofdiabetes and other chronic conditions. Finally as in other articles in this series we would like to emphasise that,the views expressed are those of the authors and do

  12. Oral Health in Children with Obesity or Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifshitz, Fima; Casavalle, Patricia Lucia; Bordoni, Noemí; Rodriguez, Patricia Noemi; Friedman, Silvia Maria

    2016-12-01

    Oral health status must be considered in the care of children with obesity (OB) and diabetes mellitus (DM). The health of these patients' mouths may have significant effects on their overall health and evolution of their disease. Here we address periodontal disease (PD) and dental caries (DC), since these are two of the most common chronic diseases affecting OB and DM patients. OB plays a plausible role in the development of PD. Both overall OB and central adiposity are associated with increased hazards of gingivitis and its progression to PD. The inflammatory changes of PD might not be limited to the oral cavity, these may also trigger systemic consequences. Patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM, T2DM) present an increased prevalence of gingivitis and PD. In diabetics PD develops at a younger age than in the healthy population, it also worsens with the prolongation of DM. The progression to PD has been correlated with the metabolic control of the disease as it is more prevalent and more severe in patients with elevated hemoglobin A1c (A1c) levels. PD negatively affects glycemic control and other diabetes related complications and there is a general consensus that treatment of PD can positively influence these negative effects. Additionally, DC is a multifactorial oral disease that is frequently detected in those with OB and DM, although its prevalence in systematic reviews is inconclusive. The associations between gingivitis, PD and DC share similar behaviors, i.e. inadequate oral hygiene habits and unhealthy dietary intake. Insufficient tooth brushing and intake of sugary foods may result in greater detrimental oral effects. Maintaining oral health will prevent oral chronic diseases and ameliorate the consequences of chronic inflammatory processes. Thus, the care of obese and diabetic patients requires a multidisciplinary team with medical and dental health professionals. Copyright© of YS Medical Media ltd.

  13. Autoimmune Hypoglycemia in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambigapathy, Jayakumar; Sahoo, Jayaprakash; Kamalanathan, Sadishkumar

    2017-07-15

    Antibodies against exogenous insulin are common in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients. They can cause hypoglycemia, albeit uncommonly. A 14-year-old girl with type 1 diabetes mellitus presented with recurrent hypoglycemia. High insulin, low C-peptide and raised insulin antibody levels documented during hypoglycemia. Plasmapheresis led to remission of hypoglycemia. Antibodies to exogenous insulin should be considered as a cause of recurrent refractory hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients.

  14. Hypertension og diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Per Løgstrup; Hansen, Klavs Würgler; Gaede, Peter Haulund

    2009-01-01

    The documentation for the beneficial effects of antihypertensive treatment in patients with diabetes is overwhelming. Most patients will require three or four antihypertensive drugs to achieve blood pressure (BP) goals. The regime should include an agent that blocks the renin angiotensin aldoster......The documentation for the beneficial effects of antihypertensive treatment in patients with diabetes is overwhelming. Most patients will require three or four antihypertensive drugs to achieve blood pressure (BP) goals. The regime should include an agent that blocks the renin angiotensin...

  15. 76 FR 9854 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ...-0011] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  16. 78 FR 1923 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ...-0350] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  17. 76 FR 9862 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ...-0025] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  18. 78 FR 1927 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ...-0351] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  19. 76 FR 64165 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ...-0277] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM...

  20. 77 FR 533 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ...-0367] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM...

  1. 78 FR 38439 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ...-0020] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  2. 77 FR 40941 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ...-0163] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  3. 77 FR 46149 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ...-0164] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  4. 77 FR 64181 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ...-0283] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  5. 78 FR 26419 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ...-0018] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  6. 77 FR 52384 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ...-0218] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted, the...

  7. 77 FR 56258 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ...-0219] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  8. 78 FR 38435 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ...-0181] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  9. 76 FR 66120 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ...-0278] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  10. 78 FR 20381 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ...-0015] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  11. 77 FR 10612 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ...-0382] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  12. 78 FR 79062 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ...-0193] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  13. Healthful dietary patterns and type 2 diabetes mellitus risk among women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Deirdre K; Hu, Frank B; Chavarro, Jorge; Rosner, Bernard; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Zhang, Cuilin

    2012-11-12

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has reached epidemic proportions. Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at high risk for T2DM after pregnancy. Adherence to healthful dietary patterns has been inversely associated with T2DM in the general population; however, whether these dietary patterns are associated with progression to T2DM among a susceptible population is unknown. Four thousand four hundred thirteen participants from the Nurses' Health Study II cohort with prior GDM were followed up from 1991 to 2005. We derived the alternate Mediterranean diet (aMED), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), and alternate Healthy Eating Index (aHEI) dietary pattern adherence scores from a post-GDM validated food-frequency questionnaire, with cumulative average updating every 4 years. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models estimated the relative risk (hazard ratios) and 95% confidence intervals. We observed 491 cases of incident T2DM during 52 743 person-years. All 3 patterns were inversely associated with T2DM risk with adjustment for age, total calorie intake, age at first birth, parity, ethnicity, parental diabetes, oral contraceptive use, menopause, and smoking. When we compared participants with the highest adherence (quartile 4) vs lowest (quartile 1), the aMED pattern was associated with 40% lower risk of T2DM (hazard ratio, 0.60 [95% CI, 0.44-0.82; P=.002]); the DASH pattern, with 46% lower risk (0.54 [0.39-0.73; P.001]); and the aHEI pattern, with 57% lower risk (0.43 [0.31-0.59; P.001]). Adjustment for body mass index moderately attenuated these findings. Adherence to healthful dietary patterns is associated with lower T2DM risk among women with a history of GDM. The inverse associations are partly mediated by body mass index.

  14. Management of Diabetes Mellitus in Patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miulescu Rucsandra Dănciulescu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS is a human immune system disease characterized by increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections, certain cancers and neurological disorders. The syndrome is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV that is transmitted through blood or blood products, sexual contact or contaminated hypodermic needles. Antiretroviral treatment reduces the mortality and the morbidity of HIV infection but is increasingly reported to be associated with increasing reports of metabolic abnormalities. The prevalence and incidence of diabetes mellitus in patients on antiretroviral therapy is high. Recently, a joint panel of American Diabetes Association (ADA and European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD experts updated the treatment recommendations for type 2 diabetes (T2DM in a consensus statement which provides guidance to health care providers. The ADA and EASD consensus statement concur that intervention in T2DM should be early, intensive, and uncompromisingly focused on maintaining glycemic levels as close as possible to the nondiabetic range. Intensive glucose management has been shown to reduce microvascular complications of diabetes but no significant benefits on cardiovascular diseases. Patients with diabetes have a high risk for cardiovascular disease and the treatment of diabetes should emphasize reduction of the cardiovascular factors risk. The treatment of diabetes mellitus in AIDS patients often involves polypharmacy, which increases the risk of suboptimal adherence

  15. Hypertension og diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Per; Hansen, Klavs; Gæde, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The documentation for the beneficial effects of antihypertensive treatment in patients with diabetes is overwhelming. Most patients will require three or four antihypertensive drugs to achieve blood pressure (BP) goals. The regime should include an agent that blocks the renin angiotensin aldoster...

  16. Coronary flow reserve in patients with diabetes mellitus and prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atar, Asli I; Altuner, Tugba Kayhan; Bozbas, Huseyin; Korkmaz, Mehmet E

    2012-07-01

    Abnormalities of coronary microcirculation have been reported in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) even in the presence of normal coronary arteries. It is unknown when the microvascular effects on coronary arteries begin to appear in the DM disease course. Coronary flow reserve (CFR), determined by pharmacological stress transthoracic Doppler echocardiography, is a reliable indicator of coronary microvascular function. We sought to determine the coronary microvascular function of prediabetic patients compared to DM patients and normal population. Seventy-four subjects with normal coronary arteries were enrolled. DM and prediabetes were diagnosed according to American Diabetes Association criteria. All subjects had Doppler recordings of the left anterior descending artery with adenosine infusion at a rate of 0.014 mg/kg per minute. The demographical characteristics and laboratory findings of the three groups were similar (DM group: n = 25, mean age 62 ± 7 years, 19 females; prediabetic group: n = 25, mean age 64 ± 12 years, 21 females; control group: n = 24, mean age 63 ± 7 years, 15 females) except fasting glucose levels. CFR values of the three groups were significantly different (DM group: CFR = 1.75 ± 0.50; prediabetic group: CFR = 2.24 ± 0.43; control group: CFR = 2.38 ± 0.32, P < 0.001). CFR values of DM group were lower than those of prediabetic and control groups (DM vs. prediabetic: P < 0.001, DM vs. control: P < 0.001). However, CFR levels of prediabetic group were not different from those of the control group (P = 0.481). DM was an independent factor predictive of CFR < 2 (OR, 22.69; 95% CI, 6.47-79.51; P < 0.001). Coronary microvascular function seems to be normal in the prediabetic state, but dysfunction appears after DM becomes overt. © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. NUEVOS FÁRMACOS EN DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRA. Carmen Gloria Aylwin H.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Por más de 60 años se dispuso solo de tres grupos farmacológicos para el tratamiento de la diabetes mellitus (DM: la insulina, la metformina y las sulfonilureas. Sin embargo, en los últimos años y como consecuencia de los avances en el conocimiento de la patogenia de la DM2 se han desarrollado nuevos fármacos con novedosos mecanismos de acción y con diferentes perfiles de seguridad, entre ellos los compuestos con efecto incretina y los glucosúricos que actúan en los trastornos a nivel intestinal y renal presentes en la DM2. La disponibilidad de múltiples opciones terapéuticas está produciendo profundos cambios en la terapia farmacológica de la DM2. Se logran enfoques terapéuticos más fisiopatológicos pero sobre todo permiten un manejo más personalizado y ajustado a las características y riesgos individuales de los pacientes, privilegiando junto al control glicémico, la seguridad terapéutica. En esta revisión se analizarán los nuevos fármacos con efecto incretina, los agonistas del péptido similar al glucagón tipo 1 (AR-GLP1 e inhibidores de la dipeptidil peptidasa 4 (IDPP-4, y los inhibidores de los cotransportadores sodio-glucosa tipo 2 (ISLGT2 que aumentan la excreción renal de glucosa.

  18. Pancreatic scintiphotography in diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimoto, Norimasa; Sowa, Etsuji; Fujii, Satoru; Seki, Junichi; Wada, Masahisa

    1975-01-01

    Pancreatic scintiphotography was performed in 108 cases of patients with diabetes mellitus. Scintiphotos were taken at 30 min. after intravenous injection of approximately 200μCi of 75 Se-selenomethionine using a Toshiba gamma camera. The relationship between the degree of pancreatic uptake of 75 Se-selenomethionine and the types and duration of diabetes, vascular complications and the average range of fasting blood sugar levels were studied. In some cases, pancreatic scintiphotos were taken at 10, 30 and 50 min. after injection of 75 Se-selenomethionine, and the degrees of the pancreatic uptake were compared on each time course. Only two out of 24 cases of insulin-dependent diabetics showed normal pancreatic scintiphotos. On the other hand, two out of 47 cases of mild diabetics treated with diet alone showed no uptake in pancreatic scintiphotos. There was a tendency toward abnormal pancreatic scintiphotos in chronic diabetics. Especially, of the 15 cases who had diabetes for more than eleven years, only one case showed a normal pancreatic scintiphoto. Abnormal pancreatic scintiphotos were found more frequently in the group of poorly controlled diabetics than in the group of well controlled diabetics. In cases showing normal pancreatic scintiphotos, diabetic retinopathy was less frequently found. Out of 36 cases which had sequential pancreatic scintiphotos, hypertension and/or arteriosclerosis were found more frequently in the 20 cases which showed a delay in reaching a plateau of the activity. However, the uptake in sequential pancreatic scintiphotos showed no definite correlation between diabetic retinopathy and other diabetic conditions. (auth.)

  19. Pancreatic scintiphotography in diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimoto, N; Sowa, E; Fujii, S; Seki, J; Wada, M [Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1975-09-01

    Pancreatic scintiphotography was performed in 108 cases of patients with diabetes mellitus. Scintiphotos were taken at 30 min. after intravenous injection of approximately 200..mu..Ci of /sup 75/Se-selenomethionine using a Toshiba gamma camera. The relationship between the degree of pancreatic uptake of /sup 75/Se-selenomethionine and the types and duration of diabetes, vascular complications and the average range of fasting blood sugar levels were studied. In some cases, pancreatic scintiphotos were taken at 10, 30 and 50 min. after injection of /sup 75/Se-selenomethionine, and the degrees of the pancreatic uptake were compared on each time course. Only two out of 24 cases of insulin-dependent diabetics showed normal pancreatic scintiphotos. On the other hand, two out of 47 cases of mild diabetics treated with diet alone showed no uptake in pancreatic scintiphotos. There was a tendency toward abnormal pancreatic scintiphotos in chronic diabetics. Especially, of the 15 cases who had diabetes for more than eleven years, only one case showed a normal pancreatic scintiphoto. Abnormal pancreatic scintiphotos were found more frequently in the group of poorly controlled diabetics than in the group of well controlled diabetics. In cases showing normal pancreatic scintiphotos, diabetic retinopathy was less frequently found. Out of 36 cases which had sequential pancreatic scintiphotos, hypertension and/or arterioscl-erosis were found more frequently in the 20 cases which showed a delay in reaching a plateau of the activity. However, the uptake in sequential pancreatic scintiphotos showed no definite correlation between diabetic retinopathy and other diabetic conditions.

  20. Influence of diabetes mellitus on immunity to human tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Nathella, Pavan; Babu, Subash

    2017-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus(DM) is a major risk factor for the development of active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), with development of DM pandemic in countries where TB is also endemic. Understanding the impact of DM on TB and the determinants of co-morbidity is essential in responding to this growing public health problem with improved therapeutic approaches. Despite the clinical and public health significance posed by the dual burden of TB and DM, little is known about the immunological and biochemical mechanisms of susceptibility. One possible mechanism is that an impaired immune response in patients with DM facilitates either primary infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis or reactivation of latent TB. Diabetes is associated with immune dysfunction and alterations in the components of the immune system, including altered levels of specific cytokines and chemokines. Some effects of DM on adaptive immunity that are potentially relevant to TB defence have been identified in humans. In this review, we summarize current findings regarding the alterations in the innate and adaptive immune responses and immunological mechanisms of susceptibility of patients with DM to M. tuberculosis infection and disease. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Diabetes mellitus and hypertension: a dual threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktay, Ahmet Afşin; Akturk, Halis Kaan; Jahangir, Eiman

    2016-07-01

    The following is a review of the current concepts on the relationship between hypertension (HTN) and diabetes mellitus with a focus on the epidemiology and cardiovascular prognostic implications of coexistent HTN and diabetes mellitus, shared mechanisms underlying both conditions and pathophysiology of increased risk of cardiovascular disease, treatment of HTN in individuals with diabetes mellitus, and effects of anti-diabetic medications on blood pressure (BP). Diabetes mellitus and HTN often coexist in the same individual. They share numerous risk factors and underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms, most important of which are insulin resistance and inappropriate activation of the rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Recently updated guidelines recommend a BP goal of 140/90 mmHg in most individuals with diabetes mellitus. A new class of anti-diabetic medications, sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors, has shown favorable effects on BP. HTN affects the majority of individuals with diabetes mellitus. Coexistence of diabetes mellitus and HTN, especially if BP is not well controlled, dramatically increases the risk of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. BP control is an essential part of management of patients with diabetes mellitus, because it is one of the most effective ways to prevent vascular complications and death.

  2. Effect of Depression and Diabetes Mellitus on the Risk for Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katon, Wayne; Pedersen, Henrik Søndergaard; Ribe, Anette Riisgaard

    2015-01-01

    Importance  Although depression and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) may independently increase the risk for dementia, no studies have examined whether the risk for dementia among people with comorbid depression and DM is higher than the sum of each exposure individually. Objective  To examine...... the risk for all-cause dementia among persons with depression, DM, or both compared with persons with neither exposure. Design, Setting, and Participants  We performed a national population-based cohort study of 2 454 532 adults, including 477 133 (19.4%) with depression, 223 174 (9.1%) with DM, and 95...... the Danish National Prescription Registry. Diabetes mellitus was identified using the National Diabetes Register. Main Outcomes and Measures  We estimated the risk for all-cause dementia associated with DM, depression, or both using Cox proportional hazards regression models that adjusted for potential...

  3. Canagliflozin Treatment in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis Triplitt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current guidelines for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM indicate a patient-centered approach that should go beyond glycemic control. Of the many antihyperglycemic agents available for treatment of T2DM, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibitors offer the advantages of reduced glycated hemoglobin (A1C, body weight (BW, and systolic blood pressure (SBP and are associated with a low risk of hypoglycemia when used either as monotherapy or with other agents not typically associated with increased risk of hypoglycemia. Collaborative, multidisciplinary teams are best suited to provide care to patients with diabetes, and clinical pharmacists can enhance the care provided by these teams. This review aims to provide insight into the mode of action, pharmacology, potential drug–drug interactions, clinical benefits, and safety considerations associated with use of the SGLT2 inhibitor canagliflozin in patients with T2DM and to provide information to enhance clinical pharmacists' understanding of canagliflozin.

  4. 77 FR 10607 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ...-2011-0367] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The...). [[Page 10608

  5. Thrombolysis outcomes in acute ischemic stroke patients with prior stroke and diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishra, N K; Ahmed, N; Davalos, A

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with concomitant diabetes mellitus (DM) and prior stroke (PS) were excluded from European approval of alteplase in stroke. We examined the influence of DM and PS on the outcomes of patients who received thrombolytic therapy (T; data from Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis......,986), or concomitant DM and PS (OR 1.23 [0.996-1.52], p = 0.05, n = 1,136), all CMH p treatment (tissue...

  6. Liver transplantation in cirrhotic patients with diabetes mellitus: Midterm results, survival, and adverse events

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco, J.J. (Jose J.); Herrero, J.I. (José Ignacio); Quiroga, J. (Jorge); Sangro, B. (Bruno); Gomez-Manero, N. (Noemí); Pardo, F. (Fernando); Cienfuegos, J.A. (Javier A.)

    2001-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis is frequently associated with diabetes mellitus (DM), and this metabolic complication is also frequent after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). The aim of our study is to investigate which factors are associated with DM before and after OLT and their impact on post-OLT evolution. We evaluated the prevalence of DM among 115 liver transplant candidates with cirrhosis and assessed their evolution after OLT (median follow-up, 41 m...

  7. Epidemiology and interaction of diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis and challenges for care: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Harries, A. D.; Satyanarayana, S.; Kumar, A. M. V.; Nagaraja, S. B.; Isaakidis, P.; Malhotra, S.; Achanta, S.; Naik, B.; Wilson, N.; Zachariah, R.; Lönnroth, K.; Kapur, A.

    2013-01-01

    The global burden of diabetes mellitus (DM) is immense, with numbers expected to rise to over 550 million by 2030. Countries in Asia, such as India and China, will bear the brunt of this unfolding epidemic. Persons with DM have a significantly increased risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB) that is two to three times higher than in persons without DM. This article reviews the epidemiology and interactions of these two diseases, discusses how the World Health Organization and Internation...

  8. Rheumatological manifestations of diabetes mellitus - a review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... strongly associated with diabetes mellitus including limited joint mobility, specific arthropathies of the hand (carpal tunnel syndrome, Dupytrens contracture, flexor tenosynovitis and diabetic sclerodactyly), shoulder (adhesive capsulitis-frozen shoulder, and calcific periarthritis) and spontaneous infarction of skeletal muscle.

  9. Prevalence of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Type II Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihui Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. Patients with type II diabetes mellitus (DM were known to have higher prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD in the Western countries, but data on the impact of GERD on DM patients in our country are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of GERD in type II DM patients in Shanghai, China, and to explore its possible risk factors. Methods. 775 type II DM cases were randomly collected. Reflux Disease Questionnaire (RDQ was used to check the presence of GERD. Patients’ characteristics, laboratory data, face-to-face interview, nerve conduction study, and needle electromyogram (EMG test were analyzed. Results. 16% patients were found with typical GERD symptoms. Pathophysiological factors such as peripheral neuropathy, metabolism syndrome, and obesity were found to have no significant differences between GERD and non-GERD type II DM patients in the present study. Conclusion. The prevalence of GERD in type II DM patients is higher than that in adult inhabitants in Shanghai, China. No difference in pathophysiological factors, such as peripheral neuropathy, and metabolism syndrome was found in DM-GERD patients, suggesting that further study and efforts are needed to explore deeper the potential risk factors for the high prevalence rate of GERD in DM patients.

  10. Obesity, insulin resistance, and type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsky, Sarit; Ellis, Samuel L

    2015-08-01

    To summarize recent studies about obesity, insulin resistance, and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Overweight and obesity continue to be prevalent among individuals with T1DM. Obesity rates appear to have reached a plateau among children with T1DM in some parts of the world. The risk for development of T1DM is increased by obesity and may occur at an earlier age among obese individuals with a predisposition. Obesity increases the risk for comorbidities among individuals with T1DM, especially metabolic syndrome, and microvascular and macrovascular diseases. Metformin, glucagon-like peptide-1 agonist therapy, sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor therapy, and bariatric surgery may be beneficial therapies for glucose control, comorbidity management, and obesity among adults with T1DM. Insulin resistance may be improved among obese individuals with T1DM by biguanides (metformin) and glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists (exenatide). We review the last 18 months of literature on obesity, insulin resistance, and T1DM to highlight new epidemiologic results and treatments.

  11. Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus following Gestational Diabetes Pregnancy in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan C. Lo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study examines gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM following GDM pregnancy. Methods. A cohort of 988 pregnant women with PCOS who delivered during 2002–2005 was examined to determine the prevalence and predictors of GDM, with follow-up through 2010 among those with GDM to estimate the risk of DM. Results. Of the 988 pregnant women with PCOS, 192 (19% developed GDM. Multivariable predictors of GDM included older age, Asian race, prepregnancy obesity, family history of DM, preconception metformin use, and multiple gestation. Among women with PCOS and GDM pregnancy, the incidence of DM was 2.8 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.9–4.2 per 100 person-years and substantially higher for those who received pharmacologic treatment for GDM (6.6 versus 1.5 per 100 person-years, p<0.01. The multivariable adjusted risk of DM was fourfold higher in women who received pharmacologic treatment for GDM (adjusted hazard ratio 4.1, 95% CI 1.8–9.6. The five-year incidence of DM was 13.1% overall and also higher in the pharmacologic treatment subgroup (27.0% versus 7.1%, p<0.01. Conclusions. The strongest predictors of GDM among women with PCOS included Asian race and prepregnancy obesity. Pharmacologic treatment of GDM is associated with fourfold higher risk of subsequent DM.

  12. Diabetes-Related distress, depression and Distress-Depression among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chew, Boon How; Vos, Rimke; Mohd-Sidik, Sherina; Rutten, Guy E H M

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) brings about an increasing psychosocial problem in adult patients. Prevalence data on and associated factors of diabetes related distress (DRD) and depression have been lacking in Asia. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of DRD and depression, and their

  13. Influence of antibacterial therapy on bone scan indices at foot inflammation in diabetes mellitus accompanied by diabetic foot syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavnov, V.M.; Bolgars'ka, S.V.; Taran, E.V.; Markov, V.V.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of antibacterial therapy on bone scan indices at foot inflammation in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) accompanied by diabetic foot syndrome was studied. Bone scan was performed using scintillation tomographic gamma-camera hours after intravenous injection of 99m Tc-methylene diphosphonate

  14. Musculoskeletal manifestations in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Deepti P. Deshmukh; Asmita G. Akarte

    2017-01-01

    Background: Musculoskeletal complications of diabetes have been generally ignored and poorly treated as compared to other complications. Hence we carried out this study to find the prevalence of musculoskeletal manifestations in type II diabetes mellitus and its correlation with age, BMI, duration of diabetes, and control of diabetes. Methods: 100 consecutive patients of type II diabetes were studied. Duration of diabetes, control of diabetes, and any musculoskeletal complaints were noted....

  15. Knowledge attitude and practice regarding diabetes mellitus among Nondiabetic and diabetic study participants in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatema, Kaniz; Hossain, Sharmin; Natasha, Khurshid; Chowdhury, Hasina Akhter; Akter, Jesmin; Khan, Tahmina; Ali, Liaquat

    2017-04-26

    Increased awareness amongst large population groups is a major determinant for the prevention of diabetes and its complications as well as related metabolic disorders. Knowledge and attitude are the principal markers of awareness that need to be studied in various population groups in specific racial and cultural contexts. The present study was undertaken to explore knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) regarding -diabetes mellitus (DM) among nondiabetic (nonDM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in Bangladesh. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 18,697 adults (aged 18 years and above; 7796 male and 10,901 female; 6780 nonDM and 11,917 T2DM) selected purposively from the OPD of 19 healthcare centres in and around Dhaka and in northern parts of Bangladesh. KAP were assessed by a pre-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire and categorised using predefined scores of poor (mean + 1 SD). Univariate and bivariate statistical analysis were done as appropriate. Multivariate linear regression was done to examine the association between diabetes related KAP and other covariates. The mean (±SD) age (years) of all the study participants was 46 ± 14, mean BMI 24.4 ± 4.1 and mean waist-hip ratio (WHR) was 0.93 ± 0.07. The proportion of poor, average and good knowledge scores among T2DM subjects were 17%, 68% and 15% respectively. The corresponding values for attitude score were 23%, 67% and 10% respectively. The KAP regarding diabetes was found to be better among people who were living with diabetes compared to their counterparts. DM males showed better knowledge and practice regarding diabetes, compared to nonDM counterparts (M ± SD; 44.18 ± 16.13 vs 40.88 ± 15.62, p = knowledge scores correlated strongly with education, income, residence, diabetic state, BMI and attitude. The overall level of knowledge and practice concerning diabetes among Bangladeshi population is average, but the overall level of attitude is good both in

  16. "SERUM FERRITIN IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH HbA1c"

    OpenAIRE

    F. Sharifi Sh. Sazandeh

    2004-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2 is one of the most common endocrine disorders affecting more than 135 million people in the world. The etiology of the disease is not fully understood, but recently subclinical hemochromatosis has been considered as one of the probable causes of DM. This study was carried out to examine the relationship between serum ferritin as a marker of iron overload with DM and HbA1c. This study was conducted on 97 patients with type 2 DM who were referred to Zanjan Diabetes...

  17. Comparison of diabetic ketoacidosis in patients with type-1 and type-2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barski, Leonid; Nevzorov, Roman; Harman-Boehm, Ilana; Jotkowitz, Alan; Rabaev, Elena; Zektser, Miri; Zeller, Lior; Shleyfer, Elena; Almog, Yaniv

    2013-04-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) occurs most often in patients with type 1 diabetes, however patients with type 2 diabetes are also susceptible to DKA under stressful conditions. The aims of our study were to evaluate and compare the clinical and biochemical characteristics and outcomes of type 1 versus type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients with DKA. A retrospective cohort study of adult patients hospitalized with DKA between January 1, 2003, and January 1, 2010. The clinical and biochemical characteristics of DKA patients with type-1 DM were compared with those of patients with type-2 DM. The primary outcome was in-hospital all-cause mortality. The study cohort included 201 consecutive patients for whom the admission diagnosis was DKA: 166 patients (82.6%) with type-1 DM and 35 patients (17.4%) with type-2 DM. The patients with DKA and type-2 DM were significantly older than patients with type-1 DM (64.3 versus 37.3, P ventilation and bed-ridden state were independent predictors of 30-day mortality.

