Sample records for di-amino acid cyclic

  1. Catalytic pyrolysis of amino acids: Comparison of aliphatic amino acid and cyclic amino acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Guangyi; Wright, Mark M.; Zhao, Qingliang; Brown, Robert C.; Wang, Kaige; Xue, Yuan


    Highlights: • Catalytic pyrolysis of leucine and proline were carried out in a micro-furnace pyrolyzer. • Distributions of carbon, oxygen and nitrogen were comparatively investigated. • Leucine yielded 29.6% aromatic hydrocarbons, 34.9% olefins, and 8.1% alkanes. • Proline yielded 25.3% aromatic hydrocarbons, 14.0% olefins, and 5.5% alkanes. • Insights into the deoxygenation pathways of leucine and proline were elucidated. - Abstract: Catalytic pyrolysis (CP) of protein-rich biomass such as microalgae is a promising approach to biofuel production. CP of amino acids can help understand the cracking of protein-rich biomass in the presence of zeolite catalysts. In this study, as representatives of aliphatic amino acid and cyclic amino acid, respectively, leucine and proline were pyrolyzed with ZSM-5 catalyst in a Tandem micro-furnace reactor coupled with a MS/FID/TCD. At 650 °C, leucine produced more hydrocarbons (aromatic hydrocarbons of 29.6%, olefins of 34.9% and alkanes of 8.1%) than proline (aromatic hydrocarbons of 25.3%, olefins of 14.0% and alkanes of 5.5%) because its relatively simpler amino structure readily detached as ammonia during CP. However, with an N-cyclic structure, proline produced large quantities of nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds that favored coke formation in CP. Accordingly, 28.2% of the nitrogen in proline was retained in the solid residue while most of the nitrogen in leucine was converted into ammonia leaving only 4.3% in the solid residue. In addition, though decarboxylation to carbon dioxide was favored in non-catalytic pyrolysis of leucine and proline, decarbonylation to carbon monoxide became the primary deoxygenation pathway in CP. These results indicate that the chemical structures of amino acids have significant effects on product distributions during CP and N-cyclic amino acid is less favored in CP for production of hydrocarbons and ammonia.

  2. <論文・報告>Microbial Synthesis of Oxo Cyclic Amino Acids


    Kise, Miki; Morita, Shuhei; Takenaka, Ryota; Mitsukawa, Yuki; Takeuchi, Michiki; Ogawa, Jun


    In order to obtain microorganisms that can synthesize of oxo cyclic amino acids from hydroxy cyclic amino acids, we performed screening of microorganisms that are able to do so from 10 microbial samples collected from the Kyoto University Botanical Garden. Isolated microorganism colonies were shake-incubated in a liquid nutrient medium containing hydroxy cyclic amino acids as the only source of carbon, and the resulting suspension was subjected to TLC analysis with ninhydrin detection. Accord...

  3. Arrangement of Proteinogenic α-Amino Acids on a Cyclic Peptide Comprising Alternate Biphenyl-Cored ζ-Amino Acids. (United States)

    Tashiro, Shohei; Chiba, Masayuki; Shionoya, Mitsuhiko


    Aiming at precisely arranging several proteinogenic α-amino acids on a folded scaffold, we have developed a cyclic hexapeptide comprising an alternate sequence of biphenyl-cored ζ-amino acids and proteinogenic α-amino acids such as l-leucine. The amino acids were connected by typical peptide synthesis, and the resultant linear hexapeptide was intramolecularly cyclized to form a target cyclic peptide. Theoretical analyses and NMR spectroscopy suggested that the cyclic peptide was folded into an unsymmetrical conformation, and the structure was likely to be flexible in CHCl 3 . The optical properties including UV/Vis absorption, fluorescence, and circular dichroism (CD) were also evaluated. Furthermore, the cyclic peptide became soluble in water by introducing three carboxylate groups at the periphery of the cyclic skeleton. This α/ζ-alternating cyclic peptide is therefore expected to serve as a unique scaffold for arranging several functionalities. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Cyclic diguanylic acid and cellulose synthesis in Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amikam, D.; Benziman, M.


    The occurrence of the novel regulatory nucleotide bis(3',5')-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) and its relation to cellulose biogenesis in the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens was studied. c-di-GMP was detected in acid extracts of 32 P-labeled cells grown in various media, and an enzyme responsible for its formation from GTP was found to be present in cell-free preparations. Cellulose synthesis in vivo was quantitatively assessed with [ 14 C]glucose as a tracer. The organism produced cellulose during growth in the absence of plant cells, and this capacity was retained in resting cells. Synthesis of a cellulosic product from UDP-glucose in vitro with membrane preparations was markedly stimulated by c-di-GMP and its precursor GTP and was further enhanced by Ca2+. The calcium effect was attributed to inhibition of a c-di-GMP-degrading enzyme shown to be present in the cellulose synthase-containing membranes

  5. Kinetics of degradation of ascorbic acid by cyclic voltammetry method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grudić Veselinka V.


    Full Text Available Cyclic voltammetry was used to examine the kinetics of degradation of ascorbic acid (AA at different temperatures. It has been shown that the reduction of the concentration of AA in all temperatures follow the kinetics of the first order reaction. The rate constant of the oxidation reaction increases with temperature as follows: 5x10-5; 2x10-4; 1x10-3 and 3x10-3 min-1 at temperatures of 25°C, 35°C, 65°C and 90°C, respectively. The temperature dependence of the rate constant follows Arrhenius equation, and the value of activation energy of the reaction degradation is 48.2 kJ mol-1 . The effect of storage time at a temperature of 90 °C on AA content in fresh juice of green peppers was investigated. It was shown that AA oxidation reaction in the juice is also the first order reaction, while the lower rate constant in relation to the pure AA (5x10-3 min-1 indicates the influence of other substances present in peppers.

  6. Cyclic Sulfamidate Enabled Syntheses of Amino Acids, Peptides, Carbohydrates, and Natural Products (United States)

    This article reviews the emergence of cyclic sulfamidates as versatile intermediatesfor the synthesis of unnatural amino acids, chalcogen peptides, modified sugars, drugs and drug candidates, and important natural products.

  7. Cyclic phosphatidic acid and lysophosphatidic acid induce hyaluronic acid synthesis via CREB transcription factor regulation in human skin fibroblasts. (United States)

    Maeda-Sano, Katsura; Gotoh, Mari; Morohoshi, Toshiro; Someya, Takao; Murofushi, Hiromu; Murakami-Murofushi, Kimiko


    Cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA) is a naturally occurring phospholipid mediator and an analog of the growth factor-like phospholipid lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). cPA has a unique cyclic phosphate ring at the sn-2 and sn-3 positions of its glycerol backbone. We showed before that a metabolically stabilized cPA derivative, 2-carba-cPA, relieved osteoarthritis pathogenesis in vivo and induced hyaluronic acid synthesis in human osteoarthritis synoviocytes in vitro. This study focused on hyaluronic acid synthesis in human fibroblasts, which retain moisture and maintain health in the dermis. We investigated the effects of cPA and LPA on hyaluronic acid synthesis in human fibroblasts (NB1RGB cells). Using particle exclusion and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, we found that both cPA and LPA dose-dependently induced hyaluronic acid synthesis. We revealed that the expression of hyaluronan synthase 2 messenger RNA and protein is up-regulated by cPA and LPA treatment time dependently. We then characterized the signaling pathways up-regulating hyaluronic acid synthesis mediated by cPA and LPA in NB1RGB cells. Pharmacological inhibition and reporter gene assays revealed that the activation of the LPA receptor LPAR1, Gi/o protein, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB) but not nuclear factor κB induced hyaluronic acid synthesis by the treatment with cPA and LPA in NB1RGB cells. These results demonstrate for the first time that cPA and LPA induce hyaluronic acid synthesis in human skin fibroblasts mainly through the activation of LPAR1-Gi/o followed by the PI3K, ERK, and CREB signaling pathway. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Age-related changes in cyclic phosphatidic acid-induced hyaluronic acid synthesis in human fibroblasts. (United States)

    Sano, Katsura; Gotoh, Mari; Dodo, Kyoko; Tajima, Noriaki; Shimizu, Yoshibumi; Murakami-Murofushi, Kimiko


    Hyaluronic acid is a major component of the extracellular matrix, which is important for skin hydration. As aging brings skin dehydration, we aimed to clarify the mRNA expression of hyaluronic acid-related proteins in human skin fibroblasts from donors of various ages (range 0.7-69 years). Previously, we reported that cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA), a unique phospholipid mediator, stimulated the expression of HAS2 and increased hyaluronic acid synthesis in human skin fibroblasts (donor age: 3 days). In this study, we measured the mRNA expression of hyaluronic acid-related proteins: hyaluronan synthase (HAS) 1-3, hyaluronidase-1, -2, and hyaluronic acid-binding protein (versican). In addition, we tested whether cPA could increase hyaluronic acid synthesis in skin fibroblasts derived from donors of various ages. The expression of HAS1, 3, hyaluronidase-1, and -2 did not change with aging. However, the mRNA expression of versican decreased with aging. Although it is thought that the amount of hyaluronic acid in the dermis decreases with aging, the mRNA expression of HAS2 was increased. But the amount of hyaluronic acid secreted by fibroblasts did not increase with aging. This suggests that the activity and/or protein expression of HAS2 decrease with aging. Furthermore, we observed that cPA caused the increase of hyaluronic acid synthesis at any age, and this effect was increased with aging. These results suggest that aging made the fibroblasts more sensitive to cPA treatment. Therefore, cPA represents a suitable candidate for the health maintenance and improvement of the skin by increasing the level of hyaluronic acid in the dermis.

  9. Lewis acid free high speed synthesis of nimesulide-based novel N-substituted cyclic imides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kankanala, Kavitha; Mukkanti, Khagga [JNT University Hyderabad, Kukatpally (India); Pal, Sarbani, E-mail: [MNR Degree and PG College, Kukatpally, Hyderabad (India). Dept. of Chemistry; Reddy, Vangala Ranga [Dr. Reddy' s Laboratories Ltd. Integrated Product Development, Bachupally, Hyderabad (India)


    The first synthesis of nimesulide-based novel cyclic imides has been accomplished via the reaction of an amine prepared from nimesulide with appropriate anhydrides in the presence of sodium acetate. Using this process a variety of N-substituted cyclic imides was prepared in good yields in glacial acetic acid. Some of the compounds synthesized showed anti-inflammatory activities when tested in vivo. (author)

  10. Self-Assembly of Fluorinated Sugar Amino Acid Derived α,γ-Cyclic Peptides into Transmembrane Anion Transport. (United States)

    Burade, Sachin S; Saha, Tanmoy; Bhuma, Naresh; Kumbhar, Navanath; Kotmale, Amol; Rajamohanan, Pattuparambil R; Gonnade, Rajesh G; Talukdar, Pinaki; Dhavale, Dilip D


    Syntheses of fluorinated sugar amino acid derived α,γ-cyclic tetra- and hexapeptides are reported. The IR, NMR, ESI-MS, CD, and molecular modeling studies of cyclic tetra- and hexapeptides showed C 2 and C 3 symmetric flat oval- and triangular-ring shaped β-strand conformations, respectively, which appear to self-assemble into nanotubes. The α,γ-cyclic hexapeptide (EC 50 = 2.14 μM) is found to be a more efficient ion transporter than α,γ-cyclic tetrapeptide (EC 50 = 14.75 μM). The anion selectivity and recognition of α,γ-cyclic hexapeptide with NO 3 - ion is investigated.

  11. Aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates in soil: a review. (United States)

    Vranova, Valerie; Rejsek, Klement; Formanek, Pavel


    Organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates represent important organic compounds in soil. Aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids play important roles in rhizosphere ecology, pedogenesis, food-web interactions, and decontamination of sites polluted by heavy metals and organic pollutants. Carbohydrates in soils can be used to estimate changes of soil organic matter due to management practices, whereas vitamins may play an important role in soil biological and biochemical processes. The aim of this work is to review current knowledge on aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates in soil and to identify directions for future research. Assessments of organic acids (aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic) and carbohydrates, including their behaviour, have been reported in many works. However, knowledge on the occurrence and behaviour of D-enantiomers of organic acids, which may be abundant in soil, is currently lacking. Also, identification of the impact and mechanisms of environmental factors, such as soil water content, on carbohydrate status within soil organic matter remains to be determined. Finally, the occurrence of vitamins in soil and their role in biological and biochemical soil processes represent an important direction for future research.

  12. Aliphatic, Cyclic, and Aromatic Organic Acids, Vitamins, and Carbohydrates in Soil: A Review (United States)

    Vranova, Valerie; Rejsek, Klement; Formanek, Pavel


    Organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates represent important organic compounds in soil. Aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids play important roles in rhizosphere ecology, pedogenesis, food-web interactions, and decontamination of sites polluted by heavy metals and organic pollutants. Carbohydrates in soils can be used to estimate changes of soil organic matter due to management practices, whereas vitamins may play an important role in soil biological and biochemical processes. The aim of this work is to review current knowledge on aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates in soil and to identify directions for future research. Assessments of organic acids (aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic) and carbohydrates, including their behaviour, have been reported in many works. However, knowledge on the occurrence and behaviour of D-enantiomers of organic acids, which may be abundant in soil, is currently lacking. Also, identification of the impact and mechanisms of environmental factors, such as soil water content, on carbohydrate status within soil organic matter remains to be determined. Finally, the occurrence of vitamins in soil and their role in biological and biochemical soil processes represent an important direction for future research. PMID:24319374

  13. Kinetic analysis of the reactivity of aliphatic cyclic alcohols and carboxylic acids in the T-for-H exchange reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Kiyoshi; Imaizumi, Hiroshi; Kano, Naoki


    In order to quantitatively evaluate the influence of tritium ( 3 He or T) on various functional groups in environment, the hydrogen isotope exchange reaction (T-for-H exchange reaction) between tritium-labeled poly-(vinyl alcohol) and each aliphatic cyclic alcohol (or carboxylic acid) has been dynamically observed in the range of 50 to 90degC. Consequently, the activities of the aliphatic cyclic alcohol and carboxylic acid increased with increasing reaction time. Applying in A''-McKay plot method to the observed data, the rate constants (k) for these materials were obtained. Using the k, the relation between the number of carbon atoms in the ring in each alcohol and the reactivity of the alcohol was quantitatively compared. Then, to clarify the effect of relative atomic charge of O atom (connected with the H atom in the hydroxy (or carboxy) group in the material) on the reactivity of the material, the MOPAC method was used. From both the above-mentioned and the obtained previously, the following nine items were found as to aliphatic cyclic alcohols (and carboxylic acids) in the T-for-H exchange reaction. (1) The reactivity of aliphatic cyclic alcohols (and carboxylic acids) depends on the temperature. (2) The reactivity of the cyclic materials decreases with increasing number of carbon atoms in the ring. (3) The reactivity of the aliphatic cyclic carboxylic acid seems to be smaller than that of aliphatic cyclic alcohol, and be larger than that of aliphatic cyclic amine. (4) For aliphatic cyclic alcohols, correlation exists between k and relative atomic charges of O atom obtained by the MOPAC method, but the tendency for aliphatic cyclic carboxylic acid is not clear. (5) As to having the same number of carbon atoms in each ring, the reactivity of the aliphatic cyclic carboxylic acid including the side chain is smaller than of the aliphatic cyclic carboxylic acid including no side chain. (6) The reactivity of aliphatic cyclic carboxylic acid is larger than that of

  14. Iminodiacetic acid as bifunctional linker for dimerization of cyclic RGD peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Dong; Zhao, Zuo-Quan; Chen, Shu-Ting; Yang, Yong; Fang, Wei; Liu, Shuang


    Introduction: In this study, I2P-RGD 2 was used as the example to illustrate a novel approach for dimerization of cyclic RGD peptides. The main objective of this study was to explore the impact of bifunctional linkers (glutamic acid vs. iminodiacetic acid) on tumor-targeting capability and excretion kinetics of the 99m Tc-labeled dimeric cyclic RGD peptides. Methods: HYNIC-I2P-RGD 2 was prepared by reacting I2P-RGD 2 with HYNIC-OSu in the presence of diisopropylethylamine, and was evaluated for its α v β 3 binding affinity against 125 I-echistatin bound to U87MG glioma cells. 99m Tc-I2P-RGD 2 was prepared with high specific activity (~185 GBq/μmol). The athymic nude mice bearing U87MG glioma xenografts were used to evaluate its biodistribution properties and image quality in comparison with those of 99m Tc-3P-RGD 2 . Results: The IC 50 value for HYNIC-I2P-RGD 2 was determined to be 39 ± 6 nM, which was very close to that (IC 50 = 33 ± 5 nM) of HYNIC-3P-RGD 2 . Replacing glutamic acid with iminodiacetic acid had little impact on α v β 3 binding affinity of cyclic RGD peptides. 99m Tc-I2P-RGD 2 and 99m Tc-3P-RGD 2 shared similar tumor uptake values over the 2 h period, and its α v β 3 -specificity was demonstrated by a blocking experiment. The uptake of 99m Tc-I2P-RGD 2 was significantly lower than 99m Tc-3P-RGD 2 in the liver and kidneys. The U87MG glioma tumors were visualized by SPECT with excellent contrast using both 99m Tc-I2P-RGD 2 and 99m Tc-3P-RGD 2 . Conclusion: Iminodiacetic acid is an excellent bifunctional linker for dimerization of cyclic RGD peptides. Bifunctional linkers have significant impact on the excretion kinetics of 99m Tc radiotracers. Because of its lower liver uptake and better tumor/liver ratios, 99m Tc-I2P-RGD 2 may have advantages over 99m Tc-3P-RGD 2 for diagnosis of tumors in chest region. -- Graphical abstract: This report presents novel approach for dimerization of cyclic RGD peptides using iminodiacetic acid as a

  15. Study of Perylenetetracarboxylic Acid Dimethylimide Films by Cyclic Thermal Desorption and Scanning Probe Microscopy (United States)

    Pochtennyi, A. E.; Lappo, A. N.; Il'yushonok, I. P.


    Some results of studying the direct-current (DC) conductivity of perylenetetracarboxylic acid dimethylimide films by cyclic oxygen thermal desorption are presented. The microscopic parameters of hopping electron transport over localized impurity and intrinsic states were determined. The bandgap width and the sign of major current carriers were determined by scanning probe microscopy methods (atomic force microscopy, scanning probe spectroscopy, and photoassisted Kelvin probe force microscopy). The possibility of the application of photoassisted scanning tunneling microscopy for the nanoscale phase analysis of photoconductive films is discussed.

  16. Cyclic voltammetric response of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide on a polycrystalline gold electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoxia; Yang Nianjun; Wan Qijin


    The oxidation of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide on a polycrystalline gold electrode occurred at almost same potentials but their reduction did at different peak potentials. The redox reaction mechanisms of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide were rationalized by the formation/disappearance of the new nitrogen-oxygen bonds in the pyridine rings by means of cyclic voltammetry and bulk electrolysis. The anodic currents of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide were controlled by diffusion, while the cathodic ones by adsorption. The difference in the cathodic peak potentials of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide on the polycrystalline gold electrode is attributed to the effect of the electron densities of remote substituents on the pyridine rings. The cathodic peak currents at about 0.20 V were linear with their concentrations in the range of 2.4 mM to 2.7 μM and 2.4 mM to 3.3 μM with detection limits of 0.27 and 0.33 μM for nicotinic acid and nicotinamide, respectively. Voltammetry was then adopted for the selective monitoring the content of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide in pharmaceuticals

  17. Cyclic phosphopeptides to rationalize the role of phosphoamino acids in uranyl binding to biological targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starck, Matthieu; Laporte, Fanny A.; Oros, Stephane; Sisommay, Nathalie; Gathu, Vicky; Lebrun, Colette; Delangle, Pascale [INAC/SyMMES, UMR5819, Universite Grenoble Alpes, CEA, CNRS, Grenoble (France); Solari, Pier Lorenzo [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Creff, Gaelle; Den Auwer, Christophe [Institut de Chimie de Nice, UMR7272, Universite Cote d' Azur, Nice (France); Roques, Jerome [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, CNRS-IN2P3, Univ. Paris-Sud, Universite Paris-Saclay (France)


    The specific molecular interactions responsible for uranium toxicity are not yet understood. The uranyl binding sites in high-affinity target proteins have not been identified yet and the involvement of phosphoamino acids is still an important question. Short cyclic peptide sequences, with three glutamic acids and one phosphoamino acid, are used as simple models to mimic metal binding sites in phosphoproteins and to help understand the mechanisms involved in uranium toxicity. A combination of peptide design and synthesis, analytical chemistry, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, and DFT calculations demonstrates the involvement of the phosphate group in the uranyl coordination sphere together with the three carboxylates of the glutamate moieties. The affinity constants measured with a reliable analytical competitive approach at physiological pH are significantly enhanced owing to the presence of the phosphorous moiety. These findings corroborate the importance of phosphoamino acids in uranyl binding in proteins and the relevance of considering phosphoproteins as potential uranyl targets in vivo. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Rigid nonproteinogenic cyclic amino acids as ligands for glutamate receptors: trans-tris(homoglutamic) acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Udo; Bisel, Philippe; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans


    of the trans-1S,2R-configured secondary alpha-amino amido-ester. In receptor binding assays and functional tests, trans-1S,2R-1-amino-2-carboxymethylcyclopentanecarboxylic acid hydrochloride was found to behave as a selective mGluR(2)-antagonist without relevant binding properties at iGluRs.......The second-generation asymmetric synthesis of the trans-tris(homoglutamic) acids reported herein proceeds via Strecker reaction of chiral ketimines, obtained from condensation of racemic 2-ethoxycarbonylmethylcyclopentanone and commercially available (S)- and (R)-1-phenylethylamine, respectively......) yielded diastereomeric mixtures of secondary alpha-amino amido-esters, which after separation were hydrogenolyzed and hydrolyzed each to the enantiomeric trans-1-amino-2-carboxymethylcyclopentanecarboxylic acids. Their configuration was completely established by NMR methods, CD spectra, and X-ray analysis...

  19. Consecutive visible-light photoredox decarboxylative couplings of adipic acid active esters with alkynyl sulfones leading to cyclic compounds. (United States)

    Li, Jingjing; Tian, Hua; Jiang, Min; Yang, Haijun; Zhao, Yufen; Fu, Hua


    Novel and efficient consecutive photoredox decarboxylative couplings of adipic acid active esters (bis(1,3-dioxoisoindolin-2-yl)-substituted hexanedioates) with substituted 1-(2-arylethynylsulfonyl)benzenes have been developed under visible-light photocatalysis. The successive photoredox decarboxylative C-C bond formation at room temperature afforded the corresponding cyclic compounds in good yields with tolerance of some functional groups.

  20. 40 CFR 721.2140 - Carbo-poly-cycli-col azo-alkyl-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbo-poly-cycli-col azo-alkyl-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt. 721.2140 Section 721.2140 Protection of Environment...-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...

  1. The Jet-Cooled High-Resolution IR Spectrum of Formic Acid Cyclic Dimer (United States)

    Goubet, Manuel; Bteich, Sabath; Huet, Therese R.; Pirali, Olivier; Asselin, Pierre; Soulard, Pascale; Jabri, Atef; Roy, P.; Georges, Robert


    As the simplest carboxylic acid, formic acid (FA) is an excellent model molecule to investigate the general properties of carboxylic acids. FA is also an atmospherically and astrophysically relevant molecule. It is well known that its dimeric form is predominant in the gas phase at temperatures below 423 K. The cyclic conformation of the dimer (FACD) is an elementary system to be understood for the concerted hydrogen transfer through equivalent hydrogen bonds, an essential process within biomolecules. The IR range is a crucial spectral region, particularly the far-IR, as it gives a direct access to the intermolecular vibrational modes involved in this process. Moreover, due to its centrosymmetric conformation, the FACD exhibits no pure rotation spectrum and, due to spectral line congestion and Doppler broadening, IR bands cannot be rotationally resolved at room temperature. So far, only parts of the ν_{5}-GS band (C-O stretch) have been observed under jet-cooled conditions using laser techniques. We present here six rotationally resolved IR bands of FACD recorded under jet-cooled conditions using the Jet-AILES apparatus and the QCL spectrometer at MONARIS, including the far-IR ν_{24}-GS band (intermolecular in-plane bending). Splitting due to vibration-rotation-tunneling motions are clearly observed. A full spectral analysis is in progress starting from the GS constants obtained by Goroya et al. and with the support of electronic structure calculations. T. Miyazawa and K. S. Pitzer, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 81, 74, 1959 R. Georges, M. Freytes, D. Hurtmans, I. Kleiner, J. Vander Auwera, M. Herman, Chem. Phys. 305, 187, 2004 M. Ortlieb and M. Havenith, J. Phys. Chem. A 111, 7355, 2007; K. G. Goroya, Y. Zhu, P. Sun and C. Duan, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 164311, 2014 This work is supported by the CaPPA project (Chemical and Physical Properties of the Atmosphere) ANR-11-LABX-0005-01

  2. Azithromycin Modulates 3',5'-cyclic Diguanylic Acid Signaling in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (United States)

    Kimura, Soichiro; Mori, Nobuaki; Kai, Toshihiro; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Yamaguchi, Keizo; Tateda, Kazuhiro


    Macrolides have been reported to exert a variety of effects on both host immunomodulation and repression of bacterial pathogenicity. In this study, we report that the 3',5'-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) signaling system, which regulates virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is affected by the macrolide azithromycin. Using DNA microarray analysis, we selected a gene encoding PA2567 related to c-di-GMP metabolism that was significantly affected by azithromycin treatment. Expression of the PA2567 gene was significantly repressed by azithromycin in a time- and dose-dependent manner, whereas no difference in PA2567 gene expression was observed in the absence of azithromycin. In-frame deletion of the PA2567 gene affected both virulence factors and the quorum-sensing system, and significantly decreased total bacteria in a mouse pneumonia model compared to the wild-type strain (P < 0.05). These results suggest that macrolides possess the ability to modulate c-di-GMP intracellular signaling in P. aeruginosa. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ascorbic acid as a bifunctional hydrogen bond donor for the synthesis of cyclic carbonates from CO2 under ambient conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Arayachukiat, Sunatda


    Readily available ascorbic acid was discovered as an environmentally benign hydrogen bond donor (HBD) for the synthe-sis of cyclic organic carbonates from CO2 and epoxides in the presence of nucleophilic co-catalysts. The ascorbic acid/TBAI (TBAI: tetrabutylammonium iodide) binary system could be applied for the cycloaddition of CO2 to various epoxides under ambient or mild conditions. DFT calculations and catalysis experiments revealed an intriguing bifunctional mechanism in the step of CO2 insertion involving different hydroxyl moieties (enediol, ethyldiol) of the ascorbic acid scaffold.

  4. Cyclic fatty acid monomers from dietary heated fats affect rat liver enzyme activity. (United States)

    Lamboni, C; Sébédio, J L; Perkins, E G


    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary cyclic fatty acid monomers (CFAM), contained in heated fat from a commercial deep-fat frying operation, on rat liver enzyme activity. A partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSBO) used 7 d (7-DH) for frying foodstuffs, or 0.15% methylated CFAM diets was fed to male weanling rats in comparison to a control group fed a nonheated PHSBO (NH) diet in a 10-wk experiment. All diets were isocaloric with 15% fat. Animals fed either CFAM or 7-DH diets showed increased hepatic content of cytochrome (cyt.) b5 and P450 and increased activity of (E.C. NADPH-cyt. P450 reductase in comparison to the control rats. In addition, the activities of (E.C. carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I and (E.C. isocitrate dehydrogenase were significantly decreased when compared to that of rats fed the NH diet. A significantly depressed activity of (E.C. glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase was also observed for these animals compared to the control rats fed NH diet. Moreover, liver and microsomal proteins were significantly increased when CFAM or 7-DH diets were fed to animals in comparison to controls while liver glycogen was decreased significantly in experimental groups of rats. The results obtained in this study indicate that the CFAM in the diet from either synthetic sources or used fats increase the activity of liver enzyme systems that detoxify them.

  5. Comparative study on the liquid chromatographic enantioseparation of cyclic β-amino acids and the related cyclic β-aminohydroxamic acids on Cinchona alkaloid-based zwitterionic chiral stationary phases. (United States)

    Bajtai, Attila; Fekete, Beáta; Palkó, Márta; Fülöp, Ferenc; Lindner, Wolfgang; Kohout, Michal; Ilisz, István; Péter, Antal


    The enantiomeric pairs of cis and trans stereoisomers of cyclic β-aminohydroxamic acids and their related cis and trans cyclic β-amino acids containing two chiral centers were directly separated on four structurally related chiral stationary phases derived from quinine and quinidine modified with (R,R)- and (S,S)-aminocyclohexanesulfonic acids. Applying these zwitterionic ion-exchangers as chiral selectors, the effects of the composition of the bulk solvent, the acid and base additives, the structures of the analytes, and temperature on the enantioresolution were investigated. To study the effects of temperature and obtain thermodynamic parameters, experiments were carried out at constant mobile phase compositions in the temperature range 5-50°C. The differences in the changes in standard enthalpy Δ(ΔH°), entropy Δ(ΔS°), and free energy Δ(ΔG°) were calculated from the linear van't Hoff plots derived from the ln α versus 1/T curves in the studied temperature range. Results thus obtained indicated enthalpy-driven separations in all cases. The sequence of elution of the enantiomers was determined and found to be reversed when ZWIX(-)™ was changed to ZWIX(+)™ or ZWIX(-A) to ZWIX(+A). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. The influence of polymer topology on pharmacokinetics: differences between cyclic and linear PEGylated poly(acrylic acid) comb polymers. (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Jerger, Katherine; Fréchet, Jean M J; Szoka, Francis C


    Water-soluble polymers for the delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs passively target solid tumors as a consequence of reduced renal clearance and the enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect. Elimination of the polymers in the kidney occurs due to filtration through biological nanopores with a hydrodynamic diameter comparable to the polymer. Therefore we have investigated chemical features that may broadly be grouped as "molecular architecture" such as: molecular weight, chain flexibility, number of chain ends and branching, to learn how they impact polymer elimination. In this report we describe the synthesis of four pairs of similar molecular weight cyclic and linear polyacrylic acid polymers grafted with polyethylene glycol (23, 32, 65, 114 kDa) with low polydispersities using ATRP and "click" chemistry. The polymers were radiolabeled with (125)I and their pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution after intravenous injection were determined in normal and C26 adenocarcinoma tumored BALB/c mice. Cyclic polymers above the renal threshold of 30 kDa had a significantly longer elimination time (between 10 and 33% longer) than did the comparable linear polymer (for the 66 kDa cyclic polymer, t(1/2,beta)=35+/-2 h) and a greater area under the serum concentration versus time curve. This resulted in a greater tumor accumulation of the cyclic polymer than the linear polymer counterpart. Thus water-soluble cyclic comb polymers join a growing list of polymer topologies that show greatly extended circulation times compared to their linear counterparts and provide alternative polymer architecture for use as drug carriers.

  7. Functioning of antimony film electrode in acid media under cyclic and anodic stripping voltammetry conditions. (United States)

    Sebez, Bine; Ogorevc, Bozidar; Hocevar, Samo B; Veber, Marjan


    New insights into the functioning, i.e. electrochemical behaviour and analytical performance, of in situ prepared antimony film electrodes (SbFEs) under square-wave anodic stripping (SW-ASV) and cyclic (CV) voltammetry conditions are presented by studying several key operational parameters using Pb(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) as model analyte ions. Five different carbon- and metal-based substrate transducer electrodes revealed a clear advantage of the former ones while the concentration of the precursor Sb(III) ion exhibited a distinct influence on the ASV functioning of the SbFE. Among six acids examined as potential supporting electrolytes the HNO3 was demonstrated to yield nearly identical results in conducting ASV experiments with SbFE as so far almost exclusively used HCl. This is extremely important as HNO3 is commonly employed acidifying agent in trace metal analysis, especially in elemental mass spectrometry measurements. By carrying out a systematic CV and ASV investigation using a medium exchange protocol, we confirmed the formation of poorly soluble oxidized Sb species at the substrate electrode surface at the end of each stripping step, i.e. at the potentials beyond the anodic dissolution of the antimony film. Hence, the significance of the cleaning and initializing the surface of a substrate electrode after accomplishing a stripping step was thoroughly studied in order to find conditions for a complete removal of the adhered Sb-oxides and thus to assure a memory-free functioning of the in situ prepared SbFE. Finally, the practical analytical application of the proposed ASV method was successfully tested and evaluated by measuring the three metal analytes in ground (tap) and surface (river) water samples acidified with HNO3. Our results approved the appropriateness of the SbFE and the proposed method for measuring low μg L(-1) levels of some toxic metals, particularly taking into account the possibility of on-field testing and the use of low cost

  8. Host Immune Response to Bacterial Cyclic Diguanylic Acid (c-di-GMP) (United States)


    Immunostimulatory Molecule Against Pneumococcal Infection Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of bacterial pneumonia, meningitis, and otitis media in...biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus, including human methicillin- resistant S. aureus strains and animal clinical isolates (6,19). We have also...immunostimulation does not involve any known TLR or Nod. We propose that cyclic dinucleotides like c-di-GMP can be used clinically in humans and animals as

  9. Characterization studies and cyclic voltammetry on nickel(II amino acid dithiocarbamates with triphenylphosphine in the coordination sphere

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    Full Text Available Nickel(II amino acid dithiocarbamate complexes of the composition [Ni(AAdtc(PPh3(NCS], [Ni(AAdtc(PPh3(CN] and [Ni(AAdtc(PPh32]ClO4 [(AAdtc = dithiocarbamate derivatives of amino acids, i.e., glycine (glydtc, L-iso-leucine (i-leudtc and L-proline (prodtc] were synthesized. The compounds were characterized by IR and electronic spectroscopy, thermal analysis, cyclic voltammetry and conductivity measurements. In the case of the mixed ligand complexes, the thioureide n(C−N values were shifted to higher wave numbers compared to [Ni(AAdtc2]. This observation shows the increased strength of the thioureide bond due to the presence of the p-accepting phosphine. Electronic spectral studies suggest square planar geometry for the complexes. Thermal analyses of the complexes are in keeping with the proposed formulae. Almost all the complexes showed signs of decay above 170 °C. At around 390 °C, the final mass corresponded to NiS. Cyclic voltammetry showed a decrease of the electron density on the nickel in the mixed ligand complexes compared to [Ni(AAdtc2].

  10. Phase equilibria for ternary liquid systems of (water + levulinic acid + cyclic solvent) at T = 298.2 K: Thermodynamic modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senol, Aynur [Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, 34320 Avcilar, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail:


    (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data of the solubility curves and tie-line end compositions are presented for mixtures of {l_brace}water (1) + levulinic acid (2) + methylcyclohexanol, or cyclohexanone, or cyclohexyl acetate (3){r_brace} at T = 298.2 K and P = (101.3 {+-} 0.7) kPa. Among the studied C6 ring-containing cyclic solvents, methylcyclohexanol and cyclohexyl acetate give the largest distribution ratio and separation factors for extraction of levulinic acid. A solvation energy relation (SERLAS) has been used to estimate the (liquid + liquid) equilibria of associated systems containing components capable of a physical interaction through hydrogen bonding. The tie-lines were also predicted using the UNIFAC-original model. The reliability of both models has been analyzed against the LLE data with respect to the distribution ratio and separation factor. SERLAS matches LLE data quite accurately, yielding a mean error of 3.6% for all the systems considered.

  11. Eclosion hormone stimulates cyclic GMP levels in Manduca sexta nervous tissue via arachidonic acid metabolism with little or no contribution from the production of nitric oxide. (United States)

    Morton, D B; Giunta, M A


    The neuropeptide eclosion hormone acts directly on the nervous system of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, to trigger ecdysis behavior at the end of each molt. Previous studies have shown that the action of eclosion hormone is mediated via the intracellular messenger cyclic GMP. In the present study we have investigated the mechanisms involved in the eclosion hormone-stimulated increases in cyclic GMP. No stimulation of guanylate cyclase was seen in homogenized nervous tissue, suggesting that eclosion hormone does not directly stimulate a membrane-bound form of guanylate cyclase. Nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, N-methylarginine and nitroarginine, had no effect on eclosion hormone-stimulated cyclic GMP levels. By contrast, 4-bromophenacyl bromide, an inhibitor of arachidonic acid release, and nordihydroguaiaretic acid, an inhibitor of arachidonic acid metabolism, almost completely abolished the eclosion hormone-stimulated cyclic GMP increase. We hypothesize that eclosion hormone receptors are coupled to a lipase, activation of which causes the release of arachidonic acid. Either the arachidonic acid directly stimulates the soluble guanylate cyclase or further metabolism of arachidonic acid yields compounds that activate guanylate cyclase.

  12. Protection of neuroblastoma Neuro2A cells from hypoxia-induced apoptosis by cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA.

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    Mari Gotoh

    Full Text Available Cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA is a naturally occurring phospholipid mediator with a unique cyclic phosphate ring at the sn-2 and sn-3 positions of its glycerol backbone. We have previously shown that cPA significantly suppresses ischemia-induced delayed neuronal death and the accumulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein in the CA1 region of the rat hippocampus. These results indicated that the systemic administration of cPA can protect hippocampal neurons against ischemia-induced delayed neuronal cell death. In the current study, we investigated the effects of cPA on neuronal cell death caused by hypoxia in vitro and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. We used cobalt chloride (CoCl(2 to expose cells to hypoxic conditions in vitro. Treating mouse neuroblastoma (Neuro2A cells with CoCl(2 induced nuclear DNA condensation and phosphatidylserine exposure. However, adding cPA led to the suppression of CoCl(2-induced apoptosis in a cPA dose-dependent manner and attenuated the increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio caused by CoCl(2. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that Neuro2A cells strongly express the LPA(1, LPA(2, and LPA(6, which are G-protein coupled receptors that can be activated by cPA. To date, LPA(1 and LPA(2 have been reported to exhibit antiapoptotic activity. Therefore, to assess the roles of LPA(1 and LPA(2 on cPA-induced neuroprotective functions, Ki16425, a selective LPA(1 and LPA(3 antagonist, was adopted to know the LPA(1 function and siRNA was used to knockdown the expression of LPA(2. On the basis of our results, we propose that cPA-induced protection of Neuro2A cells from CoCl(2-induced hypoxia damage is mediated via LPA(2.

  13. Non-enzymatic cyclic oxygenated metabolites of adrenic, docosahexaenoic, eicosapentaenoic and α-linolenic acids; bioactivities and potential use as biomarkers. (United States)

    Galano, Jean-Marie; Lee, Jetty Chung-Yung; Gladine, Cecile; Comte, Blandine; Le Guennec, Jean-Yves; Oger, Camille; Durand, Thierry


    Cyclic oxygenated metabolites are formed in vivo through non-enzymatic free radical reaction of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as arachidonic (ARA C20:4 n-6), adrenic (AdA 22:4 n-6), α-linolenic (ALA 18:3 n-3), eicosapentaenoic (EPA 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA 22:6 n-3) acids. These cyclic compounds are known as isoprostanes, neuroprostanes, dihomo-isoprostanes and phytoprostanes. Evidence has emerged for their use as biomarkers of oxidative stress and, more recently, the n-3PUFA-derived compounds have been shown to mediate bioactivities as secondary messengers. Accordingly, this review will focus on the cyclic oxygenated metabolites generated from AdA, ALA, EPA and DHA. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Oxygenated metabolism of PUFA: analysis and biological relevance". Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    The effects of various aromatic substituents in both ephedrine and a cyclic phosphoric acid on the quality of resolution via diastereomeric salt formation are investigated. The diastereoselective synthesis of a novel series of chloro-substituted ephedrines is described. These chloroephedrines can be

  15. Concise and Straightforward Asymmetric Synthesis of a Cyclic Natural Hydroxy-Amino Acid

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    Mario J. Simirgiotis


    Full Text Available An enantioselective total synthesis of the natural amino acid (2S,4R,5R-4,5-di-hydroxy-pipecolic acid starting from D-glucoheptono-1, 4-lactone is presented. The best sequence employed as a key step the intramolecular nucleophilic displacement by an amino function of a 6-O-p-toluene-sulphonyl derivative of a methyl D-arabino-hexonate and involved only 12 steps with an overall yield of 19%. The structures of the compounds synthesized were elucidated on the basis of comprehensive spectroscopic (NMR and MS and computational analysis.

  16. Boronated Unnatural Cyclic Amino Acids as Potential Delivery Agents for Neutron Capture Therapy (United States)

    Kabalka, George W.; Shaikh, Aarif L.; Barth, Rolf F.; Huo, Tianyao; Yang, Weilian; Gordnier, Pamela M.; Chandra, Subhash


    Boron delivery characteristics of cis and trans isomers of a boronated unnatural amino acid, 1-amino-3-boronocyclopentanecarboxylic acid (ABCPC) were tested in B16 mouse model for human melanoma. Both ABCPC isomers delivered comparable boron to B16 melanoma tumor cells as L-p-boronophenylalanine (BPA). Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis revealed the presence of boron throughout the tumor from these compounds, and a near homogeneous distribution between the nucleus and cytoplasm of B16 cells grown in vitro. These encouraging observations support further studies of these new boron carriers in BNCT. PMID:21481596

  17. Oxidation of some aliphatic and cyclic diols by cerium(4) in perchloric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehka, M; Dzegets, Yu.


    Oxidation velocities of 1,5-pentandiol and 1,8-octanediol by cerium(4) in water solutions of perchloric acid, as well as the dependence of Ce(4) quantity reduced by trans-1,2-cyclohexanol on the reduction time are studied. Stoichiometry of the process is determined, intermediate and final products of oxidation are identified. Possible reaction mechanisms are proposed [ru

  18. Regulation of laminin and entactin mRNA levels by retinoic acid and dibutyryl cyclic AMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durkin, M.E.; Phillips, S.L.; Carlin, B.E.; Merlie, J.P.; Chung, A.E.


    Retinoic acid and dibutyryl cAMP induced F9 embryonal carcinoma cells to differentiate to parietal endoderm; the morphological changes were accompanied by the increased synthesis of the basement membrane glycoproteins laminin and entactin. cDNA clones have been isolated for the A (400 kD), B1 (220 kD), and B2 (205 kD) chains of laminin. Northern blot analysis indicated that the A, B1, and B2 chains were encoded by RNA species of 9.8, 6.0, and 8.0 kb, respectively. The kinetics of induction of the laminin mRNAs were studied by dot-blotting dilutions of RNA extracted from F9 cells cultured in retinoic acid and dibutyryl cAMP for increasing amounts of time and hybridizing to 32 P-labeled recombinant plasmids. Very low levels of the A and B chain RNAs were found in uninduced cells, and a large increase occurred between 48 and 72 hr of growth in retinoic acid and dibutyryl cAMP. A cDNA clone was also obtained for entactin, a 150 kD glycoprotein that forms a complex with laminin. Retinoic acid and dibutyryl cAMP treatment also increased the amount of entactin RNA in F9 cells. These results suggested that a common mechanism may exist for the coordinate regulation of the 4 basement membrane protein genes during differentiation

  19. Temperature effect on the electrooxidation of gamma hdroxybutyric acid (GHB) on platinum catalyst through cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, impedance spectroscopy and SERS spectroelectrochemistry


    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Jose; Jimenez-Perez, Rebeca; Sevilla, Jose Manuel; Blazquez, Manuel; Pineda, Teresa


    A study of the electro-oxidation of gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) on platinum electrode in acidic media has been investigated by cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the temperature range between 5 and 30ºC. The variation of the j-E curves allows the determination of activation energy in a wide interval of potentials where three characteristic oxidation peaks appear. The j-t curves were registered at the more positive potentials corresponding w...

  20. 2-Phenyl-tetrahydropyrimidine-4(1H-ones – cyclic benzaldehyde aminals as precursors for functionalised β2-amino acids

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    Markus Nahrwold


    Full Text Available Novel procedures have been developed to condense benzaldehyde effectively with β-amino acid amides to cyclic benzyl aminals. Double carbamate protection of the heterocycle resulted in fully protected chiral β-alanine derivatives. These serve as universal precursors for the asymmetric synthesis of functionalised β2-amino acids containing acid-labile protected side chains. Diastereoselective alkylation of the tetrahydropyrimidinone is followed by a chemoselective two step degradation of the heterocycle to release the free β2-amino acid. In the course of this study, an L-asparagine derivative was condensed with benzaldehyde and subsequently converted to orthogonally protected (R-β2-homoaspartate.

  1. A compendium of cyclic sugar amino acids and their carbocyclic and heterocyclic nitrogen analogues. (United States)

    Risseeuw, Martijn; Overhand, Mark; Fleet, George W J; Simone, Michela I


    This compendium focuses on functionalised sugar amino acids (SAAs) and their 3- to 6-membered nitrogen heterocyclic and carbocyclic analogues. The main benefit of using SAAs and their related nitrogen and carbon congeners in the production of peptidomimetics and glycomimetics is that their properties can be readily altered via modification of their ring size, chemical manipulation of their numerous functional groups and fine-tuning of the stereochemical arrangement of their ring substituents. These building blocks provide access to hydrophilic and hydrophobic peptide isosteres whose physical properties allow entry to a region of chemotherapeutic space which is still under-explored by medicinal chemists. These building blocks are also important in providing amino acids whose inherent conformational bias leads to predisposition to secondary structure upon oligomerisation in relatively short sequences. These foldamers, particularly those containing ω-amino acids, provide an additional opportunity to expand access to the control of structures by artificial peptides. The synthesis and biological evaluation of these building blocks in glycomimetics and peptidomimetics systems keep expanding the reach of the glycosciences to the medical sciences, provide a greater outlook onto the wide range of cellular functions of saccharides and their derivatives involved and greater insight into the nature of oligosaccharide and protein folding.

  2. Peptidyl prolyl isomerase Pin1-inhibitory activity of D-glutamic and D-aspartic acid derivatives bearing a cyclic aliphatic amine moiety. (United States)

    Nakagawa, Hidehiko; Seike, Suguru; Sugimoto, Masatoshi; Ieda, Naoya; Kawaguchi, Mitsuyasu; Suzuki, Takayoshi; Miyata, Naoki


    Pin1 is a peptidyl prolyl isomerase that specifically catalyzes cis-trans isomerization of phosphorylated Thr/Ser-Pro peptide bonds in substrate proteins and peptides. Pin1 is involved in many important cellular processes, including cancer progression, so it is a potential target of cancer therapy. We designed and synthesized a novel series of Pin1 inhibitors based on a glutamic acid or aspartic acid scaffold bearing an aromatic moiety to provide a hydrophobic surface and a cyclic aliphatic amine moiety with affinity for the proline-binding site of Pin1. Glutamic acid derivatives bearing cycloalkylamino and phenylthiazole groups showed potent Pin1-inhibitory activity comparable with that of known inhibitor VER-1. The results indicate that steric interaction of the cyclic alkyl amine moiety with binding site residues plays a key role in enhancing Pin1-inhibitory activity. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Binding of cyclic carboxylates to octa-acid deep-cavity cavitand (United States)

    Gibb, Corinne L. D.; Gibb, Bruce C.


    As part of the fourth statistical assessment of modeling of proteins and ligands ( prediction challenge, the strength of association of nine guests ( 1- 9) binding to octa-acid host was determined by a combination of 1H NMR and isothermal titration calorimetry. Association constants in sodium tetraborate buffered (pH 9.2) aqueous solution ranged from 5.39 × 102 M-1 in the case of benzoate 1, up to 3.82 × 105 M-1 for trans-4-methylcyclohexanoate 7. Overall, the free energy difference between the free energies of complexation of these weakest and strongest binding guests was ΔΔG° = 3.88 kcal mol-1. Based on a multitude of previous studies, the anticipated order of strength of binding was close to that which was actually obtained. However, the binding of guest 3 (4-ethylbenzoate) was considerably stronger than initially estimated.

  4. Cyclic resolution of racemic ibuprofen via coupled efficient lipase and acid-base catalysis. (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Wang, Fang; Tan, Tianwei


    Extracellular lipase LIP prepared in our lab from the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica was used for the resolution of racemic ibuprofen. The (S)-enantiomer was preferred by lipase LIP, and the unreacted (R)-enantiomer was extracted and racemized in basic solvent-water medium to be re-resolved. Solvent, content of solvent, base concentration, and temperature have a strong effect on racemization. The (S)-ester was separated and hydrolyzed to (S)-ibuprofen in acidic dimethyl sulfoxide-water mixture containing 70% dimethyl sulfoxide. The high purity (S)-ibuprofen (ee = 0.98) was obtained using lipase LIP to catalyze hydrolysis of (S)-ester in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH = 8). (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. The plant hormone abscisic acid stimulates the proliferation of human hemopoietic progenitors through the second messenger cyclic ADP-ribose. (United States)

    Scarfì, Sonia; Fresia, Chiara; Ferraris, Chiara; Bruzzone, Santina; Fruscione, Floriana; Usai, Cesare; Benvenuto, Federica; Magnone, Mirko; Podestà, Marina; Sturla, Laura; Guida, Lucrezia; Albanesi, Ennio; Damonte, Gianluca; Salis, Annalisa; De Flora, Antonio; Zocchi, Elena


    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a hormone involved in pivotal physiological functions in higher plants, such as response to abiotic stress and control of seed dormancy and germination. Recently, ABA was demonstrated to be autocrinally produced by human granulocytes, beta pancreatic cells, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and to stimulate cell-specific functions through a signaling pathway involving the second messenger cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR). Here we show that ABA expands human uncommitted hemopoietic progenitors (HP) in vitro, through a cADPR-mediated increase of the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)). Incubation of CD34(+) cells with micromolar ABA also induces transcriptional effects, which include NF-kappaB nuclear translocation and transcription of genes encoding for several cytokines. Human MSC stimulated with a lymphocyte-conditioned medium produce and release ABA at concentrations sufficient to exert growth-stimulatory effects on co-cultured CD34(+) cells, as demonstrated by the inhibition of colony growth in the presence of an anti-ABA monoclonal antibody. These results provide a remarkable example of conservation of a stress hormone and of its second messenger from plants to humans and identify ABA as a new hemopoietic growth factor involved in the cross-talk between HP and MSC.

  6. Abscisic acid is an endogenous stimulator of insulin release from human pancreatic islets with cyclic ADP ribose as second messenger. (United States)

    Bruzzone, Santina; Bodrato, Nicoletta; Usai, Cesare; Guida, Lucrezia; Moreschi, Iliana; Nano, Rita; Antonioli, Barbara; Fruscione, Floriana; Magnone, Mirko; Scarfì, Sonia; De Flora, Antonio; Zocchi, Elena


    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant stress hormone recently identified as an endogenous pro-inflammatory cytokine in human granulocytes. Because paracrine signaling between pancreatic beta cells and inflammatory cells is increasingly recognized as a pathogenetic mechanism in the metabolic syndrome and type II diabetes, we investigated the effect of ABA on insulin secretion. Nanomolar ABA increases glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from RIN-m and INS-1 cells and from murine and human pancreatic islets. The signaling cascade triggered by ABA in insulin-releasing cells sequentially involves a pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein, cAMP overproduction, protein kinase A-mediated activation of the ADP-ribosyl cyclase CD38, and cyclic ADP-ribose overproduction. ABA is rapidly produced and released from human islets, RIN-m, and INS-1 cells stimulated with high glucose concentrations. In conclusion, ABA is an endogenous stimulator of insulin secretion in human and murine pancreatic beta cells. Autocrine release of ABA by glucose-stimulated pancreatic beta cells, and the paracrine production of the hormone by activated granulocytes and monocytes suggest that ABA may be involved in the physiology of insulin release as well as in its dysregulation under conditions of inflammation.

  7. Comparing the Effects of Dietary Flaxseed and Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplement on Cyclical Mastalgia in Iranian Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Vaziri


    Full Text Available Considering the negative side effects of chemical drugs, there is a great need for effective alternative treatment strategies to manage cyclical mastalgia. Therefore, this study aimed at comparing the effects of flaxseed diet and omega-3 fatty acids supplement on treatment of cyclical mastalgia. In this study, 61, 60, and 60 women, respectively, received flaxseed as bread, omega-3 fatty acids as pearl, and wheat bread as their diet for two menstrual cycles. At the baseline cycle and end of both interventional cycles, intensity of mastalgia was measured using visual analogue scale. Analysis of covariance showed a significant difference among the three groups regarding the mean intensity of cyclical mastalgia in the first and second cycles of the interventions (P<0.001. Also, repeated measures analysis of covariance with adjustment of two variables of age and mastalgia intensity of the baseline cycle demonstrated that flaxseed bread was more effective compared to omega-3 and wheat bread (P<0.001. The results of this study demonstrated that flaxseed bread diet was an effective approach in decreasing cyclical mastalgia and could be prescribed to women as a simple treatment with few complications.

  8. Antinociceptive effect of cyclic phosphatidic acid and its derivative on animal models of acute and chronic pain

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    Ogawa Tomoyo


    Full Text Available 1. Abstract Background Cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA is a structural analog of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, but possesses different biological functions, such as the inhibition of autotaxin (ATX, an LPA-synthesizing enzyme. As LPA is a signaling molecule involved in nociception in the peripheral and central systems, cPA is expected to possess analgesic activity. We characterized the effects of cPA and 2-carba-cPA (2ccPA, a chemically stable cPA analog, on acute and chronic pain. Results (1 The systemic injection of 2ccPA significantly inhibited somato-cardiac and somato-somatic C-reflexes but not the corresponding A-reflexes in anesthetized rats. (2 2ccPA reduced sensitivity measured as the paw withdrawal response to electrical stimulation applied to the hind paws of mice through the C-fiber, but not Aδ or Aβ. (3 In mice, pretreatment with 2ccPA dose-dependently inhibited the second phase of formalin-induced licking and biting responses. (4 In mice, pretreatment and repeated post-treatments with 2ccPA significantly attenuated thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia following partial ligation of the sciatic nerve. (5 In rats, repeated post-treatments with 2ccPA also significantly attenuated thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia following chronic sciatic nerve constriction. Conclusions Our results suggest that cPA and its stable analog 2ccPA inhibit chronic and acute inflammation-induced C-fiber stimulation, and that the central effects of 2ccPA following repeated treatments attenuate neuropathic pain.

