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Sample records for diabetes mellitus dm

  1. Immune dysfunction in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerlings, S E; Hoepelman, A I

    1999-12-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have infections more often than those without DM. The course of the infections is also more complicated in this patient group. One of the possible causes of this increased prevalence of infections is defects in immunity. Besides some decreased cellular responses in vitro, no disturbances in adaptive immunity in diabetic patients have been described. Different disturbances (low complement factor 4, decreased cytokine response after stimulation) in humoral innate immunity have been described in diabetic patients. However, the clinical relevance of these findings is not clear. Concerning cellular innate immunity most studies show decreased functions (chemotaxis, phagocytosis, killing) of diabetic polymorphonuclear cells and diabetic monocytes/macrophages compared to cells of controls. In general, a better regulation of the DM leads to an improvement of these cellular functions. Furthermore, some microorganisms become more virulent in a high glucose environment. Another mechanism which can lead to the increased prevalence of infections in diabetic patients is an increased adherence of microorganisms to diabetic compared to nondiabetic cells. This has been described for Candida albicans. Possibly the carbohydrate composition of the receptor plays a role in this phenomenon.

  2. Non-diabetic renal disease (NDRD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM).

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    Prakash, Jai

    2013-03-01

    In contrast to Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM), the incidence of non-diabetic renal disease (NDRD) is very high in Type 2 diabetic patients. A wide spectrum of non-diabetic nephropathy (NDN) including both glomerular and tubulointerstitial lesions are reported in patients with Type 2 DM and their precise diagnosis requires histological examination of kidney tissue. Renal biopsy studies suggest that 25-50% of patients with Type 2 diabetes had glomerular lesions unrelated to or in addition to diabetic nephropathy. Histological studies confirm that NDRD can occur in isolated form without diabetic nephropathy or superimposed on diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy can occur in absence of retinopathy and chance of getting diabetic and non-diabetic renal lesions are nearly equal in Type 2 diabetic patient in absence of diabetic retinopathy (RP). The presence of RP suggests the concurrence of DN, but does not exclude non-diabetic nephropathy. Clearly, renal biopsy is indicated in proteinuric Type 2 diabetic patients for precise diagnosis of diabetic vs non-diabetic renal disease. Appropriate treatment of NDRD is associated with good clinical outcome. Thus, it is gratifying to treat NDRD in selected patients. Besides, 40 to 60% of ESRD in Type 2 diabetic patients is not caused by diabetic nephropathy.

  3. Polyuria with the Concurrent manifestation of Central Diabetes Insipidus (CDI) & Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM)

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Hyun-Jong; Kim, Jae-ha; Yi, Joo-Hark; Han, Sang-Woong; Kim, Ho-Jung

    2012-01-01

    We report a rare case of the concurrent manifestation of central diabetes insipidus (CDI) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). A 56 year-old man was diagnosed as a type 2 DM on the basis of hyperglycemia with polyuria and polydipsia at a local clinic two months ago and started an oral hypoglycemic medication, but resulted in no symptomatic improvement at all. Upon admission to the university hospital, the patient's initial fasting blood sugar level was 140 mg/dL, and he showed polydipsic and po...

  4. Qualidade de vida e sintomas depressivos em adolescentes com Diabetes Mellitus tipo 1 (DM1)

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela de Oliveira Pintar

    2015-01-01

    O objetivo geral deste trabalho foi avaliar a presença de sintomas depressivos e as possíveis influências do Diabetes Mellitus tipo I (DM1) na qualidade de vida de adolescentes com esta doença. Para alcançar tal objetivo foram avaliados adolescentes com DM1 (58) e sem DM1 (61) completando um total de 119 adolescentes avaliados; de ambos os sexos. Os locais de coleta de dados foram o Ambulatório de Endocrinologia da Criança e do Adolescente (ECA) do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medici...

  5. Polyuria with the Concurrent manifestation of Central Diabetes Insipidus (CDI) & Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun-Jong; Kim, Jae-Ha; Yi, Joo-Hark; Han, Sang-Woong; Kim, Ho-Jung

    2012-12-01

    We report a rare case of the concurrent manifestation of central diabetes insipidus (CDI) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). A 56 year-old man was diagnosed as a type 2 DM on the basis of hyperglycemia with polyuria and polydipsia at a local clinic two months ago and started an oral hypoglycemic medication, but resulted in no symptomatic improvement at all. Upon admission to the university hospital, the patient's initial fasting blood sugar level was 140 mg/dL, and he showed polydipsic and polyuric conditions more than 8 L urine/day. Despite the hyperglycemia controlled with metformin and diet, his symptoms persisted. Further investigations including water deprivation test confirmed the coexisting CDI of unknown origin, and the patient's symptoms including an intense thirst were markedly improved by desmopressin nasal spray (10 µg/day). The possibility of a common origin of CDI and type 2 DM is raised in a review of the few relevant adult cases in the literature.

  6. Retrogression of Nervous Fibers According to the Age of Patients with Diabetes Mellitus (DM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongwook

    2013-09-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to discover the possible onset time of diabetic neuropathy by age of diabetic patients, and to provide the knowledge necessary for preventing or managing diabetic neuropathy. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were outpatients who visited D Hospital Department of Neurology with complaints of significant neuropathic symptoms including dullness, numbness and paraesthesia. [Methods] Stimulations of 5 Hz, 250 Hz and 2,000 Hz were generated with a Neurometer CPT (Neurotron Inc., Baltimore, MD, USA) and delivered selectively to C fibers, A-delta fibers and A-beta fibers. The intensity of the stimulations of 5 Hz, 250 Hz and 2,000 Hz was incrementally increased as much as 0.01 mA. [Result] The results of this experiment show that the period of retrogression of nervous fibers was different significantly according to the age of patients with diabetes mellitus. Especially, in the case of individuals in their 50's, Aβ, Aδ, and C fibers in both the right and left lower limbs significantly changed within a period of 2 months. In the case of individuals in their 60's, Aβ and C fibers of the right lower limb meaningfully changed 2 months after the onset of the disease, and Aβ, Aδ, and C fibers of the left lower limb also significantly changed within a period of 2 months. [Conclusion] We discovered that patients suffering from DM especially in their 50's or 60's should be thoroughly followed for their condition, right from the onset of DM, in order to prevent the retrogression of nervous fibers.

  7. The Effect of ‘Locus of Control’ on the Diabetes Mellitus Patients’ Intention in Performing the Dm Control

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    Yusran Haskas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The behavioral control of diabetes mellitus can improve the quality of life through specific behavior planning. In the theory of planned behavior, the intentions are needed to bring up a person's behavior. A person can act on his intentions if he has control over his behavior. To control the behavior, the role of locus of control is required. Therefore, the research was conducted to investigate the effect of locus of control on the intention of diabetes mellitus patients in performing the diabetes mellitus control. This type of research was explanatory research using cross sectional design. The instrument of diabetic locus of control scale was used to collect the data. Consecutive sampling technique was used to obtain 134 samples. The data were analyzed by simple linear regression. The findings showed that 88,1% of respondents tend to have an internal locus of control and 98,6% of respondents have a strong intention to control the DM. Simple linear regression test results indicate that the locus of control significantly affect the diabetic patients’ intention to perform the control (p=0,032. The findings of the effect of locus of control on the intention of DM patients have implications for the need of the provision of information and positive support consistently in order to become a source of a filler control center that initiated the emergence of a strong intention to conduct the DM control.

  8. Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and its associated factors in children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murillo, M. (Marta); Bel, J. (Joan); Pérez, J. (Jacobo); Corripio, R. (Raquel); Carreras, G. (Gemma); Herrero, X. (Xavier); Mengibar, J.-M. (Josep-Maria); D. Rodriguez-Arjona (Dolors); U. Ravens-Sieberer (Ulrike); H. Raat (Hein); L. Rajmil (Luis)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The objective of the study was to describe the baseline health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a cohort of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and analyze its associated clinical and sociodemographic factors, assessing HRQOL through internet. Met

  9. Lifestyle measures for primary prevention of T2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM

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    M S A Mansur Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, the number of adults with diabetes was 285 million in 2010 and it will be 439 million in the year 2030. Although the genes we inherit may influence the development of type 2 diabetes, they take a back seat to behavioral and lifestyle factors. Data from the Nurses’ Health Study suggest that 90 percent of type 2 diabetes in women can be attributed to five such factors: excess weight, lack of exercise, a less-than-healthy diet, smoking, and abstaining from alcohol. From this data it can be said that up to 90 percent of diabetes prevention is possible with behavioral and lifestyle factors intervention. This intervention should be given to the people through primary prevention. The purpose of primary prevention is to limit the number of people who develop a disease by controlling causes and risk factors for the disease.

  10. Pharmacogenomics in diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Kaixin; Pedersen, Helle Krogh; Dawed, Adem Y.

    2016-01-01

    Genomic studies have greatly advanced our understanding of the multifactorial aetiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as well as the multiple subtypes of monogenic diabetes mellitus. In this Review, we discuss the existing pharmacogenetic evidence in both monogenic diabetes mellitus and T2DM....... We highlight mechanistic insights from the study of adverse effects and the efficacy of antidiabetic drugs. The identification of extreme sulfonylurea sensitivity in patients with diabetes mellitus owing to heterozygous mutations in HNF1A represents a clear example of how pharmacogenetics can direct...... future pharmacogenomic findings could provide insights into treatment response in diabetes mellitus that, in addition to other areas of human genetics, facilitates drug discovery and drug development for T2DM....

  11. Alteraciones neuropsicológicas asociadas a la diabetes mellitus 2 (dm2) y a sus factores de riesgo en población antioqueña

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Muñoz, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    Ubicación en Biblioteca USB Medellín: CD-1914t.-- Grupo de Investigación en Salud Comportamental; Línea de Investigación: Neurociencia Cognitiva. La Diabetes Mellitus 2 (DM2) es un trastorno metabólico de múltiples etiologías. Los cambios en el estilo de vida, el envejecimiento progresivo de la población ha contribuido a un aumento significativo de la enfermedad, con una prevalencia mundial de población afectada de casi el 7%. La DM2 ha sido asociada a múltiples complicaciones microvascula...

  12. Alcoholism and Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Soo-Jeong Kim; Dai-Jin Kim

    2012-01-01

    Chronic use of alcohol is considered to be a potential risk factor for the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which causes insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction that is a prerequisite for the development of diabetes. However, alcohol consumption in diabetes has been controversial and more detailed information on the diabetogenic impact of alcohol seems warranted. Diabetes, especially T2DM, causes dysregulation of various metabolic processes, which includes a defect i...

  13. Efectividad de la educación diabetológica sistematizada en niños que debutan con Diabetes Mellitus tipo 1 Effectiveness of systematic diabetes education in children diagnosed with Diabetes Mellitus type 1 (DM1

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    Manuel Montilla-Pérez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo principal: Evaluar la efectividad de la educación diabetológica sistematizada en niños que debutan con DM1 en el Hospital Universitario de Fuenlabrada (HUF, Madrid. Metodología: Estudio comparativo entre dos muestras de niños de 0 a 14 años que debutaron con DM1 antes y después de haberse instaurado un programa de educación diabetológica Se estudió a 34 niños adscritos al HUF que ingresaron por debut de DM1. Para evaluar la efectividad del programa se realizaron análisis bivariados con el fin de encontrar relaciones entre la educación diabetológica sistematizada y las variables: días de ingreso, frecuentación a urgencias por complicaciones, permisos domiciliarios y HbA1c a los 3 y 6 meses del alta. Resultados principales: Los días de ingreso se redujeron 3 días (pObjective: Evaluate the effectiveness of systematic diabetes education in children diagnosed with Diabetes Mellitus type 1 (DM1, in Fuenlabrada University Hospital (Madrid. Methods: A comparative study of two sample groups of children aged 0 to 14 diagnosed with DM1, before and after having been inducted into the diabetes education program. 34 children, admitted with a DM1 diagnosis, both with and without ketoacidosis, and assigned to Fuenlabrada University Hospital were studied. To evaluate the effectiveness of the program, bivariable analysis was undertaken with the objective of finding relationships between systematic diabetes education and the variables. Those variables were; admission days, frequency of visits to the emergency ward due to complications, and permissions to go home and HbA1c at 3 to 6 months after discharge from the hospital. Results: The admission days was reduced 3 days (p< 0.001, the complications within the 6 month after discharge decreased 41,2% and the permissions to go home increased 23,6% (p=0.001. Conclusions: The results of the study suggest the effectiveness of systematic diabetes education.

  14. [Levels of some auto-antibodies and C-peptide in insulin-treated patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) depending on gender of the patients and disease duration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhonosov, P N; Khalangot, N D

    2007-01-01

    Determination of antibodies to thyroid peroxidase was recently proposed to single out subgroups among patients with DM1 for following clinical and genetic studies. 73 men and 64 women who are being treated with insulin and included in territorial register of patients with DM of Mariupol city, Donetsk region, Ukraine. Average age of patients at the stage of investigation was 35.17+/-1.16, the duration of the disease was 11.85+/-0.74, BMI-23.13+/-0.32 kg/m2, HBA1c9.23+/-0.25, C-peptide 0.48+/-0.09 nmol/l, glutaminic acid decarboxylase antibodies-GADAs-0.63+/-0.04 units/ml and did not depend on gender. Patients aged less then 30 years had their level of GADAbs and TPOAbs changed linearly correlated with the duration of diabetes mellitus. Obtained data can be used to assess subgroups among patients with DM1.

  15. Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeFronzo, Ralph A; Ferrannini, Ele; Groop, Leif

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an expanding global health problem, closely linked to the epidemic of obesity. Individuals with T2DM are at high risk for both microvascular complications (including retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy) and macrovascular complications (such as cardiovascular...

  16. [Diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahdi, M; Gerdes, V E A; Hoekstra, J B L; Meesters, E W

    2012-02-01

    Currently there are over 740,000 patients with diabetes mellitus in the Netherlands, and this number will increase further in the coming years. Approximately 90% of patients has type 2 diabetes, a metabolic disorder that is often associated with obesity, hypertension and increased cholesterol levels. Treatment of diabetes mellitus is essential to reduce the risk of severe complications with irreversible organ damage in the long-term. Gingivitis and periodontitis are more common in patients with diabetes mellitus and are now also considered as complications of diabetes. Collaboration among healthcare professionals is important for effective diabetes care.

  17. Construction of a multisite DataLink using electronic health records for the identification, surveillance, prevention, and management of diabetes mellitus: the SUPREME-DM project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Gregory A; Desai, Jay; Elston Lafata, Jennifer; Lawrence, Jean M; O'Connor, Patrick J; Pathak, Ram D; Raebel, Marsha A; Reid, Robert J; Selby, Joseph V; Silverman, Barbara G; Steiner, John F; Stewart, W F; Vupputuri, Suma; Waitzfelder, Beth

    2012-01-01

    Electronic health record (EHR) data enhance opportunities for conducting surveillance of diabetes. The objective of this study was to identify the number of people with diabetes from a diabetes DataLink developed as part of the SUPREME-DM (SUrveillance, PREvention, and ManagEment of Diabetes Mellitus) project, a consortium of 11 integrated health systems that use comprehensive EHR data for research. We identified all members of 11 health care systems who had any enrollment from January 2005 through December 2009. For these members, we searched inpatient and outpatient diagnosis codes, laboratory test results, and pharmaceutical dispensings from January 2000 through December 2009 to create indicator variables that could potentially identify a person with diabetes. Using this information, we estimated the number of people with diabetes and among them, the number of incident cases, defined as indication of diabetes after at least 2 years of continuous health system enrollment. The 11 health systems contributed 15,765,529 unique members, of whom 1,085,947 (6.9%) met 1 or more study criteria for diabetes. The nonstandardized proportion meeting study criteria for diabetes ranged from 4.2% to 12.4% across sites. Most members with diabetes (88%) met multiple criteria. Of the members with diabetes, 428,349 (39.4%) were incident cases. The SUPREME-DM DataLink is a unique resource that provides an opportunity to conduct comparative effectiveness research, epidemiologic surveillance including longitudinal analyses, and population-based care management studies of people with diabetes. It also provides a useful data source for pragmatic clinical trials of prevention or treatment interventions.

  18. Sexual dysfunction in women with diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Kristensen, Ellids

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an increasing health concern throughout the world. DM is categorized as either type 1 (DM-1) or type 2 (DM-2), where DM-1 represents a lack of insulin production, and DM-2 is characterized by a relative lack of insulin (i.e., decreased sensitivity to the effect of insulin...

  19. Brain MRI of diabetes Mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, Yutaka; Tanaka, Hisashi; Ohtani, Masatoshi; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Tsukaguchi, Isao (Osaka Rosai Hospital, Sakai (Japan))

    1993-11-01

    One hundred and fifty-nine patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and 2,566 patients without DM were studied on brain MRI. The results taught us that the incidence of cerebral atrophy was significantly higher in DM patients than in controls. Unexpectedly, the incidence of cerebral infarction showed no significant difference between the two groups. (author).

  20. Diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930047 Relationship between diabetic cardiacautonomic disturbances and Q-Tc interval pro-longation and its clinical significance.XIANGMingzhu(向明珠),et al.Dept Med,1st PeopleHosp,Shashi,Hubei Prov,Shashi,434000.Chin J Endocrinol & Metabol 1992;8(3):149-151.Autonomic cardiovascular function tests andelectrocardiograms were performed in 61 pa-tients with diabetes mellitus.The result showedthat Q-Tc interval in diabetic patients with ab-

  1. Frequency and duration of breast-feeding in Cuban children with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM Freqüência e duração do aleitamento materno em crianças cubanas com Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1

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    Fernando Collado-Mesa

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that breastfeeding is a protective factor against Type 1 DM due to anti-infection properties or delay in exposure to other agents in the diet. A descriptive study was carried out using data from the Cuban National Registry of Childhood-Onset Diabetes Mellitus (CNRDM. The goal of the study was to determine the frequency and duration of breast-feeding in Cuban children with Type 1 DM. Four hundred and eighty-six children were registered in the CNRDM between January 1, 1988, and December 31, 1993. Breast-feeding data was obtained from two hundred and sixty three (54.1% of the total registered children. Of these children, two hundred and one (76.4% were breastfed. The median duration of breast-feeding was three months (Total range 144 months. No statistically significant association was found between the mean age at DM or the clinical profile at diagnosis and the breast-feeding duration groups (p >0.05, respectively. In conclusion, Cuban children with Type 1 DM have relatively low frequency of breast-feeding. When breast-feeding is studied without stratifying for different types of breast-feeding (e.g. exclusive and non-exclusive, there is no association found with the age at DM diagnosis or the clinical profiles at diagnosis.Há evidências de que o aleitamento materno age como um fator protetor contra o DM Tipo 1 devido a propriedades antiinfecciosas ou porque retarda a exposição a outros agentes na dieta. Foi realizado um estudo descritivo com dados do Registro Nacional Cubanas de Diabetes Mellitus na Infância (CNRDM. O objetivo desse estudo era determinar a freqüência e duração do aleitamento materno em crianças cubanas com DM Tipo 1. Quatrocentas e oitenta e seis crianças foram cadastradas no CNRDM entre 1 de janeiro de 1988 e 31 de dezembro de 1993. Os dados sobre aleitamento materno foram obtidos de duzentas e sessenta e três crianças (54.1% do total registrado. Dessas crianças, duzentas e uma (76.4% foram

  2. Diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008256 Role of heparanase in the pathogenesis of proteinuria in diabetic nephropathy rats.TANG Lin(唐琳),et al.Dept Nephrol,1st Affili Hosp,Zhengzhou Univ,Zhengzhou 450052.Chin J Nephrol 2008;24(4):277-281.Objective To observe the expression of heparanase (HPA)in kidney of diabetic nephropathy(DN)rats and to investigate the role of HPA in the pathogenesis of proteinuria in DN rats.Methods DM rat models induced

  3. Osteoporosis and diabetes mellitus

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    Andrea Montagnani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM and osteoporotic fractures are major causes of mortality and morbidity in older subjects. Recent reports have revealed close association between fracture risk and DM types 1 and 2 (DM1 and DM2, respectively. Aim of this review is to highlight the importance of these diseases in the elderly and examine certain etiopathogenetic aspects of DM associated osteoporosis, which could be useful in management of diabetic patients. Materials and methods: We searched the Embase and PubMed databases using diabetes, osteoporosis, and bone mineral density (BMD as search terms and 1989-2009 as publication dates. Discussion: The risk of fractures seems to be increased in both types of DM although DM2 seems to be associated with normal-high BMDs compared with the normal population. This apparent paradox could reflect greater bone frailty in diabetic patients that are unrelated to adipose tissue, hyperinsulinemia, deposition of advanced glycosylation end products in collagen, reduced serum IGF-1 levels, hypercalciuria, renal failure, microangiopathy, and/or inflammation. Diabetic patients’ propensity to fall and multiple comorbidities might also explain their higher fracture rates. The effects of drugs that inhibit bone resorption in diabetic patients are probably similar to those obtained in nondiabetics although there is little information on this issue. In general, effective treatment of diabetes has positive effects on bone metabolism. Metformin acts directly on bone tissue, reducing AGE accumulation, and insulin has direct effects on osteoclast activity. In contrast, the thiazolidinediones seem to have negative effects since they orient mesenchymal progenitor cell differentiation toward adipose rather than bone tissue. Incretin therapy is a newer approach that appears to modify interactions between nutrition and bone turnover (e.g., postprandial suppression of bone resorption. Conclusions: Better understanding of how

  4. Diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    970258 Relationship between non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and lipoprotein(a)in aged patients.CHI Jiamin(迟家敏), et al. Dept Endocrinol, BeijingHosp, Beijing, 100730. Chin J Geriatr 1997; 16(1): 39-42.

  5. A khorasan wheat-based replacement diet improves risk profile of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM): a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Anne; Dinu, Monica; Cesari, Francesca; Gori, Anna Maria; Fiorillo, Claudia; Becatti, Matteo; Casini, Alessandro; Marcucci, Rossella; Benedettelli, Stefano; Sofi, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether a replacement diet with products made with organic ancient khorasan wheat could provide additive protective effects in reducing glucose, insulin, lipid and inflammatory risk factors, and in restoring blood redox balance in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients compared to diet with product made with modern organic wheat. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded crossover trial with two intervention phases on 21 T2DM patients (14 females, 7 males). The participants were assigned to consume products (bread, pasta, crackers and biscuits) made using semi-whole flour from organic wheat that was either from ancient khorasan wheat or modern control wheat for 8 weeks in a random order. An 8-week washout period was implemented between the interventions. Laboratory analyses were performed both at the beginning and at the end of each intervention phase. The metabolic risk profile improved only after the khorasan intervention period, as measured by a reduction in total and LDL cholesterol (mean reduction: -3.7 and -3.4 %, respectively), insulin (-16.3 %) and blood glucose (-9.1 %). Similarly, there was a significant reduction in circulating levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interleukin-1ra, and a significant increase of total antioxidant capacity (+6.3 %). No significant differences from baseline were noted after the modern control wheat intervention phase. The change (from pre- to post-intervention) between the two intervention arms was significantly different (p diet with ancient khorasan wheat consumption provided additive protection in reducing total and LDL cholesterol, insulin, blood glucose, ROS production, and some inflammatory risk factors, which are all key factors warranting of control in secondary prevention of T2DM compared to a diet with products made with modern wheat.

  6. Mechanisms of diabetes mellitus-induced bone fragility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Napoli, Nicola; Chandran, Manju; Pierroz, Dominique D

    2017-01-01

    The risk of fragility fractures is increased in patients with either type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Although BMD is decreased in T1DM, BMD in T2DM is often normal or even slightly elevated compared with an age-matched control population. However, in both T1DM ...

  7. PERBEDAAN POLA KONSUMSI DAN STATUS GIZI ANTARA REMAJA DENGAN ORANG TUA DIABETES MELITUS (DM) DAN NON DM

    OpenAIRE

    Marine, Denov; Adiningsih, Sri

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents prefer to consume high fat and high sugar food compare to healthy food such as fruit and vegetable. High fat and high sugar food are risk factor of diabetes mellitus development, especially in adolescents whose parents had diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to analyze the difference of eating habit and nutritional status between adolescents with DM parents and non DM parents. This was a cross-sectional research included 42 adolescents as sample that divided into 21 adole...

  8. Monocyte functions in diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, C; Almdal, T; Bennedsen, J

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the functions of monocytes obtained from 14 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) compared with those of monocytes from healthy individuals. It was found that the total number of circulating monocytes in the 14 diabetic patients was lower than that from...... for the elucidation of concomitant infections in diabetic patients are discussed....

  9. diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    950257 Report of a case of glucagonoma misdiag-nosed as“eczema”and“hepatic angioma”for three yearsand review of literature.DAI Weixin(戴为信),et al.PUMC Hosp,Beijing,100730.Chin J Intern Med 1995;34(3):190-192.Glucagonoma is a rare pancreatic tumor,necrolyticmigratory erythema is its distinctive feature and it isoften associated with diabetes mellitus,weight loss.anemia,hypoaminoacidemia,glossitis and stomatitis.

  10. The Effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing on Glycemic Control for Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM2): A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concert, Catherine M; Burke, Robert E; Eusebio, Anny M; Slavin, Eileen A; Shortridge-Baggett, Lillie M

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this systematic review is to synthesize the best available evidence on the effects of motivational interviewing (MI) interventions (including adaptions of motivational interviewing [AMIs]) on the improvement of glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes. Worldwide, 346 million people have diabetes. With the growing prevalence of diabetes, controlling modifiable risk factors is essential to preventing complications and disease progression. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is estimated to be double the present rate and by the year 2034 nearly 44 million Americans will have this preventable disease. In the United States (US), nearly 13 percent of adults aged 20 years and older have diabetes; this includes 25.8 million people, adults and children . Type 2 diabetes is more common in ethnic groups inclusive of African Americans, Latinos, Native Americans, and Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Diabetes is especially common in the elderly, 10.9 million or 26.9% of those aged 65 years and older have the disease. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that 26% of US adults have impaired fasting glucose (IFG) of 100-125mg/dl and that 34% of adults meet the criteria for metabolic syndrome. An additional 35 % of adults have pre-diabetes, a condition marked by elevated blood sugar that is not yet in the diabetic range.Type 2 diabetes occurs when people have insulin resistance and insulin cannot be appropriately utilized for blood sugar regulation. Type 2 diabetes is characterised by impaired glucose tolerance. It can be defined by the criteria derived from the World Health Organization [WHO] that uses a single fasting glucose value of ≥ 126mg/dl or a single two hour glucose value of ≥ 200mg/dl. A laboratory blood test examining levels of glycosylated haemoglobin (HgbA1c) provides an estimated average blood glucose level over the past two-three months. An HbA1C level of 6.5% or higher can indicate

  11. Cirurgia bariátrica e metabólica e complicações microvasculares do diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cohen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumoIntrodução:O diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2 é caracterizado por uma desregulação metabólica, originando complicações microvasculares, mais especificamente a retinopatia, nefropatia e a neuropatia. A prevenção e tratamento das complicações são alvo da farmacoterapia, porém, evidências demonstram que a cirurgia bariátrica/metabólica é superior ao melhor tratamento farmacológico, pois apresenta melhor controle da glicemia, hipertensão e dislipidemias.Métodos:Por meio de pesquisa no PubMed, são discutidas as recentes publicações que evidenciam o efeito positivo das intervenções cirúrgicas sobre as complicações microvasculares, como melhora da microalbuminúria e mesmo preservação de função renal.Discussão:Existem evidências de benefício das operações bariátricas/metabólicas sobre a nefropatia diabética. Os dados sobre retinopatia são ainda ambivalentes. Na literatura, há uma diferença significativa no benefício da cirurgia em neuropatia.Conclusão:Apesar de resultados surpreendentes e positivos, para que se estabeleça definitivamente o papel da cirurgia bariátrica/metabólica nas complicações micovasculares do DM2, há a necessidade de novos estudos randomizados controlados e prospectivos.

  12. Intermittent Vagal Nerve Block for Improvements in Obesity, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: 2-Year Results of the VBLOC DM2 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikora, Scott A; Toouli, James; Herrera, Miguel F; Kulseng, Bård; Brancatisano, Roy; Kow, Lilian; Pantoja, Juan P; Johnsen, Gjermund; Brancatisano, Anthony; Tweden, Katherine S; Knudson, Mark B; Billington, Charles J; Billingto, Charles J

    2016-05-01

    One-year results of the VBLOC DM2 study found that intermittent vagal blocking (VBLOC therapy) was safe among subjects with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and led to significant weight loss and improvements in glycemic parameters and cardiovascular risk factors. Longer-term data are needed to determine whether the results are sustained. VBLOC DM2 is a prospective, observational study of 28 subjects with T2DM and body mass index (BMI) between 30 and 40 kg/m(2) to assess mid-term safety and weight loss and improvements in glycemic parameters, and other cardiovascular risk factors with VBLOC therapy. Continuous outcome variables are reported using mixed models. At 24 months, the mean percentage of excess weight loss was 22% (95% CI, 15 to 28, p obesity and glycemic control were largely sustained after 2 years of treatment with VBLOC therapy with a well-tolerated risk profile.

  13. A retrospective analysis of a societal experiment among the Danish population suggests that exposure to extra doses of vitamin A during fetal development may lower type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk later in life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Amélie; Ängquist, Lars; Jacobsen, Ramune

    2017-01-01

    had been exposed to the extra vitamin A from fortification during pregnancy had a lower risk of developing T2DM in adult life, compared with offspring of mothers exposed to less vitamin A. Individuals from birth cohorts with the higher prenatal vitamin A exposure (born 1 December 1962-31 March 1964......Vitamin A deficiency has been associated with impaired fetal pancreatic development and increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In 1962, mandatory margarine fortification with vitamin A was increased by 25 % in Denmark. We aimed to determine whether offspring of mothers who......DM by vitamin A exposure level. A total of 193 803 individuals were followed up until midlife. Our results showed that individuals exposed prenatally to extra vitamin A from fortified margarine had a lower risk of developing T2DM than those exposed to lower levels: OR 0·88; 95 % CI 0·81, 0·95, P=0...

  14. Diabetes mellitus-associated periodontitis: differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspriello, S D; Zizzi, A; Tirabassi, G; Buldreghini, E; Biscotti, T; Faloia, E; Stramazzotti, D; Boscaro, M; Piemontese, M

    2011-04-01

    Although many studies have appeared about diabetes mellitus-associated periodontitis, few have compared periodontitis inflammatory markers between type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and information regarding this issue is scarce and contradictory. We evaluated the levels of plasma C-reactive protein and of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in gingival crevicular fluid in two groups of subjects affected by T1DM and T2DM, in order to identify possible differences between the two classes in the inflammatory mechanisms of diabetes mellitus-associated periodontitis. Plasma C-reactive protein and gingival crevicular fluid IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were measured in periodontitis patients affected by type 1 (P-T1DM, n = 24) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (P-T2DM, n = 24). Gingival crevicular fluid levels of IL-1β and TNF-α in P-T1DM subjects were significantly higher than in P-T2DM subjects. In P-T1DM subjects, we found significant negative correlations between the duration of diabetes mellitus and IL-1β and between the duration of diabetes mellitus and TNF-α. This study shows that IL-1β and TNF-α levels in periodontitis patients with T1DM are affected by the duration of diabetes mellitus. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Diabetes Mellitus and Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Durmuş

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a condition of bone fragility resulting from micro-architectural deterioration and decreased bone mass. Studies on the presence of a generalized osteoporosis related to diabetes mellitus (DM are few and controversial. Factors associated with osteoporosis diabetes in which may account for the patogenesis of diabetic bone loss have been studied. This article will review the relevant litarature relating to diabetes and osteoporosis including cellular and animal models. These studies include vascular and neuropathic mechanism, poor glisemic control, abnormalities of calcium and vitamin D metabolism and hypercalciuria with secondary increase in parathyroid hormone secretion, the role of insülin and insülin like growth factor I. It appears that there is a great deal of variability in the bone mineral density and fracture rates in both type I and type II DM. This may reflect multiple factors such as the population, age, duration of diabetes and insülin use. There is need for further longitudinal studies, including the incidence and risk factors for osteoporosis in DM.

  16. Alcoholism and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Jeong; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2012-04-01

    Chronic use of alcohol is considered to be a potential risk factor for the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which causes insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction that is a prerequisite for the development of diabetes. However, alcohol consumption in diabetes has been controversial and more detailed information on the diabetogenic impact of alcohol seems warranted. Diabetes, especially T2DM, causes dysregulation of various metabolic processes, which includes a defect in the insulin-mediated glucose function of adipocytes, and an impaired insulin action in the liver. In addition, neurobiological profiles of alcoholism are linked to the effects of a disruption of glucose homeostasis and of insulin resistance, which are affected by altered appetite that regulates the peptides and neurotrophic factors. Since conditions, which precede the onset of diabetes that are associated with alcoholism is one of the crucial public problems, researches in efforts to prevent and treat diabetes with alcohol dependence, receives special clinical interest. Therefore, the purpose of this mini-review is to provide the recent progress and current theories in the interplay between alcoholism and diabetes. Further, the purpose of this study also includes summarizing the pathophysiological mechanisms in the neurobiology of alcoholism.

  17. Alcoholism and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Jeong Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic use of alcohol is considered to be a potential risk factor for the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, which causes insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction that is a prerequisite for the development of diabetes. However, alcohol consumption in diabetes has been controversial and more detailed information on the diabetogenic impact of alcohol seems warranted. Diabetes, especially T2DM, causes dysregulation of various metabolic processes, which includes a defect in the insulin-mediated glucose function of adipocytes, and an impaired insulin action in the liver. In addition, neurobiological profiles of alcoholism are linked to the effects of a disruption of glucose homeostasis and of insulin resistance, which are affected by altered appetite that regulates the peptides and neurotrophic factors. Since conditions, which precede the onset of diabetes that are associated with alcoholism is one of the crucial public problems, researches in efforts to prevent and treat diabetes with alcohol dependence, receives special clinical interest. Therefore, the purpose of this mini-review is to provide the recent progress and current theories in the interplay between alcoholism and diabetes. Further, the purpose of this study also includes summarizing the pathophysiological mechanisms in the neurobiology of alcoholism.

  18. Diabetes Mellitus do Tipo MODY

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Carolina Soares Viana de [UNIFESP; Furuzawa, Gilberto K. [UNIFESP; Reis, André Fernandes

    2002-01-01

    It is estimated that close to 5% of the individuals classified as having type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and about 10% of those considered type 1 DM (previously categorized as juvenile type) are actual carriers of a MODY mutation. In this form of DM, there is evident co-segregation of some mutations and the advent of hyperglycemia, this fact having been reproduced by the study of several families of different populations. Its main characteristic is being one of the few causes of DM in which the...

  19. Diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus (WS 331-2011)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Medical Service Specialty Standard Committee of Mi

    2012-01-01

    The criteria provide the screening and diagnosis for gestational diabetes mellitus and it should be applied to all medical institutions and health care practitioners for gestational diabetes mellitus (DM) diagnosis in China.

  20. Diabetes mellitus: An endodontic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pishipati Vinayak Kalyan Chakravarthy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a complex metabolic disease, characterised by hyperglycaemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. In patients with DM, several aspects of the immune system are compromised and wound healing is impaired. Studies indicate increased prevalence, severity of periapical lesions and a decreased success rate of endodontic treatment in diabetics, suggesting that diabetes may serve as a disease modifier of periapical lesions. A reciprocal relationship exists between glycaemic control and chronic periapical lesions. Treating infections of pulp and periodontium will improve glycaemic control and help in healing of lesions similar to non-diabetics. To provide competent care to patients with DM, dental clinicians must understand the disease, its treatment, and its impact on the patients′ ability to undergo and respond to endodontic treatment. This review article is a detailed assessment of the literature on DM and its implication on pulp and periapical diseases, and their treatment outcome.

  1. Periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Negrato, Carlos Antonio; TARZIA, Olinda; Jovanovic, Lois; Chinellato, Luiz Eduardo Montenegro

    2013-01-01

    Periodontal disease (PD) is one of the most commonly known human chronic disorders. The relationship between PD and several systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus (DM) has been increasingly recognized over the past decades. Objective The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with knowledge concerning the relationship between PD and DM. Many articles have been published in the English and Portuguese literature over the last 50 years examining the relationship between the...

  2. Erythropoietin and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiese, Kenneth

    2015-10-25

    Erythropoietin (EPO) is a 30.4 kDa growth factor and cytokine that governs cell proliferation, immune modulation, metabolic homeostasis, vascular function, and cytoprotection. EPO is under investigation for the treatment of variety of diseases, but appears especially suited for the treatment of disorders of metabolism that include diabetes mellitus (DM). DM and the complications of this disease impact a significant portion of the global population leading to disability and death with currently limited therapeutic options. In addition to its utility for the treatment of anemia, EPO can improve cardiac function, reduce fatigue, and improve cognition in patients with DM as well as regulate cellular energy metabolism, obesity, tissue repair and regeneration, apoptosis, and autophagy in experimental models of DM. Yet, EPO can have adverse effects that involve the vasculature system and unchecked cellular proliferation. Critical to the cytoprotective capacity and the potential for a positive clinical outcome with EPO are the control of signal transduction pathways that include protein kinase B, the mechanistic target of rapamycin, Wnt signaling, mammalian forkhead transcription factors of the O class, silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and AMP activated protein kinase. Therapeutic strategies that can specifically target and control EPO and its signaling pathways hold great promise for the development of new and effective clinical treatments for DM and the complications of this disorder.

  3. Erythropoietin and diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenneth; Maiese

    2015-01-01

    Erythropoietin(EPO) is a 30.4 k Da growth factor and cytokine that governs cell proliferation, immune modulation, metabolic homeostasis, vascular function, and cytoprotection. EPO is under investigation for the treatment of variety of diseases, but appears especially suited for the treatment of disorders of metabolism that include diabetes mellitus(DM). DM and the com-plications of this disease impact a significant portion of the global population leading to disability and death with currently limited therapeutic options. In addition to its utility for the treatment of anemia, EPO can improve cardiac function, reduce fatigue, and improve cognition in patients with DM as well as regulate cellular energy metabolism, obesity, tissue repair and regeneration, apoptosis, and autophagy in experimental models of DM. Yet, EPO can have adverse effects that involve the vasculature system and unchecked cellular proliferation. Critical to the cytoprotective capacity and the potential for a positive clinical outcome with EPO are the control of signal transduction pathways that include protein kinase B, the mechanistic target of rapamycin, Wnt signaling, mammalian forkhead transcription factors of the O class, silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1(Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and AMP activated protein kinase. Therapeutic strategies that can specifically target and control EPO and its signaling pathways hold great promise for the development of new and effective clinical treatments for DM and the complications of this disorder.

  4. Effects of lorcaserin on fat and lean mass loss in obese and overweight patients without and with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the BLOSSOM and BLOOM-DM studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apovian, C; Palmer, K; Fain, R; Perdomo, C; Rubino, D

    2016-09-01

    Body composition was determined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a subset of patients without (BLOSSOM) and with (BLOOM-DM) type 2 diabetes who received diet and exercise counselling along with either lorcaserin 10 mg twice daily or placebo. DXA scans were performed on study day 1 (baseline), week 24 and week 52. Baseline demographics of the subpopulations (without diabetes, n = 189; with diabetes, n = 63) were similar between studies and representative of their study populations. At week 52, patients without diabetes on lorcaserin lost significantly more fat mass relative to those on placebo (-12.06% vs -5.93%; p = 0.008). In patients with diabetes, fat mass was also decreased with lorcaserin relative to placebo (-9.87% vs -1.65%; p fat mass was lost in the trunk region with lorcaserin compared with placebo (without diabetes: -3.31% vs -2.05%; with diabetes: -3.65% vs -0.36%). Weight loss with lorcaserin was associated with a greater degree of fat mass loss than lean mass loss, and most of the fat mass lost for patients without and with diabetes was from the central region of the body. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Vitamin D and diabetes mellitus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harinarayan, Chittari Venkata

    2014-01-01

    .... Both forms of immunity, namely adaptive and innate, are regulated by 1,25(OH)2D3. The immune-modulatory properties of vitamin D suggest that it could play a potential therapeutic role in prevention of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM...

  6. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarry-Horn, Jill L.; Evans, Barbara J.; Kerrigan, James R.

    2003-01-01

    In the United States, the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in children and adolescents has been increasing at an alarming rate. Early recognition and intervention can delay the onset of type 2 DM and prevent the long-term complications. School nurses have an essential role in implementing the American Diabetes Association (ADA)…

  7. Entrapment neuropathies in diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Eugenia; Morelli, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) with a wide clinical spectrum that encompasses generalized to focal and multifocal forms. Entrapment neuropathies (EN), which are focal forms, are so frequent at any stage of the diabetic disease, that they may be considered a neurophysiological hallmark of peripheral nerve involvement in DM. Indeed, EN may be the earliest neurophysiological abnormalities in DM, particularly in the upper limbs, even in the absence of a generalized polyneuropathy, or it may be superimposed on a generalized diabetic neuropathy. This remarkable frequency of EN in diabetes is underlain by a peculiar pathophysiological background. Due to the metabolic alterations consequent to abnormal glucose metabolism, the peripheral nerves show both functional impairment and structural changes, even in the preclinical stage, making them more prone to entrapment in anatomically constrained channels. This review discusses the most common and relevant EN encountered in diabetic patient in their epidemiological, pathophysiological and diagnostic features. PMID:27660694

  8. Entrapment neuropathies in diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eugenia; Rota[1; Nicola; Morelli[1

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) with a wide clinical spectrum that encompasses generalized to focal and multifocal forms. Entrapment neuropathies (EN), which are focal forms,are so frequent at any stage of the diabetic disease, that they may be considered a neurophysiological hallmark of peripheral nerve involvement in DM. Indeed, EN may be the earliest neurophysiological abnormalities in DM,particularly in the upper limbs, even in the absence of a generalized polyneuropathy, or it may be superimposed on a generalized diabetic neuropathy. This remarkable frequency of EN in diabetes is underlain by a peculiar pathophysiological background. Due to the metabolic alterations consequent to abnormal glucose metabolism, the peripheral nerves show both functional impairment and structural changes, even in the preclinical stage, making them more prone to entrapment in anatomically constrained channels. This review discusses the most common and relevant EN encountered in diabetic patient in their epidemiological, pathophysiological and diagnostic features.

  9. Diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Nessim Dayan, Edgard; Fundación Valle de Lili

    1996-01-01

    ¿Qué es la diabetes?/¿Cuantos tipos o formas de diabetes existen?/¿Cuáles son los síntomas de la diabetes?/¿cuál es la causa de la diabetes?/¿Quién tiene mayor riesgo de desarrollar diabetes?/¿Cómo se diagnostica la diabetes?/¿Cuál es el tratamiento de la diabetes?/¿Cuándo y cómo se controlan los niveles de glicemia?/¿Cuáles son las complicaciones de la diabetes?/Recomendaciones actuales y futuro de la diabetes.

  10. Dementia and diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Dragan M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dementia and Diabetes mellitus (DM are major health problems nowadays. DM leads to a significant cognitive decline and increases the risk of dementia, mostly Alzheimer's Disease (AD and vascular dementia (VaD by 50-100% and 100-150%, respectively. Amyloid beta (Abeta, the main pathogenic factor in AD development, is eliminated by advanced glycation end products (AGEs and degraded by insulin degrading enzyme (IDE for which it competes with insulin. Insulin stimulates secretion of Abeta and promotes brain inflammation. DM I and II cause slowing down of mental speed, lowering of mental flexibility and DM II learning and memory disturbances. DM acts both directly by hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia and by the blood vessel changes. Hyperglycaemia changes synapse plasticity and leads to cognitive decline. AGEs disrupt the neuron function and bonding to Abeta increases its aggregability. Glycation of tau protein promotes production of neurofibrillary tangles (NFT, the main intracellular pathogenic factor in AD. AGE2 in DM causes pathological angiogenesis and apoptosis of neurons. AGE receptor (RAGE is also the specific Abeta receptor with which it produces reactive oxygen species that has, as a result, disruption of mitochondrial function and reduction of neuronal energy resources. Insulinoresistance is linked with the dysexecutive syndrome, and hyperinsulinaemia increases the risk of AD especially by enhancing phosphorylation of tau protein and formation of NFT. Application of insulin showed improvement of memory, behaviour and affect in AD patients. Good glycoregulation emerged as an important factor in dementia prevention, and a better insight in relations of DM and brain function will lead to new potential dementia therapies. .

  11. Age-related deregulation of Aire and peripheral tissue antigen genes in the thymic stroma of non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice is associated with autoimmune type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornari, Thaís A; Donate, Paula B; Macedo, Claudia; Marques, Márcia M C; Magalhães, Danielle A; Passos, Geraldo A S

    2010-09-01

    Gene expression of peripheral tissue antigens (PTAs) in stromal medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) is a key process to the negative selection of autoreactive thymocytes. This phenomenon was termed "promiscuous gene expression" (PGE), which is partially controlled by the Aire gene. Nevertheless, reasons for the correlation of Aire and PTAs with the emergence of autoimmune diseases are largely unknown, though it may be a result of a chronological effect. Although the effect of Aire mutations in pathogenic autoimmunity is well know, it could not be a unique cause for autoimmunity. Independently of mutations, temporal deregulation of Aire expression may imbalance Aire-dependent PTAs and/or wide PGE. This deregulation may be an early warning sign for autoimmune diseases as it guarantees autoantigen representation in the thymus. To assess this hypothesis, we studied the expression levels of Aire, Aire-dependent (Ins2) and Aire-independent (Gad67 and Col2a1) PTAs using real-time-PCR of the thymic stromal cells of NOD mice during the development of autoimmune type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM-1). Wide PGE was studied by microarrays in which the PTA genes were identified through parallel CD80(+) mTEC 3.10 cell line expression profiling. The results show that Aire gene was down-regulated in young pre-autoimmune (pre-diabetic) NOD mice. PGE and specific PTA genes were down-regulated in adult autoimmune diabetic animals. These findings represent evidence indicating that chronological deregulation of genes important to negative selection may be associated with the development of an autoimmune disease (DM-1) in mice.

  12. Vitamin D and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Turhan İyidir

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent epidemiological data have established a link between vitamin D deficiency and type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. Experimental evidence also supported the idea that vitamin D may play a role in the pathogenesis of DM. Additionally, it has been reported that vitamin D supplementation may decrease the risk of developing DM in long term period. The protective effects of vitamin D are mediated through the immune system and calcium metabolism. Vitamin D may also have a direct effect on pancreatic beta cells. Turk Jem 2012; 16: 89-94

  13. A retrospective analysis of a societal experiment among the Danish population suggests that exposure to extra doses of vitamin A during fetal development may lower type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk later in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Amélie; Ängquist, Lars; Jacobsen, Ramune; Vaag, Allan; Heitmann, Berit L

    2017-03-01

    Vitamin A deficiency has been associated with impaired fetal pancreatic development and increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In 1962, mandatory margarine fortification with vitamin A was increased by 25 % in Denmark. We aimed to determine whether offspring of mothers who had been exposed to the extra vitamin A from fortification during pregnancy had a lower risk of developing T2DM in adult life, compared with offspring of mothers exposed to less vitamin A. Individuals from birth cohorts with the higher prenatal vitamin A exposure (born 1 December 1962-31 March 1964) and those with lower prenatal exposure (born 1 September 1959-31 December 1960) were followed up with regard to development of T2DM before 31 December 2012 in the Danish National Diabetes Registry and National Patient Register. Logistic and Cox regression analyses were performed to determine the risk of T2DM by vitamin A exposure level. A total of 193 803 individuals were followed up until midlife. Our results showed that individuals exposed prenatally to extra vitamin A from fortified margarine had a lower risk of developing T2DM than those exposed to lower levels: OR 0·88; 95 % CI 0·81, 0·95, P=0·001, after adjustment for sex. Fetal exposure to small, extra amounts of vitamin A from food fortification may reduce the risk of T2DM. These results may have public health relevance, as they demonstrate that one of the most costly chronic diseases may be prevented by food fortification - a simple and affordable public health nutrition intervention.

  14. Ocular complications of diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nihat Sayin; Necip Kara; Gokhan Pekel

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a important health problemthat induces ernestful complications and it causessignificant morbidity owing to specific microvascularcomplications such as, retinopathy, nephropathy andneuropathy, and macrovascular complications such as,ischaemic heart disease, and peripheral vasculopathy.It can affect children, young people and adults and isbecoming more common. Ocular complications associatedwith DM are progressive and rapidly becoming theworld's most significant cause of morbidity and arepreventable with early detection and timely treatment.This review provides an overview of five main ocularcomplications associated with DM, diabetic retinopathyand papillopathy, cataract, glaucoma, and ocular surfacediseases.

  15. Baroreceptor sensitivity and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowaiye, Olumide Olatubosun; Jankowska, Ewa Anita; Ponikowska, Beata

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease of increasing incidence and prevalence. Arterial baroreceptors are stretch-sensitive receptors, which in a reflex manner are involved in the homeostatic control of arterial blood pressure. Diabetic subjects have depressed baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), although the exact pathomechanisms are unclear. In this review, we discuss the features, clinicaland prognostic implications of reduced BRS for diabetic patients and the potential involvement of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and atherosclerosis. Finally, we demonstrate evidence on interventions (e.g. pioglitazone, alpha-lipoic acid, leptin, fluvastatin, physicaltraining etc.) which could improve BRS and ameliorate cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in diabetic patients.

  16. Diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    2005179 The association of LMNA1908C/T polymorphism with insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in diabetic patients. SU Ben-li (苏本利), et al. Dept Endocrinol, 2nd Affili Hosp, Dalian Med Univ, Dalian 116027. Chin J Diabetes, 2005;13(1) :27-30. Objective: To study the association of LMhlA 1908 C/T polymorphism with insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods:

  17. Infantile onset diabetes mellitus in developing countries - India

    OpenAIRE

    Varadarajan, Poovazhagi

    2016-01-01

    Infantile onset diabetes mellitus (IODM) is an uncommon metabolic disorder in children. Infants with onset of diabetes mellitus (DM) at age less than one year are likely to have transient or permanent neonatal DM or rarely type 1 diabetes. Diabetes with onset below 6 mo is a heterogeneous disease caused by single gene mutations. Literature on IODM is scanty in India. Nearly 83% of IODM cases present with diabetic keto acidosis at the onset. Missed diagnosis was common in infants with diabetes...

  18. Periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio NEGRATO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease (PD is one of the most commonly known human chronic disorders. The relationship between PD and several systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus (DM has been increasingly recognized over the past decades. Objective The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with knowledge concerning the relationship between PD and DM. Many articles have been published in the English and Portuguese literature over the last 50 years examining the relationship between these two chronic diseases. Data interpretation is often confounded by varying definitions of DM, PD and different clinical criteria were applied to determine the prevalence, extent and severity of PD, levels of glycemic control and diabetes-related complications. Methods This paper provides a broad overview of the predominant findings from research conducted using the BBO (Bibliografia Brasileira de Odontologia, MEDLINE, LILACS and PubMed for Controlled Trials databases, in English and Portuguese languages published from 1960 to October 2012. Primary research reports on investigations of relationships between DM/DM control, PD/periodontal treatment and PD/DM/diabetes-related complications identified relevant papers and meta-analyses published in this period. Results 7This paper describes the relationship between PD and DM and answers the following questions: 1- The effect of DM on PD, 2- The effects of glycemic control on PD and 3- The effects of PD on glycemic control and on diabetes-related complications. Conclusions The scientific evidence reviewed supports diabetes having an adverse effect on periodontal health and PD having an adverse effect on glycemic control and on diabetes-related complications. Further research is needed to clarify these relationships and larger, prospective, controlled trials with ethnically diverse populations are warranted to establish that treating PD can positively influence glycemic control and possibly reduce the burden of diabetes

  19. Periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrato, Carlos Antonio; Tarzia, Olinda; Jovanovič, Lois; Chinellato, Luiz Eduardo Montenegro

    2013-01-01

    Periodontal disease (PD) is one of the most commonly known human chronic disorders. The relationship between PD and several systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus (DM) has been increasingly recognized over the past decades. The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with knowledge concerning the relationship between PD and DM. Many articles have been published in the English and Portuguese literature over the last 50 years examining the relationship between these two chronic diseases. Data interpretation is often confounded by varying definitions of DM, PD and different clinical criteria were applied to determine the prevalence, extent and severity of PD, levels of glycemic control and diabetes-related complications. This paper provides a broad overview of the predominant findings from research conducted using the BBO (Bibliografia Brasileira de Odontologia), MEDLINE, LILACS and PubMed for Controlled Trials databases, in English and Portuguese languages published from 1960 to October 2012. Primary research reports on investigations of relationships between DM/DM control, PD/periodontal treatment and PD/DM/diabetes-related complications identified relevant papers and meta-analyses published in this period. This paper describes the relationship between PD and DM and answers the following questions: 1- The effect of DM on PD, 2- The effects of glycemic control on PD and 3- The effects of PD on glycemic control and on diabetes-related complications. The scientific evidence reviewed supports diabetes having an adverse effect on periodontal health and PD having an adverse effect on glycemic control and on diabetes-related complications. Further research is needed to clarify these relationships and larger, prospective, controlled trials with ethnically diverse populations are warranted to establish that treating PD can positively influence glycemic control and possibly reduce the burden of diabetes-related complications.