  18. Prevalence and types of sexual dysfunction amongst female with diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unadike, B.C.; Eregie, A.; Ohwovoriole, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and types of sexual dysfunction (SD) amongst female with Diabetes Mellitus (DM) in Benin City, Nigeria. This is a cross sectional study. A total of 225 female with DM and 225 female without DM who served as controls were studied. Data obtained included age, anthropometric indexes, presence and type of sexual dysfunction. Fifteen (6.6%) subjects with DM had sexual dysfunction and four (1.7%) in the control group had SD with sexual pain disorder being the commonest SD, seen in both groups. Other SD seen was lubrication disorder and sexual arousal disorder. The prevalence of SD in diabetic female was significantly higher than in the control group (6.6% vs. 1.7% p < 0.05). Sexual Dysfunction appears to be relatively uncommon amongst Nigerian women with Diabetes Mellitus. However diabetes care providets should address this issue during consultations with patients and provide treatment as this is a treatable condition. (author)

  19. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Danish children and adolescents in 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oester, Ida Margrethe Bach; Kloppenborg, Julie Tonsgaard; Olsen, Birthe Susanne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The global increase in childhood obesity has in some countries been followed by an increase in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); however, the prevalence of T2DM among Danish children and adolescents is currently unknown. The aims of this cross-sectional study were to determine...... the prevalence of T2DM in children and adolescents in Denmark together with status on treatment, metabolic control, and late diabetic complications. METHODS: Individuals were identified in the Danish Registry for Diabetes in Children and Adolescents (DanDiabKids), and clinical information regarding...... these was obtained from the respective pediatric departments. RESULTS: In total, seven young individuals (three boys) with T2DM were identified, according to the American Diabetes Association (ADA)/International Society of Pediatric and Adolecent Diabetes (ISPAD) guidelines, leading to a prevalence of T2DM at 0...

  20. Hypertension og diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Per Løgstrup; Hansen, Klavs Würgler; Gaede, Peter Haulund

    2009-01-01

    The documentation for the beneficial effects of antihypertensive treatment in patients with diabetes is overwhelming. Most patients will require three or four antihypertensive drugs to achieve blood pressure (BP) goals. The regime should include an agent that blocks the renin angiotensin...... aldosterone system. Reduction in albuminuria during antihypertensive treatment is indicative of renal and cardiovascular protection. Thus, if the level of albuminuria remains high, the treatment should be intensified, even in the light of achieved BP goals. Options for intensification are dual blockade......, supramaximal doses of ACE-I or ARB, or addition of aldosterone or renin-blocking agents. Long-term data are awaited regarding the optimal strategy for combination therapy. Patients on intensive antihypertensive treatment should be monitored regularly....

  1. Exploring the clinical utility of optical quality and fundus autofluorescence metrics for monitoring and screening for diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo Maroto, Ana María

    2017-01-01

    La Diabetes Mellitus (DM) es una enfermedad sistémica que se caracteriza por una hiperglucemia crónica asociada a daños a largo plazo de diferentes órganos, como son los ojos, riñones, corazón y vasos sanguíneos, entre otros. Normalmente, la DM se clasifica en DM tipo 1 y DM tipo 2, a los que también hay que añadir la diabetes gestacional y otros tipos de diabetes causados por factores genéticos y otras enfermedades o infecciones. La DM es una enfermedad que constituye un gran impacto soci...

  2. Does bilirubin protect against developing diabetes mellitus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breimer, Lars H; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P

    2016-01-01

    After 25 years of evaluating bilirubin as a possible protective agent in neonatal and cardiovascular disease, interest has moved on to a exploring a possible protective role in diabetes mellitus (DM). This review finds conflicting prospective data for a protective relationship though there are retrospective, case-controlled data, that can only show association, which is not causality. Only prospective studies can show causality. Also, it would appear that the underlying biochemical assumptions do not readily translate from the animal to the human setting. Given that many factors impact on circulating bilirubin levels, it is not surprising that a clear-cut answer is not available; the jury is still out. Any relationship between DM and bilirubin might relate to intermediates in bilirubin metabolism, including relationships involving the genes for the enzymes participating in those steps. Nevertheless, the pursuit of bilirubin in disease causation is opening new avenues for research and if it is established that serum bilirubin can predict risks, much will have been achieved. The answer may have to come from molecular genetic analyses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Drug treatment of hypertension in older patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yandrapalli, Srikanth; Pal, Suman; Nabors, Christopher; Aronow, Wilbert S

    2018-05-01

    Hypertension is more prevalent in the elderly (age>65 years) diabetic population than in the general population and shows an increasing prevalence with advancing age. Both diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension are independent risk factors for cardiovascular (CV) related morbidity and mortality. Optimal BP targets were not identified in elderly patients with DM and hypertension. Areas covered: In this review article, the authors briefly discuss the pathophysiology of hypertension in elderly diabetics, present evidence with various antihypertensive drug classes supporting the treatment of hypertension to reduce CV events in older diabetics, and then discuss the optimal target BP goals in these patients. Expert opinion: Clinicians should have a BP goal of less than 130/80 mm in all elderly patients with hypertension and DM, especially in those with high CV-risk. When medications are required for optimal BP control in addition to lifestyle measures, either thiazide diuretics, angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, or calcium channel blockers should be considered as initial therapy. Combinations of medications are usually required in these patients because BP control is more difficult to achieve in diabetics than those without DM.

  4. Monogenic Forms of Diabetes: Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus and Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After Your Baby is Born Monogenic Diabetes Monogenic Diabetes (Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus & MODY) The most common forms of diabetes, ... from each parent. What are monogenic forms of diabetes? Some rare forms of diabetes result from mutations ...

  5. Relationship Between Diabetes Mellitus And Thyroid Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent findings have evidenced the intricate bond between subclinical hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus that contributes to major complications such as retinopathy and neuropathy. Insulin resistance has also been shown to play an indispensable role in connecting type 2 diabetes mellitus and thyroid dysfunction.

  6. Life Style Related Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Its Increased Prevalence in Saudi Arabia: A Brief Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Fareed; Nasir Salam; Abdullah T Khoja; Mahmoud Abdulrahman Mahmoud; Maqusood Ahamed

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Role of life style related risk factors is very important in the pathogenesis and progression of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The aim of this article is to review the disease burden of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among the population of Saudi Arabia due to unhealthy life style. Methods: In this review, the information was collected from published literatures related to risk factors like unhealthy dietary pattern and sedentary life style leading to T2DM. Additionally, some e...

  7. [Lifestyle of elderly patients with diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Yuki; Yamada, Yuichiro

    2013-11-01

    In elderly people, glucose tolerance is deteriorated and the incidence of diabetes mellitus is increased, due to decreased muscle mass and physical activity, declining pancreatic beta cell function, and other factors. Diabetes mellitus is an important risk factor for arteriosclerosis development in the elderly. Precise diagnosis and adequate treatment are necessary to prevent cerebrovascular and ischemic heart diseases. Elderly patients with diabetes mellitus are characteristically afflicted with more complications, impaired activities of daily living, cognitive function decline, and family environment problems, as compared with young and middle-aged diabetics. Therefore, tailor-made rather than uniform therapy becomes important. Lifestyle modification is the basis of diabetes treatment. Herein, we describe "prevention and management" of diabetes mellitus, focusing on the lifestyles of elderly diabetics.

  8. Factors associated with regional rheumatic pain disorders in a population of Puerto Ricans with diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Font, Yvonne M.; Castro-Santana, Lesliane E.; Nieves-Plaza, Mariely; Maldonado, Mirna; Mayor, Ángel M.; Vilá, Luis M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with bursitis/tendonitis disorders in Puerto Ricans with diabetes mellitus (DM). A cross-sectional study was performed in 202 adult Puerto Ricans (100 DM patients and 102 non-diabetic subjects). For each participant, a complete medical history and a musculoskeletal exam were systematically performed. Socio-demographic parameters, health-related behaviors, comorbidities, and pharmacotherapy were determined for all subj...

  9. Epidemiology of Diabetes Mellitus in Oman; Results from two decades of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawad A. Al-Lawati

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to describe the epidemiology of diabetes mellitus over the past two decades in Oman, particularly in terms of its prevalence and incidence. In addition, the study sought to estimate the future incidence of diabetes in Oman. Methods: Three national and three regional surveys conducted between 1991 and 2010 were analysed to obtain the age-adjusted prevalence and undiagnosed proportion of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM among Omani subjects aged ≥20 years. Diabetes mellitus registers and published studies were used to determine incidence rates of both type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and T2DM in Oman. Linear regression was used to determine trends and projections for diabetes in 2050. Results: The age-adjusted prevalence of T2DM in Oman varied from 10.4% to 21.1%, while the highest prevalence of impaired fasting glucose was found in males (35.1%. In comparison to men, higher incidence rates of T2DM were found in women (2.7 cases compared to 2.3 cases per 1,000 person-years, respectively. No significant trends were observed for the prevalence or incidence of T2DM in both genders. Undiagnosed T2DM was more common in men (range: 33–68% than women (range: 27–53%. The results of this study show that by 2050, there will be an estimated 350,000 people with T2DM living in Oman (a 174% increase compared to estimates for 2015. Conclusion: Health authorities need to prioritise diabetes prevention and control in order to prevent or delay long-term complications and avert a potential epidemic of diabetes in Oman.

  10. 78 FR 63285 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... Mr. Van Gog understands diabetes management and monitoring, has stable control of his diabetes using...-0185] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... against persons with insulin- treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs...

  11. The role of hormonal treatment in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam SK

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Syed Khalid ImamLiaquat National Hospital and Medical College, Karachi, Pakistan; Al-Mouwasat Hospital, Jubail Industrial City, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a disorder of abnormal glucose metabolism resulting primarily from insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency and characterized by hyperglycemia causing significant short- and long-term complications. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM contributes to more than 90% of cases of diabetes. Obesity, sedentary lifestyles, and consumption of very high-caloric meals are thought to be the primary triggering factors causing T2DM in genetically predisposed individuals. Although treatment of hyperglycemia plays a key role in the management, therapies directed at other comorbid conditions, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, hypercoagulability, obesity, and insulin resistance, have also been a major focus of research and therapy. DM is rising to an epidemic proportion globally, and it is, indeed, one of the most challenging public health problems in the 21st century. According to 2011 statistics, there were approximately 366 million diabetes cases worldwide, and this figure would probably increase to 552 million by 2030. Long-term complications from high blood sugar include coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular events, peripheral arterial diseases leading to amputation, retinopathy, nephropathy leading to end-stage renal disease requiring hemodialysis and transplantation, and neuropathy. The acute complication of T2DM includes drug-induced hypoglycemia, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, and although uncommon, ketoacidosis. Diabetes care requires a comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach to delay the progression to acute as well as chronic and debilitating long-term complications. This approach requires the thorough understanding of the pathophysiology of hyperglycemia and impact of various risk factors and comorbidities, careful selection of antihyperglycemic

  12. Neglected-Noncompliant Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus with Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afdal .

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakDiabetes mellitus (DM tipe 1 merupakan kelainan sistemik akibat terjadinya gangguan metabolisme glukosayang ditandai oleh hiperglikemia kronis. Keadaan ini disebabkan oleh proses autoimun yang merusak sel βpankreas sehingga produksi insulin berkurang bahkan terhenti, penderitanya akan memerlukan asupan insulineksogen. Penyakit ini menimbulkan komplikasi kronik sehingga memerlukan manajemen pengobatan yangberkelanjutan dan edukasi pada pasien serta keluarganya. Penyakit yang tidak terkontrol akan menimbulkanberbagai komplikasi metabolisme, gangguan makrovaskular dan mikrovaskular yang menyebabkan penurunankualitas dan harapan hidup penderita.Kata Kunci : Diabetes melitus tipe 1, makrovaskular, mikrovaskularAbstractDiabetes mellitus (DM type 1 is a result of the systemic disorder of glucose metabolism disorder characterized bychronic hyperglycemia. This situation is caused by the autoimmune processes that destroy pancreatic β cellsresulting in the production of insulin is reduced even halted, the sufferer will require exogenous insulin intake. Thisraises the complications of chronic disease that requires ongoing medication management and education forpatients and their families. Uncontrolled disease will cause various metabolic complications, macrovascular andmicrovascular disorders that cause loss of quality and life expectancy of the patient.Keywords: Type 1 diabetes mellitus, macrovascular, microvascular

  13. An audit of stillborn babies in mothers with diabetes mellitus at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diabetes mellitus (DM), 64.9% had Type II and 7.0% were in patients with gestational diabetes. ... of death, associated patient-related, medical and administrative avoidable ... occurred after 36w0d, while those among the Type I cases ranged.

  14. Structural barriers to coping with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Structural barriers to coping with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Ghana: Experiences of diabetic youth and their families. ... Methods: Qualitative study conducted with families with a child with T1DM, receiving care in the greater Accra area. Total of 17 individuals ... Social support networks need to be explored and strengthened.

  15. Pattern of cutaneous manifestations in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal Abhishek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus affects individuals of all ages and socioeconomic status. Skin is affected by the acute metabolic derangements as well as by chronic degenerative complications of diabetes. Aims: To evaluate the prevalence of skin manifestations in patients with diabetes mellitus. To analyze the prevalence and pattern of skin disorders among diabetic patients from this region of Western Himalayas. Materials and Methods: One hundred consecutive patients with the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and having skin lesions, either attending the diabetic clinic or admitted in medical wards were included in this study. Results: The common skin disorders were: x0 erosis (44%, diabetic dermopathy (36%, skin tags (32%, cutaneous infections (31%, and seborrheic keratosis (30%. Conclusion: Skin is involved in diabetes quite often and the manifestations are numerous. High prevalence of xerosis in our diabetic population is perhaps due to cold and dry climatic conditions in the region for most of the time in the year.

  16. Monogenic diabetes mellitus in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oddmund Søvika

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Here, we review data on monogenic diabetes mellitus in Norway based on the Norwegian MODY Registry at Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen. This registry comprises established or suspected cases of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY referred to our laboratory for genetic testing. We also present data on neonatal diabetes, another group of monogenic diabetes. To date, we have genetically diagnosed nearly 500 MODY cases in Norway. Mutations in the HNF1A gene (MODY3 were detected in about 50% of families with clinical MODY. GCK-MODY (MODY2 was the second most prevalent type, but may be underreported. We have also found mutations in the monogenic genes ABCC8, CEL, HNF1B, HNF4A, INS, KCNJ11 and NEUROD1. Based on genetic screening in the Norwegian MODY Registry and HUNT2, we estimate the number of MODY cases in Norway to be at least 2500-5000. Founder effects may determine the geographical distribution of MODY mutations in Norway. The molecular genetic testing of MODY and neonatal diabetes is mandatory for correct diagnosis and prognosis as well as choice of therapy

  17. The role of blood groups in the development of diabetes mellitus after gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karagoz H

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hatice Karagoz,1 Abdulsamet Erden,2 Ozerhan Ozer,2 Kubra Esmeray,2 Ali Cetinkaya,2 Deniz Avci,2 Samet Karahan,2 Mustafa Basak,2 Kadir Bulut,2 Hasan Mutlu,3 Yasin Simsek4 1Internal Medicine Department, Acibadem Kayseri Hospital, 2Internal Medicine Department, 3Medical Oncology Department, 4Endocrinology Department, Kayseri Training and Research Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey Introduction: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is a common condition that is defined as glucose intolerance of varying degree with onset or first recognition during pregnancy and it affects approximately 5% of all pregnancies all over the world. GDM is not only associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as macrosomia, dystocia, birth trauma, and metabolic complications in newborns, but it is also a strong predictor of transitioning to overt DM postpartum. The association of ABO blood groups with DM has been observed before in several epidemiological and genetic studies and resulted with inconsistent findings, but still there are not enough studies in the literature about the association of ABO blood groups with GDM. In this study, we aimed at investigating any possible relationship between the ABO blood group system and GDM and also the transitioning of GDM to overt DM postpartum, in Turkey.Patients and methods: A total of 233 patients with GDM from Kayseri Training and Research Hospital between 2002 and 2012 were included in the study. The cases that have serologically determined blood groups and Rh factor in the hospital records were included in the study, and the patients with unknown blood groups were excluded. Patients were classified according to blood groups (A, B, AB, and O and Rh status (+/-. GDM was diagnosed based on the glucose cut-points of the International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Society Groups. The distributions of blood groups of the patients with GDM were compared with the distribution of blood groups of 17,314 healthy donors who were

  18. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Saudi Arabia: A Soaring Epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asirvatham Alwin Robert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is quite prevalent in the world, with a proportion of 1 in every 300 persons and steadily rising frequency of incidence of about 3% every year. More alarmingly, the incidence of T1DM among infants is also increasing, with children as young as 6 months succumbing to it, instead of that at a rather established vulnerable age of around seven and near puberty, when the hormones antagonize the action of insulin. These reports pose a unique challenge of developing efficient T1DM management system for the young children. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA is the largest country in the Middle East that occupies approximately four-fifths of the Arabian Peninsula supporting a population of more than 33.3 million people, of whom 26% are under the age of 14 years. As per the Diabetes Atlas (8th edition, 35,000 children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia suffer from T1DM, which makes Saudi Arabia rank the 8th in terms of numbers of TIDM patients and 4th country in the world in terms of the incidence rate (33.5 per 100,000 individuals of TIDM. However, in comparison with that in the developed countries, the number of research interventions on the prevalence, incidence, and the sociodemographic aspects of T1DM is woefully inadequate. In this review we discuss different aspects of T1DM in Saudi Arabia drawing on the published literature currently available.

  19. Preconception care in Saudi women with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Y Madanat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rate of preexisting diabetes mellitus (DM in Saudi Arabia is one of the highest in the world. The role of preconception care (PCC is well-established as a means of improving pregnancy outcomes in DM. Objectives: To assess the rate of preconception counseling, the level of PCC knowledge, and the rate of unplanned pregnancies in Saudi women with DM. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 355 Saudi women aged 18–49 years with self-reported DM. The study questionnaire contained variables about the provision of preconception counseling, knowledge of PCC facts, and the number of unplanned pregnancies after developing DM. The level of PCC knowledge was evaluated using a modified Likert scale. Statistical Package for Social Sciences 20 was used for statistical analysis. Descriptive statistics, mean and standard deviation, and percentages were calculated; t-test was used for statistical significance. Results: About one-third of the participants had received preconception counseling after being diagnosed with DM. Counseling on PCC for older and married participants was significantly less. Of the 355 participants, 42.8% had little or no PCC knowledge. All pregnancies that occurred after developing DM were unplanned. Conclusions: The rate of preconception counseling, the level of PCC knowledge in the studied Saudi women with DM is suboptimal, and none of the pregnancies that occurred after developing DM was planned. The study highlights the need for PCC programs that target all Saudi women of child-bearing age with DM, and their families starting at the age of puberty and at diagnosis of type 2DM, to optimize women's health and improve pregnancy outcomes.

  20. Early Life Factors and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinli Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a multifactorial disease, and its aetiology involves a complex interplay between genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. In recent years, evidences from both human and animal experiments have correlated early life factors with programming diabetes risk in adult life. Fetal and neonatal period is crucial for organ development. Many maternal factors during pregnancy may increase the risk of diabetes of offsprings in later life, which include malnutrition, healthy (hyperglycemia and obesity, behavior (smoking, drinking, and junk food diet, hormone administration, and even stress. In neonates, catch-up growth, lactation, glucocorticoids administration, and stress have all been found to increase the risk of insulin resistance or T2DM. Unfavorable environments (socioeconomic situation and famine or obesity also has long-term negative effects on children by causing increased susceptibility to T2DM in adults. We also address the potential mechanisms that may underlie the developmental programming of T2DM. Therefore, it might be possible to prevent or delay the risk for T2DM by improving pre- and/or postnatal factors.

  1. Teplizumab for treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelley, Jessica W; Elmore, Lindsey K; Kyle, Jeffrey A

    2012-10-01

    To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of teplizumab and evaluate relevant clinical trial data. Searches of MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, ClinicalTrials.gov, American Diabetes Association scientific posters, and Google Scholar (1966-May 2012) were conducted using the key words teplizumab, anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody, MGA031, and hOKT3γ1 (Ala-Ala). Searches were limited to articles published in English. Clinical trials evaluating teplizumab for type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) published in English were selected from the data sources. All published relevant abstracts were included. References cited in identified articles were used for additional citations. T1DM accounts for up to 10% of all cases of diabetes mellitus. T1DM is characterized as a chronic and progressive autoimmune disease leading to the destruction of insulin-producing β-cells of the pancreas. Teplizumab is a humanized Fc-mutated anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody that alters the function of the T-lymphocytes that mediate the destruction of the insulin-producing β-cells. While clinical data are limited, both Phase 2 and Phase 3 studies have demonstrated preserved C-peptide response as a measure of insulin production, decreased exogenous insulin use, and improved glycemic control following a 12- to 14-day teplizumab infusion in patients diagnosed with T1DM within the previous 6 weeks. However, 1 Phase 3 trial failed to find the same benefits in those diagnosed with T1DM within the previous 12 weeks when a lower cumulative teplizumab dose was used. Initial studies indicated that teplizumab is well tolerated, with a self-limiting rash as the most commonly reported adverse effect. Teplizumab is an anti-CD3 human monoclonal antibody with promising activity in treatment of patients with T1DM. Results from Phase 3 trials are needed to further determine safety, efficacy, and dosing frequency.

  2. Gestational diabetes mellitus screening and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktün, Hale Lebriz; Uyan, Derya; Yorgunlar, Betül; Acet, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    To verify the usefulness of the World Health Organization criteria for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnant women and its effectiveness in the prevention of maternal and neonatal adverse results in women younger than 35 years without apparent risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus. This is a retrospective study based on population involving 1360 pregnant women who delivered and who were followed-up in a university hospital in Istanbul. All women underwent the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test screening, usually in between the 24(th)-28(th) weeks of pregnancy. In all cases, the identification of gestational diabetes mellitus was determined in accordance with the World Health Organization criteria. Approximately 28% of the pregnant women aged younger than 35 years with no risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus were diagnosed with the oral glucose tolerance test in this study. In the gestational diabetes mellitus group, the primary cesarean section rate was importantly higher than that in the non-gestational diabetes mellitus group. Preterm delivery was also associated with gestational diabetes mellitus. The diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus was strongly associated with admittance to the neonatal intensive care unit. Neonatal respiratory problems didn't showed any significant deviation between the groups. There was a moderate association between gestational diabetes mellitus and metabolic complications. Pregnant women with no obvious risk factors were diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus using the World Health Organization criteria. The treatment of these women potentially reduced their risk of adverse maternal and neonatal hyperglycemia-related events, such as cesarean section, polyhydramnios, preterm delivery, admission to neonatal intensive care unit, large for gestational age, and higher neonatal weight.

  3. Dry Fruits and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Sohaib A

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Dry fruits are some of the essential foods a human body requires staying healthy. They are made after extracting water from them. These fruits are full of essential nutrients including minerals, vitamins, enzymes, fibers and protect the body from a number of different adversities. These fruits are also a source of healthy nutrition among diabetic people who are very concerned about what to eat and what not to eat. But besides their countless benefits, these dry fruits can cause a number of harms to the body and therefore, must be used in a balanced way. This article is based on healthy and unhealthy effects of dry fruits and their use in diabetes mellitus.

  4. Diabetes mellitus, a complex and heterogeneous disease, and the role of insulin resistance as a determinant of diabetic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karalliedde, Janaka; Gnudi, Luigi

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasingly recognized as a heterogeneous condition. The individualization of care and treatment necessitates an understanding of the individual patient's pathophysiology of DM that underpins their DM classification and clinical presentation. Classical type-2 diabetes mellitus is due to a combination of insulin resistance and an insulin secretory defect. Type-1 diabetes is characterized by a near-absolute deficiency of insulin secretion. More recently, advances in genetics and a better appreciation of the atypical features of DM has resulted in more categories of diabetes. In the context of kidney disease, patients with DM and microalbuminuria are more insulin resistant, and insulin resistance may be a pathway that results in accelerated progression of diabetic kidney disease. This review summarizes the updated classification of DM, including more rarer categories and their associated renal manifestations that need to be considered in patients who present with atypical features. The benefits and limitations of the tests utilized to make a diagnosis of DM are discussed. We also review the putative pathways and mechanisms by which insulin resistance drives the progression of diabetic kidney disease. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  5. Metabolic Surgery for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Experience from Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Jei Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a current global health priority and Asia is the epicenter of this epidemic disease. Unlike in the west, where older population is most affected, the burden of diabetes in Asian countries is disproportionately high in young to middle-age adults. The incidence of diabetic nephropathy is alarmingly high in patients with early onset T2DM, especially in those with poor glycemic control. How to control this chronic and debilitating disease is currently a very important health issue in Asia. Bariatric surgery has proven successful in treating not just obesity but also T2DM in morbid obese patients (body mass index [BMI] >35 kg/m2. Gastrointestinal metabolic surgery recently has been proposed as a new treatment modality for obesity related T2DM for patients with BMI <35 kg/m2. Many studies from Asia reported promising results of metabolic surgery to treat obese patients with T2DM which is not well controlled. It has been demonstrated that changes in gastrointestinal hormone secretion after gastrointestinal surgery would favor an early improvement of T2DM in Asians. New procedures have also been designed and proposed specifically for the treatment of diabetes in Asia. This article examines clinical trial data and accepted algorithms with a view toward elucidating the application of metabolic surgery for the treatment of T2DM in the Asia. We propose a systematic approach to surgical treatment, addressing current evidences, patient selection, procedure of choice, and timing and guideline for new procedures.

  6. Symmetric Dimethylarginine in Cats with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy and Diabetes Mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhorn, R.; Kieler, I. N.; Koch, J.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) has been increasingly used as a marker of early chronic kidney disease (CKD) in cats, but little is known about the influence of comorbidities on SDMA in this species. Hypothesis: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and diabetes mellitus (DM), independe......Background: Symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) has been increasingly used as a marker of early chronic kidney disease (CKD) in cats, but little is known about the influence of comorbidities on SDMA in this species. Hypothesis: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and diabetes mellitus (DM......), independently of CKD, are associated with changes in serum SDMA. Animals: Ninety-four cats (17 with CKD, 40 with HCM, 17 with DM, and 20 healthy controls). Methods: Case-control study. Clinical examination, echocardiography, ECG, blood pressure, CBC, biochemistry, thyroxine, and SDMA measurement were performed....... Urinalysis was performed in controls and cats with CKD and DM. Analysis of variance was used to compare overall differences in the log-transformed SDMA data among groups. A random forest algorithm was applied to explore which clinical and other factors influenced serum SDMA. Results: Median (range) serum...

  7. [Skin graft, smoking and diabetes mellitus type 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Guisado, Joaquín; Fidalgo-Rodríguez, Félix T; Gaston, Kate L; Rioja, Luis F; Thomas, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    Smoking and hyperglycemia decrease the success of skin graft survival in specific circumstances. It is well known that smoking and diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2 increase the oxidative and impair the endothelial function. The objective of this retrospective study was to determine if smoking and DM type 2 are factors associated with lower skin graft survival, in different etiologies of the injury associated to the skin loss. It was a bicentric, retrospective, cross sectional case control study, carried out on 2457 medical patients who met the inclusion criteria. It was carried out over a 10 years period between January 2000-December 2009, at Reina Sofía University Hospital (Córdoba, Spain) and UAB Hospital at Birmingham (Alabama, USA). The percentage of successful graft for each group and its control were analyzed by Chi-square test. The confidence interval chosen for statistical differences was 95%. Smoking and DM type 2 decreased the percentage of skin graft survival when compared with their control groups. DM type 2 was associated with greater negative success on skin graft survival than smoking when compared with their control groups. There was a statistically significant drop in skin graft of 18% in smoking group (range: 68-86%) and 25% in DM type 2 group (53-78%). The OR showed a clear association between the risk factors studied and the lower skin graft success, being stronger for DM type 2. In conclusion, DM type 2 and smoking are factors associated to lower skin graft take.

  8. Clinical and Metabolic Characteristics among Mexican Children with Different Types of Diabetes Mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Lola Evia-Viscarra

    Full Text Available Current classification of diabetes mellitus (DM is based on etiology and includes type 1 (T1DM, type 2 (T2DM, gestational, and other. Clinical and pathophysiological characteristics of T1DM and T2DM in the same patient have been designated as type 1.5 DM (T1.5DM.The aim of this study was to classify pediatric patients with DM based on pancreatic autoimmunity and the presence or absence of overweight/obesity, and to compare the clinical, anthropometric, and biochemical characteristics between children in the different classes of DM.A sample of 185 patients, recruited (March 2008-April 2015 as part of the Cohort of Mexican Children with DM (CMC-DM; ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT02722655. The DM classification was made considering pancreatic autoimmunity (via antibodies GAD-65, IAA, and AICA and the presence or absence of overweight/obesity. Clinical, anthropometric and biochemical variables, grouped by type of DM were compared (Kruskal-Wallis or chi-squared test.The final analysis included 140 children; 18.57% T1ADM, 46.43% T1BDM, 12.14% T1.5DM, and 22.86% T2DM. Fasting C-Peptide (FCP, and hs-CRP levels were higher in T1.5DM and T2DM, and the greatest levels were observed in T1.5DM (p<0.001 and 0.024 respectively.We clearly identified that the etiologic mechanisms of T1DM and T2DM are not mutually exclusive, and we detailed why FCP levels are not critical for the classification system of DM in children. The findings of this study suggest that T1.5DM should be considered during the classification of pediatric DM and might facilitate more tailored approaches to treatment, clinical care and follow-up.

