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Sample records for dewetting process due

  1. Retardation of the dewetting process due to the addition of functional copolymers at polymer-polymer interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Wunnicke, O; Lorenz-Haas, C; Leiner, V

    2002-01-01

    We studied the retardation of the dewetting process due to the addition of a functional copolymer in a polymer bilayer film. The model system consists of fully deuterated polystyrene (PS-d) on top of an amorphous polyamide (PA) sublayer on silicon substrates. Bilayer films were prepared with different content (0, 5, 10 and 30 vol. %) of a statistical copolymer (protonated styrene maleic anhydride acid (SMA2) containing 2% MA groups along the chain) being capable of forming hydrogen bonds with PA. The as-prepared as well as the annealed samples were investigated by neutron-reflectivity (NR) experiments, scanning force microscopy and optical microscopy. A significant retardation of dewetting is observed with the addition of SMA2. From model fits of NR curves the scattering length density profiles perpendicular to the sample surface were determined and an enrichment layer of SMA2 is detected. Retardation is explained by the intermixing of SMA2 and PS-d at the interface. (orig.)

  2. Examining Wetting and Dewetting Processes in Thin-films on Crystalline Substrates at the Nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hihath, Sahar

    experimental observations. Second, the fundamental mechanisms that govern the onset of dewetting of thin metal films in both liquid and solid state are investigated. Dewetting processes are used in numerous technological applications. For instance, the dewetting of thin films on substrates is used for making spatially ordered nanoparticle arrays for use in plasmonics, nanophotonics, and magnetics. [1] In addition to dewetting applications in industry and research, dewetting processes have adverse impact on the reliability of semiconductor devices as it can limit the functionality of metal contacts utilized in transistors at elevated temperatures. The morphological changes during dewetting have been studied previously in plan-view by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) after the annealing is completed, and in some cases in cross-section via real-time Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). However, due to temporal limitations of image acquisition in TEM, which is in the range of milliseconds, it has not been possible thus far to investigate the dynamics of the dewetting process with high-speed time resolution from nano- to micro-seconds. To gain insights into the fundamental mechanisms involved in dewetting, the early stages of the dewetting process were investigated via Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscopy (DTEM) with nanosecond time and nanometer spatial resolution. The experiments were performed on plan-view TEM samples consisting of nickel thin-films on (100) silicon substrates with a 2-3 nm thick native oxide. The laser ablation dynamics were captured, which involved liquid phase dewetting of the nickel film followed by substrate fracture and nanoscale particle expulsion. Finally, to capture the full dynamics of the dewetting process the experiments were performed on a system of nickel thin-films on (100) Strontium Titanate (STO) substrates. Samples of nickel thin-films on STO substrates have lower thermal expansion coefficient mismatch compared to the system discussed

  3. Apparent de-wetting due to superfluid flow

    CERN Document Server

    Poujade, M; Rolley, E

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated the wetting behaviour of superfluid helium-4 on silicon. Surprisingly, we observe pseudo-de-wetting: though a thick superfluid film covers the substrate, the meniscus displays a finite contact angle which decreases from about 5 deg C at low temperature down to zero at the superfluid transition. We show that this behaviour can be explained by a pressure decrease due to a superfluid flow, closely related to the Kontorovich effect. (authors)

  4. Dewetting of liquids on ceramic surfaces at high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravishankar, N; Gilliss, Shelley R; Carter, C Barry

    2002-08-01

    The influence of surface structure and chemistry on high-temperature dewetting of silicate liquids on ceramic surfaces has been investigated. Model systems based on well-defined crystallography and known chemistry have been used to illustrate the effect of surface roughness and chemistry on the dewetting process. Reconstructed ceramic surfaces provide ideal substrates to study effects of surface roughness. It has been shown that the morphology of dewet droplets depend on the length scale and the crystallography of the facets on the surface. Complex pattern formation due to solute redistribution during dewetting is illustrated in the case of SiO2 dewetting on (001) rutile substrates. The role of kinetics on the dewetting process has also been clarified.

  5. Wetting - Dewetting Transitions of Au/Ni Bilayer Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Xi

    Thin films deposited at low temperatures are often kinetically constrained and will dewet the underlying substrate when annealed. Solid state dewetting is driven by the minimization of the total free energy of thin film-substrate interface and free surface, and mostly occurs through surface diffusion. Dewetting is a serious concern in microelectronics reliability. However, it can also be utilized for the self-assembly of nanostructures with potentials in storage, catalysis, or transistors. Therefore, a fundamental understanding of the dewetting behavior of thin metal films is critical for improving the thermal stability of microelectronics and controlling the order of self-assembled nanostructures. Mechanisms for dewetting of single layer films have been studied extensively. However little work has been reported on multilayer or alloyed thin films. In the thesis, the solid state dewetting of Au/Ni bilayer films deposited on SiO2/Si substrates was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and aberration corrected scanning TEM (STEM). Ex-situ SEM and TEM studies were performed with in-situ TEM heating characterization to identify the mechanisms during the dewetting process of Au/Ni bilayer films. The solid state dewetting of Au/Ni bilayer films from SiO2/Si substrates exhibits both homogeneous and localized dewetting of Ni and long-edge retraction for Au under isothermal annealing condition. The top Au layer retracts up to 1 mm from the edge of the substrate wafer to reduce the energetically unfavored Au/Ni interface. In contrast, Ni dewets and agglomerates locally due to its limited diffusivity compared to Au. Film morphology and local chemical composition varies significantly across hundreds of microns along the direction normal to the retracting edge. Besides long range edge receding, localized dewetting shows significant changes in film morphology and chemical distribution. Both Au and Ni shows texturing. Despite

  6. Dewetting dynamics in miscible polymer-polymer thin film mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besancon, Brian M.; Green, Peter F.

    2007-06-01

    Thin polystyrene films supported by oxidized silicon (SiOx/Si) substrates may be unstable or metastable, depending on the film thickness, h, and can ultimately dewet the substrate when heated above their glass transition. In the metastable regime, holes nucleate throughout the film and subsequently grow due to capillary driving forces. Recent studies have shown that the addition of a second component, such as a copolymer or miscible polymer, can suppress the dewetting process and stabilize the film. We examined the hole growth dynamics and the hole morphology in thin film mixtures composed of polystyrene and tetramethyl bisphenol-A polycarbonate (TMPC) supported by SiOx/Si substrates. The hole growth velocity decreased with increasing TMPC content beyond that expected from changes in the bulk viscosity. The authors show that the suppression of the dewetting velocity is primarily due to reductions in the capillary driving force for dewetting and to increased friction at the substrate-polymer interface. The viscosity, as determined from the hole growth dynamics, decreases with decreasing film thickness, and is connected to a depression of the glass transition of the film.

  7. Perfluoropolyether-Impregnated Mesoporous Alumina Composites Overcome the Dewetting-Tribological Properties Trade-Off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowthu, Sriharitha; Hoffmann, Patrik

    2018-03-28

    Conventional omniphobic surfaces suffer from wear-sensitivity due to soft apolar coatings or substrates and protruding surface features that are eroded even for mild abrasion treatments, leading to the loss of dewetting properties after wear. Evidently, there was a trade-off between dewetting and tribological properties. Here, we show the establishment of self-healing slippery properties post severe abrasion by utilizing perfluoropolyether-impregnated mesoporous Al 2 O 3 (MPA) composites. The hard polar alumina matrix provides the optimal tribological properties, and the liquid lubricant in the porous network contributes to both tribological and self-healing dewetting properties. These composites sustained normal pressures up to 350 MPa during reciprocating sliding contacts. The severely abraded surfaces are capable of self-replenishing in ambient environment, driven by capillarity and surface diffusion processes, and regained their slippery properties toward water and hexadecane after 15 h of self-healing. Eventually, a dewetting-tribology diagram has been introduced to show different regimes, namely-optimal slippery properties, optimal tribological properties, and a mixed regime). We found out that the microstructural expression [Formula: see text] is a robust guiding tool to predict the regime of interest. This dewetting-tribological diagram may be marked as an inception to designing abrasion-resistant slippery liquid impregnated composites for overcoming the dewetting tribological properties trade-off. Such surfaces may potentially find applications in paint industries and as anti-icing surfaces.

  8. Enhanced Self-Organized Dewetting of Ultrathin Polymer Blend Film for Large-Area Fabrication of SERS Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huanhuan; Xu, Lin; Xu, Yabo; Huang, Gang; Zhao, Xueyu; Lai, Yuqing; Shi, Tongfei

    2016-12-06

    We study the enhanced dewetting of ultrathin Polystyrene (PS)/Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) blend films in a mixed solution, and reveal the dewetting can act as a simple and effective method to fabricate large-area surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate. A bilayer structure consisting of under PMMA layer and upper PS layer forms due to vertical phase separation of immiscible PS/PMMA during the spin-coating process. The thicker layer of the bilayer structure dominates the dewetting structures of PS/PMMA blend films. The diameter and diameter distribution of droplets, and the average separation spacing between the droplets can be precisely controlled via the change of blend ratio and film thickness. The dewetting structure of 8 nm PS/PMMA (1:1 wt%) blend film is proved to successfully fabricate large-area (3.5 cm × 3.5 cm) universal SERS substrate via deposited a silver layer on the dewetting structure. The SERS substrate shows good SERS-signal reproducibility (RSD polymer blend films broadens the application of dewetting of polymer films, especially in the nanotechnology, and may open a new approach for the fabrication of large-area SERS substrate to promote the application of SERS substrate in the rapid sensitive detection of trace molecules.

  9. A Dewetting Model for Double-Emulsion Droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanxiao Kang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of double-emulsion droplets is of great importance for the application of microdroplets and microparticles. We study the driving force of the dewetting process, the equilibrium configuration and the dewetting time of double-emulsion droplets. Through energy analysis, we find that the equilibrium configuration of a partial engulfed droplet depends on a dimensionless interfacial tension determined by the three relevant interfacial tensions, and the engulfing part of the inner phase becomes larger as the volume of the outer phase increases. By introducing a dewetting boundary, the dewetting time can be calculated by balancing the driving force, caused by interfacial tensions, and the viscous force. Without considering the momentum change of the continuous phase, the dewetting time is an increasing function against the viscosity of the outer phase and the volume ratio between the outer phase and inner phase.

  10. Spontaneous dewetting of a perfluoropolyether

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shogrin, Bradley; Jones, William R., Jr.; Herrera-Fierro, Pilar

    1995-01-01

    Eight different production lots of a commercial perfluoropolyether (PFPE) based on hexafluoropropene oxide (HFPO) were applied to polished metal surfaces by spinning. One of the lots repeatedly dewetted from a clean 440C steel surface, forming droplets on the surface, whereas the other seven did not dewet. This dewetting phenomenon also repeatedly occurred on 2024 aluminum and 1018 steel, but not on copper or gold. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (mu-FTIR) was used to determine thickness and uniformity of the PFPE films. The dewetting lot was found to dewet from 440C steel at a film thickness greater than 520 A. A portion of the dewetting lot was heated at 316 C for 12 days in the presence of oxygen and M-50 steel. This fluid did not dewet. Sequentially, samples of the dewetting lot were filtered either with an alumina or a silica cartridge which can remove polar impurities. Neither of the filtered samples dewetted from 440C steel. It was concluded that an unknown impurity, both thermally labile and polar, present at very low concentration and undetected by our analytical techniques (FTIR, proton NMR, or F-19 NMR), was responsible for the dewetting phenomenon.

  11. Influence of the substrate on the morphological evolution of gold thin films during solid-state dewetting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nsimama, Patrick D. [TU Ilmenau, Institute of Materials Engineering and Institute of Micro- and Nanotechnologies MacroNano, Chair Materials for Electrical Engineering and Electronics, 98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Dar Es Salaam Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 2958, Dar Es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Herz, Andreas; Wang, Dong [TU Ilmenau, Institute of Materials Engineering and Institute of Micro- and Nanotechnologies MacroNano, Chair Materials for Electrical Engineering and Electronics, 98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Schaaf, Peter, E-mail: peter.schaaf@tu-ilmenau.de [TU Ilmenau, Institute of Materials Engineering and Institute of Micro- and Nanotechnologies MacroNano, Chair Materials for Electrical Engineering and Electronics, 98693 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Dewetting of thin gold films is faster on TiO{sub 2} than on SiO{sub 2}. • Dewetting of thin gold films is faster on amorphous TiO{sub 2} than on crystalline TiO{sub 2}. • The kinetics is attributed to the energy of adhesion. • The morphology of thin Au films deposited on TiO{sub 2} substrates is different to those deposited on SiO{sub 2} substrates. • The dewetting activation energy of Au films deposited on crystalline substrates was higher than the activation energy of Au nanofilms deposited on amorphous TiO{sub 2} substrates. - Abstract: The evolution of electron-beam evaporated Au thin films deposited on crystalline TiO{sub 2} (c-TiO{sub 2}) and amorphous TiO{sub 2} (a-TiO{sub 2}) as well as amorphous SiO{sub 2} substrates are investigated. The kinetic of dewetting is clearly dependent on the type of substrate and is faster on TiO{sub 2} substrates than on SiO{sub 2} substrates. This difference can result from the difference in adhesion energy. Furthermore, the kinetic of dewetting is faster on a-TiO{sub 2} than on c-TiO{sub 2}, possibly due to the crystallization of TiO{sub 2} during annealing induced dewetting process. The morphologies of dewetted Au films deposited on crystalline TiO{sub 2} are characterized by branched holes. The XRD patterns of the Au films deposited on TiO{sub 2} substrates constituted peaks from both metallic Au and anatase TiO{sub 2}. The activation energy of Au films deposited on crystalline TiO{sub 2} substrates was higher than that that of the films deposited on amorphous TiO{sub 2} substrates.

  12. Due process traditionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunstein, Cass R

    2008-06-01

    In important cases, the Supreme Court has limited the scope of "substantive due process" by reference to tradition, but it has yet to explain why it has done so. Due process traditionalism might be defended in several distinctive ways. The most ambitious defense draws on a set of ideas associated with Edmund Burke and Friedrich Hayek, who suggested that traditions have special credentials by virtue of their acceptance by many minds. But this defense runs into three problems. Those who have participated in a tradition may not have accepted any relevant proposition; they might suffer from a systematic bias; and they might have joined a cascade. An alternative defense sees due process traditionalism as a second-best substitute for two preferable alternatives: a purely procedural approach to the Due Process Clause, and an approach that gives legislatures the benefit of every reasonable doubt. But it is not clear that in these domains, the first-best approaches are especially attractive; and even if they are, the second-best may be an unacceptably crude substitute. The most plausible defense of due process traditionalism operates on rule-consequentialist grounds, with the suggestion that even if traditions are not great, they are often good, and judges do best if they defer to traditions rather than attempting to specify the content of "liberty" on their own. But the rule-consequentialist defense depends on controversial and probably false assumptions about the likely goodness of traditions and the institutional incapacities of judges.

  13. Time-resolved analysis of thickness-dependent dewetting and ablation of silver films upon nanosecond laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Dongfeng [Laser Thermal Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-1740 (United States); Semiconductor Photonics Research Center, Department of Physics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Paeng, Dongwoo; Yeo, Junyeob; Kim, Eunpa; Wang, Letian; Grigoropoulos, Costas P., E-mail: cgrigoro@berkeley.edu [Laser Thermal Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-1740 (United States); Chen, Songyan [Semiconductor Photonics Research Center, Department of Physics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2016-05-23

    Nanosecond pulsed laser dewetting and ablation of thin silver films is investigated by time-resolved imaging. Laser pulses of 532 nm wavelength and 5 ns temporal width are irradiated on silver films of different thicknesses (50 nm, 80 nm, and 350 nm). Below the ablation threshold, it is observed that the dewetting process does not conclude until 630 ns after the laser irradiation for all samples, forming droplet-like particles in the spot central region. At higher laser intensities, ablative material removal occurs in the spot center. Cylindrical rims are formed in the peripheral dewetting zone due to the solidification of transported matter at about 700 ns following the laser pulse exposure. In addition to these features, droplet fingers are superposed upon irradiation of 350-nm thick silver films with higher intensity.

  14. Correlated dewetting patterns in thin polystyrene films

    CERN Document Server

    Neto, C; Seemann, R; Blossey, R; Becker, J; Grün, G

    2003-01-01

    We describe preliminary results of experiments and simulations concerned with the dewetting of thin polystyrene films (thickness < 7 nm) on top of silicon oxide wafers. In the experiments we scratched an initially flat film with an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip, producing dry channels in the film. Dewetting of the films was imaged in situ using AFM and a correlated pattern of holes ('satellite holes') was observed along the rims bordering the channels. The development of this complex film rupture process was simulated and the results of experiments and simulations are in good agreement. On the basis of these results, we attempt to explain the appearance of satellite holes and their positions relative to pre-existing holes.

  15. Dewetted growth and characterisation of high-resistivity CdTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiederle, M.; Duffar, T.; Garandet, J. P.; Babentsov, V.; Fauler, A.; Benz, K. W.; Dusserre, P.; Corregidor, V.; Dieguez, E.; Delaye, P.; Roosen, G.; Chevrier, V.; Launay, J. C.

    2004-07-01

    Undoped and Ge-doped CdTe crystals have been grown using the dewetting phenomenon on the earth. A gap effected by the dewetting between the crystal and ampoule was created with a thickness up to 60 μm, but it was not stable for the complete growth process. The dewetting was stable for the first 25 mm of the growth, but than it got unstable. The main deteriorating factor was a change of a liquid-solid interface shape from the convex to concave. Structural, electrical, photoelectrical and optical characteristics of the studied samples showed better material quality in dewetted areas.

  16. Reduction of nanowire diameter beyond lithography limits by controlled catalyst dewetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calahorra, Yonatan; Kerlich, Alexander; Amram, Dor; Gavrilov, Arkady; Cohen, Shimon; Ritter, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Catalyst assisted vapour-liquid-solid is the most common method to realize bottom-up nanowire growth; establishing a parallel process for obtaining nanoscale catalysts at pre-defined locations is paramount for further advancement towards commercial nanowire applications. Herein, the effect of a selective area mask on the dewetting of metallic nanowire catalysts, deposited within lithography-defined mask pinholes, is reported. It was found that thin disc-like catalysts, with diameters of 120-450 nm, were transformed through dewetting into hemisphere-like catalysts, having diameters 2-3 fold smaller; the process was optimized to about 95% yield in preventing catalyst splitting, as would otherwise be expected due to their thickness-to-diameter ratio, which was as low as 1/60. The catalysts subsequently facilitated InP and InAs nanowire growth. We suggest that the mask edges prevent surface migration mediated spreading of the dewetted metal, and therefore induce its agglomeration into a single particle. This result presents a general strategy to diminish lithography-set dimensions for NW growth, and may answer a fundamental challenge faced by bottom-up nanowire technology.

  17. Satellite hole formation during dewetting: experiment and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Neto, C; Seemann, R; Blossey, R; Becker, J; Grün, G

    2003-01-01

    The dewetting of thin polymer films on solid substrates has been studied extensively in recent years. These films can decay either by nucleation events or by spinodal dewetting, essentially only depending on the interface potential describing the short- and long-range intermolecular interactions between the interfaces and the initial film thickness. Here, we describe experiments and simulations concerned with the decay of polystyrene thin films. The rupture of the film occurs by the formation of a correlated pattern of holes ('satellite holes') along the liquid rims accumulating at the channel borders. The development of this complex film rupture process, which is neither simply spinodal nor nucleation dewetting, can be mimicked precisely by making use of a novel simulation code based on a rigorous mathematical treatment of the thin film equation and on the knowledge of the effective interface potential of the system. The conditions that determine the appearance and the position of the satellite holes around ...

  18. Templated dewetting: designing entirely self-organized platforms for photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altomare, Marco; Nguyen, Nhat Truong; Schmuki, Patrik

    2016-12-01

    Formation and dispersion of metal nanoparticles on oxide surfaces in site-specific or even arrayed configuration are key in various technological processes such as catalysis, photonics, electrochemistry and for fabricating electrodes, sensors, memory devices, and magnetic, optical, and plasmonic platforms. A crucial aspect towards an efficient performance of many of these metal/metal oxide arrangements is a reliable fabrication approach. Since the early works on graphoepitaxy in the 70s, solid state dewetting of metal films on patterned surfaces has been much explored and regarded as a most effective tool to form defined arrays of ordered metal particles on a desired substrate. While templated dewetting has been studied in detail, particularly from a mechanistic perspective on lithographically patterned Si surfaces, the resulting outstanding potential of its applications on metal oxide semiconductors, such as titania, has received only limited attention. In this perspective we illustrate how dewetting and particularly templated dewetting can be used to fabricate highly efficient metal/TiO 2 photocatalyst assemblies e.g. for green hydrogen evolution. A remarkable advantage is that the synthesis of such photocatalysts is completely based on self-ordering principles: anodic self-organized TiO 2 nanotube arrays that self-align to a highest degree of hexagonal ordering are an ideal topographical substrate for a second self-ordering process, that is, templated-dewetting of sputter-deposited metal thin films. The controllable metal/semiconductor coupling delivers intriguing features and functionalities. We review concepts inherent to dewetting and particularly templated dewetting, and outline a series of effective tools that can be synergistically interlaced to reach fine control with nanoscopic precision over the resulting metal/TiO 2 structures (in terms of e.g. high ordering, size distribution, site specific placement, alloy formation) to maximize their photocatalytic

  19. Mechanically modulated dewetting by atomic force microscope for micro- and nano- droplet array fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feifei; Li, Pan; Wang, Dong; Li, Longhai; Xie, Shuangxi; Liu, Lianqing; Wang, Yuechao; Li, Wen Jung

    2014-10-06

    Organizing a material into well-defined patterns during the dewetting process provides an attractive micro-/nano-fabrication method without using a conventional lithographic process, and hence, offers potential applications in organic electronics, optics systems, and memory devices. We report here how the mechanical modification of polymer surface by an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) can be used to guide thin film dewetting evolution and break the intrinsic spatial correlation of spontaneous instability. An AFM is used to implement the mechanical modification of progressively narrow grids to investigate the influence of pattern size on the modulation of ultrathin polystyrene films dewetting evolution. For films with different initial thicknesses, when grid size is close to or below the characteristic wavelength of instability, the spinodal dewetting is suppressed, and film rupture is restricted to the cutting trench. We will show in this paper it is possible to generate only one droplet per gridded area on a thin film subsequent to nucleation dominated dewetting on a non-patterned substrate. Furthermore, when the grid periodicity exceeds the spinodal length, the number of droplets in predefined areas gradually approaches that associated with unconfined dewetting.

  20. Dewetting induced Au-Ge composite nanodot evolution in SiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, D. P.; Chettah, A.; Siva, V.; Kanjilal, D.; Sahoo, P. K.

    2018-01-01

    A composite nanostructure comprising of Au and Ge gradually evolves on SiO2 surface when a bilayer of Au and Ge is irradiated by medium keV Xe-ion beam. The morphology progresses through different stages from nucleating patches to extended islands and finally a Au-Ge composite nanodot array develops on the insulator surface. While ion energy and fluence are found to determine dimensions of the nanostructures, existence of a characteristic lateral length scale is also detected at every stage of evolution. Through morphological and compositional analysis, the observed evolution is understood as an effect of ion beam induced dewetting of Au top layer. Numerical estimation based on the unified thermal spike model using the present experimental condition demonstrates formation of molten zones around the ion track due to nuclear and electronic energy deposition in the target. Dewetting results from mass flow onto the surface driven by local melting along the ion track and combines with sputter erosion of the bilayer film to lead to composite nanodot evolution. The generality of the ion induced processes provides possible route towards metal-semiconductor hybrid nanostructure synthesis on insulator surface.

  1. 5 CFR 732.301 - Due process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Due process. 732.301 Section 732.301...) NATIONAL SECURITY POSITIONS Due Process and Reporting § 732.301 Due process. When an agency makes an... any determination. (b) Comply with all applicable administrative due process requirements, as provided...

  2. 34 CFR 602.25 - Due process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Due process. 602.25 Section 602.25 Education... Required Operating Policies and Procedures § 602.25 Due process. The agency must demonstrate that the procedures it uses throughout the accrediting process satisfy due process. The agency meets this requirement...

  3. Wafer scale formation of monocrystalline silicon-based Mie resonators via silicon-on-insulator dewetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbarchi, Marco; Naffouti, Meher; Vial, Benjamin; Benkouider, Abdelmalek; Lermusiaux, Laurent; Favre, Luc; Ronda, Antoine; Bidault, Sébastien; Berbezier, Isabelle; Bonod, Nicolas

    2014-11-25

    Subwavelength-sized dielectric Mie resonators have recently emerged as a promising photonic platform, as they combine the advantages of dielectric microstructures and metallic nanoparticles supporting surface plasmon polaritons. Here, we report the capabilities of a dewetting-based process, independent of the sample size, to fabricate Si-based resonators over large scales starting from commercial silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates. Spontaneous dewetting is shown to allow the production of monocrystalline Mie-resonators that feature two resonant modes in the visible spectrum, as observed in confocal scattering spectroscopy. Homogeneous scattering responses and improved spatial ordering of the Si-based resonators are observed when dewetting is assisted by electron beam lithography. Finally, exploiting different thermal agglomeration regimes, we highlight the versatility of this technique, which, when assisted by focused ion beam nanopatterning, produces monocrystalline nanocrystals with ad hoc size, position, and organization in complex multimers.

  4. Chemically-induced solid-state dewetting of thin Au films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazit, Nimrod; Klinger, Leonid; Rabkin, Eugen

    2017-01-01

    We employed the solid state dewetting technique to produce nanoparticles of silver-gold alloy on a sapphire substrate. We deposited a thin gold layer on the substrate with alloy nanoparticles, and studied its thermal stability at low homological temperatures. We demonstrated that a large number of densely spaced holes form at the initial stages of dewetting of the gold layer with nanoparticles. A similar homogeneous gold film deposited on a bare sapphire substrate remained stable under identical annealing conditions, exhibiting the onset of dewetting at higher temperatures, and with a lower number of holes. We attributed the decreased thermal stability of the gold film deposited on the substrate with the silver-gold nanoparticles to accelerated grooving at the grain boundaries and triple junctions in the film. The grooving process is accelerated by the diffusion fluxes of Au atoms driven from the film towards the nanoparticles by the gradient of chemical potential. We developed a quantitative model of this chemically-induced dewetting process, and discussed its applicability for the design of better catalytic systems. Our work demonstrates that the chemical driving forces have to be reckoned with in the analysis of thermal stability of multicomponent thin films.

  5. Dewetting and Segregation of Zn-Doped InSb in Microgravity Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrogorsky, A. G.; Marin, C.; Duffar, T.; Volz, M.

    2009-01-01

    In directional solidification, dewetting is characterized by the lack of contact between the crystal and the crucible walls, due to the existence of a liquid meniscus at the level of the solid-liquid interface. This creates a gap of a few tens of micrometers between the crystal and the crucible. One of the immediate consequences of this phenomenon is the dramatic improvement of the quality of the crystal. This improvement is partly due to the modification of the solid-liquid interface curvature and partly to the absence of sticking and spurious nucleation at the crystal-crucible interface. Dewetting has been, commonly observed during the growth of semiconductors in crucibles under microgravity conditions where it appears to be very stable: the gap between the crystal and the crucible remains constant along several centimetres of growth. The physical models of the phenomenon are well established and they predict that dewetting should not occur in microgravity, if sufficient static pressure is imposed on the melt, pushing it towards the crucible. We present the results of InSb(Zn) solidification experiments conducted at the International Space Station (ISS) where, in spite of a spring exerting a pressure on the liquid, partial dewetting did occur. This surprising result is discussed in terms of force exerted .by the spring on the liquid and of possibility that the spring did not work properly. Furthermore, it appears that the segregation of the Zn was not affected by the occurrence of the dewetting. The data suggest that there was no significant interference of convection with segregation of Zn in InSb.

  6. AFT Chief Promises Due-Process Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The president of the American Federation of Teachers (AFT), Randi Weingarten, is putting the sensitive issue of due process on the education reform table, with a pledge to work with districts to streamline the often-cumbersome procedures for dismissing teachers who fail to improve their performance after receiving help and support. She has also…

  7. Dewetting-mediated pattern formation inside the coffee ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weibin; Lan, Ding; Wang, Yuren

    2017-04-01

    The rearrangement of particles in the final stage of droplet evaporation has been investigated by utilizing differential interference contrast microscopy and the formation mechanism of a network pattern inside a coffee ring has been revealed. A tailored substrate with a circular hydrophilic domain is prepared to obtain thin liquid film containing monolayer particles. Real-time bottom-view images show that the evolution of a dry patch could be divided into three stages: rupture initiation, dry patch expansion, and drying of the residual liquid. A growing number of dry patches will repeat these stages to form the network patterns inside the ringlike stain. It can be shown that the suction effect promotes the rupture of the liquid film and the formation of the dry patch. The particle-assembling process is totally controlled by the liquid film dewetting and dominated by the surface tension of the liquid film, which eventually determine the ultimate deposition patterns.

  8. Auto-Optimization of Dewetting Rates by Rim Instabilities in Slipping Polymer Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Günter; Sharma, Ashutosh

    2001-10-01

    We investigated the instability of the moving rim in dewetting of slipping polymer films. Small fluctuations of the width of the rim get spontaneously amplified since narrower sections of the rim move faster than wider ones due to frictional forces being proportional to the width of the rim. Instability leads eventually to an autocontrol of the rim width by the continuous formation of droplets with a mean size proportional to the initial film thickness. Surprisingly, the mean dewetting velocity at late stages, averaged over the length of the rim, was found to be constant. Thus, the instability of the rim enabled a more efficient, i.e., faster, ``drying'' of the substrate. Nonslipping films did not show this instability.

  9. Directed ordering of phase separated domains and dewetting of thin polymer blend films on a topographically patterned substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandaru, Nandini; Karim, Alamgir; Mukherjee, Rabibrata

    2017-07-21

    Substrate pattern guided self-organization of ultrathin and confined polymeric films on a topographically patterned substrate is a useful approach for obtaining ordered meso and nano structures over large areas, particularly if the ordering is achieved during film preparation itself, eliminating any post-processing such as thermal or solvent vapor annealing. By casting a dilute solution of two immiscible polymers, polystyrene (PS) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), from a common solvent (toluene) on a topographically patterned substrate with a grating geometry, we show the formation of self-organized meso patterns with various degrees of ordering. The morphology depends on both the concentration of the dispensed solution (C n ) and the blend composition (R B ). Depending on the extent of dewetting during spin coating, the final morphologies can be classified into three distinct categories. At a very low C n the solution dewets fully, resulting in isolated polymer droplets aligned along substrate grooves (Type 1). Type 2 structures comprising isolated threads with aligned phase separated domains along each substrate groove are observed at intermediate C n . A continuous film (Type 3) is obtained above a critical concentration (C n *) that depends on R B . While the extent of ordering of the domains gradually diminishes with an increase in film thickness for Type 3 patterns, the size of the domains remains much smaller than that on a flat substrate, resulting in significant downsizing of the features due to the lateral confinement imposed on the phase separation process by the topographic patterns. Finally, we show that some of these structures exhibit excellent broadband anti-reflection (AR) properties.

  10. Texture evolution and microstructural changes during solid-state dewetting: A correlative study by complementary in situ TEM techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niekiel, Florian; Kraschewski, Simon M.; Schweizer, Peter; Butz, Benjamin; Spiecker, Erdmann

    2016-01-01

    The transition of a thin film into an energetically favorable set of particles at temperatures below the melting point of the bulk material is known as solid-state dewetting. In this work the dewetting behavior of 16 nm thick discontinuous Au thin films on amorphous silicon nitride membranes is quantitatively studied by complementary in situ transmission electron microscopy techniques taking advantage of the unique capabilities of a chip-based heating system. The combination of dedicated imaging and diffraction techniques is used to investigate the interplay of grain growth and texture evolution with the process of dewetting. The results show an initial coarsening of the microstructure preceding the other processes. Texture evolution is highly correlated to material retraction and agglomeration during the following dewetting process. In-plane grain rotation has been observed, acting as an additional mechanism for orientation changes. From a methodological perspective this work demonstrates the capabilities of today’s transmission electron microscopy in combination with state-of-the-art in situ instrumentation. In particular the combination of complementary information from different dedicated techniques in one and the same setup is demonstrated to be highly beneficial.

  11. Influences of ultra-thin Ti seed layers on the dewetting phenomenon of Au films deposited on Si oxide substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiko, Masao; Kim, So-Mang; Jeong, Young-Seok; Ha, Jae-Ho; Koo, Sang-Mo; Ha, Jae-Geun

    2018-05-01

    The influences of a Ti seed layer (1 nm) on the dewetting phenomenon of Au films (5 nm) grown onto amorphous SiO2 substrates have been studied and compared. Atomic force microscopy results indicated that the introduction of Ti between the substrate and Au promoted the dewetting phenomenon. X-ray diffraction measurements suggested that the initial deposition of Ti promoted crystallinity of Au. A series of Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results revealed that Ti transformed to a Ti oxide layer by reduction of the amorphous SiO2 substrate surface, and that the Ti seed layer remained on the substrate, without going through the dewetting process during annealing. We concluded that the enhancement of Au dewetting and the improvement in crystallinity of Au by the insertion of Ti could be attributed to the fact that Au location was changed from the surface of the amorphous SiO2 substrate to that of the Ti oxide layer.

  12. Dewetting of Epitaxial Silver Film on Silicon by Thermal Annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Charlotte E.; Kellogg, Gary L.; Shih, C.-K.

    2013-03-01

    It has been shown that noble metals can grow epitaxially on semiconducting and insulating substrates, despite being a non-wetting system: low temperature deposition followed by room temperature annealing leads to atomically flat film morphology. However, the resulting metastable films are vulnerable to dewetting, which has limited their utility for applications under ambient conditions. The physics of this dewetting is of great interest but little explored. We report on an investigation of the dewetting of epitaxial Ag(111) films on Si(111) and (100). Low energy electron microscopy (LEEM) shows intriguing evolution in film morphology and crystallinity, even at temperatures below 100oC. On the basis of these findings, we can begin to draw compelling inferences about film-substrate interaction and the kinetics of dewetting. Financial support is from NSF, DGE-0549417 and DMR-0906025. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, User Facility operated for the U.S. DOE Office of Science. Sandia National Lab is managed and operated by Sandia Corp., a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp., for the U.S. DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration under DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  13. Cross-sectional characterization of the dewetting of a Au/Ni bilayer film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cen, Xi; Thron, Andrew M.; Zhang, Xinming; Benthem, Klaus van

    2017-07-15

    The solid state dewetting of Au/Ni bilayer films was investigated by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy techniques, including energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, electron energy-loss spectroscopy and precession electron diffraction. After annealing under high vacuum conditions the early stage of film agglomeration revealed significant changes in film morphology and chemical distribution. Both Au and Ni showed texturing. Despite the initial deposition sequence of the as-deposited Au/Ni/SiO{sub 2}/Si interface structure, the majority of the metal/SiO{sub 2} interface was Au/SiO{sub 2} after annealing at 675 °C for 1 h. Void nucleation was predominantly observed at Au/Ni/SiO{sub 2} triple junctions, rather than grain boundary grooving at free surface of the metal film. Detailed cross-sectional characterization reveals that the Au/Ni interface in addition to small amounts of metal alloying strongly affects film break-up and agglomeration kinetics. The formation of Au/SiO{sub 2} interface sections is found to be energetically preferred over Ni/SiO{sub 2} due to compressive stress in the as-deposited Ni layer. Void nucleation is observed at the film/substrate interface, while the formation of voids at Ni/Au phase boundaries inside the metal film is caused by the Kirkendall effect. - Highlights: • The dewetting of Au/Ni bilayer films was studied by cross-sectional TEM techniques. • The majority of the metal/SiO{sub 2} interface was comprised of Au/SiO{sub 2} after annealing. • Void formation was dominant for hole nucleation at early dewetting stage. • The Kirkendall effect was also observed to cause the formation of voids.

  14. The effect of different thickness alumina capping layers on the final morphology of dewet thin Ni films

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Benjamin C.; Behbahanian, Amir; Stoker, T. McKay; Fowlkes, Jason D.; Hartnett, Chris; Rack, Phillip D.; Roberts, Nicholas A.

    2018-03-01

    Nanoparticles on a substrate have numerous applications in nanotechnology, from enhancements to solar cell efficiency to improvements in carbon nanotube growth. Producing nanoparticles in a cost effective fashion with control over size and spacing is desired, but difficult to do. This work presents a scalable method for altering the radius and pitch distributions of nickel nanoparticles. The introduction of alumina capping layers to thin nickel films during a pulsed laser-induced dewetting process has yielded reductions in the mean and standard deviation of radii and pitch for dewet nanoparticles with no noticeable difference in final morphology with increased capping layer thickness. The differences in carbon nanotube mats grown, on the uncapped sample and one of the capped samples, is also presented here, with a more dense mat being present for the capped case.

  15. Polymer Film Dewetting by Water/Surfactant/Good-Solvent Mixtures: A Mechanistic Insight and Its Implications for the Conservation of Cultural Heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglioni, Michele; Montis, Costanza; Chelazzi, David; Giorgi, Rodorico; Berti, Debora; Baglioni, Piero

    2017-12-07

    Aqueous nanostructured fluids (NSFs) have been proposed to remove polymer coatings from the surface of works of art; this process usually involves film dewetting. The NSF cleaning mechanism was studied using several techniques that were employed to obtain mechanistic insight on the interaction of a methacrylic/acrylic copolymer (Paraloid B72) film laid on glass surfaces and several NSFs, based on two solvents and two surfactants. The experimental results provide a detailed picture of the dewetting process. The gyration radius and the reduction of the T g of Paraloid B72 fully swollen in the two solvents is larger for propylene carbonate than for methyl ethyl ketone, suggesting higher mobility of polymer chains for the former, while a nonionic alcohol ethoxylate surfactant was more effective than sodium dodecylsulfate in favoring the dewetting process. FTIR 2D imaging showed that the dewetting patterns observed on model samples are also present on polymer-coated mortar tiles when exposed to NSFs. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Scope and limitations of due process in administrative proceedings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Carvajal Sánchez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to explain in a better way the scope of Due Process in Administrative Law as a legal norm whose respect is essential to all government agencies, three points of view (formal, structural and material are proposed. Those items seem useful to understand “Administrative Due Process” in all its dimensions: as a constitutional norm developed by the enactment of laws and decrees; as a principle inspiring some conducts and new norms; and as an objective and subjective fundamental right. On the other hand, it is shown that Administrative Due Process is not an absolute rule because in some cases its full application is subject to normative relativism. Two opposite trends can be perceived at this point: in the first place, government agencies usually do not act the same way judges do, so Administrative Due Process should be distinguished from Judicial Due Process; therefore, it could actually have a more restricted scope. In the second place, some administrative authorities are nowadays playing a role more or less similar to what judges do. This means that new procedural guarantees will be claimed. In any case, admitting valid limitations to Administrative Due Process leads to the quest of the limits of these limitations. The application of the rule of Due Process cannot be totally suppressed; its scope cannot be completely reduced. This is the result of its fundamental nature as a legal norm that ensures justice and equity in all administrative procedures, and proscribes random decisions.

  17. Room-temperature deposition of crystalline patterned ZnO films by confined dewetting lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepulveda-Guzman, S., E-mail: selene.sepulvedagz@uanl.edu.mx [Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia. UANL, PIIT Monterrey, CP 66629, Apodaca NL (Mexico); Reeja-Jayan, B. [Texas Materials Institute, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); De la Rosa, E. [Centro de Investigacion en Optica, Loma del Bosque 115 Col. Lomas del Campestre C.P. 37150 Leon, Gto. Mexico (Mexico); Ortiz-Mendez, U. [Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia. UANL, PIIT Monterrey, CP 66629, Apodaca NL (Mexico); Reyes-Betanzo, C. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica Optica y Electronica, Calle Luis Enrique Erro No. 1, Santa Maria Tonanzintla, Puebla. Apdo. Postal 51 y 216, C.P. 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Cruz-Silva, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, UAEM. Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, CP 62210 Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico); Jose-Yacaman, M. [Physics and Astronomy Department University of Texas at San Antonio 1604 campus San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    In this work patterned ZnO films were prepared at room-temperature by deposition of {approx}5 nm size ZnO nanoparticles using confined dewetting lithography, a process which induces their assembly, by drying a drop of ZnO colloidal dispersion between a floating template and the substrate. Crystalline ZnO nanoparticles exhibit a strong visible (525 nm) light emission upon UV excitation ({lambda} = 350 nm). The resulting films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). The method described herein presents a simple and low cost method to prepare crystalline ZnO films with geometric patterns without additional annealing. Such transparent conducting films are attractive for applications like light emitting diodes (LEDs). As the process is carried out at room temperature, the patterned crystalline ZnO films can even be deposited on flexible substrates.

  18. Identification of Dewetting Stages and Preparation of Single Chain Gold Nanoparticle Rings by Colloidal Lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Norbert; Zámbó, Dániel; Pothorszky, Szilárd; Gergely-Fülöp, Eszter; Deák, András

    2016-02-02

    Massively parallel nanoparticle assembly was carried out by means of colloidal lithographic experiments over a silicon substrate supported (sub)microparticle Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer, using high purity aqueous solution of PEGylated gold nanoparticles. The size of the polystyrene template particles in the monolayer was varied between 608 nm and 2.48 μm, while gold nanoparticles with diameters between 18 and 65 nm were used. Thanks to the PEGylation of the gold nanoparticles, they could be used as tracer objects to follow the drying process. In this way, different dewetting stages could be identified in the confined space between and underneath the template polystyrene spheres. Depending on the concentration of the nanoparticles, the presented approach allows the preparation of single-particle width necklace structures composed of gold particles. At the same time, the high purity of the substrate as well as of the evolved particle rings is preserved and unwanted particle deposition on the substrate surface is minimized.

  19. INTRODUCTION: Wetting and dewetting in bio-related systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herminghaus, S.

    2005-03-01

    Research on such genuinely soft-matter related phenomena as wetting and dewetting would not be complete without reminiscence to biological systems. The recent stir around what has been known as the lotus effect, the amazing ultra-hydrophobic properties of many plants, has highlighted the interconnections of wetting with bio-systems. In the first paper of this section (Mock et al), a `biomimetic' system is conceived which imitates the properties of plant leaves with elastic hairs. The synthesis of such a system turns out to be tricky, but the progress is encouraging. The next three papers deal with surfactant layers, as they occur in many biological systems, such as the plasma membrane. Various experimental techniques, such as fluorescence microscopy (Tanaka et al), neutron reflectivity (Steitz et al), and x-ray scattering (Ahrens et al), are demonstrated as powerful tools for their investigation. The last paper (Heim et al) takes us back to where we started: the morphologies emerging upon dewetting of a liquid. This time, the full diversity of patterns is shown which appears in the deposited solute, once the liquid has evaporated. The motivation of this work is the morphology of deposition of DNA on bio-chips, which may affect the readout results of such devices. It is shown that although much can already be understood, a lot of work has still to be done, and many beautiful mechanisms may still be discovered.

  20. "Ingraham v. Wright" and the Decline of Due Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Gerard J.

    1978-01-01

    Suggests that the constitutional questions in "Ingraham vs Wright" lend credence to a concern that the Court is seeking to eliminate all due process intervention outside of the incorporation and privacy cases and to limit even these cases to defenses of a criminal prosecution. Available from Suffolk University Law Review Office, 41…

  1. 34 CFR 300.508 - Due process complaint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... attending; (5) A description of the nature of the problem of the child relating to the proposed or refused initiation or change, including facts relating to the problem; and (6) A proposed resolution of the problem... section, the hearing officer must make a determination on the face of the due process complaint of whether...

  2. Measured spatial variability of beach erosion due to aeolian processes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, S.; Verheijen, A.H.; Hoonhout, B.M.; Vos, S.E.; Cohn, Nicholas; Ruggiero, P; Aagaard, T.; Deigaard, R.; Fuhrman, D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper shows the first results of measured spatial variability of beach erosion due to aeolian processes during the recently conducted SEDEX2 field experiment at Long Beach, Washington, U.S.A.. Beach erosion and sedimentation were derived using series of detailed terrestrial LIDAR measurements

  3. Quantized contact angles in the dewetting of a structured liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilton, Mark; Stasiak, Pawel; Matsen, Mark W; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari

    2014-02-14

    We investigate the dewetting of a disordered melt of diblock copolymer from an ordered residual wetting layer. In contrast to simple liquids where the wetting layer has a fixed thickness and the droplets exhibit a single unique contact angle with the substrate, we find that structured liquids of diblock copolymer exhibit a discrete series of wetting layer thicknesses each producing a different contact angle. These quantized contact angles arise because the substrate and air surfaces each induce a gradient of lamellar order in the wetting layer. The interaction between the two surface profiles creates an effective interface potential that oscillates with film thickness, thus, producing a sequence of local minimums. The wetting layer thicknesses and corresponding contact angles are a direct measure of the positions and depths of these minimums. Self-consistent field theory is shown to provide qualitative agreement with the experiment.

  4. Fabrication of metallic nanoparticles by spinodal dewetting of thin films: A high-throughput approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalak, William D.; Miller, James B.; Yolcu, Cem; Gellman, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Metal nanoparticles on structured supports are used in a variety of technological applications including biosensing, energy harvesting, and electronics. In every case, the functions and properties of the metallic nanostructures depend on both their composition and structure (i.e. size, shape, and spatial distribution). Among the challenges to the development of metal nanoparticles for these applications is the characterization of relationships between their structure and their functional properties over multiple structural degrees of freedom spanning a large range of values. In this work, a method for creating a morphological gradient of metal nanoparticles on a substrate is described. The approach, suited for high-throughput fabrication and characterization, is based on spinodal dewetting of a metallic thin film from its substrate. Through control of initial film thickness, anneal temperature, and anneal time, spinodal dewetting results in supported nanoparticles with well-defined and controlled structure. The approach is demonstrated through its application to preparation of Pd nanoparticles on a silicon nitride substrate. The morphologies of the particles were characterized by scanning electron and atomic force microscopies. Free energy-based stability and topological analyses were used to confirm the dewetting mechanism. In addition, the stability theory provides a connection to the thermophysical properties of the resulting nanoparticle array. The dewetting approach is general to any metal/support system and provides an alternative, inexpensive, and robust means to rapidly create metal nanostructures with control of morphology. It shows promise for large scale production of metal nanoparticles structures, as well as understanding basic stability properties of thin metal films. - Highlights: ► Pd dewetting from SiN occurs by a spinodal dewetting mechanism. ► Dewetting occurs at temperatures well below the melting point of Pd. ► Spinodal dewetting allows

  5. Water in contact with extended hydrophobic surfaces: Direct evidence of weak dewetting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Torben René; Jensen, Morten Østergaard; Reitzel, Niels

    2003-01-01

    X-ray reflectivity measurements reveal a significant dewetting of a large hydrophobic paraffin surface floating on water. The dewetting phenomenon extends less than 15 Angstrom into the bulk water phase and results in an integrated density deficit of about one water molecule per 25-30 Angstrom(2......) of water in contact with the paraffin surface. The results are supported by molecular dynamics simulations and related to the hydrophobic effect....

  6. Reversible dewetting of a molecularly thin fluid water film in a soft graphene-mica slit pore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, Nikolai; Lange, Philipp; Sokolov, Igor M; Rabe, Jürgen P

    2012-02-08

    The behavior of water and other molecular liquids confined to the nanoscale is of fundamental importance, e.g., in biology, material science, nanofluidics, and tribology. Direct microscopic imaging of wetting dynamics in subnanometer pores is however challenging. We will show in the following that a molecularly thin water film confined between mica and graphene is fluid. Ambient humidity allows to control the wetting and dewetting of the film. We follow these processes in space and time using scanning force microscopy imaging of the graphene conforming to the film. At sufficiently high humidity a continuous molecularly thin water film wets the interface between the graphene and mica. At lower humidities the film dewets with fractal depressions exhibiting dimensions around 1.7 and depths comparable to the size of a water molecule. The soft graphene cover offers a previously unexplored semihydrophilic slit pore of self-adjustable size, which enables high-resolution imaging of confined molecularly thin fluid films, and bears the potential for the fabrication of novel nanofluidic devices. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  7. Biomimetic solution against dewetting in a highly hydrophobic nanopore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picaud, Fabien; Paris, Guillaume; Gharbi, Tijani; Balme, Sébastien; Lepoitevin, Mathilde; Tangaraj, Vidhyadevi; Bechelany, Mikhael; Janot, Jean Marc; Balanzat, Emmanuel; Henn, François

    2016-06-14

    A water molecule is the foundation of life and is the primary compound in every living system. While many of its properties are understood in a bulk solvent, its behavior in a small hydrophobic nanopore still raises fundamental questions. For instance, a wetting/dewetting transition in a hydrophobic solid-state or a polymer nanopore occurs stochastically and can only be prevented by external physical stimuli. Controlling these transitions would be a primary requirement to improve many applications. Some biological channels, such as gramicidin A (gA) proteins, show a high rate of water and ion diffusion in their central subnanochannel while their external surface is highly hydrophobic. The diameter of this channel is significantly smaller than the inner size of the lowest artificial nanopore in which water drying occurs (i.e. 1.4 nm). In this paper, we propose an innovative idea to generate nanopore wetting as a result of which the application of an external field is no longer required. In a nanopore, the drying or wetting of the inner walls occurs randomly (in experiments and in simulations). However, we have shown how the confinement of gA, in a dried hydrophobic nanopore, rapidly generates a stable wetting of the latter. We believe that this simple idea, based on biomimetism, could represent a real breakthrough that could help to improve and develop new nanoscale applications.

  8. High-speed nanoscale characterization of dewetting via dynamic transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hihath, Sahar [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Davis, 1 Shields Ave., Davis, California 95616 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, 1 Shields Ave., Davis, California 95616 (United States); Santala, Melissa K.; Campbell, Geoffrey [Materials Science Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Benthem, Klaus van, E-mail: benthem@ucdavis.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Davis, 1 Shields Ave., Davis, California 95616 (United States)

    2016-08-28

    The dewetting of thin films can occur in either the solid or the liquid state for which different mass transport mechanisms are expected to control morphological changes. Traditionally, dewetting dynamics have been examined on time scales between several seconds to hours, and length scales ranging between nanometers and millimeters. The determination of mass transport mechanisms on the nanoscale, however, requires nanoscale spatial resolution and much shorter time scales. This study reports the high-speed observation of dewetting phenomena for kinetically constrained Ni thin films on crystalline SrTiO{sub 3} substrates. Movie-mode Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscopy (DTEM) was used for high-speed image acquisition during thin film dewetting at different temperatures. DTEM imaging confirmed that the initial stages of film agglomeration include edge retraction, hole formation, and growth. Finite element modeling was used to simulate temperature distributions within the DTEM samples after laser irradiation with different energies. For pulsed laser irradiation at 18 μJ, experimentally observed hole growth suggests that Marangoni flow dominates hole formation in the liquid nickel film. After irradiation with 13.8 μJ, however, the observations suggest that dewetting was initiated by nucleation of voids followed by hole growth through solid-state surface diffusion.

  9. Dewetting transition assisted clearance of (NFGAILS) amyloid fibrils from cell membranes by graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jiajia; Yang, Zaixing; Gu, Zonglin; Li, Haotian; Garate, Jose Antonio; Zhou, Ruhong

    2014-01-01

    Clearance of partially ordered oligomers and monomers deposited on cell membrane surfaces is believed to be an effective route to alleviate many potential protein conformational diseases (PCDs). With large-scale all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, here we show that graphene nanosheets can easily and quickly win a competitive adsorption of human islet amyloid polypeptides (hIAPP 22-28 ) NFGAILS and associated fibrils against cell membrane, due to graphene's unique two-dimensional, highly hydrophobic surface with its all-sp 2 hybrid structure. A nanoscale dewetting transition was observed at the interfacial region between the fibril (originally deposited on the membrane) and the graphene nanosheet, which significantly assisted the adsorption of fibrils onto graphene from the membrane. The π–π stacking interaction between Phe23 and graphene played a crucial role, providing the driving force for the adsorption at the graphene surface. This study renders new insight towards the importance of water during the interactions between amyloid peptides, the phospholipidic membrane, and graphene, which might shed some light on future developments of graphene-based nanomedicine for preventing/curing PCDs like type II diabetes mellitus

  10. Dewetting transition assisted clearance of (NFGAILS) amyloid fibrils from cell membranes by graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jiajia; Yang, Zaixing; Gu, Zonglin [Institute of Quantitative Biology and Medicine, SRMP and RAD-X, Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, and Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Radiation Medicine and Protection, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Li, Haotian [Bio-X Lab, Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Garate, Jose Antonio [IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Zhou, Ruhong, E-mail: ruhongz@us.ibm.com [Institute of Quantitative Biology and Medicine, SRMP and RAD-X, Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, and Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Radiation Medicine and Protection, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2014-12-14

    Clearance of partially ordered oligomers and monomers deposited on cell membrane surfaces is believed to be an effective route to alleviate many potential protein conformational diseases (PCDs). With large-scale all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, here we show that graphene nanosheets can easily and quickly win a competitive adsorption of human islet amyloid polypeptides (hIAPP{sub 22-28}) NFGAILS and associated fibrils against cell membrane, due to graphene's unique two-dimensional, highly hydrophobic surface with its all-sp{sup 2} hybrid structure. A nanoscale dewetting transition was observed at the interfacial region between the fibril (originally deposited on the membrane) and the graphene nanosheet, which significantly assisted the adsorption of fibrils onto graphene from the membrane. The π–π stacking interaction between Phe23 and graphene played a crucial role, providing the driving force for the adsorption at the graphene surface. This study renders new insight towards the importance of water during the interactions between amyloid peptides, the phospholipidic membrane, and graphene, which might shed some light on future developments of graphene-based nanomedicine for preventing/curing PCDs like type II diabetes mellitus.

  11. Numerical Simulation of Ejected Molten Metal Nanoparticles Liquified by Laser Irradiation: Interplay of Geometry and Dewetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afkhami, S.; Kondic, L.

    2013-07-01

    Metallic nanoparticles, liquified by fast laser irradiation, go through a rapid change of shape attempting to minimize their surface energy. The resulting nanodrops may be ejected from the substrate when the mechanisms leading to dewetting are sufficiently strong, as in the experiments involving gold nanoparticles [Habenicht et al., Science 309, 2043 (2005)]. We use a direct continuum-level approach to accurately model the process of liquid nanodrop formation and the subsequent ejection from the substrate. Our computations show a significant role of inertial effects and an elaborate interplay of initial geometry and wetting properties: e.g., we can control the direction of ejection by prescribing appropriate initial shape and/or wetting properties. The basic insight regarding ejection itself can be reached by considering a simple effective model based on an energy balance. We validate our computations by comparing directly with the experiments specified above involving the length scales measured in hundreds of nanometers and with molecular dynamics simulations on much shorter scales measured in tens of atomic diameters, as by M. Fuentes-Cabrera et al. [Phys. Rev. E 83, 041603 (2011)]. The quantitative agreement, in addition to illustrating how to control particle ejection, shows utility of continuum-based simulation in describing dynamics on nanoscale quantitatively, even in a complex setting as considered here.