  20. Periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    NEGRATO, Carlos Antonio; TARZIA, Olinda; JOVANOVIČ, Lois; CHINELLATO, Luiz Eduardo Montenegro

    2013-01-01

    Periodontal disease (PD) is one of the most commonly known human chronic disorders. The relationship between PD and several systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus (DM) has been increasingly recognized over the past decades. Objective: The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with knowledge concerning the relationship between PD and DM. Many articles have been published in the english and Portuguese literature over the last 50 years examining the relationship between these two chronic diseases. Data interpretation is often confounded by varying definitions of DM, PD and different clinical criteria were applied to determine the prevalence, extent and severity of PD, levels of glycemic control and diabetes-related complications. Methods: This paper provides a broad overview of the predominant findings from research conducted using the BBO (Bibliografia Brasileira de Odontologia), MEDLINE, LILACS and PubMed for Controlled Trials databases, in english and Portuguese languages published from 1960 to October 2012. Primary research reports on investigations of relationships between DM/DM control, PD/periodontal treatment and PD/DM/diabetes-related complications identified relevant papers and meta-analyses published in this period. Results: This paper describes the relationship between PD and DM and answers the following questions: 1- The effect of DM on PD, 2- The effects of glycemic control on PD and 3- The effects of PD on glycemic control and on diabetes-related complications. Conclusions: The scientific evidence reviewed supports diabetes having an adverse effect on periodontal health and PD having an adverse effect on glycemic control and on diabetes-related complications. Further research is needed to clarify these relationships and larger, prospective, controlled trials with ethnically diverse populations are warranted to establish that treating PD can positively influence glycemic control and possibly reduce the burden of diabetes

  1. Diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008395 Evaluating the feature of hypoglycemia detected by continuous glucose monitoring system during temporary continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in type 2 diabetes patients. LI Ming(李鸣), et al.Shanghai Diabet Clin Center, Dept Endocrinol & Metab, Shanghai Jiaotong Univ, Shanghai 200233. Natl Med J China 2008;88(24):1679-1682.

  2. Early insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a progressive disease characterised by beta cell ... The traditional approach to the management of T2DM is lifestyle change, diet, ... Physiologically, fasting glucose is controlled by endogenous basal.

  3. Genetics of monegenic forms of diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Leonidovna Kuraeva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is universally recognized that autoimmune type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM is not the only form of this disease in children. Increasingly more children and adolescents present with DM2, MODY, and rarer syndromal forms of DM. The actual prevalence of DM other than DM1 in children and adolescents is unknown but may be estimated at 10%. Despite rare occurrence of genetic syndromes, they collectively account for almost 5% of DM cases among children. The rapid upgrowth of molecular biology opens up a wide range of possibilities for designating various symptom complexes as nosologically selfconsistent forms. New genetic syndromes associated with DM are annually described. It is important both to adequately identify and treat manifestations and complications of these syndromes in children and to provide relevant medico-genetic counseling and recommendations to the parents. Key words: non-immune diabetes mellitus, MODY, Wolfram syndrome, neonatal, syndromal forms

  4. Diabetes mellitus and electrolyte disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liamis, George; Liberopoulos, Evangelos; Barkas, Fotios; Elisaf, Moses

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic patients frequently develop a constellation of electrolyte disorders. These disturbances are particularly common in decompensated diabetics, especially in the context of diabetic ketoacidosis or nonketotic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome. These patients are markedly potassium-, magnesium- and phosphate-depleted. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is linked to both hypo- and hyper-natremia reflecting the coexistence of hyperglycemia-related mechanisms, which tend to change serum sodium to opposite directions. The most important causal factor of chronic hyperkalemia in diabetic individuals is the syndrome of hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism. Impaired renal function, potassium-sparing drugs, hypertonicity and insulin deficiency are also involved in the development of hyperkalemia. This article provides an overview of the electrolyte disturbances occurring in DM and describes the underlying mechanisms. This insight should pave the way for pathophysiology-directed therapy, thus contributing to the avoidance of the several deleterious effects associated with electrolyte disorders and their treatment. PMID:25325058

  5. Tratamiento nutricional de la diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Candela, Carmen

    2004-01-01

    La diabetes mellitus (DM) es un síndrome de alteración del metabolismo caracterizado por presentar hiperglucemia, como consecuencia de deficiencias en la secrección de insulina (diabetes tipo 1) o en su acción (diabetes tipo 2). Los criterios diagnós

  6. Effects of Clear Kefir on Biomolecular Aspects of Glycemic Status of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM Patients in Bandung, West Java [Study on Human Blood Glucose, c Peptide and Insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judiono J

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM triggers an excessive reaction of free-radicals. It increases reactive oxygen species and reduces antioxidants status as well as the β cell damage. Clear kefir was used for DM therapies, however it limited biomolecular exploration of its bioactive roles. Research aimed to investigate the effects of clear kefir on the biomolecular nature of the glycemic status of T2DM in Bandung. Methods: The randomized pretest-posttest control group was conducted by 106 T2DM patients. Research was done in several hospitals in Bandung and Cimahi, West Java from 2012–2013. Samples were divided randomly into three groups: (1 T2DM with HbA1c 7 fed standard diet and supplemented 200 ml/day by clear kefir, (3 T2DM with HbA1c was fed a standard diet as a control group. Dose response was obtained from a preeliminary vivo study, and then converted to human dosage by year 2011. Intervention was effectively done for 30 days. HbA1c was measured by HPLC. Fasting blood glucose (FBG and Postprandial blood glucose levels (PBG were measured by enzymes levels. C Peptide and insulin were measured by Elisa. Data was analyzed by a statictics programme by significance p<0,05. Study was approved by ethic committee. Results : HbA1c was significantly reduced in delta level (p<0.01 and FBG (p<0.015 among kefir groups. PBG was not significantly reduced among groups. C-Peptide was significantly increased in delta level, except in control group (p<0.014. Insulin was reduced significantly, except in control group (p<0.003. Conclusions : Supplementation of clear kefir reduced blood glucose levels (HbA1c, FBG, PBG and increased c-peptide. Clear kefir’s biomolecular mechanisms and chemistry characterization is a challenge for future studies.

  7. Telomere attrition and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Yoshiaki; Takubo, Kaiyo; Aida, Junko; Araki, Atsushi; Ito, Hideki

    2016-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease characterized by dysfunction of various organs. Recent studies have shown a close relationship between DM and telomere attrition in leukocytes. In patients with DM or impaired glucose tolerance, excessive oxidative stress induces damage to telomeres and shortens their length. Furthermore, it is suggested that telomere length is a good surrogate marker for mortality and diabetic complications in DM patients. We recently found that telomere length in pancreatic β-cells is also shortened in DM patients, potentially leading to an impaired capacity for proliferation and insulin secretion, and accelerated cell death. In contrast, leukocyte telomere length has also been reported in patients with obesity or insulin resistance, both of which are frequently associated with type 2 DM. In an animal model, it has been shown that telomere attrition in adipose tissue induces insulin resistance. Taken together, the available data suggest that hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, and telomere attrition in pancreatic β-cells and adipocytes create a vicious cycle that underlies the pathophysiology of type 2 DM. Inhibition of telomere attrition in various organs, including pancreatic β-cells, could be a new approach for preventing the progression of DM and its complications.

  8. Diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008025 Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ agonists improves arterial stiffness in type 2 diabetic patients with coronary artery disease. YU Jie(于婕), et al. Dept Cardiovasc Med, Peking Univ 3rd Hosp, Beijing 100083. Chin Cir J 2007;22(6):418-422. Objective Arterial stiffness is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events in diabetic patients, and it may be assessed by measurement of pulse wave velocity(PWV).

  9. Diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010297 Effect of 4-phenylbutyric acid on diabetic nephropathy rats.LUO Zhifeng(罗志锋),et al.Dept Nephrol,Xinqiao Hosp,3rd Milit Med Univ,Chongqing 400037.Chin J Nephrol 2010;26(5):358-363. Objective To investigate the effect of 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) on the renal pathogenesis of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes and its mechanism.Methods

  10. Risk of Diabetes Mellitus in Persons with and without HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Line D; Mathiesen, Elisabeth; Kronborg, Gitte;

    2012-01-01

    In a nationwide, population-based cohort study we assessed the risk of diabetes mellitus (DM) in HIV-infected individuals compared with the general population, and evaluated the impact of risk factors for DM in HIV-infected individuals.......In a nationwide, population-based cohort study we assessed the risk of diabetes mellitus (DM) in HIV-infected individuals compared with the general population, and evaluated the impact of risk factors for DM in HIV-infected individuals....

  11. Sulphonylurea monotherapy for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Bianca; Schroll, Jeppe B; Lund, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing health problem worldwide. Whether sulphonylureas show better, equal or worse therapeutic effects in comparison with other antidiabetic interventions for patients with T2DM remains controversial.......Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing health problem worldwide. Whether sulphonylureas show better, equal or worse therapeutic effects in comparison with other antidiabetic interventions for patients with T2DM remains controversial....

  12. Diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930465 Incidence of NIDDM in Daqing andforecasting of NIDDM in China in 21st century.HU Yinghua(胡英华),et al.Daqing Ist Hosp,Daqing,163001.Chin J Intern Med 1993;32(3):173—175.Based on the survey of the prevalence of NID-DM in 110 660 people aged 25~74 in 1986,theincidence of NIDDM was investigated in 1990 in36 471 people(M/F 18801:17670)who hadnormal glucose torlerance and/or plasma glucoseconcentration less than 6.7mmol/L 2—hour af-ter breakfast(carbohydrate 80g)four years ago

  13. [Diabetes mellitus in teenagers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isla Pera, Pilar

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus during infancy childhood or adolescence does not differ from adult diabetes mellitus in terms of basic principles nor therapeutic treatment methods but the characteristics patients have during those ages signify that diabetes has a special repercussion and becomes harder to treat in patients during those ages.

  14. Lixisenatide for type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mikkel; Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an increasing health problem worldwide. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are an expanding drug class that target several of the pathophysiological traits of T2DM. Lixisenatide is a GLP-1 receptor agonist in development for once...

  15. Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus by Acupuncture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Qin-feng; QI Li-zhen; LI Sheng; XIAO Yuan-chun

    2004-01-01

    @@ Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a syndrome characterized by abnormally elevated blood sugar because the pancreas does not release adequate insulin and/or the insulin does not work fully. In TCM, DM results from weak constitution and yin deficiency and dryness heat,belonging to the categories of"Xiaoke" and "Xiaodan".

  16. Monocyte functions in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, C; Almdal, T; Bennedsen, J; Rhodes, J M; Kølendorf, K

    1982-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the functions of monocytes obtained from 14 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) compared with those of monocytes from healthy individuals. It was found that the total number of circulating monocytes in the 14 diabetic patients was lower than that from the healthy individuals. Phagocytosis of Candida albicans was decreased in the monocytes from the patients, whereas pinocytosis of acridine and phagocytosis of latex and sheep red blood cells were normal. The chemotactic response towards casein was enhanced. The possible consequences of these findings for the elucidation of concomitant infections in diabetic patients are discussed.

  17. Diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    920537 The urinary activity of N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase and diabetic nephropa-thy. XU Dashun (徐大顺), et al. Shanghai 1stPeople Hosp, 200085. Shanghai Med J 1992;15(8): 439-442. Urinary activity of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosa-minidase (NAG) and NAG: Creatinine(NAGI)in 24-hour urine and NAG-I in a single random

  18. Periodontitis and risk of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurav, Abhijit; Jadhav, Varsha

    2011-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex disease with varying degrees of systemic and oral complications. The periodontium is also a target for diabetic damage. Diabetes is a pandemic in both developed and developing countries. In recent years, a link between periodontitis and diabetes mellitus has been postulated. The oral cavity serves as a continuous source of infectious agents that could further worsen the diabetic status of the patient and serve as an important risk factor deterioration of diabetes mellitus. The present review highlights the relationship between diabetes mellitus and periodontitis. The potential mechanisms involved in the deterioration of diabetic status and periodontal disease are also discussed. © 2011 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Efficacy of rosuvastatin in achieving target HDL, LDL, triglycerides and total cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with newly diagnosed dyslipidaemia: an open label, nonrandomised, non-interventional and observational study in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Siddharth N; Arneja, Jaspal

    2013-10-01

    Asian Indians with dyslipidaemia should be treated as aggressively as if they had a CHD risk equivalent-similar to the treatment of patients with diabetes or heart disease. To evaluate efficacy of Rosuvastatin in achieving target HDL, LDL, triglycerides and total cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with newly diagnosed dyslipidaemia, but without known coronary artery disease. The study was an open label, nonrandomised, non-interventional, observational study in India involving T2DM patients who require statin therapy to control dyslipidaemia. Data were collected at baseline, interim (8 weeks) and subsequently at 16 weeks of Rosuvastatin (10 and 20 mg) therapy. Efficacy of the treatment was assessed by evaluating whether subjects reached target LDL and total cholesterol levels according to NCEP ATP III guidelines. Four thousand three hundred and sixty-nine patients completed the study. Out of 4369, 1115 (25.52%) have achieved a target LDL level of cholesterol target and 50.06% achieved triglyceride target. The adverse events reported were generally mild. On the basis of the above results, it can be concluded that Rosuvastatin safely and beneficially alters the entire spectrum of lipoproteins in Indian patients.

  20. Effect of diabetes mellitus on sleep quality

    OpenAIRE

    Surani, Salim; Brito, Veronica; Surani, Asif; Ghamande, Shekhar

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a highly prevalent condition affecting about 347 million people worldwide. In addition to its numerous clinical implications, DM also exerts a negative effect on patient’s sleep quality. Impaired sleep quality disrupts the adequate glycemic control regarded as corner stone in DM management and also lead to many deleterious effects causing a profound impact on health related quality of life. This article outlines various factors leading to impaired sleep quality among...

  1. Changing trends in diabetes mellitus in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khalifeh, A

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify any changing trends in the incidence and caesarean section (CS) rate of pre-gestational diabetes mellitus (DM) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) over a 10- year period, between 1999 and 2008. Although the incidence of pre-gestational DM has not significantly changed over the course of the last 10 years, there is an obvious rising trend in the incidence of GDM. Despite an increase in the overall CS rate during this time period, a parallel increase in the CS rate has not been observed among women whose pregnancies are complicated either by gestational or by pre-gestational diabetes (PGD).

  2. Spices in the management of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xinyan; Lim, Joseph; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2017-02-15

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) remains a major health care problem worldwide both in developing and developed countries. Many factors, including age, obesity, sex, and diet, are involved in the etiology of DM. Nowadays, drug and dietetic therapies are the two major approaches used for prevention and control of DM. Compared to drug therapy, a resurgence of interest in using diet to manage and treat DM has emerged in recent years. Conventional dietary methods to treat DM include the use of culinary herbs and/or spices. Spices have long been known for their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-diabetic properties. This review explores the anti-diabetic properties of commonly used spices, such as cinnamon, ginger, turmeric, and cumin, and the use of these spices for prevention and management of diabetes and associated complications.

  3. Pengendalian status gizi, kadar glukosa darah, dan tekanan darah melalui terapi gizi medis pada pasien diabetes mellitus (DM tipe 2 rawat jalan di RSU Mataram NTB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaema Suhaema

    2010-11-01

    Conclusion: Intake of nutrient, nutrition status, blood glucose level and blood pressure of type 2 DM patients that got MNT was more controllable than of those that got conventional nutrition counseling.

  4. [Gestational Diabetes Mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejčí, Hana

    2016-01-01

    is taken over by specialist centres. The early and appropriate treatment of gestational diabetes demonstrably reduces the risk of complications. The base for therapy is formed by regimen-related measures: the therapeutic diet and increased physical activity. The best results of the dietary therapy are achieved with foods low on glycemic index and glycemic load that can also act as efficient prevention of GDM and subsequent development of T2DM. A small number of cases require adding of pharmacological therapy: insulin and newly also metformin. Metformin is the drug of choice primarily in obese patients, however in almost half of the cases insulin must be added. Medication, in particular with insulin, must be introduced carefully, following re-education and elimination of dietary mistakes. The aim of the treatment is not only to achieve normoglycemia, but also to improve, or at least to not further worsen insulin resistance. Insulin resistance alone without diabetes, e.g. due to obesity or a great weight gain, may lead to macrosomia and epigenetic changes. In this regard, the prevention within the whole population of pregnant women needs to be improved and the vicious circle of the causation of metabolic disorders among the population needs to be broken.Key words: recommended procedure - epigenetic changes - gestation diabetes mellitus - macrosomia - screening.

  5. Diabetes Mellitus and Colorectal Neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Alejandro; Diaz, Yaritza; Perez, Cynthia M.; Garau, Maria; Baron, John

    2012-01-01

    Background Many studies have provided evidence for an association between obesity, physical inactivity, and western diet as risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC). Few studies directly address the association between type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and the risk of colorectal lesions at specific anatomic locations. Methods 2,663 subjects with a previous history of adenoma(s) and removal of all current adenomas at study entry were followed for a mean time of three years across three different chemoprevention clinical trials. The primary endpoint was colorectal adenoma recurrence and number of lesions during the treatment phase; the secondary endpoints were presence of advanced colorectal neoplasia (CRN) and location of CRN. Using log linear regression, the effect of DM status on the relative risk (RR) of CRN recurrence, advanced CRN, and location of CRN was assessed. Results DM status was not significantly associated with incidence of colorectal adenomas, incidence of advanced colorectal lesions, or left-sided colorectal neoplastic lesions. Subjects with DM had a marginally increased risk of right-sided (p= 0.06) colorectal adenomas and a significant increased risk of multiple right-sided adenomas (p=0.03) in the unadjusted model; this association was not significant after adjusting for age and other potential confounders (RR=1.22, 95% CI: 0.85–1.76). Conclusion We did not observe a statistically significant increased risk in CRN recurrence for overall neoplasia, advanced neoplasia or location of neoplasia in individuals with DM compared to non-DM individuals. However, given the patterns observed in this investigation, future studies with longer follow-up time and longer DM exposure, incorporating objective measurements of type 2 DM might help elucidate the risk of CRN among individuals with DM. PMID:23560242

  6. Kost, diabetes mellitus og parodontal inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian; Holmstrup, Palle

    2016-01-01

    Nærværende artikel præsenterer en oversigt over den foreliggende viden om kostens betydning for diabetes mellitus (DM) og parodontal inflammation. Der er i vekslende grad dokumentation for sammenhænge mellem kost, DM og marginal parodontitis (MP). Med baggrund i forøget viden om kostens betydning...... for udviklingen af henholdsvis DM og parodontal inflammation bør tandlæger også rådgive om kost for derigennem at styrke behandlingen af patienter med MP og DM....

  7. Themenheft 24 "Diabetes mellitus"

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Bei etwa 5 % der Bevölkerung in Deutschland ist ein Diabetes mellitus, die sog. Zuckerkrankheit, diagnostiziert worden, rund 90 % davon haben einen Typ 2-Diabetes, der vorwiegend im höheren Lebensalter auftritt. 5 % der Diabeteskranken leiden am insulinpflichtigen Typ 1-Diabetes, der sich vorwiegend im Kindes- und Jugendalter manifestiert. Weitere Diabetesformen sind eher selten. Außerdem gibt es viele Menschen mit einem unentdeckten Diabetes.

  8. The effect of Liuwei Dihuang decoction on PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in liver of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Bing; Wu, Qinxuan; Zeng, Chengxi; Zhang, Jiani; Cao, Luting; Xiao, Zizeng; Yang, Menglin

    2016-11-04

    Liuwei Dihaung decoction (LWDHT) is a well-known classic traditional Chinese medicine formula, consists of six herbs including Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch.(family: Scrophulariaceae), Cornus officinalis Sieb.(family: Cornaceae), Dioscorea opposite Thunb.(family: Dioscoreaceae), Alisma orientale(G. Samuelsson) Juz (family: Alismataceae), Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf (family: Polyporaceae) and Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews (family: Paeoniaceae). It has been used in the treatment of many types of diseases with signs of deficiency of Yin in the kidneys in China clinically. This study is aimed at investigating the effect of Liuwei dihuang decoction on PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in liver of T2DM rats with insulin resistance. T2DM model was induced in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats by high sugar and high fat diets combined with small dose of streptozocin (STZ) injection. The successful T2DM rats were randomly allocated three group--vehicle group, positive control group and Liuwei Dihuang decoction group. After 12-weeks treatment with distilled water, rosiglitazone and LWDHT by intragastric administration respectively, the rats were put to death in batches. The variance of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and fasting insulin (FINS) in serum were determined, the pathological changes of each rats' liver were observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, the expression of insulin receptor substrate 2(IRS2), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinas B (Akt) involving the canonical PI3K/Akt signaling pathway were detected by Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (RT-PCR), and the expression level of IRS2, PI3K, Akt protein and phosphorylated IRS2, PI3K, Akt protein were evaluated by Western Blot. All the data were analyzed by SPSS 17.0. Four weeks of treatment with LWDHT could significantly decrease the level of FBG and FINS in serum, improve the cellular morphology of liver, kidney, pancreas tissue, and the expression of IRS2, PI3K, Akt mRNA and phosphorylated IRS2, PI3K, Akt

  9. Circulating Endothelial Microparticles in Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Tramontano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Endothelial Microparticles (EMPs are small vesicles shed from activated or apoptotic endothelial cells and involved in cellular cross-talk. Whether EMP immunophenotypes vary according to stimulus in Diabetes Mellitus (DM is not known. We studied the cellular adhesion molecule (CAM profile of circulating EMPs in patients with and without Diabetes Mellitus type 2, who were undergoing elective cardiac catheterization. Methods and Results. EMPs were analyzed by flow cytometry. The absolute median number of EMPs (EMPs/L specific for CD31, CD105, and CD106 was significantly increased in the DM population. The ratio of CD62E/CD31 EMP populations reflected an apoptotic process. Conclusion. Circulating CD31+, CD105+, and CD106+ EMPs were significantly elevated in patients with DM. EMPs were the only independent predictors of DM in our study cohort. In addition, the EMP immunophenotype reflected an apoptotic process. Circulating EMPs may provide new options for risk assessment.

  10. Association between periodontitis, gestational diabetes mellitus and diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2 in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Paschoal Esteves Lima

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes is considered a risk factor for periodontitis. However, it is possible that periodontitis induces a systemic inflammatory process which could initiate and propagate an insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between periodontitis, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM 1 and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM 2 in pregnant women. Methods: The sample consisted of studying 20 pregnant women with DM 1 or DM 2, 20 women with GDM and 40 pregnant women without any endocrinopathy. Periodontal examination included analysis of bleeding on probing (BOP, probing depth (PD and clinical attachment level (CAL. Periodontitis was defined as the presence of four or more teeth with at least one site with PD ≥ 4 mm and CAL ≥ 3 mm with BOP associated in the same site. Results: Results demonstrated an association between GDM and high maternal age, body mass index (BMI and hypertension. The prevalence of periodontitis observed was 55%, 40% and 42,5% for women with DM 1 or DM 2 (p=0,360, with GDM (p=0,853 and in the control group, respectively. Conclusions: The sample showed high prevalence of periodontitis; however, there was no significant difference between pregnant women with DM 1 or DM 2, women with GDM or pregnant women in the control group.

  11. Teenage pregnancy in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, David; Doyle, Aoife; Firth, Richard G R; Byrne, Maria M; Daly, Sean; Mc Auliffe, Fionnuala; Foley, Micheal; Coulter-Smith, Samuel; Kinsley, Brendan T

    2010-03-01

    Younger maternal age at delivery has been linked to adverse reproductive outcomes. Pregnancy complicated by type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Optimising diabetic glycaemic control prior to pregnancy is known to reduce the rate of congenital abnormalities and improve pregnancy outcomes. Teenage pregnancies are not usually planned and little data exist on teenage pregnancy complicated by T1DM. We sought to identify the glycemic control achieved in teenage pregnancy with T1DM and to clarify if there is an associated increase in adverse pregnancy outcomes compared to those seen in older women with T1DM. We compared outcomes in 18 teenagers (TG) with 582 older women with T1DM (CON) from 1995-2007. TG booked to the combined diabetes-obstetrical service at a median gestational age of 11 weeks (range 6-22) compared to 7 weeks in CON (range 4-40, p teenage women with T1DM book later to specialised care and have worse glycaemic control in pregnancy compared to older women with T1DM. This group also appear to be more insulin resistant than older women in early pregnancy. Our data would suggest that teenagers with type 1 diabetes mellitus may constitute a high-risk group for adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  12. Consequences of asymptomatic bacteriuria in women with diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, SE; Stolk, RP; Camps, MJL; Netten, PM; Collet, JT; Schneeberger, PM; Hoepelman, AIM

    2001-01-01

    Background: Women with diabetes mellitus (DM) have asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) more often than women without DM. It is unknown, however, what the consequences of ASB are in these women. Objectives: To compare women with DM with and without ASB for the development of symptomatic urinary tract

  13. Consequences of asymptomatic bacteriuria in women with diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, SE; Stolk, RP; Camps, MJL; Netten, PM; Collet, JT; Schneeberger, PM; Hoepelman, AIM

    2001-01-01

    Background: Women with diabetes mellitus (DM) have asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) more often than women without DM. It is unknown, however, what the consequences of ASB are in these women. Objectives: To compare women with DM with and without ASB for the development of symptomatic urinary tract infe

  14. Retrograde ejaculation and sexual dysfunction in men with diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedder, J; Kaspersen, Maja Døvling; Brandslund, I;

    2013-01-01

    Retrograde ejaculation (RE) and erectile dysfunction may be caused by diabetes mellitus (DM), but the prevalence of RE among DM patients is unknown. A prospective, blinded case-control study comparing men with DM with matched controls according to RE and erectile dysfunction was performed. Twenty...

  15. Evaluation of weight loss and metabolic profile of obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (dm2 versus non-dm2 subjects, one and three years after bariatric surgery Avaliação da perda ponderal e perfil metabólico pós-cirurgia bariátrica em pacientes obesos portadores de diabetes mellitus tipo 2 versus não diabéticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Fraga Napoli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is a debate over results obtained from type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2 obese patients and non-DM2 patients, in reference to metabolic control and ponderal loss, after bariatric surgery. AIM: To evaluate weight loss and metabolic profile of obese patients with DM2 versus non-DM2 subjects, one and three years after bariatric surgery. METHODS: Data from 38 non-DM2 patients and 44 DM2 patients submitted to Roux-en-Y gastric-bypass were analysed retrospectively. For the pre-operatory, first and third year of post-operatory, were compared: weight, body mass index (BMI, fasting glucose (FG, high density lipoprotein (HDL and triglycerides (TG. RESULTS: Preoperatively, both groups were statistically equivalent in regards to weight, BMI (P = 0.90 and HDL (P = 0.73. This was not the case when TG (P = 0.043 and FG (PRACIONAL: Tem havido debate sobre os resultados obtidos da cirurgia bariátrica nos obesos diabéticos versus não diabéticos, no quesito controle metabólico e perda ponderal. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a perda ponderal e perfil metabólico dos obesos diabéticos e não diabéticos após um e três anos da cirurgia bariátrica. MÉTODO: Análise retrospectiva dos prontuários de 44 diabéticos tipo 2 (DM2 e 38 não-DM2 submetidos à gastroplastia com derivação em Y-de-Roux. Dados como peso, índice de massa corpórea (IMC, glicemia de jejum (GJ, lipoproteína de alta densidade (HDL e triglicérides (TG foram vistos no pré-operatório, primeiro (PO1 e terceiro ano (PO3 após a operação. RESULTADOS: No pré-operatório, ambos os grupos foram estatisticamente equivalentes em peso, IMC (P=0,90 e HDL (P=0.73. Não se verificou o mesmo quando TG (P=0.043 e GJ (P < 0.01 foram analisados. No PO1, ambos DM2 e não-DM2 mostraram redução no peso, IMC e TG, assim como GJ no grupo DM2 (P < 0.05. HDL aumentou (P < 0.05 no PO1 em ambos os grupos. No período seguinte, entre PO1 e PO3, somente TG continuou a cair nos não-DM2 diabéticos (P=0

  16. Effect of diabetes mellitus on sleep quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a highly prevalent conditionaffecting about 347 million people worldwide. Inaddition to its numerous clinical implications, DM alsoexerts a negative effect on patient's sleep quality.Impaired sleep quality disrupts the adequate glycemiccontrol regarded as corner stone in DM managementand also lead to many deleterious effects causing aprofound impact on health related quality of life. Thisarticle outlines various factors leading to impaired sleepquality among diabetics and delineates how individualfactor influences sleep. The article also discussespotential interventions and lifestyle changes to promotehealthy sleep among diabetics.

  17. Risk factors for feline diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slingerland, L.I.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830917

    2008-01-01

    The chapters of Part I of the thesis describe the development of techniques that can be used in the assessment of risk factors for the development of diabetes mellitus (DM) in cats. The hyperglycemic glucose clamp (HGC) was developed for use in conscious cats, equipped with arterial catheters for

  18. Depression in type 2 diabetes mellitus--a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Samreen

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease which has been associated with depression. Depression is more common in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as compared to those without. Both micro- and macro vascular diabetic complications are associated with depression and have shown to increase the risk of mood disorder. Further, poor glycemic control in T2DM patients could lead to more complications of diabetes and such patients are more likely to develop depression. More research is needed in this area to determine the exact relationship between depression and T2DM and to unfold the mystery of mechanism behind this.

  19. Diabetes mellitus prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allende-Vigo, Myriam Zaydee

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review lifestyle modification interventions and pharmacological clinical studies designed to prevent diabetes and provide evidence-based recommendations for the prevention of Diabetes Mellitus. A review of relevant literature compiled via a literature search (PUBMED) of English-language publications between 1997 and 2010 was conducted. It is found that people at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus can halt the development of the disease. Lifestyle modification intervention with reduction of 5%-10% of excess body weight and increase in moderate physical activity by 150 min/wk has consistently proven to reduce the appearance of diabetes in different at-risk populations. Pharmacologic interventions have also demonstrated the prevention of the appearance of diabetes in persons at risk. Bariatric surgery has decreased the appearance of diabetes patients in a select group of individuals. The progression from prediabetes to diabetes mellitus can be prevented. Lifestyle modification intervention changes with weight loss and increased physical activity are currently recommended for the prevention of diabetes.

  20. Diabetes mellitus en adultos mayores costarricenses

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert Brenes-Camacho; Luis Rosero-Bixby

    2007-01-01

    El propósito del artículo es describir la prevalencia de la diabetes mellitus (DM) entre los adultos mayores costarricenses. Se analiza la magnitud de la prevalencia, los problemas de medición de la misma, así como los factores asociados con la enfermedad, la enfermedad controlada, y el tener niveles altos de hemoglobina glicosilada (HbA1C) entre la población sin diagnóstico previo de DM. Una cuarta parte de los adultos mayores de Costa Rica padecen de DM y cerca de la mitad de los que la pad...

  1. Microbiological Aspects In Periodontal Disease And Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Velea Oana A.; Onisei Dan; Onisei Doina; Pogan Andreea; Paganelli Corrado; Velea Iulian P.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims. Scientists are constantly showing a high interest for the relationship between Periodontal Disease (PD) and Diabetes Mellitus (DM). PD, “the sixth complication” of DM is recognized to be a chronic gram-negative anaerobic infectious disease. This paper is aimed at reviewing and evaluating the correlations between PD and DM from a microbiological point of view. Treatment implications of PD’s management as an important component of DM care is reviewed in the light of microbi...

  2. [Diabetes mellitus and the syndrome of frailty in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Reyes, Ana Patricia; Avila-Funes, José Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Frequently, geriatric syndromes are diagnosed in patients with multiple pathologies; perhaps, the most evident example is Diabetes Mellitus (DM). During the last years, an association between DM and frailty has been described. Theoretically, there are multiple pathways that justify such an association, especially if DM has been diagnosed during adulthood. However, there are data that suggest a relationship, perhaps of another type, between frailty and late onset DM. This article has the purpose of reviewing the evidence around this association.

  3. Gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiwani, Aliya; Marseille, Elliot; Lohse, Nicolai

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The association between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), perinatal complications and long-term morbidity is gaining increased attention. However, the global burden of GDM and the existing responses are not fully understood. We aimed to assess country prevalence and to summarize...

  4. Diabetes Mellitus in the Transplanted Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasil ePeev

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is the most common cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD and end stage renal disease (ESRD. New onset diabetes mellitus after transplant (NODAT has been described in approximately 30 percent of non-diabetic kidney transplant recipients many years post transplantation. DM in patients with kidney transplantation constitutes a major comorbidity, and has significant impact on the patients and allografts’ outcome. In addition to the major comorbidity and mortality that result from cardiovascular and other DM complications, long standing DM after kidney transplant has significant pathological injury to the allograft, which results in lowering the allografts and the patients’ survivals. In spite of the cumulative body of data on diabetic nephropathy (DN in the native kidney, there has been very limited data on the DN in the transplanted kidney. In this review, we will shed the light on the risk factors that lead to the development of NODAT. We will also describe the impact of DM on the transplanted kidney, and the outcome of kidney transplant recipients with NODAT. Additionally, we will present the most acceptable data on management of NODAT.

  5. Correlation of exercise intervention and living quality of type Ⅱ diabetics mellitus (DM) patients%Ⅱ型糖尿病患者的生命质量与运动干预的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀芹

    2003-01-01

    目的:探讨运动对Ⅱ型糖尿病(Diabetes Mellitus DM)的作用,并随访观察糖尿病患者的生化指标,病情控制效果,并发症改善及生命质量的提高.方法:对随机抽取的门诊就诊98例糖尿病患者进行运动干预前后的对照现察.运动干预前仅靠药物治疗,运动干预时指导患者参加业余体力劳动和运动等中等强度的有氧运动及糖尿病基本知识讲座,定期血糖监测.结果:运动干预3个月后,DM患者空腹血糖在5.10±0.87mmol/L,餐后2h血糖在6.02±1.36mmol/L.运动干预前药物控制有效率65.31%,运动干预后控制有效率在92.86%,差异有显著性(P<0.05).结论:有效的运动干预,是治疗Ⅱ型糖尿病的重要措施.运动可增强组织对胰岛素的敏感性,使血中胰岛素水平下降.中等量运动的降糖作用能够维持12~17h.长期锻炼有利于血糖的控制,是运动效果的积累和胰岛素敏感性增强的效果.

  6. Comments to: «Type 2 diabetes mellitus – time to change the concept»

    OpenAIRE

    Oleg Viktorovich Udovichenko

    2014-01-01

    Authors of the paper “Diabetes mellitus – time to change the concept” (Diabetes Mellitus, 2013; №1: 91) address weight-reduction treatment modalities (including bariatric surgery) as the pivotal approach to type 2 diabetes management. While acknowledging the importance of weight loss in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), this short letter aims to advise the endocrinology community against viewing bariatric surgery as the ultimate solution of all challenges of T2DM.

  7. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  8. Anterior uveitis and diabetes mellitus: immunological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, I; Famà, F; Salmeri, G

    1995-01-01

    The association between anterior uveitis (AU) and diabetes mellitus (DM) has always been known. The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence of this association and to consider a possible role of the cell-mediated immune system. During the years 1989-1992, 196 diabetics (66 patients affected by type I DM and 130 by type II DM) were studied. The study of the lymphocytic subsets and the measurement of the circulating immunocomplexes and autoantibodies (ANA, AMA, ADNA, ASMA, APCA) were carried out, and the results were compared with those of a control group. The results underline the correlation between AU and type I DM. Many immunological reactions could play a crucial role: the high levels of CD8 subsets found could be an expression of the unstable lymphocytic equilibrium.

  9. Diabetes mellitus and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathi I Abourawi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is the most common medical complication of pregnancy and it carries a significant risk to the foetus and the mother. Congenital malformations and perinatal morbidity remain common compared with the offspring of non diabetic pregnancies. Diabetic mothers are at risk of progression of micro-vascular diabetic complications as well as early pregnancy loss, pre-eclampsia, polyhydramnios and premature labour. Glycaemic control before and during pregnancy is critical and the benefit may result in a viable, healthy offspring. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM which manifests for the first time during pregnancy is common and on the increase, its proper management will reduce the risk of neonatal macrosomia and hypoglycaemia. Post-partum evaluation of glucose tolerance and appropriate counselling in women with GDM may help decrease the high risk of subsequent type 2 diabetes in the long-term. The article will briefly review the changes in the carbohydrate metabolism that characterise normal pregnancy and will focus on a practical approach to the care of patients with pre-existing diabetes as well as GDM.

  10. The effect of oxygenated water in Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne S. Handajani

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim To examine those claims, i.e the effects of oxygenated water on hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus (DM.Methods In this clinical trial, 108 subjects of Diabetes Mellitus were recruited. Each group was divided randomly into 2 subgroups. One subgroup was given oxygenated water and the other subgroup was given non-oxygenated water for 2 period of intervention, 45 days and 90 days. Measured variables were, blood sugar and malondialdehyde (MDA.Results The study showed that oxygenated water could reduce post-prandial glucose in DM subjects. DM subjects with normal nutritional states, also had greater tendency of MDA reduction after consuming oxygenated water for 45 days. Most of subjects felt healthier after consuming oxygenated water.Conclusion The consumption of oxygenated water could improve the healing process for patients with diabetes mellitus. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 102-7Key words: oxygenated water, diabetes mellitus, MDA, free radicals

  11. CUTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM refers to a group of common metabolic disorders that share the phenotype of hyperglycemia. The metabolic dysregulation associated with DM causes secondary pathophysiologic changes in multiple organ systems that impose a tremendous burden on the individual with diabetes and on the health care system. AIM: of the study was to evaluate presence and prevalence of common dermatoses in patients. 250 cases of D.M. with various cutaneous manifestations attending in and outpatient department of Dr. D. Y. Patil medical hospital were evaluated. Detailed history was taken as per proforma and patient investigated. Maximum incidence was seen between 40-70 yrs. of age and in middle class. Fungal infection constituted highest number which included dermatophytosis, candidiasis and pityriasis versicolor. No cutaneous reactions to therapy for diabetes were encountered in the present study.

  12. Genetic Counseling for Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Stephanie A.; Maloney, Kristin L.; Pollin, Toni I.

    2014-01-01

    Most diabetes is polygenic in etiology, with (type 1 diabetes, T1DM) or without (type 2 diabetes, T2DM) an autoimmune basis. Genetic counseling for diabetes generally focuses on providing empiric risk information based on family history and/or the effects of maternal hyperglycemia on pregnancy outcome. An estimated one to five percent of diabetes is monogenic in nature, e.g., maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY), with molecular testing and etiology-based treatment available. However, recent studies show that most monogenic diabetes is misdiagnosed as T1DM or T2DM. While efforts are underway to increase the rate of diagnosis in the diabetes clinic, genetic counselors and clinical geneticists are in a prime position to identify monogenic cases through targeted questions during a family history combined with working in conjunction with diabetes professionals to diagnose and assure proper treatment and familial risk assessment for individuals with monogenic diabetes. PMID:25045596

  13. Family caregiving for adults with schizophrenia and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mallakh, Peggy; Yates, Brittany Evans; Adkins, Sarah

    2013-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is common among those with schizophrenia, but little is known about family members' roles in the care of relatives who have both schizophrenia and DM. The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to examine DM knowledge and caregiver burden among 27 family caregivers of people with schizophrenia and DM. Findings indicate that DM knowledge was low. Objective caregiver burden was highest for providing assistance with daily living activities. Subjective burden was highest for preventing the care recipient from keeping people awake at night and dealing with the care recipient's non-adherence to DM care. Family caregivers are in need of education and support in the caregiving role.

  14. Cardiovascular consequences of diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Baan (Caroline)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractDiabetes mellitus comprises a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders that have one common feature: abnormally high levels of glucose in the blood. The most common form is non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NlDDM); about 80-90% of all diabetic patients has NlDDM

  15. Periodontitis, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease : A Bermuda Triangle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teeuw, W.J.

    2017-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis contributes to the understanding of the complex relationship between periodontitis and diabetes mellitus (DM), and periodontitis and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD). It was observed that a substantial number of suspected new DM patients could be fo

  16. Periodontitis, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease : A Bermuda Triangle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teeuw, W.J.

    2017-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis contributes to the understanding of the complex relationship between periodontitis and diabetes mellitus (DM), and periodontitis and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD). It was observed that a substantial number of suspected new DM patients could be

  17. Gestational diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the most common medical complication of pregnancy. It is associated with maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes. Maintaining adequate blood glucose levels in GDM reduces morbidity for both mother and baby. There is a lack of uniform strategies for screening and diagnosing GDM globally. This review covers the latest update in the diagnosis and management of GDM. The initial treatment of GDM consists of diet and exercise. If these measures fail to achieve ...

  18. Teenage pregnancy in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carmody, David

    2010-03-01

    Younger maternal age at delivery has been linked to adverse reproductive outcomes. Pregnancy complicated by type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Optimising diabetic glycaemic control prior to pregnancy is known to reduce the rate of congenital abnormalities and improve pregnancy outcomes. Teenage pregnancies are not usually planned and little data exist on teenage pregnancy complicated by T1DM. We sought to identify the glycemic control achieved in teenage pregnancy with T1DM and to clarify if there is an associated increase in adverse pregnancy outcomes compared to those seen in older women with T1DM. We compared outcomes in 18 teenagers (TG) with 582 older women with T1DM (CON) from 1995-2007. TG booked to the combined diabetes-obstetrical service at a median gestational age of 11 weeks (range 6-22) compared to 7 weeks in CON (range 4-40, p < 0.02). Glycaemic was worse in TG compared to CON at 13, 26 and 35 weeks gestation, despite higher insulin doses. First trimester miscarriage rate did not differ between groups. Major congenital anomaly rate was 6.2% (1\\/16) compared to 3.2% in CON. This preliminary study has demonstrated that pregnant teenage women with T1DM book later to specialised care and have worse glycaemic control in pregnancy compared to older women with T1DM. This group also appear to be more insulin resistant than older women in early pregnancy. Our data would suggest that teenagers with type 1 diabetes mellitus may constitute a high-risk group for adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  19. Increased risk of common infections in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, L M A J; Gorter, K J; Hak, E; Goudzwaard, W L; Schellevis, F G; Hoepelman, A I M; Rutten, G E H M

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical data on the association of diabetes mellitus with common infections are virtually lacking, not conclusive, and often biased. We intended to determine the relative risks of common infections in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM1 and DM2, respectively). METHODS

  20. Diabetes knowledge among Greek Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulimeneas, Dimitrios; Grammatikopoulou, Maria G; Bougioukli, Vasiliki; Iosifidou, Parthena; Vasiloglou, Maria F; Gerama, Maria-Assimina; Mitsos, Dimitrios; Chrysanthakopoulou, Ioanna; Tsigga, Maria; Kazakos, Kyriakos

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes knowledge has been shown to improve glycemic control and associate with several demographic parameters. In Greece, a country with high obesity rates, disease knowledge has never been evaluated in diabetic patients. This cross sectional study aimed to assess diabetes knowledge and its associations between social and demographic parameters, among Greek type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. One hundred fifty nine patients with T2DM were recruited from an urban and a rural clinic in Greece. Diabetes knowledge was assessed with the Brief Diabetes Knowledge Test (DKT). Basic anthropometry was performed. Data regarding glycemic control and sociodemographic characteristics were collected from the patients' medical files. Greek T2DM patients demonstrated poor disease knowledge (mean DKT score 8.3±2.2/14.0 and mean DKT as a percent of correct answers 59.6±15.8%). No differences were observed between sex, place of residence, or glycemic control, among subjects. Patients with higher education demonstrated greater diabetes knowledge. Simple obesity with concurrent central obesity or suboptimal glycemic control decreased diabetes knowledge among participants. Additionally, waist circumference was inversely correlated to diabetes knowledge. Based on the DKT, Greek patients exhibit poor diabetes knowledge. This study provides evidence for the need for better diabetes education in order to ameliorate disease outcome. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. NUEVOS FÁRMACOS EN DIABETES MELLITUS

    OpenAIRE

    Aylwin H., Carmen Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Por más de 60 años se dispuso solo de tres grupos farmacológicos para el tratamiento de la diabetes mellitus (DM): la insulina, la metformina y las sulfonilureas. Sin embargo, en los últimos años y como consecuencia de los avances en el conocimiento de la patogenia de la DM2 se han desarrollado nuevos fármacos con novedosos mecanismos de acción y con diferentes perfiles de seguridad, entre ellos los compuestos con efecto incretina y los glucosúricos que actúan en los trastornos a nivel intest...

  2. STATINS AND THE RISK OF DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Drapkina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Randomized controlled trials have clearly demonstrated the efficacy of statins in reduction of serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol level by 25-50% from the baseline. Statins may increase the risk of diabetes mellitus (DM in long-term therapy and use of high doses. Diabetogenic action is statins class effect and does not depend on their hydrophobic or hydrophilic properties. However, the use of statins in patients with DM is obligatory. The statins diabetogenic  risk is exaggerated and we will continue to treat our patients with statins.

  3. MRI of the brain in diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, Y. [Osaka Rosai Hospital (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Nomurak, M. [Osaka Rosai Hospital (Japan). Dept. of Medicine; Tanaka, H. [Osaka Rosai Hospital (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Yamamoto, H. [Osaka Rosai Hospital (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Yamamoto, T. [Osaka Rosai Hospital (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Tsukaguchi, I, [Osaka Rosai Hospital (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Nakamura, H. [Osaka Univ. Medical School (Japan). Dept. of Radiology

    1994-02-01

    We studied the MRI appearances of the brain in 159 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and 2566 age-matched individuals without DM (controls). The images were reviewed for cerebral infarcts, hemorrhage, atrophy and subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy. Cerebral atrophy was significantly more frequent in patients with DM than in controls (P > 0.005) from the sixth to the eighth decade. The frequency of atrophy was 41.2% in the 6th decade, 60.0 % in the 7th and 92.3 % in the 8th decade in DM, and 19.8 %, 38.9 % and 56.8 % respectively in controls. Unexpectedly, there was no statistically significant difference in the incidences of cerebrovascular diseases at any age. (orig.)

  4. Diabetes mellitus in childhood cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rauf, F

    2012-02-03

    Since 1984, five patients in the cystic fibrosis (CF) clinic at Cork Regional Hospital have developed diabetes mellitus (DM) and were treated with Insulin. None had received systemic corticosteroids but two had high calorie naso-gastric feeding regimes. Two died from lung disease. A fifteen year old boy developed bilateral cataracts. In nine other paediatric CF clinics in the Republic of Ireland (total: 420 patients), three patients have DM, two receiving Insulin. Abnormal glucose tolerance is becoming more common in CF as patients survive longer. The possible role of corticosteroid treatment and intensive carbohydrate feeding regimes in development of glucose intolerance must be considered. DM in CF differs from the usual childhood DM. Regular screening and early Insulin supplementation may be beneficial.

  5. Prevalence of lean type 2 diabetes mellitus in recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Chaudhary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity has always been thought to be a risk factor for diabetes; however, some studies in India have reported that even lean people are prone to diabetes. We conducted this study to see if this holds true for this part of the country. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of lean type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM in recently diagnosed type 2 DM in Manipur. Materials and Methods: All recently diagnosed type 2 DM patients, within a period of 24 weeks, who attended the endocrine clinic of RIMS from Jan to Dec 2012 are included in the study. Exclusion criteria are patients with chronic diseases. Results: Out of the 181 recently diagnosed diabetics 3.9% had a BMI of <19 kg/m 2 of which five are females (5.4% of female patients and two are males (2.2% of male patients. Mean age of Lean diabetics is 54.86 ± 15.32, mean fasting glucose is 212 ± 105.5 mg% and mean postprandial glucose is 351.57 ± 167.79 mg%. DM complications were observed in 28.6% of the Lean diabetics. Conclusion: Our study shows a low prevalence rate of Lean DM in recently diagnosed type 2 DM.

  6. Diabetes mellitus and hypothyroidism: Strange bedfellows or mutual companions?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barry; I; Joffe; Larry; A; Distiller

    2014-01-01

    Clinicians should be cognizant of the close relationship that exists between two of the most common endocrine disorders, primary hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus. This applies to patients with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus(T1DM and T2 DM respectively). However, the association is greater in T1 DM, probably because of the shared autoimmune predisposition. In patients with T2 DM, the relationship is somewhat weaker and the explanation less clear-cut. Factors such as dietary iodine deficiency, metformin-induced thyroid stimulating hormone suppression and poor glycemic control may all be implicated. Further translational research is required for greater clarification. Biochemical screening for abnormal thyroid function in individuals who have diabetes is warranted, particularly in females with T1 DM, and therapy with L-thyroxine appropriately instituted if hypothyroidism is confirmed.

  7. Energy Therapies and Diabetes Mellitus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Diana W. Guthrie; Maureen Gamble

    2001-01-01

    Energy Therapies and Diabetes Mellitus Diana W. Guthrie , PhD, FAAN, CDE and Maureen Gamble , BSN, MA, CHTP/I, CCAP, RM Abstract In Brief People with diabetes require multiple interventions to reach their glycemic goals...

  8. Diabetes mellitus and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wiel, Albert

    2004-01-01

    Alcohol influences glucose metabolism in several ways in diabetic patients as well as in non-diabetic patients. Since alcohol inhibits both gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, its acute intake without food may provoke hypoglycaemia, especially in cases of depleted glycogen stores and in combination with sulphonylurea. Consumed with a meal including carbohydrates, it is the preferred fuel, which may initially lead to somewhat higher blood glucose levels and hence an insulin response in type 2 diabetic patients. Depending on the nature of the carbohydrates in the meal, this may be followed by reactive hypoglycaemia. Moderate consumption of alcohol is associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerotic disorders. Diabetic patients benefit from this favourable effect as much as non-diabetic patients. Apart from effects on lipid metabolism, haemostatic balance and blood pressure, alcohol improves insulin sensitivity. This improvement of insulin sensitivity may also be responsible for the lower incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus reported to be associated with light-to-moderate drinking. In case of moderate and sensible use, risks of disturbances in glycaemic control, weight and blood pressure are limited. Excessive intake of alcohol, however, may not only cause loss of metabolic control, but also annihilate the favourable effects on the cardiovascular system.

  9. Do patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have an increased prevalence of Cushing's syndrome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Therese; Krarup, Thure; Hagen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Many clinical features are common for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Cushing's syndrome (CS) such as central obesity, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Patients with CS often have T2DM. Because T2DM is much more frequent than CS, it is possible that some patients with T2DM have...... appearance and hypertension or truncal obesity or dyslipidaemia....

  10. Pulmonary functions in patients with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irfan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A reduction in lung capacity has been reported previously among diabetics. According to WHO estimates, Pakistan is currently eighth in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM and will become fourth by the year 2025 with over 15 million individuals. This study was designed to see the impairment of lung functions on spirometry in DM patients. Objective: Our aim was to investigate the pulmonary functions tests of Pakistani patients with DM. Materials and Methods: Between January to July 2004, 128 subjects who were never-smokers and had no acute or chronic pulmonary disease were recruited. Sixty-four of these subjects had DM and 64 were healthy matched controls. All underwent screening with detailed history, anthropometry, lipid profile, and spirometric measurements at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. Results: The mean age of diabetics and matched control were 54.3±9 and 54.0±8 (P<0.87 years, respectively. Diabetes patients showed a significant reduction in the forced vital capacity (FVC [mean difference (95% CI - 0.36 (-0.64, -0.07 P<0.01], forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1 [- 0.25(-0.50, -0.003 P<0.04], and slow vital capacity (SVC [- 0.28(-0.54, -0.01 P<0.04], relative to nondiabetic controls. There was no significant difference noted in the forced expiratory ratio and maximum mid-expiratory flow between the groups. There was also a significant higher level of triglycerides noted among diabetics (P<0.001. Conclusion: Diabetic patients showed impaired lung function independent of smoking. This reduced lung function is likely to be a chronic complication of diabetes mellitus.

  11. Evaluation of pulmonary function changes in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus in Upper Egypt

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohamad, Ismail L; Saad, Khaled; Abdel-Azeem, Ali; Mohamed, Sherif A.A; Othman, Hisham A.K; Abdel Baseer, Khaled A; Thabet, Ahmad F; El-Houfey, Amira A

    2015-01-01

    .... However, limited data are available on lung dysfunction in children with diabetes. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the pulmonary function changes in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Methods...

  12. Early systemic microvascular damage in pigs with atherogenic diabetes mellitus coincides with renal angiopoietin dysbalance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Khairoun (Meriem); M.M. van den Heuvel (Mieke); B. van den Berg (Bernard); O. Sorop (Oana); De Boer, R. (Rients); N.S. van Ditzhuijzen (Nienke); I.M. Bajema (Ingeborg); H.J. Baelde; M. Zandbergen; D.J.G.M. Duncker (Dirk); T. Rabelink (Ton); M.E. Reinders (Marlies); W.J. van der Giessen (Wim); J.I. Rotmans (Joris)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with a range of microvascular complications including diabetic nephropathy (DN). Microvascular abnormalities in the kidneys are common histopathologic findings in DN, which represent one manifestation of ongoing systemic microvascular dama

  13. Sensor Augmented Pump Therapy Use in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carolan, E

    2016-11-01

    Tight metabolic control in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) reduces incidence and delays progression of micro-vascular complications. Severe hypoglycaemia remains a significant barrier to achieving optimal diabetes control. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) systems refine insulin delivery with programmable basal rates and mealtime bolusing

  14. Type 1 diabetes mellitus and atopic diseases in children.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease .... resulting in b-cell apoptosis and diabetes. ROS, reactive ... IL-12 are associated with islet cell destruction22,23, and Th2 ... age- and sex-matched controls, and did not find a.