  9. Clinical and Metabolic Characteristics among Mexican Children with Different Types of Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evia-Viscarra, María Lola; Guardado-Mendoza, Rodolfo; Rodea-Montero, Edel Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Current classification of diabetes mellitus (DM) is based on etiology and includes type 1 (T1DM), type 2 (T2DM), gestational, and other. Clinical and pathophysiological characteristics of T1DM and T2DM in the same patient have been designated as type 1.5 DM (T1.5DM). The aim of this study was to classify pediatric patients with DM based on pancreatic autoimmunity and the presence or absence of overweight/obesity, and to compare the clinical, anthropometric, and biochemical characteristics between children in the different classes of DM. A sample of 185 patients, recruited (March 2008-April 2015) as part of the Cohort of Mexican Children with DM (CMC-DM); ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT02722655. The DM classification was made considering pancreatic autoimmunity (via antibodies GAD-65, IAA, and AICA) and the presence or absence of overweight/obesity. Clinical, anthropometric and biochemical variables, grouped by type of DM were compared (Kruskal-Wallis or chi-squared test). The final analysis included 140 children; 18.57% T1ADM, 46.43% T1BDM, 12.14% T1.5DM, and 22.86% T2DM. Fasting C-Peptide (FCP), and hs-CRP levels were higher in T1.5DM and T2DM, and the greatest levels were observed in T1.5DM (p1 and 0.024 respectively). We clearly identified that the etiologic mechanisms of T1DM and T2DM are not mutually exclusive, and we detailed why FCP levels are not critical for the classification system of DM in children. The findings of this study suggest that T1.5DM should be considered during the classification of pediatric DM and might facilitate more tailored approaches to treatment, clinical care and follow-up.

  10. Diabetes mellitus and inflammatory pulpal and periapical disease: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, S M F; Grisi, D C; Kogawa, E M; Franco, O L; Peixoto, V C; Gonçalves-Júnior, J F; Arruda, M P; Rezende, T M B

    2013-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common metabolic disorders. DM is characterized by hyperglycaemia, resulting in wound healing difficulties and systemic and oral manifestations, which have a direct effect on dental pulp integrity. Experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated a higher prevalence of periapical lesions in patients with uncontrolled diabetes. The influence of DM on periapical bone resorption and its impact on dental intervention of such patients are reviewed, and its aetiology and pathogenesis are analysed at molecular level. Pulps from patients with diabetes have the tendency to present limited dental collateral circulation, impaired immune response, increased risk of acquiring pulp infection (especially anaerobic ones) or necrosis, besides toothache and occasional tendency towards pulp necrosis caused by ischaemia. In regard to molecular pathology, hyperglycaemia is a stimulus for bone resorption, inhibiting osteoblastic differentiation and reducing bone recovery. The relationship between poorly controlled diabetes and bone metabolism is not clearly understood. Molecular knowledge about pulp alterations in patients with diabetes could offer new therapeutic directions. Knowledge about how diabetes affects systemic and oral health has an enduring importance, because it may imply not only systemic complications but also a higher risk of oral diseases with a significant effect on pulp and periapical tissue. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Evolution of β-Cell Replacement Therapy in Diabetes Mellitus: Islet Cell Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahansouz, Cyrus; Jahansouz, Cameron; Kumer, Sean C.; Brayman, Kenneth L.

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, approximately 23.6 million people in the United States are affected. Of these individuals, 5 to 10% have been diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), an autoimmune disease. Although it often appears in childhood, T1DM may manifest at any age, leading to significant morbidity and decreased quality of life. Since the 1960s, the surgical treatment for diabetes mellitus has evolved to become a viable alternative to insulin administration, beginning with pancreatic transplantation. While islet cell transplantation has emerged as another potential alternative, its role in the treatment of T1DM remains to be solidified as research continues to establish it as a truly viable alternative for achieving insulin independence. In this paper, the historical evolution, procurement, current status, benefits, risks, and ongoing research of islet cell transplantation are explored. PMID:22013505

  12. Executive Function and Diabetes Mellitus - A Stone Left Unturned?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-01-31

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic medical condition that is dependent upon patients self-caring and managing their condition to achieve optimal control. Adherence to medical therapy, making decisions related to lifestyle changes, and self-treating hypoglycaemia for example, require planning and organisational skills that are under the control of a specific domain of cognitive function known as executive function. Executive function has been shown by functional imaging studies such as magnetic resonance imaging to be under the influence of the frontal and prefrontal cortical system. It is now recognised that even in subjects with apparently normal cognition, DM may be associated with impaired executive function (IEF). The exact cause of IEF in DM is still not fully understood. However cerebral microvascular disease and chronic dysglycaemia have been postulated as possible factors contributing to functional neuronal dysfunction leading to IEF. IEF may adversely affect patients\\' abilities to self-manage their diabetes care, potentially cause worsening glycaemic control and difficulty managing risk factors. Several bedside assessment tools to screen for IEF are currently available and have been shown to correlate with functional status. However, more studies are needed to validate these tests against diabetes self-care assessment tools. Until then, clinicians and healthcare workers managing patients with DM should be aware of the potential for IEF in their patients as specific behaviour and education intervention may be needed to help manage patients with diabetes and IEF.

  13. Worse cardiac remodeling in response to pressure overload in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, N; Gomes-Ferreira, C; Moura, C; Roncon-Albuquerque, R; Leite-Moreira, A F; Falcão-Pires, I

    2016-08-15

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy is characterized by cardiac structural and functional abnormalities. Additionally, chronic pressure overload conditions are highly prevalent amongst diabetic population and this association leads to a more severe myocardial impairment. The differences in myocardial pathophysiology between type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) still remain to be clarified. Thus, we aimed to investigate biventricular structural and functional changes promoted by the two types of DM and the impact of concomitant chronic pressure overload. Wistar rats were injected with streptozotocin (Type 1 DM, T1DM) or fed with a hypercaloric diet (Type 2 DM, T2DM). Pressure overload was imposed in DM animals by aortic constriction and after 5weeks of DM the cardiac function and structure were evaluated. Both types of DM promoted hypertrophy, increased fibrosis and advanced glycation end-products deposition, in the two ventricles. Interestingly, the induced myocardial alterations were distinct. While T1DM stimulated a pronounced hypertrophy and extracellular matrix remodeling, T2DM induced functional impairment. The negative impact of the association of DM with aortic constriction was more pronounced in T2DM, promoting impaired function and increased stiffness, particularly in the right ventricle. Our study demonstrated that the two types of diabetes induce distinct cardiac alterations per se or when combined with chronic pressure overload. T1DM promoted a more extensive remodeling in cardiac structure while T2DM significantly impaired ventricular function. The impact of pressure overload was more notorious in T2DM as observed by worse myocardial remodeling, suggesting a higher susceptibility to the deleterious effects of chronic pressure overload, namely hypertension, among this diabetic population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Risks factors for the development of diabetes in women with history of gestational diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cypryk, Katarzyna; Szymczak, Wiesław; Pertyńska-Marczewska, Magdalena; Zawodniak-Szałapska, Małgorzata; Lewiński, Andrzej

    2005-01-01

    Women who suffered from impaired carbohydrate metabolism during pregnancy are more likely to develop different types of diabetes later in their lives. The aim of this paper was to study the risk factors for the development of diabetes in group of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in anamnesis. 200 women took part in this study, who had gestational diabetes diagnosed between 1980-1998. All women were divided into 4 groups depending on the type of disorders occurring at the moment of examination: DM1 - women diagnosed with type I diabetes, DM2 - women diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, IGT-women with glucose levels in OGTT, which applied to impaired glucose tolerance (acc. to WHO criteria), NDM - women with no clinical signs of diabetes, with normal result of OGTT. The risk of diabetes development is significantly higher (independently of the clinical type) in women who had had GDM include: high glucose levels at the time of GDM diagnosis, early onset of symptoms - related to weeks of gestation, and the insulin treatment during pregnancy. However multifactor analysis indicates that the only significant risk factors for DM 1 are early onset of diabetes during pregnancy and high glucose levels 2 hours after OGTT during pregnancy (p women who suffered from diabetes during pregnancy.

  15. Association Of Serum Total Bilirubin Level With Diabetic Retinopathy In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffar, Tahir; Marwat, Zahid Irfan; Ullah, Fahim; Khan, Salman; Hassan Aamir, Aziz Ul

    2016-01-01

    Serum bilirubin has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunological properties. It is considered a protective substance against atherosclerotic and microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). This study was designed to find the association between total serum bilirubin concentration and diabetic retinopathy (DR). This case control study was conducted in the Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar. Type-2 DM patients more than 18 years of age of either gender with duration of T2DM more than 6 months were included and sub categorized in two groups. Cases (DM with DR) and Controls (DM without DR) while patients with acute and chronic liver diseases, haemolytic anaemia, history of chronic alcohol consumption, use of hepatotoxic drugs (anti-tuberculous, anti-epileptic), women on oral contraceptive pills were excluded. All participants underwent ophthalmic examination at diabetic retinopathy screening clinic followed by pre designed set of investigations. A total of 152 patients, 76 cases and 76 controls were included. Serum bilirubin concentration was found inversely and independently (p 0.000) associated and inversely co related (r -0.345and p 0.000) with prevalence of DR. Cases were concentrated in the lower quartiles of serum bilirubin concentration and vice versa. Low haemoglobin (p 0.00) and longer duration of DM (0.003) were independently and directly associated with prevalence of DR. Serum bilirubin concentration is inversely and independently associated and inversely correlated with the prevalence of DR and may predict progression of DR over time.

  16. Diabetes in Oman: Comparison of 1997 American Diabetes Associationclassification of Diabetes Mellitus with 1985 WHO classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Lawati, Jawad A.; Mohammed, Ali J.

    2000-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a major public health problem in Oman. Weevaluated the impact of the revised diagnostic criteria for DM adopted by theAmerican Diabetes Association (ADA) on the prevalence of the diabetes andimpaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and on the classification of the individualsamong the Omani population. We used the dataset of the National DiabetesSurvey, conducted in 1991 and involving 4682 subjects who did not have anymissing data on fasting and 2-hour glucose. The subjects comprised 2002 malesand 2680 females aged 20 years or above. Data were analyzed using the ADAcriteria (diabetes as fasting plasma glucose [FPG] >= 7 mmol/L, impairedfasting glucose [IFG] as FPG >=6.1 mmol/L) and compared these with the WorldHealth Organization (WHO) criteria (diabetes as FPG>= 7.8mmol/L and/or 2-hourpost-glucose load >=11.1 mmol/L). Applying to the ADA criteria on the Omanipopulation resulted in an overall reduction of diabetes prevalence by 2.2%(95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6% to 2.8%) and 4.8% reduction of IGT (95% CI3.8% to 5.8%). Over 29% of diabetics classified by the WHO criteria werereclassified as being normal or having IGF by the ADA criteria. Around 3.6%of those who were normroglycemic by the WHO criteria were classified ashaving diabetes or IFG by the ADA criteria. In all but one region of Oman,the prevalence of diabetes and IFG using the ADA criteria as lower comparedto the prevalence using the WHO criteria. Gender, age and body mass index didnot seem to pose an increased risk to the probability of being diagnosed byone criterion or the other or both together. The adoption of ADA criteria inOman will significantly reduce the prevalence of diabetes and IGT. Inaddition, the glycemic status of a substantial number of individuals will bechanged from normal to either being diabetic or having IGT. (author)

  17. Latest data on metabolic diseases: Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiota Mitrou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With such a high cost in money and human lives, diabetes mellitus (DM is a major challenge for health care systems and an obstacle to sustainable economic growth. The pathophysiological disorders of diabetes include, besides the defect in pancreatic insulin secretion and insulin resistance in peripheral tissues (liver, muscle and adipose tissue, increased lipolysis, increased glucagon secretion, impaired secretion and action of incretin hormones, increased glucose resorption by the kidney and defects in the central nervous system. The therapeutic intervention must be timely and personalized. Lifestyle interventions (diet, exercise, smoking cessation are the cornerstone of treatment. Treatment should begin with metformin unless there is a contraindication (eg renal failure or intolerance (eg, gastrointestinal disorders. If HbA1c remains off target a second or a third treatment may be added, orally (glitazone, DPP-4 inhibitors, SGLT-2 inhibitors, sulfonylurea or by injection (GLP-1 agonist or basal insulin. On failure to achieve glycemic target combinations of injectable treatments (combination of agonist GLP-1 with basal insulin, intensified insulin therapy or in some cases insulin mixtures are recommended. New treatments (weekly administered GLP-1 analogs, combination of a basal insulin / GLP-1 in one injection, SGLT-2 inhibitors, long acting basal insulins in combination with the old tried treatments (e.g. metformin, pioglitazone, inhibitors DPP-4 can contribute to human-centered and individualized management of patients with diabetes. The cardiovascular safety of antidiabetic treatment should be considered. There is a need for early diagnosis and treatment of glucose metabolism disorders during pregnancy (before 24 to 28 weeks of gestation in women at high risk for developing gestational diabetes.

  18. Placental histomorphometry in gestational diabetes mellitus: the relationship between subsequent type 2 diabetes mellitus and race/ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley-Lewis, Rhonda; Dawson, Deanna L; Wenger, Julia B; Thadhani, Ravi I; Roberts, Drucilla J

    2014-04-01

    We examined placental histomorphometry in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) for factors associated with race/ethnicity and subsequent type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We identified 124 placentas from singleton, full-term live births whose mothers had clinically defined GDM and self-reported race/ethnicity. Clinical and placental diagnoses were abstracted from medical records. Forty-eight white and 76 nonwhite women were followed for 4.1 years (median, range 0.0-8.9 years). White women developed less T2DM (12.5% vs 35.5%; P = .005) but had higher systolic (mean ± SD, 116 ± 13 vs 109 ± 11 mm Hg; P < .001) and diastolic (71 ± 9 vs 68 ± 7 mm Hg; P = .02) blood pressure, more smoking (35.4% vs 10.5%; P = .004), and more chorangiosis (52.1% vs 30.3%; P = .02) than nonwhite women. Although more nonwhite women developed T2DM, more white women had chorangiosis, possibly secondary to the higher percentage of smokers among them. Further study is necessary to elucidate the relationship among chorangiosis, subsequent maternal T2DM, and race.

  19. Salivary gland dysfunction markers in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken-Saavedra, Juan; Rojas-Alcayaga, Gonzalo; Maturana-Ramírez, Andrea; Escobar-Álvarez, Alejandro; Cortes-Coloma, Andrea; Reyes-Rojas, Montserrat; Viera-Sapiain, Valentina; Villablanca-Martínez, Claudia; Morales-Bozo, Irene

    2015-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease of the carbohydrate metabolism that, when not rigorously controlled, compromises systemic and organ integrity, thereby causing renal diseases, blindness, neuropathy, arteriosclerosis, infections, and glandular dysfunction, including the salivary glands. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the qualitative and quantitative parameters of salivary alteration, which are indicators of salivary gland dysfunction, and the level of metabolic control of type 2 diabetes patients. A convenience sample of 74 voluntary patients with type 2 DM was selected, each of whom donated a sample of unstimulated saliva. Salivary parameters such as salivary flow rate, protein concentration, pH, and xerostomia were studied. There is a positive relationship between the level of metabolic control measured with HbA1 and the protein concentration in saliva (Spearman rho = 0.329 and p = 0.004). The same assay showed an inverse correlation between HbA1 and pH (Spearman rho = -0.225 and p = 0.05). The protein concentration in saliva and, to a lesser extent, the pH may be useful as glandular dysfunction indicators in DM2 patients. Saliva, type 2 diabetes mellitus, pH, protein concentration, xerostomia.

  20. Ayurvedic treatments for diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Kalpana; Mohan, Roshni; Ramaratnam, Sridharan; Panneerselvam, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with diabetes frequently use complimentary and alternative medications including Ayurvedic medications and hence it is important to determine their efficacy and safety. Objectives To assess the effects of Ayurvedic treatments for diabetes mellitus. Search methods We searched The Cochrane Library (issue 10, 2011), MEDLINE (until 31 August 2011), EMBASE (until 31 August 2011), AMED (until 14 October 2011), the database of randomised trials from South Asia (until 14 October 2011), the database of the grey literature (OpenSigle, until 14 October 2011) and databases of ongoing trials (until 14 October 2011). In addition we performed hand searches of several journals and reference lists of potentially relevant trials. Selection criteria We included randomized trials of at least two months duration of Ayurvedic interventions for diabetes mellitus. Participants of both genders, all ages and any type of diabetes were included irrespective of duration of diabetes, antidiabetic treatment, comorbidity or diabetes related complications. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently extracted data. Risk of bias of trials was evaluated as indicated in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Intervention. Main results Results of only a limited number of studies could be combined, in view of different types of interventions and variable quality of data. We found six trials of proprietary herbal mixtures and one of whole system Ayurvedic treatment. These studies enrolled 354 participants ( 172 on treatment, 158 on controls, 24 allocation unknown). The treatment duration ranged from 3 to 6 months. All these studies included adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. With regard to our primary outcomes, significant reductions in glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting blood sugar (FBS) or both were observed with Diabecon, Inolter and Cogent DB compared to placebo or no additional treatment, while no significant hypoglycaemic response was found

  1. Type 2 diabetes mellitus, pandemic in 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, Emil; Simko, Vlado

    2012-01-01

    In the second half of the 20th century it became obvious that a relentless increase in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), affecting the economically affluent countries, is gradually afflicting also the developing world. This chapter shows the threat that the T2DM epidemic represents to mankind, with the astonishing recent discoveries on the role of obesity and of body fat in this metabolic disorder. Presently, the highest prevalence of T2DM is in Saudi Arabia. T2DM is very high in over 10% of adults in the USA, Switzerland and Austria. Prevalence is low in Norway, China and in Iceland. Predictions of epidemiologists for the first third of the 21st century claim up to 2.5 times increase in the prevalence of T2DM in the Middle East, Sub-Saharan Africa, India, rest of Asia and in the Latin America. In China the number of patients with T2DM will double in 2030. In the economically advanced countries the increase will be about 50% in 2030. Increasing urbanization, aging populations, obesity and falling levels of physical activity are all contributing to the rise of T2DM worldwide. The main cause of T2DM pandemic is growing prevalence of obesity in Europe and USA. In the North America and European Union countries obesity is considered to be responsible for up to 70-90% of T2DM in adult population. The precise mechanism by which obesity leads to insulin resistance and to T2DM is not completely known but it may be related to several biochemical factors such as abnormalities in free fatty acids, adipokines, leptin and other substances.

  2. Effects of Mindfulness on Diabetes Mellitus: Rationale and Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Wilson L; Wilson, David; de Salvo, Vera; Vannucchi, Bruna; de Souza, Érika Leonardo; Lucena, Leandro; Sarto, Héctor Morillo; Modrego-Alarcón, Marta; Garcia-Campayo, Javier; Demarzo, Marcelo

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an emerging global healthcare problem and its prevalence is increasing at an alarming rate. Despite improvements in both medical and pharmacological therapies, a complex medical condition may demand a diversified approach, such as: drug therapy, healthy diet and exercises, diabetes education programs, adherence to medical treatment and active participation of the patients in their lifestyle changes, such as stress management. The concept of mindfulness is here defined as the awareness that unfolds from the intention to attentively observe the current experience in a non-judgmental and non-evaluative way. This state of awareness can be enhanced through the use of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs), which have been associated to many physical and psychological health indicators. The aim of this overview is to offer the rationale and potential benefits of mindfulness in the control of DM and its complications. a narrative review of the current and updated literature available on online database and which came up using the terms "mindfulness" and "diabetes mellitus". Mindfulness-based Interventions (MBIs) can be seen as preventive and complementary interventions in DM, particularly for the relief of symptoms related to depression and anxiety in diabetic patients and also in the management of other factors, including mindful eating, physical exercises and treatment adherence. Although many studies only present research protocols, mindfulness seems to have beneficial effects on all aspects of diabetes, including incidence, control and complications. Furthermore, longer term and more carefully controlled trials are necessary in order to draw consistent conclusions on the beneficial role of MBIs on DM. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Vildagliptin: optimal control in type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment

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    Alexander Sergeevich Ametov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Incretin hormones are important for normal pancreatic islet function and glucose homeostasis. Sensitivity to glucose of the α- and β-cells of the pancreas is diminished in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, leading to impaired insulin secretion, insulin resistance due to elevated glucagon levels in hyperglycaemia and impaired glucagon counterregulation in hypoglycaemia. In addition, T2DM is associated with increased lipotoxicity-induced insulin resistance. This article is a comprehensive review of the safety and efficacy of vildagliptin in patients with T2DM and evaluates the extra-pancreatic effects of incretin-based therapies. Clinical evidence has proven that vildagliptin effectively decreases HbA1c with a low risk of hypoglycaemia and is weight neutral. Vildagliptin also suppresses postprandial triglyceride (TG-rich lipoprotein levels after ingestion of fat-rich meals and reduces fasting lipolysis, suggesting inhibition of fat absorption and reduced TG stores in non-fat tissues.

  4. Immune Function of Vitamin D in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

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    Jingbo Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is a well-known fat-soluble vitamin which is essential in the homeostasis of calcium and phosphorus. Vitamin D deficiency causes skeletal disorders, including rickets, osteomalacia, and osteoporosis. However, recent studies revealing the immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D have opened up a new understanding and possibility in this field. It has been proved that vitamin D is related to a variety of autoimmune diseases. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM, being generally accepted as autoimmune mediated, is also proposed to be associated with the vitamin D status of the human body. Here, we reviewed briefly the epidemiological correlation between the vitamin D status and prevalence of T1DM, the possible mechanisms underlying this correlation, and clinical trials focusing on the therapeutic prospects of vitamin D in the treatment of T1DM.

  5. Peripheral Arterial Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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    Sang Youl Rhee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral arterial disease (PAD in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM exhibits broad clinical characteristics and various consequences and is known as one of the major macrovascular complications of T2DM. Atherosclerosis is recognized as the most direct and important cause of PAD, but acute or chronic limb ischemia may be the result of various risk factors. In light of the increasing number of patients who undergo peripheral vascular procedures, the number of subjects who are exposed to the risks for PAD and related complications is increasing. In this review, we will discuss the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of PAD, as well as the clinical significance of PAD in T2DM subjects.

  6. [Diabetic foot risk in patients with type II diabetes mellitus in a family medicine unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Godínez, S A; Zonana-Nacach, A; Anzaldo-Campos, M C; Muñoz-Martínez, J A

    2014-01-01

    To determine the risk of diabetic foot in patients with type II diabetes mellitus (DM) seen in a Family Medicine Unit. The study included type II DM patients with a disease duration ≥ 5 years seen in a Family Medicine Unit, Tijuana, Mexico, during September-December 2011. Neuropathy was assessed with the Diabetic Neuropathy Symptom questionnaire, and pressure sensation using a 10-g Semmes-Weinstein monofilament. A patient had a high risk of diabetic foot if there was sensitivity loss, foot deformities, and non-palpable pedal pulses. We studied 205 patients with an average (± SD) age and DM duration of 59 ± 10 years and 10.7 ± 6.7 years, respectively. Ninety one patients (44%) had a high risk of developing diabetic foot, and it was associated with; an education of less than 6 years (OR 2.3; 95%CI: 1-1-4.1), DM disease duration ≥ 10 years (OR 5.1; 95%CI: 2.8-9.4), female gender (OR 2.0; 95%CI: 1.1-3.6), monthly familiar income diabetic neuropathy, since they have a high risk of diabetic foot. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of fenofibrate in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated by diabetic neuropathy

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    Olga Nikolaevna Tkacheva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic neuropathy is a severe complication of diabetes mellitus (DM that considerably worsens the patients quality of life and reduces life expectancy.The FIELD study for the first time demonstrated the ability of fenofibrate to prevent macro- and microvacular complications in patientswith DM2 regardless of glycated hemoglobin level and dyslipidemia at the early stage of the disease. Neuropathy being a manifestation of microangiopathy,it suggests the possibility to treat this disorder with fenofibrate.Aim. To study effects of fenofibrate in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated by diabetic neuropathy. Materials and methods. The present study included 73 patients with DM2 randomized into 2 groups to receive standard therapy (antihypertensiveand glucose control, statins or fenofibrate (Tricor 145 mg, Solvay Pharma in addition to the standard treatment. Results. Positive effect of fenofibrate on autonomous and peripheral neuropathy was apparent within 6 months after the onset of therapy when thesought parameters of AP, glycemia, and lipid spectrum were achieved. Fenofibrate improved cardiovascular function, reduced cardiac rhythm variability;QT length and dispersion, pain and paresthesia thereby enhancing quality of life and preventing cardiovascular catastrophes including death. Conclusion. It is concluded that supplementation of standard therapy of DM with fenofibrate is both safe and pathogenetically sound.

  8. TNF Receptor 1/2 Predict Heart Failure Risk in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Zhang; Aiqun, Ma; Jiwu, Li; Liang, Shao

    2017-04-06

    Inflammation plays an important role in heart failure and diabetes mellitus. Traditional serum markers have limited predictive value in heart failure and diabetes. TNFR1 and TNFR2 (TNFR1/2) have been proven to be strongly associated with heart failure and diabetes complications. This study aimed to assess the association of sTNFR1 and sTNFR2 levels and incidental HF risk in diabetes patients.We detected the mRNA, protein, and serum expression of TNFR1/2, their downstream signaling pathway protein NF-kB, and JNK expression and some traditional serum inflammatory markers in a heart failure group without diabetes mellitus or abnormal glucose tolerance (n = 84), a diabetes mellitus group without heart failure (n = 86), and a heart failure with diabetes mellitus group (n = 86).TNFR1/2 were significantly higher in patients with heart failure and diabetes mellitus based on mRNA expression to protein expression and serum expression. However, there were no differences in mRNA, protein, and serum levels of TNFR1/2 between the HF group and DM group. Furthermore, there were no differences between the groups in some traditional serum inflammatory markers.This study demonstrated higher expressions of TNFR, NF-kB, and JNK in patients with heart failure and diabetes mellitus. Compared with traditional serum markers, TNFR1 and TNFR2 are associated with heart failure risk in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

  9. Increased mean platelet volume in type 2 diabetes mellitus

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    Ezgi Coşkun Yenigün

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Platelet functions have important roles in the development of vascular complications in diabetic patients. Platelets with increased volume have increased activity compared to smaller ones; therefore, mean platelet volume (MPV is used as a marker for platelet activity. In the present study, we evaluated MPV in patients with type II diabetes mellitus (DM and its associations with diabetic microvascular and macrovascular complications. Methods: Consecutive type II diabetic patients were screened from outpatient clinic of Internal Medicine Department of Diskapı Yıldırım Beyazıt Education and Researsch Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. A total of 48 patients with type II DM and 30 age and gender matched healthy subjects constituted the study population. For all subjects a complete blood count including MPV, fasting blood glucose level and lipid parameters were studied. In diabetic patients, duration of diabetes and HbA1C level, presence of microvascular and macrovascular complications were noted additively. Mean platelet volume was compared between diabetic patients and healthy counterparents. Then, among diabetic patients, MPV was compared between the ones with and without microvascular and macrovascular complications. Results: Mean platelet volume was found significantly higher in diabetic patients compared to non-diabetic healthy subjects. Diabetic patients with at least one of the microvascular complications had significantly higher MPV than those without microvascular damage.Higher MPV levels have also been shown in diabetics with macrovascular complications compared to the ones without macrovascular disease. Conclusion: Mean platelet volume was found to be higher in type II diabetics and those having any of microvascular or macrovascular diabetic complications.