  9. Targeting melanoma growth and viability reveals dualistic functionality of the phosphonothionate analogue of carba cyclic phosphatidic acid

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    Prestwich Glenn D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the incidence of melanoma in the U.S. is rising faster than any other cancer, the FDA-approved chemotherapies lack efficacy for advanced disease, which results in poor overall survival. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, autotaxin (ATX, the enzyme that produces LPA, and the LPA receptors represent an emerging group of therapeutic targets in cancer, although it is not known which of these is most effective. Results Herein we demonstrate that thio-ccPA 18:1, a stabilized phosphonothionate analogue of carba cyclic phosphatidic acid, ATX inhibitor and LPA1/3 receptor antagonist, induced a marked reduction in the viability of B16F10 metastatic melanoma cells compared with PBS-treated control by 80-100%. Exogenous LPA 18:1 or D-sn-1-O-oleoyl-2-O-methylglyceryl-3-phosphothioate did not reverse the effect of thio-ccPA 18:1. The reduction in viability mediated by thio-ccPA 18:1 was also observed in A375 and MeWo melanoma cell lines, suggesting that the effects are generalizable. Interestingly, siRNA to LPA3 (siLPA3 but not other LPA receptors recapitulated the effects of thio-ccPA 18:1 on viability, suggesting that inhibition of the LPA3 receptor is an important dualistic function of the compound. In addition, siLPA3 reduced proliferation, plasma membrane integrity and altered morphology of A375 cells. Another experimental compound designed to antagonize the LPA1/3 receptors significantly reduced viability in MeWo cells, which predominantly express the LPA3 receptor. Conclusions Thus the ability of thio-ccPA 18:1 to inhibit the LPA3 receptor and ATX are key to its molecular mechanism, particularly in melanoma cells that predominantly express the LPA3 receptor. These observations necessitate further exploration and exploitation of these targets in melanoma.

  10. Cyclic fatty acid monomer formation in domestic frying of frozen foods in sunflower oil and high oleic acid sunflower oil without oil replenishment. (United States)

    Romero, A; Bastida, S; Sánchez-Muniz, F J


    During the frying process, oxidation, hydrolysis, polymerization, isomerization, and cyclization occur. Polymers and Cyclic fatty acid monomers (CFAM) are potentially toxic, and the latter are detected at relatively low levels (0.01-0.7%) in used frying oils. Twenty fryings of different frozen foods were carried out over 10 consecutive days in sunflower oil (SO) and in high oleic acid sunflower oil (HOSO). Fatty acid methyl ester derivates were hydrogenated with platinum oxide catalyst under hydrogen. Ethyl palmitate was added as an internal standard before hydrogenation. The CFAM obtained were isolated, concentrated and quantified by HPLC using a reverse-phase column followed by gas chromatography. Linear adjustments between total and individual CFAM content and the number of frying operations performed with both oils were established by analysis of variance. The comparison between linear equation adjustments of both oils was performed by a two-way analysis of covariance. After 20 fryings 15.4 +/- 0.06 g polar content/100 g oil, 7.15 +/- 0.08 g polymers/ oil, 11.52 +/- 0.08 g polymers/100g oil and 855 +/- 8.9 mg CFAM/kg oil were detected in SO. A 10 mg/100 mg oil of altered fatty acid content correspond to 700 mg/kg CFAM, while 25% polar material and 10% polymer content would correspond to about 850-1,000 mg CFAM/kg oil. Data suggest that frying with SO produces in each new frying 9 mg CFAM/kg more than frying with HOSO (p oils. Bicyclic compound formation was significantly higher in SO (p < 0.001). Because digestion and absorption of polar material, polymers and CFAM occur, data clearly show the advantageousness and advisability of frying with HOSO rather than SO.

  11. Catalytic Asymmetric Decarboxylative Mannich Reaction of Malonic Acid Half Esters with Cyclic Aldimines: Access to Chiral β-Amino Esters and Chroman-4-amines. (United States)

    Jia, Chun-Man; Zhang, Heng-Xia; Nie, Jing; Ma, Jun-An


    An enantioselective decarboxylative Mannich reaction of malonic acid half esters (MAHEs) with cyclic aldimines has been accomplished by employing the copper(I)/(R,R)-Ph-Box complex as chiral catalyst. The desired β-amino esters were obtained in good to high yields with excellent enantioselectivities. Furthermore, one of the corresponding Mannich products could be readily transformed into chiral chroman-4-amines without loss of enantioselectivity, which is a key intermediate of the human Bradykinin B1 receptor antagonist.

  12. Preliminary dosimetry of (166)Ho-propylene di-amino tetra (methy1enephosphonicacid) for human based on biodistribution data in rats. (United States)

    Zolghadri, Samaneh; Yousefnia, Hassan; Jalilian, Amir R; Shiri-Yekta, Zahra; Maragheh, Mohammad Ghannadi-


    Nowadays, radionuclides with high β- particle energies such as (166)Ho are recommended for bone marrow ablation in patients with multiple myeloma. The addition of skeletal targeted radiotherapy to the patients can improve the response rate in phase I and II trials, with promising long-term survival data. In this work, the absorbed dose to each organ of human for (166)Ho-propylene di-amino tetra methy1enephosphonicacid (PDTMP) was evaluated based on biodistribution studies in rats and was compared with (166)Ho-tetraazacyclododecane tetramethylene-phosphonate (DOTMP) as the only clinically used Ho-166 bone marrow ablative agent. In this work, the accumulated activity in animals was extrapolated to the accumulated activity in humans by mass extrapolation method. The absorbed dose to each organ of human for (166)Ho-PDTMP was evaluated by medical internal radiation dose method. In this study, 166 Ho-PDTMP complex was prepared successfully using an in-house synthesized PDTMP ligand and (166)HoCl 3. Radiochemical purity of (166)Ho-PDTMP was checked by instant thin layer chromatography (>99%). The biodistribution of (166)Ho-PDTMP in wild-type rats was checked in animal tissues up to 48 h. All values were expressed as mean ± standard deviation, and the data were compared using Student's t-test. Statistical significance was defined as P < 0.05. The highest absorbed dose for this complex is observed in red marrow with 0.691 mSv/MBq. (166)Ho-PDTMP demonstrated a higher red marrow: Non target organ uptake ratio compared to (166)Ho-DOTMP. The results showed that 166 Ho-PDTMP has considerable characteristics compared to (166)Ho-DOTMP and therefore can be a good candidate for bone marrow ablation.

  13. 3',5'-Cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) inhibits basal and growth factor-stimulated human colon cancer cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaolis, David K.R.; Cheng, Kunrong; Lipsky, Michael; Elnabawi, Ahmed; Catalano, Jennifer; Hyodo, Mamoru; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Raufman, Jean-Pierre


    The novel cyclic dinucleotide, 3',5'-cyclic diguanylic acid, cGpGp (c-di-GMP), is a naturally occurring small molecule that regulates important signaling mechanisms in prokaryotes. Recently, we showed that c-di-GMP has 'drug-like' properties and that c-di-GMP treatment might be a useful antimicrobial approach to attenuate the virulence and pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus and prevent or treat infection. In the present communication, we report that c-di-GMP (≤50 μM) has striking properties regarding inhibition of cancer cell proliferation in vitro. c-di-GMP inhibits both basal and growth factor (acetylcholine and epidermal growth factor)-induced cell proliferation of human colon cancer (H508) cells. Toxicity studies revealed that exposure of normal rat kidney cells and human neuroblastoma cells to c-di-GMP at biologically relevant doses showed no lethal cytotoxicity. Cyclic dinucleotides, such as c-di-GMP, represent an attractive and novel 'drug-platform technology' that can be used not only to develop new antimicrobial agents, but also to develop novel therapeutic agents to prevent or treat cancer

  14. Palladium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Conjugate Addition of Arylboronic Acids to Five-, Six-, and Seven-Membered β-Substituted Cyclic Enones: Enantioselective Construction of All-Carbon Quaternary Stereocenters

    KAUST Repository

    Kikushima, Kotaro


    The first enantioselective Pd-catalyzed construction of all-carbon quaternary stereocenters via 1,4-addition of arylboronic acids to β-substituted cyclic enones is reported. Reaction of a wide range of arylboronic acids and cyclic enones using a catalyst prepared from Pd(OCOCF(3))(2) and a chiral pyridinooxazoline ligand yields enantioenriched products bearing benzylic stereocenters. Notably, this transformation is tolerant to air and moisture, providing a practical and operationally simple method of synthesizing enantioenriched all-carbon quaternary stereocenters.

  15. Cyclic Vitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halse, Sven


    an enthusiastic worshipping of life, one that holds youth, health, strength and beauty as its primary attributes, and which was prevalent in all aspects of cultural life around 1900. But even the post war founders of the Vitalist re-conceptualisation of this era, Wolfdietrich Rasch and Gunter Martens, warned...... that also encompasses notions of destruction, decay and death. “All life symbols in literature around 1900 are at the same time symbols of death”. (Rasch, W. 1967:24) Through the analyses of three poems, this article aims to show concrete examples of how cyclic Vitalist thinking is embedded in poetry...

  16. New Insights into the Cyclic Di-adenosine Monophosphate (c-di-AMP) Degradation Pathway and the Requirement of the Cyclic Dinucleotide for Acid Stress Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. (United States)

    Bowman, Lisa; Zeden, Merve S; Schuster, Christopher F; Kaever, Volkhard; Gründling, Angelika


    Nucleotide signaling networks are key to facilitate alterations in gene expression, protein function, and enzyme activity in response to diverse stimuli. Cyclic di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is an important secondary messenger molecule produced by the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus and is involved in regulating a number of physiological processes including potassium transport. S. aureus must ensure tight control over its cellular levels as both high levels of the dinucleotide and its absence result in a number of detrimental phenotypes. Here we show that in addition to the membrane-bound Asp-His-His and Asp-His-His-associated (DHH/DHHA1) domain-containing phosphodiesterase (PDE) GdpP, S. aureus produces a second cytoplasmic DHH/DHHA1 PDE Pde2. Although capable of hydrolyzing c-di-AMP, Pde2 preferentially converts linear 5'-phosphadenylyl-adenosine (pApA) to AMP. Using a pde2 mutant strain, pApA was detected for the first time in S. aureus, leading us to speculate that this dinucleotide may have a regulatory role under certain conditions. Moreover, pApA is involved in a feedback inhibition loop that limits GdpP-dependent c-di-AMP hydrolysis. Another protein linked to the regulation of c-di-AMP levels in bacteria is the predicted regulator protein YbbR. Here, it is shown that a ybbR mutant S. aureus strain has increased acid sensitivity that can be bypassed by the acquisition of mutations in a number of genes, including the gene coding for the diadenylate cyclase DacA. We further show that c-di-AMP levels are slightly elevated in the ybbR suppressor strains tested as compared with the wild-type strain. With this, we not only identified a new role for YbbR in acid stress resistance in S. aureus but also provide further insight into how c-di-AMP levels impact acid tolerance in this organism. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Cyclic multiverses (United States)

    Marosek, Konrad; Dąbrowski, Mariusz P.; Balcerzak, Adam


    Using the idea of regularization of singularities due to the variability of the fundamental constants in cosmology we study the cyclic universe models. We find two models of oscillating and non-singular mass density and pressure (`non-singular' bounce) regularized by varying gravitational constant G despite the scale factor evolution is oscillating and having sharp turning points (`singular' bounce). Both violating (big-bang) and non-violating (phantom) null energy condition models appear. Then, we extend this idea on to the multiverse containing cyclic individual universes with either growing or decreasing entropy though leaving the net entropy constant. In order to get an insight into the key idea, we consider the doubleverse with the same geometrical evolution of the two `parallel' universes with their physical evolution [physical coupling constants c(t) and G(t)] being different. An interesting point is that there is a possibility to exchange the universes at the point of maximum expansion - the fact which was already noticed in quantum cosmology. Similar scenario is also possible within the framework of Brans-Dicke theory where varying G(t) is replaced by the dynamical Brans-Dicke field φ(t) though these theories are slightly different.

  18. Structural and cyclic volta metric investigations on BIPBVOX solid electrolyte synthesized by ethylene glycol–citric acid sol–gel route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, Faria K.; Beg, Saba, E-mail: [Solid-State Chemistry Lab, Physical Chemistry Division, Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, 202002 INDIA (India); Al-Areqi, Niyazi A. S. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Applied Science, Taiz University, Taiz, Republic of Yemen (Yemen)


    Samples of BIPBVOX.x (Bi{sub 2}V{sub 1–x}Pb{sub x}O{sub 5.5–x/2}) in the composition range 0.05 ≤ x ≤ 0.20 were prepared by ethylene glycol– citric acid sol–gel synthesis route. Structural investigations were carried out by X–ray diffraction, DTA. The highly conducting γ′– phase was effectively stabilized at room temperature for compositions with x ≥ 0.17. Cyclic voltammetric measurements showed reversible redox reactions of vanadium and irreversible redox reaction of Bi{sup 3+} in the BIPBVOX system during the first cathodic and anodic sweep. However, a higher stability against the reduction of Bi{sup 3+} to metallic bismuth was seen for x=0.20.

  19. Cyclic voltammetry study of Ce(IV/Ce(III redox couple and Ce(IV-F complex in sulfuric acid medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. He


    Full Text Available In this paper the electrochemical behaviors of Ce(IV/Ce(III redox couple and Ce(IV - F complex in sulfuric acid medium were studied by cyclic voltammetry using a platinum electrode. Both of the Ce(IV/Ce(III couple in Ce(IV solution and Ce(IV - F complex is a quasi-reversible process, and gives a linear correlation between the peak potentials and square root of scan rates, showing that the kinetics of the overall process is diffusion controlled. The complexation of cerium(IV and fluoride is favorable for the oxidation of Ce(III. The kinetic parameters such as diffusion coefficients, anodic transfer coefficients and rate constants were studied.

  20. Synthesis of new chiral amines with a cyclic 1,2-diacetal skeleton derived from (2R, 3R)-(+)-tartaric acid. (United States)

    Barros, M Teresa; Phillips, Ana Maria Faísca


    The syntheses of new chiral cyclic 1,2-diacetals from (2R, 3R)-( )-tartaric acid are described. C(2)-symmetrical diamines were prepared via direct amidation of the tartrate or from the corresponding bismesylate via reaction with sodium azide. For C1-symmetrical compounds, the Appel reaction was used to form the key intermediate, a monochlorocarbinol, from the diol. Some of the new chiral compounds, produced in good to high yields, may be potentially useful as asymmetric organocatalysts or as nitrogen and sulfur chelating ligands for asymmetric metal catalyzed reactions. Thus, a bis-N-methyl-methanamine derivative, used in substoichiometric amounts, was found to catalyze the enantioselective addition of cyclohexanone to (E)-beta-nitrostyrene with high diastereoselectivity (syn / anti = 92:8), albeit giving moderate optical purity (syn: 30 %).

  1. The Role of the Local Conformation of a Cyclically Constrained β-AMINO Acid in the Secondary Structures of a Mixed α/β Diastereomer Pair (United States)

    Blodgett, Karl N.; Zwier, Timothy S.


    Synthetic foldamers are non-natural polymers designed to fold into unique secondary structures that either mimic nature's preferred secondary structures, or expand their possibilities. Among the most studied synthetic foldamers are β-peptides, which lengthen the distance between amide groups from the single substituted carbon spacer in α-peptides by one (β) additional carbon. Cyclically constrained β-amino acids can impart rigidity to the secondary structure of oligomers by locking in a particular conformation. The β-residue cis-2-aminocyclohexanecarboxylic acid (cis-ACHC) is one such amino acid which has been shown to drive vastly different secondary structures as a function of the local conformation of the cyclohexane ring. We present data on two diastereomers of the mixed α/β tri-peptide Ac-Ala-β_{ACHC}-Ala-NHBn which differ from one another by the chirality along the ACHC residue (SRSS vs. SSRS). The first oligomer is known to crystallize to a 9/11 mixed helix while the second forms no intramolecular hydrogen bonds in the crystal state. This talk will describe the conformation-specific IR and UV spectroscopy of the above two diastereomers under jet cooled conditions in the gas phase. Assignments based on comparison with calculations show the presence of incipient 9/11 mixed helices and competing structures containing more tightly folded hydrogen-bonded networks. The calculated global minimum structures are observed in each case, and in each case these folded structures are reminiscent of a β-turn.

  2. A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric method for the detection of cyclic beta-amino fatty acid lipopeptides.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urajová, P.; Hájek, Jan; Wahlsten, M.; Jokela, J.; Galica, T.; Fewer, D.P.; Kust, Andreja; Zapomělová; Kozlíková, Eliška; Delawská, K.; Sivonen, K.; Kopecký, J.; Hrouzek, P.


    Roč. 1438, March (2016), s. 76-83 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-18067S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09381S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : lipopeptides * bacteria * cyanobacteria * LC-HRMS * fatty acid * peptide Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.981, year: 2016

  3. Beyond prostaglandins - chemistry and biology of cyclic oxygenated metabolites formed by free-radical pathways from polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jahn, Ullrich; Galano, J. M.; Durand, T.


    Roč. 47, č. 32 (2008), s. 5894-5955 ISSN 1433-7851 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : biological activity * fatty acids * isoprostanes * oxidation * total synthesis Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 10.879, year: 2008

  4. Phosphorylation of CREB, a cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein, contributes partially to lysophosphatidic acid-induced fibroblast cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Yong-Jun; Sun, Yuanjie; Kim, Nam-Ho; Huh, Sung-Oh


    Lysophospholipids regulate a wide array of biological processes including cell survival and proliferation. In our previous studies, we found that in addition to SRE, CRE is required for maximal c-fos promoter activation triggered by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). c-fos is an early indicator of various cells into the cell cycle after mitogenic stimulation. However, role of CREB activation in LPA-stimulated proliferation has not been elucidated yet. Here, we investigate how LPA induces proliferation in Rat-2 fibroblast cell via CREB activation. We found that total cell number and BrdU-positive cells were increased by LPA. Moreover, levels of c-fos mRNA and cyclin D1 protein were increased via LPA-induced CREB phosphorylation. Furthermore, LPA-induced Rat-2 cell proliferation was decreased markedly by ERK inhibitor (U0126) and partially by MSK inhibitor (H89). Taken together, these results suggest that CREB activation could partially up-regulate accumulation of cyclin D1 protein level and proliferation of LPA-stimulated Rat-2 fibroblast cells.

  5. Cyclic calcination/carbonation looping of dolomite modified with acetic acid for CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ying-jie; Zhao, Chang-sui; Duan, Lun-bo; Liang, Cai; Li, Qing-zhao; Zhou, Wu; Chen, Hui-chao [Key Laboratory of Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)


    The dolomite modified with acetic acid solution was proposed as a CO{sub 2} sorbent for calcination/carbonation cycles. The carbonation conversions for modified and original dolomites in a twin fixed-bed reactor system with increasing the numbers of cycles were investigated. The carbonation temperature in the range of 630 C-700 C is beneficial to the carbonation reaction of modified dolomite. The carbonation conversion for modified dolomite is significantly higher than that for original sorbent at the same reaction conditions with increasing numbers of reaction cycles. The modified dolomite exhibits a carbonation conversion of 0.6 after 20 cycles, while the unmodified sorbent shows a conversion of 0.26 at the same reaction conditions, which is calcined at 920 C and carbonated at 650 C. At the high calcination temperature over 920 C modified dolomite can maintain much higher conversion than unmodified sorbent. The mean grain size of CaO derived from modified dolomite is smaller than that from original sorbent with increasing numbers of reaction cycles. The calcined modified dolomite possesses greater surface area and pore volume than calcined original sorbent during the multiple cycles. The pore volume and pore area distributions for calcined modified dolomite are also superior to those for calcined unmodified sorbent during the looping cycle. The modified dolomite is proved as a new and promising type of regenerable CO{sub 2} sorbent for industrial applications. (author)

  6. Inhibition of gastric acid secretion by epidermal growth factor. Effects on cyclic AMP and on prostaglandin production in rat isolated parietal cells.


    Hatt, J F; Hanson, P J


    Histamine (0.5 mM) stimulated the cyclic AMP content of cell suspensions containing greater than 80% parietal cells. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) inhibited this stimulatory effect of histamine, but had no effect on basal cyclic AMP content. The half-maximally effective concentration of EGF for inhibition of histamine-stimulated cyclic AMP was 3.9 nM. The equivalent measurement for the inhibition of histamine-stimulated aminopyrine accumulation was 3.0 nM. Aminopyrine accumulation was measure...

  7. The effect of glycine replacement with flexible ω-amino acids on the antimicrobial and haemolytic activity of an amphipathic cyclic heptapeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddo, Alberto; Nyberg, Nils; Frimodt-Møller, Niels


    Although cyclic peptide structures are usually investigated as highly constrained scaffolds, cyclic antimicrobial peptides of natural origin often feature flexible residues. Hereby we report our findings concerning a structure-activity study conducted on a model sequence by replacing a glycine...... to study changes in conformation. Increments as high as 16-fold in antimicrobial activity (as effective as lipidation) and >2-fold in haemolytic EC50 values were observed. Interestingly, secondary structures can be stabilized by increasing, rather than decreasing, ring flexibility....

  8. Cyclic Railway Timetable Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.W.P. Peeters (Leon)


    textabstractCyclic Railway Timetable Optimization describes mathematical models and solution methods for constructing high quality cyclic railway timetables. In a cyclic timetable, a train for a certain destination leaves a certain station at the same time every cycle time, say every half an hour,

  9. Physiological Role of phnP-specified Phosphoribosyl Cyclic Phosphodiesterase in Catabolism of Organophosphonic Acids by the Carbon−Phosphorus Lyase Pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove-Jensen, Bjarne; McSorley, Fern R.; Zechel, David L.


    In Escherichia coli , internalization and catabolism of organophosphonicacids are governed by the 14-cistron phnCDEFGHIJKLMNOP operon. The phnP gene product was previously shown to encode a phosphodiesterase with unusual specificity toward ribonucleoside 2',3'-cyclic phosphates. Furthermore, phnP...

  10. No Arithmetic Cyclic Quadrilaterals (United States)

    Beauregard, Raymond A.


    A quadrilateral is arithmetic if its area is an integer and its sides are integers in an arithmetic progression, and it is cyclic if it can be inscribed in a circle. The author shows that no quadrilateral is both arithmetic and cyclic.

  11. Structural Diversity and Biological Activities of Fungal Cyclic Peptides, Excluding Cyclodipeptides


    Xiaohan Wang; Minyi Lin; Dan Xu; Daowan Lai; Ligang Zhou


    Cyclic peptides are cyclic compounds formed mainly by the amide bonds between either proteinogenic or non-proteinogenic amino acids. This review highlights the occurrence, structures and biological activities of fungal cyclic peptides (excluding cyclodipeptides, and peptides containing ester bonds in the core ring) reported until August 2017. About 293 cyclic peptides belonging to the groups of cyclic tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexa-, hepta-, octa-, nona-, deca-, undeca-, dodeca-, tetradeca-, and ...

  12. Synthesis of Cyclic Py-Im Polyamide Libraries


    Li, Benjamin C.; Montgomery, David C.; Puckett, James W.; Dervan, Peter B.


    Cyclic Py-Im polyamides containing two GABA turn units exhibit enhanced DNA binding affinity, but extensive studies of their biological properties have been hindered due to synthetic inaccessibility. A facile modular approach toward cyclic polyamides has been developed via microwave-assisted solid-phase synthesis of hairpin amino acid oligomer intermediates followed by macrocyclization. A focused library of cyclic polyamides 1–7 targeted to the androgen response element (ARE) and the estrogen...

  13. Real Topological Cyclic Homology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgenhaven, Amalie

    The main topics of this thesis are real topological Hochschild homology and real topological cyclic homology. If a ring or a ring spectrum is equipped with an anti-involution, then it induces additional structure on the topological Hochschild homology spectrum. The group O(2) acts on the spectrum......, where O(2) is the semi-direct product of T, the multiplicative group of complex number of modulus 1, by the group G=Gal(C/R). We refer to this O(2)-spectrum as the real topological Hochschild homology. This generalization leads to a G-equivariant version of topological cyclic homology, which we call...... real topological cyclic homology. The first part of the thesis computes the G-equivariant homotopy type of the real topological cyclic homology of spherical group rings at a prime p with anti-involution induced by taking inverses in the group. The second part of the thesis investigates the derived G...

  14. Cyclical innovations and production


    Greiner, Alfred


    Cyclical innovations and production : a formal model of the firm reflecting Schumpeterian ideas / Alfred Greiner and Horst Hanusch. - In: Innovation in technology, industries, and institutions / ed. by Yuichi Shionoya ... - Ann Arbor : Univ. of Michigan Press, 1994. - S. 157-169

  15. Cyclic nucleotides and radioresistnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulinskij, V.I.; Mikheeva, G.A.; Zel'manovich, B.M.


    The addition of glucose to meat-peptone broth does not change the radiosensitizing effect (RSE) of cAMP at the logarithmic phase (LP) and the radioprotective effect (RPE) at the stationary phase (SP), but sensitization, characteristic of cGMP, disappears in SP and turns into RPE in LP. Introduction of glucose into the broth for 20 min eliminates all the effects of both cyclic nucleotides in the cya + strain while cya - mutant exhibits RSE. RSE of both cyclic nucleotides is only manifested on minimal media. These data brought confirmation of the dependence of the influence of cyclic media. These data brought confirmation of the dependence of the influence of cyclic nucleotides on radioresistance upon the metabolic status of the cell [ru

  16. Synthesis of New Chiral Amines with a Cyclic 1,2-Diacetal Skeleton Derived from (2R, 3R-(+-Tartaric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Faísca Phillips


    Full Text Available The syntheses of new chiral cyclic 1,2-diacetals from (2R, 3R-( -tartaric acidare described. C2-symmetrical diamines were prepared via direct amidation of the tartrate orfrom the corresponding bismesylate via reaction with sodium azide. For C1-symmetricalcompounds, the Appel reaction was used to form the key intermediate, amonochlorocarbinol, from the diol. Some of the new chiral compounds, produced in good tohigh yields, may be potentially useful as asymmetric organocatalysts or as nitrogen andsulfur chelating ligands for asymmetric metal catalyzed reactions. Thus, a bis-N-methyl-methanamine derivative, used in substoichiometric amounts, was found to catalyze theenantioselective addition of cyclohexanone to (E-β-nitrostyrene with highdiastereoselectivity (syn / anti = 92:8, albeit giving moderate optical purity (syn: 30 %.

  17. Generalized Wideband Cyclic MUSIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang-Meng Liu


    Full Text Available The method of Spectral Correlation-Signal Subspace Fitting (SC-SSF fails to separate wideband cyclostationary signals with coherent second-order cyclic statistics (SOCS. Averaged Cyclic MUSIC (ACM method made up for the drawback to some degree via temporally averaging the cyclic cross-correlation of the array output. This paper interprets ACM from another perspective and proposes a new DOA estimation method by generalizing ACM for wideband cyclostationary signals. The proposed method successfully makes up for the aforementioned drawback of SC-SSF and obtains a more satisfying performance than ACM. It is also demonstrated that ACM is a simplified form of the proposed method when only a single spectral frequency is exploited, and the integration of the frequencies within the signal bandwidth helps the new method to outperform ACM.



    Orrego, Santiago; Romberg, Elaine; Arola, Dwayne


    Secondary caries and non-carious lesions develop in regions of stress concentrations and oral fluid movement. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of cyclic stress and fluid movement on material loss and subsurface degradation of dentin within an acidic environment. Rectangular specimens of radicular dentin were prepared from caries-free unrestored 3rd molars. Two groups were subjected to cyclic cantilever loading within a lactic acid solution (pH=5) to achieve compressiv...

  19. Repression by H-NS of genes required for the biosynthesis of the Vibrio cholerae biofilm matrix is modulated by the second messenger cyclic diguanylic acid. (United States)

    Ayala, Julio C; Wang, Hongxia; Silva, Anisia J; Benitez, Jorge A


    Expression of Vibrio cholerae genes required for the biosynthesis of exopolysacchide (vps) and protein (rbm) components of the biofilm matrix is enhanced by cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP). In a previous study, we reported that the histone-like nucleoid structuring (H-NS) protein represses the transcription of vpsA, vpsL and vpsT. Here we demonstrate that the regulator VpsT can disrupt repressive H-NS nucleoprotein complexes at the vpsA and vpsL promoters in the presence of c-di-GMP, while H-NS could disrupt the VpsT-promoter complexes in the absence of c-di-GMP. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-Seq showed a remarkable trend for H-NS to cluster at loci involved in biofilm development such as the rbmABCDEF genes. We show that the antagonistic relationship between VpsT and H-NS regulates the expression of the rbmABCDEF cluster. Epistasis analysis demonstrated that VpsT functions as an antirepressor at the rbmA/F, vpsU and vpsA/L promoters. Deletion of vpsT increased H-NS occupancy at these promoters while increasing the c-di-GMP pool had the opposite effect and included the vpsT promoter. The negative effect of c-di-GMP on H-NS occupancy at the vpsT promoter required the regulator VpsR. These results demonstrate that c-di-GMP activates the transcription of genes required for the biosynthesis of the biofilm matrix by triggering a coordinated VpsR- and VpsT-dependent H-NS antirepression cascade. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Cyclic Voltammograms from First Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, Gustav; Jaramillo, Thomas; Skulason, Egill


    Cyclic voltammetry is a fundamental experimental tool for characterizing electrochemical surfaces. Whereas cyclic voltammetry is widely used within the field of electrochemistry, a way to quantitatively and directly relate the cyclic voltammogram to ab initio calculations has been lacking, even f...

  1. Dynamics of cyclic machines

    CERN Document Server

    Vulfson, Iosif


    This book focuses on modern methods of oscillation analysis in machines, including cyclic action mechanisms (linkages, cams, steppers, etc.). It presents schematization techniques and mathematical descriptions of oscillating systems, taking into account the variability of the parameters and nonlinearities, engineering evaluations of dynamic errors, and oscillation suppression methods. The majority of the book is devoted to the development of new methods of dynamic analysis and synthesis for cyclic machines that form regular oscillatory systems with multiple duplicate modules.  There are also sections examining aspects of general engineering interest (nonlinear dissipative forces, systems with non-stationary constraints, impacts and pseudo-impacts in clearances, etc.)  The examples in the book are based on the widely used results of theoretical and experimental studies as well as engineering calculations carried out in relation to machines used in the textile, light, polygraphic and other industries. Particu...

  2. HOST liner cyclic facilities (United States)

    Schultz, D.


    The HOST Liner Cyclic Program is utilizing two types of test apparatus, rectangular box rigs and a full annular rig. To date two quartz lamp cyclic box rigs have been tested and a third is to begin testing in late October 1983. The box rigs are used to evaluate 5x8 inch rectangular linear samples. A 21 inch diameter outer liner simulator is also being built up for testing beginning in April 1984. All rigs are atmospheric rigs. The first box rig, a three 6-kVA lamp installation, was operated under adverse conditions to determine feasibility of using quartz lamps for cyclic testing. This work was done in December 1981 and looked promising. The second box rig, again using three 6-kVA lamps, was operated to obtain instrumentation durability information and initial data input to a Finite Element Model. This limited test program was conducted in August 1983. Five test plates were run. Instrumentation consisted of strain gages, thermocouples and thermal paint. The strain gages were found to fail at 1200 F as expected though plates were heated to 1700 F. The third box rig, containing four 6-kVA lamps, is in build up for testing to begin in late October 1983. In addition to 33 percent greater power input, this rig has provision for 400 F backside line cooling air and a viewing port suitable for IR camera viewing. The casing is also water cooled for extended durability.

  3. The addition of allyltrimethylsilane to cyclic N-acyliminium ions derived from(S-(+-mandelic acid and cyclohexyl-based chiral auxiliaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Oca Marcelo G. M.


    Full Text Available The TiCl4- promoted addition of allyltrimethylsilane to chiral 5- and 6-membered N-acyliminium ions employing (S-(+-mandelic acid, (1R,2S-trans-2-phenyl-1-cyclohexanol and (1R,2S,5R-8-phenylmenthol derivatives as chiral auxiliaries occurred with low to moderate diastereoisomeric ratios (1:1-6:1 to afford 2-substituted amides and carbamates in good yields. The best diastereoselection was observed with (1R,2S,5R-8-phenylmenthol as the chiral auxiliary. The 2-substituted amides and carbamates were converted to the corresponding alkaloids (S- and (R-propyl pyrrolidine and coniine with efficient recovery of the chiral auxiliaries.

  4. Efficient Enzymatic Routes for the Synthesis of New Eight-membered Cyclic β-Amino Acid and β-Lactam Enantiomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enikő Forró


    Full Text Available Efficient enzymatic resolutions are reported for the preparation of new eight-membered ring-fused enantiomeric β-amino acids [(1R,2S-9 and (1S,2R-9] and β-lactams [(1S,8R-3, (1R,8S-3 (1S,8R-4 and (1R,8S-7], through asymmetric acylation of (±-4 (E > 100 or enantioselective hydrolysis (E > 200 of the corresponding inactivated (±-3 or activated (±-4 β-lactams, catalyzed by PSIM or CAL-B in an organic solvent. CAL-B-catalyzed ring cleavage of (±-6 (E > 200 resulted in the unreacted (1S,8R-6, potential intermediate for the synthesis of enantiomeric anatoxin-a. The best strategies, in view of E, reaction rate and product yields, which underline the importance of substrate engineering, are highlighted.

  5. Biologic activity of cyclic and caged phosphates: a review. (United States)

    Lorke, Dietrich E; Stegmeier-Petroianu, Anka; Petroianu, Georg A


    The recognition in the early 1960s by Morifusa Eto that tri-o-cresyl phosphate (TOCP) is hydroxylated by the cytochrome P450 system to an intermediate that spontaneously cyclizes to a neurotoxic phosphate (saligenin phosphate ester) ignited the interest in this group of compounds. Only the ortho isomer can cyclize and clinically cause Organo Phosphate Induced Delayed Neurotoxicity (OPIDN); the meta and para isomers of tri-cresyl phosphate are not neuropathic because they are unable to form stable cyclic saligenin phosphate esters. This review identifies the diverse biological effects associated with various cyclic and caged phosphates and phosphonates and their possible use. Cyclic compounds that inhibit acetylcholine esterase (AChE), such as salithion, can be employed as pesticides. Others are neurotoxic, most probably because of inhibition of neuropathy target esterase (NTE). Cyclic phosphates that inhibit lipases, the cyclipostins, possibly represent promising therapeutic avenues for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or microbial infections; those compounds inhibiting β-lactamase may prevent bacterial resistance against β-lactam antibiotics. Naturally occurring cyclic phosphates, such as cyclic AMP, cyclic phosphatidic acid and the ryanodine receptor modulator cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose, play an important physiological role in signal transduction. Moreover, some cyclic phosphates are GABA-antagonists, while others are an essential component of Molybdenum-containing enzymes. Some cyclic phosphates (cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide) are clinically used in tumor therapy, while the coupling of therapeutic agents with other cyclic phosphates (HepDirect® Technology) allows drugs to be targeted to specific organs. Possible clinical applications of these compounds are considered. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Heparin and a cyclic octaphenol-octasulfonic acid (GL-522-Y-1) bind with high affinity to a 47-kda protein from vascular endothelial cell surface and stimulate the synthesis and structural changes of heparan sulfate proteoglycan. (United States)

    Pinhal, M A; Trindade, E S; Fareed, J; Dietrich, C P; Nader, H B


    The effect of a cyclic octaphenol-octasulfonic acid (GL-522-Y-1), upon the synthesis of a heparan sulfate proteoglycan synthesized by endothelial cells (rabbit aorta and human umbilical vein) were studied. The cells were exposed to the compounds at various concentrations for different periods of time and the synthesized heparan sulfates analyzed by a combination of agarose gel electrophoresis and enzymatic degradation. The GL-522-Y-1, like heparin, change the sulfation pattern and stimulate two- to three-fold the synthesis of heparan sulfate proteoglycan secreted by rabbit and human endothelial cells in culture. GL-522-Y-1, besides being 100 times more active than heparin, also produces a significant enhancement of cell surface heparan sulfate in human vein endothelial cells. The effect of GL-522-Y-1 is completely abolished by methylation or acetylation of its free hydroxyl groups. Both heparin and GL-522-Y-1 have high affinity for a 47-kDa protein present at the surface of endothelial cells. These and other results lead us to speculate that the antithrombotic activity of heparin and GL522 "in vivo" could be related, at least in part, to the increased production of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan by endothelial cells.

  7. Cyclic approximation to stasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart D. Johnson


    Full Text Available Neighborhoods of points in $mathbb{R}^n$ where a positive linear combination of $C^1$ vector fields sum to zero contain, generically, cyclic trajectories that switch between the vector fields. Such points are called stasis points, and the approximating switching cycle can be chosen so that the timing of the switches exactly matches the positive linear weighting. In the case of two vector fields, the stasis points form one-dimensional $C^1$ manifolds containing nearby families of two-cycles. The generic case of two flows in $mathbb{R}^3$ can be diffeomorphed to a standard form with cubic curves as trajectories.

  8. Accelerated cyclic corrosion tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prošek T.


    Full Text Available Accelerated corrosion testing is indispensable for material selection, quality control and both initial and residual life time prediction for bare and painted metallic, polymeric, adhesive and other materials in atmospheric exposure conditions. The best known Neutral Salt Spray (NSS test provides unrealistic conditions and poor correlation to exposures in atmosphere. Modern cyclic accelerated corrosion tests include intermittent salt spray, wet and dry phases and eventually other technical phases. They are able to predict the material performance in service more correctly as documented on several examples. The use of NSS should thus be restricted for quality control.

  9. Ekpyrotic and cyclic cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehners, Jean-Luc


    Ekpyrotic and cyclic cosmologies provide theories of the very early and of the very late universe. In these models, the big bang is described as a collision of branes - and thus the big bang is not the beginning of time. Before the big bang, there is an ekpyrotic phase with equation of state w=P/(ρ) >>1 (where P is the average pressure and ρ the average energy density) during which the universe slowly contracts. This phase resolves the standard cosmological puzzles and generates a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of cosmological perturbations containing a significant non-Gaussian component. At the same time it produces small-amplitude gravitational waves with a blue spectrum. The dark energy dominating the present-day cosmological evolution is reinterpreted as a small attractive force between our brane and a parallel one. This force eventually induces a new ekpyrotic phase and a new brane collision, leading to the idea of a cyclic universe. This review discusses the detailed properties of these models, their embedding in M-theory and their viability, with an emphasis on open issues and observational signatures

  10. Cyclic generalized projection MRI. (United States)

    Sarty, Gordon E


    Progress in the development of portable MRI hinges on the ability to use lightweight magnets that have non-uniform magnetic fields. An image encoding method and mathematical procedure for recovering the image from the NMR signal from non-uniform magnets with closed isomagnetic contours is given. Individual frequencies in an NMR signal from an object in a non-uniform magnetic field give rise to integrals of the object along contours of constant magnetic field: generalized projections. With closed isomagnetic field contours a simple, cyclic, direct reconstruction of the image from the generalized projections is possible when the magnet and RF transmit coil are held fixed relative to the imaged object while the RF receive coil moves. Numerical simulations, using the Shepp and Logan mathematical phantom, were completed to show that the mathematical method works and to illustrate numerical limitations. The method is numerically verified and exact reconstruction demonstrated for discrete mathematical image phantoms. Correct knowledge of the RF receive field is necessary or severe image distortions will result. The cyclic mathematical reconstruction method presented here will be useful for portable MRI schemes that use non-uniform magnets with closed isomagnetic contours along with mechanically or electronically moving the RF receive coils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The arabidopsis cyclic nucleotide interactome

    KAUST Repository

    Donaldson, Lara Elizabeth


    Background Cyclic nucleotides have been shown to play important signaling roles in many physiological processes in plants including photosynthesis and defence. Despite this, little is known about cyclic nucleotide-dependent signaling mechanisms in plants since the downstream target proteins remain unknown. This is largely due to the fact that bioinformatics searches fail to identify plant homologs of protein kinases and phosphodiesterases that are the main targets of cyclic nucleotides in animals. Methods An affinity purification technique was used to identify cyclic nucleotide binding proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. The identified proteins were subjected to a computational analysis that included a sequence, transcriptional co-expression and functional annotation analysis in order to assess their potential role in plant cyclic nucleotide signaling. Results A total of twelve cyclic nucleotide binding proteins were identified experimentally including key enzymes in the Calvin cycle and photorespiration pathway. Importantly, eight of the twelve proteins were shown to contain putative cyclic nucleotide binding domains. Moreover, the identified proteins are post-translationally modified by nitric oxide, transcriptionally co-expressed and annotated to function in hydrogen peroxide signaling and the defence response. The activity of one of these proteins, GLYGOLATE OXIDASE 1, a photorespiratory enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide in response to Pseudomonas, was shown to be repressed by a combination of cGMP and nitric oxide treatment. Conclusions We propose that the identified proteins function together as points of cross-talk between cyclic nucleotide, nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species signaling during the defence response.

  12. Cyclic transfers in school timetabling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Gerhard F.; Ahmadi, Samad; Geertsema, Frederik


    In this paper we propose a neighbourhood structure based on sequential/cyclic moves and a cyclic transfer algorithm for the high school timetabling problem. This method enables execution of complex moves for improving an existing solution, while dealing with the challenge of exploring the

  13. Cyclic transfers in school timetabling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Gerhard F.; Ahmadi, Samad; Geertsema, Frederik

    In this paper we propose a neighbourhood structure based on sequential/cyclic moves and a Cyclic Transfer algorithm for the high school timetabling problem. This method enables execution of complex moves for improving an existing solution, while dealing with the challenge of exploring the

  14. Multicomponent Synthesis of Cyclic Depsipeptide Mimics by Ugi Reaction Including Cyclic Hemiacetals Derived from Asymmetric Organocatalysis. (United States)

    de la Torre, Alexander F; Rivera, Daniel G; Concepción, Odette; Echemendia, Radell; Correa, Arlene G; Paixão, Márcio W


    The synthesis of novel cyclic depsipeptide mimics by means of an organocatalytic conjugate addition, leading to chiral cyclic hemiacetals, followed by a multicomponent reaction with α-amino acids and isocyanides, is described. The initial organocatalytic step is employed for the asymmetric derivatization of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes to 4,5-disubstituted 2-hydroxytetrahydropyrans, which are next used as chiral bifunctional substrates on the Ugi five-center three-component reaction, giving rise to nine-membered-ring lactones. This sequential approach proved to be suitable for the rapid generation of molecular complexity through the combination of aliphatic, dipeptidic, glucosidic, and lipidic isocyanides with several amino acids, thus giving access to amido-, glyco-, and lipo-depsipeptide scaffolds featuring natural product-like structures.

  15. Manual for Cyclic Triaxial Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shajarati, Amir; Sørensen, Kris Wessel; Nielsen, Søren Kjær

    This manual describes the different steps that is included in the procedure for conducting a cyclic triaxial test at the geotechnical Laboratory at Aalborg University. Furthermore it contains a chapter concerning some of the background theory for the static triaxial tests. The cyclic/dynamic tria......This manual describes the different steps that is included in the procedure for conducting a cyclic triaxial test at the geotechnical Laboratory at Aalborg University. Furthermore it contains a chapter concerning some of the background theory for the static triaxial tests. The cyclic....../dynamic triaxial cell is overall constructed in the same way as the static triaxial cell at Aalborg University, but with the ability to apply any kind of load sequence to the test sample. When conducting cyclic triaxial tests, it is recommended that the manual is followed very tediously since there are many steps...

  16. Structural Diversity and Biological Activities of Fungal Cyclic Peptides, Excluding Cyclodipeptides. (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohan; Lin, Minyi; Xu, Dan; Lai, Daowan; Zhou, Ligang


    Cyclic peptides are cyclic compounds formed mainly by the amide bonds between either proteinogenic or non-proteinogenic amino acids. This review highlights the occurrence, structures and biological activities of fungal cyclic peptides (excluding cyclodipeptides, and peptides containing ester bonds in the core ring) reported until August 2017. About 293 cyclic peptides belonging to the groups of cyclic tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexa-, hepta-, octa-, nona-, deca-, undeca-, dodeca-, tetradeca-, and octadecapeptides as well as cyclic peptides containing ether bonds in the core ring have been isolated from fungi. They were mainly isolated from the genera Aspergillus , Penicillium , Fusarium , Acremonium and Amanita . Some of them were screened to have antimicrobial, antiviral, cytotoxic, phytotoxic, insecticidal, nematicidal, immunosuppressive and enzyme-inhibitory activities to show their potential applications. Some fungal cyclic peptides such as the echinocandins, pneumocandins and cyclosporin A have been developed as pharmaceuticals.

  17. Structural Diversity and Biological Activities of Fungal Cyclic Peptides, Excluding Cyclodipeptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohan Wang


    Full Text Available Cyclic peptides are cyclic compounds formed mainly by the amide bonds between either proteinogenic or non-proteinogenic amino acids. This review highlights the occurrence, structures and biological activities of fungal cyclic peptides (excluding cyclodipeptides, and peptides containing ester bonds in the core ring reported until August 2017. About 293 cyclic peptides belonging to the groups of cyclic tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexa-, hepta-, octa-, nona-, deca-, undeca-, dodeca-, tetradeca-, and octadecapeptides as well as cyclic peptides containing ether bonds in the core ring have been isolated from fungi. They were mainly isolated from the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Acremonium and Amanita. Some of them were screened to have antimicrobial, antiviral, cytotoxic, phytotoxic, insecticidal, nematicidal, immunosuppressive and enzyme-inhibitory activities to show their potential applications. Some fungal cyclic peptides such as the echinocandins, pneumocandins and cyclosporin A have been developed as pharmaceuticals.

  18. Nitration Study of Cyclic Ladder Polyphenylsilsesquioxane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIANG Jia-xiang


    Full Text Available Several nitration reagents including fuming nitric acid, HNO3-H2SO4, KNO3-H2SO4, HNO3-KNO3, CH3COOH-KNO3, (CH3CO2O-HNO3 were used to nitrate cyclic ladder polyphenylsilsesquioxane (CL-PPSQ in different conditions in order to enhance the compatibility of the CL-PPSQ in polymers, the NO2-PPSQ was obtained. FTIR, element analysis, GPC, TGA and 1H NMR were used to characterize the structures of the nitrated products. The results show that the nitrating abilities of the fuming nitric acid, HNO3-H2SO4 and KNO3-H2SO4 are very strong. Many nitro groups can be linked with phenyl groups in CL-PPSQ, but with low molecular mass, fracture occurs in siloxane segment. However, the Mn of the product NO2-PPSQ sharply drops by 50% compared with that of CL-PPSQ, so the nitration reagents can break the cyclic structure of CL-PPSQ. The nitrating reagents of HNO3-KNO3 and CH3COOH-KNO3 have no nitration effects on CL-PPSQ. At last, NO2-CL-PPSQ was prepared using (CH3CO2O-HNO3 because of the moderate nitration process and ability. The cyclic structure of PPSQ is remained, although the number of —NO2 group is not too much. At the same time, the nitration mechanism using different nitration reagents was analyzed. A certain amount of NO2+, which is a kind of activator owning strong nitration ability, can be found in the fuming nitric acid and H2SO4-HNO3(KNO3 systems. As to the (CH3CO2O-HNO3 system, the main activator is CH3COONO2.

  19. Ada and cyclic runtime scheduling (United States)

    Hood, Philip E.


    An important issue that must be faced while introducing Ada into the real time world is efficient and prodictable runtime behavior. One of the most effective methods employed during the traditional design of a real time system is the cyclic executive. The role cyclic scheduling might play in an Ada application in terms of currently available implementations and in terms of implementations that might be developed especially to support real time system development is examined. The cyclic executive solves many of the problems faced by real time designers, resulting in a system for which it is relatively easy to achieve approporiate timing behavior. Unfortunately a cyclic executive carries with it a very high maintenance penalty over the lifetime of the software that is schedules. Additionally, these cyclic systems tend to be quite fragil when any aspect of the system changes. The findings are presented of an ongoing SofTech investigation into Ada methods for real time system development. The topics covered include a description of the costs involved in using cyclic schedulers, the sources of these costs, and measures for future systems to avoid these costs without giving up the runtime performance of a cyclic system.

  20. Prognosis of Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available Investigators from Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan, evaluated the clinical features, prognosis, and prophylaxis of cyclic vomiting syndrome and the relationship between the syndrome and levels of adrenocorticotropic/antidiuretic hormones (ACTH/ADH.

  1. Transcriptional regulation by cyclic AMP. (United States)

    Montminy, M


    A number of hormones and growth factors have been shown to stimulate target cells via second messenger pathways that in turn regulate the phosphorylation of specific nuclear factors. The second messenger cyclic AMP, for example, regulates a striking number of physiologic processes, including intermediary metabolism, cellular proliferation, and neuronal signaling, by altering basic patterns of gene expression. Our understanding of cyclic AMP signaling in the nucleus has expanded considerably over the past decade, owing in large part to the characterization of cyclic AMP-responsive promoter elements, transcription factors that bind them, and signal-dependent coactivators that mediate target gene induction. More importantly, these studies have revealed new insights into biological problems as diverse as biological clocks and long-term memory. The purpose of this review is to describe the components of the cyclic AMP response unit and to analyze how these components cooperate to induce target gene expression in response to hormonal stimulation.

  2. Functionalized linear and cyclic polyolefins (United States)

    Tuba, Robert; Grubbs, Robert H.


    This invention relates to methods and compositions for preparing linear and cyclic polyolefins. More particularly, the invention relates to methods and compositions for preparing functionalized linear and cyclic polyolefins via olefin metathesis reactions. Polymer products produced via the olefin metathesis reactions of the invention may be utilized for a wide range of materials applications. The invention has utility in the fields of polymer and materials chemistry and manufacture.

  3. Solid-state structure of cyclic dipeptides: an X-ray and computational study of cis- and trans-diketo-piperazines of N-methyl-phenylalanine with the thia-pipecolic acids and thia-prolines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buděšínský, Miloš; Císařová, I.; Borremans, F.; Martins, J. C.; Pauwels, E.


    Roč. 73, č. 6 (2017), s. 1179-1193 ISSN 2052-5206 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : sulfur-containing cyclic dipeptides * X-ray crystal structure s * DFT calculations * molecular flexibility Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 2.032, year: 2016

  4. Stability of 2 ',3 ' and 3 ',5 ' cyclic nucleotides in formamide and in water: a theoretical insight into the factors controlling the accumulation of nucleic acid building blocks in a prebiotic pool

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cassone, Giuseppe; Šponer, Jiří; Saija, F.; Di Mauro, E.; Saitta, A. M.; Šponer, Judit E.


    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2017), s. 1817-1825 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12010S Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : density-functional theory * liquid formamide * 2,3-cyclic nucleotides * molecular- dynamics Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 4.123, year: 2016

  5. Structural Diversity and Biological Activities of Cyclic Depsipeptides from Fungi


    Xiaohan Wang; Xiao Gong; Peng Li; Daowan Lai; Ligang Zhou


    Cyclic depsipeptides (CDPs) are cyclopeptides in which amide groups are replaced by corresponding lactone bonds due to the presence of a hydroxylated carboxylic acid in the peptide structure. These peptides sometimes display additional chemical modifications, including unusual amino acid residues in their structures. This review highlights the occurrence, structures and biological activities of the fungal CDPs reported until October 2017. About 352 fungal CDPs belonging to the groups of cycli...

  6. Efficient Synthesis of Spirobarbiturates and Spirothiobarbiturates Bearing Cyclopropane Rings by Rhodium(II)-Catalyzed Reactions of Cyclic Diazo Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xue; Lee, Yong Rok [Yeungnam Univ., Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)


    Rhodium(II)-catalyzed reactions of cyclic diazo compounds derived from barbituric acid and thiobarbituric acid with a variety of styrene moieties were examined. These reactions provide rapid synthetic routes to the preparations of spirobarbiturates and spirothiobarbiturates bearing cyclopropane rings.

  7. Nature of solar cyclicity. I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanchuk, P.R.


    The report contains a critical survey of work devoted to the study of the nature of solar cyclicity. The inconsistency of the representation of cyclic curves using a frequency spectrum is indicated. The useful contribution of the ideas of Wolf, Newcomb, and Waldmeier to the solution of the problem is noted. Data are cited in favor of the theory of the tidal nature of solar cyclicity developed by the author, which also takes into account the ideas of the above-mentioned authors: the continuous paired and single tidal actions of the planets and the resonance character of this action, thanks to which the approximately 10-year period of action of Jupiter and Saturn is transformed into the 11-year activity cycle.

  8. On Improvements of Cyclic MUSIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Howard Fan


    Full Text Available Many man-made signals encountered in communications exhibit cyclostationarity. By exploiting cyclostationarity, cyclic MUSIC has been shown to be able to separate signals with different cycle frequencies, thus, to be able to perform signal selective direction of-arrival (DOA estimation. However, as will be shown in this paper, the DOA estimation of cyclic MUSIC is actually biased. We show in this paper that by properly choosing the frequency for evaluating the steering vector, the bias of DOA estimation can be substantially reduced and the performance can be improved. Furthermore, we propose another algorithm exploiting cyclic conjugate correlation to further improve the performance of DOA estimation. Simulation results show the effectiveness of both of our methods.