  15. Danish Nationwide Data Reveal a Link between Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetic Retinopathy, and Glaucoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horwitz, Anna; Petrovski, Beata Eva; Torp-Pedersen, Christian;

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To determine the association between treatment against diabetes mellitus (DM) and treatment with antiglaucomatous drugs in the entire Danish population and to investigate the comorbidity between DM and its complications with antiglaucomatous treatment. Methods. Retrospective nationwide coho...... reports a strong association between DM and onset of glaucoma treatment in the entire Danish population.......Aims. To determine the association between treatment against diabetes mellitus (DM) and treatment with antiglaucomatous drugs in the entire Danish population and to investigate the comorbidity between DM and its complications with antiglaucomatous treatment. Methods. Retrospective nationwide cohort...... medication and the DM complications, diabetic retinopathy (DR), and nephropathy. Results. A total of 6,343,747 individuals in the period between 1996 and 2012 were analyzed. The overall incidence rate of new-onset glaucoma patients was 0.07 per 1000 person-years for the reference population compared to 36...

  16. Mechanisms of diabetes mellitus-induced bone fragility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Nicola; Chandran, Manju; Pierroz, Dominique D; Abrahamsen, Bo; Schwartz, Ann V; Ferrari, Serge L

    2017-04-01

    The risk of fragility fractures is increased in patients with either type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Although BMD is decreased in T1DM, BMD in T2DM is often normal or even slightly elevated compared with an age-matched control population. However, in both T1DM and T2DM, bone turnover is decreased and the bone material properties and microstructure of bone are altered; the latter particularly so when microvascular complications are present. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying bone fragility in diabetes mellitus are complex, and include hyperglycaemia, oxidative stress and the accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts that compromise collagen properties, increase marrow adiposity, release inflammatory factors and adipokines from visceral fat, and potentially alter the function of osteocytes. Additional factors including treatment-induced hypoglycaemia, certain antidiabetic medications with a direct effect on bone and mineral metabolism (such as thiazolidinediones), as well as an increased propensity for falls, all contribute to the increased fracture risk in patients with diabetes mellitus.

  17. Predictors of diabetes distress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rashedul Islam

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: HbA1c, treatment modalities, duration of DM, diabetic complications and average monthly family income appeared to be significant predicting factors of diabetes distress among the type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. This should be taken into consideration for effective management of patient. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(2.000: 631-638

  18. Current therapeutic agents and anesthetic considerations for diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyoseok

    2012-09-01

    As the incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) continues to increase worldwide, more diabetic patients will be presented for surgery and anesthesia. This increase of DM is a consequence of the rise in new patients of type 2 DM, and is likely attributable to rapid economic development, improved living standards, aging population, obesity, and lack of exercise. The primary goal of management in DM is to delay, or prevent the macro- and microvascular complications by achieving good glycemic control. More understanding of the pathophysiology of DM has contributed to the advance of new pharmacological approaches. In addition to the conventional therapy for DM, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) mimetics, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, thiazolidinediones (TZDs), and insulin analogues are currently available effective hypoglycemic agents for the management of the patients with DM in the perioperative period and also consider the adverse effects of newly introduced agents that need more clinical observations.

  19. Menu variations for diabetes mellitus patients using Goal Programming model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhoruri, Atmini; Lestari, Dwi; Ratnasari, Eminugroho

    2017-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) was a chronic metabolic disease characterized by higher than normal blood glucose level (normal blood glucose level = = 80 -120 mg/dl). In this study, type 2 DM which mostly caused by unhealthy eating habits would be investigated. Related to eating habit, DM patients needed dietary menu planning with an extracare regarding their nutrients intake (energy, protein, fat and carbohydrate). Therefore, the measures taken were by organizing nutritious dietary menu for diabetes mellitus patients. Dietary menu with appropriate amount of nutrients was organized by considering the amount of calories, proteins, fats and carbohydrates. In this study, Goal Programming model was employed to determine optimal dietary menu variations for diabetes mellitus patients by paying attention to optimal expenses. According to the data obtained from hospitals in Yogyakarta, optimal menu variations would be analyzed by using Goal Programming model and would be completed by using LINGO computer program.

  20. Metforminium Decavanadate as a Potential Metallopharmaceutical Drug for the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Treviño; Denisse Velázquez-Vázquez; Eduardo Sánchez-Lara; Alfonso Diaz-Fonseca; José Ángel Flores-Hernandez; Aarón Pérez-Benítez; Eduardo Brambila-Colombres; Enrique González-Vergara

    2016-01-01

    New potential drugs based on vanadium are being developed as possible treatments for diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications. In this regard, our working group developed metforminium decavanadate (MetfDeca), a compound with hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic properties. MetfDeca was evaluated in models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, on male Wistar rats. Alloxan-induction was employed to produce DM1 model, while a hypercaloric-diet was employed to generate DM2 model. Two-month treatm...

  1. Preliminary study: Evaluation of melatonin secretion in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Kor, Yilmaz; Geyikli, Iclal; Keskin, Mehmet; Akan, Muslum

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Melatonin is an indolamine hormone, synthesized from tryptophan in the pineal gland primarily. Melatonin exerts both antioxidative and immunoregulatory roles but little is known about melatonin secretion in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The aim of this study was to measure serum melatonin levels in patients with T1DM and investigates their relationship with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: Forty children and adolescents with T1DM (18 boys and 22 gir...

  2. Correlation between serum osteocalcin and type 2 diabetes mellitus in elderly patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓捷

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between serum osteocalcin and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in elderly patients.Methods A total of 55 T2DM patients (diabetic group) and 50 non-diabetic subjects (control group) aged≥60 years were enrolled in this study.The

  3. [Mental disorders and diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamian, Heidemarie; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Rießland-Seifert, Angelika; Fasching, Peter; Ebenbichler, Christoph; Hofmann, Peter; Toplak, Hermann

    2016-04-01

    Psychiatric disorders and psychological problems are common in patients with diabetes mellitus. There is a twofold increase in depression which is associated with suboptimal glycemic control and increased morbidity and mortality. Other psychiatric disorders with a higher incidence of diabetes mellitus are cognitive impairment, dementia, disturbed eating behaviour, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders and borderline personality disorder. The coincidence of mental disorders and diabetes mellitus has unfavourable influences on metabolic control and micro- and macroangiopathic late complications. Improvement of therapeutic outcome is a challenge in the modern health care system. The intentions behind this position paper are to rise awareness of this special set of problems, to intensify cooperation between involved health care providers and to reduce incidence of diabetes mellitus as well as morbidity and mortality from diabetes in this patient group.

  4. Medical and developmental impact of transition from subcutaneous insulin to oral glyburide in a 15-yr-old boy with neonatal diabetes mellitus and intermediate DEND syndrome: extending the age of KCNJ11 mutation testing in neonatal DM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamadi, Ali; Clark, Loretta M; Lipkin, Paul H; Mahone, E Mark; Wodka, Ericka L; Plotnick, Leslie P

    2010-05-01

    Mutations in the KCNJ11 gene, which encodes the Kir6.2 subunit of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel, often result in neonatal diabetes. Patients with this mutation have been successfully transitioned from insulin to sulfonylurea (SU) therapy without compromise in their glycemic control. Among patients with neonatal diabetes due to KCNJ11 mutations, approximately 25% have neurological findings including developmental delay, motor dysfunction, and epilepsy, known as DEND syndrome. There have been rare cases of juvenile patients with intermediate DEND syndrome (iDEND) reporting variable improvement in neurological function following transition from insulin to SU treatment. We describe the response to glyburide in a 15-yr-old boy with severe global developmental delays resulting from the KCNJ11 mutation V59M. The patient was discovered to have diabetes mellitus at 11.5 months of age, making this the oldest age at diagnosis of a KCNJ11 mutation-related case of neonatal diabetes. Because consensus has been to screen patients for this mutation only if younger than 6 months at the time of diagnosis, we suggest that all patients under the age of 12 months at diagnosis should receive genetic testing for monogenic causes of diabetes.

  5. Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus is associated with increased risk of complications for mother and child. Along with the growing epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes, the prevalence of gestational diabetes is expected to rise. With adequate and timely treatment, the risk of complications is reduced.

  6. Role of the calpain on the development of diabetes mellitus and its chronic complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ting-Ting; Li, Xiu-Fen; Sun, Yan-Ming; Li, Yan-Bo; Su, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with acute and chronic complications that cause major morbidity and significant mortality. Calpains, a family of Ca(2+)-dependent cytosolic cysteine proteases, can modulate their substrates' structure and function through limited proteolytic activity. Calpain is a ubiquitous calcium-sensitive protease that is essential for normal physiologic function. However, alterations in calcium homeostasis lead to pathologic activation of calpain in diabetes mellitus. Since not much is known on the relationship between calpain and diabetes mellitus, this review outlines the contribution of calpain to chronic complications of diabetes mellitus, such as diabetic cardiomyopathy, diabetic nephropathy and diabetic retinopathy.

  7. Sirtuins as novel players in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kultigin; Turkmen; Ali; Karagoz; Adem; Kucuk

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus(DM) is a systemic and complex disease with micro and macrovascular complications that result from impaired metabolic pathways and genetic susceptibilities. DM has been accepted as an epidemic worldwide during the last two decades. A substantial gap in our knowledge exists regarding the pathophysiology of this metabolic disorder despite the improved diagnostic tools and therapeutic approaches. Sirtuins are a group of NAD+ dependent enzymes that are involved in cellular homeostasis due to their deacetylating activity. In the present review, we aimed to discuss the role of associated sirtuins in the pathogenesis and treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  8. [Review on periodontal disease and metabolic control of diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, João Paulo; Glaci Reinke, Stella Maria; Angel Muñoz, Miguel; Santos, Fábio André dos; Luiz Pilatti, Gibson

    2010-09-01

    There may be an interaction between periodontal disease and some systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus. The objective of this review was to verify, by means of a review of clinical trials, if there is a positive association between periodontal disease and the glycemic control of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-2) patients. Eleven articles that fi t the study criteria were revised. It was concluded that periodontal disease may influence the metabolic control of DM-2. Additional studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow up are necessary for a better clarification of this issue.

  9. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors Associated With Risk of Progression From Gestational Diabetes Mellitus to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, Wei; Tobias, Deirdre K; Bowers, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at substantially increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The identification of important modifiable factors could help prevent T2DM in this high-risk population. OBJECTIVE: To examine the role of physical...... their total physical activity levels, women who increased their total physical activity levels by 7.5 MET-h/wk or more (equivalent to 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity physical activity) had a 47% lower risk of T2DM (RR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.38-0.75); the association remained significant after additional...... activity and television watching and other sedentary behaviors, and changes in these behaviors in the progression from GDM to T2DM. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Prospective cohort study of 4554 women from the Nurses' Health Study II who had a history of GDM, as part of the ongoing Diabetes & Women...

  10. Gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Mark B; Gabbe, Steven G

    2011-12-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) represents a heterogeneous group of metabolic disorders, which result in varying degrees of maternal hyperglycemia and pregnancy-associated risk. The frequency of GDM is rising globally and may also increase further as less-stringent criteria for the diagnosis are potentially adopted. The additional burden placed on the health care system by increasing cases of GDM requires consideration of diagnostic approaches and currently used treatment strategies. Debate continues to surround both the diagnosis and treatment of GDM despite several recent large-scale studies addressing these controversial issues. As many now have come to reassess their approach to the management of GDM, we provide information in this review to help guide this process. The goal for each health care practitioner should continue to be to provide optimum care for women discovered to have carbohydrate intolerance during pregnancy.

  11. Plasma amino acid and metabolite signatures tracking diabetes progression in the UCD-T2DM rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevations of plasma concentrations of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are observed in human insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); however, there has been some controversy with respect to the passive or causative nature of the BCAA phenotype. Using untargeted metabolomics, plasm...

  12. The Influence of Diabetic Experience against the Behavior of DM Controlling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusran Haskas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The behavior control of diabetes mellitus can improve the life quality of patient through planning specific behaviors. The behavior can be reflected by the experience that diabetes itself or observed in surrounding. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effect on behavior of diabetics experience against diabetes control. This type of study is explanatory research using cross sectional design. The collecting data was using diabetics experience related diabetes disease. The consecutive sampling technique was used to obtain 134 samples. Data were analyzed with chi square test. The results showed that the average 62.2% of diabetics to control diabetes well have a pleasant and unpleasant experience. Chi-square test results showed that diabetics experience have influence against the behavior diabetes control (p = 0.043. Findings influence on diabetics experience against the behavior control diabetes have implications for providing information and support positive consistently in order to become a source of knowledge and experience in improving the behavior good control of DM.

  13. Diabetes mellitus induced impairment of male reproductive functions: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jangir, Ram Niwas; Jain, Gyan Chand

    2014-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) represents one of the greatest threats to human health all over the world. The incidence of DM is rising rapidly also including children and young persons of reproductive age. Diabetes has been associated with reproductive impairment in both men and women. Diabetes may affect male reproductive functions at multiple levels as a result of its effects on the endocrine control of spermatogenesis, steroidogenesis, sperm maturation, impairment of penile erection and ejaculation. A large number of studies both on diabetic men and experimental diabetic animals have been published on the impact of DM on male reproductive functions during the past few years but many of them have conflicting results. The present review summarizes the research finding of a large number of research papers on the reproductive functions especially on hypothalmo-pituitary-gonadal axis, spermatogenesis, histopathology of testis, synthesis and secretion of testosterone, sperm quality, ejaculatory function and fertility both in diabetic men and experimental diabetic animals.

  14. Aldose reductase, oxidative stress and diabetic mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waiho eTang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a complex metabolic disorder arising from lack of insulin production or insulin resistance 1. DM is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed world, particularly from vascular complications such as atherothrombosis in the coronary vessels. Aldose reductase (AR [ALR2; EC 1.1.1.21], a key enzyme in the polyol pathway, catalyzes NADPH-dependent reduction of glucose to sorbitol, leading to excessive accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS in various tissues of DM including the heart, vasculature, neurons, eyes and kidneys. As an example, hyperglycemia through such polyol pathway induced oxidative stress, may have dual heart actions, on coronary blood vessel (atherothrombosis and myocardium (heart failure leading to severe morbidity and mortality (reviewed in 2. In cells cultured under high glucose conditions, many studies have demonstrated similar AR-dependent increases in ROS production, confirming AR as an important factor for the pathogenesis of many diabetic complications. Moreover, recent studies have shown that AR inhibitors may be able to prevent or delay the onset of cardiovascular complications such as ischemia/reperfusion injury, atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis. In this review, we will focus on describing pivotal roles of AR in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases as well as other diabetic complications, and the potential use of AR inhibitors as an emerging therapeutic strategy in preventing DM complications.

  15. Gastrointestinal complications of diabetes mellitus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Babu Krishnan Shithu Babu Jessica Walker Adrian B Walker Joseph M Pappachan

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus affects virtually every organ system in the body and the degree of organ involvement depends on the duration and severity of the disease,and other co-morbidities.Gastrointestinal(GI...

  16. A STUDY ON CORRELATION OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY IN RELATION TO DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY IN TYPE II DM PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalaka Jayapal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common metabolic disorders of multiple etiology. The multisystem effects of diabetes such as retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy and cardiovascular diseases have an important impinging on the working age individuals in our country. Diabetic Retinopathy (DR is one of the leading c auses of blindness in the world that increases the chance of losing vision to about 25 times higher compare to normal individuals. Diabetic Nephropathy (DN is the major life - threatening complication which develops in approximately 20% to 40% of type 1 and less than 20% of type 2 diabetic patients. DN is the leading known cause of End stage renal disease (ESRD . AIM AND OBJECTIVE : A systematic cross - sectional study was conducted in Sarojini Devi eye hospital to assess the correlation between Diabetic Retino pathy and Diabetic Nephropathy in Type II Diabetes Mellitus patients. METHODS AND MATERIAL S : A study was conducted on 108 Type II DM patients presenting to Sarojini Devi Eye hospital, Hyderabad and were assessed for Retinopathy and Nephropathy and Correlat ion between Retinopathy and Nephropathy was studied from December 2011 to December 2014. RESULTS : Out of 54 Diabetic Retinopathy patients, 28 (51.8% patients had DN, 26 patients (48.2% had no evidence of DN. Out of 54 Diabetic Nephropathy patients, 36(66 .6% had DR; 18(33.4% had No evidence of DR. CONCLUSION : The results of our study suggest that Diabetic Nephropathy has a positive association with the presence of Diabetic Retinopathy in persons with Type II DM.

  17. [Association between periodontitis and diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Huan-xin

    2007-02-18

    This paper focused on the relationship between periodontitis and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There is an abundance of evidence that diabetes mellitus play important etiological roles in periodontal diseases. In addition, periodontal diseases have powerful and multiple influences on the occurrence and severity of systemic conditions and diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease and pregnancy complications. The relationship of periodontitis and diabetes has been supported by sufficient evidences in the past twenty years: (1) diabetes is an independent risk factor of chronic periodontitis; (2) metabolic control will improve the prognosis of chronic periodontitis; (3) the treatment of chronic periodontitis will improve the metabolic level. Our recent investigation on periodontal status in the families of type 2 diabetes mellitus further confirmed the relationship. It was showed that the periodontal index such as probing depth (PD), attachment loss (AL) and numbers of tooth loss in diabetes family members were significantly higher than non-diabetes family members, while no difference of periodontal parameters was found between well control family members and non diabetes family members. In the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and its complications, the advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and its receptors were to be recognized as important factors. The distributions of AGEs and the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) are highly consistent in various tissues. One study in our laboratory demonstrated that RAGE was strongly expressed in gingival tissues gathered from T2DM patients with periodontitis compared with systemically healthy chronic periodontitis patients, the expression of RAGE was positively correlated with the expression of TNF-alpha, indicating that AGE-RAGE pathway was involved in the development of periodontitis in T2DM patients. It is known that inflammation could induce the prediabetic status characterized by

  18. Mathematical Contributions to the Study of Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Shannon

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the studies outlined in this paper is to describe some indicative and non-standard, but not exhaustive, quantitative contributions to the collection of diseases within the Diabetes Mellitus (DM spectrum. While the paper has implications for bioinformatics related to DM, the paper is broader than that; it is more about DM-related bioprocesses illuminated by bioinformatics than about the bioinformatics per se. In effect it is an argument against being locked into one particular paradigm in the laudable study of this complicated set of diseases which increasingly dominate public health budgets, not to mention the lives of the patients with DM and their families.

  19. Incretin-based therapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina; Holst, Jens J

    2009-01-01

    This review article focuses on the therapeutic potential of the incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), in treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). T2DM is characterized by insulin resistance, impaired glucose-induced insulin...... secretion and inappropriately regulated glucagon secretion which in combination eventually result in hyperglycemia and in the longer term microvascular and macrovascular diabetic complications. Traditional treatment modalities--even multidrug approaches--for T2DM are often unsatisfactory at getting patients...

  20. [Autoimmune diseases in type 1A diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Hermosillo, Aldo; Molina-Ayala, Mario Antonio

    2015-08-01

    Type 1A diabetes (DM1A) is an autoimmune disease that comprises 10% of patients with diabetes mellitus. Its frequency is gradually increasing in countries like Mexico. Patients with DM1A commonly have hypothyroidism, Addison disease, celiac disease and less common diseases such as polyglandular syndrome. These diseases are related to susceptibility genes such as HLA, CTLA-4 and PTPN22, which induce central and peripheral immunologic tolerance. This review article emphasizes the importance of searching other autoimmune diseases in patients with DM1A, to improve their prognosis and quality of life.

  1. Incretin-based therapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina; Holst, Jens Juul

    2009-01-01

    secretion and inappropriately regulated glucagon secretion which in combination eventually result in hyperglycemia and in the longer term microvascular and macrovascular diabetic complications. Traditional treatment modalities--even multidrug approaches--for T2DM are often unsatisfactory at getting patients......This review article focuses on the therapeutic potential of the incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), in treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). T2DM is characterized by insulin resistance, impaired glucose-induced insulin...

  2. Mauriac syndrome: growth failure and type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mimi S; Quintos, J B

    2008-08-01

    Growth failure in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) can occur for several reasons. Mauriac syndrome is a rare cause of severe growth failure in T1DM. There may be different forms and etiologies involved in Mauriac syndrome. However, there are common features noted in these patients. We have compiled a review of cases reported in English in the last 30 years. With adequate insulin treatment there is reversal of growth failure and hepatomegaly if present. However, overly aggressive insulin delivery could result in rapid deterioration of diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy. Close monitoring of growth and pubertal maturation in children with T1DM is essential.

  3. Skin disorders in diabetes mellitus: an epidemiology and physiopathology review

    OpenAIRE

    de Macedo, Geisa Maria Campos; Nunes,Samanta; Barreto, Tania

    2016-01-01

    Skin disorders, usually neglected and frequently underdiagnosed among diabetic patients, are common complications and encounter a broad spectrum of disorders in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM)—e.g. cutaneous infection, dry skin, pruritus. Skin disorders are highly associated with increased risk of important outcomes, such as skin lesions, ulcerations and diabetic foot, which can lead to major complications and revolve around multifactorial factors besides hyperglycemia and advan...

  4. Psychological aspects of diet therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    E G Starostina

    2008-01-01

    The importance of studying the psychological aspects of nutrition diet is, perhaps, the most commonly used words in the lexicon of Endocrinology and Diabetology and most unpleasant - for patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Any restrictions on certain aspects of nutrition in patients with diabetes create a negative attitude to the disease, since they require non-established habits and tastes, a significant change in lifestyle, often - constant "struggle" with gusto. And if type 1 diabetes de...

  5. The burden of the complications of diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Hidayat

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is an important global cause of mortality, morbidity, and health-system costs,(1,2 with significant increases in its prevalence and number of cases in the last 30 years. It constitutes one of the four non communicable diseases (NCDs targeted for action by world leaders.According to WHO estimates, in 2014 there were 422 million adults with DM aged 18 years or older, with around half in the WHO South-East Asia and Western Pacific Regions.(3 The prevalence of DM and the number of adults with DM in low- and middle-income countries have over the last decade increased at a greater rate than in high-income countries. The global DM prevalence increased by more than 100% in men and by 60% in women, resulting in a predominance of males with DM in 2014 as compared with a higher DM female prevalence in 1980.

  6. Diabetes mellitus and cognitive impairments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elham; Saedi[1; Mohammad; Reza; Gheini[2; Firoozeh; Faiz[3; Mohammad; Ali; Arami[4

    2016-01-01

    There is strong evidence that diabetes mellitus increases the risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Insulin signaling dysregulation and small vessel disease in the base of diabetes may be important contributing factors in Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia pathogenesis, respectively. Optimal glycemic control in type 1 diabetes and identification of diabetic risk factors and prophylactic approach in type 2 diabetes are very important in the prevention of cognitive complications.In addition, hypoglycemic attacks in children and elderly should be avoided. Anti-diabetic medications especially Insulin may have a role in the management of cognitive dysfunction and dementia but further investigation is needed to validate these findings.

  7. Diabetes Mellitus amp Its Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KusumaNeela Bolla

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diabetes Mellitus has been known for centuries as a disease related to sweetness. even though several million people all over the world are effected with diabetes not all are well informed about the nature of the disease. in diabetes there is excessive glucose in blood and urine due to inadequate production of insulin or insulin resistance. diabetics can lead a normal life provided they take prescribed durgs and make certain changes in their lifestyle particularly in their diet and physical activity. uncontrolled diabetes leads to some of the complication so some of the home remedies also play a major role to prevent the diabetes.

  8. Diabetes mellitus and cognitive impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saedi, Elham; Gheini, Mohammad Reza; Faiz, Firoozeh; Arami, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    There is strong evidence that diabetes mellitus increases the risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Insulin signaling dysregulation and small vessel disease in the base of diabetes may be important contributing factors in Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia pathogenesis, respectively. Optimal glycemic control in type 1 diabetes and identification of diabetic risk factors and prophylactic approach in type 2 diabetes are very important in the prevention of cognitive complications. In addition, hypoglycemic attacks in children and elderly should be avoided. Anti-diabetic medications especially Insulin may have a role in the management of cognitive dysfunction and dementia but further investigation is needed to validate these findings. PMID:27660698

  9. The influence of diabetes mellitus on midregional proadrenomedullin concentrations and prognostic value in heart failure outpatients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmager, Pernille; Schou, Morten; Egstrup, Michael;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with an adverse outcome in heart failure (HF). Increased concentrations of midregional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) have been associated with DM and are predictors of mortality in HF patients. The aim of this study was to elucidate the impact of DM...

  10. Mogelijkheden voor webbased ondersteuning bij zelfmanagement van Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, W.; Rövekamp, T.; Keer, M.; Graaf, A. de; Keulen, H.M. van

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) gaat gepaard met hoge medische kosten en verlies van productiviteit. Webbased ondersteuning van zelfmanagement van T2DM kan hiervoor uitkomst bieden. Het doel van dit rapport is daarom aanbevelingen te geven voor webbased ondersteuning van zelfmanagement van T2DM.

  11. Latent TB infection and pulmonary TB disease among patients with diabetes mellitus in Bandung, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koesoemadinata, R.C.; McAllister, S.M.; Soetedjo, N.N.M.; Ratnaningsih, D.F.; Ruslami, R.; Kerry, S.; Verrall, A.J.; Apriani, L.; Crevel, R. van; Alisjahbana, B.; Hill, P.C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Screening and treatment of latent TB infection (LTBI) and TB disease could reduce diabetes mellitus (DM)-associated TB. We aimed to describe the prevalence of LTBI and pulmonary TB among patients with DM in a TB-endemic setting. Methods: Patients with DM attending a hospital and

  12. Canagliflozin Treatment in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis Triplitt; Susan Cornell

    2015-01-01

    Current guidelines for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) indicate a patient-centered approach that should go beyond glycemic control. Of the many antihyperglycemic agents available for treatment of T2DM, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors offer the advantages of reduced glycated hemoglobin (A1C), body weight (BW), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) and are associated with a low risk of hypoglycemia when used either as monotherapy or with other agents not typically ass...

  13. [Diabetes mellitus and pancreas cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škrha, Jan; Škrha, Pavel; Frič, Přemysl

    2016-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus and pancreatic cancer establish both-side relationship, one disease may have influence a development of the other. Pathogenic mechanisms sharing their relationship are overviewed. Early diagnosis may contribute to better prognosis of the patients with malign tumor. The treatment by antidiabetic drugs offer to diabetic patients different risks of pancreatic cancer but lots of data are still lacking.

  14. [Diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliz, Monika; Olszewska-Czyz, Iwona; Kantorowicz, Malgorzata; Chomyszyn-Gajewska, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Scientific studies confirm correlation between periodontitis and systemic diseases such as: arteriosclerosis, diabetes, heart diseases, stroke, diseases of the respiratory system, kidney diseases, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, premature birth and low birth weight. The interaction between periodontitis and diabetes mellitus is described, based on the literature.

  15. Diabetes mellitus and Ramadan in Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chentli, Farida; Azzoug, Said; Amani, Mohammed El Amine; Elgradechi, Aldjia

    2013-01-01

    Ramadan, one of the five pillars of Islam, is a holy month in Algeria where diabetes mellitus (DM) is more frequent in urban areas with a frequency which varies from 8 to 16%. DM complications are broadly as frequent as in developed countries, except for neuropathy which seems more frequent. Despite contraindications which are regularly explained to our patients and despite the flexible side of Islam toward chronic diseases, most Algerian people with DM insist on fasting. Not fasting is considered a sin and shameful. There are also other reasons put forward by diabetic persons, such as very strong religious faith, habit of fasting together with the whole family since an early age, solidarity with the family, friends, and neighbors, and finally and probably because of the desire to appear “normal” and share a festive and a spiritual atmosphere of Ramadan. As in other Muslim countries, severe hypoglycemia the main motive of hospitalizations during the holy month, ketoacidosis, dehydration, orthostatic hypotension and thrombosis are some of the complications which Algerian people with DM are exposed to when fasting. PMID:24251192

  16. Diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis: programmatic management issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A. M. V.; Satyanarayana, S.; Lin, Y.; Zachariah, R.; Lönnroth, K.; Kapur, A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY In August 2011, the World Health Organization and the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease launched the Collaborative Framework for Care and Control of Tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes mellitus (DM) to guide policy makers and implementers in combatting the epidemics of both diseases. Progress has been made, and includes identifying how best to undertake bidirectional screening for both diseases, how to provide optimal treatment and care for patients with dual disease and the most suitable framework for monitoring and evaluation. Key programmatic challenges include the following: whether screening should be directed at all patients or targeted at those with high-risk characteristics; the most suitable technologies for diagnosing TB and diabetes in routine settings; the best time to screen TB patients for DM; how to provide an integrated, coordinated approach to case management; and finally, how to persuade non-communicable disease programmes to adopt a cohort analysis approach, preferably using electronic medical records, for monitoring and evaluation. The link between DM and TB and the implementation of the collaborative framework for care and control have the potential to stimulate and strengthen the scale-up of non-communicable disease care and prevention programmes, which may help in reducing not only the global burden of DM but also the global burden of TB. PMID:26162352

  17. Rheumatic manifestations of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebiedz-Odrobina, Dorota; Kay, Jonathan

    2010-11-01

    DM is associated with various musculoskeletal manifestations. The strength of this relationship varies among the various musculoskeletal disorders; the associations are based mostly on epidemiologic data. For most of these conditions, definitive pathophysiologic correlates are lacking.Hand and shoulder disorders occur more frequently than other musculoskeletal manifestations of DM. Recognition of the association between DM and shoulder adhesive capsulitis, DD, and stenosing flexor tenosynovitis facilitates their correct diagnosis in the setting of DM and prompt initiation of appropriate treatment, which may include optimizing glycemic control. Conversely, awareness and identification of the characteristic musculoskeletal manifestations of DM may facilitate earlier diagnosis of DM and initiation of glucose-lowering therapy to retard the development of diabetic complications.Much less has been published about the musculoskeletal complications of DM than about its micro- and macrovascular complications. Prospective case-control cohort studies are needed to establish the true prevalence of musculoskeletal complications of DM and the metabolic syndrome, especially in this era of tighter glycemic control.The potential relationship between DM and the development of OA needs to be clarified in large, prospective, case-control cohort studies. The effect on musculoskeletal manifestations of various therapeutic regimens to manage DM should be studied prospectively. Treatment regimens for some musculoskeletal conditions associated with DM, such as DISH, should be studied in larger prospective, randomized,controlled clinical trials.At the molecular level, further studies are warranted to clarify the potential contribution of AGEs and adipokines to the development of OA and diabetic musculoskeletal syndromes, such as shoulder adhesive capsulitis, DD, stenosing flexor tenosynovitis, and LJM. Identification of such molecular targets for therapy would promote the development of

  18. Diabetes mellitus en adultos mayores costarricenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Brenes-Camacho

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del artículo es describir la prevalencia de la diabetes mellitus (DM entre los adultos mayores costarricenses. Se analiza la magnitud de la prevalencia, los problemas de medición de la misma, así como los factores asociados con la enfermedad, la enfermedad controlada, y el tener niveles altos de hemoglobina glicosilada (HbA1C entre la población sin diagnóstico previo de DM. Una cuarta parte de los adultos mayores de Costa Rica padecen de DM y cerca de la mitad de los que la padecen, no la tienen controlada. Los factores asociados con la prevalencia de la enfermedad son los usuales destacados por la literatura científica: actividad física, obesidad e historia familiar de DM. Se halla evidencia de un posible problema de acceso diferencial a servicios de control de DM, ya que los adultos mayores que habitan fuera de la gran área metropolitana de San José tienen un riesgo menor de tener controlada su enfermedad. Los adultos mayores sin pensión también tienen un riesgo mayor de tener niveles altos de HbA1C.

  19. Introduction to Personalized Medicine in Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry S. Glauber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The world is facing an epidemic rise in diabetes mellitus (DM incidence, which is challenging health funders, health systems, clinicians, and patients to understand and respond to a flood of research and knowledge. Evidence-based guidelines provide uniform management recommendations for “average” patients that rarely take into account individual variation in susceptibility to DM, to its complications, and responses to pharmacological and lifestyle interventions. Personalized medicine combines bioinformatics with genomic, proteomic, metabolomic, pharmacogenomic (“omics” and other new technologies to explore pathophysiology and to characterize more precisely an individual’s risk for disease, as well as response to interventions. In this review we will introduce readers to personalized medicine as applied to DM, in particular the use of clinical, genetic, metabolic, and other markers of risk for DM and its chronic microvascular and macrovascular complications, as well as insights into variations in response to and tolerance of commonly used medications, dietary changes, and exercise. These advances in “omic” information and techniques also provide clues to potential pathophysiological mechanisms underlying DM and its complications.

  20. Diabetes mellitus en adultos mayores costarricenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosero-Bixby, Luis

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del artículo es describir la prevalencia de la diabetes mellitus (DM entre los adultos mayores costarricenses. Se analiza la magnitud de la prevalencia, los problemas de medición de la misma, así como los factores asociados con la enfermedad, la enfermedad controlada, y el tener niveles altos de hemoglobina glicosilada (HbA1C entre la población sin diagnóstico previo de DM. Una cuarta parte de los adultos mayores de Costa Rica padecen de DM y cerca de la mitad de los que la padecen, no la tienen controlada. Los factores asociados con la prevalencia de la enfermedad son los usuales destacados por la literatura científica: actividad física, obesidad e historia familiar de DM. Se halla evidencia de un posible problema de acceso diferencial a servicios de control de DM, ya que los adultos mayores que habitan fuera de la gran área metropolitana de San José tienen un riesgo menor de tener controlada su enfermedad. Los adultos mayores sin pensión también tienen un riesgo mayor de tener niveles altos de HbA1C.

  1. Diabetes mellitus: channeling care through cellular discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiese, Kenneth; Shang, Yan Chen; Chong, Zhao Zhong; Hou, Jinling

    2010-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) impacts a significant portion of the world's population and care for this disorder places an economic burden on the gross domestic product for any particular country. Furthermore, both Type 1 and Type 2 DM are becoming increasingly prevalent and there is increased incidence of impaired glucose tolerance in the young. The complications of DM are protean and can involve multiple systems throughout the body that are susceptible to the detrimental effects of oxidative stress and apoptotic cell injury. For these reasons, innovative strategies are necessary for the implementation of new treatments for DM that are generated through the further understanding of cellular pathways that govern the pathological consequences of DM. In particular, both the precursor for the coenzyme beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)), nicotinamide, and the growth factor erythropoietin offer novel platforms for drug discovery that involve cellular metabolic homeostasis and inflammatory cell control. Interestingly, these agents and their tightly associated pathways that consist of cell cycle regulation, protein kinase B, forkhead transcription factors, and Wnt signaling also function in a broader sense as biomarkers for disease onset and progression.

  2. Diabetes mellitus and colorectal cancer – a revealed connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihăiță Pătrășescu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The burden of colorectal cancer (CRC is increasing all over the world. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing. It is estimated that diabetes affects 387 million people worldwide. It is predicted that 552 million people worldwide will develop diabetes by 2030. A large pool of data indicate that DM increases by 2 fold the risk of CRC. This is the reason to firmly suggest the inclusion of DM in the criteria for CRC screening as an important measure to decrease the mortality of this ailment.

  3. Prescribing quality indicators of type 2 diabetes mellitus ambulatory care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martirosyan, L.; Braspenning, J.; Denig, P.; de Grauw, W. J. C.; Bouma, M.; Storms, F.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, F. M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Existing performance indicators for assessing quality of care in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) focus mostly on registration of measurements and clinical outcomes, and not on quality of prescribing. Objective: To develop a set of valid prescribing quality indicators (PQI) for internal u

  4. Prevalence and awareness of type 2 diabetes mellitus among adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and awareness of type 2 diabetes mellitus among adult ... Information about causes and risk factors were collected using structured questionnaire. ... they were confirmed to have T2DM if they had blood glucose level of ≥126mg/dl.

  5. Metabolomics: Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) develops over many years, providing an opportunity to consider early prognostic tools that guide interventions to thwart disease. Advancements in analytical chemistry enable quantitation of hundreds of metabolites in biofluids and tissues (metabolomics), providing in...

  6. Telemedicine compared with standard care in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, O. W.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: For patients with T2DM does telemedicine, compared with standard care, provide equivalent clinical outcomes? Methods: Forty patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus allocated from October 2011 until July 2012 randomized to either treatment at home by video conferences only or the standard...

  7. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients with acromegaly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreval, A V; Trigolosova, I V; Misnikova, I V; Kovalyova, Y A; Tishenina, R S; Barsukov, I A; Vinogradova, A V; Wolffenbuttel, B H R

    2014-01-01

    Early carbohydrate metabolism disorders (ECMDs) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are frequently associated with acromegaly. We aimed to assess the prevalence of ECMDs in patients with acromegaly and to compare the results with those in adults without acromegaly using two population-based epidemiologic

  8. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients with acromegaly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreval, A V; Trigolosova, I V; Misnikova, I V; Kovalyova, Y A; Tishenina, R S; Barsukov, I A; Vinogradova, A V; Wolffenbuttel, B H R

    2014-01-01

    Early carbohydrate metabolism disorders (ECMDs) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are frequently associated with acromegaly. We aimed to assess the prevalence of ECMDs in patients with acromegaly and to compare the results with those in adults without acromegaly using two population-based epidemiologic sur

  9. Diabetes mellitus, part 1: physiology and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Muralitharan

    In part 1 of this 2-part article the author discusses the physiology and complications of diabetes mellitus (DM), a chronic and progressive disorder which affects all ages of the population. The number of people diagnosed with diabetes is approximately 1.8 million and an estimated further 1 million are undiagnosed (Department of Health, 2005). In the UK, 1-2% of the population have diabetes and among school children this is approximately 2 in 1000 (Watkins, 1996). There are two main types of diabetes--type 1 and type 2 (Porth, 2005). The aetiology of DM is unknown; however, genetic and environmental factors have been linked to its development. Type 1 results from the loss of insulin production in the beta cells of the pancreas, and type 2 from a lack of serum insulin or poor uptake of glucose into the cells. Diabetes causes disease in many organs in the body, which may be life-threatening if untreated. Complications such as heart disease, vascular disease, renal failure and blindness (Roberts, 2005) have all been reported. The increased prevalence may be caused by factors such as environmental aspects, diet, an ageing population and low levels of physical exercise.

  10. Association of Herpes Zoster and Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Hung Chen

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to determine the association of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and the risk of herpes zoster (HZ.In this cohort study, we selected 4736 patients with T1DM registered in the Catastrophic Illness Patient Database who received insulin therapy before 2003 and 18944 participants without DM who were selected by frequency matched based on sex and age. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to measure the hazard ratios (HRs of HZ in the T1DM group compared with that in the non-T1DM group.Cox proportional hazard regression analysis showed that the adjusted HR of HZ was 2.38 times higher for patients in the T1DM group (95% CI = 1.77-3.19 than for those in the non-T1DM group. According to diabetes severity, mild and serious T1DM patients were associated with a higher risk of HZ (adjusted HR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.67-3.05; and adjusted HR = 5.08, 95% CI = 2.66-9.71, respectively than subjects without T1DM.Patients with T1DM are at a higher risk of HZ than those without T1DM.

  11. Exercise Training in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobby Cheema

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Maori and Pacific Islands peoples of New Zealand suffer a greater burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and associated comorbidities than their European counterparts. Empirical evidence supports the clinical application of aerobic and resistance training for effective diabetes management and potential remission, but few studies have investigated the effectiveness of these interventions in specific ethnic cohorts. We recently conducted the first trial to investigate the effect of prescribed exercise training in Polynesian people with T2DM. This article presents the cultural considerations undertaken to successfully implement the study. The research procedures were accepted and approved by cultural liaisons and potential participants. The approved methodology involved a trial evaluating and comparing the effects of two, 16-week exercise regimens (i.e. aerobic training and resistance training on glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c, related diabetes markers (i.e. insulin resistance, blood lipids, relevant cytokines and anthropometric and hemodynamic indices and health-related quality of life. Future exercise-related research or implementation strategies in this cohort should focus on cultural awareness and techniques to enhance participation and compliance. Our approach to cultural consultation could be considered by researchers undertaking trials in this and other ethnic populations suffering an extreme burden of T2DM, including indigenous Australians and Americans.

  12. Diabetes mellitus and the skin*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Adriana Lucia; Miot, Helio Amante; Haddad Junior, Vidal

    2017-01-01

    Several dermatoses are routinely associated with diabetes mellitus, especially in patients with chronic disease. This relationship can be easily proven in some skin disorders, but it is not so clear in others. Dermatoses such necrobiosis lipoidica, granuloma annulare, acanthosis nigricans and others are discussed in this text, with an emphasis on proven link with the diabetes or not, disease identification and treatment strategy used to control those dermatoses and diabetes. PMID:28225950

  13. Immunogenetics of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morran, Michael P; Vonberg, Andrew; Khadra, Anmar; Pietropaolo, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease arising through a complex interaction of both genetic and immunologic factors. Similar to the majority of autoimmune diseases, T1DM usually has a relapsing remitting disease course with autoantibody and T cellular responses to islet autoantigens, which precede the clinical onset of the disease process. The immunological diagnosis of autoimmune diseases relies primarily on the detection of autoantibodies in the serum of T1DM patients. Although their pathogenic significance remains uncertain, they have the practical advantage of serving as surrogate biomarkers for predicting the clinical onset of T1DM. Type 1 diabetes is a polygenic disease with a small number of genes having large effects (i.e. HLA), and a large number of genes having small effects. Risk of T1DM progression is conferred by specific HLA DR/DQ alleles [e.g., DRB1*03-DQB1*0201 (DR3) or DRB1*04-DQB1*0302 (DR4)]. In addition, HLA alleles such as DQB1*0602 are associated with dominant protection from T1DM in multiple populations. A discordance rate of greater than 50% between monozygotic twins indicates a potential involvement of environmental factors on disease development. Viral infections may play a role in the chain of events leading to disease, albeit conclusive evidence linking infections with T1DM remains to be firmly established. Two syndromes have been described in which an immune-mediated form of diabetes occurs as the result of a single gene defect. These syndromes are termed autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type I (APS-I) or autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), and X-linked poyendocrinopathy, immune dysfunction and diarrhea (XPID). These two syndromes are unique models to understand the mechanisms involved in the loss of tolerance to self-antigens in autoimmune diabetes and its associated organ-specific autoimmune disorders. A growing number of animal models of these diseases have greatly helped

  14. Guideline adherence and health outcomes in diabetes mellitus type 2 patients: A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.F. Oude Wesselink (Sandra); H.F. Lingsma (Hester); P.B.M. Robben (Paul); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The complex disease of diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) requires a high standard of quality of care. Clinical practice guidelines define norms for diabetes care that ensure regular monitoring of T2DM patients, including annual diagnostic tests. This study aims to quantify guid

  15. Clinical Observation of Opuntia Dillenii Tablet in Treating Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵湘; 杨君超; 童钟杭; 周永列; 张文海; 戚世伟; 袁国荣

    2002-01-01

    @@ From June to September 1998, we selected Opuntia dillenii tablet (ODT) made from Opuntia dillenii Haw, to make a four-week clinical observation on thirty type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. The study proved that this medicine could improve the glycometabolism of DM patients effectively and avoid the early impairment of renal function of diabetic neuropathy, and it is reported as follows.

  16. A novel Rad gene polymorphism combined with obesity increases risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国英; 牛天华; 陈常忠; 李琼芳; 徐希平

    2004-01-01

    @@ The ras-associated diabetes (Rad) was initially identified by subtraction cloning from the skeletal muscle of humans with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM).1 Rad mRNA expression is markedly increased in the skeletal muscle of type 2 DM patients compared with normal controls.

  17. A diabetes mellitus causa deterioro cognitivo em idosos? Um estudo de revisão

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Regina Maria Fernandes; Nascimento, Roberta Fernandes Lopes do; Wendt,Guilherme Welter; Argimon,Irani I. de Lima

    2013-01-01

    A Diabetes Mellitus (DM) refere-se a uma síndrome metabólica, com prejuízos físicos, sociais e psicológicos naqueles que a possuem. A doença tem um forte componente genético, e é subdividida em Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 (DM1), e Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 (DM2). A DM2 está associada a déficits funcionais e também cognitivos. Pesquisas revelam que as funções executivas dos idosos com DM encontram-se mais prejudicadas do que naqueles sem DM. Com o objetivo de aprofundar esta temática, esse estudo ...

  18. Monitoring the standard of care of diabetes mellitus type 2 in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nadiah A. Alshaheen

    2011-09-26

    Sep 26, 2011 ... ... mellitus (DM) and its high burden on health care systems make diabetes mellitus a ... acute complications and to reduce the risk of long-term com- plications. Diabetes .... the early detection and treatment of microvascular and macro- vascular ... is necessary to control both the micro- and macro-vascular.

  19. E-healthcare for diabetes mellitus type 2 patients – a randomised controlled trial in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iljaž Rade

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Telemonitoring and web-based interventions are increasingly used in primary-care practices in many countries for more effective management of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM. A new approach in treating patients with diabetes mellitus in family practices, based on ICT use and nurse practitioners, has been introduced and evaluated in this study.

  20. Cooperacion transfronteriza en investigacion sobre diabetes mellitus tipo 2: Mexico-Estados Unidos

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Canela-Soler, Jaume; Frontini, Maria; Cerqueira, Maria Teresa; Ruiz-Holguin, Rosalba; Diaz-Apodaca, Beatriz A

    2010-01-01

    .... Se estudio una muestra aleatoria, multietapica, estratificada y por conglomerados de 4 020 personas mayores de 18 anos que respondieron un cuestionario de preguntas relacionadas con la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) y la salud...

  1. Cyclooxygenase 1 (COX1) expression in Type 2 diabetes mellitus: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sushma Verma

    2015-08-10

    Aug 10, 2015 ... India. Sushma Verma a. , Honey Chandra b. , Monisha Banerjee a, ... shows an estimate of 387 million people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) worldwide .... culture plates containing macrophage serum free (MSF) media.

  2. Central obesity increases the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus among urban adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianty Pradono

    2016-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus prevalence in the population aged >15 years increased within 5 years. Lack of physical activity and central obesity were the major risk factors of T2DM prevalence in urban adults.

  3. Pathophysiology of peripheral arterial disease in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shao-Ling; Zhu, Lv-Yun; Han, Rui; Sun, Lei-Lei; Li, Jun-Xia; Dou, Jing-Tao

    2017-02-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) increases the risk of lower extremity amputation. It is also an independent predictor of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular ischemic events, affecting both the quality and expectancy of life. Many studies have demonstrated that the prevalence of PAD in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) is higher than in non-diabetic patients. In diabetic patients, PAD occurs early with rapid progression, and is frequently asymptomatic. Multiple metabolic aberrations in DM, such as advanced glycation end-products, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and abnormal oxidative stress, have been shown to worsen PAD. However, the role of DM in PAD is not completely understood. The purpose of the present article is to review and discuss the pathophysiology of PAD in DM. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. PSEUDOSCLERODERMAL SYNDROME IN DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Nevskaya

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin thicking simulating scleroderma is not rare in diabetes mellitus (about 2% among patients with diabetes mellitus, however it is not well known to rheumatologists and endocrinologists. The basis of the syndrome are the abnormalities of collagen and glycosaminoglycans metabolism accompanying by the acid mucopolysaccharides accumulation in the deep part of the reticular dermis. Three cases of pseudosclerodrma in patients with long-standing complicated insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus are presented. The main clinical manifestations of pseudoscleroderma were marked cutaneous induration of the neck, body and proximal parts of extremities liked that of scleredema of Buschke ( 2 patients, and primary paraarticular induration leaded to the flexion contractures liked that of paraneoplastic scleroderma ( I patient. Possible mechanisms of development, clinical and morphological peculiarities and treatment for this syndrome are discussed.

  5. Treatment of 35 Cases with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus by Acupuncture-moxibustion Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳红; 张沈煜

    2010-01-01

    @@ Diabetes mellitus(DM)is a metabolic syndrome,characterized by long-standing hyperglycemia.The incidence of type 2 diabetes is higher than 90%.Treatment of diabetes by acupuncture existed in ancient times,and as early as in Zhen Jiu Jia Yi Jing(A-B Canon of Acupuncture and Moxibustion),it documented the points selection therapy in treating diabetes.

  6. Study of {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial imaging in diabetics. Comparison between patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and those with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawanaka, Masahiro [Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan)

    2000-12-01

    Myocardial accumulation of MIBG was studied in forty diabetic patients, including 17 with type 1 diabetes mellitus (type 1 DM, mean age 52.1{+-}17 y.) and 23 with type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM, mean age 61.6{+-}12 y.). Sixteen nondiabetic normal volunteers without hypertension (mean age 54.6{+-}16 y.) were studied as controls. Type 2 DM patients showed a significantly lower heart-to-mediastinum ratio (15 min.: 2.34{+-}0.35, 3 hr.: 2.27{+-}0.41) than control subjects (15 min.: 2.73{+-}0.25, 3 hr.: 2.95{+-}0.40) (p<0.05), but Type 2 DM patients did not. Type 2 DM patients showed higher washout rate of MIBG (31.7{+-}12%) than control subjects (19.3{+-}7.4%) (p<0.05), but type 2 DM patients did not. Thirteen of the 17 type 1 DM patients (76.4%) and 12 of the 23 type 2 DM patients (52.2%) showed regional defects on MIBG SPECT. Myocardial MIBG defects in diabetics were mainly found in the inferior, septal and lateral regions of the myocardium. In type 1 DM, the patients with MIBG defects had longer duration of the disease, showed much more decrease of the systolic pressure with standing and lower CV level of the R-R interval on ECG than the patients without MIBG defects, but not in type 2 DM patients. These results show that type 1 DM patients show much more abnormal MIBG accumulation than type 2 DM patients. It suggests that the glycemic control including the early stage of diabetes influences the cardiac sympathetic function in diabetics. (author)

  7. Metabolic endotoxemia and diabetes mellitus: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Júnia Maria Geraldo; Costa, Jorge de Assis; Alfenas, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves

    2017-03-01

    In this systematic review we analyzed studies that assessed serum concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and/or lipopolysacharide-binding protein (LBP) in diabetic patients compared with healthy people. Articles were selected using PubMed and Scopus. Search terms used were endotoxemia, endotoxins, LPS, LBP, diabetes mellitus (DM), type 1 (T1DM), type 2 (T2DM), insulin resistance, humans, epidemiologic studies, population-based, survey, representative, cross-sectional, case-control studies, observational, and clinical trials. Two authors independently extracted articles using predefined data fields, including study quality indicators. There was a great variability in the estimates of metabolic endotoxemia among the studies. Most of the studies observed higher LPS or LBP concentrations in diabetic subjects than in healthy controls. T1DM and T2DM subjects presented higher mean fasting LPS of 235.7% and 66.4% compared with non-diabetic subjects, respectively. Advanced complications (e.g. macroalbuminuria) and disease onset exacerbate endotoxemia. Antidiabetic medications decrease fasting LPS concentrations. Among these medications, rosiglitazone and insulin present higher and lower effects, respectively, compared with other treatments. T1DM and T2DM seem to increase metabolic endotoxemia. However, some confounders such as diet, age, medication, smoking and obesity influence both diabetes and endotoxemia manifestation. A better understanding of the interaction of these factors is still needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus in youth: the evolving chameleon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfayli, Hala; Arslanian, Silva

    2010-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in children and adolescents is an important Public Health problem against the backdrop of the epidemic of childhood obesity. The clinical presentation of T2DM in youth is heterogeneous from minimal symptomatology to diabetic ketoacidosis. The increasing rates of youth T2DM have paralleled the escalating rates of obesity, which is the major risk factor impacting insulin sensitivity. Additional risk factors include minority race, family history of diabetes mellitus, maternal diabetes during pregnancy, pubertal age group and conditions associated with insulin resistance (IR) – such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The pathophysiology of T2DM has been studied extensively in adults, and it is widely accepted that IR together with beta-cell failure are necessary for the development of clinical diabetes mellitus in adulthood. However, pathophysiologic studies in youth are limited and in some cases conflicting. Similar to adults, IR is a prerequisite, but beta-cell failure is necessary for progression from normal glucose tolerance to prediabetes and frank diabetes in youth. Even though rates of T2DM in youth are increasing, the overall prevalence remains low if compared with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). However, as youth with T1DM are becoming obese, the clinical distinction between T2DM and obese T1DM has become difficult, because of the overlapping clinical picture with evidence of islet cell autoimmunity in a significant proportion of clinically diagnosed youth with T2DM. The latter are most likely obese children with autoimmune T1DM who carry a misdiagnosis of T2DM. Further research is needed to probe the pathophysiological, immunological, and metabolic differences between these two groups in the hopes of assigning appropriate therapeutic regimens. These challenges combined with the evolving picture of youth T2DM and its future complications provide unending opportunities for acquisition of new knowledge in the field of

  9. Diabetes Mellitus and Its Correlates in an Iranian Adult Population

    OpenAIRE

    Asieh Golozar; Hooman Khademi; Farin Kamangar; Hossein Poutschi; Farhad Islami; Abnet, Christian C.; Freedman, Neal. D.; Philip R Taylor; Paul Pharoah; Paolo Boffetta; Brennan, Paul J.; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Reza Malekzadeh; Arash Etemadi

    2011-01-01

    The rising epidemic of diabetes imposes a substantial economic burden on the Middle East. Using baseline data from a population based cohort study, we aimed to identify the correlates of diabetes mellitus (DM) in a mainly rural population from Iran. Between 2004 and 2007, 50044 adults between 30 and 87 years old from Golestan Province located in Northeast Iran were enrolled in the Golestan Cohort Study. Demographic and health-related information was collected using questionnaires. Individuals...