  10. Primary prevention of diabetes mellitus: current strategies and future trends

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    Prasanta K. Bhattacharya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this paper is to find evidence for primary prevention of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM from epidemiological studies and clinical trials, and the feasibility of applying these interventions in resource limited countries. T2DM, which accounts for more than nine-tenths of all diabetics, results from inadequate insulin secretion or underlying insulin resistance. The prevalence of diabetes, mainly T2DM, has increased rapidly during the last few decades worldwide. Since the genetic background is unlikely to change during this short time period, the growing epidemic of T2DM is more likely due to changes in environmental or lifestyle risk factors including obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, alcohol and stress. The scope and feasibility for primary prevention of T2DM is based on elimination of these risk factors. This evidence that T2DM is preventable comes from epidemiologic studies and clinical trials of effect of lifestyle changes and drugs in development of T2DM. The positive effects are more profound and safer with lifestyle modifications (LSM compared to medications. This is shown to be effective globally, across various ethnicities and races and sustainable on long-term follow-up. However, there is a major challenge in translating this evidence into economically viable and sustained community programs, as these LSM interventions are expensive, even from western standards point of view. Future plan should focus on health education of the public, improving the national capacity to detect and manage the environmental risks including strategies to reduce stress, and development of innovative, cost effective, and scalable methodologies.

  11. Diabetes mellitus and renal involvement in chronic viral liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovanescu, V F; Streba, C T; Ionescu, M; Constantinescu, A F; Vere, C C; Rogoveanu, I; Moța, E

    2015-01-01

    Chronic viral liver disease is often associated with other conditions. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is frequently reported in this context and may play a role in the progression of the liver disease to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Renal disease is also an important extrahepatic manifestation of hepatitis viral infection and its presence is associated with poor prognosis and management issues. Our study had multiple purposes: to determine the frequency of the association between chronic viral liver disease and diabetes mellitus, evaluate the potential of diabetes mellitus as a risk factor for HCC and assess an eventual renal involvement. We included in our study a number of 246 patients with chronic liver disease, from whom 136 were diagnosed with chronic viral hepatitis and 110 with viral liver cirrhosis. These patients were assessed by using a clinical examination and a series of tests, including serum transaminase levels, serum bilirubin, serum albumin, markers of cholestasis, fasting plasma glucose levels, serum creatinine, urea, albuminuria, Addis-Hamburger test, electrophoresis of urinary proteins, abdominal ultrasound and, in some cases, CT examination. We obtained the following results: diabetes mellitus is often associated with chronic liver disease of viral etiology, having been identified in 18.29% of the patients in our study. Age above 60 in patients with chronic hepatitis (p=0.013diabetes mellitus. Renal disease was present in 13.4% of the patients with chronic liver disease and it was especially associated with liver cirrhosis and hepatitis C virus. The most common form of renal injury was glomerulonephritis. Acute kidney injury was diagnosed only in cirrhotic patients as hepatorenal syndrome, occurring in 7.27% of the subjects, while chronic kidney disease was identified only in two cases of chronic viral hepatitis. Four patients in our study were diagnosed with HCC and none of them presented diabetes mellitus. Our study revealed that there is a

  12. Prevalence of pre-diabetes and unreported diabetes mellitus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Unreported diabetes mellitus and glucose intolerance have substantial clinical importance. Glucose intolerance precedes diabetes mellitus and it is associated with cardiovascular complications. Subjects with prediabetes have near normal glycated haemoglobin and may only be detected when oral glucose ...

  13. Epidemiology of Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Aleppo, Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albache, Nizar; Al Ali, Radwan; Rastam, Samer; Fouad, Fouad M; Mzayek, Fawaz; Maziak, Wasim

    2010-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is considerable public health problem, but data on the prevalence and correlates of T2DM in Syria are scarce. The aim of the present study was to establish reliable estimates of the prevalence of T2DM in Syria. A cross-sectional, population-based survey was conducted in Aleppo, Syria (population 2.5 million), in 2006. The study was conducted on a random sample of 1168 subjects ≥25 years of age (47.7% men; mean age 44.7 ± 12.7 years). Information regarding a personal history of diabetes and other risk factors was collected, followed by measurement of weight, height, and the waist:hip ratio (WHR). Of the 1168 participants, 806 provided fasting blood samples that were analyzed for fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1c. The prevalence of T2DM based on FPG ≥126 mg/dL and HbA1c ≥6.5% was 15.6% (11.2% self-reported; 5.0% diagnosed) and 14.8%, respectively. The prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (FPG ≥110 and Syria. Many of those with T2DM are unaware of their disease and most have unsatisfactory control of their disease. © 2009 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Stress and adjustment in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, S; Singh, S B

    1999-01-01

    Stress and adjustment in diabetics is studied in order to know the influence of maladjustment and stress in the causation of the disease. The sample of study consists of 100 diabetics patients, 100 nonpsychosomatic and 100 normal person. Results obtained are discussed in detail. It is concluded that maladjustment and stress are important contributing factors in' diabetes mellitus.

  15. Epidemiology of Diabetes Mellitus in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzak, Hira Abdul; Harbi, Alya; Shelpai, Wael; Qawas, Ahmad

    2017-09-20

    Background/ Objective: Diabetes mellitus is a non-communicable disease which has become a major global public health issue. This systematic review summarized epidemiological studies related to the prevalence, risk factors, complications, incidence, knowledge, attitude and practices of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) among Arab population in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). PubMed, Scopus databases, Science direct, Wiley online library, and other local journals were searched to identify relevant literature using appropriate keywords to retrieve studies conducted in the UAE. Search limits were restricted to studies in English language, between 2007 and 2016, and on UAE population (both citizens and expatriates). Electronic database search yielded 24 studies about the prevalence, incidence, complications, risk factors, knowledge, attitudes and practices of diabetes, including cross sectional studies (n =18), population-based survey (n = 1), retrospective cohort studies (n = 3), qualitative (n=1), and randomized controlled trial (n = 1). Countrywide prevalence estimates of Diabetes Mellitus were reported to be high. The major determinants of Diabetes Mellitus involved hypertension, physical inactivity, sedentary lifestyle, and unhealthy diet. Even though past evidences have promulgated the role of numerous causative factors, the epidemiological implications of some of the risk factors including family history, educational level, and the use of alcohol remains elusive. This systematic review signifies epidemiology of Diabetes Mellitus in the United Arab Emirates and suggests that extra efforts are needed for preventive and curative strategies in order to decrease the burden of this non-communicable disease. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. [Association of abo blood groups with gestational diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huidobro M, Andrea; Torres C, Demetrio; Paredes, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    ABO and Rhesus blood systems are associated with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM2). Gestational Diabetes (GDM) is a model to study DM. To study the association between GDM and ABO and Rhesus groups. A retrospective cohort study was performed in 1,078 women who gave birth to a singleton in Talca Regional Hospital, Chile, during 2008. We analyzed personal, obstetric, medical data and ABO and Rh blood groups. GDM was diagnosed in 6.6% of women. Age and body mass index were significantly associated with GDM. There were no differences in Rh blood groups (p = 0.604), while ABO groups were different between GDM and controls. B antigen was present in 3% of GDM women and in 10.8% of controls (p = 0.037), with an odds ratio of 0.25 after adjusting for other associated risk factors (p = 0.06). ABO group is suggested as a possible protector marker for GDM.

  17. The Role of MIF in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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    Yuriko I. Sánchez-Zamora

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmunity and chronic low-grade inflammation are hallmarks of diabetes mellitus type one (T1DM and type two (T2DM, respectively. Both processes are orchestrated by inflammatory cytokines, including the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF. To date, MIF has been implicated in both types of diabetes; therefore, understanding the role of MIF could affect our understanding of the autoimmune or inflammatory responses that influence diabetic pathology. This review highlights our current knowledge about the involvement of MIF in both types of diabetes in the clinical environment and in experimental disease models.

  18. Health-related quality of life and associated factors among patients with diabetes mellitus in Botswana

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    Godfrey Mutashambara Rwegerera

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL is an important aspect of diabetes mellitus care. The objective of the study was to determine the HRQOL of diabetes mellitus (DM patients in Botswana as little known in Africa. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study of 380 randomly selected DM patients in a tertiary clinic in Gaborone, Botswana was conducted to obtain Data on HRQOL and structured questionnaire was used to collect information on sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression to determine sociodemographic and clinical characteristics associated. Results: Majority of patients were female with no formal education or primary level of education. Mean HbA1c was 7.97% (SD: 2.02 and most patients had poor glycemic control. The majority had both worse physical composite score (PCS-12 and mental composite score (MCS-12, with worse proportions of the two. Female gender, older age ≥65 years, and the presence of three or more documented diabetic complications were associated with significant worse PCS-12. Presence of two diabetic complications, three or more diabetic complications, and musculoskeletal disease were associated with significant MCS-12. Conclusions: Diabetic patients in Botswana have relatively poor HRQOL. The fact that most patients present late with complications calls for policy attention to diagnose diabetes mellitus early and prevent associated complications, ultimately improving health-related quality of life among diabetes mellitus patients. Keywords: Botswana, Diabetes mellitus, Health-related quality of life, Musculoskeletal disease

  19. Knowledge of Diabetes Mellitus among Registered Nurses in Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of Diabetes Mellitus among Registered Nurses in Benin City. ... Although, nurses knew that diet plays a great role in management of diabetes mellitus, they were ... Keywords: Nurses, Health education, Understanding of diabetes.

  20. 77 FR 3549 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ...-0368] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM...

  1. 77 FR 5873 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ...-2011-0326] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The... diabetes exemption applications from fifteen individuals and requested comments from the public (76 FR...

  2. 78 FR 14406 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ...-0013] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM...

  3. 76 FR 61140 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ...-0194] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM...

  4. 77 FR 70530 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ...-0348] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes... revision must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with...

  5. 77 FR 65931 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ...-0347] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of applications from 12 individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes...

  6. Oxidative stress in the elderly with diabetes mellitus or hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Castañeda, Aleida; Martínez-González, Katia Leticia; Sánchez-Arenas, Rosalinda; Sánchez-García, Sergio; Grijalva, Israel; Basurto-Acevedo, Lourdes; Cuadros-Moreno, Juan; Ramírez-García, Eliseo; García-de la Torre, Paola

    2018-01-01

    Mexico City has the highest aging rate in the country, as well as a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HT). It is known that each one of these conditions increase oxidative stress (OS) independently. With this study we described changes in OS of 18 patients without DM or HT (controls), 12 with DM, 23 with HT, and 18 with DM and HT, all of them members of the COSFAMM (Cohorte de Obesidad, Sarcopenia y Fragilidad en Adultos Mayores de México). OS was measured by the quantification of reactive oxygen species (ROS), by the oxidation of diclorofluorosceine, and by determination of lipid peroxidation by product malondialdehyde (MDA). HT patients showed increased ROS levels, as did men with HT compared with the respective DM and HT groups. Also, women of control group showed higher levels of ROS compared with men. Generally, HT turned out to be the most influential factor for the increase of oxidative stress in the elderly while DM has no effect whatsoever.

  7. Dental caries-associated risk factors and type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Norma; Mello, Sandra; Alves, Cresio

    2011-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is associated with various oral complications. However there is no consensus regarding the association of T1DM and caries. Critical revision of dental caries-associated risk factors and type 1 diabetes mellitus. Search of the MEDLINE and LILACS databases from 2000 to 2010, using, in different combination, the key words "dental caries", "diabetes mellitus" and "type 1 diabetes mellitus". The association between T1DM and dental caries remains controversial. Although some studies demonstrate a higher prevalence of caries due to the increased concentration of salivary glucose, acidity of the oral cavity, salivary viscosity, reduced salivary flow rate, and salivary gland dysfunction; other studies report a reduction of caries levels, probably caused by decreased ucrose ingestion. Although patients with uncontrolled T1DM and poor oral hygiene may present increased prevalence of dental caries, the literature does not describe a consistent relationship between T1DM and dental caries. Further investigations are warranted. If a true association is substantiated, intervention studies to prevent or reduce the occurrence of caries in this population should follow.

  8. Skin and diabetes mellitus: what do we know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quondamatteo, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide. Although major complications of this condition involve kidney, retina and peripheral nerves, the skin of diabetic patients is also frequently injured. Hence, interest is mounting in the definition of the structural and molecular profile of non-complicated diabetic skin, i.e., before injuries occur. Most of the available knowledge in this area has been obtained relatively recently and, in part, derives from various diabetic animal models. These include both insulin-dependent and insulin-resistant models. Structural work in human diabetic skin has also been carried out by means of tissue samples or of non-invasive methods. Indications have indeed been found for molecular/structural changes in diabetic skin. However, the overall picture that emerges is heterogeneous, incomplete and often contradictory and many questions remain unanswered. This review aims to detail, as much as possible, the various pieces of current knowledge in a systematic and synoptic manner. This should aid the identification of areas in which key questions are still open and more research is needed. A comprehensive understanding of this field could help in determining molecular targets for the prevention and treatment of skin injuries in DM and markers for the monitoring of cutaneous and systemic aspects of the disease. Additionally, with the increasing development of non-invasive optics-based deep-tissue-imaging diagnostic technologies, precise knowledge of cutaneous texture and molecular structure becomes an important pre-requisite for the use of such methods in diabetic patients.

  9. Mortality causes in cancer patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangdong; Ji, Jianguang; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan; Hemminki, Kari

    2012-05-01

    Cancer patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at an increased risk of death due to cancer. However, whether T2DM comorbidity increases other causes of death in cancer patients is the novel theme of this study. Patients with T2DM were identified from the nationwide Swedish Hospital Discharge Register and linked with patients with cancer recorded from the Swedish Cancer Registry. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated for death due to all causes among cancer patients with and without T2DM; both underlying and multiple causes of death were examined using the Cox regression model. A total of 13 325 cancer patients were identified with comorbidity of T2DM. The total number of deaths of cancer patients was 276 021. Of these, 5900 occurred after T2DM diagnosis. For underlying causes of death, except for T2DM, the highest cause-specific HRs were found for complications of bacterial disease (HR, 3.93; 95% CI, 3.04-5.09), urinary system disease (HR, 3.39; 95% CI, 2.78-4.12), and myocardial infarction (HR, 2.93; 95% CI, 2.75-3.12). When risk of death was examined for both underlying and multiple causes of death, the highest HRs were found for hypertensive disease (HR, 3.42; 95% CI, 3.15-3.72), urinary system disease (HR, 3.39; 95% CI, 3.17-3.63), and arterial disease (HR, 3.26; 95% CI, 3.08-3.46). The diagnosis of T2DM in cancer patients is associated with an increased risk of death due to various causes, including myocardial infarction, other bacterial disease, urinary system disease, hypertensive disease, arterial disease, and so on, which may be related to both cancer and treatment. Clinicians that treat cancer patients with T2DM should pay more attention to comorbidities.

  10. Type 3 Diabetes Mellitus: A Novel Implication of Alzheimers Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszek, Jerzy; Trypka, Elzbieta; Tarasov, Vadim V; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Aliev, Gjumrakch

    2017-01-01

    The brain of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) showed the evidence of reduced expression of insulin and neuronal insulin receptors, as compared with those of age-matched controls. This event gradually and certainly leads to a breakdown of the entire insulin-signaling pathway, which manifests insulin resistance. This in turn affects brain metabolism and cognitive functions, which are the bestdocumented abnormalities in AD. These observations led Dr. de la Monte and her colleagues to suggest that AD is actually a neuroendocrine disorder that resembles type 2 diabetes mellitus. The truth would be more complex with understanding the role of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1, Aβ derived diffusible ligands, and advanced glycation end products. However, now it known as "brain diabetes" and is called type 3 diabetes mellitus (T3DM). This review provides an overview of "brain diabetes" focusing on the reason why the phenomenon is called T3DM. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Transsphenoidal surgery and diabetes mellitus: An analysis of inpatient data and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, Morgan J; Raikundalia, Milap D; Svider, Peter F; Baredes, Soly; Liu, James K; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2015-10-01

    Transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) has emerged as the standard approach for pituitary resection due to its minimally invasive nature. There has been little analysis examining the impact of diabetes mellitus (DM) on patients undergoing TSS. In this study, we characterize DM's association with postoperative TSS complications. In addition to analysis of associated charges and patient demographics, we performed comparison of complication rates between DM and non-DM patients who have undergone TSS in recent years. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample, a database encompassing nearly 8 million inpatient hospitalizations, was evaluated for patients undergoing TSS from 2002 to 2010. Of 12,938 TSS patients, 2,173 (16.8%) had a DM diagnosis. The non-DM cohort was younger (50.1 y ± 16.6SD vs. 56.8 y ± 14.1; P complications, and had a lesser incidence of diabetes insipidus (P complications was present only among patients diabetics when compared to non-DM blacks. DM is associated with greater length of stay and hospital charges among TSS patients. DM patients undergoing TSS have a significantly greater incidence of pulmonary and fluid/electrolyte complications among patients under the age of 60, and greater risk for urinary/renal complications across all ages. Despite a theoretical concern due to an impaired wound-healing in DM patients, association with cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea was only noted among black diabetics. 2C. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. Effect of diabetes mellitus on the quality and cytokine content of human semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaosheng; Huang, Yonggang; Zhang, Huina; Zhao, Junzhao

    2017-09-01

    The effects of diabetes mellitus (DM) on the quality and cytokine levels of human semen remain unknown. Sixty semen samples from 30 normal volunteers and 30 DM patients were assayed. The percentage of sperm progressive motility, sperm vitality, sperm survival rate, the rate of normal sperm morphology, semen volume, and semen pH and density of DM males were significantly lower than those of normal males (psemen interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-18 levels in DM males were significantly higher than those in normal males (psemen decreased semen quality and might lead to male infertility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. HEART FAILURE AND DIABETES MELLITUS: SELECTED ISSUES OF ETIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS, PROGNOSIS AND TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. U. Mardanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This review is devoted to the study of issues relating to the features of associated course of chronic heart failure (CHF and diabetes mellitus (DM. The modern views on the epidemiology, pathogenesis of DM and CHF are systematized. The pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy is described in details. The results of the well-known studies that show the negative impact of DM on CHF prognosis are presented. The principles of CHF pathogenetic therapy in patients with DM including the role of neurohormonal modulators are analyzed. The results of multicenter studies in patients with CHF and concomitant DM type 2 show that almost all first-line drugs recommended for CHF treatment are effective in patients with DM.

  14. Risk perception and unrecognized type 2 diabetes in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Janine; Lawson, Margaret L; Gaboury, Isabelle; Keely, Erin

    2009-09-01

    Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have a high chance of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) following the index pregnancy, however, little is known of women's perception of this risk. The objectives were to (1) determine women's perception of risk of future development of T2DM following a GDM pregnancy and (2) describe the prevalence of undetected dysglycaemia in a Canadian population. The study was designed as a 9-11 year follow-up study of women previously enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of tight versus minimal intervention for GDM. Women's perception of future risk of diabetes was determined by questionnaire. Fasting lipid profile, height and weight were performed on all participants. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed on all women without prior history of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). The study was conducted at Ottawa Hospital General Campus and Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, in Ottawa, Canada. Eighty-nine of 299 (30%) of the original cohort were recruited. Eighty-eight women completed the questionnaire and 77 women without known diabetes underwent two hour glucose tolerance testing. Twenty-three (30%) felt their risk was no different than other women or did not know, 27 (35%) felt risk was increased a little and 27 (35%) felt risk was increased a lot. Only 52% (40/77) had normal glucose tolerance. Of all, 25/88 (28%) patients had diabetes (11 previously diagnosed and 14 diagnosed within the study). Of those newly diagnosed with DM2, four (29%) were diagnosed by fasting glucose, six (42%) by two hour glucose tolerance test (GTT) alone and four (29%) by both. Twenty-four of the women (27%) had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Of those with IGT, 12 (57%) had a fasting food glucose DM2, and all had a waist circumference >88 cm. In conclusion the perception of being at high risk for T2DM did not prevent women from having undetected T2DM. Many factors are likely to contribute to this, including the

  15. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Undiagnosed Diabetes Mellitus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-01

    Jan 1, 2018 ... School of Biomedical and Laboratory. Sciences, College .... implementing quality control measures during the whole process .... Table 2: Prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus by behavioral characteristics, clinical and.

  16. 139 PREVENTION AND SCREENING FOR DIABETES MELLITUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... PREVENTION AND SCREENING FOR DIABETES MELLITUS. *G.U. Eze ... Public Health is the science and art of preventing ... nutrition that targeted only healthy people with ... to such activities as Health education against.

  17. Sequence Variants of ADIPOQ and Association with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Taiwan Chinese Han Population

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Ming-Kai; Wang, Hui-Min David; Shiang, Jeng-Chuan; Chen, I-Hung; Wang, Chih-Chiang; Shiao, Ya-Fen; Liu, Wen-Sheng; Lin, Tai-Jung; Chen, Tsung-Ming; Chen, Ya-Huey

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is a serious global health problem. Large-scale genome-wide association studies identified loci for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), including adiponectin (ADIPOQ) gene and transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2), but few studies clarified the effect of genetic polymorphisms of ADIPOQ and TCF7L2 on risk of T2DM. We attempted to elucidate association between T2DM and polymorphic variations of both in Taiwan's Chinese Han population, with our retrospective case-control study genotyping ...

  18. Meta-Analysis of TNF 308 G/A Polymorphism and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Ren-Nan; Zhao, Chen; Sun, Chang-Hao; Li, Ying

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Many investigations have focused the association between TNF 308 G/A polymorphism and risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the sample sizes of most of the studies were small. The aim of this study is to evaluate the precise association between this variant and risk for T2DM in a large-scale meta-analysis. METHODS: All publications were searched on the association between TNF 308 G/A polymorphism and T2DM. The key words were as follows: diabetes, tumor ...

  19. Infant Exposures and Development of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Brittni; Kroehl, Miranda; Lamb, Molly M.; Seifert, Jennifer; Barriga, Katherine; Eisenbarth, George S.; Rewers, Marian; Norris, Jill M.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is increasing worldwide, with the most rapid increase among children younger than 5 years of age. OBJECTIVE To examine the associations between perinatal and infant exposures, especially early infant diet, and the development of T1DM. DESIGN The Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY) is a longitudinal, observational study. SETTING Newborn screening for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) was done at St. Joseph’s Hospital in Denver, Colorado. First-degree relatives of individuals with T1DM were recruited from the Denver metropolitan area. PARTICIPANTS A total of 1835 children at increased genetic risk for T1DM followed up from birth with complete prospective assessment of infant diet. Fifty-three children developed T1DM. EXPOSURES Early (<4 months of age) and late (≥6 months of age) first exposure to solid foods compared with first exposures at 4 to 5 months of age (referent). MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURE Risk for T1DM diagnosed by a physician. RESULTS Both early and late first exposure to any solid food predicted development of T1DM (hazard ratio [HR], 1.91; 95% CI, 1.04–3.51, and HR, 3.02; 95% CI, 1.26–7.24, respectively), adjusting for the HLA-DR genotype, first-degree relative with T1DM, maternal education, and delivery type. Specifically, early exposure to fruit and late exposure to rice/oat predicted T1DM (HR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.14–4.39, and HR, 2.88; 95% CI, 1.36–6.11, respectively), while breastfeeding at the time of introduction to wheat/barley conferred protection (HR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.26–0.86). Complicated vaginal delivery was also a predictor of T1DM (HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.03–3.61). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE These results suggest the safest age to introduce solid foods in children at increased genetic risk for T1DM is between 4 and 5 months of age. Breastfeeding while introducing new foods may reduce T1DM risk. PMID:23836309

  20. Spatial analysis for prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus - A state investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal, Siti Salsabilah Nabilah; Masnan, Maz Jamilah; Amin, Nor Azrita Mohd; Mohamed, Nordin

    2017-11-01

    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic and non-communicable disease, which is characterized as the cause of premature deaths in the world. Unfortunately, Malaysia is one of the many countries facing this epidemic. Based on the increasing current trend of T2DM patients' cases from the National Diabetes Registry (NDR) Report from 2009 to 2012, there were approximately 2.6 million adults aged 18 years and above living with diabetes disease in Malaysia. Thus, this study aims to (i) perform preliminary spatial analysis for the prevalence of T2DM patients based on some factors, (ii) map the findings of the analyses according to some spatial properties, and (iii) analyze the pattern of diagnosed T2DM patients based on the studied factors. The studied population is one of the highest prevalence states of T2DM in Malaysia. This study is expected to reveal some demographic patterns that probably significant to this alarming epidemic.

  1. The readmission rates in patients with versus those without diabetes mellitus at an urban teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonmez, Halis; Kambo, Varinder; Avtanski, Dimiter; Lutsky, Larry; Poretsky, Leonid

    2017-12-01

    We examined the 30-day hospital readmission rates and their association with the admission diagnosis and the length of stay (LOS) in patients with diabetes versus those without diabetes mellitus (DM) in an urban teaching hospital. In this retrospective study, we compared the 30-day readmission rates in patients with DM (n=16,266) versus those without DM (n=86,428) at an urban teaching hospital between January 1, 2013, and September 30, 2015. In individuals with a secondary diagnosis of DM, we analyzed the relationship between readmission rates and the ten most common Medicare Severity Diagnosis Related Groups (MS-DRGs). Additionally, we examined the relationship between the LOS and readmission rates in patients with diabetes and those without DM. The 30-day readmission rates adjusted for age and gender were higher in patients with DM compared to those without DM (15.3% vs. 8.4%, respectively, readmissions was present both in patients with a primary or a secondary diagnosis of DM. For the secondary diagnosis of DM, statistically significant difference was present for two out of the ten most common DRGs (DRG # 313 [chest pain], and # 392 [esophagitis, gastroenteritis, and miscellaneous digestive disorders], p=0.045 and 0.009, respectively). There was a direct correlation between LOS and readmission rates in both patients with diabetes and those without DM (preadmission rates are higher in patients with DM compared to patients without DM. DM is an independent risk factor for hospital readmissions. The readmission rates correlate directly with LOS in both patients with diabetes and those without DM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Aggressive periodontitis treatment with diabetes mellitus : A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arni Irawaty Djais

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive periodontitis is a periodontal disease occurring in healthy adolescent which is characterized by rapid loss alveolar bone happened in more than one permanent tooth.This disease has been classified in two types: localized and generalized. Localized aggressive periodontitis is characteristized by bone loss around the first molar and incisal, while generalized aggressive periodontitis is characterized by bone widespread pattern of periodontal distraction. One of the clinical feature aggressive periodonitis is distolabial migration of the maxillary incisors with concomitant diastema  formation. Radiographic findings show alveolar bone loss extending from the distal surface of the second premolar to the mesial surface of the second molar. Diabetes mellitus (DM is one of the predisposition factors that cause infection. DM will increase quantity of bacteria in oral, which will cause destruction in periodontal tissue, and continue to cause tooth mobility. However, well controlled DM patients can decrease the infection. The purpose of this study is to to inform a case with aggressive periodontitis with diabetes mellitus. A male 36 old presented with chief complaint mobile teeth and esthetic problem teeth. Radiographic evidence of severe attachment loss and bone loss around almost all the teeth. Treatment consisted of consulted to internist to control blood glucose level, periodontal pocket treatment with scalling root planing, splinting, flap surgery and antibiotic administration. The patient’s periodontal condition was stablized post treatment. Controlling oral hygiene to preventive disease progression was scheduled every three months. Patient refered to ortodontist to get ortodontic treatment to get esthetic result.

  3. Salivary flow and xerostomia in older patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Danilo Lopes Ferreira; Carneiro, Sandro Dias Rocha Mendes; Barbosa, Fladia Taciana de Sousa; Saintrain, Maria Vieira de Lima; Moizan, Jean Andr? Herv?; Doucet, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To assess salivary flow in older patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and its association with xerostomia. Methods Cross-sectional clinical study conducted with older patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes for at least one year receiving treatment at the Integrated Center for Diabetes and Hypertension of Cear? (CIHD) in the city of Fortaleza, Cear?, Northeastern Brazil. Oral clinical examination was carried out to assess the decayed, missing and filled teeth index (DMFT). ...