  12. A wafer-scale backplane-assisted resonating nanoantenna array SERS device created by tunable thermal dewetting nanofabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Te-Wei; Ranjan Gartia, Manas; Seo, Sujin; Hsiao, Austin; Logan Liu, Gang

    2014-04-01

    A tunable lithography-less nanofabrication process using a metal thin-film thermal dewetting technique has been developed to fabricate wafer-scale and uniform plasmonic substrates at low cost for optimal performance in surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) applications. The relationship between the tunable parameters of this process and the corresponding optical and plasmonic characteristic is investigated both experimentally and theoretically to understand the deterministic design of an optimal SERS device with a three-dimensional plasmonic nanoantenna structure. The enhancement of SERS using various nanoplasmonic particle sizes, structure lengths, lateral hot spot spacings and resonating effects are examined and demonstrated. We achieve a uniform optimal enhancement factor of 1.38 × 108 on a 4 in wafer-scale SERS substrate with a backplane-assisted resonating nanoantenna array design. Sensitive environmental nitrate sensing, vitamin detection and oligonucleotide identification are demonstrated on the high-performance SERS device.

  13. Static or breakloose friction for lubricated contacts: the role of surface roughness and dewetting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, B; Persson, B N J; Krick, B A; Sawyer, W G; Rodriguez, N; Mangiagalli, P

    2013-01-01

    We present experimental data for the static or breakloose friction for lubricated elastomer contacts, as a function of the time of stationary contact. Due to fluid squeeze-out from the asperity contact regions, the breakloose friction force increases continuously with the time of stationary contact. We consider three different cases: (a) PDMS rubber balls against flat smooth glass surfaces, (b) PDMS cylinder ribs against different substrates (glass, smooth and rough PMMA and an inert polymer) and (c) application to syringes. Due to differences in the surface roughness and contact pressures the three systems exhibit very different time dependences of the breakloose friction. In case (a) for rough surfaces the dry contact area A is a small fraction of the nominal contact area A 0 , and the fluid squeeze-out is fast. In case (b) the dry contact area is close to the nominal contact area, A/A 0 ≈ 1, and fluid squeeze-out is very slow due to percolation of the contact area. In this case, remarkably, different fluids with very different viscosities, ranging from 0.005 Pa s (water–glycerol mixture) to 1.48 Pa s (glycerol), give very similar breakloose friction forces as a function of the time of stationary contact. In case (c) the contact pressure and the surface roughness are larger than in case (b), and the squeeze-out is very slow so that even after a very long time the area of real contact is below the percolation threshold. For all cases (a)–(c), the increase in the breakloose friction is mainly due to the increase in the area of real contact with increasing time, because of the fluid squeeze-out and dewetting. (paper)

  14. Static or breakloose friction for lubricated contacts: the role of surface roughness and dewetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, B; Krick, B A; Rodriguez, N; Sawyer, W G; Mangiagalli, P; Persson, B N J

    2013-11-06

    We present experimental data for the static or breakloose friction for lubricated elastomer contacts, as a function of the time of stationary contact. Due to fluid squeeze-out from the asperity contact regions, the breakloose friction force increases continuously with the time of stationary contact. We consider three different cases: (a) PDMS rubber balls against flat smooth glass surfaces, (b) PDMS cylinder ribs against different substrates (glass, smooth and rough PMMA and an inert polymer) and (c) application to syringes. Due to differences in the surface roughness and contact pressures the three systems exhibit very different time dependences of the breakloose friction. In case (a) for rough surfaces the dry contact area A is a small fraction of the nominal contact area A0, and the fluid squeeze-out is fast. In case (b) the dry contact area is close to the nominal contact area, A/A0 ≈ 1, and fluid squeeze-out is very slow due to percolation of the contact area. In this case, remarkably, different fluids with very different viscosities, ranging from 0.005 Pa s (water–glycerol mixture) to 1.48 Pa s (glycerol), give very similar breakloose friction forces as a function of the time of stationary contact. In case (c) the contact pressure and the surface roughness are larger than in case (b), and the squeeze-out is very slow so that even after a very long time the area of real contact is below the percolation threshold. For all cases (a)–(c), the increase in the breakloose friction is mainly due to the increase in the area of real contact with increasing time, because of the fluid squeeze-out and dewetting.

  15. Effects due to spectator interaction in deep inelastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smilga, A.V.

    1979-01-01

    The simplest diagrams describing interaction with the spectator in the e - π→e - + hadrons deep inelastic process are considered. The contribution of the final state interaction diagram to the structure function considerable in the Feynman gauge is suppressed under the temporal gauge choice in accordance with the results of the naive parton model. The expressin for the cross section of the process when large quark momentum is transferred to the spectator is derived

  16. Sensitivity of Process Design due to Uncertainties in Property Estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hukkerikar, Amol; Jones, Mark Nicholas; Sarup, Bent

    2012-01-01

    of accuracy for different thermo-physical property prediction models; and c) design variables versus properties relationships. The application of the methodology is illustrated through a case study of an extractive distillation process and sensitivity analysis of designs of various unit operations found...... in chemical processes. Among others vapour pressure accuracy for azeotropic mixtures is critical and needs to be measured or estimated with a ±0.25% accuracy to satisfy acceptable safety levels in design....

  17. Dewetting of thin film blends containing block copolymer: effects of nonadsorbing block length and substrate hydrophobicity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Costa, A. C.; Composto, R. J.; Vlček, Petr

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 9 (2003), s. 3254-3260 ISSN 0024-9297 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4050111 Keywords : polymer films * adsorption * dewetting Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.621, year: 2003

  18. Influence of germanium on thermal dewetting and agglomeration of the silicon template layer in thin silicon-on-insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, P P; Yang, B; Rugheimer, P P; Roberts, M M; Savage, D E; Lagally, M G; Liu Feng

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the influence of heteroepitaxially grown Ge on the thermal dewetting and agglomeration of the Si(0 0 1) template layer in ultrathin silicon-on-insulator (SOI). We show that increasing Ge coverage gradually destroys the long-range ordering of 3D nanocrystals along the (1 3 0) directions and the 3D nanocrystal shape anisotropy that are observed in the dewetting and agglomeration of pure SOI(0 0 1). The results are qualitatively explained by Ge-induced bond weakening and decreased surface energy anisotropy. Ge lowers the dewetting and agglomeration temperature to as low as 700 0 C.

  19. Super-Penrose process due to collisions inside ergosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslavskii, O. B.

    If two particles collide inside the ergosphere, the energy in the center of mass frame can be made unbound provided at least one of particles has a large negative angular momentum [A. A. Grib and Yu. V. Pavlov, Europhys. Lett. 101 (2013) 20004]. We show that the same condition can give rise to unbounded Killing energy of debris at infinity, i.e. super-Penrose process. Proximity of the point of collision to the black hole horizon is not required.

  20. Eyewitness Identification Reform: Data, Theory, and Due Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Steven E

    2012-05-01

    Some commentators view my analyses (Clark, 2012, this issue) as an important step forward in assessing the costs and benefits of eyewitness identification reform. Others suggest that the trade-off between correct identifications lost and false identifications avoided is well-known; that the expected utility model is misspecified; and that the loss of correct identifications due to the use of reformed eyewitness identification procedures is irrelevant to policy decisions, as those correct identifications are the illegitimate product of suggestion and lucky guesses. Contrary to these criticisms, the loss of correct identifications has not been adequately considered in theoretical or policy matters, criticisms regarding the various utilities do not substantively change the nature of the trade-off, and the dismissal of lost correct identifications is based not on data but on an outdated theory of recognition memory. © The Author(s) 2012.

  1. Process Measurement Deviation Analysis for Flow Rate due to Miscalibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Eunsuk; Kim, Byung Rae; Jeong, Seog Hwan; Choi, Ji Hye; Shin, Yong Chul; Yun, Jae Hee [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co., Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    An analysis was initiated to identify the root cause, and the exemption of high static line pressure correction to differential pressure (DP) transmitters was one of the major deviation factors. Also the miscalibrated DP transmitter range was identified as another major deviation factor. This paper presents considerations to be incorporated in the process flow measurement instrumentation calibration and the analysis results identified that the DP flow transmitter electrical output decreased by 3%. Thereafter, flow rate indication decreased by 1.9% resulting from the high static line pressure correction exemption and measurement range miscalibration. After re-calibration, the flow rate indication increased by 1.9%, which is consistent with the analysis result. This paper presents the brief calibration procedures for Rosemount DP flow transmitter, and analyzes possible three cases of measurement deviation including error and cause. Generally, the DP transmitter is required to be calibrated with precise process input range according to the calibration procedure provided for specific DP transmitter. Especially, in case of the DP transmitter installed in high static line pressure, it is important to correct the high static line pressure effect to avoid the inherent systematic error for Rosemount DP transmitter. Otherwise, failure to notice the correction may lead to indicating deviation from actual value.

  2. 38 CFR 3.103 - Procedural due process and appellate rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedural due process and appellate rights. 3.103 Section 3.103 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Administrative § 3.103 Procedural due process and appellate rights. (a) Statement of policy. Every claimant has...

  3. Kinetic roughening of a soft dewetting line under quenched disorder: A numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyukodi, B.; Bréchet, Y.; Néda, Z.

    2014-11-01

    An elegant simulation method, suitable for investigating the dewetting dynamics of thin and viscous liquid layers, is discussed. The efficiency of the method is exemplified by studying a two-parameter depinninglike model defined on inhomogeneous solid surfaces. The morphology and the statistical properties of the contact line are mapped in the relevant parameter space, and as a result critical behavior in the vicinity of the depinning transition is revealed. The model allows for the tearing of the layer, which leads to a new propagation regime resulting in nontrivial collective behavior. The large deformations observed for the interface are a result of the interplay between the substrate inhomogeneities and the capillary forces.

  4. Mimicking the stenocara beetle--dewetting of drops from a patterned superhydrophobic surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrer, Christian; Rühe, Jürgen

    2008-06-17

    This paper describes the preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces that have been selectively patterned with circular hydrophilic domains. These materials mimicked the back of the stenocara beetle and collected drops of water if exposed to mist or fog. Under the effect of gravity, the drops dewetted from the hydrophilic regions once a critical volume had been reached. The surface energy in the hydrophilic regions was carefully controlled and assumed various values, allowing us to study the behavior of drops as a function of the superhydrophobic/hydrophilic contrast. We have investigated the development of drops and quantitatively analyzed the critical volumes as a function of several parameters.

  5. Constitutional Law: Abortion, Parental Consent, Minors' Right to Due Process, Equal Protection and Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Barbara

    1975-01-01

    In State v. Koome, the Washington Supreme Court has striken that state's statute regarding parental consent for a minor's abortion. Implications of the finding for a minor's right to due process, equal protection, and privacy are discussed. (LBH)

  6. The due-diligence process of purchasing or buying into a dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Vincent L

    2003-01-01

    A due-diligence or evaluation process is necessary when assessing a practice purchase opportunity. The standards for assessing the investment remain the same whether the buyer is purchasing a practice outright or buying a co-ownership interest.

  7. Dewetting of Au Films Studied by Coherent X-ray Diffraction (CXD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G. J.; Pfeifer, M. A.; Robinson, I. K.

    2002-03-01

    Long-term heating of Au thin films evaporated on quartz or silica substrates causes dewetting. Eventually, single crystals of Au are formed with a size and spacing determined by the initial deposit thickness. When a finite perfect crystal is illuminated by a coherent X-ray beam, the diffracted intensity near a Bragg peak is the square modulus of the Fourier Transform of the diffracting crystal. The advantage of the coherent technique in this situation lies in its ability to recover the shape of the resulting crystal, allowing measurement not only of the size and spatial distribution of the dewetted film, but also of the contact angle and the strain within the 3D crystal. The quantity measured in such a CXD experiment is the intensity; the phase of the diffracted beam may be recovered using an iterative algorithm, thereby allowing the reconstruction of crystal shape. We present here the successful inversion of a CXD pattern in three dimensions from a micron-sized Au single crystal prepared in this way.

  8. 78 FR 12998 - Establishment of Due Process Procedures on License-Like Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... Electronic Invoice Program (EIP). See 19 CFR 143.42(b). Section 1414(a)(2) of title 19 of the U.S. Code sets... process in a completely electronic data interchange, filed from a location other than where the goods are...) operational on the Automated Clearinghouse (ACH) (or any other CBP-approved method of electronic payment), for...

  9. Solid-state dewetting of single- and bilayer Au-W thin films: Unraveling the role of individual layer thickness, stacking sequence and oxidation on morphology evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Herz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-assembly of ultrathin Au, W, and Au-W bilayer thin films is investigated using a rapid thermal annealing technique in an inert ambient. The solid-state dewetting of Au films is briefly revisited in order to emphasize the role of initial film thickness. W films deposited onto SiO2 evolve into needle-like nanocrystals rather than forming particle-like agglomerates upon annealing at elevated temperatures. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that such nanocrystals actually consist of tungsten (VI oxide (WO3 which is related to an anisotropic oxide crystal growth out of the thin film. The evolution of W films is highly sensitive to the presence of any residual oxygen. Combination of both the dewetting of Au and the oxide crystal growth of WO3 is realized by using various bilayer film configurations of the immiscible Au and W. At low temperature, Au dewetting is initiated while oxide crystal growth is still suppressed. Depending on the stacking sequence of the Au-W bilayer thin film, W acts either as a substrate or as a passivation layer for the dewetting of Au. Being the ground layer, W changes the wettability of Au which clearly modifies its initial state for the dewetting. Being the top layer, W prevents Au from dewetting regardless of Au film thickness. Moreover, regular pattern formation of Au-WO3 nanoparticles is observed at high temperature demonstrating how bilayer thin film dewetting can create unique nanostructure arrangements.

  10. Dewetting and adsorption in homopolymer films containing triblock copolymers: role of chain architecture and anchoring block molar fraction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Costa, A. C.; Composto, R. J.; Vlček, Petr; Morera, S.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 81, 7-8 (2005), s. 683-698 ISSN 0021-8464 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : adhesion * dewetting * forward recoil spectrometry Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.128, year: 2005

  11. Constituents’ formal participation in the IASB’s due process: New insights into the impact of country and due process document characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Dobler

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper adopts a multi-issue/multi-period approach to provide new insights into key determinants of constituents’ formal participation in the due process of the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB. Based on an analysis of 8,825 comment letters submitted during the period 2006–2012, we find imbalances in the representation of constituents. Multiple regressions reveal that among various economic and cultural variables equity market capitalization and the society’s level of individualism are the key drivers of the country-level of constituents’ participation, and each variable has explanatory power over the other. The level of constituents’ participation is positively associated with the number of input opportunities offered by a due process document but unrelated to the complexity of a standard-setting project. The results are robust across various sub-samples and to additional sensitivity tests. Our findings indicate threats to the input legitimacy of the IASB and suggest avenues to stimulate constituents’ participation.

  12. A Dewetting-Induced Assembly Strategy for Precisely Patterning Organic Single Crystals in OFETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Xiaonan; Xiao, Chengyi; Li, Xinmeng; Su, Bin; Wu, Yuchen; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Zhaohui; Jiang, Lei

    2016-07-27

    Simple methods for patterning single crystals are critical to fully realize their applications in electronics. However, traditional vapor and solution methods are deficient in terms of crystals with random spatial and quality distributions. In this work, we report a dewetting-induced assembly strategy for obtaining large-scale and highly oriented organic crystal arrays. We also demonstrate that organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) fabricated from patterned n-alkyl-substituted tetrachloroperylene diimide (R-4ClPDI) single crystals can reach a maximum mobility of 0.65 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) for C8-4ClPDI in ambient conditions. This technique constitutes a facile method for fabricating OFETs with high performances for large-scale electronics applications.

  13. Formation of controllable polymer micropatterns through liquid film electro-dewetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shangru; Zheng, Huai; Li, Guoliang; Liu, Jie; Liu, Sheng

    2018-04-01

    Controllable polymer micropatterns, served as indispensable function structures, are extensively required in many micro/nano scientific areas and engineering applications. Exploring advanced methods of fabricating micropatterns is always a research hotspot. In this article, we introduce a novel method of patterning polymer by the electro-dewetting induced by corona discharge. For the first time, it is observed experimentally that liquid polymer on conductive/non-conductive patterned substrates, spontaneously converges from non-conductive areas to conductive areas under the action of ion wind. Taking advantage of such a flow phenomenon, controllable polymer micropatterns including microbump arrays and microwell arrays are fabricated successfully. Their sizes range from hundreds of microns to millimeters. Micropattern surfaces present an ultra-smooth characteristic, with roughness in the nanometer range.

  14. Self-destruction and dewetting of thin polymer films the role of interfacial tensions

    CERN Document Server

    Reiter, G; Sharma, A

    2003-01-01

    We present real-time optical microscopy observations of the pattern evolution in self-destruction and subsequent dewetting of thin polymer films based on experiments with polydimethylsiloxane films sandwiched between silicon wafers and aqueous surfactant solutions. A clear scenario consisting of four distinct stages has been identified: amplification of surface fluctuations, break-up of the film and formation of holes, growth and coalescence of holes, and droplet formation and ripening. Besides a linear dependence on film viscosity and surface tension, the time tau for film rupture varied significantly with film thickness h (tau approx h sup 5), as expected from theory. While the role of long-range forces is dominant only in the first stage, the later stages are controlled by the combination of interfacial tensions resulting in the contact angle characterizing the three-phase contact line. During the first stage, the characteristic distance of the pattern remains constant, represented by a time-independent wa...

  15. Modification of Deposition Process Parameters for Uniform Indium Layer Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Isaac

    The need for more efficient light to energy converting cells has long been a subject of research and development. With abundant availability of solar energy that the earth receives, the photovoltaic industry has sought materials that could serve the purpose of great energy conversion. The photovoltaic industry is mainly dominated by Silicon owing to its abundant availability, reliability and economic cost. However, due to limitations on efficiency improvements, some focus has shifted toward III-V based solar cells with a great potential for attaining higher efficiency and multi-junction applications. However, the cost of the III-V materials is extremely high due to the cost of the raw materials, the need for a lattice-matched substrate for single crystal growth, and complex growth processes. Research groups have investigated direct non-epitaxial growth of thin poly-crystalline films using a MOCVD process and VLS growth on cheaper substrates [1,2]. To do so, it is important to develop a planar reaction template for the group III metal, which will prevent de-wetting of the seed layer from the substrate during growth. In this thesis, we study various deposition parameters (substrate, deposition rate, structure...) that improve the de-wetting of an Indium layer as a template for future III-V virtual substrate.

  16. Tenure: An Important Due Process Right or a Hindrance to Change in the Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Julianne; Schroth, Stephen T.; Molinaro, Lisa; Green, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Teacher tenure is a hotly contested concept in today's' school reform battles. Many discussions of tenure, however, use the term in incorrect ways that add little to the concepts that should be debated. Historically, tenure represents due process rights teachers acquire after several years of successful service. Other procedures, such as teacher…

  17. Formal participation in the IASB's due process of standard setting : A multi-issue/multiperiod analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorissen, A.; Lybaert, N.; Orens, R.; van der Tas, L.G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper sets out to enquire about the nature of constituents' participation in the IASB's due process in terms of representation (constituents' diversity and characteristics) and drivers to participate. We choose to adopt a multi-issue/multi-period approach to investigate constituents' formal

  18. Effects of surveillance on the rule of law, due process and the presumption of innocence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galetta, Antonella; de Hert, Paul; Wright, D.; Kreissl, R.

    2015-01-01

    This contribution focuses on the impact of surveillance on the rule of law, due process and the presumption of innocence, key values and principles of a democratic order. It illustrates how they are implemented and enforced in contemporary surveillance societies, while referring to European law and

  19. The Procedural Queer: Substantive Due Process, "Lawrence v. Texas," and Queer Rhetorical Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Peter Odell

    2012-01-01

    This essay discusses Justice Anthony M. Kennedy's choice to foreground arguments from due process rather than equal protection in the majority opinion in Lawrence v. Texas. Kennedy's choice can realize constitutional legal doctrine that is more consistent with radical queer politics than arguments from equal protection. Unlike some recent…

  20. 34 CFR 300.140 - Due process complaints and State complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Due process complaints and State complaints. 300.140 Section 300.140 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE...

  1. Variations of Ship’s Deck Elevation Due to Stochastic Process of Containers Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemyslaw Krata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The stochastic process of container loading is described in the paper with special emphasis to ship motion when she is lying at a quay. The 3 DOF system was applied to describe rolling, pitching and heaving of a vessel which may cause a significant variations of momentary deck elevation. The realistic range of such variations are assessed for a variety of cargo locations on-board and a phase shift between two independent gantries engaged in cargo operations. The process is modeled with regard to random character of crucial variables affecting ship motion due to cargo loading.

  2. A study of growth and thermal dewetting behavior of ultra-thin gold films using transmission electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudheer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The growth and solid-state dewetting behavior of Au thin films (0.7 to 8.4 nm deposited on the formvar film (substrate by sputtering technique have been studied using transmission electron microscopy. The size and number density of the Au nanoparticles (NPs change with an increase in the film thickness (0.7 to 2.8 nm. Nearly spherical Au NPs are obtained for 6 nm show capability to be used as an irreversible temperature sensor with a sensitivity of ∼0.1 CAF/°C. It is observed that annealing affects the crystallinity of the Au grains in the films. The electron diffraction measurement also shows annealing induced morphological evolution in the percolated Au thin films (≥3 nm during solid-state dewetting and recrystallization of the grains.

  3. Insights into the IASB due process: the influence of country characteristics on constituents’ formal participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Eisenschmidt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the impact of country characteristics on constituents’ formal participation in the IASB’s due process. We hypothesize that there is an association between the level of constituents’ partic- ipation and (1 the level of economic development, and (2 the cultural characteristics of the country of origin. We use a number of comment letters (CLs and their length as proxies for constituents’ formal participation in the IASB’s due process. The results indicate that economic development (equity market capitalization is the most important explanatory factor for the different levels of participation. In con- trast, the cultural characteristics measured by Hofstede’s cultural framework can only partially explain that differences. Only individualism is a significant positive influence factor for the level of constituents’ participation. The results of our descriptive analysis for the CLs and the information input provided show that there is still a lack of participation in the IASB’s due process. Despite the huge impact of accounting norms on societies, only a limited number of constituents participate, and some constituent groups, like users or academics, participate less.

  4. Defective motion processing in children with cerebral visual impairment due to periventricular white matter damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Joel M; Gilmore, Rick O; Shaikh, Sumera M; Kunselman, Allen R; Trescher, William V; Tashima, Lauren M; Boltz, Marianne E; McAuliffe, Matthew B; Cheung, Albert; Fesi, Jeremy D

    2012-07-01

    We sought to characterize visual motion processing in children with cerebral visual impairment (CVI) due to periventricular white matter damage caused by either hydrocephalus (eight individuals) or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) associated with prematurity (11 individuals). Using steady-state visually evoked potentials (ssVEP), we measured cortical activity related to motion processing for two distinct types of visual stimuli: 'local' motion patterns thought to activate mainly primary visual cortex (V1), and 'global' or coherent patterns thought to activate higher cortical visual association areas (V3, V5, etc.). We studied three groups of children: (1) 19 children with CVI (mean age 9y 6mo [SD 3y 8mo]; 9 male; 10 female); (2) 40 neurologically and visually normal comparison children (mean age 9y 6mo [SD 3y 1mo]; 18 male; 22 female); and (3) because strabismus and amblyopia are common in children with CVI, a group of 41 children without neurological problems who had visual deficits due to amblyopia and/or strabismus (mean age 7y 8mo [SD 2y 8mo]; 28 male; 13 female). We found that the processing of global as opposed to local motion was preferentially impaired in individuals with CVI, especially for slower target velocities (p=0.028). Motion processing is impaired in children with CVI. ssVEP may provide useful and objective information about the development of higher visual function in children at risk for CVI. © The Authors. Journal compilation © Mac Keith Press 2011.

  5. Stresses and distortions within zirconia-fixed dental prostheses due to the veneering process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmer, Marc Philipp; Borchers, Lothar; Stiesch, Meike; Kohorst, Philipp

    2009-10-01

    Changes in the marginal and internal fit during manufacture are detrimental to the long-term success of fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the distortion of four-unit zirconia bridges induced by the veneering process with in vitro and finite element analyses (FEA). Ten all-ceramic FDPs with zirconia frameworks were prepared. The marginal and internal fit of the restorations were determined prior to and after veneering by means of a replica technique. Additionally, a three-dimensional finite element model of the restoration was constructed and cooling after the veneering process was virtually simulated. Statistical analysis revealed significant changes in the marginal and internal fit due to the veneering process. FEA verified these observations and displayed tensile stresses (up to 65MPa) within the framework and compressive stresses (up to 10MPa) within the veneering layer. The present study showed that stresses and distortions, occurring due to the veneering process, may influence the marginal and internal fit and therefore the clinical success of dental restorations.

  6. Increased radiation dose at mammography due to prolonged exposure, delayed processing, and increased film darkening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimme-Smith, C; Bassett, L W; Gold, R H; Chow, S

    1991-02-01

    Four single-emulsion films introduced over the past 2 years--Du Pont Microvision, Fuji MiMa, Konica CM, and Eastman Kodak OM--were compared with Eastman Kodak OM SO-177 (Min-RE) film to evaluate their varying effects on mean glandular dose of reciprocity law failure due to prolonged exposure, delayed processing, and increased film darkening as a result of increased radiation exposure to improve penetration of glandular tissue. Exposures over 1.3 seconds led to increased radiation doses of 20%-30%. Delays in processing of 6 hours decreased processing speed by 11%-32% for all films except Du Pont Microvision. Optical density increases of 0.40 required 20%-30% more skin exposure for all five films. Optimal viewing densities were also evaluated and found to be different for each of the five films. Mammographers need to be aware of these differences in mammographic films to achieve maximum contrast at mammography.

  7. Increased radiation dose at mammography due to prolonged exposure, delayed processing, and increased film darkening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimme-Smith, C.; Bassett, L.W.; Gold, R.H.; Chow, S. (UCLA Medical Center (USA))

    1991-02-01

    Four single-emulsion films introduced over the past 2 years--Du Pont Microvision, Fuji MiMa, Konica CM, and Eastman Kodak OM--were compared with Eastman Kodak OM SO-177 (Min-RE) film to evaluate their varying effects on mean glandular dose of reciprocity law failure due to prolonged exposure, delayed processing, and increased film darkening as a result of increased radiation exposure to improve penetration of glandular tissue. Exposures over 1.3 seconds led to increased radiation doses of 20%-30%. Delays in processing of 6 hours decreased processing speed by 11%-32% for all films except Du Pont Microvision. Optical density increases of 0.40 required 20%-30% more skin exposure for all five films. Optimal viewing densities were also evaluated and found to be different for each of the five films. Mammographers need to be aware of these differences in mammographic films to achieve maximum contrast at mammography.

  8. Isolated bilateral abducens nerve palsy due to an inflammatory process within the sella and parasellar regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhsheshian, Joshua; Hwang, Michelle S; Strickland, Ben A; Khishfe, Basem

    2016-01-01

    Isolated bilateral abducens nerve palsy raises concern about a serious intracranial condition. Abducens nerve palsy is a common isolated palsy due to its susceptibility to injury along its long course. Non-traumatic isolated abducens nerve palsy is often caused by a mass that indirectly stretches and compresses the nerve. Pathological processes directly causing bilateral isolated involvement of the abducens nerve are rare. We describe a 24-year-old man who presented with isolated bilateral abducens nerve palsy. Radiological imaging and laboratory tests were consistent with an aggressive bacterial infectious process located in the sellar region with parasellar extension. If promptly addressed, sixth cranial nerve palsy appears to be reversible with aggressive medical therapy and endoscopic sinus surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Tube failures due to cooling process problem and foreign materials in power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, J. [Kapar Energy Ventures Sdn Bhd, Jalan Tok Muda, Kapar 42200 (Malaysia); Purbolaksono, J., E-mail: judha@uniten.edu.m [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Km 7 Jalan Kajang-Puchong, Kajang 43009, Selangor (Malaysia); Beng, L.C. [Kapar Energy Ventures Sdn Bhd, Jalan Tok Muda, Kapar 42200 (Malaysia)

    2010-07-15

    Cooling process which uses water for heat transfer is an essential factor in coal-fired and nuclear plants. Loss of cooling upset can force the plants to shut down. In particular, this paper reports visual inspections and metallurgical examinations on the failed SA210-A1 right-hand side (RHS) water wall tube of a coal-fired plant. The water wall tube showed the abnormal outer surface colour and has failed with wide-open ductile rupture and thin edges indicating typical signs of short-term overheating. Metallurgical examinations confirmed the failed tube experiencing higher temperature operation. Water flow starvation due to restriction inside the upstream tube is identified as the main root cause of failure. The findings are important to take failure mitigation actions in the future operation. Discussion on the typical problems related to the cooling process in nuclear power plants is also presented.

  10. Tube failures due to cooling process problem and foreign materials in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, J.; Purbolaksono, J.; Beng, L.C.

    2010-01-01

    Cooling process which uses water for heat transfer is an essential factor in coal-fired and nuclear plants. Loss of cooling upset can force the plants to shut down. In particular, this paper reports visual inspections and metallurgical examinations on the failed SA210-A1 right-hand side (RHS) water wall tube of a coal-fired plant. The water wall tube showed the abnormal outer surface colour and has failed with wide-open ductile rupture and thin edges indicating typical signs of short-term overheating. Metallurgical examinations confirmed the failed tube experiencing higher temperature operation. Water flow starvation due to restriction inside the upstream tube is identified as the main root cause of failure. The findings are important to take failure mitigation actions in the future operation. Discussion on the typical problems related to the cooling process in nuclear power plants is also presented.

  11. Average thermal stress in the Al+SiC composite due to its manufacturing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Carlos A.J.; Libardi, Rosani M.P.; Marcelino, Sergio; Boari, Zoroastro M., E-mail: cmiranda@ipen.br, E-mail: rmpenha@ipen.br, E-mail: sergio.marcelino@gmail.com, E-mail: zoroastr@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    The numerical analyses framework to obtain the average thermal stress in the Al+SiC Composite due to its manufacturing process is presented along with the obtained results. The mixing of Aluminum and SiC powders is done at elevated temperature and the usage is at room temperature. A thermal stress state arises in the composite due to the different thermal expansion coefficients of the materials. Due to the particles size and randomness in the SiC distribution, some sets of models were analyzed and a statistical procedure used to evaluate the average stress state in the composite. In each model the particles position, form and size are randomly generated considering a volumetric ratio (VR) between 20% and 25%, close to an actual composite. The obtained stress field is represented by a certain number of iso stress curves, each one weighted by the area it represents. Systematically it was investigated the influence of: (a) the material behavior: linear x non-linear; (b) the carbide particles form: circular x quadrilateral; (c) the number of iso stress curves considered in each analysis; and (e) the model size (the number of particles). Each of above analyzed condition produced conclusions to guide the next step. Considering a confidence level of 95%, the average thermal stress value in the studied composite (20% ≤ VR ≤ 25%) is 175 MPa with a standard deviation of 10 MPa. Depending on its usage, this value should be taken into account when evaluating the material strength. (author)

  12. Average thermal stress in the Al+SiC composite due to its manufacturing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Carlos A.J.; Libardi, Rosani M.P.; Marcelino, Sergio; Boari, Zoroastro M.

    2013-01-01

    The numerical analyses framework to obtain the average thermal stress in the Al+SiC Composite due to its manufacturing process is presented along with the obtained results. The mixing of Aluminum and SiC powders is done at elevated temperature and the usage is at room temperature. A thermal stress state arises in the composite due to the different thermal expansion coefficients of the materials. Due to the particles size and randomness in the SiC distribution, some sets of models were analyzed and a statistical procedure used to evaluate the average stress state in the composite. In each model the particles position, form and size are randomly generated considering a volumetric ratio (VR) between 20% and 25%, close to an actual composite. The obtained stress field is represented by a certain number of iso stress curves, each one weighted by the area it represents. Systematically it was investigated the influence of: (a) the material behavior: linear x non-linear; (b) the carbide particles form: circular x quadrilateral; (c) the number of iso stress curves considered in each analysis; and (e) the model size (the number of particles). Each of above analyzed condition produced conclusions to guide the next step. Considering a confidence level of 95%, the average thermal stress value in the studied composite (20% ≤ VR ≤ 25%) is 175 MPa with a standard deviation of 10 MPa. Depending on its usage, this value should be taken into account when evaluating the material strength. (author)

  13. Due Diligence Processes for Public Acquisition of Mining-Impacted Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E.; Monohan, C.; Keeble-Toll, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    The acquisition of public land is critical for achieving conservation and habitat goals in rural regions projected to experience continuously high rates of population growth. To ensure that public funds are utilized responsibly in the purchase of conservation easements appropriate due diligence processes must be established that limit landowner liability post-acquisition. Traditional methods of characterizing contamination in regions where legacy mining activities were prevalent may not utilize current scientific knowledge and understanding of contaminant fate, transport and bioavailability, and therefore are likely to have type two error. Agency prescribed assessment methods utilized under CERLA in many cases fail to detect contamination that presents liability issues by failing to require water quality sampling that would reveal offsite transport potential of contaminants posing human health risks, including mercury. Historical analysis can be used to inform judgmental sampling to identify hotspots and contaminants of concern. Land acquisition projects at two historic mine sites in Nevada County, California, the Champion Mine Complex and the Black Swan Preserve have established the necessity of re-thinking due diligence processes for mining-impacted landscapes. These pilot projects demonstrate that pre-acquisition assessment in the Gold Country must include judgmental sampling and evaluation of contaminant transport. Best practices using the current scientific knowledge must be codified by agencies, consultants, and NGOs in order to ensure responsible use of public funds and to safeguard public health.

  14. Designing Diameter-Modulated Heterostructure Nanowires of PbTe/Te by Controlled Dewetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abinash; Kundu, Subhajit; Samantaray, Debadarshini; Kundu, Paromita; Zanaga, Daniele; Bals, Sara; Ravishankar, N

    2017-12-13

    Heterostructures consisting of semiconductors with controlled morphology and interfaces find applications in many fields. A range of axial, radial, and diameter-modulated nanostructures have been synthesized primarily using vapor phase methods. Here, we present a simple wet chemical routine to synthesize heterostructures of PbTe/Te using Te nanowires as templates. A morphology evolution study for the formation of these heterostructures has been performed. On the basis of these control experiments, a pathway for the formation of these nanostructures is proposed. Reduction of a Pb precursor to Pb on Te nanowire templates followed by interdiffusion of Pb/Te leads to the formation of a thin shell of PbTe on the Te wires. Controlled dewetting of the thin shell leads to the formation of cube-shaped PbTe that is periodically arranged on the Te wires. Using control experiments, we show that different reactions parameters like rate of addition of the reducing agent, concentration of Pb precursor and thickness of initial Te nanowire play a critical role in controlling the spacing between the PbTe cubes on the Te wires. Using simple surface energy arguments, we propose a mechanism for the formation of the hybrid. The principles presented are general and can be exploited for the synthesis of other nanoscale heterostructures.

  15. Twin-assisted growth of nominally stable substrates underneath dewetted Au nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fang; Xie, Dong Yue [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Rd., Shanghai 200240 (China); Majdi, Tahereh [Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON L8S 4L7 (Canada); Zhu, Guo-zhen, E-mail: zhugz@sjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Rd., Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-03-15

    By applying a simple and inexpensive thermal treatment, we synthesized supported gold-oxide nanostructures, which have potential applications to plasmonic devices and biosensors. The regrowth of nominally stable substrates under gold nanoparticles is associated with the appearance of preferential orientations of dewetted nanoparticles and the formation of atomically sharp interfacial monolayers. Steps present at the interfacial monolayer usually occur at defects including the intersection points of twin planes at the interface. They were related to the nucleation and immigration of the interfacial monolayers, prompting the substrate regrowth. Accordingly, we proposed the twin-assisted growth mechanism, which provides insight on the synthesis of gold-oxide nanostructures. - Highlights: • The twin-assisted growth mechanism is proposed for the abnormal regrowth of substrate underneath Au nanoparticles. • The substrate regrowth is related to the steps and ledges that are present at the Au–MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} interfacial monolayers. • Interfacial steps are detected at defects such as the intersecting points of twin planes at the interface.

  16. Twin-assisted growth of nominally stable substrates underneath dewetted Au nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Fang; Xie, Dong Yue; Majdi, Tahereh; Zhu, Guo-zhen

    2016-01-01

    By applying a simple and inexpensive thermal treatment, we synthesized supported gold-oxide nanostructures, which have potential applications to plasmonic devices and biosensors. The regrowth of nominally stable substrates under gold nanoparticles is associated with the appearance of preferential orientations of dewetted nanoparticles and the formation of atomically sharp interfacial monolayers. Steps present at the interfacial monolayer usually occur at defects including the intersection points of twin planes at the interface. They were related to the nucleation and immigration of the interfacial monolayers, prompting the substrate regrowth. Accordingly, we proposed the twin-assisted growth mechanism, which provides insight on the synthesis of gold-oxide nanostructures. - Highlights: • The twin-assisted growth mechanism is proposed for the abnormal regrowth of substrate underneath Au nanoparticles. • The substrate regrowth is related to the steps and ledges that are present at the Au–MgAl 2 O 4 interfacial monolayers. • Interfacial steps are detected at defects such as the intersecting points of twin planes at the interface.

  17. Modeling solid-state dewetting of a single-crystal binary alloy thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khenner, Mikhail

    2018-01-01

    Dewetting of a binary alloy thin film is studied using a continuum many-parameter model that accounts for the surface and bulk diffusion, the bulk phase separation, the surface segregation, and the particle formation. An analytical solution is found for the quasistatic equilibrium concentration of a surface-segregated atomic species. This solution is factored into the nonlinear and coupled evolution partial differential equations (PDEs) for the bulk composition and surface morphology. The stability of a planar film surface with respect to small perturbations of shape and composition is analyzed, revealing the dependence of the particle size on major physical parameters. The computations show various scenarios of the particle formation and the redistribution of the alloy components inside the particles and on their surface. In most situations, for the alloy film composed initially of 50% A and 50% B atoms, core-shell particles are formed, and they are located atop a wetting layer that is modestly rich in the B phase. Then the particle shell is the nanometric segregated layer of the A phase, and the core is the alloy that is modestly rich in the A phase.

  18. Mn-doped Ge self-assembled quantum dots via dewetting of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouassa, Mansour; Jadli, Imen; Bandyopadhyay, Anup; Kim, Sung Kyu; Karaman, Ibrahim; Lee, Jeong Yong

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we demonstrate an original elaboration route for producing a Mn-doped Ge self-assembled quantum dots on SiO2 thin layer for MOS structure. These magnetic quantum dots are elaborated using dewetting phenomenon at solid state by Ultra-High Vacuum (UHV) annealing at high temperature of an amorphous Ge:Mn (Mn: 40%) nanolayer deposed at very low temperature by high-precision Solid Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy on SiO2 thin film. The size of quantum dots is controlled with nanometer scale precision by varying the nominal thickness of amorphous film initially deposed. The magnetic properties of the quantum-dots layer have been investigated by superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to examine the nanostructure of these materials. Obtained results indicate that GeMn QDs are crystalline, monodisperse and exhibit a ferromagnetic behavior with a Curie temperature (TC) above room temperature. They could be integrated into spintronic technology.

  19. Mn-doped Ge self-assembled quantum dots via dewetting of thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aouassa, Mansour, E-mail: mansour.aouassa@yahoo.fr [LMON, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Avenue de l’environnement Monastir 5019 (Tunisia); Jadli, Imen [LMON, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Avenue de l’environnement Monastir 5019 (Tunisia); Bandyopadhyay, Anup [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Kim, Sung Kyu [Center for Nanomaterials and Chemical Reactions, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Yuseong-daero 1689-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KAIST 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Karaman, Ibrahim [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Lee, Jeong Yong [Center for Nanomaterials and Chemical Reactions, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Yuseong-daero 1689-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KAIST 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-01

    Highlights: • We report the new fabrication approach for producing a self- assembled Mn dpoed Ge quantum dots (QDs) on SiO{sub 2} thin film with a Curie temperature above room temperature. These magnetic QDs are crystalline, monodisperse and have a well-defined shape and a controlled size. The investigation opens new routes for elaboration of self-assembled magnetic nanocrystals - Abstract: In this study, we demonstrate an original elaboration route for producing a Mn-doped Ge self-assembled quantum dots on SiO{sub 2} thin layer for MOS structure. These magnetic quantum dots are elaborated using dewetting phenomenon at solid state by Ultra-High Vacuum (UHV) annealing at high temperature of an amorphous Ge:Mn (Mn: 40%) nanolayer deposed at very low temperature by high-precision Solid Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy on SiO{sub 2} thin film. The size of quantum dots is controlled with nanometer scale precision by varying the nominal thickness of amorphous film initially deposed. The magnetic properties of the quantum-dots layer have been investigated by superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to examine the nanostructure of these materials. Obtained results indicate that GeMn QDs are crystalline, monodisperse and exhibit a ferromagnetic behavior with a Curie temperature (TC) above room temperature. They could be integrated into spintronic technology.

  20. Nonoptimal component placement, but short processing paths, due to long-distance projections in neural systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Kaiser

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that neural systems across several scales of organization show optimal component placement, in which any spatial rearrangement of the components would lead to an increase of total wiring. Using extensive connectivity datasets for diverse neural networks combined with spatial coordinates for network nodes, we applied an optimization algorithm to the network layouts, in order to search for wire-saving component rearrangements. We found that optimized component rearrangements could substantially reduce total wiring length in all tested neural networks. Specifically, total wiring among 95 primate (Macaque cortical areas could be decreased by 32%, and wiring of neuronal networks in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans could be reduced by 48% on the global level, and by 49% for neurons within frontal ganglia. Wiring length reductions were possible due to the existence of long-distance projections in neural networks. We explored the role of these projections by comparing the original networks with minimally rewired networks of the same size, which possessed only the shortest possible connections. In the minimally rewired networks, the number of processing steps along the shortest paths between components was significantly increased compared to the original networks. Additional benchmark comparisons also indicated that neural networks are more similar to network layouts that minimize the length of processing paths, rather than wiring length. These findings suggest that neural systems are not exclusively optimized for minimal global wiring, but for a variety of factors including the minimization of processing steps.

  1. Temperature resolution enhancing of commercially available THz passive cameras due to computer processing of images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.; Kuchik, Igor E.

    2014-06-01

    As it is well-known, application of the passive THz camera for the security problems is very promising way. It allows seeing concealed object without contact with a person and this camera is non-dangerous for a person. Efficiency of using the passive THz camera depends on its temperature resolution. This characteristic specifies possibilities of the detection of concealed object: minimal size of the object, maximal distance of the detection, image detail. One of probable ways for a quality image enhancing consists in computer processing of image. Using computer processing of the THz image of objects concealed on the human body, one may improve it many times. Consequently, the instrumental resolution of such device may be increased without any additional engineering efforts. We demonstrate new possibilities for seeing the clothes details, which raw images, produced by the THz cameras, do not allow to see. We achieve good quality of the image due to applying various spatial filters with the aim to demonstrate independence of processed images on math operations. This result demonstrates a feasibility of objects seeing. We consider images produced by THz passive cameras manufactured by Microsemi Corp., and ThruVision Corp., and Capital Normal University (Beijing, China).

  2. Anomalous diffusion due to hindering by mobile obstacles undergoing Brownian motion or Orstein-Ulhenbeck processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Hugues; Chaté, Hugues

    2014-02-01

    In vivo measurements of the passive movements of biomolecules or vesicles in cells consistently report "anomalous diffusion," where mean-squared displacements scale as a power law of time with exponent αmotion. By contrast, mobile obstacles with more confined displacements, e.g., Orstein-Ulhenbeck motion, are shown to preserve subdiffusive regimes. The mean-squared displacement of tracked protein displays convincing power laws with anomalous exponent α that varies with the density of Orstein-Ulhenbeck (OU) obstacles or the relaxation time scale of the OU process. In particular, some of the values we observed are significantly below the universal value predicted for immobile obstacles in two dimensions. Therefore, our results show that subdiffusion due to mobile obstacles with OU type of motion may account for the large variation range exhibited by experimental measurements in living cells and may explain that some experimental estimates are below the universal value predicted for immobile obstacles.

  3. South African, Rural ICT Implementation: a critical retrospective application of Latour's due process model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Rhodes

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The potential developmental role of ICTs can pressurise governments to engage in ‘catch up’ and ‘leapfrog’. Consequently, analysis of the accompanying socio-political dimensions and risks can be, disastrously, neglected. This paper examines a specific technology implementation – a South African government sponsored telecentre using Latour’s Due Process model, an analytical tool grounded in Actor-Network Theory, where technology implementation is viewed as a symmetrical treatment of technology and society within a single collective. It is used here, retrospectively, to make sense of why the telecentre both failed to institutionalise within a successful actor-network, and, contributed to the destabilization and partial destruction of a successfully established women’s development organisation.

  4. 5 CFR 581.306 - Lack of moneys due from, or payable by, a governmental entity served with legal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lack of moneys due from, or payable by, a governmental entity served with legal process. 581.306 Section 581.306 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF... ALIMONY Compliance With Process § 581.306 Lack of moneys due from, or payable by, a governmental entity...

  5. SILTATION AND EROSION PROCESSES ON A TRIBUTARY OF LAKE ITAIPU DUE A DAM RESERVOIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Poleto

    2012-12-01

    creating an imbalance between the small amount of sediment transported after the hydroelectric and flow transport capacity. There are two cases occurring in a dam: 1 the dam upstream has a reduction of velocity and it start a process of sedimentation that will accelerate its siltation and reducing its useful life, 2 dam downstream has water velocity again and then initiate erosion process due the lack of sediments in the liquid mass. It can be concluded that changes of use and occupation of land in the watershed generate increased occurrence of peak flow and sediment transport, but the inadequate management of the area (with removal of riparian vegetation and lack of energy sinks in outputs of drainage systems potentiates the increasing the instability of water bodies morphology. In case of presence of reservoirs, the alterations are worst because they create siltation and erosion process at the same river.

  6. Impact of pH on hydrogen oxidizing redox processes in aquifers due to gas intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzgen, Adrian; Berta, Marton; Dethlefsen, Frank; Ebert, Markus; Dahmke, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Hydrogen production from excess energy and its storage can help increasing the efficiency of solar and wind in the energy mix. Therefore, hydrogen needs large-scale intermediate storage independent of the intended later use as hydrogen gas or as reactant to produce methane in the Sabatier process. A possible storage solution is using the geological subsurface such as caverns built in salt deposits or aquifers that are not used for drinking water production. However, underground storage of hydrogen gas potentially leads to accidental gas leakages into near-surface potable aquifers triggering subsequent geochemical processes. These leakages pose potential risks that are currently not sufficiently understood. To close this gap in knowledge, a high-pressure laboratory column system was used to simulate a hydrogen gas intrusion into a shallow aquifer. Water and sediment were gained from a sandy Pleistocene aquifer near Neumünster, Germany. In the first stage of the experiment, 100% hydrogen gas was used to simulate dissolved hydrogen concentrations between 800 and 4000 µM by varying pH2 between 2 and 15 bars. pH values rose to between 7.9 and 10.4, partly due to stripping CO2 from the groundwater used during H2 gas addition. In a second stage, the pH was regulated in a range of 6.7 to 7.9 by using a gas mixture of 99% H2 and 1% CO2 at 5 bars of total gas pressure. Observed processes included hydrogen oxidation, sulfate reduction, acetogenesis, formate production, and methanogenesis, which were independent of the hydrogen concentration. Hydrogen oxidation and sulfate reduction showed zeroth order reaction rates and rate constants (106 to 412 µM/h and 12 to 33 µM/h, respectively) in the pH range between 8 and 10. At pH levels between 7 and 8, both reactions started out faster near the column's inflow but then seemed limited towards the columns outflow, suggesting the dependence of sulfate reduction on the pH-value. Acetogenesis dominated the pH range between 8 and 10

  7. Multi-Objective Flexible Flow Shop Scheduling Problem Considering Variable Processing Time due to Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuli Wu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is an alternative to non-renewable energy to reduce the carbon footprint of manufacturing systems. Finding out how to make an alternative energy-efficient scheduling solution when renewable and non-renewable energy drives production is of great importance. In this paper, a multi-objective flexible flow shop scheduling problem that considers variable processing time due to renewable energy (MFFSP-VPTRE is studied. First, the optimization model of the MFFSP-VPTRE is formulated considering the periodicity of renewable energy and the limitations of energy storage capacity. Then, a hybrid non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm with variable local search (HNSGA-II is proposed to solve the MFFSP-VPTRE. An operation and machine-based encoding method is employed. A low-carbon scheduling algorithm is presented. Besides the crossover and mutation, a variable local search is used to improve the offspring’s Pareto set. The offspring and the parents are combined and those that dominate more are selected to continue evolving. Finally, two groups of experiments are carried out. The results show that the low-carbon scheduling algorithm can effectively reduce the carbon footprint under the premise of makespan optimization and the HNSGA-II outperforms the traditional NSGA-II and can solve the MFFSP-VPTRE effectively and efficiently.

  8. On the Internal Structure of Mobile Barchan Sand Dunes due to Granular Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriend, N. M.; Arran, M.; Louge, M. Y.; Hay, A. G.; Valance, A.

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we visualize the internal structure of mobile barchan desert dunes at the avalanche scale. We reveal an intriguing history of dune building using a novel combination of local sand sampling and advanced geophysical techniques resulting in high resolution measurements of individual avalanche events. Due to progressive rebuilding, granular avalanching, erosional and depositional processes, these marching barchan dunes are reworked every few years and a characteristic zebra-pattern (figure 1a), orientated parallel to the slipface at the angle of repose, appears at regular intervals. We present scientific data on the structure obtained from several mobile barchan dunes of different sizes during recent desert field campaigns (2014, 2015, 2017) in a mobile barchan dune field in Qatar (25.01°N, 51.34°E in the AlWakrah municipality). The site has been equipped with a weather station and has been regularly visited by a multidisciplinary research team in recent years (e.g. [1]). By applying high-frequency (1200 MHz) ground penetrating radar (GPR) transects across the midline (figure 1b) we map the continuous evolution of this cross-bedding at high resolution deep within the dune. The GPR reveals a slope reduction of the slipface near the base of the dune; evidence of irregular wind reversals; and the presence of a harder aeolian cap around the crest and extending to the brink. The data is supplemented with granulometry from layers stabilized by dyed water injection and uncovered by excavating vertical walls perpendicular to old buried avalanches. We attribute visible differences in water penetration between adjacent layers to fine particle segregation processes in granular avalanches. This work was made possible by the support of NPRP grant 6-059-2-023 from the Qatar National Research Fund to MYL and AGH, and a Royal Society Dorothy Hodgkin Research Fellowship to NMV. We thank Jean-Luc Métayer for performing detailed particle size distribution measurements

  9. Dispersion-Aggregation and Wetting-Dewetting Phase Transitions in Mixtures of Polymer Grafted Nanoparticles and a Chemically Dissimilar Polymer Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Tyler; Mongcopa, Katrina; Ashkar, Rana; Butler, Paul; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan; Jayaraman, Arthi

    Significant efforts have been focused towards controlling morphology of the nanoscale fillers and matrix polymer in polymer nanocomposites as the composite morphology is directly related to the macroscopic properties of that material. For nanocomposites with chemically identical graft and matrix polymers, it is well understood that the polymer grafted particle dispersion to aggregation transition is directly linked to and synonymous with wetting/dewetting of the graft and matrix polymer. Our recent work has focused on exploring composites with chemically different graft and matrix polymers, specifically those with attractive graft-matrix interactions that lead to a dispersed filler state at low temperature and aggregated filler state at high temperatures. We show, using coarse-grained molecular simulations, that the sharp phase transition from dispersed to aggregated states is distinct from the continuous wetting-dewetting transition. The onset of wetting to dewetting occurs at temperatures lower than the dispersion to aggregation transition, and dewetting continues at temperatures above the transition temperature in the aggregated state. Furthermore, the graft and matrix chain composition can be varied to tune the dispersion-aggregation transition temperature and the degree of wetting of the grafted layer. Experiments using SANS and SAXS of deuterated poly(styrene) grafted silica particles in a poly(vinyl methyl ether) matrix show remarkable agreement with our simulations.

  10. Heterogeneity of glucagonomas due to differential processing of proglucagon-derived peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Challis, Benjamin G; Albrechtsen, Nicolai J Wewer; Bansiya, Vishakha

    2015-01-01

    activities including critical roles in glucose and amino acid metabolism, energy homeostasis and gastrointestinal physiology.The clinical manifestations of proglucagon-expressing tumours may exhibit marked phenotypic variation due to the biochemical heterogeneity of their secreted peptide repertoire...... the rash. Case 2, a 48-year-old male presented with diabetes mellitus, diarrhoea, weight loss, nausea, vomiting and perineal rash due to a grade 1 metastatic pNET and hyperglucagonaemia. In both cases, plasma levels of all measured PGDPs were elevated and attenuated following SSA therapy. In case 1...

  11. Left Lateralized Enhancement of Orofacial Somatosensory Processing Due to Speech Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takayuki; Johns, Alexis R.; Ostry, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Somatosensory information associated with speech articulatory movements affects the perception of speech sounds and vice versa, suggesting an intimate linkage between speech production and perception systems. However, it is unclear which cortical processes are involved in the interaction between speech sounds and orofacial somatosensory…

  12. Shape distortions in fabric reinforced composite products due to processing induced fibre reorientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, E.A.D.

    2004-01-01

    Woven fabric reinforced composite materials are typically applied in plate or shell structures, such as ribs, stiffeners and skins. Products of these types can be produced with several production processes. A few examples are diaphragm forming, matched metal die forming and rubber press forming.

  13. Estimation of a Moving Heat Source due to a Micromilling Process Using the Modified TFBGF Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Ribeiro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Moving heat sources are present in numerous engineering problems as welding and machining processes, heat treatment, or biological heating. In all these cases, the heat input identification represents an important factor in the optimization of the process. The aim of this study is to investigate the heat flux delivered to a workpiece during a micromilling process. The temperature measurements were obtained using a thermocouple at an accessible region of the workpiece surface while micromilling a small channel. The analytical solution is calculated from a 3D transient heat conduction model with a moving heat source, called direct problem. The estimation of the moving heat source uses the Transfer Function Based on Green’s Function Method. This method is based on Green’s function and the equivalence between thermal and dynamic systems. The technique is simple without iterative processes and extremely fast. From the temperature on accessible regions it is possible to estimate the heat flux by an inverse procedure of the Fast Fourier Transform. A test of micromilling of 6365 aluminium alloy was made and the heat delivered to the workpiece was estimated. The estimation of the heat without use of optimization technique is the great advantage of the technique proposed.

  14. Clarifying Cutting and Sewing Processes with Due Windows Using an Effective Ant Colony Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Hwa Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The cutting and sewing process is a traditional flow shop scheduling problem in the real world. This two-stage flexible flow shop is often commonly associated with manufacturing in the fashion and textiles industry. Many investigations have demonstrated that the ant colony optimization (ACO algorithm is effective and efficient for solving scheduling problems. This work applies a novel effective ant colony optimization (EACO algorithm to solve two-stage flexible flow shop scheduling problems and thereby minimize earliness, tardiness, and makespan. Computational results reveal that for both small and large problems, EACO is more effective and robust than both the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm and the ACO algorithm. Importantly, this work demonstrates that EACO can solve complex scheduling problems in an acceptable period of time.