  10. Population genetics in minority children with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstein, Robert

    2002-04-01

    Non-insulin dependent (type 2) diabetes mellitus (DM) is a rapidly emerging health threat in minority populations in the United States, with the African-American, Hispanic, and Native American populations at greatest risk. Clearly, environmental factors play a role in this disorder, but the ethnic predilection suggests a significant genetic component. Type 2 DM is a condition not well understood on a genetic basis. Familial clustering and ethnic variation have been documented. The populations of Africans living in diverse environments provide a unique opportunity to study type 2 DM as the mechanism is becoming more clear.

  11. Characteristics of Candida isolates from patients with diabetes mellitus.

    OpenAIRE

    Manfredi, M

    2006-01-01

    The present research has investigated the molecular characterization of oral yeasts in healthy individuals from different dental clinical settings in the United Kingdom, and patients from the UK and Italy who were affected by diabetes mellitus (DM) to determine the impact of DM upon candidal infection of the mouth. In the present study of patients with DM from the UK and Italy a lower than expected incidence of oral candidal infections (7/249, 2.8%) was observed. The presence of oral yeasts a...

  12. Nutrición en la Diabetes Mellitus 2

    OpenAIRE

    González González, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    La Diabetes Mellitus (DM), junto con la obesidad, es considerada como uno de los mayores problemas a nivel mundial. Se caracteriza por una alteración en la producción de insulina y una elevación en los niveles plasmáticos de glucosa. Dicha alteración, si es por déficit absoluto en la producción se conoce como DM tipo 1 o insulinodependiente. Si la alteración se refiere a un déficit relativo en la producción, hablamos de DM tipo 2. En otras ocasiones existe resistencia a la insulina. Los altos...

  13. The effect of ileal interposition surgery on enteroendocrine cell numbers in the UC Davis type 2 diabetes mellitus rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carl Frederik; Vassiliadis, Efstathios; Vrang, Niels

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the short-term effect of ileal interposition (IT) surgery on gut morphology and enteroendocrine cell numbers in the pre-diabetic UC Davis type 2 diabetes mellitus (UCD-T2DM) rat.......To investigate the short-term effect of ileal interposition (IT) surgery on gut morphology and enteroendocrine cell numbers in the pre-diabetic UC Davis type 2 diabetes mellitus (UCD-T2DM) rat....

  14. Periodontitis and Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Straka, Michal; Straka-Trapezanlidis, Michaela

    2007-01-01

    There is general agreement that there is a significant relationship between diabetes and periodontitis. Many studies have shown a high prevalence of periodontitis in diabetic patients. In addition a higher prevalence and more aggressive periodontitis are found in patients with poorly controlled diabetes. The duration of having diabetes is an important factor that affects the progression and severity of periodontitis. Alterations in the host response in diabetics to existing periodontal pa...

  15. Diabetes mellitus and cellular replacement therapy: Expected clinical potential and perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexander; E; Berezin

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus(DM) is the most prevailing disease with progressive incidence worldwide. Despite contemporary treatment type one DM and type two DM are frequently associated with long-term major microvascular and macrovascular complications. Currently restoration of failing β-cell function, regulation of metabolic processes with stem cell transplantation is discussed as complements to contemporary DM therapy regimens. The present review is considered paradigm of the regenerative care and the possibly effects of cell therapy in DM. Reprogramming stem cells, bone marrowderived mononuclear cells; lineage-specified progenitor cells are considered for regenerative strategy in DM. Finally, perspective component of stem cell replacement in DM is discussed.

  16. Knowledge of diabetes mellitus and safe practices during Ramadan fasting among Muslim patients with diabetes mellitus in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainudin, Sueziani Binte; Ang, Dun Yong; Soh, Abel Wah Ek

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to explore the level of knowledge of Muslim patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) regarding DM and the self-management of DM when fasting during Ramadan. Muslim patients with DM attending the Diabetes Centre of Singapore General Hospital, Singapore, were surveyed on their knowledge of DM and self-management of DM when fasting during Ramadan. Data on patient demographics, DM history and management of DM during the previous Ramadan was also collected. A total of 92 patients (34 male, 58 female) were surveyed. The mean age of the patients was 53.4 ± 13.3 years. The patients were either Malay (91.3%) or Indian (8.7%), and most (66.3%) had at least a secondary school education. Most (89.1%) had Type 2 DM. The mean duration of DM was 8.7 ± 5.1 years and mean pre-Ramadan haemoglobin A1c was 8.4% ± 1.8%. DM treatment consisted of insulin therapy (37.0%), oral glucose-lowering drugs (35.9%) and combined therapy (22.8%). The mean DM knowledge score was 58.8% for general knowledge and 75.9% for fasting knowledge. During the previous Ramadan, although 71.4% of the patients consulted their physicians, 37.3% did not monitor their blood glucose levels and 47.0% had hypoglycaemic episodes. Among those who had hypoglycaemia, 10.8% continued to fast. Unsafe self-management practices were observed among DM patients who fasted during Ramadan. Efforts should be made to bridge the gap between knowledge of DM and self-management of DM.

  17. Hemorheological Disorders in Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Young I.; Mooney, Michael P.; Cho, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to review hemorheological disorders in diabetes mellitus. Several key hemorheological parameters, such as whole blood viscosity, erythrocyte deformability, and aggregation, are examined in the context of elevated blood glucose level in diabetes. The erythrocyte deformability is reduced, whereas its aggregation increases, both of which make whole blood more viscous compared to healthy individuals. The present paper explains how the increased blood viscosit...

  18. Rheumatological manifestations in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosso, Angela; Cerinic, Marco Matucci; De Giorgio, Francesca; Minari, Chiara; Rotella, Carlo Maria; Seghieri, Giuseppe

    2006-11-01

    Rheumatological manifestations of Diabetes Mellitus may be classified in: non articular, articular and bone conditions. Among non articular conditions, diabetic cheiroarthropathy, frequent in type I diabetes, the most important disorder related to limited joint mobility, results in stiff skin and joint contractures. Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder, flexor tenosynovitis, and Duputryen's and Peyronie's diseases are also linked to limited joint mobility. Diffuse skeletal hyperostosis, due to calcification at entheses, is frequent and early, particularly in type 2 diabetes. Neuropathies cause some non articular conditions, mainly neuropathic arthritis, a destructive bone and joint condition more common in type I diabetes. Algodistrophy, shoulder-hand and entrapment syndromes are also frequent. Mononeuropathy causes diabetic amyotrophy, characterised by painless muscle weakness. Among muscle conditions, diabetic muscle infarction is a rare, sometimes severe, condition. Among articular conditions, osteoarthritis is frequent and early in diabetes, in which also chondrocalcinosis and gout occur. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and diabetes I have a common genetic background and the presence of diabetes gives to RA an unfavourable prognosis. Among bone conditions, osteopenia and osteoporosis may occur early in type 1 diabetes. Contrarily, in type 2 diabetes, bone mineral density is similar or, sometimes, higher than in non diabetic subjects, probably due to hyperinsulinemia.

  19. The skin landscape in diabetes mellitus. Focus on dermocosmetic management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piérard GE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Gérald E Piérard,1 Sophie Seité,2 Trinh Hermanns-Lê,3 Philippe Delvenne,3 André Scheen,4 Claudine Piérard-Franchimont3 1Laboratory of Skin Bioengineering and Imaging (LABIC, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium; 2La Roche-Posay Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Asnières, France; 3Department of Dermatopathology, Unilab Lg, Liège University Hospital, Liège, Belgium; 4Department of Diabetology, Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases, and Clinical Pharmacology Unit, Liège University Hospital, Liège, Belgium Background: Some relationships are established between diabetes mellitus (DM and a series of cutaneous disorders. Specific dermatoses are markers for undiagnosed DM. Other disorders represent supervening complications in an already treated DM patient. Objective: To review the information about dermocosmetic care products and their appropriate use in the management and prevention of dermatoses related to DM. Method: The peer-reviewed literature and empiric findings are covered. Owing to the limited clinical evidence available for the use of dermocosmetics, a review of the routine practices and common therapies in DM-related dermatoses was conducted. Results: Some DM-related dermatoses (acanthosis nigricans, pigmented purpuric dermatosis are markers of macrovascular complications. The same disorders and some others (xerosis, Dupuytren's disease have been found to be more frequently associated with microangiopathy. Other skin diseases (alopecia areata, vitiligo were found to be markers of autoimmunity, particularly in type 1 DM. Unsurprisingly, using dermocosmetics and appropriate skin care has shown objective improvements of some DM-related dermatoses, such effects improve the quality of life. The most common skin manifestations of DM fall along continuum between "dry skin," xerosis, and acquired ichthyosis, occurring predominately on the shins and feet. Dermocosmetic products improve the feeling of well-being for DM patients. Keywords: diabetes

  20. Bipolar Disorder and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Comorbid endocrine and cardiovascular situations with bipolar disorder usually result from the bipolar disorder itself or as a consequence of its treatment. With habits and lifestyle, genetic tendency and side effects, this situation is becoming more striking. Subpopulations of bipolar disorders patients should be considered at high risk for diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in bipolar disorder may be three times greater than in the general population. Comorbidity of diabetes causes a pathophysiological overlapping in the neurobiological webs of bipolar cases. Signal mechanisms of glycocorticoid/insulin and immunoinflammatory effector systems are junction points that point out the pathophysiology between bipolar disorder and general medical cases susceptible to stress. Glycogen synthetase kinase (GSK-3 is a serine/treonine kinase and inhibits the transport of glucose stimulated by insulin. It is affected in diabetes, cancer, inflammation, Alzheimer disease and bipolar disorder. Hypoglycemic effect of lithium occurs via inhibiting glycogen synthetase kinase. When comorbid with diabetes, the other disease -for example bipolar disorder, especially during its acute manic episodes-, causes a serious situation that presents its influences for a lifetime. Choosing pharmacological treatment and treatment adherence are another important interrelated areas. The aim of this article is to discuss and review the etiological, clinical and therapeutic properties of diabetes mellitus and bipolar disorder comorbidity.

  1. Site of initial diabetes education does not affect metabolic outcomes in children with T1DM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonyushkina, Ksenia N; Visintainer, Paul F; Jasinski, Christopher F; Wadzinski, Thomas L; Allen, Holley F

    2014-03-01

    To determine the difference in metabolic outcomes at 1 and 2 yr post type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) diagnosis in children depending on the site of initial diabetes education: inpatient, vs. outpatient, vs. mixed locations. A retrospective chart review was performed for all patients with new onset antibody positive T1DM, aged 1-18 yr old, diagnosed in 2004-2009, and followed for at least 1 yr in a diabetes program at a tertiary academic health care center. Patients were divided into three groups based on the site of initial diabetes education: inpatient, outpatient, and mixed locations. The primary outcome was A1c at 1 and 2 yr. We enrolled 238 children (133 boys), mean (± SD) age 9.9 (± 4.1). A1c levels did not differ among inpatient, outpatient, and mixed location groups at 1 and 2 yr post diagnosis (p = 0.85 and p = 0.69, respectively) and the long-acting insulin doses were similar at 1 and 2 yr (p = 0.18 and p = 0.15, respectively). There was no difference in the number of acute diabetes complications between the groups. At 1 yr, 21.8% of outpatient-educated children were on insulin pump therapy in contrast to 14.7% of inpatient and 2.7% of mixed educated groups (p = 0.04). Families of children with new onset T1DM can be successfully and safely educated in a clinic setting. An 'education' admission for a medically stable patient is not necessary most of the time, however, clinical judgment and careful assessment of the family's coping and learning capabilities are important when determining the site of education. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. A Different Perspective for Management of Diabetes Mellitus: Controlling Viral Liver Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yingying; Xing, Huichun

    2017-01-01

    Knowing how to prevent and treat diabetes mellitus (DM) earlier is essential to improving outcomes. Through participating in synthesis and catabolism of glycogen, the liver helps to regulate glucose homeostasis. Viral related liver diseases are associated with glycometabolism disorders, which means effective management of viral liver diseases may be a therapeutic strategy for DM. The present article reviews the correlation between DM and liver diseases to give an update of the management of DM rooted by viral liver diseases.

  3. A systematic review of the role of renin angiotensin aldosterone system genes in diabetes mellitus, diabetic retinopathy and diabetic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Rahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS plays a vital role in regulating glucose metabolism and blood pressure, electrolyte and fluid homeostasis. The aim of this systematic review is to assess the association of the RAAS genes with diabetes mellitus (DM and its complications of retinopathy, neuropathy and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Materials and Methods: The relevant English-language studies were identified using the key words of DM, type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM, T2DM, renin angiotensin aldosterone polymorphisms or genotypes and RAAS from the search engines of MEDLINE/PubMed, and Scopus from January 1, 1995 to July 30, 2014. Inclusion criteria for selecting relevant studies were reporting the role of RAAS gene variants in the pathogenesis of T1DM or T2DM, diabetic retinopathy (DR, diabetic neuropathy and cardiovascular complication of DM. Results: The reviewers identified 204 studies of which 73 were eligible for inclusion in the present systematic review. The review indicates the angiotensinogen (AGT M235T polymorphism might not affect the risk of DM. The role of angiotensin converting enzyme insertion/deletion (ACE I/D and angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene (AT1R A1166C polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of DM could not be established. Studies indicate the absence of an association between three polymorphisms of AGT M235T, ACE I/D and AT1R A1166C and DR in DM patients. A protective role for ACE II genotype against diabetic peripheral neuropathy has been suggested. Also, the ACE I/D polymorphism might be associated with the risk of CVD in DM patients. Conclusion: More studies with adequate sample size that investigate the influence of all RAAS gene variants together on the risk of DM and its complications are necessary to provide a more clear picture of the RAAS genes polymorphisms involvement in the pathogenesis of DM and its complications.

  4. Studies on childhood diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. Bruining

    1984-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis consists of a number of collaborative studies aimed at the improvement of the diagnosis and care of children with diabetes mellitus. For the reader, who is not familiar with medical problems, a brief account is given of the clinical "behavior" of the disease ( 1) . It is perh

  5. Gestational diabetes mellitus in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Lynge; Olesen, Jesper; Jørgensen, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Within the last 20 years, the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been reported to be increasing worldwide in correlation with ethnic and geographic variations. The actual prevalence of GDM throughout all of Greenland remains unknown. Objective. The aim of this study...

  6. Gestational diabetes mellitus in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Lynge; Olesen, Jesper; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Within the last 20 years, the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been reported to be increasing worldwide in correlation with ethnic and geographic variations. The actual prevalence of GDM throughout all of Greenland remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study...

  7. Glukagonomsyndrom uden diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Carsten Sauer; Mikkelsen, Dorthe Bisgaard; Vestergaard, Vibeke

    2008-01-01

    without diabetes. Glucagonoma syndrome is characterized by glucagon overproduction, diabetes, depression, deep venous thrombosis and necrolytic migrating erythema. Glucagonoma is frequently diagnosed late which increases the risk of metastases. It is important not to rule out glucagonoma in patients...... with a relevant clinical picture but without diabetes. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Nov-17...

  8. Association of ABO blood groups with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narazah Mohd Yusoff

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: So far no studies have been performed in Malaysia to look at association of diabetes mellitus (DM with blood groups. We studied the association of ABO blood groups with DM type 2. Patients and methodology: It was a case control study conducted at Kepala Batas Hospital Batas, Penang, Malaysia in the year 2009, involving 70 patients with DM type 2 and 140 healthy controls. Ethical approval was obtained from Universiti Sains Malaysia. Blood samples were collected from the patients after consent. Samples were tested for ABO blood groups using ID-Card gel method. Results: Chi-square test results showed that there was an association between the ABO blood groups and DM type 2. It was found that A and O blood groups were negatively associated with DM type 2 (P<0.05 with higher percentage of A and O groups individuals were non-diabetic. No significant association was noted between DM type 2 and blood groups B (P=0.423 and AB (P=0.095. It was also noted that B blood group was distributed with highest percentage among patients with DM type 2 (53.71% compared to controls (22.52%, but no statistical significance achieved. Conclusion: The results obtained suggest that there was a negative association between ABO blood groups A and O with DM type 2, with A and O group having less chances of diabetes. Large studies in other ethnic groups are needed to confirm these results.

  9. Should we screen for emotional distress in type 2 diabetes mellitus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouwer, Francois

    2009-01-01

    assessments of emotional well-being in patients with T2DM. However, this recommendation is not based on strong evidence, as the effects of screening (case-finding) on psychological outcomes and diabetes outcomes have not been tested in a randomized controlled study. Results from studies in patients without T2......Emotional problems such as depression, anxiety and diabetes-specific distress are common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) but often remain unrecognized and thus untreated. The present Review focuses on the extent of this problem and discusses whether we should screen for depression......DM have shown that screening for depression does not improve outcomes. On the other hand, collaborative care approaches for depression in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) or T2DM seem to be effective. Intervention studies for anxiety or diabetes-specific emotional distress are currently...

  10. Rare types of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, B; Mihai, Cătălina; Cijevschi-Prelipcean, Cristina; Lăcătuşu, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a heterogenous disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and induced by a large number of etiopathogenic conditions. Beside type 1 and type 2 diabetes, which account for almost 90% of all cases, practitioners may encounter patients with more infrequent forms of diabetes, as those induced by mutations of a single gene, atypical immune disorders or neonatal diabetes. Monogenic diabetes is represented by genetic disorders in the structure of the beta-cell (the MODY syndromes and the mutations of mitochondrial DNA) or in the insulin's action (type A insulin resistance syndrome, Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome, leprechaunism, lipodystrophies). The rare forms of immune diabetes are determined by antibodies against insulin or insulin receptor or appear as a component of the "stiff man syndrome". Neonatal diabetes is induced by mutations in genes that control beta-cell development and function and may have a transient or permanent nature. Knowledge of the uncommon forms of diabetes mellitus enables physicians to apply the optimal treatment, to estimate the evolution of the patient and to apply a complete family screening in order to diagnose all other blood relatives as soon as possible.

  11. Team care of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Yuan; Yu, Neng-Chun; Sheu, Wayne Huey-Herng; Tsai, Shih-Tzer; Tai, Tong-Yuan

    2014-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global health-care and national policy issue. As fluctuating glycemic control in diabetes often results in serious complications, we must encourage the diabetes educators' efforts at long-term follow-up among patients with T2DM. Therefore, certified diabetes educators (CDEs) play the most pivotal roles as life-long protectors for patients with T2DM. In the past 15 years, more than 4,000 CDEs have been trained and qualified, including health professionals such as physicians, nurses, dieticians, and pharmacists. The most important initiation of diabetes share care in Taiwan was originated in I-Lan County. Initiated to provide regional diabetes care, the name of this program is the Lan-Yang Diabetes Shared Care System. In 2006, the Taiwanese Association of Diabetes Educators (TADE) carried out a nationwide survey to evaluate the status of diabetes control in Taiwan, focusing on the "ABC" goal (A: HbA1c Five years later, in 2011, TADE compared two nationwide surveys and found total ABC attainment rates of 4.1% and 8.6%, respectively. The team-care approach to T2DM has been underway for over 20 years in Taiwan. Future interventions and treatment algorithms with team-based education should aim at preventing acute and chronic complications, which remains a long-term challenge in Taiwan.

  12. Diabetes mellitus and periodontal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealey, Brian L; Oates, Thomas W

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with practical knowledge concerning the relationship between diabetes mellitus and periodontal diseases. Over 200 articles have been published in the English literature over the past 50 years examining the relationship between these two chronic diseases. Data interpretation is often confounded by varying definitions of diabetes and periodontitis and different clinical criteria applied to prevalence, extent, and severity of periodontal diseases, levels of glycemic control, and complications associated with diabetes. This article provides a broad overview of the predominant findings from research published in English over the past 20 years, with reference to certain "classic" articles published prior to that time. This article describes current diagnostic and classification criteria for diabetes and answers the following questions: 1) Does diabetes affect the risk of periodontitis, and does the level of metabolic control of diabetes have an impact on this relationship? 2) Do periodontal diseases affect the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus or the metabolic control of diabetes? 3) What are the mechanisms by which these two diseases interrelate? and 4) How do people with diabetes and periodontal disease respond to periodontal treatment? Diabetes increases the risk of periodontal diseases, and biologically plausible mechanisms have been demonstrated in abundance. Less clear is the impact of periodontal diseases on glycemic control of diabetes and the mechanisms through which this occurs. Inflammatory periodontal diseases may increase insulin resistance in a way similar to obesity, thereby aggravating glycemic control. Further research is needed to clarify this aspect of the relationship between periodontal diseases and diabetes.

  13. Influence of diabetes mellitus on heart failure risk and outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Belle Eric

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Our aim is to summarize and discuss the recent literature linking diabetes mellitus with heart failure, and to address the issue of the optimal treatment for diabetic patients with heart failure. The studies linking diabetes mellitus (DM with heart failure (HF The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in heart failure populations is close to 20% compared with 4 to 6% in control populations. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an increased risk of heart failure in diabetics; moreover, in diabetic populations, poor glycemic control has been associated with an increased risk of heart failure. Various mechanisms may link diabetes mellitus to heart failure: firstly, associated comorbidities such as hypertension may play a role; secondly, diabetes accelerates the development of coronary atherosclerosis; thirdly, experimental and clinical studies support the existence of a specific diabetic cardiomyopathy related to microangiopathy, metabolic factors or myocardial fibrosis. Subgroup analyses of randomized trials demonstrate that diabetes is also an important prognostic factor in heart failure. In addition, it has been suggested that the deleterious impact of diabetes may be especially marked in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. Treatment of heart failure in diabetic patients The knowledge of the diabetic status may help to define the optimal therapeutic strategy for heart failure patients. Cornerstone treatments such as ACE inhibitors or beta-blockers appear to be uniformly beneficial in diabetic and non diabetic populations. However, in ischemic cardiomyopathy, the choice of the revascularization technique may differ according to diabetic status. Finally, clinical studies are needed to determine whether improved metabolic control might favorably influence the outcome of diabetic heart failure patients.

  14. Effects of valsartan on diabetic cardiomyopathy in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhong-hua; PENG Xiao-dong

    2010-01-01

    Background The development of diabetic cardiomyopathy is multifactorial. Insulin resistance (IR) and excessive activity of the renin-angiotensin system are confirmed reasons for diabetic cardiomyopathy. Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors can reduce tissue Ang Ⅱ levels, with beneficial effects on cardiovascular function. Therefore, in type-2diabetes mellitus (T2DM), blockade of the RAS may have the function of protecting against diabetic cardiomyopathy through increasing insulin sensitivity and inhibiting excessive activity of RAS. However, this has not been confirmed.Methods The effect of valsartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), on diabetic cardiomyopathy in the presence of T2DM was studied. Wistar rats with T2DM and T2DM treated with valsartan were studied. Glucose infusion rates (GIR),index of IR, heart weight, the heart weight-to-body weight ratio (HW/BW), myocardial apoptotic index, cardiac hydroxyprolin content, and cardiac tissue collagen type Ⅰ and collagen type Ⅲ content were measured.Results GIR in T2DM rats and T2DM rats treated with valsartan decreased (P <0.01). In T2DM rats treated with valsartan, heart weight, myocardial apoptotic index, cardiac hydroxyprolin content, and cardiac tissue collagen type Ⅰ and collagen type Ⅲ content were higher than in control rats, but lower than in T2DM rats. In rats with T2DM, GIR was negatively and significantly correlated with all the variables. However, in T2DM rats treated with valsartan or normal control rats, none of the correlations was significant.Conclusions In the presence of T2DM, diabetic cardiomyopathy is related with IR. Valsartan can not alleviate IR, but can protect against diabetic cardiomyopathy and remove the correlation between IR and diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  15. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, S; Tandon, Nikhil

    2013-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) which used to be a disease of adults is now seen commonly at an early age in children and adolescents. T2DM is now an important diagnostic consideration in children who present with signs and symptoms of diabetes. The emerging epidemic of obesity in children throughout the world and the resultant insulin resistance contributes to the increasing prevalence of T2DM in this population. The recommended treatment options include metformin and insulin. Optimal glycemic control is essential considering the lifelong nature of the disease and therefore, the increased risk of long term complications - both microvascular and macrovascular. This review article summarizes the classification, diagnosis, pathogenesis, management, complications and screening of T2DM in children, incorporating and contextualizing guidelines from various professional associations.

  16. Management of type 2 diabetes mellitus associated with pituitary gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Omar; Banerjee, Swati; Kelly, Daniel F; Lee, Phillip D K

    2007-01-01

    Pituitary gigantism, a condition of endogenous growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion prior to epiphyseal closure, is a rare condition. In the adult condition of GH excess, acromegaly, the occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) have been reported, with resolution following normalization of GH levels. We report the case of a 16-year-old male with pituitary gigantism due to a large invasive suprasellar adenoma who presented with T2DM and DKA. Despite surgical de-bulking, radiotherapy and medical treatment with cabergoline and pegvisomant, GH and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels remained elevated. However, the T2DM and recurrent DKA were successfully managed with metformin and low-dose glargine insulin, respectively. We review the pathophysiology of T2DM and DKA in growth hormone excess and available treatment options.

  17. GLYCATED HEMOGLOBIN AND FRUCTOSAMINE IN DOGS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olair Carlos Beltrame

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM commonly occurs in dogs, and the laboratorial confirmation is carried out by glycemia test. The diagnosis and monitoring in humans is made by glycated hemoglobin and fructosamine concentrations. The objective of this study was to diagnose DM in 19 dogs, by evaluating seric glucose, glycated hemoglobin and fructosamine concentrations. Six dogs with DM and treated with insulin were assisted during a twelve-month period, by means of the same blood analysis, until the death (three dogs or glycemic control (three dogs. Glucose, glycated hemoglobin and fructosamine increased in all dogs with DM, and dogs that did not survive presented higher glycated hemoglobin and seric glucose values than those that survived at the last evaluation. The results showed the importance of evaluating glycated hemoglobin and fructosamine in dogs with DM to diagnose and control treatment effectiveness.

  18. [Simvastatin's effect on insulin resistance in rats with diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskakova, S; Zharmakhanova, G; Bekmukhambetov, Y; Dworacka, M; Dworacki, G

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to estimate the effect of Simvastatin on glycemic variability-related insulin resistance in the course of diabetes mellitus (DM) in rats. Fifty seven male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: I - rats with diabetes mellitus and glycemic variability treated with Simvastatin (20 mg/kg body weight, intragastral during 8 weeks); II - placebo-treated rats with DM and glycemic variability; III - placebo treated rats with DM and IV - nondiabetic control rats. DM was induced by feeding rats with high-fat diet (61%) during five weeks and low-dose of Streptozotocin (30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Daily glucose excursions were stimulated by feeding animals twice a day. We measured fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin and HOMAIR was calculated. Higher insulin resistance in diabetic rats is related to greater daily glycemic variability. In our study was installed significant increasing HOMAIR in diabetics rats with glycemic excursions comparison with the control. Our results showed that the simvastatin-treatment decreases the indices glycemic variability and HOMA in diabetic rats with glycemic excursions.

  19. Infantile onset diabetes mellitus in developing countries-India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Poovazhagi; Varadarajan

    2016-01-01

    Infantile onset diabetes mellitus(IODM) is an uncommon metabolic disorder in children. Infants with onset of diabetes mellitus(DM) at age less than one year are likely to have transient or permanent neonatal DM or rarely type 1 diabetes. Diabetes with onset below 6 mo is a heterogeneous disease caused by single gene mutations. Literature on IODM is scanty in India. Nearly 83% of IODM cases present with diabetic keto acidosis at the onset. Missed diagnosis was common in infants with diabetes(67%). Potassium channel mutation with sulphonylurea responsiveness is the common type in the non-syndromic IODM and Wolcott Rallison syndrome is the common type in syndromic diabetes. Developmental delay and seizures were the associated co-morbid states. Genetic diagnosis has made a phenomenal change in the management of IODM. Switching from subcutaneous insulin to oral hypoglycemic drugs is a major clinical breakthrough in the management of certain types of monogenic diabetes. Mortality in neonatal diabetes is 32.5% during follow-up from Indian studies. This article is a review of neonatal diabetes and available literature on IODM from India.

  20. Infantile onset diabetes mellitus in developing countries - India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadarajan, Poovazhagi

    2016-03-25

    Infantile onset diabetes mellitus (IODM) is an uncommon metabolic disorder in children. Infants with onset of diabetes mellitus (DM) at age less than one year are likely to have transient or permanent neonatal DM or rarely type 1 diabetes. Diabetes with onset below 6 mo is a heterogeneous disease caused by single gene mutations. Literature on IODM is scanty in India. Nearly 83% of IODM cases present with diabetic keto acidosis at the onset. Missed diagnosis was common in infants with diabetes (67%). Potassium channel mutation with sulphonylurea responsiveness is the common type in the non-syndromic IODM and Wolcott Rallison syndrome is the common type in syndromic diabetes. Developmental delay and seizures were the associated co-morbid states. Genetic diagnosis has made a phenomenal change in the management of IODM. Switching from subcutaneous insulin to oral hypoglycemic drugs is a major clinical breakthrough in the management of certain types of monogenic diabetes. Mortality in neonatal diabetes is 32.5% during follow-up from Indian studies. This article is a review of neonatal diabetes and available literature on IODM from India.

  1. The skin landscape in diabetes mellitus. Focus on dermocosmetic management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piérard, Gérald E; Seité, Sophie; Hermanns-Lê, Trinh; Delvenne, Philippe; Scheen, André; Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine

    2013-01-01

    Background Some relationships are established between diabetes mellitus (DM) and a series of cutaneous disorders. Specific dermatoses are markers for undiagnosed DM. Other disorders represent supervening complications in an already treated DM patient. Objective To review the information about dermocosmetic care products and their appropriate use in the management and prevention of dermatoses related to DM. Method The peer-reviewed literature and empiric findings are covered. Owing to the limited clinical evidence available for the use of dermocosmetics, a review of the routine practices and common therapies in DM-related dermatoses was conducted. Results Some DM-related dermatoses (acanthosis nigricans, pigmented purpuric dermatosis) are markers of macrovascular complications. The same disorders and some others (xerosis, Dupuytren’s disease) have been found to be more frequently associated with microangiopathy. Other skin diseases (alopecia areata, vitiligo) were found to be markers of autoimmunity, particularly in type 1 DM. Unsurprisingly, using dermocosmetics and appropriate skin care has shown objective improvements of some DM-related dermatoses, such effects improve the quality of life. The most common skin manifestations of DM fall along continuum between “dry skin,” xerosis, and acquired ichthyosis, occurring predominately on the shins and feet. Dermocosmetic products improve the feeling of well-being for DM patients. PMID:23696712

  2. Imaging of the brain in children with type I diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L. [University of California, Davis Medical Center, Department of Radiology, UC Davis Children' s Hospital, Sacramento, CA (United States); Glaser, Nicole S. [University of California, Davis Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, UC Davis Children' s Hospital, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) affects about 1 in 500 children and can cause damage to multiple organ systems. In recent years, growing attention has been given to the effects of type 1 DM on the brain. In this article we review important imaging features of the brain in children with type 1 DM, including (1) imaging the child in diabetic ketoacidosis and the child with hypoglycemia, (2) syndromes associated with type 1 DM, and (3) long-term effects of type 1 DM on brain structure. (orig.)

  3. Interventions to Improve Rate of Diabetes Testing Postpartum in Women With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Maureen S; Werner, Erika F

    2017-02-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common medical complications of pregnancy. In the USA, four million women are screened annually for GDM in pregnancy in part to improve pregnancy outcomes but also because diagnosis predicts a high risk of future type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Therefore, among women with GDM, postpartum care should be focused on T2DM prevention. This review describes the current literature aimed to increase postpartum diabetes testing among women with GDM. Data suggest that proactive patient contact via a health educator, a phone call, or even postal mail is associated with higher rates of postpartum diabetes testing. There may also be utility to changing the timing of postpartum diabetes testing. Despite the widespread knowledge regarding the importance of postpartum testing for women with GDM, testing rates remain low. Alternative testing strategies and large randomized trials addressing postpartum testing are warranted.

  4. Pancreatic disorders and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisterfeld, R; Ehehalt, F; Saeger, H D; Solimena, M

    2008-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common disease among patients with pancreatic cancer and chronic pancreatitis, disorders of the exocrine pancreas. Different clinical features of diabetes are associated with these two conditions: hyperinsulinemia and peripheral insulin resistance are the prevailing diabetic traits in pancreatic cancer, whereas reduced islet cell mass and impaired insulin secretion are typically observed in chronic pancreatitis. Whether or not a causal relationship exists between diabetes and pancreatic carcinoma is an intriguing but unanswered question. Diabetes often precedes pancreatic cancer and is thus regarded as a potential risk factor for malignancy. Conversely, pancreatic cancer may secrete diabetogenic factors. Given these findings, there is increasing interest in whether close monitoring of the glycemic profile may aid early detection of pancreatic tumor lesions.

  5. Diabetes mellitus and oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Radhika

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by abnormal secretion and metabolic action of insulin. Hyperglycemia, the key feature of this endocrine disorder causes multisystem damage leading to untoward effects in various tissues collectively referred to as "Diabetic complications". Diabetes alters the oral health to a great extent. Indeed, periodontitis has been reported as the sixth complication of this disease. This article gives an overview of the oral effects of diabetes with an emphasis on periodontal disease and its relationship with cardiovascular disorders and pre-term birth. Dental considerations for management of these patients and recent advances in the dental field with respect to diabetes are also highlighted.

  6. Comparison of myocardial perfusion after successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction with versus without diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, [No Value; van der Horst, ICC; de Luca, G; Ottervanger, JP; Hoorntje, JCA; de Boer, MJ; Suryapranata, H; Gosselink, M; Zijlstra, F; van't Hof, AWJ; Dambrink, Jan Hendrik Everwijn

    2005-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have an adverse prognosis after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Whether DM was associated with impaired myocardial reperfusion after successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention for STEMI was investigated. Myocardial reperfusion was a

  7. Marijuana Use and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidney, Stephen

    2016-11-01

    Marijuana is used by millions of people, with use likely to increase in the USA because of the trend towards increased decriminalization and legalization. Obesity and diabetes mellitus (DM) rates have increased dramatically in the USA over the past 30 years, with a recent estimate of 29 million individuals with DM. Because there is a plausible link between marijuana use and diabetes due to the known effects of cannabinoids on adipose tissue and glucose/insulin metabolism, it is important to study and understand how marijuana use is related to obesity and diabetes. This paper provides background on the human endocannabinoid system and studies of the association of marijuana use with body mass index/obesity, metabolic syndrome, prediabetes, and diabetes. The studies to date have shown that marijuana use is associated with either lower odds or no difference in the odds of diabetes than non-use.

  8. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy associated with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Fatehi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Various forms of neuropathy are seen diabetic patients; chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP seems not to be infrequent neuropathy in patients suffering from diabetes and it seems to be more common than in the general population; on the contrary, some authorities do not support pathogenetic association between diabetes mellitus (DM and CIDP. Also, there are some controversies on the subject of CIDP treatment in diabetic patients. Some studies showed that patients with CIDP-DM considerably had recovered following treatment with immunotherapeutic modalities like (Intravenous immunoglobulin IVIG and conversely, some else have argued against the prescription of IVIG in this group and recommend treatment with corticosteroids and provided that resistant, rituximab may be beneficial. The main limitation in most studies is the inadequate number of cases and as a result, problematic decision making in treatment. This article represents an inclusive review of diabetic CIDP presentation and treatment.

  9. The History of Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjeet Singh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes has been recognised since antiquity. The first description that resembles the features of the disease is found in Ebers papyrus (1550 BC. The term ";diabetes"; was first coined by Aretaeus of Cappadocia. Galen described it as a disease specific to the kidneys because of a weakness in their retentive faculties. Word mellitus was added by Thomas Willis in 1675 after rediscovering the sweetness of urine and blood of patients (first noticed by the ancient Indians, Chinese and Japanese. He later noticed that some urine samples were sweet (diabetes mellitus whereas others were tasteless (diabetes insipidus. Later Cullen and John Rollo confirmed these two types. It was only in 1776 that Dobson firstly confirmed the presence of excess sugar in urine and blood as a cause of their sweetness. Claude Bernard discovered in 1857 that liver releases a substance i.e. glycogen which affects blood sugar level. The role of the pancreas in pathogenesis of diabetes was discovered by Mering and Minkowski in 1889. In 1909, Jean De Meyer named glucose lowering hormone as insulin whose existence was hypothetical at that time. Banting and Macleod got Noble prize for isolating insulin in 1923. Discovery of insulin for the treatment of diabetes represents one of the major humanitarian and scientific milestones of the 20th century. Oral hypoglycemic drugs were introduced later. Today researchers are working on insulin patch, implantable pump, insulin-sensitizers, pancreatic or islet cell transplantation and oral insulin solution.

  10. Copper in Diabetes Mellitus: a Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review of Plasma and Serum Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Qihong; Zhang, Fuping; Zhu, Wenjun; Wu, Juan; Liang, Min

    2017-05-01

    Copper (Cu) is an important trace element involved in oxidative stress, which is associated with the onset and progression of diabetes mellitus (DM). However, clinical studies comparing plasma or serum Cu levels in patients with DM and in healthy individuals report conflicting findings. Therefore, in this meta-analysis, we analyzed the circulating levels of Cu associated with DM (including type 1 diabetes mellitus [T1DM] and type 2 diabetes mellitus [T2DM]). We searched the articles indexed in PubMed, OVID, and Cochrane databases, published through January 2016 and meeting our predefined criteria. Requisite data were extracted, and a random-effect model or a fixed-effect model was used to conduct the meta-analysis. Fifteen eligible studies involving a total of 1079 DM patients and 561 healthy controls were identified. Overall, the DM patients showed higher Cu levels than the healthy controls (plasma Cu mean difference [MD] = 1.69 μmol/L, p diabetes also indicated higher levels of Cu in the plasma and serum of DM patients than in healthy controls, respectively. Stratification of DM patients associated with and without complications also revealed similar results. This meta-analysis suggests that DM patients carried higher levels of Cu than healthy individuals. However, international cohort studies are needed to corroborate our findings.

  11. Glukagonomsyndrom uden diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Carsten Sauer; Mikkelsen, Dorthe Bisgaard; Vestergaard, Vibeke

    2008-01-01

    without diabetes. Glucagonoma syndrome is characterized by glucagon overproduction, diabetes, depression, deep venous thrombosis and necrolytic migrating erythema. Glucagonoma is frequently diagnosed late which increases the risk of metastases. It is important not to rule out glucagonoma in patients......A patient developed depression, weight loss, ulcers and a migrating, denuded erythematous skin area. Punch biopsy revealed necrolytic migrating erythema. Computerised tomography and endoscopic ultrasound showed a solid tumour of the pancreas. A blood sample showed an increased level of glucagon...... with a relevant clinical picture but without diabetes. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Nov-17...

  12. Endothelial dysfunction in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi AR Hadi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hadi AR Hadi, Jassim Al SuwaidiDepartment of Cardiology and Cardiovascular Surgery, Hamad General Hospital – Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, State of Qatar; Department of Cardioscience, Sheikh Khalifa Medical City, Abu Dhabi, UAEAbstract: Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, even in the presence of intensive glycemic control. Substantial clinical and experimental evidence suggest that both diabetes and insulin resistance cause a combination of endothelial dysfunctions, which may diminish the anti-atherogenic role of the vascular endothelium. Both insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction appear to precede the development of overt hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, in patients with diabetes or insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction may be a critical early target for preventing atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Microalbuminuria is now considered to be an atherosclerotic risk factor and predicts future cardiovascular disease risk in diabetic patients, in elderly patients, as well as in the general population. It has been implicated as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and premature cardiovascular mortality for patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, as well as for patients with essential hypertension. A complete biochemical understanding of the mechanisms by which hyperglycemia causes vascular functional and structural changes associated with the diabetic milieu still eludes us. In recent years, the numerous biochemical and metabolic pathways postulated to have a causal role in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular disease have been distilled into several unifying hypotheses. The role of chronic hyperglycemia in the development of diabetic microvascular complications and in neuropathy has been clearly established. However, the biochemical or cellular links between elevated blood glucose levels, and the vascular lesions remain

  13. Endothelial and platelet markers in diabetes mellitus type 2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Kubisz; Lucia Stanciaková; Ján Stasko; Peter Galajda; Marián Mokáň

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an extremely common disorder which carries a risk of vascular impairment. DM type2 (DM2) can be characterized by the dysfunction ofhaemostasis manifesting by stimulated coagulation process,disorder of platelet function and decreased fibrinolyticactivity. These all are the reasons why DM2 is the mostcommon acquired thrombophilia. Endothelial dysfunctionalong with platelet hyperactivity are unquestionablyinvolved in the hyperactivation of platelets and clottingfactors in DM. As a natural consequence of continuousinvestigation, many markers of endothelial dysfunctionand diabetic thrombocytopathy have been identifiedand considered for implementation in clinical practice.Endothelial function can be assessed by the evaluationof endothelial markers, circulating molecules synthesisedin various amounts by the endothelium. These markersprecede the signs of evident microangiopathy. Plateletshave an ethiopathogenic relation to the microangiopathy inDM. Their increased activity was confirmed in both typesof DM. Predictors of endothelial and platelet disorder couldimprove the screening of individuals at increased risk, thusleading to the early diagnosis, appropriate treatment, aswell as to the effective prevention of the complications ofDM2. In the article we deal with the mechanisms involvedin the pathogenesis of endothelial and platelet functionalabnormalities, endothelial and platelet markers of DM2considered for implementation in clinical practice andpossibilities of their detection.

  14. Diabetes mellitus in Nigeria: The past, present and future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anthonia; Okeoghene; Ogbera; Chukwuma; Ekpebegh

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus(DM) is a diverse group of metabolic disorders that is often associated with a high disease burden in developing countries such as Nigeria. In the early nineties, not much was known about DM in Nigeria and traditionally, people related DM to “curses” or “hexes” and diagnosis was made based on blood or urinary tests for glucose. Currently, oral hypoglycaemic agents but not insulin are readily accessible and acceptable to persons with DM. The cost of diabetes care is borne in most instances by individuals and often payment is “out of pocket”-this being a sequel of a poorly functional national health insurance scheme. An insulin requiring individual on a minimum wage would spend 29% of his monthly income on insulin. Complementary and alternative medicines are widely used by persons with DM and form an integral component of DM care. Towards reducing the burden of DM in Nigeria, we suggest that there be concerted efforts by healthcare professionals and stakeholders in the health industry to put in place preventative measures, a better functioning health insurance scheme and a structured DM program.

  15. Diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in urban adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Rodrigues Júnior

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Estimating the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT in the urban population aged between 30 and 69 years in the municipality of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Methods: Population-based cross-sectional study conducted between October/2009 and February/2011. The investigation included the determination of fasting glucose and participants with blood glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL were considered diabetic. Nondiabetic patients, which showed blood glucose ≥ 100 mg/dL and < 200 mg/dL, underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT to investigate whether they had DM or IGT. Results: 1.429 individuals participated in this investigation. The general prevalence, adjusted for sex and age, were: 12.3% for DM (95%CI: 10.5 to 13.9% and 7.1% for IGT (95%CI: 5.7 to 8.4%. There was a higher prevalence of DM with increasing age in people with low educational level, family history of diabetes, overweight, obesity and central obesity. Among diabetic patients (n = 195, 25% were unaware they had the disease and were diagnosed through investigation. Among patients who already knew they had DM (n = 146, 37% were unaware of the potential chronic complications. Conclusion: This study confirms the increased prevalence of DM in Brazil and emphasizes the need for early diagnosis, as well as the importance of strict adherence to medical treatment in order to prevent its much feared complications.

  16. Trabecular bone histomorphometry in humans with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Laura A G; Akhter, Mohammed P; Drincic, Andjela; Recker, Robert R

    2012-01-01

    Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) have markedly increased risk of fracture, but little is known about abnormalities in bone microarchitecture or remodeling properties that might give insight into the pathogenesis of skeletal fragility in these patients. We report here a case-control study comparing bone histomorphometric and micro-CT results from iliac biopsies in 18 otherwise healthy subjects with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus with those from healthy age- and sex-matched non-diabetic control subjects. Five of the diabetics had histories of low-trauma fracture. Transilial bone biopsies were obtained after tetracycline labeling. The biopsy specimens were fixed, embedded, and scanned using a desktop μCT at 16 μm resolution. They were then sectioned and quantitative histomorphometry was performed as previously described by Recker et al. [1]. Two sections, >250 μm apart, were read from the central part of each biopsy. Overall there were no significant differences between diabetics and controls in histomorphometric or micro-CT measurements. However, fracturing diabetics had structural and dynamic trends different from nonfracturing diabetics by both methods of analysis. In conclusion, Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus does not result in abnormalities in bone histomorphometric or micro-CT variables in the absence of manifest complications from the diabetes. However, diabetics suffering fractures may have defects in their skeletal microarchitecture that may underlie the presence of excess skeletal fragility.

  17. Screening and intervention of diabetes mellitus in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in poverty zones in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qiuzhen; Han, Xiuxia; Ma, Aiguo;

    2012-01-01

    The merging epidemics of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and diabetes mellitus (DM) have been raised concerns by many experts but no large scale screening and intervention have been launched yet, especially in low-income areas. The current study aims to understand the prevalence of DM in active PTB...... patients and evaluate the outcomes of diet and living habit intervention in poverty zones in China....

  18. Chocolate consumption and risk of diabetes mellitus in the Physicians’ Health Study1234

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Chisa; Petrone, Andrew B; Sesso, Howard D.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Djoussé, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies reported beneficial effects of cocoa or chocolate on insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and inflammation, which are important risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). However, it is unclear whether chocolate consumption is associated with risk of DM.

  19. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Case Decisions: Health-Related Service Considerations for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Ara J.; Wodrich, David L.; Lazar, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic illness that can impact learning and often requires medical management in the school setting. School psychologists must therefore be knowledgeable of special service eligibility criteria associated with T1DM, the health-related services often required of such students, and what health-related services…

  20. Behandeling van diabetes mellitus door de huisarts in vijf Europese landen: eenheid binnen Europa?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, G.; Fleming, D.; Schellevis, F.; Spreeuwenberg, P.

    2005-01-01

    Achtergrond: Er is weinig bekend over verschillen binnen Europa in de behandeling van patiënten met diabetes mellitus (DM) in de huisartsenpraktijk. Doel: Het vergelijken van de behandeling bij DM in de huisartsenpraktijk in vijf Europese landen als eerste stap in de ontwikkeling van internationale

  1. Association between vascular health and ovarian ageing in type 1 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yarde, F; Spiering, W; Franx, A; Visseren, F L J; Eijkemans, M J C; de Valk, H W; Broekmans, F J M; Fauser, BCJM; van Haeften, TW

    STUDY QUESTION: Is vascular health associated with ovarian reserve status using type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM-1) as a model for vascular compromise? SUMMARY ANSWER: No conclusive evidence for an association between vascular health and ovarian ageing was found in women with DM-1. WHAT IS KNOWN

  2. Risk of diabetes mellitus in long-term survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nimwegen, F.A. van; Schaapveld, M.; Janus, C.P.; Krol, A.D.; Raemaekers, J.M.M.; Kremer, L.C.; Stovall, M.; Aleman, B.M.; Leeuwen, F.E. van

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Recently, an increased risk of diabetes mellitus (DM) was observed after abdominal irradiation for childhood cancer. Because many Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors have also been treated with infradiaphragmatic radiotherapy, we evaluated the association between HL treatment and DM risk. PATIE

  3. Retinopathy and clinical outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and anemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bello, Natalie A; Pfeffer, Marc A; Skali, Hicham; McGill, Janet B; Rossert, Jerome; Olson, Kurt A; Weinrauch, Larry; Cooper, Mark E; de Zeeuw, Dick; Rossing, Peter; McMurray, John J V; Solomon, Scott D

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Retinopathy is an established microvascular complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but its independent relationship with macrovascular and other microvascular complications is less well defined across the spectrum of kidney disease in T2DM. We examined the prognostic value of

  4. HDL and LDL cholesterol significantly influence beta-cell function in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruit, Janine K; Brunham, Liam R; Verchere, C Bruce; Hayden, Michael R

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) display significant abnormalities in both LDL and HDL particles. Recent data suggest that these changes in lipoprotein particles could contribute to the pathogenesis of T2DM. In this review, we focus on these abnormalities and discuss

  5. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Case Decisions: Health-Related Service Considerations for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Ara J.; Wodrich, David L.; Lazar, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic illness that can impact learning and often requires medical management in the school setting. School psychologists must therefore be knowledgeable of special service eligibility criteria associated with T1DM, the health-related services often required of such students, and what health-related services…

  6. The epidemiology of childhood-onset Type I diabetes mellitus in Romania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serban, V.; Timar, R.; Dabelea, D.

    2001-01-01

    The ONROCAD Study group was established to provide descriptive epidemiological information on type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) in Romania. Data on all new patients with type 1 DM with onset before age 15 years during the four-year period 1992-1995 in Romania were submitted from all members...

  7. Novel targets for the development of drugs for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sotiriou, Alexandros

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a modern metabolic disorder. T2DM is related with modern lifestyle and results when the body is unable to produce sufficient insulin or respond properly to insulin, which is the hormone that regulates the levels of glucose in blood. The aim of this project was to d

  8. The impact of metabolic syndrome and CRP on vascular phenotype in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alizadeh Dehnavi, R.; Beishuizen, E.D.; Ree, M.A. van de; Le Cessie, S.; Huisman, M.V.; Kluft, C.; Princen, H.M.G.; Tamsma, J.T.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The burden of cardiovascular disease in diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) patients is variable. We hypothesize that metabolic syndrome (MS) and low-grade systemic inflammation modify the extent of atherosclerosis in DM2. Methods: Vascular phenotype was determined using the following endothe

  9. Novel drugs in familial combined hyperlipidemia: lessons from type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, M.C.; Graaf, J. de; Greevenbroek, M.M. van; Schaper, N.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are prevalent entities that share many features of the metabolic syndrome. Recent findings suggest that FCHL and T2DM are less distinct than initially anticipated, which could offer new insights for their

  10. Retinopathy and clinical outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and anemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bello, Natalie A; Pfeffer, Marc A; Skali, Hicham; McGill, Janet B; Rossert, Jerome; Olson, Kurt A; Weinrauch, Larry; Cooper, Mark E; de Zeeuw, Dick; Rossing, Peter; McMurray, John J V; Solomon, Scott D

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Retinopathy is an established microvascular complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but its independent relationship with macrovascular and other microvascular complications is less well defined across the spectrum of kidney disease in T2DM. We examined the prognostic value of re

  11. Management of gestational diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Annunziata Lapolla, Maria Grazia Dalfrà, Domenico FedeleDepartment of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Padova University, ItalyAbstract: The incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is on the increase and, if not diagnosed, managed and treated adequately, can have unfavorable maternal and fetal outcomes. Several studies have shown that glycemic values considered as adequate in the past when monitoring GDM failed to contain these adverse outcomes and randomized trials are need...

  12. Peyronie's disease: a silent consequence of diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Tefekli; E. Kandirali; B. Erol; M. Tunc; A. Kadioglu

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the clinical characteristics of patients with Peyronie's disease (PD) and diabetes mellitus (DM).Methods: During an 8-year period, a total of 307 men seen at our outpatient clinic were diagnosed with PD. Clinical characteristics, penile deformities and the erectile status of patients with PD and DM together (n = 102) were retrospectively analyzed and compared to patients with PD alone with no risk factors for systemic vascular diseases (n = 97). Results: The prevalence of PD among men with DM and sexual dysfunction was 10.7 %. The mean age of diabetic patients with PD was (55.9 ± 8.9) years; in the no risk factor group it was (48.5 ± 9.0) years (P < 0.05).The median duration of DM was 5 years. The majority of diabetic patients with PD (56.0 %) presented in the chronic phase (P < 0.05), and they were more likely to have a severe penile deformity (> 60°) than the no risk factor group (P < 0.05). In the diabetic group, the most common presenting symptom was penile curvature (81.4 %), followed by a palpable nodule on the shaft of the penis (22.5 %) and penile pain with erection (14.7 %). A total of 19.6 % of patients were not aware of their penile deformities in the diabetic group. Erectile function, provided by history and in response to intracavernosal injection and a stimulation test, was significantly diminished in patients with PD and DM (P < 0.05). Conclusion: DM probably exaggerates the fibrotic process in PD. Diabetic patients with PD have a higher risk of severe deformity and erectile dysfunction (ED). PD seems to be a silent consequence of DM and should be actively sought in diabetic men.