  4. Association between metabolic control and oral health in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saes Busato, Ivana Maria; Bittencourt, Mônica Sommer; Machado, Maria Angela Naval; Grégio, Ana Maria Trindade; Azevedo-Alanis, Luciana Reis

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between metabolic control and oral health of adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1). A case-control epidemiologic study was performed on adolescents allocated between 2 groups: DM1 group composed of 51 with DM1, and control group composed of 51 without diabetes. In the DM1 group, metabolic control data were observed (glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb) and capillary glucose), whereby GHb 8.0% poor metabolic control (DM1-B). Oral mucosal abnormalites, Community Periodontal Index (CPI), and decayed, missing, and filled (DMF) index were documented. Salivary flow was evaluated by means of stimulated saliva collection (SSFR). Glycosylated hemoglobin values of 8.0% (DM1-B) in 34 (76%) of the subjects. The average DMF indexes were 1.5 (control) and 3.3 (DM1-group) (P < or = .05). The average CPIs were 0.2 (control), 1.4 (DM1-A), and 2.0 (DM1-B) (P < or = .05). Average SSFRs were 0.997 (DM1-A), 0.903 (DM1-B), and 1.224 (control) mL/min. Oral health of adolescents with DM1 was impaired regardless of metabolic control. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Copper in Diabetes Mellitus: a Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review of Plasma and Serum Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Qihong; Zhang, Fuping; Zhu, Wenjun; Wu, Juan; Liang, Min

    2017-05-01

    Copper (Cu) is an important trace element involved in oxidative stress, which is associated with the onset and progression of diabetes mellitus (DM). However, clinical studies comparing plasma or serum Cu levels in patients with DM and in healthy individuals report conflicting findings. Therefore, in this meta-analysis, we analyzed the circulating levels of Cu associated with DM (including type 1 diabetes mellitus [T1DM] and type 2 diabetes mellitus [T2DM]). We searched the articles indexed in PubMed, OVID, and Cochrane databases, published through January 2016 and meeting our predefined criteria. Requisite data were extracted, and a random-effect model or a fixed-effect model was used to conduct the meta-analysis. Fifteen eligible studies involving a total of 1079 DM patients and 561 healthy controls were identified. Overall, the DM patients showed higher Cu levels than the healthy controls (plasma Cu mean difference [MD] = 1.69 μmol/L, p 1; serum Cu MD = 4.06 μmol/L, p = 0.005; plasma and serum Cu MD = 2.67 μmol/L, p = 0.006). Stratification based on the type of diabetes also indicated higher levels of Cu in the plasma and serum of DM patients than in healthy controls, respectively. Stratification of DM patients associated with and without complications also revealed similar results. This meta-analysis suggests that DM patients carried higher levels of Cu than healthy individuals. However, international cohort studies are needed to corroborate our findings.

  6. THE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SITUATION ON DIABETES MELLITUS IN THE MOSCOW REGION IN THE YEARS 2004-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Misnikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is extremely important to have information about the main epidemiological indicators characterizing the situation on diabetes mellitus (DM in Moscow Region. Aim: To assess the dynamics of the main epidemiological indicators of type 1 DM (T1DM and type 2 DM (T2DM for the 10-year period (2004-2013. Materials and methods: The study was performed based on the analysis of data of the Moscow Region DM Register, which contained information about 202 909 patients with DM. The indicators are presented per 100 000 of the population. Results: The T1DM prevalence increased from 132.09 to 166.6 per 100 000 within a decade fixed, and that of DM2 – from  2121.9  to 3263.12. The T2DM incidence increased from 193.22 to 224.4. T1DM mortality decreased from 0.9 to 0.6 per 100 000, and in patients with DM2 – from 68.3 to 61.4. The average life expectancy in adult patients with T1DM increased by 1.3 years, in patients with T2DM – by 1.7 years. Conclusion: It was found that the registered prevalence of both T2DM (35% and T1DM (by 20.5% increased within the 10-year period. Increase of T2DM incidence was noted in individuals under 40 years of age, and the average peak of T1DM morbidity shifted from the age group of 10-14 years to the 7-9-year group. Cardiovascular diseases are still the prevailing cause of death in T2DM patients (60%. In T1DM patients, the main cause of death was chronic renal failure if onset of the disease occurred in patients under 25, and macrovascular complications – if the first disease manifestation was noted in patients above 25.

  7. Use of parenteral glucocorticoids and the risk of new onset type 2 diabetes mellitus : A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyany, Ala; Nielen, Johannes T H; Souverein, Patrick C.; de Vries, Frank; van den Bemt, Bart

    2018-01-01

    Background: Use of oral glucocorticoids (GCs) has been associated with hyperglycaemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, unlike oral GCs, there is minimal or no data on the effect of parenteral GC use on T2DM. Objective: To assess the association between use of parenteral GCs and the risk

  8. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, fish intake, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus123

    OpenAIRE

    Kaushik, Manas; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Spiegelman, Donna; Manson, JoAnn E; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B

    2009-01-01

    Background: Diet is a key component of a healthy lifestyle in the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The role of long-chain omega-3 (n–3) fatty acids (LCFAs) in the development of T2DM remains unresolved.

  9. Prevalence of depression and use of antidepressant pharmacotherapy among ambulatory patients with diabetes mellitus in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Neumiller, Joshua J.; Sclar, David A.; Robison, Linda M.; Setter, Stephen M.; Skaer, Tracy L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Persons with diabetes mellitus (DM) exhibit a higher rate of depressive illness than does the general US population. Despite this finding, previous research has documented a low rate of diagnosis and/or treatment with antidepressant pharmacotherapy among persons with DM.

  10. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in women with diabetes mellitus: effect on renal function after 6 years of follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meiland, Ruby; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Netten, Patrick M.; Schneeberger, Peter M.; Hoepelman, Andy I. M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The long-term consequences of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) on renal function in women with diabetes mellitus (DM) are unknown. METHODS: A prospective study was performed among women with type 1 or type 2 DM. Women with ASB (diagnosis based on findings from 1 urine culture specimen)

  11. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in women with diabetes mellitus - Effect on renal function after 6 years of follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meiland, Ruby; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Netten, Patrick M.; Schneeberger, Peter M.; Hoepelman, Andy I. M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The long-term consequences of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) on renal function in women with diabetes mellitus (DM) are unknown. Methods: A prospective study was performed among women with type 1 or type 2 DM. Women with ASB (diagnosis based on findings from 1 urine culture specimen)

  12. Effect of Statin Therapy on Incident Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Patients With Clinically Manifest Vascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van De Woestijne, Anton P.; Van Der Graaf, Yolanda; Westerink, Jan; Nathoe, Hendrik M.; Visseren, Frank L J

    2015-01-01

    Several trials and cohort studies have shown an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in patients using statins. Whether this only applies to patients at already high risk for the development of T2DM or for all patients is still a matter of debate. In the present prospective cohort

  13. Clinical and metabolic features of type 2 diabetes mellitus in participants of Chernobyl accident clean-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zujeva, N.O.; Kovalenko, O.M.; Jefyimov, A.S.

    2000-01-01

    The clinical and metabolic features of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in the participants of Chernobyl accident clean-up (PCAC) was studied. It was found out that DM in PCAC was first diagnosed against a background of formed cardiovascular pathology and hyper coagulation

  14. Hypothyroidism in diabetes mellitus patients in Eastern Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Maskey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The coexistence of diabetes mellitus (DM with hypothyroidism is a known clinical observation. Aims: To estimate prevalence and co-relate that of hypothyroidism in patients with DM in relation to the age and sex, the lipid profile, body mass index visiting diabetes clinic and inpatients in B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences. Settings and Design: The hospital-based descriptive study. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and seventy-one known or newly detected cases of DM aged more than 15 years were selected randomly from September 2012 to September 2013 and subjected to evaluation for thyroid function - clinically and biochemically and other relevant investigations were done. Statistical Analysis Used: For descriptive statistics mean, standard deviation, percentage, proportion were calculated. For inferential statistics following test were carried out at the level of significant 0.05 where confidence interval is 95%. The statistical operations were done through Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 10. Results: Of 271 subjects, the prevalence of hypothyroidism (clinical and subclinical in diabetics was, 4.05% (11/271 with females preponderance, of which 7 (30.4% were clinically hypothyroid and 4 (17.4% were subclinical hypothyroid. One (4.3% patient had subclinical hyperthyroidism. The mean age at diagnosis of type 2 DM was 51-60 years. 8.69% of diabetics with primary hypothyroids were having morbid obesity. High-density lipoprotein among different thyroid status were statistically significant (P = 0.042. Conclusions: Hypothyroidism is not uncommon in diabetes, and we found body mass index, mean triglyceride and cholesterol levels were more in those diabetic patients having coexisting hypothyroidism.

  15. The role of blood groups in the development of diabetes mellitus after gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagoz, Hatice; Erden, Abdulsamet; Ozer, Ozerhan; Esmeray, Kubra; Cetinkaya, Ali; Avci, Deniz; Karahan, Samet; Basak, Mustafa; Bulut, Kadir; Mutlu, Hasan; Simsek, Yasin

    2015-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common condition that is defined as glucose intolerance of varying degree with onset or first recognition during pregnancy and it affects approximately 5% of all pregnancies all over the world. GDM is not only associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as macrosomia, dystocia, birth trauma, and metabolic complications in newborns, but it is also a strong predictor of transitioning to overt DM postpartum. The association of ABO blood groups with DM has been observed before in several epidemiological and genetic studies and resulted with inconsistent findings, but still there are not enough studies in the literature about the association of ABO blood groups with GDM. In this study, we aimed at investigating any possible relationship between the ABO blood group system and GDM and also the transitioning of GDM to overt DM postpartum, in Turkey. A total of 233 patients with GDM from Kayseri Training and Research Hospital between 2002 and 2012 were included in the study. The cases that have serologically determined blood groups and Rh factor in the hospital records were included in the study, and the patients with unknown blood groups were excluded. Patients were classified according to blood groups (A, B, AB, and O) and Rh status (+/-). GDM was diagnosed based on the glucose cut-points of the International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Society Groups. The distributions of blood groups of the patients with GDM were compared with the distribution of blood groups of 17,314 healthy donors who were admitted to the Turkish Red Crescent Blood Service in our city in 2012. There was a significant difference between the patients with GDM and control group in terms of distribution of ABO blood groups. Blood group AB was found to be higher in the patients with GDM compared to the control group (P=0.029). When the patients were compared according to the development of DM, the ratio of group O was higher than others, while the

  16. Gut microbiota and immunopathogenesis of diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Zhang, Chunfang; Zeng, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major increasing global health burden in the aging population. Understanding the etiology of DM is beneficial for its prevention as well as treatment. In light of the metagenome hypothesis, defined as the overall bacterial genome, gut microbes have attracted increasing attention in the pathogenesis of DM. Many studies have found that gut microbes are involved in the immunopathogenesis of DM. Probiotics strengthen the host's intestinal barrier and modulate the immune system, and have therefore been investigated in DM management. Recent epigenetic findings in context of genes associated with inflammation suggest a possible way in which gut microbiota participate in the immunopathogenesis of DM. In this review, we discuss the role of gut microbiota in the immunopathogenesis of DM.

  17. DMTO: a realistic ontology for standard diabetes mellitus treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sappagh, Shaker; Kwak, Daehan; Ali, Farman; Kwak, Kyung-Sup

    2018-02-06

    Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex problem. A clinical decision support system (CDSS) based on massive and distributed electronic health record data can facilitate the automation of this process and enhance its accuracy. The most important component of any CDSS is its knowledge base. This knowledge base can be formulated using ontologies. The formal description logic of ontology supports the inference of hidden knowledge. Building a complete, coherent, consistent, interoperable, and sharable ontology is a challenge. This paper introduces the first version of the newly constructed Diabetes Mellitus Treatment Ontology (DMTO) as a basis for shared-semantics, domain-specific, standard, machine-readable, and interoperable knowledge relevant to T2DM treatment. It is a comprehensive ontology and provides the highest coverage and the most complete picture of coded knowledge about T2DM patients' current conditions, previous profiles, and T2DM-related aspects, including complications, symptoms, lab tests, interactions, treatment plan (TP) frameworks, and glucose-related diseases and medications. It adheres to the design principles recommended by the Open Biomedical Ontologies Foundry and is based on ontological realism that follows the principles of the Basic Formal Ontology and the Ontology for General Medical Science. DMTO is implemented under Protégé 5.0 in Web Ontology Language (OWL) 2 format and is publicly available through the National Center for Biomedical Ontology's BioPortal at http://bioportal.bioontology.org/ontologies/DMTO . The current version of DMTO includes more than 10,700 classes, 277 relations, 39,425 annotations, 214 semantic rules, and 62,974 axioms. We provide proof of concept for this approach to modeling TPs. The ontology is able to collect and analyze most features of T2DM as well as customize chronic TPs with the most appropriate drugs, foods, and physical exercises. DMTO is ready to be used as a knowledge base for

  18. Psychological Well Being In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients In Mulyorejo Public Health Center Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rr Dian Tristiana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Living with chronic diseases such as Diabetes mellitus type 2 will make patients experience change or imbalance include biological, psychological, social and spiritual. One of psychology aspects in patients with Diabetes mellitus type 2 is psychological well being (PWB. Emotional response of type 2 DM patients since the early diagnosis to begin undergoing the treatment will be different for each person. Type 2 DM patients need a good transition process to achieve well being state. The transition from a healthy to a diseased condition is needed for the successful self care management of type 2 DM patients. The purpose of this research was to explore the description of PWB in patients of type 2 Diabetes mellitus in six aspects of PWB and PWB facilitate and inhibitor factors in type 2 DM patients. Methods: This research used qualitative design research with case studies approach. The subject of research was seven participants who met the inclusion criteria. Data collection was done by structured interview and observation. Data analysis was done by thematic analysis. Result and Analysis: This study generated 14 themes. The result showed that the process of type 2 DM patients subjected to the process of transition from a healthy condition into ill condition. The transition process started with cyclic lose response which influence type 2 DM patient to self control and make a right decision-making to self care. Self-control would make type 2 DM patients able to adapt and engage with new experiences that become a new habit for type 2 DM patients and will facilitate type 2 DM patients in adapting to the internal and external environment and make type 2 DM patients have a positive hope in their life. Discuss and conclusion: finding in this study would hopefully be beneficial for professional health staff to make assessment about PWB in type 2 DM patients, nurse hopefully can assist patients in transition with the condition of type 2 DM. Need

  19. Pre-existing diabetes mellitus and adverse pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahabi Hayfaa A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancies complicated by pre-existing diabetes mellitus (PDM are associated with a high rate of adverse outcomes, including an increased miscarriage rate, preterm delivery, preeclampsia, perinatal mortality and congenital malformations; compared to the background population. The objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of PDM and to investigate the maternal and the neonatal outcomes of women with PDM. Methods This is a retrospective cohort study for women who delivered in King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH during the period of January 1st to the 31st of December 2008. The pregnancy outcomes of the women with PDM were compared to the outcomes of all non-diabetic women who delivered during the same study period. Results A total of 3157 deliveries met the inclusion criteria. Out of the study population 116 (3.7% women had PDM. There were 66 (57% women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and 50 (43% women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Compared to non-diabetic women those with PDM were significantly older, of higher parity, and they had more previous miscarriages. Women with PDM were more likely to be delivered by emergency cesarean section (C/S, OR 2.67, 95% confidence intervals (CI (1.63-4.32, P P P P = 0.002. They more frequently have APGAR scores P 0.057 and more likely to be delivered at P 0.003. The stillbirth rate was 2.6 times more among the women with PDM; however the difference did not reach statistical significance, P 0.084. Conclusion PDM is associated with increased risk for C/S delivery, macrosomia, stillbirth, preterm delivery and low APGAR scores at 5 min.

  20. Animal Models of Diabetes Mellitus for Islet Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoaki Sakata

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to current improvements in techniques for islet isolation and transplantation and protocols for immunosuppressants, islet transplantation has become an effective treatment for severe diabetes patients. Many diabetic animal models have contributed to such improvements. In this paper, we focus on 3 types of models with different mechanisms for inducing diabetes mellitus (DM: models induced by drugs including streptozotocin (STZ, pancreatomized models, and spontaneous models due to autoimmunity. STZ-induced diabetes is one of the most commonly used experimental diabetic models and is employed using many specimens including rodents, pigs or monkeys. The management of STZ models is well established for islet studies. Pancreatomized models reveal different aspects compared to STZ-induced models in terms of loss of function in the increase and decrease of blood glucose and therefore are useful for evaluating the condition in total pancreatomized patients. Spontaneous models are useful for preclinical studies including the assessment of immunosuppressants because such models involve the same mechanisms as type 1 DM in the clinical setting. In conclusion, islet researchers should select suitable diabetic animal models according to the aim of the study.

  1. The expression and significance of serum IP-10 and IL-8 in patients with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Zhengui; Yang Shijun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the significance of IP-10 and IL-8 in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). Methods: The serum levels of IP-10 and IL-8 were measured in 37 patients with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus and 33 controls. Results; The serum levels of IP-10 and IL-8 in patients with DM2 were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.001). Conclusion: The higher levels of IP-10 and IL-8 might play some role in the pathogenesis of DM2. (authors)

  2. Intensive blood pressure control affects cerebral blood flow in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Yu-Sok; Davis, Shyrin C A T; Truijen, Jasper

    2011-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with microvascular complications, hypertension, and impaired dynamic cerebral autoregulation. Intensive blood pressure (BP) control in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients reduces their risk of stroke but may affect cerebral perfusion. Systemic hemodynamic...... variables and transcranial Doppler-determined cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV), cerebral CO2 responsiveness, and cognitive function were determined after 3 and 6 months of intensive BP control in 17 type 2 diabetic patients with microvascular complications (T2DM+), in 18 diabetic patients without (T2DM......-) microvascular complications, and in 16 nondiabetic hypertensive patients. Cerebrovascular reserve capacity was lower in T2DM+ versus T2DM- and nondiabetic hypertensive patients (4.6±1.1 versus 6.0±1.6 [P

  3. Type I diabetes mellitus decreases in vivo macrophage-to-feces reverse cholesterol transport despite increased biliary sterol secretion in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Jan Freark; Annema, Wijtske; Schreurs, Marijke; van der Veen, Jelske N; van der Giet, Markus; Nijstad, Niels; Kuipers, Folkert; Tietge, Uwe J F

    Type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM) increases atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease; however, the underlying pathophysiology is still incompletely understood. We investigated whether experimental T1DM impacts HDL-mediated reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). C57BL/6J mice with alloxan-induced T1DM had

  4. Retinal neurodegeneration may precede microvascular changes characteristic of diabetic retinopathy in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Elliott H; van Dijk, Hille W; Jiao, Chunhua; Kok, Pauline H B; Jeong, Woojin; Demirkaya, Nazli; Garmager, Allison; Wit, Ferdinand; Kucukevcilioglu, Murat; van Velthoven, Mirjam E J; DeVries, J Hans; Mullins, Robert F; Kuehn, Markus H; Schlingemann, Reinier Otto; Sonka, Milan; Verbraak, Frank D; Abràmoff, Michael David

    2016-05-10

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) has long been recognized as a microvasculopathy, but retinal diabetic neuropathy (RDN), characterized by inner retinal neurodegeneration, also occurs in people with diabetes mellitus (DM). We report that in 45 people with DM and no to minimal DR there was significant, progressive loss of the nerve fiber layer (NFL) (0.25 μm/y) and the ganglion cell (GC)/inner plexiform layer (0.29 μm/y) on optical coherence tomography analysis (OCT) over a 4-y period, independent of glycated hemoglobin, age, and sex. The NFL was significantly thinner (17.3 μm) in the eyes of six donors with DM than in the eyes of six similarly aged control donors (30.4 μm), although retinal capillary density did not differ in the two groups. We confirmed significant, progressive inner retinal thinning in streptozotocin-induced "type 1" and B6.BKS(D)-Lepr(db)/J "type 2" diabetic mouse models on OCT; immunohistochemistry in type 1 mice showed GC loss but no difference in pericyte density or acellular capillaries. The results suggest that RDN may precede the established clinical and morphometric vascular changes caused by DM and represent a paradigm shift in our understanding of ocular diabetic complications.

  5. Weak bones in diabetes mellitus - an update on pharmaceutical treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Daphne P L; Dass, Crispin R

    2018-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is often associated with a number of complications such as nephropathy, neuropathy, retinopathy and foot ulcers. However, weak bone is a diabetic complication that is often overlooked. Although the exact mechanism for weak bones within diabetes mellitus is unclear, studies have shown that the mechanism does differ in both type I (T1DM) and type II diabetes (T2DM). This review, however, investigates the application of mesenchymal stem cells, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2, teriparatide, insulin administration and the effectiveness of a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-ϒ modulator, netoglitazone in the context of diabetic weak bones. In T1DM, weak bones may be the result of defective osteoblast activity, the absence of insulin's anabolic effects on bone, the deregulation of the bone-pancreas negative feedback loop and advanced glycation end product (AGE) aggregation within the bone matrix as a result of hyperglycaemia. Interestingly, T2DM patients placed on insulin administration, thiazolidinediones, SGLT2 inhibitors and sulfonylureas have an associated increased fracture risk. T2DM patients are also observed to have high sclerostin levels that impair osteoblast gene transcription, AGE aggregation within bone, which compromises bone strength and a decrease in esRAGE concentration resulting in a negative association with vertebral fractures. Effective treatment options for weak bones in the context of diabetes are currently lacking. There is certainly scope for discovery and development of novel agents that could alleviate this complication in diabetes patients. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  6. Insulin resistance and neurodegeneration: Roles of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    de la Monte, Suzanne M; Longato, Lisa; Tong, Ming; Wands, Jack R

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have linked obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) to insulin resistance in the brain, cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration. Insulin resistance compromises cell survival, metabolism and neuronal plasticity, and increases oxidative stress, cytokine activation and apoptosis. T2DM/NASH has been demonstrated to be associated with increased ceramide generation, suggesting a mechanistic link between peripheral insulin resistance and neu...

  7. Dietary Behaviors Among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in YOGYAKARTA, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Primanda, Yanuar; Kritpracha, Charuwan; Thaniwattananon, Ploenpit

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To describe dietary behaviors and examine relationships between selected factors and dietary behaviors among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in Yogyakarta, Indonesia.Method: Seventy T2DM patients from a hospital in Yogyakarta who met the inclusion criteria were recruited. Patient’s dietary behaviors were measured by the Dietary Behaviors Questionnaire developed for this study with adequate reliability. The questionnaire comprised of four dimensions: recognizing the amo...

  8. The Canine POMC Gene, Obesity in Labrador Retrievers and Susceptibility to Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Davison, L.J.; Holder, A.; Catchpole, B.; O'Callaghan, C.A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) in dogs is a common endocrinopathy with a complex genetic architecture. Disease susceptibility in several breeds is associated with polymorphisms in immune response genes, but in the Labrador retriever breed, no genetic associations with DM have been identified. A deletion in the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) gene in Labrador retrievers is associated with increased appetite and risk of obesity. Hypothesis/Objectives To characterize the POMC deletion i...

  9. Onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus in a patient with infectious mononucleosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Alexandrovna Kharlashina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a polygenous multifactor disease that may be triggered by a viral infection that causes death of beta-cells by at least two mechanisms,virus-mediated autoimmunity and direct cell injury. A case of DM1 following infectious mononucleosis is described to illustrate the necessityof a combined approach to the examination of patients and prescription of treatment.

  10. Linagliptin increases incretin levels, lowers glucagon, and improves glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauch, Thomas; Graefe-Mody, Ulrike; Deacon, Carolyn F

    2012-01-01

    Linagliptin is a xanthine-based dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitor that is now available in numerous countries worldwide for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of this study was to evaluate further the mechanisms underlying the improvements in glycemic control observed...... with linagliptin. The effects of linagliptin on DPP-4, pharmacodynamic parameters, and glycemic control versus placebo were assessed in patients with inadequately controlled T2DM....

  11. Aggregation activity of blood formed elements in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Boris Il'ich Kuznik; Yuriy Antonovich Vitkovskiy; Marina Yur'evna Zakharova; Natal'ya Nikolaevna Klyuchereva; Ol'ga Sergeevna Rodnina; Aleksey Vladimirovich Solpov

    2012-01-01

    Aims. To assess differences in blood formed elements aggregation activity in patients with type 1 (T1) and type 2 (T2) diabetes mellitus (DM). Materials and methods. We studied blood samples from 88 patients with T1 and T2 DM. Platelet aggregation activity was assessed by means of «Biola» aggregometer; we also determined platelet-lymphocyte and leucocyte-erythrocyte adhesion intensity. Results. We show that spontaneous platelet aggregation is markedly increased in patients with T1...

  12. Diabetes mellitus en el paciente con enfermedad renal avanzada

    OpenAIRE

    R. Verner Codoceo, Dr.

    2010-01-01

    La diabetes mellitus 2 (DM 2) y la enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) son considerados problemas de salud pública a nivel mundial. Los pronósticos de ambas enfermedades están estrechamente relacionados, por lo que las acciones terapéuticas son complementarias. Un buen control glicémico revierte las alteraciones renales en sus etapas iniciales disminuyendo el deterioro microangiopático ya su vez el intento de obtener un control óptimo de glicemias requiere conocer y tratar las alteraciones provoca...

  13. Prevención de diabetes mellitus 2

    OpenAIRE

    R. Verner Codoceo, Dr.

    2010-01-01

    La posibilidad de prevenir la Diabetes Mellitus 2 (DM2) se conoce desde hace décadas. Múltiples estudios epidemiológicos han comprobado que los cambios de estilo de vida tienen resultados favorables con costos menores que la propia enfermedad o terapia farmacológica, sin embargo no se ha logrado repetir estos resultados en la población general. Estudios de intervención farmacológica han logrado resultados similares, pero no existe consenso en el uso de ellos, en forma masiva, en etapa pre-dia...

  14. Telemedicine compared with standard care in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, O. W.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: For patients with T2DM does telemedicine, compared with standard care, provide equivalent clinical outcomes? Methods: Forty patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus allocated from October 2011 until July 2012 randomized to either treatment at home by video conferences only or the standard...... outpatient treatment. Primary outcomes were HbA1c and blood glucose levels and secondary outcomes were 24-h blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and albuminuria. The videotelephone was installed and serviced by the telephone company, TDC, Denmark, as a broadband solution. Results: The improvements in the two...

  15. Support vector regression correlates single-sweep evoked brain potentials to gastrointestinal symptoms in diabetes mellitus patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, C; Frokjaer, J B; Brock, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a multi-factorial and complex disease causing autonomic neuropathy and gastrointestinal symptoms in some patients. The neural mechanisms behind these symptoms are poorly understood, but it is believed that both peripheral and central mechanisms are involved. To gain furt...... approach to study central mechanisms in diabetes mellitus, and may provide a future application for a clinical tool to optimize treatment in individual patients.......Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a multi-factorial and complex disease causing autonomic neuropathy and gastrointestinal symptoms in some patients. The neural mechanisms behind these symptoms are poorly understood, but it is believed that both peripheral and central mechanisms are involved. To gain...... further knowledge of the central mechanisms, the aim of this study was to identify biomarkers for the altered brain activity in type-1 DM patients compared to healthy volunteers (HV), and to correlate the obtained biomarkers to clinical patient scores. The study included 14 DM patients and 15 HV...

  16. Skin, a mirror reflecting diabetes mellitus: A longitudinal study in a tertiary care hospital in Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshni Vahora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Diabetes mellitus (DM is the most common of the endocrine disorders. Mucocutaneous manifestations of diabetes mellitus are many and vary from trivial to life-threatening. Sometimes, mucocutaneous disorders may herald the onset of diabetes. Aims: To study the pattern of mucocutaneous manifestations in diabetics and role of it in diagnosing diabetes mellitus and its complications. Settings and Design: It was a longitudinal observational study of patients having diabetes with skin complaints attending skin outdoor department or admitted in wards for any reason in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: Total 300 patients were included in the study. Detailed history, clinical examination, and relevant investigations were done to diagnose the mucocutaneous disorders, diabetes, and diabetic complications. Statistical Analysis Used: The data was analyzed by using Epi info software. Results: Demographic profile shown majority of cases (78.66% in more than 40 years of age with almost equal male and female preponderance. Mucocutaneous manifestations as presenting feature of diabetes were observed in 21.67% cases. Infections were most common in 119 (39.66% cases, followed by acanthosis nigricans in 46 (15.33% cases. Various associated complications like hypertension, retinopathy, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease, neuropathy, nephropathy, and diabetic ketoacidosis were observed in 160 (53.3%. Conclusions: Skin is the mirror, which reflects internal diseases; this aptly applies to skin and diabetes mellitus. Through awareness about cutaneous manifestations of DM, dermatologist can not only take credit for detecting DM but also facilitate early diagnosis of systemic complications of DM. This is immensely beneficial to patients in long run.