  15. Radiation damage formation in fusion structural materials due to elastic and inelastic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryazanov, A. I.; Semenov, E. V.

    2011-10-01

    A new theoretical model based on Boltzmann transport equation for moving displaced atoms is developed for the investigations of main important characteristics of radiation damage production in fusion structural materials. The main characteristics sub-cascades are determined here including the distribution of sub-cascades per PKA, average number of point defects per sub-cascade combining suggested model and NRT approach, sub-cascade's cross-sections and generation rates for both elastic and inelastic processes. On the basis of this developed model the numerical calculations for the main important characteristics of radiation damage production, cascade and sub-cascade formations in different fusion structural materials such as Fe, V, C, Al, Be and W are performed using the neutron energy spectra for fusion reactors: ITER and DEMO. For the comparison of difference in radiation damage production in fusion and fission reactors the additional numerical calculations have been made for neutron energy spectrum in fast atomic reactor HFIR.

  16. Physical quality characteristics of the microwave-dried breadfruit powders due to different processing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taruna, I.; Hakim, A. L.; Sutarsi

    2018-03-01

    Production of breadfruit powder has been an option to make easy its uses in various food processing. Accordingly, there is a need recently to apply advanced drying method, i.e. microwave drying, for improving quality since conventional methods produced highly variable product quality and required longer process. The present work was aimed to study the effect of microwave power and grinding time on physical quality of breadfruit powders. The experiment was done initially by drying breadfruit slices in a microwave dryer at power level of 420, 540, and 720 W and then grinding for 3, 5, and 7 min to get powdery product of less than 80 mesh. The physical quality of breadfruit powders were measured in terms of fineness modulus (FM), average particle size (D), whiteness (WI), total color difference (ΔE), water absorption (Wa), oil absorption (La), bulk density (ρb) and consistency gel (Gc). The results showed that physical quality of powders and its ranged-values included the FM (2.08-2.62), D (0.44-0.68 mm), WI (75.2-77.9), ΔE (7.4-10.5), Wa (5.5-6.2 ml/g), La (0.7-0.9 ml/g), ρb (0.62-0.70 g/cm3) and Gc (41.3-46.8 mm). The experiment revealed that variation of microwave power and grinding time affected significantly the quality of the breadfruit powders. However, microwave power was more dominant factor to affect quality of breadfruit powder in comparison to the grinding time.

  17. Identifying the Associated Factors of Mediation and Due Process in Families of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Meghan M.; Goldman, Samantha E.

    2015-01-01

    Compared to families of students with other types of disabilities, families of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are significantly more likely to enact their procedural safeguards such as mediation and due process. However, we do not know which school, child, and parent characteristics are associated with the enactment of safeguards.…

  18. Enhancing Title Ix Due Process Standards in Campus Sexual Assault Adjudication: Considering the Roles of Distributive, Procedural, and Restorative Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Shannon; Maskaly, Jon; Kirkner, Anne; Lorenz, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Title IX prohibits sex discrimination--including sexual assault--in higher education. The Department of Education Office for Civil Rights' 2011 "Dear Colleague Letter" outlines recommendations for campus sexual assault adjudication allowing a variety of procedures that fail to protect accused students' due process rights and victims'…

  19. Modeling deformation processes of salt caverns for gas storage due to fluctuating operation pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, N.; Nagel, T.; Goerke, U.; Khaledi, K.; Lins, Y.; König, D.; Schanz, T.; Köhn, D.; Attia, S.; Rabbel, W.; Bauer, S.; Kolditz, O.

    2013-12-01

    In the course of the Energy Transition in Germany, the focus of the country's energy sources is shifting from fossil to renewable and sustainable energy carriers. Since renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar power, are subjected to annual, seasonal, and diurnal fluctuations, the development and extension of energy storage capacities is a priority in German R&D programs. Common methods of energy storage are the utilization of subsurface caverns as a reservoir for natural or artificial fuel gases, such as hydrogen, methane, or the storage of compressed air. The construction of caverns in salt rock is inexpensive in comparison to solid rock formations due to the possibility of solution mining. Another advantage of evaporite as a host material is the self-healing capacity of salt rock. Gas caverns are capable of short-term energy storage (hours to days), so the operating pressures inside the caverns are fluctuating periodically with a high number of cycles. This work investigates the influence of fluctuating operation pressures on the stability of the host rock of gas storage caverns utilizing numerical models. Therefore, we developed a coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical (THM) model based on the finite element method utilizing the open-source software platform OpenGeoSys. Our simulations include the thermodynamic behaviour of the gas during the loading/ unloading of the cavern. This provides information on the transient pressure and temperature distribution on the cavern boundary to calculate the deformation of its geometry. Non-linear material models are used for the mechanical analysis, which describe the creep and self-healing behavior of the salt rock under fluctuating loading pressures. In order to identify the necessary material parameters, we perform experimental studies on the mechanical behaviour of salt rock under varying pressure and temperature conditions. Based on the numerical results, we further derive concepts for monitoring THM quantities in the

  20. Chemical and biological modulations of food due to the frying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Elmadfa, Ibrahim

    2012-06-01

    The interactions between frying fat and fried foods are of great relevance for the nutritional quality of the final product. In particular, the amount of fat taken up can be positively influenced at the industrial but also at the household level by different pre- and post-frying conditions. The fat uptake during the frying process can also lead to a complete different fatty acid pattern of the product. The change is always towards the predominant fatty acids in the frying fat, which can be beneficial when replacing saturated fatty acids with monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids, but can also be of disadvantage in the case of fish, when the initial content of n-3 fatty acids is significantly reduced. This has also to be considered for nutritional calculation so as not to misrepresent the nutrient composition of the fried product. There have been positive developments in producing frying fats which are low in trans-fatty acids, and fried products low in heat-induced compounds which can address toxicological concerns such as acrylamide formation.

  1. Simulation of the charging process of the LISA test masses due to solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vocca, H; Grimani, C; Amico, P; Bosi, L; Marchesoni, F; Punturo, M; Travasso, F; Barone, M; Stanga, R; Vetrano, F; Vicere, A

    2004-01-01

    Cosmic-ray and solar high energy particles penetrate the LISA experiment test masses. Consequently, an electric charge accumulates in the bodies of the masses, generating spurious Coulomb forces between the masses and the surrounding electrodes. This process increases the noise level of the experiment. We have estimated the amount of charge deposited per second on the LISA test masses by solar flares and primary cosmic-ray protons at solar minimum. The simulation has been carried out with the Fluka Monte Carlo program. A simplified geometry for the experiment has been considered. We have found a net charging rate of 37 ± 1 e + /s for primary protons at solar minimum between 0.1 and 1000 GeV/n. The amount of charge released by a medium-strong solar flare, like that of 16 February 1984, is 10 732 ± 30 e + /s in the energy range 0.1-10 GeV/n. This value increases or decreases by approximately one order of magnitude for strong (weak) solar flares

  2. Effects of Process Parameters on the Characteristics of Mixed-Halide Perovskite Solar Cells Fabricated by One-Step and Two-Step Sequential Coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian-Yazdi, Mohammad Reza; Zabihi, Fatemeh; Habibi, Mehran; Eslamian, Morteza

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, two-step sequential spin-dip and spin-spin coating, as well as one-step spin coating, methods are used to fabricate methylammonium lead mixed-halide perovskites to study the effect of process parameters, including the choice of the solvent, annealing temperature, spin velocity, and dipping time on the characteristics of the perovskite film. Our results show that using a mixture of DMF and DMSO, with volume ratio of 1:1, as the organic solvents for PbCl2 results in the best mixed-halide perovskite because of the effective coordination between DMSO and PbCl2. Surface dewetting due to two effects, i.e., crystallization and thin liquid film instability, is observed and discussed, where an intermediate spin velocity of about 4000 rpm is found suitable to suppress dewetting. The perovskite film fabricated using the one-step method followed by anti-solvent treatment shows the best perovskite conversion in XRD patterns, and the planar device fabricated using the same method exhibited the highest efficiency among the employed methods. The perovskite layer made by sequential spin-dip coating is found thicker with higher absorbance, but the device shows a lower efficiency because of the challenges associated with perovskite conversion in the sequential method. The one-step deposition method is found easier to control and more promising than the sequential deposition methods.

  3. In situ observation of electron-beam-induced dewetting of CdSe thin film embedded in SiO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabrim, Zacarias Eduardo; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob; Fichtner, Paulo F. P.

    .33 A.cm2 and 1.0 A.cm2 and at 80 kV with 0.37 A.cm2. The dewetting of the CdSe film is inferred by a number of micrographs taken during the irradiation. The microstructural changes were analyzed under the assumption of being induced by ballistic collision effects in the absence of sample heating....

  4. Influence of the surface quality due to a hole derived in initial material processing of cold sheets with drawing

    OpenAIRE

    Cvetkov, Slavco; Kocov, Atanas

    2010-01-01

    A research was performed about the influence of the surface quality due to a hole derived in initial material processing of cold-rolled steel sheets with drawing. This influence was researched through the surface quality obtained bu the type of preparation of the hole surface without prejudice to the precise measurement of the achieved quality (asperity). the aim is to indicate how the type of manufacturing the holes can improve the workability of cold-rolled sheets and help solve technical p...

  5. Constituents' formal participation in the due process of international accounting standard setting: A longitudinal analysis of stakeholder and geographical diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Jorissen, Ann; Lybaert, Nadine; Orens, Raf; Van der Tas, Leo

    2011-01-01

    Since IOSCO’s decision (May, 2000) to accept IASs for cross-border listing and since governments started to hand over accounting standard setting authority to the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) (EU Regulation EC N° 1606/2002, Australia FRC July 2002), the IASB is well under way to become the global accounting standard setter. For the IASB, being a private organization, widespread constituents’ participation in its due process of standard setting is a key element to reinforce...

  6. Mortality due to tumours of the digestive system in towns lying in the vicinity of metal production and processing installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Javier; López-Cima, María Felicitas; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Aragonés, Nuria; Pollán, Marina; Vidal, Enrique; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2010-07-15

    Releases to the environment of pollutants from industrial metal production and processing installations can pose a health problem to humans, owing to the toxic substances that such emissions contain. To investigate whether there might be excess mortality due to tumours of the digestive system among the population residing near Spanish metal production and processing installations included in the European Pollutant Emission Register. Ecological study designed to examine mortality due to malignant tumours of the digestive system (oral cavity and pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, pancreas, liver, gallbladder, and colon-rectum) at the municipal level, over the period 1994-2003. Population exposure to pollution was estimated on the basis of distance from town of residence to the pollution source. Using mixed Poisson regression models, we analysed: risk of dying from cancer in a 5-kilometre zone around installations by year of commencement of operations; effect of pollution discharge route (air or water) and type of industrial activity; and risk gradient within a 50-kilometre radius of such installations. Excess mortality (relative risk, 95% confidence interval) was detected in the vicinity of pre-1990 installations for colorectal cancer (1.05, 1.02-1.08 in men; 1.04, 1.00-1.07 in women) and liver cancer (1.06, 1.00-1.12 in men), with this risk being concentrated in installations that released pollution to air. On stratifying by type of industrial activity, statistically significant associations were also observed between the remaining tumours and certain metal production and processing activities. There was also a gradient effect in the proximity to a number of installations. The results support the existence of an association between risk of dying due to some tumours of the digestive system and residential proximity to the Spanish metal production and processing installations studied. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Silicon nanowires with controlled sidewall profile and roughness fabricated by thin-film dewetting and metal-assisted chemical etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeredo, B. P.; Sadhu, J.; Ma, J.; Jacobs, K.; Kim, J.; Lee, K.; Eraker, J. H.; Li, X.; Sinha, S.; Fang, N.; Ferreira, P.; Hsu, K.

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a non-lithographic approach to generate wafer-scale single crystal silicon nanowires (SiNWs) with controlled sidewall profile and surface morphology. The approach begins with silver (Ag) thin-film thermal dewetting, gold (Au) deposition and lift-off to generate a large-scale Au mesh on Si substrates. This is followed by metal-assisted chemical etching (MacEtch), where the Au mesh serves as a catalyst to produce arrays of smooth Si nanowires with tunable taper up to 13°. The mean diameter of the thus fabricated SiNWs can be controlled to range from 62 to 300 nm with standard deviations as small as 13.6 nm, and the areal coverage of the wire arrays can be up to 46%. Control of the mean wire diameter is achieved by controlling the pore diameter of the metallic mesh which is, in turn, controlled by adjusting the initial thin-film thickness and deposition rate. To control the wire surface morphology, a post-fabrication roughening step is added to the approach. This step uses Au nanoparticles and slow-rate MacEtch to produce rms surface roughness up to 3.6 nm.

  8. Modeling of asphaltene precipitation due to steam and n-alkane co-injection in the ES-SAGD process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badamchizadeh, A.; Kohse, Bruce F.; Kumar, A. [Computer Modelling Group Ltd (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper provides an insight into the SAGD process in general, and the formation of asphaltene participates in the hybrid ES-SAGD process in particular. The objective of this work was to build an EoS model able to calculate the physical and chemical properties of the bitumen and n-alkane mixture, develop a model to quantify asphaltene participates in bitumen due to n-alkane injection, and investigate their effect on the ES-SAGD process. Athabasca bitumen properties identified under various test conditions and from the results of previous efforts, mainly the SimDist experimental data, were illustrated. These data were used to develop the EoS model, which in turn was used to generate the STARS thermal simulator. Overall, the EoS model was successfully developed and hence was able to predict bitumen and n-heptane properties. Moreover, asphaltene deposition in the ES-SAGD process was modeled in the thermal simulator its effect in causing oil blockage and restrictions in the steam chamber over a long run of the process was demonstrated.

  9. Analysis of the Processes in Spent Fuel Pools in Case of Loss of Heat Removal due to Water Leakage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algirdas Kaliatka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The safe storage of spent fuel assemblies in the spent fuel pools is very important. These facilities are not covered by leaktight containment; thus, the consequences of overheating and melting of fuel in the spent fuel pools can be very severe. On the other hand, due to low decay heat of fuel assemblies, the processes in pools are slow in comparison with processes in reactor core during LOCA accident. Thus, the accident management measures play a very important role in case of some accidents in spent fuel pools. This paper presents the analysis of possible consequences of fuel overheating due to leakage of water from spent fuel pool. Also, the accident mitigation measure, the late injection of water was evaluated. The analysis was performed for the Ignalina NPP Unit 2 spent fuel pool, using system thermal hydraulic code for severe accident analysis ATHLET-CD. The phenomena, taking place during such accident, are discussed. Also, benchmarking of results of the same accident calculation using ASTEC and RELAP/SCDAPSIM codes is presented here.

  10. Influences of poly[(styrene)x-stat-(chloromethylstyrene)y]s additives on dewetting behaviors of polystyrene thin films: effects of polar group ratio and film thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangjan, Suntree; Traiphol, Nisanart; Traiphol, Rakchart

    2012-01-01

    This contribution investigates the addition of poly(styrene-stat-chloromethylstyrene (ClMS))s as dewetting inhibitors of polystyrene (PS) thin films with thicknesses ranging from 12 to 38 nm. The ClMS ratios in the copolymers are 5, 25 and 45 mol%. Atomic force microscopy and optical microscopy are utilized to follow morphological changes of blended PS/copolymer films upon annealing above their glass transition temperatures. We have found that thermal stability of the PS films is greatly improved when a small amount of the copolymers is added into the system. The polar ClMS groups provide anchoring sites with the polar SiO x /Si substrate while the styrene segments favorably interact with the PS matrix. The effectiveness of the copolymers as dewetting inhibitors is also found to increase with mole ratio of ClMS group. While the stability of PS films is systematically improved upon addition of the highly substituted copolymers, using the copolymer with relatively low ratio of ClMS group could lead to the opposite result. This class of copolymers can be utilized for improving thermal stability of ultrathin PS films. The fundamental knowledge from this study is also important for designing or selecting structure of additives used to improve the stability of polymeric thin films. - Highlights: ► Efficient method for improving stability of polystyrene (PS) thin films. ► Poly(styrene-stat-chloromethylstyrene)s are used as dewetting inhibitors. ► Thermal stability of blended PS/copolymers greatly improved. ► Effectiveness of the copolymers increases with mole ratio of chloromethylstyrene group. ► Important results for designing materials in coating application.

  11. Study of test-mass charging process in the LISA missions due to diffuse γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finetti, N; Scrimaglio, R; Grimani, C; Fabi, M

    2009-01-01

    Gravitational inertial sensors will be placed on board the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) and aboard its precursor mission LISA Pathfinder (LISA-PF) in order to detect low frequency gravitational waves in space. Free-floating test-masses (Au 7 Pt 3 cubes) will be housed in inertial sensors for detecting possible laser signal variations induced by gravitational waves. Charging of the LISA test-masses due to exposure of the spacecraft to cosmic radiation and energetic solar particles will affect operation of gravitational inertial sensors. In this paper we report on the role of diffuse γ-rays in charging the LISA and LISA-PF test-masses with respect to protons and helium nuclei. The diffuse γ-ray flux in the Galaxy has been interpolated taking into account the outcomes of recent calculations. A comparison with γ-ray observations gathered by different experiments (COMPTEL and EGRET, Milagro, Whipple, HEGRA, TIBET) has been carried out. Simulations of the test-mass charging process have been performed by means of the FLUKA2006.3b package. Monte Carlo simulations of the interaction of cosmic particles with the LISA spacecraft indicate that the diffuse γ-ray contribution to the average steady-state test-mass charging rate and to the single-sided power spectrum of the charge rate noise is marginal with respect to that due to galactic cosmic-rays.

  12. Process-oriented dose assessment model for 14C due to releases during normal operation of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquilonius, Karin; Hallberg, Bengt

    2005-01-01

    Swedish nuclear utility companies are required to assess doses due to releases of radionuclides during normal operation. In 2001, calculation methods used earlier were updated due to new authority regulations. The isotope 14 C is of special interest in dose assessments due to the role of carbon in the metabolism of all life forms. Earlier, factors expressing the ratio between concentration of 14 C in air and in various plants were used. In order to extend the possibility to take local conditions into account, a process-oriented assessment model for uptake of carbon and doses from releases of 14 C to air was developed (POM 14 C). The model uses part of Daisy which has been developed to model the turnover of carbon in crops. [Hansen, S., Jensen, H.E., Nielsen, N.E., Svendsen, H., 1993. Description of the Soil Plant System Model DAISY, Basic Principles and Modelling Approach. Simulation Model for Transformation and Transport of Energy and Matter in the Soil Plant Atmosphere System. Jordbruksfoerlaget, The Royal Veterianary and Agricultural University, Copenhagen, Denmark]. The main objectives were to test model performance of the former method, and to investigate if taking site specific parameters into account to a greater degree would lead to major differences in the results. Several exposure pathways were considered: direct consumption of locally grown cereals, vegetables, and root vegetables, as well as consumption of milk and meat from cows having eaten fodder cereals and green fodder from the area around the nuclear plant. The total dose of the earlier model was compared with that of POM 14 C. The result of the former was shown to be slightly higher than the latter, but POM 14 C confirmed that the earlier results were of a reasonable magnitude. When full account of local conditions was taken, e.g. as regards solar radiation, temperature, and concentration of 14 C in air at various places in the surroundings of each nuclear plant, a difference in dose between

  13. Changes in the structure of doped poly aniline (Pani-HCL) due to the process of de-doped

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Everton Carlos; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora Silva de

    2009-01-01

    The poly aniline (PAni) is much studied, partly due to its relatively ease chemical or electrochemical synthesis, thermal stability in air and redox behavior. The chemical synthesis of poly aniline (PAni) was performed in a medium containing hydrochloric acid (HCl) as a doping agent. After that, the obtained polymer was de-doped in alkaline medium (NH4OH). Thermogravimetric analysis (TG) showed that the doped polymer, PAni-HCl, shows better thermal stability in comparison with the de-doped polymer (PAni-NH4OH). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses show that the number of processes occurring during the heating of the polymer, as well as the complexity of them, is much higher in the PAni-HCl than the in the PAni-NH4OH. Through the spectra of FTIR and Raman could conclude that dedoping PAni-HCl was not complete, but the degree of doping of PAni-NH4OH decreased by treatment with ammonium hydroxide. XRD analysis pointed out that as the PAni-HCl as the PAni-NH4OH are partially crystalline. (author)

  14. Changes to processes in estuaries and coastal waters due to intense multiple pressures - An introduction and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Steven B.; Jennerjahn, Tim C.; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Zhang, Weiguo

    2015-04-01

    From the 2013 ECSA conference 'Estuaries and Coastal Areas in Times of Intense Change' a theme emerged that has ended up being the focus of this Special Issue of Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, namely 'Changes to processes in estuaries and coastal waters due to intense multiple pressures'. Many parts of the world are continuing to experience unprecedented rates of economic growth, and those responsible for managing coastal and estuarine areas must respond accordingly. At the same time, global climate change and sea level rise are also continuing, placing new or more intense pressures on coastal areas that must be dealt with in ways that are as far as possible managed as a result of good scientific understanding. There are other pressures too, which depend on the system concerned. This article provides an overview of the papers contained within the Special Issue and provides a discussion of how these fit within the main theme of intense multiple stressors, considering how a balance can be achieved between the needs of various different stakeholders and interest groups, and the sustainability of the system concerned. We categorise the papers in four main groupings: (1) stressors related to sea level rise; (2) stressors related to changes in fresh water inputs; (3) stressors related to anthropogenic pollution; and (4) the use of indicators as a means of assessing the effects of stressors, and reflect on the fact that despite the diversity of different challenges and geographical regions involved many of the approaches and discussions contained within the Special Issue have strong similarities, leading to a set of overarching principles that should be considered when making recommendations on management strategies.

  15. Are the different gully morphologies due to different formation processes on the Kaiser dune field on Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquon, K.; Gargani, J.; Nachon, M.; Conway, S. J.; Massé, M.; Jouannic, G.; Balme, M. R.; Costard, F.; Vincendon, M.

    2017-12-01

    Diverse gully morphologies are seen on Mars and differences are often neglected for simplification. Here we describe in detail the morphology and present-day activity of two gully-systems on the Kaiser dune field in the southern hemisphere of Mars. We then compare their activity with that of the morphologically distinct linear dune gullies present on the same dunes. The studied gully-systems have large depositional aprons (named "large apron gullies") and occur on dune faces oriented westward. They are active from mid-autumn to late winter (i.e. from Ls 50° to Ls 180°) coinciding with CO2 ice condensation/sublimation cycles. Sandy material collapses from the alcove flanks onto the alcove floor sporadically throughout this period. This accumulated sand is remobilized by punctuated mass flows which we estimate to be up to 7100 m3 in volume. These flows run out on to the apron and occur between Ls 120° and Ls 160°. These mass flow events occur when the number of "digitate flows" is at its seasonal maximum. Digitate flows are characterized by long-narrow zig-zagging low-albedo tracks and do not seem to transport appreciable sediment, and they can number in the hundreds. Small pits appear at their termini or midway along and sometimes these pits are re-deepened by subsequent flows. These events repeat every year and using volume balance calculations we find that the whole system could be built on a timescale of hundreds of martian ears. These large apron gullies differ in morphology and timing from the linear dune gullies. The linear dune gullies are active in late winter, or beginning of spring when the CO2 frost finally sublimates, which occurs after the activity of the large apron gullies. Due to the difference of orientation between large apron gullies and linear dune as well as timing, we infer that insolation, which may influence (i) the depth to ground ice, (ii) the amount of volatiles deposits, is the main cause their differences. Sediment transport by CO2

  16. Supervisors’ experiences with the return-to-work process of hospital workers absent from work due to a health problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stochkendahl, Mette Jensen; Myburgh, Corrie; Hartvigsen, Jan

    . On the other hand supervisors have the potential to hamper the RTW process if they do not have the necessary competencies, means, and level of engagement. In Denmark, formal responsibility for securing the return of a sick listed worker to the workplace lies outside of the workplace, and the workplace...... is not routinely included in the RTW process. Previous research on supervisors’ roles in the RTW process has primarily been conducted in contexts were the workplace has declared organizational responsibility for the RTW process. Consequently, very little is known about supervisors’ role in the unique Danish...

  17. Fabrication of Au-Pd Core-shell Nanoparticles using Au Thin-Film Dewetting at High Temperature and Chemical Synthesis Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min-Gyu; Lee, Hye-Jung; Oh, Yong-Jun [Hanbat National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    Au-Pd bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) have received a lot of attention in the fields of catalysts and hydrogen sensors. In this study, Au-Pd core-shell NP arrays were successfully fabricated using two steps: formation of the ordered array of Au NPs cores via solid-state dewetting of a Au thin film on a topographic silica substrate, and Pd shell formation via chemical synthesis using two different surfactants (CTAB and CTAC). Using the CTAB surfactant in particular, a 2-D composite structure comprised of an ordered array of Au-Pd NPs, with smaller Pd NPs on the nanoscopic gaps between the Au-Pd NPs, could be formed. This structure is expected to have potential application in resistance-base hydrogen sensors.

  18. Local processing enhancements associated with superior observational drawing are due to enhanced perceptual functioning, not weak central coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Rebecca; McManus, I C; Riley, Howard; Rankin, Qona; Brunswick, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with drawing talent have previously been shown to exhibit enhanced local visual processing ability. The aim of the current study was to assess whether local processing biases associated with drawing ability result from a reduced ability to cohere local stimuli into global forms, or an increased ability to disregard global aspects of an image. Local and global visual processing ability was assessed in art students and controls using the Group Embedded Figures Task, Navon shape stimuli, the Block Design Task and the Autism Spectrum Quotient, whilst controlling for nonverbal IQ and artistic ability. Local processing biases associated with drawing appear to arise from an enhancement of local processing alongside successful filtering of global information, rather than a reduction in global processing. The relationship between local processing and drawing ability is independent of individual differences in nonverbal IQ and artistic ability. These findings have implications for bottom-up and attentional theories of observational drawing, as well as explanations of special skills in autism.

  19. Establishing a meaningful human rights due diligence process for corporations : learning from experience of human rights impact assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, James

    2013-01-01

    The United Nations Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Business and Human Rights, Professor John Ruggie, has constructed a new international framework, which is set to become the cornerstone for all action on human rights and business at the international level. The principle of human rights due diligence (HRDD) is the central component of the corporate duty to respect human rights within that framework. This article argues that Ruggie's HRDD principle contains the majority of ...

  20. High incidence of medication documentation errors in a Swiss university hospital due to the handwritten prescription process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Röder Christoph

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medication errors have been reported to be a leading cause of death in hospitalized patients. In this study we focused on identifying and quantifying errors in the handwritten drug ordering and dispensing documentation processes which could possibly lead to adverse drug events. Methods We studied 1,934 ordered agents (165 consecutive patients retrospectively for medication documentation errors. Errors were categorized into: Prescribing errors, transcription errors and administration documentation errors on the nurses' medication lists. The legibility of prescriptions was analyzed to explore its possible influence on the error rate in the documentation process. Results Documentation errors occurred in 65 of 1,934 prescribed agents (3.5%. The incidence of patient charts showing at least one error was 43%. Prescribing errors were found 39 times (37%, transcription errors 56 times (53%, and administration documentation errors 10 times (10%. The handwriting readability was rated as good in 2%, moderate in 42%, bad in 52%, and unreadable in 4%. Conclusions This study revealed a high incidence of documentation errors in the traditional handwritten prescription process. Most errors occurred when prescriptions were transcribed into the patients' chart. The readability of the handwritten prescriptions was generally bad. Replacing the traditional handwritten documentation process with information technology could potentially improve the safety in the medication process.

  1. INFLUENCE FACTOR OF DEPRECIATION DUE TO CORROSION ON THE VALUE IN THE EVALUATION PROCESS OF THE PIPELINE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHEORGHE Ciprian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of pipelines is a complicated process that does not use traditional approaches to evaluation, but rather a mixture of evaluation methods because each pipeline is unique in its own way, but also because its value is influenced by many factors. These factors, acting together, represent the influences the value of a pipeline from several points of view: the physical - chemical, technological and economical. Among these factors a special importance must be given to the influence of corrosion on the market value. The present work shows the quantitative amount of corrosion in the physical depreciation of systems of pipelines in the evaluation process.

  2. The changes of astaxanthin content and chemical characteristics of tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) due to processing: boiling, smoking and frying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swastawati, F.

    2018-03-01

    Food processing using high temperatures can cause changes in pigment color and chemical characteristics in food stuffs, including prawn. The aim of this research was to evaluate the changes in pigment and chemical characteristics of tiger prawn caused by boiling, smoking and frying. Ten kg of tiger prawn was boiled, smoked and fried at the temperature of ± 100 °C for ± 10 min. The results showed that boiling, smoking and frying gave a significant effect (P smoked prawn and fried prawn was: 132.79 ± 1.5 μg·g-1 82.89 ± 0.92 μg·g-1 78.28 ± 0.1 μg·g-1 and 91.35 ± 2.59 μg·g-1, respectively. The value of °Hue on fresh prawn, boiled prawn, smoked prawn and fried prawn was: 87.85° 52.5° 55.94° and 53.98°. The tiger prawn processed by the smoking method has preferable by panelist rather than processed by boiling and frying.

  3. Changes in trace amounts of elements due to plant hormone treatment in the adventitious root growth process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, M.; Tanizaki, Y. [Tokyo Metropolitan Industrial Technology Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    Neutron radiography using imaging plates was applied to obtain transport information of selected elements in trace amounts in plant morphologic establishment. Growth of adventitious root stemming from epicotyl (upper part of axis) of vigna angularis (red-bean) affects changes in spatial distribution of neutron activated short-lived radioisotopes which are determined by a sensitive and wide-latitude radiation detector and by a use of gamma-ray spectroscopy for the identification. Sprouts of vigna angularis grown in water, indole acetate (IAA, 1 ppm) and gibberellin (GA, 1 ppm) were irradiated in KUR reactor for 10 min, covered with milar film, exposed to imaging plate (SR-2025), and analyzed to obtain auto-radiographic images. It was found that radioactivity increased at adventitious root growth, especially by the treatment with IAA activity due to Ca and Al increased. Behaviors of Mn, Mg, Al, Na, Ca, K, and Cl were studied qualitatively. (S. Ohno)

  4. Elastic stress transfer as a diffusive process due to aseismic fault slip in response to fluid injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viesca, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    Subsurface fluid injection is often followed by observations of an enlarging cloud of microseismicity. The cloud's diffusive growth is thought to be a direct response to the diffusion of elevated pore fluid pressure reaching pre-stressed faults, triggering small instabilities; the observed high rates of this growth are interpreted to reflect a relatively high permeability of a fractured subsurface [e.g., Shapiro, GJI 1997]. We investigate an alternative mechanism for growing a microseismic cloud: the elastic transfer of stress due to slow, aseismic slip on a subset of the pre-existing faults in this damaged subsurface. We show that the growth of the slipping region of the fault may be self-similar in a diffusive manner. While this slip is driven by fluid injection, we show that, for critically stressed faults, the apparent diffusion of this slow slip may quickly exceed the poroelastically driven diffusion of the elevated pore fluid pressure. Under these conditions, microseismicity can be first triggered by the off-fault stress perturbation due to the expanding region of slip on principal faults. This provides an alternative interpretation of diffusive growth rates in terms of the subsurface stress state rather than an enhanced hydraulic diffusivity. That such aseismic slip may occur, outpace fluid diffusion, and in turn trigger microseismic events, is also suggested by on- and near-fault observations in past and recently reported fluid injection experiments [e.g., Cornet et al., PAGEOPH 1997; Guglielmi et al., Science 2015]. The model of injection-induced slip assumes elastic off-fault behavior and a fault strength determined by the product of a constant friction coefficient and the local effective normal stress. The sliding region is enlarged by the pore pressure increase resolved on the fault plane. Remarkably, the rate of self-similar expansion may be determined by a single parameter reflecting both the initial stress state and the magnitude of the pore pressure

  5. Modelling of nitric acid production in the Advanced Cold Process Canister due to irradiation of moist air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henshaw, J.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarises the work performed for SKB of Sweden on the modelling of nitric acid production in the gaseous environment of the Advanced Cold Process Canister (ACPC). The model solves the simultaneous chemical rate equations describing the radiation chemistry of He/Ar/N 2 /O 2 /H 2 O gas mixture, involving over 200 chemical reactions. The amount of nitric acid produced as a function of time for typical ACPC conditions has been calculated using the model and the results reported. 11 refs, 11 figs, 1 tab

  6. Enhancement of the neutral-beam stopping cross section in fusion plasmas due to multistep collision processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boley, C.D.; Janev, R.K.; Post, D.E.

    1983-10-01

    Multistep processes involving excited atomic states are found to produce a substantial increase in the stopping cross section for a neutral hydrogen beam injected into a plasma, and thus to reduce the beam penetration. For typical plasma and beam parameters of current large tokamak experiments, the stopping cross-sectional enhancement is found to vary from 25% to 50% depending on the beam energy, plasma density, and impurity level. For neutral hydrogen beams with energies greater than or equal to 500 keV, envisioned in tokamak amd mirror reactor designs, the enhancement can be as large as 80 to 90%

  7. Calcification in the staghorn coral Acropora acuminata: variations in apparent skeletal incorporation of radioisotopes due to different methods of processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossland, C.J.; Barnes, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    Pieces of branch from the staghorn coral Acropora acuminata were incubated with 45 CaCl 2 and NaH 14 CO 3 under identical conditions in the light or in the dark. Specimens were then processed in different ways. All specimens were placed in N KOH to digest tissues. Some were placed in KOH immediately after incubation; others were placed in KOH after 2 h washing, or after 2 h extraction with methanol-chloroform-water. Specimens were washed in running fresh water or running seawater; some were killed in liquid N 2 before washing. Radioactivity associated with skeleton and tissues was determined. The method of processing profoundly affected the results. In dark incubations, there was up to a four-fold difference in apparent skeletal incorporation of 45 Ca ++ between average values obtained for the different treatments. For 14 C incorporation, there was a difference of up to 2.5 times. In light incubations, skeletal incorporation of both radioisotopes showed a two-fold difference between high and low average values obtained for the different treatments. (orig.) [de

  8. The Substantive and Procedural Due Process Rights of Students Accused of Criminal Behavior in School and the Educational Rights of Adjudicated Youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Frank

    This paper--part of a collection of 54 papers from the 48th annual conference of the Education Law Association held in November 2002-- addresses juvenile justice. Its central issue is how to protect children of color in elementary and secondary schools with constitutional due process where attendance is compulsory and, at the same time, maintain a…

  9. Constitutional Law--Procedural Due Process--Student Has Right to Have Attorney Present at University Disciplinary Hearing When Criminal Charges Are Pending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessels, Rodney Jay

    1978-01-01

    In the case of Gabrilowitz v Newman the court used the due process balancing test to conclude that a student has a right to have counsel present at a university disciplinary hearing where the conduct in question is the object of a pending criminal proceeding. Available from J. Reuben Clark Law School, Brigham Young U., Provo, UT 84602. (MSE)

  10. Changes in guava (Psidium guajava L. var. Paluma nectar volatile compounds concentration due to thermal processing and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ivaneide Coutinho Correa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Guava nectars were formulated for approximately 10, 12, or 14 ºBrix, with 40% guava pulp. Sodium benzoate, 500 mg.kg-1 was used as preservative. The Brix value was adjusted with saturated sucrose syrup. The guava nectar was pasteurized (85 ºC/42 seconds in tubular heat exchanger and then hot filled in 500 mL white glass bottles. The products were stored either at room temperature (25 ± 5 ºC or refrigerated (5 ± 2 ºC under fluorescent light exposure and analyzed on the day after processing (time zero and also 40, 80, and 120 days of storage. Eight compounds were identified and quantified by Gas Chromatography (GC -Mass Spectrometry (MS: hexanal, (E-hex-2-enal, 1-hexenol, (Z-hex-3-enol, (Z-hex-3-enyl acetate, phenyl-3-propyl acetate, cinnamyl acetate, and acetic acid. There was no significant effect of thermal treatment on the volatile compound concentrations, except for a significant decrease (p = 0.0001 in hexanal and (Z-hex-3-enyl acetate (p = 0.0029. As for the storage time, there was a much greater decrease in the esters contents, such as (Z-hex-3-enyl and phenyl-3-propyl acetates. Cinnamyl acetate had the greatest decrease over storage time. Refrigeration was better than room temperature for guava nectar volatile compounds stability over storage time, mainly for esters compounds, which are important for the product aroma and flavor

  11. Pollution Status of Trace Metals in Groundwater Due to Industrail Activities in and Around Dhaka Export Processing Zone, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOLAM AHMED

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Effluents from multiindustrail activities influence inland water system directly, which subsiquently affect groundwater quality and human health. Some previous reports indicated that inadequate treatment process of discharged effluent of Dhaka Export Processing Zone (DEPZ increased the concentrations of pollutants in surface water system and deteriorated total fishing and agricultural system around DEPZ and its connected area. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate wether the concentration of selective metals viz. Li, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Ag, Cd, Cs, Ba, Pb and U in two types of groundwater sources were either with in the permissible guidlines or influenced by DEPZ multi industrail on their levels of contamination. The concentrations of metals were determined using inductively Couples Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS. The mean concentrations of the elements in both types of groundwater were in the levels of their permissible guidlines, except for Ni (12.91 µg/L, Ga (0.48µg/L, Sr (90.26 µg/L and Cs (0.07µg//Lin groundwater inside DEPZ, which were 1.30, 5.00, 1.50 and 1.40 times higher than the maximum permissible limit (MPL of 10 µg/L, 0.09 µg/L, 60 µg/L, and 0.05µg/L, respectively. The mean concentrations of Li (6.85 µg/L, Zn(268 µg/L, Ga (0.12 µg/L, Sr (131 µg/L and Cs (0.07 µg/L were 3.43, 1.34, 1.33, 2.18, 1.40 times higher then the MPL of 2 µg/L, 200 µg/L, 0.09 µg/L, 60 µg/L and 0.05 µg/L, respectively, in groundwater around DEPZ. Comparatively Zn and Sr possessed higher concentrations, and Cs and U possessed lower concentration in both types of groundwater sources. The elements were distributed in homogeneous and hetrogeneous manner among the source points for deep-tubewell (DTWS and shallow tubewell (STWs, respectively. The significant positive correlations were found between the elements viz., Co-V (0.85, Ni-Sr ((0.70, Co-Cd (0.86, As-Se (0.99, Cs-Zn (0.95, Li-U (0.,71, Zn-U (0

  12. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) accelerates the sternomastoid muscle regeneration process after myonecrosis due to bupivacaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessi Pissulin, Cristiane Neves; Henrique Fernandes, Ana Angélica; Sanchez Orellana, Alejandro Manuel; Rossi E Silva, Renata Calciolari; Michelin Matheus, Selma Maria

    2017-03-01

    Because of its long-lasting analgesic action, bupivacaine is an anesthetic used for peripheral nerve block and relief of postoperative pain. Muscle degeneration and neurotoxicity are its main limitations. There is strong evidence that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) assists in muscle and nerve repair. The authors evaluated the effects of a Gallium Arsenide laser (GaAs), on the regeneration of muscle fibers of the sternomastoid muscle and accessory nerve after injection of bupivacaine. In total, 30 Wistar adult rats were divided into 2 groups: control group (C: n=15) and laser group (L: n=15). The groups were subdivided by antimere, with 0.5% bupivacaine injected on the right and 0.9% sodium chloride on the left. LLLT (GaAs 904nm, 0,05W, 2.8J per point) was administered for 5 consecutive days, starting 24h after injection of the solutions. Seven days after the trial period, blood samples were collected for determination of creatine kinase (CK). The sternomastoid nerve was removed for morphological and morphometric analyses; the surface portion of the sternomastoid muscle was used for histopathological and ultrastructural analyses. Muscle CK and TNFα protein levels were measured. The anesthetic promoted myonecrosis and increased muscle CK without neurotoxic effects. The LLLT reduced myonecrosis, characterized by a decrease in muscle CK levels, inflammation, necrosis, and atrophy, as well as the number of central nuclei in the muscle fibers and the percentage of collagen. TNFα values remained constant. LLLT, at the dose used, reduced fibrosis and myonecrosis in the sternomastoid muscle triggered by bupivacaine, accelerating the muscle regeneration process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Editorial: Due Process of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atip Latipulhayat

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Penerbitan Peraturan Pemerintah Pengganti Undang-Undang Nomor 2 Tahun 2017 tentang Organisasi Kemasyarakatan (Perppu Ormas menuai banyak kontroversi, salah satu diantaranya adalah yang menyangkut peniadaan proses pengadilan dalam pembubaran suatu organisasi kemasyarakatan sebagaimana diatur di dalam Undang-Undang Nomor 17 Tahun 2013 tentang Organisasi Kemasyarakatan. Proses peradilan menjadi elemen penting dalam negara hukum, karena adanya proses tersebut merupakan bukti penghormatan negara terhadap hukum dan hak asasi manusia (HAM.

  14. Due Process Hearing Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, David F.

    2009-01-01

    Marnie is a resident of an unnamed School District ("the District"). In January 2000 at the age of 13, Marnie was involved in a bicycle accident that severely damaged her central nervous system, leaving her without use of her legs or left hand and cognitively impaired. She had not received special education previously. By September 2001,…

  15. Avoiding Unnecessary Due Process Hearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Kathryn A.; Shanberg, Robert

    1990-01-01

    This article provides guidelines to help school personnel establish and maintain productive relationships within the legal framework governing special education. Special attention is given to conflict resolution, especially in cases of disagreement on students' individualized education plans. The role of parents in these team efforts and relevant…

  16. Effect of Systematic Control of Pd Thickness and Annealing Temperature on the Fabrication and Evolution of Palladium Nanostructures on Si (111) via the Solid State Dewetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunwar, Sundar; Pandey, Puran; Sui, Mao; Zhang, Quanzhen; Li, Ming-Yu; Lee, Jihoon

    2017-05-01

    Si-based optoelectronic devices embedded with metallic nanoparticles (NPs) have demonstrated the NP shape, size, spacing, and crystallinity dependent on light absorption and emission induced by the localized surface plasmon resonance. In this work, we demonstrate various sizes and configurations of palladium (Pd) nanostructures on Si (111) by the systematic thermal annealing with the variation of Pd thickness and annealing temperature. The evolution of Pd nanostructures are systematically controlled by the dewetting of thin film by means of the surface diffusion in conjunction with the surface and interface energy minimization and Volmer-Weber growth model. Depending on the control of deposition amount ranging between 0.5 and 100 nm at various annealing temperatures, four distinctive regimes of Pd nanostructures are demonstrated: (i) small pits and grain formation, (ii) nucleation and growth of NPs, (iii) lateral evolution of NPs, and (iv) merged nanostructures. In addition, by the control of annealing between 300 and 800 °C, the Pd nanostructures show the evolution of small pits and grains, isolated NPs, and finally, Pd NP-assisted nanohole formation along with the Si decomposition and Pd-Si inter-diffusion. The Raman analysis showed the discrepancies on phonon modes of Si (111) such that the decreased peak intensity with left shift after the fabrication of Pd nanostructures. Furthermore, the UV-VIS-NIR reflectance spectra revealed the existence of surface morphology dependent on absorption, scattering, and reflectance properties.

  17. Due diligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghera, G.S.

    1999-01-01

    The Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Act requires that every employer shall ensure the health and safety of workers in the workplace. Issues regarding the practices at workplaces and how they should reflect the standards of due diligence were discussed. Due diligence was described as being the need for employers to identify hazards in the workplace and to take active steps to prevent workers from potentially dangerous incidents. The paper discussed various aspects of due diligence including policy, training, procedures, measurement and enforcement. The consequences of contravening the OHS Act were also described

  18. Law n. 13.015/2014: Amendment of Labor Magazine Feature and Possible offenses to Constitutional Principles of Due Process Legal Access to Jurisdiction and Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Henriques Zandona Freitas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This scientific article aims to study the reforms undertaken by the Law 13.015/2014 under the proposed amendments to the labor resources of magazines, and a growing demand in the edition of overviews by the Regionals Labors Court. At first, the theoretical basis, we analyze the prospects of the constitutional process model within the framework leveraged as a democratic state. After, it enters to the principle concept of due process of law, the access Jurisdiction and Effectiveness, doing, in a third moment, a brief survey and survey as the main proposals of changes made by Law n. 13.015/2014, demonstrating the likelihood that some provisions of this standard or not contradict principles and constitutional guarantees. Trough the deductive method and the bibliographic research this article has been written from a large conception to a small one. And as technical proceeding were used the theme analysis as a way of looking for a solution for the problem.

  19. Brand-name drug, generic drug, orphan drug. Pharmacological therapy with biosimilar drugs - provision of due diligence in the treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajdel, Justyna; Zajdel, Radosław

    2013-01-01

    Due diligence in the process of provision of healthcare services refers, among other elements, to the application of pharmacological therapy at a time which offers the greatest chance for a successful outcome of treatment, i.e. for achieving the optimum expected effect understood as an improvement in the patient's health, reduction of health risks or elimination of the disease. However, due diligence may also refer to actions aimed at ensuring that neither the patient nor the healthcare payer is required to incur unreasonable costs in the process of treatment. The validity of that statement stems not only from normative acts but also from ethical standards laid down in the Medical Code of Ethics (Article 57 section 2). It often happens that the provision of optimal treatment calls for deviations from the formal provisions included in Summary Product Characteristics (SPCs), and the application of drugs that are bioequivalent to reference drugs, which translates into a significant reduction of costs. The present study addresses the problem of acceptability of a specific form of drug substitution consisting in the replacement of a reference drug with a generic drug. Also explored are legal aspects associated with the possibility of therapy based on "off-label use". The study reviews normative acts existing in the Polish and EU legislation. It also provides a clear definition of orphan drug, which has made it possible to make a distinction and investigate mutual relations between the concepts of brand-name (reference) drug, orphan drug and generic drug.

  20. Ensuring due process in the IACUC and animal welfare setting: considerations in developing noncompliance policies and procedures for institutional animal care and use committees and institutional officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Barbara C; Gografe, Sylvia; Pritt, Stacy; Jen, Kai-Lin Catherine; McWhirter, Camille A; Barman, Susan M; Comuzzie, Anthony; Greene, Molly; McNulty, Justin A; Michele, Daniel Eugene; Moaddab, Naz; Nelson, Randall J; Norris, Karen; Uray, Karen D; Banks, Ron; Westlund, Karin N; Yates, Bill J; Silverman, Jerald; Hansen, Kenneth D; Redman, Barbara

    2017-10-01

    Every institution that is involved in research with animals is expected to have in place policies and procedures for the management of allegations of noncompliance with the Animal Welfare Act and the U.S. Public Health Service Policy on the Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. We present here a model set of recommendations for institutional animal care and use committees and institutional officials to ensure appropriate consideration of allegations of noncompliance with federal Animal Welfare Act regulations that carry a significant risk or specific threat to animal welfare. This guidance has 3 overarching aims: 1 ) protecting the welfare of research animals; 2 ) according fair treatment and due process to an individual accused of noncompliance; and 3 ) ensuring compliance with federal regulations. Through this guidance, the present work seeks to advance the cause of scientific integrity, animal welfare, and the public trust while recognizing and supporting the critical importance of animal research for the betterment of the health of both humans and animals.-Hansen, B. C., Gografe, S., Pritt, S., Jen, K.-L. C., McWhirter, C. A., Barman, S. M., Comuzzie, A., Greene, M., McNulty, J. A., Michele, D. E., Moaddab, N., Nelson, R. J., Norris, K., Uray, K. D., Banks, R., Westlund, K. N., Yates, B. J., Silverman, J., Hansen, K. D., Redman, B. Ensuring due process in the IACUC and animal welfare setting: considerations in developing noncompliance policies and procedures for institutional animal care and use committees and institutional officials. © FASEB.

  1. Variation Process of Radiation Belt Electron Fluxes due to Interaction With Chorus and EMIC Rising-tone Emissions Localized in Longitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Y.; Omura, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Using results of test particle simulations of a large number of electrons interacting with a pair of chorus emissions, we create Green's functions to model the electron distribution function after all of the possible interactions with the waves [Omura et al., 2015]. Assuming that the waves are generated in a localized range of longitudes in the dawn side, we repeat taking the convolution integral of the Green's function with the distribution function of the electrons injected into the generation region of the localized waves. From numerical and theoretical analyses, we find that electron acceleration process only takes place efficiently below 4 MeV. Because extremely relativistic electrons go through the wave generation region rapidly due to grad-B0 and curvature drift, they don't have enough interaction time to be accelerated. In setting up the electrons after all interaction with chorus emissions as initial electron distribution function, we also compute the loss process of radiation belt electron fluxes due to interaction with EMIC rising-tone emissions generated in a localized range of longitudes in the dusk side [Kubota and Omura,2017]. References: (1) Omura, Y., Y. Miyashita, M. Yoshikawa, D. Summers, M. Hikishima, Y. Ebihara, and Y. Kubota (2015), Formation process of relativistic electron flux through interaction with chorus emissions in the Earth's inner magnetosphere, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 120, 9545-9562, doi:10.1002/2015JA021563. (2) Kubota, Y., and Y. Omura (2017), Rapid precipitation of radiation belt electrons induced by EMIC rising tone emissions localized in longitude inside and outside the plasmapause, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 122, 293-309, doi:10.1002/2016JA023267.

  2. Integrated batch production and maintenance scheduling for multiple items processed on a deteriorating machine to minimize total production and maintenance costs with due date constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahedi Zahedi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses an integrated model of batch production and maintenance scheduling on a deteriorating machine producing multiple items to be delivered at a common due date. The model describes the trade-off between total inventory cost and maintenance cost as the increase of production run length. The production run length is a time bucket between two consecutive preventive maintenance activities. The objective function of the model is to minimize total cost consisting of in process and completed part inventory costs, setup cost, preventive and corrective maintenance costs and rework cost. The problem is to determine the optimal production run length and to schedule the batches obtained from determining the production run length in order to minimize total cost.

  3. Nuclide Release Behavior from a Repository for a Pyro-process HLW and SF due to Variation of the MWCF Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Hwang, Yong Soo

    2009-01-01

    An assessment program for an optional evaluation of a repository both for disposal of such high-level wastes (HLWs) from various steps of pyro-processes of PWR spent nuclear fuel (SF) and for direct disposal of PWR and CANDU SFs has been developed by utilizing general purpose GoldSim developing tool, by which nuclide transports in the near- and far-field of a repository as well as a transport through a biosphere under various natural and manmade disruptive events affecting a nuclide release could be modeled and evaluated. KAERI has been in charge of modeling and developing assessment tools by which the above mentioned repository system could be assessed in accordance with various features, events, and processes (FEPs) that could happen in and around the repository system. To cope with such various natural and manmade disruptive FEPs as well as normal release scenarios, all the possible cases in view of the Korean circumstances should be modeled and have been evaluated even though we have not yet have any repository. A possible case, among many others, with the variation of such physical properties as the fracture width and the rock matrix diffusion depth, associated with the natural fractures in the geological rock media, along which nuclide could be transported preferentially with the flow of groundwater is considered in the current study. Due to whatever the reason, such as e,g., the earthquake or human intrusion, it is assumed that the physical properties of the major water conducting fault (MWCF) is changed resulting in the size of fracture width and the matrix diffusion depth. For such case another illustration is made for probabilistic evaluation of a hypothetical Korean HLW repository, as similarly done in the previous studies

  4. Process Evaluation of a Participatory Supportive Return to Work Program for Workers Without a Permanent Employment Contract, Sick-Listed Due to a Common Mental Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammerts, Lieke; Schaafsma, Frederieke G; van Mechelen, Willem; Anema, Johannes R

    2017-06-01

    Purpose This study aimed to perform a process evaluation of a participatory supportive return to work program for workers without a (permanent) employment contract, sick-listed due to a common mental disorder. The program consisted of a participatory approach, integrated care and direct placement in a competitive job. Our main questions were: were these components realized in practice and in accordance with the protocol? The evaluation took place alongside a randomized controlled trial. Methods The study population consisted of workers who filed a sickness benefit claim at the Dutch Social Security Agency, professionals of this agency and of vocational rehabilitation agencies. We focused on sick-listed workers and professionals who had actually participated in the intervention. Data was collected mainly by questionnaires. Results Only 36 out of 94 intervention group participants started with the program. In half of these cases application of integrated care was reported. Most other steps in the program were completed. However, fidelity to the protocol was low to reasonable. Much delay was observed in the execution of the program and only two sick-listed workers were placed in a competitive job. Still, satisfaction with the participatory approach was good. Conclusions Despite the positive evaluation of the participatory approach, the full program was executed less successfully compared to similar programs evaluated in earlier studies. This will probably affect the outcomes of our trial. Findings from this study will help to interpret these outcomes. Nevertheless, more knowledge is needed about experiences of stakeholders who participated in the program. Trial Registration NTR3563.

  5. Observation of interior and boundary-layer mixing processes due to near-inertial waves in a stratified basin without tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lee, Eefke; Umlauf, Lars

    2010-05-01

    Near-inertial waves form an important contribution to oceanic energy and shear spectra, and thus play a major role in mixing the ocean's interior. Here, we compare internal-wave mixing processes in the interior of a stratified basin to those occurring on the sloping boundaries. We use the virtually tideless Baltic Sea as a natural laboratory, allowing us to isolate the effect of near-inertial waves that is otherwise (often) overshadowed by internal tides. The measurements presented here consist of moored ADCPs and CTD loggers in the center of the basin and on the slopes, combined with densely spaced shear-microstructure and ADCP cross-slope transects. During summer stratification, a three-layer density structure, with a thermocline and a deeper halocline, was observed with clear signals of downward near-inertial energy propagation after a short wind event. These motions are interpreted as near-inertial wave modes interacting with the sloping topography. Dissipation rates observed in the center of the basin scale with shear and stratification parameters in the way suggested by MacKinnon and Gregg (2003) for the shelf. On the slopes, microstructure transects reveal a periodic near-bed dissipation rate signal and a growing and decaying bottom boundary layer (BBL) thickness; both signals are triggered by near-bottom currents oscillating with a near-inertial frequency. Near-bottom dissipation rates are greatly enhanced compared to the interior, and, due to the straining of lateral density gradients by the cross-slope velocity, mixing is rather efficient, and contributes significantly to the basin-scale mixing.

  6. An integrated care program to prevent work disability due to chronic low back pain: a process evaluation within a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Mechelen Willem

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past decade, a considerable amount of research has been carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of innovative low back pain (LBP interventions. Although some interventions proved to be effective, they are not always applied in daily practice. To successfully implement an innovative program it is important to identify barriers and facilitators in order to change practice routine. Because usual care is not directly aimed at return to work (RTW, we evaluated an integrated care program, combining a patient-directed and a workplace-directed intervention provided by a multidisciplinary team, including a clinical occupational physician to reduce occupational disability in chronic LBP patients. The aims of this study were to describe the feasibility of the implementation of the integrated care program, to assess the satisfaction and expectations of the involved stakeholders and to describe the needs for improvement of the program. Methods Eligible for this study were patients who had been on sick leave due to chronic LBP. Data were collected from the patients, their supervisors and the involved health care professionals, by means of questionnaires and structured charts, during 3-month follow-up. Implementation, satisfaction and expectations were investigated. Results Of the 40 patients who were eligible to participate in the integrated care program, 37 patients, their supervisors and the health care professionals actually participated in the intervention. Adherence to the integrated care program was in accordance with the protocol, and the patients, their supervisors and the health care professionals were (very satisfied with the program. The role of the clinical occupational physician was of additional value in the RTW process. Time-investment was the only barrier for implementation reported by the multidisciplinary team. Conclusion The implementation of this program will not be influenced by any flaws in its application

  7. Effect of Feed Composition Changing at Naphtha Catalytic Reforming Unit Due to Involvement of Gasoline Fraction Obtained by Diesel Fuels Hydrodewaxing into the Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Belinskaya, Natalia Sergeevna; Ivanchina, Emilia Dmitrievna; Ivashkina, Elena Nikolaevna; Frantsina, Evgeniya Vladimirovna; Silko, Galina Yurievna

    2014-01-01

    One of the primary products of hydrodewaxing process is stable gasoline, which is characterized by low octane number on the one hand. On the other hand, it contains a significant amount of iso-paraffins (on average 45% wt.) and naphthenes (on average 25% wt.), which are reagents in the naphtha catalytic reforming process primary reactions. Feasibility of stable gasoline obtained by means of diesel fuel catalytic hydrodewaxing process involving into the processing at the naphtha catalytic refo...