  13. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and affecting factors of diabetes mellitus in adult age group in Van province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Yılmaz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Regional studies of diabetes mellitus (DM are important to determine of effective environmental factors in the development of DM and defining strategy against these factors. This study aims to define the frequency of DM prevalence in the province of the Van city, distribution of DM according to age groups, effective socio-economical, geographical and metabolic factors over the diabetes development.Material and methods: This study included 191 male and 209 female totals 400 person aged year 16 years or over. Blood-Glucose levels of persons were measured with Accu-check glucometer and questionnaires were filled with face-to-face interviews.Results: Age mean of subjects was 35.09±13.75 years, DM prevalence was %13.4 between the females and %9.1 males, disglisemi (DG prevalence were %9.1 between the females and %5.8 between the males. 74.4% of impaired glucose metabolism persons were people who they do not make physical exercise and adopted sedentary lifestyle.Conclusion: In this study, age and family history from unchangeable factors were found to be effective on the development of DM but sex, educational level, social security, incomes were not found to be effective on development of DM. Exercise, blood pressure levels, obesity and diets from changeable factors are the factors that influence the frequency of DM was determined in this study. J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2 (4: 392-399

  14. Diabetes mellitus and birth defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Adolfo; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Besser, Lilah M.; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Moore, Cynthia A.; Hobbs, Charlotte A.; Cleves, Mario A.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany J.; Waller, D. Kim; Reece, E. Albert

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to examine associations between diabetes mellitus and 39 birth defects. STUDY DESIGN This was a multicenter case-control study of mothers of infants who were born with (n = 13,030) and without (n = 4895) birth defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1997–2003). RESULTS Pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM) was associated significantly with noncardiac defects (isolated, 7/23 defects; multiples, 13/23 defects) and cardiac defects (isolated, 11/16 defects; multiples, 8/16 defects). Adjusted odds ratios for PGDM and all isolated and multiple defects were 3.17 (95% CI, 2.20–4.99) and 8.62 (95% CI, 5.27–14.10), respectively. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was associated with fewer noncardiac defects (isolated, 3/23 defects; multiples, 3/23 defects) and cardiac defects (isolated, 3/16 defects; multiples, 2/16 defects). Odds ratios between GDM and all isolated and multiple defects were 1.42 (95% CI, 1.17–1.73) and 1.50 (95% CI, 1.13–2.00), respectively. These associations were limited generally to offspring of women with prepregnancy body mass index ≥25 kg/m2. CONCLUSION PGDM was associated with a wide range of birth defects; GDM was associated with a limited group of birth defects. PMID:18674752

  15. Hypertension og diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Per; Hansen, Klavs; Gæde, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The documentation for the beneficial effects of antihypertensive treatment in patients with diabetes is overwhelming. Most patients will require three or four antihypertensive drugs to achieve blood pressure (BP) goals. The regime should include an agent that blocks the renin angiotensin aldoster......The documentation for the beneficial effects of antihypertensive treatment in patients with diabetes is overwhelming. Most patients will require three or four antihypertensive drugs to achieve blood pressure (BP) goals. The regime should include an agent that blocks the renin angiotensin...

  16. 78 FR 12821 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in...). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The Agency established the current requirement... clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR...

  17. 77 FR 3549 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... [Docket No. FMCSA-2011-0368] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY... from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted,...

  18. 75 FR 80889 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ...; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces... insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate...

  19. 76 FR 55460 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ...; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces... insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate...

  20. 77 FR 64181 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ...; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA... with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in...

  1. 78 FR 7855 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in...). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The Agency established the current requirement... clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR...

  2. 78 FR 60014 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in...). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The Agency established the current requirement... clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR...

  3. 78 FR 50140 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in...). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The Agency established the current requirement... clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR...

  4. 78 FR 12819 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in...). Diabetes Mellitus and Driving Experience of the Applicants The Agency established the current requirement... clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus currently requiring insulin for control'' (49 CFR...

  5. 77 FR 18302 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... for exemption from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces... insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce... for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the...

  6. Psycho-social Issues among Adolescents with Diabetes Mellitus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psycho-social Issues among Adolescents with Diabetes Mellitus: Experience from ... assessed as well as their knowledge and attitudes towards diabetes mellitus. ... adolescents with diabetes mellitus, indicating the need to assist the patients ...

  7. Gestational diabetes mellitus and subsequent development of overt diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P

    1998-01-01

    of diabetes: a high fasting glucose level at diagnosis of GDM, a delivery more than 3 weeks before term, and an abnormal OGTT 2 months postpartum. Low insulin secretion at diagnosis of GDM was also an independent risk factor. The presence of ICA and GAD-autoantibodies in pregnancy was associated with later...... of women with GDM. However, previous studies, in populations quite different from a Danish population, have shown that women with previous GDM have a high risk of developing overt diabetes mellitus later in life. Hence, we aimed to investigate the prognosis of women with previous GDM with respect...... population) 2-11 years after pregnancy. Abnormal glucose tolerance was found in 34.4% of the women (3.7% IDDM, 13.7% NIDDM, 17% IGT) in contrast to a control group where none had diabetes and 5.3% had IGT. Logistic regression analysis identified the following independent risk factors for later development...

  8. Hypoglycemia in Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland, Barbara

    2017-09-01

    Hypoglycemia is a serious acute complication of diabetes treatment. Recognizing the risk factors and taking steps to prevent low blood glucose should be a part of self-management education for all people taking glucose-lowering medications. It is important for home care clinicians to evaluate their patient's understanding of hypoglycemia and the appropriate treatment options.

  9. Diabetes mellitus and its correlates in an Iranian adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golozar, Asieh; Khademi, Hooman; Kamangar, Farin; Poutschi, Hossein; Islami, Farhad; Abnet, Christian C; Freedman, Neal D; Taylor, Philip R; Pharoah, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul J; Dawsey, Sanford M; Malekzadeh, Reza; Etemadi, Arash

    2011-01-01

    The rising epidemic of diabetes imposes a substantial economic burden on the Middle East. Using baseline data from a population based cohort study, we aimed to identify the correlates of diabetes mellitus (DM) in a mainly rural population from Iran. Between 2004 and 2007, 50044 adults between 30 and 87 years old from Golestan Province located in Northeast Iran were enrolled in the Golestan Cohort Study. Demographic and health-related information was collected using questionnaires. Individuals' body sizes at ages 15 and 30 were assessed by validated pictograms ranging from 1 (very lean) to 7 in men and 9 in women. DM diagnosis was based on the self-report of a physician's diagnosis. The accuracy of self-reported DM was evaluated in a subcohort of 3811 individuals using fasting plasma glucose level and medical records. Poisson regression with robust variance estimator was used to estimate prevalence ratios (PR's). The prevalence of self-reported DM standardized to the national and world population was 5.7% and 6.2%, respectively. Self-reported DM had 61.5% sensitivity and 97.6% specificity. Socioeconomic status was inversely associated with DM prevalence. Green tea and opium consumption increased the prevalence of DM. Obesity at all ages and extreme leanness in childhood increased diabetes prevalence. Being obese throughout life doubled DM prevalence in women (PR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.8, 2.4). These findings emphasize the importance of improving DM awareness, improving general living conditions, and early lifestyle modifications in diabetes prevention.

  10. Diabetes mellitus and its correlates in an Iranian adult population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asieh Golozar

    Full Text Available The rising epidemic of diabetes imposes a substantial economic burden on the Middle East. Using baseline data from a population based cohort study, we aimed to identify the correlates of diabetes mellitus (DM in a mainly rural population from Iran. Between 2004 and 2007, 50044 adults between 30 and 87 years old from Golestan Province located in Northeast Iran were enrolled in the Golestan Cohort Study. Demographic and health-related information was collected using questionnaires. Individuals' body sizes at ages 15 and 30 were assessed by validated pictograms ranging from 1 (very lean to 7 in men and 9 in women. DM diagnosis was based on the self-report of a physician's diagnosis. The accuracy of self-reported DM was evaluated in a subcohort of 3811 individuals using fasting plasma glucose level and medical records. Poisson regression with robust variance estimator was used to estimate prevalence ratios (PR's. The prevalence of self-reported DM standardized to the national and world population was 5.7% and 6.2%, respectively. Self-reported DM had 61.5% sensitivity and 97.6% specificity. Socioeconomic status was inversely associated with DM prevalence. Green tea and opium consumption increased the prevalence of DM. Obesity at all ages and extreme leanness in childhood increased diabetes prevalence. Being obese throughout life doubled DM prevalence in women (PR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.8, 2.4. These findings emphasize the importance of improving DM awareness, improving general living conditions, and early lifestyle modifications in diabetes prevention.

  11. A detailed profile of cognitive dysfunction and its relation to psychological distress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, Augustina M. A.; Van den Berg, Esther; Manschot, Sanne M.; Biessels, Geert Jan; Kappelle, L. Jaap; De Haan, Edward H. F.; Kessels, Roy P. C.

    2007-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) is a common metabolic disorder. DM2 is associated with cognitive impairments, and with depressive symptoms, which occur in about one third of patients. In the current study we compared the cognitive profile and psychological well-being of 119 patients with DM2 (mean ag

  12. Management of Diabetes Mellitus in Patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miulescu Rucsandra Dănciulescu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS is a human immune system disease characterized by increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections, certain cancers and neurological disorders. The syndrome is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV that is transmitted through blood or blood products, sexual contact or contaminated hypodermic needles. Antiretroviral treatment reduces the mortality and the morbidity of HIV infection but is increasingly reported to be associated with increasing reports of metabolic abnormalities. The prevalence and incidence of diabetes mellitus in patients on antiretroviral therapy is high. Recently, a joint panel of American Diabetes Association (ADA and European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD experts updated the treatment recommendations for type 2 diabetes (T2DM in a consensus statement which provides guidance to health care providers. The ADA and EASD consensus statement concur that intervention in T2DM should be early, intensive, and uncompromisingly focused on maintaining glycemic levels as close as possible to the nondiabetic range. Intensive glucose management has been shown to reduce microvascular complications of diabetes but no significant benefits on cardiovascular diseases. Patients with diabetes have a high risk for cardiovascular disease and the treatment of diabetes should emphasize reduction of the cardiovascular factors risk. The treatment of diabetes mellitus in AIDS patients often involves polypharmacy, which increases the risk of suboptimal adherence

  13. Oral manifestations of Diabetes Mellitus. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri-Obradors, E; Estrugo-Devesa, A; Jané-Salas, E; Viñas, M; López-López, J

    2017-09-01

    Diabetes Mellitus has become a global epidemic and presents many complications, usually proportional to the degree and duration of hyperglycemia. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the different oral manifestations associated with Diabetes Mellitus. A MEDLINE search for "Diabetes Mellitus and oral manifestations" was performed. A further search was conducted for "diabetes" and its individual oral manifestation. Inclusion criteria were as follows: human clinical studies with a minimum of 30 patients; studies published in relevant scientific journals between January 1998 and January 2016. Nineteen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were analyzed, assessing the strength of scientific evidence according to recommendations made by the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, Oxford (OCEBM), which permits adequate assessment of prevalence studies. A total 3,712 patients (2,084 diabetics) were included in the studies reviewed. Of the 19 studies analyzed, 4 were longitudinal studies and 15 cross-sectional studies. Periodontal disease, periapical lesions, xerostomia and taste disturbance were more prevalent among diabetic patients. An association between diabetes and caries and mucosal lesions proved positive in 5 out of 10 studies. Despite multiple oral manifestations associated with DM, awareness of the associations between diabetes, oral health, and general health is inadequate. It is necessary for doctors and dentists to be aware of the various oral manifestations of diabetes in order to make an early diagnosis.

  14. The choice of insulin regimen and target of glycemic control in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus : -A comparative study of Canada and Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Berntsen, Natalie Lie; Eilertsen, Eirin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is one of the most common endocrine and metabolic conditions in childhood, rapidly increasing in incidence and associated with increased long-term morbidity and mortality. Optimal diabetes management to avoid or delay the long-term complications of diabetes is important. Diabetes education remains a cornerstone in this work, in addition to ...

  15. Oxidative Stress Correlates (OSC) in Diabetes Mellitus Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillani, Syed Wasif; Azeem, Eman; Siddiqui, Ammar; Mian, Rashid Iqbal; Poh, Vinci; Sulaiman, Syed Azhar Syed; Baig, Mirza Rafiullah

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a considerable systemic metabolic disorder to exhibit various metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, mainly hyperglycemia. Our study aims to evaluate oxidative stress markers in DM patients and to determine the clinical correlates affecting the investigational parameters. To evaluate oxidative stress, the following parameters were included: tri-glycerides(TG), total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL), oxidized LDL cholesterol(Ox LDL), superoxide dismutase(SOD), glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px) and plasminogen activator inhibitor(PAI) which were measured at single observation point. Patient clinical and demographic data were taken from registered medication profiles from the Outpatient Department. The diabetic subjects have significantly high measured values of endocrine(pdiabetic subjects. Elevated Ox-LDL, SOD and GSH-Px are associated with the diabetic patients. However, oxidative stress threshold values also showed high oxidative activity markers among controls. Clinical variables showed predictive information on oxidative activity among diabetes patients.

  16. Diabetes mellitus and reparative response of dental pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Ilić, Jugoslav

    2016-01-01

    Anatomically, dental pulp is connective tissue and specific microcirculatory system with significant reparatory abilities intending to preserve pulp vitality. Various therapeutic approaches in the treatment of affected pulp may be compromised by various factors leading to treatment failure. Due to microcirculatory system disorders, treatment of affected dental pulp in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) is additional challenge. The function and levels of growth factors could be altered in va...

  17. The surgical treatment of type two diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pories, Walter J; Mehaffey, James H; Staton, Kyle M

    2011-08-01

    Since the discovery that gastric bypass surgery leads to the rapid reversal of type 2 diabetes mellitus in morbidly obese patients, researchers have been searching for possible mechanisms to explain the result. The significance of bariatric surgery is twofold. It offers hope and successful therapy to the severely obese; those with T2DM, sleep apnea, or polycystic ovary disease; and others plagued by the comorbidities of the metabolic syndrome. This article examines four surgical procedures and their outcomes.

  18. Diabetes Mellitus as Hub for Tuberculosis Infection: A Snapshot

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul Pal; Ansari, Moiz A.; Saif Hameed; Zeeshan Fatima

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) still remains the thorn in the flesh of efficient therapeutics affecting one-third of global population annually. There are several factors that enhance the susceptibility to TB infections including malnutrition, smoking, and immunocompromised conditions such as AIDS. In the recent years, growing body of evidence has gained considerable prominence which suggests that Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is individual risk factor leading to complicated TB infections. In this article the au...

  19. NUEVOS FÁRMACOS EN DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRA. Carmen Gloria Aylwin H.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Por más de 60 años se dispuso solo de tres grupos farmacológicos para el tratamiento de la diabetes mellitus (DM: la insulina, la metformina y las sulfonilureas. Sin embargo, en los últimos años y como consecuencia de los avances en el conocimiento de la patogenia de la DM2 se han desarrollado nuevos fármacos con novedosos mecanismos de acción y con diferentes perfiles de seguridad, entre ellos los compuestos con efecto incretina y los glucosúricos que actúan en los trastornos a nivel intestinal y renal presentes en la DM2. La disponibilidad de múltiples opciones terapéuticas está produciendo profundos cambios en la terapia farmacológica de la DM2. Se logran enfoques terapéuticos más fisiopatológicos pero sobre todo permiten un manejo más personalizado y ajustado a las características y riesgos individuales de los pacientes, privilegiando junto al control glicémico, la seguridad terapéutica. En esta revisión se analizarán los nuevos fármacos con efecto incretina, los agonistas del péptido similar al glucagón tipo 1 (AR-GLP1 e inhibidores de la dipeptidil peptidasa 4 (IDPP-4, y los inhibidores de los cotransportadores sodio-glucosa tipo 2 (ISLGT2 que aumentan la excreción renal de glucosa.

  20. Diabetes mellitus and hypertension: a dual threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktay, Ahmet Afşin; Akturk, Halis Kaan; Jahangir, Eiman

    2016-07-01

    The following is a review of the current concepts on the relationship between hypertension (HTN) and diabetes mellitus with a focus on the epidemiology and cardiovascular prognostic implications of coexistent HTN and diabetes mellitus, shared mechanisms underlying both conditions and pathophysiology of increased risk of cardiovascular disease, treatment of HTN in individuals with diabetes mellitus, and effects of anti-diabetic medications on blood pressure (BP). Diabetes mellitus and HTN often coexist in the same individual. They share numerous risk factors and underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms, most important of which are insulin resistance and inappropriate activation of the rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Recently updated guidelines recommend a BP goal of 140/90 mmHg in most individuals with diabetes mellitus. A new class of anti-diabetic medications, sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors, has shown favorable effects on BP. HTN affects the majority of individuals with diabetes mellitus. Coexistence of diabetes mellitus and HTN, especially if BP is not well controlled, dramatically increases the risk of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. BP control is an essential part of management of patients with diabetes mellitus, because it is one of the most effective ways to prevent vascular complications and death.

  1. Hepatitis C virus infection and type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alessandro; Antonelli; Silvia; Martina; Ferrari; Dilia; Giuggioli; Andrea; Di; Domenicantonio; Ilaria; Ruffilli; Alda; Corrado; Silvia; Fabiani; Santino; Marchi; Clodoveo; Ferri; Ele; Ferrannini; Poupak; Fallahi

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus(HCV) infection and diabetes mellitus are two major public health problems that cause devastating health and financial burdens worldwide. Diabetes can be classified into two major types: type 1 diabetes mellitus(T1DM) and T2 DM. T2 DM is a common endocrine disorder that encompasses multifactorial mechanisms, and T1 DM is an immunologically mediated disease. Many epidemiological studies have shown an association between T2 DM and chronic hepatitis C(CHC) infection. The processes through which CHC is associated with T2 DM seem to involve direct viral effects, insulin resistance, proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and other immunemediated mechanisms. Few data have been reported on the association of CHC and T1 DM and reports on the potential association between T1 DM and acute HCV infection are even rarer. A small number of studies indicate that interferon-α therapy can stimulate pancreatic autoim-munity and in certain cases lead to the development of T1 DM. Diabetes and CHC have important interactions. Diabetic CHC patients have an increased risk of developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma compared with nondiabetic CHC subjects. However, clinical trials on HCV-positive patients have reported improvements in glucose metabolism after antiviral treatment. Further studies are needed to improve prevention policies and to foster adequate and cost-effec-tive programmes for the surveillance and treatment of diabetic CHC patients.

  2. PREVALENCE OF DIABETES MELLITUS AMONG PATIENTS WITH ESSENTIAL ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahoud, Jad; Mrad, Jad; Semaan, Adele; Asmar, Roland

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) among patients with arterial hypertension, and indirectly, the crucial impact of adopting screening for diabetes as a standard procedure for all patients diagnosed with arterial hypertension. This cross-sectional study was performed on a sample of hypertensive patients recruited from three different university hospitals in Lebanon. Blood pressure and glycemic blood measurements were determined in all subjects. In addition, a complete clinical history and physical exam were performed. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS 19.0. Frequencies for the different variables were calculated, and the chi-square and independent sample t-tests were conducted. This study included 294 patients. Prevalence of diabetes was 27%, and 23% of diabetic patients were newly diagnosed. More than half of the subjects suffering from DM had uncontrolled blood pressure, contrasted with only one third of the non-diabetic subjects with uncontrolled hypertension. The prevalence of DM in patients with essential hypertension was more than double that of the general population. Therefore, major recommendations would be to adopt strictly the diabetes screening requirements and aggressive management among hypertensive patients to minimize both the health and cost burdens associated with undetected DM.

  3. Sulfonylureas and cardiovascular complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L V Nedosugova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses possible mechanisms for development of cardiovascular events (CVE in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients treated with sulfonylurea derivatives (SU. Several problems are highlighted in this review, including molecular aspects of pancreatic and extrapancreatic action of these drugs, their comparative potential to induce hypoglycemic events (as predictors of acute CVE and impairment of ischemic preconditioning, as well as antiarrhythmic activity of certain SU agents. Finally, efficacy and cardiovascular safety of glimepiride in T2DM patients is substantiated based on a survey of current literature.

  4. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus: is it feasible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Andrea; Maggi, Daria; Maurizi, Anna Rita; Pozzilli, Paolo; Buzzetti, Raffaella

    2014-03-01

    The increasing global prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) requires the implementation of preventive strategies to halt this trend, tailored to the specific needs of individual regions. Risk factors for T2DM are among the main targets for improving health outcomes and curbing the development of diabetes; excessive weight and obesity are two of the most important risk factors that need to be addressed. A growing body of evidence suggests that subjects with pre-diabetes who lose body weight and increase physical activity can delay or prevent the onset of T2DM, and in some cases, blood glucose levels may return to normal. Several studies have shown that moderate to intensive levels of exercise are effective in reducing both intra-abdominal and total adiposity among obese subjects, both improving cardiovascular risk profile and reducing the risk of T2DM development. These consistent observations have given rise to large-scale randomized controlled trials that use lifestyle intervention (including behavioural strategies for the reinforcement of prescribed changes in nutritional intake, physical activity or both), with or without pharmacological treatment, in populations at high risk of developing T2DM. In this review, large-scale national trials that have focused on the prevention of T2DM are critically evaluated. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Influence of diabetes mellitus on immunity to human tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Nathella, Pavan; Babu, Subash

    2017-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus(DM) is a major risk factor for the development of active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), with development of DM pandemic in countries where TB is also endemic. Understanding the impact of DM on TB and the determinants of co-morbidity is essential in responding to this growing public health problem with improved therapeutic approaches. Despite the clinical and public health significance posed by the dual burden of TB and DM, little is known about the immunological and biochemical mechanisms of susceptibility. One possible mechanism is that an impaired immune response in patients with DM facilitates either primary infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis or reactivation of latent TB. Diabetes is associated with immune dysfunction and alterations in the components of the immune system, including altered levels of specific cytokines and chemokines. Some effects of DM on adaptive immunity that are potentially relevant to TB defence have been identified in humans. In this review, we summarize current findings regarding the alterations in the innate and adaptive immune responses and immunological mechanisms of susceptibility of patients with DM to M. tuberculosis infection and disease. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Vitamin D and type 2 diabetes mellitus (D2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Yan; Zhao, Hong-yan; Liu, Jian-Min

    2013-09-01

    Based on increasing evidence from animal and human studies, vitamin D deficiency is now regarded as a potential risk factor for Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Vitamin D is involved in the pathogenesis of pancreatic β-cell dysfunction, insulin resistance, and systemic inflammation, conditions that contribute to the development of T2DM. Vitamin D can affect the progress of this disease directly through the activation of its own receptor, and indirectly via the regulation of calcium homeostasis. Observational studies have revealed the association between vitamin D deficiency and incident T2DM. More double-blind randomized control studies that investigate the effects of vitamin D supplementation on insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and the occurrence of T2DM are needed.

  7. Diabetes Mellitus as Hub for Tuberculosis Infection: A Snapshot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Pal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB still remains the thorn in the flesh of efficient therapeutics affecting one-third of global population annually. There are several factors that enhance the susceptibility to TB infections including malnutrition, smoking, and immunocompromised conditions such as AIDS. In the recent years, growing body of evidence has gained considerable prominence which suggests that Diabetes Mellitus (DM is individual risk factor leading to complicated TB infections. In this article the authors have attempted to summarize the link of type 2 DM with TB, the mechanistic action of how DM sensitizes for developing the active TB infection from the latent infection, and problems faced during treatment followed by possible preventive measures. We have tried to give account of the alterations that occurred in DM making a person more prone to develop TB.

  8. Diabetes Mellitus as Hub for Tuberculosis Infection: A Snapshot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Rahul; Ansari, Moiz A; Hameed, Saif; Fatima, Zeeshan

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) still remains the thorn in the flesh of efficient therapeutics affecting one-third of global population annually. There are several factors that enhance the susceptibility to TB infections including malnutrition, smoking, and immunocompromised conditions such as AIDS. In the recent years, growing body of evidence has gained considerable prominence which suggests that Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is individual risk factor leading to complicated TB infections. In this article the authors have attempted to summarize the link of type 2 DM with TB, the mechanistic action of how DM sensitizes for developing the active TB infection from the latent infection, and problems faced during treatment followed by possible preventive measures. We have tried to give account of the alterations that occurred in DM making a person more prone to develop TB.

  9. Canagliflozin Treatment in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplitt, Curtis; Cornell, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Current guidelines for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) indicate a patient-centered approach that should go beyond glycemic control. Of the many antihyperglycemic agents available for treatment of T2DM, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors offer the advantages of reduced glycated hemoglobin (A1C), body weight (BW), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) and are associated with a low risk of hypoglycemia when used either as monotherapy or with other agents not typically associated with increased risk of hypoglycemia. Collaborative, multidisciplinary teams are best suited to provide care to patients with diabetes, and clinical pharmacists can enhance the care provided by these teams. This review aims to provide insight into the mode of action, pharmacology, potential drug–drug interactions, clinical benefits, and safety considerations associated with use of the SGLT2 inhibitor canagliflozin in patients with T2DM and to provide information to enhance clinical pharmacists’ understanding of canagliflozin. PMID:26523120

  10. Oxidative stress, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and type 2diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Surapon Tangvarasittichai

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is increased in metabolic syndromeand type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and this appearsto underlie the development of cardiovascular disease,T2DM and diabetic complications. Increased oxidativestress appears to be a deleterious factor leading to insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, β-cell dysfunction, impaired glucose tolerance and ultimately leading to T2DM. Chronic oxidative stress, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia are particularly dangerous for β-cells from lowest levels of antioxidant, have high oxidative energy requirements, decrease the gene expression of key β-cell genes and induce cell death. If β-cell functioning is impaired, it results in an under production of insulin, impairs glucose stimulated insulin secretion, fasting hyperglycemia and eventually the development of T2DM.

  11. Effect of Depression and Diabetes Mellitus on the Risk for Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katon, Wayne; Pedersen, Henrik Søndergaard; Ribe, Anette Riisgaard;

    2015-01-01

    Importance  Although depression and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) may independently increase the risk for dementia, no studies have examined whether the risk for dementia among people with comorbid depression and DM is higher than the sum of each exposure individually. Objective  To examine...... the risk for all-cause dementia among persons with depression, DM, or both compared with persons with neither exposure. Design, Setting, and Participants  We performed a national population-based cohort study of 2 454 532 adults, including 477 133 (19.4%) with depression, 223 174 (9.1%) with DM, and 95...... the Danish National Prescription Registry. Diabetes mellitus was identified using the National Diabetes Register. Main Outcomes and Measures  We estimated the risk for all-cause dementia associated with DM, depression, or both using Cox proportional hazards regression models that adjusted for potential...

  12. "COMPARISON OF MATERNAL AND FETAL/NEONATAL COMPLICATIONS IN GESTATIONAL AND PRE-GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Akhlaghi A. B. Hamedi

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Presence of maternal diabetes mellitus (DM during pregnancy has important consequences for both mother and child. To determine maternal and fetal/neonatal complications of gestational DM and compare them with pre-gestational DM, a prospective study was performed in 100 diabetic women delivered in our hospital from January 2001 to April 2002. Pregnancy outcome in 27 women with gestational DM and 73 women with pre-gestational DM and their offspring were studied and analyzed. The mean age of women was 28 years, women with gestational DM being slightly older than women with pre-gestational DM. Mothers with gestational DM were at increased risk of presenting with pre-eclampsia and preterm labor compared to pre-gestational DM. Frequency of Cesarean section was higher in mothers with pre-gestational DM. Frequencies of abortion and hypoglycemic episodes were similar in gestational DM and pre-gestational DM. Infants born to mothers with pre-gestational DM were at increased risk of suffering from respiratory distress syndrome and congenital malformations but rates of unexplained intrauterine fetal death and large for gestational age were higher in infant of mothers with gestational DM. Gestational and pre-gestational DM are associated with increased risk of maternal and neonatal morbidity. Pregnant women with gestational and pre-gestational DM and their offsprings should be monitored and managed carefully.

  13. High rates of diabetes reversal in newly diagnosed Asian Indian young adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus with intensive lifestyle therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarathi, Vijaya; Kolly, Anish; Chaithanya, H. B.; Dwarakanath, C. S.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: There are variable reports on the reversibility of type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM) with higher rates among younger patients with short duration of diabetes. Hence, we studied the reversibility of diabetes among young adults with newly diagnosed type 2 DM. Methods: This prospective study included 32 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 DM. All type 2 DM patients were initially treated with intensive lifestyle therapy (ILT) (low-calorie diet [1500 kcal/day] and brisk walking for 1 h/day]). Four patients who with HbA1C diabetes reversal and should receive ILT to achieve reversal of diabetes.

  14. Ⅱ型糖尿病病人唾液成份的变化与牙周状态的关系%Relationship between the changes of whole saliva constituents in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and periodontal status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝京梅; 杨宗萍

    2001-01-01

    目的 通过分析Ⅱ型糖尿病患者唾液成份的改变,从而评价其与Ⅱ型糖尿病患者牙周状态的关系。方法 对44例Ⅱ型糖尿病患者和46例非糖尿病患者的唾液进行钾、钠、葡萄糖、总蛋白及SIgA的检测。结果 Ⅱ型糖尿病患者中的总蛋白及SIgA含量比对照组显著增加,有显著差异(P<0.05)。Ⅱ型糖尿病患者的钾、钠、葡萄糖的含量均高于对照组,但统计学处理无显著差异(P>0.05)。Ⅱ型糖尿病患者的菌斑指数(PLI)、龈沟出血指数(SBI)、牙周袋探诊深度(PD)与对照组均有显著差异(P<0.01)。结论 Ⅱ型糖尿病患者唾液成份改变与牙周状态有一定的关系。%Objective To evaluate the present periodontal status of patientswith type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) by analyzing the changes of their whole saliva constituents.Methods The whole saliva constituents of 44 patients with type 2 DM and 46 systemically healthy subjects were measured.Results Differences between the two groups regarding the mean saliva total protein and secretary lgA were found to be statistically significant (P<0.05).However no significantly differences could be shown for the salivary sodium,pottasium and glucose leavels.Significantly increased probing depths,plaque index,sulcus bleeding index were noticed in type 2 DM when comparied with the contrast.Conclusion The changes of whole saliva constituents in patients with type 2 DM may have relationships with periodontal status.

  15. [Carbohydrate: current role in diabetes mellitus and metabolic disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna López, Victoria; López Medina, José Antonio; Vázquez Gutiérrez, Mercedes; Fernández Soto, M Luisa

    2014-11-01

    There is a prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), unknown DM and stress hyperglycemia among hospital patients, and the nutritional treatment is a key part of care, where carbohydrates (CH) intake is a controversial issue. There is also a discussion on the increase of prevalence for DM, obesity and metabolic disease with refined CH or sugar. This review examines the recommendations from different scientific societies about the percentage of CH in the total calorie intake of the diabetic patient, the CH value in the glycemic index and glycemic load, the new CH included in enteral formulae and the association of refined CH with the high prevalence of DM and metabolic disease. Systematic review of literature using the electronic scientific databases Pubmed, Science Direct, Scielo, Scopus and Medline. Scientific societies are flexible about the CH intake in the diet of diabetic patients, suggesting to customize it according to each metabolic profile. Using the glycemic index and glycemic load can provide an extra benefit in the postprandial glycemic control. The new diabetes-specific enteral formulae, with fructooligosaccharides, resistant maltodextrins and fructose-free show efficacy in improving the glycemic control, although more controlled and long-term studies are needed. There is still some controversy about the links between sugar intake and DM, obesity and metabolic disease, although this relationship would be more linked to an increase of the total calorie intake than to a specific nutrient. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of hypertension on aortic pulse wave velocity in type-1 diabetes mellitus patients: assessment with MRI.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandts, A.; Elderen, S.G. van; Tamsma, J.T.; Smit, J.W.A.; Kroft, L.J.; Lamb, H.J.; Meer, R.W. van der; Westenberg, J.J.; Roos, A. de

    2012-01-01

    To investigate in type-1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) patients the role of hypertension and of DM1 itself on aortic stiffness by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Consecutive patients from the diabetes and hypertension outpatient clinic and healthy volunteers were included in our study. Subjects we

  17. Diabetes mellitus, periapical inflammation and endodontic treatment outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos-Cosano, Lizett; Machuca, Guillermo; López-López, Jose; Martín-González, Jenifer; Velasco-Ortega, Eugenio; Sánchez-Domínguez, Benito; López-Frías, Francisco J.

    2012-01-01

    The possible connection between chronic oral inflammatory processes, such as apical periodontitis and periodontal disease (PD), and systemic health is one of the most interesting aspects faced by the medical and dental scientific community. Chronic apical periodontitis shares important characteristics with PD: 1) both are chronic infections of the oral cavity, 2) the Gram-negative anaerobic microbiota found in both diseases is comparable, and 3) in both infectious processes increased local levels of inflammatory mediators may have an impact on systemic levels. One of the systemic disorders linked to PD is diabetes mellitus (DM); is therefore plausible to assume that chronic apical periodontitis and endodontic treatment are also associated with DM. The status of knowledge regarding the relationship between DM and endodontics is reviewed. Upon review, we conclude that there are data in the literature that associate DM with a higher prevalence of periapical lesions, greater size of the osteolityc lesions, greater likelihood of asymptomatic infections and worse prognosis for root filled teeth. The results of some studies suggest that periapical disease may contribute to diabetic metabolic dyscontrol. Key words: Apical periodontitis, diabetes mellitus, endodontics, root canal treatment. PMID:22143698

  18. Research progress on the mechanism of single-Chinese medicinal herbs in treating diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Xia; Liu, Tong-Hua; Huang, Zong-Tao; Li, Juan-E; Wu, Li-Li

    2011-03-01

    Treating diabetes mellitus (DM) with Chinese medicine (CM) has had a few thousands years of history. Past Chinese medical texts had already recorded numerous medicinal herbs as well as recipes for treating DM and accumulated much clinical experience. In the following article, the prevention of DM using CM in the past 5 years is retrospectively studied, and mainly focuses on the usage of simple Chinese herbal extracts or monomers in terms of cellular as well as molecular biology.

  19. The Relationship between Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Related Thyroid Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Chaoxun Wang

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has an intersecting underlying pathology with thyroid dysfunction. The literature is punctuated with evidence indicating a contribution of abnormalities of thyroid hormones to type 2 DM. The most probable mechanism leading to T2DM in thyroid dysfunction could be attributed to perturbed genetic expression of a constellation of genes along with physiological aberrations leading to impaired glucose utilization and disposal in muscles, overproduction of hepatic glu...

  20. Diabetes-Related distress, depression and Distress-Depression among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chew, Boon How; Vos, Rimke; Mohd-Sidik, Sherina; Rutten, Guy E H M

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) brings about an increasing psychosocial problem in adult patients. Prevalence data on and associated factors of diabetes related distress (DRD) and depression have been lacking in Asia. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of DRD and depression, and their

  1. Diabetes-Related distress, depression and Distress-Depression among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chew, Boon How; Vos, Rimke; Mohd-Sidik, Sherina; Rutten, Guy E H M

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) brings about an increasing psychosocial problem in adult patients. Prevalence data on and associated factors of diabetes related distress (DRD) and depression have been lacking in Asia. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of DRD and depression, and their associ

  2. Knowledge attitude and practice regarding diabetes mellitus among Nondiabetic and diabetic study participants in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatema, Kaniz; Hossain, Sharmin; Natasha, Khurshid; Chowdhury, Hasina Akhter; Akter, Jesmin; Khan, Tahmina; Ali, Liaquat

    2017-04-26

    Increased awareness amongst large population groups is a major determinant for the prevention of diabetes and its complications as well as related metabolic disorders. Knowledge and attitude are the principal markers of awareness that need to be studied in various population groups in specific racial and cultural contexts. The present study was undertaken to explore knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) regarding -diabetes mellitus (DM) among nondiabetic (nonDM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in Bangladesh. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 18,697 adults (aged 18 years and above; 7796 male and 10,901 female; 6780 nonDM and 11,917 T2DM) selected purposively from the OPD of 19 healthcare centres in and around Dhaka and in northern parts of Bangladesh. KAP were assessed by a pre-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire and categorised using predefined scores of poor (mean + 1 SD). Univariate and bivariate statistical analysis were done as appropriate. Multivariate linear regression was done to examine the association between diabetes related KAP and other covariates. The mean (±SD) age (years) of all the study participants was 46 ± 14, mean BMI 24.4 ± 4.1 and mean waist-hip ratio (WHR) was 0.93 ± 0.07. The proportion of poor, average and good knowledge scores among T2DM subjects were 17%, 68% and 15% respectively. The corresponding values for attitude score were 23%, 67% and 10% respectively. The KAP regarding diabetes was found to be better among people who were living with diabetes compared to their counterparts. DM males showed better knowledge and practice regarding diabetes, compared to nonDM counterparts (M ± SD; 44.18 ± 16.13 vs 40.88 ± 15.62, p = knowledge scores correlated strongly with education, income, residence, diabetic state, BMI and attitude. The overall level of knowledge and practice concerning diabetes among Bangladeshi population is average, but the overall level of attitude is good both in

  3. Diabetes mellitus and atrial fibrillation: Pathophysiological mechanisms and potential upstream therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudis, Christos A; Korantzopoulos, Panagiotis; Ntalas, Ioannis V; Kallergis, Eleftherios M; Liu, Tong; Ketikoglou, Dimitrios G

    2015-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) represents one of the most important risk factors for atrial fibrillation (AF) while AF is a strong and independent marker of overall mortality and cardiovascular morbidity in diabetic patients. Autonomic, electrical, electromechanical, and structural remodeling, including oxidative stress, connexin remodeling and glycemic fluctuations seem to be implicated in AF pathophysiology in the setting of DM. The present review highlights the association between DM and AF, provides a comprehensive overview of the responsible pathophysiological mechanisms and briefly discusses potential upstream therapies for DM-related atrial remodeling.

  4. Causative relationship between diabetes mellitus and breast cancer in various regions of Saudi Arabia: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Jamal M; Al-Saif, Ahmad M; Al-Karrawi, Mohammed A; Al-Sagair, Othman A

    2011-01-01

    The unwarranted connection between diabetes mellitus and breast cancer has gained new ground in recent years. Breast cancer in Saudi females accounts for approximately 21% of all cancers and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Saudi females is also 21.5%. DM is diagnosed in the age group of 30+ years with possible exposure to predisposing factors like hyperinsulinemia and obesity at younger age. Further, 12% of the breast cancer cases are diagnosed in the young females aged 20-34 years. Despite the readily available access to healthcare facilities in the Kingdom, a large number of diabetics, approximately 27.9%, were unaware of having diabetes mellitus. This subpopulation is quite susceptible of developing breast cancer at later age. This review discusses common etiological and predisposing factors for breast cancer and diabetes, regional distribution and possible correlation of diabetes and cancer in Saudi Arabia.

  5. Does bilirubin protect against developing diabetes mellitus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breimer, Lars H; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P

    2016-01-01

    After 25 years of evaluating bilirubin as a possible protective agent in neonatal and cardiovascular disease, interest has moved on to a exploring a possible protective role in diabetes mellitus (DM). This review finds conflicting prospective data for a protective relationship though there are retrospective, case-controlled data, that can only show association, which is not causality. Only prospective studies can show causality. Also, it would appear that the underlying biochemical assumptions do not readily translate from the animal to the human setting. Given that many factors impact on circulating bilirubin levels, it is not surprising that a clear-cut answer is not available; the jury is still out. Any relationship between DM and bilirubin might relate to intermediates in bilirubin metabolism, including relationships involving the genes for the enzymes participating in those steps. Nevertheless, the pursuit of bilirubin in disease causation is opening new avenues for research and if it is established that serum bilirubin can predict risks, much will have been achieved. The answer may have to come from molecular genetic analyses.

  6. Diabetic nephropathy in a nonobese mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallipattu, Sandeep K; Gallagher, Emily J; LeRoith, Derek; Liu, Ruijie; Mehrotra, Anita; Horne, Sylvia J; Chuang, Peter Y; Yang, Vincent W; He, John C

    2014-05-01

    A large body of research has contributed to our understanding of the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy. Yet, many questions remain regarding the progression of a disease that accounts for nearly half the patients entering dialysis yearly. Several murine models of diabetic nephropathy secondary to Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) do exist, and some are more representative than others, but all have limitations. In this study, we aimed to identify a new mouse model of diabetic nephropathy secondary to T2DM in a previously described T2DM model, the MKR (MCK-KR-hIGF-IR) mouse. In this mouse model, T2DM develops as a result of functional inactivation of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) in the skeletal muscle. These mice are lean, with marked insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemia and thus are representative of nonobese human T2DM. We show that the MKR mice, when under stress (high-fat diet or unilateral nephrectomy), develop progressive diabetic nephropathy with marked albuminuria and meet the histopathological criteria as defined by the Animal Models of Diabetic Complications Consortium. Finally, these MKR mice are fertile and are on a common background strain, making it a novel model to study the progression of diabetic nephropathy.

  7. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Danish children and adolescents in 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oester, Ida Margrethe Bach; Kloppenborg, Julie Tonsgaard; Olsen, Birthe Susanne

    2016-01-01

    the prevalence of T2DM in children and adolescents in Denmark together with status on treatment, metabolic control, and late diabetic complications. METHODS: Individuals were identified in the Danish Registry for Diabetes in Children and Adolescents (DanDiabKids), and clinical information regarding......BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The global increase in childhood obesity has in some countries been followed by an increase in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); however, the prevalence of T2DM among Danish children and adolescents is currently unknown. The aims of this cross-sectional study were to determine...... these was obtained from the respective pediatric departments. RESULTS: In total, seven young individuals (three boys) with T2DM were identified, according to the American Diabetes Association (ADA)/International Society of Pediatric and Adolecent Diabetes (ISPAD) guidelines, leading to a prevalence of T2DM at 0...

  8. Phase IV study comparing diurnal glycemic profile following the administration of 2 NPH plus regular human DNA recombinant insulin regimens in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feleder, E C; Yerino, G A; Halabe, E K; Tombazzi, J L; Farias, J M

    2012-06-01

    Intensive insulin therapy (IIT) based on multiple daily injections of long plus rapid-acting insulin has been demonstrated to reduce mortality and morbidity associated with chronic hyperglycemia in T1DM patients. The objective of this study was to assess and compare the postprandial glycemic profile over a diurnal 12 h-period produced by the administration of a new NPH plus regular human DNA recombinant IIT (test regimen) relative to the reference IIT in T1DM patients. A phase IV, single-center, open-label, randomized, multiple-dose, balanced, cross-over study in 12 T1DM patients was conducted. Patients were assigned to receive either the test (Densulin® N (NPH) plus Densulin® R (regular),100 UI/ml, Denver Farma, Argentina) followed by the reference (InsulatardHM® (NPH) plus ActrapidHM®,100 UI/ml, Novo Nordisk Pharma Argentina) regimens or viceversa, according to a random sequence. Each treatment regimen consisted of 2 phases of an ambulatory run-in period of 7 days followed by 12 h confinement period. Blood glucose levels were measured. Glycemic profile was evaluated through glycemic plasma-concentration time curves, area under the time-concentration glycemic curves from basal to 2 h (GlyAUC0-2) and to 12 h (GlyAUC0-12) postprandial, and maximum glycemic postprandial concentration (GlyCmax). 12 hour glycemic concentration-time curves were similar for both test and reference regimens. Geometric least square means ratios Test/ref regimens and their 90% confidence interval for GlyAUC0-2, GlyAUC0-12 and GlyCmax were 94.33 (81.13-125.09), 107.75 (94.05-123.45) and 105 (92.89-118.68), respectively. Both regimens presented similar safety profile. This study demonstrated that the new human DNA recombinant NPH and regular insulin is equally effective to the reference regimen for postprandial diurnal glycemic profile.

  9. Diabetes mellitus with normal renal function is associated with anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Chagai; Dovrish, Zamir; Koren-Morag, Nira; Bornstein, Gil; Leibowitz, Avshalom

    2014-05-01

    Anaemia is a common complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), usually related to renal failure. There is scarce information as to the levels of haemoglobin (Hb) and the rate of anaemia in diabetic patients with normal renal function. We, therefore, evaluated haemoglobin levels and the rate of anaemia in diabetic subjects with normal renal functions [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) > 60 mL/min]. The charts of 9250 subjects who attended the Institute of Periodic Medical Examinations at the Chaim Sheba Medical Center for a routine yearly check-up were reviewed. Four hundred and forty-five subjects with type 2 DM and normal renal function were indentified and compared with those without DM who were routinely examined at the same time. Subjects' electronic records were used to build a biochemical and clinical database. Mean haemoglobin levels were lower in subjects with DM than in those without (14.2 vs. 14.7 g/dL, respectively; p Anaemia was observed in 48 (10.8%) subjects in the diabetic group and in only 12 (2.7%) in the nondiabetic group (p anaemia with an odds ratio of 2.15 (confidence interval: 1.07-4.31). Anaemia is more common in diabetic patients even when eGFR > 60 mL/min. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Diabetes mellitus and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Alan

    2002-06-01

    Numerous vitamins, herbs, supplements, and other agents are readily available for the treatment of diabetes and obesity. Many of these products have little evidence-based medical support to prove the efficacy of these supplements. The physician must be aware that their patients are using these products and must be knowledgeable about their side effects and drug-herb interactions. Our patients have tremendous access to medical information in the lay literature and on the internet. They are using this information to gain access to various diet therapies. Numerous fad diets consisting of various combinations of protein, carbohydrate, and fat are widely publicized but not grounded in evidence. Liquid diets and supplements are readily available and widely used by the public with little long-term beneficial effects on obese patients. Other alternative methods, such as hypnotherapy, acupuncture, biofeedback, and electrogalvanic therapy, have become widely available and seem to have little adverse reaction, but whose benefits remain to be proved. The physician must recognize the widespread use of these products and work with patients and alternative practitioners to deliver comprehensive quality care. Physicians who become comfortable with these products should consider their judicious use while monitoring for side effects and drug interaction. It is hoped that with further evidence-based study many of these products and techniques will enter mainstream medicine.

  11. ASSOCIATION OF ABO BLOOD GROUPS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudheer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available There are no confirmatory studies have been available in In dia to know the Association of ABO blood groups with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus. We studied ABO blood groups association w ith Gender and age of onset of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The study results showing that Blood Group O fallowed by B and A showing the posi tive association with Type2 Diabetes melllitus. In Males Blood group O (20% fallowed by B (16.9% and A and AB. In Females Blood group O (22.85% fallowed by A group (11.42% and B and AB having association with Type2 Diabetes mellitus. The association as per age of onset of Type 2 DM with ABO blood Groups showing that the age of onset of Type2 DM in 41 - 50 yrs (34.28%. It is commonly associated with Blood group O (18.09%, and in the age of onset of Type 2 DM in 30 - 40yrs (33.33% is commly assoc iated wit h blood group O and B (10.47% equally and in 51 - 60yrs (26.66% with with blood group O (11.42% and in the age of onset of DM above 60yrs (5.71% with blood group O (2.85%. PATIENTS AND METHODOLOGY: It was a prospective study conducted in 105 patients wi th Type 2 Diabetes mellitus. Prior consent taken from the study subjects to obtain the information about age of completed years, gender, age of onset of Diabetes and family history of known Diabetes. The age of onset of Diabetes above 30yrs were taken for study. Exclusion criteria were patients with Psychiatric illness, acute illness, age less than 30yrs old and history of diabetic ketoacidosis. Blood samples were collected from them with consent. The samples were tested for ABO blood groups. The Control sa mples are randomly selected. Patient recruitment lasted for 1 month from 1.1.2015 to 31.1.2015

  12. 18-FDG in diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fares, Y. (Dept. of Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, UAE Univ., Al Ain (United Arab Emirates)); Itoh, M. (Cyclotron and Radioisotope Centre, Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)); Watabe, H. (Cyclotron and Radioisotope Centre, Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)); Ghista, D.N. (Dept. of Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, UAE Univ., Al Ain (United Arab Emirates))

    1993-06-01

    The intravenous glucose tolerance test, IVGTT, has been used to evaluate patients in whom abnormalities in carbohydrate metabolism and diabetes mellitus are suspected. IVGTT, if analyzed using 'minimal models', or discrete-time methods, provides information on the sensitivity of glucose disappearance to insulin and on pancreatic sensitivity to glucose, information that cannot be obtained from direct analysis of the dynamic response alone. In a preliminary study, data obtained by intravenously injecting 18-FDG in four subjects was analyzed using a discrete-time model. The experimental details, the results and their implications will be discussed. (orig.)

  13. OBESIDAD, DIABETES MELLITUS Y POBREZA

    OpenAIRE

    Beltrán Guzmán, Francisco Javier; Saldívar González, Atenógenes H.; Vázquez Nava, Francisco; Martínez Perales, Gerardo Manuel

    2014-01-01

    En este breve comunicado se analiza y discute la evolución de dos graves problemas de salud pública, que aquejan a la población a nivel mundial y a México como país; y que además, ocupan los primeros lugares en prevalencia. La Obesidad y la Diabetes Mellitus, son vistas como una pandemia; que insertadas en un contexto económico, social y cultural, condicionan el futuro de nuestra nación; por lo que, se considera la importancia que revisten estas enfermedades en la salud de los mexicanos.Palab...

  14. Monogenic diabetes mellitus in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oddmund Søvika

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Here, we review data on monogenic diabetes mellitus in Norway based on the Norwegian MODY Registry at Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen. This registry comprises established or suspected cases of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY referred to our laboratory for genetic testing. We also present data on neonatal diabetes, another group of monogenic diabetes. To date, we have genetically diagnosed nearly 500 MODY cases in Norway. Mutations in the HNF1A gene (MODY3 were detected in about 50% of families with clinical MODY. GCK-MODY (MODY2 was the second most prevalent type, but may be underreported. We have also found mutations in the monogenic genes ABCC8, CEL, HNF1B, HNF4A, INS, KCNJ11 and NEUROD1. Based on genetic screening in the Norwegian MODY Registry and HUNT2, we estimate the number of MODY cases in Norway to be at least 2500-5000. Founder effects may determine the geographical distribution of MODY mutations in Norway. The molecular genetic testing of MODY and neonatal diabetes is mandatory for correct diagnosis and prognosis as well as choice of therapy

  15. [Nutritional therapy in diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toeller, M

    1993-03-01

    Most aspects of the nutritional therapy of diabetes mellitus apply equally to IDDM and NIDDM patients and are also appropriate for people with high risk of cardiovascular diseases. A restriction of energy, a reduction of saturated fatty acids as well as of alcoholic drinks and simple sugars are the most important measures. This modification of nutritional intake together with increased fibre consumption is not only appropriate to avoid hyperglycaemia in diabetic patients but has also its benefits in patients presenting with the metabolic syndrome (possible reduction of hyperinsulinaemia, hypertension and hyperlipoproteinaemia). Diabetic patients should have regular screening for microalbuminuria. At first signs of an early stage of nephropathy patients should be advised to restrict their protein intake. About 50% of daily energy intake should be derived from carbohydrates and fat intake should be no more than 35% of total energy (saturated fatty acids less than 10% of energy). Carbohydrate exchange units are usually not necessary in NIDDM patients. In addition diabetes specialty foods are not an essential part of the nutritional therapy. The success of the nutritional therapy in diabetic patients is substantially dependent upon qualified counselling and education of the patients by the physician (as far as possible with the assistance of a dietitian).

  16. Pattern of cutaneous manifestations in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal Abhishek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus affects individuals of all ages and socioeconomic status. Skin is affected by the acute metabolic derangements as well as by chronic degenerative complications of diabetes. Aims: To evaluate the prevalence of skin manifestations in patients with diabetes mellitus. To analyze the prevalence and pattern of skin disorders among diabetic patients from this region of Western Himalayas. Materials and Methods: One hundred consecutive patients with the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and having skin lesions, either attending the diabetic clinic or admitted in medical wards were included in this study. Results: The common skin disorders were: x0 erosis (44%, diabetic dermopathy (36%, skin tags (32%, cutaneous infections (31%, and seborrheic keratosis (30%. Conclusion: Skin is involved in diabetes quite often and the manifestations are numerous. High prevalence of xerosis in our diabetic population is perhaps due to cold and dry climatic conditions in the region for most of the time in the year.

  17. Neglected-Noncompliant Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus with Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afdal .