  17. Gender discrimination for women with diabetes mellitus in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Chentli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays diabetes mellitus (DM is one of the greatest global challenges. Its expansion varies from an area to another according to genetic, traditions, socio-economic conditions, and stress. In Algeria, as in other emerging countries undergoing an epidemiological transition, noncommunicable diseases are sharply increasing. After high blood pressure, DM is now the second metabolic disease. But are women more concerned by DM since obesity frequency is higher in females? Can we assert that there is a sort of sex discrimination for DM complications? Materials and Methods: To answer these questions we took into account published documents carried in Algerian population. But, as those were very scarce, we also considered newspapers articles, some documents published by health minister department, posters and oral communications of the Algerian Society of Endocrinology and Diabetology, and our clinical experience. We also have done a small survey to get our patients′ opinions. Results and Conclusion : At the first sight, it seems gender discrimination between men and women cannot exist since most epidemiological studies showed that both sexes are broadly and equally affected by DM, except for old aged females who are the most affected. When we reconsidered the problem, and when we compared past results to those obtained after the terrorism period, many studies showed a sort of gender difference. Apart from gestational DM, which is increasing sharply, some complications and death related to DM are prevailing in women. Coronary diseases and cerebral vascular accidents are more frequent in women too, especially the young ones and those suffering from DM. These complications are probably due to the recent and rapid modification in women′s lifestyle with a strong reduction in physical activity, eating disorders, hormonal contraception, and high sensitivity to perceived stress secondary to the near past stressing life and/or to numerous

  18. Gender discrimination for women with diabetes mellitus in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chentli, Farida; Azzoug, Said; Meskine, Djamila; El Gradechi, Aldjia

    2014-11-01

    Nowadays diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the greatest global challenges. Its expansion varies from an area to another according to genetic, traditions, socio-economic conditions, and stress. In Algeria, as in other emerging countries undergoing an epidemiological transition, noncommunicable diseases are sharply increasing. After high blood pressure, DM is now the second metabolic disease. But are women more concerned by DM since obesity frequency is higher in females? Can we assert that there is a sort of sex discrimination for DM complications? To answer these questions we took into account published documents carried in Algerian population. But, as those were very scarce, we also considered newspapers articles, some documents published by health minister department, posters and oral communications of the Algerian Society of Endocrinology and Diabetology, and our clinical experience. We also have done a small survey to get our patients' opinions. At the first sight, it seems gender discrimination between men and women cannot exist since most epidemiological studies showed that both sexes are broadly and equally affected by DM, except for old aged females who are the most affected. When we reconsidered the problem, and when we compared past results to those obtained after the terrorism period, many studies showed a sort of gender difference. Apart from gestational DM, which is increasing sharply, some complications and death related to DM are prevailing in women. Coronary diseases and cerebral vascular accidents are more frequent in women too, especially the young ones and those suffering from DM. These complications are probably due to the recent and rapid modification in women's lifestyle with a strong reduction in physical activity, eating disorders, hormonal contraception, and high sensitivity to perceived stress secondary to the near past stressing life and/or to numerous responsibilities taken by women in the modern society.

  19. Knowledge and practice on prevention of diabetes mellitus among Diabetes mellitus family members, in suburban cities in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolde, Mistire; Berhe, Nega; van Die, Irma; Medhin, Girmay; Tsegaye, Aster

    2017-11-02

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the serious non communicable diseases worldwide. Presence of DM patient in a family may be considered as risk factor for other family members to acquire the disease, due to DM inheritance nature and/or similar life style pattern among family members. This paper assessed awareness of DM patients' family members (DMPFMs) about DM occurrence and prevention. A cross sectional study was conducted in 2014 in two suburban cities of Ethiopia, namely Kemisse, and Kombolcha using an interviewer administered questionnaire among primary or secondary degree DMPFMs and controls. Based on eligibility criteria study participants were selected by health extension workers on house to house visit. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20, and P value less than 0.05 considered as statistically significant. Of the total 347 study participants, 45.5% (n = 158) had DMPFMs. Majority, 60.8% of DMPFMs and 73.0% of controls were males. Mean age of DMPFMs (30.06 years) was less than that of the controls (37.38 years). On living style, 51.9% DMPFMs, and 42.8% of controls were single. In both study groups, the majority of study participants attended grade 7-12. The likelihood of having good level of knowledge among DMPFMs were 2.94 times (AOR = 2.94 95% CI 1.87-4.86) higher compared to those who did not. Those attaining higher educational levels were 3.41 times (AOR = 3.41, 95% CI 1.31-8.91) more likely to have good level of knowledge, as compared to those who were unable to read and write. The likelihood of having good level of positive practice among DMPFMs were 3.38 times (AOR = 3.38% CI 2.05-5.58) higher as compared to controls. Participants who were living in Kombolcha were 2.33 times (AOR = 2.33 95% CI 1.31-4.12) more likely to have good level of practice, as compared to individuals from Kemisse. Diabetes mellitus family members in the Ethiopian suburban cities Kemisse, and Kombolcha had better knowledge and practice about DM compared to

  20. The prevalence of hypertension and microalbuminuria in diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasović Olga

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The prevalence of hypertension is two times higher in diabetics than in non-diabetics. In type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM, the incidence of hypertension is similar to the incidence of nephropathy. In obese patients with type 2 DM (T2DM there can be associated complications of hyperinsulinaemia, dyslipidaemia, and hypertension, which can lead to coronary artery disease and stroke. These associated complications are the result of a genetic defect that produces insulin resistance - Syndrome X. Increased microalbuminuria correlates with increased levels of blood pressure (BP and increased LDL cholesterol, and this is why microalbuminuria is associated with an increase in cardiovascular deaths in diabetics, even in the absence of renal failure. AIM. The aim of this study was to research the influence of a patient's age, diabetes duration, and obesity on the frequency of hypertension and its association with microalbuminuria inT1DM and T2DM. METHOD. 168 hospitalized patients with DM (79T1DM, 89T2DM were analyzed. The main outcome measures were: 24-hour urinary albumin excretion rate by radioimmunoassay (MA=30-30O mg/24h, arterial hypertension (systolic BP>140 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP>90 mm Hg, and body mass index (BMI. RESULTS. Microalbuminuria was detected in 42% of patients with T1DM and 47% of patients with T2DM. 34% of T1DM patients and 78% of T2DM patients were hypertensive. Patients were divided into four groups, according to the presence of hypertension and microalbuminuria; Group I - patients with hypertension and MA, Group II - patients with hypertension but without MA, Group III - patients without hypertension and MA, Group IV - patients without hypertension but with MA. 44% of T1DM patients were without hypertension and microalbuminuria, while the most frequent T2DM patients were those with hypertension (37% with and 41% without microalbuminuria. A significant correlation between BMI and diastolic BP in both types of DM (p<0

  1. Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes for Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Celia

    2017-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common chronic disease affecting approximately 9% of the United States population. Successful management of diabetes demands constant self-management on the part of the patient. The patient has to balance diabetes medications, blood glucose monitoring, food intake, physical activity, and management of diabetes-related acute and chronic complications. The patient is often bombarded with misinformation from friends, relatives, and such sources as the Internet and social media. This article discusses the current recommendations for diabetes self-management education and skills including medical nutrition therapy, physical activity, smoking cessation, and assessment for diabetes distress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sexual dysfunction in diabetic women: prevalence and differences in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzilli R

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rossella Mazzilli, Norina Imbrogno, Jlenia Elia, Michele Delfino, Olimpia Bitterman, Angela Napoli, Fernando Mazzilli Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sant'Andrea Hospital, Unit of Diabetology and Endocrinology, University of Rome Sapienza, Rome, Italy Background: The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of diabetes on female sexuality and to highlight any differences between sexuality in the context of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. Methods: The subjects selected were 49 women with type 1 DM, 24 women with type 2 DM, and 45 healthy women as controls. Each participant was given the nine-item Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire to complete. The metabolic profile was evaluated by body mass index and glycosylated hemoglobin assay. Results: The prevalence of sexual dysfunction (total score ≤30 was significantly higher in the type 1 DM group (25/49, 51%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 18–31 than in the control group (4/45, 9%; 95% CI 3–5; P=0.00006; there were no significant variations in the type 2 DM group (4/24, 17%; 95% CI 3–4 versus the control group (P=0.630, not statistically significant. The mean total score was significantly lower in the type 1 DM group (30.2±6.9 versus the control group (36.5±4.9; P=0.0003, but there was no significant difference between the type 2 DM group and the control group (P=0.773. With regard to specific questionnaire items, the mean values for arousal, lubrication, dyspareunia, and orgasm were significantly lower only in the type 1 DM group versus the control group. The mean values for desire were reduced in type 1 and type 2 DM groups versus control group. Conclusion: Type 1 DM is associated with sexual dysfunction. This may be due to classic neurovascular complications or to the negative impact of the disease on psychosocial factors. Larger and ideally longitudinal studies are necessary to better understand the relationship between DM and sexual dysfunction. Keywords

  3. The Possibilities of Drug Prevention of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Pankiv

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years there have been several randomized controlled trials that examine the effect of lifestyle modification and pharmacological interventions on the likelihood of developing diabetes mellitus (DM type 2 in people at high risk. These studies demonstrated that the number of people newly diagnosed with diabetes within 3–6-year period may be considerably reduced. Therefore focus of discussing the tactics to control DM type 2 is shifted from the relatively narrow topic of treatment of the disease at a wide range of issues of its prophylaxis: prevention of development and early treatment of DM, aimed to stabilization or reverse progression of the disease and prevention of its progression. This review discusses the general concept and the evidence base on preventing DM type 2 in the context of the pathogenesis of the disease. In addition, the attention is paid to the possibilities of the use of the discussed approaches to clinical practice, taking into account pathogenetic features of the disease and and clinical findings.

  4. Diabetes mellitus, periapical inflammation and endodontic treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Egea, J-J; Castellanos-Cosano, L; Machuca, G; López-López, J; Martín-González, J; Velasco-Ortega, E; Sánchez-Domínguez, B; López-Frías, F-J

    2012-03-01

    The possible connection between chronic oral inflammatory processes, such as apical periodontitis and periodontal disease (PD), and systemic health is one of the most interesting aspects faced by the medical and dental scientific community. Chronic apical periodontitis shares important characteristics with PD: 1) both are chronic infections of the oral cavity, 2) the Gram-negative anaerobic microbiota found in both diseases is comparable, and 3) in both infectious processes increased local levels of inflammatory mediators may have an impact on systemic levels. One of the systemic disorders linked to PD is diabetes mellitus (DM); is therefore plausible to assume that chronic apical periodontitis and endodontic treatment are also associated with DM. The status of knowledge regarding the relationship between DM and endodontics is reviewed. Upon review, we conclude that there are data in the literature that associate DM with a higher prevalence of periapical lesions, greater size of the osteolityc lesions, greater likelihood of asymptomatic infections and worse prognosis for root filled teeth. The results of some studies suggest that periapical disease may contribute to diabetic metabolic dyscontrol.

  5. Pharmacologic Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Available Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James

    2017-06-01

    Choices for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have multiplied as our understanding of the underlying pathophysiologic defects has evolved. Treatment should target multiple defects in T2DM and follow a patient-centered approach that considers factors beyond glycemic control, including cardiovascular risk reduction. The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists/American College of Endocrinology and the American Diabetes Association recommend an initial approach consisting of lifestyle changes and monotherapy, preferably with metformin. Therapy choices are guided by glycemic efficacy, safety profiles, particularly effects on weight and hypoglycemia risk, tolerability, patient comorbidities, route of administration, patient preference, and cost. Balancing management of hyperglycemia with the risk of hypoglycemia and consideration of the effects of pharmacotherapy on weight figure prominently in US-based T2DM recommendations, whereas less emphasis has been placed on the ability of specific medications to affect cardiovascular outcomes. This is likely because, until recently, specific glucose-lowering agents have not been shown to affect cardiorenal outcomes. The Empagliflozin Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients-Removing Excess Glucose (EMPA-REG OUTCOME), the Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcome Results (LEADER) trial, and the Trial to Evaluate Cardiovascular and Other Long-term Outcomes with Semaglutide in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes 6 (SUSTAIN-6) recently showed a reduction in overall cardiovascular risk with empagliflozin, liraglutide, and semaglutide treatment, respectively. Moreover, empagliflozin has become the first glucose-lowering agent indicated to reduce the risk of cardiovascular death in adults with T2DM and established cardiovascular disease. Results from cardiovascular outcomes trials have prompted an update to the 2017 American Diabetes Association

  6. Pharmacologic Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Available Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James

    2017-07-01

    Choices for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have multiplied as our understanding of the underlying pathophysiologic defects has evolved. Treatment should target multiple defects in T2DM and follow a patient-centered approach that considers factors beyond glycemic control, including cardiovascular risk reduction. The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists/American College of Endocrinology and the American Diabetes Association recommend an initial approach consisting of lifestyle changes and monotherapy, preferably with metformin. Therapy choices are guided by glycemic efficacy, safety profiles, particularly effects on weight and hypoglycemia risk, tolerability, patient comorbidities, route of administration, patient preference, and cost. Balancing management of hyperglycemia with the risk of hypoglycemia and consideration of the effects of pharmacotherapy on weight figure prominently in US-based T2DM recommendations, whereas less emphasis has been placed on the ability of specific medications to affect cardiovascular outcomes. This is likely because, until recently, specific glucose-lowering agents have not been shown to affect cardiorenal outcomes. The Empagliflozin Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients-Removing Excess Glucose (EMPA-REG OUTCOME), the Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcome Results (LEADER) trial, and the Trial to Evaluate Cardiovascular and Other Long-term Outcomes with Semaglutide in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes 6 (SUSTAIN-6) recently showed a reduction in overall cardiovascular risk with empagliflozin, liraglutide, and semaglutide treatment, respectively. Moreover, empagliflozin has become the first glucose-lowering agent indicated to reduce the risk of cardiovascular death in adults with T2DM and established cardiovascular disease. Results from cardiovascular outcomes trials have prompted an update to the 2017 American Diabetes Association

  7. Nonhuman Primate Models of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus for Islet Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Islet transplantation is an attractive treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM. Animal models of diabetes mellitus (DM contribute a lot to the experimental studies of islet transplantation and to evaluations of isolated islet grafts for future clinical applications. Diabetic nonhuman primates (NHPs represent the suitable models of DMs to better evaluate the effectiveness of islet transplantation, to assess new strategies for controlling blood glucose (BG, relieving immune rejection, or prolonging islet survival, and eventually to translate the preclinical data into tangible clinical practice. This review introduces some NHP models of DM, clarifies why and how the models should be used, and elucidates the usefulness and limitations of the models in islet transplantation.

  8. Condiciones biopsicosociales de adultos mayores mexicanos con diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Olea, Eduardo; López-Romero, David; Torres-Poveda, Kirvis; Madrid-Marina, Vicente; Luna-Muñoz, José; Pimentel-Pérez, Bertha Maribel; Agis-Juárez, Raúl Azael

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a global health problem, which significantly affects older adults. . The prevalence and biopsychosocial conditions of DM in older adults in the State of Hidalgo, Mexico, are analyzed using the Health and Aging Survey 2014 (SABE-Hidalgo, Mexico). DM in older adults presents a prevalence of 28.22% in the State, predominating in women and becoming more common with increasing age. The highest frequency occurs in residents of urban areas (57.2%), those with less schooling (79.6%), and those who live with relatives (77%). In addition, 54.7% of older adults with DM had cognitive impairment, 67.9% had arterial hypertension and 45.28% presented joint disease. 41.2% suffered falls, 68.52% visual problems and 87.3% tooth loss. Finally, 85.8% receive care but only 29.2% perceive improvement in their health. It is fundamental to develop integral programs and policies to care for older adults with DM. Copyright: © 2017 SecretarÍa de Salud

  9. [Position statement: surgery and diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasching, Peter; Huber, Joakim; Clodi, Martin; Abrahamian, Heidemarie; Ludvik, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    This position statement reflects the opinion of the Austrian Diabetes Association concerning the perioperative management of patients with diabetes mellitus based on the available scientific evidence. The paper covers necessary preoperative examinations from an internal/diabetological point of view as well as the perioperative metabolic control by means of oral antidiabetics and/or insulin therapy.

  10. Epidemiology of diabetes mellitus in Russian Federation: clinical and statistical report according to the federal diabetes registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Ivanovich Dedov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We analysed the main epidemiological characteristics of diabetes mellitus (DM in the Russian Federation (prevalence, incidence, mortality and mean life span, degree of diabetes control, and prevalence of diabetic complications (retinopathy, nephropathy, and diabetic foot syndrome and macrovascular pathology according to the federal DM registry. Materials and methods. The database of the federal DM registry of 79 regions was included using the online system until 31.12.2016. Results. TThe total number of patients with DM in the Russian Federation on 31.12.2016 was 4.348 million (2.97% of the population, comprising 4 million patients with DM2 (92%, 255,000 with type 1 diabetes (T1DM (6%, and 75,000 with other types of DM (2%. DM prevalence per 100,000 population was as follows: T1DM, 164.19/100,000; type 2 diabetes (T2DM, 2637.17/100,000; and other types of DM, 50.62/100. The incidence per 100,000 population was as follows: T1DM, 16.15/100,000; T2DM, 154.9/100,000; and other types of DM, 8.65/100,000. Mortality per 100,000 population was as follows: T1DM, 2.1/100,000; T2DM, 60.29/100,000; and other types of DM, 0.57/100,000. Mortality decreased in patients with T1DM by 6.6% and with T2DM by 3.6%. Mean life span in patients with T1DM was 50.3 years for men and 58.5 years for women. Mean life span in patients with T2DM was 70.1 years for men and 75.5 years for women. Glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c levels in T1DM was <7% in 33.4%, 7%–7.9% in 28.3%, 8%–8.9% in 16.2%, and ≥9.0% in 22.1% of patients. HbA1c levels in T2DM was <7% in 52.1%, 7%–7.9% in 29.1%, 8%–8.9% in 10%, and ≥9.0% in 8.7% of patients. Conclusions. This study evaluated the increase in DM prevalence in the Russian Federation in 2016 and in the dynamics of 2013–2016, which was mainly due to T2DM. An increase in patients with a target HbA1c level <7% and a decrease in the proportion of patients with severe uncontrolled DM was observed; however, the treatment

  11. Role of exercise in the management of diabetes mellitus: the global scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thent, Zar Chi; Das, Srijit; Henry, Leonard Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Exercise training programs have emerged as a useful therapeutic regimen for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Majority of the Western studies highlighted the effective role of exercise in T2DM. Therefore, the main aim was to focus on the extent, type of exercise and its clinical significance in T2DM in order to educate the clinicians from developing countries, especially in Asians. Pubmed, Science Direct, Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge and Google scholar were searched using the terms "type 2 diabetes mellitus," "type 2 DM," "exercise," and/or "physical activity," and "type 2 diabetes mellitus with exercise." Only clinical or human studies published in English language between 2000 and 2012 were included. Certain criteria were assigned to achieve appropriate results. Twenty five studies met the selected criteria. The majority of the studies were randomized controlled trial study design (65%). Most of the aerobic exercise based studies showed a beneficial effect in T2DM. Resistance exercise also proved to have positive effect on T2DM patients. Minimal studies related to other types of exercises such as yoga classes, joba riding and endurance-type exercise were found. On the other hand, United States of America (USA) showed strong interest of exercise management towards T2DM. Aerobic exercise is more common in clinical practice compared to resistance exercise in managing T2DM. Treatment of T2DM with exercise training showed promising role in USA. A large number of researches are mandatory in the developing countries for incorporating exercise in the effective management of T2DM.

  12. Role of exercise in the management of diabetes mellitus: the global scenario.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zar Chi Thent

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exercise training programs have emerged as a useful therapeutic regimen for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Majority of the Western studies highlighted the effective role of exercise in T2DM. Therefore, the main aim was to focus on the extent, type of exercise and its clinical significance in T2DM in order to educate the clinicians from developing countries, especially in Asians. METHODS: Pubmed, Science Direct, Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge and Google scholar were searched using the terms "type 2 diabetes mellitus," "type 2 DM," "exercise," and/or "physical activity," and "type 2 diabetes mellitus with exercise." Only clinical or human studies published in English language between 2000 and 2012 were included. Certain criteria were assigned to achieve appropriate results. RESULTS: Twenty five studies met the selected criteria. The majority of the studies were randomized controlled trial study design (65%. Most of the aerobic exercise based studies showed a beneficial effect in T2DM. Resistance exercise also proved to have positive effect on T2DM patients. Minimal studies related to other types of exercises such as yoga classes, joba riding and endurance-type exercise were found. On the other hand, United States of America (USA showed strong interest of exercise management towards T2DM. CONCLUSION: Aerobic exercise is more common in clinical practice compared to resistance exercise in managing T2DM. Treatment of T2DM with exercise training showed promising role in USA. A large number of researches are mandatory in the developing countries for incorporating exercise in the effective management of T2DM.

  13. Alteraciones de la hemostasia en la diabetes mellitus Alterations of hemostasis in the diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Caunedo Almagro

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available La diabetes mellitus (DM se clasifica en 2 tipos de acuerdo con su patogénesis: la tipo 1 representa menos del 10 % del total de pacientes, la DM tipo 2 es más común dentro de la población de pacientes diabéticos. Se han encontrado múltiples alteraciones de la hemostasia en los pacientes con este padecimiento. Estudios realizados en plaquetas, coagulación sanguínea y fibrinólisis han permitido asegurar que estos trastornos son posiblemente un factor importante en el estado pretrombótico que presentan estos enfermos. Las investigaciones en las plaquetas han demostrado una hiperreactividad plaquetaria, un aumento de la actividad procoagulante de las plaquetas. Por otra parte, la mayoría de los autores coinciden en la actualidad en que la DM es un estado de hipercoagulabilidad,lo cual se basa en numerosas investigaciones sobre la enfermedad y el mecanismo de la coagulación que demuestran el aumento del fibrinógeno, factor VII y factor von Willebrand, así como de los marcadores de activación de este sistema. Además, se han demostrado alteraciones en el sistema fibrinolítico, como el aumento del inhibidor del activador del plasminógeno y del inhibidor de la fibrinólisis activado por trombina. En este trabajo se presentan algunos mecanismos que pudieran explicar las alteraciones en la hemostasia que posiblemente contribuyan al desarrollo de complicaciones trombóticas que se presentan en estos pacientes.Diabetes mellitus is classified into 2 types according to its pathogenesis: type 1 accounts for less than 10 % of the total of patients, whereas type 2 is the most common in the population of diabetic patients. Multiple alterations of hemostasis have been found among the patients suffering from this disease. The studies conducted in platelets, blood coagulation and fibrinolysis have allowed to assert that these disorders are probably an important factor in the prethrombotic state of these patients. The investigations carried out with

  14. Diabetes mellitus in a toco toucan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, E M

    1981-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus is rarely diagnosed in avian species. The majority of reported cases have occurred in small birds, such as the parakeet and canary. A major complicating factor in the diagnosis of diabetes in birds is the lack of accepted normal blood glucose values, which can be highly variable among avian species. In the case to be reported here a Toco Toucan (Ramphastos toco) was affected. The diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in this instance was based on the history, clinical signs, and response to therapy.

  15. Knowledge of diabetic complications in patients with diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, F.; Afridi, A.K.; Rahim, F.; Ashfaq, M.; Khan, S.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has risen exponentially over the last three decades, with resultant increase in morbidity and mortality mainly due to its complications. Limited data is available regarding the awareness and knowledge about these complications in our population. This study was carried out to evaluate the knowledge of diabetic complications in patients with diabetes mellitus. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Medical B Unit of Department of Medicine Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar. All admitted diabetic patients above 15 years of age with duration of diabetes mellitus more than one year were included. Results: Out of the 96 patients questioned, 58 were females and 38 were males. Mean age was 53.29 ± 10.821 years while the mean duration of diabetes mellitus was 9.75 ± 7.729 years. Of the total 76 (79.1%) of the patients were illiterate; 36 (37.50%) had good, 24 (25%) had average and 36 (37.50%) had poor knowledge about diabetic complications. Males and university graduate patients had slightly better knowledge. Between 50-60% patients were aware of different cardiac complications of diabetes mellitus. Awareness regarding other complications was foot ulcer/gangrene 70 (72.91%), poor wound healing 68 (70.83%), stroke 54 (56.25%), renal diseases 64 (66.66%), eye diseases 53 (55.20%), gastroparesis and other gastrointestinal problems 45 (46.87%), diabetic ketoacidosis 55 (57.29%), hypoglycaemia 50 (52.08%), lipid abnormalities 26 (27.08%) and symptoms of diabetic neuropathy ranging from 47-65%. Conclusions: Majority of diabetic patients are unaware of diabetic complications. Therefore, hospital and community based awareness programs should be launched to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes mellitus. (author)

  16. KNOWLEDGE OF DIABETIC COMPLICATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Fahim; Afridi, Ayesha Khan; Rahim, Fawad; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Khan, Sheema; Shabbier, Ghulam; Rahman, Sadiq Ur

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has risen exponentially over the last three decades, with resultant increase in morbidity and mortality mainly due to its complications. Limited data is available regarding the awareness and knowledge about these complications in our population. This study was carried out to evaluate the knowledge of diabetic complications in patients with diabetes mellitus. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Medical B Unit of Department of Medicine Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar. All admitted diabetic patients above 15 years of age with duration of diabetes mellitus more than one year were included. Out of the 96 patients questioned, 58 were females and 38 were males. Mean age was 53.29 +/- 10.821 years while the mean duration of diabetes mellitus was 9.75 +/- 7.729 years. Of the total 76 (79.1%) of the patients were illiterate; 36 (37.50%) had good, 24 (25%) had average and 36 (37.50%) had poor knowledge about diabetic complications. Males and university graduate patients had slightly better knowledge. Between 50-60% patients were aware of different cardiac complications of diabetes mellitus. Awareness regarding other complications was foot ulcer/gangrene 70 (72.91%), poor wound healing 68 (70.83%), stroke 54 (56.25%), renal diseases 64 (66.66%), eye diseases 53 (55.20%), gastroparesis and other gastrointestinal problems 45 (46.87%), diabetic ketoacidosis 55 (57.29%), hypoglycaemia 50 (52.08%), lipid abnormalities 26 (27.08%) and symptoms of diabetic neuropathy ranging from 47-65%. Majority of diabetic patients are unaware of diabetic complications. Therefore, hospital and community based awareness programs should be launched to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes mellitus.