  8. Solution-processed flexible NiO resistive random access memory device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Jung; Lee, Heon; Hong, Sung-Hoon

    2018-04-01

    Non-volatile memories (NVMs) using nanocrystals (NCs) as active materials can be applied to soft electronic devices requiring a low-temperature process because NCs do not require a heat treatment process for crystallization. In addition, memory devices can be implemented simply by using a patterning technique using a solution process. In this study, a flexible NiO ReRAM device was fabricated using a simple NC patterning method that controls the capillary force and dewetting of a NiO NC solution at low temperature. The switching behavior of a NiO NC based memory was clearly observed by conductive atomic force microscopy (c-AFM).

  9. Hepatic processing determines dual activity of alpha-tocopheryl succinate: a novel paradigm for a shift in biological activity due to provitamin-to-vitamin conversion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neužil, Jiří; Massa, H.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 327, č. 4 (2005), s. 1024-1027 ISSN 0006-291X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915; CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : vitamin E * alpha-tocopheryl succinate * hepatic processing Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.000, year: 2005

  10. Disruption of TLR3 signaling due to cleavage of TRIF by the hepatitis A virus protease-polymerase processing intermediate, 3CD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Qu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3 and cytosolic RIG-I-like helicases (RIG-I and MDA5 sense viral RNAs and activate innate immune signaling pathways that induce expression of interferon (IFN through specific adaptor proteins, TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing interferon-β (TRIF, and mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS, respectively. Previously, we demonstrated that hepatitis A virus (HAV, a unique hepatotropic human picornavirus, disrupts RIG-I/MDA5 signaling by targeting MAVS for cleavage by 3ABC, a precursor of the sole HAV protease, 3C(pro, that is derived by auto-processing of the P3 (3ABCD segment of the viral polyprotein. Here, we show that HAV also disrupts TLR3 signaling, inhibiting poly(I:C-stimulated dimerization of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3, IRF-3 translocation to the nucleus, and IFN-β promoter activation, by targeting TRIF for degradation by a distinct 3ABCD processing intermediate, the 3CD protease-polymerase precursor. TRIF is proteolytically cleaved by 3CD, but not by the mature 3C(pro protease or the 3ABC precursor that degrades MAVS. 3CD-mediated degradation of TRIF depends on both the cysteine protease activity of 3C(pro and downstream 3D(pol sequence, but not 3D(pol polymerase activity. Cleavage occurs at two non-canonical 3C(pro recognition sequences in TRIF, and involves a hierarchical process in which primary cleavage at Gln-554 is a prerequisite for scission at Gln-190. The results of mutational studies indicate that 3D(pol sequence modulates the substrate specificity of the upstream 3C(pro protease when fused to it in cis in 3CD, allowing 3CD to target cleavage sites not normally recognized by 3C(pro. HAV thus disrupts both RIG-I/MDA5 and TLR3 signaling pathways through cleavage of essential adaptor proteins by two distinct protease precursors derived from the common 3ABCD polyprotein processing intermediate.

  11. A Coupled One-Dimensional Numerical Simulation of the Land Subsidence Process in a Multilayer Aquifer System due to Hydraulic Head Variation in the Pumped Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available After exploitation of groundwater had been reduced and the groundwater level of the confined aquifer had risen, land subsidence was observed to continue rather than cease for several years according to the layer-wise mark monitoring data in Xi’an. To analyze the phenomena, a numerical model of a coupled one-dimensional multilayer aquifer system is developed to represent land subsidence due to hydraulic head variation in the pumped layer. The numerical simulation results show that the pressure head in other layers does not rise immediately when the hydraulic head in the pumped layer starts to recover after pumping ceases. In addition, after the pumping is stopped, a dividing point can be found in aquitards next to the pumped layer, with the aquitards being divided into two parts: a compressed part and a rebounding part. The dividing points move toward the side and away from the pumped layer with the transferring of pore pressure in the aquitard. The results of the simulation also show that there is a transition period between land subsidence and rebound. In this transition period, land could continue to subside even though the hydraulic head in the pumped layer begins to recover.

  12. Logistics for evaluation of doses received by IOE due to handling 18FDG-radiopharmaceutical during processing (IEN/CNEN) and in radiodiagnostic (clinical)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Osvaldir P. dos; Silva, Joao Carlos P.; Silva, Luiz Carlos Reina P.; Cortines, Geraldo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to propose an improvement in radiological practices involving production, transportation and application of radiopharmaceutical 18 F, by tracking the radiation doses received by occupationally exposed individuals (OEI) that develop production practices, transportation and application of some patients in hospitals and clinics in Rio de Janeiro, the radiopharmaceutical 18 FDG. In light of the results and observations of how these practices are developed, it's necessary to evaluate and suggest a logistics to minimize the doses received by OEI during these practices, seeking improvements in the actions and procedures for radiological protection. In practice the production of the radiopharmaceutical, the study focuses on the time of withdrawal of 18 FDG cell processing, where the technician is exposed to higher dose rates. At this stage, we take to accomplish, yet two other reviews: the first is the placement of electronic dosimeters inside and outside the lead apron, whose objective is to assess the attenuation capacity of the apron. This last procedure refers to the use of a phantom cylindrical containing TLD 700 dosimeter in order to evaluate, using a mathematical model (MCNP), the doses ends (hand) of the technician, the process of removing the radiopharmaceutical of the cell and to compare the dosimetric dose recorded in the ring. Regarding the transport of 18 FDG, we take into account the doses recorded in the cabin of the vehicle and the doses recorded in the dosimeter of the carrier. Finally, the doses received by health professionals who handle 18 FDG are analyzed, since its withdrawal from the packing until administration to the patient. (author)

  13. Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a chrono-sequence of alluvial and degraded soils due to mining processes in bajo cauca antioqueno, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina S, Marisol; Orozco P, Francisco H; Marquez F, Maria E

    2009-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) presence and diversity were evaluated in undisturbed and disturbed soils form alluvial mining processes. The soils belong to the Tropic Fluvaquent, Typical Dystropept, and Typical Paleudult sub-groups which corresponded to Low, Middle and High terraces, respectively, of the Cauca river at Taraza town. AMF propagules were multiplied in Leonard jars under glass house conditions using sterile substrate, modified Hoagland's solution and different fractions of soil used as sources of inoculum, which corresponded to the size of the spores. A first assay was made in maize (Zea mays) which allowed mycorrhizal colonization in roots but not spore production. In a second assay, in kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides) AMF spores and colonized roots were obtained with the treatments corresponding to propagules obtained from high terrace and disturbed soil. These treatments presented a significant effect on kudzu yield (P?0,001) respect to the other treatments. The AMF spores of undisturbed and disturbed soils showed low infective capacity. Nevertheless, propagules of AMF were multiplied in trap cultures, which produced spores of four morpho types. One of these was identified as G. microagregatum. The polymorphism obtained by RAPD's made possible the differentiation of these morpho types with the primer OPA2. Similitude above 38% was achieved using UPGMA system. The results indicated that four morpho types belong to the genus Glomus, but they possibly belong to different species. Our results are promissory in the differentiation of native strains of AMF with low number of spores collected from soil samples in rehabilitation processes, which normally is unknown.

  14. Study of Air Pollution Due to Plasma Cutting Process and Designing Local Ventilation System with Collector in Central Workshop of Mobarakeh Steel Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Atabi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives : Cutting leads to production of different hazardous agents such as fumes, particles, gases and vapors. In various studies, the effects of fumes, gases, and vapors on workers and environment have been proved. Meanwhile, cutting alloying plates with plasma cutting machine due to containing various alloy materials produces a lot of air pollution. Therefore, using the ventilation system to remove the mentioned pollution has always been noteworthy. Method: This study was performed on plasma cutting machine at Mobarakeh Steel Company. At first, according to ASTM the elements from alloy plates with optical emission spectrometry crm-35000-quantometery were detected, the air pollution from cutting the mentioned plates was sampled and measured using NIOSH 7300 method and according to the ACGIH:VS-72-20, VS-70-12, VS-70-11 VS-916 push-pull ventilation with bag filter collector was designed. Results: Results of sampling from pollution of cutting the alloy material, concentration of iron, lead and cadmium fumes were more than the standard limits. After calculation for push system, air flow volume of 195.163 cfm, outgoing air velocity of 5937.4 fpm and for pull system air flow volume of 12498 cfm, minimum duct velocity of 3000 fpm and velocity pressure of duct of 0.717 inwg, for fan, total pressure of 6.301 inwg, static pressure of 0.587 inwg and power of 20.65 Bhp and for collector with pulse jet cleaning system air to cloth ratio of 7 and dimensions of 6.88ft × 6.56ft × 9.84ft were obtained. Conclusion: The result of study indicated that push pull ventilation compared to other ventilation system s for plasma cutting has more efficiency and makes suitable control for pollution.

  15. Initiation process of the Mw 6.2 central Tottori, Japan, earthquake on October 21, 2016: Stress transfer due to its largest foreshock of Mw 4.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, S.; Ellsworth, W. L.

    2017-12-01

    On October 21, 2016, a strike-slip earthquake with Mw 6.2 occurred in the central Tottori prefecture, Japan. It was preceded by a foreshock sequence that began with a Mw 4.1 event, the largest earthquake for the sequence, and lasted about two hours. According to the JMA catalog, the largest foreshock had a similar focal mechanism as the mainshock and was located in the immediate vicinity of the mainshock hypocenter. The goal of this study is to understand the relationship between the foreshock and the initial rupture of the mainshock. We first determine the relative hypocenter distance between the foreshock and mainshock using the P-wave onsets on Hi-net station records. The initiation points of the two events are likely about 100 m apart according to the current results, but could be closer. Within the location uncertainty, they might either be coplanar or on subparallel planes. Next, we obtain the slip-history models from a kinematic inversion method using empirical Green's functions derived from other foreshocks with M 2.2 - 2.4. The Mw 4.1 foreshock and Mw 6.2 mainshock started in a similar way until approximately 0.2 s after their onsets. For the foreshock, the rapid growth stage completed by 0.2 s even though the rupture propagation continued for 0.4 - 0.5 s longer (note that 0.2 s is significantly shorter than the typical source duration of a Mw 4.1 earthquake). On the other hand, the mainshock rupture continued to grow rapidly after 0.2 s. The comparison between the relative hypocenter locations and the slip models shows that the mainshock nucleated within the area strongly effected by both static and dynamic stress changes created by the foreshock. We also find that the mainshock initially propagated away from the foreshock hypocenter. We consider that the stress transfer process is a key to understand the mainshock nucleation as well as its rupture growth process.

  16. Dynamically slow processes in supercooled water confined between hydrophobic plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzese, Giancarlo [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, Barcelona 08028 (Spain); Santos, Francisco de los, E-mail: gfranzese@ub.ed, E-mail: fdlsant@ugr.e [Departamento de Electromagnetismo y Fisica de la Materia, Universidad de Granada, Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain)

    2009-12-16

    We study the dynamics of water confined between hydrophobic flat surfaces at low temperature. At different pressures, we observe different behaviors that we understand in terms of the hydrogen bond dynamics. At high pressure, the formation of the open structure of the hydrogen bond network is inhibited and the surfaces can be rapidly dried (dewetted) by formation of a large cavity with decreasing temperature. At lower pressure we observe strong non-exponential behavior of the correlation function, but with no strong increase of the correlation time. This behavior can be associated, on the one hand, to the rapid ordering of the hydrogen bonds that generates heterogeneities and, on the other hand, to the lack of a single timescale as a consequence of the cooperativity in the vicinity of the liquid-liquid critical point that characterizes the phase diagram at low temperature of the water model considered here. At very low pressures, the gradual formation of the hydrogen bond network is responsible for the large increase of the correlation time and, eventually, the dynamical arrest of the system, with a strikingly different dewetting process, characterized by the formation of many small cavities.

  17. Defective Proteolytic Processing of Fibrillar Procollagens and Prodecorin Due to Biallelic BMP1 Mutations Results in a Severe, Progressive Form of Osteogenesis Imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syx, Delfien; Guillemyn, Brecht; Symoens, Sofie; Sousa, Ana Berta; Medeira, Ana; Whiteford, Margo; Hermanns-Lê, Trinh; Coucke, Paul J; De Paepe, Anne; Malfait, Fransiska

    2015-08-01

    Whereas the vast majority of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is caused by autosomal dominant defects in the genes encoding type I procollagen, mutations in a myriad of genes affecting type I procollagen biosynthesis or bone formation and homeostasis have now been associated with rare autosomal recessive OI forms. Recently, homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in BMP1, encoding the metalloproteases bone morphogenetic protein-1 (BMP1) and its longer isoform mammalian Tolloid (mTLD), were identified in 5 children with a severe autosomal recessive form of OI and in 4 individuals with mild to moderate bone fragility. BMP1/mTLD functions as the procollagen carboxy-(C)-proteinase for types I to III procollagen but was also suggested to participate in amino-(N)-propeptide cleavage of types V and XI procollagens and in proteolytic trimming of other extracellular matrix (ECM) substrates. We report the phenotypic characteristics and natural history of 4 adults with severe, progressive OI characterized by numerous fractures, short stature with rhizomelic shortening, and deformity of the limbs and variable kyphoscoliosis, in whom we identified novel biallelic missense and frameshift mutations in BMP1. We show that BMP1/mTLD-deficiency in humans not only results in delayed cleavage of the type I procollagen C-propeptide but also hampers the processing of the small leucine-rich proteoglycan prodecorin, a regulator of collagen fibrillogenesis. Immunofluorescent staining of types I and V collagen and transmission electron microscopy of the dermis show impaired assembly of heterotypic type I/V collagen fibrils in the ECM. Our study thus highlights the severe and progressive nature of BMP1-associated OI in adults and broadens insights into the functional consequences of BMP1/mTLD-deficiency on ECM organization. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  18. Two-stage processing of sounds explains behavioral performance variations due to changes in stimulus contrast and selective attention: an MEG study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaakko Kauramäki

    Full Text Available Selectively attending to task-relevant sounds whilst ignoring background noise is one of the most amazing feats performed by the human brain. Here, we studied the underlying neural mechanisms by recording magnetoencephalographic (MEG responses of 14 healthy human subjects while they performed a near-threshold auditory discrimination task vs. a visual control task of similar difficulty. The auditory stimuli consisted of notch-filtered continuous noise masker sounds, and of 1020-Hz target tones occasionally (p = 0.1 replacing 1000-Hz standard tones of 300-ms duration that were embedded at the center of the notches, the widths of which were parametrically varied. As a control for masker effects, tone-evoked responses were additionally recorded without masker sound. Selective attention to tones significantly increased the amplitude of the onset M100 response at ~100 ms to the standard tones during presence of the masker sounds especially with notches narrower than the critical band. Further, attention modulated sustained response most clearly at 300-400 ms time range from sound onset, with narrower notches than in case of the M100, thus selectively reducing the masker-induced suppression of the tone-evoked response. Our results show evidence of a multiple-stage filtering mechanism of sensory input in the human auditory cortex: 1 one at early (~100 ms latencies bilaterally in posterior parts of the secondary auditory areas, and 2 adaptive filtering of attended sounds from task-irrelevant background masker at longer latency (~300 ms in more medial auditory cortical regions, predominantly in the left hemisphere, enhancing processing of near-threshold sounds.

  19. The Net Carbon Flux due to Deforestation and Forest Re-Growth in the Brazilian Amazon: Analysis using a Process-Based Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, A. I.; Little, W. S.; Houghton, R. A.; Scott, N. A.; White, J. D.

    2004-01-01

    We developed a process-based model of forest growth, carbon cycling, and land cover dynamics named CARLUC (for CARbon and Land Use Change) to estimate the size of terrestrial carbon pools in terra firme (non-flooded) forests across the Brazilian Legal Amazon and the net flux of carbon resulting from forest disturbance and forest recovery from disturbance. Our goal in building the model was to construct a relatively simple ecosystem model that would respond to soil and climatic heterogeneity that allows us to study of the impact of Amazonian deforestation, selective logging, and accidental fire on the global carbon cycle. This paper focuses on the net flux caused by deforestation and forest re-growth over the period from 1970-1998. We calculate that the net flux to the atmosphere during this period reached a maximum of approx. 0.35 PgC/yr (1PgC = 1 x 10(exp I5) gC) in 1990, with a cumulative release of approx. 7 PgC from 1970- 1998. The net flux is higher than predicted by an earlier study by a total of 1 PgC over the period 1989-1 998 mainly because CARLUC predicts relatively high mature forest carbon storage compared to the datasets used in the earlier study. Incorporating the dynamics of litter and soil carbon pools into the model increases the cumulative net flux by approx. 1 PgC from 1970-1998, while different assumptions about land cover dynamics only caused small changes. The uncertainty of the net flux, calculated with a Monte-Carlo approach, is roughly 35% of the mean value (1 SD).

  20. Human due diligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, David; Rouse, Ted

    2007-04-01

    Most companies do a thorough job of financial due diligence when they acquire other companies. But all too often, deal makers simply ignore or underestimate the significance of people issues in mergers and acquisitions. The consequences are severe. Most obviously, there's a high degree of talent loss after a deal's announcement. To make matters worse, differences in decision-making styles lead to infighting; integration stalls; and productivity declines. The good news is that human due diligence can help companies avoid these problems. Done early enough, it helps acquirers decide whether to embrace or kill a deal and determine the price they are willing to pay. It also lays the groundwork for smooth integration. When acquirers have done their homework, they can uncover capability gaps, points of friction, and differences in decision making. Even more important, they can make the critical "people" decisions-who stays, who goes, who runs the combined business, what to do with the rank and file-at the time the deal is announced or shortly thereafter. Making such decisions within the first 30 days is critical to the success of a deal. Hostile situations clearly make things more difficult, but companies can and must still do a certain amount of human due diligence to reduce the inevitable fallout from the acquisition process and smooth the integration. This article details the steps involved in conducting human due diligence. The approach is structured around answering five basic questions: Who is the cultural acquirer? What kind of organization do you want? Will the two cultures mesh? Who are the people you most want to retain? And how will rank-and-file employees react to the deal? Unless an acquiring company has answered these questions to its satisfaction, the acquisition it is making will be very likely to end badly.

  1. The Drone Court And Due Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    OSC Operational Security Court POA policy options analysis POW prisoner of war TSP Terrorist Surveillance Program xii THIS PAGE...beyond a reasonable doubt before they are subjected to punishment . In drone cases, however, no review is conducted in court before it is determined... prisoners are enemies who fall squarely within the terms of the President’s proclamation.49 The Supreme Court’s decision points out that military

  2. Process Recovery after CaO Addition Due to Granule Formation in a CSTR Co-Digester—A Tool to Influence the Composition of the Microbial Community and Stabilize the Process?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marietta Liebrich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The composition, structure and function of granules formed during process recovery with calcium oxide in a laboratory-scale fermenter fed with sewage sludge and rapeseed oil were studied. In the course of over-acidification and successful process recovery, only minor changes were observed in the bacterial community of the digestate, while granules appeared during recovery. Fluorescence microscopic analysis of the granules showed a close spatial relationship between calcium and oil and/or long chain fatty acids. This finding further substantiated the hypothesis that calcium precipitated with carbon of organic origin and reduced the negative effects of overloading with oil. Furthermore, the enrichment of phosphate minerals in the granules was shown, and molecular biological analyses detected polyphosphate-accumulating organisms as well as methanogenic archaea in the core. Organisms related to Methanoculleus receptaculi were detected in the inner zones of a granule, whereas they were present in the digestate only after process recovery. This finding indicated more favorable microhabitats inside the granules that supported process recovery. Thus, the granule formation triggered by calcium oxide addition served as a tool to influence the composition of the microbial community and to stabilize the process after overloading with oil.

  3. DECOVALEX-THMC Task D: Long-Term Permeability/Porosity Changes inthe EDZ and Near Field due to THM and THC Processes in Volcanic andCrystaline-Bentonite Systems, Status Report October 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkholzer, J.; Rutqvist, J.; Sonnenthal, E.; Barr, D.

    2005-11-01

    The DECOVALEX project is an international cooperativeproject initiated by SKI, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, withparticipation of about 10 international organizations. The name DECOVALEXstands for DEvelopment of COupled models and their VALidation againstExperiments. The general goal of this project is to encouragemultidisciplinary interactive and cooperative research on modelingcoupled processes in geologic formations in support of the performanceassessment for underground storage of radioactive waste. Three multi-yearproject stages of DECOVALEX have been completed in the past decade,mainly focusing on coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanicalprocesses.Currently, a fourth three-year project stage of DECOVALEX isunder way, referred to as DECOVALEX-THMC. THMC stands for Thermal,Hydrological, Mechanical, and Chemical processes. The new project stageaims at expanding the traditional geomechanical scope of the previousDECOVALEX project stages by incorporating geochemical processes importantfor repository performance. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) leadsTask D of the new DECOVALEX phase, entitled "Long-termPermeability/Porosity Changes in the EDZ and Near Field due to THC andTHM Processes for Volcanic and Crystalline-Bentonite Systems." In itsleadership role for Task D, DOE coordinates and sets the direction forthe cooperative research activities of the international research teamsengaged in Task D.

  4. DECOVALEX-THMC Project. Task D. Long-Term Permeability/Porosity Changes in the EDZ and Near Field due to THM and THC Processes in Volcanic and Crystalline-Bentonite Systems. Phase 1 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkholzer, J.; Rutqvist, J.; Sonnenthal, E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA (United States); Barr, D. [Office of Repository Development, DOE (United States)

    2007-02-15

    The general goal of this project is to encourage multidisciplinary interactive and cooperative research on modeling coupled processes in geologic formations in support of the performance assessment for underground storage of radioactive waste. Three multi-year project stages of DECOVALEX have been completed in the past decade, mainly focusing on coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical processes. Currently, a fourth three-year project stage of DECOVALEX is under way, referred to as DECOVALEX-THMC. THMC stands for Thermal, Hydrological, Mechanical, and Chemical processes. The new project stage aims at expanding the traditional geomechanical scope of the previous DECOVALEX project stages by incorporating geochemical processes important for repository performance. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) leads Task D of the new DECOVALEX phase, entitled 'Long-term Permeability/Porosity Changes in the EDZ and Near Field due to THC and THM Processes for Volcanic and Crystalline-Bentonite Systems.' In its leadership role for Task D, DOE coordinates and sets the direction for the cooperative research activities of the international research teams engaged in Task D. The research program developed for Task D of DECOVALEX-THMC involves geomechanical and geochemical research areas. THM and THC processes may lead to changes in hydrological properties that are important for performance because the flow processes in the vicinity of emplacement tunnels will be altered from their initial state. Some of these changes can be permanent (irreversible), in which case they persist after the thermal conditions have returned to ambient; i.e., they will affect the entire regulatory compliance period. Geochemical processes also affect the water and gas chemistry close to the waste packages, which are relevant for waste package corrosion, buffer stability, and radionuclide transport. Research teams participating in Task D evaluate long-term THM and THC processes in two generic geologic

  5. Diplopia due to Dacryops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Duman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dacryops is a lacrimal ductal cyst. It is known that it can cause globe displacement, motility restriction, and proptosis because of the mass effect. Diplopia due to dacryops has not been reported previously. Here, we present a 57-year-old man with binocular horizontal diplopia that occurred during left direction gaze due to dacryops.

  6. Exploring factors relevant in the assessment of the return-to-work process of employees on long-term sickness absence due to a depressive disorder: a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muijzer Anna

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efforts undertaken during the Return-to-Work (RTW process need to be sufficient in order to optimize the quality of the RTW process. The purpose of this study was to explore factors relevant to Return-to-Work Effort Sufficiency (RTW-ES in cases of sick-listed employees with a Depressive Disorder (DD. Method A case of a long-term sick-listed employee with a DD applying for disability benefits was used to gather arguments and grounds relevant to the assessment of RTW-ES. Two focus group meetings were held, consisting of Labor Experts working at the Dutch Social Insurance Institute. Factors were collected and categorized using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF model. Results Sixteen factors relevant to RTW-ES assessment in a case of DD were found, categorized in the ICF-model under activities (e.g. functional capacity, personal (e.g. competencies, attitude and environmental domain (e.g. employer-employee relationship, or categorized under interventions, job accommodations and measures. Conclusions This study shows that 16 factors are relevant in the assessment of RTW-ES in employees sick-listed due to DD. Further research is necessary to expand this knowledge to other health conditions, and to investigate the impact of these results on the quality of the RTW-ES assessment.

  7. Thin liquid films dewetting and polymer flow

    CERN Document Server

    Blossey, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    This book is a treatise on the thermodynamic and dynamic properties of thin liquid films at solid surfaces and, in particular, their rupture instabilities. For the quantitative study of these phenomena, polymer thin films haven proven to be an invaluable experimental model system.   What is it that makes thin film instabilities special and interesting, warranting a whole book? There are several answers to this. Firstly, thin polymeric films have an important range of applications, and with the increase in the number of technologies available to produce and to study them, this range is likely to expand. An understanding of their instabilities is therefore of practical relevance for the design of such films.   Secondly, thin liquid films are an interdisciplinary research topic. Interdisciplinary research is surely not an end to itself, but in this case it leads to a fairly heterogeneous community of theoretical and experimental physicists, engineers, physical chemists, mathematicians and others working on the...

  8. Maximum speed of dewetting on a fiber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, Tak Shing; Gueudre, Thomas; Snoeijer, Jacobus Hendrikus

    2011-01-01

    A solid object can be coated by a nonwetting liquid since a receding contact line cannot exceed a critical speed. We theoretically investigate this forced wetting transition for axisymmetric menisci on fibers of varying radii. First, we use a matched asymptotic expansion and derive the maximum speed

  9. Formation of Nanoparticles by Thin Film Dewetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Parasuraman

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis and assembly of nanostructures has been extensively researched because of the potential for developing new device arrays and the myriad applications they might entail. Fundamental physical laws, however, dictate the combinations of materials/substrates that provide the requisite conditions, especially in physical vapor deposition. To…

  10. Dewetting-induced collapse of hydrophobic particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X; Margulis, C J; Berne, B J

    2003-10-14

    A molecular dynamics study of the depletion of water (drying) around a single and between two hydrophobic nanoscale oblate plates in explicit water as a function of the distance of separation between them, their size, and the strength of the attraction between the plates and the water molecules is presented. A simple macroscopic thermodynamic model based on Young's law successfully predicts drying between the stacked plates and accounts for the free-energy barriers to this drying. However, because drying around a single plate is not macroscopic, a molecular theory is required to describe it. The data are consistent with the rate-determining step in the hydrophobic collapse of the two plates being a large-scale drying fluctuation, characterized by a free-energy barrier that grows with particle size.

  11. Anisotropic dewetting on stretched elastomeric substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, L; He, L H

    2008-08-01

    We study the instability of a very thin liquid film resting on a uniformly stretched soft elastomeric substrate driven by van der Waals forces. A linear stability analysis shows that the critical fluctuation wavelength in the tensile direction is larger than those in the other directions. The magnitudes of the critical wavelengths are adjustable in the sense that they depend on the principal stretch of the substrate. For example, when the principal stretch of the substrate varies from 1.0 (unstretched) to 3.0, the range of the critical wavelength in the tensile direction increases by 7.0% while that normal to the tensile direction decreases by 8.7%. Therefore, the phenomenon may find potential applications in creating tunable topographically patterned surfaces with nano- to microscale features.

  12. [Keratitis due to Acanthamoeba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Irezábal, Julio; Martínez, Inés; Isasa, Patricia; Barrón, Jorge

    2006-10-01

    Free-living amebae appertaining to the genus Acanthamoeba, Naegleria and Balamuthia are the most prevalent protozoa found in the environment. These amebae have a cosmopolitan distribution in soil, air and water, providing multiple opportunities for contacts with humans and animals, although they only occasionally cause disease. Acanthamoeba spp. are the causative agent of granulomatous amebic encephalitis, a rare and often fatal disease of the central nervous system, and amebic keratitis, a painful disease of the eyes. Keratitis usually follows a chronic course due to the delay in diagnosis and subsequent treatment. The clear increase in Acanthamoeba keratitis in the last 20 years is related to the use and deficient maintenance of contact lenses, and to swimming while wearing them. The expected incidence is one case per 30,000 contact lens wearers per year, with 88% of cases occurring in persons wearing hydrogel lenses. This review presents information on the morphology, life-cycle and epidemiology of Acanthamoeba, as well as on diagnostic procedures (culture), appropriate antimicrobial therapy, and prevention measures.

  13. due to Capillary Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen M. Ouakad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present modeling and analysis for the static behavior and collapse instabilities of doubly-clamped and cantilever microbeams subjected to capillary forces. These forces can be as a result of a volume of liquid trapped underneath the microbeam during the rinsing and drying process in fabrication. The model considers the microbeam as a continuous medium, the capillary force as a nonlinear function of displacement, and accounts for the mid-plane stretching and geometric nonlinearities. The capillary force is assumed to be distributed over a specific length underneath the microbeam. The Galerkin procedure is used to derive a reduced-order model consisting of a set of nonlinear algebraic and differential equations that describe the microbeams static and dynamic behaviors. We study the collapse instability, which brings the microbeam from its unstuck configuration to touch the substrate and gets stuck in the so-called pinned configuration. We calculate the pull-in length that distinguishes the free from the pinned configurations as a function of the beam thickness and gap width for both microbeams. Comparisons are made with analytical results reported in the literature based on the Ritz method for linear and nonlinear beam models. The instability problem, which brings the microbeam from a pinned to adhered configuration is also investigated. For this case, we use a shooting technique to solve the boundary-value problem governing the deflection of the microbeams. The critical microbeam length for this second instability is also calculated.

  14. A Mathematical Model for Scheduling a Batch Processing Machine with Multiple Incompatible Job Families, Non-identical Job dimensions, Non-identical Job sizes, Non-agreeable release times and due dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramasubramaniam, M; Mathirajan, M

    2013-01-01

    The paper addresses the problem scheduling a batch processing machine with multiple incompatible job families, non-identical job dimensions, non-identical job sizes and non-agreeable release dates to minimize makespan. The research problem is solved by proposing a mixed integer programming model that appropriately takes into account the parameters considered in the problem. The proposed is validated using a numerical example. The experiment conducted show that the model can pose significant difficulties in solving the large scale instances. The paper concludes by giving the scope for future work and some alternative approaches one can use for solving these class of problems.

  15. [On Atomic Nuclear Fusion Processes at Low-Temperatures. An Enhancement of the Probability of Transition through a Potential Barrier Due to the So-Called Barrier Anti-Zeno Effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namiot, V A

    2016-01-01

    It is known that in quantum mechanics the act of observing the experiment can affect the experimental findings in some cases. In particular, it happens under the so-called Zeno effect. In this work it is shown that in contrast to the "standard" Zeno-effect where the act of observing a process reduces the probability of its reality, an inverse situation when a particle transmits through a potential barrier (a so-called barrier anti-Zeno effect) can be observed, the observation of the particle essentially increases the probability of its transmission through the barrier. The possibility of using the barrier anti-Zeno effect is discussed to explain paradoxical results of experiments on "cold nuclear fusion" observed in various systems including biological ones. (According to the observers who performed the observations, the energy generation, which could not be explained by any chemical processes, as well as the change in the isotope and even element composition of the studied object may occur in these systems.

  16. Potentially lethal damage versus sublethal damage: independent repair processes in actively growing Chinese hamster cells. [Effects of osmotic pressure differences due to NaCl concentrations in buffer solutions on sensitivity of cells to x rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utsumi, H.; Elkind, M.M.

    1979-02-01

    Actively growing V79 Chinese hamster cells, treated with anisotonic phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) after x irradiation, are more sensitive than cells treated with isotonic PBS or cells promptly incubated with complete medium immediately after irradiation. The sensitization of irradiated cells results from hypotonic as well as hypertonic NaCl concentrations in PBS, is strongly dependent on both temperature and time, and is mainly due to an increase in the final slope of the single-dose survival curve. After two x-ray dose fractions, the net response of cells sensitized after each fraction by anisotonic post-treatment is similar to that obtained for isotonically treated cells and indicates that sublethal damage repair is not influenced by the enhanced expression of lethal damage. Independence of the repair of damage which is potentially lethal from the repair of damage which is sublethal is further suggested by the more rapid rate of the former compared to that of the latter. The proposal is advanced that the enhanced expression of damage which, after x irradiation, can be shown to be potentially lethal results from a destabilization of the structural relationship between DNA and the nuclear envelope, and/or DNA and the nuclear protein matrix, as a consequence of osmotic changes produced by anisotonic treatment.

  17. The Absence of the Transcription Factor Yrr1p, Identified from Comparative Genome Profiling, Increased Vanillin Tolerance Due to Enhancements of ABC Transporters Expressing, rRNA Processing and Ribosome Biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinning; Liang, Zhenzhen; Hou, Jin; Shen, Yu; Bao, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    Enhancing the tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to inhibitors derived from lignocellulose is conducive to producing biofuel and chemicals using abundant lignocellulosic materials. Vanillin is a major type of phenolic inhibitor in lignocellulose hydrolysates for S. cerevisiae . In the present work, the factors beneficial to vanillin resistance in yeast were identified from the vanillin-resistant strain EMV-8, which was derived from strain NAN-27 by adaptive evolution. We found 450 SNPs and 44 genes with InDels in the vanillin-tolerant strain EMV-8 by comparing the genome sequences of EMV-8 and NAN-27. To investigate the effects of InDels, InDels were deleted in BY4741, respectively. We demonstrated that the deletion of YRR1 improved vanillin tolerance of strain. In the presence of 6 mM vanillin, deleting YRR1 increase the maximum specific growth rate and the vanillin consumption rate by 142 and 51%, respectively. The subsequent transcriptome analysis revealed that deleting YRR1 resulted in changed expression of over 200 genes in the presence of 5 mM vanillin. The most marked changes were the significant up-regulation of the dehydrogenase ADH7 , several ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, and dozens of genes involved in ribosome biogenesis and rRNA processing. Coincidently, the crude enzyme solution of BY4741( yrr1 Δ) exhibited higher NADPH-dependent vanillin reduction activity than control. In addition, overexpressing the ABC transporter genes PDR5, YOR1 , and SNQ2 , as well as the RNA helicase gene DBP2 , increased the vanillin tolerance of strain. Interestingly, unlike the marked changes we mentioned above, under vanillin-free conditions, there are only limited transcriptional differences between wildtype and yrr1 Δ. This indicated that vanillin might act as an effector in Yrr1p-related regulatory processes. The new findings of the relationship between YRR1 and vanillin tolerance, as well as the contribution of rRNA processing and ribosome biogenesis to

  18. Macrocluster desorption effect caused by single MCI: charges of gold clusters (2-20 nm) desorbed due to electronic processes induced by fission fragment bombardment in nanodispersed gold targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, I.; Jarmiychuk, S.; Kirillov, S.; Novikov, A.; Obnorskii, V.; Pchelintsev, A.; Wien, K.; Reimann, C.

    1999-01-01

    In this work the charge state of the negatively charged gold nanocluster ions (2-20 nm) that were desorbed from nanodispersed gold islet targets by 252 Cf fission fragments via electronic processes is studied. Mean cluster charge was calculated as a ratio of mean cluster mass to mean mass-to-charge ratio . Cluster masses were measured by means of a collector technique employing transmission electron microscopy and scanning force microscopy, while m/q was measured by means of a tandem TOF-spectrometer. It is shown that the nanocluster ions are mostly multiply charged (2-16e) and the charge increases non-linearly with the cluster size. The results are discussed

  19. Flow Rate Capacity Reduction Due to Temporal and Dynamic Processes in Large Pipelines. Study with Field Measurements; Efectos dinamicos y temporales en la reduccion de la capacidad de conduccion en grandes acueductos. Estudio con medidas en prototipo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmona Paredes, Rafael; Ortiz Nunez, Luis Alfonso; Sanchez Huerta, Alejandro [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2002-06-01

    More than 15 years of operation have show that some water transport pressurized pipelines change their flow rate capacity faster than expected due to normal roughness increase. As explained by the tubular pinch effects, the radial migration of suspended particles in a flow can produce a high concentration close to the pipe wall. The non-uniform particle concentration leads to higher velocities at the center of the tube, equivalent to a reduced hydraulic section that increases the head losses. A model to explain field measurements at the Chapala-Guadalajara Aqueduct is proposed that suggests to hydraulic engineers to be more distrustful when using traditional head loss formulas to analyze water transport pipelines. [Spanish] La perdida de la capacidad de conduccion es un grave problema en la operacion de grandes acueductos. Mas de 15 anos de estudios y de inspeccion directa al interior de las tuberias de varios sistemas de abastecimiento de agua potable han mostrado el desarrollo de capas de material fino fuertemente adheridas a la pared de los tubos. En algunos casos, la variacion de la perdida de carga no ha podido ser explicada con los modelos tradicionales de crecimiento de la rugosidad interna, por lo que para explicar de forma adecuada las mediciones de campo realizadas en el acueducto Chapala-Guadalajara ha sido necesario incorporar de manera simultanea fenomenos dinamicos y temporales. Con base en el fecto de elongacion tubular (o tubular pinch effect), descrito por otros autores, mas observaciones directas al interior de las tuberias, en este trabajo se plantea como una posible de la disminucion de capacidad de conduccion en el acueducto Chapala-Guadalajara un cambio aparente en la seccion efectiva del flujo, originado por la migracion radial hacia la pared del tubo de las particulas suspendidas en el agua. El modelo que propone reproduce las medidas en campo con diferencias menores al 10% e invita a reflexionar sobre las practicas convencionales para

  20. Characterization of Explosives Processing Waste Decomposition Due to Composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    either to residual contamination or to some non-contaminant difference in compost chemistry. In contrast, root length of lettuce seedlings in either...relative to nutrient-poor sand. Roots of lettuce seedlings in the CWR-8 compost were 24% to 35% shorter than in the UWR-5 compost. Shoot length was also...Germination and Early Growth of Lettuce After 5 D .................. 68 5.5 Germination Rates of Arabidopsis, Cabbage and Clover Seeds in 100% Sand or Compost

  1. Electronic Data Discovery: Integrating Due Process into Cyber Forensic Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Bagby

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Most organizations and government agencies regularly become engaged in litigation with suppliers, customers, clients, employees, competitors, shareholders, prosecutors or regulatory agencies that nearly assures the need to organize, retain, find and produce business records and correspondence, e-mails, accounting records or other data relevant to disputed issues. This article discusses some high visibility cases that constrain how metadata and content is routinely made available to opposing parties in civil litigation, to prosecutors in criminal prosecutions and to agency staff in regulatory enforcement litigation. Public policy, as implemented in the rules of evidence and pretrial discovery, restrict electronic data discovery (EDD as it becomes a predominant and potentially costly pre-trial activity pivotal to modern litigation. This article discusses these constraints while identifying opportunities for the interdisciplinary activities among litigators, forensic experts and information technology professionals.

  2. Statewide Responsibility and Its Effect on Due Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Paula D.; Ruby, Ralph, Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the importance of being fully aware of the school district's, the state's, and the organization's rules, regulations, and laws affecting teachers, students, parents and guardians, and taxpayers regarding student organizations. (JOW)

  3. Hospital Credentials Action and Due Process: A Framework for Fairness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-30

    of Council Bluffs,’ 243 Iowa 582, 52 N.W. 2d 701 ( 1952 ); Weary V. Baylor 4 Univ. Hosp, 360 S.W. 2d 895 (1962) 21 222 F. Supp. 59 (D.C., D.C. 1963) 22...the judicial scru..iny imposed on other private businesses and professionals which served the common good such as innkeepers , carriers 41 71--v 4U

  4. Hazards to Effective Due Diligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Benoliel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available It is not surprising that many business deals fail to realize their expected future value because some deal makers fail to perform effective due diligence. Successful deal makers, however, know that due diligence is one of the most important tasks in successful deal making. Thus, they avoid the psychological and contextual traps that cause poor due diligence. In this article, I describe the hazards – the psychological biases and contextual factors – that might affect the due diligence task. These hazards include information availability bias; confirmation bias; overconfidence bias; time pressure; self-interested agents; deal fever; narrow focus; and complexity. Following this review, I provide a number of suggestions to help deal makers and organizations overcome these hazards.

  5. Autoerotic death due to electrocution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Arkuszewski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Autoerotic death is a very rare case in forensic medicine. It is usually caused by asphyxia, but other reasons are also possible. Herein we present a case of autoerotic death due to electrocution caused by a self-made electrical device. The device was constructed to increase sexual feelings through stimulation of the scrotal area.

  6. Maculopathy due to drug inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio-Sánchez, V M; Gonzalez-Buendia, L; Marcos-Fernández, M

    2014-08-01

    A case of maculopathy due to "poppers" is described. Poppers is a drug composed of various forms of alkyl nitrite. A 39 year-old man, who had been using poppers for years, was seen in the clinic with phosphenes, reduced visual acuity and central scotoma. The SD-OCT in the right eye showed disruption at the level of the IS/OS junction line. The SD-OCT scan in the left eye showed an outer rectangular retinal hole and an outer retinal cyst. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. [Infections due to Mycobacterium simiae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martos, Pedro; García-Agudo, Lidia; González-Moya, Enrique; Galán, Fátima; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel

    2015-10-01

    Mycobacterium simiae is a slow-growing photochromogenic environmental mycobacterium, first described in 1965. Rarely associated with human infections, possibly due to its limited pathogenicity, it mainly produces lung infection in immunocompetent elderly patients with underlying lung disease, and in disseminated infections in immunosuppressed young patients with AIDS. A microbiological culture is needed to confirm the clinical suspicion, and genetic sequencing techniques are essential to correctly identify the species. Treating M. simiae infections is complicated, owing to the multiple resistance to tuberculous drugs and the lack of correlation between in vitro susceptibility data and in vivo response. Proper treatment is yet to be defined, but must include clarithromycin combined with other antimicrobials such as moxifloxacin and cotrimoxazole. It is possible that M. simiae infections are undiagnosed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  8. Occupational injuries due to violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, T; Seligman, P J; Newman, S C; Timbrook, C L

    1988-06-01

    Each year in the United States, an estimated 800 to 1,400 people are murdered at work, and an unknown number of nonfatal injuries due to workplace violence occur. Based on Ohio's workers' compensation claims from 1983 through 1985, police officers, gasoline service station employees, employees of the real estate industry, and hotel/motel employees were found to be at the highest risk for occupational violent crime (OVC) injury and death. Grocery store employees, specifically those working in convenience food stores, and employees of the real estate industry had the most reported rapes. Four previously unidentified industries at increased risk of employee victimization were described. Identification of industries and occupations at high risk for crime victimization provides the opportunity to focus preventive strategies to promote employee safety and security in the workplace.

  9. Single fatherhood due to cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yopp, Justin M; Rosenstein, Donald L

    2012-12-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of widowed fatherhood in the USA. Fathers whose spouses have died from cancer constitute a potentially vulnerable population as they adjust to their role as sole or primary caregiver while managing their own grief and that of their children. The importance of addressing the psychological needs of widowed fathers is underscored by data showing that father's coping and emotional availability are closely tied to their bereaved children's mental health. Surprisingly, scant attention has been given to the phenomenon of widowed fatherhood with virtually no clinical resources or research studies devoted to fathers who have lost their wives to cancer. This commentary highlights key challenges facing this underserved population of widowers and calls for development of research agendas and clinical interventions for single fathers due to cancer. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. APPENDICULAR INVAGINATION DUE TO ENDOMETRIOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasja Kruh

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Invagination of the vermiform appendix is a very rare occurrence. We summarize epidemiologic and etiologic factors, types of classification, symtomatology, diagnostic features and treatment.Patients and treatment. The authors present 49-years old female with long-standing abdominal pains, who came in our hospital due to acute exacerbation with sever abdominal pain. Because of progressive symptoms and sensitivity in the right-lower abdominal quadrant a diagnostic laparoscopy was performed. An anomaly of cecum and the absence of appendix vermiformis have forced us to proceed with laparotomy in McBurnay point. After cecotomy an invaginated gangrenous appendix was found. The histological examination revealed endometriosis.Conclusions. By presenting this extremely rare pathology we also want to emphasize the important role of diagnostic laparoscopy in front of acute abdomen.

  11. Surface wave generation due to glacier calving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław R. Massel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Coastal glaciers reach the ocean in a spectacular process called "calving". Immediately after calving, the impulsive surface waves are generated, sometimes of large height. These waves are particularly dangerous for vessels sailing close to the glacier fronts. The paper presents a theoretical model of surface wave generation due to glacier calving. To explain the wave generation process, four case studies of ice blocks falling into water are discussed: a cylindrical ice block of small thickness impacting on water, an ice column sliding into water without impact, a large ice block falling on to water with a pressure impulse, and an ice column becoming detached from the glacier wall and falling on to the sea surface. These case studies encompass simplified, selected modes of the glacier calving, which can be treated in a theoretical way. Example calculations illustrate the predicted time series of surface elevations for each mode of glacier calving.

  12. Onycomycosis due to artificial nails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemer, A; Trau, H; Davidovici, B; Grunwald, M H; Amichai, B

    2008-08-01

    The use of artificial nails (ANs) as part of nail-care cosmetics is very popular. Several side effects and complications, such as contact dermatitis and bacterial and fungal infections, have been reported in patients using ANs. Objective The purpose of this study was to identify the fungal pathogens in nail abnormalities appearing in patients with ANs. We evaluated 68 patients suffering from nail changes and paronychia, which appear after removal of ANs. Mycological samples were obtained from two sites: distal parts of the involved nail and the proximal nail fold. KOH examination and fungal culture were used for detection and identification of fungal infection. Mycological results from the distal part of the nail showed positive KOH test in 57 cases (83.8%), and culture was positive in 67 patients (98.5%). Mycological results obtained from the proximal nail fold showed positive KOH test in 36 patients (52.9%); in 36 of the cases, culture was positive. Candida spp. were the most common pathogen. Both KOH and culture results were significantly better while sampling from the distal part of the nail compared with sampling from the proximal nail fold (P = 0.0001). Onychomycosis was found to be very common in nail changes due to ANs, leading to an increased risk of transmitting microbial infections. Therefore, health care personnel and workers in the food industry should avoid using ANs.

  13. [Nephropathy due to Puumala hantavirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandolo, A; Prajs, N; Lizop, M

    2014-12-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is due to an infection by the virus of the Hantavirus genus. Rodent hosts of Hantavirus are present in restricted areas in France; consequently, there are ecological niches and microepidemics of human Hantavirus infections. A HFRS case was diagnosed in the Paris region. The 11-year-old child had an acute debut fever-persistent despite antipyretic medication-asthenia, headache, abdominal pain, myalgia, thrombocytopenia, as well as renal failure with proteinuria. The diagnosis was made with a relevant clinical history and the specific serology of Puumala hantavirus. Therefore, a kidney biopsy was not necessary. What was interesting was the diagnostic approach because of the difference between the place and time of contamination and where the child became ill and developed the symptoms. The child was infected by Puumala hantavirus in Les Ardennes, a high-risk area, but became ill in the Paris region, an area with no prevalence. We review Hantavirus infections in France and its differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Operating limitations due to low gas temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruschi, R.; Ghiselli, W.; Spinazze, M.

    1995-12-31

    A number of projects concerning continental links for the transport of treated natural gas over long distance, both on and offshore, have been implemented during the last few years or are currently being implemented. The long trunklines in North America and subsea trunklines planned or already in operation in the North Sea, are outstanding examples of such long distance transmission of gas in large diameter pipelines operated at high pressure. The development of such network has paid special attention to the effects that low temperature resulting from the transportation process may imply in terms of pipe structural integrity and environmental impact. Scope of this paper is to discuss operating limitations due to low gas temperature. New project scenarios are presented in a brief introduction. The fluido-thermo-dynamic background for the development of low temperatures are outlined. Finally some topics relevant to structural integrity are discussed in particular such as the pipe steel behaviour at low temperature, the prediction techniques of the ice bulb growth around the pipe, the interactions of the cold line with the soil and the consequences due to the differential compliancy of the pipeline towards points of fixity (in-line valves/tees or fixed plants). 30 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Septic arthritis due to Streptococcus sanguis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandac, Inga; Prkacin, Ingrid; Matovinović, Mirjana Sabljar; Sustercić, Dunja

    2010-06-01

    Septic arthritis may represent a direct invasion of joint space by various microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses and fungi. Although any infectious agent may cause bacterial arthritis, bacterial pathogens are the most significant because of their rapidly destructive nature. We present a case of septic arthritis in a 56-year old male patient due to Streptococcus viridans which is member of the viridans group streptococci. Patient was admitted to Our Hospital presented as fever of unknown origin, losing more than 30 kg of body weight during couple of months, and anemia of chronic disease as paraneoplastic process. He had long history of arterial hypertension and stroke. There was swelling and pain of the right sternoclavicular joint and precordial systolic murmur in physical status. A large diagnostic panel has been made, computerized tomography (CT) of right sternoclavicular joint showed widening of periarticular soft tissue and loss of clavicular corticalis. Cytologic analysis of synovial fluid showed more than 90% of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. There were no crystals on microscopic examination and Gram stain of fluid was negative. Blood cultures were positive for S. sanguis and there was a consideration about possible periodontal disease. Stomatologic examination verified periapical ostitis and extraction of potential cause of infection has been done. Therapy with benzilpenicilline was followed by the gradual improvement of clinical and laboratory parameters. Although viridans group streptococci and Streptococcus sanguis in particular are rare causes of septic arthritis in native joints, they should be considered in the differential diagnosis of periodontal disease.

  16. Reviewing IT in due diligence are you buying an IT asset or liability

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Reviewing IT in Due Diligence provides an introduction to IRM in due diligence, and outlines some of the key IT issues to consider as part of the due diligence process. For those new to the process, it explains how to conduct an IT due diligence review, from scoping to reporting, and includes information on post-merger integration to realise business benefits from the deal. For more experienced practitioners, Reviewing IT in Due Diligence provides fresh insight into the process, highlighting issues that need to be addressed, and provides a business case for IRM involvement in the due diligenc

  17. Pathological Fracture due to pemphigus vulgaris: A case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pemphigus vulgaris is a rare but serious autoimmune mucocutaneous bullous disease.The two cardinal pathological processes at work are a split within the epidermis and loss of adhesion of epidermal cells (Acantholysis). It is due to deposition of pathogenic IgG on the Keratinocyte cell surface. The mainstay of treatment is ...

  18. Numerical simulation of baseflow modification due to effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Numerical simulation of baseflow modification due to effects of sediment yield. ... Physically-based mathematical modelling affords the opportunity to look at this kind of interaction, which should be simulated by deterministic responses of both water and fluvial processes. In addition to simulating the streamflow and ...

  19. Dephasing of a qubit due to quantum and classical noise

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The qubit (or a system of two quantum dots) has become a standard paradigm for studying quantum information processes. Our focus is decoherence due to interaction of the qubit with its environment, leading to noise. We consider quantum noise generated by a dissipative quantum bath. A detailed comparative study with ...

  20. (ajst) intersystem interference due to hydrometeor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    at the three locations are used to predict interference levels with the probability of occurrence ranging from 1-10-3%. The attenuation of the signals due to rain was evaluated using the Power law relationship between attenuation and rain rate, while attenuation due to atmospheric gases was calculated using the ITU-R Rec.

  1. Intracardiac lead endocarditis due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Anish; Gulati, Dhiraj; Woldenberg, Nina; Singh, Mamta

    2010-09-01

    Staphylococcus Lugdunensis is a rare but potentially aggressive pathogen in the family of coagulase negative staphylococcus (CoNS). It can cause a wide variety of infections ranging from superficial skin to fulminant infections like endocarditis. Both native and prosthetic valve endocarditis due to S. lugdunensis have been documented in the English literature. Eight cases of pacemaker lead endocarditis due to S. lugdunensis have been described so far. We present the ninth case of pacemaker lead and first case of automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator (AICD) lead endocarditis due to S. lugdunensis. Copyright © 2010 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Geotechnical problems that occur due to the fact of groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujić Bojana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Beginning from the basic views on the main problem that occurs due to hydro-geomechanical processes, in particular the driving force caused by changing the pressure of groundwater, this paper will provide a review of the assessment of stresses and strains in the soil (soil and rock. The solution is a combination of the system of equations of the soil and ground water flow and caused geotechnical stresses or problems that occur in the soil. The paper will describe in detail the problem of subsidence due to pumping of water in the open pit-field problems and assessment of seepage forces in saturated or unsaturated loose materials.

  3. Facial nerve palsy due to birth trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventh cranial nerve palsy due to birth trauma; Facial palsy - birth trauma; Facial palsy - neonate; Facial palsy - infant ... to this condition. Some factors that can cause birth trauma (injury) include: Large baby size (may be ...

  4. Cutaneous human myiasis due to Dermatobia hominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suite, M; Polson, K

    2007-10-01

    This is a case report of cutaneous myiasis due to Dermatobia hominis in a female physician who had travelled to Belize. Cutaneous myiasis is endemic in Central and South America but is seldom reported from the Caribbean islands.

  5. Colonic urticaria pattern due to early ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, H.M.; Goldberg, H.I.; Axel, L.

    1981-05-15

    The unusual radiographic pattern of bleb-like mounds on the surface of the colon mucosa, previously described as colonic urticaria, was seen in 3 patients in whom no allergic state was present. This urticaria-like pattern was due to colonic distention in all 3, and represented only submucosal edema on the gross and microscopic specimens. We hypothesize that this pattern is due to early changes of ischemia caused by colon distention.

  6. Greenhouse effect due to atmospheric nitrous oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Y. L.; Wang, W. C.; Lacis, A. A.

    1976-01-01

    The greenhouse effect due to nitrous oxide in the present atmosphere is about 0.8 K. Increase in atmospheric N2O due to perturbation of the nitrogen cycle by man may lead to an increase in surface temperature as large as 0.5 K by 2025, or 1.0 K by 2100. Other climatic effects of N2O are briefly discussed.

  7. Serology of paracoccidioidomycosis due to Paracoccidioides lutzii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegembauer, Gregory; Araujo, Leticia Mendes; Pereira, Edy Firmina; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Paniago, Anamaria Mello Miranda; Hahn, Rosane Christine; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2014-07-01

    Paracoccidioides lutzii is a new agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) and has its epicenter localized to the Central-West region of Brazil. Serological diagnosis of PCM caused by P. lutzii has not been established. This study aimed to develop new antigenic preparations from P. lutzii and to apply them in serological techniques to improve the diagnosis of PCM due to P. lutzii. Paracoccidioides lutzii exoantigens, cell free antigen (CFA), and a TCA-precipitated antigen were evaluated in immunodiffusion (ID) tests using a total of 89 patient sera from the Central-West region of Brazil. Seventy-two sera were defined as reactive for P. brasiliensis using traditional antigens (AgPbB339 and gp43). Non-reactive sera for traditional antigens (n = 17) were tested with different P. lutzii preparations and P. lutzii CFA showed 100% reactivity. ELISA was found to be a very useful test to titer anti-P. lutzii antibodies using P. lutzii-CFA preparations. Sera from patients with PCM due to P. lutzii presented with higher antibody titers than PCM due to P. brasiliensis and heterologous sera. In western blot, sera from patients with PCM due to P. lutzii were able to recognize antigenic molecules from the P. lutzii-CFA antigen, but sera from patients with PCM due to P. brasiliensis could not recognize any P. lutzii molecules. Due to the facility of preparing P. lutzii CFA antigens we recommend its use in immunodiffusion tests for the diagnosis of PCM due to P. lutzii. ELISA and western blot can be used as complementary tests.

  8. Due diligence duties for an environmental liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebsch, M.

    2000-04-01

    Jurisdiction turned out well to create a basic ruling for due diligence duties. These due diligence duties are high standards for the law of torts (outside of contracts) within the Austrian civil law and represent a liability-extension for the holder of the source of danger. They establish an action for injunction in particular for preventing (further) damages. Therewith due diligence duties get a general sense in the range of a civil law for environmental liability. The responsible holder of a danger zone will therefore influence his way of acting to protect potential victims and the environment. The burden of proof is on the plaintiff (victims) under the Civil Code. Victims have specific sources of danger including high endangering special facilities in their argumentation with the so-called prima-facie-proof or first-appearance-proof. A turning back of the presentation of evidence to the polluter is wrong. The polluter himself has a continuing liability for dangerous activities and his clerks in the case of an extremely high danger of damage. All due diligence duties can be arranged in three areas: in information-, danger-avoidance- and danger-prevention-duties. The determination of range and essence of the duties has to be adjusted to each individual case. The range of the specific danger area is the essential link. The intensity of due diligence duties is increasing with the size of danger in the way of a movable system depending on the protected interest. Due diligence duties have to be kept within reasonable limits with two criterions: necessarity and demand. Proportionality of actions is a third criterion to avoid exaggeration of due diligence duties to obtain an effective protection for victims including the environment. (author)

  9. Paraneoplastic Cushing Syndrome Due To Wilm's Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizan, Mahwish; Manzoor, Jaida; Saleem, Muhammad; Anwar, Saadia; Mehmood, Qaiser; Hameed, Ambreen; Ali, Agha Shabbir

    2017-05-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes are rare disorders that are triggered by an altered immune system response to neoplasm. Paraneoplastic syndromes may be the first or the most prominent manifestations of cancer. Wilm's tumor is the most frequent pediatric renal malignancy and usually presents with abdominal mass. Unusual presentations like acquired von Willebrand disease, sudden death due to pulmonary embolism and Cushing syndrome have been described in the literature. Cushing syndrome, as the presenting symptom of a malignant renal tumor in children, is a very rare entity. Few case reports are available in the literature exploring the option of preoperative chemotherapy as well as upfront nephrectomy. We report a rare case of paraneoplastic Cushing syndrome due to a Wilm's tumor. Based on gradual decrease of postoperative weight, blood pressure, serum adrenocorticotropic hormone, and plasma cortisol levels, along with histological confirmation of Wilm's tumor, paraneoplastic Cushing syndrome due to Wilm's tumor was confirmed.

  10. Pseudotumour cerebri syndrome due to cryptococcal meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, P D; Johnston, I H; Halmagyi, G M

    1997-01-01

    Three cases are reported of the pseudotumour cerebri syndrome-that is, intracranial hypertension without mass lesion or enlarged ventricles, due to cryptococcal meningitis. In these patients the papilloedema was successfully treated with optic nerve sheath decompression, and the intracranial hypertension with lumboperitoneal CSF shunting. These cases support the concept that pseudotumour cerebri is a syndrome of intracranial hypertension that can be due to any disorder producing obstruction of the CSF pathways at the level of the arachnoid villi. This concept is important because it directs therapy to normalise the intracranial pressure and preserve vision. Images PMID:9010409

  11. [Immediate type allergies due to metal - nickel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kampen, V; Merget, R; Brüning, T

    2003-11-01

    Occupational allergies of the immediate type due to metals, which are predominantly caused by nickel, platinum, chromium and cobalt, are rather rare. The present paper reviews the results of the evaluation of literature data concerning the occupational airway sensitization due to nickel, which is used in many different industrial fields - especially in the electroplating industry. Cases of specific airway sensizitation caused by nickel are verified by a number of studies, predominantly case histories. In conclusion, there is sufficient evidence that nickel may cause IgE-mediated hypersensitivity with typical symptoms.

  12. Identification of Corrosion Products Due to Seawater and Fresh Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gismelseed, A.; Elzain, M.; Yousif, A.; Al Rawas, A.; Al-Omari, I. A.; Widatallah, H.; Rais, A.

    2004-12-01

    Mössbauer and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were performed on corrosion products extracted from the inner surface of two different metal tubes used in a desalination plant in Oman. One of the tubes corroded due to the seawater while the second was corroded due to fresh water. The corrosion products thus resulted due to seawater were scrapped off in to two layers, the easily removable rust from the top is termed outer surface corrosion product and the strongly adhered rust as internal corrosion product. The Mössbauer spectra together with the XRD pattern of the outer surface showed the presence of magnetite (Fe3O4), akaganeite (β-FeOOH), lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH), goethite (α-FeOOH) and hematite (Fe2O3). The inner surface however showed the presence of akaganite, goethite, and magnetite. On the other hand, the corrosion products due to the fresh water showed only the presence of goethite and magnetite. The mechanism of the corrosion process will be discussed based on the significant differences between the formation of the iron components of the corrosion products due to seawater and the fresh water.

  13. Characterizing and Quantifying Emissions and Transport of Fugitive Dust Emissions Due to Department of Defense Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-19

    hematite. They suggest that this veneer of fine particles are removed, and thus enhance the dust concentration, through abrasion processes between the...FINAL REPORT Characterizing and Quantifying Emissions and Transport of Fugitive Dust Emissions Due to Department of Defense Activities SERDP...Fugitive Dust Emissions Due 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Fugitive Dust Emissions Due to Department of Defense Activities 5b

  14. Plagiarism Due to Misunderstanding: Online Instructor Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberger, Scott; Holbeck, Rick; Steele, John; Dyer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism is an ongoing problem in higher education. This problem exists in both online and face-to-face modalities. The literature indicates that there are three ways higher education institutions define plagiarism, which includes theft, deception, and misunderstanding. Plagiarism due to misunderstanding has received less attention in the…

  15. [Delayed asthma bronchiale due to epoxy resin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Authried, Georg; Al-Asadi, Haifaa; Møller, Ulla; Sherson, David Lee

    2013-10-28

    Epoxy resin is a low molecular weight agent, which can cause both acute and delayed allergic reactions. However, it is known causing skin reactions with direct or airborne contact. Rarely it can cause airway reactions like asthma bronchiale. We describe a case of a windmill worker who developed delayed asthma bronchiale due to airborne contact with epoxy resin.

  16. Internal dosimetric evaluation due to uranium aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Aguilar Juan; Delgado Avila Gustavo

    1991-01-01

    The present work has like object to carry out the internal dosimetric evaluation to the occupationally exposed personnel, due to the inhalation of aerosols of natural uranium and enriched in the pilot plant of nuclear fuel production of the National Institute of Nuclear Research

  17. Transhorizon Radiowave Propagation due to Evaporation Dueting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 1. Transhorizon Radiowave Propagation due to Evaporation Ducting - The Effect of Tropospheric Weather Conditions on VHF and UHF Radio Paths Over the Sea. Salil David Gunashekar D R Siddle E M Warrington. General Article Volume 11 ...

  18. Pneumonia and Bacteremia Due to Kytococcus schroeteri

    OpenAIRE

    Blennow, Ola; Westling, Katarina; Fröding, Inga; Özenci, Volkan

    2012-01-01

    Kytococcus schroeteri, a saprophyte of the human skin, may cause serious infections in the immunocompromised host. Here, we describe a case of pneumonia and bacteremia due to Kytococcus schroeteri in an immunocompromised patient, successfully treated with linezolid and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.

  19. Pneumonia and bacteremia due to Kytococcus schroeteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blennow, Ola; Westling, Katarina; Fröding, Inga; Ozenci, Volkan

    2012-02-01

    Kytococcus schroeteri, a saprophyte of the human skin, may cause serious infections in the immunocompromised host. Here, we describe a case of pneumonia and bacteremia due to Kytococcus schroeteri in an immunocompromised patient, successfully treated with linezolid and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.

  20. Nuclear potentials due to pion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robillota, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    The two, three and four nucleon potentials due to the exchange of pions can be accurately calculated by means of chiral symmetry. The comparison of the dynamical content of these potentials allow us to understand the geometrical origin of the hierarchy existing among them. (Author) [pt

  1. Spinal cord compression due to metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, C.M. de; Matushita, J.P.K.; Silva, M.A.F. da; Koch, H.A.

    1986-01-01

    A study of 20 patients with medullary compression syndrome due to lesions not related to the central nervous system is presented. Plain films of the spine and myelography are made to determine the level of osseous involvement, the level of the spinal block and to planning radiotherapy. (Author) [pt

  2. Due diligence responsibilities of the professional geologist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, G.W.

    1991-01-01

    Whether in the role of independent consultant or company employee, a geologist has certain professional obligations in the evaluation of an oil and gas submittal from a third party. 'Due diligence' is the term used to describe the analysis of an investment opportunity. Due diligence involves a multidisciplinary examination of both the technical and business aspects of a submittal. In addition to the obvious geological considerations, prospect evaluations should include relevant details about the specific technical documentation reviewed, information sources, and how the data were verified. Full disclosure of ownership, technical risks, and negative aspects of the prospect should be included along with the positive elements. After the geological analysis is completed, the economic merits of the prospect should be analyzed, incorporating all lease burdens and terms of participation into the calculations. Estimated exploration, development, and operating costs, together with projected annual production, cash flow, and reserves must be examined as to their reasonableness. Finally, the due diligence review should include a thorough check on the reputation, financial condition, technical and managerial expertise, and prior track record of the operator. Bank, trade, legal, and prior partner references should be contacted. The successful professional geologist in today's competitive world must have multidisciplinary skills. A solid background in geology and geophysics, a basic understanding of the principles of petroleum engineering and economics, and the wits of a private eye are needed for good due diligence work

  3. Dysphagia due to diffuseidiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) or Forestier's disease isa form of degenerative arthritiswith unique spinal and extra spinal manifestations. Dysphagia due to DISH is uncommon but when present DISH should be suspected. Surgical decompression can relieve some of the symptoms. We report a case of a 60 ...

  4. Systemic contact dermatitis due to nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taruli Olivia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Systemic contact dermatitis (SCD is a systemic reactivation of a previous allergic contact dermatitis. The initial exposure may usually be topical, followed by oral, intravenous or inhalation exposure leading to a systemic hypersensitivity reaction. A case of a 27 year-old male with SCD due to nickel is reported Case Report: A 27 year-old male presented with recurrent pruritic eruption consist of deep seated vesicles on both palmar and left plantar since 6 months before admission. This complaint began after patient consumed excessive amounts of chocolate, canned food, and beans. The patient worked as a technician in a food factory. History of allergy due to nickel was acknowledged since childhood. The clinical presentation was diffuse deep seated vesicles, and multiple erythematous macules to plaques, with collarette scale. Patch test using the European standard showed a +3 result to nickel. The patient was diagnosed as systemic contact dermatitis due to nickel. The treatments were topical corticosteroid and patient education of avoidance of both contact and systemic exposure to nickel. The patient showed clinical improvement after 2 weeks. Discussion: SCD was diagnosed due to the history of massive consumption of food containing nickel in a patient who had initial sensitization to nickel, with clinical features and the patch test result. Advice to be aware of nickel and its avoidance is important in SCD management.

  5. Recurrent poststernotomy mediastinitis due to histoplasmosis: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This report describes the first case of surgical site infection due to Histoplasma capsulatum. A 4 year-old presented with recurrent thoracotomy surgical site infection (SSI) requiring multiple debridements until the correct diagnosis was performed. This case illustrates the critical role of histopathology in early recognition of ...

  6. Elevated Tank Due to Earthquake Even

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotrasová Kamila

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Elevated reservoirs are mainly used for storing of variety water. During earthquake activity the fluid exerts impulsive and convective (sloshing effects on the walls and bottom of tank. This paper provides theoretical background for analytical calculating of elevated water tank due to earthquake even and deals with simplified seismic design procedures for elevated tanks.

  7. Pulsatile Proptosis due to Intraorbital Meningocele

    OpenAIRE

    Rumund, A. van; Verrips, A.; Verhagen, W.I.

    2017-01-01

    We present a case of a 79-year-old man with a non-symptomatic pulsatile proptosis of the left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a meningocele into the left orbit due to an osseous defect in the orbital roof.

  8. Myocardial infection due to Fusobacterium nucleatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Jeremy C; Ford, Bradley A; Streit, Judy A

    2013-12-01

    Fusobacterium nucleatum is an anaerobic gram-negative bacillus, which inhabits the oropharynx, gastrointestinal tract, and female genital tract. Infections classically affect the head and neck. We report a patient with a myocardial mass due to F. nucleatum, initially thought to be a neoplasm, and discuss anaerobic cardiac infections. © 2013.

  9. Disseminated infections due to Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndromes (IRIS) are exaggerated pathological inflammatory reactions occurring after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) due to exuberant immune responses to occult or apparent opportunistic infections or cancers. In view of paucity of studies from Nigeria, we ...

  10. Ophthalmoplegia, Dysphonia and Tetraparesis Due to Guillain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guillain-Barre's syndrome (GBS) or inflammatory/post-infectious acute polyradiculoneuropathy is due to demyelination of nerves, causing a progressive paresis or paralysis. It usually begins in the legs and sometimes goes up to the respiratory muscles and cranial nerves. The exact mechanism of GBS occurrance is still ...

  11. On The Role of Wetting, Structure Width, and Flow Characteristics in Polymer Replication on Micro- and Nanoscale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytka, Christian; Opara, Nadia; Andersen, Nis Korsgaard

    2016-01-01

    The replication of functional polymeric micro- and nanostructures requires a deep understanding of material and process interrelations. In this investigation the dewetting potential of a polymer is proposed as a simple rationale for estimation of the replicability of functional micro......- and nanostructures by injection molding. The dewetting potential of a polymer is determined by integrating the spreading coefficient over the range from melt temperature to no-flow temperature. From all polymers tested, the lowest dewetting potential is calculated for PP and the highest for polymethylmethacrylate....... The dewetting potential correlates well with the replicated height of four different structures covering both the micro- and the nanorange on two different surfaces (brass and fluorocarbon modified nickel) and polymers with different spreading coefficients. It is clearly shown that a lower dewetting potential...

  12. `X meteograph and MO.D.A.`: two information systems for processing meteorological data for air quality assessment; X{sub M}eteograph e MO.D.A.: due sistemi informativi per la visualizzazione ed elaborazione interattiva di dati meteorologici e di qualita` dell`aria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caiaffa, Emanuela; Pellegrini, Andrea [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Roma (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1997-03-01

    This paper introduces the Information System named `X{sub M}eteograph`, which enables an interactive processing of meteorological data stored in the `Meteodata` database, which is housed at the `Research Centre Casaccia` of ENEA, on a VAX computer. The `MO.D.A.` Information System is also described; this system allows the user to visualize and to apply some statistical processing to the a.m. meteorological data, and to air quality data. Both systems have been developed in co-operation between AMB/INF and AMB/SAF Sectors of ENEA - Environment Department. Co-operation included software design (concerning MO.D.A.) and sharing of costs. As a result of this activity, we provide the user with software packages easy to use, which enable retrieval, processing and rendering of meteorological data from the Meteodata database and air quality data from external sources; rendering is done in the form of tables, graphs and plotting of contours and symbols on geographical maps.

  13. Sciatica due to pelvic hematoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocaman Umit

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sciatica is defined as pain in the sciatic nerve distribution. The most common reason of sciatica is radiculopathy due to lumbar disc hernia. Other causes can be congenital, acquired, infectious, neoplastic, or inflammatory. The piriformis syndrome is another cause. The pain starts in an insidious manner when the cause of sciatica is an extraspinal tumor. It is intermittent at first but a constant and progressive pain that does not decrease with position or rest gradually develops in all patients. The possibility of an intraabdominal or pelvic mass should always be considered and the relevant tests requested when the cause of the sciatica cannot be explained. We present an 83-year-old male who presented with non-traumatic and non-vascular lumbosacral plexopathy due to a large hematoma in the left adductor muscle following the use of warfarin sodium.

  14. Dose due to {sup 40}K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escareno J, E.; Vega C, H. R., E-mail: edmundoej@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2011-10-15

    The dose due to {sup 40}K has been estimated. Potassium is one of the most abundant elements in nature, being approximately 2% of the Earth's crust. Potassium has three isotopes {sup 39}K, {sup 40}K and {sup 41}K, two are stable while {sup 40}K is radioactive with a half life of 1.2x10{sup 9} years; there is 0.0117% {sup 40}K-to-K ratio. Potassium plays an important role in plants, animals and humans growth and reproduction. Due to the fact that K is an essential element for humans, {sup 40}K is the most abundant radioisotope in human body. In order to keep good health conditions K must be intake at daily basis trough food and beverages, however when K in ingested above the requirements produce adverse health effects in persons with renal, cardiac and hypertension problems or suffering diabetes. In 89.3% {sup 40}K decays to {sup 40}C through {beta}-decay, in 10.3% decays through electronic capture and emitting 1.46 MeV {gamma}-ray. K is abundant in soil, construction materials, sand thus {gamma}-rays produced during {sup 40}K decay contribute to external dose. For K in the body practically all {sup 40}K decaying energy is absorbed by the body; thus {sup 40}K contributes to total dose in humans and it is important to evaluate its contribution. In this work a set of {sup 40}K sources were prepared using different amounts of KCl salt, a {gamma}-ray spectrometer with a NaI(Tl) was characterized to standardized the sources in order to evaluate the dose due to {sup 40}K. Using thermoluminescent dosemeters the dose due to {sup 40}K was measured and related to the amount of {sup 40}K {gamma}-ray activity. (Author)

  15. Neonatal cholestasis due to primary sclerosing cholangitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naman Sadanand Shetty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal cholestasis is rarely caused due to primary sclerosing cholangitis, which is an inflammatory disease of the bile ducts, which results in obstructive fibrosis of the ducts. A 7-month-old male child presented with jaundice along with high-colored urine and clay-colored stools since birth. Liver biopsy showed mild bile duct proliferation with cholangioles showing bile and thrombi suggestive of primary sclerosing cholangitis.

  16. A summation due to Ramanujan revisited

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    using Hardy's regularly convergent double series. 2. Hardy's regularly convergent double series. Let N0 be the set of all nonnegative integers. We begin with the following definition due to Hardy [3]. DEFINITION 2.1 (Definition 8.1.4 of [5]). A double series ∑(j,k)∈N2. 0 uj,k of real numbers is said to be regularly convergent if ...

  17. Contamination Effects Due to Space Environmental Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Philip T.; Paquin, Krista C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Molecular and particulate contaminants are commonly generated from the orbital spacecraft operations that are under the influence of the space environment. Once generated, these contaminants may attach to the surfaces of the spacecraft or may remain in the vicinity of the spacecraft. In the event these contaminants come to rest on the surfaces of the spacecraft or situated in the line-of-sight of the observation path, they will create various degrees of contamination effect which may cause undesirable effects for normal spacecraft operations, There will be circumstances in which the spacecraft may be subjected to special space environment due to operational conditions. Interactions between contaminants and special space environment may alter or greatly increase the contamination effect due to the synergistic effect. This paper will address the various types of contamination generation on orbit, the general effects of the contamination on spacecraft systems, and the typical impacts on the spacecraft operations due to the contamination effect. In addition, this paper will explain the contamination effect induced by the space environment and will discuss the intensified contamination effect resulting from the synergistic effect with the special space environment.

  18. Oral frostbite due to dry ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohki, Masafumi; Ishikawa, Jyunichi; Kikuchi, Shigeru

    2012-10-01

    Dry ice is a commercially available cryogen that is used worldwide. It may cause frostbite if misused. However, frostbite of the oral cavity due to dry ice has not been previously reported. Here, we describe the first case of dry ice-induced frostbite of the oral cavity. We present a case of oral frostbite due to dry ice and subsequent swelling of the submandibular area and lower lip. We discuss the clinical features of oral frostbite due to volatile substance abuse. Oral frostbite not only may result in the impairment of the affected mucosae directly, but also may adversely affect the tissues in the vicinity of the oral cavity floor indirectly. Oral frostbite may cause edema of the upper airway tract. In case of severe pharyngolaryngeal edema, either tracheal intubation or tracheostomy is necessary. Steroids and antibiotics may be effective in preventing the development of pharyngolaryngeal edema. It is important to bear in mind that volatile substance abuse may possibly induce unusual events. In particular, special attention should be paid to delayed unusual events.

  19. Mandibular osteonecrosis due to bisphosphonate use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şalvarcı, Ahmet; Altınay, Serdar

    2015-03-01

    Due to their efficient osteoclastic inhibitor effect in bone metabolism and antiangiogenic activity, bisphosphonates are widely used in many cancer diseases particularly in prostate cancers with bone metastasis, lung cancer, breast cancer and multiple myeloma, as well as in systemic diseases such as osteoporosis, osteopenia, Paget disease and osteogenesis imperfect for the last 13 years. Prostate cancer is a common cancer in males and it is the leading cause of bone metastasis. Mandibular metastasis is rarely encountered during the course of prostate cancer. Mandibular osteonecrosis as well has begun to be observed along with the availability of more efficient and stronger formulations developed following the use of bisphosphonates. Zolendronic acid, which has been used also by our patient, has widely come into practice as a 3(rd) generation bisphosphonate. Because of prostate cancer and widespread bone metastases, our patient has been receiving zolendronic acid with maximum androgen blockage for 4 years. Tomography of the patient, who has undergone intensive treatment because of submandibular abscess, demonstrated extensive osteonecrosis in the fovea sublingual region of the mandible corpus. In large series, although, mandibular osteonecrosis was widely seen due to bisphosphonate use for the metastases of lung and breast cancers, this rate was between 9.6% and 11% for prostate cancer within the series. Although our patient had no mandibular metastasis before, mandibular necrosis was observed due to long-term bisphosphonate use. We are going to present our patient who had this rare complication with his clinical picture.

  20. Modelling direct tangible damages due to natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibich, H.; Bubeck, P.

    2012-04-01

    Europe has witnessed a significant increase in direct damages from natural hazards. A further damage increase is expected due to the on-going accumulation of people and economic assets in risk-prone areas and the effects of climate change, for instance, on the severity and frequency of drought events in the Mediterranean basin. In order to mitigate the impact of natural hazards an improved risk management based on reliable risk analysis is needed. Particularly, there is still much research effort needed to improve the modelling of damage due to natural hazards. In comparison with hazard modelling, simple approaches still dominate damage assessments, mainly due to limitations in available data and knowledge on damaging processes and influencing factors. Within the EU-project ConHaz, methods as well as data sources and terminology for damage assessments were compiled, systemized and analysed. Similarities and differences between the approaches concerning floods, alpine hazards, coastal hazards and droughts were identified. Approaches for significant improvements of direct tangible damage modelling with a particular focus on cross-hazard-learning will be presented. Examples from different hazards and countries will be given how to improve damage data bases, the understanding of damaging processes, damage models and how to conduct improvements via validations and uncertainty analyses.

  1. Hyperekplexia and trismus due to brainstem encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellett, M.; Humphrey, P.; Tedman, B.; Steiger, M.

    1998-01-01

    The brainstem is said to be the generator of pathological startle responses due to reticular reflex myoclonus or hyperekplexia. A patient with facial weakness, nystagmus, and pyramidal tract signs had generalised reflex spasms in response to auditory, visual and tactile stimuli which clinically and neurophysiologically resembled hyperekplexia. The case is unusual because as well as hyperekplexia, the patient's initial presentation was with an equally rare manifestation of brainstem pathology—brainstem mediated trismus. The causes of brainstem trismus and exaggerated startle responses are discussed with respect to their underlying mechanisms. 

 PMID:9667574

  2. Pneumonia due to Enterobacter cancerogenus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Tülin; Baran, Gamze; Buyukguclu, Tuncay; Sezgin, Fikriye Milletli; Kaymaz, Haci

    2014-11-01

    Enterobacter cancerogenus (formerly known as CDC Enteric Group 19; synonym with Enterobacter taylorae) has rarely been associated with human infections, and little is known regarding the epidemiology and clinical significance of this organism. We describe a community-acquired pneumonia case in a 44-year-old female due to E. cancerogenus. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of the microorganism was performed by the automatized VITEK 2 Compact system (bioMerieux, France). The clinical case suggests that E. cancerogenus is a potentially pathogenic microorganism in determined circumstances; underlying diseases such as bronchial asthma, empiric antibiotic treatment, wounds, diagnostic, or therapeutic instruments.

  3. Shear flow generation due to electromagnetic instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakatani, M.; Sato, M.; Hamaguchi, S.; Miyato, N.

    2003-01-01

    Shear flow is the most important ingredient governing nonlinear behavior of many types of plasma instability. Electromagnetic effects on shear flow generation have been studied for an electro- magnetic drift wave called resistive drift-Alfven mode (RDAM) and a global MHD mode called resistive wall mode (RWM). For RDAM it is found that the generated shear flow stabilizes the dominant modes; however, other modes are destabilized. For RWM Maxwell stress due to magnetic fluctuations has a tendency to suppress the poloidal flow near the plasma surface, which gives almost same saturation level, since the shear flow stabilization disappears. (author)

  4. Stretch due to Penile Prosthesis Reservoir Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Baten

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A 43-year old patient presented to the emergency department with stretch, due to impossible deflation of the penile prosthesis, 4 years after successful implant. A CT-scan showed migration of the reservoir to the left rectus abdominis muscle. Refilling of the reservoir was inhibited by muscular compression, causing stretch. Removal and replacement of the reservoir was performed, after which the prosthesis was well-functioning again. Migration of the penile prosthesis reservoir is extremely rare but can cause several complications, such as stretch.

  5. Severe haemoptysis due to subclavian arteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioulias, A; Misthos, P; Kokotsakis, J; Drosos, O; Karagiannidis, N; Pavlopoulos, D; Mitselou, M

    2012-06-12

    Severe haemoptysis due to infective subclavian arteritis has, to our knowledge, never been documented. We report a case of subclavian arterial vasculitis that eroded into the left lung apex, causing a large intraparenchymal mycotic pseudoaneurysm. The patient presented with high fever and blood expectoration. An emergent left lateral thoracotomy was performed. The inflamed segment of the subclavian artery was resected and continuity was restored with a reversed saphenous vein graft. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged on the 10th postoperative day.

  6. Questa è la storia di due ragazzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lombardo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Questa è la storia di due ragazzi per i quali le speranze di riuscita in una professione artistica come quella dell’attore - già difficile per chiunque - in percentuale erano una su dieci. Forse zero. E invece ce l’hanno fatta: uno a Parigi, l’altro a Roma. Entrambi di colore, entrambi di umili origini, arrivati in Europa come tanti, centinaia di migliaia, nel loro caso non da clandestini. Le storie di Bakary e Federico mostrano come il talento e la fortuna possano vincere le avversità, l’emarginazione, i pregiudizi.

  7. Delayed intestinal obstruction due to posttraumatic diaphragmatic hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez-Sánchez, Pablo; Villarejo-Campos, Pedro; Padilla-Valverde, David; Sánchez-García, Susana; Jara-Sánchez, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Diaphragmatic rupture can be missed during trauma diagnosis. Different pressures between the thorax and the abdomen allow the abdominal viscera to herniate into the chest cavity. Cardiorespiratory and abdominal symptoms may appear later due to passive compression and incarceration, respectively. We report the case of a 52-year-old female with abdominal pain and vomiting. Chest x-ray demonstrated an elevation of the right hemidiaphragm, and computed tomography showed herniation of small bowel and colon into the chest cavity with dilated small bowel due to a diaphragmatic hernia. History of traumatic events should be considered with high suspicion in the diagnostic process to avoid delayed diagnosis of this condition. The nonspecific symptoms of this condition often lead the patient to consult different specialists. A multidisciplinary approach is required and aimed at preventing an unnecessary increase of morbidity and mortality.

  8. A solar cycle of spacecraft anomalies due to internal charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Wrenn

    Full Text Available It is important to appreciate how the morphology of internal charging of spacecraft systems, due to penetrating electrons, differs from that of the more common surface charging, due to electrons with lower energy. A specific and recurrent anomaly on a geostationary communication satellite has been tracked for ten years so that solar cycle and seasonal dependencies can be clearly established. Concurrent measurements of sunspot number, solar wind speed and 2-day >2 MeV electron fluence are presented to highlight pertinent space weather relationships, and the importance of understanding the complex particle interaction processes involved.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (energetic particles; trapped; solar wind – magnetosphere interactions – space plasma physics (spacecraft sheaths, wakes, charging

  9. Secondary Sclerosing Cholangitis due to Gallbladder Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sicong Fan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sclerosing cholangitis is a chronic cholestatic liver disease defined by both inflammatory and fibrotic changes of the biliary tract leading to diffuse stricture formation. This entity exists in both a primary and secondary form. Here we present a rare case of secondary sclerosing cholangitis due to direct metastasis from a gallbladder adenocarcinoma. A 55-year-old morbidly obese male presented electively with a 2-week history of low back pain and scleral icterus for 2 days. He also described severe epigastric pain that worsened postprandially and a 13 kg weight loss over the previous month. The patient denied any personal or familial history of malignancy or prior liver disease. Laboratory evaluation revealed mild elevation of transaminases with moderately elevated alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin. Imaging included ultrasound and contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis showing multiple large gallstones and a large tissue density mass within the fundus of the gallbladder. Subsequent endoscopic ultrasound was performed revealing celiac and portal lymphadenopathy with fine needle aspirations demonstrating adenocarcinoma. Over the next 15 days, bilirubin progressively increased. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography was unremarkable. Liver biopsy, performed to exclude other etiologies of liver failure, demonstrated biliary cholestasis. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was then performed and an occlusion cholangiogram revealed diffuse multifocal stricturing of the intrahepatic bile ducts and moderate stenosis of the common bile duct without proximal ductal dilatation. Thus secondary sclerosing cholangitis due to gallbladder adenocarcinoma was diagnosed.

  10. Thyroid enlargement due to extramedullary plasmacytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schrijver, I; Smeets, P

    2004-01-01

    We report the case of a 69-year-old woman presenting with a rapidly enlarging thyroid mass as the first extramedullary symptom of plasmacytoma. Extramedullary locations are found in less than 5% of patients with multiple myeloma and can arise in any tissue. If the patient presents with extramedullary lesions and the radiologist is unaware of the underlying disease process the masses can be mistaken for disseminated metastatic carcinoma or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  11. Air pollution due to road traffic in Ljubljana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Ogrin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is due to road traffic an inevitable outcome of internal combustion in engines ofvehicles and some other processes. Air near the roads is more polluted with some pollutants,such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, particulate matter and some others.Monitoring the air quality is a key issue, when one wants to estimate environmental impactsof the road traffic. The article shows a method of passive samplers for air quality monitoringalong different roads in the area of Ljubljana Municipality.

  12. Dysphagia due to Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Ohki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH is usually asymptomatic. However, rarely, it causes dysphagia, hoarseness, dyspnea, snoring, stridor, and laryngeal edema. Herein, we present a patient with DISH causing dysphagia. A 70-year-old man presented with a 4-month history of sore throat, dysphagia, and foreign body sensation. Flexible laryngoscopy revealed a leftward-protruding posterior wall in the hypopharynx. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a bony mass pushing, anteriorly, on the posterior hypopharyngeal wall. Ossification included an osseous bridge involving 5 contiguous vertebral bodies. Dysphagia due to DISH was diagnosed. His symptoms were relieved by conservative therapy using anti-inflammatory drugs. However, if conservative therapy fails and symptoms are severe, surgical treatments must be considered.

  13. [Suburethral sling removal due to chronic pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homola, P; Hensel, G; Škorničková, Z; Košťál, M

    2017-01-01

    To point out one possible complication after suburethral tape insertion. To present methods of treatment, especially partial or total removal of the tape. Few successful cases of treatment are shown in case reports. Case report. Department of obstetrics and gynecology, Pardubice hospital. Chronic pain after insertion of suburethral tape is a rare complication. There are several possible causes, such as tape erosion with chronic inflamation, post-colposuspension syndrome, myo-fascial syndrome, nerve damage during tape implantation or due to overproduction of fibrous tissue. Partial or total tape removal is needed when the conservative treatment fails. Patients may remain continent or a new tape is placed. Pain relief is usually complete but there are times when additional treatment is needed. Sling removal is a successful method of treating chronic pain after suburethral tape insertion. Patients describe plain relief and improvement of quality of life.

  14. Ratchet due to broken friction symmetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norden, Bengt; Zolotaryuk, Yaroslav; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2002-01-01

    A ratchet mechanism that occurs due to asymmetric dependence of the friction of a moving system on its velocity or a driving force is reported. For this kind of ratchet, instead of a particle moving in a periodic potential, the dynamics of which have broken space-time symmetry, the system must...... be provided with sonic internal structure realizing such a velocity- or force-friction dependence. For demonstration of a ratchet mechanism of this type, an experimental setup (gadget) that converts longitudinal oscillating or fluctuating motion into a unidirectional rotation has been built and experiments...... with it have been carried out. In this device, an asymmetry of friction dependence on an applied force appears, resulting in rectification of rotary motion, In experiments, our setup is observed to rotate only in one direction, which is in accordance with given theoretical arguments, Despite the setup being...

  15. Ketoacidosis is not always due to diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekara, Hemantha; Fernando, Pasan; Danjuma, Mohammed; Jayawarna, Chaminda

    2014-01-01

    Chronic alcoholism is a frequently unrecognised cause of ketoacidosis. Most patients with alcoholic ketoacidosis present with normal or low glucose, but this condition can present with hyperglycaemia. This can lead to misdiagnosis of diabetes ketoacidosis and, therefore, inappropriate treatment with insulin. We describe a 37-year-old Caucasian woman with chronic pancreatitis secondary to excess alcohol consumption, admitted with abdominal pain and vomiting, fulfilling the criteria for diabetes ketoacidosis. She was treated according to diabetes ketoacidosis protocol and experienced a hypoglycaemic attack within an hour of initiation of insulin. On review of her history, she was found to have three similar episodes over the past 12 months. Alcoholic ketoacidosis can present with hyperglycaemia due to relative deficiency of insulin and relative surplus in counter-regulatory stress hormones including glucagon. Awareness of the syndrome with a detailed history helps to differentiate alcohol ketoacidosis from diabetes ketoacidosis and prevent iatrogenic hypoglycaemia. PMID:24569261

  16. Acute Paraplegia due to Thoracic Hematomyelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aykut Akpınar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous intraspinal intramedullary hemorrhage is a rare entity with the acute onset of neurologic symptoms. The etiology of idiopathic spontaneous hematomyelia (ISH is unknown, and there are few published case reports. Hematomyelia is mostly associated with trauma, but the other nontraumatic etiologies are vascular malformations, tumors, bleeding disorders, syphilis, syrinx, and myelitis. MRI is a good choice for early diagnosis. Hematomyelia usually causes acute spinal cord syndrome due to the compression and destruction of the spinal cord. A high-dose steroid treatment and surgical decompression and evacuation of hematoma are the urgent solution methods. We present idiopathic spontaneous hematomyelia of a previously healthy 80-year-old male with a sudden onset of back pain and paraplegia.

  17. Subacute bacterial endocarditis due to Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, J; Robinson, F; Dasco, C; Gentry, L O

    1983-01-01

    Sixteen documented cases of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans endocarditis have been reported in the past 15 years. The characteristic granular growth and the fastidious nature and slow-growing character of this organism decrease the yield of positive blood cultures. Two recently observed cases of subacute endocarditis due to Actinobacillus are reported, one in a patient who required surgical intervention for complications of his disease and the other case associated with an aortic prosthetic valve. The first patient had late embolic complications which are commonly seen with Actinobacillus endocarditis. A review of the literature; including a synoptic table with clinical failures, treatment, and outcome is presented. Unless special care is taken to isolate these slow growing organisms, these cases will be misclassified as culture negative endocarditis.

  18. Small Bowel Obstruction due to Intestinal Xanthomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Barrera-Herrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vast majority of bowel obstruction is due to postoperative adhesions, malignancy, intestinal inflammatory disease, and hernias; however, knowledge of other uncommon causes is critical to establish a prompt treatment and decrease mortality. Xanthomatosis is produced by accumulation of cholesterol-rich foamy macrophages. Intestinal xanthomatosis is an uncommon nonneoplastic lesion that may cause small bowel obstruction and several cases have been reported in the English literature as obstruction in the jejunum. We report a case of small intestinal xanthomatosis occurring in a 51-year-old female who presented with one day of copious vomiting and intermittent abdominal pain. Radiologic images revealed jejunal loop thickening and inflammatory changes suggestive of foreign body obstruction, diagnostic laparoscopy found two strictures at the jejunum, and a pathologic examination confirmed a segmental small bowel xanthomatosis. This case illustrates that obstruction even without predisposing factors such as hyperlipidemia or lymphoproliferative disorders.

  19. Hypomyelinating Leukodystrophy due to HSPD1 Mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, Maria Schioldan; Damgaard, Bodil; Risom, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    The hypomyelinating leukodystrophies (HMLs) encompass the X-linked Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) caused by PLP1 mutations and known as the classical form of HML as well as Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-like disease (PMLD) (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man [OMIM] 608804 and OMIM 260600) due to GJC2...... mutations. In addition, mutations in at least 10 other genes are known to cause HMLs. In 2008, an Israeli family with clinical and neuroimaging findings similar to those found in PMD was reported. The patients were found to have a homozygous missense mutation in HSPD1, encoding the mitochondrial heat......-shock protein 60 (Hsp60), and the disorder was defined as the autosomal recessive mitochondrial Hsp60 chaperonopathy (MitCHAP-60) disease. We here report the first case of this severe neurodegenerative disease since it was first described. Given the fact that the families carried the same mutation our patient...

  20. The differential effects of fluency due to repetition and fluency due to color contrast on judgments of truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rita R; Garcia-Marques, Teresa; Mello, Joana

    2016-09-01

    Two experiments contrast the effects of fluency due to repetition and fluency due to color contrast on judgments of truth, after participants learn to associate high levels of fluency with falseness (i.e., a reversal of the fluency-truth link). Experiment 1 shows that the interpretation of fluency as a sign of truth is harder to reverse when learning is promoted with repetition rather than with perceptual fluency. Experiment 2 shows that when color contrast and repetition are manipulated orthogonally, the reversal of the truth effect learned with color contrast does not generalize to repetition. These results suggest specificities in the processing experiences generated by different sources of fluency, and that their influences can be separated in contexts that allow the contrast of their distinctive features. We interpret and discuss these results in light of the research addressing the convergence vs. dissociation of the effects elicited by different fluency sources.

  1. Acute aortic regurgitation due to infective endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia M Cortés

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute aortic regurgitation (AAR due to infective endocarditis (IE is a serious disease and usually requires surgical treatment. Our study aims to compare the clinical, echocardiographic, and microbiological characteristics as well as in-hospital outcome of patients with AAR according to the severity of heart failure (HF and to evaluate predictors of in-hospital mortality in a tertiary centre. In a prospective analysis, we compared patients with NYHA functional class I-II HF (G1 vs. functional class III-IV HF (G2. From 06/92 to 07/16, 439 patients with IE were hospitalized; 86 presented AAR: (G1, 39: 45.4% y G2, 47: 54.7%. The G1 had higher prosthetic IE (43.6% vs. 17%, p 0.01. All G2 patients had dyspnoea vs. 30.8% of the G1 (p < 0.0001. There were no differences in clinical, echocardiographic and microbiological characteristics. Surgical treatment was indicated mainly due to infection extension or valvular dysfunction in G1 and HF in G2. In-hospital mortality was 15.4% vs. 27.7% (G1 and G2 respectively p NS. In multivariate analysis, health care-associated acquisition (p 0.001, negative blood cultures (p 0.004, and functional class III-IV HF (p 0.039 were in-hospital mortality predictors. One-fifth of the patients with EI had AAR. Half of them had severe HF which needed emergency surgery and the remaining needed surgery for extension of the infection and / or valvular dysfunction. Both groups remain to have high surgical and in-hospital mortality. Health care-associated acquisition, negative blood cultures and advanced HF were predictors of in-hospital mortality

  2. DIVERSIDAD DE HONGOS MICORRIZÓGENOS ARBUSCULARES DE UNA CRONO-SECUENCIA DE SUELOS ALUVIALES DEGRADADOS POR ACTIVIDAD MINERA EN EL BAJO CAUCA ANTIOQUEÑO, COLOMBIA DIVERSITY OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI IN A CHRONO-SEQUENCE OF ALLUVIAL AND DEGRADED SOILS DUE TO MINING PROCESSES IN BAJO CAUCA ANTIOQUEÑO, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Medina Sierra

    2009-06-01

    undisturbed and disturbed soils form alluvial mining processes. The soils belong to the Tropic Fluvaquent, Typic Dystropept, and Typic Paleudult sub-groups which corresponded to Low, Middle and High terraces, respectively, of the Cauca river at Taraza town. AMF propagules were multiplied in Leonard jars under glasshouse conditions using sterile substrate, modified Hoagland's solution and different fractions of soil used as sources of inoculum, which corresponded to the size of the spores. A first assay was made in maize (Zea mays which allowed mycorrhizal colonization in roots but not spore production. In a second assay, in kudzú (Pueraria phaseoloides AMF spores and colonized roots were obtained with the treatments corresponding to propagules obtained from high terrace and disturbed soil. These treatments presented a significant effect on kudzu yield (P≤0,001 respect to the other treatments. The AMF spores of undisturbed and disturbed soils showed low infective capacity. Nevertheless, propagules of AMF were multiplied in trap cultures, which produced spores of four morphotypes. One of these was identified as G. microagregatum. The polymorphism obtained by RAPD's made possible the differentiation of these morphotypes with the primer OPA2. Similitude above 38% was achieved using UPGMA system. The results indicated that four morphotypes belong to the genus Glomus, but they possibly belong to different species. Our results are promissory in the differentiation of native strains of AMF with low number of spores collected from soil samples in rehabilitation processes, which normally is unknown.

  3. Submarine slope failures due to pipe structure formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elger, Judith; Berndt, Christian; Rüpke, Lars; Krastel, Sebastian; Gross, Felix; Geissler, Wolfram H

    2018-02-19

    There is a strong spatial correlation between submarine slope failures and the occurrence of gas hydrates. This has been attributed to the dynamic nature of gas hydrate systems and the potential reduction of slope stability due to bottom water warming or sea level drop. However, 30 years of research into this process found no solid supporting evidence. Here we present new reflection seismic data from the Arctic Ocean and numerical modelling results supporting a different link between hydrates and slope stability. Hydrates reduce sediment permeability and cause build-up of overpressure at the base of the gas hydrate stability zone. Resulting hydro-fracturing forms pipe structures as pathways for overpressured fluids to migrate upward. Where these pipe structures reach shallow permeable beds, this overpressure transfers laterally and destabilises the slope. This process reconciles the spatial correlation of submarine landslides and gas hydrate, and it is independent of environmental change and water depth.

  4. Process Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbertson, Keith

    2002-01-01

    Standard utilities can help you collect and interpret your Linux system's process accounting data. Describes the uses of process accounting, standard process accounting commands, and example code that makes use of process accounting utilities.

  5. Lattice Contraction Behavior due to Atomic Ordering in Alloy 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sungsoo; Kim, Dae Whan; Kim, Young Suk

    2014-01-01

    A PWSCC (primary water stress corrosion cracking) mechanism based on an ordering reaction has been proposed. However, there has been little investigation on the effects of ordering reaction on the lattice variation due to the ordering reaction in Alloy 600. To understand the lattice variation due to the ordering reaction in Alloy 600 is important, since this is unavoidable process in nuclear reactor environment. A lattice variation with ordering treatment at 400 .deg. C in Alloy 600 was systematically investigated using neutron diffraction. The magnitude of lattice contraction due to the ordering reaction is lager when the cooling rate is faster from the disordering temperature. The ordering treatment causes anisotropic lattice contraction according to the crystallographic planes. The ratio of minimum to maximum lattice contraction in WQ Alloy 600 is about 2. The maximum lattice contraction occurs in (111) and (200) planes are similarly about 0.04% in WQ Alloy 600. This saturates after 2,000H at 400 .deg. C. The effect of ordering reaction should be considered in the assessment of integrity of primary boundary materials made of Alloy 600, since the ordering reaction is an unavoidable phenomenon in nuclear reactor environment

  6. Heat Loss Due To Thermal Bridges In Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, J. B.; tarot, R. A.; Childs, K. W.; Courville, G. E.

    1984-03-01

    Building envelopes often contain numerous highly conductive heat flow paths, called thermal bridges, which are major sources of heat loss and deterioration of building materials due to moisture condensation. Some examples of thermal bridges occurring in office buildings are presented. Infrared thermography was used to identify the locations and magnitudes of thermally defective areas resulting from inadequate construction, design, or substandard workmanship in existing buildings. Due to the large thermal inertia of building components and transient conditions caused by fluctuating outdoor and indoor temperatures, long measurement periods are required. This makes thermography impractical for quantifying the heat loss. In order to estimate the heat loss rate from thermal bridges and to obtain a better understanding of the physical processes involved, a two-dimensional heat flow model has been developed for transient heat conduction within the exterior wall/intermediate floor systems. The calculated results from the mathematical model are compared with available experimental data. An in-situ measurement technique, which is currently under development at NBS for quantifying the energy loss due to thermal bridges, is described.

  7. Jejunal Diverticular Perforation due to Enterolith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Nonose

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Jejunal diverticulosis is a rare entity with variable clinical and anatomical presentations. Although there is no consensus on the management of asymptomatic jejunal diverticular disease, some complications are potentially life-threatening and require early surgical treatment. Small bowel perforation secondary to jejunal diverticulitis by enteroliths is rare. The aim of this study was to report a case of small intestinal perforation caused by a large jejunal enterolith. An 86-year-old woman was admitted with signs of diffuse peritonitis. After initial fluid recovery the patient underwent emergency laparotomy. The surgery showed that she had small bowel diverticular disease, mainly localized in the proximal jejunum. The peritonitis was due to intestinal perforation caused by an enterolith 12 cm in length, localized inside one of these diverticula. The intestinal segment containing the perforated diverticulum with the enterolith was removed and an end-to-end anastomosis was done to reconstruct the intestinal transit. The patient recovered well and was discharged from hospital on the 5th postoperative day. There were no signs of abdominal pain 1 year after the surgical procedure. Although jejunal diverticular disease with its complications, such as formation of enteroliths, is difficult to suspect in patients with peritonitis, it should be considered as a possible source of abdominal infection in the elderly patient when more common diagnoses have been excluded.

  8. Liver abscess due to sewing needle perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutte, Ewoud; Cense, Huib

    2010-08-03

    A 45-year-old female was admitted to the hospital with a 1-week history of right upper abdominal pain and nausea. Ultrasonography showed a thickened duodenum with infiltration. Subsequent gastroscopy did not reveal any abnormalities. CT scan showed a foreign body perforation at the duodenum and a liver abscess (Fig. 1A,B). A diagnostic laparoscopy was performed. During the operation, the abscess was drained (Fig. 2A,B) and a sewing needle was removed (Fig. 3A,B). The patient claimed to have no recollection of swallowing the needle and made a quick recovery. Although rare, gastrointestinal perforations due to ingested foreign bodies most frequently occur at ileocecal, rectosigmoid, and duodenal regions[1]. Sewing needle perforations into the liver have been reported in children, adults, and psychiatric cases. Symptoms can vary from mild gastric pain to signs of peritonitis[2]. "Wait and see" is recommended for asymptomatic patients with no complications. Symptomatic patients (e.g., liver abscess) need surgical intervention[1,2,3].

  9. Dermatoses due to indian cultural practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide prevalence of socio-religious and cultural practices in the Asian subcontinent often leads to multitude of skin diseases which may be missed by the dermatologists because of a lack of awareness. ′Henna′ use causes IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions and contact dermatitis. ′Kumkum′ application can result in pigmented contact dermatitis and lichen planus pigmentosus. Sticker ′bindis′ and ′alta′ induce contact leukoderma. Irritant and allergic contact dermatitis occurs after playing with ′Holi′ colors. Threading and drawstring dermatitis lead to koebnerization of pre-existing dermatoses, infections and even squamous cell carcinoma of skin. Mild irritant reactions and contact sensitization occur secondary to balm and hair oil use. ′Mudichood′ represents the comedogenic effect of hair oils combined with occlusion and humidity. Aromatherapy oils can cause contact dermatitis and photosensitive reactions. Heavy metal and steroid toxicity along with severe cutaneous adverse effects like erythroderma can occur as a consequent to the use of alternative medicines. Squamous cell carcinoma due to chronic heat exposure from the heating device "kangri" is seen in Kashmiris. Prayer nodules in Muslims and traction alopecia in Sikhs illustrate how religious practices can negatively affect the skin. With increasing globalization and migration, the practice of indigenous customs and traditions is no longer limited to regional territories, making it imperative for the dermatologists to be acquainted with the cutaneous side effects they can cause.

  10. Sleep deprivation due to shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation due to shift work is related to perturbation of the sleep/wake cycle, associated with the modified activity/rest pattern. This may cause a significant disruption of circadian rhythms of biologic functions, driven by the body clock located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus. Shift and night workers have to change sleep times and strategies according to their duty periods; consequently, both sleep length and quality can be considerably affected depending on the variable start and finish times on different shifts. About 10% of night and rotating shift workers, aged between 18 and 65 years, have been estimated to have a diagnosable "shift-work sleep disorder," according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, version 2 (ICSD-2). In the long run, this may lead to persistent and severe disturbances of sleep, chronic fatigue and psychoneurotic syndromes, besides being a risk or aggravating factor for accidents, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and reproductive disorders, as well as, probably, for cancer. Preventive and corrective actions deal with the organization of shift schedules according to ergonomic criteria, careful health surveillance, appropriate education and training on effective countermeasures, in particular, sleep hygiene and napping. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta synthase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao T

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A two year-old male child presented with cutis marmorata congenita universalis, brittle hair, mild mental retardation, and finger spasms. Biochemical findings include increased levels of homocysteine in the blood-106.62 µmol/L (normal levels: 5.90-16µmol/L. Biochemical tests such as the silver nitroprusside and nitroprusside tests were positive suggesting homocystinuria. The patient was treated with oral pyridoxine therapy for three months. The child responded well to this therapy and the muscle spasms as well as skin manifestations such as cutis marmorata subsided. The treatment is being continued; the case is reported here because of its rarity. Homocysteinuria arising due to cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of methionine metabolism that produces increased levels of urinary homocysteine and methionine It manifests itself in vascular, central nervous system, cutaneous, and connective tissue disturbances and phenotypically resembles Marfan′s syndrome. Skin manifestations include malar flush, thin hair, and cutis reticulata / marmorata.

  12. Pediatric ischemic stroke due to dengue vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Subrat Kumar; Jayalakshmi, Sita; Mohandas, Surath

    2014-10-01

    Dengue infection is an important arboviral infection in southeast Asia, especially in India. Neurological manifestations of dengue are increasingly recognized. We report an ischemic stroke due to dengue vasculitis in an 8-year-old child. We present a girl with a short febrile illness followed by episodic severe headache, with gradually progressive hemiparesis and visual impairment. Her brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple infarctions in the anterior and posterior circulation. The magnetic resonance angiogram revealed irregular narrowing of bilateral middle cerebral arteries, right anterior cerebral artery, left posterior cerebral, and bilateral vertebral arteries suggestive of vasculitis. Her dengue serology was strongly positive for immunoglobulin M with 68.9 panbio units. The rest of the evaluation for pediatric stroke was unremarkable. She was treated with intravenous followed by oral corticosteroids and recovered totally with resolution of vasculitis on magnetic resonance angiogram over the next 3 months. This child illustrates possible immune-mediated vasculitis caused by dengue infection which is rather a rare presentation in a child who subsequently recovered well. One should consider dengue in childhood strokes in endemic regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Lead nephropathy due to Sindoor in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kute, Vivek B; shrimali, Jigar D; Balwani, Manish R; Godhani, Umesh R; Vanikar, Aruna V; Shah, Pankaj R; Gumber, Manoj R; Patel, Himanshu V; Trivedi, Hargovind L

    2013-07-01

    We report a case of lead nephropathy due to Sindoor treated successfully with steroid, hemodialysis and chelating agent. Diagnosis of lead nephropathy was confirmed by identification of potential sources of lead exposure (Sindoor, 5-10 gm per year for 11 years) indicated by high blood lead level, 95 µg/dL and presence of extrarenal features of lead poisoning (hypertension, anemia, lead line, hyperuricemia). A search for the underlying systemic causes of renal failure yielded no results. A kidney biopsy showed acute or chronic tubule-interstitial nephritis with mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis with no immune deposit on immunofluorescence consistent with lead nephropathy. He was discharged in good health after psychiatric consultation and continued with oral D-Penicillamine with normal renal function tests and urine output. This case identifies Sindoor as a potential lead exposure among Indians and clinicians should be aware of this risk factor and enquire about it when searching a source of lead exposure in high-risk population.

  14. Electron diffusion due to electromagnetic field fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagishi, T.

    1986-01-01

    Cross field electron diffusion induced by low frequency electromagnetic field fluctuations is investigated by the test particle approach based on the drift kinetic equation with the number conserving Krook collision term within the limit of quasilinear analysis in slab geometry. The diffusion coefficient is described in terms of a form factor which consists of three portions; the wave number and frequency spectra of density fluctuations, the effect of longitudinal wave-particle interaction, and the transverse dispersion function. The transverse dispersion gives the plasma skin depth as the characteristic scale length, which yields the Alcator-like scaling of the diffusion coefficient. The form factor shows a resonance-like behavior due to the magnetic part of fluctuations at the drift frequency, which indicates the importance of density fluctuations near the frequency in the electromagnetic plasma turbulence. This resonance is enhanced with increasing the plasma pressure, and finally the transition of the Alcator scaling is possible in the case of narrow band turbulence. The transitions of the Alcator scaling by the effect of collision is also derived in the single mode approximation. (author)

  15. Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, Emmanuelle; Bailly, Minh Tam; Hatimi, Safwane El; Robard, Ingrid; Rezgui, Hatem; Bouchachi, Amir; Montani, David; Sitbon, Olivier; Chemla, Denis; Assayag, Patrick

    Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease, also known as group 2 pulmonary hypertension according to the European Society of Cardiology/European Respiratory Society classification, is the most common cause of pulmonary hypertension. In patients with left heart disease, the development of pulmonary hypertension favours right heart dysfunction, which has a major impact on disease severity and outcome. Over the past few years, this condition has been considered more frequently. However, epidemiological studies of group 2 pulmonary hypertension are less exhaustive than studies of other causes of pulmonary hypertension. In group 2 patients, pulmonary hypertension may be caused by an isolated increase in left-sided filling pressures or by a combination of this condition with increased pulmonary vascular resistance, with an abnormally high pressure gradient between arteries and pulmonary veins. A better understanding of the conditions underlying pulmonary hypertension is of key importance to establish a comprehensive diagnosis, leading to an adapted treatment to reduce heart failure morbidity and mortality. In this review, epidemiology, mechanisms and diagnostic approaches are reviewed; then, treatment options and future approaches are considered. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Cutaneous reactions due to antihypertensive drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upadhayai J

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Out of a total of 1147 patients on antihypertensive drugs, 23 (2.04% developed adverse cutaneous drug reactions (ACDR. The commonest antihypertensive drug group causing ACDR was beta-blockers of which atenolol was the commonest culprit. The second most common group was calcium channel blockers with amlodipine as the commonest offender. The most common patterns of ACDR observed included urticaria followed by lichenoid drug eruption (LDE. We noted 2 new patterns of reactions; (i one patient developed brownish blue pigmentation of nails while on atenolol for 3 years, which resolved in 4 months after withdrawal and (ii another patient on amlodipine for 8 years developed Schamberg′s like purpuric pigmentation, which resolved on withdrawal of drug within 3 months. These findings have not been reported in the literature earlier. This study is presented for paucity of Indian data on ACDR due to antihypertensive drugs, and remarkable advancement in area of cardiovascular and antihypertensive pharmacology and a large number of population taking antihypertensive drugs.

  17. [Airway injuries due to blunt chest trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabayashi, Kan; Hamatake, D; Yoshida, Y; Nakajima, H; Shirakusa, T; Yamasaki, S

    2006-10-01

    Although the incidence of blunt chest trauma is very high, the mediastinal tracheobronchial injuries are quite rare. The airway injuries are thought to be one of the most urgent clinical conditions in thoracic surgery, and we are requested to make not only a rapid and sharp diagnosis but also an appropriate treatment plan considering combined injuries. We present 9 cases of tracheobronchial injuries due to blunt chest trauma in recent years. The average age of these patients is 26.1 years, and they are consisted of 6 male and 3 female. The cause of trauma is traffic accident in 7, and occupational crane accident in 2. Bronchoplasty were done in 5 cases (right main bronchus in 2, left main bronchus in 1, trunks intermediate bronchus in 1, and the spur between middle and lower lobe in 1), membranous-tracheoplasty with right pneumonectomy in 1, left pneumonectomy in 1, conservative treatment in 2. Postoperative mortality is occurred in 1 case who was suffering from multiple injuries including severe head injury and contralateral lung contusion. Tracheobronchial plasties should be chosen if possible to preserve lung function for the patient suffering from airway injuries.

  18. Epileptic seizures due to multiple cerebral cavernomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasić Mirjana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cavernous angiomas are angiographically occult vascular malformations that are present in 0.4−0.9 % of people, and represent around 5% of all cerebrovascular malformations. They can be single or multiple, and sporadic or familial. The presence of multiple lesions is more frequent in familial cavernomatosis. Ten to 30 % are associated with familial clustering. Case report. We presented the case of a 43-year-old man, admitted to the Emergency Department due to unprovoked seizure during the wide awake and everyday activities. Neurological examination was with no focal signs. A 32-channel standard digital EEG was without any significant changes of normal baseline activity. After sleep deprivation EEG showed multifocal, bilateral and asymmetric polyspikes and sharpwaves activity. Hyperventilation induced generalized epileptiform discharges. MRI scan demonstrated multiple small cavernous angiomas. Neuropsychological testing demonstrated a delayed memory impairment. Neurosurgery treatment was not recommended, and the therapy with valproate 1 250 mg/day had an excellent efficacy with no singnificant adverse effects. Conclusion. This patient considered as a rare case with multiple cavernomatosis highlights the importance of neuroradiological examination in adult patients with the first epileptic seizure but with no focal neurological signs. .

  19. Radiation risk due to occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kargbo, A.A

    2012-04-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation occurs in many occupations. Workers can be exposed to both natural and artificial sources of radiation. Any exposure to ionizing radiation incurs some risk, either to the individual or to the individual's progeny. This dissertation investigated the radiation risk due to occupational exposure in industrial radiography. Analysis of the reported risk estimates to occupational exposure contained in the UNSCEAR report of 2008 in industrial radiography practice was done. The causes of accidents in industrial radiography include: Lack of or inadequate regulatory control, inadequate training, failure to follow operational procedures, human error, equipment malfunction or defect, inadequate maintenance and wilful violation have been identified as primary causes of accidents. To minimise radiation risks in industrial radiography exposure devices and facilities should be designed such that there is intrinsic safety and operational safety ensured by establishing a quality assurance programme, safety culture fostered and maintained among all workers, industrial radiography is performed in compliance with approved local rules, workers engaged have appropriate qualifications and training, available safe operational procedures are followed, a means is provided for detecting incidents and accidents and an analysis of the causes and lessons learned. (author)

  20. Catatonia due to systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Pinto Cabral Júnior Rabello

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Discuss neuropsychiatric aspects and differential diagnosis of catatonic syndrome secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE in a pediatric patient. Methods Single case report. Result A 13-year-old male, after two months diagnosed with SLE, started to present psychotic symptoms (behavioral changes, hallucinations and delusions that evolved into intense catatonia. During hospitalization, neuroimaging, biochemical and serological tests for differential diagnosis with metabolic encephalopathy, neurological tumors and neuroinfections, among other tests, were performed. The possibility of neuroleptic malignant syndrome, steroid-induced psychosis and catatonia was also evaluated. A complete reversal of catatonia was achieved after using benzodiazepines in high doses, associated with immunosuppressive therapy for lupus, which speaks in favor of catatonia secondary to autoimmune encephalitis due to lupus. Conclusion Although catatonia rarely is the initial clinical presentation of SLE, the delay in recognizing the syndrome can be risky, having a negative impact on prognosis. Benzodiazepines have an important role in the catatonia resolution, especially when associated with parallel specific organic base cause treatment. The use of neuroleptics should be avoided for the duration of the catatonic syndrome as it may cause clinical deterioration.

  1. Sepsis due to clostridium septicum: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foga, M.M.; McGinn, G.J.; Kroeker, M.A.; Guzman, R.

    2000-01-01

    Clostridium septicum is an unusual anaerobic, gram-positive, gas-producing bacillus, which has been identified as a cause of fulminant rapidly fatal infection in humans. Infection with C. septicum usually occurs in patients with cancer, patients receiving immunosuppressive chemotherapy, or patients with a nonmalignant hematological disorder such as hemolytic uremic syndrome. C. septicum infection most commonly involves the abdomen, and a recent review article has identified 164 cases in the medical literature describing the abdominal findings in this disease. Intracranial manifestation of C. septicum infection are less common and include meningitis, cerebritis, abscess formation and pneumocephalus. There have been only 12 documented cases in the English literature describing central nervous system lesions associated with C. septicum. We present a case report of a 56-year-old man in whom septicemia due to C. septicum developed as a complication of Crohn's disease. To our knowledge, there has never been a previous report of C. septicum sepsis related to underlying Crohn's disease. Our case is also remarkable in that an intracerebral gas collection developed at the site of a mycotic infarct related to C. septicum bacteremia, Intracranial, intraparenchymal gas formation related to anaerobic infection is extremely rare; to our knowledge, this radiological finding related to C. septicum sepsis has been described in only 1 previous case report in the medical literature. We also describe the intra-abdominal manifestations of C. septicum sepsis that occurred in this patient as well as the associated radiographic and pathologic findings. (author)

  2. Changes in Fracture Compliance Due to Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, M.; Dahi Taleghani, A.; Sayers, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Rock fractures are a source of extra compliance, and the effect of fractures on seismic wave propagation can be quantified in terms of the normal and shear fracture compliances. However, fractures are usually assumed to be smooth discontinuities with no preferential orientation for slippage. This assumption rarely matches with outcrop studies. Irregularities always exist on the fracture faces in the form of hackles, slickensides, or gouges. These features may facilitate movement in one direction while oppose shear deformation in the other direction due to the saw-tooth structure of irregularities. This direction dependence of the shear compliance of the fracture planes may affect the measured ratio of normal to shear fracture compliance for different locations along the fracture. Furthermore, these effects may contribute to the pressure dependence of fracture compliance, because fracture opening or shear sliding would change the number of asperities in contact and, consequently, affect the ratio of the normal to shear compliance. Here, we use numerical modeling to investigate the change in normal and shear compliance caused by the presence of slickensides. The effect of the hackles' geometry, the friction coefficient between the fracture surfaces, and the offset between the fracture faces will be discussed in this presentation. Our analysis shows that even in the case of low asperity angles or small offsets between the fracture faces, the fracture compliance ratio could be greater than one, in agreement with several field observations available in the literature.

  3. Hospitalisations due to falls in older persons.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carey, D

    2005-06-01

    This paper describes hospitalisations due to falls among people aged 65 years and over resident in the Eastern Region of Ireland. Of the 2,029 hospitalisations recorded for 2002, 78% were female and 68% were aged 75 years and over. Fractures accounted for 1,697 or 84% of cases with nearly half of them (841) sustained to the hip. Females were more likely to have a limb fracture whereas males were more likely to have a head injury. The total inpatient costs of the 2,029 hospitalisations were estimated at 10.6 million euros. Hip fractures were the costliest injuries as they accounted for 7.4 million euros (70%) of inpatient costs. There are also substantial additional costs implications for hip fractures as they constituted the majority (56%) of cases transferred to nursing\\/convalescent homes or long-stay health facilities. In keeping with an ageing population, the problem of injuries in older people is likely to increase over time and as falls are the dominant cause of those injuries, all acute and long-stay health facilities need to develop and implement fall prevention strategies for older people.

  4. Decreased pain sensitivity due to trimethylbenzene exposure ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditionally, human health risk assessments have relied on qualitative approaches for hazard identification, often using the Hill criteria and weight of evidence determinations to integrate data from multiple studies. Recently, the National Research Council has recommended the development of quantitative approaches for evidence integration, including the application of meta-analyses. The following hazard identification case study applies qualitative as well as meta-analytic approaches to trimethylbenzene (TMB) isomers exposure and the potential neurotoxic effects on pain sensitivity. In the meta-analytic approach, a pooled effect size is calculated, after consideration of multiple confounding factors, in order to determine whether the entire database under consideration indicates that TMBs are likely to be a neurotoxic hazard. The pain sensitivity studies included in the present analyses initially seem discordant in their results: effects on pain sensitivity are seen immediately after termination of exposure, appear to resolve 24 hours after exposure, and then reappear 50 days later following foot-shock. Qualitative consideration of toxicological and toxicokinetic characteristics of the TMB isomers suggests that the observed differences between studies are due to testing time and can be explained through a complete consideration of the underlying biology of the effect and the nervous system as a whole. Meta-analyses and –regressions support this conclus

  5. ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL DUE DILIGENCE UNSUCCESSFUL BUSINESS COMPANIES IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JELENA Toskovic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In conditions of extreme financial and corporate scandals, in order to achieve a good position in the market and thus maximize profit, modern companies and their top managers must make continual innovation and change, as an adaptation of one of the basic imperatives of modern business. This means that today's modern enterprises are facing numerous challenges, including the need to find a way to survival, growth and development. The global economic crisis that occurred in 2007 passed the downfall of many companies and put into focus the creative application of financial resources in the process of bankruptcy. Each company during its life cycle comes to a situation that is found in some form of crisis, but if it fails to overcome the crisis inevitably is to declare bankruptcy, which is a recognition that the company failed to meet its objectives. The causes of business failure are different, so the task of the financial due diligence to do the recording of enterprises, carefully, systematically and thoroughly investigate, examine and analyze them information company that filed for bankruptcy. The point of introduction of due diligence is in providing input as soon as possible, in order to take advantage of information in the right way and made the right decisions and strategies of the business. So due diligence serves as a tool or vehicle for designing business decisions, which is in the territory of the Republic of Serbia still minimal use. The reorganization process is applied rather than the liquidation process, precisely in order to use all the resources that the company has, and thus protect shareholders, creditors and suppliers. This process is strictly controlled and regularized to avoid possible abuse by management that led the company to bankruptcy. The legislation allows considerable benefits company in the reorganization process, just to fit in a healthy leg, changed unsuccessful business and financial structure of the successful and

  6. Halftone moiré due to imager distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulan, Orhan; Loce, Robert; Xu, Beilei

    2011-01-01

    Moiré in color printing is an undesirable visible artifact that can arise from overlaying multiple halftone color separations. Halftone geometric configurations designed to avoid moiré in the overlays strictly require that individual halftone color separations must possess a low degree of relative distortion. However, optical and mechanical errors of multiple imaging systems within a printer usually produce differences between the color planes in the trajectory and placement of the exposure spots. We study color halftone moiré due to these optical and mechanical errors for otherwise moiré-free halftone configurations. Distortions due to commonly used imaging systems in xerography (i.e., raster output scanners and image bars) are categorized into two classes that depend on the direction of the displacement errors [i.e., process direction distortions (such as shear, bow, and skew) and cross-process direction distortions (such as scanline magnification, magnification imbalance, and high-order scanline distortions)]. Using frequency vector representation of color halftones, we derive analytical expressions for acceptability bounds on these distortions. We evaluate the analytical expressions for a classical halftone screen configuration and a minimum rosette geometry to enable specification allocations for different imaging components in the design of an imaging system.

  7. pH variations during diafiltration due to buffer nonidealities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Youngbin; Yang, Deyu; Singh, Nripen; Arunkumar, Abhiram; Ghose, Sanchayita; Li, Zheng Jian; Zydney, Andrew L

    2017-11-01

    Diafiltration is used for final formulation of essentially all biotherapeutics. Several studies have demonstrated that buffer/excipient concentrations in the final diafiltered product can be different than that in the diafiltration buffer due to interactions between buffer species and the protein product. However, recent work in our lab has shown variations in solution pH that are largely independent of the protein concentration during the first few diavolumes. Our hypothesis is that these pH variations are due to nonidealities in the acid-base equilibrium coefficient. A model was developed for the diafiltration process accounting for the ionic strength dependence of the pK a . Experimental results obtained using phosphate and histidine buffers were in excellent agreement with model predictions. A decrease in ionic strength leads to an increase in the pK a for the phosphate buffer, causing a shift in the solution pH, even under conditions where the initial feed and the diafiltration buffer are at the same pH. This effect could be eliminated by matching the ionic strength of the feed and diafiltration buffer. The experimental data and model provide new insights into the factors controlling the pH profile during diafiltration processes. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:1555-1560, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  8. Particle resuspension due to human walking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mana, Zakaria

    2014-01-01

    In nuclear facilities, during normal operations in controlled areas, workers could be exposed to radioactive aerosols (1 μm ≤ dp ≤ 10 μm). One of the airborne contamination sources is particles that are initially seeded on the floor and could be removed by workers while they are walking. During the outage of EDF nuclear facilities, there is a resuspension of some radionuclides in aerosol form (1 μm ≤ dp ≤ 10 μm). Since the number of co-activity will increase in reactors buildings of EDF, it becomes important to understand particle resuspension due to the activity of the operators to reduce their radiation exposure. The purpose of this Ph.D thesis is to quantify the resuspension of particles due to the progress of operators on a contaminated soil. Thus, the approach is to combine an aerodynamic resuspension model with numerical calculations of flow under a shoe, and then to characterize experimentally some input parameters of the model (particle diameter, adhesion forces, shoes motion). The resuspension model Rock'n'Roll proposed by Reeks and Hall (2001) was chosen because it describes physically the resuspension mechanism and because it is based on the moment of forces applied to a particle. This model requires two input parameters such as friction velocity and adhesion forces distribution applied on each particle. Regarding the first argument, numerical simulations were carried on using the ANSYS CFX software applied to a safety shoe in motion (digitized by 3D CAO); the mapping of friction velocity shows values of about 1 m.s -1 for an angular average velocity of 200 degrees.s -1 . As regards the second parameter, AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) measurements were carried out with alumina and cobalt oxide particles in contact with epoxy surfaces representative of those encountered in EDF power plants. AFM provides the distribution of adhesion forces and reveals a much lower value than what can be calculated theoretically using JKR model (Johnson

  9. Caregiver anxiety due to interstage feeding concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jamie; Dempster, Robert; Allen, Robin; Miller-Tate, Holly; Dickson, Gabrielle; Fichtner, Samantha; Principe, Alex J; Fonseca, Rachel; Nicholson, Lisa; Cua, Clifford L

    2015-01-01

    Improved weight gain during the interstage (IS) period has been shown to improve overall outcomes in patients with single ventricle physiology (SVP). This emphasis on nutrition may have untoward effects, such as increasing anxiety/stress levels in caregivers, who are already known to be at risk for increased anxiety/stress levels. The goal of this study was to evaluate anxiety/stress levels of caregivers as it pertains to feeding during the IS period and to determine if certain characteristics were associated with higher anxiety/stress scores. Caregivers of children with SVP who completed the IS period, defined as the time between the first and second cardiac surgeries, were recruited. Baseline demographics were obtained. Anxiety/stress levels were measured via eight questions using a 0- to 10-point scale. Correlations were performed between demographic variables and anxiety/stress level scores. Fifty-six surveys were completed (39 males, 27 females) on 43 children. Fourteen children required tube feeds during the IS period. There were significant correlations between anxiety/stress scores and caregiver's gender, caregiver's age, caregiver's level of education, percent of time a caregiver spent feeding the child, if caregivers were taking medications for anxiety, and if the child was seen in the emergency room during the IS period. There were no correlation of anxiety/stress scores with caregiver's race, child's underlying cardiac diagnosis, age of child, route of feeding during the IS period, birth order of the child or number of children in the family, relationship status, or distance from the hospital. In general, caregivers of children with SVP experience anxiety/stress during the IS period specifically due to feeding concerns. Certain intrinsic and extrinsic characteristics were associated with higher anxiety/stress levels. Future studies are needed to determine how to minimize anxiety/stress levels during this stressful time period. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals

  10. Nanoscale hotspots due to nonequilibrium thermal transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Sanjiv; Goodson, Kenneth E.

    2004-01-01

    Recent experimental and modeling efforts have been directed towards the issue of temperature localization and hotspot formation in the vicinity of nanoscale heat generating devices. The nonequilibrium transport conditions which develop around these nanoscale devices results in elevated temperatures near the heat source which can not be predicted by continuum diffusion theory. Efforts to determine the severity of this temperature localization phenomena in silicon devices near and above room temperature are of technological importance to the development of microelectronics and other nanotechnologies. In this work, we have developed a new modeling tool in order to explore the magnitude of the additional thermal resistance which forms around nanoscale hotspots from temperatures of 100-1000K. The models are based on a two fluid approximation in which thermal energy is transferred between ''stationary'' optical phonons and fast propagating acoustic phonon modes. The results of the model have shown excellent agreement with experimental results of localized hotspots in silicon at lower temperatures. The model predicts that the effect of added thermal resistance due to the nonequilibrium phonon distribution is greatest at lower temperatures, but is maintained out to temperatures of 1000K. The resistance predicted by the numerical code can be easily integrated with continuum models in order to predict the temperature distribution around nanoscale heat sources with improved accuracy. Additional research efforts also focused on the measurements of the thermal resistance of silicon thin films at higher temperatures, with a focus on polycrystalline silicon. This work was intended to provide much needed experimental data on the thermal transport properties for micro and nanoscale devices built with this material. Initial experiments have shown that the exposure of polycrystalline silicon to high temperatures may induce recrystallization and radically increase the thermal

  11. Rapidly progressive dementia due to neurosarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Carneiro C. Fortes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Rapidly progressive dementia (RPD is typically defined as a cognitive decline progressing to severe impairment in less than 1-2 years, typically within weeks or months. Accurate and prompt diagnosis is important because many conditions causing RPD are treatable. Neurosarcoidosis is often cited as an unusual reversible cause of RPD. Methods: We report two cases of neurosarcoidosis presenting as RPD. Results: Case 1: A 61-year-old woman developed a RPD associated with visual loss. In seven months she was dependent for self-care. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed temporal and suprasellar brain lesions. Treatment with high-dose intravenous prednisolone was associated with partial improvement. Case 2: A 43-year-old woman who was being treated for diabetes insipidus developed a severe episodic amnesia one year after onset of cognitive symptoms. Previous MRI had shown a hypothalamic lesion and she had been treated with oral prednisone and cyclophosphamide. There was reduction of the MRI findings but no improvement in the cognitive deficits. Brain biopsy disclosed noncaseous granulomas and granulomatous angiitis; treatment was changed to high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone, with poor symptomatic response. Conclusion: The diagnosis of RPD due to neurosarcoidosis can be challenging when the disease is restricted to the nervous system. In these cases, clinical presentation of RPD associated with neuroendocrine and visual dysfunction, imaging findings showing hypothalamic lesions and, in some cases, brain biopsy, are the key to a correct diagnosis. It is possible that earlier diagnoses and treatment could have led to a better outcome in these patients.

  12. Subjeans Condensations due to a Thermal Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opher, R.; Valio, A.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Las observaciones recientes muestran que las nubes moleculares no son homogeneas, sino que tienen condensaciones. Se observa que estas condensaciones estan libres gravitacionalmente. C6mo se forman estas condensaciones? Sugerimos explicar estas conden sac jones como debidas a que la inestabilidad termica ayuda a la gravedad. Se estudi6 una funci5n de enfriamiento por gramo de la forma general A p T , en donde p y T son la densidad y la temperatura. Estamos interesados en el valor maximo de para la cual el colapso ocurre. Se estudiaron varios mode- los. Nuestros resultados indican que los valores de comparables con aquellos sugeridos por la literatura (1 < son suficientes para provocar el colapso de masas inferiores a la masa de Jeans por medio de inestabilidad termica, ayudada por gravedad y asi se forman las condensaciones libres gravitacionalmente. ABSTRACT: Recent observations show that molecular clouds are not homogeneous, but clumpy. Some clumps are observed to be gravitationally unbound. How did these clumps then form? We suggest explaining these condensation as due to thermal instability aiding gravit y The cooling function per gram studied is of the general form A p T,where pand T are the density and temperature, respectively. We are interested in the maximum value of for which collapse still occurs. Various models are studied. Our results indicate that values comparable to those suggested in the literature (1 < %< 2) are sufficient to trigger the collapse of subjeans masses by thermal instability, when aided by gravity, and form the observed gravitationally unbound clumps. Keq o : HYDRODYNAMICS - INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS

  13. [Asthma and allergy due to carmine dye].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabar, A I; Acero, S; Arregui, C; Urdánoz, M; Quirce, S

    2003-01-01

    Cochineal carmine, or simply carmine (E120), is a red colouring that is obtained from the dried bodies of the female insect Dactylopius coccus Costa (the cochineal insect). We have evaluated the prevalence of sensitization and asthma caused by carmine in a factory using natural colouring, following the diagnosis of two workers with occupational asthma. The accumulated incidence of sensitization and occupational asthma due to carmine in this factory are 48.1% and 18.5% respectively, figures that make the introduction of preventive measures obligatory. Occupational asthma caused by inhaling carmine should be considered as a further example of the capacity of certain protein particles of arthropods (in this case cochineal insects) to act as aeroallergens. Carmine should be added to the list of agents capable of producing occupational asthma, whose mechanism, according to our studies, would be immunological mediated by IgE antibodies in the face of diverse allergens of high molecular weight, which can vary from patient to patient. Nonetheless, given the existence of different components in carmine, it cannot be ruled out that substances of low molecular weight, such as carminic acid, might act as haptenes. Besides, since we are dealing with a colouring that is widely used as a food additive, as a pharmaceutical excipient and in the composition of numerous cosmetics, it is not surprising that allergic reactions can appear both through ingestion and through direct cutaneous contact. We find ourselves facing a new example of an allergen that can act through both inhalation and digestion, giving rise to an allergolical syndrome that can show itself clinically with expressions of both respiratory allergy and alimentary allergy.

  14. Ocular Injury due to Potassium Permanganate Granules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chareenun Chirapapaisan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We report a rare case of ocular injury due to potassium permanganate (KMnO4 granules in a child. Methods: This is a retrospective case report. Results: A 2-year-old boy was transferred to our emergency room with severe pain in his right eye, inflamed eyelids, and brownish stains on his fingers. Chemical injury was suspected. Copious eye irrigation was immediately performed. Diffuse brownish splotches were then observed at the inferior bulbar conjunctiva. Otherwise, systemic organs were intact. Complete eye exam under general anesthesia revealed a 5-mm epithelial defect at the central cornea, along with generalized conjunctival injection and limbal ischemia, inferiorly. Multiple semi-dissolved granules of KMnO4 trapped in the inferior fornix were identified. The chemical particles were gradually washed out and removed; however, the brownish stains remained. The patient received preservative-free steroid, antibiotic eye drops, and lubricants as regular management for mild to moderate degree of ocular burn. Pseudomembrane developed early and transformed into symblepharon within a few days after the injury. Membrane adhesion was lysed, and more aggressive medications were then substituted. Commercial amniotic membrane (PROKERA® was also applied to promote wound healing and to prevent recurrence of symblepharon. The ocular surface was eventually restored, and corneal transparency was preserved. Conclusion: Ocular injury with the granular form of KMnO4 is rare. Its toxicity is comparable to concentrated KMnO4 solution. However, the dissolved particles that had been absorbed in the stained conjunctiva were continuously released and damaged the ocular surface more than we primarily anticipated. Awareness of this condition and prompt management yield a good treatment outcome.

  15. Towards better process understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matero, Sanni Elina; van der Berg, Franciscus Winfried J; Poutiainen, Sami

    2013-01-01

    The manufacturing of tablets involves many unit operations that possess multivariate and complex characteristics. The interactions between the material characteristics and process related variation are presently not comprehensively analyzed due to univariate detection methods. As a consequence......, current best practice to control a typical process is to not allow process-related factors to vary i.e. lock the production parameters. The problem related to the lack of sufficient process understanding is still there: the variation within process and material properties is an intrinsic feature...... and cannot be compensated for with constant process parameters. Instead, a more comprehensive approach based on the use of multivariate tools for investigating processes should be applied. In the pharmaceutical field these methods are referred to as Process Analytical Technology (PAT) tools that aim...

  16. Processing Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jasmine

    2015-01-01

    This Article argues that the practice of holding so many adjudicative proceedings related to disability in private settings (e.g., guardianship, special education due process, civil commitment, and social security) relative to our strong normative presumption of public access to adjudication may cultivate and perpetuate stigma in contravention of the goals of inclusion and enhanced agency set forth in antidiscrimination laws. Descriptively, the law has a complicated history with disability--initially rendering disability invisible; later, underwriting particular narratives of disability synonymous with incapacity; and, in recent history, promoting the full socio-economic visibility of people with disabilities. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), the marquee civil rights legislation for people with disabilities (about to enter its twenty-fifth year), expresses a national approach to disability that recognizes the role of society in its construction, maintenance, and potential remedy. However, the ADA’s mission is incomplete. It has not generated the types of interactions between people with disabilities and nondisabled people empirically shown to deconstruct deeply entrenched social stigma. Prescriptively, procedural design can act as an "ntistigma agent"to resist and mitigate disability stigma. This Article focuses on one element of institutional design--public access to adjudication--as a potential tool to construct and disseminate counter-narratives of disability. The unique substantive focus in disability adjudication on questions of agency provides a potential public space for the negotiation of nuanced definitions of disability and capacity more reflective of the human condition.

  17. Diabetes due to recurrent pancreatitis secondary to hypercalcemia due to primary hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Kumar Chakrabarti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis due to hypercalcemia associated with hyperparathyroidism (HPT is not very common. We herein report a case of a 21-year-old woman, who presented with acute pancreatitis. She had a past history of recurrent nephrolithiasis. Subsequent evaluation revealed hypercalcemia (serum calcium: 12.6 mg/dL; low phosphate (2.9 mg/dL with elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH, 156.7 pg/mL and HbA1c (6.9%. Diagnosis of primary HPT (PHPT was made. Recurrent pancreatitis due to hypercalcemia may have resulted in diabetes mellitus.

  18. The management of over closured anterior teeth due to attrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eha Djulaeha

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tooth is the hardest tissue in human body, that can be injured because of attrition process. For old people, denture attrition process is caused by psysiological process relating with the mastication function which also supported by some bad habits such an bruxism, premature contact, and consuming habit of abrasive food. Attrition or abrasion can also be happened with patien’t dentition who does not have teeth subtutition for long time due the lost of their maxillary as well as mandibulary. The pasient will loose their vertical dimension of occlusion, injure, and the lower jaw becomes over closed which is called over closure. Purpose: This article reported the management of over closured anterior teeth due to attrition. Case: a seventy six year old woman patient came to Prosthodontic Clinic in Faculty of Dentistry, Airlangga University, to rehabilitate her upper and lower severe attrited anterior teeth and her posterior teeth. The patient has experienced of wearing acrylic removable mandibular partial denture ten years ago. Unfortunaly, the denture was uncomfortable, and she did not wear it anymore since five years ago. Case management: The severe attrition of anterior teeth with the lost of occlusal vertical dimension can be treated by improving the occlusal vertical dimension gradually. The treatment is then followed by the increasing of the height of the anterior teeth by lengthening the crown teeth of upper jaw with 12 units of span bridge and the acrylic removable partial denture of lower jaw. Conclusion: The severe attrition of anterior teeth with the lost of occlusal vertical dimension can be treated by improving the occlusal vertical dimension gradually, using long span bridge and acrylic removable partial denture.

  19. [Prevention of infections due to musculoskeletal allografts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruß, A

    2017-11-01

    Transplantation of musculoskeletal tissues is widely used in the treatment of extensive defects of the musculoskeletal system, especially in orthopedics for exchange of prostheses, surgical interventions on the spine and in traumatology for reconstruction after extensive tumor resections. A danger after transplantation is the potential transmission of clinically relevant pathogens. Tissue banks have therefore established a safety level approach for musculoskeletal tissue transplants, which includes donor selection, laboratory testing, tissue procurement, tissue processing, tissue storage and quality assurance. In addition, inactivation procedures were also developed to protect the biological properties of the tissue and to guarantee a high microbiological safety against infections. Quality assurance in accordance with the Ordinance for the Production of Medicinal Products and Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (AMWHV) and the Transplantation Act Tissue Regulations (TPG-GewV), ensures that the work of tissue banks conforms to the legal requirements. A new aspect is that the introduction of the single European code in April 2017, with which all transplants in Germany must be labelled, ensures the traceability of the tissue transplants after potential infections.

  20. Genome Evolution Due to Allopolyploidization in Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Moshe; Levy, Avraham A.

    2012-01-01

    The wheat group has evolved through allopolyploidization, namely, through hybridization among species from the plant genera Aegilops and Triticum followed by genome doubling. This speciation process has been associated with ecogeographical expansion and with domestication. In the past few decades, we have searched for explanations for this impressive success. Our studies attempted to probe the bases for the wide genetic variation characterizing these species, which accounts for their great adaptability and colonizing ability. Central to our work was the investigation of how allopolyploidization alters genome structure and expression. We found in wheat that allopolyploidy accelerated genome evolution in two ways: (1) it triggered rapid genome alterations through the instantaneous generation of a variety of cardinal genetic and epigenetic changes (which we termed “revolutionary” changes), and (2) it facilitated sporadic genomic changes throughout the species’ evolution (i.e., evolutionary changes), which are not attainable at the diploid level. Our major findings in natural and synthetic allopolyploid wheat indicate that these alterations have led to the cytological and genetic diploidization of the allopolyploids. These genetic and epigenetic changes reflect the dynamic structural and functional plasticity of the allopolyploid wheat genome. The significance of this plasticity for the successful establishment of wheat allopolyploids, in nature and under domestication, is discussed. PMID:23135324

  1. Change of minerals due to external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krickl, R.

    2009-01-01

    The thesis contains new results on radio-induced alteration in solids, presenting investigations on alpha-particle haloes in several minerals (chlorite, muscovite, biotite, cordierite, diamond, fluorite, quartz, feldspars) and results of artificial irradiation experiments (with He 2+ and O 6+ ions, electrons and gamma-rays) on natural and synthetic crystals and glasses. Samples were characterised using modern micro- and nano-techniques: spectroscopic methods (Raman, PL, CL, IR, UV-VIS-NIR, EELS, EPR), microscopy (polarisation microscopy, SEM, TEM), diffraction (SAED, PXRD, SXRD) and chemical analysis (EDX, WDX, in addition TG). Furthermore, the presented work yields a comprehensive literature review of investigations on radiohaloes (from 1873 until present day) and is completed by results of mathematical modelling and Monte-Carlo-simulations of the interaction of radiation with matter. In all cases, there was very good agreement between measured penetration depths of irradiated particles and radiohalo radii on the one hand and particle ranges calculated by Monte-Carlo-simulations on the other hand. The phenomena of either inexplicably small or large radiohaloes (so called dwarf or giant haloes) reported in the literature could be explained using geometrical models and simulations. For the first time, radiohaloes in muscovite were analysed by spectroscopic methods. A comparison with haloes in chlorite and biotite showed that alpha-induced effects are similar in all investigated sheet silicates: It was observed in all cases that there is no amorphization but merely radio-induced disturbance of the short range order (due to accumulation of point defects). Changes of the coloration of sheet silicates are not caused by distinct additional absorption bands but by a shift of the high-energy absorption edge into the visible range. By obtaining spectra from different regions within haloes, it was possible to reconstruct the dose-dependent evolution of radio-induced light

  2. Septic arthritis due to Clostridium ramosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Jiménez, Antonio; Prim, Núria; Crusi, Xavier; Benito, Natividad

    2016-04-01

    Clostridium species are anaerobic bacilli that are rarely reported as etiologic agents of infectious arthritis. Previous cases of arthritis caused by Clostridium ramosum have not been reported. We describe the first 2 cases of C. ramosum arthritis. We reviewed the etiology of arthritis in our hospital during the previous 15 years. Both patients had underlying immunocompromising conditions and their infections involved a joint with preexisting disease: patient 1 had rheumatic arthritis and a prosthetic joint; patient 2, chronic renal failure on dialysis and hip osteoarthritis. The infection was hematogenously acquired and the course was indolent but destructive in both the cases. Management included open arthrotomy and resection arthroplasty. The infection had a persisting and relapsing course, and prolonged antibiotic treatment was required. In the literature review, we found 55 previous cases of arthritis caused by Clostridium species between 1966 and 2014; Clostridium perfringens was the most common infecting species; the infection was traumatically acquired in most of the cases. A total of 15 patients have been described with infections caused by C. ramosum; none had septic arthritis. The majority were elderly or immunocompromised adults. Proper collection, transportation and processing of clinical specimens is essential for diagnosing clostridial infections. More information about the best management of clostridial arthritis are needed. We describe the first 2 cases of septic arthritis caused by C. ramosum. They shared several pathogenic and clinical features. The possibility of anaerobic arthritis should always be considered when collecting diagnostic specimens. An increasing number of clostridial arthritis cases are likely to be diagnosed in future years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Hospital Privileging Hearing: Striking a Balance between due Process and Quality of Care

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Israel, Eric

    1997-01-01

    .... Part II will argue for the merits of some degree of procedural protections even though physicians may find some aspects of legal proceedings incompatible with the scientific nature of peer review...

  4. The Hidden Human Rights Curriculum of Surveillance Cameras in Schools: Due Process, Privacy and Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry-Hazan, Lotem; Birnhack, Michael

    2018-01-01

    This article explores how school principals integrate Closed Circuit TV systems (CCTVs) in educational practices and analyses the pedagogical implications of these practices through the lens of human rights. Drawing on interviews with school principals and municipality officials, we found that schools use CCTVs for three main purposes: (1)…

  5. Reduced antimicrobial potencies of oxytetracycline, tylosin, sulfadiazin, streptomycin, ciprofloxacin, and olaquindox due to environmental processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halling-Sørensen, B; Sengeløv, G; Ingerslev, F; Jensen, L B

    2003-01-01

    The stability of oxytetracycline (OTC), tylosin (TYL), sulfadiazin (SDZ), streptomycin (ST), ciprofloxacin (CF) and olaquindox (O) was examined in environmentally relevant matrices, such as soil interstitial water and sewage sludge water. Compounds were assessed in both aerobic (OTC, TYL, SDZ, ST, and CF) and anaerobic experiments (OTC, TYL, and O) using analytical measurements (UV spectrophotometry or HPLC) combined with a growth inhibition pour plate assay using activated sludge bacteria. (OTC was additionally assessed using a soil bacterial assay.) This combination of results enabled the assessment of whether a loss in antibacterial potency was reflected in a similar reduction of substance concentration. If a potency reduction is not reflected in a decreased substance concentration, the results may indicate the formation of less potent degradation products possessing the same chromophoric system (same UV absorbance maximum) as the parent compound. With the exception of ST and CF, the antimicrobial agents generally lost a considerable amount of their antimicrobial potency in aerobic experiments. In the anaerobic experiments having either an experimental duration of 21 or 100 days only OTC retained potency. These results correspond well with the fact that several degradation products were encountered in the study for this compound

  6. Redistribution of cesium-137 due to erosional processes in a Wisconsin watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHenry, J.R.; Ritchie, J.C.; Bubenzer, G.D.

    1978-01-01

    The distribution of fallout 137 Cs was studied in a small agricultural watershed in Shawano County, Wis. The watershed drains into White Clay Lake, a small, shallow glacial outwash lake. Soil samples were collected in 1974 and 1975 from wooded, pastured, and cultivated sites on the watershed. In the noncultivated areas 137 Cs was concentrated largely in the surface 5 cm of the soil pedons, but in the cultivated areas it was distributed throughout the plow layer. The amount of 137 Cs found in the cultivated areas was less per unit area than that found in the noncultivated areas. The amounts of 137 Cs found in the soil pedons in the cultivated areas were correlated with small changes in elevation. Thus, although the total content of 137 Cs for a given field indicated an overall loss, small changes in topography within fields have resulted in areas of excessive losses (erosion) and of accumulations

  7. Linguistic Diversity in a Deaf Prison Population: Implications for Due Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Katrina R.

    2004-01-01

    The entire deaf prison population in the state of Texas formed the basis for this research. The linguistic skills of prison inmates were assessed using the following measures: (1) Kannapell's categories of bilingualism, (2) adaptation of the diagnostic criteria for Primitive Personality Disorder, (3) reading scores on the Test of Adult Basic…

  8. Processible conducting nanoscale cylinders due to self-organized polyaniline supra molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosonen, H; Valkama, S; Ruokolainen, J; Knaapila, M; Torkkeli, M; Serimaa, R; Monkman, AP; ten Brinke, G; Ikkala, O

    2003-01-01

    Polyaniline sulphonates contain hydrogen bonding acceptor sites, which allow construction of supramolecules and self-organized structures. Here we have characterized the phase behavior of complexes of polyaniline, camphorsulphomc acid (CSA) and 4-hexylresorcinol (tires), PANI(CSA)(x)(Hres)(y), using

  9. Reduced antimicrobial potencies of Oxytetracycline, tylosin, sulfadiazine, streptomycin, ciprofloxacin and olaquindox due to environmental processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling-Sørensen, Bent; Sengeløv, G.; Ingerslev, Flemming

    2003-01-01

    The stability of oxytetracycline (OTC), tylosin (TYL), sulfadiazin (SDZ), streptomycin (ST), ciprofloxacin (CF) and olaquindox (O) was examined in environmentally relevant matrices, such as soil interstitial water and sewage sludge water. Compounds were assessed in both aerobic (OTC, TYL, SDZ, ST...

  10. Characterization of Chlorinated Solvent Degradation Profile Due to Microbial and Chemical Processes in a Constructed Wetland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sobolewski, Teresa

    2004-01-01

    .... With their upward flow capability it is possible to introduce an aerobic and anaerobic environment with a consortium of microorganisms available to degrade the contaminants to within acceptable...

  11. Morphological changes at Godavari delta region due to waves, currents and the associated physical processes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sastry, J.S.; Vethamony, P.; Swamy, G.N.

    Wave conditions, the most important in coastal modification, prevailing in the region of Godavari Delta for different seasons are illustrated. The analysis of GEOSAT altimeter data for the period November 1986 to October 1987 shows that only during...

  12. 32 CFR 636.4 - Administrative due process for suspensions and revocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION (SPECIFIC...) Individuals who desire an administrative hearing to review a decision to impose immediate suspension, or to...

  13. Characterization of explosives processing waste decomposition due to composting. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griest, W.H.; Stewart, A.J.; Ho, C.H.; Tyndall, R.L.; Vass, A.A.; Caton, J.E.; Caldwell, W.M.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this work was to provide data and methodology assisting the transfer and acceptance of composting technology for the remediation of explosives-contaminated soils and sediments. Issues and activities addressed included: (a) chemical and toxicological characterization of compost samples from new field composting experiments, and the environmental availability of composting efficiency by isolation of bacterial consortia and natural surfactants from highly efficient composts, and (c) improved assessment of compost product suitability for land application.

  14. Nutrient changes due to processing of sorne species of Vemoflia in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    en nutriments dans les espèces de Verrzwzia amer af/y/gda/ina, V. va/i/oana var. amère) et non amer (V. co/amta et V. cu/voafla var. non amère) rencontrées au Cameroun. Les traitements utilisés sont le lavage, le lavage après blanchiment sans natron, le lavage après blanchiment avec une concentration de natron.

  15. Modeling unburned hydrocarbon formation due to absorption/desorption processes into the wall oil film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, L.K.; Assanis, D.N.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that as a result of continuing air pollution problems, very stringent regulations are being enforced to control emissions of unburned hydrocarbons (HC) from premixed-charge, spark-ignition engines. A number of attempts have been reported on modeling sources of HC emissions using various analytical tools. Over the past decade, the development of multi-dimensional reacting flow codes has advanced considerably. Perhaps the most widely used multi-dimensional engine simulation code is KIVA-II, which was developed at Lost Alamos National Laboratory. The ability to deal with moving boundary conditions caused by the piston movement is built in this code. This code also includes models for turbulent fluid flow, turbulent interaction between spray drops and gas, heat transfer, chemical reaction, and fuel spray. A standard k-ε turbulence model is used for gas flow. The fuel spray model is based on the stochastic particle technique, and includes sub-models for droplet injection, breakup, collision and coalescence, and evaporation

  16. Differential Disadvantage of Anglophone Weak Readers Due to English Orthographic Complexity and Cognitive Processing Weakness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galletly, Susan A.; Knight, Bruce Allen

    2011-01-01

    The highly regular orthographies (spelling systems) of many nations expedite literacy development, and their children experience a rapid transition from early literacy (learning to read and write) to sophisticated literacy (reading and writing to learn). In contrast, English orthographic complexity impedes literacy development, particularly for…

  17. 32 CFR 634.11 - Administrative due process for suspensions and revocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... drunk driving or driving under the influence offenses, reliable evidence readily available will be.... (9) Hearing on suspension actions under § 634.9(a) for drunk or impaired driving pending resolution... (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges...

  18. Radiative emission due to atomic self-dressing in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compagno, G.; Valenti, D.

    2002-01-01

    We study the radiative emission due to the self-dressing of a two-level atom, initially in its bare ground state, interacting with the zero-point electromagnetic field. Evolution in time leads to the formation of a dressed ground state of lower energy. This energy difference between bare and dressed ground state is taken into account by the emission of real photons. In order to describe this aspect of the self-dressing process we study the transition probability amplitude from the initial bare state to an asymptotic state consisting of the atom in its dressed ground state plus some real photons. Adopting nonperturbative techniques based on the resolvent method we find that the bare-dressed transition occurs at the lowest order with the emission of two photons. The spectral distribution obtained shows that there is a probability for emission of photons at frequency of the order of the atom's transition frequency

  19. Exploring aggregate economic damage functions due to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowlatabadi, H.; Kandlikar, M.; Patwardhan, A. [and others

    1994-12-31

    A number of issues need to be considered when developing aggregated economic damage functions due to climate change. These include: (i) identification of production processes vulnerable to climate change, (ii) an understanding of the mechanism of vulnerability, (iii) the rate of technological advance and diffusion (iv) the issue of detection of damages and availability of response options. In this paper we will explore the implications of these considerations with the aid of an illustrative model. The findings suggest that there is a significant upward bias in damage functions calculated without consideration of these issues. Furthermore, this systematic bias is larger as climate change increases. We believe the approach explored here is a more suitable model for adoption in future integrated assessments of climate change.

  20. Exploring aggregate economic damage functions due to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowlatabadi, H.; Kandlikar, M.; Patwardhan, A.

    1994-01-01

    A number of issues need to be considered when developing aggregated economic damage functions due to climate change. These include: (1) identification of production processes vulnerable to climate change, (2) an understanding of the mechanism of vulnerability, (3) the rate of technological advance and diffusion, (4) the issue of detection of damages and availability of response options. In this paper the authors will explore the implications of these considerations with the aid of an illustrative model. The findings suggest that there is a significant upward bias in damage functions calculated without consideration of these issues. Furthermore, this systematic bias is larger as climate change increases. The authors believe the approach explored here is a more suitable model for adoption in future integrated assessments of climate change

  1. Energy Loss in Pulse Detonation Engine due to Fuel Viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weipeng Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluid viscosity is a significant factor resulting in the energy loss in most fluid dynamical systems. To analyze the energy loss in the pulse detonation engine (PDE due to the viscosity of the fuel, the energy loss in the Burgers model excited by periodic impulses is investigated based on the generalized multisymplectic method in this paper. Firstly, the single detonation energy is simplified as an impulse; thus the complex detonation process is simplified. And then, the symmetry of the Burgers model excited by periodic impulses is studied in the generalized multisymplectic framework and the energy loss expression is obtained. Finally, the energy loss in the Burgers model is investigated numerically. The results in this paper can be used to explain the difference between the theoretical performance and the experimental performance of the PDE partly. In addition, the analytical approach of this paper can be extended to the analysis of the energy loss in other fluid dynamic systems due to the fluid viscosity.

  2. Pure apraxia of speech due to infarct in premotor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patira, Riddhi; Ciniglia, Lauren; Calvert, Timothy; Altschuler, Eric L

    Apraxia of speech (AOS) is now recognized as an articulation disorder distinct from dysarthria and aphasia. Various lesions have been associated with AOS in studies that are limited in precise localization due to variability in size and type of pathology. We present a case of pure AOS in setting of an acute stroke to localize more precisely than ever before the brain area responsible for AOS, dorsal premotor cortex (dPMC). The dPMC is in unique position to plan and coordinate speech production by virtue of its connection with nearby motor cortex harboring corticobulbar tract, supplementary motor area, inferior frontal operculum, and temporo-parietal area via the dorsal stream of dual-stream model of speech processing. The role of dPMC is further supported as part of dorsal stream in the dual-stream model of speech processing as well as controller in the hierarchical state feedback control model. Copyright © 2017 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  3. The prognosis of retinal detachment due to lattice degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, W E; Morse, P H

    1978-09-01

    In a series of 553 consecutive retinal detachments, 29% (120) were due to lattice degeneration. Forty-five percent of these were due to atrophic holes in the lattice degeneration and 55% were due to tears caused by traction posterior to or at the end of a patch of lattice. In phakic patients, retinal detachments due to atrophic holes were most common in young myopes. Detachments due to traction tears were seen in older, less myopic patients. The incidence of massive periretinal proliferation was less (5%) in detachments due to lattice degeneration than in detachments not due to lattice degeneration (6.5%).

  4. Data processing

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, T F

    2013-01-01

    Data Processing discusses the principles, practices, and associated tools in data processing. The book is comprised of 17 chapters that are organized into three parts. The first part covers the characteristics, systems, and methods of data processing. Part 2 deals with the data processing practice; this part discusses the data input, output, and storage. The last part discusses topics related to systems and software in data processing, which include checks and controls, computer language and programs, and program elements and structures. The text will be useful to practitioners of computer-rel

  5. Process mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Aalst, W.M.P.; Rubin, V.; Verbeek, H.M.W.

    2010-01-01

    Process mining includes the automated discovery of processes from event logs. Based on observed events (e.g., activities being executed or messages being exchanged) a process model is constructed. One of the essential problems in process mining is that one cannot assume to have seen all possible...... behavior. At best, one has seen a representative subset. Therefore, classical synthesis techniques are not suitable as they aim at finding a model that is able to exactly reproduce the log. Existing process mining techniques try to avoid such “overfitting” by generalizing the model to allow for more...

  6. Nutritional and metabolic changes due the abdominal radiation: experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucerino, Donato R.; Waitzberg, Dan L.; Campos, Fabio G. de; Melo Auricchio, Maria T. de; Gama-Rodrigues, Joaquim J.; Lima-Goncalves, Ernesto L.

    1995-01-01

    In this study the effects on nutritional status and energetic metabolism due the abdominal irradiation were analysed. Adult male wistar rats (48), were divided in two groups Control (C) and radiated (R). The rats were maintained all time in metabolic cages. the study was done in two periods: period 1 begun at 0 day, were rats adapted to cages and oral diet, had food and water ad libitum. At the day four indirect calorimetric measurements were performed (calorimetry 1). At period 2, group R rats abdominal radiation at a 300 c Gy/day rate, for 5 consecutive days, and group C started a pair-feeding process linked individually to R rats and suffered application to simulated-irradiation. Two other calorimetric measurements (II,III) were performing during period 2. After radiation the last calorimetry was performed (IV). At sacrifice (day 14) blood was collected for determination of hemoglobin, hematocrit, albumin and transferrin. There were no statistical differences among groups C and R during period 1 (p < 0.05). Great reduction in food intake and weight variation were found in period 2, but weight loss was significantly higher in R rats. Nitrogen balance decrease in period 2, but without difference among the groups (p < 0.05). Serum albumin was significantly lower in R rats. Respiratory quotient decreased in both groups during period 2, but rats kept it lower (p < 0.05). The energy expenditure level decreased after radiation in group R. During period 2 total substrate oxidation decreased in R rats. Radiation decrease glucose and protein oxidation. In conclusion, in this study's conditions, radiation produced malnutrition by reducing food intake by bringing weight loss, hypoalbuminemia and decrease nitrogen balance. Radiation was also responsible for a reduction of metabolism, by promoting the fall of energy expenditure. These changes are not only due the anorexia, undoubtful a main factor. (author)

  7. Multi-unit shutdown due to boiler feedwater chemical excursion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diebel, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    Ontario Hydro's Bruce Nuclear Generating Station 'B' consists of four 935 W CANDU units located on the east shore of Lake Huron in the province of Ontario, Canada. On July 25 and 26, 1989 three of the four operating units were shutdown due to boiler feedwater chemical excursions initiated by a process upset in the Water Treatment Plant that provides demineralized make-up water to all four units. The chemicals that escaped from an ion exchange vessel during a routine regeneration very quickly spread through the condensate make-up system and into the boiler feedwater systems. This resulted in boiler sulfate levels exceeding shutdown limits. A total of 260 GWH of electrical generation was unexpectedly made unavailable to the grid at a time of peak seasonal demand. This event exposed several unforeseen deficiencies and vulnerabilities in the automatic demineralized water make-up quality protection scheme, system designs, operating procedures and the ability of operating personnel to recognize and appropriately respond to such an event. The combination of these factors contributed towards turning a minor system upset into a major multi-unit shutdown. This paper provides the details of the actual event initiation in the Water Treatment Plant and describes the sequence of events that led to the eventual shutdown of three units and near shutdown of the fourth. The design inadequacies, procedural deficiencies and operating personnel responses and difficulties are described. The process of recovering from this event, the flushing out of system piping, boilers and the feedwater train is covered as well as our experiences with setting up supplemental demineralized water supplies including trucking in water and the use of rental trailer mounted demineralizing systems. System design, procedural and operational changes that have been made and that are still being worked on in response to this event are described. The latest evidence of the effect of this event on boiler tube

  8. Sewer Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Vollertsen, Jes; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning

    Since the first edition was published over a decade ago, advancements have been made in the design, operation, and maintenance of sewer systems, and new problems have emerged. For example, sewer processes are now integrated in computer models, and simultaneously, odor and corrosion problems caused...... and valuable information on the sewer as a chemical and biological reactor. It focuses on how to predict critical impacts and control adverse effects. It also provides an integrated description of sewer processes in modeling terms. This second edition is full of illustrative examples and figures, includes...... of odor formation and prediction • Details the WATS sewer process model • Highlights the importance of aerobic, anoxic, and anaerobic processes Sewer Processes: Microbial and Chemical Process Engineering of Sewer Networks, Second Edition, provides a basis for up-to-date understanding and modeling of sewer...

  9. Problems due to icing of overhead lines - Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havard, D.G.; Pon, C.J.; Krishnasamy, S.G.

    1985-01-01

    A companion paper describes uncertainties in overhead line design due to the variability of ice and wind loads. This paper reviews two other effects due to icing; conductor galloping and torsional instability, which require further study. (author)

  10. 77 FR 13046 - Customer Due Diligence Requirements for Financial Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... Customer Due Diligence Requirements for Financial Institutions AGENCY: Financial Crimes Enforcement Network... customer due diligence (CDD) regulation that would codify, clarify, consolidate, and strengthen existing... particular regarding issues related to identification and verification of customers as discussed in Section...

  11. Determination of Parameter Estimation Errors Due to Noise and Undermodelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten

    1996-01-01

    A simple method for determination of the estimation error of physical parameters due to noise and undermodelling is developed.......A simple method for determination of the estimation error of physical parameters due to noise and undermodelling is developed....

  12. Data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousot, P.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Data Processing laboratory (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The laboratory research fields are: the semantics, the tests and the semantic analysis of the codes, the formal calculus, the software applications, the algorithms, the neuron networks and VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration). The investigations concerning the polynomial rings are performed by means of the standard basis approach. Among the research topics, the Pascal codes, the parallel processing, the combinatorial, statistical and asymptotic properties of the fundamental data processing tools, the signal processing and the pattern recognition. The published papers, the congress communications and the thesis are also included [fr

  13. Stochastic processes

    CERN Document Server

    Parzen, Emanuel

    1962-01-01

    Well-written and accessible, this classic introduction to stochastic processes and related mathematics is appropriate for advanced undergraduate students of mathematics with a knowledge of calculus and continuous probability theory. The treatment offers examples of the wide variety of empirical phenomena for which stochastic processes provide mathematical models, and it develops the methods of probability model-building.Chapter 1 presents precise definitions of the notions of a random variable and a stochastic process and introduces the Wiener and Poisson processes. Subsequent chapters examine

  14. Design Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Nis

    2009-01-01

    Inspiration for most research and optimisations on design processes still seem to focus within the narrow field of the traditional design practise. The focus in this study turns to associated businesses of the design professions in order to learn from their development processes. Through interviews...... advantages and challenges of agile processes in mobile software and web businesses are identified. The applicability of these agile processes is discussed in re- gards to design educations and product development in the domain of Industrial Design and is briefly seen in relation to the concept of dromology...

  15. Magnetics Processing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Magnetics Processing Lab equipped to perform testing of magnetometers, integrate them into aircraft systems, and perform data analysis, including noise reduction...

  16. Asymmetric Star Formation Efficiency Due to Ram Pressure Stripping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Troncoso Iribarren

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous works have shown that a dense cluster environment affects satellite galaxy properties and accelerates or truncates their evolutionary processes. In this work, we use the EAGLE simulation to study this effect, dissecting the galaxies in two halves: the one that is falling directly to the cluster (leading half and the one behind (trailing half. Considering all galaxies within the virial radius of the most massive groups and clusters of the simulation ( M h a l o > 10 13 . 8 [ M ⊙ ] , we find that on average the leading half presents an enhancement of the star formation rate with respect to the trailing half. We conclude that galaxies falling into the intra-cluster medium experience a boost in star-formation in their leading half due to ram pressure. Sparse observations of jellyfish galaxies have revealed visually the enhancement of the star formation in the leading half. In order to confirm this effect statistically using observations, different cases must be investigated using the simulation as a test dataset.

  17. Elastic deformation of soft coatings due to lubrication forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yumo; Tan, Matthew R; Frechette, Joelle

    2017-10-04

    Elastic deformation of rigid materials with soft coatings (stratified materials) due to lubrication forces can alter the interpretation of dynamic surface forces measurements and prevent contact formation between approaching surfaces. Understanding the role of elastic deformation on the process of fluid drainage is necessary, in particular for the case where one (or both) of the interacting materials consists of a rigid substrate with a soft coating. We combine lubrication theory and solid linear elasticity to describe the dynamic of fluid drainage past a compliant stratified boundary. The analysis presented covers the full range of coating thicknesses, from an elastic foundation to a half-space for an incompressible coating. We decouple the individual contributions of the coating thickness and material properties on the elastic deformation, hydrodynamic forces, and fluid film thickness. We obtain a simple expression for the shift in contact position during force measurements that is valid for many experimental conditions. We compare directly the effect of stratification on the out-of-contact deformation to the well-known effect of stratification on indentation. We show that corrections developed for stratification in contact mechanics are not applicable to elastohydrodynamic deformation. Finally, we provide generalized contour maps that can be employed directly to estimate the elastic deformation present in most dynamic surface force measurements.

  18. Warming Can Boost Denitrification Disproportionately Due to Altered Oxygen Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veraart, Annelies J.; de Klein, Jeroen J. M.; Scheffer, Marten

    2011-01-01

    Background Global warming and the alteration of the global nitrogen cycle are major anthropogenic threats to the environment. Denitrification, the biological conversion of nitrate to gaseous nitrogen, removes a substantial fraction of the nitrogen from aquatic ecosystems, and can therefore help to reduce eutrophication effects. However, potential responses of denitrification to warming are poorly understood. Although several studies have reported increased denitrification rates with rising temperature, the impact of temperature on denitrification seems to vary widely between systems. Methodology/Principal Findings We explored the effects of warming on denitrification rates using microcosm experiments, field measurements and a simple model approach. Our results suggest that a three degree temperature rise will double denitrification rates. By performing experiments at fixed oxygen concentrations as well as with oxygen concentrations varying freely with temperature, we demonstrate that this strong temperature dependence of denitrification can be explained by a systematic decrease of oxygen concentrations with rising temperature. Warming decreases oxygen concentrations due to reduced solubility, and more importantly, because respiration rates rise more steeply with temperature than photosynthesis. Conclusions/Significance Our results show that denitrification rates in aquatic ecosystems are strongly temperature dependent, and that this is amplified by the temperature dependencies of photosynthesis and respiration. Our results illustrate the broader phenomenon that coupling of temperature dependent reactions may in some situations strongly alter overall effects of temperature on ecological processes. PMID:21483809

  19. Embrittlement recovery due to annealing of reactor pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eason, E.D.; Wright, J.E.; Nelson, E.E.; Odette, G.R.; Mader, E.V.

    1995-01-01

    The irradiation embrittlement of nuclear reactor pressure vessels (RPV) can be reduced by thermal annealing at temperatures higher than the normal operating conditions. The objective of this work was to analyze the pertinent data and develop quantitative models for estimating the recovery in 30 ft-lb (41 J) Charpy transition temperature and Charpy upper shelf energy due to annealing. An analysis data base was developed, reviewed for completeness and accuracy, and documented as part of this work. Models were developed based on a combination of statistical techniques, including pattern recognition and transformation analysis, and the current understanding of the mechanisms governing embrittlement and recovery. The quality of models fitted in this project was evaluated by considering both the Charpy annealing data used for fitting and a surrogate hardness data base. This work demonstrates that microhardness recovery is i good surrogate for shift recovery and that there is a high level of consistency between he observed annealing trends and fundamental models of embrittlement and recovery processes

  20. Embrittlement recovery due to annealing of reactor pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eason, E.D.; Wright, J.E.; Nelson, E.E.; Odette, G.R.; Mader, E.V.

    1998-01-01

    The irradiation embrittlement of nuclear reactor pressure vessels (RPV) can be reduced by thermal annealing at temperatures higher than the normal operating conditions. The objective of this work was to analyze the pertinent data and develop quantitative models for estimating the recovery in 41 J (30 ft-lb) Charpy transition temperature (TT) and Charpy upper shelf energy (USE) due to annealing. An analysis data base was developed, reviewed for completeness and accuracy, and documented as part of this work. Models were developed based on a combination of statistical techniques, including pattern recognition and transformation analysis, and the current understanding of the mechanisms governing embrittlement and recovery. The quality of models fitted in this project was evaluated by considering both the Charpy annealing data used for fitting and a surrogate hardness data base. This work demonstrates that microhardness recovery is a good surrogate for shift recovery and that there is a high level of consistency between the observed annealing trends and fundamental models of embrittlement and recovery processes. (orig.)

  1. Occupational allergy due to seafood delivery: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trautmann Axel

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sensitization to fish or crustaceans requires intensive skin contact and/or airway exposition and therefore especially workers in the seafood processing industry may develop an occupational seafood allergy. However, even in jobs with limited direct exposure, individuals with atopic disposition not using appropriate skin protection are at risk for developing occupational seafood allergy which requires termination of employment. Case presentation Due to increasing workload and pressure of time a truck driver in charge of seafood deliveries for 10 years neglected preventive measures such as wearing protective cloths and gloves which resulted in increasing direct skin contact to seafood or mucosal contact to splashing storage ice. Despite his sensitization to fish and crustaceans he tried to remain in his job but with ongoing incidental allergen exposure his symptoms progressed from initial contact urticaria to generalized urticaria, anaphylaxis and finally occupational asthma. Conclusion Faulty knowledge and increased work load may impede time-consuming usage of preventive measures for occupational health and safety. In predisposed atopic individuals even minor allergen exposure during seafood distribution may lead to occupational seafood allergy. With ongoing allergen exposure progression to potentially life-threatening allergy symptoms may occur.

  2. Warming can boost denitrification disproportionately due to altered oxygen dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelies J Veraart

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Global warming and the alteration of the global nitrogen cycle are major anthropogenic threats to the environment. Denitrification, the biological conversion of nitrate to gaseous nitrogen, removes a substantial fraction of the nitrogen from aquatic ecosystems, and can therefore help to reduce eutrophication effects. However, potential responses of denitrification to warming are poorly understood. Although several studies have reported increased denitrification rates with rising temperature, the impact of temperature on denitrification seems to vary widely between systems. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We explored the effects of warming on denitrification rates using microcosm experiments, field measurements and a simple model approach. Our results suggest that a three degree temperature rise will double denitrification rates. By performing experiments at fixed oxygen concentrations as well as with oxygen concentrations varying freely with temperature, we demonstrate that this strong temperature dependence of denitrification can be explained by a systematic decrease of oxygen concentrations with rising temperature. Warming decreases oxygen concentrations due to reduced solubility, and more importantly, because respiration rates rise more steeply with temperature than photosynthesis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that denitrification rates in aquatic ecosystems are strongly temperature dependent, and that this is amplified by the temperature dependencies of photosynthesis and respiration. Our results illustrate the broader phenomenon that coupling of temperature dependent reactions may in some situations strongly alter overall effects of temperature on ecological processes.

  3. Synergism in materials erosion due to multispecies impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auciello, O.; Haasz, A.A.; Stangeby, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    Microelectronic fabrication often involves the use of relatively low-pressure/low-temperature plasma discharges for etching micron-size features in integrated circuits: here erosion is a desired effect. Fusion plasmas, by contrast, cause erosion of the fusion device inner walls, which is generally not desirable. In both cases surfaces are bombarded simultaneously by plasma species which include ions, neutral atoms, electrons and photons, which might lead to enhanced erosion due to synergistic effects. Work performed to date suggests that similar chemistry may be involved in the erosion process associated with some semiconductor and fusion related materials: SiF 4 , SiCl 4 and CH 4 , are, for example,some of the principal species evolving from Si and C surfaces, when exposed to F, Cl and H atoms respectively, causing the observed erosion. Considerable effort has been expended on studies involving synergistic effects for semiconductor fabrication. Research on synergism related to the erosion of fusion materials (C and carbon compounds) commenced comparatively recently; however, its importance has been increasingly recognized and evidence of possible synergistic erosion of graphite has recently been obtained in the PLT fusion device. Experimental and theoretical work on synergistic effects in erosion of both semiconductors and fusion materials will be critically reviewed. (author)

  4. Iron Loading and Overloading due to Ineffective Erythropoiesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiko Tanno

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythropoiesis describes the hematopoietic process of cell proliferation and differentiation that results in the production of mature circulating erythrocytes. Adult humans produce 200 billion erythrocytes daily, and approximately 1 billion iron molecules are incorporated into the hemoglobin contained within each erythrocyte. Thus, iron usage for the hemoglobin production is a primary regulator of plasma iron supply and demand. In many anemias, additional sources of iron from diet and tissue stores are needed to meet the erythroid demand. Among a subset of anemias that arise from ineffective erythropoiesis, iron absorption and accumulation in the tissues increases to levels that are in excess of erythropoiesis demand even in the absence of transfusion. The mechanisms responsible for iron overloading due to ineffective erythropoiesis are not fully understood. Based upon data that is currently available, it is proposed in this review that loading and overloading of iron can be regulated by distinct or combined mechanisms associated with erythropoiesis. The concept of erythroid regulation of iron is broadened to include both physiological and pathological hepcidin suppression in cases of ineffective erythropoiesis.

  5. Image processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Blanken, Henk; Vries de, A.P.; Blok, H.E.; Feng, L; Feng, L.

    2007-01-01

    The field of image processing addresses handling and analysis of images for many purposes using a large number of techniques and methods. The applications of image processing range from enhancement of the visibility of cer- tain organs in medical images to object recognition for handling by

  6. Food processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teodorowicz, Malgorzata; Neerven, Van Joost; Savelkoul, Huub

    2017-01-01

    The majority of foods that are consumed in our developed society have been processed. Processing promotes a non-enzymatic reaction between proteins and sugars, the Maillard reaction (MR). Maillard reaction products (MRPs) contribute to the taste, smell and color of many food products, and thus

  7. Sustainable processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine

    2004-01-01

    Kristensen_NH and_Beck A: Sustainable processing. In Otto Schmid, Alexander Beck and Ursula Kretzschmar (Editors) (2004): Underlying Principles in Organic and "Low-Input Food" Processing - Literature Survey. Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL, CH-5070 Frick, Switzerland. ISBN 3-906081-58-3...

  8. Membrane processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszak, Katarzyna

    2017-11-01

    The membrane processes have played important role in the industrial separation process. These technologies can be found in all industrial areas such as food, beverages, metallurgy, pulp and paper, textile, pharmaceutical, automotive, biotechnology and chemical industry, as well as in water treatment for domestic and industrial application. Although these processes are known since twentieth century, there are still many studies that focus on the testing of new membranes' materials and determining of conditions for optimal selectivity, i. e. the optimum transmembrane pressure (TMP) or permeate flux to minimize fouling. Moreover the researchers proposed some calculation methods to predict the membrane processes properties. In this article, the laboratory scale experiments of membrane separation techniques, as well their validation by calculation methods are presented. Because membrane is the "heart" of the process, experimental and computational methods for its characterization are also described.

  9. Gas processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yoshihiro; Seki, Eiji.

    1991-01-01

    State of electric discharge is detected based on a gas pressure in a sealed container and a discharging current flowing between both of electrodes. When electric arc discharges occur, introduction of gases to be processed is stopped and a voltage applied to both of the electrodes is interrupted. Then, when the gas pressure in the sealed container is lowered to a predetermined value, a power source voltage is applied again to both of the electrodes to recover glow discharges, and the introduction of the gas to be processed is started. With such steps, even if electric arc discharges occur, they are eliminated automatically and, accordingly, normal glow discharges can be recovered, to prevent failures of the device due to electric arc discharges. The glow discharges are recovered automatically without stopping the operation of the gas processing device, and gas injection and solidification processing can be conducted continuously and stably. (T.M.)

  10. Process automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Process automation technology has been pursued in the chemical processing industries and to a very limited extent in nuclear fuel reprocessing. Its effective use has been restricted in the past by the lack of diverse and reliable process instrumentation and the unavailability of sophisticated software designed for process control. The Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility was developed by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) in part to demonstrate new concepts for control of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. A demonstration of fuel reprocessing equipment automation using advanced instrumentation and a modern, microprocessor-based control system is nearing completion in the facility. This facility provides for the synergistic testing of all chemical process features of a prototypical fuel reprocessing plant that can be attained with unirradiated uranium-bearing feed materials. The unique equipment and mission of the IET facility make it an ideal test bed for automation studies. This effort will provide for the demonstration of the plant automation concept and for the development of techniques for similar applications in a full-scale plant. A set of preliminary recommendations for implementing process automation has been compiled. Some of these concepts are not generally recognized or accepted. The automation work now under way in the IET facility should be useful to others in helping avoid costly mistakes because of the underutilization or misapplication of process automation. 6 figs

  11. Experimental investigation of fluvial dike breaching due to flow overtopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kadi Abderrezzak, K.; Rifai, I.; Erpicum, S.; Archambeau, P.; Violeau, D.; Pirotton, M.; Dewals, B.

    2017-12-01

    The failure of fluvial dikes (levees) often leads to devastating floods that cause loss of life and damages to public infrastructure. Overtopping flows have been recognized as one of the most frequent cause of dike erosion and breaching. Fluvial dike breaching is different from frontal dike (embankments) breaching, because of specific geometry and boundary conditions. The current knowledge on the physical processes underpinning fluvial dike failure due to overtopping remains limited. In addition, there is a lack of a continuous monitoring of the 3D breach formation, limiting the analysis of the key mechanisms governing the breach development and the validation of conceptual or physically-based models. Laboratory tests on breach growth in homogeneous, non-cohesive sandy fluvial dikes due to flow overtopping have been performed. Two experimental setups have been constructed, permitting the investigation of various hydraulic and geometric parameters. Each experimental setup includes a main channel, separated from a floodplain by a dike. A rectangular initial notch is cut in the crest to initiate dike breaching. The breach development is monitored continuously using a specific developed laser profilometry technique. The observations have shown that the breach develops in two stages: first the breach deepens and widens with the breach centerline being gradually shifted toward the downstream side of the main channel. This behavior underlines the influence of the flow momentum component parallel to the dike crest. Second, the dike geometry upstream of the breach stops evolving and the breach widening continues only toward the downstream side of the main channel. The breach evolution has been found strongly affected by the flow conditions (i.e. inflow discharge in the main channel, downstream boundary condition) and floodplain confinement. The findings of this work shed light on key mechanisms of fluvial dike breaching, which differ substantially from those of dam

  12. Organizing Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Bojesen, Anders

    This paper invites to discuss the processes of individualization and organizing being carried out under what we might see as an emerging regime of change. The underlying argumentation is that in certain processes of change, competence becomes questionable at all times. The hazy characteristics...... of this regime of change are pursued through a discussion of competencies as opposed to qualifications illustrated by distinct cases from the Danish public sector in the search for repetitive mechanisms. The cases are put into a general perspective by drawing upon experiences from similar change processes...

  13. Quantum image processing?

    OpenAIRE

    Mastriani, Mario

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a number of problems concerning the practical (real) implementation of the techniques known as Quantum Image Processing. The most serious problem is the recovery of the outcomes after the quantum measurement, which will be demonstrated in this work that is equivalent to a noise measurement, and it is not considered in the literature on the subject. It is noteworthy that this is due to several factors: 1) a classical algorithm that uses Dirac's notation and then it is coded...

  14. Constructive Consumer Choice Processes.

    OpenAIRE

    Bettman, James R; Luce, Mary Frances; Payne, John W

    1998-01-01

    Consumer decision making has been a focal interest in consumer research, and consideration of current marketplace trends ( e.g., technological change, an information explosion) indicates that this topic will continue to be critically important. We argue that consumer choice is inherently constructive. Due to limited processing capacity, consumers often do not have well-defined existing preferences, but construct them using a variety of strategies contingent on task demands. After describing c...

  15. Dissolution processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    1976-01-01

    This review contains more than 100 observations and 224 references on the dissolution phenomenon. The dissolution processes are grouped into three categories: methods of aqueous attack, fusion methods, and miscellaneous observations on phenomena related to dissolution problems

  16. Electrochemical Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Nielsen, Gregers

    1997-01-01

    The notes describe in detail primary and secondary galvanic cells, fuel cells, electrochemical synthesis and electroplating processes, corrosion: measurments, inhibitors, cathodic and anodic protection, details of metal dissolution reactions, Pourbaix diagrams and purification of waste water from...... galvanic industries....

  17. Renewal processes

    CERN Document Server

    Mitov, Kosto V

    2014-01-01

    This monograph serves as an introductory text to classical renewal theory and some of its applications for graduate students and researchers in mathematics and probability theory. Renewal processes play an important part in modeling many phenomena in insurance, finance, queuing systems, inventory control and other areas. In this book, an overview of univariate renewal theory is given and renewal processes in the non-lattice and lattice case are discussed. A pre-requisite is a basic knowledge of probability theory.

  18. Image processing

    OpenAIRE

    Rino, Franco

    2014-01-01

    An image segmentation method has a training phase, and a segmentation phase. In the training phase a frame of pixel lated data from a camera is processed using information on camera characteristics to render it camera-independent. The camera independent data are processed using a chosen value of illuminant spectral characteristics to derive reflectivity data of the items in the image. Pixels of high reflectivity are established. Then, using data from the high reflectivity pixels, the actual i...

  19. Industrial best practices of conceptual process design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, G.J.

    2004-01-01

    The chemical process industry aims particularly at energy, capital expenditure and variable feedstock cost savings due to fierce global competition, the Kyoto Protocol and requirements for sustainable development. Increasingly conceptual process design methods are used in the industry to achieve

  20. Study of microscale interfacial phenomena during phase change processes: Analysis of micro-drops and thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Shripad

    Interfacial phenomena in the three phase contact line region, where a liquid-vapor interface intersects a solid surface, are of importance to many phenomena such as contact angle, adsorption, surface patterning, spreading, thin film stability, phase change, etc. The objectives of this work are to experimentally analyze the coupled phenomena of spreading and phase change for a partially wetting system. We studied five experimental systems: S1---spreading of apolar n-butanol drops during phase change processes, S2 and S3---effects of surface modification on n-butanol spreading and dewetting of the meniscus, S4---spreading of polar 2-propanol drop, S5---coalescence of 2-propanol droplets, and S6---evaporation and spreading of surfactant laden micro-drops of water. Using system S1, we found that the interfacial velocity for the drop during condensation and evaporation is a function of the apparent contact angle and the rate of change of radius of curvature. Using systems S2 and S3, the vivid difference in the behavior of the retracting meniscus with respect to its variation in apparent contact angle and curvature was found to depend on the wettability. Using system S4, an improved image analyzing technique based on the reflectivity measurements using interferometry was developed, which gives fundamental insights about the physics of interfacial phenomena of a spreading drop during phase change. The reflectivity technique was also used in system S5 to study the shapes of condensing drops during their coalescence on the quartz surface. We found that the curvature and its gradient govern the growth and coalescence of the condensing drops. In system S6, the stability of the adsorbed film was analyzed using the concept of minimization of the interfacial free energy. During a phase change process, the thin film of the surfactant solution was unstable and it broke into micro-drops. The drop profiles were experimentally measured and analyzed during the phase change process as

  1. Statistical Process Control for KSC Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Roger G.; Delgado, Hector; Tilley, Randy

    1996-01-01

    The 1996 Summer Faculty Fellowship Program and Kennedy Space Center (KSC) served as the basis for a research effort into statistical process control for KSC processing. The effort entailed several tasks and goals. The first was to develop a customized statistical process control (SPC) course for the Safety and Mission Assurance Trends Analysis Group. The actual teaching of this course took place over several weeks. In addition, an Internet version of the same course complete with animation and video excerpts from the course when it was taught at KSC was developed. The application of SPC to shuttle processing took up the rest of the summer research project. This effort entailed the evaluation of SPC use at KSC, both present and potential, due to the change in roles for NASA and the Single Flight Operations Contractor (SFOC). Individual consulting on SPC use was accomplished as well as an evaluation of SPC software for KSC use in the future. A final accomplishment of the orientation of the author to NASA changes, terminology, data format, and new NASA task definitions will allow future consultation when the needs arise.

  2. Magnetic Generation due to Mass Difference between Charge Carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Shi; Dan, JiaKun; Chen, ZiYu; Li, JianFeng

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of spontaneous magnetization due to the "asymmetry in mass" of charge carriers in a system is investigated. Analysis shows that when the masses of positive and negative charge carriers are identical, no magnetization is predicted. However, if the masses of two species are different, spontaneous magnetic field would appear, either due to the equipartition of magnetic energy or due to fluctuations together with a feedback mechanism. The conditions for magnetization to occur are ...

  3. Review of synergisms in materials erosion due to multispecies impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haasz, A.A.; Auciello, O.; Stangeby, P.C.

    1985-05-01

    Plasma-surface interaction phenomena have become a subject of major interest because of their relevance in two important technological developments of recent decades, viz, microelectronics and thermonuclear fusion. Microelectronic fabrication often involves the use of relatively low-pressure/low-temperature plasma discharges for etching micron-size features in integrated circuits; here erosion is a desired effect. Fusion plasmas, by contrast, cause erosion of the fusion device inner walls, which is generally not desirable. In both cases surfaces are bombarded simultaneously by plasma species which include ions, neutral atoms, electrons and photons, which might lead to enhanced erosion due to synergistic effects. Work performed to date suggests that similar chemistry may be involved in the erosion process associated with some semiconductor and fusion related materials: SiF 4 , SiCl 4 and CH 4 , are, for example, some of the principal species evolving from Si and C surfaces, when exposed to F, Cl and H atoms, respectively, causing the observed erosion. Considerable effort has been expended on studies involving synergistic effects for semiconductor fabrication. Research on synergism related to the erosion of fusion materials (C and carbon compounds) commenced comparatively recently; however, its importance has been increasingly recognized, and evidence of possible synergistic erosion of graphite has recently been obtained in the PLT fusion device. In light of the the interdisciplinary nature of the subject, experimental and theoretical work on synergistic effects in erosion of both semiconductors and fusion materials will be critically reviewed here in an attempt to unify concepts related to results and mechanisms proposed to explain the observed phenomena, and to explore possible new avenues of research. 128 refs

  4. Assessing radiologic risk for population due to human activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toma, Al.; Dulama, C.; Dobrin, R.; Hirica, O.

    2002-01-01

    The most important factor in assessing radiologic risk is ensuring scientific means for evaluation of the radioactive release impact upon humans and organisms. To evaluate quantitatively this impact not only knowledge of radioactivity distribution in these dynamical systems is necessary but also understanding the transfer mechanisms between ecosystem components is needed. Thus a complete radioecologic study appear to be very complex and needs defining the source term, dynamic description of radionuclides behavior in the ecosystem, estimation of radiation doses in the major components of the ecosystem and finally the effects of radiation doses upon different parts of the systems. A diagram of the steps implied in evaluation of the effects due to radioactive effluent release in the environment is presented and discussed. The following steps are described: - identification of radioactive sources, as well as their input rate. Presence of noxious materials such as heavy metals or some organic compounds should be taken into account to assess the synergetic or antagonistic interactions; - determination of space-time distribution of release radionuclides; - estimation of dose rates and radiation exposure of population; - estimation of radiation dose effects upon individuals, population and ecosystems. This fourth step implies: experimental field or laboratory studies to determine the somatic/genetic response to radiation as a function of the exposure dose; following-up and interpretation of the organism response to dose or dose rates in terms of radiation-induce changes in the population life cycles; forecasting the irradiation effects upon population or communities within environment. Finally, this evaluation is completed by the decision making process implying a society acceptance of the forecast and/or observed effects

  5. Numerical Investigation of Microgravity Tank Pressure Rise Due to Boiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylton, Sonya; Ibrahim, Mounir; Kartuzova, Olga; Kassemi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The ability to control self-pressurization in cryogenic storage tanks is essential for NASAs long-term space exploration missions. Predictions of the tank pressure rise in Space are needed in order to inform the microgravity design and optimization process. Due to the fact that natural convection is very weak in microgravity, heat leaks into the tank can create superheated regions in the liquid. The superheated regions can instigate microgravity boiling, giving rise to pressure spikes during self-pressurization. In this work, a CFD model is developed to predict the magnitude and duration of the microgravity pressure spikes. The model uses the Schrage equation to calculate the mass transfer, with a different accommodation coefficient for evaporation at the interface, condensation at the interface, and boiling in the bulk liquid. The implicit VOF model was used to account for the moving interface, with bounded second order time discretization. Validation of the models predictions was carried out using microgravity data from the Tank Pressure Control Experiment, which flew aboard the Space Shuttle Mission STS-52. Although this experiment was meant to study pressurization and pressure control, it underwent boiling during several tests. The pressure rise predicted by the CFD model compared well with the experimental data. The ZBOT microgravity experiment is scheduled to fly on February 2016 aboard the ISS. The CFD model was also used to perform simulations for setting parametric limits for the Zero-Boil-Off Tank (ZBOT) Experiments Test Matrix in an attempt to avoid boiling in the majority of the test runs that are aimed to study pressure increase rates during self-pressurization. *Supported in part by NASA ISS Physical Sciences Research Program, NASA HQ, USA

  6. Acidification of floodplains due to river level decline during drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Luke M; Palmer, David; Leyden, Emily; Cook, Freeman; Zammit, Benjamin; Shand, Paul; Baker, Andrew; W Fitzpatrick, Rob

    2014-06-01

    A severe drought from 2007 to 2010 resulted in the lowest river levels (1.75 m decline from average) in over 90 years of records at the end of the Murray-Darling Basin in South Australia. Due to the low river level and inability to apply irrigation, the groundwater depth on the adjacent agricultural flood plain also declined substantially (1-1.5 m) and the alluvial clay subsoils dried and cracked. Sulfidic material (pH>4, predominantly in the form of pyrite, FeS2) in these subsoils oxidised to form sulfuric material (pHdrought, the rapid raising of surface and ground water levels mobilised acidity in acid sulfate soil profiles to the floodplain drainage channels and this was transported back to the river via pumping. The drainage water exhibited low pH (2-5) with high soluble metal (Al, Co, Mn, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Zn) concentrations, in exceedance of guidelines for ecosystem protection. Irrigation increased the short-term transport of acidity, however loads were generally greater in the non-irrigation (winter) season when rainfall is highest (0.0026 tonnes acidity/ha/day) than in the irrigation (spring-summer) season (0.0013 tonnes acidity/ha/day). Measured reductions in groundwater acidity and increases in pH have been observed over time but severe acidification persisted in floodplain sediments and waters for over two years post-drought. Results from 2-dimensional modelling of the river-floodplain hydrological processes were consistent with field measurements during the drying phase and illustrated how the declining river levels led to floodplain acidification. A modelled management scenario demonstrated how river level stabilisation and limited irrigation could have prevented, or greatly lessened the severity of the acidification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Outbreak of Intestinal Infection Due to Rhizopus microsporus▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Vincent C. C.; Chan, Jasper F. W.; Ngan, Antonio H. Y.; To, Kelvin K. W.; Leung, S. Y.; Tsoi, H. W.; Yam, W. C.; Tai, Josepha W. M.; Wong, Samson S. Y.; Tse, Herman; Li, Iris W. S.; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Leung, Anskar Y. H.; Lie, Albert K. W.; Liang, Raymond H. S.; Que, T. L.; Ho, P. L.; Yuen, K. Y.

    2009-01-01

    Sinopulmonary and rhinocerebral zygomycosis has been increasingly found in patients with hematological malignancies and bone marrow transplantation, but intestinal zygomycosis remains very rare in the literature. We investigated an outbreak of intestinal infection due to Rhizopus microsporus in 12 patients on treatment for hematological malignancies over a period of 6 months in a teaching hospital. The intake of allopurinol during hospitalization (P Rhizopus microsporus, which was confirmed by ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rRNA gene cluster (internal transcribed spacer [ITS]) sequencing. The mean viable fungal counts of allopurinol obtained from wards and pharmacy were 4.22 × 103 CFU/g of tablet (range, 3.07 × 103 to 5.48 × 103) and 3.24 × 103 CFU/g of tablet (range, 2.68 × 103 to 3.72 × 103), respectively, which were much higher than the mean count of 2 × 102 CFU/g of food. Phylogenetic analysis by ITS sequencing showed multiple clones from isolates of contaminated allopurinol tablets and ready-to-eat food, of which some were identical to patients' isolates, and with one isolate in the cornstarch used as an excipient for manufacture of this drug. We attempted to type the isolates by random amplification of polymorphic DNA analysis, with limited evidence of clonal distribution. The primary source of the contaminating fungus was likely to be the cornstarch used in the manufacturing of allopurinol tablets or ready-to-eat food. Rhizopus microsporus is thermotolerant and can multiply even at 50°C. The long holding time of the intermediates during the manufacturing process of allopurinol amplified the fungal load. Microbiological monitoring of drugs manufactured for highly immunosuppressed patients should be considered. PMID:19641069

  8. Bacterial Autoimmunity Due to a Restriction-Modification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleška, Maroš; Qian, Long; Okura, Reiko; Bergmiller, Tobias; Wakamoto, Yuichi; Kussell, Edo; Guet, Călin C

    2016-02-08

    Restriction-modification (RM) systems represent a minimal and ubiquitous biological system of self/non-self discrimination in prokaryotes [1], which protects hosts from exogenous DNA [2]. The mechanism is based on the balance between methyltransferase (M) and cognate restriction endonuclease (R). M tags endogenous DNA as self by methylating short specific DNA sequences called restriction sites, whereas R recognizes unmethylated restriction sites as non-self and introduces a double-stranded DNA break [3]. Restriction sites are significantly underrepresented in prokaryotic genomes [4-7], suggesting that the discrimination mechanism is imperfect and occasionally leads to autoimmunity due to self-DNA cleavage (self-restriction) [8]. Furthermore, RM systems can promote DNA recombination [9] and contribute to genetic variation in microbial populations, thus facilitating adaptive evolution [10]. However, cleavage of self-DNA by RM systems as elements shaping prokaryotic genomes has not been directly detected, and its cause, frequency, and outcome are unknown. We quantify self-restriction caused by two RM systems of Escherichia coli and find that, in agreement with levels of restriction site avoidance, EcoRI, but not EcoRV, cleaves self-DNA at a measurable rate. Self-restriction is a stochastic process, which temporarily induces the SOS response, and is followed by DNA repair, maintaining cell viability. We find that RM systems with higher restriction efficiency against bacteriophage infections exhibit a higher rate of self-restriction, and that this rate can be further increased by stochastic imbalance between R and M. Our results identify molecular noise in RM systems as a factor shaping prokaryotic genomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Intestinal Necrosis due to Giant Ovarian Cyst: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Duran, Ali; Duran, Fulay Yilmaz; Cengiz, Fevzi; Duran, Ozgur

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal pathologies due to ovarian cyst are observed rarely. Although a limited number of cases in neonatal and adolescent periods have been observed, no adult case has been reported in the literature. Two mechanisms are involved in intestinal complications due to ovarian cysts: torsion due to adhesion or compression of giant ovarian mass with a diameter of 9-10 cm. We report here a terminal ileum necrosis case due to compression by an ovarian cyst with 11 × 10 × 7 cm size in an 81-year-ol...

  10. Intestinal Necrosis due to Giant Ovarian Cyst: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Duran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal pathologies due to ovarian cyst are observed rarely. Although a limited number of cases in neonatal and adolescent periods have been observed, no adult case has been reported in the literature. Two mechanisms are involved in intestinal complications due to ovarian cysts: torsion due to adhesion or compression of giant ovarian mass with a diameter of 9-10 cm. We report here a terminal ileum necrosis case due to compression by an ovarian cyst with 11 × 10 × 7 cm size in an 81-year-old woman.

  11. Relaxometry changes in a gel dosimetry phantom due to continued RF exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liney, Gary P; Godber, Mark J; Wilson, Andrew D; Goodby, John W; Turnbull, Lindsay W [Centre for MR Investigations, Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull (United Kingdom) and Imagel Ltd, York Science Park, York (United Kingdom)], E-mail: g.p.liney@hull.ac.uk

    2009-05-01

    This study investigates the potential alteration in relaxation times in phantoms used for MRI gel-dosimetry due to their continued RF exposure from the MRI scanner used in the measurement process. The work quantifies these changes and establishes a tolerance for the image acquisition time as well as mapping the spatial distribution of these effects.

  12. Organic waste incineration processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemort, F.; Charvillat, J.P.; Nabot, J.P.; Chateauvieux, H.; Thiebaut, C.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear activities produce organic waste compatible with thermal processes designed to obtain a significant weight and volume reduction as well as to stabilize the inorganic residue in a form suitable for various interim storage or disposal routes. Several processes may be implemented (e.g. excess air, plasma, fluidized bed or rotating furnace) depending on the nature of the waste and the desired objectives. The authors focus on the IRIS rotating-kiln process, which was used for the first time with radioactive materials during the first half of 1999. IRIS is capable of processing highly chlorinated and α-contaminated waste at a rate of several kilograms per hour, while limiting corrosion due to chlorine as well as mechanical entrainment of radioactive particles in the off-gas stream. Although operated industrially, the process is under continual development to improve its performance and adapt it to a wider range of industrial applications. The main focus of attention today is on adapting the pyrolytic processes to waste with highly variable compositions and to enhance the efficiency of the off-gas purification systems. These subjects are of considerable interest for a large number of heat treatment processes (including all off-gas treatment systems) for which extremely durable, high-performance and low-flow electrostatic precipitators are now being developed. (author)

  13. Block copolymer assisted self-assembly of nanoparticles into Langmuir–Blodgett films: Effect of polymer concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martín-García, Beatriz; Velázquez, M. Mercedes, E-mail: mvsal@usal.es

    2013-08-15

    We propose to use the self-assembly ability of a block copolymer to obtain CdSe quantum dots (QDs) structures of different morphology. The methodology proposed consist in transferring mixed Langmuir monolayers of QDs and the polymer poly (styrene-co-maleic anhydride) partial 2 buthoxy ethyl ester cumene terminated, PS-MA-BEE onto mica by the Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) methodology. The morphology of the LB films was analyzed by AFM and TEM measurements. Our results show that it is possible to modulate the self-assembly process by modifying the composition of the mixed Langmuir monolayer precursor of the LB film. The different morphologies are interpreted according to two different dewetting mechanisms, growth of holes and spinodal-like dewetting. The growth of holes dewetting process is driven by gravitatory effects and was observed for LB films obtained by transferring Langmuir monolayer of the smallest elasticity values in which the polymer is in brush conformation. The spinodal dewetting mechanism prevailed when the Langmuir monolayer presents the highest elasticity values. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Effect of the surface composition on the LB films architecture. • QDs/polymer LB films morphology interpreted in terms of dewetting mechanism. • The dewetting mechanism depends on the Langmuir monolayer state.

  14. Initiation of breakout of half-buried submarine pipe from sea bed due to wave action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, A.W.K. [Nanyang Technological Univ. (Singapore). School of Civil and Structural Engineering; Foda, M.A. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-12-31

    A formulation is presented for the analysis of the breakout of a half-buried submarine pipe due to wave action. The formulation accounts for the contact between the pipe and the soil due to the oscillating horizontal hydrodynamic force. Results demonstrate the existence of an initial gap in the breakout experiments. With this initial gap the gap flux dominated the influx of water into the gap throughout the breakout process. The linear pipe rise persisted although the second-order expansion of the gap should have grown to the same order of magnitude as the initial gap with the poro-rigid soil assumption. It is postulated that the persistence of the linear rise was due to the localized passive failure around the ends of the soil trench which inhibited the growth of the opening due to the pipe`s rise. (Author)

  15. Image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindler, M.; Radtke, F.; Demel, G.

    1986-01-01

    The book is arranged in seven sections, describing various applications of volumetric analysis using image processing systems, and various methods of diagnostic evaluation of images obtained by gamma scintigraphy, cardic catheterisation, and echocardiography. A dynamic ventricular phantom is explained that has been developed for checking and calibration for safe examination of patient, the phantom allowing extensive simulation of volumetric and hemodynamic conditions of the human heart: One section discusses the program development for image processing, referring to a number of different computer systems. The equipment described includes a small non-expensive PC system, as well as a standardized nuclear medical diagnostic system, and a computer system especially suited to image processing. (orig.) [de

  16. Organizing Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Bojesen, Anders

    This paper invites to discuss the processes of individualization and organizing being carried out under what we might see as an emerging regime of change. The underlying argumentation is that in certain processes of change, competence becomes questionable at all times. The hazy characteristics...... of this regime of change are pursued through a discussion of competencies as opposed to qualifications illustrated by distinct cases from the Danish public sector in the search for repetitive mechanisms. The cases are put into a general perspective by drawing upon experiences from similar change processes...... in MNCs. The paper concludes by asking whether we can escape from a regime of competence in a world defined by a rhetoric of change and create a more promising world in which doubt and search serve as a strategy for gaining knowledge and professionalism that improve on our capability for mutualism....

  17. Process simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, E.G.; Suarez, P.S.; Pantaleon, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    The search for an optimal design of a heavy water plant is done by means of a simulation model for the mass and enthalpy balances of the SH 2 -H 2 O exchange process. A symplified model for the simulation diagram where the entire plant is represented by a sole tray tower with recicles, and heat and mass feeds/extractions was used. The tower is simulated by the method developed by Tomich with the convergence part given by the algorithm of Broyden. The concluding part of the work is centered in setting the design parameters (flowrates, heat exchange rates, number of plates) wich give the desired process operating conditions. (author) [es

  18. Offshoring Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum; Katayama, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to contribute to the knowledge on how production offshoring and international operations management vary across cultural contexts. The chapter attempts to shed light on how companies approach the process of offshoring in different cultural contexts. In order...... of globalisation. Yet there are clear differences in how offshoring is conducted in Denmark and Japan. The main differences are outlined in a framework and explained employing cultural variables. The findings lead to a number of propositions suggesting that the process of offshoring is not simply a uniform...

  19. Processing Branches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schindler, Christoph; Tamke, Martin; Tabatabai, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Angled and forked wood – a desired material until 19th century, was swept away by industrialization and its standardization of processes and materials. Contemporary information technology has the potential for the capturing and recognition of individual geometries through laser scanning and compu......Angled and forked wood – a desired material until 19th century, was swept away by industrialization and its standardization of processes and materials. Contemporary information technology has the potential for the capturing and recognition of individual geometries through laser scanning...

  20. Brief communication: Loss of life due to Hurricane Harvey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, Sebastiaan N.; Godfroij, Maartje; Sebastian, Antonia; Kolen, B.

    2018-01-01

    An analysis was made of the loss of life caused by Hurricane Harvey. Information was collected for 70 fatalities that occurred due to the event and were recovered within the first 2 weeks after landfall. Most fatalities occurred due to drowning (81 %), particularly in and around vehicles. Males

  1. Physical Activity and School Absenteeism Due to Illness in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Renate; van Dijk, Martin; Savelberg, Hans; van Acker, Frederik; Kirschner, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about the beneficial role of physical activity (PA) for health and school performance is growing. Studies investigating the link between PA and school absenteeism due to illness are lacking. Therefore, we investigated associations between habitual PA and school absenteeism due to illness in adolescents and explored whether…

  2. Physical activity and school absenteeism due to illness in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Renate; Van Dijk, Martin; Savelberg, Hans; Van Acker, Frederik; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge about the beneficial role of physical activity (PA) for health and school performance is growing. Studies investigating the link between PA and school absenteeism due to illness are lacking. Therefore we investigated associations between habitual PA and school absenteeism due to illness in

  3. Stabilization effect of Weibel modes due to inverse bremsstrahlung ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-11-04

    Nov 4, 2016 ... Abstract. In this work, the Weibel instability due to inverse bremsstrahlung absorption in laser fusion plasma has been investigated. The stabilization effect due to the coupling of the self-generated magnetic field by Weibel instability with the laser wave field is explicitly showed. The main result obtained in ...

  4. Stabilization effect of Weibel modes due to inverse bremsstrahlung ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this work, the Weibel instability due to inverse bremsstrahlung absorption in laser fusion plasma has been investigated. The stabilization effect due to the coupling of the self-generated magnetic field by Weibel instability with the laser wave field is explicitly showed. The main result obtained in this work is that the inclusion ...

  5. Isolated Hand Palsy Due to Small Cortical Infarcts: A Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meliha Tan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The cortical motor hand area is a knob-like structure of the precentral gyrus, with an inverted omega or horizontal epsilon shape. Isolated hand weakness is infrequently observed and is usually due to small cortical infarcts of this hand knob structure. Isolated hand palsy is sometimes restricted to radial-sided fingers or ulnar sided-fingers. Uniform weakness in all fingers may also occur. We present 2 patients with small cortical infarcts of the cortical hand knob due to different etiologies. A 61-year-old male had right hand weakness restricted to his first and second digits. He had a small cortical infarct on the hand knob area due to emboli from ulcerative plaque of the ipsilateral internal carotid artery. The other patient, a 23-year-old female with sickle cell anemia, had uniform left hand weakness due to an epsilon-shaped infarct on the right precentral gyrus. An obstruction of the small cerebral artery supply to the hand knob area due to sickle cell anemia was the likely pathogenic mechanism. It is suggested that isolated hand weakness due to small cortical infarcts may have different etiologies, most commonly homodynamic or embolic processes. Conditions that rarely cause brain infarction, such as sickle cell anemia, deserve clinical attention. Investigations of strokes must include anemia tests. Patients with predominant weakness of the radial group of fingers due to cortical infarct must be checked for embolism

  6. Recurrent bilateral periorbital and circumoral bruising due to vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sardar, Hussain; Ai-Sardar, Hussain

    2014-04-02

    Periorbital ecchymosis is due to extravasations of blood into the periorbital skin and the subcutaneous tissues around the eyes. 'raccoon eyes' or 'panda sign' is a distinctive type of periorbital ecchymosis where the bruising is characterised by tarsal sparing. This sparing is due to an anatomical structure called the orbital septum, which limits the spread of the discolouration beyond the tarsal plate. Hence 'raccoon eyes' description should be limited to orbital ecchymosis due to basal skull fractures only. While the bilateral bruising due to direct trauma to the eyes, or non-traumatic medical conditions, can spread beyond the tarsal plate as in our case. The differential diagnosis varies from trivial benign conditions to serious life-threatening illnesses. We describe a case of recurrent bilateral periorbital ecchymosis and facial bruising due to vomiting.

  7. Processing Branches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schindler, Christoph; Tamke, Martin; Tabatabai, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Angled and forked wood – a desired material until 19th century, was swept away by industrialization and its standardization of processes and materials. Contemporary information technology has the potential for the capturing and recognition of individual geometries through laser scanning...

  8. Radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriah Mod Ali

    2005-01-01

    This chapter covers the basic principle and application of radiation technology. The topic titled specific application discussed briefly the following subtopics: 1) Polymer modification - crosslinking, polymerisation, degradation, grafting; 2) Medical sterilisation; 3) Food irradiation; 4) Environmental protection - waste processing, pollutants treatment

  9. Processing Proteases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Anders Sebastian Rosenkrans

    -terminal of the scissile bond, leaving C-terminal fusions to have non-native C-termini after processing. A solution yielding native C-termini would allow novel expression and purification systems for therapeutic proteins and peptides.The peptidyl-Lys metallopeptidase (LysN) of the fungus Armillaria mellea (Am) is one...

  10. Purex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starks, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    The following aspects of the Purex Process are discussed: head end dissolution, first solvent extraction cycle, second plutonium solvent extraction cycle, second uranium solvent extraction cycle, solvent recovery systems, primary recovery column for high activity waste, low activity waste, laboratory waste evaporation, vessel vent system, airflow and filtration, acid recovery unit, fume recovery, and discharges to seepage basin

  11. BENTONITE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamarija Kutlić

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bentonite has vide variety of uses. Special use of bentonite, where its absorbing properties are employed to provide water-tight sealing is for an underground repository in granites In this paper, bentonite processing and beneficiation are described.

  12. Innovation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolodovski, A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose of this report: This report was prepared for RISO team involved in design of the innovation system Report provides innovation methodology to establish common understanding of the process concepts and related terminology The report does not includeRISO- or Denmark-specific cultural, econom...

  13. Leaching process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinen, H.J.; McClelland, G.E.; Lindstrom, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    A gold and uranium ore is heap leached in accordance with the process comprising initial agglomeration of fines in the feed by means of a binding agent and cyanide solution. The lixiviant comprises a compatible mixture of sodium cyanide and sodium bicarbonate

  14. Signal Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Signal processing techniques, extensively used nowadays to maximize the performance of audio and video equipment, have been a key part in the design of hardware and software for high energy physics detectors since pioneering applications in the UA1 experiment at CERN in 1979

  15. Arobin process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welz, H.

    1943-10-22

    The Arobin (Aromatenbenzin = aromatic gasoline) process was developed to operate on highly aromatic residues from various other processes (especially the HF process) for production of aviation gasoline and similar fuels. Those residues generally had boiling points from about 165/sup 0/ to 325/sup 0/C, so they were not included in the gasoline mde by the other processes. The Arobin process was able to split these residues into lower-boiling-point compounds which made up a high-performance gasoline containing 70% to 75% aromatics by volume. In order to accomplish this, it was necessary to choose the proper catalyst, one in which the splitting effect was much more pronounced than the hydrogenating effect. The catalyst which seemed to be most effective was an alkali-free aluminum silicate with small amounts (1%) molybdic acid (MoO/sub 3/) added. (An aluminum oxide catalyst used at about 500/sup 0/C produced even higher percentages of aromatics, but it seemed best suited for production of single pure compounds such as toluene.) The Arobin process was carried out at about 200 atm pressure and 400/sup 0/C, with a ratio of 1:1 for fresh starting material to recycled material and a throughput of 1 kg per liter of catalyst per hour. The overall yield of gasoline distilled up to 165/sup 0/C was 85% to 87%, and the time-yield was 0.43 kg per liter of catalyst per hour; the process used 360 m/sup 3/ hydrogen and 200 Calories of heat per (metric) ton of product gasoline. The Arobin gasoline could be blended with a lower-octane aviation gasoline to produce a blend with 50% aromatics; in this way, one (metric) ton of HF residue could give rise to 1.2 tons of such blended gasoline. The oxide catalyst could generally be regenerated by a heated steam of nitrogen diluted with air, unless damaged by certain nitrogen or oxygen compounds. 1 diagram, 3 tables.

  16. Process validation for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.

    1999-01-01

    Process validation concerns the establishment of the irradiation conditions that will lead to the desired changes of the irradiated product. Process validation therefore establishes the link between absorbed dose and the characteristics of the product, such as degree of crosslinking in a polyethylene tube, prolongation of shelf life of a food product, or degree of sterility of the medical device. Detailed international standards are written for the documentation of radiation sterilization, such as EN 552 and ISO 11137, and the steps of process validation that are described in these standards are discussed in this paper. They include material testing for the documentation of the correct functioning of the product, microbiological testing for selection of the minimum required dose and dose mapping for documentation of attainment of the required dose in all parts of the product. The process validation must be maintained by reviews and repeated measurements as necessary. This paper presents recommendations and guidance for the execution of these components of process validation. (author)

  17. Dynamics of metal nanodroplets; Dynamik metallischer Nanotroepfchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habenicht, Anja

    2007-11-12

    In this work flat metal nanostructures on inert substrates like glass, silicon or graphite have been illuminated by single intensive laser pulses with fluences above the melting threshold. The liquid structures produced in this way are far from their equilibrium shape and a dewetting process starts. On a timescale of a few nanoseconds, the liquid but still flat nanostructure transforms toward a sphere. During this deformation the center of mass moves upward, which can lead to detachment of droplets from the surface due to inertia. The velocity of the detaching nanodroplets is measured with a light barrier technique. The experiment shows that the velocity of the detached droplet is constant over a large range of laser energy densities. This supports the model of a dewetting driven process: The droplet gains surface energy by transforming toward a sphere which is then converted into kinetic energy. Loss mechanisms like excitation of droplet oscillations and dissipation due to viscous friction are discussed. With this model the escape velocity was predicted for nanostructures of different materials and forms, hence other material parameters like surface tension or density and has been confirmed experimentally. The droplets are landed on another surface. Two scenarios are found: There are spheres with a similar shape as the droplet or heavily deformed structures. These structures of splashing and rebounding are identical to the structures which can be observed in the macroscopic impact of liquids. The two scenarios can be explained by different temperatures of the droplets when reaching the substrate. (orig.)

  18. The Key to Successful Operational Due Diligence: The right data, at the right time, analysed in the right way

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haubjerg, Mathias; Porsgaard, Chris Berg; Herbert-Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe both qualitative and quantitative operational determinants influencing the acquisition decision in the due diligence phase of a Merger & acquisition (M&A). The operational due diligence (ODD) process is largely unexplored in extant literature and ...

  19. Sensitivity in forward modeled hyperspectral reflectance due to phytoplankton groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Ciro; Bassani, Cristiana; Pinardi, Monica; Giardino, Claudia; Bresciani, Mariano

    2016-04-01

    Phytoplankton is an integral part of the ecosystem, affecting trophic dynamics, nutrient cycling, habitat condition, and fisheries resources. The types of phytoplankton and their concentrations are used to describe the status of water and the processes inside of this. This study investigates bio-optical modeling of phytoplankton functional types (PFT) in terms of pigment composition demonstrating the capability of remote sensing to recognize freshwater phytoplankton. In particular, a sensitivity analysis of simulated hyperspectral water reflectance (with band setting of HICO, APEX, EnMAP, PRISMA and Sentinel-3) of productive eutrophic waters of Mantua lakes (Italy) environment is presented. The bio-optical model adopted for simulating the hyperspectral water reflectance takes into account the reflectance dependency on geometric conditions of light field, on inherent optical properties (backscattering and absorption coefficients) and on concentrations of water quality parameters (WQPs). The model works in the 400-750nm wavelength range, while the model parametrization is based on a comprehensive dataset of WQP concentrations and specific inherent optical properties of the study area, collected in field surveys carried out from May to September of 2011 and 2014. The following phytoplankton groups, with their specific absorption coefficients, a*Φi(λ), were used during the simulation: Chlorophyta, Cyanobacteria with phycocyanin, Cyanobacteria and Cryptophytes with phycoerythrin, Diatoms with carotenoids and mixed phytoplankton. The phytoplankton absorption coefficient aΦ(λ) is modelled by multiplying the weighted sum of the PFTs, Σpia*Φi(λ), with the chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a). To highlight the variability of water reflectance due to variation of phytoplankton pigments, the sensitivity analysis was performed by keeping constant the WQPs (i.e., Chl-a=80mg/l, total suspended matter=12.58g/l and yellow substances=0.27m-1). The sensitivity analysis was

  20. Inherent-opening-controlled pattern formation in carbon nanotube arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xiao; Zhou, Jijie J; Sansom, Elijah; Gharib, Morteza; Haur, Sow Chorng

    2007-01-01

    We have introduced inherent openings into densely packed carbon nanotube arrays to study self-organized pattern formation when the arrays undergo a wetting-dewetting treatment from nanotube tips. These inherent openings, made of circular or elongated hollows in nanotube mats, serve as dewetting centres, from where liquid recedes from. As the dewetting centres initiate dry zones and the dry zones expand, surrounding nanotubes are pulled away from the dewetting centres by liquid surface tension. Among short nanotubes, the self-organized patterns are consistent with the shape of the inherent openings, i.e. slender openings lead to elongated trench-like structures, and circular holes result in relatively round nest-like arrangements. Nanotubes in a relatively high mat are more connected, like in an elastic body, than those in a short mat. Small cracks often initialize themselves in a relatively high mat, along two or more adjacent round openings; each of the cracks evolves into a trench as liquid dries up. Self-organized pattern control with inherent openings needs to initiate the dewetting process above the nanotube tips. If there is no liquid on top, inherent openings barely enlarge themselves after the wetting-dewetting treatment

  1. Process correlation analysis model for process improvement identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Su-jin; Kim, Dae-Kyoo; Park, Sooyong

    2014-01-01

    Software process improvement aims at improving the development process of software systems. It is initiated by process assessment identifying strengths and weaknesses and based on the findings, improvement plans are developed. In general, a process reference model (e.g., CMMI) is used throughout the process of software process improvement as the base. CMMI defines a set of process areas involved in software development and what to be carried out in process areas in terms of goals and practices. Process areas and their elements (goals and practices) are often correlated due to the iterative nature of software development process. However, in the current practice, correlations of process elements are often overlooked in the development of an improvement plan, which diminishes the efficiency of the plan. This is mainly attributed to significant efforts and the lack of required expertise. In this paper, we present a process correlation analysis model that helps identify correlations of process elements from the results of process assessment. This model is defined based on CMMI and empirical data of improvement practices. We evaluate the model using industrial data.

  2. Standing balance in people with trans-tibial amputation due to vascular causes: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Mayank; Lamberg, Eric

    2017-08-01

    Balance is an important variable to consider during the rehabilitation process of individuals with trans-tibial amputation. Limited evidence exists on the balance abilities of people with trans-tibial amputation due to vascular causes. The purpose of this article is to review literature and determine if standing balance is diminished in people with trans-tibial amputation due to vascular causes. Literature review. Data were obtained from PubMed, Google Scholar, OandP.org , CINHAL, and Science Direct. Studies were selected only if they included standing balance assessment of people with unilateral trans-tibial amputation due to vascular causes. The review yielded seven articles that met the inclusion criteria. The general test methodology required participants to stand still on force platforms, with feet together, while center of pressure or postural sway was recorded. According to the findings of this review, individuals with trans-tibial amputees due to vascular causes have diminished balance abilities. Limited evidence suggests their balance might be further diminished as compared to individuals with trans-tibial amputation due to trauma. Although the evidence is limited, because of the underlying pathology and presence of comorbidities in individuals with trans-tibial amputation due to vascular causes, one cannot ignore these findings, as even a minor injury from a fall may develop into a non-healing ulcer and affect their health and well-being more severely than individuals with trans-tibial amputation due to trauma. Clinical relevance Individuals with trans-tibial amputation due to vascular causes have diminished balance abilities compared to healthy individuals and individuals with trans-tibial amputation due to trauma. This difference should be considered when designing and fabricating prostheses. Prosthetists and rehabilitation clinicians should consider designing amputation cause-specific rehabilitation interventions, focussing on balance and other

  3. Stochastic processes

    CERN Document Server

    Borodin, Andrei N

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a rigorous yet accessible introduction to the theory of stochastic processes. A significant part of the book is devoted to the classic theory of stochastic processes. In turn, it also presents proofs of well-known results, sometimes together with new approaches. Moreover, the book explores topics not previously covered elsewhere, such as distributions of functionals of diffusions stopped at different random times, the Brownian local time, diffusions with jumps, and an invariance principle for random walks and local times. Supported by carefully selected material, the book showcases a wealth of examples that demonstrate how to solve concrete problems by applying theoretical results. It addresses a broad range of applications, focusing on concrete computational techniques rather than on abstract theory. The content presented here is largely self-contained, making it suitable for researchers and graduate students alike.

  4. Restoration Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    In the accompanying photos, a laboratory technician is restoring the once-obliterated serial number of a revolver. The four-photo sequence shows the gradual progression from total invisibility to clear readability. The technician is using a new process developed in an applications engineering project conducted by NASA's Lewis Research Center in conjunction with Chicago State University. Serial numbers and other markings are frequently eliminated from metal objects to prevent tracing ownership of guns, motor vehicles, bicycles, cameras, appliances and jewelry. To restore obliterated numbers, crime laboratory investigators most often employ a chemical etching technique. It is effective, but it may cause metal corrosion and it requires extensive preparatory grinding and polishing. The NASA-Chicago State process is advantageous because it can be applied without variation to any kind of metal, it needs no preparatory work and number recovery can be accomplished without corrosive chemicals; the liquid used is water.

  5. Static Response of Microbeams due to Capillary and Electrostatic Forces

    KAUST Repository

    Bataineh, Ahmad M.

    2016-03-07

    Micro-sensors or micro-switches usually operate under the effect of electrostatic force and could face some environmental effects like humidity, which may lead to condensation underneath the beams and create strong capillary forces. Those tiny structures are principally made of microbeams that can undergo instabilities under the effect of those created huge capillary forces. In fact, during the fabrication of microbeams, there is an important step to separate the beam from its substrate (wet etching). After this step, the microstructure is dried, which may causes the onset of some droplets of water trapped underneath the beam that could bring about a huge capillary force pulling it toward its substrate. If this force is bigger than the microbeam\\'s restoring force, it will become stuck to the substrate. This paper investigates the instability scenarios of both clamped-clamped (straight and curved) and cantilever (straight and curled) microbeams under the effect of capillary and/or electrostatic forces. The reduced order modeling (ROM) based on the Galerkin procedure is used to solve the nonlinear beam equations. The non-ideal boundaries are modeled by adding springs. The volume of the fluid between the beam and the substrate underneath it is varied and the relation between the volume of the water and the stability of the beam is shown. An analysis for the factors of which should be taken in to consideration in the fabrication processes to overcome the instability due to huge capillary forces is done. Also the size of the electrode for the electrostatic force is varied to show the effect on the micro-switch stability. A variation of the pull-in voltage with some specific beam parameters and with more than one case of electrode size is shown. It is found that capillary forces have a pronounced effect on the stability of microbeams. It is also found that the pull-in length decreases as the electrode size increases. It is also shown that the pull-in voltage decreases

  6. Sales down due to particularly mild climatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Paris, 27 July 2007 - For the six months to 30 June 2007, Gaz de France's consolidated sales amounted to euro 13,778 million, down 11 per cent compared to the same period in 2006. This performance continues the trend seen over the first quarter of 2007 and in particular reflects the continuation into the second quarter of the climatic factors that affected the start of the year: an exceptionally warm 2006/2007 winter, followed by a spring season with particularly high temperatures. The average temperature of the first half of 2007 corresponds to a heat risk of less than one per cent, meaning that the probability of such a temperature taking place is less than one per cent. Over the first half of the year, volumes distributed in France were down by 25 TWh compared to a comparable period with average weather conditions, whereas in 2006 they were 15 TWh above average. The impact of the weather had similar effects outside of France. Under average weather conditions, the downturn in Group sales was limited to only 0.8 per cent mainly due to market conditions made difficult by the climate, leading to a lower level of gas production and arbitrage activities. Over the first six months of 2007, the Group sought to: - Continue to strengthen its international presence, currently with euro 5,602 million in sales outside of France. The percentage of sales generated outside of France represented 41 per cent of the Group total at the end of June 2007 and increased by 4 percentage points between the first half of 2006 and the first half of 2007. - Prepare for the deregulation of the markets on 1 July 2007 and a new commercial policy for retail customers that has been built around multi-energy and multi-service market offerings. - Create a new subsidiary for the distribution, a process which will be effective at the end of the year as announced. In spite of this unfavourable context, the Group maintains the financial objective for 2007 presented with the 2006 accounts: &apos

  7. Sales down due to particularly mild climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Paris, 27 July 2007 - For the six months to 30 June 2007, Gaz de France's consolidated sales amounted to euro 13,778 million, down 11 per cent compared to the same period in 2006. This performance continues the trend seen over the first quarter of 2007 and in particular reflects the continuation into the second quarter of the climatic factors that affected the start of the year: an exceptionally warm 2006/2007 winter, followed by a spring season with particularly high temperatures. The average temperature of the first half of 2007 corresponds to a heat risk of less than one per cent, meaning that the probability of such a temperature taking place is less than one per cent. Over the first half of the year, volumes distributed in France were down by 25 TWh compared to a comparable period with average weather conditions, whereas in 2006 they were 15 TWh above average. The impact of the weather had similar effects outside of France. Under average weather conditions, the downturn in Group sales was limited to only 0.8 per cent mainly due to market conditions made difficult by the climate, leading to a lower level of gas production and arbitrage activities. Over the first six months of 2007, the Group sought to: - Continue to strengthen its international presence, currently with euro 5,602 million in sales outside of France. The percentage of sales generated outside of France represented 41 per cent of the Group total at the end of June 2007 and increased by 4 percentage points between the first half of 2006 and the first half of 2007. - Prepare for the deregulation of the markets on 1 July 2007 and a new commercial policy for retail customers that has been built around multi-energy and multi-service market offerings. - Create a new subsidiary for the distribution, a process which will be effective at the end of the year as announced. In spite of this unfavourable context, the Group maintains the financial objective for 2007 presented with the 2006 accounts: '2007 will

  8. Residue processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieg, W.; Rank, V.

    1942-10-15

    In the first stage of coal hydrogenation, the liquid phase, light and heavy oils were produced; the latter containing the nonliquefied parts of the coal, the coal ash, and the catalyst substances. It was the problem of residue processing to extract from these so-called let-down oils that which could be used as pasting oils for the coal. The object was to obtain a maximum oil extraction and a complete removal of the solids, because of the latter were returned to the process they would needlessly burden the reaction space. Separation of solids in residue processing could be accomplished by filtration, centrifugation, extraction, distillation, or low-temperature carbonization (L.T.C.). Filtration or centrifugation was most suitable since a maximum oil yield could be expected from it, since only a small portion of the let-down oil contained in the filtration or centrifugation residue had to be thermally treated. The most satisfactory centrifuge at this time was the Laval, which delivered liquid centrifuge residue and centrifuge oil continuously. By comparison, the semi-continuous centrifuges delivered plastic residues which were difficult to handle. Various apparatus such as the spiral screw kiln and the ball kiln were used for low-temperature carbonization of centrifuge residues. Both were based on the idea of carbonization in thin layers. Efforts were also being made to produce electrode carbon and briquette binder as by-products of the liquid coal phase.

  9. Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Due to Ligamentum Flavum Hypertrophy in a Patient with Multiple Exostosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgi Ižkbali Afsar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary multiple exostosis is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by multiple exostoses (osteochondromas usually affecting the metaphysical regions of long bones, usually of the lower extremity, and seldom occurring in the axial skeleton. In the literature, hereditary multiple exostosis cases that developed spinal canal stenosis due to spinal osteochondromas have been reported. Lumbar spinal stenosis may occur in a hereditary multiple exostosis patient due to ligamentum flavum hypertrophy, which is a hyperosteotic process that differs from exostosis. We discuss one such case, along with pathogenetic mechanisms and clinical features.

  10. Fractionation of hydrogen and deuterium on Venus due to collisional ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurwell, Mark A.; Yung, Yuk L.

    1993-01-01

    The collisional ejection process for hydrogen on Venus is reanalyzed. Improved values for the efficiency of H and D escape as a function of the ionospheric temperature are reported. It is proposed that the reduction of the hydrogen flux for collisional ejection be reduced from 8 to 3.5 x 10 exp 6/sq cm/s, and a revised D/H fractional factor of 0.47 due to collisional ejection is suggested. The resulting deuterium flux is 3.1 x 10 exp 4/sq cm/s, roughly six times the flux due to charge exchange, making collisional ejection the dominant escape mechanism for deuterium on Venus.

  11. Estimation of Rad-waste generated due to RDD explosion in an Indian metropolitan city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikas; Harikumar, M.; Mishra, A.; Murali, S.

    2018-01-01

    There are enough evidences that terrorists have interest in exploding Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD), also known as dirty bomb. While in terms of impact it is much less harmful than a nuclear weapon detonated but design and fabrication of RDD is much easier as the radioactive material could be easily reached. Rad-waste would be generated due to a RDD explosion; its management would involve significant amount of cost and time during overall remediation process. This paper describes a preliminary approach to develop a rad-waste inventory based on buildings affected due to an exploded RDD in a metropolitan city

  12. Deformation due to mechanical and thermal sources in generalised ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    dimensional problem of thermoelasticity has been considered to investigate the disturbance due to mechanical (horizontal or verti- cal) and thermal source in a homogeneous, thermally conducting orthorhombic material. Laplace–Fourier ...

  13. A Patient Developed Painful Muscle Cramps due to Overeating Mangos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    A 79-year-old woman had a habit to eat a mango every night before sleep and experienced muscle cramps during sleep. Her muscle cramps may be resulted from potassium overload due to overeating mangos. PMID:23091750

  14. Corruption and Public Governance: Implication for Customer Due ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    DISCIPLINARY JOURNAL, ... Department of Government and Public Administration. Baze University, Abuja. Nigeria ... prevent dirty funds entering the system is due diligence to find out who their customer is and where his or her funds have come ...

  15. Sound Attenuation in Quark Matter Due to Pairing Fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerbikov Boris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The sound wave in dense quark matter is subject to strong absorption due to diquark field fluctuations above Tc. The result is another facet of Mandelshtam-Leontovich slow relaxation time theory.

  16. Cutaneous leishmaniasis with lymphadenopathy due to Leishmania donovani

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, W. R.; Wonders, J.; Jensema, A. J.; Chocholova, E.; Kager, P. A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary We describe a case of cutaneous leishmaniasis with lymphadenopathy due to Leishmania donovani, which was successfully treated with oral miltefosine. Given the increased prevalence of travelling, patients presenting with lymph-node enlargement should have leishmaniasis included in the

  17. Myoclonus epilepsy and ataxia due to KCNC1 mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliver, Karen L; Franceschetti, Silvana; Milligan, Carol J

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively describe the new syndrome of myoclonus epilepsy and ataxia due to potassium channel mutation (MEAK), including cellular electrophysiological characterization of observed clinical improvement with fever. METHODS: We analyzed clinical, electroclinical, and neuroimaging...

  18. A Patient Developed Painful Muscle Cramps due to Overeating Mangos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Abe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 79-year-old woman had a habit to eat a mango every night before sleep and experienced muscle cramps during sleep. Her muscle cramps may be resulted from potassium overload due to overeating mangos.

  19. Many paths to dewetting of thin films: anatomy and physiology of surface instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A.

    2003-11-01

    The role of essential, real life thin film complexities such as antagonistic (attractive and repulsive) interactions, retardation of van der Waals force, substrate and film heterogeneities, slippage and visco-elasticity are critically examined. It is argued that several factors that are usually overlooked within the framework of the most widely used simple theory can conspire to produce similar length and time scalings and morphologies. Further it is shown with examples that the precise details of the preparation conditions and materials, which also determine the initial physico-chemical roughness of the interfaces, can have profound influences in the Density Variation Induced Instability, Defect Sensitive Spinodal Regime, as well as in the True Nucleation Regime.

  20. Reduction in thermal conductivity of ceramics due to radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemens, P.G.; Hurley, G.F.; Clinard, F.W. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Ceramics are required for a number of applications in fusion reactors. In several of these applications, the thermal conductivity is an important design parameter as it affects the level of temperature and thermal stress in service. Ceramic insulators are known to suffer substantial reduction in thermal conductivity due to neutron irradiation damage. The present study estimates the reduction in thermal conductivity at high temperature due to radiation induced defects. Point, extended, and extended partly transparent defects are considered

  1. Burden of disease due to cancer in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Gómez Beatriz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burden of disease is a joint measure of mortality and morbidity which makes it easier to compare health problems in which these two components enjoy different degrees of relative importance. The objective of this study is ascertaining the burden of disease due to cancer in Spain via the calculation of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs. Methods DALYs are the sum of years of life lost due to premature mortality and years lost due to disability. World Health Organization methodology and the following sources of data were used: the Mortality Register and Princeton Model Life Table for Years of life lost due to premature mortality and population, incidence estimates (Spanish tumour registries and fitting of generalized linear mixed models, duration (from data of survival in Spain from the EUROCARE-3 study and fitting of Weibull distribution function and disability (weights published in the literature for Years lost due to disability. Results There were 828,997 DALYs due to cancer (20.5 DALYs/1,000 population, 61% in men. Of the total, 51% corresponded to lung, colorectal, breast, stomach and prostate cancers. Mortality (84% of DALYs predominated over disability. Subjects aged under 20 years accounted for 1.6% and those aged over 70 years accounted for 30.1% of DALYs. Conclusion Lung, colorectal and breast cancers are responsible for the highest number of DALYs in Spain. Even if the burden of disease due to cancer is predominantly caused by mortality, some cancers have a significant weight of disability. Information on 2000 burden of disease due to cancer can be useful to assess how it has evolved over time and the impact of medical advances on it in terms of mortality and disability.

  2. Targeting Epigenetic Mechanisms in Pain due to Trauma and TBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0579 TITLE: Targeting Epigenetic Mechanisms in Pain due to Trauma and TBI PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: David J. Clark, MD... Epigenetic Mechanisms in Pain due to Trauma and TBI 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) David J. Clark, MD Email... epigenetic changes occurring in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord after either brain or peripheral trauma may support chronic pain. Our work to-date

  3. Physical activity and school absenteeism due to illness in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    De Groot, Renate; Van Dijk, Martin; Savelberg, Hans; Van Acker, Frederik; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge about the beneficial role of physical activity (PA) for health and school performance is growing. Studies investigating the link between PA and school absenteeism due to illness are lacking. Therefore we investigated associations between habitual PA and school absenteeism due to illness in adolescents and explored whether mental health and cardiovascular fitness mediated this association. 328 Students in grades 7 and 9 (mean age 13.8 years; 49% boys) were included. PA was measured o...

  4. Chorioamnionitis due to Lactococcus lactis cremoris: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Azouzi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lactococcus lactis cremoris is rarely involved in human pathology. A thirty two-year old pregnant woman with premature rupture of membrane history presented with chorioamnionitis due to L. lactis cremoris. She underwent an emergency caesarian section and was treated with antibiotics including the association of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. She was completely recovered. This is the first case to our knowledge of chorioamnionitis due to this organism. Keywords: Chorioamnionitis, Premature rupture of membranes, Lactococcus lactis cremoris

  5. 8 . TOTAL THRUST ON EARTH-RETAlNING STRUCTURES DUE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Terz.aghi and Bowles recommended to double the lateral stress value a xJ for the case of a uniform strip load [I]. Hence: (13). Table 2 list values of the influence factor m3 for various ratiQS of n = x0 / b and m = H /b . C. Total Thrust For Stratified Soils due to Point. Load. Total thrust on earth-retaining structure due to point.

  6. A Biosphere Assessment: Influence due to Geosphere-Biosphere Interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Hwang, Yong Soo

    2009-01-01

    Recently the geosphere-biosphere interfaces (GBIs), which is recognized as a zone (GBIZ) beyond the simple conceptual boundaries between the geosphere and biosphere modeling domains for safety assessment, has been raised to an important issue for the biosphere assessment. For the licensing process of the repository, the final step of a series of safety and performance assessment should be concerned how nuclides released from the geological media could make their farther transfer in the biosphere giving rise to doses to humans. Unlike in the case of geosphere, the distinct characteristics of biosphere modeling includes the potential release and subsequent exposure taking place not in the near future with rather unreliable predictions of human behavior at the time of its release. And also unlike the near- and far-field of geospheres such as near field engineering structures and natural geological media, the biosphere is not conceived as a barrier itself that could be well designed or optimized, which always causes the necessity of site-specific modeling approach as much as possible. Through every step of whole geosphere and biosphere modeling, nuclides transport from various geological media to the biosphere over the GBI, biosphere modeling can be done independently, not even knowing what happens in the geosphere, making access possible to it in a separate manner, even though, to some extent, it might somehow need to be accounted for geosphere transport, as is similarly being currently done in many other countries. In general, to show the performance of the repository, dose exposure to the critical group due to nuclide release from the repository should be evaluated and the results compared to the risk or dose presented by regulatory bodies, as safety and performance criteria for HLW repository are usually expressed in terms of quantitative risk or dose. For a real site-specific treatment and incorporation of geological features such as aquifers into the biosphere

  7. Selective self-assembly of adenine-silver nanoparticles forms rings resembling the size of cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sungmoon; Park, Soonyoung; Yang, Seon-Ah; Jeong, Yujin; Yu, Junhua

    2015-01-01

    Self-assembly has played critical roles in the construction of functional nanomaterials. However, the structure of the macroscale multicomponent materials built by the self-assembly of nanoscale building blocks is hard to predict due to multiple intermolecular interactions of great complexity. Evaporation of solvents is usually an important approach to induce kinetically stable assemblies of building blocks with a large-scale specific arrangement. During such a deweting process, we tried to monitor the possible interactions between silver nanoparticles and nucleobases at a larger scale by epifluorescence microscopy, thanks to the doping of silver nanoparticles with luminescent silver nanodots. ssDNA oligomer-stabilized silver nanoparticles and adenine self-assemble to form ring-like compartments similar to the size of modern cells. However, the silver ions only dismantle the self-assembly of adenine. The rings are thermodynamically stable as the drying process only enrich the nanoparticles-nucleobase mixture to a concentration that activates the self-assembly. The permeable membrane-like edge of the ring is composed of adenine filaments glued together by silver nanoparticles. Interestingly, chemicals are partially confined and accumulated inside the ring, suggesting that this might be used as a microreactor to speed up chemical reactions during a dewetting process. PMID:26643504

  8. Curing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Tsutomu; Watanabe, Tadashi.

    1969-01-01

    A process for the rapid curing of an electrophoretically applied coating with either compositions of aqueous dispersion or aqueous coating compositions thereof is provided by irradiating with ionizing radiations. The process comprises the steps of (a) neutralizing an aqueous alkyd resin with a base, in which the alkyd resin contains a conjugated unsaturated fatty acid or oil as one of its constituents, (b) dispersing the neutralized resin in water, (c) applying to an electroconductive material the varnishes of the dispersed composition or the dispersed coating composition, and (d) irradiating the coatings with ionizing radiations so as to harden them. The alkyd resins have an acid value of 30 to 100 and the bases are equivalent to 0.7 to 1.2. the process is suitable for coil coating. In examples, a semi-esterified product of acid value 54 was diluted with 440 parts of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether and 110 parts of butanol. Next, they were neutralized with 87 parts of dimethyl amino ethanol. Thereafter, they were mixed with 1,013 parts of water to produce an aqueous dispersion of alkyd resin varnish at a concentration of 40%. To 325 parts of the varnish were added 1.3 parts of cobalt naphthenate- 60% toluene solution and then 675 parts of water to produce water soluble varnish containing 13% of a nonvolatile substance. The varnish was applied by electrophoresis for 10 seconds. The time required for the irradiation was about 1 second. The total radiation dose was 3 Mrad of electron beams at an acceleration energy of 300 kV and 25 mA of current. (Iwakiri, K.)

  9. Markov processes

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkwood, James R

    2015-01-01

    Review of ProbabilityShort HistoryReview of Basic Probability DefinitionsSome Common Probability DistributionsProperties of a Probability DistributionProperties of the Expected ValueExpected Value of a Random Variable with Common DistributionsGenerating FunctionsMoment Generating FunctionsExercisesDiscrete-Time, Finite-State Markov ChainsIntroductionNotationTransition MatricesDirected Graphs: Examples of Markov ChainsRandom Walk with Reflecting BoundariesGambler’s RuinEhrenfest ModelCentral Problem of Markov ChainsCondition to Ensure a Unique Equilibrium StateFinding the Equilibrium StateTransient and Recurrent StatesIndicator FunctionsPerron-Frobenius TheoremAbsorbing Markov ChainsMean First Passage TimeMean Recurrence Time and the Equilibrium StateFundamental Matrix for Regular Markov ChainsDividing a Markov Chain into Equivalence ClassesPeriodic Markov ChainsReducible Markov ChainsSummaryExercisesDiscrete-Time, Infinite-State Markov ChainsRenewal ProcessesDelayed Renewal ProcessesEquilibrium State f...

  10. Shared processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Auxiliadora Gálvez Pérez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe comparison between the creative processes in dance and architecture constitute a panorama, which is able to fi gure out reality with different and intense perceptive connotations. It is about a reality where the important thing is the immersion into the spatial-temporal phenomena, the contact of the space of our body and the spatial essence that is outside our skin limits. Under an architectonical point of view, dance would be a key  discipline, a laboratory where it is possible to freely explore the concepts related to the body-space system, consequently it is also a good frame to seek the necessary tools to work with them. One of the most important examples of this laboratory consolidated in the intersection of choreographical, and architectonical processes is the collaboration betweenLawrence Halprin, landscape architect, and Anna Halprin, choreographer. Through the direct experience of the body in space, they will develop notations and creative cycles able to work with the material of this expanded perception of reality. The review of these creative cycles tested mainly in the sixties is nowadays specially appropriated, when diverse branches of philosophy rooted in phenomenology are interested precisely in dance and architecture as key territories. It seems that it is the opportune moment to expand the architectonical tools, which have been implemented till now, following phenomenological concerns.

  11. Clinical predictors of lacunar syndrome not due to lacunar infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comes Emili

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Lacunar syndrome not due to lacunar infarct is poorly characterised. This single centre, retrospective study was conducted to describe the clinical characteristics of patients with lacunar syndrome not due to lacunar infarct and to identify clinical predictors of this variant of lacunar stroke. Methods A total of 146 patients with lacunar syndrome not due to lacunar infarction were included in the "Sagrat Cor Hospital of Barcelona Stroke Registry" during a period of 19 years (1986-2004. Data from stroke patients are entered in the stroke registry following a standardized protocol with 161 items regarding demographics, risk factors, clinical features, laboratory and neuroimaging data, complications and outcome. The characteristics of these 146 patients with lacunar syndrome not due to lacunar infarct were compared with those of the 733 patients with lacunar infarction. Results Lacunar syndrome not due to lacunar infarct accounted for 16.6% (146/879 of all cases of lacunar stroke. Subtypes of lacunar syndromes included pure motor stroke in 63 patients, sensorimotor stroke in 51, pure sensory stroke in 14, atypical lacunar syndrome in 9, ataxic hemiparesis in 5 and dysarthria-clumsy hand in 4. Valvular heart disease, atrial fibrillation, sudden onset, limb weakness and sensory symptoms were significantly more frequent among patients with lacunar syndrome not due to lacunar infarct than in those with lacunar infarction, whereas diabetes was less frequent. In the multivariate analysis, atrial fibrillation (OR = 4.62, sensorimotor stroke (OR = 4.05, limb weakness (OR = 2.09, sudden onset (OR = 2.06 and age (OR = 0.96 were independent predictors of lacunar syndrome not due to lacunar infarct. Conclusions Although lacunar syndromes are highly suggestive of small deep cerebral infarctions, lacunar syndromes not due to lacunar infarcts are found in 16.6% of cases. The presence of sensorimotor stroke, limb weakness and sudden onset in a patient

  12. UK asbestos imports and mortality due to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, C M; Wiggans, R E; Young, C; Fishwick, D

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the rising mortality due to mesothelioma and asbestosis can be predicted from historic asbestos usage. Mortality due to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is also rising, without any apparent explanation. To compare mortality due to these conditions and examine the relationship between mortality and national asbestos imports. Mortality data for IPF and asbestosis in England and Wales were available from the Office for National Statistics. Data for mesothelioma deaths in England and Wales and historic UK asbestos import data were available from the Health & Safety Executive. The numbers of annual deaths due to each condition were plotted separately by gender, against UK asbestos imports 48 years earlier. Linear regression models were constructed. For mesothelioma and IPF, there was a significant linear relationship between the number of male and female deaths each year and historic UK asbestos imports. For asbestosis mortality, a similar relationship was found for male but not female deaths. The annual numbers of deaths due to asbestosis in both sexes were lower than for IPF and mesothelioma. The strength of the association between IPF mortality and historic asbestos imports was similar to that seen in an established asbestos-related disease, i.e. mesothelioma. This finding could in part be explained by diagnostic difficulties in separating asbestosis from IPF and highlights the need for a more accurate method of assessing lifetime occupational asbestos exposure. © Crown copyright 2015.

  13. Small bowel perforation due to fish bone: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Pulat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Accidental ingestion of foreign bodies are a common condition in clinical practice. However, small bowel perforation which dues to ingestion foreign bodies has been rarely seen. In this article, we report a case of small bowel perforation which dues to ingestion foreign body. A 80-year-old female patient, presenting with complaints of acute abdomen, was admitted to the emergency department. She denied abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. The patient had tenderness and defense on the right lower quadrant. Contrast enhanced abdominal computed tomography has been used on the patient's diagnosis. This revealed small bowel perforation due to the ingestion of foreign body. The patient was operated emergency. A microperforation due to fish bone was detected on the terminal ileum. The patient underwent debridement and primary repair. The patient was discharged postoperative 7th day without problem. Bowel perforation due to the ingestion of foreign bodies should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen. Keywords: Foreign body, Small intestine, Perforation

  14. Hospital morbidity due to paracoccidioidomycosis in Brazil (1998-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Ziadir Francisco; Wanke, Bodo; Travassos, Claudia; Oliveira, Rosely Magalhães; Xavier, Diego Ricardo; Coimbra, Carlos E A

    2015-05-01

    To analyse hospital morbidity records due to paracoccidioidomycosis in Brazil, including its nationwide distribution in time and space, as well as key epidemiological and sociodemographic characteristics. Descriptive analysis of hospital morbidity records due to paracoccidioidomycosis covering the period January 1998 to December 2006. Hospital records were obtained from the Hospital Information System of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SIH/SUS). There were 6732 hospitalisations (82% male) due to paracoccidioidomycosis in the period, representing 4.3 per 1.0 million inhabitants. Admissions due to this mycosis were recorded in 27% of the 5560 Brazilian municipalities, covering 35% of the country. Ten municipalities concentrated 52% of all admissions. The temporal distribution of admissions for paracoccidioidomycosis showed a slight increase. The geographical analysis showed two distinct patterns of the disease: (i) traditional areas of southern and south-eastern regions, covering 60% of admissions, and (ii) a second pattern in northern Brazil revealed a transverse band of higher concentration with about 27% of admissions, particularly along the southern border of the Amazon region. This first nationwide analysis of hospitalisation due to paracoccidioidomycosis in Brazil shows that it is the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Brazil. Despite its importance, there are major deficits in its proper registry, diagnostics and treatment. The particular epidemiological and medical challenges of paracoccidioidomycosis will not be met while the disease continues to be perceived as an isolated infectious entity restricted to a few faraway regions of the globe. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. An improved approach for process monitoring in laser material processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Hans-Georg; Pütsch, Oliver; Stollenwerk, Jochen; Loosen, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Process monitoring is used in many different laser material processes due to the demand for reliable and stable processes. Among different methods, on-axis process monitoring offers multiple advantages. To observe a laser material process it is unavoidable to choose a wavelength for observation that is different to the one used for material processing, otherwise the light of the processing laser would outshine the picture of the process. By choosing a different wavelength, lateral chromatic aberration occurs in not chromatically corrected optical systems with optical scanning units and f-Theta lenses. These aberrations lead to a truncated image of the process on the camera or the pyrometer, respectively. This is the reason for adulterated measurements and non-satisfying images of the process. A new approach for solving the problem of field dependent lateral chromatic aberration in process monitoring is presented. Therefore, the scanner-based optical system is reproduced in a simulation environment, to predict the occurring lateral chromatic aberrations. In addition, a second deflecting system is integrated into the system. By using simulation, a predictive control is designed that uses the additional deflecting system to introduce reverse lateral deviations in order to compensate the lateral effect of chromatic aberration. This paper illustrates the concept and the implementation of the predictive control, which is used to eliminate lateral chromatic aberrations in process monitoring, the simulation on which the system is based the optical system as well as the control concept.

  16. Lithospheric processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldridge, W. [and others

    2000-12-01

    The authors used geophysical, geochemical, and numerical modeling to study selected problems related to Earth's lithosphere. We interpreted seismic waves to better characterize the thickness and properties of the crust and lithosphere. In the southwestern US and Tien Shari, crust of high elevation is dynamically supported above buoyant mantle. In California, mineral fabric in the mantle correlate with regional strain history. Although plumes of buoyant mantle may explain surface deformation and magmatism, our geochemical work does not support this mechanism for Iberia. Generation and ascent of magmas remains puzzling. Our work in Hawaii constrains the residence of magma beneath Hualalai to be a few hundred to about 1000 years. In the crust, heat drives fluid and mass transport. Numerical modeling yielded robust and accurate predictions of these processes. This work is important fundamental science, and applies to mitigation of volcanic and earthquake hazards, Test Ban Treaties, nuclear waste storage, environmental remediation, and hydrothermal energy.

  17. Oligomerization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1991-03-26

    A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled. 2 figures.

  18. WELDING PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrow, J.; Hausner, H.

    1957-09-24

    A method of joining metal parts for the preparation of relatively long, thin fuel element cores of uranium or alloys thereof for nuclear reactors is described. The process includes the steps of cleaning the surfaces to be jointed, placing the sunfaces together, and providing between and in contact with them, a layer of a compound in finely divided form that is decomposable to metal by heat. The fuel element members are then heated at the contact zone and maintained under pressure during the heating to decompose the compound to metal and sinter the members and reduced metal together producing a weld. The preferred class of decomposable compounds are the metal hydrides such as uranium hydride, which release hydrogen thus providing a reducing atmosphere in the vicinity of the welding operation.

  19. Lithospheric processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldridge, W.S.

    2000-01-01

    The authors used geophysical, geochemical, and numerical modeling to study selected problems related to Earth's lithosphere. We interpreted seismic waves to better characterize the thickness and properties of the crust and lithosphere. In the southwestern US and Tien Shari, crust of high elevation is dynamically supported above buoyant mantle. In California, mineral fabric in the mantle correlate with regional strain history. Although plumes of buoyant mantle may explain surface deformation and magmatism, our geochemical work does not support this mechanism for Iberia. Generation and ascent of magmas remains puzzling. Our work in Hawaii constrains the residence of magma beneath Hualalai to be a few hundred to about 1000 years. In the crust, heat drives fluid and mass transport. Numerical modeling yielded robust and accurate predictions of these processes. This work is important fundamental science, and applies to mitigation of volcanic and earthquake hazards, Test Ban Treaties, nuclear waste storage, environmental remediation, and hydrothermal energy

  20. Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Electronic Imagery, Inc.'s ImageScale Plus software, developed through a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with Kennedy Space Flight Center for use on space shuttle Orbiter in 1991, enables astronauts to conduct image processing, prepare electronic still camera images in orbit, display them and downlink images to ground based scientists for evaluation. Electronic Imagery, Inc.'s ImageCount, a spin-off product of ImageScale Plus, is used to count trees in Florida orange groves. Other applications include x-ray and MRI imagery, textile designs and special effects for movies. As of 1/28/98, company could not be located, therefore contact/product information is no longer valid.

  1. Heavy oils processing materials requirements crude processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloley, Andrew W. [CH2M Hill, Englewood, CO (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Over time, recommended best practices for crude unit materials selection have evolved to accommodate new operating requirements, feed qualities, and product qualities. The shift to heavier oil processing is one of the major changes in crude feed quality occurring over the last 20 years. The three major types of crude unit corrosion include sulfidation attack, naphthenic acid attack, and corrosion resulting from hydrolyzable chlorides. Heavy oils processing makes all three areas worse. Heavy oils have higher sulfur content; higher naphthenic acid content; and are more difficult to desalt, leading to higher chloride corrosion rates. Materials selection involves two major criteria, meeting required safety standards, and optimizing economics of the overall plant. Proper materials selection is only one component of a plant integrity approach. Materials selection cannot eliminate all corrosion. Proper materials selection requires appropriate support from other elements of an integrity protection program. The elements of integrity preservation include: materials selection (type and corrosion allowance); management limits on operating conditions allowed; feed quality control; chemical additives for corrosion reduction; and preventive maintenance and inspection (PMI). The following discussion must be taken in the context of the application of required supporting work in all the other areas. Within that context, specific materials recommendations are made to minimize corrosion due to the most common causes in the crude unit. (author)

  2. Food poisoning due to yam flour consumption in Kano (Northwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeleke SI

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Food poisoning is known to occur sporadically from time to time due to poor hygienic preparations. Its occurrence rarely assumes epidemic proportion. The objective was to report the occurrence of food poisoning due to yam flour among three families which occurred almost in quick succession between March and July 2007 among three families in Kano. They presented with diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, convulsion and loss of consciousness. They all recovered within 48hours of admission. Investigations indicated that the use of certain lethal preservatives for the processing of the yam flour might be responsible. Poisoning from consumption of yam flour should be a differential diagnosis of acute seizure disorders or occurrence of vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain in the tropics. It is recommended that education on proper processing of all food products in view of the public health implication

  3. Complex behavior of internal collapse due to self-generated radial electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Taro; Tokuda, Shinji; Kishimoto, Yasuaki; Takizuka, Tomonori [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Naitou, Hiroshi [Department of Electical and Electronic Engineering, Yamaguchi University, Ube, Yamaguchi (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    The density gradient effect is taken into account in the gyro-kinetic nonlinear simulation of the kinetic m=1 internal kink mode to clarify the nonlinear behavior of the internal collapse. Even when the density gradient is not so large enough to change the process of the full reconnection, the later process is changed considerably due to the self-generated radial electric field. The nonlinear growth of the 0/0 mode after the internal collapse violates the symmetrical flow of the parallel current, restricting the secondary reconnection. (author)

  4. Food poisoning due to Salmonella Enteritidis--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Mamoru; Ago, Kazutoshi; Ago, Mihoko; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Takahito

    2009-04-01

    A male in his early seventies complained of abdominal pain and diarrhea at 7h after ingesting a small piece of gratin from a box lunch prepared by a caterer. He was admitted to a hospital, but died 37 h later. Dozens of people who had eaten the same box lunch also complained of diarrhea. All of them recovered after medical treatment. A later investigation demonstrated Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) in the gratin from the box lunch. An autopsy revealed very severe typhloenteritis with edema and submucosal hemorrhage. The digestive tract contained fluid contents without foodstuffs. Bacteriological examination revealed SE in the contents of the lower ileum and large intestine. Based on these findings, we concluded that the cause of death was food poisoning due to SE. In this case, ingesting only a small piece of contaminated food caused fatal food poisoning due to SE. These results emphasize the importance of prevention against food poisoning due to Salmonella, particularly SE.

  5. Small Bowel Perforation due to Gossypiboma Caused Acute Abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahsin Colak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gossypiboma, an infrequent surgical complication, is a mass lesion due to a retained surgical sponge surrounded by foreign body reaction. In this case report, we describe gossypiboma in the abdominal cavity which was detected 14 months after the hysterectomy due to acute abdominal pain. Gossypiboma was diagnosed by computed tomography (CT. The CT findings were a rounded mass with a dense central part and an enhancing wall. In explorative laparotomy, small bowel loops were seen to be perforated due to inflammation of long standing gossypiboma. Jejunal resection with end-to-end anastomosis was performed. The patient was discharged whithout complication. This case was presented to point to retained foreign body (RFB complications and we believed that the possibility of a retained foreign body should be considered in the differential diagnosis of who had previous surgery and complained of pain, infection, or palpable mass.

  6. Sound attenuation due to plural plates in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Hiromichi; Sakuma, Toshio

    1996-01-01

    In order to prevent the expansion of tube damage and to maintain structural safety in steam generators (SG) of a liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), it is necessary to detect precisely and immediately the leakage of water from tubes of heat exchangers. The active acoustic detection method, which detects the sound attenuation due to bubbles generated by the sodium-water reactions, has attracted interest owing to its short response time and being least affected by background noise. Sound attenuation is also subjected to structures such as heat transfer tubes and shrouds. Accordingly, it is necessary to evaluate the sound attenuation due to structures. However, studies concerning these aspects are very few. In this paper, using the water bath, the attenuation characteristics of sounds due to flat plates are investigated and discussed under various conditions such as thickness, location, and number of flat plates. (author)

  7. Paraneoplastic cushing syndrome due to wilm's tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faizan, M.; Anwar, S.; Hameed, A.; Manzoor, J.; Saleem, M.; Mehmood, Q.; Ali, A. S.

    2017-01-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes are rare disorders that are triggered by an altered immune system response to neoplasm. Paraneoplastic syndromes may be the first or the most prominent manifestations of cancer. Wilm's tumor is the most frequent pediatric renal malignancy and usually presents with abdominal mass. Unusual presentations like acquired von Willebrand disease, sudden death due to pulmonary embolism and Cushing syndrome have been described in the literature. Cushing syndrome, as the presenting symptom of a malignant renal tumor in children, is a very rare entity. Few case reports are available in the literature exploring the option of preoperative chemotherapy as well as upfront nephrectomy. We report a rare case of paraneoplastic Cushing syndrome due to a Wilm's tumor. Based on gradual decrease of postoperative weight, blood pressure, serum adrenocorticotropic hormone, and plasma cortisol levels, alongwith histological confirmation of Wilm's tumor, paraneoplastic Cushing syndrome due to Wilm's tumor was confirmed. (author)

  8. Gingival necrosis due to the ill-fitting denture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boras, Vucicevic

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of an 80-year-old male who was referred to the Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dental Medicine University of Zagreb, Croatia due to gingival ulcer which was present for eight days. Clinical examination has revealed exposed bone on the toothless alveolar ridge in the lower molar region on the right side of 0.8 cm in diameter. Otherwise, the patient was taking doxazosin due to urinary problems and ipatropium bromide due to respiratory problems. The patient wore a 6-year-old partial lower denture. He was initially treated with periodontal bandage (Resopack, HagenWerken, Germany) for the first three days and was instructed not to wear the denture; however, no benefit could be seen. Therefore, we added a local corticosteroid (betamethasone) and am oral antiseptic (chlorhexidine digluconate) applied three times a day. After 3 weeks the lesion healed. A list of possible causative factors regarding gingival ulcers is included. PMID:27688371

  9. Increased energy in stable dry-band arcs due to length compression

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, X.; Rowland, S. M.; Terzija, V.

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of dry-band arcs on outdoor composite insulators can degrade the polymeric materials' surface and ultimately may lead to insulator failure. The degradation processes are generally considered as aging effects occurring over long periods of time, from years to decades. In this paper, it is shown that if a stable dryband arc is physically compressed in length by external forces, such as electrolyte deformation due to wind or gravity, the arcing activities will become more severe. ...

  10. Multiple Cranial Nerve Palsy Due to Cerebral Venous Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Eruyar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT is a rare clinical condition between cerebrovasculer diases. The most common findings are headache, seizure and focal neurological deficit. Multiple cranial nerve palsy due to CVT is rarely seen and it is not clear pathology. A pathology that could explain the lack of cranial nerve imaging is carrying suspected diagnosis but the disease is known to provide early diagnosis and treatment. We want to emphasize with this case multipl cranial nerve palsy due to CVT is seen rarely and good response to treatment.

  11. Reversible Myelopathy on Magnetic Resonance Imaging Due to Cobalamin Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ju Lee

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Subacute combined degeneration (SCD is known as myelopathy due to vitamin B12 deficiency. SCD always involves the posterior and lateral columns of the spinal cord, with the neuropathologic change showing vacuolation of the white matter. We describe 2 patients who presented with ataxic gait, impaired proprioception over limbs, and even mental change due to vitamin B12 deficiency. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the cervical spine showed increased signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging, and laboratory data showed low serum vitamin B12 level. The 2 patients were treated with vitamin B12 injection intramuscularly. There was clinical improvement after treatment along with normalization of the MRI.

  12. Brief communication: Loss of life due to Hurricane Harvey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkman, Sebastiaan N.; Godfroy, Maartje; Sebastian, Antonia; Kolen, Bas

    2018-04-01

    An analysis was made of the loss of life caused by Hurricane Harvey. Information was collected for 70 fatalities that occurred due to the event and were recovered within the first 2 weeks after landfall. Most fatalities occurred due to drowning (81 %), particularly in and around vehicles. Males (70 %) and people over 50 years old (56 %) were overrepresented in the dataset. More than half of the fatalities occurred in the greater Houston area (n = 37), where heavy rainfall and dam releases caused unprecedented urban flooding. The majority of fatalities were recovered outside the designated 100- and 500-year flood hazard areas.

  13. Mugwort-Mustard Allergy Syndrome due to Broccoli Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Sugita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS is a relatively rare form of food allergy which develops in individuals who are sensitized to pollen. Tree pollens, especially birch pollen, frequently induce PFAS; however, the incidence of PFAS due to grass or weed pollens such as ragweed or mugwort is relatively rare. Mugwort-mustard allergy syndrome (MMAS is an example of a PFAS in which individuals sensitized to mugwort may develop an allergy to mustard and experience severe reactions. We herein describe a case of MMAS due to broccoli consumption.

  14. Ocular tilt reaction due to a cerebellar hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Hiromasa; Tanaka, Kozue

    2014-01-01

    A 78-year-old man with essential hypertension abruptly developed complete ocular tilt reaction (OTR) which consisted of concomitant skew deviation with left hypertropia, extorsion of the right eye and intorsion of the left, and rightward head tilt. Cranial computed tomography demonstrated a localized cerebellar hemorrhage involving the left nodulus. The patient became asymptomatic within two weeks. This is a first reported case of complete OTR due to a cerebellar hemorrhage. Concomitant skew deviation is a common symptom of cerebellar lesions. Moreover, unilateral damage to the utricular pathway due to involvement of the left nodulus might cause rightward conjugate ocular torsion and rightward head tilt.

  15. Acute small bowel obstruction due to chicken bone bezoar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vetpillai P

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Preadeepan Vetpillai,1 Ayo Oshowo21CT2 Surgery in General, Charing Cross Hospital, 2Colorectal and Laparoscopic Surgery, Whittington Hospital, London, UKAbstract: Acute intestinal obstruction due to foreign bodies, or bezoar, is a rare occurrence in an adult with a normal intestinal tract. We report an unusual case of a 43-year-old black man with no previous abdominal surgery and no significant medical history who presented with an acute episode of small bowel obstruction due to an impacted undigested chicken bone.Keywords: small bowel obstruction, chicken bone, bezoar

  16. Winging of scapula due to serratus anterior tear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Singh Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Winging of scapula occurs most commonly due to injury to long thoracic nerve supplying serratus anterior muscle. Traumatic injury to serratus anterior muscle itself is very rare. We reported a case of traumatic winging of scapula due to tear of serratus anterior muscle in a 19-year-old male. Winging was present in neutral position and in extension of right shoulder joint but not on "push on wall" test. Patient was managed conservatively and achieved satisfactory result. Key words: Serratus anterior tear; Scapula; Wounds and injuries

  17. Failure analysis of multiple delaminated composite plates due to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    loading, the failure process of laminates is very complex. Large differences in strength and stiffness values of the fibre and the matrix lead to various forms of defect/ damage caused during manufacturing process as well as service conditions. Delamination or separation of two adjacent plies in a composite laminate is one of ...

  18. Study of ionospheric anomalies due to impact of typhoon using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and image processing are used to determine Total Electron Content. (TEC) anomalies in the F-layer of the ionosphere relating to Typhoon Nakri for 29 May, 2008 (UTC). PCA and image processing are applied to the global ionospheric map (GIM) with transforms conducted for the time ...

  19. Study of ionospheric anomalies due to impact of typhoon using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and image processing are used to determine Total Electron Content (TEC) anomalies in the F-layer of the ionosphere relating to Typhoon Nakri for 29 May, 2008 (UTC). PCA and image processing are applied to the global ionospheric map (GIM) with transforms conducted for the time ...

  20. Global earthquake casualties due to secondary effects: A quantitative analysis for improving rapid loss analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, K.D.; Wald, D.J.; Allen, T.I.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a quantitative and geospatial description of global losses due to earthquake-induced secondary effects, including landslide, liquefaction, tsunami, and fire for events during the past 40 years. These processes are of great importance to the US Geological Survey's (USGS) Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system, which is currently being developed to deliver rapid earthquake impact and loss assessments following large/significant global earthquakes. An important question is how dominant are losses due to secondary effects (and under what conditions, and in which regions)? Thus, which of these effects should receive higher priority research efforts in order to enhance PAGER's overall assessment of earthquakes losses and alerting for the likelihood of secondary impacts? We find that while 21.5% of fatal earthquakes have deaths due to secondary (non-shaking) causes, only rarely are secondary effects the main cause of fatalities. The recent 2004 Great Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake is a notable exception, with extraordinary losses due to tsunami. The potential for secondary hazards varies greatly, and systematically, due to regional geologic and geomorphic conditions. Based on our findings, we have built country-specific disclaimers for PAGER that address potential for each hazard (Earle et al., Proceedings of the 14th World Conference of the Earthquake Engineering, Beijing, China, 2008). We will now focus on ways to model casualties from secondary effects based on their relative importance as well as their general predictability. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  1. Global earthquake casualties due to secondary effects: A quantitative analysis for improving PAGER losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, David J.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a quantitative and geospatial description of global losses due to earthquake-induced secondary effects, including landslide, liquefaction, tsunami, and fire for events during the past 40 years. These processes are of great importance to the US Geological Survey’s (USGS) Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system, which is currently being developed to deliver rapid earthquake impact and loss assessments following large/significant global earthquakes. An important question is how dominant are losses due to secondary effects (and under what conditions, and in which regions)? Thus, which of these effects should receive higher priority research efforts in order to enhance PAGER’s overall assessment of earthquakes losses and alerting for the likelihood of secondary impacts? We find that while 21.5% of fatal earthquakes have deaths due to secondary (non-shaking) causes, only rarely are secondary effects the main cause of fatalities. The recent 2004 Great Sumatra–Andaman Islands earthquake is a notable exception, with extraordinary losses due to tsunami. The potential for secondary hazards varies greatly, and systematically, due to regional geologic and geomorphic conditions. Based on our findings, we have built country-specific disclaimers for PAGER that address potential for each hazard (Earle et al., Proceedings of the 14th World Conference of the Earthquake Engineering, Beijing, China, 2008). We will now focus on ways to model casualties from secondary effects based on their relative importance as well as their general predictability.

  2. SPINAL CORD COMPRESSION DUE TO TUMOURS AT KENYATTA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-07-07

    Jul 7, 2000 ... SPINAL CORD COMPRESSION DUE TO TUMOURS AT KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL,. NAIROBI. N.J.M. MWANG'OMBE and M.B. OUMA. ABSTRACT. Objective: To determine the frequency of different types of tumours associated with cord compression, their mode of presentation and treatment ...

  3. Strain field due to self-interstitial impurity in Ni

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    metals due to substitutional impurities using Kanzaki lattice static method based on discrete lattice theory. This method ... lattice under applied external forces is expanded in powers series of the displacements which in the .... Since the interstitial impurity interacts with short-range interactions, the external force is expected to ...

  4. [Labile hypertension due to iatrogenic denervation of the carotid sinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, H.J.L.M.; Wieling, W.; Karemaker, J.M.; Marres, H.A.M.; Lenders, J.W.M.

    2001-01-01

    Two patients, a man and a woman aged 36 and 40 years, respectively, were found to have disturbed blood pressure regulation after medical intervention in the jugular area. The man had undergone radiation therapy of the neck due to regional lymph node involvement of a nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Six

  5. Midbroken Reinforced Concrete Shear Frames Due to Earthquakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köylüoglu, H. U.; Cakmak, A. S.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    A non-linear hysteretic model for the response and local damage analyses of reinforced concrete shear frames subject to earthquake excitation is proposed, and, the model is applied to analyse midbroken reinforced concrete (RC) structures due to earthquake loads. Each storey of the shear frame...

  6. Precocious pseudopuberty due to juvenile granulosa cell tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, G.A.; Farooq, N.

    2003-01-01

    A case of precocious puberty occurring in a young girl is presented. Vaginal bleeding and secondary sexual characteristics had occurred at 7 years of age associated with an abdominal mass. These findings were due to a functional juvenile granulosa cell tumor in the right ovary. Right adenectomy was performed. Histopathology was confirmatory. (author)

  7. 48 CFR 32.904 - Determining payment due dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Under Fixed-Price Architect-Engineer Contracts, is as follows: (i) The due date for work or services... meat food product, fresh eggs, and any perishable egg product 7th day after product delivery. (2) Fresh...)(3) of this section). (ii) The 30th day after Government acceptance of supplies delivered or services...

  8. RAMs: the problem of transient errors due to alpha radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goujon, Pierre.

    1980-01-01

    Errors that remained unexplained for a long time have occurred with dynamic random access memories. It has been known since 1978 that they are due to stray alpha radiation. A good understanding of this phenomenon enables its effects to be neutralized and the reliability of the products to be guarantied [fr

  9. Atomic displacements due to interstitial hydrogen in Cu and Pd

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    c Indian Academy of Sciences. Vol. 69, No. 2. — journal of. August 2007 physics pp. 255–265. Atomic displacements due to interstitial hydrogen in Cu and Pd ..... Phys. 64, 1015 (1992). [7] Martin Fuchs and Matthias Scheffer, Comput. Phys. Commun. 119, 67 (1999). [8] Hitesh Sharma and S Prakash, Pramana – J. Phys.

  10. The risks of gastrointestinal injury due to ingested magnetic beads ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The risks of gastrointestinal injury due to ingested magnetic beads. S Cox, R Brown, A Millar, A Numanoglu, A Alexander, A Theron. Abstract. Accidental ingestion of foreign bodies is a common problem in children. Magnetic bead toys are hazardous, having potentially lethal consequences if ingested. These magnets ...

  11. Baryon inhomogeneities due to cosmic string wakes at the quark ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Baryon inhomogeneities due to cosmic string wakes at the quark–hadron transition. BISWANATH LAYEK, SOMA SANYAL and AJIT M SRIVASTAVA. Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar 751 005, India. Abstract. Baryon inhomogeneities generated during the quark–hadron transition may alter the abundances of light elements ...

  12. [Mortality due to congenital malformations in Chile (1969-1997)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedregal, P; Orfali, C; Norero, E; Vercellino, M

    2000-04-01

    Congenital malformations are defined as those structural, metabolic or functional defects found at birth. To study the mortality due to congenital malformations in Chile between 1969 and 1997, their type, individual, temporal and geographic variations. A descriptive analysis of deaths registered by the National Statistics Institute and the Ministry of Health. Means, frequencies, raw and adjusted rates were calculated and inferences for some variables were carried out. Between 1969 and 1997 ther was tendency towards a reduction in rates of mortality due to congenital malformations and an increment in their relative importance. During the period, the risk for chromosome (98%) and osteomuscular (67%) malformations increased. Men and children of less than one year had the higher risk. In 1995, 1167 deaths due to congenital malformations were registered, 90% in children of less than 5 years. Higher risks occurred in urban zones (with a rate of 8.25 per 100,000) in the third region (rate 11.59) and second region (rate 11.2). Most deaths occurred in hospitals (85%). Main causes of death were circulatory system, central nervous system and chromosome malformations. The differences in regional deaths due to congenital malformations suggests specific risks that deserve further study.

  13. Case Report: Early Neonatal Death Due To Liver Rupture Caused ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An early neonatal death due to liver to liver rupture caused by maternal abdominal manipulation and massage is presented. An apparently health baby girl was born to 26 years old primigravida who came in the second state of labour and deliver of her baby within eight minutes of arrival to the labour ward. Her labour lasted ...

  14. Recurrent gastric outlet obstruction due to an inguinal hernia.

    OpenAIRE

    Naraynsingh, V.; Sieunarine, K.; Raju, G. C.

    1987-01-01

    Although gastric strangulation in an inguinal hernia has been reported on three previous occasions, recurrent gastric outlet obstruction due to this hernia has not been previously documented. Prolonged traction on the distal stomach by omentum and transverse colon can draw the antrum and pylorus into the hernia and produce gastric outlet obstruction.

  15. Chronic intestinal obstruction due to rectosigmoid endometriosis: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chronic intestinal obstruction due to rectosigmoid endometriosis: a case report. AO Tade. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Medicine Vol. 15(2) 2006: 165-166. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/njm.v15i2.37104.

  16. Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections due to Asymptomatic Colonic Diverticulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Falidas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Colovesical fistula is a common complication of diverticulitis. Pneumaturia, fecaluria, urinary tract infections, abdominal pain, and dysuria are commonly reported. The authors report a case of colovesical fistula due to asymptomatic diverticulitis, and they emphasize the importance of deeply investigate recurrent urinary tract infection without any bowel symptoms. They also briefly review the literature.

  17. Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections due to Asymptomatic Colonic Diverticulitis

    OpenAIRE

    Falidas, Evangelos; Anyfantakis, Georgios; Boutzouvis, Stavros; Kyriakopoulos, Michail; Mathioulakis, Stavros; Vlachos, Konstantinos; Villias, Constantinos

    2012-01-01

    Colovesical fistula is a common complication of diverticulitis. Pneumaturia, fecaluria, urinary tract infections, abdominal pain, and dysuria are commonly reported. The authors report a case of colovesical fistula due to asymptomatic diverticulitis, and they emphasize the importance of deeply investigate recurrent urinary tract infection without any bowel symptoms. They also briefly review the literature.

  18. Chemical Fingerprinting of Materials Developed Due To Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Doris A.; McCool, A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on chemical fingerprinting of materials developed due to environmental issues. Some of the topics include: 1) Aerospace Materials; 2) Building Blocks of Capabilities; 3) Spectroscopic Techniques; 4) Chromatographic Techniques; 5) Factors that Determine Fingerprinting Approach; and 6) Fingerprinting: Combination of instrumental analysis methods that diagnostically characterize a material.

  19. Tragico e Comico in Due Novelle del Decameron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Strappini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Si propongono alcune osservazione su due novelle: la prima della giornata IV (Tancredi e Ghismonda e la decima della X giornata (Il marchese di Sanluzzo e Griselda, che sono tra le più studiate dell’intero Decameron e che pure presentano aspetti sui quali conviene richiamare l’attenzione.

  20. Parapharyngeal abscess due to cat-scratch disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, S H; Zangwill, K M; Hall, B; McPhaul, L; Keller, M

    2000-03-01

    The spectrum of illness attributed to cat-scratch disease (CSD) continues to expand. Although a common cause of cervical adenitis in children, CSD has not been associated as a cause of deep fascial space infections of the head and neck. We describe a child with extensive parapharyngeal adenitis and abscesses due to CSD confirmed by histological and serological evaluations.