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakDiabetes mellitus (DM tipe 1 merupakan kelainan sistemik akibat terjadinya gangguan metabolisme glukosayang ditandai oleh hiperglikemia kronis. Keadaan ini disebabkan oleh proses autoimun yang merusak sel βpankreas sehingga produksi insulin berkurang bahkan terhenti, penderitanya akan memerlukan asupan insulineksogen. Penyakit ini menimbulkan komplikasi kronik sehingga memerlukan manajemen pengobatan yangberkelanjutan dan edukasi pada pasien serta keluarganya. Penyakit yang tidak terkontrol akan menimbulkanberbagai komplikasi metabolisme, gangguan makrovaskular dan mikrovaskular yang menyebabkan penurunankualitas dan harapan hidup penderita.Kata Kunci : Diabetes melitus tipe 1, makrovaskular, mikrovaskularAbstractDiabetes mellitus (DM type 1 is a result of the systemic disorder of glucose metabolism disorder characterized bychronic hyperglycemia. This situation is caused by the autoimmune processes that destroy pancreatic β cellsresulting in the production of insulin is reduced even halted, the sufferer will require exogenous insulin intake. Thisraises the complications of chronic disease that requires ongoing medication management and education forpatients and their families. Uncontrolled disease will cause various metabolic complications, macrovascular andmicrovascular disorders that cause loss of quality and life expectancy of the patient.Keywords: Type 1 diabetes mellitus, macrovascular, microvascular

  18. The role of hormonal treatment in type 2 diabetes mellitus

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    Imam SK

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Syed Khalid ImamLiaquat National Hospital and Medical College, Karachi, Pakistan; Al-Mouwasat Hospital, Jubail Industrial City, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a disorder of abnormal glucose metabolism resulting primarily from insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency and characterized by hyperglycemia causing significant short- and long-term complications. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM contributes to more than 90% of cases of diabetes. Obesity, sedentary lifestyles, and consumption of very high-caloric meals are thought to be the primary triggering factors causing T2DM in genetically predisposed individuals. Although treatment of hyperglycemia plays a key role in the management, therapies directed at other comorbid conditions, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, hypercoagulability, obesity, and insulin resistance, have also been a major focus of research and therapy. DM is rising to an epidemic proportion globally, and it is, indeed, one of the most challenging public health problems in the 21st century. According to 2011 statistics, there were approximately 366 million diabetes cases worldwide, and this figure would probably increase to 552 million by 2030. Long-term complications from high blood sugar include coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular events, peripheral arterial diseases leading to amputation, retinopathy, nephropathy leading to end-stage renal disease requiring hemodialysis and transplantation, and neuropathy. The acute complication of T2DM includes drug-induced hypoglycemia, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, and although uncommon, ketoacidosis. Diabetes care requires a comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach to delay the progression to acute as well as chronic and debilitating long-term complications. This approach requires the thorough understanding of the pathophysiology of hyperglycemia and impact of various risk factors and comorbidities, careful selection of antihyperglycemic

  19. Diabetes Mellitus and Periodontitis – Signs of a Bidirectional Relationship

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    Pınar Gümüş

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is a multifactorial, irreversible and cumulative condition, initiated and propagated by bacteria and host factors. The multifactorial nature of periodontitis is related with the complex interactions between microorganisms in the microbial dental plaque and host response mechanisms, as well as environmental factors. Progression of periodontal disease is very much dependent on host response. Diabetes mellitus (DM, a complex metabolic disorder characterised by prolonged hyperglycaemia, has long been recognized as one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality globally. DM is a complex metabolic syndrome that affects both the quality and length of life with major complications. Periodontal disease and diabetes are highly prevalent chronic diseases and inflammation may play a critical role in their relationship. Prospective clinical studies with larger scale and greater statistical power are required to better clarify the mechanisms of possible effects of chronic periodontitis on diabetes.

  20. Epidemiology of Diabetes Mellitus in Oman; Results from two decades of research

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    Jawad A. Al-Lawati

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to describe the epidemiology of diabetes mellitus over the past two decades in Oman, particularly in terms of its prevalence and incidence. In addition, the study sought to estimate the future incidence of diabetes in Oman. Methods: Three national and three regional surveys conducted between 1991 and 2010 were analysed to obtain the age-adjusted prevalence and undiagnosed proportion of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM among Omani subjects aged ≥20 years. Diabetes mellitus registers and published studies were used to determine incidence rates of both type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and T2DM in Oman. Linear regression was used to determine trends and projections for diabetes in 2050. Results: The age-adjusted prevalence of T2DM in Oman varied from 10.4% to 21.1%, while the highest prevalence of impaired fasting glucose was found in males (35.1%. In comparison to men, higher incidence rates of T2DM were found in women (2.7 cases compared to 2.3 cases per 1,000 person-years, respectively. No significant trends were observed for the prevalence or incidence of T2DM in both genders. Undiagnosed T2DM was more common in men (range: 33–68% than women (range: 27–53%. The results of this study show that by 2050, there will be an estimated 350,000 people with T2DM living in Oman (a 174% increase compared to estimates for 2015. Conclusion: Health authorities need to prioritise diabetes prevention and control in order to prevent or delay long-term complications and avert a potential epidemic of diabetes in Oman.

  1. Estimation of thyroid profile in patients with diabetes mellitus in New Civil Hospital, Surat

    OpenAIRE

    Khushbu Vaghasiya; Chetna Patel; Kapil Shahane; Nitesh Gamit; Ashish Zala; Aashal Shah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) and thyroid diseases are the two common endocrinopathies seen commonly in the population. There is inter-dependence between insulin and thyroid hormones for normal cellular metabolism so that DM and thyroid diseases can mutually influence the other disease process. The excess or deficit of one hormone may result in functional derangement of other. Diabetes being a most common endocrine metabolic disorder, the variety of thyroid abnormalities may co-exist and...

  2. Retinal Vascular Fractals Correlate With Early Neurodegeneration in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydkjaer-Olsen, Ulrik; Soegaard Hansen, Rasmus; Pedersen, Knud

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the correlation between the retinal vascular fractal dimension (Fd) and neurodegenerative changes in patients with no or mild diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods: In this cross-sectional study we examined 103 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with no or mild DR....

  3. The role of blood groups in the development of diabetes mellitus after gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karagoz H

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hatice Karagoz,1 Abdulsamet Erden,2 Ozerhan Ozer,2 Kubra Esmeray,2 Ali Cetinkaya,2 Deniz Avci,2 Samet Karahan,2 Mustafa Basak,2 Kadir Bulut,2 Hasan Mutlu,3 Yasin Simsek4 1Internal Medicine Department, Acibadem Kayseri Hospital, 2Internal Medicine Department, 3Medical Oncology Department, 4Endocrinology Department, Kayseri Training and Research Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey Introduction: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is a common condition that is defined as glucose intolerance of varying degree with onset or first recognition during pregnancy and it affects approximately 5% of all pregnancies all over the world. GDM is not only associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as macrosomia, dystocia, birth trauma, and metabolic complications in newborns, but it is also a strong predictor of transitioning to overt DM postpartum. The association of ABO blood groups with DM has been observed before in several epidemiological and genetic studies and resulted with inconsistent findings, but still there are not enough studies in the literature about the association of ABO blood groups with GDM. In this study, we aimed at investigating any possible relationship between the ABO blood group system and GDM and also the transitioning of GDM to overt DM postpartum, in Turkey.Patients and methods: A total of 233 patients with GDM from Kayseri Training and Research Hospital between 2002 and 2012 were included in the study. The cases that have serologically determined blood groups and Rh factor in the hospital records were included in the study, and the patients with unknown blood groups were excluded. Patients were classified according to blood groups (A, B, AB, and O and Rh status (+/-. GDM was diagnosed based on the glucose cut-points of the International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Society Groups. The distributions of blood groups of the patients with GDM were compared with the distribution of blood groups of 17,314 healthy donors who were

  4. [Dyslipidemia in diabetes mellitus: diagnosis and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, Shinichi

    2015-12-01

    Dyslipidemia in diabetes mellitus is a secondary change in hyperglycemia. Even if hyperlipidemia was not present, dyslipidemia will be present, especially as the increase of remnant. Usually this dyslipidemia is improved by a good control of hyperglycemia. In the pathogenesis the various factors relate to the lipid/lipoprotein metabolism, by insulin action (hyperinsulinemia or insulinopenia), adipokines, or hyperglycemia itself. The every changes of lipoprotein metabolism could be occurred in diabetes mellitus, and those are related to the increase of atherogenic lipoproteins. We should recognize the mechanism of lipids/lipoprotein metabolism in diabetes mellitus and approach to prevent the atherosclerotic diseases in diabetes.

  5. Thyroid dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laloo Demitrost

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM is a growing problem in our country and we have observed that many patients are associated with thyroid dysfunction later in their life. However, the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in these patients has not been investigated. Aims and Objectives: To find the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in type 2 DM in Manipur, India. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, data of 202 Type 2 DM patients who attended the diabetic clinic of the Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal from January 2011 to July 2012, and whose thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH level was investigated were included. The inclusion criteria are known cases of type 2 DM. Exclusion criteria are patients with previous history of hypothyroidism and those on drugs affecting the thyroid profile. Results: Out the 202 type 2 DM patients for the study of which 61 are males and 141 are females, 139 (68.8% are euthyroid, 33 (16.3% have subclinical hypothyroidism (10 males and 23 females, 23 (11.4% have hypothyroidism (6 males and 17 females, 4 (2% have subclinical hyperthyroidism and 3 (1.5% are hyperthyroidism cases. Maximum cases were of hypothyroidism (subclinical and clinical seen in the age group of 45-64 years. Patients with BMI > 25 were at increased risk of having hypothyroidism (P < 0.016. Conclusion: Prevalence of hypothyroidism is quite high in type 2 DM patients above 45 years and more so if their BMI is over 25.

  6. Microbiological Aspects In Periodontal Disease And Diabetes Mellitus

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    Velea Oana A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. Scientists are constantly showing a high interest for the relationship between Periodontal Disease (PD and Diabetes Mellitus (DM. PD, “the sixth complication” of DM is recognized to be a chronic gram-negative anaerobic infectious disease. This paper is aimed at reviewing and evaluating the correlations between PD and DM from a microbiological point of view. Treatment implications of PD’s management as an important component of DM care is reviewed in the light of microbiological current knowledge. Materials and Methods. Microbiological studies and clinical trials were selected from medical and dental journals, and studied thoroughly. Results. Plaque biofilm and prolonged hyperglycemia increase the risk of PD development in DM. These two features determine inflammatory reactions that end-up in tissue destruction and impaired healing responses. Few pathogens are considered highly prevalent periodontal pathogens, with destructive actions. Studies have shown that metabolic balance or lack of balance determines bacterial variations in diabetic patients with PD. Other results demonstrate the importance of microbial tests (especially PCR techniques as indicators for healing or disease progression. Conclusions. There aren’t many studies assessing the relationship between PD and DM from microbiological points of view. In light of increasing evidence, larger interventional studies are needed

  7. Balancing Primary Prevention and Statin-Induced Diabetes Mellitus Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlani, Yogita; Kattoor, Ajoe John; Pothineni, Naga Venkata; Palagiri, Raga Deepak Reddy; Romeo, Francesco; Mehta, Jawahar L

    2017-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM), a modern-day epidemic, is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is believed that statins elevate the risk of incident DM. Multiple trials were suggestive of the hyperglycemic effect of long-term statin use. This has prompted the Food and Drug Administration to include the risk of DM in the product label of statins. New-onset DM with statin use is biologically plausible and can be explained based on the multiple pathways in glucose metabolism affected by statins. Most pivotal clinical trials on statins were not powered to adequately assess the risk of incident DM with statin use, and the results from multiple meta-analyses are mixed. Currently, the US Preventive Services Task Force recommend the use of statins for primary prevention in patients with at least 1 cardiovascular risk factor and a 10-year risk of >7.5%. With the new American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines, the number of patients eligible for statin therapy has increased exponentially, which also calls for caution and increased vigilance in prescribing physicians regarding the controversies surrounding statin use. This article aims to highlight the existing data on statin use for primary prevention in diabetics and nondiabetics and the association of statins use with new-onset DM and its postulated mechanisms. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Evaluation of salivary microbiota of pediatric patients with and without mellitus type 1 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Suellen ZAITTER; Camila FERENCZ; Tomazinho, Paulo Henrique

    2006-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease that can occur in childhoodand adolescence as a result of insulin deficiency, of peripheral resistance or both. Signs and symptoms in the oral cavity correlate this disease to dentistry, besides the increase of periodontal diseases and dental caries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the saliva of children with and without diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM-1). Salivary samples were collected and tested with culture kits for Lactobacillus and S. mutans,i...

  9. Demographic, breast-feeding, and nutritional trends among children with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Baruah, Manash P.; Ammini, Ariachery C; Khurana, Madan L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) requires a genetic predisposition to particular environmental triggers that may activate mechanisms leading to progressive loss of pancreatic beta cells. Aims: We tried to compare the impact of some demographic and environmental factors and breast-feeding on children (aged < 18 years) with recent onset diabetes mellitus (≤1 year) with that on age, sex, and socioeconomic status-matched controls. Material and Methods: A total of 43...

  10. Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus: Overview(Series "Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus" (1))

    OpenAIRE

    岩本, 安彦; IWAMOTO, Yasuhiko

    2005-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a disease characterized by chronic hyperglycemia with its etiology involving both genetic and environmental factors. In 1999, the Japan Diabetes Society proposed a new classification and diagnostic criteria for diabetes. Diabetes and related disorders of glycemia are now classified into 4 types: 1) Type 1,2) Type2, 3) hyperglycemia due to other specific mechanism or diseases, and 4) gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Type 1 diabetes is characterized by a destruction of ...

  11. Preconception care in Saudi women with diabetes mellitus

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    Amal Y Madanat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rate of preexisting diabetes mellitus (DM in Saudi Arabia is one of the highest in the world. The role of preconception care (PCC is well-established as a means of improving pregnancy outcomes in DM. Objectives: To assess the rate of preconception counseling, the level of PCC knowledge, and the rate of unplanned pregnancies in Saudi women with DM. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 355 Saudi women aged 18–49 years with self-reported DM. The study questionnaire contained variables about the provision of preconception counseling, knowledge of PCC facts, and the number of unplanned pregnancies after developing DM. The level of PCC knowledge was evaluated using a modified Likert scale. Statistical Package for Social Sciences 20 was used for statistical analysis. Descriptive statistics, mean and standard deviation, and percentages were calculated; t-test was used for statistical significance. Results: About one-third of the participants had received preconception counseling after being diagnosed with DM. Counseling on PCC for older and married participants was significantly less. Of the 355 participants, 42.8% had little or no PCC knowledge. All pregnancies that occurred after developing DM were unplanned. Conclusions: The rate of preconception counseling, the level of PCC knowledge in the studied Saudi women with DM is suboptimal, and none of the pregnancies that occurred after developing DM was planned. The study highlights the need for PCC programs that target all Saudi women of child-bearing age with DM, and their families starting at the age of puberty and at diagnosis of type 2DM, to optimize women's health and improve pregnancy outcomes.

  12. Early Life Factors and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinli Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a multifactorial disease, and its aetiology involves a complex interplay between genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. In recent years, evidences from both human and animal experiments have correlated early life factors with programming diabetes risk in adult life. Fetal and neonatal period is crucial for organ development. Many maternal factors during pregnancy may increase the risk of diabetes of offsprings in later life, which include malnutrition, healthy (hyperglycemia and obesity, behavior (smoking, drinking, and junk food diet, hormone administration, and even stress. In neonates, catch-up growth, lactation, glucocorticoids administration, and stress have all been found to increase the risk of insulin resistance or T2DM. Unfavorable environments (socioeconomic situation and famine or obesity also has long-term negative effects on children by causing increased susceptibility to T2DM in adults. We also address the potential mechanisms that may underlie the developmental programming of T2DM. Therefore, it might be possible to prevent or delay the risk for T2DM by improving pre- and/or postnatal factors.

  13. Qigong Exercises for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putiri, Amy L; Close, Jacqueline R; Lilly, Harold Ryan; Guillaume, Nathalie; Sun, Guan-Cheng

    2017-08-09

    Background: The purpose of this article is to clarify and define medical qigong and to identify an appropriate study design and methodology for a large-scale study looking at the effects of qigong in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), specifically subject enrollment criteria, selection of the control group and study duration. Methods: A comprehensive literature review of English databases was used to locate articles from 1980-May 2017 involving qigong and T2DM. Control groups, subject criteria and the results of major diabetic markers were reviewed and compared within each study. Definitions of qigong and its differentiation from physical exercise were also considered. Results: After a thorough review, it was found that qigong shows positive effects on T2DM; however, there were inconsistencies in control groups, research subjects and diabetic markers analyzed. It was also discovered that there is a large variation in styles and definitions of qigong. Conclusions: Qigong exercise has shown promising results in clinical experience and in randomized, controlled pilot studies for affecting aspects of T2DM including blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, weight, BMI and insulin resistance. Due to the inconsistencies in study design and methods and the lack of large-scale studies, further well-designed randomized control trials (RCT) are needed to evaluate the 'vital energy' or qi aspect of internal medical qigong in people who have been diagnosed with T2DM.

  14. Early Life Factors and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xinli; Ma, Huijie; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a multifactorial disease, and its aetiology involves a complex interplay between genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. In recent years, evidences from both human and animal experiments have correlated early life factors with programming diabetes risk in adult life. Fetal and neonatal period is crucial for organ development. Many maternal factors during pregnancy may increase the risk of diabetes of offsprings in later life, which include malnutrition, healthy (hyperglycemia and obesity), behavior (smoking, drinking, and junk food diet), hormone administration, and even stress. In neonates, catch-up growth, lactation, glucocorticoids administration, and stress have all been found to increase the risk of insulin resistance or T2DM. Unfavorable environments (socioeconomic situation and famine) or obesity also has long-term negative effects on children by causing increased susceptibility to T2DM in adults. We also address the potential mechanisms that may underlie the developmental programming of T2DM. Therefore, it might be possible to prevent or delay the risk for T2DM by improving pre- and/or postnatal factors. PMID:24455747

  15. [Diabetes mellitus: definition, classification and diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus comprises of a group of heterogeneous disorders, which have an increase in blood glucose concentrations in common. The current classifications for diabetes mellitus type 1-4 are described and the main features of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are compared to allow for better discrimination between these diabetes types. Furthermore, the criteria for the correct biochemical diagnosis during fasting and oral glucose tolerance tests as well as the use of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) are summarized. These data form the basis of the recommendations of the Austrian Diabetes Association for the clinical praxis of diabetes treatment.

  16. Operative Revaskularisation bei Diabetes mellitus

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    Hausmann H

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Patienten mit KHK und Diabetes mellitus haben sowohl bei interventioneller als auch bei chirurgischer Koronarrevaskularisation ein erhöhtes Mortalitätsrisiko. Allerdings ist nach chirurgischer Revaskularisation vor allem die Rate an notwendigen Reinterventionen wesentlich geringer als nach PTCA. Gegenwärtig liegen keine Ergebnisse über den Langzeitverlauf nach Stentimplantation vor. Außerdem ist das Risiko für einen Diabetiker mit KHK, nach einer Bypassoperation an einem Myokardinfarkt zu versterben, deutlich geringer als nach PTCA. Die Bypassoperation mit Sternotomie trägt allerdings bei Diabetikern ein erhöhtes Risiko für die Entwicklung einer postoperativen Mediastinitis, vor allem dann, wenn bei "totaler arterieller" Revaskularisation beide Aa. mammariae verwendet werden. Deshalb sollte bei Diabetikern zur chirurgischen Revaskularisation die A. mammaria nur einseitig genutzt werden. Prä- und perioperativ ist auf eine besonders sorgfältige Blutzuckereinstellung zu achten. Verkalkungen der herznahen Gefäße, wie z. B. der Aorta ascendens und der Karotiden, müssen präoperativ abgeklärt werden. Die Operation ist möglichst schonend durchzuführen, die Wundfläche sollte minimiert werden. Reexplorationen sind unbedingt zu vermeiden. Bei Beachtung dieser Richtlinien sind auch bei Patienten mit KHK und Diabetes mellitus sehr gute chirurgische Revaskularisationsergebnisse zu erreichen.

  17. Diabetes mellitus, a complex and heterogeneous disease, and the role of insulin resistance as a determinant of diabetic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karalliedde, Janaka; Gnudi, Luigi

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasingly recognized as a heterogeneous condition. The individualization of care and treatment necessitates an understanding of the individual patient's pathophysiology of DM that underpins their DM classification and clinical presentation. Classical type-2 diabetes mellitus is due to a combination of insulin resistance and an insulin secretory defect. Type-1 diabetes is characterized by a near-absolute deficiency of insulin secretion. More recently, advances in genetics and a better appreciation of the atypical features of DM has resulted in more categories of diabetes. In the context of kidney disease, patients with DM and microalbuminuria are more insulin resistant, and insulin resistance may be a pathway that results in accelerated progression of diabetic kidney disease. This review summarizes the updated classification of DM, including more rarer categories and their associated renal manifestations that need to be considered in patients who present with atypical features. The benefits and limitations of the tests utilized to make a diagnosis of DM are discussed. We also review the putative pathways and mechanisms by which insulin resistance drives the progression of diabetic kidney disease.

  18. Utility of different body composition for the predicting myocardial ischemia in the type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients%内脏脂肪在2型糖尿病患者运动过程心肌缺血预测中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋蕾; 张献博; 孙明晓; 于冬妮; 王丽娟; 任姗姗; 程博; 王婧; 常鑫淼

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the utility of different body composition for the prediction of myocardial ischemia in exercise in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Methods T2DM outpatients were selected from Jul. 2013 to Nov. 2014 (male 83, female 57) to measure body composition and clinical biochemical parameters, and divided them into two groups according to treadmill exercise testing results. Group A cases were positive (27 patients) and Group B cases were negative (113 patients). SPSS19.0 was used to make statistical analysis. Results (1) The age, gender, diabetes mellitus (DM) duration, medical history of hypertension and dyslipidemia, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, the waist-hip fat ratio of the two groups had no significant difference (P>0.05). (2) The fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) between the two groups had no significant difference. Compared with group B, the low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) of group A [(2.48 ± 0.75) mmol/L vs. (2.81 ± 0.77) mmol/L, t=2.009, P0.05);(2)阳性组低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)[(2.48±0.75)mmol/L]较阴性组[(2.81±0.77)mmol/L]低(t=2.009,P0.05)。(3)阳性组与阴性组比较,总体体脂百分比、骨骼肌重量差异无统计学意义;阳性组腰臀脂肪比率[(0.93±0.06)vs.(0.88±0.08),t=-2.790,P<0.01]及内脏脂肪区域[(99.47±32.84)cm2 vs.(81.10±25.47)cm2,t=-2.822,P<0.01]较阴性组高。男性患者表现在内脏脂肪区域[(100.99±39.33)cm2 vs.(79.91±27.09)cm2,t=-2.231,P<0.05],女性表现在腰臀脂肪比率[(0.91±0.06)vs.(0.85±0.09),t=-2.043, P<0.05]。结论同样BMI和腰臀比的2型糖尿病患者中,腹型肥胖,尤其是内脏脂肪堆积与运动中心肌缺血密切相关,腰臀脂肪比率与内脏脂肪区域较BMI及腰臀比更能预

  19. Noninsulin pharmacological management of type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishvas Garg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The injectable nature and other shortcomings of insulin have stimulated interest in studying the noninsulin pharmacological therapies to manage type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM. The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic literature review of noninsulin pharmacological therapies for the management of T1DM. For this, the following PubMed search was conducted: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy"[Mesh] Limits: Review Sort by: Publication Date. After applying various inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 63 studies were reviewed. Based on this review, noninsulin pharmacological therapies can be divided into following classes: (1 Insulin-sensitizing agents (biguanides and thiazolidinediones, (2 gastrointestinal nutrient absorption modulators (α-Glucosidase inhibitors and amylin, (3 immunotherapeutic agents, (4 incretin-based therapies, (5 recombinant human insulin-like growth factors, and (6 other promising therapeutics. Some of these are already used either as monotherapy or adjuvant to insulin, whereas, to manage T1DM, the benefits and risks of the others are still under evaluation. Nonetheless, insulin still remains the cornerstone to manage the T1DM.

  20. Executive Function and Diabetes Mellitus - A Stone Left Unturned?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-01-31

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic medical condition that is dependent upon patients self-caring and managing their condition to achieve optimal control. Adherence to medical therapy, making decisions related to lifestyle changes, and self-treating hypoglycaemia for example, require planning and organisational skills that are under the control of a specific domain of cognitive function known as executive function. Executive function has been shown by functional imaging studies such as magnetic resonance imaging to be under the influence of the frontal and prefrontal cortical system. It is now recognised that even in subjects with apparently normal cognition, DM may be associated with impaired executive function (IEF). The exact cause of IEF in DM is still not fully understood. However cerebral microvascular disease and chronic dysglycaemia have been postulated as possible factors contributing to functional neuronal dysfunction leading to IEF. IEF may adversely affect patients\\' abilities to self-manage their diabetes care, potentially cause worsening glycaemic control and difficulty managing risk factors. Several bedside assessment tools to screen for IEF are currently available and have been shown to correlate with functional status. However, more studies are needed to validate these tests against diabetes self-care assessment tools. Until then, clinicians and healthcare workers managing patients with DM should be aware of the potential for IEF in their patients as specific behaviour and education intervention may be needed to help manage patients with diabetes and IEF.

  1. Executive function and diabetes mellitus--a stone left unturned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabit, Hood; Kyaw Tun, Tommy; McDermott, John; Sreenan, Seamus

    2012-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic medical condition that is dependent upon patients self-caring and managing their condition to achieve optimal control. Adherence to medical therapy, making decisions related to lifestyle changes, and self-treating hypoglycaemia for example, require planning and organisational skills that are under the control of a specific domain of cognitive function known as executive function. Executive function has been shown by functional imaging studies such as magnetic resonance imaging to be under the influence of the frontal and prefrontal cortical system. It is now recognised that even in subjects with apparently normal cognition, DM may be associated with impaired executive function (IEF). The exact cause of IEF in DM is still not fully understood. However cerebral microvascular disease and chronic dysglycaemia have been postulated as possible factors contributing to functional neuronal dysfunction leading to IEF. IEF may adversely affect patients' abilities to self-manage their diabetes care, potentially cause worsening glycaemic control and difficulty managing risk factors. Several bedside assessment tools to screen for IEF are currently available and have been shown to correlate with functional status. However, more studies are needed to validate these tests against diabetes self-care assessment tools. Until then, clinicians and healthcare workers managing patients with DM should be aware of the potential for IEF in their patients as specific behaviour and education intervention may be needed to help manage patients with diabetes and IEF.

  2. Pathomechanism of Renal Damage in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

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    Yuliana Sambara

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia in diabetic patients cause both chronic inflammation and extracellular matrix accumulation that can lead to progressive renal damage. Albumin, Gammaglutamytransferase (GGT and clusterin in urine are markers to detect damage in glomerulus, cell of the tubules and proximal tubules, respectively. METHODS: This study aimed to evaluate the pathomechanism of haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, albumin, GGT, clusterin, type IV collagen in urine, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM patients. The study was a cross sectional study involving 82 subjects consisting of 36 males and 46 females, 35-65 years old, divided into 3 groups: uncontrolled DM, controlled DM and non DM. Data were obtained from interviews, physical examinations (weight, height, blood pressure and laboratory examinations (HbA1c, serum glutamic oxaloacetic (SGOT, serum glutamic pyruvic (SGPT, creatinine, hsCRP, urinary albumin, urinary GGT, urinary clusterin, and urinary type IV collagen. Statistical analysis was performed for correlation, difference and cross tabulation tests. RESULTS: The study results showed there were significant differences (p<0.05 between uncontrolled DM group compared with controlled DM and non DM groups in HbA1c, ratio of urinary type IV collagen and ratio of urinary albumin. However, there were no significant differences between controlled DM and non DM groups. There were positive significant correlations between HbA1c with hsCRP (r=0.223, p<0.05, HbA1c with ratio of urinary type IV collagen/creatinine (r=0.563, p<0.001, HbA1c with ratio of urinary albumin/creatinine (r=0.263, p<0.05, and ratio of urinary type IV collagen/creatinine with ratio urinary albumin/creatinine (r=0.613, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study indicated that albumin and type IV collagen in urine play a role in renal damage caused by uncontrolled glucose level in subjects with type 2 DM. The increased concentration of both HbA1c

  3. Latest data on metabolic diseases: Diabetes Mellitus

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    Panagiota Mitrou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With such a high cost in money and human lives, diabetes mellitus (DM is a major challenge for health care systems and an obstacle to sustainable economic growth. The pathophysiological disorders of diabetes include, besides the defect in pancreatic insulin secretion and insulin resistance in peripheral tissues (liver, muscle and adipose tissue, increased lipolysis, increased glucagon secretion, impaired secretion and action of incretin hormones, increased glucose resorption by the kidney and defects in the central nervous system. The therapeutic intervention must be timely and personalized. Lifestyle interventions (diet, exercise, smoking cessation are the cornerstone of treatment. Treatment should begin with metformin unless there is a contraindication (eg renal failure or intolerance (eg, gastrointestinal disorders. If HbA1c remains off target a second or a third treatment may be added, orally (glitazone, DPP-4 inhibitors, SGLT-2 inhibitors, sulfonylurea or by injection (GLP-1 agonist or basal insulin. On failure to achieve glycemic target combinations of injectable treatments (combination of agonist GLP-1 with basal insulin, intensified insulin therapy or in some cases insulin mixtures are recommended. New treatments (weekly administered GLP-1 analogs, combination of a basal insulin / GLP-1 in one injection, SGLT-2 inhibitors, long acting basal insulins in combination with the old tried treatments (e.g. metformin, pioglitazone, inhibitors DPP-4 can contribute to human-centered and individualized management of patients with diabetes. The cardiovascular safety of antidiabetic treatment should be considered. There is a need for early diagnosis and treatment of glucose metabolism disorders during pregnancy (before 24 to 28 weeks of gestation in women at high risk for developing gestational diabetes.

  4. Metabolic syndrome independently predicts future diabetes in women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus.

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    Cho, Nam H; Ahn, Chang Ho; Moon, Joon Ho; Kwak, Soo Heon; Choi, Sung Hee; Lim, Soo; Park, Kyong Soo; Metzger, Boyd E; Jang, Hak C

    2016-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is an established predisposing condition for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, it is not thoroughly evaluated whether MetS increases the risk of T2DM in women with a previous history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) who already at high risk of T2DM compared with the general population. We investigated the impact of MetS on the development of postpartum diabetes in women with a history of GDM.This was a multicenter, prospective cohort study of women diagnosed with GDM. The follow-up evaluations, including the oral glucose tolerance test, were completed at 6 weeks postpartum and annually thereafter. MetS was diagnosed at the initial postpartum evaluation according to the revised criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III. The risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in the follow-up period was analyzed based on the presence of MetS, and the adjusted risk was calculated using a Cox proportional hazards model.A total of 412 women without diabetes at the initial postpartum evaluation participated in the annual follow-up for median 3.8 years. MetS was prevalent in 66 (19.2%) women at the initial postpartum evaluation. The incidences of diabetes in women with and without MetS were 825 and 227 per 10,000 person-years, respectively (P women with MetS, IFG, or both had an increased risk of T2DM, with HRs of 4.17, 4.36, and 6.98, respectively.The presence of MetS during the early postpartum period is an independent risk factor for the development of T2DM in women with a previous history of GDM.

  5. Vasopressin contributes to hyperfiltration, albuminuria, and renal hypertrophy in diabetes mellitus: Study in vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rats

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    Bardoux, Pascale; Martin, Hélène; Ahloulay, Mina; Schmitt, François; Bouby, Nadine; Trinh-Trang-Tan, Marie-Marcelle; Bankir, Lise

    1999-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy represents a major complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), and the origin of this complication is poorly understood. Vasopressin (VP), which is elevated in type I and type II DM, has been shown to increase glomerular filtration rate in normal rats and to contribute to progression of chronic renal failure in 5/6 nephrectomized rats. The present study was thus designed to evaluate whether VP contributes to the renal disorders of DM. Renal function was compared in Brattlebor...

  6. Management of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Selfefficacy and Perinatal Outcomes

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    Emine Gerçek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to give knowledge about effects on perinatal outcomes of self-efficacy in management of gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is a significant health concern due to the potentially adverse outcomes for the mother and the fetus/infant. Close monitoring and treatment of GDM are important to the long-term health of a pregnant woman and her baby. More over, maternal metabolic control during pregnancy may positively impact women’s risk of later onset of type II diabetes and the risk of obesity and type II diabetes in their children. There are few studies which focus on selfefficacy and adoption of health behaviors in women with GDM; however, there is strong evidence demonstrating that health promotion behavior such as weight loss, exercise, healthy diet and self-monitoring blood glucose concentrations will decrease the risk of developing diabetes mellitus (DM. In addition, lifestyle modifications (e.g. weight loss, healthy diet, and exercise, compliance with physician appointments, and postpartum glucose screening are essential for early diagnosis and prevention of DM in women with GDM.

  7. Risk factors for mucocutaneous fungal infections in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

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    Düriye Deniz Demirseren

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and design: Mucocutaneous fungal infections are common in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM. However, fungal infections do not develop in every patient with DM. In this study, we aimed to determine the risk factors for developing mucocutaneous fungal infections in patients with type 2 DM. Materials and methods: A total of 302 type 2 DM patients with mucocutaneous fungal infections and 326 type 2 DM patients without mucocutaneous fungal infections were enrolled. Demographic and clinical features, HbA1c levels, DM durations, body mass indexes (BMIs, and DM related complications of patients were compared and risk factors for developing mucocutaneous fungal infections were determined. Results: Of the 302 patients with mucocutaneous fungal infections, 81.2% (n=245 had dermatophytosis, 16.9% (n=51 had candidal infections, 2.0% (n=6 had pityriasis versicolor. Frequency of male gender, diabetic nephropathy, neuropathy and retinopathy; DM durations and ages of patients were all significantly higher in diabetic patients with fungal infections than patients without fungal infections (all p<0.05. Male gender, age ≥ 50 years, nephropathy and neuropathy were independently associated with developing fungal infection in type 2 DM patients. In subgroup analyses, independent risk factors for dermatophytosis were male gender, age ≥ 50 years, DM duration ≥5 years, and nephropathy. For candidiasis, these factors were BMI≥30 and neuropathy. Conclusion: Elderly, male gender, diabetic neuropathy annd nephropathy are closely associated with developing mucocutaneous infections in patients with type 2 DM.

  8. Immune Function of Vitamin D in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

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    Jingbo Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is a well-known fat-soluble vitamin which is essential in the homeostasis of calcium and phosphorus. Vitamin D deficiency causes skeletal disorders, including rickets, osteomalacia, and osteoporosis. However, recent studies revealing the immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D have opened up a new understanding and possibility in this field. It has been proved that vitamin D is related to a variety of autoimmune diseases. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM, being generally accepted as autoimmune mediated, is also proposed to be associated with the vitamin D status of the human body. Here, we reviewed briefly the epidemiological correlation between the vitamin D status and prevalence of T1DM, the possible mechanisms underlying this correlation, and clinical trials focusing on the therapeutic prospects of vitamin D in the treatment of T1DM.

  9. A case of diabetes mellitus associated with Rett syndrome.

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    Akin, Leyla; Adal, Erdal; Akin, Mustafa Ali; Kurtoglu, Selim

    2012-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder mainly affecting girls. It is characterized by a normal prenatal and perinatal period, apparently normal development for the first 6 months of life, and then a decelaration in head growth, loss of hand and communication skills, psychomotor retardation, as well as the development of sterotyped hand movement and truncal or gait apraxia. It has been shown to be related to mutations in the MECP2 gene located on Xq28. Diabetes mellitus (DM) type 1 may be associated with certain genetic disorders such as Down syndrome, Turner syndrome, and Klinefelter syndrome. In this work, we report the case of a 9-year-old girl with RS who developed DM at the age of 6. To our knowledge, our patient is the third case reported to date of DM associated with Rett syndrome.

  10. [Diabetic foot risk in patients with type II diabetes mellitus in a family medicine unit].

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    Márquez-Godínez, S A; Zonana-Nacach, A; Anzaldo-Campos, M C; Muñoz-Martínez, J A

    2014-01-01

    To determine the risk of diabetic foot in patients with type II diabetes mellitus (DM) seen in a Family Medicine Unit. The study included type II DM patients with a disease duration ≥ 5 years seen in a Family Medicine Unit, Tijuana, Mexico, during September-December 2011. Neuropathy was assessed with the Diabetic Neuropathy Symptom questionnaire, and pressure sensation using a 10-g Semmes-Weinstein monofilament. A patient had a high risk of diabetic foot if there was sensitivity loss, foot deformities, and non-palpable pedal pulses. We studied 205 patients with an average (± SD) age and DM duration of 59 ± 10 years and 10.7 ± 6.7 years, respectively. Ninety one patients (44%) had a high risk of developing diabetic foot, and it was associated with; an education of less than 6 years (OR 2.3; 95%CI: 1-1-4.1), DM disease duration ≥ 10 years (OR 5.1; 95%CI: 2.8-9.4), female gender (OR 2.0; 95%CI: 1.1-3.6), monthly familiar income diabetic neuropathy, since they have a high risk of diabetic foot. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. Increased mean platelet volume in type 2 diabetes mellitus

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    Ezgi Coşkun Yenigün

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Platelet functions have important roles in the development of vascular complications in diabetic patients. Platelets with increased volume have increased activity compared to smaller ones; therefore, mean platelet volume (MPV is used as a marker for platelet activity. In the present study, we evaluated MPV in patients with type II diabetes mellitus (DM and its associations with diabetic microvascular and macrovascular complications. Methods: Consecutive type II diabetic patients were screened from outpatient clinic of Internal Medicine Department of Diskapı Yıldırım Beyazıt Education and Researsch Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. A total of 48 patients with type II DM and 30 age and gender matched healthy subjects constituted the study population. For all subjects a complete blood count including MPV, fasting blood glucose level and lipid parameters were studied. In diabetic patients, duration of diabetes and HbA1C level, presence of microvascular and macrovascular complications were noted additively. Mean platelet volume was compared between diabetic patients and healthy counterparents. Then, among diabetic patients, MPV was compared between the ones with and without microvascular and macrovascular complications. Results: Mean platelet volume was found significantly higher in diabetic patients compared to non-diabetic healthy subjects. Diabetic patients with at least one of the microvascular complications had significantly higher MPV than those without microvascular damage.Higher MPV levels have also been shown in diabetics with macrovascular complications compared to the ones without macrovascular disease. Conclusion: Mean platelet volume was found to be higher in type II diabetics and those having any of microvascular or macrovascular diabetic complications.

  12. Type 1 diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease

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    Castaño, Jonathan; Ortega, Alexander; Ortega, Jonathan; Palacios, Julián Mauricio; Contreras, Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Type 1 diabetes (DM1) affects the metabolism of glucose, lipids and proteins and increases the risk of periodontal disease. The aim of this research was to identify the periodontal characteristics of patients diagnosed with DM1. Materials and methods: the study examined 35 patients with DM1, who were given a complete periodontal exam; fasting values of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) and glycemia were taken and the data were analyzed both descriptively and comparatively against the ...

  13. Diabetes mellitus and renal involvement in chronic viral liver disease.

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    Iovanescu, V F; Streba, C T; Ionescu, M; Constantinescu, A F; Vere, C C; Rogoveanu, I; Moța, E

    2015-01-01

    Chronic viral liver disease is often associated with other conditions. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is frequently reported in this context and may play a role in the progression of the liver disease to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Renal disease is also an important extrahepatic manifestation of hepatitis viral infection and its presence is associated with poor prognosis and management issues. Our study had multiple purposes: to determine the frequency of the association between chronic viral liver disease and diabetes mellitus, evaluate the potential of diabetes mellitus as a risk factor for HCC and assess an eventual renal involvement. We included in our study a number of 246 patients with chronic liver disease, from whom 136 were diagnosed with chronic viral hepatitis and 110 with viral liver cirrhosis. These patients were assessed by using a clinical examination and a series of tests, including serum transaminase levels, serum bilirubin, serum albumin, markers of cholestasis, fasting plasma glucose levels, serum creatinine, urea, albuminuria, Addis-Hamburger test, electrophoresis of urinary proteins, abdominal ultrasound and, in some cases, CT examination. We obtained the following results: diabetes mellitus is often associated with chronic liver disease of viral etiology, having been identified in 18.29% of the patients in our study. Age above 60 in patients with chronic hepatitis (p=0.013diabetes mellitus. Renal disease was present in 13.4% of the patients with chronic liver disease and it was especially associated with liver cirrhosis and hepatitis C virus. The most common form of renal injury was glomerulonephritis. Acute kidney injury was diagnosed only in cirrhotic patients as hepatorenal syndrome, occurring in 7.27% of the subjects, while chronic kidney disease was identified only in two cases of chronic viral hepatitis. Four patients in our study were diagnosed with HCC and none of them presented diabetes mellitus. Our study revealed that there is a

  14. Primary prevention of diabetes mellitus: current strategies and future trends

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    Prasanta K. Bhattacharya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this paper is to find evidence for primary prevention of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM from epidemiological studies and clinical trials, and the feasibility of applying these interventions in resource limited countries. T2DM, which accounts for more than nine-tenths of all diabetics, results from inadequate insulin secretion or underlying insulin resistance. The prevalence of diabetes, mainly T2DM, has increased rapidly during the last few decades worldwide. Since the genetic background is unlikely to change during this short time period, the growing epidemic of T2DM is more likely due to changes in environmental or lifestyle risk factors including obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, alcohol and stress. The scope and feasibility for primary prevention of T2DM is based on elimination of these risk factors. This evidence that T2DM is preventable comes from epidemiologic studies and clinical trials of effect of lifestyle changes and drugs in development of T2DM. The positive effects are more profound and safer with lifestyle modifications (LSM compared to medications. This is shown to be effective globally, across various ethnicities and races and sustainable on long-term follow-up. However, there is a major challenge in translating this evidence into economically viable and sustained community programs, as these LSM interventions are expensive, even from western standards point of view. Future plan should focus on health education of the public, improving the national capacity to detect and manage the environmental risks including strategies to reduce stress, and development of innovative, cost effective, and scalable methodologies.

  15. National guidelines for the management of diabetes mellitus: a nursing perspective

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    Sheree Carlson

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Since 1994, the emphasis in the provision of health services in South Africa has shifted from hospital-based care to a community-based comprehensive primary health care system, especially important in the management of chronic diseases, such as Diabetes Mellitus (DM. Opsomming Vanaf 1994 het die klem ten opsigte van die voorsiening van gesondheidsdienste in Suid-Afrika verskuif van hospitaal- gebaseerde gesondheidsorg na ‘n gemeenskapsgebaseerde omvattende primêre gesondheidsorgsisteem, veral wat die hantering van chroniese siektes soos Diabetes Mellitus (DM betref. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  16. Diabetic retinopathy, visual impairment and ocular status among patients with diabetes mellitus in Yemen: A hospital-based study

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    Bamashmus Mahfouth

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : We present a series of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM who attended an eye hospital in Sana, Yemen during 2004. Aim: To determine the magnitude and risk factors of diabetic retinopathy (DR. Design: Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Ophthalmologists assessed vision, ocular pressure, ocular media and posterior segment to note ocular manifestations among patients with DM. DR was graded by using bio-microscope and Volk lens. The prevalence and 95% confidence interval of ocular complications of DM were calculated. Risk factors of DR like age, sex, duration of diabetes and hypertension were evaluated. Statistical a0 nalysis : Univariate and multivariate analysis. Results : Our series comprised 350 patients suffering from DM. The duration of diabetes was ≥15 years in 101 (29% patients. Physician was treating 108 DM patients with insulin. The prevalence of DR was 55% (95% CI 49.6-60.1. The proportions of background diabetic retinopathy (BDR, preproliferative diabetic retinopathy (PPDR, proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR and diabetic macular edema were 20%, 13%, 17% and 22% respectively. The prevalence of blindness among DM patients was 16%. The prevalence of cataract and glaucoma was 34.3% and 8.6%. Duration of DM was the predictor of DR. One-fifth of the patients had sight-threatening DR and needed laser treatment. Conclusions : DR was of public health magnitude among our patients. An organized approach is recommended to address DR in the study area.

  17. Epidemiology of Diabetes Mellitus in the United Arab Emirates.

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    Razzak, Hira Abdul; Harbi, Alya; Shelpai, Wael; Qawas, Ahmad

    2017-09-20

    Background/ Objective: Diabetes mellitus is a non-communicable disease which has become a major global public health issue. This systematic review summarized epidemiological studies related to the prevalence, risk factors, complications, incidence, knowledge, attitude and practices of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) among Arab population in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). PubMed, Scopus databases, Science direct, Wiley online library, and other local journals were searched to identify relevant literature using appropriate keywords to retrieve studies conducted in the UAE. Search limits were restricted to studies in English language, between 2007 and 2016, and on UAE population (both citizens and expatriates). Electronic database search yielded 24 studies about the prevalence, incidence, complications, risk factors, knowledge, attitudes and practices of diabetes, including cross sectional studies (n =18), population-based survey (n = 1), retrospective cohort studies (n = 3), qualitative (n=1), and randomized controlled trial (n = 1). Countrywide prevalence estimates of Diabetes Mellitus were reported to be high. The major determinants of Diabetes Mellitus involved hypertension, physical inactivity, sedentary lifestyle, and unhealthy diet. Even though past evidences have promulgated the role of numerous causative factors, the epidemiological implications of some of the risk factors including family history, educational level, and the use of alcohol remains elusive. This systematic review signifies epidemiology of Diabetes Mellitus in the United Arab Emirates and suggests that extra efforts are needed for preventive and curative strategies in order to decrease the burden of this non-communicable disease. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Terapia celular no diabetes mellitus Cell therapy in diabetes mellitus

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    Julio C. Voltarelli

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Nesta revisão são discutidas várias alternativas de regeneração do conjunto de células produtoras de insulina do pâncreas, usando células-tronco embrionárias do cordão umbilical e adultas, e o trabalho que está sendo realizado em nosso grupo de pesquisas utilizando imunossupressão em altas doses combinada com a infusão de células-tronco hematopoéticas autólogas em diabete do tipo 1 recém-diagnosticado.In this review, we discuss several alternatives for the regeneration of the pool of insulin-producing cells by the pancreas using embryonic, cord blood or adult stem cells and the work being carried out by our research group using high dose immunosuppression with autologous hematopoietic stem cells in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  19. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreval, A V; Trigolosova, I V; Misnikova, I V; Kovalyova, Y A; Tishenina, R S; Barsukov, I A; Vinogradova, A V; Wolffenbuttel, B H R

    2014-01-01

    Early carbohydrate metabolism disorders (ECMDs) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are frequently associated with acromegaly. We aimed to assess the prevalence of ECMDs in patients with acromegaly and to compare the results with those in adults without acromegaly using two population-based epidemiologic surveys. We evaluated 97 patients with acromegaly in several phases of their disease (mean age, 56 years and estimated duration of acromegaly, 12.5 years). An oral glucose tolerance test was done in those not yet diagnosed with DM to reveal asymptomatic DM or ECMDs (impaired glucose tolerance+impaired fasting glucose). Comparisons were made between patients with acromegaly and participants from the general adult population (n=435) and an adult population with multiple type 2 diabetes risk factors (n=314), matched for gender, age and BMI. DM was diagnosed in 51 patients with acromegaly (52.5%) and 14.3% of the general population (Pacromegaly than in the general population and in the high-risk group; only 22% of patients with acromegaly were normoglycaemic. The prevalence of newly diagnosed ECMDs or DM was 1.3-1.5 times higher in patients with acromegaly compared with the high-risk group. Patients with acromegaly having ECMDs or DM were older, more obese and had longer disease duration and higher IGF1 levels (Z-score). Logistic regression showed that the severity of glucose derangement was predicted by age, BMI and IGF1 levels. In patients with acromegaly, the prevalence of DM and ECMDs considerably exceeds that of the general population and of a high-risk group, and development of DM depends on age, BMI and IGF1 levels.

  20. 75 FR 25919 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... exemptions from the diabetes mellitus standard; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... years; understands diabetes management and monitoring; and has stable control of his diabetes mellitus...; understands diabetes management and monitoring; and has stable control of his diabetes mellitus using...

  1. Risk perception and unrecognized type 2 diabetes in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Janine; Lawson, Margaret L; Gaboury, Isabelle; Keely, Erin

    2009-09-01

    Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have a high chance of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) following the index pregnancy, however, little is known of women's perception of this risk. The objectives were to (1) determine women's perception of risk of future development of T2DM following a GDM pregnancy and (2) describe the prevalence of undetected dysglycaemia in a Canadian population. The study was designed as a 9-11 year follow-up study of women previously enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of tight versus minimal intervention for GDM. Women's perception of future risk of diabetes was determined by questionnaire. Fasting lipid profile, height and weight were performed on all participants. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed on all women without prior history of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). The study was conducted at Ottawa Hospital General Campus and Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, in Ottawa, Canada. Eighty-nine of 299 (30%) of the original cohort were recruited. Eighty-eight women completed the questionnaire and 77 women without known diabetes underwent two hour glucose tolerance testing. Twenty-three (30%) felt their risk was no different than other women or did not know, 27 (35%) felt risk was increased a little and 27 (35%) felt risk was increased a lot. Only 52% (40/77) had normal glucose tolerance. Of all, 25/88 (28%) patients had diabetes (11 previously diagnosed and 14 diagnosed within the study). Of those newly diagnosed with DM2, four (29%) were diagnosed by fasting glucose, six (42%) by two hour glucose tolerance test (GTT) alone and four (29%) by both. Twenty-four of the women (27%) had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Of those with IGT, 12 (57%) had a fasting food glucose perception group with newly diagnosed diabetes, two were overweight, seven were obese, four had a family history of DM2, and all had a waist circumference >88 cm. In conclusion the perception of being at high risk for T2DM

  2. Pharmacogenetic studies update in type 2 diabetes mellitus

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    Singh, Shalini; Usman, Kauser; Banerjee, Monisha

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a silent progressive polygenic metabolic disorder resulting from ineffective insulin cascading in the body. World-wide, about 415 million people are suffering from T2DM with a projected rise to 642 million in 2040. T2DM is treated with several classes of oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) viz. biguanides, sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, meglitinides, etc. Treatment strategies for T2DM are to minimize long-term micro and macro vascular complications by achieving an optimized glycemic control. Genetic variations in the human genome not only disclose the risk of T2DM development but also predict the personalized response to drug therapy. Inter-individual variability in response to OADs is due to polymorphisms in genes encoding drug receptors, transporters, and metabolizing enzymes for example, genetic variants in solute carrier transporters (SLC22A1, SLC22A2, SLC22A3, SLC47A1 and SLC47A2) are actively involved in glycemic/HbA1c management of metformin. In addition, CYP gene encoding Cytochrome P450 enzymes also play a crucial role with respect to metabolism of drugs. Pharmacogenetic studies provide insights on the relationship between individual genetic variants and variable therapeutic outcomes of various OADs. Clinical utility of pharmacogenetic study is to predict the therapeutic dose of various OADs on individual basis. Pharmacogenetics therefore, is a step towards personalized medicine which will greatly improve the efficacy of diabetes treatment. PMID:27555891

  3. Management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampatzis, Vassilios; Tziomalos, Konstantinos

    2012-12-15

    The rising rates of obesity in youth have concurrently led to an increase in the rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in this age group. However, there are limited data on the efficacy of different antidiabetic agents in youth. In this context, the Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth trial recently reported that the majority of obese children and adolescents 10-17-years old with newly diagnosed T2DM (T2DM duration less than 2 years) could not achieve HbA1c levels 1 year with metformin monotherapy, metformin plus rosiglitazone combination, or metformin and lifestyle changes. These findings suggest that, in the majority of youth with T2DM, tight long-term glycemic control with oral agents is an elusive goal and that most patients will require treatment with insulin within a few years of diagnosis to achieve HbA1c targets and reduce the risk of macro- and microvascular complications. Therefore, reducing the incidence of T2DM by preventing pediatric obesity through the implementation of lifestyle changes in the community should be the primary objective of healthcare systems.

  4. Renal AA Amyloidosis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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    Ramón Díez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease and a major cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD mortality. Inflammation is closely involved in the pathogenesis of T2DM, and reactive amyloidosis occurs in the presence of chronic inflammation. We hypothesized that patients with T2DM may have a higher prevalence of renal AA amyloidosis (RAAA and that this could contribute to worse atherosclerosis and CVD. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 330 autopsy kidneys from patients with a previous T2DM diagnosis. The kidney tissue was evaluated in order to determine the presence of diabetic nephropathy and RAAA, and systemic vessels were evaluated for the presence of atherosclerosis. Results: RAAA was detected in 9% of our study population and was associated with an increased risk for nodular sclerosis [OR (95% CI] [11 (2.04-59.16], for chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy [4.59 (2.02-10.42], for myocardial infarction [3.41 (1.52-7.64] as well as for aortic [4.75 (1.09-20.69], coronary [3.22 (1.47-7.04], and intrarenal atherosclerosis [3.84 (1.46-10.09]. Conclusions: RAAA is prevalent in T2DM and is associated with worse CVD and renal disease, likely because RAAA is a marker of severe chronic inflammation.

  5. Pharmacogenetic studies update in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shalini; Singh; Kauser; Usman; Monisha; Banerjee

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) is a silent progressive polygenic metabolic disorder resulting from ineffective insulin cascading in the body. World-wide, about 415 million people are suffering from T2DM with a projected rise to 642 million in 2040. T2DM is treated with several classes of oral antidiabetic drugs(OADs) viz. biguanides, sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, meglitinides, etc. Treatment strategies for T2DM are to minimize long-term micro and macro vascular complications by achieving an optimized glycemic control. Genetic variations in the human genome not only disclose the risk of T2DM development but also predict the personalized response to drug therapy. Inter-individual variability in response to OADs is due to polymorphisms in genes encoding drug receptors, transporters, and metabolizing enzymes for example, genetic variants in solute carrier transporters(SLC22A1, SLC22A2, SLC22A3, SLC47A1 and SLC47A2) are actively involved in glycemic/HbA1c management of metformin. In addition, CYP gene encoding Cytochrome P450 enzymes also play a crucial role with respect to metabolism of drugs. Pharmacogenetic studies provide insights on the relationship between individual genetic variants and variable therapeutic outcomes of various OADs. Clinical utility of pharmacogenetic study is to predict the therapeutic dose of various OADs on individual basis. Pharmacogenetics therefore, is a step towards personalized medicine which will greatly improve the efficacy of diabetes treatment.

  6. Chemerin and prediction of Diabetes mellitus type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbert, Thomas; Schwarz, Franziska; Fischer-Rosinsky, Antje; Maurer, Lukas; Möhlig, Matthias; Pfeiffer, A F H; Mai, Knut; Spranger, Joachim

    2015-06-01

    Insulin resistance and subclinical inflammation are characteristics in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The adipokine chemerin has been associated with both factors. The aim of this study was to analyse whether chemerin predicts T2DM. Blood samples of 440 participants of the Metabolic-Syndrome Berlin-Potsdam (MesyBepo) follow-up study without diabetes at baseline were available for chemerin measurement. Mean follow-up of participants was 5·3 years. Glucose metabolism was analysed using oral glucose tolerance test including insulin measurements. Chemerin was measured using a commercially available ELISA. Thirty-five individuals developed T2DM during follow-up. Chemerin predicted incident T2DM (Chemerin 1. Tertile: reference, 2. Tertile: OR 2·33 [0·68-7·95]; Chemerin 3. Tertile: OR 3·42 [1·01-11·58] after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, follow-up time, HbA1c, HOMA-IR and WHR). In a secondary analysis, chemerin also predicted worsening of fasting glucose and HbA1c (adjusted for age, sex, BMI, time of follow-up, WHR, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides). Our data suggest that chemerin is a weak predictor of T2DM. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Characterization of Vestibulopathy in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Bryan K; Wenzel, Angela; Kalyani, Rita R; Agrawal, Yuri; Feng, Allen L; Polydefkis, Michael; Ying, Howard S; Schubert, Michael C; Zuniga, M Geraldine; Della Santina, Charles C; Carey, John P

    2015-07-01

    Previous observational studies suggest higher rates of vestibular dysfunction among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) compared with those without diabetes. This study aims to functionally localize vestibular dysfunction in adults with type 2 DM. Prospective cohort study. Tertiary academic medical center. Adults 50 years of age and older with ≥10-year history of type 2 DM were recruited (December 2011-February 2013, n = 25). Vestibular function was assessed by cervical and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs), testing the saccule and utricle, respectively. Head thrust dynamic visual acuity testing assessed semicircular canal (SCC) function in all canal planes. Results were compared with nondiabetic age-matched controls (n = 25). Subjects were 64.7 ± 7.6 years old, were 40% female, and had a mean hemoglobin A1c of 8.3% ± 1.7%. SCC dysfunction was more common than otoconial organ dysfunction, with 70% of subjects with DM demonstrating impaired performance of at least 1 SCC (ΔlogMAR ≥0.18) and 50% demonstrating otoconial organ impairment (absent ocular VEMP and/or cervical VEMP). Adults with type 2 DM had poorer lateral and superior SCC performance (P cervical VEMP peak-to-peak amplitude and ocular VEMP n1 amplitude were also decreased with diabetes (P < .01). Adults with type 2 DM have poorer performance on tests of vestibular function related to both SCC and otoconial organ function compared with nondiabetic age-matched adults. Future studies are needed to better understand the relationship between vestibular function and functional disability in persons with diabetes. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  8. Decision Support System for Diabetes Mellitus through Machine Learning Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik A. Rashid

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available recently, the diseases of diabetes mellitus have grown into extremely feared problems that can have damaging effects on the health condition of their sufferers globally. In this regard, several machine learning models have been used to predict and classify diabetes types. Nevertheless, most of these models attempted to solve two problems; categorizing patients in terms of diabetic types and forecasting blood surge rate of patients. This paper presents an automatic decision support system for diabetes mellitus through machine learning techniques by taking into account the above problems, plus, reflecting the skills of medical specialists who believe that there is a great relationship between patient’s symptoms with some chronic diseases and the blood sugar rate. Data sets are collected from Layla Qasim Clinical Center in Kurdistan Region, then, the data is cleaned and proposed using feature selection techniques such as Sequential Forward Selection and the Correlation Coefficient, finally, the refined data is fed into machine learning models for prediction, classification, and description purposes. This system enables physicians and doctors to provide diabetes mellitus (DM patients good health treatments and recommendations.

  9. Carbohydrate metabolism and pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenig, Margarethe

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common disease in dogs and cats and its prevalence is increasing in both species, probably due to an increase in obesity, although only in cats has obesity been clearly identified as a major risk factor for diabetes. While the classification of diabetes in dogs and cats has been modeled after that of humans, many aspects are different. Autoimmune destruction of beta cells, a feature of type 1 DM in people, is common in dogs; however, in contrast to what is seen in people, the disease occurs in older dogs. Diabetes also occurs in older cats but islet pathology in those species is characterized by the presence of amyloid, the hallmark of type 2 DM. Despite being overweight or obese, most naive diabetic cats, contrary to type 2 diabetic humans, present with low insulin concentrations. The physiology of carbohydrate metabolism and pathogenesis of diabetes, including histopathologic findings, in dogs and cats are discussed in this chapter.

  10. The role of oral glucose tolerance test in screening for diabetes mellitus in the elderly of Harbin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan-qiao; ZHANG Yi-na; CUI Can; FAN Ying; CHANG Man-li; YU Wei-gang; LIU Feng-chen; TAN Ning; ZHANG Jin-chao

    2005-01-01

    @@ Though diabetes is common worldwide, the proportion of cases diagnosed is not high. Nearly fifty percent of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) in US are undiagnosed.1 The ratio might be higher in China. It has been suggested that diabetes may be present 4 to 7 years before diagnosis.2 Many of the complications appear to be present at the time of diagnosis of the diabetic status.1 Screening for diabetes in early stage of diabetes is thus a worthwhile exercise.

  11. Diabetes mellitus and gastric carcinoma: Is there an association?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathiya P Marimuthu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM has been associated with the risk of several gastrointestinal cancers including liver, pancreas, colon and rectum. However, the evidence is inconclusive for gastric adenocarcinoma (GC. In the current review, we summarize 20 population-based cohort studies that compared GC incidence and mortality between diabetic and non-diabetic population. We discuss the shared risk factors and provide qualitative and quantitative (meta-analytic summary of the current evidence evaluating the association by high-risk subgroups. The overall risk-estimate based on all studies did not show an increased risk of GC in diabetics. However, 2 cohort studies conducted in East Asian countries, where Helicobacter pylori infection and GC rates are higher, showed a higher risk of GC in diabetics. Additionally, high plasma glucose levels in the presence of Helicobacter pylori infection increased the risk of GC by over four times, suggesting a multiplicative effect. Results from the meta-analysis show that, the risk of GC was also higher in populations with greater prevalence of type 1 DM (relative risk = 1.60, suggesting an insulin-independent carcinogenic process in this subgroup. The risk of mortality due to GC was higher in diabetics compared to non-diabetics (relative risk = 1.62. Although the overall risk estimates do not show an association between DM and GC, complex interactions between infectious, molecular, demographic and host factors may convey a higher risk in certain subgroups. Future studies should be sufficiently powered for detailed subgroup analysis to elucidate the causative and mechanistic association between DM and GC.

  12. T-Helper Cytokine Patterns and Related Antibodies in Patients with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Alavi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a group of metabolic disorders such as DM I, DM II, secondary causes of DM and gestational diabetes mellitus characterized by hyperglycemic phonotype. The etiology of gestational diabetes mellitus is unknown. Recent studies address the chronic activity of immune system against infections (not autoimmunity as an important cause of gestational diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to compare T-helper cells 1 and 2 cytokines and associated antibodies in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus and normal pregnant women. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 45 female patients with GDM and 45 healthy pregnant women in Bandar Abbas, Iran, from 2008- 2009. The exclusion criteria were presence of any infectious diseases or autoimmune disorders such as SLE or RA. Present and past medical histories were taken from the participants thorough physical examination. Blood samples (10 mL were drawn and sent to laboratory for measuring serum IgE, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, interleukin-10 (IL-10, interleukin-12 (IL-12, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF1, and interferon-gamma (IFN measurements. T-test and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test were used for data analysis. Results: The mean age of the patients with GDM and healthy pregnant women was 32.5 and 27.9 yrs, respectively. T-helper 1 and 2 associated antibodies and cytokines had no significant differences between the case and control groups. Conclusion: The changes in T-helper 1 and 2 associated antibodies and cytokines are not associated with gestational diabetes mellitus and could not be considered as a predictor for gestational diabetes mellitus.

  13. Insulin therapy for diabetes mellitus: treatment regimens and associated costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnel, B; Penfornis, A; Varroud-Vial, M; Kusnik-Joinville, O; Detournay, B

    2012-04-01

    To describe insulin therapy in patients with diabetes, to determine treatment costs and to compare costs among treatment regimens. This observational study was performed by 734 French pharmacists. Adult patients filling an insulin prescription were invited to participate. Participants provided information on their diabetes history and management. Levels of intensification of insulin therapy were determined by the number of injections in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients, and by the different schemes used in type 2 (T2DM) patients, such as basal/intermediate-acting insulin only, and regimens using both basal and rapid-acting insulin. Costs were evaluated according to official medication costs, nurse visits and glucose monitoring kits. A total of 361 patients with T1DM and 1902 with T2DM were enrolled in the survey. Patients with T1DM more frequently took 1-2 injections per day (46.3% of patients) and used single-dose basal insulin together with ≥1 dose of rapid insulin (43.8%). Patients with T2DM used multiple treatment regimens, with 58 different combinations documented. Most took basal/intermediate insulin only (42.5%) or combinations of basal/intermediate and rapid insulins (52.7%). Mean cost of insulin therapy was €27.4/week for T1DM and €45.4/week for T2DM. In T1DM, insulin was the biggest cost component and increased with the number of injections/day. In T2DM, nurse visits were the most important cost contributors irrespective of treatment regimen. Overall, the cost of insulin therapy increased with the complexity of the insulin schemes. Considerable heterogeneity is found in insulin treatment regimens used in everyday diabetes care. Payers should consider the full costs associated with the use of insulin rather than the cost of insulin alone. Treatment algorithms to harmonize insulin therapy should help to improve care, while encouraging patients to self-inject insulin should help to reduce costs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights

  14. Awareness and knowledge about diabetes mellitus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Awareness and knowledge about diabetes mellitus and hypertension amongst ... and their risk factors through health educational programs over a three year period ... SPSS version 17 was used for data analysis, and the level of statistical ...

  15. Type 3 Diabetes Mellitus: A Novel Implication of Alzheimers Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszek, Jerzy; Trypka, Elzbieta; Tarasov, Vadim V; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Aliev, Gjumrakch

    2017-01-01

    The brain of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) showed the evidence of reduced expression of insulin and neuronal insulin receptors, as compared with those of age-matched controls. This event gradually and certainly leads to a breakdown of the entire insulin-signaling pathway, which manifests insulin resistance. This in turn affects brain metabolism and cognitive functions, which are the bestdocumented abnormalities in AD. These observations led Dr. de la Monte and her colleagues to suggest that AD is actually a neuroendocrine disorder that resembles type 2 diabetes mellitus. The truth would be more complex with understanding the role of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1, Aβ derived diffusible ligands, and advanced glycation end products. However, now it known as "brain diabetes" and is called type 3 diabetes mellitus (T3DM). This review provides an overview of "brain diabetes" focusing on the reason why the phenomenon is called T3DM. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Meralgia paresthetica: relation to obesity, advanced age, and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Thomas J; Mandrekar, Jay; Dyck, P James B; Klein, Christopher J

    2011-10-18

    To determine the incidence of meralgia paresthetica (MP) and its relationship to diabetes mellitus (DM) and obesity. A population-based study was performed within Olmstead County Minnesota, from January 1, 1990, to December 31, 1999. MP incidence and its association with age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and DM were reviewed. A total of 262 patients with MP, 262 normal controls, and 262 BMI-matched normal controls with mean age of 50 years were identified (51% men). The age- and sex-adjusted incidence of MP was 32.6 per 100,000 patient years, whereas the incidence of MP in people with DM was 247 per 100,000 patient years, 7 times the occurrence of MP in the general population. Of the patients with MP, 28% had DM vs 17% of BMI-matched controls and the majority of people with MP developed DM after the diagnosis of MP. Patients with MP are 2 times more likely to develop DM (odds ratio 2, 95% confidence interval 1.3-3.0, p = 0.0027). The mean BMI of patients with MP (30.1 kg/m(2), obese class I) was significantly higher than that of age- and gender-matched controls (27.3 kg/m(2), overweight). MP incidence increased 12.9 per 100,000 patient years in the hemidecade study period with an associated increase in both BMI (2.2 kg/m(2)) and average age (3 years). MP is a frequent painful neuropathy associated with obesity, advancing age, and DM. The incidence rate of MP is predicted to increase as these demographics increase in world populations. Because MP associates with DM beyond weight- and age-matched controls, more aggressive counseling of these patients in prevention of DM may be warranted.

  17. Danish Nationwide Data Reveal a Link between Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetic Retinopathy, and Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Horwitz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To determine the association between treatment against diabetes mellitus (DM and treatment with antiglaucomatous drugs in the entire Danish population and to investigate the comorbidity between DM and its complications with antiglaucomatous treatment. Methods. Retrospective nationwide cohort study with data over a 16-year follow-up period. The National Danish Registry of Medicinal Products Statistics was used to identify all claimed prescriptions for antiglaucomatous medication and DM drugs. ICD-10 classifications were furthermore used to identify comorbidities between antiglaucomatous medication and the DM complications, diabetic retinopathy (DR, and nephropathy. Results. A total of 6,343,747 individuals in the period between 1996 and 2012 were analyzed. The overall incidence rate of new-onset glaucoma patients was 0.07 per 1000 person-years for the reference population compared to 36 per 1000 person-years for all diagnosed DM cases. Patients treated with DM drugs had about two times higher relative risk of glaucoma, when adjusting for a range of factors. The presence of DR alone or in combination with nephropathy increased the risk of glaucoma. Conclusions. The present study reports a strong association between DM and onset of glaucoma treatment in the entire Danish population.

  18. 西格列汀与吡格列酮分别联用二甲双胍治疗肥胖型2型糖尿病的成本-效果研究%COMPARATIVE STUDY ON COST -EFFECTIVENESS OF SITAGLIPTIN AND PIOGLITA-ZONE RESPECTIVELY COMBINED WITH METFORMIN ON OBESE TYPE 2 DIABETIC MELLITUS (T2DM)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗蓓; 梁少珍; 岑艳冰; 梁勇前

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the cost-effectiveness of sitagliptin and pioglitazone respectively combined with metform-in in treatment of obese type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM).Methods 60 cases of T2DM administered with metformin were random-ized into the sitagliptin group (n=30)and the pioglitazone group (n=30), which were treated with sitagliptin and pioglitazone re-spectively.Data including medical expenses, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels, the number of cases of hypoglycemia, BMI in the two groups before and after 12 weeks of the treatment were analyzed and compared between the two groups.Results After 12 weeks of the treatment, there was no significant difference in glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels between the two groups.No hypoglycemia occurred in the two groups.But there was significant difference in BMI and cost-effectiveness of medical expenses between the two groups.Conclusion The cost-effectiveness of sita-gliptin with metformin in treatment of T2DM is superior to that of pioglitazone with metformin in treatment of T2DM.%目的:比较西格列汀与吡格列酮分别联用二甲双胍治疗肥胖型2型糖尿病的成本-效果对比。方法60例2型糖尿病肥胖患者在服用二甲双胍片的前提下,随机分为西格列汀组(n=30)和吡格列酮组(n=30),分别给以西格列汀片与吡格列酮片口服,检测入组时和治疗12周后两组医疗费用、糖化血红蛋白、空腹及餐后血糖水平、低血糖例数、体重指数等数据。结果治疗12周后,西格列汀组患者的糖化血红蛋白、空腹及餐后血糖水平与吡格列酮组比较无统计学差别,两组均无低血糖的发生,但在体重指数和医疗费用产生的成本-效果有统计学差异。结论西格列片汀联用二甲双胍片治疗肥胖型2型糖尿病的成本-效果优于吡格列酮片联用二甲双胍片。

  19. Management of gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annunziata Lapolla

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Annunziata Lapolla, Maria Grazia Dalfrà, Domenico FedeleDepartment of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Padova University, ItalyAbstract: The incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is on the increase and, if not diagnosed, managed and treated adequately, can have unfavorable maternal and fetal outcomes. Several studies have shown that glycemic values considered as adequate in the past when monitoring GDM failed to contain these adverse outcomes and randomized trials are needed to ascertain whether these targets should be lowered. Dietary restrictions remain the mainstay of GDM management and suitable physical exercise can help too. The use of rapid-acting insulin analogues (lispro and aspart are novel treatments for improving metabolic control by reducing postprandial glycemia, while long-acting insulin analogues need to be evaluated by further studies for safety in clinical use before they can be prescribed. Numerous studies have found glyburide and metformin safe in women with GDM but more randomized controlled trials are needed, with a long-term follow-up of mother and child, to confirm these results.Keywords: gestational diabetes, glucose management, obstetric management, maternal complications, fetal complications

  20. Dyslipidemia in Type 2 Diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Subarna Dhoj Thapa; Shiva Raj K.C.; Santosh Gautam; Deepika Gyawali

    2017-01-01

    Background: In type 2 diabetes mellitus lipid abnormalities are very common and is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases.  This study was conducted to find association of type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at KISTMCTH. All the necessary data of patient with type 2 diabetes in the period between December 2016 and May 2017 were studied.Results: Out of 199 patients with diabetes mellitus 30.7% had total cholesterol...

  1. Diabetes mellitus prevalence in tuberculosis patients and the background population in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haraldsdottir, Thorny Linda; Rudolf, Frauke; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data regarding the association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and tuberculosis (TB) in Africa are scare. We did a DM screening survey among TB patients and non-TB controls in Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: The study was conducted at the Bandim Health Project (BHP) in the capital Bissau. From......); ptreatment, the prevalence of DM was 2.8% (3/107) vs 1.7% (9/529) (p=0.44). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of DM was low, also among TB patients...

  2. High prevalence of diabetes mellitus in a five-generation Chinese family with Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yueqing; Liang, Jingyao; Yu, Shengyuan

    2014-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is associated with diabetes mellitus (DM) in population studies, but no case has been reported in a large HD family. We report a case of a five-generation Chinese family who is afflicted by both HD and DM. The prevalence of DM in HD of this family was high (72.7%). The diagnosis of HD in 11 family members was confirmed by the genetic test of the proband who had 42 CAG repeats. Furthermore, the proband's daughter had abnormal locus at G3460T in MT-ND1 among mtDNA genome. Our case report suggests a genetic link between HD and DM.

  3. Higher prevalence of risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus and subsequent higher incidence in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almdal, T.; Scharling, H.; Jensen, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study investigates risk factors and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM) in both sexes of a northern European population. Methods: A total of 14,223 randomly selected men and women were studied from 1976 to 1978. Patients with diabetes (self-reported type 2 DM or...... an OR of 0.4. Conclusion: In a randomly selected northern European population, significantly more men than women develop type 2 DM. (C) 2007 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved Udgivelsesdato: 2008/1...

  4. Aggressive periodontitis treatment with diabetes mellitus : A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arni Irawaty Djais

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive periodontitis is a periodontal disease occurring in healthy adolescent which is characterized by rapid loss alveolar bone happened in more than one permanent tooth.This disease has been classified in two types: localized and generalized. Localized aggressive periodontitis is characteristized by bone loss around the first molar and incisal, while generalized aggressive periodontitis is characterized by bone widespread pattern of periodontal distraction. One of the clinical feature aggressive periodonitis is distolabial migration of the maxillary incisors with concomitant diastema  formation. Radiographic findings show alveolar bone loss extending from the distal surface of the second premolar to the mesial surface of the second molar. Diabetes mellitus (DM is one of the predisposition factors that cause infection. DM will increase quantity of bacteria in oral, which will cause destruction in periodontal tissue, and continue to cause tooth mobility. However, well controlled DM patients can decrease the infection. The purpose of this study is to to inform a case with aggressive periodontitis with diabetes mellitus. A male 36 old presented with chief complaint mobile teeth and esthetic problem teeth. Radiographic evidence of severe attachment loss and bone loss around almost all the teeth. Treatment consisted of consulted to internist to control blood glucose level, periodontal pocket treatment with scalling root planing, splinting, flap surgery and antibiotic administration. The patient’s periodontal condition was stablized post treatment. Controlling oral hygiene to preventive disease progression was scheduled every three months. Patient refered to ortodontist to get ortodontic treatment to get esthetic result.

  5. Periodontal pathogens and gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasanayake, A P; Chhun, N; Tanner, A C R; Craig, R G; Lee, M J; Moore, A F; Norman, R G

    2008-04-01

    In previous cross-sectional or case-control studies, clinical periodontal disease has been associated with gestational diabetes mellitus. To test the hypothesis that, in comparison with women who do not develop gestational diabetes mellitus, those who do develop it will have had a greater exposure to clinical and other periodontal parameters, we measured clinical, bacteriological (in plaque and cervico-vaginal samples), immunological, and inflammatory mediator parameters 7 weeks before the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus in 265 predominantly Hispanic (83%) women in New York. Twenty-two cases of gestational diabetes mellitus emerged from the cohort (8.3%). When the cases were compared with healthy control individuals, higher pre-pregnancy body mass index (p=0.004), vaginal levels of Tannerella forsythia (p=0.01), serum C-reactive protein (p=0.01), and prior gestational diabetes mellitus (p=0.006) emerged as risk factors, even though the clinical periodontal disease failed to reach statistical significance (50% in those with gestational diabetes mellitus vs. 37.3% in the healthy group; p=0.38).

  6. The Comorbidity of Diabetes Mellitus and Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Katon, Wayne J.

    2008-01-01

    Several factors, including sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and an aging population, contribute to epidemic rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Depression frequently occurs comorbidly with diabetes although it is unrecognized and untreated in approximately two thirds of patients with both conditions. The course of depression in patients with both diabetes and depression is chronic and severe. Up to 80% of patients with diabetes and depression will experience a relapse of depressive symptoms over ...

  7. Damage-associated molecular patterns and their pathological relevance in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung Jae; Lee, Eun Kyung; Park, Tae Joo; Kim, Wook

    2015-11-01

    Diabetes, a group of metabolic and age-related diseases, is a major global health problem, the incidence of which has increased dramatically in recent decades. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a complex, T cell-mediated autoimmune disease characterized by immune cell infiltration and chronic inflammation in the islets of Langerhans. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) resulting from insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction. The involvement of inflammatory processes, such as immune cell infiltration, and chronic inflammation in the pathogenesis of diabetes is less well understood in T2DM than in T1DM. However, studies conducted in the past decade have shown a strong link between inflammation and metabolic dysfunction. They have also shown that chronic inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of both T1DM and T2DM. Two immunological factors commonly contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetes: the activation of inflammasomes and the release of proinflammatory cytokines in response to damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Inflammasomes are intracellular multiprotein molecular platforms. DAMPs act as endogenous danger signals. Here, we review current research on the function(s) of inflammasomes and DAMPs and discuss their pathological relevance and therapeutic implications in diabetes.

  8. Prevalence and severity of periodontal disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus (non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients in Bangalore city: An epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Apoorva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our objective was to study the prevalence and severity of periodontal disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM patients in Bangalore city. Materials and Methods : Four hundred and eight type 2 DM patients (Study Group and 100 non-diabetic patients (Control Group among the age group of 35-75 years were included in the study. The study group was divided based on Glycated hemoglobin levels into well, moderately and poorly controlled. Relevant information regarding age, oral hygiene habits and personal habits was obtained from the patients. Diabetic status and mode of anti-diabetic therapy of the study group was obtained from the hospital records with consent from the patient. Community periodontal index (CPI was used to assess the periodontal status. The results were statistically evaluated. Results : The mean CPI score and the number of missing teeth was higher in diabetics compared with non-diabetics, and was statistically significant ( P=0.000, indicating that prevalence and extent of periodontal disease was more frequent and more severe in diabetic patients. The risk factors like Glycated hemoglobin, duration of diabetes, fasting blood sugar, personal habits and oral hygiene habits showed a positive correlation with periodontal destruction, whereas mode of anti-diabetic therapy showed a negative correlation according to the multiple regression analysis. The odds ratio of a diabetic showing periodontal destruction in comparison with a non-diabetic was 1.97, 2.10 and 2.42 in well, moderately and poorly controlled diabetics, respectively. Conclusion : Our study has made an attempt to determine the association between type 2 DM (NIDDM and periodontal disease in Bangalore city. It was found that type 2 DM (non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus [NIDDM] subjects manifested relatively higher prevalence and severity of periodontal disease as compared with non-diabetics.

  9. Prevalence and severity of periodontal disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus (non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) patients in Bangalore city: An epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apoorva, S M; Sridhar, N; Suchetha, A

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to study the prevalence and severity of periodontal disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients in Bangalore city. Four hundred and eight type 2 DM patients (Study Group) and 100 non-diabetic patients (Control Group) among the age group of 35-75 years were included in the study. The study group was divided based on Glycated hemoglobin levels into well, moderately and poorly controlled. Relevant information regarding age, oral hygiene habits and personal habits was obtained from the patients. Diabetic status and mode of anti-diabetic therapy of the study group was obtained from the hospital records with consent from the patient. Community periodontal index (CPI) was used to assess the periodontal status. The results were statistically evaluated. The mean CPI score and the number of missing teeth was higher in diabetics compared with non-diabetics, and was statistically significant (P=0.000), indicating that prevalence and extent of periodontal disease was more frequent and more severe in diabetic patients. The risk factors like Glycated hemoglobin, duration of diabetes, fasting blood sugar, personal habits and oral hygiene habits showed a positive correlation with periodontal destruction, whereas mode of anti-diabetic therapy showed a negative correlation according to the multiple regression analysis. The odds ratio of a diabetic showing periodontal destruction in comparison with a non-diabetic was 1.97, 2.10 and 2.42 in well, moderately and poorly controlled diabetics, respectively. Our study has made an attempt to determine the association between type 2 DM (NIDDM) and periodontal disease in Bangalore city. It was found that type 2 DM (non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus [NIDDM]) subjects manifested relatively higher prevalence and severity of periodontal disease as compared with non-diabetics.

  10. Prevalence and severity of periodontal disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus (non–insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) patients in Bangalore city: An epidemiological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apoorva, S. M.; Sridhar, N.; Suchetha, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Our objective was to study the prevalence and severity of periodontal disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients in Bangalore city. Materials and Methods: Four hundred and eight type 2 DM patients (Study Group) and 100 non-diabetic patients (Control Group) among the age group of 35-75 years were included in the study. The study group was divided based on Glycated hemoglobin levels into well, moderately and poorly controlled. Relevant information regarding age, oral hygiene habits and personal habits was obtained from the patients. Diabetic status and mode of anti-diabetic therapy of the study group was obtained from the hospital records with consent from the patient. Community periodontal index (CPI) was used to assess the periodontal status. The results were statistically evaluated. Results: The mean CPI score and the number of missing teeth was higher in diabetics compared with non-diabetics, and was statistically significant (P=0.000), indicating that prevalence and extent of periodontal disease was more frequent and more severe in diabetic patients. The risk factors like Glycated hemoglobin, duration of diabetes, fasting blood sugar, personal habits and oral hygiene habits showed a positive correlation with periodontal destruction, whereas mode of anti-diabetic therapy showed a negative correlation according to the multiple regression analysis. The odds ratio of a diabetic showing periodontal destruction in comparison with a non-diabetic was 1.97, 2.10 and 2.42 in well, moderately and poorly controlled diabetics, respectively. Conclusion: Our study has made an attempt to determine the association between type 2 DM (NIDDM) and periodontal disease in Bangalore city. It was found that type 2 DM (non–insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus [NIDDM]) subjects manifested relatively higher prevalence and severity of periodontal disease as compared with non-diabetics. PMID:23633768

  11. Update on the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Peñalver, Juan José; Martín-Timón, Iciar; Sevillano-Collantes, Cristina; del Cañizo-Gómez, Francisco Javier

    2016-01-01

    To achieve good metabolic control in diabetes and keep long term, a combination of changes in lifestyle and pharmacological treatment is necessary. Achieving near-normal glycated hemoglobin significantly, decreases risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications. At present there are different treatments, both oral and injectable, available for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Treatment algorithms designed to reduce the development or progression of the complications of diabetes emphasizes the need for good glycaemic control. The aim of this review is to perform an update on the benefits and limitations of different drugs, both current and future, for the treatment of T2DM. Initial intervention should focus on lifestyle changes. Moreover, changes in lifestyle have proven to be beneficial, but for many patients is a complication keep long term. Physicians should be familiar with the different types of existing drugs for the treatment of diabetes and select the most effective, safe and better tolerated by patients. Metformin remains the first choice of treatment for most patients. Other alternative or second-line treatment options should be individualized depending on the characteristics of each patient. This article reviews the treatments available for patients with T2DM, with an emphasis on agents introduced within the last decade. PMID:27660695

  12. Hypothyroidism in diabetes mellitus patients in Eastern Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Maskey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The coexistence of diabetes mellitus (DM with hypothyroidism is a known clinical observation. Aims: To estimate prevalence and co-relate that of hypothyroidism in patients with DM in relation to the age and sex, the lipid profile, body mass index visiting diabetes clinic and inpatients in B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences. Settings and Design: The hospital-based descriptive study. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and seventy-one known or newly detected cases of DM aged more than 15 years were selected randomly from September 2012 to September 2013 and subjected to evaluation for thyroid function - clinically and biochemically and other relevant investigations were done. Statistical Analysis Used: For descriptive statistics mean, standard deviation, percentage, proportion were calculated. For inferential statistics following test were carried out at the level of significant 0.05 where confidence interval is 95%. The statistical operations were done through Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 10. Results: Of 271 subjects, the prevalence of hypothyroidism (clinical and subclinical in diabetics was, 4.05% (11/271 with females preponderance, of which 7 (30.4% were clinically hypothyroid and 4 (17.4% were subclinical hypothyroid. One (4.3% patient had subclinical hyperthyroidism. The mean age at diagnosis of type 2 DM was 51-60 years. 8.69% of diabetics with primary hypothyroids were having morbid obesity. High-density lipoprotein among different thyroid status were statistically significant (P = 0.042. Conclusions: Hypothyroidism is not uncommon in diabetes, and we found body mass index, mean triglyceride and cholesterol levels were more in those diabetic patients having coexisting hypothyroidism.

  13. A clinical prediction rule for urinary tract infections in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venmans, L M A J; Gorter, K J; Rutten, G E H M; Schellevis, F G; Hoepelman, A I M; Hak, E

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to develop a prediction rule for urinary tract infections (UTIs) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). A 12-month prospective cohort study was conducted in patients with DM2 aged > or = 45 years to predict the occurrence of recurrent UTIs in women and lower UTIs in men. Predictor

  14. A clinical prediction rule for urinary tract infections in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in primary care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venmans, L.M.A.J.; Gorter, K.J.; Rutten, G.E.H.M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Hoepelman, A.I.M.; Hak, E.

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to develop a prediction rule for urinary tract infections (UTIs) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). A 12-month prospective cohort study was conducted in patients with DM2 aged > or = 45 years to predict the occurrence of recurrent UTIs in women and lower UTIs in men. Predictor

  15. Diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease amplify accumulation of tissue advanced glycation end products in patients with peripheral artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefrandt, J.D.; De Vos, L.C.; Mulder, D.J.; Dullaart, R.P.F.; Lutgers, H.L.; Lambers Heerspink, H.J.; Smit, A.J.; Kamphuisen, P.W.; Zeebregts, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Backgrounds and aims: Diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are important risk factors for peripheral artery disease (PAD) and associated with a severely increased cardiovascular (CV) risk in these patients. DM increases production of AGEs and CKD decreases their clearance, while c

  16. Diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease amplify accumulation of tissue advanced glycation end products in patients with peripheral artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefrandt, J.D.; De Vos, L.C.; Mulder, D.J.; Dullaart, R.P.F.; Lutgers, H.L.; Lambers Heerspink, H.J.; Smit, A.J.; Kamphuisen, P.W.; Zeebregts, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Backgrounds and aims: Diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are important risk factors for peripheral artery disease (PAD) and associated with a severely increased cardiovascular (CV) risk in these patients. DM increases production of AGEs and CKD decreases their clearance, while

  17. Severity of diabetes mellitus and risk of total hip or knee replacement: A population based case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, Johannes T H; Van Den Bemt, B.; Lalmohamed, Arief; De Boer, A.; Boonen, A.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Emans, P.; De Vries, F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is generally thought that people with diabetes mellitus (DM) are more likely to suffer from OA due to an increased Body Mass Index (BMI), resulting in the mechanical destruction of cartilage. However, previous studies have shown that DM could also be an independent risk factor for OA,

  18. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in women with diabetes mellitus - Effect on renal function after 6 years of follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meiland, Ruby; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Netten, Patrick M.; Schneeberger, Peter M.; Hoepelman, Andy I. M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The long-term consequences of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) on renal function in women with diabetes mellitus (DM) are unknown. Methods: A prospective study was performed among women with type 1 or type 2 DM. Women with ASB (diagnosis based on findings from 1 urine culture specimen)

  19. A cross-sectional survey on current status of type 2 diabetes mellitus with overweight or obesity in Guangdong province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨帆

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the glycemic control statusand related risk factors of overweight or obesity patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) in Guangdong province. Methods The medical records of overweight or obesity patients with T2DM from 60 tertiary and

  20. Insulin autoantibody could help to screen latent autoimmune diabetes in adults in phenotypic type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gan; Wang, Xia; Li, Zhangwei; Li, Hui; Li, Xia; Zhou, Zhiguang

    2012-10-01

    Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is characterized by a relatively mild diabetes onset, autoantibody positivity, and eventual requirement for insulin therapy. Glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies (GADA) or cytoplasmic islet cell autoantibodies (ICA) play a key role in distinguishing LADA from type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in clinical practice. The aim of our research was to determine whether insulin autoantibody (IAA) has some additional value in diagnosing LADA. We analyzed IAA, GADA, and IA-2A (antibodies to insulinoma-associated antigen-2) in 1,003 newly diagnosed phenotypic T2DM patients, 110 type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients, and 317 normal controls to survey the prevalence of IAA in phenotypic T2DM patients and the overlapping positivity of IAA with other autoantibodies. Sera were drawn within 7 days from the start of insulin therapy. Results showed that 3.39% of the newly diagnosed phenotypic T2DM, 0.95% of normal control (χ(2) = 5.3, P diabetes family history more common compared to its matched group (67.6% vs. 14.7%, P = 0.000). Postprandial C-peptide in IAA-positive group tended to be lower, but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.084). We concluded that IAA can be used to screen LADA in phenotypic T2DM in the Chinese population.

  1. Management of diabetes mellitus in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Muili

    Diabetes is a global health problem, with a challenging epidemiology. It is one of the major health problems affecting countries around the world, particularly the UK (World Health Organization [WHO], 2006; Department of Health [DH], 2006b). It is also a growing public health threat in the US (Mokdad et al, 2001). As a result, diabetes has become an important public health issue, prompting the WHO and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) to adopt the theme 'Diabetes for Everyone' for World Diabetes Day 2006. In 2007, on World Diabetes Day, the United Nations also launched its 'Living with Diabetes at School' campaign, in response to the growing diabetes 'epidemics' (Diabetes UK, 2007). This article provides an overview of diabetes mellitus and its acute- and long-term management, including definition, aetiology, pathophysiology, classification, signs, symptoms and complications. The role of the nurse in providing patient-centred care for people with diabetes is emphasized.

  2. Catarata e diabetes mellitus tipo 1 Cataract and type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Manfroi Dal Pizzol

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência de catarata e seus fatores de risco em uma população portadora de diabetes mellitus tipo 1 (DM1. MÉTODOS: Estudo de casos e controles de um banco de dados de 181 pacientes (362 olhos com diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus tipo 1. Os pacientes foram classificados como casos quando apresentavam diagnóstico de catarata. As variáveis estudadas foram a presença ou não de retinopatia diabética, tratamento com panfotocoagulação, presença de hipertensão arterial sistêmica e neuropatia periférica, colesterol total, triglicerídios séricos, HDL, LDL, índice de massa corporal, creatinina sérica, albuminúria, hemoglobina glicosilada e glicemia de jejum. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de catarata foi de 19,9%. Na análise univariada foi encontrada associação estatisticamente significativa (pPURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of cataract and associated risk factors in a diabetic type 1 population. METHODS: 181 patients (362 eyes were evaluated in a case-control study. Cases were classified when cataract was present at the time of the examination. The studied outcomes were the presence of diabetic retinopathy, retinal panphotocoagulation, high blood pressure, peripheral neuropathy, total cholesterol levels, triglyceride levels, HDL, LDL, body mass index, creatinine levels, albuminuria, glycosylated hemoglobin and glycemia levels. RESULTS: Cataract was present in 19.9% of the studied patients. The association of the presence of cataract and diabetic retinopathy, peripheral neuropathy, elevated levels of creatinine, panphotocoagulation and high blood pressure were statistically significant (univariate analysis. After the logistic regression analysis the presence of cataract was significantly associated with the presence of diabetic retinopathy. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of cataract was 19.9% and the presence and severity of the diabetic retinopathy were the main risk factors for its development.

  3. Pre-existing diabetes mellitus and adverse pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahabi Hayfaa A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancies complicated by pre-existing diabetes mellitus (PDM are associated with a high rate of adverse outcomes, including an increased miscarriage rate, preterm delivery, preeclampsia, perinatal mortality and congenital malformations; compared to the background population. The objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of PDM and to investigate the maternal and the neonatal outcomes of women with PDM. Methods This is a retrospective cohort study for women who delivered in King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH during the period of January 1st to the 31st of December 2008. The pregnancy outcomes of the women with PDM were compared to the outcomes of all non-diabetic women who delivered during the same study period. Results A total of 3157 deliveries met the inclusion criteria. Out of the study population 116 (3.7% women had PDM. There were 66 (57% women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and 50 (43% women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Compared to non-diabetic women those with PDM were significantly older, of higher parity, and they had more previous miscarriages. Women with PDM were more likely to be delivered by emergency cesarean section (C/S, OR 2.67, 95% confidence intervals (CI (1.63-4.32, P P P P = 0.002. They more frequently have APGAR scores P 0.057 and more likely to be delivered at P 0.003. The stillbirth rate was 2.6 times more among the women with PDM; however the difference did not reach statistical significance, P 0.084. Conclusion PDM is associated with increased risk for C/S delivery, macrosomia, stillbirth, preterm delivery and low APGAR scores at 5 min.

  4. Low Carbohydrate-Diet Scores and Long-term Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Among Women With a History of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Prospective Cohort Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bao, Wei; Li, Shanshan; Chavarro, Jorge E; Tobias, Deirdre K; Zhu, Yeyi; Hu, Frank B; Zhang, Cuilin

    2016-01-01

    ...), but the long-term effect on progression from GDM to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is unknown. We aimed to examine the long-term risk of T2DM in association with a low-carbohydrate dietary pattern among women with a history of GDM...

  5. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and psychological stress - a modifiable risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Ruth A; Steptoe, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    Psychological stress is common in many physical illnesses and is increasingly recognized as a risk factor for disease onset and progression. An emerging body of literature suggests that stress has a role in the aetiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) both as a predictor of new onset T2DM and as a prognostic factor in people with existing T2DM. Here, we review the evidence linking T2DM and psychological stress. We highlight the physiological responses to stress that are probably related to T2DM, drawing on evidence from animal work, large epidemiological studies and human laboratory trials. We discuss population and clinical studies linking psychological and social stress factors with T2DM, and give an overview of intervention studies that have attempted to modify psychological or social factors to improve outcomes in people with T2DM.

  6. Gut microbiota and immunopathogenesis of diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Zhang, Chunfang; Zeng, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major increasing global health burden in the aging population. Understanding the etiology of DM is beneficial for its prevention as well as treatment. In light of the metagenome hypothesis, defined as the overall bacterial genome, gut microbes have attracted increasing attention in the pathogenesis of DM. Many studies have found that gut microbes are involved in the immunopathogenesis of DM. Probiotics strengthen the host's intestinal barrier and modulate the immune system, and have therefore been investigated in DM management. Recent epigenetic findings in context of genes associated with inflammation suggest a possible way in which gut microbiota participate in the immunopathogenesis of DM. In this review, we discuss the role of gut microbiota in the immunopathogenesis of DM.

  7. Intensive blood pressure control affects cerebral blood flow in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Yu-Sok; Davis, Shyrin C A T; Truijen, Jasper;

    2011-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with microvascular complications, hypertension, and impaired dynamic cerebral autoregulation. Intensive blood pressure (BP) control in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients reduces their risk of stroke but may affect cerebral perfusion. Systemic hemodynamic...... variables and transcranial Doppler-determined cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV), cerebral CO2 responsiveness, and cognitive function were determined after 3 and 6 months of intensive BP control in 17 type 2 diabetic patients with microvascular complications (T2DM+), in 18 diabetic patients without (T2DM......-) microvascular complications, and in 16 nondiabetic hypertensive patients. Cerebrovascular reserve capacity was lower in T2DM+ versus T2DM- and nondiabetic hypertensive patients (4.6±1.1 versus 6.0±1.6 [P

  8. A Case Report of Paralytic Patient Associated with Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung-woo Kim

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This report aimed to study of paralytic patient associated with Diabetes Mellitus. Methods : Diabetes Mellitus has one of the highest death rate, because of it induces various complications. Especially paralytic patients who associated with diabetes mellitus are slow in recovery and easy to induce many complications. So control of the diabetes mellitus is the most important thing to treatment. We observed and treated with Cheunhwasangamibang and acupunture. Results : The paralytic patient with Diabetes Mellitus was treatment with Cheunhwasangamibang and improvement was seen. Conclusions : Results in this case support a role for Cheunhwasangamibang in controlling Diabetes Mellitus

  9. Retinal neurodegeneration may precede microvascular changes characteristic of diabetic retinopathy in diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Elliott H.; van Dijk, Hille W.; Jiao, Chunhua; Kok, Pauline H. B.; Jeong, Woojin; Demirkaya, Nazli; Garmager, Allison; Wit, Ferdinand; Kucukevcilioglu, Murat; van Velthoven, Mirjam E. J.; DeVries, J. Hans; Mullins, Robert F.; Kuehn, Markus H.; Schlingemann, Reinier Otto; Sonka, Milan; Verbraak, Frank D.; Abràmoff, Michael David

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) has long been recognized as a microvasculopathy, but retinal diabetic neuropathy (RDN), characterized by inner retinal neurodegeneration, also occurs in people with diabetes mellitus (DM). We report that in 45 people with DM and no to minimal DR there was significant, progressive loss of the nerve fiber layer (NFL) (0.25 μm/y) and the ganglion cell (GC)/inner plexiform layer (0.29 μm/y) on optical coherence tomography analysis (OCT) over a 4-y period, independent of glycated hemoglobin, age, and sex. The NFL was significantly thinner (17.3 μm) in the eyes of six donors with DM than in the eyes of six similarly aged control donors (30.4 μm), although retinal capillary density did not differ in the two groups. We confirmed significant, progressive inner retinal thinning in streptozotocin-induced “type 1” and B6.BKS(D)-Leprdb/J “type 2” diabetic mouse models on OCT; immunohistochemistry in type 1 mice showed GC loss but no difference in pericyte density or acellular capillaries. The results suggest that RDN may precede the established clinical and morphometric vascular changes caused by DM and represent a paradigm shift in our understanding of ocular diabetic complications. PMID:27114552

  10. Retinal neurodegeneration may precede microvascular changes characteristic of diabetic retinopathy in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Elliott H; van Dijk, Hille W; Jiao, Chunhua; Kok, Pauline H B; Jeong, Woojin; Demirkaya, Nazli; Garmager, Allison; Wit, Ferdinand; Kucukevcilioglu, Murat; van Velthoven, Mirjam E J; DeVries, J Hans; Mullins, Robert F; Kuehn, Markus H; Schlingemann, Reinier Otto; Sonka, Milan; Verbraak, Frank D; Abràmoff, Michael David

    2016-05-10

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) has long been recognized as a microvasculopathy, but retinal diabetic neuropathy (RDN), characterized by inner retinal neurodegeneration, also occurs in people with diabetes mellitus (DM). We report that in 45 people with DM and no to minimal DR there was significant, progressive loss of the nerve fiber layer (NFL) (0.25 μm/y) and the ganglion cell (GC)/inner plexiform layer (0.29 μm/y) on optical coherence tomography analysis (OCT) over a 4-y period, independent of glycated hemoglobin, age, and sex. The NFL was significantly thinner (17.3 μm) in the eyes of six donors with DM than in the eyes of six similarly aged control donors (30.4 μm), although retinal capillary density did not differ in the two groups. We confirmed significant, progressive inner retinal thinning in streptozotocin-induced "type 1" and B6.BKS(D)-Lepr(db)/J "type 2" diabetic mouse models on OCT; immunohistochemistry in type 1 mice showed GC loss but no difference in pericyte density or acellular capillaries. The results suggest that RDN may precede the established clinical and morphometric vascular changes caused by DM and represent a paradigm shift in our understanding of ocular diabetic complications.

  11. Sarcopenia en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2.

    OpenAIRE

    Vergara Ruiz, José Carlos

    2015-01-01

    El riesgo de discapacidad es mayor en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2). Buena parte del mismo se debe al envejecimiento del músculo esquelético o sarcopenia. El déficit de fuerza muscular asociado a la edad tiene mayor asociación con la pérdida de funcionalidad que el mismo proceso cuando afecta a la masa muscular esquelética, y no ocurren de forma paralela ni proporcional. Recientemente se ha propuesto el término dinapenia para referirse a ésta pérdida de fuerza muscular, con ind...

  12. Skin, a mirror reflecting diabetes mellitus: A longitudinal study in a tertiary care hospital in Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshni Vahora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Diabetes mellitus (DM is the most common of the endocrine disorders. Mucocutaneous manifestations of diabetes mellitus are many and vary from trivial to life-threatening. Sometimes, mucocutaneous disorders may herald the onset of diabetes. Aims: To study the pattern of mucocutaneous manifestations in diabetics and role of it in diagnosing diabetes mellitus and its complications. Settings and Design: It was a longitudinal observational study of patients having diabetes with skin complaints attending skin outdoor department or admitted in wards for any reason in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: Total 300 patients were included in the study. Detailed history, clinical examination, and relevant investigations were done to diagnose the mucocutaneous disorders, diabetes, and diabetic complications. Statistical Analysis Used: The data was analyzed by using Epi info software. Results: Demographic profile shown majority of cases (78.66% in more than 40 years of age with almost equal male and female preponderance. Mucocutaneous manifestations as presenting feature of diabetes were observed in 21.67% cases. Infections were most common in 119 (39.66% cases, followed by acanthosis nigricans in 46 (15.33% cases. Various associated complications like hypertension, retinopathy, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease, neuropathy, nephropathy, and diabetic ketoacidosis were observed in 160 (53.3%. Conclusions: Skin is the mirror, which reflects internal diseases; this aptly applies to skin and diabetes mellitus. Through awareness about cutaneous manifestations of DM, dermatologist can not only take credit for detecting DM but also facilitate early diagnosis of systemic complications of DM. This is immensely beneficial to patients in long run.

  13. Detection of putative periodontal pathogens in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and non-diabetes mellitus by polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, K; Chang, C J; Hsu, P C; Sun, H S; Tseng, C C; Wang, J R

    2001-02-01

    It has been assumed that there is a relationship between periodontal diseases and diabetes mellitus, however the putative periodontal microorganisms in non-diabetes mellitus (non-DM) individuals and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients have not been well studied. In this study, the detection rates of 5 putative periodontal pathogens: Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Eikenella corrodens, Treponema denticola, and Candida albicans by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) between NIDDM and non-DM adults were compared. A total of 246 adults were randomly recruited and periodontal parameters including: plaque index (P1I), gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD) and attachment level (AL) were recorded. Subgingival plaque samples were collected by sterile curettes from the most diseased and healthy sites based on PD and AL. The differences in periodontal parameters and microbiological data in healthy and diseased sites between non-DM and NIDDM patients were compared by chi-square analysis. The results showed no significant differences in age, gender, GI, P1I, PD, and prevalence of the 5 microorganisms between the NIDDM and the non-diabetic groups. However, except for A. actinomycetemcomitans, the prevalence of the periodontal microorganisms tested was significantly higher (p albicans may play important roles in the periodontitis of both NIDDM and non-DM individuals, however the etiology of periodontitis in both groups may not be different from each other.

  14. Depression, anxiety and cognitive dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus--a study of adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Osijek, Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degmecić, Dunja; Bacun, Tatjana; Kovac, Vlatka; Mioc, Josipa; Horvat, Jasna; Vcev, Aleksandar

    2014-06-01

    Aim of the study was to determine the rate of depression and anxiety in the patients with diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (DM), and also to determine the state of the congnitive functions in patients with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus compared with the control group. Study was designed as a epidemiological cross sectional study, sample consisted of 108 patients, 66 of the patients were diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus, and 42 were control group. All of them were interviewed by psychiatrist and tested through clinical interview with Hamilton depression rating scale, Hamilton Anxiety rating scale, Mini mental state examination and questionnaire about sociodemografic data. Results show that group of patients with DM were statistically significant more depressed than the control group of the patients (p = 0.035). Pathological anxiety measured by Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) appeared in 34 DM patients and 7 of the patients in control group, which is also statistically significant difference (p = 0.002). Evaluation of the cognitive status done with Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE showed us the patients with DM presented more cognitive dysfunctions compared with the control group. We can conclude that the high prevalence of psychiatric disorders in diabetic patients points to the need for greater investment in appropriate diagnostic evaluation of patients that consider mental issues.

  15. Significance of the insulin degrading enzyme in the pathogenesis of the type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Pivovarova, Olga

    2010-01-01

    The insulin degrading enzyme (IDE) is an ubiquitously expressed enzyme responsible for the insulin degradation. The IDE knockout in mice lead to decreased insulin degradation, hyperinsulinaemia and impaired glucose tolerance. Some association studies have identified IDE as a candidate gene for the type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); however, other studies couldn’t confirm this association. In this work, the significance of the IDE in the T2DM pathogenesis was investigated on various levels. The ...

  16. Hyperglycemia decreased medial amygdala projections to medial preoptic area in experimental model of Diabetes Mellitus.

    OpenAIRE

    Yousef Mohamadi; Seyed Behnam-edin Jameie; Mohammad Akbari; Masumeh Staji; Fatemeh Moradi; Tahmineh Mokhtari; Maryam Khanehzad; Gholamreza Hassanzadeh

    2015-01-01

    In Wistar rats, reproductive behavior is controlled in a neural circuit of ventral forebrain including the medial amygdala (Me), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and medial preoptic area (MPOA) via perception of social odors. Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a widespread metabolic disease that affects many organs in a variety of levels. DM can cause central neuropathies such as neuronal apoptosis, dendritic atrophy, neurochemical alterations and also causes reproductive dysfunctions. So we...

  17. [Associations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchial asthma, and type 1 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobylianskiĭ, V I; Babadzhanova, G Iu; Suntsov, Iu I

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to clarify the relationships between bronchial asthma (BA), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and type 1 diabetes mellitus. Reduced prevalence of concomitant BA and DM1 suggests inverse relation between the two conditions and their mutually exclusive nature. The problem needs further studies. Taking into account age-specific and other features of COPD and DM1 pathological processes elucidation of their interrelation appears impractical.

  18. Perceived benefits of pet ownership by middle-aged people with type 2 Diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Hugues H., Beatriz; Instituto Nacional de Endocrinología (INEN), La Habana; Álvarez Á., Aimee M.; Instituto Nacional de Endocrinología (INEN), La Habana; Castelo E., Lizet; Instituto Nacional de Endocrinología (INEN), La Habana; Ledón L., Loraine; Instituto Nacional de Endocrinología (INEN), La Habana; Mendoza T., Madelín; Instituto Nacional de Endocrinología (INEN), La Habana, Cuba; Domínguez A., Emma; Instituto Nacional de Endocrinología (INEN), La Habana

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted to explore the perception of people of middle-age with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM2) regarding ownership of companion animals and their relationship with personal satisfaction, benefits on mental health and metabolic control, and to the motivation on practicing physical activities. The study was descriptive, crosssectional, with 85 people from 49 to 58 years of age who had DM2, and were residents of Havana, Cuba. A self-administered questionnaire for assessing these a...

  19. Isolated intrasplenic vascular calcifications in a child with type 1 diabetes mellitus---A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Parag V; Patil, Manojkumar G; Patil, Abhijit M

    2017-09-01

    We report a case of vascular calcifications in the spleen of a 7-year-old girl who was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). The possible etiology for vascular calcifications might be medial sclerosis associated with DM. To the best of our knowledge, this finding has not yet been reported in the literature. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 45:438-440, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Exercise training on chronotropic response and exercise capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Li; Min, Gao; Wei, Chen; Min, He; Jie,Zhou

    2017-01-01

    The study was designed to observe the effects and relationship of exercise on chronotropic response (CR) and exercise capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 30 patients with T2DM underwent symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) after excluding contraindication. For each subject individualized exercise prescription was formulated, and they received 12 weeks of exercise training after CPET retest to complete the comparison of CR indicators, includ...

  1. Gender discrimination for women with diabetes mellitus in Algeria

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    Farida Chentli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays diabetes mellitus (DM is one of the greatest global challenges. Its expansion varies from an area to another according to genetic, traditions, socio-economic conditions, and stress. In Algeria, as in other emerging countries undergoing an epidemiological transition, noncommunicable diseases are sharply increasing. After high blood pressure, DM is now the second metabolic disease. But are women more concerned by DM since obesity frequency is higher in females? Can we assert that there is a sort of sex discrimination for DM complications? Materials and Methods: To answer these questions we took into account published documents carried in Algerian population. But, as those were very scarce, we also considered newspapers articles, some documents published by health minister department, posters and oral communications of the Algerian Society of Endocrinology and Diabetology, and our clinical experience. We also have done a small survey to get our patients′ opinions. Results and Conclusion : At the first sight, it seems gender discrimination between men and women cannot exist since most epidemiological studies showed that both sexes are broadly and equally affected by DM, except for old aged females who are the most affected. When we reconsidered the problem, and when we compared past results to those obtained after the terrorism period, many studies showed a sort of gender difference. Apart from gestational DM, which is increasing sharply, some complications and death related to DM are prevailing in women. Coronary diseases and cerebral vascular accidents are more frequent in women too, especially the young ones and those suffering from DM. These complications are probably due to the recent and rapid modification in women′s lifestyle with a strong reduction in physical activity, eating disorders, hormonal contraception, and high sensitivity to perceived stress secondary to the near past stressing life and/or to numerous

  2. Gender discrimination for women with diabetes mellitus in Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chentli, Farida; Azzoug, Said; Meskine, Djamila; El Gradechi, Aldjia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nowadays diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the greatest global challenges. Its expansion varies from an area to another according to genetic, traditions, socio-economic conditions, and stress. In Algeria, as in other emerging countries undergoing an epidemiological transition, noncommunicable diseases are sharply increasing. After high blood pressure, DM is now the second metabolic disease. But are women more concerned by DM since obesity frequency is higher in females? Can we assert that there is a sort of sex discrimination for DM complications? Materials and Methods: To answer these questions we took into account published documents carried in Algerian population. But, as those were very scarce, we also considered newspapers articles, some documents published by health minister department, posters and oral communications of the Algerian Society of Endocrinology and Diabetology, and our clinical experience. We also have done a small survey to get our patients’ opinions. Results and Conclusion: At the first sight, it seems gender discrimination between men and women cannot exist since most epidemiological studies showed that both sexes are broadly and equally affected by DM, except for old aged females who are the most affected. When we reconsidered the problem, and when we compared past results to those obtained after the terrorism period, many studies showed a sort of gender difference. Apart from gestational DM, which is increasing sharply, some complications and death related to DM are prevailing in women. Coronary diseases and cerebral vascular accidents are more frequent in women too, especially the young ones and those suffering from DM. These complications are probably due to the recent and rapid modification in women's lifestyle with a strong reduction in physical activity, eating disorders, hormonal contraception, and high sensitivity to perceived stress secondary to the near past stressing life and/or to numerous responsibilities taken by

  3. Hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus – a risky dual gestational endocrinopathy

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    Dan Tirosh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Diabetes mellitus (DM and hypothyroidism are each associated with increased rate of pregnancy complications. However, their combined morbidity during gestation is poorly studied. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of the combined morbidity of DM & hypothyroidism and whether it is associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcome.Study design. This population based retrospective cohort study included 87,213 women who had 232,293 deliveries. All deliveries were divided into the following groups: (1 hypothyroidism & DM (n = 171; (2 hypothyroidism (n = 1502; (3 DM (n = 13,324; and (4 deliveries of women with neither endocrinopathy, who served as a control group (n = 217, 296.Results. The prevalence of DM & hypothyroidism in our population was 0.17%. In comparisons to the other study groups, women with DM & hypothyroidism had higher rates of infertility (p < 0.001, preeclampsia (p < 0.001, chronic hypertension (p < 0.001, preterm birth (p < 0.001, and cesarean deliveries (p < 0.001. In Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE model, hypothyroidism & DM was an independent risk factor for cesarean section (OR 3.46; 95% CI 2.53–4.75 and for preeclampsia (OR 1.82; 95%CI 1.16–2.84.Conclusion. The combination of DM & hypothyroidism is rare, yet it is associated with higher rate of infertility, cesarean sections, preterm deliveries, and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy than the rest of the population. This dual endocrinological combination is an independent risk factor for preeclampsia and cesarean section. These findings suggest that these patients are at risk for perinatal complications and should be followed and delivered as high risk pregnancies.

  4. Pemanfaatan internet untuk edukasi gizi bagi penyandang diabetes mellitus

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    Emyr Reisha Isaura

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pattern of disease incidence has changed nowadays as indicated from epidemiological transition, from infection to noninfection diseases or noncommunicable diseases. The quantity of diabetes mellitus (DM patients in Indonesia is increasing every year. Integrated management of DM requires synergy from different parties. According to Act No. 36/2009 on Health, article 17 paragraph 1 states that the government is responsible for the availability of access to information, education, and health facilities to improve and maintain highest health status. Objective: The study aimed to analyze the utilization of the internet or online media in the dissemination of recommended eating pattern and physical activities of DM patients as prevention against complication. Method: The study used cross-sectional design and was carried out in January 2013 at Surabaya Municipality. It used e-survey, with secondary data from hospitals at Surabaya Municipality. Samples were DM patients of 20-50 years old registered in hospitals and agreed with informed consent. Samples were taken purposively involving 66 respondents. Results: There was a difference in eating pattern among DM patients utilizing online and those using nononline media (OR=3.33; CI 95%=1.06-10.43; p=0.03; and in physical activities (OR=0.09; CI 95%=0.01-0.75; p=0.008. Conclusion: The utilization of online media affected eating pattern and physical activity pattern in DM patient as much as 3.33 times and 0.09 times greater than in those not using online media in looking for communication, information, and education resources in supporting prevention against DM complication. Thus online media could be one of the effective and efficient methods for the delivery of communication, information, and education for DM patients by health staff.

  5. Influence of dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus on chronic periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida Abdo, Juliane; Cirano, Fabiano Ribeiro; Casati, Marcio Zaffalon; Ribeiro, Fernanda Vieira; Giampaoli, Viviana; Casarin, Renato Corrêa Viana; Pimentel, Suzana Peres

    2013-10-01

    Periodontal disease is closely related to certain systemic conditions, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), and, as recently described, dyslipidemia, a condition with alterations in blood lipids levels. However, more than acting as disease modifiers, these conditions commonly occur as comorbidities, possibly synergically affecting periodontal tissues. The aim of the current study is to identify whether DM2 and dyslipidemia are related to the occurrence and severity of chronic periodontitis. A total of 254 individuals participated: 56 were patients with DM2, 67 had dyslipidemia, 74 had DM2 and dyslipidemia, and 57 were systemically healthy individuals. The clinical examination included a full-mouth evaluation of periodontal probing depth, plaque score, bleeding on probing, and clinical attachment level (CAL). Blood samples were taken to assess fasting plasma glucose, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and triglyceride levels. These parameters, as well as other medical conditions (i.e., smoking habits and body mass index), were considered in multiple regression analyses for data analyses (α = 5%). Dyslipidemia was not related to periodontal disease (P >0.05). At the same time, DM2, age, and smoking showed a statistical and positive association, an increase in percentage of sites with CAL ≥3 and ≥5 mm. Regarding the percentage of sites presenting severe destruction (CAL ≥7 mm), only DM2 remained a significant risk factor (P periodontal conditions in participants with normal health or those with DM2. However, age, smoking habits, and especially DM2 were significantly associated with loss of CAL.

  6. Tuberculosis screening among persons with diabetes mellitus in Pune, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mave, Vidya; Nimkar, Smita; Prasad, Haridas; Kadam, Dileep; Meshram, Sushant; Lokhande, Rahul; Gupte, Nikhil; Jain, Divyashri; Gupta, Amita; Golub, Jonathan E

    2017-06-02

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) increases tuberculosis (TB) risk, and there is increasing concern over the public health implications of the convergence of these two epidemics. Screening for TB among people with DM is now recommended in India. People with DM seeking care at a large public sector tertiary care hospital clinic in Pune, India, were screened for TB from June 2015 to May 2016. All consenting people with DM were screened for TB at each clinic visit using a five-item, WHO-recommended questionnaire and those with TB symptoms and/or risk factors were tested for active TB using sputum smear microscopty, Xpert® MTB/RIF and TB culture. Categorical data and continuous variables were summarized using descriptive statistics. The x (2) test or Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to ascertain significant associations between categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Among 630 adults approached for screening, median age was 60 (interquartile range (IQR), 57-64) years and 350 (56%) were females. Median hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was 8.7% (IQR, 6.7-9.9) and 444 (70.5%) were poorly controlled DM (HbA1c > 7). Forty-four (7%) had prior history of TB but the proportion with TB risk factors at screening was low (<5%). While 18% of participants reported any TB symptoms, none of these patients were diagnosed with culture confirmed TB. Our study failed to yield any active TB cases using a WHO-recommended questionnaire among people with DM. High TB risk populations among people with DM must be identified if TB screening is to be feasible in settings such as India where the DM epidemic continues to rise.

  7. Diabetic myonecrosis: An underreported complication of diabetes mellitus

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    Bipul Kumar Choudhury

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic myonecrosis is an underreported complication of long-standing, poorly controlled diabetes mellitus which is usually self-limiting and responds well to conservative management. Patients frequently have microvascular complications, and although short-term prognosis is good, the long-term prognosis is poor. We report four cases of diabetic myonecrosis admitted in a tertiary care hospital.

  8. Endoplasmic reticulum stress, diabetes mellitus, and tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liu; Xie, Hong; Liu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is characterized by the accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins in the ER lumen. Unfolded and misfolded protein accumulation interferes with the ER function and triggers ER stress response. Thus, ER stress response, also called unfolded protein response (UPR), is an adaptive process that controls the protein amount in the ER lumen and the downstream protein demand. In normal conditions, the role of ER stress is to maintain ER homeostasis, restore ER function, and protect stressed cells from apoptosis, by coordinating gene expression, protein synthesis, and accelerating protein degradation through several molecular pathways. However, prolonged ER stress response plays a paradoxical role, which leads to cell damage, apoptosis, and concomitant tissue injuries. A number of tissue alterations are involved with diabetes mellitus progress and its comorbidities via ER stress. However, certain pharmacological agents affecting ER stress have been identified. In this review, we summarized the relationship between ER stress and insulin resistance development. Moreover, we aim to explain how ER stress influences type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) development. In addition, we reviewed the literature on ER stress and UPR in three kinds of tissue injuries induced by T2DM. Finally, a retrospective analysis of the effects of anti-diabetes medications on ER stress is presented.

  9. Gastroparesis in diabetes mellitus: an ultrasonographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, Corina; Dumitrascu, Dan L; Demian, Luiza; Brisc, Ciprian; Vatca, Liliana; Magheru, Sorina

    2005-03-01

    To investigate diabetic gastro-paresis, a complication of diabetes mellitus and its determinants. A group of 36 patients with diabetes and 20 healthy controls, with comparable age and sex ratio were investigated with an established ultrasonographic method. A mixed test meal of 400 kcal was given. Antral fasting and postprandial area, postprandial distension and emptying time were assessed. Glucose control was estimated by the measurement of fasting and postprandial glucose as well as by assessing HbA1c. Antral area was nonsignificantly larger in diabetes mellitus. Postprandial antral area and postprandial antral distension were higher in diabetes than in the controls. The prevalence of gastroparesis was 52.7%, without differences between the two types of diabetes: 53.8% in type I and 52.2% in type II diabetes mellitus. Gastroparesis was associated with poor short and long time control of blood glucose and with positive parasympathetic tests. Gastroparesis did not correlate with symptoms. Gastroparesis is a real complication in diabetes mellitus and can be documented using an ultrasonographic method. Poor glucose control and autonomic neuropathy are associated with gastroparesis.

  10. The prevalence of hypertension and microalbuminuria in diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2

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    Vasović Olga

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The prevalence of hypertension is two times higher in diabetics than in non-diabetics. In type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM, the incidence of hypertension is similar to the incidence of nephropathy. In obese patients with type 2 DM (T2DM there can be associated complications of hyperinsulinaemia, dyslipidaemia, and hypertension, which can lead to coronary artery disease and stroke. These associated complications are the result of a genetic defect that produces insulin resistance - Syndrome X. Increased microalbuminuria correlates with increased levels of blood pressure (BP and increased LDL cholesterol, and this is why microalbuminuria is associated with an increase in cardiovascular deaths in diabetics, even in the absence of renal failure. AIM. The aim of this study was to research the influence of a patient's age, diabetes duration, and obesity on the frequency of hypertension and its association with microalbuminuria inT1DM and T2DM. METHOD. 168 hospitalized patients with DM (79T1DM, 89T2DM were analyzed. The main outcome measures were: 24-hour urinary albumin excretion rate by radioimmunoassay (MA=30-30O mg/24h, arterial hypertension (systolic BP>140 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP>90 mm Hg, and body mass index (BMI. RESULTS. Microalbuminuria was detected in 42% of patients with T1DM and 47% of patients with T2DM. 34% of T1DM patients and 78% of T2DM patients were hypertensive. Patients were divided into four groups, according to the presence of hypertension and microalbuminuria; Group I - patients with hypertension and MA, Group II - patients with hypertension but without MA, Group III - patients without hypertension and MA, Group IV - patients without hypertension but with MA. 44% of T1DM patients were without hypertension and microalbuminuria, while the most frequent T2DM patients were those with hypertension (37% with and 41% without microalbuminuria. A significant correlation between BMI and diastolic BP in both types of DM (p<0

  11. Calprotectin mRNA (MRP8/MRP14 expression in neutrophils of periodontitis patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

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    Ahmad Syaify

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calprotectin, a major cytosolic protein of leukocytes, is detected in neutrophils and monocytes/machrophages. This protein is known to be a marker for several inflammatory diseases including periodontitis. In type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, the severity of periodontitis was strongly thought to be caused by decreasing of leukocytes function such as neutrophils. Previous research found that the calprotectin level in serum of periodontitis patients with type 2 DM is higher than periodontits patients non DM. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine calprotectin mRNA (MRP8/MRP14 expression in human neutrophils of periodontitis patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Neutrophils were isolated from the peripheral blood of periodontitis patients with uncontrolled type 2 DM, controlled type 2 DM, and non DM. The expression of calprotectin mRNA (MRP8 and MRP14 were detected by RTPCR. Result: The result showed that the value of mRNA calprotectin expression in DM patients were higher than non DM, and the highest expression was on the uncontrolled type 2 DM. Conclusion: The basal level of calprotectin mRNA MRP8/MRP14 expression increased in neutrophil of periodontitis patient with type 2 DM compared non diabetic subjects. It was suggested that high basal level of calprotectin mRNA has a role in the regulation of periodontitis severity with diabetes mellitus patients.

  12. Type 2 diabetes mellitus coincident with pulmonary or latent tuberculosis results in modulation of adipocytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan Kumar, Nathella; Nair, Dina; Banurekha, V V; Dolla, Chandrakumar; Kumaran, Paul; Sridhar, Rathinam; Babu, Subash

    2016-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is recognized as major risk factor for the progress of active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), although the mechanistic link between diabetes and tuberculosis remains poorly characterized. Moreover, the influence of poorly controlled diabetes on the baseline levels of adipocytokines in the context of tuberculosis has not been explored in detail. To characterize the influence of coexistent DM on adipocytokine levels in pulmonary or latent TB (LTB), we examined circulating levels of adipocytokines in the plasma of individuals with PTB-DM or LTB-DM and compared them with those without DM (PTB or LTB). PTB-DM or LTB-DM is characterized by diminished circulating levels of adiponectin and adipsin and/or heightened circulating levels of leptin, visfatin and PAI-1. In addition, adiponectin and adipsin exhibit a significant negative correlation, whereas leptin, visfatin and PAI-1 display a significant positive correlation with HbA1C levels and random blood glucose levels. Therefore, our data reveal that PTB-DM or LTB-DM is characterized by alterations in the systemic levels of adipocytokines, indicating that altered adipose tissue inflammation underlying Type 2 diabetes potentially contributes to pathogenesis of TB disease.

  13. Oral Manifestations and Complications of Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maskari, Awatif Y.; Al-Maskari, Masoud Y.; Al-Sudairy, Salem

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease affecting all age groups. It is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Many chronic macrovascular and microvascular complications of diabetes have been reported in the literature with few reports about oral complications. This article aims to review and increase the awareness of oral manifestations and complications of diabetes mellitus and to stimulate research on the subject. It treats in depth some of the complications such as periodontal disease, fungal infection and salivary dysfunction while other complications are mentioned briefly. PMID:21969888

  14. 9.1.Diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930241 The relationship between GLUT/Bg1Ⅱ,Xba Ⅰ RFLP and Chinese non—insulin—de-pendent diabetes mellitus.SUN Duoqi (孙多奇),et al.Dept Endocrinol,6th People’sHosp,Shanghai,200233.Chin J Endocrinol &Metabol 1993;9(1):5—7.Digestion of human genomic DNA with re-striction enzyme Bgl Ⅱ,Xba Ⅰ revealed a twoallele polymorphism with a human HepG 2 glu-cose transporter probe.Bands of 7.8 Kb (B1 al-lele),6.2 Kb (B2 allele) and 6.3 Kb (X1allele),6.0 Kb (X2 allele) were observed.Thegenotype frequencies were investigated in twogroups of Shanghai Chinese and San FranciscoChinese and their subgroups.The frequencies ofBIBI,B1B2 and B2B2 were 82%,17%,1% re-spectively among 92 Shanghai Chinese controls,and 78%,21%,1% respectively among 156

  15. KCNJ11: Genetic Polymorphisms and Risk of Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polin Haghvirdizadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a major worldwide health problem and its prevalence has been rapidly increasing in the last century. It is caused by defects in insulin secretion or insulin action or both, leading to hyperglycemia. Of the various types of DM, type 2 occurs most frequently. Multiple genes and their interactions are involved in the insulin secretion pathway. Insulin secretion is mediated through the ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP channel in pancreatic beta cells. This channel is a heteromeric protein, composed of four inward-rectifier potassium ion channel (Kir6.2 tetramers, which form the pore of the KATP channel, as well as sulfonylurea receptor 1 subunits surrounding the pore. Kir6.2 is encoded by the potassium inwardly rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 11 (KCNJ11 gene, a member of the potassium channel genes. Numerous studies have reported the involvement of single nucleotide polymorphisms of the KCNJ11 gene and their interactions in the susceptibility to DM. This review discusses the current evidence for the contribution of common KCNJ11 genetic variants to the development of DM. Future studies should concentrate on understanding the exact role played by these risk variants in the development of DM.

  16. Depression in type 2 diabetes mellitus: prevalence, impact, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenkovich, Katherine; Brown, Miriam E; Svrakic, Dragan M; Lustman, Patrick J

    2015-04-01

    Clinically significant depression is present in one of every four people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Depression increases the risk of the development of T2DM and the subsequent risks of hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and micro- and macrovascular complications. Conversely, a diagnosis of T2DM increases the risk of incident depression and can contribute to a more severe course of depression. This linkage reflects a shared etiology consisting of complex bidirectional interactions among multiple variables, a process that may include autonomic and neurohormonal dysregulation, weight gain, inflammation, and hippocampal structural alterations. Two recent meta-analyses of randomized controlled depression treatment trials in patients with T2DM concluded that psychotherapy and antidepressant medication (ADM) were each moderately effective for depression and that cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) had beneficial effects on glycemic control. However, the number of studies (and patients exposed to randomized treatment) included in these analyses is extremely small and limits the certainty of conclusions that can be drawn from the data. Ultimately, there is no escaping the paucity of the evidence base and the need for additional controlled trials that specifically address depression management in T2DM. Future trials should determine both the effects of treatment and the change in depression during treatment on measures of mood, glycemic control, and medical outcome.

  17. Hepatocyte growth factor, a biomarker of macroangiopathy in diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroyuki; Konya; Masayuki; Miuchi; Kahori; Satani; Satoshi; Matsutani; Taku; Tsunoda; Yuzo; Yano; Tomoyuki; Katsuno; Tomoya; Hamaguchi; Jun-Ichiro; Miyagawa; Mitsuyoshi; Namba

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerotic involvements are an essential causal element of prospect in diabetes mellitus(DM), with carotid atherosclerosis(CA) being a common risk-factor for prospective crisis of coronary artery diseases(CAD) and/or cerebral infarction(CI) in DM subjects. From another point of view, several reports have supplied augmenting proof that hepatocyte growth factor(HGF) has a physiopathological part in DM involvements. HGF has been a mesenchymal-derived polyphenic factor which modulates development, motion, and morphosis of diverse cells, and has been regarded as a humor intermediator of epithelial-mesenchymal interplays. The serum concentrations of HGF have been elevated in subjects with CAD and CI, especially during the acute phase of both disturbances. In our study with 89 type 2 DM patients, the association between serum concentrationsof HGF and risk-factors for macrovascular complicationsinclusive of CA were examined. The average of serumHGF levels in the subjects was more elevated than thereference interval. The serum HGF concentrations associated positively with both intimal-media thickness(IMT)(r = 0.24, P = 0.0248) and plaque score(r = 0.27, P =0.0126), indicating a relationship between the elevatedHGF concentrations and advancement of CA involvements. Multivariate statistical analysis accentuated thatserum concentrations of HGF would be associated inde-pendently with IMT(standardized = 0.28, P = 0.0499).The review indicates what is presently known regardingserum HGF might be a new and meaningful biomarkerof macroangiopathy in DM subjects.

  18. KNOWLEDGE OF DIABETIC COMPLICATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Fahim; Afridi, Ayesha Khan; Rahim, Fawad; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Khan, Sheema; Shabbier, Ghulam; Rahman, Sadiq Ur

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has risen exponentially over the last three decades, with resultant increase in morbidity and mortality mainly due to its complications. Limited data is available regarding the awareness and knowledge about these complications in our population. This study was carried out to evaluate the knowledge of diabetic complications in patients with diabetes mellitus. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Medical B Unit of Department of Medicine Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar. All admitted diabetic patients above 15 years of age with duration of diabetes mellitus more than one year were included. Out of the 96 patients questioned, 58 were females and 38 were males. Mean age was 53.29 +/- 10.821 years while the mean duration of diabetes mellitus was 9.75 +/- 7.729 years. Of the total 76 (79.1%) of the patients were illiterate; 36 (37.50%) had good, 24 (25%) had average and 36 (37.50%) had poor knowledge about diabetic complications. Males and university graduate patients had slightly better knowledge. Between 50-60% patients were aware of different cardiac complications of diabetes mellitus. Awareness regarding other complications was foot ulcer/gangrene 70 (72.91%), poor wound healing 68 (70.83%), stroke 54 (56.25%), renal diseases 64 (66.66%), eye diseases 53 (55.20%), gastroparesis and other gastrointestinal problems 45 (46.87%), diabetic ketoacidosis 55 (57.29%), hypoglycaemia 50 (52.08%), lipid abnormalities 26 (27.08%) and symptoms of diabetic neuropathy ranging from 47-65%. Majority of diabetic patients are unaware of diabetic complications. Therefore, hospital and community based awareness programs should be launched to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes mellitus.

  19. Periodontal disease in gestational and type 1 diabetes mellitus pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, D R; Romito, G A; Dib, S A

    2011-07-01

    The present study evaluated the relationship between periodontal disease and its clinical variables in Brazilian non-diabetic pregnant women (C), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), or type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). A periodontal exam was performed in one hundred and sixty-one pregnant women (GDM:80; T1DM:31; C:50) by a single-blinded calibrated examiner who recorded plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), bleeding index (BI), gingival margin location (GM), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), bleeding on probing (BOP), and tooth mobility index (MI). The medical variables were age, pregestational body mass index (pre-BMI), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c) ). The GI, GM, PD, CAL, BOP, and MI were significantly higher (P periodontal parameters confirmed these results. The presence of periodontal disease was significantly higher in Brazilian diabetic pregnancies (GDM and T1DM) when compared to non-diabetic pregnant women (C). The degree of periodontal disease was similar between the GDM and T1DM groups. Age, pregestational BMI, and HbA(1c) were factors related to CAL development in these two types of diabetes mellitus. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Diagnosis and classification of autoimmune diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canivell, Silvia; Gomis, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is increasing in prevalence worldwide. The economic costs and burden of the disease are considerable given the cardiovascular complications and co-morbidities that it may entail. Two major groups of diabetes mellitus have been defined, type 1, or immune-based, and type 2. In recent years, other subgroups have been described in-between these major groups. Correct classification of the disease is crucial in order to ascribe the most efficient preventive, diagnostic and treatment strategies for each patient. In the present review, we discuss the epidemiology, etiopathogenesis, diagnostic criteria and clinical classification of what is currently known as autoimmune diabetes. In addition, the other groups of diabetes mellitus will be regarded in relation to their pathogenesis and potential autoimmunity features.

  1. MicroRNAs and adipocytokines: Promising biomarkers for pharmacological targets in diabetes mellitus and its complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashoori, Mohamad Reza; Rahmati-Yamchi, Mohammad; Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Fekri Aval, Sedigheh; Zarghami, Nosratollah

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays, diabetes mellitus (DM) along with its complications is considered as a fundamental problem in both developing and industrial countries, and is causing millions of people to suffer worldwide. Currently, diabetes mellitus is diagnosed traditionally or classically in the world by measuring fasting blood glucose and conducting oral glucose tolerance test. New alternatives are required for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, especially type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), at its early levels due to the ineffective control of its development in patients. In recent years, by further identifying of molecular agents such as microRNAs (miRNAs), studies have focused on miRNAs in diabetes as well as in other diseases. These small non-coding RNA molecules have a significant role in the regulation of insulin gene expression and also, obesity problems. White adipose tissue, as an important tissue in obese subjects, is directly related to type 2 diabetes and its complications via synthesis of adipokines. Prevention and treatment of obesity should be noted since childhood. Our aim in this review is to briefly provide a new glance at types of potential biomarkers, which can be used as pharmacological targets for prevention and treatment of prediabetic subjects, and patients with T2DM. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  2. Managing hypertension in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horr, Samuel; Nissen, Steven

    2016-06-01

    Hypertension is a common problem in the diabetic population with estimates suggesting a prevalence exceeding 60%. Comorbid hypertension and diabetes mellitus are associated with high rates of macrovascular and microvascular complications. These two pathologies share overlapping risk factors, importantly central obesity. Treatment of hypertension is unequivocally beneficial and improves all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, major cardiovascular events, and microvascular outcomes including nephropathy and retinopathy. Although controversial, current guidelines recommend a target blood pressure in the diabetic population of diabetes. Management of blood pressure in patients with diabetes includes both lifestyle modifications and pharmacological therapies. This article reviews the evidence for management of hypertension in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and provides a recommended treatment strategy based on the available data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification of KCNJ15 as a susceptibility gene in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okamoto, Koji; Iwasaki, Naoko; Nishimura, Chisa

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in genome research have enabled the identification of new genomic variations that are associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Via fine mapping of SNPs in a candidate region of chromosome 21q, the current study identifies potassium inwardly-rectifying channel, subfamily J,...

  4. Matige bloeddrukregulatie bij patienten met diabetes mellitus type 2 in de eerste en tweede lijn.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst-Schrivers, A.N.; Ubink-Veltmaat, L.J.; van der Horst, I.C.; Bilo, H.J.; Lambert, J.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the degree to which the goals for adequate blood-pressure control in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM) are met in Dutch specialists' practice and in the primary-care setting. DESIGN: Cross sectional. METHOD: Data were collected from all consecutive patients with D

  5. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension and medial temporal lobe atrophy: the LADIS study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korf, E.S.; Straaten, E.C. van; Leeuw, F.E. de; Flier, W.M.; Barkhof, F.; Pantoni, L.; Basile, A.M.; Inzitari, D.; Erkinjuntti, T.; Wahlund, L.O.; Rostrup, E.; Schmidt, R.; Fazekas, F.; Scheltens, P.

    2007-01-01

    HYPOTHESIS: Based on recent findings on the association between vascular risk factors and hippocampal atrophy, we hypothesized that hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM) are associated with medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) in subjects without disability, independent of the severity of white

  6. Betel Nut Composition and Diabetes Mellitus in U.K. Asian Populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spyrou, N.M.; Ridge, C.; Boucher, B.J.

    1999-11-14

    We have instigated a pilot study to investigate the trace element status of selected type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) populations of Caucasians and South Asians living in southeast England and matched controls. As part of this program, betel nut-based chewing substances, some with and others without tobacco leaves incorporated, have been analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis.

  7. Whole grain foods for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priebe, M. G.; van Binsbergen, J. J.; de Vos, R.; Vonk, R. J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Diet as one aspect of lifestyle is thought to be one of the modifiable risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Information is needed as to which components of the diet could be protective for this disease. Objectives To asses the effects of whole-grain foods f

  8. Whole grain foods for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priebe, M.G.; Binsbergen, J.J. van; Vos, R.; Vonk, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diet as one aspect of lifestyle is thought to be one of the modifiable risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Information is needed as to which components of the diet could be protective for this disease. OBJECTIVES: To asses the effects of whole-grain foods

  9. Whole grain foods for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priebe, M. G.; van Binsbergen, J. J.; de Vos, R.; Vonk, R. J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Diet as one aspect of lifestyle is thought to be one of the modifiable risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Information is needed as to which components of the diet could be protective for this disease. Objectives To asses the effects of whole-grain foods

  10. Epidemiology of urinary tract infections in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilke, Thomas; Boettger, Bjoern; Berg, Bjoern

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This analysis was conducted to investigate urinary tract infection (UTI) incidence among Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in Germany in a real-world setting and to identify risk factors associated with UTI incidence/recurrence. METHODS: Our cohort study was conducted based...

  11. Continuous intraperitoneal insulin infusion in the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus : glycaemia and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    Continuous intraperitoneal insulin infusion (CIPII) with an implantable pump is a last-resort treatment option for selected patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). As compared to the most commonly used forms of insulin administration -injections and an externally placed pump- which deliver in

  12. Replacing SUs with incretin-based therapies for type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, Filip K; Holst, Jens Juul; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2008-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a progressive disease characterized by insulin resistance, a steady decline in glucose-induced insulin secretion (most likely caused by a progressive decrease in functional beta-cell mass), and inappropriately regulated glucagon secretion; in combination...

  13. Linagliptin increases incretin levels, lowers glucagon, and improves glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauch, Thomas; Graefe-Mody, Ulrike; Deacon, Carolyn F;

    2012-01-01

    Linagliptin is a xanthine-based dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitor that is now available in numerous countries worldwide for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of this study was to evaluate further the mechanisms underlying the improvements in glycemic control observed...

  14. Skin autofluorescence is inversely related to HDL anti-oxidative capacity in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Douwe J.; de Boer, Jan Freark; Graaff, Reindert; de Vries, Rindert; Annema, Wijtske; Lefrandt, Joop D.; Smit, Andries J.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: High density lipoprotein (HDL) particles protect apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins from oxidative modification. An impaired anti-oxidative functionality of HDL in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may contribute to enhanced formation of oxidative stress products, such as Advanced Gly

  15. The therapeutic potential of manipulating gut microbiota in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootte, R.S.; Vrieze, A.; Holleman, F.; Zoetendal, E.G.; Vos, de W.M.; Groen, A.K.; Hoekstra, J.B.; Nieuwdorp, M.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are attributed to a combination of genetic susceptibility and lifestyle factors. Their increasing prevalence necessitates further studies on modifiable causative factors and novel treatment options. The gut microbiota has emerged as an important

  16. The therapeutic potential of manipulating gut microbiota in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootte, R. S.; Vrieze, A.; Holleman, F.; Dallinga-Thie, G. M.; Zoetendal, E. G.; de Vos, W. M.; Groen, A. K.; Hoekstra, J. B. L.; Stroes, E. S.; Nieuwdorp, M.

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are attributed to a combination of genetic susceptibility and lifestyle factors. Their increasing prevalence necessitates further studies on modifiable causative factors and novel treatment options. The gut microbiota has emerged as an important

  17. Whole grain foods for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priebe, M.G.; Binsbergen, J.J. van; Vos, R.; Vonk, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diet as one aspect of lifestyle is thought to be one of the modifiable risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Information is needed as to which components of the diet could be protective for this disease. OBJECTIVES: To asses the effects of whole-grain foods

  18. Whole grain foods for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priebe, M. G.; van Binsbergen, J. J.; de Vos, R.; Vonk, R. J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Diet as one aspect of lifestyle is thought to be one of the modifiable risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Information is needed as to which components of the diet could be protective for this disease. Objectives To asses the effects of whole-grain foods f

  19. Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Consequences of Bacteriuria in Women with or without Diabetes Mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meiland, Ruby

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in women with diabetes mellitus (DM) is increased. In this thesis different aspects of ASB in this patient group are described, focusing on the pathogenesis, the different methods of diagnosis, and the consequences on the long term. In the first part,

  20. A lower prevalence of atopy symptoms in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerwaldt, R; Odink, RJ; Landaeta, R; Aarts, F; Brunekreef, B; Gerritsen, J; Van Aalderen, WMC; Hoekstra, MO

    2002-01-01

    Background The Th1/Th 2 concept is a model to understand the pathophysiology of certain diseases. Atopic diseases (asthma, eczema and hayfever) are characterized by a chronic inflammatory reaction that is dominated by Th 2 cells, and type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) is Th1 cell dominated. Because it is

  1. Seasonality of diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus in the Netherlands (Young Dudes-2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaans, Engelina A. J. M.; van Dijk, Peter R.; Groenier, Klaas H.; Brand, Paul; Reeser, Maarten H.; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Kleefstra, Nanne

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate seasonality in the initial presentation of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) among Dutch children. Methods: Observational, nationwide study in the Netherlands. Using the national registry for both healthcare reimbursement and pharmaceutical care, da

  2. The therapeutic potential of manipulating gut microbiota in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootte, R. S.; Vrieze, A.; Holleman, F.; Dallinga-Thie, G. M.; Zoetendal, E. G.; de Vos, W. M.; Groen, A. K.; Hoekstra, J. B. L.; Stroes, E. S.; Nieuwdorp, M.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are attributed to a combination of genetic susceptibility and lifestyle factors. Their increasing prevalence necessitates further studies on modifiable causative factors and novel treatment options. The gut microbiota has emerged as an important contributo

  3. Chronic kidney disease and mortality risk among older patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (ZODIAC-24).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drion, I.; Hateren, K.J. van; Joosten, H.; Alkhalaf, A.; Groenier, K.H.; Kleefstra, N.; Wetzels, J.F.M.; Bilo, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to investigate the association between a decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), albuminuria and mortality in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). DESIGN: prospective observational cohort study. Setting: primary care. Subjects: eight hundred and ten

  4. Continuous intraperitoneal insulin infusion in the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus : glycaemia and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    Continuous intraperitoneal insulin infusion (CIPII) with an implantable pump is a last-resort treatment option for selected patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). As compared to the most commonly used forms of insulin administration -injections and an externally placed pump- which deliver

  5. Role of exercise in the management of diabetes mellitus: the global scenario.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zar Chi Thent

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exercise training programs have emerged as a useful therapeutic regimen for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Majority of the Western studies highlighted the effective role of exercise in T2DM. Therefore, the main aim was to focus on the extent, type of exercise and its clinical significance in T2DM in order to educate the clinicians from developing countries, especially in Asians. METHODS: Pubmed, Science Direct, Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge and Google scholar were searched using the terms "type 2 diabetes mellitus," "type 2 DM," "exercise," and/or "physical activity," and "type 2 diabetes mellitus with exercise." Only clinical or human studies published in English language between 2000 and 2012 were included. Certain criteria were assigned to achieve appropriate results. RESULTS: Twenty five studies met the selected criteria. The majority of the studies were randomized controlled trial study design (65%. Most of the aerobic exercise based studies showed a beneficial effect in T2DM. Resistance exercise also proved to have positive effect on T2DM patients. Minimal studies related to other types of exercises such as yoga classes, joba riding and endurance-type exercise were found. On the other hand, United States of America (USA showed strong interest of exercise management towards T2DM. CONCLUSION: Aerobic exercise is more common in clinical practice compared to resistance exercise in managing T2DM. Treatment of T2DM with exercise training showed promising role in USA. A large number of researches are mandatory in the developing countries for incorporating exercise in the effective management of T2DM.

  6. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dileepan, Kavitha; Feldt, M Max

    2013-12-01

    On the basis of strong research evidence and consensus, type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) remains the most common form of DM in children and adolescents. The incidence of type 2 DM in the pediatric population is rapidly increasing because of the obesity epidemic, and minority groups are disproportionately affected. (2) (10) (19) On the basis of some research evidence and consensus, it can be challenging to initially differentiate between type 2 DM and type 1 DM clinically because of the increased prevalence of obesity, the complex interplay of autoimmunity and obesity, and common symptoms at presentation. (1) (10) (19) Significant evidence and consensus support a genetic basis for the development of type 2 DM in children. Physicians should routinely screen at risk children older than age 10 years for DM. Screening criteria include obesity, a family history of type 2 DM, a minority racial or ethnic background, acanthosis nigricans, or other diseases associated with insulin resistance, including polycystic ovary syndrome, hypertension, or dyslipidemia. (1) (10) (18) (19) On the basis of consensus, diagnosis of type 2 DM can be confirmed by an elevated fasting blood glucose level greater than 126 mg/dl (7.0 mmol/L), an elevated 2-hour plasma glucose greater than 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) on an oral glucose tolerance test, an elevated random blood glucose greater than 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L), or a hemoglobin A1c level greater than 6.5% with suggestive symptoms. (10) According to strong research evidence and consensus, once the diagnosis has been made, treatment should be based on the acuity of presentation and should focus on lifestyle modification and on normalizing hyperglycemia to minimize complications. Metformin is currently first-line treatment for type 2 DM in children and adolescents older than age 10 years who present nonacutely. (18) (19) Strong research evidence and consensus demonstrate that because type 2 DM has an insidious onset, microvascular and

  7. Preventing microvascular complications in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Vijay

    2015-04-01

    Patients with complications of diabetes such as retinopathy, nephropathy, and cardiovascular complications have increased hospital stay with greater economic burden. Prevention of complications should be started before the onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) by working on risk factors and thereafter by intervention upon confirmatory diagnosis which can prevent further damage to β-cells. The actual risk of getting microvascular complications like microalbuminuria and retinopathy progression starts at glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level of 7%. As per the American Diabetes Association, a new pediatric glycemic control target of HbA1c 20 years as compared to patients <10 years of age. Screening of these complications should be done regularly, and appropriate preventive strategies should be followed. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blocker reduce progression from microalbuminuria to macroalbuminuria and increase the regression rate to normoalbuminuria. Diabetic microvascular complications can be controlled with tight glycemic therapy, dyslipidemia management and blood pressure control along with renal function monitoring, lifestyle changes, including smoking cessation and low-protein diet. An integrated and personalized care would reduce the risk of development of microvascular complications in T1DM patients. The child with diabetes who receives limited care is more likely to develop long-term complications at an earlier age. Screening for subclinical complications and early interventions with intensive therapy is the need of the hour.

  8. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer’s disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mario; Barbagallo; Ligia; J; Dominguez

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological and biological evidences support a link between type 2 diabetes mellitus(DM2) and Alzheimer’s disease(AD). Persons with diabetes have a higher incidence of cognitive decline and an increased risk of developing all types of dementia. Cognitive deficits in persons with diabetes mainly affect the areas of psychomotor efficiency, attention, learning and memory, mental flexibility and speed, and executive function. The strong epidemiological association has suggested the existence of a physiopathological link. The determinants of the accelerated cognitive decline in DM2, however, are less clear. Increased cortical and subcortical atrophy have been evidenced after controlling for diabetic vascular disease and inadequate cerebral circulation. Most recent studies have focused on the role of insulin and insulin resistance as possible links between diabetes and AD. Disturbances in brain insulin signaling mechanisms may contribute to the molecular, biochemical, and histopathological lesions in AD. Hyperglycemia itself is a risk factor for cognitive dysfunction and dementia. Hypoglycemia may also have deleterious effects on cognitive function. Recurrent symptomatic and asymptomatic hypoglycemic episodes have been suggested to cause sub-clinical brain damage, and permanent cognitive impairment. Futuretrials are required to clarify the mechanistic link, to address the question whether cognitive decline may be prevented by an adequate metabolic control, and to elucidate the role of drugs that may cause hypoglycemic episodes.

  9. Preventing microvascular complications in type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Viswanathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with complications of diabetes such as retinopathy, nephropathy, and cardiovascular complications have increased hospital stay with greater economic burden. Prevention of complications should be started before the onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM by working on risk factors and thereafter by intervention upon confirmatory diagnosis which can prevent further damage to β-cells. The actual risk of getting microvascular complications like microalbuminuria and retinopathy progression starts at glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c level of 7%. As per the American Diabetes Association, a new pediatric glycemic control target of HbA1c 20 years as compared to patients <10 years of age. Screening of these complications should be done regularly, and appropriate preventive strategies should be followed. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blocker reduce progression from microalbuminuria to macroalbuminuria and increase the regression rate to normoalbuminuria. Diabetic microvascular complications can be controlled with tight glycemic therapy, dyslipidemia management and blood pressure control along with renal function monitoring, lifestyle changes, including smoking cessation and low-protein diet. An integrated and personalized care would reduce the risk of development of microvascular complications in T1DM patients. The child with diabetes who receives limited care is more likely to develop long-term complications at an earlier age. Screening for subclinical complications and early interventions with intensive therapy is the need of the hour.

  10. What's in a Name? Classification of Diabetes Mellitus in Veterinary Medicine and Why It Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilor, C; Niessen, S J M; Furrow, E; DiBartola, S P

    2016-07-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a syndrome caused by various etiologies. The clinical manifestations of DM are not indicative of the cause of the disease, but might be indicative of the stage and severity of the disease process. Accurately diagnosing and classifying diabetic dogs and cats by the underlying disease process is essential for current and future studies on early detection, prevention, and treatment of underlying disease. Here, we review the current etiology-based classification of DM and definitions of DM types in human medicine and discuss key points on the pathogenesis of each DM type and prediabetes. We then review current evidence for application of this etiology-based classification scheme in dogs and cats. In dogs, we emphasize the lack of consistent evidence for autoimmune DM (Type 1) and the possible importance of other DM types such as DM associated with exocrine pancreatic disease. While most dogs are first examined because of DM in an insulin-dependent state, early and accurate diagnosis of the underlying disease process could change the long-term outcome and allow some degree of insulin independence. In cats, we review the appropriateness of using the umbrella term of Type 2 DM and differentiating it from DM secondary to other endocrine disease like hypersomatotropism. This differentiation could have crucial implications on treatment and prognosis. We also discuss the challenges in defining and diagnosing prediabetes in cats.

  11. Prevalence and risk factors of periodontitis among adults with or without diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mihee; Kim, Hee Yeon; Seok, Hannah; Yeo, Chang Dong; Kim, Young Soo; Song, Jae Yen; Lee, Young Bok; Lee, Dong-Hee; Lee, Jae-Im; Lee, Tae-Kyu; Ahn, Hyo-Suk; Ko, Yoon Ho; Jeong, Seong Cheol; Chae, Hiun Suk; Sohn, Tae Seo

    2016-09-01

    This study examined prevalence and risk factors of periodontitis in representative samples of Korean adults, with and without diabetes mellitus (DM). Data from the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey were analyzed. A total of 4,477 adults (≥ 30 years old) were selected from 8,057 individuals who completed a nutrition survey, a self-reported general health behavior questionnaire, an oral examination, an oral hygiene behaviors survey, and laboratory tests. DM was defined as a fasting plasma glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL, or self-reported diagnosed diabetes, or current use of oral hypoglycemic agents and/or insulin. The community periodontal index was used to assess periodontitis status and comparisons between the periodontitis and the non-periodontitis group, were performed, according to the presence of DM. Risk factors for periodontitis in adults with DM and without DM were evaluated by multiple logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of periodontitis was significantly higher in adults with DM (43.7%) than in those without DM (25%, p periodontitis were older age, male, urban habitation, waist circumference, smoking, oral pain, and less frequent tooth brushing. Significant risk factors for periodontitis in adults with DM were the smoking, oral pain, and not-using an oral hygiene product. Adults with DM have an increased risk of periodontitis than those without DM. Current smoking and oral pain increase this risk. Using an oral hygiene product can reduce risk of periodontal disease in adults with DM.

  12. Development of the diabetes typology model for discerning Type 2 diabetes mellitus with national survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellatorre, Anna; Jackson, Sharon H.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To classify individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM) into DM subtypes using population-based studies. Design Population-based survey Setting Individuals participated in 2003–2004, 2005–2006, or 2009–2010 the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), and 2010 Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) survey (research materials obtained from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Biologic Specimen and Data Repository Information Coordinating Center) Participants 3084, 3040 and 3318 US adults from the 2003–2004, 2005–2006 and 2009–2010 NHANES samples respectively, and 5,115 US adults in the CARDIA cohort Primary outcome measures We proposed the Diabetes Typology Model (DTM) through the use of six composite measures based on the Homeostatic Model Assessment (HOMA-IR, HOMA-%β, high HOMA-%S), insulin and glucose levels, and body mass index and conducted latent class analyses to empirically classify individuals into different classes. Results Three empirical latent classes consistently emerged across studies (entropy = 0.81–0.998). These three classes were likely Type 1 DM, likely Type 2 DM, and atypical DM. The classification has high sensitivity (75.5%), specificity (83.3%), and positive predictive value (97.4%) when validated against C-peptide level. Correlates of Type 2 DM were significantly associated with model-identified Type 2 DM. Compared to regression analysis on known correlates of Type 2 DM using all diabetes cases as outcomes, using DTM to remove likely Type 1 DM and atypical DM cases results in a 2.5–5.3% r-square improvement in the regression analysis, as well as model fits as indicated by significant improvement in -2 log likelihood (pwaist circumference), which provide additional validation of the DTM-defined classes. Conclusions Our Diabetes Typology Model reflects a promising first step toward discerning likely DM types from population-based data. This novel tool will improve how large

  13. Diabetes-Related Distress, Depression and Distress-Depression among Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Boon-How; Vos, Rimke; Mohd-Sidik, Sherina; Rutten, Guy E H M

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) brings about an increasing psychosocial problem in adult patients. Prevalence data on and associated factors of diabetes related distress (DRD) and depression have been lacking in Asia. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of DRD and depression, and their associated factors in Asian adult T2DM patients. This study was conducted in three public health clinics measuring DRD (Diabetes Distress Scale, DDS), and depression (Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ). Patients who were at least 30 years of age, had T2DM for more than one year, with regular follow-up and recent laboratory results ( 130/80 mmHg (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.89) were less likely to experience both DRD and depression. DRD and depression were common and correlated in Asian adults with T2DM at primary care level. Socio-demographic more than clinical characteristics were related to DRD and depression.

  14. Gestational diabetes mellitus in South Asia: Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Fatema; Ejaz, Kiran

    2016-09-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus, is defined by the American Diabetes Association as "diabetes diagnosed in the second or third trimester of pregnancy that is not clearly overt diabetes". WHO has further classified the period of diagnosis as Hyperglycaemia in Pregnancy and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. The former term is applicable in the early period of gestation and GDM is detected after 24 weeks. Irrespective of the guidelines followed, the presence of Diabetes Mellitus during pregnancy, has to be taken seriously as it is an important metabolic derangement and can prove to be harmful for the mother and dangerous for the foetus. The rising incidence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in the world along with obesity, is a major contributing factor for GDM. The trend of this rise is more steep in the low and middle income countries thus proportionately increasing the risk for GDM. South Asia falls in this bracket and the responsible factors have to be identified and corrected. Management should begin from primordial prevention for which education is a key factor. Every woman should be taught the way to follow a healthy life style. Identification of the contributing factors and universal screening facilities for all pregnant women living in both rural and urban areas, should be given prime importance. On detecting Hyperglycaemia in Pregnancy or GDM, monitoring and health care facilities should be provided. This review provides some available figures of GDM in South Asia, the risk factors in this population and the steps for prevention.

  15. Evaluation of Preventive Studies in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müyesser Sayki Arslan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic autoimmune disease in which destruction of the beta cells in the islets of Langerhans results in insulin deficiency and hyperglycemia. We only definitely know that autoimmunity is the most important effector mechanism of type 1 DM. Type 1 DM precipitates in genetically susceptible individuals after an exposure to environmental trigger. According to current data, type 1 DM-associated genes are classified as susceptibility and protective genes. This insidious disease process evolves over a period of years. Prevention of type 1 DM requires detection of the earliest events in the process. Until now, autoantibodies are generally used as a serum biomarker, but current studies about T cell and metabolome might strengthen diagnostic view. Current preventive clinical studies usually focus on environmental factors. During the natural course of type 1 DM, many strategies have been tested at different stages in the form of primary, secondary and tertiary studies. The aim of the intervention studies for type 1 diabetes is to suppress pathogenic autoreactivity, restore/preserve beta cell mass and function to sufficient levels to provide good metabolic control, and to delay or prevent disease development. Therapeutic studies evaluate the effect of antigen specific and non-specific immune interventions, restoration of the damaged beta cells and also combination of these therapies. The results of intervention studies done till now are modulation of autoimmune process and partial prevention of loss of insulin release following the diagnosis. A single long-term effective prevention has not been identified yet. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 38-45

  16. Terapêutica da diabetes mellitus tipo 1

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes, Ana Luisa Lopes

    2009-01-01

    Introdução: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) é uma doença metabólica de etiologia múltipla caracterizada por hiperglicemia crónica com distúrbios no metabolismo dos hidratos de carbono, lípidos e proteínas, por deficiências na secreção e/ou acção da insulina. A descoberta da insulina em 1921, foi um grande marco na sua terapêutica, aumentando a esperança e qualidade de vida dos doentes, nomeadamente na DM tipo 1. Tornou-se um fármaco salvador de vidas (life saving). A primeira a ser comercializad...

  17. Teneligliptin in management of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma SK

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Surendra Kumar Sharma,1 A Panneerselvam,2 KP Singh,3 Girish Parmar,4 Pradeep Gadge,5 Onkar C Swami6 1Diabetes, Thyroid and Endocrine Centre, Galaxy Speciality Centre, Jaipur, 2Aruna Diabetes Centre, Chennai, 3Fortis Hospital, Sector 62, Phase VIII, Mohali, 4Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital, Andheri (W, Mumbai, 5Dr Gadge’s Diabetes Care Centre, Mumbai, 6Unichem Laboratories Ltd, Jogeshwari (W, Mumbai, India Abstract: Teneligliptin is a recently developed oral dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor indicated for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in adults along with diet and exercise. Teneligliptin has been recently available in Japan (Teneria®, Argentina (Teneglucon®, and India (Tenepure; Teneza at relatively affordable price. This is a positive step toward the management of T2DM in developing countries, where the cost of medicine is out-of-pocket expenditure and is a limiting factor for health care. This review evaluates the efficacy and safety of teneligliptin in the management of T2DM. Teneligliptin has been systematically evaluated in T2DM as monotherapy with diet and exercise and in combination with metformin, glimepiride, pioglitazone, and insulin in short-term (12 weeks and long-term (52 weeks studies. These studies have reported a reduction in HbA1c of 0.8%–0.9% within 12 weeks of therapy. Two 52-week studies reported sustained improvement in glycemic control with teneligliptin. Teneligliptin has been found to be well tolerated, and the safety profile is similar to other dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors. Hypoglycemia and constipation are the main adverse events. Teneligliptin can be administered safely to patients with mild, moderate, or severe renal impairment or end-stage renal disease without dose adjustment. Similarly, it can be used in patients with mild-to-moderate hepatic impairment. Teneligliptin is effective and well tolerated and may have an important role in the management of T2DM. Keywords: diabetes

  18. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Positive Predictor of Type 2 Diabetes?

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, Gregory E.; Illanes, Sebastian E.; Murray D. Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to consider the relative benefits of screening for type two diabetes mellitus in women with a previous pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus. Recent studies suggest that women who experience GDM are at a greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes within 10–20 years of their index pregnancy. If considered as a stand-alone indicator of the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, GDM is a poor diagnostic test. Most women do not develop GDM during pregnancy a...

  19. Erectile Dysfunction and Low Sex Drive in Men with Type 2 DM: The Potential Role of Diabetic Pharmacotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gareeb, Ali I.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diabetic men with erectile dysfunction have not been widely studied. They have low testosterone levels, causing low sex drive and erectile dysfunction. Aim To assess the erectile dysfunction and sex drive in relation to testosterone serum levels in type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) patients. Materials and Methods A total of 64 patients with type 2 DM were enrolled in this cross-sectional study, according to the treatment types they were divided into three groups, group (A): 34 patients treated with metformin, group (B): 30 patients treated with sulfonylurea and group (C): 27 healthy normal non-diabetic men are taken as control. Total testosterone (TT), Free Testosterone (FT), Free Androgenic Index (FAI), Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG), lipid profile and anthropometric parameters in metformin and sulfonylurea treated patients were compared to normal healthy men along with Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM). Results Total testosterone serum levels were high in sulfonylurea treated patients as compared to metformin treated patients’ p elevation in testosterone levels, sex drive and erectile function. PMID:28208875

  20. Dyslipidemias in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Nnewi South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dyslipidemias in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Nnewi South-East Nigeria. ... of micro and macrovascular complications in diabetes mellitus patients. ... can be instituted to reduce the risk of macro and microvascular complications.