  17. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dileepan, Kavitha; Feldt, M Max

    2013-12-01

    On the basis of strong research evidence and consensus, type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) remains the most common form of DM in children and adolescents. The incidence of type 2 DM in the pediatric population is rapidly increasing because of the obesity epidemic, and minority groups are disproportionately affected. (2) (10) (19) On the basis of some research evidence and consensus, it can be challenging to initially differentiate between type 2 DM and type 1 DM clinically because of the increased prevalence of obesity, the complex interplay of autoimmunity and obesity, and common symptoms at presentation. (1) (10) (19) Significant evidence and consensus support a genetic basis for the development of type 2 DM in children. Physicians should routinely screen at risk children older than age 10 years for DM. Screening criteria include obesity, a family history of type 2 DM, a minority racial or ethnic background, acanthosis nigricans, or other diseases associated with insulin resistance, including polycystic ovary syndrome, hypertension, or dyslipidemia. (1) (10) (18) (19) On the basis of consensus, diagnosis of type 2 DM can be confirmed by an elevated fasting blood glucose level greater than 126 mg/dl (7.0 mmol/L), an elevated 2-hour plasma glucose greater than 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) on an oral glucose tolerance test, an elevated random blood glucose greater than 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L), or a hemoglobin A1c level greater than 6.5% with suggestive symptoms. (10) According to strong research evidence and consensus, once the diagnosis has been made, treatment should be based on the acuity of presentation and should focus on lifestyle modification and on normalizing hyperglycemia to minimize complications. Metformin is currently first-line treatment for type 2 DM in children and adolescents older than age 10 years who present nonacutely. (18) (19) Strong research evidence and consensus demonstrate that because type 2 DM has an insidious onset, microvascular and

  18. Clinical Applicability of Transient Elastography for Estimating Liver Stiffness in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, P. R.; Landman, G. W. D.; Hoving, S.; Kleefstra, N.; Bilo, H. J. G.; Groeneveld, P. H. P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which can lead to liver fibrosis and ultimately to cirrhosis. Transient elastography (TE), by using the FibroScan, and is a non-invasive ultrasonography method to measure liver

  19. Bariatric surgery as a novel treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.I.; van Wagensveld, B.A.; Siegert, C.E.; Eringa, E.C.; Serné, E.H.; Smulders, Y.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To systematically review the literature pertaining to the reversal of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and adjustable gastric banding. Data Sources: We conducted a review of the literature using PubMed and searched the reference lists of published studies to

  20. Measuring Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Knowledge and Perceptions of Risk in Middle-Class African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Erica C.; Guidry, Jeffrey J.; Harvey, Idethia S.

    2018-01-01

    There is a paucity in the literature examining the African American middle-class. Most studies of African Americans and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) have concentrated on lower-SES individuals, or make no distinction between African Americans of varying socio-economic positions. Middle-class African Americans are vulnerable in ways often…

  1. SELF - EFFICACY, PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS, FAMILY SUPPORT, AND EATING BEHAVIOR ON TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma Wijaya Ridi Putra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM is one of the leading causes of death and it is caused by genetics, nutrition, and unhealthy behaviors. Therefore, changes in lifestyle associated with eating behaviors in diabetes mellitus patients greatly impact on their quality of life. There are many factors related with changes in lifestyle of diabetes mellitus patients, especially eating behaviors. Purpose: This study aims to examine the relationships between self-efficacy, psychological stress, family support, and eating behaviors among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients in Sidoarjo, Indonesia. Method: A total of 117 T2DM patients from the Sidoarjo Community Health Center were included in the analysis. Using SPSS IBM 21.0 program, Pearson product moment correlation was performed to analyze data. Results: The findings showed that self-efficacy and family support had positive relationship with eating behaviors (r = .692, p < .001; r = .683, p < .001, respectively. Psychological stress had negative relationship with eating behaviors (r = -.327, p < .001. Conclusion: Self-efficacy, family support, and psychological stress had relationship with eating behaviors. Nurses should pay attention to the factors to make T2DM patients into a long-term commitment toward healthy eating behaviors.

  2. Clinical & immunological profile of newly diagnosed patients with youth onset diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D K Dhanwal

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: About half of the youth onset diabetes mellitus patients from north India had presence of pancreatic autoimmunity in the form of GAD, ICA512/IA2, and insulin antibodies or a combination of antibodies suggestive of having type 1 DM. Further studies need to be done on a large sample size in different parts of the country

  3. Betel Nut Composition and Diabetes Mellitus in U.K. Asian Populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spyrou, N.M.; Ridge, C.; Boucher, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    We have instigated a pilot study to investigate the trace element status of selected type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) populations of Caucasians and South Asians living in southeast England and matched controls. As part of this program, betel nut-based chewing substances, some with and others without tobacco leaves incorporated, have been analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis

  4. The burden of diabetes mellitus in KwaZulu-Natal's public sector: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic non-communicable disease. (NCD) that has serious long-term complications and results in significant economic costs for patients and health systems alike worldwide.[1] Developing countries will do well to prevent and control this disease to limit its impact on health systems already under.

  5. The therapeutic potential of manipulating gut microbiota in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootte, R. S.; Vrieze, A.; Holleman, F.; Dallinga-Thie, G. M.; Zoetendal, E. G.; de Vos, W. M.; Groen, A. K.; Hoekstra, J. B. L.; Stroes, E. S.; Nieuwdorp, M.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are attributed to a combination of genetic susceptibility and lifestyle factors. Their increasing prevalence necessitates further studies on modifiable causative factors and novel treatment options. The gut microbiota has emerged as an important

  6. The therapeutic potential of manipulating gut microbiota in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootte, R. S.; Vrieze, A.; Holleman, F.; Dallinga-Thie, G. M.; Zoetendal, E. G.; de Vos, W. M.; Groen, A. K.; Hoekstra, J. B. L.; Stroes, E. S.; Nieuwdorp, M.

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are attributed to a combination of genetic susceptibility and lifestyle factors. Their increasing prevalence necessitates further studies on modifiable causative factors and novel treatment options. The gut microbiota has emerged as an important

  7. Clinical features and differential diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Leonidovna Kuraeva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This review was designed to evaluate prevalence, specific clinical features, and differential diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2 in childrenand adolescents. Special emphasis is laid on the importance of immunological and molecular-genetic studies for the verification of diagnosis and activecase detection in h groups.

  8. Identification of KCNJ15 as a susceptibility gene in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okamoto, Koji; Iwasaki, Naoko; Nishimura, Chisa

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in genome research have enabled the identification of new genomic variations that are associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Via fine mapping of SNPs in a candidate region of chromosome 21q, the current study identifies potassium inwardly-rectifying channel, subfamily J,...

  9. Knowledge of Diabetes mellitus-HIV Co-Infection Among Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Advent of drug combinations in Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) has been a major achievement in the management of HIV/AIDS. However, some of the drugs involved e.g. protease inhibitors have as side effects metabolic disorders like diabetes mellitus DM and dyslipidemia due to affectation of the pancreas ...

  10. Pharmacogenetics of posttransplant diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancia, P; Adam de Beaumais, T; Jacqz-Aigrain, E

    2017-06-01

    Many factors (physiological, pathological, environmental or genetic) are associated with variability in drug effect. Most patients respond to a standard treatment but the drug may be ineffective or toxic. In this review, we focused on genetic markers of posttransplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) after renal transplantation, a frequent complication of immunosuppressive therapy and important risk factor of graft loss and mortality. An initial literature search identified 100 publications and among them 32 association studies were retrieved under 'Pharmacogenetics and PTDM'. Thirty-five variants in 25 genes with an impact on insulin secretion, disposition or effect were significantly associated with PTDM. The population studied, immunosuppressive regimen, follow-up, PTDM diagnostic and genetic variations tested were highly variable between studies. Although pharmacogenetic biomarkers are key tools of great promise for preventing toxicities and improving event-free survival rates, replication studies are required to select validated biomarkers linked to the occurrence of PTDM and select appropriate immusuppressive treatment to improve renal graft and patient outcome.

  11. Risk of Hand Syndromes in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu-Hsuan; Li, Chung-Yi; Kuo, Li-Chieh; Wang, Liang-Yi; Kuo, Ken N.; Jou, I-Ming; Hou, Wen-Hsuan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the overall and cause-specific incidences of diabetic hand syndromes (DHS) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) by using age and sex stratifications. The DM and control cohorts comprised 606,152 patients with DM and 609,970 age- and sex-matched subjects, respectively, who were followed up from 2000 to 2008. We estimated the incidence densities (IDs) of overall and cause-specific DHS, namely carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), stenosing flexor tenosynovitis (SFT), limited joint mobility (LJM), and Dupuytren disease (DD), and calculated the hazard ratios (HRs) of DHS in relation to DM by using a Cox proportional hazards model with adjustment for potential confounders. Over a 9-year period, 51,207 patients with DM (8.45%) and 39,153 matched controls (6.42%) sought ambulatory care visits for various DHS, with an ID of 117.7 and 80.7 per 10,000 person-years, respectively. The highest cause-specific ID was observed for CTS, followed by SFT, LJM, and DD, regardless of the diabetic status. After adjustment for potential confounders, patients with DM had a significantly high HR of overall DHS (1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.48–1.53). Men and women aged the highest HR (2.64, 95% CI = 2.15–3.24 and 2.99, 95% CI = 2.55–3.50, respectively). Cause-specific analyses revealed that DM was more strongly associated with SFT (HR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.86–1.95) and DD (HR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.39–2.39) than with CTS (HR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.28–1.34) and LJM (HR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.13–1.35). Men and younger patients with DM have the highest risk of DHS. Certain hand syndromes, such as SFT and DD, were more strongly associated with DM than with other syndromes and require the attention of clinicians. PMID:26469895

  12. Knowledge attitude and practice regarding diabetes mellitus among Nondiabetic and diabetic study participants in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaniz Fatema

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased awareness amongst large population groups is a major determinant for the prevention of diabetes and its complications as well as related metabolic disorders. Knowledge and attitude are the principal markers of awareness that need to be studied in various population groups in specific racial and cultural contexts. The present study was undertaken to explore knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP regarding -diabetes mellitus (DM among nondiabetic (nonDM and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients in Bangladesh. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 18,697 adults (aged 18 years and above; 7796 male and 10,901 female; 6780 nonDM and 11,917 T2DM selected purposively from the OPD of 19 healthcare centres in and around Dhaka and in northern parts of Bangladesh. KAP were assessed by a pre-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire and categorised using predefined scores of poor (mean + 1 SD. Univariate and bivariate statistical analysis were done as appropriate. Multivariate linear regression was done to examine the association between diabetes related KAP and other covariates. Results The mean (±SD age (years of all the study participants was 46 ± 14, mean BMI 24.4 ± 4.1 and mean waist-hip ratio (WHR was 0.93 ± 0.07. The proportion of poor, average and good knowledge scores among T2DM subjects were 17%, 68% and 15% respectively. The corresponding values for attitude score were 23%, 67% and 10% respectively. The KAP regarding diabetes was found to be better among people who were living with diabetes compared to their counterparts. DM males showed better knowledge and practice regarding diabetes, compared to nonDM counterparts (M ± SD; 44.18 ± 16.13 vs 40.88 ± 15.62, p = <0.001; 66.00 ± 29.68 vs 64.21 ± 31.79, p < 0.001, respectively. Females showed better attitude score compared to males. Overall KAP were found to be significantly higher (p < 0.001 in middle aged (31

  13. The prevalence of renal artery stenosis among patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, C T; Klappe, E M; Dekker, H M; Thien, Th

    2012-10-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have a high prevalence of atherosclerotic vascular lesions. It is therefore reasonable to assume that also the rate of renal artery stenosis (RAS) is higher. The presence of a RAS can have implications for the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension and renal impairment. Therefore it is important to be informed about the chance that a RAS is present among such patients. We prospectively studied the prevalence of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (RAS) among patients with diabetes mellitus. Patients were included if they were diagnosed with DM and hypertension with or without impairment of renal function. If causes of renal disease other than DM or hypertension were more probable on the basis of biochemical data, then such patients were excluded. A magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of the renal arteries was made in 54 included successive patients. mean age 59 ± 8.5 years (range 35 to 80). Eight patients had DM 1 and 46 DM 2. Mean BMI was 31.4 ± 5.6 kg/m(2). A RAS was present in 18 of the 54 (33%) patients, 3 patients had bilateral stenoses. Factors related to the presence of RAS were diastolic blood pressure, glomerular filtration rate and dyslipidaemia. In this group of diabetic patients with hypertension and or renal impairment the prevalence of RAS was 33%. Copyright © 2012 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Association of ghrelin Leu72Met polymorphism with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Liu, Jia; Tian, Li-min; Liu, Ju-xiang; Bing, Ya-jun; Zhang, Ji-ping; Wang, Yun-Fang; Zhang, Lu-yan

    2012-08-10

    Ghrelin, a novel endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, is considered to implicate the development of the type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The Leu72Met (+408C>A) polymorphism of the preproghrelin, has been linked to obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes. To investigate the distribution of ghrelin gene Leu72Met polymorphism and its association with the type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese population. We conducted a case-control study on 877 patients with T2DM and 864 controls, which were genotyped by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) and DNA sequence analysis. Laboratory analyses were carried out in the hospital laboratory. No significant difference in the Leu72Met genotype distributions and allele frequency was observed between type 2 diabetes mellitus and controls (both P>0.05). The polymorphism was not associated with T2DM. However, among the T2DM group, the patients carrying Leu72Leu genotype had significantly increased levels of FPG and serum creatinine compared with variant genotypes (Leu72Met and Met72Met) (Ppolymorphism of the preproghrelin gene was not associated with T2DM in Chinese population. However, it may have some roles in the etiology of insulin resistance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Physical exercise as therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balducci, Stefano; Sacchetti, Massimo; Haxhi, Jonida; Orlando, Giorgio; D'Errico, Valeria; Fallucca, Sara; Menini, Stefano; Pugliese, Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    Many studies have highlighted the importance of physical activity (PA) for health, and recent evidence now points to the positive improvements associated with exercise in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, few physicians are willing to prescribe exercise as a therapy for diabetic patients. In addition, there is a lack of information on how to implement exercise therapy especially in long-term exercise regimens. The purpose of this manuscript is to summarize standards of exercise therapy for patients with T2DM, both in terms of prescribing and monitoring, according to the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Diabetes Association guidelines. We present details of the exercise therapies used in long-term studies, describing how the parameters for exercise prescription were applied in clinical practice. These parameters are described in terms of frequency, intensity, duration, mode and rate of progression in long-term therapeutic prescriptions. Individual responses to exercise dose are discussed, and critical issues to be considered in patients with underlying disease and in T2DM patients are highlighted. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Impact of diabetes mellitus on outcome of renal artery stenting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Li; Tong Xiaoqiang; Wang Jian; Yang Min; Lv Yongxing; Zou Yinghua

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the impact of diabetes mellitus on outcome of renal artery stenting. Methods: 85 consecutive cases of renal artery stenosis received renal angioplasty were retrospectively analyzed. 25 patients with related history were selected into diabetic group (DM), and 60 patients without diabetics into control group(NDM). Pre- and post- procedure serum creatinine and blood pressure between the 2 groups were collected and analyzed. Results: The average serum creatinine pre-intervention and post-intervention were(132.24 ± 33.71) μmol/L, (126.32 ± 29.65) μmol/L for DM group, and(125.02 ± 48.13) μmol/L, (118.31 ± 39.58) μmol/L for NDM group respectively with no significant statistical difference (P > 0.05). The blood pressure was controlled satisfactorily for both groups after the procedure, with statistical significance (P<0.05), but no difference between the two groups. Conclusions: The procedure with renal artery stenting is effective to maintain renal function and control hypertension, showing equal efficiency for both DM and NDM patients. (authors)

  17. Preventing microvascular complications in type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Viswanathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with complications of diabetes such as retinopathy, nephropathy, and cardiovascular complications have increased hospital stay with greater economic burden. Prevention of complications should be started before the onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM by working on risk factors and thereafter by intervention upon confirmatory diagnosis which can prevent further damage to β-cells. The actual risk of getting microvascular complications like microalbuminuria and retinopathy progression starts at glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c level of 7%. As per the American Diabetes Association, a new pediatric glycemic control target of HbA1c 20 years as compared to patients <10 years of age. Screening of these complications should be done regularly, and appropriate preventive strategies should be followed. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blocker reduce progression from microalbuminuria to macroalbuminuria and increase the regression rate to normoalbuminuria. Diabetic microvascular complications can be controlled with tight glycemic therapy, dyslipidemia management and blood pressure control along with renal function monitoring, lifestyle changes, including smoking cessation and low-protein diet. An integrated and personalized care would reduce the risk of development of microvascular complications in T1DM patients. The child with diabetes who receives limited care is more likely to develop long-term complications at an earlier age. Screening for subclinical complications and early interventions with intensive therapy is the need of the hour.

  18. Preventing microvascular complications in type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Patients with complications of diabetes such as retinopathy, nephropathy, and cardiovascular complications have increased hospital stay with greater economic burden. Prevention of complications should be started before the onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) by working on risk factors and thereafter by intervention upon confirmatory diagnosis which can prevent further damage to β-cells. The actual risk of getting microvascular complications like microalbuminuria and retinopathy progression starts at glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level of 7%. As per the American Diabetes Association, a new pediatric glycemic control target of HbA1c 20 years as compared to patients <10 years of age. Screening of these complications should be done regularly, and appropriate preventive strategies should be followed. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blocker reduce progression from microalbuminuria to macroalbuminuria and increase the regression rate to normoalbuminuria. Diabetic microvascular complications can be controlled with tight glycemic therapy, dyslipidemia management and blood pressure control along with renal function monitoring, lifestyle changes, including smoking cessation and low-protein diet. An integrated and personalized care would reduce the risk of development of microvascular complications in T1DM patients. The child with diabetes who receives limited care is more likely to develop long-term complications at an earlier age. Screening for subclinical complications and early interventions with intensive therapy is the need of the hour. PMID:25941647

  19. Outcomes of polytrauma patients with diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of diabetes mellitus in patients with multiple system injuries remains obscure. This study was designed to increase knowledge of outcomes of polytrauma in patients who have diabetes mellitus. Methods Data from the Trauma Audit and Research Network was used to identify patients who had suffered polytrauma during 2003 to 2011. These patients were filtered to those with known outcomes, then separated into those with diabetes, those known to have other co-morbidities but not diabetes and those known not to have any co-morbidities or diabetes. The data were analyzed to establish if patients with diabetes had differing outcomes associated with their diabetes versus the other groups. Results In total, 222 patients had diabetes, 2,558 had no past medical co-morbidities (PMC), 2,709 had PMC but no diabetes. The diabetic group of patients was found to be older than the other groups (P <0.05). A higher mortality rate was found in the diabetic group compared to the non-PMC group (32.4% versus 12.9%), P <0.05). Rates of many complications including renal failure, myocardial infarction, acute respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis were all found to be higher in the diabetic group. Conclusions Close monitoring of diabetic patients may result in improved outcomes. Tighter glycemic control and earlier intervention for complications may reduce mortality and morbidity. PMID:25026864

  20. Managing hypertension in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horr, Samuel; Nissen, Steven

    2016-06-01

    Hypertension is a common problem in the diabetic population with estimates suggesting a prevalence exceeding 60%. Comorbid hypertension and diabetes mellitus are associated with high rates of macrovascular and microvascular complications. These two pathologies share overlapping risk factors, importantly central obesity. Treatment of hypertension is unequivocally beneficial and improves all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, major cardiovascular events, and microvascular outcomes including nephropathy and retinopathy. Although controversial, current guidelines recommend a target blood pressure in the diabetic population of diabetes. Management of blood pressure in patients with diabetes includes both lifestyle modifications and pharmacological therapies. This article reviews the evidence for management of hypertension in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and provides a recommended treatment strategy based on the available data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Diabetes mellitus in newborns and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, P S; Khatwa, U A

    2000-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus is uncommon in infancy and newborn period. The two common forms seen are the transient and permanent forms of diabetes mellitus of the newborn. They have to be differentiated from the transient hyperglycemic states (Blood sugar > 125 mg/dl) seen in newborns who receive parenteral glucose infusions and in those with septicemia and CNS disorders. Transient diabetes mellitus of the newborn (TDNB) is defined as hyperglycemia occurring within the first month of life lasting at least 2 weeks and requiring insulin therapy. Most of these cases resolve spontaneously by 4 months. It has a reported incidence of 1 in 45,000 to 60,000 live births. The most likely etiology is a maturational delay of cAMP mediated insulin release. The clinical features include small for datedness, proneness for birth asphyxia, open-eye alert facies, dehydration, emaciation, polyuria and poydipsia. These children are prone to septicemia and urinary tract infections. They have hyperglycemia, glucosuria, absent or mild ketonuria, low basal insulin, C-peptide and IGF-1 levels. Treatment consists of hydration and judicious administration of insulin with close monitoring. Thirty percent of these children are likely to develop permanent neonatal diabetes. Compared to transient form, permanent diabetes mellitus is uncommon. It is usually due to pancreatic dysgenesis often associated with other malformations and rarely due to type 1 diabetes mellitus. The diagnosis is based on the demonstration of both exocrine and endocrine pancreatic dysfunction. These children are managed as type 1 diabetes mellitus. They are prone to develop the vascular complications of diabetes at an earlier date.

  2. Mathematical model of diabetic encephalopathy in diagnosis of complicated forms of diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Popruga

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of this research is to optimize the methods for diagnosis of diabetic encephalopathy based on the study of indicators of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, functional state of the brain, metabolic disorders and morphological characteristics of the brain tissue. Materials and methods. A comprehensive survey was carried out in 537 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM, including 342 (63.7 % persons with type 1 DM, and 195 (36.3 % — with type 2 DM. Results. The article presents data on the integrated study of clinical, metabolic and functional indicators as risk factors for diabetic encephalopathy. Their diagnostic significance is argued. On the basis of a comprehensive assessment of the obtained data, which expanded the view on the pathogenesis of diabetic encephalopathy, the priority of metabolic disorders was confirmed. Diagnostic criteria of diabetic encephalopathy were established and its mathematical model was developed. Conclusions. The availa­bility of informative indicators identified will allow the doctor to diagnose diabetic encephalopathy at the early stages or to predict its development and to detect at the preclinical stage.

  3. Apolipoprotein E Gene Polymorphism and Its Association with Cardiovascular Heart Disease Risk Factors in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Amani Ashari; Julia Omar; Arif Hashim; Shahrul Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene polymorphism has influence on serum lipids which relates to cardiovascular risk. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency distribution of APOE alleles among Malaysian Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) patients with and without coronary artery disease (CAD) and their association with serum lipid profiles. A total of 115 patients were recruited in which 78 patients had Type 2 DM without CAD and 37 patients had Type 2 DM with CAD. The APOE polymorphism wa...

  4. Terapêutica da diabetes mellitus tipo 1

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes, Ana Luisa Lopes

    2009-01-01

    Introdução: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) é uma doença metabólica de etiologia múltipla caracterizada por hiperglicemia crónica com distúrbios no metabolismo dos hidratos de carbono, lípidos e proteínas, por deficiências na secreção e/ou acção da insulina. A descoberta da insulina em 1921, foi um grande marco na sua terapêutica, aumentando a esperança e qualidade de vida dos doentes, nomeadamente na DM tipo 1. Tornou-se um fármaco salvador de vidas (life saving). A primeira a ser comercializad...

  5. Development of experimental alloxan model of diabetes mellitus

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    V.V. Semenko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. One of the main causes that lead to the disability of diabetic patients is diabetic retinopathy (DR. The relevance of the problem of DR necessitates the development of optimal experimental models on experimental animals to find effective ways of correcting this pathology. The purpose of our work was to develop an experimental alloxan model of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM for the study of DR, which would not result in the lethal outcome of experimental animals under the action of alloxan; histological examination of changes in the tissues of the eyeball in the reproduction of the DM model for the selection of new effective methods for the metabolic treatment of DR in the early stages. Materials and methods. The experiment was carried out on white outbred Wistar rats weighing 180–200 g. The first group consisted of 20 animals that were not subjected to any influence, served as a control; second group — 30 animals, in which DM was modeled by administration of alloxan and fructose. Results. When modeling DR, vessel changes in the form of wall fibrosis, edema of the endothelium and vasospasm were found. There was also a decrease in the amount of pigment granules, dystrophic changes in the cells of the ganglionic layer and a layer of retinal rods and cones, which coincides with the descriptions of damage to the coats of the eyeball in patients with DM. Conclusions. In our studies, we have calculated the optimal dose of alloxan administration, which does not lead to the death of rats (the lethality of rats was absent and is an effective model not only of DM in general, but also of DR.

  6. Prevalence of depression in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Calvín, J L; Zapatero Gaviria, A; Martín Ríos, M D

    2015-04-01

    The relationship between depression and diabetes has been widely documented but there have been methodological limitations such as the failure to conduct a diagnostic interview of the depressive condition. We have estimated the prevalence of depression in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and its relationship with sociodemographic, lifestyle and clinical variables. This was a cross-sectional, randomized study (stratified by sex and age) of patients with DM2 treated in a healthcare area with approximately 3000 eligible patients. The depressive symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (depression defined as a BDI score>16) and a psychiatric interview. We used a multivariate logistic regression model to evaluate the association between depression and DM2, after adjusting for known risk factors. We examined 275 patients with DM2 (mean age, 64.5 years; men, 56.4%). The prevalence of depression was calculated at 32.7% (95% CI 27.4-38.5) and increased with age. A greater prevalence of depression was found in women, widowers, patients with obesity, those with poor compliance with the prescription, those with poor glycemic control and those who developed complications from diabetes. Thirty-five percent (95% CI 26.4-45.8) of the patients who scored>16 on the BDI scale had not been diagnosed with depression. Depression is highly prevalent in patients with DM2, especially in women. For approximately one-third of the patients, a diagnosis of depression had not been reached. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence of type-II diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy: the gaddap study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahar, P.S.; Awan, Z.; Manzar, N.; Memon, S.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the frequency of type-II Diabetes mellitus (DM) in the endogenous population of Gaddap town and also to evaluate the status of Diabetic retinopathy (DR) in this group. This community based study of subjects of either gender was carried out in the Gaddap town. Three primary eye care centres were established in the existing primary health care (PHC) facilities, to screen the target Population aged 30 years and above, and who met other inclusion criteria for DM and DR respectively. Patients requiring intervention were managed accordingly. Data was entered and analyzed using Microsoft Visual Basic 6 and Microsoft Access. Out of the cohort of 19211 subjects, 1677 patients were found Diabetic, giving the prevalence of DM in Gaddap town at 8.73%, with 1258 (6.55%) known and 419 (2.18%) newly diagnosed cases. DR was seen in 460 (27.43%) of the Diabetic cases with 126 (7.51%) patients requiring urgent intervention for vision threatening complications. The result validates the importance of early screening of DR in people suffering from DM for possible management and prevention of sight threatening complications in the early stage of the disease and advocates the inclusion of primary eye care as a part of PHC system. (author)

  8. Gender, alexithymia and physical inactivity associated with abdominal obesity in type 1 diabetes mellitus: a cross sectional study at a secondary care hospital diabetes clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Melin, Eva O.; Svensson, Ralph; Thunander, Maria; Hillman, Magnus; Thulesius, Hans O.; Landin-Olsson, Mona

    2017-01-01

    Background Obesity is linked to cardiovascular diseases and increasingly common in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) since the introduction of intensified insulin therapy. Our main aim was to explore associations between obesity and depression, anxiety, alexithymia and self-image measures and to control for lifestyle variables in a sample of persons with T1DM. Secondary aims were to explore associations between abdominal and general obesity and cardiovascular complications in T1DM. Methods Cros...

  9. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus in polycystic ovary syndrome: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Safa; Shikalgar, Nigar

    2017-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is recognized as one of the most common endocrinopathies in women of reproductive age, associated with metabolic sequelae which includes increased risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The adverse effects of DM2 affects a woman throughout her lifespan. Health care expenditure of DM2 highlights the need for prevention through appropriate screening, diagnosis and intervention. Lifestyle modification (LSM) programs that include diet and/or physical activity are suggested for patients characterized as prediabetic to delay the onset of adult DM2. Diet (i.e. low carbohydrate), combination of aerobic and resistance exercise with high intensity interval training (HIT) 150 to 175min/week with resistance exercise 2 to 3days/week and weight loss may be valuable supporters in the fight against IR, IGT and DM2 associated with PCOS. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Endothelial progenitor cells dysfunction and impaired tissue reparation: The missed link in diabetes mellitus development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezin, Alexander E

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered a leading cause of premature cardiovascular (CV) mortality and morbidity in general population and in individuals with known CV disease. Recent animal and clinical studies have shown that reduced number and weak function of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) may not only indicate to higher CV risk, but contribute to the impaired heart and vessels reparation in patients with DM. Moreover, EPCs having a protective impact on the vasculature may mediate the functioning of other organs and systems. Therefore, EPCs dysfunction is probably promising target for DM treatment strategy, while the role of restoring of EPCs number and functionality in CV risk diminish and reduce of DM-related complications is not fully clear. The aim of the review is summary of knowledge regarding EPCs dysfunction in DM patients. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of Demographic, Socioeconomic and Psychological Factors on Glycemic Self-Management in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Alicia Gonzalez Zacarias

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus (DM is reported as one of the most complex chronic diseases worldwide. In the United States, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM is the seventh leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Individuals with diabetes require lifelong personal care to reduce the possibility of developing long-term complications. A good knowledge of diabetes risk factors, including obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, family history of DM, and sedentary lifestyle, play an essential role in prevention and treatment. Also, socio-demographic, economic, psychological, and environmental factors are directly and indirectly associated with diabetes control and health outcomes. Our review intends to analyze the interaction between demographics, knowledge, environment, and other diabetes-related factors based on an extended literature search, and to provide insight for improving glycemic control and reducing the incidence of chronic complications.