  9. Design of a cyclic multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piao Yunsong, E-mail: [College of Physical Sciences, Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)


    Recently, it has been noticed that the amplification of the amplitude of curvature perturbation cycle by cycle can lead to a cyclic multiverse scenario, in which the number of universes increases cycle by cycle. However, this amplification will also inevitably induce either the ultimate end of corresponding cycle, or the resulting spectrum of perturbations inside corresponding universe is not scale invariant, which baffles the existence of observable universes. In this Letter, we propose a design of a cyclic multiverse, in which the observable universe can emerges naturally. The significance of a long period of dark energy before the turnaround of each cycle for this implementing is shown.

  10. Cyclic Processing for Context Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun


    Many machine-learning techniques use feedback information. However, current context fusion systems do not support this because they constrain processing to be structured as acyclic processing. This paper proposes a generalization which enables the use of cyclic processing in context fusion systems...

  11. Cyclic codes of length 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    [X]/〈X2m. − 1〉 are given. Cyclic codes of length 2m over the finite field Fq, of odd characteristic, are defined in terms of their generator polynomials. The exact minimum distance and the dimension of the codes are obtained. Keywords.

  12. Color visualization of cyclic magnitudes (United States)

    Restrepo, Alfredo; Estupiñán, Viviana


    We exploit the perceptual, circular ordering of the hues in a technique for the visualization of cyclic variables. The hue is thus meaningfully used for the indication of variables such as the azimuth and the units of the measurement of time. The cyclic (or circular) variables may be both of the continuous type or the discrete type; among the first there is azimuth and among the last you find the musical notes and the days of the week. A correspondence between the values of a cyclic variable and the chromatic hues, where the natural circular ordering of the variable is respected, is called a color code for the variable. We base such a choice of hues on an assignment of of the unique hues red, yellow, green and blue, or one of the 8 even permutations of this ordered list, to 4 cardinal values of the cyclic variable, suitably ordered; color codes based on only 3 cardinal points are also possible. Color codes, being intuitive, are easy to remember. A possible low accuracy when reading instruments that use this technique is compensated by fast, ludic and intuitive readings; also, the use of a referential frame makes readings precise. An achromatic version of the technique, that can be used by dichromatic people, is proposed.

  13. Cyclic theory of Lie algebroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, A.


    In this thesis we study the cyclic theory of universal enveloping algebras of Lie algebroids. Lie algebroids are geometrical objects that encode infinitesimal symmetries, and the concept encompasses many classical objects from geometry, such as Poisson manifolds, foliations and actions of Lie

  14. Cyclic peptide therapeutics: past, present and future. (United States)

    Zorzi, Alessandro; Deyle, Kaycie; Heinis, Christian


    Cyclic peptides combine several favorable properties such as good binding affinity, target selectivity and low toxicity that make them an attractive modality for the development of therapeutics. Over 40 cyclic peptide drugs are currently in clinical use and around one new cyclic peptide drug enters the market every year on average. The vast majority of clinically approved cyclic peptides are derived from natural products, such as antimicrobials or human peptide hormones. New powerful techniques based on rational design and in vitro evolution have enabled the de novo development of cyclic peptide ligands to targets for which nature does not offer solutions. A look at the cyclic peptides currently under clinical evaluation shows that several have been developed using such techniques. This new source for cyclic peptide ligands introduces a freshness to the field, and it is likely that de novo developed cyclic peptides will be in clinical use in the near future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Deformation mechanisms in cyclic creep and fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laird, C.


    Service conditions in which static and cyclic loading occur in conjunction are numerous. It is argued that an understanding of cyclic creep and cyclic deformation are necessary both for design and for understanding creep-fatigue fracture. Accordingly a brief, and selective, review of cyclic creep and cyclic deformation at both low and high strain amplitudes is provided. Cyclic loading in conjunction with static loading can lead to creep retardation if cyclic hardening occurs, or creep acceleration if softening occurs. Low strain amplitude cyclic deformation is understood in terms of dislocation loop patch and persistent slip band behavior, high strain deformation in terms of dislocation cell-shuttling models. While interesting advances in these fields have been made in the last few years, the deformation mechanisms are generally poorly understood

  16. Synergistic degradation of dentin by cyclic stress and buffer agitation. (United States)

    Orrego, Santiago; Romberg, Elaine; Arola, Dwayne


    Secondary caries and non-carious lesions develop in regions of stress concentrations and oral fluid movement. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of cyclic stress and fluid movement on material loss and subsurface degradation of dentin within an acidic environment. Rectangular specimens of radicular dentin were prepared from caries-free unrestored 3rd molars. Two groups were subjected to cyclic cantilever loading within a lactic acid solution (pH = 5) to achieve compressive stresses on the inner (pulpal) or outer sides of the specimens. Two additional groups were evaluated in the same solution, one subjected to movement only (no stress) and the second held stagnant (control: no stress or movement). Exterior material loss profiles and subsurface degradation were quantified on the two sides of the specimens. Results showed that under cyclic stress material loss was significantly greater (p ≤ 0.0005) on the pulpal side than on the outer side and significantly greater (p ≤ 0.05) under compression than tension. However, movement only caused significantly greater material loss (p ≤ 0.0005) than cyclic stress. Subsurface degradation was greatest at the location of highest stress, but was not influenced by stress state or movement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Experimental and theoretical investigations into the stability of cyclic aminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Sawatzky


    Full Text Available Background: Cyclic aminals are core features of natural products, drug molecules and important synthetic intermediates. Despite their relevance, systematic investigations into their stability towards hydrolysis depending on the pH value are lacking.Results: A set of cyclic aminals was synthesized and their stability quantified by kinetic measurements. Steric and electronic effects were investigated by choosing appropriate groups. Both molecular mechanics (MM and density functional theory (DFT based studies were applied to support and explain the results obtained. Rapid decomposition is observed in acidic aqueous media for all cyclic aminals which occurs as a reversible reaction. Electronic effects do not seem relevant with regard to stability, but the magnitude of the conformational energy of the ring system and pKa values of the N-3 nitrogen atom.Conclusion: Cyclic aminals are stable compounds when not exposed to acidic media and their stability is mainly dependent on the conformational energy of the ring system. Therefore, for the preparation and work-up of these valuable synthetic intermediates and natural products, appropriate conditions have to be chosen and for application as drug molecules their sensitivity towards hydrolysis has to be taken into account.

  18. Monopod bucket foundations under cyclic lateral loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    on bucket foundations under lateral cyclic loading. The test setup is described in detail and a comprehensive experimental campaign is presented. The foundation is subjected to cyclic overturning moment, cyclic horizontal loading and constant vertical loading, acting on the same plane for thousands...

  19. Structural Diversity and Biological Activities of Cyclic Depsipeptides from Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohan Wang


    Full Text Available Cyclic depsipeptides (CDPs are cyclopeptides in which amide groups are replaced by corresponding lactone bonds due to the presence of a hydroxylated carboxylic acid in the peptide structure. These peptides sometimes display additional chemical modifications, including unusual amino acid residues in their structures. This review highlights the occurrence, structures and biological activities of the fungal CDPs reported until October 2017. About 352 fungal CDPs belonging to the groups of cyclic tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexa-, hepta-, octa-, nona-, deca-, and tridecadepsipeptides have been isolated from fungi. These metabolites are mainly reported from the genera Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Beauveria, Fusarium, Isaria, Metarhizium, Penicillium, and Rosellina. They are known to exhibit various biological activities such as cytotoxic, phytotoxic, antimicrobial, antiviral, anthelmintic, insecticidal, antimalarial, antitumoral and enzyme-inhibitory activities. Some CDPs (i.e., PF1022A, enniatins and destruxins have been applied as pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals.

  20. Identification of cyclic nucleotide gated channels using regular expressions

    KAUST Repository

    Zelman, Alice K.


    Cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGCs) are nonselective cation channels found in plants, animals, and some bacteria. They have a six-transmembrane/one- pore structure, a cytosolic cyclic nucleotide-binding domain, and a cytosolic calmodulin-binding domain. Despite their functional similarities, the plant CNGC family members appear to have different conserved amino acid motifs within corresponding functional domains than animal and bacterial CNGCs do. Here we describe the development and application of methods employing plant CNGC-specific sequence motifs as diagnostic tools to identify novel candidate channels in different plants. These methods are used to evaluate the validity of annotations of putative orthologs of CNGCs from plant genomes. The methods detail how to employ regular expressions of conserved amino acids in functional domains of annotated CNGCs and together with Web tools such as PHI-BLAST and ScanProsite to identify novel candidate CNGCs in species including Physcomitrella patens. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.

  1. Cyclic homology and group actions (United States)

    Ponge, Raphaël


    In this paper we present the construction of explicit quasi-isomorphisms that compute the cyclic homology and periodic cyclic homology of crossed-product algebras associated with (discrete) group actions. In the first part we deal with algebraic crossed-products associated with group actions on unital algebras over any ring k ⊃ Q. In the second part, we extend the results to actions on locally convex algebras. We then deal with crossed-products associated with group actions on manifolds and smooth varieties. For the finite order components, the results are expressed in terms of what we call "mixed equivariant cohomology". This "mixed" theory mediates between group homology and de Rham cohomology. It is naturally related to equivariant cohomology, and so we obtain explicit constructions of cyclic cycles out of equivariant characteristic classes. For the infinite order components, we simplify and correct the misidentification of Crainic (1999). An important new homological tool is the notion of "triangular S-module". This is a natural generalization of the cylindrical complexes of Getzler-Jones. It combines the mixed complexes of Burghelea-Kassel and parachain complexes of Getzler-Jones with the S-modules of Kassel-Jones. There are spectral sequences naturally associated with triangular S-modules. In particular, this allows us to recover spectral sequences of Feigin-Tsygan and Getzler-Jones and leads us to a new spectral sequence.

  2. Urban Mining and Electrochemistry: Cyclic  Voltammetry Study of Acidic Solutions from  Electronic Wastes (Printed Circuit Boards for  Recovery of Cu, Zn, and Ni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Isabel Reyes‐Valderrama


    Full Text Available We report potentiodynamic studies to characterize copper, nickel and zinc leaching solutions from electronic waste. The metals were leached using oxygen and sulfuric acid (pH = 1.5. As is known, reduction potentials are determined using thermodynamics laws, and metal recovery strategies from electronic waste are usually considered according these thermodynamic values. Pourbaix‐type diagrams are not appropriate to plan strategies in electrochemical processing. Therefore, knowledge of electrode potentials for the metal deposit/dissolution process is the basis for the selective recovery planning. For this reason, potentiodynamic studies, specifically cyclic voltammetry, are revealed as a good way to decide the best conditions for the process of electrochemical recovery of metals from electronic waste, which is also cost‐efficient and has no interference from strange ions, such as lead, in this case.

  3. Cyclic voltammetry of dental amalgams. (United States)

    Horasawa, N; Nakajima, H; Ferracane, J L; Takahashi, S; Okabe, T


    This study used cyclic voltammetry to examine the effect of the composition of dental amalgams on their electrochemical behavior, including reactions occurring outside of oral conditions. Amalgams (residual mercury 47.5%) were prepared using two low-copper (3 wt% Cu) powders and five high-copper powders (40-80 wt% Ag, 12-30 wt% Cu) with and without zinc (1.5 wt%). Cyclic voltammograms were obtained at 37 degrees C in 1.0% NaCl scanning at 2 mV/s in the potential range from -1.5 V to +0.8 V vs. Ag/AgCl. During the anodic scans, AgCl and Hg2Cl2 films were formed on all amalgams except the one with only 40 wt% Ag. In all high-copper amalgams, a prominent Cu (oxidation) peak was found at -0.1 V, indicating the release of copper during corrosion. Zinc affected the oxidation process for both low- and high-copper amalgams. When zinc was absent, a peak for Sn2+ oxidation appeared at -0.4 V. When zinc was present, a Sn4+ oxidation peak was revealed at -0.6 V. In some amalgams, there was evidence of the selective corrosion (pitting corrosion) of tin and copper. In the lowest silver-content amalgam, no protective films were formed, which is indicative of its poor corrosion resistance. As expected, in all the low-copper amalgams, an extreme increase in current density was recorded immediately at 0 V, due to the release of tin from gamma 2. Cyclic voltammetry is useful for the rapid examination (less than an hour) of the electrochemical behavior of amalgams, specifically to obtain information on the formation of compounds and the sequences of electrochemical reactions.

  4. On numerically pluricanonical cyclic coverings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikov, V S; Kharlamov, V M


    We investigate some properties of cyclic coverings f:Y→X (where X is a complex surface of general type) branched along smooth curves B⊂X that are numerically equivalent to a multiple of the canonical class of X. Our main results concern coverings of surfaces of general type with p g =0 and Miyaoka-Yau surfaces. In particular, such coverings provide new examples of multi-component moduli spaces of surfaces with given Chern numbers and new examples of surfaces that are not deformation equivalent to their complex conjugates

  5. On charge-3 cyclic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braden, H W; D'Avanzo, Antonella; Enolski, V Z


    We determine the spectral curve of charge-3 BPS su(2) monopoles with C 3 cyclic symmetry. The symmetry means that the genus 4 spectral curve covers a (Toda) spectral curve of genus 2. A well adapted homology basis is presented enabling the theta functions and monopole data of the genus 4 curve to be given in terms of genus 2 data. The Richelot correspondence, a generalization of the arithmetic mean, is used to solve for this genus 2 curve. Results of other approaches are compared

  6. A system for cyclical voltametry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R.P. da; Chierice, G.O.


    The constrution of a system composed by two instruments, voltametric circuit and potenciostate is depicted. Both instruments junction joined so that the voltametric circuit works as a triangular pulse generator, capable of operating with independent ascendant and descendant slope change, with unique pulse of continuous regime. The circuit of the potenciostate is composed of an amplifier with high entrance impedance and capable of supplying relatively high currents at the exit. The equipment was tested to study the aqueous Pb 2+ system in mercury electrode. this system depicted for the cyclical-voltometry technique set in use at I.E.A., Sao Paulo (Brazil), has very good linearity

  7. Cyclic AMP in rat pancreatic islets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grill, V.; Borglund, E.; Cerasi, E.; Uppsala Univ.


    The incorporation of [ 3 H]adenine into cyclic AMP was studied in rat pancreatic islets under varying conditions of labeling. Prolonging the exposure to [ 3 H]adenine progressively augmented the islet cyclic [ 3 H]AMP level. Islets labeled for different periods of time and subsequently incubated (without adenine) in the presence of D-glucose or cholera toxin showed stimulations of intra-islet cyclic [ 3 H]AMP that were proportionate to the levels of radioactive nucleotide present under non-stimulatory conditions. Labeling the islets in a high glucose concentration (27.7 mM) did not modify the nucleotide responses to glucose or cholera toxin. The specific activity of cyclic [ 3 H]AMP, determined by simultaneous assay of cyclic [ 3 H]AMP and total cyclic AMP, was not influenced by glucose or cholera toxin. Glucose had no effect on the specific activity of labeled ATP

  8. The Cyclical Characteristics of Universal Social Insurance


    Richard Hemming


    This paper examines how a universal social insurance program proposed for Mexico can respond to cyclical variations in revenue while remaining selffinancing. More specifically, it discusses the issues involved in setting up a stabilization fund that can accumulate surpluses when revenue is cyclically high, which can be drawn down when revenue is cyclically low. Attention is also paid to the options available to create a fund with sufficient resources to respond to revenue shocks early it its ...

  9. Cyclic plasticity and fatigue of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mughrabi, H.


    This report is a survey of the cyclic deformation and fatigue behaviour of selected engineering steels and alloys. Emphasis is placed on the important roles of the cyclic slip mode and the stability of the microstructure during cyclic stressing and on the conditions of fatigue testing with respect to the failure mechanisms and fatigue life. The examples presented include low-temperature fatigue, high-temperature fatigue in the presence of dynamic strain ageing and thermomechanical fatigue. (orig.)

  10. Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Sorokman


    Full Text Available Introduction. Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS — is a fairly common disease of unknown etiology that affects children of all age groups and sometimes adult population and refers to the functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of the usage of Rehydron Optim for oral rehydration therapy in children. Materials and methods. The treatment of 40 children aged 3 to 11 years with CVS (15 persons and primary acetonemic syndrome (25 persons in the period of acetonemic crisis, including 15 boys and 25 girls, was analyzed. All children were observed in the outpatient department of the Regional children’s hospital of Chernivtsi. Diagnosis was established based on anamnesis, clinical and laboratory data. Patients underwent required clinico-biological tests and instrumental examinations. The dynamics of the following syndromes was investigated: pain, vomiting, dehydration and intoxication. Rehydration therapy in all cases was oral with the usage of Rehydron Optim. Results of the study and their discussion. A cyclical vomiting was observed in children with primary acetonemic syndrome with satisfactory condition in attack-free period. Migraine-like headaches prevailed in 36 patients (80 %, and the age of these patients was older than 7 years. Same children had episodes of paroxysmal autonomic failure. Almost all surveyed children had in their family history the risk factors for CVS development. All children had positive dynamics of the main basic clinical manifestations on the background of oral rehydration therapy using Rehydron Optim. Within the 1st day of oral rehydration therapy with Rehydron Optim in children, we have noted a significant decrease in the incidence of lethargy, vomiting, spastic abdominal pain, smell of acetone in the exhaled air (p < 0.05. In children with the I degree of dehydration, clinical signs of dehydration were not seen before the treatment, and children with the II degree had an

  11. Modeling Cyclic Variation of Intracranial Pressure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daley, M


    ...) recording during mechanical ventilation are due to cyclic extravascular compressional modulation primarily of the cerebral venous bed, an established isovolumetric model of cerebrospinal fluid...

  12. Behaviour of Cohesionless Soils During Cyclic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shajarati, Amir; Sørensen, Kris Wessel; Nielsen, Søren Kjær

    Offshore wind turbine foundations are typically subjected to cyclic loading from both wind and waves, which can lead to unacceptable deformations in the soil. However, no generally accepted standardised method is currently available, when accounting for cyclic loading during the design of offshore...... wind turbine foundations. Therefore a literature study is performed in order to investigate existing research treating the behaviour of cohesionless soils, when subjected to cyclic loading. The behaviour of a soil subjected to cyclic loading is found to be dependent on; the relative density, mean...

  13. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of cyclic imide hydrolase (CIH) from Pseudomonas putida YZ-26


    Fan, Zheng; Qi, Jianxun; Shi, Yawei; Liu, Yiwei


    A recombinant cyclic imide hydrolase from P. putida YZ-26 has been crystallized by the hanging-drop method. This will be helpful in understanding the role of CIH in pyrimidine metabolism and organic acid bioconversion.

  14. Investigating cyclic nucleotide and cyclic dinucleotide binding to HCN channels by surface plasmon resonance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Hayoz

    Full Text Available Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-modulated (HCN channels control cardiac and neuronal rhythmicity. HCN channels contain cyclic nucleotide-binding domain (CNBD in their C-terminal region linked to the pore-forming transmembrane segment with a C-linker. The C-linker couples the conformational changes caused by the direct binding of cyclic nucleotides to the HCN pore opening. Recently, cyclic dinucleotides were shown to antagonize the effect of cyclic nucleotides in HCN4 but not in HCN2 channels. Based on the structural analysis and mutational studies it has been proposed that cyclic dinucleotides affect HCN4 channels by binding to the C-linker pocket (CLP. Here, we first show that surface plasmon resonance (SPR can be used to accurately measure cyclic nucleotide binding affinity to the C-linker/CNBD of HCN2 and HCN4 channels. We then used SPR to investigate cyclic dinucleotide binding in HCN channels. To our surprise, we detected no binding of cyclic dinucleotides to the isolated monomeric C-linker/CNBDs of HCN4 channels with SPR. The binding of cyclic dinucleotides was further examined with isothermal calorimetry (ITC, which indicated no binding of cyclic dinucleotides to both monomeric and tetrameric C-linker/CNBDs of HCN4 channels. Taken together, our results suggest that interaction of the C-linker/CNBD with other parts of the channel is necessary for cyclic-dinucleotide binding in HCN4 channels.

  15. Cyclic nucleotide content of tobacco BY-2 cells. (United States)

    Richards, Helen; Das, Swadipa; Smith, Christopher J; Pereira, Louisa; Geisbrecht, Alan; Devitt, Nicola J; Games, David E; van Geyschem, Jan; Gareth Brenton, A; Newton, Russell P


    The cyclic nucleotide content of cultured tobacco bright yellow-2 (BY-2) cells was determined, after freeze-killing, perchlorate extraction and sequential chromatography, by radioimmunoassay. The identities of the putative cyclic nucleotides, adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP), guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP) and cytidine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic CMP) were unambiguously confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry. The potential of BY-2 cell cultures as a model system for future investigations of cyclic nucleotide function in higher plants is discussed.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    :-at are split extensions of certain abelian p-groups by a metabelian pi-group, to satisfy the cyclic a1 subnormal separation condition. There is also a result which shows that A-groups with elementary abelian Sylow subgroups are. :icl~cally separated. KEYWORD: A-groups, Cyclical~Subnormal Separation, CS,-groups.

  17. Interactions of Cyclic Hydrocarbons with Biological Membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Many cyclic hydrocarbons, e.g. aromatics, cycloalkanes, and terpenes, are toxic to microorganisms. The primary site of the toxic action is probably the cytoplasmic membrane, but the mechanism of the toxicity is still poorly understood. The effects of cyclic hydrocarbons were studied in liposomes

  18. Fractional behaviour at cyclic stretch-bending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmens, W.C.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Kazantzis, A.V.; de Hosson, J.Th.M.; Kolleck, R


    The fractional behaviour at cyclic stretch-bending has been studied by performing tensile tests at long specimens that are cyclically bent at the same time, on mild steel, dual-phase steel, stainless steel, aluminium and brass. Several types of fracture are observed, these are discussed, as are the

  19. Synthesis of cyclic alpha-MSH peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaaper, W.M.M.; Adan, R.A.H.; Posthuma, T.A.; Oosterom, J.; Gispen, W.H.; Meloen, R.H.


    Cyclic lactam analogs of α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) have been shown to be potent agonists in the frog skin bioassay [Al-Obeidi, F. et al., J. Med. Chem., 32 (1989) 2555], demonstrating melanocortin-1 (MC1) receptor activity. We synthesized cyclic α-MSH(1-13) and α-MSH(4-10) lactam

  20. Synthesis of cyclic α-MSH peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Schaaper, W.M.M..; Adan, R.A.H.; Posthuma, T.A.; Oosterom, J.; Meloen, R.H.


    Cyclic lactam analogs of -melanocyte stimulating hormone (-MSH) have been shown to be potent agonists in the frog skin bioassay [Al-Obeidi, F. et al., J. Med. Chem., 32 (1989) 2555], demonstrating melanocortin-1 (MC1) receptor activity. We synthesized cyclic -MSH(1-13) and -MSH(4-10) lactam analogs.

  1. Cyclic completion of the anamorphic universe (United States)

    Ijjas, Anna


    Cyclic models of the universe have the advantage of avoiding initial conditions problems related to postulating any sort of beginning in time. To date, the best known viable examples of cyclic models have been ekpyrotic. In this paper, we show that the recently proposed anamorphic scenario can also be made cyclic. The key to the cyclic completion is a classically stable, non-singular bounce. Remarkably, even though the bounce construction was originally developed to connect a period of contraction with a period of expansion both described by Einstein gravity, we show here that it can naturally be modified to connect an ordinary contracting phase described by Einstein gravity with a phase of anamorphic smoothing. The paper will present the basic principles and steps in constructing cyclic anamorphic models.

  2. Well-Defined Cyclic Triblock Terpolymers: A Missing Piece of the Morphology Puzzle

    KAUST Repository

    Polymeropoulos, George


    Two well-defined cyclic triblock terpolymers, missing pieces of the terpolymer morphology puzzle, consisting of poly(isoprene), polystyrene, and poly(2-vinylpyridine), were synthesized by combining the Glaser coupling reaction with anionic polymerization. An α,ω-dihydroxy linear triblock terpolymer (OH-PI1,4-b-PS-b-P2VP-OH) was first synthesized followed by transformation of the OH to alkyne groups by esterification with pentynoic acid and cyclization by Glaser coupling. The size exclusion chromatography (SEC) trace of the linear terpolymer precursor was shifted to lower elution time after cyclization, indicating the successful synthesis of the cyclic terpolymer. Additionally, the SEC trace of the cyclic terpolymer produced, after cleavage of the ester groups, shifted again practically to the position corresponding to the linear precursor. The first exploratory results on morphology showed the tremendous influence of the cyclic structure on the morphology of terpolymers. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  3. Class of cyclic ribosomal peptide synthetic genes in filamentous fungi. (United States)

    Nagano, Nozomi; Umemura, Myco; Izumikawa, Miho; Kawano, Jin; Ishii, Tomoko; Kikuchi, Moto; Tomii, Kentaro; Kumagai, Toshitaka; Yoshimi, Akira; Machida, Masayuki; Abe, Keietsu; Shin-Ya, Kazuo; Asai, Kiyoshi


    Ustiloxins were found recently to be the first example of cyclic peptidyl secondary metabolites that are ribosomally synthesized in filamentous fungi. In this work, two function-unknown genes (ustYa/ustYb) in the gene cluster for ustiloxins from Aspergillus flavus were found experimentally to be involved in cyclization of the peptide. Their homologous genes are observed mainly in filamentous fungi and mushrooms. They have two "HXXHC" motifs that might form active sites. Computational genome analyses showed that these genes are frequently located near candidate genes for ribosomal peptide precursors, which have signal peptides at the N-termini and repeated sequences with core peptides for the cyclic portions, in the genomes of filamentous fungi, particularly Aspergilli, as observed in the ustiloxin gene cluster. Based on the combination of the ustYa/ustYb homologous genes and the nearby ribosomal peptide precursor candidate genes, 94 ribosomal peptide precursor candidates that were identified computationally from Aspergilli genome sequences were classified into more than 40 types including a wide variety of core peptide sequences. A set of the predicted ribosomal peptide biosynthetic genes was experimentally verified to synthesize a new cyclic peptide compound, designated as asperipin-2a, which comprises the amino acid sequence in the corresponding precursor gene, distinct from the ustiloxin precursors. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. In Folio Respiratory Fluxomics Revealed by {sup 13}C Isotopic Labeling and H/D Isotope Effects Highlight the Non-cyclic Nature of the Tricarboxylic Acid 'Cycle' in Illuminated Leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tcherkez, G.; Mahe, A.; Gauthier, P.; Hodges, M. [Institut de Biotechnologie des Plantes, Plateforme Metabolisme-Metabolome IFR87, Batiment 630, Universite Paris-Sud 11, 91405 Orsay cedex (France); Tcherkez, G.; Mauve, C.; Cornic, G. [Laboratoire d' Ecophysiologie Vegetale, Ecologie Systematique Evolution (G.C.), Batiment 630, Universite Paris-Sud 11, 91405 Orsay cedex (France); Gout, E.; Bligny, R. [Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire Vegetale, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique-Grenoble, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)


    While the possible importance of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle reactions for leaf photosynthesis operation has been recognized, many uncertainties remain on whether TCA cycle biochemistry is similar in the light compared with the dark. It is widely accepted that leaf day respiration and the metabolic commitment to TCA decarboxylation are down-regulated in illuminated leaves. However, the metabolic basis (i.e. the limiting steps involved in such a down-regulation) is not well known. Here, we investigated the in vivo metabolic fluxes of individual reactions of the TCA cycle by developing two isotopic methods, {sup 13}C tracing and fluxomics and the use of H/D isotope effects, with Xanthium strumarium leaves. We provide evidence that the TCA 'cycle' does not work in the forward direction like a proper cycle but, rather, operates in both the reverse and forward directions to produce fumarate and glutamate, respectively. Such a functional division of the cycle plausibly reflects the compromise between two contrasted forces: (1) the feedback inhibition by NADH and ATP on TCA enzymes in the light, and (2) the need to provide pH-buffering organic acids and carbon skeletons for nitrate absorption and assimilation. (authors)

  5. Undrained Cyclic Behaviour of Dense Frederikshavn Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Kjær; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Sørensen, Kris Wessel


    of undrained cyclic triaxial tests, which have been performed at the Geotechnical Laboratory at Aalborg University. In order to ensure offshore conditions, the tests were fully saturated and performed with a relative density of 80 %. During cyclic loading, special attention was given to the development of pore......A modified contour diagram is created for the Frederikshavn Sand in the undrained case for a relative density of ID = 80 %. It can be used to estimate the number of cycles to failure for a given combination of pore pressure, average and cyclic load ratio. The diagram is based on a series...

  6. Driving Force Based Design of Cyclic Distillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Fjordbak; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Abildskov, Jens


    Driving force based design is adopted from conventional continuous distillation to cyclic distillation. This leads to a definition of the operating line representation for the cyclic distillation process. A possible realization of the driving force design is presented, which implies operation...... with mixed phase feeds. A range of binary test cases, benzene toluene, methanol water, and ethanol water, are evaluated. The advantage of the design approach in cyclic distillation is shown to be analogous to the advantages obtained in conventional continuous distillation, including a minimal utility...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: cyclic vomiting syndrome (United States)

    ... infections. Other triggers can include periods without eating (fasting), temperature extremes, lack of sleep, overexertion, allergies, ingesting ... include changes in brain function, hormonal abnormalities, and gastrointestinal problems. Many researchers believe that cyclic vomiting syndrome ...

  8. Cyclic hardening in bundled actin networks. (United States)

    Schmoller, K M; Fernández, P; Arevalo, R C; Blair, D L; Bausch, A R


    Nonlinear deformations can irreversibly alter the mechanical properties of materials. Most soft materials, such as rubber and living tissues, display pronounced softening when cyclically deformed. Here we show that, in contrast, reconstituted networks of crosslinked, bundled actin filaments harden when subject to cyclical shear. As a consequence, they exhibit a mechano-memory where a significant stress barrier is generated at the maximum of the cyclic shear strain. This unique response is crucially determined by the network architecture: at lower crosslinker concentrations networks do not harden, but soften showing the classic Mullins effect known from rubber-like materials. By simultaneously performing macrorheology and confocal microscopy, we show that cyclic shearing results in structural reorganization of the network constituents such that the maximum applied strain is encoded into the network architecture.

  9. Anodic selective functionalization of cyclic amine derivatives


    Onomura, Osamu


    Anodic reactions are desirable methods from the viewpoint of Green Chemistry, since no toxic oxidants are necessary for the oxidation of organic molecules. This review introduces usefulness of anodic oxidation and successive reaction for selective functionalization of cyclic amine derivatives.

  10. Cyclic voltammetry and reduction mechanistic studies of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    styrylpyrylium perchlorates have been evaluated using cyclic voltammetry, in comparison to their non-methylated derivatives values. The reduction peak of all studied compounds remained chemically irreversible. The presence of the ...

  11. Mortar constituent of concrete under cyclic compression (United States)

    Maher, A.; Darwin, D.


    The behavior of the mortar constituent of concrete under cyclic compression was studied and a simple analytic model was developed to represent its cyclic behavior. Experimental work consisted of monotonic and cyclic compressive loading of mortar. Two mixes were used, with proportions corresponding to concretes having water cement ratios of 0.5 and 0.6. Forty-four groups of specimens were tested at ages ranging from 5 to 70 days. complete monotonic and cyclic stress strain envelopes were obtained. A number of loading regimes were investigated, including cycles to a constant maximum strain. Major emphasis was placed on tests using relatively high stress cycles. Degradation was shown to be a continuous process and a function of both total strain and load history. No stability or fatigue limit was apparent.

  12. cyclic -perimeter hydrocarbon ruthenium complexes bearing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    - cyclic -perimeter hydrocarbon ruthenium complexes bearing functionalized pyridyl diketones: Isolation of complexes with 2-N∩O and 4-N∩O bonding modes of ligands. Saphidabha L Nongbri Babulal Das Mohan Rao Kollipara.

  13. 3' : 5'-Cyclic AMP-dependent 3'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mato, José M.; Krens, Frans A.; Haastert, Peter J.M. van; Konijn, Theo M.


    Suspensions of 3':5'-cyclic AMP (cAMP)-sensitive cells of Dictyostelium discoideum responded to a cAMP pulse with increased 3':5'-cyclic GMP (cGMP) levels. Under the assay conditions used (2 × 10^8 cells per ml in 10 mM phosphate buffer, pH 6.0) cAMP (5 × 10-8 M final concentration) increased cGMP

  14. Empty Container Management in Cyclic Shipping Routes


    Dong-Ping Song; Jing-Xin Dong


    This paper considers the empty container management problem in a cyclic shipping route. The objective is to seek the optimal empty container repositioning policy in a dynamic and stochastic situation by minimising the expected total costs consisting of inventory holding costs, demand lost-sale costs, lifting-on and lifting-off charges, and container transportation costs. A three-phase threshold control policy is developed to reposition empty containers in cyclic routes. The threshold values a...

  15. Synthesis of inositol 1,2-(cyclic)-4,5-trisphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auchus, R.J.; Kaiser, S.L.; Majerus, P.W.


    We have developed a method for synthesis of inositol 1,2-(cyclic)-4,5-trisphosphate from inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate using a water-soluble carbodiimide. We obtained 1-1.5 mumol of the inositol cyclic trisphosphate starting with 5 mumol of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. The cyclized product was isolated by HPLC on Partisil SAX. The identity of the cyclic product was verified by its hydrolysis to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in acid and by its conversion to 1,2-(cyclic)-4-bisphosphate by a specific 5-phosphomonoesterase from platelets. We also identified the product by 31 P NMR spectroscopy, which showed a peak at 17.2 ppm, characteristic of a five-membered cyclic phosphodiester ring, and peaks at 4.1 ppm and 0.8 ppm, indicative of phosphomonoesters. This relatively simple method for producing inositol 1,2-(cyclic)-4,5-trisphosphate will facilitate studies of the physiology of this compound in signal transduction

  16. Consecutive exotropia following surgically corrected cyclic esotropia. (United States)

    Post, Joel; Eidsness, Ryan B; Romanchuk, Kenneth G


    Cyclic esotropia is a rare form of strabismus consisting of regular intervals of esotropia alternating with periods of orthophoria in a rhythmic/cyclic manner. In the vast majority of cases, surgery appears to permanently correct the esotropia, with no sequelae after years of follow-up. We report a case of consecutive exotropia in a patient five years after bilateral medial rectus recessions for cyclic esotropia. A case report involving review of a clinical chart. A two-year-old male presented with right esotropia and mild amblyopia. He was treated with patching and following resolution of the amblyopia he developed a cyclic esotropia. Surgical correction was performed for the full amount measured on a "manifest" day. Following the surgery, he was orthophoric and demonstrated binocular vision. He remained stable for five years, and then returned with occasional diplopia and an intermittent exotropia. Cyclic esotropia is a rare disorder of ocular motility that spontaneously appears and disappears at regular intervals. After surgical correction, the deviation disappears and recurrence of esotropia is very infrequent. We present the first reported case of consecutive exotropia following surgical correction of a cyclic esotropia.

  17. Lower omega-3 fatty acids are associated with the presence of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide autoantibodies in a population at risk for future rheumatoid arthritis: a nested case-control study (United States)

    Gan, Ryan W.; Young, Kendra A.; Zerbe, Gary O.; Demoruelle, M. Kristen; Weisman, Michael H.; Buckner, Jane H.; Gregersen, Peter K.; Mikuls, Ted R.; O’Dell, James R.; Keating, Richard M.; Clare-Salzler, Michael J.; Deane, Kevin D.; Holers, V. Michael


    Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate omega-3 fatty acid (FA) supplement use and omega-3 FAs in erythrocyte membranes [omega-3 FA % in erythrocyte membranes (RBC)] and their association with anti-CCP autoantibodies in a population without RA, but who are at genetic risk for RA. Methods. The multicentre Studies of the Etiology of RA (SERA) cohort includes RA-free subjects who are first-degree relatives of RA probands or are enriched with the HLA-DR4 allele. In a nested case-control study, 30 SERA cases were identified who were anti-CCP2 antibody positive. We further identified 47 autoantibody negative controls, frequency matched to cases on age at study visit, sex, race and study site. Anti-CCP2 status, self-reported omega-3 FA supplement use and omega-3 FA % in RBCs were obtained from a single visit. Results. Anti-CCP2 positive cases were less likely than controls to report omega-3 FA supplement use (odds ratio: 0.14; 95% CI 0.03, 0.68). In addition, the likelihood of anti-CCP2 positivity was inversely associated with total omega-3 FA % in RBCs (odds ratio: 0.47; 95% CI 0.24, 0.92, for a s.d. increase). Conclusion. The inverse association between anti-CCP2 positivity and self-reported omega-3 FA supplement use and omega-3 FA % in RBCs suggests that omega-3 FAs may protect against the development of RA-related autoimmunity in pre-clinical RA. PMID:26370400

  18. Actinic-radiation curable polymers prepared from a reactive polymer, halogenated cyclic anhydride and glycidyl ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastor, S.D.


    A novel class of photosensitive polymers are disclosed which are prepared by the reaction, preferably in the presence of a catalyst, of a reactive polymer, a halogenated cyclic anhydride and glycidyl ester of an alpha, beta-unsaturated carboxylic acid. These polymers are capable of undergoing vinyl-type polymerization when exposed to actinic radiation

  19. The Redox Chemistry of Ruthenium Dioxide: A Cyclic Voltammetry Study—Review and Revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Chalupczok


    Full Text Available By cyclic voltammetry at high scan rates, the electrochemical properties of RuO2 in acidic and alkaline solutions were investigated in detail. Thirteen current peaks can be distinguished in sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide. With respect to the pH sensitivity of RuO2 electrodes, we considered charge calculations, peak currents, and apparent diffusion coefficients. The nature of the Ru(II oxidation was clarified by Ru(I−Ru(III species.

  20. Thermodynamic stabilities of linear and crinkled tapes and cyclic rosettes in melamine-cyanurate assemblies: a model description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bielejewska, A.G.; Marjo, Christopher E.; Prins, L.J.; Timmerman, P.; de Jong, Feike; Reinhoudt, David


    In this paper we describe model calculations for the self-assembly of N,N-disubstituted melamines 1 and N-substituted cyanuric acid or 5,5-disubstituted barbituric acid derivatives 2 into linear or crinkled tapes and cyclic rosettes via cooperative hydrogen bond formation. The model description

  1. On the equivalence of cyclic and quasi-cyclic codes over finite fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenza Guenda


    Full Text Available This paper studies the equivalence problem for cyclic codes of length $p^r$ and quasi-cyclic codes of length $p^rl$. In particular, we generalize the results of Huffman, Job, and Pless (J. Combin. Theory. A, 62, 183--215, 1993, who considered the special case $p^2$. This is achieved by explicitly giving the permutations by which two cyclic codes of prime power length are equivalent. This allows us to obtain an algorithm which solves the problem of equivalency for cyclic codes of length $p^r$ in polynomial time. Further, we characterize the set by which two quasi-cyclic codes of length $p^rl$ can be equivalent, and prove that the affine group is one of its subsets.

  2. Chain dimension of cyclic polymers in solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, Yutaka [Department of Applied Chemistry, Nagoya University Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Masuoka, Keisuke [Department of Applied Chemistry, Nagoya University Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Takano, Atsushi [Department of Applied Chemistry, Nagoya University Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Matsushita, Yushu [Department of Applied Chemistry, Nagoya University Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)]. E-mail:


    Telechelic polystyrenes (PSs) were synthesized and cyclized by end-to-end ring closure reaction under extremely diluted condition. Cyclic PSs were isolated from coupling products by GPC fractionation and precipitational fractionation, and 4 cyclic polymers, whose molecular weights M{sub w} are covering the range 20k=cyclic polymers have high purity (over 95%) by HPLC. Their radii of gyration R{sub g} were determined in benzene-d{sub 6} (good solvent) and cyclohexane-d{sub 12} (theta solvent) by small-angle neutron scattering and light scattering. It was found that R{sub g} of cyclic polymer can be scaled with M{sub w} as R{sub g}{proportional_to}M{sub w}{sup 0.6} in benzene-d{sub 6} and as R{sub g}{proportional_to}M{sub w}{sup 0.5} in cyclohexane-d{sub 12}, both exponents being the same as for linear counterparts. However, experimentally determined contraction ratio, R{sub g(cyclic)}/R{sub g(linear)}, is smaller than the theoretical predictions.

  3. Further studies on cyclic erythropoiesis in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, C.M.; Gurney, C.W.; Simmons, E.L.; Gaston, E.O.


    When young adult female W/Wv mice are given 0.5 micro+Ci 89 Sr/g body weight intravenously, their hematocrit values oscillate from nadirs of 26% to zeniths of 42% with a periodicity of 16 days. The response of the W/Wv mouse to an assortment of radioactive and hematologic stresses have been examined in an effort to understand better the pathophysiology of cyclic erythropoiesis. When the dose of 89 Sr is increased, the amplitude of cycling increases as nadirs are lowered, but periodicity is unchanged. When the dose of 89 Sr is lowered to 0.3 microCi or less, cyclic erythropoiesis of substantial amplitude is observed only after five or six microoscillations. A single hematopoietic insult of 80 rad x-irradiation coupled with phlebotomy produces a transient form of cyclic erythropoiesis, namely, a series of dampened oscillations prior to recovery. Finally, we report that Wv/Wv mice exhibit a form of cyclic erythropoiesis in response to 0.5 microCi 89 Sr/g body weight, in which the hematocrit values of successive nadirs gradually increase, and stabilize at about 100 days. 89 Sr does not induce cyclic erythropoiesis in the +/+, W/+, or W/v/+ mice, the Hertwig strain of anemic mice, or in normal BDF1 mice

  4. Cyclic Bis-porphyrin-Based Flexible Molecular Containers: Controlling Guest Arrangements and Supramolecular Catalysis by Tuning Cavity Size. (United States)

    Mondal, Pritam; Sarkar, Sabyasachi; Rath, Sankar Prasad


    Three cyclic zinc(II) bis-porphyrins (CB) with highly flexible linkers are employed as artificial molecular containers that efficiently encapsulate/coordinate various aromatic aldehydes within their cavities. Interestingly, the arrangements of guests and their reactivity inside the molecular clefts are significantly influenced by the cavity size of the cyclic containers. In the presence of polycyclic aromatic aldehydes, such as 3-formylperylene, as a guest, the cyclic bis-porphyrin host with a smaller cavity (CB1) forms a 1:1 sandwich complex. Upon slightly increasing the spacer length and thereby the cavity size, the cyclic host (CB2) encapsulates two molecules of 3-formylperylene that are also stacked together due to strong π-π interactions between them and CH-π interactions with the porphyrin rings. However, in the cyclic host (CB3) with an even larger cavity, two metal centers of the bis-porphyrin axially coordinate two molecules of 3-formylperylene within its cavity. Different arrangements of guest inside the cyclic bis-porphyrin hosts are investigated by using UV/Vis, ESI-MS, and 1 H NMR spectroscopy, along with X-ray structure determination of the host-guest complexes. Moreover, strong binding of guests within the cyclic bis-porphyrin hosts support the robust nature of the host-guest assemblies in solution. Such preferential binding of the bis-porphyrinic cavity towards aromatic aldehydes through encapsulation/coordination has been employed successfully to catalyze the Knoevenagel condensation of a series of polycyclic aldehydes with active methylene compounds (such as Meldrum's acid and 1, 3-dimethylbarbituric acid) under ambient conditions. Interestingly, the yields of the condensed products significantly increase upon increasing spacer lengths of the cyclic bis-porphyrins because more substrates can then be encapsulated within the cavity. Such controllable cavity size of the cyclic containers has profound implications for constructing highly

  5. The nature of solar cyclicity. I (United States)

    Romanchuk, P. R.


    The report contains a critical survey of work devoted to the study of the nature of solar cyclicity. The inconsistency of the representation of cyclic curves using a frequency spectrum is indicated. The useful contribution of the ideas of Wolf, Newcomb, and Waldmeier to the solution of the problem is noted. Data are cited in favor of the theory of the tidal nature of solar cyclicity developed by the author, which also takes into account the ideas of the above-mentioned authors: the continuous paired and single tidal actions of the planets and the resonance character of this action, thanks to which the approximately 10-year period of action of Jupiter and Saturn is transformed into the 11-year activity cycle.

  6. HOST liner cyclic facilities: Facility description (United States)

    Schultz, D.


    A quartz lamp box, a quartz lamp annular rig, and a low pressure liner cyclic can rig planned for liner cyclic tests are described. Special test instrumentation includes an IR-TV camera system for measuring liner cold side temperatures, thin film thermocouples for measuring liner hot side temperatures, and laser and high temperature strain gages for obtaining local strain measurements. A plate temperature of 2,000 F was obtained in an initial test of an apparatus with three quartz lamps. Lamp life, however, appeared to be limited for the standard commercial quartz lamps available. The design of vitiated and nonvitiated preheaters required for the quartz lamp annular rig and the cyclic can test rigs is underway.

  7. Cyclic distillation technology - A mini-review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bîldea, Costin Sorin; Pătruţ, Cătălin; Jørgensen, Sten Bay


    Process intensification in distillation systems has received much attention during the pastdecades, with the aim of increasing both energy and separation efficiency. Varioustechniques, such as internal heat-integrated distillation, membrane distillation, rotating packedbed, dividing-wall columns...... and reactive distillation were studied and reported in literature. All these techniques employ the conventional continuous counter-current contact of vapor andliquid phases. Cyclic distillation technology is based on an alternative operating mode usingseparate phase movement which leads to key practical...... advantages in both chemical andbiochemical processes. This article provides a mini-review of cyclic distillation technology.The topics covered include the working principle, design and control methods, main benefitsand limitations as well as current industrial applications. Cyclic distillation can...

  8. Cyclic cellular automata in 3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, Clifford A.


    Highlights: → We explore the self-organization of cyclic cellular automata in 3D. → Von Neumann, Moore and two types of intermediate neighborhoods are investigated. → Random neighborhoods self organize through phases into complex nested structures. → Demons are seen to have many alternatives in 3D. - Abstract: Cyclic cellular automata in two dimensions have long been intriguing because they self organize into spirals and that behavior can be analyzed. The form for the patterns that develop is highly dependent upon the form of the neighborhood. We extend this work to three dimensional cyclic cellular automata and observe self organization dependent upon the neighborhood type. This includes neighborhood types intermediate between Von Neumann and Moore neighborhoods. We also observe that the patterns include nested shells with the appropriate forms but that the nesting is far more complex than the spirals that occur in two dimensions.

  9. Cyclic microplasticity factors of some metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puskar, A. (University of Transport and Telecommunications, Zilina (Czechoslovakia))


    The measurement of the internal friction and the elasticity modulus defect together with a new approximation for evaluating the plastic deformation amplitude from the total deformation amplitude enable the cyclic deformation curves, the changes in hysteresis loop area on increasing the deformation amplitude and many other important characteristics of cyclic microplasticity to be determined during a push-pull type of loading at a frequency of 23kHz on dumb-bell shaped specimens of titanium, molybdenum, niobium and low carbon unalloyed steel.

  10. SICLOPPS cyclic peptide libraries in drug discovery. (United States)

    Tavassoli, Ali


    Cyclic peptide libraries have demonstrated significant potential when employed against challenging targets such as protein-protein interactions. While a variety of methods for library generation exist, genetically encoded libraries hold several advantages over their chemically synthesized counterparts; they are more readily accessible and allow straightforward hit deconvolution. One method for the intracellular generation of such libraries is split-intein circular ligation of peptides and proteins (SICLOPPS). Here we detail and discuss the deployment of SICLOPPS libraries for the identification of cyclic peptide inhibitors of a variety of targets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Towards Optimization of Cyclic Production Systems


    Chauvet, Fabrice; Herrmann, Jeffrey W.; Proth, Jean-Marie


    In this paper, the expression "production systems" refers to flow-shops, job-shops, assembly systems, Kanban systems and, in general, to any Discrete Event System (DES) which transforms raw material and/or components into products and/or components. Such a system is said to be cyclic if it provides indefinitely the same sequence of products. A schedule of a cyclic production system is defined as soon as the starting time of each operation on the related resource is known. It has been showed t...

  12. Breaking antidunes: Cyclic behavior due to hysteresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deigaard, Rolf


    The cyclic behavior of breaking antidunes (growth, breaking of surface wave, obliteration) is investigated by use of a numerical model. The model includes the transition between supercritical and transcritical flow. As the antidune grows the flow becomes transcritical and a hydraulic jump is form...

  13. Cyclic Plastic Deformation and Welding Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Horn, C.H.L.J.


    One of the concerns of a fitness for purpose analysis is the quantification of the relevant material properties. It is known from experiments that the mechanical properties of a material can change due to a monotonic plastic deformation or a cyclic plastic deformation. For a fitness for purpose

  14. Cyclical Variability of Prominences, CMEs and Flares

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    tions of solar activity. For many years, qualitative studies were made about the cyclical behaviour of such phenomena. Nowadays, more quantitative ... phenomenon has been observed in every cycle and is independent of the intensity of the cycle. The characteristic pattern of the polar zone is a "rush to the poles" and the.

  15. Cyclical Variability of Prominences, CMEs and Flares

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 21; Issue 3-4. Cyclical Variability of Prominences, CMEs and Flares. J. L. Ballester. Session V – Vector Magnetic Fields, Prominences, CMEs & Flares Volume 21 Issue 3-4 September-December 2000 pp ...

  16. Steady state oxygen reduction and cyclic voltammetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Karlberg, Gustav; Jaramillo, Thomas


    The catalytic activity of Pt and Pt3Ni for the oxygen reduction reaction is investigated by applying a Sabatier model based on density functional calculations. We investigate the role of adsorbed OH on the activity, by comparing cyclic voltammetry obtained from theory with previously published...

  17. Cyclic Cratonic Carbonates and Phanerozoic Calcite Seas. (United States)

    Wilkinson, Bruce H.


    Discusses causes of cyclicity in cratonic carbonate sequences and evidence for and potential significance of postulated primary calcite sediment components in past Paleozoic seas, outlining problems, focusing on models explaining existing data, and identifying background. Future sedimentary geologists will need to address these and related areas…

  18. Cyclic olefin copolymer-silica nanocomposites foams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pegoretti, A.; Dorigato, A.; Biani, A.; Šlouf, Miroslav


    Roč. 51, č. 8 (2016), s. 3907-3916 ISSN 0022-2461 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : cyclic olefin copolymer * nanocomposites * silica Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.599, year: 2016

  19. Discovery of novel cyclic peptide inhibitors of dengue virus NS2B-NS3 protease with antiviral activity. (United States)

    Takagi, Youhei; Matsui, Kouhei; Nobori, Haruaki; Maeda, Haruka; Sato, Akihiko; Kurosu, Takeshi; Orba, Yasuko; Sawa, Hirofumi; Hattori, Kazunari; Higashino, Kenichi; Numata, Yoshito; Yoshida, Yutaka


    NS2B-NS3 protease is an essential enzyme for the replication of dengue virus (DENV), which continues to be a serious threat to worldwide public health. We designed and synthesized a series of cyclic peptides mimicking the substrates of this enzyme, and assayed their activity against the DENV-2 NS2B-NS3 protease. The introduction of aromatic residues at the appropriate positions and conformational restriction generated the most promising cyclic peptide with an IC 50 of 0.95μM against NS2B-NS3 protease. Cyclic peptides with proper positioning of additional arginines and aromatic residues exhibited antiviral activity against DENV. Furthermore, replacing the C-terminal amide bond of the polybasic amino acid sequence with an amino methylene moiety stabilized the cyclic peptides against hydrolysis by NS2B-NS3 protease, while maintaining their enzyme inhibitory activity and antiviral activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nanoimprint lithography in the cyclic olefin copolymer, Topas, a highly ultraviolet-transparent and chemically resistant thermoplast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T.; Nilsson, D.; Bundgaard, F.


    Thermal nanoimprint lithography (NIL) of the cyclic olefin copolymeric thermoplast Topas® isdemonstrated. Topas® is highly UV-transparent, has low water absorption, and is chemically resistant to hydrolysis, acids and organic polar solvents which makes it suitable for lab-on-a-chipapplications. I......Thermal nanoimprint lithography (NIL) of the cyclic olefin copolymeric thermoplast Topas® isdemonstrated. Topas® is highly UV-transparent, has low water absorption, and is chemically resistant to hydrolysis, acids and organic polar solvents which makes it suitable for lab...

  1. Effects of hypokinesia on cyclic nucleotides and hormonal regulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PTH), calcitonin (CT), cyclic nucleotides (cAMP, cGMP) and calcium in the blood of rats, while in urine - phosphate, calcium and cyclic nucleotides. Design: Laboratory based experiment. Setting: Laboratory in the Department of Biochemistry, ...

  2. Augmentation Quotients for Real Representation Rings of Cyclic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Augmentation Quotients for Real Representation Rings of Cyclic Groups. Article Type: Reseach Article. Keywords: cyclic group; real representation; augmentation ideal; augmentation quotient. Corresponding Author: Hang Liu, Ph.D. Shaanxi Normal University. Xi'an, Shaanxi CHINA. Corresponding Author Secondary.

  3. Biodegradation of the cyclic nitramine explosives RDX, HMX, and CL-20. (United States)

    Crocker, Fiona H; Indest, Karl J; Fredrickson, Herbert L


    Cyclic nitramine explosives are synthesized globally mainly as military munitions, and their use has resulted in environmental contamination. Several biodegradation pathways have been proposed, and these are based mainly on end-product characterization because many of the metabolic intermediates are hypothetical and unstable in water. Biodegradation mechanisms for cyclic nitramines include (a) formation of a nitramine free radical and loss of nitro functional groups, (b) reduction of nitro functional groups, (c) direct enzymatic cleavage, (d) alpha-hydroxylation, or (e) hydride ion transfer. Pathway intermediates spontaneously decompose in water producing nitrite, nitrous oxide, formaldehyde, or formic acid as common end-products. In vitro enzyme and functional gene expression studies have implicated a limited number of enzymes/genes involved in cyclic nitramine catabolism. Advances in molecular biology methods such as high-throughput DNA sequencing, microarray analysis, and nucleic acid sample preparation are providing access to biochemical and genetic information on cultivable and uncultivable microorganisms. This information can provide the knowledge base for rational engineering of bioremediation strategies, biosensor development, environmental monitoring, and green biosynthesis of explosives. This paper reviews recent developments on the biodegradation of cyclic nitramines and the potential of genomics to identify novel functional genes of explosive metabolism.

  4. Atmospheric corrosion of copper under wet/dry cyclic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EL-Mahdy, Gamal A. [Department of Metallurgical System Engineering, Yonsei University, 134-Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-Ku, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)


    The polarization resistance of copper subjected to NaCl and an ammonium sulfate solution under wet/dry cycling conditions was monitored using an EIS impedance technique. The copper samples were exposed to 1 h of immersion using different solutions of pH, temperature and surface orientation and 7 h of drying. The copper plates corroded more substantially on the skyward side than those for a ground ward side. The degree of protection copper oxide provides decrease in an acidic medium (pH 4) more than in a neutral medium (pH 7). The corrosion rate of copper increases rapidly during the initial stages of exposure then decreases slowly and eventually attains the steady state during the last stages of exposure. The corrosion products were analyzed using X-ray diffraction. The corrosion mechanism for copper studied under wet/dry cyclic conditions was found to proceed under the dissolution-precipitation mechanism.

  5. Compressed sensing with cyclic-S Hadamard matrix for terahertz imaging applications (United States)

    Ermeydan, Esra Şengün; ćankaya, Ilyas


    Compressed Sensing (CS) with Cyclic-S Hadamard matrix is proposed for single pixel imaging applications in this study. In single pixel imaging scheme, N = r . c samples should be taken for r×c pixel image where . denotes multiplication. CS is a popular technique claiming that the sparse signals can be reconstructed with samples under Nyquist rate. Therefore to solve the slow data acquisition problem in Terahertz (THz) single pixel imaging, CS is a good candidate. However, changing mask for each measurement is a challenging problem since there is no commercial Spatial Light Modulators (SLM) for THz band yet, therefore circular masks are suggested so that for each measurement one or two column shifting will be enough to change the mask. The CS masks are designed using cyclic-S matrices based on Hadamard transform for 9 × 7 and 15 × 17 pixel images within the framework of this study. The %50 compressed images are reconstructed using total variation based TVAL3 algorithm. Matlab simulations demonstrates that cyclic-S matrices can be used for single pixel imaging based on CS. The circular masks have the advantage to reduce the mechanical SLMs to a single sliding strip, whereas the CS helps to reduce acquisition time and energy since it allows to reconstruct the image from fewer samples.

  6. Control of cell volume in the J774 macrophage by microtubule disassembly and cyclic AMP (United States)

    Melmed, RN; Karanian, PJ; Berlin, RD


    We have explored the possibilities that cell volume is regulated by the status of microtubule assembly and cyclic AMP metabolism and may be coordinated with shape change. Treatment of J774.2 mouse macrophages with colchicine caused rapid microtubule disassembly and was associated with a striking increase (from 15-20 to more than 90 percent) in the proportion of cells with a large protuberance at one pole. This provided a simple experimental system in which shape changes occurred in virtually an entire cell population in suspension. Parallel changes in cell volume could then be quantified by isotope dilution techniques. We found that the shape change caused by colchicine was accompanied by a decrease in cell volume of approximately 20 percent. Nocodozole, but not lumicolchicine, caused identical changes in both cell shape and cell volume. The volume loss was not due to cell lysis nor to inhibition of pinocytosis. The mechanism of volume loss was also examined. Colchicine induced a small but reproducible increase in activity of the ouabain-sensitive Na(+), K(+)-dependent ATPase. However, inhibition of this enzyme/transport system by ouabain did not change cell volume nor did it block the colchicines-induced decrease in volume. One the other hand, SITS (4’acetamido, 4-isothiocyano 2,2’ disulfonic acid stilbene), an inhibitor of anion transport, inhibited the effects of colchicines, thus suggesting a role for an anion transport system in cell volume regulation. Because colchicine is known to activate adenylate cyclase in several systems and because cell shape changes are often induced by hormones that elevate cyclic AMP, we also examined the effects of cyclic AMP on cell volume. Agents that act to increase syclic AMP (cholera toxin, which activates adenylate cyclase; IBMX, and inhibitor of phosphodiesterase; and dibutyryl cyclic AMP) all caused a volume decrease comparable to that of colchicine. To define the effective metabolic pathway, we studied two mutants of J

  7. Cyclic Soft Groups and Their Applications on Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacı Aktaş


    Full Text Available In crisp environment the notions of order of group and cyclic group are well known due to many applications. In this paper, we introduce order of the soft groups, power of the soft sets, power of the soft groups, and cyclic soft group on a group. We also investigate the relationship between cyclic soft groups and classical groups.

  8. Cyclic vomiting syndrome masking a fatal metabolic disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzgerald, Marianne


    Disorders of fatty acid oxidation are rare but can be fatal. Hypoglycaemia with acidosis is a cardinal feature. Cases may present during early childhood or can be delayed into adolescence or beyond. We present a case of multiple acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD), an extremely rare disorder of fatty acid oxidation. Our 20-year-old patient presented with cardiovascular collapse, raised anion gap metabolic acidosis and non-ketotic hypoglycaemia. She subsequently developed multi-organ failure and sadly died. She had a previous diagnosis of cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) for more than 10 years, warranting frequent hospital admissions. The association between CVS and MADD has been made before though the exact relationship is unclear. All patients with persistent severe CVS should have metabolic investigations to exclude disorders of fatty acid oxidation. In case of non-ketotic hypoglycaemia with acidosis, the patient should be urgently referred to a specialist in metabolic diseases. All practitioners should be aware of these rare disorders as a cause of unexplained acidosis.

  9. Cosmic evolution in a cyclic universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turok, Neil


    Based on concepts drawn from the ekpyrotic scenario and M theory, we elaborate our recent proposal of a cyclic model of the universe. In this model, the universe undergoes an endless sequence of cosmic epochs which begin with the universe expanding from a 'big bang' and end with the universe contracting to a 'big crunch'. Matching from 'big crunch' to 'big bang' is performed according to the prescription recently proposed with Khoury, Ovrut and Seiberg. The expansion part of the cycle includes a period of radiation and matter domination followed by an extended period of cosmic acceleration at low energies. The cosmic acceleration is crucial in establishing the flat and vacuous initial conditions required for ekpyrosis and for removing the entropy, black holes, and other debris produced in the preceding cycle. By restoring the universe to the same vacuum state before each big crunch, the acceleration ensures that the cycle can repeat and that the cyclic solution is an attractor

  10. Strain gradient effects on cyclic plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Legarth, Brian Nyvang


    Size effects on the cyclic shear response are studied numerically using a recent higher order strain gradient visco-plasticity theory accounting for both dissipative and energetic gradient hardening. Numerical investigations of the response under cyclic pure shear and shear of a finite slab between...... rigid platens have been carried out, using the finite element method. It is shown for elastic–perfectly plastic solids how dissipative gradient effects lead to increased yield strength, whereas energetic gradient contributions lead to increased hardening as well as a Bauschinger effect. For linearly...... hardening materials it is quantified how dissipative and energetic gradient effects promote hardening above that of conventional predictions. Usually, increased hardening is attributed to energetic gradient effects, but here it is found that also dissipative gradient effects lead to additional hardening...

  11. A cyclic symmetry principle in physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, H.S.; Adelaide Univ., SA


    Many areas of modern physics are illuminated by the application of a symmetry principle, requiring the invariance of the relevant laws of physics under a group of transformations. This paper examines the implications and some of the applications of the principle of cyclic symmetry, especially in the areas of statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics, including quantized field theory. This principle requires invariance under the transformations of a finite group, which may be a Sylow π-group, a group of Lie type, or a symmetric group. The utility of the principle of cyclic invariance is demonstrated in finding solutions of the Yang-Baxter equation that include and generalize known solutions. It is shown that the Sylow π-groups have other uses, in providing a basis for a type of generalized quantum statistics, and in parametrising a new generalization of Lie groups, with associated algebras that include quantized algebras. 31 refs

  12. Analysis of cyclic creep and rupture. Part 1: bounding theorems and cyclic reference stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, P. [Stress Engineering Services, Inc., Mason, OH 45040 (United States)]. E-mail:


    Cyclic loading on structures can produce failures not readily predicted by conventional static analysis. Ratcheting or incremental distortion leads to structural failure, and complicates the problems of creep and fatigue prediction. Predicting shakedown, ratcheting, accelerated creep and rupture, for cyclic loading, are the objectives of cyclic stress analysis.Limit load, shakedown and ratcheting analyses provide a comprehensive basis to understand static structural behaviour for ductile inelastic materials, subject to variable loading but excluding inertial dynamic effects. From them we can predict the following failure modes:-Plastic collapse.-Failure to shakedown.-Ratcheting.-Accelerated creep and rupture.This is achieved with a generalisation of the reference stress concept. Conventionally, and for steady loading, the limit load reference stress is the lowest yield stress for which the structure does not collapse. For cyclic loading two definitions are available. The more conservative is the lowest yield stress for which the structure shakes down (behaves elastically). The less conservative is the lowest yield stress for which the structure does not ratchet. They have different meanings and uses.Explaining and justifying the use of cyclic reference stresses to bound creep and rupture is the objective of Part 1. Part 2 gives examples illustrating a range of structural behaviours. The methodology of these papers involves so-called approximate methods at one level, that of inferring limiting or conservative time-dependent behaviour from time-independent elastic-plastic cyclic analyses. The elastic-plastic cyclic analyses themselves are straightforward if tedious. Some ideas and a new analysis technique are available to reduce the trial-and-error.

  13. Numerically investigating the emergent cyclic inflation scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhe, William; Biswas, Tirthabir


    We provide a comprehensive numerical study of the emergent cyclic inflation scenario. This is a scenario where instead of traditional monotonic slow roll inflation, the universe expands over numerous short asymmetric cycles due to the production of entropy via interactions among different species. This is one of the very few scenarios of inflation that provides a non-singular geodesically complete space-time and does not require any ‘reheating’ mechanism. (paper)

  14. Scale factor duality for conformal cyclic cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, University Camara da; Lima, A.L. Alves; Sotkov, G.M.


    The scale factor duality is a symmetry of dilaton gravity which is known to lead to pre-big-bang cosmologies. A conformal time version of the scale factor duality (SFD) was recently implemented as a UV/IR symmetry between decelerated and accelerated phases of the post-big-bang evolution within Einstein gravity coupled to a scalar field. The problem investigated in the present paper concerns the employment of the conformal time SFD methods to the construction of pre-big-bang and cyclic extensions of these models. We demonstrate that each big-bang model gives rise to two qualitatively different pre-big-bang evolutions: a contraction/expansion SFD model and Penrose’s Conformal Cyclic Cosmology (CCC). A few examples of SFD symmetric cyclic universes involving certain gauged Kähler sigma models minimally coupled to Einstein gravity are studied. We also describe the specific SFD features of the thermodynamics and the conditions for validity of the generalized second law in the case of Gauss-Bonnet (GB) extension of these selected CCC models.

  15. Visualization of cyclic nucleotide dynamics in neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill eGorshkov


    Full Text Available The second messengers cAMP and cGMP transduce many neuromodulatory signals from hormones and neurotransmitters into specific functional outputs. Their production, degradation and signaling are spatiotemporally regulated to achieve high specificity in signal transduction. The development of genetically encodable fluorescent biosensors has provided researchers with useful tools to study these versatile second messengers and their downstream effectors with unparalleled spatial and temporal resolution in cultured cells and living animals. In this review, we introduce the general design of these fluorescent biosensors and describe several of them in more detail. Then we discuss a few examples of using cyclic nucleotide fluorescent biosensors to study regulation of neuronal function and finish with a discussion of advances in the field. Although there has been significant progress made in understanding how the specific signaling of cyclic nucleotide second messengers is achieved, the mechanistic details in complex cell types like neurons are only just beginning to surface. Current and future fluorescent protein reporters will be essential to elucidate the role of cyclic nucleotide signaling dynamics in the functions of individual neurons and their networks.

  16. No single way to explain cytoplasmic maturation of oocytes from prepubertal and cyclic gilts. (United States)

    Pawlak, P; Cieslak, A; Warzych, E; Zejden, Z; Szumacher-Strabel, M; Molinska-Glura, M; Lechniak, D


    The objective of this study was to evaluate selected aspects of cytoplasmic maturation in oocytes from prepubertal and cyclic crossbred gilts before and after in vitro maturation. For this purpose, cortical granule redistribution, mitochondrial DNA content and mitochondria translocation were analyzed. Moreover, for the first time the fatty acid profiles in follicular fluid (FF) of both gilt categories was evaluated. The nuclear maturation (the percentage of metaphase II oocytes was 83% in prepubertal gilts compared with 87% in cyclic gilts), cortical granule relocation from the cortex to peripheral ooplasm (98.7% vs. 98.8% of oocytes, respectively) and mitochondrial DNA content (227 543 vs. 206 660, respectively) was not affected by sexual maturity of the donor gilt. However, the redistribution of active mitochondria during in vitro maturation was observed only in the oocytes of cyclic gilts. With regard to FF analysis, saturated, unsaturated, and monounsaturated fatty acids were significantly more abundant in the FF of prepubertal females. In particular, stearic (C18:0) and palmitic (C16:0) fatty acids had significantly higher concentrations in the FF of prepubertal gilts. In conclusion, although the oocytes of prepubertal gilts matured in vitro at a rate similar to those of cyclic gilts, they differed with respect to the selected factors attributed to cytoplasmic maturation. We suggest that the higher content of particular fatty acids, which is known to have a negative influence on oocyte maturation, as well as impaired mitochondria redistribution are factors limiting the maturation potential of oocytes from prepubertal gilts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis of pyrrolizidine alkaloids via 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition involving cyclic nitrones and unsaturated lactones. (United States)

    Stecko, Sebastian; Jurczak, Margarita; Urbańczyk-Lipkowska, Zofia; Solecka, Jolanta; Chmielewski, Marek


    The 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of cyclic nitrone derived from tartaric acid and (S)-5-hydroxymethyl-2(5H)-furanone leads to a single adduct which was transformed into 2,6-dihydroxyhastanecine via reaction sequence involving reduction of the lactone moiety, glycolic cleavage of the terminal diol, and the N-O hydrogenolysis followed by the intramolecular alkylation of the nitrogen atom.

  18. Multiaxial elastoplastic cyclic loading of austenitic 316L steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mazánová


    Full Text Available Cyclic stress-strain response and fatigue damage character has been investigated in austenitic stainless steel 316L. Hollow cylindrical specimens have been cyclically deformed in combined tension-compression and torsion under constant strain rate condition and different constant strain and shear strain amplitudes. In-phase and 90° out-of-phase cyclic straining was applied and the stress response has been monitored. Cyclic hardening/softening curves were assessed in both channels. Cyclic softening followed for higher strain amplitudes by long-term cyclic hardening was observed. Cyclic stress-strain curves were determined. Study of the surface damage in fractured specimens revealed the types and directions of principal cracks and the sources of fatigue crack initiation in slip bands.

  19. ZP2307, a novel cyclic PTH(1-17) analog, reversed established osteopenia in adult ovariectomized rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vääräniemi, Jukka; Morko, Jukka; Peng, ZhiQi

    Recombinant human parathyroid hormone (PTH) analogs (1-34) and (1-84) are used as bone anabolic agents in clinical practice. Hitherto, PTH analogs shorter than 28 amino acids have not demonstrated any bone anabolic activity in vivo. Recently, Zealand Pharma A/S has developed a novel, cyclic PTH(1...

  20. Peptide ligands for targeting the extracellular domain of EGFR: Comparison between linear and cyclic peptides. (United States)

    Williams, Tyrslai M; Sable, Rushikesh; Singh, Sitanshu; Vicente, Maria Graca H; Jois, Seetharama D


    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common solid internal malignancy among cancers. Early detection of cancer is key to increasing the survival rate of colorectal cancer patients. Overexpression of the EGFR protein is associated with CRC. We have designed a series of peptides that are highly specific for the extracellular domain of EGFR, based on our earlier studies on linear peptides. The previously reported linear peptide LARLLT, known to bind to EGFR, was modified with the goals of increasing its stability and its specificity toward EGFR. Peptide modifications, including D-amino acid substitution, cyclization, and chain reversal, were investigated. In addition, to facilitate labeling of the peptide with a fluorescent dye, an additional lysine residue was introduced onto the linear (KLARLLT) and cyclic peptides cyclo(KLARLLT) (Cyclo.L1). The lysine residue was also converted into an azide group in both a linear and reversed cyclic peptide sequences cyclo(K(N3)larllt) (Cyclo.L1.1) to allow for subsequent "click" conjugation. The cyclic peptides showed enhanced binding to EGFR by SPR. NMR and molecular modeling studies suggest that the peptides acquire a β-turn structure in solution. In vitro stability studies in human serum show that the cyclic peptide is more stable than the linear peptide. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Effects of histamine and activators of the cyclic AMP system on protein synthesis in and release of high molecular weight glycoproteins from isolated gastric non-parietal cells.


    Heim, H. K.; Oestmann, A.; Sewing, K. F.


    1. Glycoprotein and protein synthesis in and release from pig isolated, enriched gastric mucous cells were measured by the incorporation of N-acetyl-[14C]-D-glucosamine and [3H]-L-leucine, respectively, into cellular and released acid precipitable material. 2. Histamine and activators of the adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) system maximally stimulated total protein and glycoprotein synthesis in and release from the cells at concentrations of histamine (10 microM), forskolin (...

  2. Cosmological D-instantons and cyclic universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergshoeff, E A; Collinucci, A; Roest, D; Russo, J G; Townsend, P K


    For models of gravity coupled to hyperbolic sigma models, such as the metric-scalar sector of IIB supergravity, we show how smooth trajectories in the 'augmented target space' connect FLRW cosmologies to non-extremal D-instantons through a cosmological singularity. In particular, we find closed cyclic universes that undergo an endless sequence of big-bang to big-crunch cycles separated by instanton 'phases'. We also find 'big-bounce' universes in which a collapsing closed universe bounces off its cosmological singularity to become an open expanding universe

  3. Numerical Simulation of Cyclic Thermodynamic Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stig Kildegård


    This thesis is on numerical simulation of cyclic thermodynamic processes. A modelling approach and a method for finding periodic steady state solutions are described. Examples of applications are given in the form of four research papers. Stirling machines and pulse tube coolers are introduced......, compressible flow in one space dimension is presented. The implementation produces models where all the equations, which are on a form that should be understandable to someone with a background in engineering thermodynamics, can be accessed and modified individually. The implementation was designed to make...

  4. Investigation of Cyclic Deformation and Fatigue of Polycrystalline Cu under Pure Compression Cyclic Loading Conditions (United States)

    Hsu, Tzu-Yin Jean

    It is commonly accepted that fatigue crack is initiated under tensile fatigue stresses. However, practical examples demonstrate that cracks may also initiate under pure compressive fluctuating loads such as the failures observed in aircraft landing gear frames. However, the mechanism of such failures is rarely investigated. Furthermore, knowledge on cyclic deformation response under pure compressive fatigue condition is also very limited or non-existent. Our recent work already verified that fatigue cracks may nucleate from stress concentration sites under pure compression fatigue, but whether or not a form of stress concentration is always needed to initiate a crack under pure compression fatigue remains uncertain. In this study, compression fatigue tests under different peak stresses were carried out on smooth bars of fully annealed OFHC Copper. The purpose of these tests is to investigate not only the cyclic deformation response but also the possibility of crack nucleation without the stress concentrator. Results showed that overall the cyclic stress-strain response and microstructural evolution of OFHC Copper under pure compression fatigue exhibits rather dissimilar behaviour compared to those under symmetrical fatigue. The specimens hardened rapidly within 10 cycles under pure compression fatigue unlike the gradual cyclic hardening behaviour in symmetrical fatigue with the same peak stress amplitude. Compressive cyclic creep behaviour was also observed under the same testing conditions. Moreover, unlike conventional tension-compression fatigue, only moderate slip activity was detectable on the surface instead of typical PSB features detected from TEM observations. The surface observations has revealed that surface slip bands did not increase in number nor did they become more pronounced in height with increasing number of cycles. In addition, surface roughening by grain boundary extrusion was detected to become more severe as the cycling progressed. Therefore

  5. The cyclic nucleotide monophosphate domain of Xanthomonas campestris global regulator Clp defines a new class of cyclic di-GMP effectors. (United States)

    Tao, Fei; He, Ya-Wen; Wu, Dong-Hui; Swarup, Sanjay; Zhang, Lian-Hui


    The widely conserved second messenger cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) plays a key role in quorum-sensing (QS)-dependent production of virulence factors in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. The detection of QS diffusible signal factor (DSF) by the sensor RpfC leads to the activation of response regulator RpfG, which activates virulence gene expression by degrading c-di-GMP. Here, we show that a global regulator in the X. campestris pv. campestris QS regulatory pathway, Clp, is a c-di-GMP effector. c-di-GMP specifically binds to Clp with high affinity and induces allosteric conformational changes that abolish the interaction between Clp and its target gene promoter. Clp is similar to the cyclic AMP (cAMP) binding proteins Crp and Vfr and contains a conserved cyclic nucleotide monophosphate (cNMP) binding domain. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we found that the cNMP binding domain of Clp contains a glutamic acid residue (E99) that is essential for c-di-GMP binding. Substituting the residue with serine (E99S) resulted in decreased sensitivity to changes in the intracellular c-di-GMP level and attenuated bacterial virulence. These data establish the direct role of Clp in the response to fluctuating c-di-GMP levels and depict a novel mechanism by which QS links the second messenger with the X. campestris pv. campestris virulence regulon.

  6. A cyclically actuated electrolytic drug delivery device

    KAUST Repository

    Yi, Ying


    This work, focusing on an implantable drug delivery system, presents the first prototype electrolytic pump that combines a catalytic reformer and a cyclically actuated mode. These features improve the release performance and extend the lifetime of the device. Using our platinum (Pt)-coated carbon fiber mesh that acts as a catalytic reforming element, the cyclical mode is improved because the faster recombination rate allows for a shorter cycling time for drug delivery. Another feature of our device is that it uses a solid-drug-in-reservoir (SDR) approach, which allows small amounts of a solid drug to be dissolved in human fluid, forming a reproducible drug solution for long-term therapies. We have conducted proof-of-principle drug delivery studies using such an electrolytic pump and solvent blue 38 as the drug substitute. These tests demonstrate power-controlled and pulsatile release profiles of the chemical substance, as well as the feasibility of this device. A drug delivery rate of 11.44 ± 0.56 μg min-1 was achieved by using an input power of 4 mW for multiple pulses, which indicates the stability of our system. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  7. Effects of Cyclic Loading on Gravel (United States)

    Modoni, Giuseppe; Dan, Le Quang; Koseki, Junichi; Maqbool, Sajjad

    The effects of a large number of load repetitions on gravel are discussed based on experimental evidences. To this purpose the results of several triaxial tests carried out on a coarse grained soil, artificially reconstituted at different prescribed levels of density, are reported and compared. The tests reproduce a broad variety of possible field conditions, being performed at different mean effective stresses, by applying sequences of load-unload repetitions, different by number of repetitions and amplitudes of cycles. The analysis of the experimental results has been conducted by focusing the attention on the plastic components of strain, calculated by scaling the non negligible elastic components from the measured ones. A theory for the interpretation of monotonic test results is first briefly presented to form the basis of the analysis of the cyclic test results. This last is referred to the evolution of the stress-strain relationships along with load repetitions, and particularly to the accumulation of distortional and volumetric strains and to the effects of previous cyclic loading on subsequent soil response.

  8. Isolation and Quantification of Polyamide Cyclic Oligomers in Kitchen Utensils and Their Migration into Various Food Simulants


    Abe, Yutaka; Mutsuga, Motoh; Ohno, Hiroyuki; Kawamura, Yoko; Akiyama, Hiroshi


    Small amounts of cyclic monomers and oligomers are present in polyamide (PA)-based kitchen utensils. In this study, we isolated eight PA-based cyclic monomers and oligomers from kitchen utensils made from PA6 (a polymer of ε-caprolactam) and PA66 (a polymer of 1,6-diaminohexane and adipic acid). Their structures were identified using high-resolution mass spectrometry and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and their residual levels in PA-based kitchen utensils and degree of m...

  9. Fault diagnosis of rolling bearing based on cyclic spectrum density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Qingfeng; Yan Junming; Zhang Yanhong


    The paper considered the vibration signals of rotating equipment as cyclo stationary signals through analyzing the features of this kind of signals. Based on the analytic method of cyclic spectrum density, the paper pointed out that the impact frequency could be extracted effectively with the help of scanning cyclic frequency domain. The validity of the method of cyclic spectrum density is proved by simulating signals and the method is applied to the diagnosis of rolling bearings. (authors)

  10. Cyclical mastalgia: Prevalence and associated determinants in Hamadan City, Iran


    Shobeiri, Fatemeh; Oshvandi, Khodayar; Nazari, Mansour


    Objective: To assess prevalence of cyclical mastalgia and its main determinants in women who attended in health centers of Hamadan City, Iran. Methods: This case–control study was conducted on 400 women (case: cyclical mastalgia, n = 240; control: without cyclical mastalgia, n = 160) who attended family planning clinic for routine follow-up in health centers. The cluster sampling was used. Information was collected by interviewing and using a standardized validated questionnaire. Severity ...

  11. Cyclic Team Teaching in Ninth-Grade Physical Science (United States)

    Swainson, Ralph; And Others


    Presents the instructional procedures used in a team teaching situation. Identifies advantages and problems encountered in cyclic approach to demonstration, laboratory, programed, and large group activities. (DS)

  12. Biological hydrogen production in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor: pH and cyclic duration effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wen-Hsing [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Ilan University, I-Lan 260 (China); Sung, Shihwu [Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011-3232 (United States); Chen, Shen-Yi [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung 811 (China)


    An anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) was used to evaluate biological hydrogen production from carbohydrate-rich organic wastes. The goal of the proposed project was to investigate the effects of pH (4.9, 5.5, 6.1, and 6.7), and cyclic duration (4, 6, and 8 h) on hydrogen production. With the ASBR operated at 16-h HRT, 25 g COD/L, and 4-h cyclic duration, the results showed that the maximum hydrogen yield of 2.53 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose{sub consumed} appeared at pH 4.9. The carbohydrate removal efficiency declined to 56% at pH 4.9, which indirectly resulted in the reduction of total volatile fatty acid production. Acetate fermentation was the dominant metabolic pathway at pH 4.9. The concentration of mixed liquor volatile suspended solid (MLVSS) also showed a decrease from nearly 15,000 mg/L between pHs 6.1 and 6.7 to 6000 mg/L at pH 4.9. Investigation of the effect of cyclic duration found that hydrogen yield reached the maximum of 1.86 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose{sub consumed} at 4-h cyclic duration while ASBR was operating at 16-h HRT, 15 g COD/L, and pH 4.9. The experimental results showed that MLVSS concentration increased from 6200 mg/L at 4-h cyclic duration to 8500 mg/L at 8-h cyclic duration. However, there was no significant change in effluent volatile suspended solid concentration. The results of butyrate to acetate ratio showed that using this ratio to correlate the performance of hydrogen production is not appropriate due to the growth of homoacetogens. In ASBR, the operation is subject to four different phases of each cycle, and only the complete mix condition can be achieved at react phase. The pH and cyclic duration under the unique operations profoundly impact fermentative hydrogen production. (author)

  13. Optimization of hydrogen uptake in Ag-CNTs electrodes with charge-discharge cyclic currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoshnevisan, B.; Behpour, M.; Kaveh, D.


    Electrochemical storage of hydrogen in Ag-CNTs (silver and carbon nanotubes) electrodes has been studied by potentiostat/galvanostat method. Foamed silver has been employed as a mattress for the CNTs and it caused better connections between CNTs and the silver. Therefore the enhancements in the hydrogen storage capacities have been justified. Acidic and thermal methods have been used for purifying the CNTs and the outputs have been characterized by XRD and Raman spectroscopy. It has been observed that in cyclic charge and discharge (C and D) procedures the amount of stored hydrogen in the electrodes (the discharge capacity) is very sensitive to the cyclic regulated currents and it is shown that the optimum value is about 326 mA h/g at 9 mA. This optimization can be attributed to two competitive phenomena: (i) re-alignment of the CNTs, and (ii) oxidation of the electrode's surface.

  14. Effect of desmethyldiazepam and chlordesmethyldiazepam on 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels in rat cerebellum. (United States)

    Govoni, S; Fresia, P; Spano, P F; Trabucchi, M


    Three different ben,odia,epines (diazepam, its pharmacologically active metabolite desmethyldiazepam, and the derivative chlordesmethyldiazepam) have been compared in our study for their effects on 3',5'-guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) cerebellar levels. Desmethyldiazepam and chlordesmethyldiazepam are several-fold more potent than diazepam in decreasing rat cyclic cGMP cerebellar concentrations. None of the three drugs induces detectable changes of cerebellar cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). On the other hand, the three compounds did not modify the levels of cGMP in cerebellum of newborn rats, where Purkinje cell and dendrites lack synaptic contacts. However, injection of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the newborn is still able, as in the adult, to decrease cGMP concentration in cerebellum. Our data support the hypothesis that cGMP cerebellar concentrations may be reliable biochemical marker of the clinical activity of benzodiazepines.

  15. Estrous Cyclicity in Mice During Simulated Weightlessness (United States)

    Moyer, E. L.; Talyansky, Y.; Scott, R. T.; Tash, J. S.; Christenson, L. K.; Alwood, J. S.; Ronca, A. E.


    Hindlimb unloading (HU) is a rodent model system used to simulate weightlessness experienced in space. However, some effects of this approach on rodent physiology are under-studied, specifically the effects on ovarian estrogen production which drives the estrous cycle. To resolve this deficiency, we conducted a ground-based validation study using the HU model, while monitoring estrous cycles in 16-weeks-old female C57BL6 mice. Animals were exposed to HU for 12 days following a 3 day HU cage acclimation period, and estrous cycling was analyzed in HU animals (n=22), normally loaded HU Cage Pair-Fed controls (CPF; n=22), and Vivarium controls fed ad libitum (VIV; n=10). Pair feeding was used to control for potential nutritional deficits on ovarian function. Vaginal cells were sampled daily in all mice via saline lavage. Cells were dried and stained with crystal violet, and the smears evaluated using established vaginal cytology techniques by two individuals blinded to the animal treatment group. Estrous cyclicity was disrupted in nearly all HU and CPF mice, while those maintained in VIV had an average normal cycle length of 4.8+/- 0.5 days, with all stages in the cycle visibly observed. CPF and HU animals arrested in the diestrous phase, which precedes the pre-ovulatory estrogen surge. Additionally, infection-like symptoms characterized by vaginal discharge and swelling arose in several HU animals, which we suspect was due to an inability of these mice to properly groom themselves, and/or due to the change in the gravity vector relative to the vaginal opening, which prevented drainage of the lavage solution. Pair-feeding resulted in similar weight gains of HU and CPF (1.5% vs 3.0%, respectively). The current results indicate that pair-feeding controlled weight gain and that the HU cage alone influenced estrous cyclicity. Thus, longer acclimation needs to be tested to determine if and when normal estrous cycling resumes in non-loaded mice in HU cages prior to HU

  16. Estrous Cyclicity of Mice During Simulated Weightlessness (United States)

    Moyer, Eric; Talyansky, Yuli; Scott, Ryan; Tash, Joseph; Christenson, Lane; Alwood, Joshua; Ronca, April


    Hindlimb unloading (HU) is a rodent model system used to simulate weightlessness experienced in space. However, some effects of this approach on rodent physiology are under-studied, specifically the effects on ovarian estrogen production which drives the estrous cycle. To resolve this deficiency, we conducted a ground-based validation study using the HU model, while monitoring estrous cycles in 16-weeks-old female C57BL6 mice. Animals were exposed to HU for 12 days following a 3 day HU cage acclimation period, and estrous cycling was analyzed in HU animals (n22), normally loaded HU Cage Pair-Fed controls (CPF; n22), and Vivarium controls fed ad libitum (VIV; n10). Pair feeding was used to control for potential nutritional deficits on ovarian function. Vaginal cells were sampled daily in all mice via saline lavage. Cells were dried and stained with crystal violet, and the smears evaluated using established vaginal cytology techniques by two individuals blinded to the animal treatment group. Estrous cyclicity was disrupted in nearly all HU and CPF mice, while those maintained in VIV had an average normal cycle length of 4.8 0.5 days, with all stages in the cycle visibly observed. CPF and HU animals arrested in the diestrous phase, which precedes the pre-ovulatory estrogen surge. Additionally, infection-like symptoms characterized by vaginal discharge and swelling arose in several HU animals, which we suspect was due to an inability of these mice to properly groom themselves, andor due to the change in the gravity vector relative to the vaginal opening, which prevented drainage of the lavage solution. Pair-feeding resulted in similar weight gains of HU and CPF (1.5 vs 3.0, respectively). The current results indicate that pair-feeding controlled weight gain and that the HU cage alone influenced estrous cyclicity. Thus, longer acclimation needs to be tested to determine if and when normal estrous cycling resumes in non-loaded mice in HU cages prior to HU testing. Future

  17. Magnetoelastic Demagnetization of Steel under Cyclic Loading (United States)

    Muratov, K. R.; Novikov, V. F.; Neradovskii, D. F.; Kazakov, R. Kh.


    Magnetoelastic demagnetization of steel samples under cyclic tensile loads has been analyzed. It has been established that values of residual magnetization that correspond to peak loads are characterized by the power-law dependence on the number of loading cycles. In some cases, in the region of high loads, the qualitative transition to exponential dependence has been observed. Coefficients of the power-law approximation of peak magnetization depend on the value of amplitude load and have specific characteristics in the vicinity of characteristic loads. The ratios of approximated slide load coefficients depending on the load are common for the three considered samples, and there is an outburst in the vicinity of the fatigue limit, which can be used as the basis for developing the rapid nondestructive method for determination of this limit.

  18. The cyclic universe: An informal introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhaxdt, Paul J.; Turok, Neil


    The Cyclic Model is a radical, new cosmological scenario which proposes that the Universe undergoes an endless sequence of epochs which begin with a 'big bang' and end in a 'big crunch.' When the Universes bounces from contraction to re-expansion, the temperature and density remain finite. The model does not include a period of rapid inflation, yet it reproduces all of the successful predictions of standard big bang and inflationary cosmology. We point out numerous novel elements that have not been used previously which may open the door to further alternative cosmologies. Although the model is motivated by M-theory, branes and extra dimensions, here we show that the scenario can be described almost entirely in terms of conventional 4d field theory and 4d cosmology

  19. Janus cyclic peptide-polymer nanotubes (United States)

    Danial, Maarten; My-Nhi Tran, Carmen; Young, Philip G.; Perrier, Sébastien; Jolliffe, Katrina A.


    Self-assembled nanotubular structures have numerous potential applications but these are limited by a lack of control over size and functionality. Controlling these features at the molecular level may allow realization of the potential of such structures. Here we report a new generation of self-assembled cyclic peptide-polymer nanotubes with dual functionality in the form of either a Janus or mixed polymeric corona. A ‘relay’ synthetic strategy is used to prepare nanotubes with a demixing or mixing polymeric corona. Nanotube structure is assessed in solution using 1H-1H nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy NMR, and in bulk using differential scanning calorimetry. The Janus nanotubes form artificial pores in model phospholipid bilayers. These molecules provide a viable pathway for the development of intriguing nanotubular structures with dual functionality via a demixing or a mixing polymeric corona and may provide new avenues for the creation of synthetic transmembrane protein channel mimics.

  20. Cyclic steps incised on experimental bedrock (United States)

    Yokokawa, M.; Kyogoku, A.; Kotera, A.; Izumi, N.


    In rivers flowing in mountain areas, a series of steps are often observed on bedrock. They are thought to be cyclic steps formed due to erosion of bedrock, which should be driven by abrasion due to bedload sediment transport. We demonstrated a series of flume experiments of the formation of cyclic steps on bedrock by abrasion due to bedload transportation using weak mortar as the model bedrock. We also compared the shapes of the steps reproduced in the experiments with those obtained in the analysis. The experiments were conducted using a 1.5 m long, 2 cm wide, and 20 cm deep flume made of glass in Osaka Institute of Technology. The flume has 10-cm-high weirs at both ends, so that there is a 10-cm-deep reservoir. We put mortar into the reservoir and hardened it. In order to make a highly erodible mortar, we casted the mortar with extremely low amount of cement. The ratio of cement, sand (0.2 mm in diameter), and water is x:150:50 (x ranges 1-3). The flume is tilted by 10 degrees. The water and colored sand is supplied from a head tank to the upstream end of the flume, flows on 'model bedrock' in the flume, and was dropped from the downstream end. We observed morphological changes of the surface of the bedrock by photos. We also used a laser displacement sensor to measure the surface topography of the 'model bedrock' before and after each run. The configuration of steps largely depends on the hardness of model bedrocks. In the case of the softest model bedrock (cement-sand-water ratio is 1:150:50) with small amount of sand, long-drawn potholes tend to be formed. Clear cyclic steps are formed on harder model bedrocks with large cement-sand-water ratios such as 2:150:50 and 3:150:50. When a series of steps are formed on the bed, typical wavelength and wave height are approximately 20 cm, and 2 - 3 cm, respectively. The general shape of a step is characterized by a relatively long downward-inclined slope just upstream of a short upward-inclined slope. The feature of

  1. Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification of Infectious Prions. (United States)

    Moda, Fabio


    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, or prion diseases, are a group of incurable disorders caused by the accumulation of an abnormally folded prion protein (PrP Sc ) in the brain. According to the "protein-only" hypothesis, PrP Sc is the infectious agent able to propagate the disease by acting as a template for the conversion of the correctly folded prion protein (PrP C ) into the pathological isoform. Recently, the mechanism of PrP C conversion has been mimicked in vitro using an innovative technique named protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA). This technology represents a great tool for studying diverse aspects of prion biology in the field of basic research and diagnosis. Moreover, PMCA can be expanded for the study of the misfolding process associated to other neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Combinatorial biosynthesis of cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics: a model for synthetic biology to accelerate the evolution of secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways. (United States)

    Baltz, Richard H


    Nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are giant multi-enzymes that carry out sequencial assembly line couplings of amino acids to generate linear or cyclic peptides. NRPSs are composed of repeating enzyme domains with modular organization to activate and couple specific amino acids in a particular order. From a synthetic biology perspective, they can be considered as peptide assembly machines composed of devices to couple fatty acids to l-amino acids, l-amino acids to l-amino acids, and d-amino acids to l-amino acids. The coupling devices are composed of specific parts that contain two or more enzyme domains that can be exchanged combinatorially to generate novel peptide assembly machines to produce novel peptides. The potent lipopeptide antibiotics daptomycin and A54145E have identical cyclic depsipeptide ring structures and stereochemistry but have divergent amino acid sequences. As their biosynthetic gene clusters are derived from an ancient ancestral lipopetide pathway, these lipopeptides provided an attractive model to develop combinatorial biosynthesis to generate antibiotics superior to daptomycin. These studies on combinatorial biosynthesis have helped generate guidelines for the successful assembly of NRPS parts and devices that can be used to generate novel lipopeptide structures and have established a basis for future synthetic biology studies to further develop combinatorial biosynthesis as a robust approach to natural product drug discovery.

  3. Synthesis of L-2-amino-8-oxodecanoic acid: an amino acid component of apicidins


    Linares de la Morena, María Lourdes; Agejas Chicharro, Francisco Javier; Alajarín Ferrández, Ramón; Vaquero López, Juan José; Álvarez-Builla Gómez, Julio


    The synthesis Of L-2-amino-8-oxodecanoic acid (Aoda) is described. This is a rare amino acid component of apicidins, a family of new cyclic tetrapeptides, inhibitors of histone deacetylase. Aoda was synthesised in seven steps from L-glutamic acid along with some derivatives. Universidad de Alcalá Fundación General de la Universidad de Alcalá FEDER

  4. Identification and Structural Characterization of Naturally-Occurring Broad-Spectrum Cyclic Antibiotics Isolated from Paenibacillus (United States)

    Knolhoff, Ann M.; Zheng, Jie; McFarland, Melinda A.; Luo, Yan; Callahan, John H.; Brown, Eric W.; Croley, Timothy R.


    The rise of antimicrobial resistance necessitates the discovery and/or production of novel antibiotics. Isolated strains of Paenibacillus alvei were previously shown to exhibit antimicrobial activity against a number of pathogens, such as E. coli, Salmonella, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The responsible antimicrobial compounds were isolated from these Paenibacillus strains and a combination of low and high resolution mass spectrometry with multiple-stage tandem mass spectrometry was used for identification. A group of closely related cyclic lipopeptides was identified, differing primarily by fatty acid chain length and one of two possible amino acid substitutions. Variation in the fatty acid length resulted in mass differences of 14 Da and yielded groups of related MSn spectra. Despite the inherent complexity of MS/MS spectra of cyclic compounds, straightforward analysis of these spectra was accomplished by determining differences in complementary product ion series between compounds that differ in molecular weight by 14 Da. The primary peptide sequence assignment was confirmed through genome mining; the combination of these analytical tools represents a workflow that can be used for the identification of complex antibiotics. The compounds also share amino acid sequence similarity to a previously identified broad-spectrum antibiotic isolated from Paenibacillus. The presence of such a wide distribution of related compounds produced by the same organism represents a novel class of broad-spectrum antibiotic compounds.

  5. Cyclic Oxidation Behaviour of Domestic Superalloys at Elevated Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, S. C.; Kim, G. M.; Chon, Y. G.


    The cyclic oxidation behaviour of commercial superalloys produced in Korea was investigated in air at 1000 .deg. C and 1100 .deg. C. Cyclic oxidation test was carried out by cyclically oxidizing the specimens in an apparatus which periodically removed the specimens from the furnace and reinserted them. The influence of growth stress and thermal stress on the cyclic oxidation was studied by examination of the oxide structures, their morphologies, and EDS line scanning of cross-section of cyclically oxidized specimens. The results showed that Inconel 601 was the best in the cyclic oxidation resistance among the tested alloys, followed by Nimonic 80A, Incoloy 825 and Inconel 718 at 1100 .deg. C. As in the case of the isothermal oxidation, relatively pure Cr 2 O 3 was effective in the beginning of cyclic oxidation experiment. But, later on, other oxidation products as well as Cr 2 O 3 were formed, resulting in the spallation of oxide scales. Especially, Nb and Mo in the alloys were determental to the cyclic oxidation behavior

  6. Classifying spaces with virtually cyclic stabilizers for linear groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degrijse, Dieter Dries; Köhl, Ralf; Petrosyan, Nansen


    We show that every discrete subgroup of GL(n, ℝ) admits a finite-dimensional classifying space with virtually cyclic stabilizers. Applying our methods to SL(3, ℤ), we obtain a four-dimensional classifying space with virtually cyclic stabilizers and a decomposition of the algebraic K-theory of its...

  7. Evaluating cyclic fatigue of sealants during outdoor testing (United States)

    R. Sam Williams; Steven Lacher; Corey Halpin; Christopher White


    A computer-controlled test apparatus (CCTA) and other instrumentation for subjecting sealant specimens to cyclic fatigue during outdoor exposure was developed. The CCTA enables us to use weather-induced conditions to cyclic fatigue specimens and to conduct controlled tests in-situ during the outdoor exposure. Thermally induced dimensional changes of an aluminum bar...

  8. Improvements of cyclic somatic embryogenesis of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raemakers, C.J.J.M.; Schavemaker, C.M.; Jacobsen, E.; Visser, R.G.F.


    In cassava a cyclic system of somatic embryogenesis was developed. Primary (torpedo shaped or germinated) embryos, originating from leaf lobes, could only be obtained after culture on solid medium. Cyclic embryos, originating from embryos, could be obtained in both liquid and on solid medium. The

  9. Supplementary Material for: The arabidopsis cyclic nucleotide interactome

    KAUST Repository

    Donaldson, Lara


    Abstract Background Cyclic nucleotides have been shown to play important signaling roles in many physiological processes in plants including photosynthesis and defence. Despite this, little is known about cyclic nucleotide-dependent signaling mechanisms in plants since the downstream target proteins remain unknown. This is largely due to the fact that bioinformatics searches fail to identify plant homologs of protein kinases and phosphodiesterases that are the main targets of cyclic nucleotides in animals. Methods An affinity purification technique was used to identify cyclic nucleotide binding proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. The identified proteins were subjected to a computational analysis that included a sequence, transcriptional co-expression and functional annotation analysis in order to assess their potential role in plant cyclic nucleotide signaling. Results A total of twelve cyclic nucleotide binding proteins were identified experimentally including key enzymes in the Calvin cycle and photorespiration pathway. Importantly, eight of the twelve proteins were shown to contain putative cyclic nucleotide binding domains. Moreover, the identified proteins are post-translationally modified by nitric oxide, transcriptionally co-expressed and annotated to function in hydrogen peroxide signaling and the defence response. The activity of one of these proteins, GLYGOLATE OXIDASE 1, a photorespiratory enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide in response to Pseudomonas, was shown to be repressed by a combination of cGMP and nitric oxide treatment. Conclusions We propose that the identified proteins function together as points of cross-talk between cyclic nucleotide, nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species signaling during the defence response.

  10. Rank equivalent and rank degenerate skew cyclic codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Peñas, Umberto


    Two skew cyclic codes can be equivalent for the Hamming metric only if they have the same length, and only the zero code is degenerate. The situation is completely different for the rank metric. We study rank equivalences between skew cyclic codes of different lengths and, with the aim of finding...

  11. Structure and stability of spiro-cyclic water clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    donates two protons, resulting in an overall stabili- zation of the spiro-cyclic structure. A close scrutiny. Figure 1. Optimized geometries of different spiro- cyclic water clusters obtained using HF/6-311++G** cal- culation. These clusters are found to be stable without any reorganization during energy minimization at DFT.

  12. Development of Pore Pressure and Material Damping during Cyclic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo


    The behaviour of sand during cyclic loading can be characterized as "stabilization", "instant stabilization". "pore pressure buildup" and "liquefaction". The terminologies can be defined exactly by a simple mathematical formulation based on the existence of a cyclic stable state. By introducing...

  13. Behaviour of Dense Frederikshavn Sand During Cyclic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Kjær; Shajarati, Amir; Sørensen, Kris Wessel

    of Frederikshavn Sand for an arbitrary stress level and cyclic loading condition. It is discovered that the governing parameters regarding the response is dependent on the stress path and insitu conditions; initial pore pressure, stress state and the combination of average and cyclic shear stresses....

  14. Structure and stability of spiro-cyclic water clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. The structure and stability of spiro-cyclic water clusters containing up to 32 water molecules have been investigated at different levels of theory. Although there exist minima lower in energy than these spiro-cyclic clusters, calculations at the Hartree–Fock level, density functional theory using B3LYP parametrization ...

  15. Design of mild steel structures under unequal cyclic loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a method is proposed to investigate the behavior and life of structural components under unequal cyclic loading conditions. Appropriate cyclic moment-curvature relations and life information, in the form of life versus extreme fiber strain, are developed from tests on beams under pure bending conditions. Theoretical predictions of behavior are based on structural geometry and the cyclic moment-curvature relations used in association with the simple curvature-area method. Structural life is also predicted using the life information developed and the theoretical strain history at the critical section in conjunction with a linear damage summation criterion. Theoretical predictions of behavior and life compare reasonably well with the experiments. Based on this study, a design procedure is proposed for mild steel components subjected to unequal cyclic loading conditions. The loads on the tested components were such that they failed due to low cyclic fatigue (i.e., at less than 10 5 cycles)

  16. History-independent cyclic response of nanotwinned metals (United States)

    Pan, Qingsong; Zhou, Haofei; Lu, Qiuhong; Gao, Huajian; Lu, Lei


    Nearly 90 per cent of service failures of metallic components and structures are caused by fatigue at cyclic stress amplitudes much lower than the tensile strength of the materials involved. Metals typically suffer from large amounts of cumulative, irreversible damage to microstructure during cyclic deformation, leading to cyclic responses that are unstable (hardening or softening) and history-dependent. Existing rules for fatigue life prediction, such as the linear cumulative damage rule, cannot account for the effect of loading history, and engineering components are often loaded by complex cyclic stresses with variable amplitudes, mean values and frequencies, such as aircraft wings in turbulent air. It is therefore usually extremely challenging to predict cyclic behaviour and fatigue life under a realistic load spectrum. Here, through both atomistic simulations and variable-strain-amplitude cyclic loading experiments at stress amplitudes lower than the tensile strength of the metal, we report a history-independent and stable cyclic response in bulk copper samples that contain highly oriented nanoscale twins. We demonstrate that this unusual cyclic behaviour is governed by a type of correlated ‘necklace’ dislocation consisting of multiple short component dislocations in adjacent twins, connected like the links of a necklace. Such dislocations are formed in the highly oriented nanotwinned structure under cyclic loading and help to maintain the stability of twin boundaries and the reversible damage, provided that the nanotwins are tilted within about 15 degrees of the loading axis. This cyclic deformation mechanism is distinct from the conventional strain localizing mechanisms associated with irreversible microstructural damage in single-crystal, coarse-grained, ultrafine-grained and nanograined metals.

  17. Improving Tumor Uptake and Pharmacokinetics of 64Cu-Labeled Cyclic RGD Peptide Dimers with Gly3 and PEG4 Linkers


    Shi, Jiyun; Kim, Young-Seung; Zhai, Shizhen; Liu, Zhaofei; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Shuang


    Radiolabeled cyclic RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) peptides represent a new class of radiotracers with potential for the early tumor detection and non-invasive monitoring of tumor metastasis and therapeutic response in cancer patients. This report describes the synthesis of two cyclic RGD peptide dimer conjugates, DOTA-PEG4-E[PEG4-c(RGDfK)]2 (DOTA-3PEG4-dimer: DOTA = 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid; PEG4 = 15-amino-4,7,10,13-tetraoxapentadecanoic acid) and DOTA-G3-E[G3-c(RGDfK)]2 ...

  18. Cyclic nucleotide specific phosphodiesterases of Leishmania major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linder Markus


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leishmania represent a complex of important human pathogens that belong to the systematic order of the kinetoplastida. They are transmitted between their human and mammalian hosts by different bloodsucking sandfly vectors. In their hosts, the Leishmania undergo several differentiation steps, and their coordination and optimization crucially depend on numerous interactions between the parasites and the physiological environment presented by the fly and human hosts. Little is still known about the signalling networks involved in these functions. In an attempt to better understand the role of cyclic nucleotide signalling in Leishmania differentiation and host-parasite interaction, we here present an initial study on the cyclic nucleotide-specific phosphodiesterases of Leishmania major. Results This paper presents the identification of three class I cyclic-nucleotide-specific phosphodiesterases (PDEs from L. major, PDEs whose catalytic domains exhibit considerable sequence conservation with, among other, all eleven human PDE families. In contrast to other protozoa such as Dictyostelium, or fungi such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida ssp or Neurospora, no genes for class II PDEs were found in the Leishmania genomes. LmjPDEA contains a class I catalytic domain at the C-terminus of the polypeptide, with no other discernible functional domains elsewhere. LmjPDEB1 and LmjPDEB2 are coded for by closely related, tandemly linked genes on chromosome 15. Both PDEs contain two GAF domains in their N-terminal region, and their almost identical catalytic domains are located at the C-terminus of the polypeptide. LmjPDEA, LmjPDEB1 and LmjPDEB2 were further characterized by functional complementation in a PDE-deficient S. cerevisiae strain. All three enzymes conferred complementation, demonstrating that all three can hydrolyze cAMP. Recombinant LmjPDEB1 and LmjPDEB2 were shown to be cAMP-specific, with Km values in the low micromolar range

  19. Surface functionalization of cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) with evaporated TiO{sub 2} thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Fissi, Lamia, E-mail: [ICTEAM Institute, Université catholique du Louvain, place de Levant 3, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Vandormael, Denis [SIRRIS Liege Science Park, 4102 Seraing (Belgium); Houssiau, Laurent [Research Centre in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Francis, Laurent A. [ICTEAM Institute, Université catholique du Louvain, place de Levant 3, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)


    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}/COC (cyclic olefin copolymer) hybrid material for BioMEMS applications. • Thin layer of TiO{sub 2} was deposed on cyclic olefin copolymer using physical vapor deposition (PVD) technique. • The coating possess the highest level of adhesion with an excellent morphology of the hybrid material (TiO{sub 2}/COC). - Abstract: Cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) is a new class of thermoplastic polymers used for a variety of applications ranging from bio-sensing to optics. However, the hydrophobicity of native COC hampers the further development and application of this material [1]. In this work, we report the structural, morphological, and optical properties of the TiO{sub 2}/COC hybrid material, which provides a desirable substrate for optical devices and subsequent surface modifications. The TiO{sub 2} film on COC substrate was deposited by the evaporation method, and it was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), profilometry and atomic force microscope (AFM). Using an UV-vis spectrophotometer, we found that the transmittance of the TiO{sub 2}/COC hybrid material in the visible domain reached 80%. The TiO{sub 2}/COC hybrid appeared to be stable in most of the assessed polar solvents and acid/basic solutions. The new TiO{sub 2}/COC hybrid material and the robust fabrication method are expected to enable a variety of BioMEMS applications.

  20. Cyclic and circadian variations in cardiovascular events. (United States)

    Elliot, W J


    The incidence of many biologic phenomena displays a reproducible and cyclic variation. Cardiovascular disease, the most common cause of death in the United States and other developed countries, also has an intrinsic variation in events. These events are more common in winter, at the beginning of each month, on Mondays (in working people), and during the early morning hours of each day. Recent meta-analyses have quantitated the excess risk of cardiovascular events in the hours around and just after awakening. Between 6 AM and noon, there is a 40% higher risk of heart attack, a 29% increased risk of cardiac death, and a 49% increased risk of stroke (compared with what would be expected if these events happened at random and were evenly distributed throughout the day). These observations have major consequences for emergency medical personnel and medical transport systems. The reasons for these observations are less clear. The circadian pattern of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate may be a major contributor, and long-term "hard end-point" studies designed to test specific pharmacologic interventions targeting the early morning rise in BP and heart rate are underway. Individuals who work night shifts and those whose BP has a different circadian pattern have a higher risk of cardiovascular events, but may be less likely to have an increased risk of cardiovascular events in the morning.

  1. A low-power arcjet cyclic lifetest (United States)

    Curran, Francis M.; Hardy, Terry L.; Haag, Thomas W.


    A cyclic lifetest of a low power dc arcjet thruster using a hydrogen/nitrogen propellant mixture simulating hydrazine is currently in progress. Over 300 hr of operation have been accumulated to date in 2 hr duty cycles at a power level of about 1.15 kW, approximating that available on commercial communications satellites. A burn-in period was carried out before consistent operation was attained. After this period, the arcjet operated in a very stable fashion from cycle to cycle. At the beginning of each cycle, there was a brief starting transient followed by a rapid rise to a steady-state voltage. The steady-state voltage increased by about 5 V over the first 95 cycles. After this, it increased by only 1 V through the remainder of the test. Thrust measurements taken before the life test and again after the completion of the 144th cycle showed that both thrust, specific impulse, and arc voltage had increased over this period of operation. No life limiting mechanisms were observed during the course of the testing.

  2. Bucket foundations under lateral cyclic loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi

    To enable a prosperous development of offshore wind energy, economically feasible technologies must be developed. The monopod bucket foundation is likely to become a cost-effective sub-structure for offshore wind turbines and has the potential to make offshore wind more cost-competitive in the en......To enable a prosperous development of offshore wind energy, economically feasible technologies must be developed. The monopod bucket foundation is likely to become a cost-effective sub-structure for offshore wind turbines and has the potential to make offshore wind more cost......-competitive in the energy market. This thesis addresses issues concerning monopod bucket foundations in the hope of providing tools and ideas that could be used to optimize the design of this sub-structure. The work is focussed on the behaviour of bucket foundations under lateral cyclic loading. Other related...... and propaedeutic topics, such as bucket foundations under transient lateral loading and under monotonic lateral loading, are also investigated. All the scientific work is fundamentally based on small-scale experimental tests of bucket foundations in dense water-saturated sand. The most important scientific...

  3. Interuniversal entanglement in a cyclic multiverse (United States)

    Robles-Pérez, Salvador; Balcerzak, Adam; Dąbrowski, Mariusz P.; Krämer, Manuel


    We study scenarios of parallel cyclic multiverses which allow for a different evolution of the physical constants, while having the same geometry. These universes are classically disconnected, but quantum-mechanically entangled. Applying the thermodynamics of entanglement, we calculate the temperature and the entropy of entanglement. It emerges that the entropy of entanglement is large at big bang and big crunch singularities of the parallel universes as well as at the maxima of the expansion of these universes. The latter seems to confirm earlier studies that quantum effects are strong at turning points of the evolution of the universe performed in the context of the timeless nature of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation and decoherence. On the other hand, the entropy of entanglement at big rip singularities is going to zero despite its presumably quantum nature. This may be an effect of total dissociation of the universe structures into infinitely separated patches violating the null energy condition. However, the temperature of entanglement is large/infinite at every classically singular point and at maximum expansion and seems to be a better measure of quantumness.

  4. Simulations of Granular Particles Under Cyclic Shear (United States)

    Royer, John; Chaikin, Paul


    We perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of spherical grains subjected to cyclic, quasi-static shear in a 3D parallelepiped shear cell. This virtual shear cell is constructed out of rough, bumpy walls in order to minimize wall-induced ordering and has an open top surface to allow the packing to readily dilate or compact. Using a standard routine for MD simulations of frictional grains, we simulate over 1000 shear cycles, measuring grain displacements, the local packing density and changes in the contact network. Varying the shear amplitude and the friction coefficient between grains, we map out a phase diagram for the different types of behavior exhibited by these sheared grains. With low friction and high enough shear, the grains can spontaneously order into densely packed crystals. With low shear and increasing friction the packing remains disordered, yet the grains arrange themselves into configurations which exhibit limit cycles where all grains return to the same position after each full shear cycle. At higher shear and friction there is a transition to a diffusive state, where grains continue rearrange and move throughout the shear cell.

  5. Copper Regulates Cyclic AMP-Dependent Lipolysis (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, Lakshmi; Cotruvo, Joseph A.; Chan, Jefferson; Kaluarachchi, Harini; Muchenditsi, Abigael; Pendyala, Venkata S.; Jia, Shang; Aron, Allegra T.; Ackerman, Cheri M.; Vander Wal, Mark N.; Guan, Timothy; Smaga, Lukas P.; Farhi, Samouil L.; New, Elizabeth J.; Lutsenko, Svetlana; Chang, Christopher J.


    Cell signaling relies extensively on dynamic pools of redox-inactive metal ions such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and zinc, but their redox-active transition metal counterparts such as copper and iron have been studied primarily as static enzyme cofactors. Here we report that copper is an endogenous regulator of lipolysis, the breakdown of fat, which is an essential process in maintaining the body's weight and energy stores. Utilizing a murine model of genetic copper misregulation, in combination with pharmacological alterations in copper status and imaging studies in a 3T3-L1 white adipocyte model, we demonstrate that copper regulates lipolysis at the level of the second messenger, cyclic AMP (cAMP), by altering the activity of the cAMP-degrading phosphodiesterase PDE3B. Biochemical studies of the copper-PDE3B interaction establish copper-dependent inhibition of enzyme activity and identify a key conserved cysteine residue within a PDE3-specific loop that is essential for the observed copper-dependent lipolytic phenotype. PMID:27272565

  6. Noise-guided evolution within cyclical interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perc, Matjaz; Szolnoki, Attila


    We study a stochastic predator-prey model on a square lattice, where each of the six species has two superior and two inferior partners. The invasion probabilities between species depend on the predator-prey pair and are supplemented by Gaussian noise. Conditions are identified that warrant the largest impact of noise on the evolutionary process, and the results of Monte Carlo simulations are qualitatively reproduced by a four-point cluster dynamical mean-field approximation. The observed noise-guided evolution is deeply routed in short-range spatial correlations, which is supported by simulations on other host lattice topologies. Our findings are conceptually related to the coherence resonance phenomenon in dynamical systems via the mechanism of threshold duality. We also show that the introduced concept of noise-guided evolution via the exploitation of threshold duality is not limited to predator-prey cyclical interactions, but may apply to models of evolutionary game theory as well, thus indicating its applicability in several different fields of research

  7. Neutron structure of the cyclic glucose-bound xylose isomerase E186Q mutant. (United States)

    Munshi, Parthapratim; Snell, Edward H; van der Woerd, Mark J; Judge, Russell A; Myles, Dean A A; Ren, Zhong; Meilleur, Flora


    Ketol-isomerases catalyze the reversible isomerization between aldoses and ketoses. D-Xylose isomerase carries out the first reaction in the catabolism of D-xylose, but is also able to convert D-glucose to D-fructose. The first step of the reaction is an enzyme-catalyzed ring opening of the cyclic substrate. The active-site amino-acid acid/base pair involved in ring opening has long been investigated and several models have been proposed. Here, the structure of the xylose isomerase E186Q mutant with cyclic glucose bound at the active site, refined against joint X-ray and neutron diffraction data, is reported. Detailed analysis of the hydrogen-bond networks at the active site of the enzyme suggests that His54, which is doubly protonated, is poised to protonate the glucose O5 position, while Lys289, which is neutral, promotes deprotonation of the glucose O1H hydroxyl group via an activated water molecule. The structure also reveals an extended hydrogen-bonding network that connects the conserved residues Lys289 and Lys183 through three structurally conserved water molecules and residue 186, which is a glutamic acid to glutamine mutation.

  8. Effect of some cyclooxygenase inhibitors on the increase in guanosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate induced by NO-donors in human whole platelets (United States)

    Failli, Paola; Cecchi, Enrica; Tosti-Guerra, Cristina; Mugelli, Alessandro; Laffi, Giacomo; Zilletti, Lucilla; Giotti, Alberto


    The effect of the NSAIDs indomethacin, indoprofen, diclofenac and acetylsalicylic acid on the increase in guanosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP) induced by nitric oxide-donor agents was tested in human whole platelets and in platelet crude homogenate.In whole platelets, indomethacin reduced the increase in cyclic GMP induced by the nitric oxide-donors (NO-donors) sodium nitroprusside (NaNP) and S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) in a dose-dependent way, its IC50 being 13.7 μM and 15.8 μM, respectively.Of the other cyclooxygenase inhibitors tested, only indoprofen reduced the increase in cyclic GMP induced by both NO-donors in a dose-dependent way (IC50=32.7 μM, NaNP and 25.0 μM, SNAP), while acetylsalicylic acid (up to 1000 μM) and diclofenac (up to 100 μM) were ineffective.However, in platelet crude homogenate neither indomethacin nor indoprofen reduced the cyclic GMP production.Indomethacin (10 μM), indoprofen (30 μM), diclofenac (100 μM) and acetylsalicylic acid (1000 μM) showed a comparable efficacy in inhibiting platelet thromboxane B2 (TXB2) production, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of indomethacin and indoprofen on the increase in cyclic GMP induced by both NO-donors was not mediated by inhibition of cyclooxygenase.In vitro, the NSAIDs analysed did not interfere with nitrite production of SNAP.The unhomogeneous behaviour of NSAIDs on the increase in cyclic GMP induced by NO-donors in whole platelets may contribute to the different pharmacological and toxicological characteristics of the drugs, providing new knowledge on the effect of indomethacin and indoprofen. PMID:9579743

  9. Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate-Independent Mutants of the Lactose Operon of Escherichia coli (United States)

    Arditti, Rita; Grodzicker, Terri; Beckwith, Jon


    In Escherichia coli the transcription of the lactose operon, like other catabolite-sensitive operons, requires catabolite gene activator protein and 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate in addition to ribonucleic acid polymerase. We isolated and analyzed lac+ revertants from a crp− strain of E. coli. We found that revertants with a higher level of expression only for the lac operon lie in the lac promoter region. These promoter mutations have no effect on operator or repressor function. Two of the revertants in which the lesions have been more precisely mapped carry mutations in the operator proximal segment of the promoter. PMID:4350344

  10. Comparison of mixotrophic to cyclic autotrophic/heterotrophic growth strategies to optimize productivity of Chlorella sorokiniana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Wagenen, Jonathan Myerson; De Francisci, Davide; Angelidaki, Irini


    to autotrophic growth. Chlorella sorokiniana was cultivated in medium supplemented with sodium acetate in concentrations equivalent to the volatile fatty acid concentration found in anaerobic digester effluent. Flat-panel photobioreactors were operated using 16:8 light:dark cycles, with different strategies...... for acetate addition. Acetate was added during the light period for the mixotrophic strategy and during the dark one for the cyclic autotrophic/heterotrophic strategy. Autotrophic productivity of up to 0.99 g L−1 day−1 was obtained using the optimal tested dilution rate of 0.031 h−1. The highest mixotrophic...

  11. Centrifuge modelling of a laterally cyclic loaded pile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkvort, Rasmus Tofte; Leth, Caspar Thrane; Hededal, Ole


    A total number of 9 static and 6 cyclic centrifuge tests on laterally loaded piles in very dense, dry sand was erformed. The prototype dimensions of the piles were 1 meter in diameter and penetration depths varying from 6 to 10 meters. The static tests were used to investigate the initial subgrade...... reaction modulus and as a reference for cyclic tests. For the cyclic tests the accumulation of deflections and the change in secant stiffness of the soil from repetitive loading were investigated. From all the tests carried out accumulations of deflections were seen. rom the centrifuge tests it was seen...

  12. Laterally cyclic loading of monopile in dense sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkvort, Rasmus Tofte; Hededal, Ole; Svensson, M.


    In order to investigate the response from laterally cyclic loading of monopiles a large centrifuge tests series is ongoing at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). This paper will present some of the tests carried out with a focus on the influence of accumulation of rotation when changing...... the loading conditions. In these tests the load conditions are controlled by two load characteristics, one controlling the level of the cyclic loading and one controlling the characteristic of the cyclic loading. The centrifuge tests were performed in dense dry sand on a pile with prototype dimensions...

  13. Influence of cyclic torsional preloading on cyclic fatigue resistance of nickel - titanium instruments. (United States)

    Pedullà, E; Lo Savio, F; Boninelli, S; Plotino, G; Grande, N M; Rapisarda, E; La Rosa, G


    To evaluate the effect of different torsional preloads on cyclic fatigue resistance of endodontic rotary instruments constructed from conventional nickel-titanium (NiTi), M-Wire or CM-Wire. Eighty new size 25, 0.06 taper Mtwo instruments (Sweden & Martina), size 25, 0.06 taper HyFlex CM (Coltene/Whaledent, Inc) and X2 ProTaper Next (Dentsply Maillefer) were used. The Torque and distortion angles at failure of new instruments (n = 10) were measured, and 0% (n = 10), 25%, 50% and 75% (n = 20) of the mean ultimate torsional strength as preloading condition were applied according to ISO 3630-1 for each brand. The twenty files tested for every extent of preload were subjected to 20 or 40 torsional cycles (n = 10). After torsional preloading, the number of cycles to failure was evaluated in a simulated canal with 60° angle of curvature and 5 mm of radius of curvature. Data were analysed using two-way analysis of variance. The fracture surface of each fragment was examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Data were analysed by two-way analyses of variance. Preload repetitions did not influence the cyclic fatigue of the three brands; however, the 25%, 50% and 75% torsional preloading significantly reduced the fatigue resistance of all instruments tested (P 0.05). Torsional preloads reduced the cyclic fatigue resistance of conventional and treated (M-wire and CM-wire) NiTi rotary instruments except for size 25, 0.06 taper HyFlex CM instruments with a 25% of torsional preloading. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Cyclic response and early damage evolution in multiaxial cyclic loading of 316L austenitic steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mazánová, Veronika; Škorík, Viktor; Kruml, Tomáš; Polák, Jaroslav


    Roč. 100, JUL (2017), s. 466-476 ISSN 0142-1123 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015069; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-23652S; GA ČR GA15-08826S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : 316L steel * Crack initiation * Cyclic plasticity * Damage mechanism * Multiaxial straining Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics OBOR OECD: Audio engineering, reliability analysis Impact factor: 2.899, year: 2016

  15. Opposite effects of different hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane) isomers on cerebellar cyclic GMP: relation of cyclic GMP accumulation to seizure activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishman, B.E.; Gianutsos, G.


    A number of different depressant and convulsant agents have been shown to alter accumulation of cerebellar cyclic GMP. Since the different hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers elicit different pharmacological responses in mammals, the authors examined their effects on the accumulation of cerebellar cyclic GMP. Mice received one of the HCH isomers and were sacrificed for determination of cyclic GMP concentrations one hour later. Gamma-HCH increased cyclic GMP while alpha and delta -HCH decreased it. In addition, alpha and delta -HCH prevented the increase in cyclic GMP due to the gamma isomer. Picrotoxin increased cyclic GMP in a manner similar to that of gamma-HCH while strychnine produced only a small increase. All three HCH isomers inhibited the binding of 3 H-TBOB (a ligand for the GABA-A-receptor linked chloride channel) in mouse cerebellum. It is concluded the different HCH isomers can have different effects on cerebellar cyclic GMP accumulation and that these effects may mediated through actions at the GABA-A receptor linked chloride channel. 15 references, 1 figure, 3 tables

  16. The Chemistry of Cyclic All-Nitrogen Molecules

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wodtke, Alec M


    ..., $474,927, February 15, 2004 - December 31, 2006. During this period, we have extended our preliminary investigations of azide photochemistry, with the aim of demonstrating unambiguously the photochemical production of cyclic-N, and of revealing...

  17. Riboflavin in cyclic vomiting syndrome: efficacy in three children. (United States)

    Martinez-Esteve Melnikova, Anastasia; Schäppi, Michela G; Korff, Christian


    Cyclic vomiting syndrome is an episodic disorder considered to be a migraine variant. Riboflavin is efficient in the prophylactic treatment of migraines in adults. We describe the effectiveness and tolerance of riboflavin treatment in three children with cyclic vomiting syndrome. All of them fulfilled the diagnosis criteria for cyclic vomiting syndrome. They received prophylactic monotherapy with riboflavin for at least 12 months. Excellent response and tolerability was observed. Based on clinical observation in three cases, riboflavin may be an effective and safe prophylactic treatment for children with cyclic vomiting syndrome. CVS is one of the "childhood periodic syndromes" classified as a migraine subtype by the International Headache Society. Riboflavin is currently used as a prophylactic treatment in patients with migraine. Riboflavin may be an effective and safe prophylactic treatment for children with CVS. Increasing doses of riboflavin and long periods of prophylaxis may be needed in some children..

  18. Monotonic and cyclic deformation behaviour of ultrafine-grained aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, J.; Amberger, D.; Dinkel, M.; Hoeppel, H.W.; Goeken, M.


    The effect of the enhanced strain-rate sensitivity (SRS) of ultrafine-grained commercially pure aluminium Al 99.5 on the mechanical properties under monotonic as well as under cyclic loading was investigated. Compared with the conventional grain-sized counterpart, for the monotonic tests, a strongly enhanced strength combined with a high ductility was obtained, depending on the strain rate. The enhanced SRS also affects the cyclic deformation behaviour and the fatigue lives. At a lower strain rate shorter fatigue lives and a different cyclic hardening behaviour are observed. Microstructural changes during cyclic deformation are investigated by X-ray diffraction profile analysis. Based on the fatigue behaviour and the X-ray diffraction profile analysis, thermally activated annihilation processes of dislocations are regarded to be the relevant deformation mechanism leading to enhanced SRS and ductility

  19. Cyclical Cohabitation Among Unmarried Parents in Fragile Families. (United States)

    Nepomnyaschy, Lenna; Teitler, Julien


    Building on past research suggesting that cohabitation is an ambiguous family form, the authors examined an understudied residential pattern among unmarried parents: cyclical cohabitation, in which parents have multiple cohabitation spells with each other. Using 9 years of panel data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study ( N = 2,084), they found that 10% of all parents with nonmarital births, and nearly a quarter of those living together when the child is 9 years old, are cyclical cohabitors. Cyclically cohabiting mothers reported more material hardships than mothers in most other relationship patterns but also reported more father involvement with children. On all measures of child well-being, except grade retention, children of cyclically cohabiting parents fared no worse than children of stably cohabiting biological parents and did not differ significantly from any other group.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyl Karpiuk


    Full Text Available This article describes the study of reinforced concrete span bending structures under conditions of high-level cyclic loading. Previous studies on the development of physical models of bending reinforced concrete element fatigue resistance, cyclic effect of lateral forces, and methods of calculation, are important and appropriate owing to certain features and the essential specificity of the mentioned loading type. These primarily include the nonlinearity of deformation, damage accumulation in the form of fatigue micro- and macro-cracks, and exhausting destruction of construction materials. In this paper, key expressions determining the endurance limits of concrete, longitudinal reinforcement, and anchoring longitudinal reinforcement, which contribute to endurance throughout the entire construction, are considered. Establishing a link between stresses in the elements and deformations in the element under conditions of cyclic loading action is of equal importance because of the presence of cyclic stress-induced creep deformation.

  1. The Cyclical Relationship Approach in Teaching Basic Accounting Principles. (United States)

    Golen, Steven


    Shows how teachers can provide a more meaningful presentation of various accounting principles by illustrating them through a cyclical relationship approach. Thus, the students see the entire accounting relationship as a result of doing business. (CT)

  2. A Novel Cyclic Catalytic Reformer for Hydrocarbon Fuels, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposed Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Phase I addresses development of a compact reformer system based on a cyclic partial oxidation (POx)...

  3. Safety Discrete Event Models for Holonic Cyclic Manufacturing Systems (United States)

    Ciufudean, Calin; Filote, Constantin

    In this paper the expression “holonic cyclic manufacturing systems” refers to complex assembly/disassembly systems or fork/join systems, kanban systems, and in general, to any discrete event system that transforms raw material and/or components into products. Such a system is said to be cyclic if it provides the same sequence of products indefinitely. This paper considers the scheduling of holonic cyclic manufacturing systems and describes a new approach using Petri nets formalism. We propose an approach to frame the optimum schedule of holonic cyclic manufacturing systems in order to maximize the throughput while minimize the work in process. We also propose an algorithm to verify the optimum schedule.

  4. Synthesis and Catalytic Activity of Two New Cyclic Tetraaza Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard König


    Full Text Available Two new chiral cyclic tetraaza ligands were synthesized and characterized. Their catalytic activity was tested in the asymmetric addition of diethylzinc to benzaldehyde. The expected secondary alcohol was obtained in moderate yields, but with very low enantioselectivity.

  5. Cyclical mastalgia: Prevalence and associated determinants in Hamadan City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Shobeiri


    Conclusions: Most of women with breast discomfort suffered cyclical mastalgia which severity can be determined by advanced age, age of marriage, history of abortion and history of premenstrual syndrome, but inversely by oral contraceptive use and exercise activity.

  6. Association of Marijuana Use and Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithun B. Pattathan


    Full Text Available Cannabis use has become one of the most commonly abused drugs in the world. It is estimated that each year 2.6 million individuals in the USA become new users and most are younger than 19 years of age. Reports describe marijuana use as high as 40–50% in male Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome patients. It is this interest in cannabis in the World, coupled with recognition of a cyclic vomiting illness associated with its chronic use that beckons a review of the most current articles, as well as a contribution from our own experiences in this area. The similarities we have demonstrated for both cannibinoid hyperemesis syndrome and cyclic vomiting make the case that cannibinoid hyperemesis syndrome is a subset of patients who have the diagnoses of cyclic vomiting syndrome and the role of marijuana should always be considered in the diagnosis of CVS, particularly in males.

  7. Quantum Codes From Cyclic Codes Over The Ring R 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altinel, Alev; Güzeltepe, Murat


    Let R 2 denotes the ring F 2 + μF 2 + υ 2 + μυ F 2 + wF 2 + μwF 2 + υwF 2 + μυwF 2 . In this study, we construct quantum codes from cyclic codes over the ring R 2 , for arbitrary length n, with the restrictions μ 2 = 0, υ 2 = 0, w 2 = 0, μυ = υμ, μw = wμ, υw = wυ and μ (υw) = (μυ) w. Also, we give a necessary and sufficient condition for cyclic codes over R 2 that contains its dual. As a final point, we obtain the parameters of quantum error-correcting codes from cyclic codes over R 2 and we give an example of quantum error-correcting codes form cyclic codes over R 2 . (paper)

  8. Cyclic viscoelasticity and viscoplasticity of polypropylene/clay nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drozdov, Aleksey; Christiansen, Jesper de Claville; Hog Lejre, Anne-Lise


    Observations are reported in tensile relaxation tests under stretching and retraction on poly-propylene/clay nanocomposites with various contents of filler. A two-phase constitutive model is developed in cyclic viscoelasticity and viscoplasticity of hybrid nanocomposites. Adjustable parameters...

  9. Defense gene induction in tobacco by nitric oxide, cyclic GMP, and cyclic ADP-ribose. (United States)

    Durner, J; Wendehenne, D; Klessig, D F


    Reactive oxygen species are believed to perform multiple roles during plant defense responses to microbial attack, acting in the initial defense and possibly as cellular signaling molecules. In animals, nitric oxide (NO) is an important redox-active signaling molecule. Here we show that infection of resistant, but not susceptible, tobacco with tobacco mosaic virus resulted in enhanced NO synthase (NOS) activity. Furthermore, administration of NO donors or recombinant mammalian NOS to tobacco plants or tobacco suspension cells triggered expression of the defense-related genes encoding pathogenesis-related 1 protein and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL). These genes were also induced by cyclic GMP (cGMP) and cyclic ADP-ribose, two molecules that can serve as second messengers for NO signaling in mammals. Consistent with cGMP acting as a second messenger in tobacco, NO treatment induced dramatic and transient increases in endogenous cGMP levels. Furthermore, NO-induced activation of PAL was blocked by 6-anilino-5,8-quinolinedione and 1H-(1,2,4)-oxadiazole[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, two inhibitors of guanylate cyclase. Although 6-anilino-5,8-quinolinedione fully blocked PAL activation, inhibition by 1H-(1,2,4)-oxadiazole[4, 3-a]quinoxalin-1-one was not entirely complete, suggesting the existence of cGMP-independent, as well as cGMP-dependent, NO signaling. We conclude that several critical players of animal NO signaling are also operative in plants.

  10. Paediatric cyclical Cushing's disease due to corticotroph cell hyperplasia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Noctor, E


    Cushing\\'s disease is very rare in the paediatric population. Although uncommon, corticotroph hyperplasia causing Cushing\\'s syndrome has been described in the adult population, but appears to be extremely rare in children. Likewise, cyclical cortisol hypersecretion, while accounting for 15 % of adult cases of Cushing\\'s disease, has only rarely been described in the paediatric population. Here, we describe a very rare case of a 13-year old boy with cyclical cortisol hypersecretion secondary to corticotroph cell hyperplasia.

  11. Microgravity changes in heart structure and cyclic-AMP metabolism (United States)

    Philpott, D. E.; Fine, A.; Kato, K.; Egnor, R.; Cheng, L.


    The effects of microgravity on cardiac ultrastructure and cyclic AMP metabolism in tissues of rats flown on Spacelab 3 are reported. Light and electron microscope studies of cell structure, measurements of low and high Km phosphodiesterase activity, cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity, and regulatory subunit compartmentation show significant deviations in flight animals when compared to ground controls. The results indicate that some changes have occurred in cellular responses associated with catecholamine receptor interactions and intracellular signal processing.

  12. Multiaxial elastoplastic cyclic loading of austenitic 316L steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mazánová, Veronika; Polák, Jaroslav; Škorík, Viktor; Kruml, Tomáš


    Roč. 11, č. 40 (2017), s. 162-169 ISSN 1971-8993 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-23652S; GA MŠk LM2015069; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601; GA ČR GA15-08826S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : 316L steel * Crack initiation * Cyclic stress-strain curve * Multiaxial cyclic loading Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics OBOR OECD: Audio engineering, reliability analysis

  13. Facile and Green Synthesis of Saturated Cyclic Amines. (United States)

    Hameed, Arruje; Javed, Sadia; Noreen, Razia; Huma, Tayyaba; Iqbal, Sarosh; Umbreen, Huma; Gulzar, Tahsin; Farooq, Tahir


    Single-nitrogen containing saturated cyclic amines are an important part of both natural and synthetic bioactive compounds. A number of methodologies have been developed for the synthesis of aziridines, azetidines, pyrrolidines, piperidines, azepanes and azocanes. This review highlights some facile and green synthetic routes for the synthesis of unsubstituted, multisubstituted and highly functionalized saturated cyclic amines including one-pot, microwave assisted, metal-free, solvent-free and in aqueous media.

  14. Global optimization of cyclic Kannan nonexpansive mappings in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consider a self-mapping T defined on a union of two subsets A and B of a Banach space such that T(A) ⊆ B and T(B) ⊆ A. In this work we survey the existence of an optimal approximate solution, known as a best proximity point for a class of cyclic mappings, called cyclic Kannan nonexpansive mappings, in Banach spaces ...

  15. Facile and Green Synthesis of Saturated Cyclic Amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arruje Hameed


    Full Text Available Single-nitrogen containing saturated cyclic amines are an important part of both natural and synthetic bioactive compounds. A number of methodologies have been developed for the synthesis of aziridines, azetidines, pyrrolidines, piperidines, azepanes and azocanes. This review highlights some facile and green synthetic routes for the synthesis of unsubstituted, multisubstituted and highly functionalized saturated cyclic amines including one-pot, microwave assisted, metal-free, solvent-free and in aqueous media.

  16. The role of opportunistic migration in cyclic games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Buesser

    Full Text Available We study cyclic evolutionary games in a spatial diluted grid environment in which agents strategically interact locally but can also opportunistically move to other positions within a given migration radius. We find that opportunistic migration can inverse the cyclic prevalence between the strategies when the frequency of random imitation is large enough compared to the payoff-driven imitation. At the transition the average size of the patterns diverges and this threatens diversity of strategies.

  17. Similarity analysis, synthesis, and bioassay of antibacterial cyclic peptidomimetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Workalemahu M. Berhanu


    Full Text Available The chemical similarity of antibacterial cyclic peptides and peptidomimetics was studied in order to identify new promising cyclic scaffolds. A large descriptor space coupled with cluster analysis was employed to digitize known antibacterial structures and to gauge the potential of new peptidomimetic macrocycles, which were conveniently synthesized by acylbenzotriazole methodology. Some of the synthesized compounds were tested against an array of microorganisms and showed antibacterial activity against Bordetella bronchistepica, Micrococcus luteus, and Salmonella typhimurium.

  18. Comparison Of INAA Methods (Long Conventional, Cyclic And Pseudo-Cyclic) For The Determination Of Se In Biological Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarheel, A.


    Selenium content in serum blood, sample were received from international comparison programme (SABC) has been determined by Cyclic irradiation, pseudo-cyclic irradiation and long irradiation conventional Instrumental neutron activation analysis through the 162 keV gamma ray of the 77m Se nuclide for both cyclic and pseudo-cyclic and 264 keV gamma ray of 75 Se nuclide for conventional (long irradiation). The CINAA involve irradiation of samples for 20 s, decay for 15 s and counting for 20 s, samples recycling four times to improve the precision. The PCINAA involve irradiation of samples for 20 s, decay for 20 s and counting for 30s, samples recycling four times day by day. The Conventional (long irradiation) involve irradiation of samples for 20 hr (1 week), decay for 4 weeks and counting for 20 hr. The accuracy has been evaluated by analyzing the certified reference materials. (Author)

  19. Effect of cyclic torsional preloading on cyclic fatigue resistance of ProTaper Next and Mtwo nickel–titanium instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Pedullà


    Conclusions: Torsional preloads reduced the cyclic fatigue resistance of M-wire and conventional (as ProTaper Next and Mtwo NiTi rotary instruments except for Mtwo with 25% or 50% of torsional preloading.

  20. Circulant Arrays on Cyclic Subgroups of Finite Fields: Rank Analysis and Construction of Quasi-Cyclic LDPC Codes


    Zhang, Li; Lin, Shu; Abdel-Ghaffar, Khaled; Ding, Zhi; Zhou, Bo


    This paper consists of three parts. The first part presents a large class of new binary quasi-cyclic (QC)-LDPC codes with girth of at least 6 whose parity-check matrices are constructed based on cyclic subgroups of finite fields. Experimental results show that the codes constructed perform well over the binary-input AWGN channel with iterative decoding using the sum-product algorithm (SPA). The second part analyzes the ranks of the p...

  1. Peptídeos cíclicos de biomassa vegetal: características, diversidade, biossíntese e atividades biológicas Cyclic peptide from plant biomass: chemical features and diversity, biosynthesis and biological activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Gatte Picchi


    Full Text Available Natural peptides are outstanding as the most promising macromolecules in the search for new drugs, especially those of cyclic nature. The higher plants revealed a very peculiar composition of their cyclic peptides, which distinguish themselves by a "head-to-tail" cyclization. It is possible to define two groups of cyclic peptides from plant biomass. Those called in this review as Eucyclopeptides formed by 2-12 amino acid, and Cyclotides considered as circular polypeptides, composed of 29-37 amino acid that retain three disulfides bridges in an arrangement known as cyclic cystine knot. Searching for plant peptides should form into a subject for scientific research in the forefront of great importance for bioprospecting natural products macromolecular.

  2. Effect of Surgical Removal of Endometriomas on Cyclic and Non-cyclic Pelvic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Api


    Full Text Available Background: Endometriosis is a complex disease with a spectrum of pain symptoms from mild dysmenorrhea to debilitating pelvic pain. There is no concrete evidence in the literature whether endometriotic cyst per se, causes pain spectrum related to the disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of surgical removal of endometriomas on pain symptoms. Materials and Methods: In this prospective, observational, before-after study, which was conducted between March 2012 and January 2013 in Training and Research Hospital,Adana, Turkey, a total of 23 patients including 16 sexually active and 7 virgin symptomatic women were questioned for non-cyclic pelvic pain (NCPP, intensity of the NCPP, presence of cyclic dysmenorrhea, and dyspareunia before and after the endometrioma operation. Participants who were sonographically diagnosed and later pathologically confirmed as having endometrioma without sign and symptoms of deep infiltrative endometriosis (DIE were also questioned for pain symptoms before and after the laparoscopic removal of cyst wall. Patients with intraabdominal adhesions, history of pelvic inflammatory disease, and pathological diagnosis other than endometrioma were excluded. No ancillary procedures were applied for pain management, but if pain was present, pelvic peritoneal endometriotic lesions were ablated beside the removal of ovarian endometriotic cysts. Results: Out of 23 cases with endometrioma, 91 and 78% reported to have NCPP and dysmenorrhea, respectively, before the operation, while 60 and 48%, respectively, after the operation (McNemar’s test, P=0.016 for both figures. Among the sexually active cases, 31% (5/16 had dyspareunia before the operation and only 1 case reported the pain relief after the operation (McNemar’s test, P=1. Intensity of NCPP were reported to be none (8.7%, moderate (21.7%, severe (56.5% and unbearable (13% before the operation and decreased to none (43.5%, mild (43.5%, moderate (4

  3. Evolutionary and structural perspectives of plant cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channels

    KAUST Repository

    Zelman, Alice K.


    Ligand-gated cation channels are a frequent component of signaling cascades in eukaryotes. Eukaryotes contain numerous diverse gene families encoding ion channels, some of which are shared and some of which are unique to particular kingdoms. Among the many different types are cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGCs). CNGCs are cation channels with varying degrees of ion conduction selectivity. They are implicated in numerous signaling pathways and permit diffusion of divalent and monovalent cations, including Ca2+ and K+. CNGCs are present in both plant and animal cells, typically in the plasma membrane; recent studies have also documented their presence in prokaryotes. All eukaryote CNGC polypeptides have a cyclic nucleotide-binding domain and a calmodulin binding domain as well as a six transmembrane/one pore tertiary structure. This review summarizes existing knowledge about the functional domains present in these cation-conducting channels, and considers the evidence indicating that plant and animal CNGCs evolved separately. Additionally, an amino acid motif that is only found in the phosphate binding cassette and hinge regions of plant CNGCs, and is present in all experimentally confirmed CNGCs but no other channels was identified. This CNGC-specific amino acid motif provides an additional diagnostic tool to identify plant CNGCs, and can increase confidence in the annotation of open reading frames in newly sequenced genomes as putative CNGCs. Conversely, the absence of the motif in some plant sequences currently identified as probable CNGCs may suggest that they are misannotated or protein fragments. 2012 Zelman, Dawe, Gehring and Berkowitz.

  4. The Role of Cyclic Nucleotide Signaling Pathways in Cancer: Targets for Prevention and Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fajardo, Alexandra M.; Piazza, Gary A. [Drug Discovery Research Center, Mitchell Cancer Institute, University of South Alabama, 1660 Springhill Ave, Suite 3029, Mobile, AL 36604 (United States); Tinsley, Heather N., E-mail: [Department of Biology, Chemistry, and Mathematics, University of Montevallo, Station 6480, Montevallo, AL 35115 (United States)


    For more than four decades, the cyclic nucleotides cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cyclic GMP (cGMP) have been recognized as important signaling molecules within cells. Under normal physiological conditions, cyclic nucleotides regulate a myriad of biological processes such as cell growth and adhesion, energy homeostasis, neuronal signaling, and muscle relaxation. In addition, altered cyclic nucleotide signaling has been observed in a number of pathophysiological conditions, including cancer. While the distinct molecular alterations responsible for these effects vary depending on the specific cancer type, several studies have demonstrated that activation of cyclic nucleotide signaling through one of three mechanisms—induction of cyclic nucleotide synthesis, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide degradation, or activation of cyclic nucleotide receptors—is sufficient to inhibit proliferation and activate apoptosis in many types of cancer cells. These findings suggest that targeting cyclic nucleotide signaling can provide a strategy for the discovery of novel agents for the prevention and/or treatment of selected cancers.

  5. A random search algorithm for cyclic delivery synchronization problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Gdowska


    Full Text Available Background: The paper is devoted to the cyclic delivery synchronization problem with vehicles serving fixed routes. Each vehicle is assigned to a fixed route: the series of supplier’s and logistic centers to be visited one after another. For each route the service frequency is fixed and known in advance. A vehicle loads at a supplier’s, then it delivers goods to a logistic center and either loads other goods there and delivers them to the next logistic center along the route or goes to another logistic center. Each logistic center can belong to several routes, so goods are delivered there with one vehicle and then they departure for the further journey with another truck. The objective of this cyclic delivery synchronization problem is to maximize the total number of synchronizations of vehicles arrivals in logistic centers and their load times, so that it is possible to organize their arrivals in repeatable blocks. Methods: Basing on the previously developed mathematical model for the cyclic delivery synchronization problem we built a random search algorithm for cyclic delivery synchronization problem. The random heuristic search utilizes objective-oriented randomizing. In the paper the newly-developed random search algorithm for cyclic delivery synchronization problem is presented. Results: A computational experiment consisted of employing the newly-developed random search algorithm for solving a series of cyclic delivery synchronization problems. Results obtained with the algorithm were compared with solutions computed with the exact method. Conclusions: The newly-developed random search algorithm for cyclic delivery synchronization problem gives results which are considerably close to the ones obtained with mixed-integer programming. The main advantage of the algorithm is reduction of computing time; it is relevant for utilization of this method in practice, especially for large-sized problems.

  6. cis-Apa: a practical linker for the microwave-assisted preparation of cyclic pseudopeptides via RCM cyclative cleavage. (United States)

    Baron, Alice; Verdié, Pascal; Martinez, Jean; Lamaty, Frédéric


    A new linker cis-5-aminopent-3-enoic acid (cis-Apa) was prepared for the synthesis of cyclic pseudopeptides by cyclization-cleavage by using ring-closing methatesis (RCM). We developed a new synthetic pathway for the preparation of the cis-Apa linker that was tested in the cyclization-cleavage process of different RGD peptide sequences. Different macrocyclic peptidomimetics were prepared by using this integrated microwave-assisted method, showing that the readily available cis-Apa amino acid is well adapted as a linker in the cyclization-cleavage process.

  7. Labaditin, a novel cyclic decapeptide from the latex of Jatropha multifade L. (Eurphorbiaceae); Isolation and sequence determination by means of two-dimensional NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosasi, S.; Sluis, W.G. van der; Hart, L.A. ' t; Labadie, R.P. (Utrecht University (Netherlands). Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacognosy); Boelens, R. (Utrecht University (Netherlands). Department of Chemistry)


    An immunologically active novel cyclic decapeptide, consisting of 1 Ala, 2 Gly, 1 Ile, 2 Thr, 2 Trp and 2 Val, has been isolated from the latex of Jatropha multifida L. (Euphorbiaceae). The structure was elucidated by means of amino acid analysis and FAB-mass spectroscopy. The animo acid sequence was obtained by two-dimensional {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy (COSY and NOESY). 12 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs.

  8. Cyclic Stretch Alters Vascular Reactivity of Mouse Aortic Segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Leloup


    Full Text Available Large, elastic arteries buffer the pressure wave originating in the left ventricle and are constantly exposed to higher amplitudes of cyclic stretch (10% than muscular arteries (2%. As a crucial factor for endothelial and smooth muscle cell function, cyclic stretch has, however, never been studied in ex vivo aortic segments of mice. To investigate the effects of cyclic stretch on vaso-reactivity of mouse aortic segments, we used the Rodent Oscillatory Tension Set-up to study Arterial Compliance (ROTSAC. The aortic segments were clamped at frequencies of 6–600 bpm between two variable preloads, thereby mimicking dilation as upon left ventricular systole and recoiling as during diastole. The preloads corresponding to different transmural pressures were chosen to correspond to a low, normal or high amplitude of cyclic stretch. At different time intervals, cyclic stretch was interrupted, the segments were afterloaded and isometric contractions by α1-adrenergic stimulation with 2 μM phenylephrine in the absence and presence of 300 μM L-NAME (eNOS inhibitor and/or 35 μM diltiazem (blocker of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels were measured. As compared with static or cyclic stretch at low amplitude (<10 mN or low frequency (0.1 Hz, cyclic stretch at physiological amplitude (>10 mN and frequency (1–10 Hz caused better ex vivo conservation of basal NO release with time after mounting. The relaxation of PE-precontracted segments by addition of ACh to stimulate NO release was unaffected by cyclic stretch. In the absence of basal NO release (hence, presence of L-NAME, physiological in comparison with aberrant cyclic stretch decreased the baseline tension, attenuated the phasic contraction by phenylephrine in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ and shifted the smaller tonic contraction more from a voltage-gated Ca2+ channel-mediated to a non-selective cation channel-mediated. Data highlight the need of sufficient mechanical activation of endothelial and

  9. Temperature Dependent Cyclic Deformation Mechanisms in Haynes 188 Superalloy (United States)

    Rao, K. Bhanu Sankara; Castelli, Michael G.; Allen, Gorden P.; Ellis, John R.


    The cyclic deformation behavior of a wrought cobalt-base superalloy, Haynes 188, has been investigated over a range of temperatures between 25 and 1000 C under isothermal and in-phase thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) conditions. Constant mechanical strain rates (epsilon-dot) of 10(exp -3)/s and 10(exp -4)/s were examined with a fully reversed strain range of 0.8%. Particular attention was given to the effects of dynamic strain aging (DSA) on the stress-strain response and low cycle fatigue life. A correlation between cyclic deformation behavior and microstructural substructure was made through detailed transmission electron microscopy. Although DSA was found to occur over a wide temperature range between approximately 300 and 750 C the microstructural characteristics and the deformation mechanisms responsible for DSA varied considerably and were dependent upon temperature. In general, the operation of DSA processes led to a maximum of the cyclic stress amplitude at 650 C and was accompanied by pronounced planar slip, relatively high dislocation density, and the generation of stacking faults. DSA was evidenced through a combination of phenomena, including serrated yielding, an inverse dependence of the maximum cyclic hardening with epsilon-dot, and an instantaneous inverse epsilon-dot sensitivity verified by specialized epsilon-dot -change tests. The TMF cyclic hardening behavior of the alloy appeared to be dictated by the substructural changes occuring at the maximum temperature in the TMF cycle.

  10. Degradation forecast for PEMFC cathode-catalysts under cyclic loads (United States)

    Moein-Jahromi, M.; Kermani, M. J.; Movahed, S.


    Degradation of Fuel Cell (FC) components under cyclic loads is one of the biggest bottlenecks in FC commercialization. In this paper, a novel experimental based algorithm is presented to predict the Catalyst Layer (CL) performance loss during cyclic load. The algorithm consists of two models namely Models 1 and 2. The Model 1 calculates the Electro-Chemical Surface Area (ECSA) and agglomerate size (e.g. agglomerate radius, rt,agg) for the catalyst layer under cyclic load. The Model 2 is the already-existing model from our earlier studies that computes catalyst performance with fixed structural parameters. Combinations of these two Models predict the CL performance under an arbitrary cyclic load. A set of parametric/sensitivity studies is performed to investigate the effects of operating parameters on the percentage of Voltage Degradation Rate (VDR%) with rank 1 for the most influential one. Amongst the considered parameters (such as: temperature, relative humidity, pressure, minimum and maximum voltage of the cyclic load), the results show that temperature and pressure have the most and the least influences on the VDR%, respectively. So that, increase of temperature from 60 °C to 80 °C leads to over 20% VDR intensification, the VDR will also reduce 1.41% by increasing pressure from 2 atm to 4 atm.

  11. Structure of a eukaryotic cyclic nucleotide-gated channel (United States)

    Li, Minghui; Zhou, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Shu; Michailidis, Ioannis; Gong, Ye; Su, Deyuan; Li, Huan; Li, Xueming; Yang, Jian


    Summary Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels are essential for vision and olfaction. They belong to the voltage-gated ion channel superfamily but their activities are controlled by intracellular cyclic nucleotides instead of transmembrane voltage. Here we report a 3.5 Å-resolution single-particle electron cryomicroscopy structure of a CNG channel from C. elegans in the cGMP-bound open state. The channel has an unusual voltage-sensor-like domain (VSLD), accounting for its deficient voltage dependence. A C-terminal linker connecting S6 and the cyclic nucleotide-binding domain interacts directly with both the VSLD and pore domain, forming a gating ring that couples conformational changes triggered by cyclic nucleotide binding to the gate. The selectivity filter is lined by the carboxylate side chains of a functionally important glutamate and three rings of backbone carbonyls. This structure provides a new framework for understanding mechanisms of ion permeation, gating and channelopathy of CNG channels and cyclic nucleotide modulation of related channels. PMID:28099415

  12. Cyclic creep and anelastic relaxation analysis of an ODS superalloy (United States)

    Nardone, Vincent C.; Kimmerle, William L.; Tien, John K.


    This paper documents the effect of stress and temperature on the cyclic minimum strain rate at two different loading frequencies for the oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) superalloy, INCONEL* MA 6000. The apparent stress exponent and activation energy for cyclic creep at both frequencies studied are shown to be greater than values observed for static creep. The large values of the stress exponent and activation energy for cyclic creep are proposed to result from anelastic strain storage delaying nonrecoverable creep during the on-load portion of the cyclic creep loading, such that the “effective stress” driving nonrecoverable creep is only a small fraction of the applied stress. In addition, the temperature dependence of the anelastic relaxation that occurs during the off-load portion of the cyclic creep loading is determined. The activation energy found for the relaxation process is equal to about one-half that for self-diffusion in nickel. A mechanism of localized climb of dislocations over the oxide dispersoids present in INCONEL MA 6000 is postulated to account for the observed activation energy of the relaxation process.

  13. Controlled cyclic stretch bioreactor for tissue-engineered heart valves. (United States)

    Syedain, Zeeshan H; Tranquillo, Robert T


    A tissue-engineered heart valve (TEHV) represents the ultimate valve replacement, especially for juvenile patients given its growth potential. To date, most TEHV bioreactors have been developed based on pulsed flow of culture medium through the valve lumen to induce strain in the leaflets. Using a strategy for controlled cyclic stretching of tubular constructs reported previously, we developed a controlled cyclic stretch bioreactor for TEHVs that leads to improved tensile and compositional properties. The TEHV is mounted inside a latex tube, which is then cyclically pressurized with culture medium. The root and leaflets stretch commensurately with the latex, the stretching being dictated by the stiffer latex and thus controllable. Medium is also perfused through the lumen at a slow rate in a flow loop to provide nutrient delivery. Fibrin-based TEHVs prepared with human dermal fibroblasts were subjected to three weeks of cyclic stretching with incrementally increasing strain amplitude. The TEHV possessed the tensile stiffness and stiffness anisotropy of leaflets from sheep pulmonary valves and could withstand cyclic pulmonary pressures with similar distension as for a sheep pulmonary artery.

  14. Evolutive masing model, cyclic plasticity, ageing and memory effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidoroff, F.


    Many models are proposed for the mechanical description of the cyclic behaviour of metals and used for structure analysis under cyclic loading. Such a model must include two basic features: Dissipative behaviour on each cycle (hysteresis loop); evolution of this behaviour during the material's life (cyclic hardening or softening, aging,...). However, if both aspects are present in most existing models, the balance between them may be quite different. Many metallurgical investigations have been performed about the microstructure and its evolution during cyclic loading, and it is desirable to introduce these informations in phenomenological models. The evolutive Masing model has been proposed to combine: the accuracy of hereditary models for the description of hysteresis on each cycle, the versatility of internal variables for the state description and evolution, a sufficient microstructural basis to make the interaction easier with microstructural investigations. The purpose of the present work is to discuss this model and to compare different evolution assumptions with respect to some memory effects (cyclic hardening and softening, multilevel tests, aging). Attention is limited to uniaxial, rate independent elasto-plastic behaviour

  15. Identification of cyclic peptides for facilitation of transcellular transport of phages across intestinal epithelium in vitro and in vivo. (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Shunsuke; Ito, Shingo; Kurogi-Hirayama, Mio; Ohtsuki, Sumio


    Methodology to enhance intestinal absorption of macromolecular drugs is an important challenge for developing next-generation biomedicines. So far, various cationic cell-penetrating peptides have been reported to facilitate uptake of certain bioactive proteins. However, cyclic peptides might be better candidates, as they are more metabolically stable than linear peptides. Accordingly, we hypothesized that suitable cyclic peptides would promote the absorption of macromolecules across intestinal epithelium. To test this idea, we adopted Caco-2 cell permeability assay as an in vitro human intestinal absorption model, and M13 phage as a model of macromolecules. Successive screenings of a phage library displaying cyclic heptapeptides via a short GGGS linker yielded 3 hits. Among them, phage displaying cyclic heptapeptide DNPGNET (DNP-phage) showed the greatest permeability across a Caco-2 cell monolayer and mouse intestinal epithelium. Interestingly, DNPGNET (DNP) does not contain any basic amino acids. Its isoelectric point (pI) was estimated to be 2.72. It did not reduce the viability or tight-junction integrity of Caco-2 cells at concentrations up to 100μM for 24h. Uptake of either DNP-phage or a fluorescence-labeled DNP derivative (AC-DNPGNET-CGGGS modified with 5/6-FAM at the C-terminal; the cysteines serve to generate the cyclic peptide via disulfide bond formation, and GGGS is the phage linker) by Caco-2 cells was inhibited by low temperature, unlabeled AC-DNPGNET-CGGGS and EIPA, a macropinocytosis inhibitor. Thus, DNP appears to facilitate transcellular permeability of phages via macropinocytosis, but not paracellular diffusion. These findings indicate that DNP is a promising candidate as a carrier to promote intestinal absorption of macromolecular drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Crack shielding degradation in alumina during cyclic fatigue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Attaoui, H.; Saadaoui, M. [LERSIM, Rabat (Morocco); INSA de Lyon, Villeurbanne (France). GEMPPM; Chevalier, J.; Fantozzi, G. [INSA de Lyon, Villeurbanne (France). GEMPPM


    R curve measurements before and after cyclic fatigue were performed on SENB specimens of coarse grain alumina to investigate fatigue effect. A significant drop of the crack growth resistance was observed after cyclic loading which could be associated to a decrease of the shielding effect due to bridging degradation. No variation was observed on the amount of degradation as the number of cycles increased for a maximum applied load, K{sub max} of 50% of the K{sub R} value before cyclic loading, K{sub f}, whereas an increase was observed for K{sub max}/K{sub f} = 0.7, when the critical number of cycles corresponding to failure was approached. (orig.)

  17. Cyclic AMP system in muscle tissue during prolonged hypokinesia (United States)

    Antipenko, Y. A.; Bubeyev, Y. A.; Korovkin, B. F.; Mikhaleva, N. P.


    Components of the cyclic Adenosine-cyclic-35-monophosphate (AMP) system in the muscle tissue of white rats were studied during 70-75 days of hypokinesia, created by placing the animals in small booths which restricted their movements, and during the readaptation period. In the initial period, cyclic AMP levels and the activities of phosphodiesterase and adenylate cyclase in muscle tissue were increased. The values for these indices were roughly equal for controls and experimental animals during the adaptation period, but on the 70th day of the experiment cAMP levels dropped, phosphodiesterase activity increased, and the stimulative effect of epinephrine on the activity of adenylate cyclase decreased. The indices under study normalized during the readaptation period.

  18. Durability of Modified Expanded Polystyrene Concrete after Dynamic Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Shi


    Full Text Available EPS concrete was produced by mixing the expanded polystyrene spheres (EPS and polymer emulsion and thickener to the matrix concrete, and this concrete had good vibration energy absorption characteristics. Based on the experimental data obtained on EPS volume ratio of 0%, 20%, 30%, and 40% by replacing matrix or coarse aggregate, the two design styles had nearly the same compressive strength. By applying frequency of 5 Hz, 50000 or 100000 times, 40 KN, 50 KN, and 60 KN cyclic loading, it is shown that the higher the inclusion size was, the lower the compressive strength of the EPS concrete would be; the larger the applying dynamic cyclic load was, the more obvious the compressive strength changing would be. Meanwhile, the strength of EPS concrete had no evident change after durability test. The results of this research had practical significance on using EPS concrete in some long-term cyclic dynamic load engineering.

  19. Application Of Shakedown Analysis To Cyclic Creep Damage Limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Peter [Stress Engineering Services Inc.; Jetter, Robert I [Consultant; Sham, Sam [ORNL


    Shakedown analysis may be used to provide a conservative estimate of local rupture and hence cyclic creep damage for use in a creep-fatigue assessment. The shakedown analysis is based on an elastic-perfectly plastic material with a temperature-dependent pseudo yield stress defined to guarantee that a shakedown solution exists which does not exceed rupture stress and temperature for a defined life. The ratio of design life to the estimated maximum cyclic life is the shakedown creep damage. The methodology does not require stress classification and is also applicable to cycles over the full range of temperature above and below the creep regime. Full cyclic creep and damage analysis is the alternative when shakedown analysis appears to be excessively conservative.

  20. Cyclicity of non-associative products on D-branes

    CERN Document Server

    Herbst, Manfred; Kreuzer, M


    The non-commutative geometry of deformation quantization appears in string theory through the effect of a B-field background on the dynamics of D-branes in the topological limit. For arbitrary backgrounds, associativity of the star product is lost, but only cyclicity is necessary for a description of the effective action in terms of a generalized product. In previous work we showed that this property indeed emerges for a non-associative product that we extracted from open string amplitudes in curved background fields. In the present note we extend our investigation through second order in a complete derivative expansion. We establish cyclicity with respect to the Born--Infeld measure and find a logarithmic correction that modifies the Kontsevich formula in an arbitrary background satisfying the generalized Maxwell equation. This equation is the physical equivalent of a divergence-free non-commutative parameter, which is required for cyclicity already in the associative case.

  1. Cyclicality and Firm Size in Private Firm Defaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thais Lærkholm; Lando, David; Medhat, Mamdouh


    The Basel II/III and CRD IV Accords reduce capital charges on bank loans to smaller firms by assuming that the default probabilities of smaller firms are less sensitive to macroeconomic cycles. We test this assumption in a default intensity framework using a large sample of bank loans to private...... Danish firms. We find that controlling only for size, the default probabilities of small firms are, in fact, less cyclical than the default probabilities of large firms. However, accounting for firm characteristics other than size, we find that the default probabilities of small firms are equally...... cyclical or even more cyclical than the default probabilities of large firms. These results hold using a multiplicative Cox model as well as an additive Aalen model with time-varying coefficients....

  2. Cyclic Tetrapyrrole Sulfonation, Metals, and Oligomerization in Antiprion Activity▿ (United States)

    Caughey, Winslow S.; Priola, Suzette A.; Kocisko, David A.; Raymond, Lynne D.; Ward, Anne; Caughey, Byron


    Cyclic tetrapyrroles are among the most potent compounds with activity against transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs; or prion diseases). Here the effects of differential sulfonation and metal binding to cyclic tetrapyrroles were investigated. Their potencies in inhibiting disease-associated protease-resistant prion protein were compared in several types of TSE-infected cell cultures. In addition, prophylactic antiscrapie activities were determined in scrapie-infected mice. The activity of phthalocyanine was relatively insensitive to the number of peripheral sulfonate groups but varied with the type of metal bound at the center of the molecule. The tendency of the various phthalocyanine sulfonates to oligomerize (i.e., stack) correlated with anti-TSE activity. Notably, aluminum(III) phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate was both the poorest anti-TSE compound and the least prone to oligomerization in aqueous media. Similar comparisons of iron- and manganese-bound porphyrin sulfonates confirmed that stacking ability correlates with anti-TSE activity among cyclic tetrapyrroles. PMID:17709470

  3. Cyclic tetrapyrrole sulfonation, metals, and oligomerization in antiprion activity. (United States)

    Caughey, Winslow S; Priola, Suzette A; Kocisko, David A; Raymond, Lynne D; Ward, Anne; Caughey, Byron


    Cyclic tetrapyrroles are among the most potent compounds with activity against transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs; or prion diseases). Here the effects of differential sulfonation and metal binding to cyclic tetrapyrroles were investigated. Their potencies in inhibiting disease-associated protease-resistant prion protein were compared in several types of TSE-infected cell cultures. In addition, prophylactic antiscrapie activities were determined in scrapie-infected mice. The activity of phthalocyanine was relatively insensitive to the number of peripheral sulfonate groups but varied with the type of metal bound at the center of the molecule. The tendency of the various phthalocyanine sulfonates to oligomerize (i.e., stack) correlated with anti-TSE activity. Notably, aluminum(III) phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate was both the poorest anti-TSE compound and the least prone to oligomerization in aqueous media. Similar comparisons of iron- and manganese-bound porphyrin sulfonates confirmed that stacking ability correlates with anti-TSE activity among cyclic tetrapyrroles.

  4. Cyclic operation of power plant; Cyklisk drift av kraftvaermeverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storesund, Jan


    The great majority of power plants are designed for base load operation with a relatively small number of starts and stops per year. Therefore, there has been no need to consider fatigue at design. Over the last few years operation with more frequent starts and stops exists as a consequence of swinging electricity prices that has become common. This involves significantly higher frequency of damages; not least fatigue relates damages, and the number of severe failures in components that never before have had damage problems may increase as well. In the present work the different types of component that may suffer from cyclic operation related damage are gathered by a literature survey and described as follows: - where and how the damages comes up, - constructions that should be avoided, - non-destructive testing (NDT) for damage that may come up under cyclic operation, - calculation and assessment of integrity of critical components - areas where continued research would be valuable. Recommendations have been put together to be used to prevent cyclic operation related damage and to detect it in time. The target group for this study is i) plant owners of plants where cyclic operation is or may be present, ii) researchers in the area, and, iii) inspectors and NDT-operators. There are quite a number of components where cyclic operation has been found to significantly influence the lift time. Some of these components are described in many papers whereas occasional papers have been found for others. The amount of information that is possible to get for a certain component is likely related to its significance for cyclic operation damage. The most frequently reported problem is ligament cracking of high temperature headers. Other components where extensive studies have been done are: wall panels, creep-fatigue loaded welds and turbine components

  5. Cu(II) coordination chemistry of patellamide derivatives: possible biological functions of cyclic pseudopeptides. (United States)

    Comba, Peter; Dovalil, Nina; Gahan, Lawrence R; Haberhauer, Gebhard; Hanson, Graeme R; Noble, Christopher J; Seibold, Björn; Vadivelu, Prabha


    Two synthetic derivatives of the naturally occurring cyclic pseudooctapeptides patellamide  A-F and ascidiacyclamide, that is, H(4)pat(2), H(4)pat(3), as well as their Cu(II) complexes are described. These cyclic peptide derivatives differ from the naturally occurring macrocycles by the variation of the incorporated heterocyclic donor groups and the configuration of the amino acids connecting the heterocycles. The exchange of the oxazoline and thiazole groups by dimethylimidazoles or methyloxazoles leads to more rigid macrocycles, and the changes in the configuration of the side chains leads to significant differences in the folding of the cyclic peptides. These variations allow a detailed study of the various possible structural changes on the chemistry of the Cu(II) complexes formed. The coordination of Cu(II) with these macrocyclic species was monitored by high-resolution electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), spectrophotometric (UV/Vis) and circular dichroic (CD) titrations, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations and molecular mechanics (MM) simulations have been used to model the structures of the Cu(II) complexes and provide a detailed understanding of their geometric preferences and conformational flexibility. This is related to the Cu(II) coordination chemistry and the reactivity of the dinuclear Cu(II) complexes towards CO(2) fixation. The variation observed between the natural and various synthetic peptide systems enables conclusions about structure-reactivity correlations, and our results also provide information on why nature might have chosen oxazolines and thiazoles as incorporated heterocycles. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. The Cyclic Sieving Phenomenon for Faces of Generalized Cluster Complexes


    Eu, Sen-Peng; Fu, Tung-Shan


    The notion of cyclic sieving phenomenon is introduced by Reiner, Stanton, and White as a generalization of Stembridge's $q=-1$ phenomenon. The generalized cluster complexes associated to root systems are given by Fomin and Reading as a generalization of the cluster complexes found by Fomin and Zelevinsky. In this paper, the faces of various dimensions of the generalized cluster complexes in type $A_n$, $B_n$, $D_n$, and $I_2(a)$ are shown to exhibit the cyclic sieving phenomenon under a cycli...

  7. Photoelectron spectra and structures of three cyclic dipeptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickrama Arachchilage, A.P.; Wang, F.; Feyer, V.


    spectra of all three cyclic dipeptides agree reasonably well with the experimental spectra. The central ring and the side chains act as independent chromophores whose spectra do not influence one another, except for prolyl dipeptides, where the pyrrole ring is fused with the central ring. In this case......We have investigated the electronic structure of three cyclic dipeptides: cyclo(Histidyl-Glycyl) (cHisGly), cyclo(Tyrosyl-Prolyl) (cTyrPro), and cyclo(Phenylalanyl-Phenylalanyl) (cPhePhe) in the vapor phase, by means of photoemission spectroscopy and theoretical modeling. The last compound...

  8. Cyclic Plane Strain Compression Tests on Dense Granular Materials (United States)

    Koseki, Junichi; Karimi, Job Munene; Tsutsumi, Yukika; Maqbool, Sajjad; Sato, Takeshi

    A series of cyclic plane strain compression tests are performed under drained condition on dense Toyoura sand and compacted Chiba gravel, by using small-scale and large-scale apparatuses, respectively. Comparisons are made with results from monotonic loading tests. Local strain distributions are calculated by conducting image analyses of digital photographs taken at different stages of loading during each test. Based on these results, strain localization properties of dense granular materials are discussed, in particular focusing on possible effects of cyclic loading history.

  9. Determination of silver using cyclic epithermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pun, T.H.; Landsberger, S.


    A fast pneumatic transfer facility was installed in Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory (NETL) of the University of Texas at Austin for the purpose of cyclic thermal and epithermal neutron activation analysis. In this study efforts were focused on the evaluation of cyclic epithermal neutron activation analysis (CENAA). Various NIST and CANMET certified materials were analyzed by the system. Experiment results showed 110 Ag with its 25 s half-life as one of the isotopes favored by the system. Thus, the system was put into practical application in identifying silver in metallic ores. Comparison of sliver concentrations as determined by CENAA in CANMET certified reference materials gave very good results. (author)

  10. Progressive buckling under both constant axial load and cyclic distortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, G.; Acker, D.; Lebey, J.


    Thin structures submitted to compressive loads must be carefully designed to avoid any risk of ruin by buckling. The aim of this paper is, first, to evidence that the critical buckling load may be notably lowered when cyclic strains are added to the compressive load and, secondly, to propose a practical rule of prevention against the ruin due to the progressive buckling phenomenon. This rule is validated by the results of numerous tests related to the entire range of modes of buckling (i.e. from fully plastic to fully elastic). Practical cases of interest for its use could mainly be those where cyclic thermal stresses are involved

  11. Response of monopiles under cyclic lateral loading in sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolai, Giulio; Ibsen, Lars Bo


    Currently the main design guidelines propose to reduce the lateral resistance of offshore piles when accounting for cyclic loading. The present work provides results from laboratory tests in which such reduction has not occurred. The experimental investigation is based on testing a small-scale mo......Currently the main design guidelines propose to reduce the lateral resistance of offshore piles when accounting for cyclic loading. The present work provides results from laboratory tests in which such reduction has not occurred. The experimental investigation is based on testing a small...

  12. Cyclic and Long-Term Variation of Sunspot Magnetic Fields (United States)


    AFRL-RV-PS- TP-2014-0009 AFRL-RV-PS- TP-2014-0009 CYCLIC AND LONG-TERM VARIATION OF SUNSPOT MAGNETIC FIELDS Alexei A. Pevtsov, et al. 15...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cyclic and Long-Term Variation of Sunspot Magnetic Fields 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62601F...from the Mount Wilson Observatory (MWO) were used to study the long-term variations of sunspot field strengths from 1920 to 1958. Following a modified

  13. Analysis of Phenolic and Cyclic Compounds in Plants Using Derivatization Techniques in Combination with GC-MS-Based Metabolite Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Rohloff


    Full Text Available Metabolite profiling has been established as a modern technology platform for the description of complex chemical matrices and compound identification in biological samples. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS in particular is a fast and accurate method widely applied in diagnostics, functional genomics and for screening purposes. Following solvent extraction and derivatization, hundreds of metabolites from different chemical groups can be characterized in one analytical run. Besides sugars, acids, and polyols, diverse phenolic and other cyclic metabolites can be efficiently detected by metabolite profiling. The review describes own results from plant research to exemplify the applicability of GC-MS profiling and concurrent detection and identification of phenolics and other cyclic structures.

  14. Structural basis of metallo-β-lactamase, serine-β-lactamase and penicillin-binding protein inhibition by cyclic boronates (United States)

    Brem, Jürgen; Cain, Ricky; Cahill, Samuel; McDonough, Michael A.; Clifton, Ian J.; Jiménez-Castellanos, Juan-Carlos; Avison, Matthew B.; Spencer, James; Fishwick, Colin W. G.; Schofield, Christopher J.


    β-Lactamases enable resistance to almost all β-lactam antibiotics. Pioneering work revealed that acyclic boronic acids can act as `transition state analogue' inhibitors of nucleophilic serine enzymes, including serine-β-lactamases. Here we report biochemical and biophysical analyses revealing that cyclic boronates potently inhibit both nucleophilic serine and zinc-dependent β-lactamases by a mechanism involving mimicking of the common tetrahedral intermediate. Cyclic boronates also potently inhibit the non-essential penicillin-binding protein PBP 5 by the same mechanism of action. The results open the way for development of dual action inhibitors effective against both serine- and metallo-β-lactamases, and which could also have antimicrobial activity through inhibition of PBPs.

  15. Proline-Based Cyclic Dipeptides from Korean Fermented Vegetable Kimchi and from Leuconostoc mesenteroides LBP-K06 Have Activities against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Kyu Kwak


    observed in the filtrates of other fermented products, including other types of kimchi and fermented materials of plant and animal origin. This is the first report to conclusively demonstrate evidence for the existence of antimicrobial cyclic dipeptides produced by Ln. mesenteroides in kimchi. Through filtrates from lactic acid bacterial cultures and from fermented foods, we have also proved a method of combining chromatographic fractionation and mass spectrometry-based analysis for screening cyclic dipeptide profiling, which may allow evaluation of the fermented dairy foods from a new perspective.

  16. Proline-Based Cyclic Dipeptides from Korean Fermented Vegetable Kimchi and fromLeuconostoc mesenteroidesLBP-K06 Have Activities against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria. (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Kim, Andrew H; Kwak, Min-Kyu; Kang, Sa-Ouk


    filtrates of other fermented products, including other types of kimchi and fermented materials of plant and animal origin. This is the first report to conclusively demonstrate evidence for the existence of antimicrobial cyclic dipeptides produced by Ln. mesenteroides in kimchi. Through filtrates from lactic acid bacterial cultures and from fermented foods, we have also proved a method of combining chromatographic fractionation and mass spectrometry-based analysis for screening cyclic dipeptide profiling, which may allow evaluation of the fermented dairy foods from a new perspective.

  17. Inhibition of a Putative Dihydropyrimidinase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 by Flavonoids and Substrates of Cyclic Amidohydrolases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yang Huang

    Full Text Available Dihydropyrimidinase is a member of the cyclic amidohydrolase family, which also includes allantoinase, dihydroorotase, hydantoinase, and imidase. These metalloenzymes possess very similar active sites and may use a similar mechanism for catalysis. However, whether the substrates and inhibitors of other cyclic amidohydrolases can inhibit dihydropyrimidinase remains unclear. This study investigated the inhibition of dihydropyrimidinase by flavonoids and substrates of other cyclic amidohydrolases. Allantoin, dihydroorotate, 5-hydantoin acetic acid, acetohydroxamate, orotic acid, and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole could slightly inhibit dihydropyrimidinase, and the IC50 values of these compounds were within the millimolar range. The inhibition of dihydropyrimidinase by flavonoids, such as myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, galangin, dihydromyricetin, and myricitrin, was also investigated. Some of these compounds are known as inhibitors of allantoinase and dihydroorotase. Although the inhibitory effects of these flavonoids on dihydropyrimidinase were substrate-dependent, dihydromyricetin significantly inhibited dihydropyrimidinase with IC50 values of 48 and 40 μM for the substrates dihydrouracil and 5-propyl-hydantoin, respectively. The results from the Lineweaver-Burk plot indicated that dihydromyricetin was a competitive inhibitor. Results from fluorescence quenching analysis indicated that dihydromyricetin could form a stable complex with dihydropyrimidinase with the K(d value of 22.6 μM. A structural study using PatchDock showed that dihydromyricetin was docked in the active site pocket of dihydropyrimidinase, which was consistent with the findings from kinetic and fluorescence studies. This study was the first to demonstrate that naturally occurring product dihydromyricetin inhibited dihydropyrimidinase, even more than the substrate analogs (>3 orders of magnitude. These flavonols, particularly myricetin, may serve as drug leads and dirty drugs (for

  18. Apoptotic Cell Localization in Preantral and Antral Follicles in Relation to Non-cyclic and Cyclic Gilts. (United States)

    Phoophitphong, D; Srisuwatanasagul, S; Koonjaenak, S; Tummaruk, P


    The objective of this study was to determine apoptotic cell localization in preantral and antral follicles of porcine ovaries. Additionally, the proportion of cells undergoing apoptosis was also compared between delayed puberty gilts and normal cyclic gilts. Ovarian tissues were obtained from 34 culled gilts with age and weight of 270.1 ± 3.9 days and 143.8 ± 2.4 kg, respectively. The gilts were classified according to their ovarian appearance as 'non-cyclic' (n = 7) and 'cyclic' (n = 27) gilts. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay was used to determine apoptotic cell expression in different compartments of the ovarian tissue sections. All apparent preantral (n = 110) and antral (n = 262) follicles were evaluated using image analysis software. It was found that apoptotic cells were expressed in both granulosa (22.2%) and theca cell layers (21.3%) of the follicles in the porcine ovaries. The proportion of apoptotic cells in the granulosa layer in the follicles was positively correlated with that in the theca layer (r = 0.90, p  0.05) or theca cell layers (28.6% and 26.5%, p > 0.05). The proportion of apoptotic cells in non-cyclic gilts was higher than cyclic gilts in both granulosa (31.7% and 22.6%, p gilts than cyclic gilts. This implied that apoptosis could be used as a biologic marker for follicular development/function and also that apoptosis was significantly associated with anoestrus or delayed puberty in gilts, commonly observed in tropical climates. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Nearly Cyclic Pursuit and its Hierarchical variant for Multi-agent Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Muhammad; Leth, John-Josef; Ngo, Trung Dung


    The rendezvous problem for multiple agents under nearly cyclic pursuit and hierarchical nearly cyclic pursuit is discussed in this paper. The control law designed under nearly cyclic pursuit strategy enables the agents to converge at a point dictated by a beacon. A hierarchical version of the nea......The rendezvous problem for multiple agents under nearly cyclic pursuit and hierarchical nearly cyclic pursuit is discussed in this paper. The control law designed under nearly cyclic pursuit strategy enables the agents to converge at a point dictated by a beacon. A hierarchical version...

  20. Experimental study under uniaxial cyclic behavior at room and high temperature of 316L stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Guozheng; Gao Qing; Yang Xianjie; Sun Yafang


    An experimental study was carried out of the cyclic properties of 316L stainless steel subjected to uniaxial strain and stress at room and high temperature. The effects of cyclic strain amplitude, temperature and their histories on the cyclic deformation behavior of 316L stainless steel are investigated. And, the influences of stress amplitude, mean stress, temperature and their histories on ratcheting are also analyzed. It is shown that either uniaxial cyclic property under cyclic strain or ratcheting under asymmetric uniaxial cyclic stress depends not only on the current temperature and loading state, but also on the previous temperature and loading history. Some significant results are obtained

  1. Characterization of acid tars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Sunday A., E-mail: [Department of Civil Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London, Chadwick Building, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Stegemann, Julia A. [Department of Civil Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London, Chadwick Building, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Roy, Amitava [J. Bennett Johnston, Sr., Centre for Advance Microstructures and Devices (CAMD), 6980 Jefferson Highway, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, 70806 (United States)


    Acid tars from the processing of petroleum and petrochemicals using sulfuric acid were characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) micro-analysis. Leaching of contaminants from the acid tars in 48 h batch tests with distilled water at a liquid-to-solid ratio 10:1 was also studied. GC/MS results show that the samples contained aliphatic hydrocarbons, cyclic hydrocarbons, up to 12 of the 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and numerous other organic groups, including organic acids (sulfonic acids, carboxylic acids and aromatic acids), phenyl, nitrile, amide, furans, thiophenes, pyrroles, and phthalates, many of which are toxic. Metals analysis shows that Pb was present in significant concentration. DSC results show different transition peaks in the studied samples, demonstrating their complexity and variability. FTIR analysis further confirmed the presence of the organic groups detected by GC/MS. The SEM/EDX micro-analysis results provided insight on the surface characteristics of the samples and show that contaminants distribution was heterogeneous. The results provide useful data on the composition, complexity, and variability of acid tars; information which hitherto have been scarce in public domain.

  2. Cyclic and heteroclinic flows near general static spherically symmetric black holes: semi-cyclic flows - addendum and corrigendum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azreg-Ainou, Mustapha [Baskent University, Engineering Faculty, Ankara (Turkey)


    We present new accretion solutions of a polytropic perfect fluid onto an f(R)-gravity de Sitter-like black hole. We consider two f(R)-gravity models and obtain finite-period cyclic flows oscillating between the event and cosmological horizons as well as semi-cyclic critical flows executing a two-way motion from and back to the same horizon. Besides the generalizations and new solutions presented in this work, a corrigendum to Eur. Phys. J. C (2016) 76:280 is provided. (orig.)

  3. Overall and specific migration from multilayer high barrier food contact materials - kinetic study of cyclic polyester oligomers migration. (United States)

    Úbeda, Sara; Aznar, Margarita; Vera, Paula; Nerín, Cristina; Henríquez, Luis; Taborda, Laura; Restrepo, Claudia


    Most multilayer high barrier materials used in food packaging have a polyurethane adhesive layer in their structures. In order to assess the safety of these materials, it is important to determine the compounds intentionally added to the adhesives (IAS) as well as those non-intentionally added substances (NIAS). During the manufacture of polyurethane adhesives, some by-products can be formed, such as cyclic polyester oligomers coming from the reaction between dicarboxylic acids and glycols. Since these compounds are not listed in the Regulation 10/2011/EU, they should not be found in migration above 0.01 mg/kg of simulant. In this study two flexible multilayer packaging materials were used and migration was evaluated in simulant A (ethanol 10% v/v), simulant B (acetic acid 3% w/v) and simulant ethanol 95% v/v during 10 days at 60ºC. Identification and quantification of non-volatile compounds was carried out by UPLC-MS-QTOF. Most of migrants were oligomers such as cyclic polyesters and caprolactam oligomers. Overall migration and specific migration of adipic acid-diethylene glycol and phthalic acid-diethylene glycol were monitored over time and analysed by UPLC-MS-TQ. In most cases, ethanol 95% v/v was the simulant with the highest concentration values. Overall migration kinetics followed a similar pattern than specific migration kinetics.

  4. Characterization of the Flexcell Uniflex cyclic strain culture system with U937 macrophage-like cells. (United States)

    Matheson, Loren A; Fairbank, N Jack; Maksym, Geoffrey N; Paul Santerre, J; Labow, Rosalind S


    Mechanical forces alter many cell functions in a variety of cell types. It has been recognized that stimulation of cells in culture may be more representative of some physiologic conditions. Although there are commercially available systems for the study of cells cultured in a mechanical environment, very little has been documented on the validation techniques for these devices. In this study, Flexcell's recently introduced Uniflex cyclic strain system was programmed to apply 10% longitudinal sinusoidal strain (0.25 Hz) for 48 h to U937 cells cultured on Uniflex plates. Image analysis was employed to characterize the actual strain field. For a chosen amplitude of 10% the applied strain was highly reproducible and relatively uniform (10.6+/-0.2%) in a central rectangular region of the membrane (dimensions of 9.2+/-2 x 13.6+/-0.8 mm2). The strain increased the release of IL-6, esterase and acid phosphatase activity (p<0.05) from adherent U937 cells. Cells also displayed altered morphology, aligning and lengthening with the direction of strain, whereas static cells maintained a round appearance showing no preferred orientation. These data indicate that cyclic mechanical strain applied by the Uniflex strain system modulates U937 cell function leading to selective increases in enzymatic activities as well as orientation in a favored direction.

  5. Photoinduced formation of an azobenzene-based CD-active supramolecular cyclic dimer. (United States)

    Sogawa, Hiromitsu; Terada, Kayo; Miyagi, Yu; Shiotsuki, Masashi; Inai, Yoshihito; Masuda, Toshio; Sanda, Fumio


    A series of new photo-responsive amino acid-derived azobenzenedicarboxylic acid derivatives (S)-1 a-e were synthesized. Compound (S)-1 a in the trans form exhibited no circular dichroism (CD) signal in DMF under ambient conditions, whereas intense Cotton effects were observed upon UV irradiation, indicating the formation of a chiral supramolecular structure in the cis form. The CD signals disappeared when trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) was added to the solution. The ester counterpart [(S)-1 a'] showed no CD signal. Hydrogen bonding between the carboxy groups seemed necessary for constructing the supramolecular structure. The kinetic studies of cis to trans isomerization of (S)-1 a demonstrated that the formation of a chiral supramolecule enhances the stability of the cis-azobenzene structure. The ESI mass spectrum of stilbenedicarboxylic acid (S)-4, an analogue of (S)-1 b, confirmed the formation of a dimer. A theoretical CD study revealed that (S)-1 a in the cis form should be present as a cyclic chiral dimer. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Regeneration of pea (Pisum sativum L.) by a cyclic organogenic system. (United States)

    Tzitzikas, Emmanouil N; Bergervoet, Marjan; Raemakers, Krit; Vincken, Jean-Paul; van Lammeren, Andre; Visser, Richard G F


    In a five-step procedure, plants were regenerated from meristematic tissue initiated from nodal tissue in four pea cultivars ('Espace', 'Classic', 'Solara', and 'Puget'). In step 1, stem tissue with one node (1-cm size) was subcultured on medium containing thidiazuron. As a result multiple shoots were produced, appearing normal or swollen at their bases. The multiple shoots were subcultured in the same medium, resulting in the formation of a green hyperhydric tissue in the swollen bases of the multiple shoots, which is fully covered with small buds [bud-containing tissue (BCT)]. In step 2, BCT fragments were isolated and subcultured in the same medium and, as a result, they were able to reproduce themselves in a cyclic fashion. In step 3, subculture of BCT on medium supplemented with a combination of gibberelic acid, 6-benzyladenine and alpha-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), resulted in the formation of shoots, which were rooted in step 4 on medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l NAA, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or indole-3-butyric acid. In step 5, in vitro plants were transferred to the greenhouse for acclimatisation and further development. The four varieties tested were all able to produce meristematic tissue, suggesting that its production is genotype independent.

  7. Finite element analysis of the cyclic indentation of bilayer enamel (United States)

    Jia, Yunfei; Xuan, Fu-zhen; Chen, Xiaoping; Yang, Fuqian


    Tooth enamel is often subjected to repeated contact and often experiences contact deformation in daily life. The mechanical strength of the enamel determines the biofunctionality of the tooth. Considering the variation of the rod arrangement in outer and inner enamel, we approximate enamel as a bilayer structure and perform finite element analysis of the cyclic indentation of the bilayer structure, to mimic the repeated contact of enamel during mastication. The dynamic deformation behaviour of both the inner enamel and the bilayer enamel is examined. The material parameters of the inner and outer enamel used in the analysis are obtained by fitting the finite element results with the experimental nanoindentation results. The penetration depth per cycle at the quasi-steady state is used to describe the depth propagation speed, which exhibits a two-stage power-law dependence on the maximum indentation load and the amplitude of the cyclic load, respectively. The continuous penetration of the indenter reflects the propagation of the plastic zone during cyclic indentation, which is related to the energy dissipation. The outer enamel serves as a protective layer due to its great resistance to contact deformation in comparison to the inner enamel. The larger equivalent plastic strain and lower stresses in the inner enamel during cyclic indentation, as calculated from the finite element analysis, indicate better crack/fracture resistance of the inner enamel.

  8. Selective discrimination of cyclodextrin diols using cyclic sulfates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrillo, Marta; Marinescu, Lavinia; Rousseau, Cyril


    A method for selective monofunctionalition of readily available cyclodextrin diols (2(A-F),3(A-F),6(B,C,E,F)-hexadeca-O-benzyl-alpha-cyclodextrin and 2(A-G),3(A-G),6(B,C,E-G)-nonadeca-O-benzyl-beta-cyclodextrin) by regioselective nucleophilic opening of their cyclic sulfates is presented. Althoug...

  9. Topology and symmetry of surface Majorana arcs in cyclic superconductors (United States)

    Mizushima, Takeshi; Nitta, Muneto


    We study the topology and symmetry of surface Majorana arcs in superconductors with nonunitary "cyclic" pairing. Cyclic p -wave pairing may be realized in a cubic or tetrahedral crystal, while it is a candidate for the interior P32 superfluids of neutron stars. The cyclic state is an admixture of full gap and nodal gap with eight Weyl points and the low-energy physics is governed by itinerant Majorana fermions. We here show the evolution of surface states from Majorana cone to Majorana arcs under rotation of surface orientation. The Majorana cone is protected solely by an accidental spin rotation symmetry and fragile against spin-orbit coupling, while the arcs are attributed to two topological invariants: the first Chern number and one-dimensional winding number. Lastly, we discuss how topologically protected surface states inherent to the nonunitary cyclic pairing can be captured from surface probes in candidate compounds, such as U1 -xThxBe13 . We examine tunneling conductance spectra for two competitive scenarios in U1 -xThxBe13 —the degenerate Eu scenario and the accidental scenario.

  10. Mechanical properties of concrete to cyclic uniaxial tensile loading ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The mechanical properties of concrete under cyclic tensile loading using square waveform, sine waveform and ramp waveform are studied. ... College of Civil and Transportation Engineering, Hobai University, Nanjing 210098, China; College of Water Conservancy and Hydropower Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing ...

  11. Characterizing and modelling cyclic behaviour in non-stationary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to comprise of stochastic fluctuations as well as cyclic variations at different scales. The wavelet transform ... analysis shows that at small time scales, the fluctuations are primarily stochastic in nature; at higher scales the ..... here also to overcome the problem of GP optimization procedure settling down to persistent solutions ...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1230 - Cyclic AMP test system. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cyclic AMP test system. 862.1230 Section 862.1230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862...

  13. Optimum Design and Operation of Cyclic Storage Systems; Lumped Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Ostadrahimi


    Full Text Available Conjunctive use of surface and groundwater resources is a preferred approach in water resources management. Compared to dam construction, groundwater has certain advantages, among which are less costs, less sedimentation and evaporation, fewer water quality problems, and less social and cultural problems. To reduce the major problems associated with the development of large-scale surface impoundment systems, cyclic storage systems can be used as an alternative. A cyclic storage system (CYCS is an integrated interactive system consisting of two subsystems of surface water storage (reservoir and groundwater; this system together with artificial recharge is able to satisfy the predefined demands with rather high reliability. In order to optimize these systems, one must consider the hydraulic interactions between all the components, but unfortunately it has been neglected in many studies. In this article, a nonlinear optimization model for design and operation of cyclic storage systems has been developed using the lumped approach. In order to evaluate the model, its results have been compared with the results of a model in which distributed approach had been deployed, and so the efficiency of lumped models to solve the problems of cyclic storage systems has been investigated.

  14. Towards Green Cyclic Carbonate Synthesis : Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Catalyst Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stewart, J.A.


    This PhD research serves to implement both known and novel catalytic systems for the purpose of cyclic carbonate synthesis from biomass-derived substrates. Such products have been earmarked as potential monomers for non-isocyanate polyurethanes (NIPUs), amongst other uses. Particular attention has


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaskova Natalia Yur'ievna


    Full Text Available The cyclicity of economic phenomena is not only their immanent property but also the subject of economic analysis. The modern way of making managerial decisions requires analysis of a number of cycles that fill any kind of activity. Accounting and reconciliation of construction, design, investment, purchasing, reproduction, leasing and other cycles is important for the investment and construction sector, both from the point of view of the need for their synchronization and from the position of determining trends in sectoral development. The analysis has showed that three main types of development are characteristic for investment and construction activity. Increasing intensity is inherent in a high level of cyclic synchronization. The degradation trend arises as a result of mismatched cycles. The stabilization character is inherent in the regular modes of maintaining the established proportions and cyclical inter-conformity. The study of the cyclical nature of investment and building processes is impossible without understanding their co-ordination. The principles of synchronization and subordination of the cycles should be used not only for the construction of cost-effective systems but also for the development of management tools.

  16. Laboratory experiments of bucket foundations under cyclic loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    This report collects information on the experimental campaign concerning bucket foundations under lateral cyclic loading conducted by the authors between 2011 and 2014. The report includes a step by step manual on the test procedures and a number of information and graphs for each experiment...

  17. The comparison of cyclic deformation curve determination for ADI

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapletal, J.; Obrtlík, Karel; Věchet, S.

    308 2005, - (2005), s. 305-309 ISSN 1429-6055. [Miedzynarodowe sympozjum /20./. Ustroň-Jaszowiec, 07.12.2005-09.12.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/03/1265 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : cyclic stress-strain curve * austempered ductile iron Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy

  18. Expression and diagnostic utility of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a clinically heterogeneous group of arthritis occurring in children. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies have been recently included in the revised diagnostic criteria for adult onset rheumatoid arthritis. Its diagnostic value in JIA is still debatable. Objective: The ...

  19. Antifungal cyclic peptides from the marine sponge Microscleroderma herdmani (United States)

    Screening natural product extracts from National Cancer Institute Open Repository for antifungal discovery afforded hits for bioassay-guided fractionation. Upon LC-MS analysis of column fractions with antifungal activities to generate information on chemical structure, two new cyclic hexapeptides, m...

  20. Aeroelastic Vibrations and Stability in Cyclic Symmetric Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Lalanne


    wing. In this way, aerodynamic forces may be obtained as general as required, depending on successive time derivatives of degrees of freedom in addition to themselves. Finally, some special cases are given and stability is studied for a cyclic periodic blade assembly, even when mistuning between sectors can occur.

  1. Cyclic machine scheduling with tool transportation - additional calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, C.M.H.


    In the PhD Thesis of Kuijpers a cyclic machine scheduling problem with tool transportation is considered. For the problem with two machines, it is shown that there always exists an optimal schedule with a certain structure. This is done by means of an elaborate case study. For a number of cases some

  2. Skill Retention and Relearning--A Proposed Cyclical Model. (United States)

    Ginzburg, S.; Dar-El, E. M.


    The relationship between relearning and retention was examined during refresher training for 53 Israeli soldiers operating an electronic system. The longer the training interval, the lower the operator's performance level. Partial simulation was suitable for retraining in complex tasks. A cyclical behavior model of learning, forgetting, and…

  3. Cyclic irradiation method for production of radioisotope tracers using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cyclic Irradiation Method (CIM) involving repeated irradiation of samples at regular time intervals to build up activity has been adopted for the production of 82 Br, 72 Ga, 140La, 24 Na and 46 Sc isotopes using the low power Ghana Research Reactor-1. The results indicate that the specific activities of radioisotopes from ...

  4. Retinal Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Channels: From Pathophysiology to Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stylianos Michalakis


    Full Text Available The first step in vision is the absorption of photons by the photopigments in cone and rod photoreceptors. After initial amplification within the phototransduction cascade the signal is translated into an electrical signal by the action of cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG channels. CNG channels are ligand-gated ion channels that are activated by the binding of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP or cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP. Retinal CNG channels transduce changes in intracellular concentrations of cGMP into changes of the membrane potential and the Ca2+ concentration. Structurally, the CNG channels belong to the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels and share a common gross structure with hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN channels and voltage-gated potassium channels (KCN. In this review, we provide an overview on the molecular properties of CNG channels and describe their physiological role in the phototransduction pathways. We also discuss insights into the pathophysiological role of CNG channel proteins that have emerged from the analysis of CNG channel-deficient animal models and human CNG channelopathies. Finally, we summarize recent gene therapy activities and provide an outlook for future clinical application.

  5. Cyclic antibiotic therapy for diverticular disease: a critical reappraisal. (United States)

    Zullo, Angelo; Hassan, Cesare; Maconi, Giovanni; Manes, Gianpiero; Tammaro, Gianfranco; De Francesco, Vincenzo; Annibale, Bruno; Ficano, Leonardo; Buri, Luigi; Gatto, Giovanni; Lorenzetti, Roberto; Campo, Salvatore M; Ierardi, Enzo; Pace, Fabio; Morini, Sergio


    Different symptoms have been attributed to uncomplicated diverticular disease (DD). Poor absorbable antibiotics are largely used for uncomplicated DD, mainly for symptom treatment and prevention of diverticulitis onset. Controlled trials on cyclic administration of rifaximin in DD patients were evaluated. Four controlled, including 1 double-blind and 3 open-label, randomized studies were available. Following a long-term cyclic therapy, a significant difference emerged in the global symptoms score (range: 0-18) between rifaximin plus fibers (from 6-6.5 to 1-2) and fibers alone (from 6.7 to 2-3.8), although the actual clinically relevance of such a very small difference remains to be ascertained. Moreover, a similar global symptom score reduction (from 6 to 2.4) can be achieved by simply recommending an inexpensive high-fiber diet. Current data suggest that cyclic rifaximin plus fibers significantly reduce the incidence of the first episode of acute diverticulitis as compared to fibers alone (1.03% vs 2.75%), but a cost-efficacy analysis is needed before this treatment can be routinely recommended. The available studies have been hampered by some limitations, and definite conclusions could not be drawn. The cost of a long-life, cyclic rifaximin therapy administered to all symptomatic DD patients would appear prohibitive.

  6. Cyclic flow shop scheduling problem with two-machine cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożejko Wojciech


    Full Text Available In the paper a variant of cyclic production with setups and two-machine cell is considered. One of the stages of the problem solving consists of assigning each operation to the machine on which it will be carried out. The total number of such assignments is exponential. We propose a polynomial time algorithm finding the optimal operations to machines assignment.

  7. Mechanism of Cyclically Polarity Reversing Solar Magnetic Cycle as ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 27, 2016 ... We briefly describe historical development of the concept of solar dynamo mechanism that generates electric current and magnetic field by plasma ... The dynamo is the driver of the cyclically polarity reversing solar magnetic cycle. ... Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan 113-0033.

  8. Cyclic deformation behaviour of austenitic steels at ambient and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. The aim of the present investigation is to characterise cyclic deforma- tion behaviour and plasticity-induced martensite formation of metastable austenitic stainless steels at ambient and elevated temperatures, taking into account the influ- ence of the alloying elements titanium and niobium. Titanium and niobium are.

  9. Cyclic deformation behaviour of austenitic steels at ambient and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fatigue behaviour of X6CrNiTi1810 (AISI 321), X10CrNiCb189 (AISI 348) and X5CrNi1810 (AISI 304) is characterised by cyclic hardening and softening effects which are strongly influenced by specific loading conditions. Martensite formation varies with the composition, loading conditions, temperature and number of ...

  10. Evolutions of Yang Phase Under Cyclic Condition and Adiabatic Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Shangwu; Gu Zhiyu


    There are three non-integrable phases in literatures: Berry phase, Aharonov-Anandan phase, and Yang phase. This article discusses the evolutions of Yang phase under the cyclic condition and the adiabatic condition for the general time-dependent harmonic oscillator, thus reveals the intimate relations between these three non-integrable phases.

  11. Effect of Color Shading Procedures and Cyclic Loading on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Feb 7, 2018 ... How to cite this article: Tuncel I, Turp I, Usumez A. Effect of color shading procedures and cyclic loading on the biaxial flexural strength of zirconia. Niger J Clin Pract 2018;21:7-12. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons. Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 ...

  12. Effect of Color Shading Procedures and Cyclic Loading on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Zirconia is the most preferred ceramic restoration in posterior areas because of its flexural strength. The aim of the study is the evaluation of biaxial flexural strength of different colored zirconium oxide core materials after cyclic loading. Material and Methods: Zirconia discs (12 mm diameter and 1.2 mm thickness) ...

  13. A genus six cyclic tetragonal reduction of the Benney equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, M; Gibbons, J


    A reduction of Benney's equations is constructed corresponding to Schwartz-Christoffel maps associated with a family of genus six cyclic tetragonal curves. The mapping function, a second kind Abelian integral on the associated Riemann surface, is constructed explicitly as a rational expression in derivatives of the Kleinian σ-function of the curve.

  14. Computational design of disulfide cyclic peptide as potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of genomic and proteomic studies coupled with computational sciences could facilitate the discovery of various target proteins and potential inhibitor to be developed as drugs. Several researches by molecular docking method have been conducted to design disulfide cyclic peptide ligand as potential inhibitors ...

  15. Random matrix theory for pseudo-Hermitian systems: Cyclic blocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We discuss the relevance of random matrix theory for pseudo-Hermitian systems, and, for Hamiltonians that break parity and time-reversal invariance . In an attempt to understand the random Ising model, we present the treatment of cyclic asymmetric matrices with blocks and show that the nearest-neighbour spacing ...

  16. Undrained behaviour of volcanic soils under monotonic and cyclic loading (United States)

    de Cristofaro, Martina; Brunzo, Antonia; Mottola, Luciano; Netti, Nadia; Olivares, Lucio; Orense, Rolando; Asadi, Sadeq


    Undrained behaviour of volcanic soils under monotonic and cyclic loading. In this study, we focus on the undrained behaviour of volcanic deposits under monotonic and cyclic loading in order to define the susceptibility to liquefaction of granular volcanic deposits. We assume that, in the case of saturated granular volcanic deposits susceptible to liquefaction, an undrained unstable behaviour can be responsible for both, the evolution of flowslide due to rainfall and liquefaction under seismic loading. Starting from these considerations we define a complex experimental program to analyze their undrained behaviour through laboratory testing on reconstituted specimens of cohesionless volcanic soils. The first part of the experimental program is devoted to the use of the steady state concept to evaluate the influence of void ratio and effective confining pressure on the undrained behaviour of Cervinara pyroclastic soils (Italy) under monotonic and cyclic loading. The second part of the experimental program is devoted to the analysis of the influence of particles crushing of pumice soils from Rangiriri (New Zeland) in both monotonic and cyclic undrained triaxial tests.

  17. Liquefaction and cyclic mobility model for saturated granular media (United States)

    López-Querol, S.; Blázquez, R.


    A new constitutive law for the behaviour of undrained sand subjected to dynamic loading is presented. The proposed model works for small and large strain ranges and incorporates contractive and dilative properties of the sand into the unified numerical scheme. These features allow to correctly predict liquefaction and cyclic mobility phenomena for different initial relative densities of the soil. The model has been calibrated as an element test, by using cyclic simple shear data reported in the literature. For the contractive sand behaviour a well-known endochronic densification model has been used, whereas a plastic model with a new non-associative flow rule is applied when the sand tends to dilate. Both dilatancy and flow rule are based on a new state parameter, associated to the stiffness degradation of the material as the shaking goes on. Also, the function that represents the rearrangement memory of the soil takes a zero value when the material dilates, in order to easily model the change in the internal structure. Proceeding along this kind of approach, liquefaction and cyclic mobility are modelled with the same constitutive law, within the framework of a bi-dimensional FEM coupled algorithm developed in the paper. For calibration purposes, the behaviour of the soil in a cyclic simple shear test has been simulated, in order to estimate the influence of permeability, frequency of loading, and homogeneity of the shear stress field on the laboratory data.

  18. Fast Selective Detection of Pyocyanin Using Cyclic Voltammetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al Atraktchi, Fatima Al-Zahraa; Breum Andersen, Sandra; Johansen, Helle Krogh


    method to detect pyocyanin in a complex electroactive environment using commercially available electrodes. It is shown that cyclic voltammetry measurements between –1.0 V to 1.0 V reveal a potential detection window of pyocyanin of 0.58–0.82 V that is unaffected by other redox-active interferents...

  19. Fast Selective Detection of Pyocyanin Using Cyclic Voltammetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alatraktchi, Fatima AlZahra'a; Andersen, Sandra Breum; Johansen, Helle Krogh


    method to detect pyocyanin in a complex electroactive environment using commercially available electrodes. It is shown that cyclic voltammetry measurements between -1.0 V to 1.0 V reveal a potential detection window of pyocyanin of 0.58-0.82 V that is unaffected by other redox-active interferents...

  20. Biosynthesis and regulation of cyclic lipopeptides in Pseudomonas fluorescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de I.


    Cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) are surfactant and antibiotic metabolites produced by a variety of bacterial
    genera. For the genus Pseudomonas, many structurally different CLPs have been identified. CLPs play an
    important role in surface motility of Pseudomonas strains, but also in virulence

  1. Optimal control of FES-induced cyclical leg movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltink, Petrus H.; Franken, H.M.; Franken, Henry M.; d' Hollosy, Wendy; Burger, G.J.; Burger, Gert-Jan; Boom, H.B.K.


    An optimal control strategy for FES-induced cyclical movements is proposed. Optimal stimulation patterns are determined on the basis of a criterium, consisting of desired movement parameters and a dynamic model of the system. Preliminary results of the identification and optimization are shown.

  2. Cyclic Nucleotide Monophosphates and Their Cyclases in Plant Signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Gehring, Christoph A.


    The cyclic nucleotide monophosphates (cNMPs), and notably 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) are now accepted as key signaling molecules in many processes in plants including growth and differentiation, photosynthesis, and biotic and abiotic defense. At the single molecule level, we are now beginning to understand how cNMPs modify specific target molecules such as cyclic nucleotide-gated channels, while at the systems level, a recent study of the Arabidopsis cNMP interactome has identified novel target molecules with specific cNMP-binding domains. A major advance came with the discovery and characterization of a steadily increasing number of guanylate cyclases (GCs) and adenylate cyclases (ACs). Several of the GCs are receptor kinases and include the brassinosteroid receptor, the phytosulfokine receptor, the Pep receptor, the plant natriuretic peptide receptor as well as a nitric oxide sensor. We foresee that in the near future many more molecular mechanisms and biological roles of GCs and ACs and their catalytic products will be discovered and further establish cNMPs as a key component of plant responses to the environment.

  3. Optical fibre Bragg grating recorded in TOPAS cyclic olefin copolymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, I.P.; Yuan, Scott Wu; Stefani, Alessio


    A report is presented on the inscription of a fibre Bragg grating into a microstructured polymer optical fibre fabricated from TOPAS cyclic olefin copolymer. This material offers two important advantages over poly (methyl methacrylate), which up to now has formed the basis for polymer fibre Bragg...

  4. Cyclic Voltammetry of Biopolymer Heparin at PVC Plasticized Liquid Membrane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Samec, Zdeněk; Trojánek, Antonín; Langmaier, Jan; Samcová, E.


    Roč. 5, - (2003), s. 867-870 ISSN 1388-2481 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/04/0424 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : cyclic voltammetry * PVC plasticized liquit membrane * heparin Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.300, year: 2003

  5. A novel hydrogen-bonded cyclic dibromide in an organic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    A novel hydrogen-bonded cyclic dibromide in an organic diammonium salt. #. BIKSHANDARKOIL R SRINIVASAN,1,* ... rangement of anions and cations may be viewed as a typical lamellar structure. The crystal water mole- cules can be ..... layers of organic (dbtmen)2+ cations (dashed lines indi- cate hydrogen bonding).

  6. A theoretical model for predicting neutron fluxes for cyclic Neutron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A theoretical model has been developed for prediction of thermal neutron fluxes required for cyclic irradiations of a sample to obtain the same activity previously used for the detection of any radionuclide of interest. The model is suitable for radiotracer production or for long-lived neutron activation products where the ...

  7. Drained Response of Bucket Foundations under Cyclic Lateral Load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo


    Introduction The monopod bucket foundation is an innovative support structure for offshore wind turbines. It consists of a shallow embedded foundation which penetrates the seabed by means of a suction created within the caisson. The behaviour of bucket foundations against long-term lateral cyclic...

  8. Cyclic AMP response element binding protein and brain-derived ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    the role of CREB and BDNF in depression and as targets/mediators of antidepressant action. [Nair A and Vaidya V A 2006 Cyclic AMP response element binding protein and brain-derived neurotrophic factor: Molecules that modulate our mood?; J. Biosci. 31 423–434]. Keywords. Antidepressant; depression; hippocampus ...

  9. Resistance to cyclic loading of teeth restored with posts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahafi, A; Peutzfeldt, A; Ravnholt, G


    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of presence of post, presence of core, and of shape, type, and surface treatment of posts on resistance to cyclic loading of crowned human teeth. For all teeth, crowns designed without ferrule were cast in sterling silver and luted with resin cement (Panavia...

  10. Long-term Cyclic Variations of Prominences, Green and Red ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Long-term cyclic variations in the distribution of promi- nences and intensities of green (530.3 nm) and red (637.4 nm) coronal emission lines over solar cycles 18-23 are presented. Polar prominence branches will reach the poles at different epochs in cycle 23: the north branch at the beginning in 2002 and the ...

  11. Route and fleet design for cyclic inventory routing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raa, Birger; Dullaert, Wout


    This paper presents a novel solution approach for planning cyclic distribution from a single depot to multiple customers with constant, deterministic demand rates. The objective is to minimize the total cost rate consisting of fleet costs, distribution costs from the depot to the customers and

  12. Reaction of three cyclic thioester ligands with triiron dodecacarbonyl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zhiyin Xiao


    Sep 27, 2017 ... unknown iron carbonyl product was isolated in addition to complex 1. Although its precise structure was not established due to ... ysis were used to identify some of the isolated products. Possible reaction mechanisms of the cyclic ... duced in dropwise fashion. The color of the mixture turned slowly to yellow.

  13. Random matrix theory for pseudo-Hermitian systems: Cyclic blocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We discuss the relevance of random matrix theory for pseudo-Hermitian sys- tems, and, for Hamiltonians that break parity P and time-reversal invariance T. In an attempt to understand the random Ising model, we present the treatment of cyclic asym- metric matrices with blocks and show that the nearest-neighbour ...

  14. Are international fund flows pro- or counter-cyclical?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Suxiao; de Haan, Jakob; Scholtens, Bert; Yang, Haizhen


    We investigate whether international fund flows are pro-or counter-cyclical by employing a concordance index. International fund flows are investments in bond and equity markets by institutional investors, such as mutual funds, exchange traded funds, closed-end funds and hedge funds. We find that

  15. Methods and systems for the formation of cyclic carbonates (United States)

    Hatton, Trevor Alan; Jamison, Timothy F; Kozak, Jennifer Aiden; Simeon, Fritz; Wu, Jie


    Described herein are inventive methods for synthesis of cyclic carbonates from CO.sub.2 and epoxide. In some embodiments, the methods are carried out in the presence of a catalyst comprising an electrophilic halogen. In some embodiments, the methods are carried out in a flow reactor.

  16. Characterization of cyclical phases in the manufacturing industry in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercè Sala


    Full Text Available 120 Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to characterize the cyclical phases of the manufacturing industry in Spain and detect which industries have more influence on the Spanish business cycle. We assume that economic growth is a priority; we are going to determine which industries have a more/less appropriate cyclical behavior according this priority. We analyze if the industries with better cyclical behavior are the ones that achieve greater co-movement with the business cycle of the Spanish economy, as this means they have a positive influence on economic activity. Design/methodology/approach: We examine the disaggregated quarterly IPI data of 16 manufacturing industries. Our methodology follows three steps. Firstly, we define cycle turning points; we follow the Harding and Pagan (2002 methodology. Secondly, we characterize the cyclical phases of the manufacturing industries in terms of duration, amplitude, deepness and steepness. We also determine the degree of inter-industrial cyclical synchronization and between industries in the cycle of the Spanish economy. This analysis is performed in two ways. On the one hand, we use the concordance index and the correlation coefficient. On the other hand, we work with indicators based on a consistency table. In the Third step, we apply a multi-objective methodology, specifically the compromise programming, to determine which industries have a more/less appropriate cyclical behavior according to the growth priority. Findings and Originality/value: The business cycle of the Spanish economy is positively influenced by high- and medium-tech industries, which have demonstrated their competitive capacity in international markets, and by medium- low-tech industries, with major strengths in R&D, and in survival and consolidation strategies. These results enable manufacturing industries to exert a positive effect on the business cycle that is weakened because many of them show a high correlation between

  17. Importance of the alphaC-helix in the cyclic nucleotide binding domain for the stable channel regulation and function of cyclic nucleotide gated ion channels in Arabidopsis. (United States)

    Chin, Kimberley; Moeder, Wolfgang; Abdel-Hamid, Huda; Shahinas, Dea; Gupta, Deepali; Yoshioka, Keiko


    The involvement of cyclic nucleotide gated ion channels (CNGCs) in the signal transduction of animal light and odorant perception is well documented. Although plant CNGCs have recently been revealed to mediate multiple stress responses and developmental pathways, studies that aim to elucidate their structural and regulatory properties are still very much in their infancy. The structure-function relationship of plant CNGCs was investigated here by using the chimeric Arabidopsis AtCNGC11/12 gene that induces multiple defence responses in the Arabidopsis mutant constitutive expresser of PR genes 22 (cpr22) for the identification of functionally essential residues. A genetic screen for mutants that suppress cpr22-conferred phenotypes identified over 20 novel mutant alleles in AtCNGC11/12. One of these mutants, suppressor S58 possesses a single amino acid substitution, arginine 557 to cysteine, in the alphaC-helix of the cyclic nucleotide-binding domain (CNBD). The suppressor S58 lost all cpr22 related phenotypes, such as spontaneous cell death formation under ambient temperature conditions. However, these phenotypes were recovered at 16 degrees C suggesting that the stability of channel function is affected by temperature. In silico modelling and site-directed mutagenesis analyses suggest that arginine 557 in the alphaC-helix of the CNBD is important for channel regulation, but not for basic function. Furthermore, another suppressor mutant, S136 that lacks the entire alphaC-helix due to a premature stop codon, lost channel function completely. Our data presented here indicate that the alphaC-helix is functionally important in plant CNGCs.

  18. Cyclic delivery scheduling to customers with different priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Zofia Gdowska


    Full Text Available Background: In this paper a cyclic delivery scheduling problem for customers with different priorities is presented. Shops, which are provided with deliveries, are occasionally located in places which are crucial for the proper flow of traffic. In such places coordination of deliveries is crucial; therefore it allows to completely eliminate the phenomenon of the simultaneous arrivals of suppliers. Methods: In this paper the cyclic delivery scheduling problem for customers with different priorities was presented. To this theoretical problem a mix integer programming model was developed. Specific approach to the cyclic delivery scheduling problem is inspired by timetabling problem for urban public transport. Results: Mixed integer programming model was employed for solving four cases of cyclic delivery scheduling problem for customers with different priorities. When the value of the synchronization priority assigned to a single customer raised then the total number of synchronizations in the whole network decreased. In order to compare solutions a synchronization rate was utilized. A simple factor was utilized - the proportion of number of synchronizations of deliveries to a given customer to the total number of synchronizations obtained for the whole network. When the value of synchronization priority raised then the value of synchronization rate of this customer improved significantly. Conclusions: The mixed integer programming model for the cyclic delivery scheduling problem for customers with different priorities presented in this paper can be utilized for generating schedules of serving customers located in places where only one delivery can be received and unloaded at one go and where there is no space for other suppliers to wait in a queue. Such a schedule can be very useful for organizing deliveries to small shops united in a franchising network, since they operate in a way that is very similar to the network presented in this paper

  19. Testing and modeling of cyclically loaded rock anchors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joar Tistel


    Full Text Available The Norwegian Public Roads Administration (NPRA is planning for an upgrade of the E39 highway route at the westcoast of Norway. Fixed links shall replace ferries at seven fjord crossings. Wide spans and large depths at the crossings combined with challenging subsea topography and environmental loads call for an extension of existing practice. A variety of bridge concepts are evaluated in the feasibility study. The structures will experience significant loads from deadweight, traffic and environment. Anchoring of these forces is thus one of the challenges met in the project. Large-size subsea rock anchors are considered a viable alternative. These can be used for anchoring of floating structures but also with the purpose of increasing capacity of fixed structures. This paper presents first a thorough study of factors affecting rock anchor bond capacity. Laboratory testing of rock anchors subjected to cyclic loading is thereafter presented. Finally, the paper presents a model predicting the capacity of a rock anchor segment, in terms of a ribbed bar, subjected to a cyclic load history. The research assumes a failure mode occurring in the interface between the rock anchor and the surrounding grout. The constitutive behavior of the bonding interface is investigated for anchors subjected to cyclic one-way tensile loads. The model utilizes the static bond capacity curve as a basis, defining the ultimate bond τbu and the slip s1 at τbu. A limited number of input parameters are required to apply the model. The model defines the bond-slip behavior with the belonging rock anchor capacity depending on the cyclic load level (τmax cy/τbu, the cyclic load ratio (R = τmin cy/τmax cy, and the number of load cycles (N. The constitutive model is intended to model short anchor lengths representing an incremental length of a complete rock anchor.

  20. Cyclic mechanical stretch reduces myofibroblast differentiation of primary lung fibroblasts. (United States)

    Blaauboer, Marjolein E; Smit, Theo H; Hanemaaijer, Roeland; Stoop, Reinout; Everts, Vincent


    In lung fibrosis tissue architecture and function is severely hampered by myofibroblasts due to excessive deposition of extracellular matrix and tissue contraction. Myofibroblasts differentiate from fibroblasts under the influence of transforming growth factor (TGF) β(1) but this process is also controlled mechanically by cytoskeletal tension. In healthy lungs, the cytoskeleton of fibroblasts is mechanically strained during breathing. In stiffer fibrotic lung tissue, this mechanical stimulus is reduced, which may influence fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation. Therefore, we investigated the effect of cyclic mechanical stretch on fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation. Primary normal human lung fibroblasts were grown on BioFlex culture plates and stimulated to undergo myofibroblast differentiation by 10 ng/ml TGFβ(1). Cells were either or not subjected to cyclic mechanical stretch (sinusoidal pattern, maximum elongation 10%, 0.2 Hz) for a period of 48 h on a Flexercell apparatus. mRNA expression was analyzed by real-time PCR. Cyclic mechanical loading reduced the mRNA expression of the myofibroblast marker α-smooth muscle actin and the extracellular matrix proteins type-I, type-III, and type-V collagen, and tenascin C. These outcomes indicate that fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation is reduced. Cyclic mechanical loading did not change the expression of the fibronectin ED-A splice variant, but did decrease the paracrine expression of TGFβ(1), thereby suggesting a possible regulation mechanism for the observed effects. The data suggest that cyclic loading experienced by healthy lung cells during breathing may prevent fibroblasts from differentiating towards myofibroblasts. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate in higher plants: Isolation and characterization of adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate from Kalanchoe and Agave. (United States)

    Ashton, A R; Polya, G M


    1.3':5'-Cyclic AMP was extensively purified from Kalanchoe daigremontiana and Agave americana by neutral alumina and anion- and cation-exchange column chromatography. Inclusion of 3':5'-cyclic [8-3H]AMP from the point of tissue extraction permitted calculation of yields. The purification procedure removed contaminating material that was shown to interfere with the 3':5'-cyclic AMP estimation and characterization procedures. 2. The partially purified 3':5'-cyclic AMP was quantified by means of a radiochemical saturation assay using an ox heart 3':5'-cyclic AMP-binding protein and by an assay involving activation of a mammalian protein kinase. 3. The plant 3':5'-cyclic AMP co-migrated with 3':5'-cyclic [8-3H]AMP on cellulose chromatography, poly(ethyleneimine)-cellulose chromatography and silica-gel t.l.c. developed with several solvent systems. 4. The plant 3':5'-cyclic AMP was degraded by ox heart 3':5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase at the same rates as authentic 3':5'-cyclic AMP. 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine (1 mM), a specific inhibitor of the 3':5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodieterase, completely inhibited such degradation. 5. The concentrations of 3':5'-cyclic AMP satisfying the above criteria in Kalanchoe and Agave were 2-6 and 1 pmol/g fresh wt. respectively. Possible bacterial contribution to these analyses was estimated to be less than 0.002pmol/g fresh wt. Evidence for the occurrence of 3':5'-cyclic AMP in plants is discussed.

  2. Adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate in higher plants: Isolation and characterization of adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate from Kalanchoe and Agave. (United States)

    Ashton, A R; Polya, G M


    1.3':5'-Cyclic AMP was extensively purified from Kalanchoe daigremontiana and Agave americana by neutral alumina and anion- and cation-exchange column chromatography. Inclusion of 3':5'-cyclic [8-3H]AMP from the point of tissue extraction permitted calculation of yields. The purification procedure removed contaminating material that was shown to interfere with the 3':5'-cyclic AMP estimation and characterization procedures. 2. The partially purified 3':5'-cyclic AMP was quantified by means of a radiochemical saturation assay using an ox heart 3':5'-cyclic AMP-binding protein and by an assay involving activation of a mammalian protein kinase. 3. The plant 3':5'-cyclic AMP co-migrated with 3':5'-cyclic [8-3H]AMP on cellulose chromatography, poly(ethyleneimine)-cellulose chromatography and silica-gel t.l.c. developed with several solvent systems. 4. The plant 3':5'-cyclic AMP was degraded by ox heart 3':5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase at the same rates as authentic 3':5'-cyclic AMP. 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine (1 mM), a specific inhibitor of the 3':5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodieterase, completely inhibited such degradation. 5. The concentrations of 3':5'-cyclic AMP satisfying the above criteria in Kalanchoe and Agave were 2-6 and 1 pmol/g fresh wt. respectively. Possible bacterial contribution to these analyses was estimated to be less than 0.002pmol/g fresh wt. Evidence for the occurrence of 3':5'-cyclic AMP in plants is discussed. PMID:196595


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Tkachenko


    Full Text Available Improvement of mechanical characteristics of details of the soil-cultivating car. Structurization at cyclic heating of steels. The reasons of an intensification of diffusion at cyclic heating. Structure crushing, impact strength and hardness increase.

  4. Poly(ethylene glycol)-grafted cyclic acetals based polymer networks with non-water-swellable, biodegradable and surface hydrophilic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Ruixue, E-mail: [Complex and Intelligent Research Center, School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Nan; Wu, Wentao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Wang, Kemin, E-mail: [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China)


    Cyclic acetals based biomaterial without acidic products during hydrolytic degradation is a promising candidate for tissue engineering applications; however, low hydrophilicity is still one limitation for its biomedical application. In this work, we aim to achieve non-water-swellable cyclic acetal networks with improved hydrophilicity and surface wettability by copolymerization of cyclic acetal units based monomer, 5-ethyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-β,β-dimethyl-1, 3-dioxane-2-ethanol diacrylate (EHD) and methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) monoacrylate (mPEGA) under UV irradiation, to avoid swelling of conventional hydrogels which could limit their applicability in particular of the mechanical properties and geometry integrity. Various EHD/mPEGA networks were fabricated with different concentrations of mPEGA from 0 to 30%, and the results showed photopolymerization behavior, mechanical property and thermal stability could not be significantly affected by addition of mPEGA, while the surface hydrophilicity was dramatically improved with the increase of mPEGA and could achieve a water contact angle of 37° with 30% mPEGA concentration. The obtained EHD/mPEGA network had comparative degradation rate to the PECA hydrogels reported previously, and MTT assay indicated it was biocompatible to L929 cells. - Highlights: • Cyclic acetals contained EHD/mPEGA networks were fabricated by photopolymerization. • It can be degraded under simulated physiological condition without acidic products. • Surface hydrophilicity was increased without swelling in water.

  5. A Novel Indirect Sequence Readout Component in the E. coli Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein Operator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindemose, Søren; Nielsen, Peter Eigil; Valentin-Hansen, Poul


    binding sites in the E. coli genome, but the exact role of the N6 region in CRP interaction has not previously been systematic examined. Here we employ an in vitro selection system based on a randomized N6 spacer region to demonstrate that CRP binding to the lacP1 site may be enhanced up to 14-fold......The cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) from Escherichia coli has been extensively studied for several decades. In particular, a detailed characterization of CRP interaction with DNA has been obtained. The CRP dimer recognizes a consensus sequence AANTGTGANNNNNNTCACANTT through direct amino acid...... nucleobase interactions in the major groove of the two operator half-sites. Crystal structure analyses have revealed that the interaction results in two strong kinks at the TG/CA steps closest to the 6-base-pair spacer (N6). This spacer exhibits high sequence variability among the more than 100 natural...

  6. Cyclic pentanone peroxide: sensitiveness and suitability as a model for triacetone triperoxide. (United States)

    Bali, Mark S; Armitt, David; Wallace, Lynne; Day, Anthony I


    Research to counter the threat of organic peroxides such as triacetone triperoxide (TATP) is at times hampered by their inherent extreme sensitiveness and volatility. This work describes an approach to lowering some risks associated with the handling of TATP in the laboratory through the use of an analog species, tripentanone triperoxide (TPTP). Sensitiveness has been tested via standard methods. GCMS analysis has shown that TPTP degrades via similar mechanisms to TATP under a range of conditions. Slight differences in product composition were traced to side reactions which may also affect impurities present in homemade TATP synthesis. A pilot field trial was conducted to evaluate TPTP as a substitute for TATP in explosive detection dog (EDD) scent training. The degradation studies have yielded insights into the complexities of the acidic degradation of cyclic peroxides with potential forensic application, and TPTP's inadequacy as a TATP pseudoscent is a valuable example of the limitations of such training aids. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. Cyclic reduction and FACR methods for piecewise hermite bicubic orthogonal spline collocation (United States)

    Bialecki, Bernard


    Cyclic reduction and Fourier analysis-cyclic reduction (FACR) methods are presented for the solution of the linear systems which arise when orthogonal spline collocation with piecewise Hermite bicubics is applied to boundary value problems for certain separable partial differential equations on a rectangle. On anN×N uniform partition, the cyclic reduction and Fourier analysis-cyclic reduction methods requireO(N2log2N) andO(N2log2log2N) arithmetic operations, respectively.

  8. Experimental study on uniaxial cyclic ratcheting behavior of 304 stainless steel at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xianjie; Gao Qing; Cai Lixun; Liu Yujie


    The cyclic tests for 304 stainless steel with solution heat treatment under uni-axial cyclic straining and stressing were carried out systematically. The effects of the cyclic engineering stress amplitude history with constant mean stress, the mean engineering stress history with constant cyclic stress amplitude and the stress amplitude histories with the specific mean stress increment per cycle on the uni-axial ratcheting deformation behavior were investigated. Some significant results are obtained

  9. [3,3]Paracyclophanes as planar chiral scaffolds for the synthesis of new phosphoric acids. (United States)

    Stemper, Jérémy; Isaac, Kevin; Duret, Véronique; Retailleau, Pascal; Voituriez, Arnaud; Betzer, Jean-François; Marinetti, Angela


    Cyclic phosphoric acids displaying planar chiral paracyclophane structures, which include a 1,1'-ferrocenediyl unit, have been designed as a new class of chiral organocatalysts. Their synthesis, optical resolution, structural characterization and preliminary catalytic tests are reported.

  10. Amino acid environment determines expression of carbamoylphosphate synthetase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in embryonic rat hepatocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, W. H.; van Roon, M.; Mooren, P. G.; de Graaf, A.; Charles, R.


    A completely defined medium (EHM-1), which reflects the amino acid composition of fetal rat serum and contains albumin as the sole proteinaceous compound, allows the accumulation of carbamoylphosphate synthetase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in the presence of dexamethasone, dibutyryl cyclic

  11. Experimental primers containing synthetic and natural compounds reduce enzymatic activity at the dentin–adhesive interface under cyclic loading (United States)

    Sousa, Ana Beatriz Silva; de Mattos Pimenta Vidal, Cristina; Leme-Kraus, Ariene Arcas; de Carvalho Panzeri Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda; Bedran-Russo, Ana K.


    Objective To evaluate the effect of experimental primers (chlorhexidine, enriched mixture of proanthocyanidins and doxycycline) on the adhesive properties and gelatinolytic activity at dentin-resin interfaces of occlusal Class I restorations. Methods The inactivation of enzymes by the experimental primers was assessed by fluorescence assay and gelatin zymography. To assess the adhesive properties, occlusal Class I cavities were prepared in sound human molars, etched with phosphoric acid and restored with one of the primers and an etch-and-rinse adhesive system (Adper Single Bond Plus - 3M ESPE). After the restorative procedures, the specimens were divided into two subgroups (n = 6) consisting of storage in incubation buffer or axial cyclic loading at 50 N and 1,000,000 cycles. Then, the sectioned and sliced specimens were assigned to in situ zymography assay and microtensile bond strength (TBS) test. Results Fluorescence assay and gelatin zymography revealed that the experimental primers inactivated rMMPs. In situ zymography (2-way ANOVA, Tukey, p 0.05). Significance The use of experimental primers impaired the enzymatic activity at the dentin-adhesive interface after cyclic loading and the activity of rMMPs. Cyclic loading did not have a significant effect on the bond strength. PMID:27524231

  12. Cyclic voltammograms for H on Pt(111) and Pt(100) from first principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, Gustav; Jaramillo, Thomas; Skulason, Egill


    Cyclic voltammetry is a fundamental experimental method for characterizing electrochemical surfaces. Despite its wide use, a way to quantitatively and directly relate cyclic voltammetry to ab initio calculations has been lacking. We derive the cyclic voltammogram for H on Pt(111) and Pt(100), based...

  13. Empirical approach based on centrifuge testing for cyclic deformations of laterally loaded piles in sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truong, P.; Lehane, B. M.; Zania, Varvara


    A systematic study into the response of monopiles to lateral cyclic loading in medium dense and dense sand was performed in beam and drum centrifuge tests. The centrifuge tests were carried out at different cyclic load and magnitude ratios, while the cyclic load sequence was also varied...

  14. Elevational gradient in the cyclicity of a forest-defoliating insect (United States)

    Kyle J. Haynes; Andrew M. Liebhold; Derek M. Johnson


    Observed changes in the cyclicity of herbivore populations along latitudinal gradients and the hypothesis that shifts in the importance of generalist versus specialist predators explain such gradients has long been a matter of intense interest. In contrast, elevational gradients in population cyclicity are largely unexplored. We quantified the cyclicity of gypsy moth...

  15. Cyclic Step-voltammetric Analysis of Cation-driven and Anion-driven Actuation in Polypyrrole Films (United States)

    Takashima, Wataru; Pandey, Shyam S.; Fuchiwaki, Masaki; Kaneto, Keiichi


    Cation-driven and anion-driven electrochemomechanical deformations (ECMD) in electrodeposited polypyrrole (PPy) films have been investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry and cyclic step-voltammetry (CSV). The film deposited from hydrochloric acid (PPyCl) expanded upon anodic reaction (anodic expansion) while that deposited from dodecyl-benzene sulfonic acid (PPyDBS) exhibited cathodic expansion. In the case of the film deposited from p-phenol sulfonic acid (PPyPPS), it was found to show the anodic expansion at 600 mV (vs Ag wire as a reference electrode) along with the cathodic contraction at -800 mV in CSV. The film obtained from the same lot, however, showed cathodic contraction and anodic expansion only by changing the oxidative potential from 600 mV to -100 mV. This phase inversion indicates that not only the polymerization electrolyte but also the redox potential determines the (de)insertion of ions in the PPyPPS film. Contractive electrochemical creeping was only observed in PPyPPS film in chloride salt electrolytes, indicating that the cation insertion induces the deinsertion of initial-dopant anion from the film.

  16. Biofilm formation and antibiotic production in Ruegeria mobilis are influenced by intracellular concentrations of cyclic dimeric guanosinmonophosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Alvise, Paul; Magdenoska, Olivera; Melchiorsen, Jette


    species Ruegeria mobilis are associated with intracellular concentrations of the signal compound cyclic dimeric guanosinmonophosphate (c-di-GMP), which in bacteria regulates transitions between motile and sessile life stages. Genes for diguanylate cyclases and phosphodiesterases, which are involved in c...... formation and production of the potent antibiotic tropodithietic acid (TDA). An introduced phosphodiesterase gene decreased c-di-GMP and reduced biofilm formation and TDA production. tdaC, a key gene for TDA biosynthesis, was expressed only in attached or biofilm-forming cells, and expression was induced...

  17. A secure cyclic steganographic technique for color images using randomization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, K.; Ahmad, J.; Rehman, N.U.


    Information Security is a major concern in today's modern era. Almost all the communicating bodies want the security, confidentiality and integrity of their personal data. But this security goal cannot be achieved easily when we are using an open network like internet. Steganography provides one of the best solutions to this problem. This paper represents a new Cyclic Steganographic Technique (CST) based on Least Significant Bit (LSB) for true color (RGB) images. The proposed method hides the secret data in the LSBs of cover image pixels in a randomized cyclic manner. The proposed technique is evaluated using both subjective and objective analysis using histograms changeability, Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Mean Square Error (MSE). Experimentally it is found that the proposed method gives promising results in terms of security, imperceptibility and robustness as compared to some existent methods and vindicates this new algorithm. (author)

  18. Application of cyclic fluorocarbon/argon discharges to device patterning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzler, Dominik, E-mail: [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States); Uppireddi, Kishore; Bruce, Robert L.; Miyazoe, Hiroyuki; Zhu, Yu; Price, William; Sikorski, Ed S.; Engelmann, Sebastian U.; Joseph, Eric A. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Li, Chen [Department of Physics, and Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States); Oehrlein, Gottlieb S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States)


    With increasing demands on device patterning to achieve smaller critical dimensions and pitches for the 5 nm node and beyond, the need for atomic layer etching (ALE) is steadily increasing. In this work, a cyclic fluorocarbon/Ar plasma is successfully used for ALE patterning in a manufacturing scale reactor. Self-limited etching of silicon oxide is observed. The impact of various process parameters on the etch performance is established. The substrate temperature has been shown to play an especially significant role, with lower temperatures leading to higher selectivity and lower etch rates, but worse pattern fidelity. The cyclic ALE approach established with this work is shown to have great potential for small scale device patterning, showing self-limited etching, improved uniformity and resist mask performance.

  19. TideWatch: Fingerprinting the cyclicality of big data workloads

    KAUST Repository

    Williams, Daniel W.


    Intrinsic to \\'big data\\' processing workloads (e.g., iterative MapReduce, Pregel, etc.) are cyclical resource utilization patterns that are highly synchronized across different resource types as well as the workers in a cluster. In Infrastructure as a Service settings, cloud providers do not exploit this characteristic to better manage VMs because they view VMs as \\'black boxes.\\' We present TideWatch, a system that automatically identifies cyclicality and similarity in running VMs. TideWatch predicts period lengths of most VMs in Hadoop workloads within 9% of actual iteration boundaries and successfully classifies up to 95% of running VMs as participating in the appropriate Hadoop cluster. Furthermore, we show how TideWatch can be used to improve the timing of VM migrations, reducing both migration time and network impact by over 50% when compared to a random approach. © 2014 IEEE.

  20. Engine cyclic durability by analysis and material testing (United States)

    Kaufman, A.; Halford, G. R.


    The problem of calculating turbine engine component durability is addressed. Nonlinear, finite-element structural analyses, cyclic constitutive behavior models, and an advanced creep-fatigue life prediction method called strainrange partitioning were assessed for their applicability to the solution of durability problems in hot-section components of gas turbine engines. Three different component or subcomponent geometries are examined: a stress concentration in a turbine disk; a louver lip of a half-scale combustor linear; and a squealer tip of a first-stage high-pressure turbine blade. Cyclic structural analyses were performed for all three problems. The computed strain-temperature histories at the critical locations of the combustor linear and turbine blade components were imposed on smooth specimens in uniaxial, strain-controlled, thermomechanical fatigue tests of evaluate the structural and life analysis methods.

  1. Improvements of cyclic somatic embryogenesis of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). (United States)

    Raemakers, C J; Schavemaker, C M; Jacobsen, E; Visser, R G


    In cassava a cyclic system of somatic embryogenesis was developed. Primary (torpedo shaped or germinated) embryos, originating from leaf lobes, could only be obtained after culture on solid medium. Cyclic embryos, originating from embryos, could be obtained in both liquid and on solid medium. The production of embryos in liquid medium was distinctly higher, faster and more synchronized than on solid medium. Lower densities and fragmentation of starting embryos improved the production significantly. The highest production found was 32.1 embryos per initial embryo. In all treatments the explants initiated multiple embryos. The production of single embryos was achieved by pressing starting embryos through a fine meshed sieve, indicating that embryos can be produced from a piece of tissue with a restricted number of cells. The shoot conversion rate of embryos from liquid medium was comparable with that of embryos from solid medium.

  2. A compact cyclic plasticity model with parameter evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen; Tidemann, L.


    by the Armstrong–Frederick model, contained as a special case of the present model for a particular choice of the shape parameter. In contrast to previous work, where shaping the stress-strain loops is derived from multiple internal stress states, this effect is here represented by a single parameter......The paper presents a compact model for cyclic plasticity based on energy in terms of external and internal variables, and plastic yielding described by kinematic hardening and a flow potential with an additive term controlling the nonlinear cyclic hardening. The model is basically described by five...... parameters: external and internal stiffness, a yield stress and a limiting ultimate stress, and finally a parameter controlling the gradual development of plastic deformation. Calibration against numerous experimental results indicates that typically larger plastic strains develop than predicted...

  3. A kinematic model for Bayesian tracking of cyclic human motion (United States)

    Greif, Thomas; Lienhart, Rainer


    We introduce a two-dimensional kinematic model for cyclic motions of humans, which is suitable for the use as temporal prior in any Bayesian tracking framework. This human motion model is solely based on simple kinematic properties: the joint accelerations. Distributions of joint accelerations subject to the cycle progress are learned from training data. We present results obtained by applying the introduced model to the cyclic motion of backstroke swimming in a Kalman filter framework that represents the posterior distribution by a Gaussian. We experimentally evaluate the sensitivity of the motion model with respect to the frequency and noise level of assumed appearance-based pose measurements by simulating various fidelities of the pose measurements using ground truth data.

  4. Low Cycle Fatigue of Steel in Strain Controled Cyclic Bending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulesa Anna


    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparison of the fatigue life curves based on test of 15Mo3 steel under cyclic, pendulum bending and tension-compression. These studies were analyzed in terms of a large and small number of cycles where strain amplitude is dependent on the fatigue life. It has been shown that commonly used Manson-Coffin-Basquin model cannot be used for tests under cyclic bending due to the impossibility of separating elastic and plastic strains. For this purpose, some well-known models of Langer and Kandil and one new model of authors, where strain amplitude is dependent on the number of cycles, were proposed. Comparing the results of bending with tension-compression it was shown that for smaller strain amplitudes the fatigue life for both test methods were similar, for higher strain amplitudes fatigue life for bending tests was greater than for tension-compression.

  5. Kolkata Paise Restaurant Problem and the Cyclically Fair Norm (United States)

    Banerjee, Priyodorshi; Mitra, Manipushpak; Mukherjee, Conan

    In this paper we revisit the Kolkata Paise Restaurant problem by allowing for a more general (but common) preference of the n customers defined over the set of n restaurants. This generalization allows for the possibility that each pure strategy Nash equilibrium differs from the Pareto efficient allocation. By assuming that n is small and by allowing for mutual interaction across all customers we design strategies to sustain cyclically fair norm as a sub-game perfect equilibrium of the Kolkata Paise Restaurant problem. We have a cyclically fair norm if n strategically different Pareto efficient strategies are sequentially sustained in a way such that each customer gets serviced in all the n restaurants exactly once between periods 1 and n and then again the same process is repeated between periods (n+1) and 2n and so on.

  6. Cyclic mechanical fatigue in ceramic-ceramic composites: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, D. III


    Attention is given to cyclic mechanical fatigue effects in a number of ceramics and ceramic composites, including several monolithic ceramics in which significant residual stresses should be present as a result of thermal expansion mismatches and anisotropy. Fatigue is also noted in several BN-containing ceramic matrix-particulate composites and in SiC fiber-ceramic matrix composites. These results suggest that fatigue testing is imperative for ceramics and ceramic composites that are to be used in applications subject to cyclic loading. Fatigue process models are proposed which provide a rationale for fatigue effect observations, but do not as yet provide quantitative results. Fiber composite fatigue damage models indicate that design stresses in these materials may have to be maintained below the level at which fiber pullout occurs


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhitasari Suratman


    Full Text Available Electropolymerization processes and electrochemical properties of polypyrrole as electroactive polymer have been studied by cyclic voltammetric technique. Pyrrole was electropolymerized to form polypyrrole in water-based solvent containing sodium perchlorate as supporting electrolyte in several pH values. The pH of the solutions were varied by using Britton Robinson buffer. The results showed that oxidation potential limit of electropolymerization processes of pyrrole was 1220 mV vs Ag/AgCl reference electrode. It can be seen that cyclic voltammetric respon of polypyrrole membrane that was prepared by electropolymerization processes of pyrrole at the scanning rate of 100 mV/s was stable. While the processes of pyrrole electropolymerization carried out at the variation of pH showed that the best condition was at the pH range of 2 - 6.   Keywords: polypyrolle, electropolymer, voltammetric technique

  8. Production of isomers by the cyclic activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salaita, G.N.; Eapen, P.K.


    The isomeric states formation cross sections for 14.8 MeV neutron reactions in Mg, Al, As, Y, In, Hf, Tl, Pb, and Bi were measured using the cyclic activation technique and a high resolution Ge(Li) detector. Isomeric activities originating from the various isotopes of lead and thallium were separated by proper choice of cyclic timing parameters and energy discrimination. Long lived isomeric and ground state activities were investigated through conventional activation method. The isomeric cross section ratios, sigma/sub m//sigma/sub g/ for six elements, were measured and compared to the theoretical predictions of the Huizenga-Vandenbosch method. The half-lives of short-lived activities were determined using a wide range time-to-pulse height converter and a multi-channel analyzer

  9. Bioactive cyclic peptides from the psychrotolerant fungus Penicillium algidum. (United States)

    Dalsgaard, Petur W; Larsen, Thomas O; Christophersen, Carsten


    A new cyclic nitropeptide, psychrophilin D (1), together with two known cyclic peptides, cycloaspeptide A (2) and cycloaspeptide D (3), were isolated from the psychrotolerant fungus Penicillium algidum using C18 flash chromatography, LH-20 Sephadex and preparative HPLC. The structure of psychrophilin D (1) was derived from mass spectrometric information, 1D and 2D NMR spectra and Marfey's method. The compounds were tested in antimicrobial, antiviral, anticancer and antiplasmodial assays. Psychrophilin D (1) exhibited a moderate activity (ID50 10.1 microg/ml) in the P388 murine leukaemia cell assay. Cycloaspeptide A (2) and D (3) exhibited moderate activity (IC50 3.5 and 4.7 microg/ml, respectively) against Plasmodium falciparum.

  10. Species-specific aggregation factor in sponges. VII. Its effect on cyclic amp and cyclic gmp metabolism in cells of Geodia cydonium. (United States)

    Müller, W E; Müller, I; Zahn, R K; Kurelec, B


    In dissociated single cells from the sponge Geodia cydonium, DNA synthesis is initiated after incubation with a homologous, soluble aggregation factor. During the DNA-initiation phase the cyclic AMP- and cyclic GMP levels vary drastically; the cyclic AMP content drops from 2.2 pmol/10(6) cells to 0.3 pmol/10(6) cells while the cyclic GMP content increases from 0.6 pmol to 3.7 pmol/10(6) cells. The activity of neither the adenylate cyclase nor of the guanylate cyclase isolated from cells which have been incubated for different periods of time with the aggregation factor, is changed. The soluble as well as the particulate enzyme activities were checked in vitro. The cyclic nucleotide receptors have been isolated from the sponge cells and characterized with respect to their molecular weight, dissociation constant for cyclic AMP or cyclic GMP and intracellular concentration. None of these parameters are altered during aggregation factor-mediated DNA initiation. From these data it is concluded that the regulation of cyclic nucleotide levels is a consequence of a changed activity of nucleotide cyclases or of phosphodiesterases, but this is presumably not caused by a changed rate of synthesis of nucleotide cyclases or of cyclic nucleotide receptors.

  11. Micromechanics of intergranular creep failure under cyclic loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Giessen, Erik; Tvergaard, Viggo


    boundaries are modelled individually. The model incorporates power-law creep of the grains, viscous grain boundary sliding between grains as well as the nucleation and growth of grain boundary cavities until they coalesce and form microcracks. Study of a limiting case with a facet-size microcrack reveals....... The analyses provide some new understanding that helps to explain the sometimes peculiar behaviour under balanced cyclic creep. Copyright (C) 1996 Acta Metallurgica Inc....

  12. Biosynthesis and regulation of cyclic lipopeptides in Pseudomonas fluorescens


    Bruijn, de, I.


    Cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) are surfactant and antibiotic metabolites produced by a variety of bacterial genera. For the genus Pseudomonas, many structurally different CLPs have been identified. CLPs play an important role in surface motility of Pseudomonas strains, but also in virulence and attachment/detachment to and from surfaces. In this Ph.D. thesis project, two new CLP biosynthesis clusters were identified in Pseudomonas fluorescens and fully sequenced. In P. fluorescens strain SBW2...

  13. Cyclic behaviour and fatigue life prediction in welded aluminium joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosteas, D.


    The paper gives an overall state-of-the-art view of international attempts to find a solution, describes cyclic stress-strain behavior for the different zones of aluminium weldments, as stated above, states results from a recent research program of the Versuchsanstalt Stahl, Holz, und Steine in Karlsruhe and gives a step by step model for the calculation procedure of fatigue life. (orig.) 891 RW/orig. 892 RKD [de

  14. Constraining cyclic peptides to mimic protein structure motifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Timothy A.; Shepherd, Nicholas E.; Diness, Frederik


    Many proteins exert their biological activities through small exposed surface regions called epitopes that are folded peptides of well-defined three-dimensional structures. Short synthetic peptide sequences corresponding to these bioactive protein surfaces do not form thermodynamically stable...... and proteins, and identifies some additional restraints incorporated into natural product cyclic peptides and synthetic macrocyclic pepti-domimetics that refine peptide structure and confer biological properties....

  15. Cyclic spectra for wavelength-routed optical networks. (United States)

    Corcoran, Bill; Geng, Zihan; Rozental, Valery; Lowery, Arthur J


    We propose occupying the guard bands in closely spaced WDM systems with redundant signal spectral components to increase tolerance to frequency misalignment and channel shaping from multiplexing elements. By cyclically repeating the spectrum of a modulated signal, we show improved tolerance to impairments due to add/drop multiplexing with a commercial wavelength selective switch in systems using 5%-20% guard bands on a 50 GHz DWDM grid.

  16. Ring-opening of cyclic ethers by aluminum hydridotriphenylborate. (United States)

    Mukherjee, Debabrata; Osseili, Hassan; Truong, Khai-Nghi; Spaniol, Thomas P; Okuda, Jun


    Molecular aluminum hydride [(L)AlH 2 ] (L = Me 3 TACD) reacted with 2 equiv. of BPh 3 in THF or THP to give the cationic alkoxides [(L)Al(OR)][HBPh 3 ] (R = nBu, nPent) by facile ring-opening of the cyclic ethers. The C α -O bond cleavage which involves the isolable intermediate [(L)AlH][HBPh 3 ] is a result of hydride transfer to C α from [HBPh 3 ] - .

  17. [The metabolites of cyclic peptides from three endophytic mangrove fungi]. (United States)

    Guo, Zhi-yong; Huang, Zhong-jing; Wen, Lu; Wan, Qiao; Liu, Fan; She, Zhi-gang; Lin, Yong-cheng; Zhou, Shi-ning


    Nine secondary metaboites of cyclic peptide were isolated from three mangrove endophytic fungi Paecilomyces sp. (treel-7), 4557,ZZF65. They were viscumamide(1),cyclo(Pro-Iso)(2),cyclo(Phe-Gly)(3),cyclo(Phe-Ana)(4),cyclo(Gly-Pro) (5),cyclo(Gly-Leu)(6), cyclo(Trp-Ana)(7),neoechinulin A(8),cyclo(Pro-Thr)(9). The compounds 1,7,8,9 were firstly isolated from marine fungus.

  18. Ultrathin monomolecular films and robust assemblies based on cyclic catechols

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zieger, M. M.; Pop-Georgievski, Ognen; de los Santos Pereira, Andres; Verveniotis, E.; Preuss, C. M.; Zorn, M.; Reck, B.; Goldmann, A. S.; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar; Barner-Kowollik, C.


    Roč. 33, č. 3 (2017), s. 670-679 ISSN 0743-7463 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ15-09368Y Grant - others:OPPK(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21545 Program:OPPK Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : cyclic catechols * ultrathin films * macromolecules monolayers Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 3.833, year: 2016

  19. Effect of loading history on cyclic stress-strain response

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kunz, Ludvík; Lukáš, Petr; Weiss, B.; Melisova, D.


    Roč. 314, 1/2 (2001), s. 1-6 ISSN 0921-5093. [TMS Annual Meeting. Nashville, 12.03.2000-16.03.2000] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS2041001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : cyclic plasticity * loading history * mean stress Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 0.978, year: 2001

  20. Private and public consumption and counter-cyclical fiscal policy


    Marattin, Luigi


    This paper bulds a closed-economy NK-DSGE model with no capital, in which consumers value both private and public consumption and fiscal policy is determined by a feedback rule responding to output gap. We analyse how different degrees of substitutatibility/complementarity between private and public consumption and a pro/counter-cyclical stance of fiscal policy affect equilbrium determinacy and the response of the economy to a wide range of shocks. Results show that determinacy is ensured b...

  1. Cyclical Mackey Glass Model for Oil Bull Seasonal


    Sadek MELHEM; Michel TERRAZA; Mohamed CHIKHI


    In this article, we propose an innovative way for modelling oil bull seasonals taking into account seasonal speculations in oil markets. Since oil prices behave very seasonally during two periods of the year (summer and winter), we propose a modification of Mackey Glass equation by taking into account the rhythm of seasonal frequencies. Using monthly data for WTI oil prices, Seasonal Cyclical Mackey Glass estimates indicate that seasonal interactions between heterogeneous speculators...

  2. Pro-cyclical Solow Residuals without Technology Shocks


    Adnrew J. Clarke; Alok Johri


    Most Real Business Cycle models have a hard time jointly explaining the twin facts of strongly pro-cyclical Solow residuals and extremely low correlations between wages and hours. We present a model that delivers both these results without using exogenous variation in total factor productivity (technology shocks). The key innovation of the paper is to add learning-by-doing to firms technology. As a result firms optimally vary their prices to control the amount of learning which in turn influe...

  3. Higher Genus Abelian Functions Associated with Cyclic Trigonal Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew England


    Full Text Available We develop the theory of Abelian functions associated with cyclic trigonal curves by considering two new cases. We investigate curves of genus six and seven and consider whether it is the trigonal nature or the genus which dictates certain areas of the theory. We present solutions to the Jacobi inversion problem, sets of relations between the Abelian function, links to the Boussinesq equation and a new addition formula.

  4. A cyclic production problem: an application of max-algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nawijn, W.M.


    Given are m identical machines, each of which performs the same N operations Oi, 1 ≤ i ≤ N, cyclically and indefinitely, i.e. a production run on a machine looksO1, O2,…,ON, O1, O2,…,ON, O1…. There are nim to to perform operation Oi. The tools are transported between the machines by means of an

  5. On L ∞-Morphisms of Cyclic Chains (United States)

    Sergio Cattaneo, Alberto; Felder, Giovanni; Willwacher, Thomas


    Recently the first two authors (Cattaneo and Felder in 2008) constructed an L ∞-morphism using the S 1-equivariant version of the Poisson Sigma Model. Its role in the deformation quantization was not entirely clear. We give here a “good” interpretation and show that the resulting formality statement is equivalent to formality on cyclic chains as conjectured by Tsygan and proved recently by several authors (Dolgushev et al. in 2008; Willwacher in 2008).

  6. Assessment of burned coal shale properties based on cyclic load (United States)

    Grygierek, Marcin; Kalisz, Piotr; Pacześniowski, Krzysztof; Pytlik, Andrzej; Zięba, Magdalena


    Road surfaces that are subjected to cyclic loads generated by vehicle wheels must meet the requirements concerning the durability in the assumed period of use. The durability of the layered pavement construction systems depends on the value and frequency of the load as well as on the mechanical features of its individual layers. Layers of unbound, mechanically stabilized mixtures are a significant aspect of surfaces that are susceptible. Mixtures of this type can be applied both to the subgrade layers as well as to the bottom pavement layers, including the improved course. Considering the cyclic nature of the load on the surface of the entire system, mechanically stabilized layers are subject to continuous, but slow, densification during the period of use, which results in the formation of permanent deformations and so-called structural ruts. Post-mining waste is frequently used in road construction. which is the so-called burned shale that can be used for the bottom layers of the surface and layers of the improved subgrade (soil replacement). This material was the subject of the analysis. The evaluation was based mainly on the results of pilot studies covering cyclic loads of the layer/course made of the so-called red shale. The applied research method was aimed at preliminary assessment of its suitability for the assessment of the behaviour of the disintegrated medium under the conditions of test loads simulating the movement of vehicles.

  7. Effects of complex life cycles on genetic diversity: cyclical parthenogenesis. (United States)

    Rouger, R; Reichel, K; Malrieu, F; Masson, J P; Stoeckel, S


    Neutral patterns of population genetic diversity in species with complex life cycles are difficult to anticipate. Cyclical parthenogenesis (CP), in which organisms undergo several rounds of clonal reproduction followed by a sexual event, is one such life cycle. Many species, including crop pests (aphids), human parasites (trematodes) or models used in evolutionary science (Daphnia), are cyclical parthenogens. It is therefore crucial to understand the impact of such a life cycle on neutral genetic diversity. In this paper, we describe distributions of genetic diversity under conditions of CP with various clonal phase lengths. Using a Markov chain model of CP for a single locus and individual-based simulations for two loci, our analysis first demonstrates that strong departures from full sexuality are observed after only a few generations of clonality. The convergence towards predictions made under conditions of full clonality during the clonal phase depends on the balance between mutations and genetic drift. Second, the sexual event of CP usually resets the genetic diversity at a single locus towards predictions made under full sexuality. However, this single recombination event is insufficient to reshuffle gametic phases towards full-sexuality predictions. Finally, for similar levels of clonality, CP and acyclic partial clonality (wherein a fixed proportion of individuals are clonally produced within each generation) differentially affect the distribution of genetic diversity. Overall, this work provides solid predictions of neutral genetic diversity that may serve as a null model in detecting the action of common evolutionary or demographic processes in cyclical parthenogens (for example, selection or bottlenecks).

  8. Cyclic voltammetric studies of thymoquinone with iron (III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishwar, F.; Haq, Q.U.


    Complexation of thynioquinone an active ingredient of Nigella saliva, with Fc(lII) has been analyzed using cyclic voltammetry. This electrochemical study was performed at glassy carbon as working electrode, platinum as auxiliary and saturated calomel as reference electrode. Whole work was performed at 25+-1 degree C in aqueous medium using NaCl as supporting electrolyte. Present study reflects effects of scan rates, concentrations, ratios and successive cyclic scans on Fe(lll)-thymoquinone complex. Results revealed that the complex shows quasi-reversible electron transfer process. E degree of complex was found to be 0.271+- 0.030 V whereas diffusion coefficient was 9.178x 10-1 cm2s. The values of transfer coefficients, alpha and beta were also determined. The value of alpha was found to he 0.786+-0.01-0.923+-0.02 whereas value of 13 was found in the range of 0.8131-0.01-1.021+-0.01. Calibration curve method with linear regression line confirms that cyclic voltammetry can be used for quantification of Fe( Ill )-thynioquinone complex for pharmaceutical assay. (author)

  9. Methods of evaluation of thermal tolerance of cyclic sports athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kish А.А.


    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is investigation of thermal stability in athletes of cyclic sports and assessment of its influence on physical working capacity under hyperthermia. Material and methods. 15 male athletes of cyclic sports who had the senior degree as minimum were included in the study Middle age 24,2±1,1 years. Work was performed in the climatic camera of the Center of sports medicine and rehabilitation in several stages, on each of which assessment of physical working capacity and a thermal condition of athletes was carried out. Results. In the real work the burdening action of the heating climate on indicators of physical working capacity and a thermal condition of athletes of cyclic sports is shown; the operating ranges of high temperatures are determined. Conclusion. The data obtained by means of the offered technique, confirm importance of definition of individual thresholds of shipping of a thermal state at athletes and the burdening action of a heat on their physical working capacity.

  10. Annotating and Interpreting Linear and Cyclic Peptide Tandem Mass Spectra. (United States)

    Niedermeyer, Timo Horst Johannes


    Nonribosomal peptides often possess pronounced bioactivity, and thus, they are often interesting hit compounds in natural product-based drug discovery programs. Their mass spectrometric characterization is difficult due to the predominant occurrence of non-proteinogenic monomers and, especially in the case of cyclic peptides, the complex fragmentation patterns observed. This makes nonribosomal peptide tandem mass spectra annotation challenging and time-consuming. To meet this challenge, software tools for this task have been developed. In this chapter, the workflow for using the software mMass for the annotation of experimentally obtained peptide tandem mass spectra is described. mMass is freely available (, open-source, and the most advanced and user-friendly software tool for this purpose. The software enables the analyst to concisely annotate and interpret tandem mass spectra of linear and cyclic peptides. Thus, it is highly useful for accelerating the structure confirmation and elucidation of cyclic as well as linear peptides and depsipeptides.

  11. Nitric oxide cycle in mammals and the cyclicity principle. (United States)

    Reutov, V P


    This paper continues a series of reports considering nitric oxide (NO) and its cyclic conversions in mammals. Numerous facts are summarized with the goal of developing a general concept that would allow the statement of the multiple effects of NO on various systems of living organisms in the form of a short and comprehensive law. The current state of biological aspects of NO research is analyzed in term of elucidation of possible role of these studies in the system of biological sciences. The general concept is based on a notion on cyclic conversions of NO and its metabolites. NO cycles in living organisms and nitrogen turnover in the biosphere and also the Bethe nitrogen-carbon cycle in star matter are considered. A hypothesis that the cyclic organization of processes in living organisms and the biosphere reflects the evolution of life is proposed: the development of physiological functions and metabolism are suggested to be closely related to space and evolution of the Earth as a planet of the Solar System.

  12. Total synthesis of cyclomarins A, C and D, marine cyclic peptides with interesting anti-tuberculosis and anti-malaria activities. (United States)

    Barbie, Philipp; Kazmaier, Uli


    Cyclomarins are cyclic heptapeptides containing four unusual amino acids. New synthetic protocols toward their synthesis have been developed, leading to the synthesis and biological evaluation of three natural occurring cyclomarins. Interestingly, cyclomarins address two completely different targets: Clp C1, a subunit of the caseinolytic protease of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), as well as PfAp3Ase of Plasmodium falciparum. Therefore, cyclomarins are interesting lead structures for the development of drugs against tuberculosis and malaria.

  13. Cyclic α-Alkoxyphosphonium Salts from (2-(Diphenylphosphino)phenyl)methanol and Aldehydes and Their Application in Synthesis of Vinyl Ethers and Ketones via Wittig Olefination. (United States)

    Huang, Wenhua; Rong, Hong-Ying; Xu, Jie


    Cyclic α-alkoxyphosphonium salts have been synthesized from (2-(diphenylphosphino)phenyl)methanol and aldehydes in 36-89% yields. These phosphonium salts are bench-stable solids and undergo Wittig olefination with aldehydes under basic conditions (K2CO3 or t-BuOK) to form benzylic vinyl ethers, which are readily hydrolyzed to 1,2-disubstituted ethanones under acidic conditions. The formation mechanism of these phosphonium salts via hemiacetal is also proposed.

  14. An asymmetric Mannich reaction of α-diazocarbonyl compounds and N-sulfonyl cyclic ketimines catalyzed by complexes generated from chiral and achiral phosphines with gold(i). (United States)

    Zhou, Minghui; Su, Qin; Addepalli, Yesu; He, Yun; Wang, Zhen


    An unprecedented Lewis acidic gold(i)-complex generated from chiral and achiral phosphines has been developed for the Mannich reaction of α-diazocarbonyl compounds and N-sulfonyl cyclic ketimines. A series of chiral β-amino-α-diazoesters bearing a quaternary stereocenter were obtained in high yields with good enantioselectivities. In addition, the products could be converted to promising bioactive spirosuccinimide. Furthermore, operando IR, NMR and control experiments were carried out to gain insight into the mechanism.

  15. Studies on resilient modulus value from cyclic loading tests for cohesive soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sas Wojciech


    Full Text Available In this article the cyclic CBR test as a reference method in determination of resilient modulus (Mr is confronted with results of cyclic triaxial and unconfined uniaxial cyclic test. The main idea of conducted experiments is establish relationship between cyclic loading tests in testing of natural subsoil and road materials. The article shows results of investigation on cohesive soil, namely sandy silty clay, commonly problematic soil in Poland. The results of repeated loading triaxial test resilient modulus were displayed in order to compare them with cyclic CBR test results by using the Mr–Ө model. Some empirical correlation between factors obtained from triaxial test or uniaxial unconfined cyclic test and cyclic CBR test was introduced here. The behavior of resilient modulus was also examined in this paper.

  16. Effects of Cyclic Loading on the Uniaxial Behavior of Nitinol (United States)

    Schlun, M.; Zipse, A.; Dreher, G.; Rebelo, N.


    The widespread development and use of implants made from NiTi is accompanied by the publication of many NiTi material characterization studies. These publications have increased significantly the knowledge about the mechanical properties of NiTi. However, this knowledge also increased the complexity of the numerical simulation of NiTi implants or devices. This study is focused on the uniaxial behavior of NiTi tubing due to cyclic loading and had the goal to deliver both precise and application-oriented results. Single aspects of this study have already been published (Wagner in Ein Beitrag zur strukturellen und funktionalen Ermüdung von Drähten und Federn aus NiTi-Formgedaechtnislegierungen, Ph.D. Thesis, 2005; Eucken and Duerig in Acta Metall 37:2245-2252, 1989; Yawny et al. in Z Metallkd 96:608-618, 2005); however, there is no publication known that shows all the single effects combined in a "duty cycle case." It was of particular importance to summarize the main effects of pre-strain and subsequent small or large strain amplitudes on the material properties. The phenomena observed were captured in an extended Abaqus® Nitinol material model, presented by Rebelo et al. (A Material Model for the Cyclic Behavior of Nitinol, SMST Extended Abstracts 2010). The cyclic tensile tests were performed using a video extensometer to obtain accurate strain measurement on small electro-polished dog-bone specimen that were incorporated into a stent framework so that standard manufacturing methods could be used for the fabrication. This study indicates that a prestrain beyond 6% strain alters the transformation plateaus and if the cyclic displacement amplitude is large enough, additional permanent deformations are observed, the lower plateau and most notably the upper plateau change. The changes to the upper plateau are very interesting in the sense that an additional stress plateau develops: its "start stress" is lowered thereby creating a new plateau up to the highest level

  17. Champacyclin, a New Cyclic Octapeptide from Streptomyces Strain C42 Isolated from the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Pesic


    Full Text Available New isolates of Streptomyces champavatii were isolated from marine sediments of the Gotland Deep (Baltic Sea, from the Urania Basin (Eastern Mediterranean, and from the Kiel Bight (Baltic Sea. The isolates produced several oligopeptidic secondary metabolites, including the new octapeptide champacyclin (1a present in all three strains. Herein, we report on the isolation, structure elucidation and determination of the absolute stereochemistry of this isoleucine/leucine (Ile/Leu = Xle rich cyclic octapeptide champacyclin (1a. As 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy could not fully resolve the structure of (1a, additional information on sequence and configuration of stereocenters were obtained by a combination of multi stage mass spectrometry (MSn studies, amino acid analysis, partial hydrolysis and subsequent enantiomer analytics with gas chromatography positive chmical ionization/electron impact mass spectrometry (GC-PCI/EI-MS supported by comparison to reference dipeptides. Proof of the head-to-tail cyclization of (1a was accomplished by solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS compared to an alternatively side chain cyclized derivative (2. Champacyclin (1a is likely synthesized by a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS, because of its high content of (d-amino acids. The compound (1a showed antimicrobial activity against the phytopathogen Erwinia amylovora causing the fire blight disease of certain plants.

  18. 14-Membered cyclic bis-semicarbazones: Stereoselective synthesis and structural features (United States)

    Shutalev, Anatoly D.; Fesenko, Anastasia A.; Yankov, Alexander N.; Tafeenko, Victor A.; Chernyshev, Vladimir V.


    Stereoselectivity of acid-catalyzed cyclization of 4-(1-aryl-3-oxobutyl)semicarbazide hydrazones into mixtures of trans- and cis-isomers of 14-membered cyclic bis-semicarbazones has been studied. The isomer ratio is dependent on solvent, catalyst acidity, substrate structure and concentration, reaction temperature and time, catalyst loading. The experimental data show that the macrocyclization of acyclic precursors initially formed from two molecules of substrates proceeds with low diastereoselectivity to give mixtures of trans- and cis-macrocycles followed by slow transformation of cis-isomers into trans-isomers via ring opening by a retro-aza-Michael reaction resulting in high trans-selectivity. The driving force of this isomerization is shown to be a lower solubility of trans-isomers compared with cis-isomers. Some mechanistical aspects of the macrocycle formation were confirmed by calculations performed at the DFT B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. Molecular structure of the obtained hexaaza macrocycles was established using single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, IR, UV-Vis, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and DFT calculations.

  19. Effects of complex life cycles on genetic diversity: cyclical parthenogenesis (United States)

    Rouger, R; Reichel, K; Malrieu, F; Masson, J P; Stoeckel, S


    Neutral patterns of population genetic diversity in species with complex life cycles are difficult to anticipate. Cyclical parthenogenesis (CP), in which organisms undergo several rounds of clonal reproduction followed by a sexual event, is one such life cycle. Many species, including crop pests (aphids), human parasites (trematodes) or models used in evolutionary science (Daphnia), are cyclical parthenogens. It is therefore crucial to understand the impact of such a life cycle on neutral genetic diversity. In this paper, we describe distributions of genetic diversity under conditions of CP with various clonal phase lengths. Using a Markov chain model of CP for a single locus and individual-based simulations for two loci, our analysis first demonstrates that strong departures from full sexuality are observed after only a few generations of clonality. The convergence towards predictions made under conditions of full clonality during the clonal phase depends on the balance between mutations and genetic drift. Second, the sexual event of CP usually resets the genetic diversity at a single locus towards predictions made under full sexuality. However, this single recombination event is insufficient to reshuffle gametic phases towards full-sexuality predictions. Finally, for similar levels of clonality, CP and acyclic partial clonality (wherein a fixed proportion of individuals are clonally produced within each generation) differentially affect the distribution of genetic diversity. Overall, this work provides solid predictions of neutral genetic diversity that may serve as a null model in detecting the action of common evolutionary or demographic processes in cyclical parthenogens (for example, selection or bottlenecks). PMID:27436524

  20. Cyclic fatigue of Reciproc and WaveOne reciprocating instruments. (United States)

    Plotino, G; Grande, N M; Testarelli, L; Gambarini, G


    To evaluate the cyclic fatigue resistance of Reciproc(®) and WaveOne(®) instruments in simulated root canals. Two groups of 15 NiTi endodontic instruments of identical tip size of 0.25 mm were tested, group A; Reciproc(®) R25 and group B: WaveOne(®) primary. Cyclic fatigue testing was performed in a stainless steel artificial canal manufactured by reproducing the instrument's size and taper. A simulated root canal with a 60° angle of curvature and 5-mm radius of curvature was constructed for both the instruments tested. The centre of the curvature was 5 mm from the tip of the instrument and the curved segment of the canal was approximately 5 mm in length. The Reciproc(®) instruments were activated using the preset programme specific for the Reciproc(®) instruments, whilst the WaveOne(®) instruments were activated using the preset programme specific for the WaveOne(®) instruments. All instruments were rotated until fracture occurred and the time to fracture (TtF) and the length of the fractured tip were recorded and registered. Means and standard deviations of TtF and fragment length were calculated for each system and data were subjected to Student's t-test (P  0.05) in the mean length of the fractured fragments between the instruments.   Reciproc(®) instruments were associated with a significantly higher cyclic fatigue resistance than WaveOne(®) instruments. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal.

  1. Cyclic fatigue of instruments for endodontic glide path. (United States)

    Gambarini, Gianluca; Plotino, Gianluca; Sannino, GianPaolo; Grande, Nicola Maria; Giansiracusa, Alessio; Piasecki, Lucila; da Silva Neto, Ulisses Xavier; Al-Sudani, Dina; Testarelli, Luca


    Endodontic glide path is the creation of a smooth patency from canal orifice to apex, which can be performed manually or with small tapered NiTi rotary instruments. The use of stainless steel (SS) hand K-files inserted in a reciprocating handpiece can be a possible alternative to create a mechanical glide path. The aim of this study was to compare the cyclic fatigue resistance between SS K-files used in a reciprocating motion and NiTi rotary instruments in artificial curved canals. Ten SS size 15 K-files used with the M4 handpiece (SybronEndo, Glendora, CA, USA) and ten PathFiles (Maillefer-Dentsply, Ballaigues, CH, Switzerland) NiTi rotary instruments size 16, 0.02 taper were tested for resistance to cyclic fatigue. The time to fracture inside an artificial curved canal was recorded for each instrument. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD test. Mean time (and SD) to failure was 464 s (±40.4) for the Group PF (NiTi rotary PathFile), and 1049 s (±24.8) for the Group M4 (SS K-files reciprocating) with a statistically significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.033). The SS 15 K-files used with the M4 handpiece showed a significant greater resistance to cyclic fatigue when compared to the NiTi rotary PathFiles. Therefore, the use of small size SS files in a reciprocating motion might be a rational choice for the creation of a mechanical endodontic glide path in curved root canals.

  2. Smart Annotation of Cyclic Data Using Hierarchical Hidden Markov Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine F. Martindale


    Full Text Available Cyclic signals are an intrinsic part of daily life, such as human motion and heart activity. The detailed analysis of them is important for clinical applications such as pathological gait analysis and for sports applications such as performance analysis. Labeled training data for algorithms that analyze these cyclic data come at a high annotation cost due to only limited annotations available under laboratory conditions or requiring manual segmentation of the data under less restricted conditions. This paper presents a smart annotation method that reduces this cost of labeling for sensor-based data, which is applicable to data collected outside of strict laboratory conditions. The method uses semi-supervised learning of sections of cyclic data with a known cycle number. A hierarchical hidden Markov model (hHMM is used, achieving a mean absolute error of 0.041 ± 0.020 s relative to a manually-annotated reference. The resulting model was also used to simultaneously segment and classify continuous, ‘in the wild’ data, demonstrating the applicability of using hHMM, trained on limited data sections, to label a complete dataset. This technique achieved comparable results to its fully-supervised equivalent. Our semi-supervised method has the significant advantage of reduced annotation cost. Furthermore, it reduces the opportunity for human error in the labeling process normally required for training of segmentation algorithms. It also lowers the annotation cost of training a model capable of continuous monitoring of cycle characteristics such as those employed to analyze the progress of movement disorders or analysis of running technique.

  3. Precambrian cyclic rhythmites: solar-climatic or tidal signatures?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.E.


    For more than 60 years geologists have sought evidence of solar-climatic cyclicity in rhythmically laminated sedimentary rocks, but claims in general have not been persuasive. Three Precambrian rhythmite sequences in Australia that comprise varve-like laminae recently have received attention, however, as their conspicuous cycles of ca. 10-14 and/or 20-25 laminae have been ascribed a sunspot-cycle origin. They are the 2500 Ma old Weeli Wolli Formation, the 1750 Ma old Wollogorang Formation and the 650 Ma old Elatina Formation. New observations for the Weeli Wolli Formation, a siliceous banded iron-formation, suggest a cycle period exceeding the 23 microband couplets proposed by Trendall, casting doubt on the solar interpretation. The Weeli Wolli cyclicity may record Earth-tidal rhythms that modulated the discharge and composition of silica- and iron-bearing fumarolic waters. The structure of the cycles of silty dolomite and mudstone in the Wollogorang Formation does not support a sunspot-cycle origin, and a tidal control on sedimentation should be considered. The Elatina sequence of cyclic sandstone and siltstone laminae displays several empirical similarities to the sunspot series. The discovery of thicker, more complex lamina-cycles in the correlative Reynella Siltstone has, however, caused reappraisal of the solar interpretation of the Elatina rhythmites. The Elatina series may encode unique information on lunar orbital periods and the Earth's palaeorotation: the data indicate ca. 30.5 days per lunar month, 13.1 lunar months and ca. 400 days per year, and lunar apsides and lunar nodal cycles of 9.7 and ca. 19.5 years respectively some 650 Ma ago. (author)

  4. Differential model of macroeconomic growth with endogenic cyclicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail I. Geraskin


    Full Text Available Objective to elaborate a mathematical model of economic growth taking into account the cyclical nature of macroeconomic dynamics with the model parameters based on the Russian economy statistics. Methods economic and mathematical modeling system analysis regression factor analysis econometric time series analysis. Results the article states that under unstable economic growth in Russia forecasting of strategic prospects of the Russian economy is one of the topical directions of scientific studies. Furthermore construction of predictive models should be based on multiple factors taking into account such basic concepts as the neoKeynesian HarrodDomar model Ramsey ndash Cass ndash Koopmans model S. V. Dubovskiyrsquos concept as well as the neoclassical growth model by R. Solow. They served as the basis for developing a multifactor differential economic growth model which is a modification of the neoclassical growth model by R. Solow taking into account the laborsaving and capitalsaving forms of scientifictechnical progress and the Keynesian concept of investment. The model parameters are determined based on the dynamics of actual GDP employment fixed assets and investments in fixed assets for 19652016 in Russia on the basis of official statistics. The generalized model showed the presence of longwave fluctuations that are not detected during the individual periods modeling. The cyclical nature of macroeconomic dynamics with a period of 54 years was found which corresponds to the parameters of long waves by N. D. Kondratiev. Basing on the model the macroeconomic growth forecast was generated which shows that after 2020 the increase of scientifictechnical progress will be negative. Scientific novelty a model is proposed of the scientifictechnical progress indicator showing the growth rate of the capital productivity ratio to the saving rate a differential model of macroeconomic growth is obtained which endogenously takes cyclicity into account

  5. Viscoelastoplastic bodies under cyclic loading in thermal-radiation fields


    Atwa D. Zeyad


    Deformation of viscoelastoplastic bodies in the neutron and thermal fluxes under a one-time loading has been studied previously in [1–3]. A mathematical model has been set forth in [4] for a cyclic deformation of elastoplastic bodies in a neutron flux. In the paper [5,6] ferrofluid flow and heat transfer in a semi annulus enclosure is investigated considering thermal radiation. This article [7] explores the effect of thermal radiation on Al2O3–water nanofluid flow and heat transfer in an encl...

  6. Bianchi I model as a prototype for a cyclical Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Montani


    The main issue of the present analysis consists of determining a cyclical evolution for the Bianchi I model, oscillating between the Big-Bounce induced by the cut-off physics and the turning point due to the small cosmological constant. Furthermore, the mean value of the Universe anisotropy variables remains finite during the whole evolution, including the phase across the Big-Bounce. Such a feature, according to a suitable choice of the initial conditions makes the present cosmological paradigm, a viable scenario for the description of a possible primordial and late phases of the actual Universe.

  7. Nodular cast iron fatigue lifetime in cyclic plane bending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Kokavec


    Full Text Available The fatigue behavior of a component is strongly dependent on the material and its surface condition. Therefore, the manner in which the surface is prepared during component manufacturing (surface roughness, residual stresses etc. has a decisive role in dictating the initiation time for fatigue cracks. The fatigue behavior of the same material, a nodular cast iron, with three different surface conditions (fine ground, sand blast and as-cast has been investigated under cyclic plane bending. The results show differences in fatigue strength, which are associated with the surface conditions. The characteristics of the surface layers of the different test specimens were examined by metallography.

  8. Cyclic sciatica caused by infiltrative endometriosis: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yekeler, Ensar; Kumbasar, Basak; Tunaci, Atadan; Barman, Ahmet; Tunaci, Mehtap [Department of Radiology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, 34390, Capa, Istanbul (Turkey); Bengisu, Ergin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Yavuz, Ekrem [Department of Pathology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, 34390, Capa, Istanbul (Turkey)


    Endometriosis, an important gynecological disorder of reproductive women, affects most commonly the ovaries and less frequently the gastrointestinal tract, chest, urinary tract, and soft tissues. Endometriosis classically appears on MRI as a mass with a large cystic component and variable signal intensities on T1- and T2-weighted images due to the presence of variable degradation of hemorrhagic products. Endometriosis in an atypical location, an infiltrative appearance and without cystic-hemorrhagic components has rarely been described. We report on a 33-year-old woman with cyclic sciatica due to histologically documented infiltrative endometriosis involving the area of the left sciatic notch. (orig.)

  9. Cyclic sciatica caused by infiltrative endometriosis: MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yekeler, Ensar; Kumbasar, Basak; Tunaci, Atadan; Barman, Ahmet; Tunaci, Mehtap; Bengisu, Ergin; Yavuz, Ekrem


    Endometriosis, an important gynecological disorder of reproductive women, affects most commonly the ovaries and less frequently the gastrointestinal tract, chest, urinary tract, and soft tissues. Endometriosis classically appears on MRI as a mass with a large cystic component and variable signal intensities on T1- and T2-weighted images due to the presence of variable degradation of hemorrhagic products. Endometriosis in an atypical location, an infiltrative appearance and without cystic-hemorrhagic components has rarely been described. We report on a 33-year-old woman with cyclic sciatica due to histologically documented infiltrative endometriosis involving the area of the left sciatic notch. (orig.)

  10. Cyclic Deformation of Copper and Copper-Alumina Polycrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndsted, Povl; Bilde-Sørensen, Jørgen; Pedersen, Ole Bøcker


    Preliminary results are described of a study of the combined effects of polycrystallinity and non-shearable Al//2O//3 particles on the fatigue of Cu at constant plastic strain amplitudes. The rapid hardening stage was found to be strongly affected both by polycrystallinity and by the particles....... Electron microscopy shows that PSBs do not control the cyclic deformation of fine-grained Cu and Cu-Al//2O//3 at a tensile plastic strain amplitude of 10** minus **3. The dislocation microstructures in saturated Cu and Cu-Al//2O//3 are modified by the grain-boundaries, but they are only weakly affected...

  11. The cyclicity of a cubic system with nonradical Bautin ideal (United States)

    Levandovskyy, Viktor; Romanovski, Valery G.; Shafer, Douglas S.

    We present a method for investigating the cyclicity of an elementary focus or center of a polynomial system of differential equations by means of complexification of the system and application of algorithms of computational algebra, showing an approach to treating the case that the Bautin ideal B of focus quantities is not a radical ideal (more precisely, when the ideal B is not radical, where B is the ideal generated by the shortest initial string of focus quantities that, like the Bautin ideal, determines the center variety). We illustrate the method with a family of cubic systems.

  12. Targeting of gelatinase activity with a radiolabeled cyclic HWGF peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhnast, B.; Bodenstein, C.; Haubner, R.; Wester, H.J.; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, R.; Schwaiger, M.; Weber, W.A.


    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of proteinases that play an important role in cancer as well as in numerous diseases. In this article, we describe the labeling of a phage display selected cyclic decapeptide containing the HWGF (histidine-tryptophane-glycine-phenylalanine) sequence to target MMP-2 and MMP-9. To evaluate the ability of this labeled peptide to monitor non invasively MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity, in vitro studies, biodistribution, competition studies and plasma metabolites analyses in Lewis Lung cancer tumor bearing mice were performed

  13. A Selective Cyclic Peptidic Human SIRT5 Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Liu


    Full Text Available In the current study, we discovered that a side chain-to-side chain cyclic pentapeptide harboring a central Nε-carboxyethyl-thiocarbamoyl-lysine residue behaved as a strong and selective (versus human SIRT1/2/3/6 inhibitor against human SIRT5-catalyzed deacylation reaction. This compound was also found to be proteolytically much more stable than its linear counterpart. This compound could be a valuable lead for developing stronger, selective, metabolically stable, and cell permeable human SIRT5 inhibitors.

  14. Cyclic impact compaction of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene powder (United States)

    Zlobin, B. S.; Shtertser, A. A.; Kiselev, V. V.; Shemelin, S. D.; Poluboyarov, V. A.; Zhdanok, A. A.


    Bulk specimens of GUR 4150 ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene with a molar mass of 9.2 · 106 g/mol are obtained by cyclic impact compaction. During compaction, the material remains in the solid state, which ensures the preservation of the crystalline phase with a volume fraction of up to 66%. The strength properties of the specimens are not inferior to those of the products obtained using the industrial hot molding process. It is shown that the method described here is suitable for producing compacts with micro- and nanosized additives.

  15. Cyclic Competition and Percolation in Grouping Predator-Prey Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra F. Lütz


    Full Text Available We study, within the framework of game theory, the properties of a spatially distributed population of both predators and preys that may hunt or defend themselves either isolatedly or in group. Specifically, we show that the properties of the spatial Lett-Auger-Gaillard model, when different strategies coexist, can be understood through the geometric behavior of clusters involving four effective strategies competing cyclically,without neutral states. Moreover, the existence of strong finite-size effects, a form of the survival of the weakest effect, is related to a percolation crossover. These results may be generic and of relevance to other bimatrix games.

  16. Cyclic Dinucleotides in the Scope of the Mammalian Immune System. (United States)

    Mankan, Arun K; Müller, Martina; Witte, Gregor; Hornung, Veit


    First discovered in prokaryotes and more recently in eukaryotes, cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs) constitute a unique branch of second messenger signaling systems. Within prokaryotes CDNs regulate a wide array of different biological processes, whereas in the vertebrate system CDN signaling is largely dedicated to activation of the innate immune system. In this book chapter we summarize the occurrence and signaling pathways of these small-molecule second messengers, most importantly in the scope of the mammalian immune system. In this regard, our main focus is the role of the cGAS-STING axis in the context of microbial infection and sterile inflammation and its implications for therapeutic applications.

  17. Mercury embrittlement of Cu-Al alloys under cyclic loading (United States)

    Regan, T. M.; Stoloff, N. S.


    The effect of mercury on the room temperature, high cycle fatigue properties of three alloys: Cu-5.5 pct Al, Cu-7.3 pct Al, and Cu-6.3 pct Al-2.5 pct Fe has been determined. Severe embrittlement under cyclic loading in mercury is associated with rapid crack propagation in the presence of the liquid metal. A pronounced grain size effect is noted under mercury, while fatigue properties in air are insensitive to grain size. The fatigue results are discussed in relation to theories of adsorption-induced liquid metal embrittlement.

  18. Synthesis of new fatty acids amides from aminolysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Carolina R.; Montes D'Oca, Caroline da Ros; Duarte, Rodrigo da C.; Kurz, Marcia H.S.; Primel, Ednei G.; Clementin, Rosilene M.; Villarreyes, Joaquin Ariel M.; Montes D'Oca, Marcelo G.


    Recent biochemical and pharmacological studies have led to the characterization of different fatty acid amides as a new family of biologically active lipids. Here, we describe the synthesis of new amides from C16:0, 18:0, 18:1 and 18:1, OH fatty acids (FFA) families with cyclic and acyclic amines and demonstrate for the first time that these compounds produce cytotoxic effects. Application of this method to the synthesis of fatty acid amides was performed using the esters aminolysis as a key step and various carboxylic amides were prepared in good yield from fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). (author)

  19. A semiempirical study on hydroxamic acids: formohydroxamic acid and derivatives of the allelochemical dimboa


    Sant'Anna, Carlos Mauricio R.; Souza, Vivian Passos de


    Open chain hydroxamic acid (Hx) can exist as Z and E diastereomers of two tautomers, hydroxamic acid and hydroximic acid. The conformational stability of the formohydroxamic acid isomers evaluated by PM3 compared better to ab initio results from the literature than AM1 results. Structural data of the cyclic Hx 2,4-dihydroxy-7-metoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4 H)-one (DIMBOA) obtained by both semiempirical methods compared well to ab initio results. pKa data from the literature for derivatives of t...

  20. Can black holes be torn up by phantom dark energy in cyclic cosmology?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xin


    Infinitely cyclic cosmology is often frustrated by the black hole problem. It has been speculated that this obstacle in cyclic cosmology can be removed by taking into account a peculiar cyclic model derived from loop quantum cosmology or the braneworld scenario, in which phantom dark energy plays a crucial role. In this peculiar cyclic model, the mechanism of solving the black hole problem is through tearing up black holes by phantom. However, using the theory of fluid accretion onto black holes, we show in this paper that there exists another possibility: that black holes cannot be torn up by phantom in this cyclic model. We discussed this possibility and showed that the masses of black holes might first decrease and then increase, through phantom accretion onto black holes in the expanding stage of the cyclic universe. (orig.)

  1. Robust Cyclic MUSIC Algorithm for Finding Directions in Impulsive Noise Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Li


    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of direction finding of a cyclostationary signal under impulsive noise environments modeled by α-stable distribution. Since α-stable distribution does not have finite second-order statistics, the conventional cyclic correlation-based signal-selective direction finding algorithms do not work effectively. To resolve this problem, we define two robust cyclic correlation functions which are derived from robust statistics property of the correntropy and the nonlinear transformation, respectively. The MUSIC algorithm with the robust cyclic correlation matrix of the received signals of arrays is then used to estimate the direction of cyclostationary signal in the presence of impulsive noise. The computer simulation results demonstrate that the two proposed robust cyclic correlation-based algorithms outperform the conventional cyclic correlation and the fractional lower order cyclic correlation based methods.

  2. Regulation of phospholipid synthesis in Mycobacterium smegmatis by cyclic adenosine monophosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sareen, Monica; Kaur, Harpinder; Khuller, G.K.


    Forskolin, an adenylate cyclase activator and a cyclic AMP analogue, dibutyryl cyclic AMP have been used to examine the relationship between intracellular levels of cyclic AMP and lipid synthesis in Mycobacterium smegmatis. Total phospholipid content was found to be increased in forskolin grown cells as a result of increased cyclic AMP levels caused by activation of adenylate cyclase. Increased phospholipid content was supported by increased [ 14 C]acetate incorporation as well as increased activity of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase. Pretreatment of cells with dibutyryl cyclic AMP had similar effects on lipid synthesis. Taking all these observations together it is suggested that lipid synthesis is being controlled by cyclic AMP in mycobacteria. (author). 14 refs., 4 tabs

  3. Investigation on effectiveness of a prefabricated vertical drain during cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indraratna, B; Ni, J; Rujikiatkamjorn, C


    The effectiveness of prefabricated vertical drains (PVDs) in enhancing the stability of soft soils during cyclic loading was investigated using triaxial cyclic loading tests. Both undrained and with PVD tests were employed to study the associated excess pore pressure and accumulated strain under the repeated loading condition. The loading frequency and cyclic stress ratio have been chosen to be the variables which influence the performance of soft clays. The experimental results illustrate that with PVDs, the excess pore water pressure generation during cyclic loading decreases significantly. It is found that the excess pore water pressure build up depends on both loading frequency and cyclic stress ratio. The excess pore water pressure will increase when each of them is increased. Furthermore, when the loading frequency is 0.1 Hz, the ratio of coefficient of consolidation under cyclic loading to that under static loading is almost one. With the increasing loading frequency, this ratio increases accordingly.

  4. Thermal Cyclic Resistance Polyester Resin Composites Reinforce Fiber Nut Shell (United States)

    Fahmi, Hendriwan


    The purpose of study is to determine the effect of fiber length and thermal cyclic of the bending strength of polyester resin composite reinforced by fibers nut shell. The materials used in this study is a nut shell fibers with fiber length of 1 cm, 2 cm and 3 cm and polyester resin with composition 70-30%wt. Fiber nut shell treated soaking in NaOH 30% for 30 minutes, then rinse with clean water so that the fiber free of alkali and then dried. Furthermore, the composite is heated in an oven to a temperature of 100°C for 1 hour and then cooled in the open with a variety of thermal cyclic 30, 40, and 50 times. Bending properties of composites known through the testing process using a three-point bending test equipment universal testing machine. The test results show that the bending strength bending highest in fiber length of 3 cm with 30 treatment cycles of thermal to the value of 53.325 MPa, while the lowest occurred in bending strength fiber length of 1 cm with no cycles of thermal treatment to the value of 30.675 MPa.

  5. Dietary Habits of Young Athletes Going in for Cyclic Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Makarova


    Full Text Available In modern sports, outlining an adequate diet is one of the key issues in training young athletes. The following literature review presents new approaches to nutrition of young athletes going in for cyclic sports. These sports take a lot of energy, entail great strain and significant intensity of training. Correspondingly, the ratio of nutrients in athletes training for endurance tends to shift toward carbohydrates, the amount of which in the body should cover the increased need for workload as may be defined by the training process and the amount of workload. High-fat diets have proved irrelevant in terms of providing energy function; therefore, this nutritive approach was dismissed, since an athlete should have an about 25% share of fats of his/her menu’s total caloric value. According to modern standards, the amount of proteins in athletes’ menu should not exceed 1.2–1.6g per 1kg of body weight. To avoid the risk of dehydration and physical weakness, cyclic athletes should take sport drinks (in small portions prior to and following a training session (competition. They contain carbohydrates and electrolytes and therefore are more preferable than pure water. 

  6. Modeling the Cyclic Behavior of Shape Memory Alloys (United States)

    Waimann, Johanna; Junker, Philipp; Hackl, Klaus


    The phenomenon of functional fatigue occurs during cyclic loading of pseudoelastic shape memory alloys. We model this effect by considering an irreversible martensitic volume fraction in addition to the reversible amounts of austenite and martensite based on variational principles. The inclusion of irreversible martensitic volume fractions coincides with experimental observations and enables the model to be easily calibrated without any fitting functions. In our previous studies, we modeled the polycrystalline material structure by static discretization of a relatively large number of randomly chosen grain orientations, which required much numerical effort. In contrast, we now apply a dynamic representation of the orientation distribution function to the modeling of functional fatigue which has proven to be beneficial regarding the numerical performance. To this end, we take into account an averaged grain orientation parameterized by three Euler angles that serve as additional internal variables. This results in an extremely reduced numerical effort. The model derivation is given along with the numerical implementation and computer experiments on the cyclic behavior of shape memory alloys.

  7. Infrared thermographic analysis of shape memory polymer during cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staszczak, Maria; Pieczyska, Elżbieta A; Maj, Michał; Kukla, Dominik; Tobushi, Hisaaki


    In this paper we present the effects of thermomechanical couplings occurring in polyurethane shape memory polymer subjected to cyclic tensile loadings conducted at various strain rates. Stress–strain characteristics were elaborated using a quasistatic testing machine, whereas the specimen temperature changes accompanying the deformation process were obtained with an infrared camera. We demonstrate a tight correlation between the mechanical and thermal results within the initial loading stage. The polymer thermomechanical behaviour in four subsequent loading-unloading cycles and the influence of the strain rate on the stress and the related temperature changes were also examined. In the range of elastic deformation the specimen temperature drops below the initial level due to thermoelastic effect whereas at the higher strains the temperature always increased, due to the dissipative deformation mechanisms. The difference in the characteristics of the specimen temperature has been applied to determine a limit of the polymer reversible deformation and analyzed for various strain rates. It was shown that at the higher strain rates higher values of the stress and temperature changes are obtained, which are related to higher values of the polymer yield points. During the cyclic loading a significant difference between the first and the second cycle was observed. The subsequent loading-unloading cycles demonstrated similar sharply shaped stress and temperature profiles and gradually decrease in values. (paper)

  8. Volume Changes in Filled Rubber Under Uniaxial Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina KAZINA


    Full Text Available Styrene-butadiene rubber, neat and filled with different silica content was investigated under uniaxial cyclic loading under a constant crosshead speed, with increasing deformation amplitude in subsequent loading cycles. Rubber was investigated in order to evaluate the reversibility of structure rearrangements, occurring in rubber when subjected to cyclic loading. Volume uniformly increases with growing strain and shows hysteresis at unloading. After complete unloading, no residual strain changes are observed. These data are in good conformity with the data of density measurements, which were made on specimens before and after the tests. By correlating data, obtained from volume changes and kinetics of hysteresis losses there were made assumptions on deformation mechanisms at different elongations. Deformational mechanisms, responsible for volume changes in rubber are reversible. Volume changes in specimen occur due to voids formation caused by filler microstructure breakage, rubber chains disentanglement, spaces between rubber macromolecular chains shrinkage, and chain slippage under higher elongations. Voids formation and deformation of rubber macromolecular chain reaches equilibrium state after certain elongation.

  9. Cyclic guanosine monophosphate in the regulation of the cell function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Zbrojkiewicz


    Full Text Available Intracellular concentration of cGMP depends on the activity of guanylate cyclase, responsible for its synthesis, on the activity of cyclic nucleotide degrading enzymes - phosphodiesterases (PDEs. There are two forms of guanylate cyclase: the membrane-bound cyclase and the soluble form. The physiological activators of the membrane guanylate cyclase are natriuretic peptides (NPs, and of the cytosolic guanylate cyclase - nitric oxide (NO and carbon monoxide (CO. Intracellular cGMP signaling pathways arise from its direct effect on the activity of G protein kinases, phosphodiesterases and cyclic nucleotide dependent cation channels. It has been shown in recent years that cGMP can also affect other signal pathways in cell signaling activity involving Wnt proteins and sex hormones. The increased interest in the research on the role of cGMP, resulted also in the discovery of its role in the regulation of phototransduction in the eye, neurotransmission, calcium homeostasis, platelet aggregation, heartbeat, bone remodeling, lipid metabolism and the activity of the cation channels. Better understanding of the mechanisms of action of cGMP in the regulation of cell function can create new opportunities for the cGMP affecting drugs use in the pharmacotherapy.

  10. Cyclical parthenogenesis and viviparity in aphids as evolutionary novelties. (United States)

    Davis, Gregory K


    Evolutionary novelties represent challenges to biologists, particularly those who would like to understand the developmental and genetic changes responsible for their appearance. Most modern aphids possess two apparent evolutionary novelties: cyclical parthenogenesis (a life cycle with both sexual and asexual phases) and viviparity (internal development and live birth of progeny) in their asexual phase. Here I discuss the evolution of these apparent novelties from a developmental standpoint. Although a full understanding of the evolution of cyclical parthenogenesis and viviparity in aphids can seem a daunting task, these complex transitions can at least be broken down into a handful of steps. I argue that these should include the following: a differentiation of two developmentally distinct oocytes; de novo synthesis of centrosomes and modification of meiosis during asexual oogenesis; a loss or bypass of any cell cycle arrest and changes in key developmental events during viviparous oogenesis; and a change in how mothers specify the sexual vs. asexual fates of their progeny. Grappling with the nature of such steps and the order in which they occurred ought to increase our understanding and reduce the apparent novelty of complex evolutionary transitions. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Satellite cluster flight using on-off cyclic control (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Gurfil, Pini


    Nano-satellite clusters and disaggregated satellites are new concepts in the realm of distributed satellite systems, which require complex cluster management - mainly regulating the maximal and minimal inter-satellite distances on time scales of years - while utilizing simple on-off propulsion systems. The simple actuators and long time scales require judicious astrodynamical modeling coupled with specialized orbit control. This paper offers a satellite cluster orbit control law which works for long time scales in a perturbed environment while utilizing fixed-magnitude thrusters. The main idea is to design a distributed controller which balances the fuel consumption among the satellites, thus mitigating the effect of differential drag perturbations. The underlying methodology utilizes a cyclic control algorithm based on a mean orbital elements feedback. Stability properties of the closed-loop cyclic control system do not adhere to the classical Lyapunov stability theory, so an effort is made to define and implement a suitable stability theory of noncompact equilibria sets. A state selection scheme is proposed for efficiently establishing a low Earth orbit cluster. Several simulations, including a real mission study, and several comparative investigations, are performed to show the strengths of the proposed control law.

  12. Rockfall triggering by cyclic thermal stressing of exfoliation fractures (United States)

    Collins, Brian D.; Stock, Greg M.


    Exfoliation of rock deteriorates cliffs through the formation and subsequent opening of fractures, which in turn can lead to potentially hazardous rockfalls. Although a number of mechanisms are known to trigger rockfalls, many rockfalls occur during periods when likely triggers such as precipitation, seismic activity and freezing conditions are absent. It has been suggested that these enigmatic rockfalls may occur due to solar heating of rock surfaces, which can cause outward expansion. Here we use data from 3.5 years of field monitoring of an exfoliating granite cliff in Yosemite National Park in California, USA, to assess the magnitude and temporal pattern of thermally induced rock deformation. From a thermodynamic analysis, we find that daily, seasonal and annual temperature variations are sufficient to drive cyclic and cumulative opening of fractures. Application of fracture theory suggests that these changes can lead to further fracture propagation and the consequent detachment of rock. Our data indicate that the warmest times of the day and year are particularly conducive to triggering rockfalls, and that cyclic thermal forcing may enhance the efficacy of other, more typical rockfall triggers.

  13. Application of cyclic activation to in vivo elemental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spyrou, N.M.


    Experience over the past seven years with a prototype cyclic system, based on an oscillating 5Ci AmBe neutron source, suggests that multielemental in vivo analysis is possible and more specifically indicates that the determination of selenium and cadmium in liver may allow the examination of the interaction of the two elements at acceptable doses. Detection limits obtained for selenium and cadmium, in the same experiment but through different modes of detection i.e. the measurement of delayed gamma-rays from short-lived Se-77m (17.6 s) and prompt gamma-rays from Cd-114, in a cyclic sequence of irradiations, are 0.4 ppm and 6 ppm respectively, for a total irradiation period of 1800s and an equivalent dose to the irradiated region of 5mSv. The redesigning of the prototype system is being considered in order to decrease the detection limit of selenium to a value of 0.1 ppm or less and the effect of increasing the neutron flux tenfold is investigated. This could result in an improvement by a factor of 4 to 5 in detection, for the same dose. 36 references, 6 figures

  14. Intra-Cyclic Variation of Force and Swimming Performance. (United States)

    Morouço, Pedro G; Barbosa, Tiago; Arellano, Raul; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo


    In front crawl swimming, the upper limbs alternate move with the aim of achieving a continuous application of force in the water, leading to lower intra-cyclic velocity variation (dv). This parameter has been identified as a crucial criterion for swimmers' evaluation, thus the present study aimed to examine the assessment of intra-cyclic force variation (dF) and to analyze its relationship with dv and swimming performance. Twenty-two high-level male swimmers performed a maximal effort 50-m front crawl time-trial and a 30-s maximal effort fully tethered swimming test, which were randomly assigned. Instantaneous velocity was obtained by a speedometer and force by a strain-gauge system. Similarity was observed between the tests, with dF attaining much higher magnitudes than dv (p swimming, with a high level of agreement for the stroke rate and blood lactate increase. Swimming velocity presented a strong negative linear relationship with dF (r = -0.826, p swimming performance. This investigation demonstrated that assessing dF is a promising approach for evaluating a swimmer's performance. From the experiments, this new parameter showed that swimmers with higher dF also present higher dv, leading to a decrease in performance.

  15. Effect of cyclic fatigue on the fracture toughness of Polyoxymethylene (United States)

    Ramoa, B.; Berer, M.; Schwaiger, M.; Pinter, G.


    Polymers are used in a wide range of applications and their properties are dependent upon the morphological development during processing and the specimen configuration which in turn define the mechanical properties. In this context fatigue and monotonic testing are part of the standard procedure to assess relevant mechanical and material parameters to ensure a better part design. The present work addresses the performance issues of a real component made of Polyoxymethylene (POM) which is subjected to cyclic loads from intermediate levels to high peak values inside a damping mechanism. For this linear elastic fracture mechanics concepts were used to characterize the behavior of a POM homopolymer resin used in this application. Injection molded compact tension specimens, with sharp and blunt notches, were tested under a combination of cyclic and monotonic loads and the fracture surfaces were examined. The critical stress intensity factor obtained by monotonic tests was evaluated as a function of the cycle number, where an increase after the first 1000 cycles followed by a continuous decrease with higher numbers of cycles was observed. A variation of approximately 50% and 70% were obtained along the duration of the tests for the sharp and blunt notch specimens, respectively. In light of the obtained results, a discussion is presented considering the dynamic specimen compliance and the structural features observed on the fracture surfaces in combination with the fracture mechanical response.

  16. Autosomal dominant cyclic hematopoiesis: Genetics, phenotype, and natural history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, S.E.; Stephens, K.; Dale, D.C. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)


    Autosomal dominant cyclic hematopoiesis (ADCH; cyclic neutropenia) is a rare disorder manifested by transient neutropenia that recurs every three weeks. To facilitate mapping the ADCH gene by genetic linkage analysis, we studied 9 ADCH families with 42 affected individuals. Pedigrees revealed AD inheritance with no evidence for decreased penetrance. Similar intra- and interfamilial variable expression was observed, with no evidence to support heterogeneity. At least 3 families displayed apparent new mutations. Many adults developed chronic neutropenia, while offspring always cycled during childhood. Children displayed recurrent oral ulcers, gingivitis, lymphadenopathy, fever, and skin and other infections with additional symptoms. Interestingly, there were no cases of neonatal infection. Some children required multiple hospitalizations for treatment. Four males under age 18 died of Clostridium sepsis following necrotizing enterocolitis; all had affected mothers. No other deaths due to ADCH were found; most had improvement of symptoms and infections as adults. Adults experienced increased tooth loss prior to age 30 (16 out of 27 adults, with 9 edentulous). No increase in myelodysplasia, malignancy, or congenital anomalies was observed. Recombinant G-CSF treatment resulted in dramatic improvement of symptoms and infections. The results suggest that ADCH is not a benign disorder, especially in childhood, and abdominal pain requires immediate evaluation. Diagnosis of ADCH requires serial blood counts in the proband and at least one CBC in relatives to exclude similar disorders. Genetic counseling requires specific histories as well as CBCs of each family member at risk to determine status regardless of symptom history, especially to assess apparent new mutations.

  17. Exact and Heuristic Algorithms for Thrift Cyclic Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Short


    Full Text Available Non-preemptive schedulers, despite their many discussed drawbacks, remain a very popular choice for practitioners of real-time and embedded systems. The non-preemptive ‘thrift’ cyclic scheduler—variations of which can be found in other application areas—has recently received considerable attention for the implementation of such embedded systems. A thrift scheduler provides a flexible and compact implementation model for periodic task sets with comparatively small overheads; additionally, it can overcome several of the problems associated with traditional ‘cyclic executives’. However, severe computational difficulties can still arise when designing schedules for non-trivial task sets. This paper is concerned with an optimization version of the offset-assignment problem, in which the objective is to assign task offsets such that the required CPU clock speed is minimized whilst ensuring that task overruns do not occur; it is known that the decision version of this problem is complete for Σ2p. The paper first considers the problemof candidate solution verification—itself strongly coNP-Complete—and a fast, exact algorithm for this problem is proposed; it is shown that for any fixed number of tasks, its execution time is polynomial. The paper then proposes two heuristic algorithms of pseudopolynomial complexity for solving the offset-assignment problem, and considers how redundant choices of offset combinations can be eliminated to help speed up the search. The performance of these algorithms is then experimentally evaluated, before conclusions are drawn.

  18. Thermodynamic Analysis of Closed Steady or Cyclic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim McGovern


    Full Text Available Closed, steady or cyclic thermodynamic systems, which have temperature variations over their boundaries, can represent an extremely large range of plants, devices or natural objects, such as combined heating, cooling and power plants, computers and data centres, and planets. Energy transfer rates can occur across the boundary, which are characterized as heat or work. We focus on the finite time thermodynamics aspects, on energy-based performance parameters, on rational efficiency and on the environmental reference temperature. To do this, we examine the net work rate of a closed, steady or cyclic system bounded by thermal resistances linked to isothermal reservoirs in terms of the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Citing relevant references from the literature, we propose a methodology that can improve the thermodynamic analysis of an energy-transforming or an exergy-destroying plant. Through the reflections and analysis presented, we have found an explanation of the second law that clarifies the link between the Clausius integral of heat over temperature and the reference temperature of the Gouy–Stodola theorem. With this insight and approach, the specification of the environmental reference temperature in exergy analysis becomes more solid. We have explained the relationship between the Curzon Ahlborn heat engine and an irreversible Carnot heat engine. We have outlined the nature of subsystem rational efficiencies and have found Rant’s anergy to play an important role. We postulate that heat transfer through thermal resistance is the sole basis of irreversibility.

  19. Information money fields of cyclic oscillations in nonlinear dynamic economic system


    Ledenyov, Dimitri O.; Ledenyov, Viktor O.


    Article introduces the notion of information money fields of the cyclic oscillations of the economic variables in the nonlinear dynamic economic system for the first time, and presents an original research on the Ledenyov theory on the information money fields of the cyclic oscillations of the economic variables in the nonlinear dynamic economic system. The Ledenyov theory on the information money fields of the cyclic oscillations of economic variables in the nonlinear dynamic economic system...

  20. In-situ investigations of structural changes during cyclic loading by high resolution reciprocal space mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichs, Annika M.; Thiel, Felix; Lienert, Ulrich


    Abstract A major failure reason for structural materials is fatigue-related damage due to repeatedly changing mechanical loads. During cyclic loading dislocations self-organize into characteristic ordered structures, which play a decisive role for the materials lifetime. These heterogeneous...... the materials behavior during cyclic deformation and to improve the material design. While monitoring macroscopic stress and strain during cyclic loading, reciprocal space maps of diffraction peaks from single grains are obtained with high resolution. High Resolution Reciprocal Space Mapping was applied...

  1. Quantifying the increase in lateral capacity of monopiles in sand due to cyclic loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolai, Giulio; Ibsen, Lars Bo; O'Loughlin, Conleth


    The contribution of this paper is a simple method to predict the higher moment capacity of a monopile in dense silica sand after drained cyclic loading. The method accounts for the effect of cyclic load magnitude, symmetry and number of cycles, and is calibrated against a series of single gravity...... be predicted using the existing industry standard p–y approach for cyclic loading in sand....

  2. Equivelar and d-Covered Triangulations of Surfaces. II. Cyclic Triangulations and Tessellations


    Lutz, Frank H.


    With the $[0,1,2]$-family of cyclic triangulations we introduce a rich class of vertex-transitive triangulations of surfaces. In particular, there are infinite series of cyclic $q$-equivelar triangulations of orientable and non-orientable surfaces for every $q=3k$, $k\\geq 2$, and every $q=3k+1$, $k\\geq 3$. Series of cyclic tessellations of surfaces are derived from these triangulated series.

  3. Martensitic Transformation in Ultrafine-Grained Stainless Steel AISI 304L Under Monotonic and Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Werner Höppel


    Full Text Available The monotonic and cyclic deformation behavior of ultrafine-grained metastable austenitic steel AISI 304L, produced by severe plastic deformation, was investigated. Under monotonic loading, the martensitic phase transformation in the ultrafine-grained state is strongly favored. Under cyclic loading, the martensitic transformation behavior is similar to the coarse-grained condition, but the cyclic stress response is three times larger for the ultrafine-grained condition.

  4. Histamine-induced increases in cyclic AMP levels in bovine adrenal medullary cells.


    Marley, P. D.; Thomson, K. A.; Jachno, K.; Johnston, M. J.


    1. The effect of histamine on cellular cyclic AMP levels in cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells has been studied. 2. Histamine (0.3-30 microM) increased cyclic AMP levels transiently, with a maximal response after 5 min, a smaller response after 20 min, and no increase seen after 80 or 180 min. The EC50 at 5 min was approximately 2 microM. Histamine had no effect on cyclic AMP release from the cells over 5 min, but increased it after 90 min. 3. The cyclic AMP response to 5 microM histamin...

  5. Phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor cilostazol induces migraine-like attacks via cyclic AMP increase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Song; Olesen, Jes; Ashina, Messoud


    The initiating mechanisms of migraine attacks are very complex but may involve the cyclic AMP signalling pathway. It is unknown whether intracellular cyclic AMP accumulation induces migraine attacks. We investigated whether administration of cilostazol, which causes cyclic AMP accumulation, may...... and that cilostazol-induced attacks responded to their usual migraine treatment. Median time of medication intake was 6 h (range 4-11 h). The present study suggests that intracellular cyclic AMP accumulation plays a crucial role in migraine induction. This knowledge is a further step in our understanding...

  6. Anti-cyclic regulation of the Ukrainian economy under current conditions of the international markets volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Satsyk


    Full Text Available In the article there are considered the theoretical and methodological basis of anti-cyclic regulation of the countries’ economy under conditions of the world economy globalization. It suggests the analysis of practices of implementing of anti-cyclic policy in highly developed states, its defining features and directions under current global financial and economic crisis. There has been researched a practical toolkit of economic cycles diagnostics and cyclic fluctuations of total business activity in Ukraine based on this study. There are suggested recommendations concerning the formation of the effective mechanism of anti-cyclic regulation of the Ukrainian economy.

  7. Oligo cyclic plastic fatigue of Zircaloy-4 under vacuum and in iodinated methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beloucif, A.


    Our study was bound to the Zircaloy-4 fuel can damage in PWR type reactors. The topic was the damage mechanisms of Zircaloy-4 by oligo-cyclic plastic fatigue in inert atmosphere and in iodinated methanol. The oligo-cyclic plastic fatigue tests, under vacuum, were performed with steady plastic deformation and deformation speed. The corrosion fatigue tests in iodinated methanol put to the fore one obvious harmful part of iodine on Zircaloy-4 resistance to cyclic solicitations. The observations proved the existence of a very strong synergic effect between cyclic mechanical damage and corrosion. (MML). 84 refs., 117 figs., 3 tabs

  8. TSH-induced cyclic AMP production in an ovine thyroid cell line: OVNIS 5H. (United States)

    Fayet, G; Aouani, A; Hovsépian, S


    The TSH-induced cyclic AMP response was studied using a 3-year-old ovine thyroid cell line TSH-independent for growth: OVNIS 5H. The kinetics of cyclic AMP production was followed both in cell layers and in cell culture media, with or without phosphodiesterase inhibitor. It is noteworthy that following the first wave in cyclic AMP obtained within minutes, we observed later a sustained exponential increase in cyclic AMP during the 5 days following TSH stimulation. A bioassay of TSH was derived allowing measurement of 1 microU/ml TSH from a crude bTSH preparation.

  9. Small-Scale Testing Rig for Long-Term Cyclically Loaded Monopiles in Cohesionless Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesen, Hanne Ravn; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard


    , and the period of the cyclic loading. However, the design guidance on these issues is limited. Thus, in order to investigate the pile behaviour for cyclically long-term loaded monopiles, a test setup for small-scale tests in saturated dense cohesionless soil is constructed and presented in here. The cyclic...... length = 600 mm proves that the test setup is capable of applying the cyclic long-term loading. The plastic deformations during loading depend not only on the loading applied but also of the relative density of the soil and, thus, the tests are carried out with relative densities of 77-88%, i.e. similar...

  10. Analysis of cyclic creep and rupture. Part 2: calculation of cyclic reference stresses and ratcheting interaction diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, P. [Stress Engineering Services, Inc., Mason, OH 45040 (United States)]. E-mail:


    Part 1 gives the basis for the use of cyclic reference stresses for high temperature design and assessment. The methodology relies on elastic-plastic calculations for limit loads, ratcheting and shakedown. In this paper we use a commercial non-linear finite element code for these calculations. Two fairly complex and realistic geometries with cyclic loads are analysed, namely a pipe elbow and a traveling thermal shock in a pressurized pipe. The special case of start-up shut-down cycles is also discussed. Creep and rupture predictions may be made from the results. When reference stresses can be economically calculated, their use for high temperature design has the following advantages: - Accuracy. Limit loads, shakedown and ratcheting limits are based on detailed analysis, and do not rely on rules or judgement. - Efficiency. Use of shakedown and ratcheting reference stresses to predict rupture and creep strain, respectively, allowing details of time and temperature to be dealt with as material data, not affecting the analysis. - Factors of safety. For both low and high temperature problems, factors of safety can be determined or applied, based on the real failure boundaries. - Conservatism. The rupture and strain calculations reflect the limit of rapid cycle behaviour. Cycles with relaxation will be associated with longer lives.

  11. Cyclic Oxidation of High Mo, Reduced Density Superalloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L. Smialek


    Full Text Available Cyclic oxidation was characterized as part of a statistically designed, 12-alloy compositional study of 2nd generation single crystal superalloys as part of a broader study to co-optimize density, creep strength, and cyclic oxidation. The primary modification was a replacement of 5 wt. % W by 7% or 12% Mo for density reductions of 2%–7%. Compositions at two levels of Mo, Cr, Co, and Re were produced, along with a midpoint composition. Initially, polycrystalline vacuum induction samples were screened in 1100 °C cyclic furnace tests using 1 h cycles for 200 h. The behavior was primarily delimited by Cr content, producing final weight changes of −40 mg/cm2 to −10 mg/cm2 for 0% Cr alloys and −2 mg/cm2 to +1 mg/cm2 for 5% Cr alloys. Accordingly, a multiple linear regression fit yielded an equation showing a strong positive Cr effect and lesser negative effects of Co and Mo. The results for 5% Cr alloys compare well to −1 mg/cm2, and +0.5 mg/cm2 for Rene′ N4 and Rene′ N5 (or Rene′ N6, respectively. Scale phases commonly identified were Al2O3, NiAl2O4, NiTa2O6, and NiO, with (Ni,CoMoO4 found only on the least resistant alloys having 0% Cr and 12% Mo. Scale microstructures were complex and reflected variations in the regional spallation history. Large faceted NiO grains and fine NiTa2O6 particles distributed along NiAl2O4 grain boundaries were typical distinctive features. NiMoO4 formation, decomposition, and volatility occurred for a few high Mo compositions. A creep, density, phase stability, and oxidation balanced 5% Cr, 10% Co, 7% Mo, and 3% Re alloy was selected to be taken forward for more extensive evaluations in single crystal form.

  12. Amino acid derived 1,4-dialkyl substituted imidazolones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, Frederik; Meldal, Morten Peter


    A general method for synthesis of 1,4-substituted imidazolones from amino acids on solid support or in solution has been developed. Amino acid derived 3-Boc-(1,3)-oxazinane (Box) protected amino aldehyde building blocks were coupled through urea bonds to the amino terminal of dipeptides or amino...... acids. Upon acidic release, the aldehyde instantaneously formed the cyclic N-carbamyliminium ion, which rearranged to the corresponding imidazolone. Under strongly acidic conditions the imidazolones acted as nuclophiles in the Pictet-Spengler reaction....

  13. A rapid and clean synthetic approach to cyclic peptides via micro-flow peptide chain elongation and photochemical cyclization: synthesis of a cyclic RGD peptide. (United States)

    Mifune, Yuto; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Fuse, Shinichiro


    A cyclic RGD peptide was efficiently synthesized based on micro-flow, triphosgene-mediated peptide chain elongation and micro-flow photochemical macrolactamization. Our approach enabled a rapid (amidation for peptide chain elongation peptide.

  14. Stochastic evolution of four species in cyclic competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durney, C H; Case, S O; Pleimling, M; Zia, R K P


    We study the stochastic evolution of four species in cyclic competition in a well mixed environment. For systems composed of a finite number N of particles these simple interaction rules result in a rich variety of extinction scenarios, from single-species domination to coexistence between non-interacting species. Using exact results and numerical simulations we discuss the temporal evolution of the system for different values of N, and for different values of the reaction rates, as well as for different initial conditions. As expected, the stochastic evolution is found to closely follow the mean-field result for large N, with notable deviations appearing in the vicinity of extinction events. Different ways of characterizing and predicting extinction events are discussed

  15. Impact of Cyclic Prefix length on OFDM system Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom, Christian; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard; Mogensen, Preben Elgaard


    This paper is a study on the impact of the Cyclic Prefix (CP) length on the downlink Capacity in a base-band synchronized SISO-OFDM context. To measure this impact, the capacity, measured in bits per second per hertz, is chosen as quality parameter. The study shows how the lengthening of the CP......) the useful OFDM symbol duration, 2) the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) at the receiver and 3) the channel Power Delay Profile (PDP). Depending on the values of these parameters different optimum CP lengths are obtained. For a system using only one value of CP length we suggest an optimum value to be 4us...... for an OFDM symbol length of 40us and 6us for an OFDM symbol length of 80us....

  16. Sleep cyclic alternating pattern and cognition in children: a review. (United States)

    Novelli, Luana; Ferri, Raffaele; Bruni, Oliviero


    Several studies have been recently focused on the relationship between sleep cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) and daytime cognitive performance, supporting the idea that the CAP slow components may play a role in sleep-related cognitive processes. Based on the results of these reports, it can be hypothesized that the analysis of CAP might be helpful in characterizing sleep microstructure patterns of different phenotypes of intellectual disability and a series of studies has been carried out that are reviewed in this paper. First the studies exploring the correlations between CAP and cognitive performance in normal adults and children are described; then, those analyzing the correlation between CAP and cognitive patterns of several developmental conditions with neurocognitive dysfunction (with or without mental retardation) are reported in detail in order to achieve a unitary view of the role of CAP in these conditions that allows to detect a particular "sleep microstructure phenotype" of children with neurologic/neuropsychiatric disorders. © 2013.

  17. Cyclic alternating pattern (CAP): the marker of sleep instability. (United States)

    Parrino, Liborio; Ferri, Raffaele; Bruni, Oliviero; Terzano, Mario G


    Cyclic alternating pattern CAP is the EEG marker of unstable sleep, a concept which is poorly appreciated among the metrics of sleep physiology. Besides, duration, depth and continuity, sleep restorative properties depend on the capacity of the brain to create periods of sustained stable sleep. This issue is not confined only to the EEG activities but reverberates upon the ongoing autonomic activity and behavioral functions, which are mutually entrained in a synchronized oscillation. CAP can be identified both in adult and children sleep and therefore represents a sensitive tool for the investigation of sleep disorders across the lifespan. The present review illustrates the story of CAP in the last 25 years, the standardized scoring criteria, the basic physiological properties and how the dimension of sleep instability has provided new insight into pathophysiolology and management of sleep disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Experimental investigation of cyclic hygrothermal aging of hybrid composite

    KAUST Repository

    El Yagoubi, Jalal


    This work provides an experimental investigation of the cyclic hygrothermal aging of a hybrid composites. We aimed to propose a general framework in the view to further optimize polymer-based composites. It reports experimental data and relevant observations collected during an aging campaign (up to 2000 cycles) where anhydride-cured epoxy samples as well as composites samples are exposed to environmental conditions. The data gathered during the whole campaign reveals that (1) the polymer displays a non-classical sorption behavior (2) the volume change is correlated to the mass uptake (3) the elastic modulus is correlated to the glass transition temperature. Matrix and interface degradation of the hybrid composite is monitored by means of microstructural observations. © 2013 by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Fuzzy operators and cyclic behavior in formal neuronal networks (United States)

    Labos, E.; Holden, A. V.; Laczko, J.; Orzo, L.; Labos, A. S.


    Formal neuronal networks (FNN), which are comprised of threshold gates, make use of the unit step function. It is regarded as a degenerated distribution function (DDF) and will be referred to here as a non-fuzzy threshold operator (nFTO). Special networks of this kind generating long cycles of states are modified by introduction of fuzzy threshold operators (FTO), i.e., non-degenerated distribution functions (nDDF). The cyclic behavior of the new nets is compared with the original ones. The interconnection matrix and threshold values are not modified. It is concluded that the original long cycles change the fixed points and short cycles, and as the computer simulations demonstrate, the aperiodic motion that is associated with chaotic behavior appears. The emergence of the above changes depend on the steepness of the threshold operators.

  20. A Simple Mathematical Model of Cyclic Circadian Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Šimon


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the derivation of a simple mathematical model of cyclic learning with a period of 24 hours. Various requirements are met with an emphasis and approach which relies on simple mathematical operations, the prediction of measurable quantities, and the creation of uncomplicated processes of calibration. The presented model can be used to answer questions such as the following. Will I be able to memorize a given set of information? How long will it take to memorize information? How long will I remember the information that was memorized? The model is based on known memory retention functions that are in good agreement with experimental results. By the use of these functions and by formalism of differential equations, the concurrent processes of learning and forgetting are described mathematically. The usability of this model is limited to scenarios where logical bonds (connections to prior learning are not created and mnemonic devices cannot be utilized during the learning process.