  12. Care of the Athlete With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Clinical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, William B; Subauste, Jose S

    2016-04-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) results from a highly specific immune-mediated destruction of pancreatic β cells, resulting in chronic hyperglycemia. For many years, one of the mainstays of therapy for patients with T1DM has been exercise balanced with appropriate medications and medical nutrition. Compared to healthy peers, athletes with T1DM experience nearly all the same health-related benefits from exercise. Despite these benefits, effective management of the T1DM athlete is a constant challenge due to various concerns such as the increased risk of hypoglycemia. This review seeks to summarize the available literature and aid clinicians in clinical decision-making for this patient population. PubMed searches were conducted for "type 1 diabetes mellitus AND athlete" along with "type 1 diabetes mellitus AND exercise" from database inception through November 2015. All articles identified by this search were reviewed if the article text was available in English and related to management of athletes with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Subsequent reference searches of retrieved articles yielded additional literature included in this review. The majority of current literature available exists as recommendations, review articles, or proposed societal guidelines, with less prospective or higher-order treatment studies available. The available literature is presented objectively with an attempt to describe clinically relevant trends and findings in the management of athletes living with T1DM. Managing T1DM in the context of exercise or athletic competition is a challenging but important skill for athletes living with this disease. A proper understanding of the hormonal milieu during exercise, special nutritional needs, glycemic control, necessary insulin dosing adjustments, and prevention/management strategies for exercise-related complications can lead to successful care plans for these patients. Individualized management strategies should be created with close cooperation

  13. Prevalence of undiagnosed and inadequately treated type 2 diabetes mellitus, hyperension, and dyslipidemia in morbidly obese patients who present for bariatric surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Context: Pharmacotherapy is considered the primary treatment modality for metabolic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HTN), and dyslipidemia (DYS). Objective: We hypothesize that these metabolic diseases become exceedingly difficult to treat with pharmacotherapy in morbidly ob...

  14. Psychosocial determinants of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, S.; Amin, M.K.; Ahmad, I.; Amer, H.; Shoaib, H.; Ibrahim, H.; Tayyab, M.; Hassan, M.; Javaid, M.A.; Rehman, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus type 2 , formerly non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or adult-onset diabetes, is a metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood glucose in the context of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency1. The development of Diabetes Mellitus type 2 is associated with multiple risk factors, co-morbid medical conditions as well as psychosocial determinants. These psychosocial factors, which differ from population to population, can be identified and controlled to reduce the incidence of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Objective: To identify various psychosocial factors associated with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Design: Case-control study. Place and Duration: Diabetic clinic and Medical Units Mayo Hospital Lahore . July to December, 2012. Subjects and Methods: A population based case-control study with 1:1 case to control ratio was conducted. A total of 100 subjects (50 cases and 50 controls) having age above 35 years were recruited in the study. Selection was made on laid down criteria from patients coming to Mayo Hospital Lahore after taking consent. Interviews were conducted through a pretested questionnaire. Data was collected, compiled and analyzed through IBM SPSS version 20. Results: Out of 100 study subjects 67% were males and 33% were females. Among cases of Diabetes mellitus type 2, 64% were males, 70% in the age group 35-50 years, 96% were married, 36% were illiterates. Mean age was found 49.24, standard deviation 10.915. In bivariate analysis, Diabetes Mellitus type II was found significantly associated with Anxiety(OR: 5.348, 95% CI: 2.151-13.298) Depression(OR: 5.063, 95% CI: 1.703-15.050), High fat diet, (OR: 2.471, 95% CI: 1.100-5.547) Sedentary Lifestyle(OR: 4.529, 95% CI: 1.952-10.508) and Psychological Stress(OR:4.529, 95% CI: 1.952-10.508). However, in multivariate analysis while controlling all other risk factors, Anxiety(OR: 6.066, 95% CI: 1.918-19.191), High fat diet(OR: 3.648, 95% CI: 1

  15. Awareness and Knowledge Towards Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Risk Factors in Northern Saudi Arabia

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    Ibrahim Bin Ahmed

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a major public health problem in Saudi Arabia and it is a risk factor for many comorbid diseases. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the awareness and knowledge towards type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM risk factors in Northern Saudi Arabia. Methodology: This is a crosssectional survey conducted in the city of Hail, Northern Saudi Arabia. Data of T2DM awareness was obtained from 1530 Saudi volunteers living in the city of Hail. Results: Out of the 1530 participants, around 59% were males and 41% were females. Out of 1530 participants 60.8% know nothing about DM and about 48% were not sure whether they know something about symptoms of DM. The lack of knowledge about the relationship between obesity and DM was statistically significant among this study group, p<0.001. Conclusion: There is low awareness and knowledge levels toward baseline DM related information among Northern Saudi Arabian population, which necessitates the need for comprehensive awareness program. Women are more in need to be targeted by DM prevention and control programs

  16. Syndecan-4 shedding impairs macrovascular angiogenesis in diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ran; Xie, Jun; Wu, Han; Li, Guannan; Chen, Jianzhou; Chen, Qinhua; Wang, Lian; Xu, Biao, E-mail: xubiao@medmail.com.cn

    2016-05-20

    Purpose: Syndecan-4 (synd4) is a ubiquitous heparan sulfate proteoglycan cell surface receptor that modulates cell proliferation, migration, mechanotransduction, and endocytosis. The extracellular domain of synd4 sheds heavily in acute inflammation, but the shedding of synd4 in chronic inflammation, such as diabetes mellitus (DM), is still undefined. We investigated the alterations of synd4 endothelial expression in DM and the influence of impaired synd4 signaling on angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), diabetic rats, synd4 null mice, and db/db mice. Material and methods: HUVECs were incubated with advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Western blot analysis was used to determine synd4 protein expression and ELISA was used to detect soluble synd4 fragments. The concentration of synd4 in the aortic endothelia of diabetic rats was detected by immunohistochemical staining. Aortic ring assays were performed to study the process of angiogenesis in the diabetic rats and in synd4 null and db/db mice. Recombinant adenoviruses containing the synd4 gene or null were constructed to enhance synd4 aortic expression in db/db mice. Results: Western blot analysis showed decreased expression of the synd4 extracellular domain in HUVECs, and ELISA detected increased soluble fragments of synd4 in the media. Synd4 endothelial expression in the aortas of diabetic rats was decreased. Aortic ring assay indicated impaired angiogenesis in synd4 null and db/db mice, which was partially reversed by synd4 overexpression in db/db mice. Conclusion: Synd4 shedding from vascular endothelial cells played an important role in the diabetes-related impairment of angiogenesis. -- Highlights: •Synd4 shedding from endothelial cells is accelerated under the stimulation of AGEs. •Extracellular domain of synd4 is diminished in the endothelium of DM rats. •Aortic rings of synd4 null mice showed impaired angiogenesis. •Overexpression of synd4 partly rescues macrovascular

  17. Holistic approach to prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a family setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofori, Sandra N; Unachukwu, Chioma N

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic, progressive metabolic disorder with several complications that affect virtually all the systems in the human body. Type 2 DM (T2DM) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The management of T2DM is multifactorial, taking into account other major modifiable risk factors, like obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, blood pressure, and dyslipidemia. A multidisciplinary team is essential to maximize the care of individuals with DM. DM self-management education and patient-centered care are the cornerstones of management in addition to effective lifestyle strategies and pharmacotherapy with individualization of glycemic goals. Robust evidence supports the effectiveness of this approach when implemented. Individuals with DM and their family members usually share a common lifestyle that, not only predisposes the non-DM members to developing DM but also, increases their collective risk for CVD. In treating DM, involvement of the entire family, not only improves the care of the DM individual but also, helps to prevent the risk of developing DM in the family members.

  18. Holistic approach to prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a family setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofori SN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sandra N Ofori, Chioma N Unachukwu Department of Internal Medicine, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria Abstract: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic, progressive metabolic disorder with several complications that affect virtually all the systems in the human body. Type 2 DM (T2DM is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD. The management of T2DM is multifactorial, taking into account other major modifiable risk factors, like obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, blood pressure, and dyslipidemia. A multidisciplinary team is essential to maximize the care of individuals with DM. DM self-management education and patient-centered care are the cornerstones of management in addition to effective lifestyle strategies and pharmacotherapy with individualization of glycemic goals. Robust evidence supports the effectiveness of this approach when implemented. Individuals with DM and their family members usually share a common lifestyle that, not only predisposes the non-DM members to developing DM but also, increases their collective risk for CVD. In treating DM, involvement of the entire family, not only improves the care of the DM individual but also, helps to prevent the risk of developing DM in the family members. Keywords: cardiovascular disease, multifactorial management

  19. Serum klotho protein levels and their correlations with the progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Fang; Wu, Dongming; Du, Hongfei; Yang, Xianggui; Yang, Min; Pang, Xueli; Xu, Ying

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the associations of serum α-Klotho and β-Klotho levels with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) progression. We evaluated 106 healthy controls and 261 cases of T2DM with or without diabetic complications (range: 45-84years). Serum α-Klotho and β-Klotho levels were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Compared to the healthy controls, α-Klotho and β-Klotho levels were significantly lower among patients with T2DM and with or without diabetic complications (Pdiabetes, and the positive correlation of α-Klotho and β-Klotho levels indicates that they might have similar mechanisms in T2DM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Diabetes mellitus in dogs and cats: diagnosis and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mot, T.,

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a disease of humans and animals, which causes increased levels of blood sugar (glucose. Normally,glucose is brought into the cells by a hormone - insulin.The cells then metabolize glucose to make energy used for all functions of the body. Animals suffering from DM either lack insulin, or the cells cannotuse the insulin that is there. As a result, blood glucose levels increase, and the cells have to use other substances for energy. When blood glucose levels become too high, glucose is found in the urine, causing increased frequency of urination and increased drinking. When blood glucose remains elevated over a period of time, other metabolic changes can occur, such as weight loss, acidosis, seizures, coma, blindness, cataracts, and nerve damage. Animals that are eating normally and not showing signs of illness may only require a blood or urine test to diagnose DM. Concurrent diseases (such as infection, Cushing’s disease, hyperthyroidism, pancreatitis, gastroenteritis, inflammatory bowel disease, hepatic lipidosis, or kidney disease make diabetes more difficult to diagnose and manage. A complete blood screen and other specific tests may be recommended to obtain the diagnosis and baseline values for treatment and future monitoring. The treatment for diabetes in dogs is similar to the treatment for diabetes in humans, through diet and insulin therapy. Dogs and cats with DM are usually treated with insulin. Insulin is a protein and, as such, not suitable for oral administration. Thus, it is administered once or several times daily by the subcutaneous route. Adjustment of the blood glucose concentration demands long hospital care, and subsequently the owner constantly has to keep a strict schedule at home. In veterinary practice the main groups of oral antidiabetic (used in human medicine either are: carbohydrate absorption inhibitors (e.g. acarbose; insulin sensitisers (biguanides such as metformin, thiazolidinedions

  1. Ocular manifestations of Type 1 diabetes mellitus in pediatric population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handan Akil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: To evaluate the necessity of ocular screening in Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM. Aims: This study aims to investigate the diabetes-related ocular changes according to the glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c level and duration of diabetes in children and compare the results with nondiabetic healthy children. Settings and Design: Observational cross-sectional study designed by ophthalmology and pediatric endocrinology clinics. Subjects and Methods: Forty-two children with Type 1 DM, 42 healthy gender- and age-matched children as controls were enrolled. All patients underwent ophthalmic and physical examination, with a review of medical history and current medication. HbA1c level, best corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP, central corneal thickness (CCT, tear break-up time (BUT, Schirmer test, dilated fundus examination findings, central retinal thickness (CRT, and total macular volume (TMV measurements were noted. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics, Student's t-test, Mann–Whitney U-test, Chi-square test for comparison of the group parameters and correlation analyses (Spearman analysis were performed with SPSS statistical software 17.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA. Results: Type 1 DM group exhibited significantly reduced Schirmer test, increased IOP and decreased retinal thickness relative to the age-matched control group (P < 0.05 but no statistically significant difference was found for the BUT (P = 0.182 and for the CCT (P = 0.495. The correlations between the age, duration, HbA1c and IOP, BUT, Schirmer test, TMV, CRT measurements did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions: More frequent screening may be needed for complications, including neuropathy-related dry eye syndrome, IOP changes, and diabetic retinopathy in children with Type 1 DM.

  2. Awareness of diabetes mellitus among diabetic patients in the Gambia: a strong case for health education and promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foma, Mafomekong Ayuk; Saidu, Yauba; Omoleke, Semeeh Akinwale; Jafali, James

    2013-12-05

    Awareness of various aspects of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is essential for the prevention, management and control of the disease. However, several studies have consistently shown that awareness of DM in the general population is low. None of these studies, however, was conducted in The Gambia, even though the condition constitutes a major public health problem in the country. In this paper, we assessed the awareness of DM among diabetic patients attending the Medical Out-Patient Department (MOPD) of Royal Victoria Teaching Hospital (RVTH), Banjul. We interviewed 200 patients attending the MOPD of RVTH. We used a tool containing questions on patient's demographic characteristics and awareness of various aspects of DM including general knowledge on DM, causes, complications, management and prevention. Of the 199 patients who were aware of their condition, only 47% said they knew what DM is. Similarly, 53% of the study participants had no knowledge of the causes of DM and about 50% were not aware of the methods of prevention. 67% knew that DM can result to loss of sight while 46.5% knew that DM can cause poor wound healing. Few respondents knew that DM can lead to kidney failure (13.5%), skin sepsis (12.0%), heart failure (5.5%) and stroke (4.5%). Close to 50% of the respondent did not know how DM can be prevented. Level of education, duration of illness and knowledge of a family member with diabetes were important predictors of knowledge in our study. Our study shows that the majority of patients attending the MOPD have poor knowledge on several aspects of DM. Hence, there is need for conscious efforts towards improving the level of awareness through health education and promotion, not limited to the hospital but also within the general population, as part of strategies to prevent, manage and control DM.

  3. Impact of type 1 diabetes mellitus and sitagliptin treatment on the neuropeptide Y system of rat retina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campos, Elisa J.; Martins, João; Brudzewsky, Dan

    2018-01-01

    1 diabetes mellitus (DM) and sitagliptin, a DPP-IV inhibitor, on the NPY system in the retina using an animal model.  Methods: Type 1 DM was induced in male Wistar rats by an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Starting 2weeks after DM onset, animals were treated orally with sitagliptin (5...... of NPY to all receptors. Sitagliptin alone reduced retinal NPY mRNA levels. The effects of DM on the NPY system were not affected by sitagliptin.  Conclusion: DM modestly affects the NPY system in the retina and these effects are not prevented by sitagliptin treatment. These observations suggest that DPP...

  4. Supplementation of Coenzyme Q10 among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuhua Shen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a major cause of morbidity and mortality with ever increasing prevalence in the United States and worldwide. There is growing body of evidence suggesting that mitochondrial dysfunction secondary to oxidative stress plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of T2DM. Coenzyme Q10 is an important micronutrient acting on the electron transport chain of the mitochondria with two major functions: (1 synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP; and (2 a potent antioxidant. Deficiency in coenzyme Q10 is often seen in patients with T2DM. Whether restoration of coenzyme Q10 will help alleviate oxidative stress, preserve mitochondrial function, and thus improve glycemic control in T2DM is unclear. This article reviews the relationships among oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and T2DM and examines the evidence for potential use of coenzyme Q10 as a supplement for the treatment of T2DM.

  5. Changes of serum leptin and c-peptide level in children with type 1 diabetic mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Tongxin; Wang Zizheng; Sun Junjiang; Wang Shukui; Qi Shaokang

    2001-01-01

    To deplore the relationship between leptin and c-peptide in children with type 1 diabetic mellitus (DM). The levels of serum leptin and c-peptide (C-P) in 65 type 1 DM children (including 31 before and after insulin treatment) and 30 normal controls were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The results found that there was significant differences (P < 0.01) in leptin and C-P between DM children and normal controls, also in 31 DM children before and after treatment. It showed a positive correlation between leptin and C-P. The changes of the leptin/C-P ratio in DM children compared with normal controls and that before and after treatment were also significantly different. It suggested that leptin may have close relationship in the development, progress and the occurrence of complications in children with DM and also provide a new clue for their diagnosis treatment and complication occurrence

  6. Pancreatogenic diabetes mellitus: actual problems of pathogenesis and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Rebrov А.P.; Kunitsyna М.А.; Kashkina E.I.; Arkhangelskaya Е.Е.

    2012-01-01

    We have presented the review of literature devoted to the problem of pancreatogenic diabetes mellitus. We have found up that prevalence of pancreatogenic diabetes mellitus needs to be adjusted. In analyzed literature the influence of localization of structural changes of pancreatic tissue on risk of diabetes mellitus development is studied insufficiently. In the result of our literature analysis we have detected that treatment of pancreatogenic diabetes mellitus up to date is not unified and ...

  7. Genetics of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars; Pedersen, Oluf

    2005-01-01

    Throughout the last decade, molecular genetic studies of non-autoimmune diabetes mellitus have contributed significantly to our present understanding of this disease's complex aetiopathogenesis. Monogenic forms of diabetes (maturity-onset diabetes of the young, MODY) have been identified...... and classified into MODY1-6 according to the mutated genes that by being expressed in the pancreatic beta-cells confirm at the molecular level the clinical presentation of MODY as a predominantly insulin secretory deficient form of diabetes mellitus. Genomewide linkage studies of presumed polygenic type 2...... diabetic populations indicate that loci on chromosomes 1q, 5q, 8p, 10q, 12q and 20q contain susceptibility genes. Yet, so far, the only susceptibility gene, calpain-10 (CAPN10), which has been identified using genomewide linkage studies, is located on chromosome 2q37. Mutation analyses of selected...

  8. MANIFESTASI RONTGENOGRAFI DIABETES MELLITUS DI RONGGA MULUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trelia Boel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a common disease, described as a systemic disease of carbohydrate metabolism caused by a realtive or absolute deficiency of insulum. This condition is characterized by hyperglyecemia, glucosuria, polyuria, polydipsia, pruritis, and weight loss. Diabetes mellitus in itself does not cause periodontal disease, however diabetes or patients with an increased blood glucose concentration (>200mg/dl tend to gave increased incidence and severity of periodontal disease. Patient with diabetics above 50 years old (3 cases radiographically can be seen as alveolar bone loss in maxilla and mandible. Alveolar bone loss is seen larger in the posterior maxilla region. The vascular alteration in diabetics may enhance the susceptibility of periodontium to become periodontitis and serve as an etiology factor in pathologic bone resorption.

  9. Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus through Telemedicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Carallo

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus T2DM has a huge and growing burden on public health, whereas new care models are not implemented into clinical practice; in fact the purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of a program of integrated care for T2DM, compared with ordinary diligence."Progetto Diabete Calabria" is a new organizational model for the management of patients with diabetes mellitus, based on General Practitioners (GPs empowerment and the use of a web-based electronic health record, shared in remote consultations among GPs and Hospital Consultants. One-year change in glucose and main cardiovascular risk factors control in 104 patients (Cases following this integrated care program has been evaluated and compared with that of 208 control patients (Controls matched for age, gender, and cardiometabolic profile, and followed in an ordinary outpatient medical management by the Consultants only. Both patient groups had Day Hospitals before and after the study period.The mean number of accesses to the Consultants during the study was 0.6 ± 0.9 for Cases, and 1.3 ± 1.5 for Controls (p<0.0001. At follow-up, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c significantly decreased from 58 ± 6 to 54 ± 8 mmol/mol in Cases only (p=0.01; LDL cholesterol decreased in both groups; body mass index decreased in Cases only, from 31.0 ± 4.8 to 30.5 ± 4.6 kg/m(2 (p=0.03.The present study demonstrates that a health care program based on GPs empowerment and taking care plus remote consultation with Consultants is at least as effective as standard outpatient management, in order to improve the control of T2DM.

  10. Lipid Mediators Are Critical in Resolving Inflammation: A Review of the Emerging Roles of Eicosanoids in Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando H. G. Tessaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The biosynthesis pathway of eicosanoids derived from arachidonic acid, such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes, relates to the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus (DM. A better understanding of how lipid mediators modulate the inflammatory process may help recognize key factors underlying the progression of diabetes complications. Our review presents recent knowledge about eicosanoid synthesis and signaling in DM-related complications, and discusses eicosanoid-related target therapeutics.

  11. La diabetes mellitus y las complicaciones cardiovasculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Lidia Pereira Despaigne

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades cardiovasculares en las personas con diabetes mellitus son más precoces, y suelen presentarse con síntomas y signos atípicos. Igualmente, se ha demostrado que la hiperglucemia es un importante factor de riesgo para las complicaciones microangiopáticas y macroangiopáticas en la diabetes mellitus, y la hiperglucemia posprandial, con glucemia en ayunas normal, es una condición clínica frecuente y un factor de riesgo cardiovascular independiente. Así, en el presente trabajo se exponen algunas consideraciones relacionadas con el control de las dislipidemias, la hipertensión arterial y la antiagregación plaquetaria en el paciente con diabetes mellitus

  12. Screening for type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients with mental illness: application of a self-assessment score for diabetes mellitus risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jinah K; Shortridge-Baggett, Lillie M; Sachmechi, Issac; Barron, Charles; Chiu, Ya-Lin; Bajracharya, Bhavana; Bang, Heejung

    2014-12-30

    Various methods for diabetes risk assessment have been developed over a decade, but they were not evaluated in patients with mental illness. This study examined the feasibility and utility of a self-assessment score for type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) risk among patients with mental illness. DM2 risk was assessed by patients with mental illness as well as clinicians via a self-assessment questionnaire, and the resulting scores were compared to each other as well as with actual diagnosis. Of 100 patients, nine patients were newly revealed to have DM2 and 34 patients have pre-DM2. Patients tended to underreport risk factors - obesity and physical activity - so perceived to have lower risk. Sensitivity of the self-assessment score was different when used by patients and by clinicians despite correlation coefficient of 0.82. Based on positive predictive values, we may expect one out of two patients who have high scores actually have DM2 or pre-DM2. Also, the discrimination capability was reasonably high (AUC=0.79), comparable to its performance observed in general populations. The self-assessment score has potential as a simple and adjunct tool to identify a high risk group of DM2/pre-DM2 among persons with mental illness, especially, when used together with health care providers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Relative risk of hypertension and coronary artery disease in diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, G.M.D.

    2001-01-01

    During the year 1996-1997, 3275 diabetic patients, registered in Diabetic Clinic of Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, were studied to note the effect of various variables of diabetes mellitus (DM) on hypertension (HTN) and coronary artery diseases (CAD). Out of these 1402 (42.8%) were hypertensive patients. HTN was observed more frequently in obese, older age, longer duration of DM, poor glycemic control and dyslipidemia with p<0.0001. The relative risk (RR) of HTN was significantly increased (p<0.001) in obese (M2.53, F7.77 times), older age (M 3.69,F 9.64 times), longer duration of Dm (2.3 times for both sexes), poor glycemic control (M 2.89, F 4.75 times) and dyslipedemia (M 1.62-5.27, F2.56-9.53 times). While the RR of CAD due to HTN was 4.6 times (M5.4, F4.2 times) (p<0.0001) as compared to normotensive diabetic patients. The risk of developing HTN is more in female diabetics and of CAD in male hypertensive diabetic patients. It is concluded that obesity, older age, poor glycemic control, longer duration of DM and dyslipidemia increases the risk of HTN 2-9.5 times and HTN increases the risk of CAD by 4-5 times, hence requiring aggressive and comprehensive treatment of the diabetes mellitus syndrome. (author)

  14. Relative risk of hypertension and coronary artery disease in diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhary, G M.D. [Nishter Medical Coll., Multan (Pakistan). Dept. of Medicine

    2001-03-01

    During the year 1996-1997, 3275 diabetic patients, registered in Diabetic Clinic of Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, were studied to note the effect of various variables of diabetes mellitus (DM) on hypertension (HTN) and coronary artery diseases (CAD). Out of these 1402 (42.8%) were hypertensive patients. HTN was observed more frequently in obese, older age, longer duration of DM, poor glycemic control and dyslipidemia with p<0.0001. The relative risk (RR) of HTN was significantly increased (p<0.001) in obese (M2.53, F7.77 times), older age (M 3.69,F 9.64 times), longer duration of Dm (2.3 times for both sexes), poor glycemic control (M 2.89, F 4.75 times) and dyslipedemia (M 1.62-5.27, F2.56-9.53 times). While the RR of CAD due to HTN was 4.6 times (M5.4, F4.2 times) (p<0.0001) as compared to normotensive diabetic patients. The risk of developing HTN is more in female diabetics and of CAD in male hypertensive diabetic patients. It is concluded that obesity, older age, poor glycemic control, longer duration of DM and dyslipidemia increases the risk of HTN 2-9.5 times and HTN increases the risk of CAD by 4-5 times, hence requiring aggressive and comprehensive treatment of the diabetes mellitus syndrome. (author)

  15. Postprandial hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia and type 1 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Poon, Myra; Hussain, Khalid

    2009-01-01

    A patient with severe postprandial hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia (PPHH) for 4 years developed type 1 diabetes mellitus. She had no insulin or insulin receptor antibodies but was positive for islet cell and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibodies. PPHH prior to the onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus has not been previously described and may be a prodrome of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  16. 76 FR 44650 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ...-2011-0143] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the...

  17. 76 FR 53707 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ...-2011-0145] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the...

  18. 77 FR 25227 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ...-2011-0383] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The... the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants...

  19. 78 FR 50486 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ...-0182] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM... revision must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with...

  20. 76 FR 79756 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ...-0326] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM...).\\1\\ The revision must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be...

  1. 78 FR 37273 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ...-2013-0016] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... achieved by complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving... mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3)). FMCSA established its diabetes...

  2. 77 FR 75493 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-20

    ...-2012-0282] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring...

  3. 77 FR 532 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ...-2011-0300] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The... included in this notice. Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The Agency established...

  4. 78 FR 26422 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ...-2013-0012] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... achieved by complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving... mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3)). FMCSA established its diabetes...

  5. 77 FR 65929 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ...-2012-0219] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring...

  6. 77 FR 48587 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ...-0217] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM... drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described in section 4018 of the...

  7. 77 FR 70529 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ...-2012-0281] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring...

  8. 77 FR 75492 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-20

    ...-2012-0283] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring...

  9. 77 FR 38383 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ...-2012-0107] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring...

  10. 78 FR 35088 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ...-2013-0015] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... would be achieved by complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and... of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR 391.41(b)(3)). FMCSA...

  11. 77 FR 59447 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ...-0281] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM... drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described in section 4018 of the...

  12. 77 FR 64585 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ...-2012-0218] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring...

  13. 78 FR 50482 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ...-0183] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM... revision must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with...

  14. 77 FR 46791 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ...-2012-0162] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring...

  15. 78 FR 5559 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ...-2012-0348] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring...

  16. 78 FR 39825 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ...-2013-0018] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' [49 CFR 391.41(b)(3)]. FMCSA... Congress on the Feasibility of a Program to Qualify Individuals with Insulin-Treated Diabetes Mellitus to...

  17. 76 FR 79759 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ...-2011-0278] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the...

  18. 77 FR 18302 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ...-0043] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM... for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria...

  19. 77 FR 33264 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ...-2012-0044] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... complying with the current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring...

  20. 77 FR 59450 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ...-2012-0164] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... current regulation 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The... person has no established medical history or clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring...