Photon attenuation by intensifying screens
Holje, G.
1983-01-01
The photon attenuation by intensifying screens of different chemical composition has been determined. The attenuation of photons between 20 keV and 120 keV was measured by use of a multi-channel analyzer and a broad bremsstrahlung distribution. The attenuation by the intensifying screens was hereby determined simultaneously at many different monoenergetic photon energies. Experimentally determined attenuations were found to agree well with attenuation calculated from mass attenuation coefficients. The attenuation by the screens was also determined at various bremsstrahlung distributions, simulating those occurring behind the patient in various diagnostic X-ray examinations. The high attenuation in some of the intensifying screens form the basis for an analysis of the construction of asymmetric screen pairs. Single screen systems are suggested as a favourable alternative to thick screen pair systems. (Author)
Investigation of photon attenuation coefficients for marble
Basyigit, C; Akkurt, I; Kilincarslan, S; Akkurt, A
2005-01-01
The total linear attenuation coefficients μ (cm -1 ) have been obtained using the XCOM program at photon energies of 1 keV to 1 GeV for six different natural marbles produced in different places in Turkey. The individual contribution of photon interaction processes to the total linear attenuation coefficients for marble has been investigated. The calculated results were also compared with the measurements. The results obtained for marble were also compared with concrete. (note)
Photon attenuation properties of some thorium, uranium and plutonium compounds
Singh, V. P.; Badiger, N. M. [Karnatak University, Department of Physics, Dharwad-580003, Karnataka (India); Vega C, H. R., E-mail: kudphyvps@rediffmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)
2015-10-15
Mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers, effective electron densities for nuclear materials; thorium, uranium and plutonium compounds have been studied. The photon attenuation properties for the compounds have been investigated for partial photon interaction processes by photoelectric effect, Compton scattering and pair production. The values of these parameters have been found to change with photon energy and interaction process. The variations of mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic number and electron density with energy are shown graphically. Moreover, results have shown that these compounds are better shielding and suggesting smaller dimensions. The study would be useful for applications of these materials for gamma ray shielding requirement. (Author)
Compensation for photon attenuation in PET
Chintu Chen; Ordonez, C.E.; Xiaolin Yu.
1992-01-01
CT/MR and PET images usually are not in registration spatially because of differences in the imaging setup. CT, MR and PET imaging parameters that are used regularly for brain studies in their institution are compared, in addition, because the patient orientations in CT/MR and PET scanners are not the same, slice centers are positioned differently relative to the patients anatomy. For application of the new idea of using structural information from CT or MR images in PET image reconstruction for attenuation correction, image registration is required as a first step so that one can obtain a corresponding anatomic map for any selected PET image plane. The authors chose to use the surface-matching technique developed in their laboratories for image registration because this method is retrospective and accurate. After the PET and CT/MR scans are registered, they reslice the CT/MR images along the planes of the PET images. The differences in slice thickness and slice separation, as well as in image resolution between various image modalities are to be considered
Attenuation of photon beams from radionuclides. Pt. 6
Dorner, R.; Vogt, H.G.
1982-04-01
Point kernel shielding calculations have been performed for water for the photons of radioactive nuclides, comprising gamma rays, characteristic X-rays, annihilation photons as well as internal and external bremsstrahlung. The calculations refer to an isotropic point source and an infinite homogeneous medium. The results are presented for 137 radionuclides by tables of dose rate constants and sets of figures of the reciprocal attenuation factor S -1 . The shielding curves cover the range of 10 -8 -1 <1 and water thicknesses up to 340 cm. (orig./HP)
Compact silicon photonic resonance-sssisted variable optical attenuator.
Wang, Xiaoxi; Aguinaldo, Ryan; Lentine, Anthony; DeRose, Christopher; Starbuck, Andrew L; Trotter, Douglas; Pomerene, Andrew; Mookherjea, Shayan
2016-11-28
A two-part silicon photonic variable optical attenuator is demonstrated in a compact footprint which can provide a high extinction ratio at wavelengths between 1520 nm and 1620 nm. The device was made by following the conventional p-i-n waveguide section by a high-extinction-ratio second-order microring filter section. The rings provide additional on-off contrast by utilizing a thermal resonance shift, which harvested the heat dissipated by current injection in the p-i-n junction. We derive and discuss a simple thermal-resistance model in explanation of these effects.
Photon attenuation correction technique in SPECT based on nonlinear optimization
Suzuki, Shigehito; Wakabayashi, Misato; Okuyama, Keiichi; Kuwamura, Susumu
1998-01-01
Photon attenuation correction in SPECT was made using a nonlinear optimization theory, in which an optimum image is searched so that the sum of square errors between observed and reprojected projection data is minimized. This correction technique consists of optimization and step-width algorithms, which determine at each iteration a pixel-by-pixel directional value of search and its step-width, respectively. We used the conjugate gradient and quasi-Newton methods as the optimization algorithm, and Curry rule and the quadratic function method as the step-width algorithm. Statistical fluctuations in the corrected image due to statistical noise in the emission projection data grew as the iteration increased, depending on the combination of optimization and step-width algorithms. To suppress them, smoothing for directional values was introduced. Computer experiments and clinical applications showed a pronounced reduction in statistical fluctuations of the corrected image for all combinations. Combinations using the conjugate gradient method were superior in noise characteristic and computation time. The use of that method with the quadratic function method was optimum if noise property was regarded as important. (author)
Photon mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers and ...
of atomic number Z was performed using the logarithmic regression analysis of the data measured by the authors and reported earlier. The best-fit coefficients so obtained in the photon ..... This photon build-up is a function of thickness and atomic number of the sample and also the incident photon energy, which combine to ...
Derivation of linear attenuation coefficients from CT numbers for low-energy photons
Watanabe, Y.
1999-01-01
One can estimate photon attenuation properties from the CT number. In a standard method one assumes that the linear attenuation coefficient is proportional to electron density and ignores its nonlinear dependence on atomic number. When the photon energy is lower than about 50 keV, such as for brachytherapy applications, however, photoelectric absorption and Rayleigh scattering become important. Hence the atomic number must be explicitly considered in estimating the linear attenuation coefficient. In this study we propose a method to more accurately estimate the linear attenuation coefficient of low-energy photons from CT numbers. We formulate an equation that relates the CT number to the electron density and the effective atomic number. We use a CT calibration phantom to determine unknown coefficients in the equation. The equation with a given CT number is then solved for the effective atomic number, which in turn is used to calculate the linear attenuation coefficient for low-energy photons. We use the CT phantom to test the new method. The method significantly improves the standard method in estimating the attenuation coefficient at low photon energies (20keV≤E≤40keV) for materials with high atomic numbers. (author)
Attenuation correction method for single photon emission CT
Morozumi, Tatsuru; Nakajima, Masato [Keio Univ., Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology; Ogawa, Koichi; Yuta, Shinichi
1983-10-01
A correction method (Modified Correction Matrix method) is proposed to implement iterative correction by exactly measuring attenuation constant distribution in a test body, calculating a correction factor for every picture element, then multiply the image by these factors. Computer simulation for the comparison of the results showed that the proposed method was specifically more effective to an application to the test body, in which the rate of attenuation constant change is large, than the conventional correction matrix method. Since the actual measurement data always contain quantum noise, the noise was taken into account in the simulation. However, the correction effect was large even under the noise. For verifying its clinical effectiveness, the experiment using an acrylic phantom was also carried out. As the result, the recovery of image quality in the parts with small attenuation constant was remarkable as compared with the conventional method.
A new method for detecting hemoglobin directly in whole blood using photon attenuation techniques
Medhat, M.E.
2014-01-01
The objective of the proposed work is focused on measuring iron concentration directly in whole blood as tool for estimating hemoglobin and anemic conditions in patients across the world. The investigated method depends on theory of photon attenuation through transmission of low energy in whole blood sample. The mathematical expressions for calculating hemoglobin and iron deficit on blood using photon attenuation are derived. Calculations are carried out for estimating concentration of iron in blood samples taken from children, adults and old patients and therefore measuring their hemoglobin and iron deficit from normal values. Theoretical mass attenuation coefficient values were obtained using the XCOM program. A high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry based on high purity germanium detector was employed to measure attenuation of strongly collimated monoenergetic gamma beam through blood samples. (author)
Attenuation correction strategies for multi-energy photon emitters using SPECT
Pretorius, P.H.; King, M.A.; Pan, T.S.
1996-01-01
The aim of this study was to investigate whether the photopeak window projections from different energy photons can be combined into a single window for reconstruction or if it is better to not combine the projections due to differences in the attenuation maps required for each photon energy. The mathematical cardiac torso (MCAT) phantom was modified to simulate the uptake of Ga-67 in the human body. Four spherical hot tumors were placed in locations which challenged attenuation correction. An analytical 3D projector with attenuation and detector response included was used to generate projection sets. Data were reconstructed using filtered backprojection (FBP) reconstruction with Butterworth filtering in conjunction with one iteration of Chang attenuation correction, and with 5 and 10 iterations of ordered-subset maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization reconstruction. To serve as a standard for comparison, the projection sets obtained from the two energies were first reconstructed separately using their own attenuation maps. The emission data obtained from both energies were added and reconstructed using the following attenuation strategies: (1) the 93 keV attenuation map for attenuation correction, (2) the 185 keV attenuation map for attenuation correction, (3) using a weighted mean obtained from combining the 93 keV and 185 keV maps, and (4) an ordered subset approach which combines both energies. The central count ratio (CCR) and total count ratio (TCR) were used to compare the performance of the different strategies. Compared to the standard method, results indicate an over-estimation with strategy 1, an under-estimation with strategy 2 and comparable results with strategies 3 and 4. In all strategies, the CCR's of sphere 4 were under-estimated, although TCR's were comparable to that of the other locations. The weighted mean and ordered subset strategies for attenuation correction were of comparable accuracy to reconstruction of the windows separately
Experimental apparatus to determine lead attenuation coefficients for photons of 0.511 MeV
Vargas, Luis C.B.; Cardoso, Domingos O.; Gavazza, Sérgio; Morales, Rudnei K.; Oliveira, Luciano S. R.
2017-01-01
Radioactive gamma-emitting sources with higher energies than 1.022 MeV, may interact with matter by pair production process, generating two photons of 0.511 MeV in the positron annihilation, that may contribute to increase doses in both IOE´s or public. National regulatory agencies require a radiation protection plan and a shielding project to consider the influence of these photons in the licensing procedure. This work will present all steps for the development of the experimental apparatus for determination of the attenuation coefficients for photons with energy of 0.511 MeV in lead. (author)
An Analytical-empirical Calculation of Linear Attenuation Coefficient of Megavoltage Photon Beams.
Seif, F; Tahmasebi-Birgani, M J; Bayatiani, M R
2017-09-01
In this study, a method for linear attenuation coefficient calculation was introduced. Linear attenuation coefficient was calculated with a new method that base on the physics of interaction of photon with matter, mathematical calculation and x-ray spectrum consideration. The calculation was done for Cerrobend as a common radiotherapy modifier and Mercury. The values of calculated linear attenuation coefficient with this new method are in acceptable range. Also, the linear attenuation coefficient decreases slightly as the thickness of attenuating filter (Cerrobend or mercury) increased, so the procedure of linear attenuation coefficient variation is in agreement with other documents. The results showed that the attenuation ability of mercury was about 1.44 times more than Cerrobend. The method that was introduced in this study for linear attenuation coefficient calculation is general enough to treat beam modifiers with any shape or material by using the same formalism; however, calculating was made only for mercury and Cerrobend attenuator. On the other hand, it seems that this method is suitable for high energy shields or protector designing.
Murase, Kenya; Itoh, Hisao; Mogami, Hiroshi; Ishine, Masashiro; Kawamura, Masashi; Iio, Atsushi; Hamamoto, Ken
1987-01-01
A computer based simulation method was developed to assess the relative effectiveness and availability of various attenuation compensation algorithms in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The effect of the nonuniformity of attenuation coefficient distribution in the body, the errors in determining a body contour and the statistical noise on reconstruction accuracy and the computation time in using the algorithms were studied. The algorithms were classified into three groups: precorrection, post correction and iterative correction methods. Furthermore, a hybrid method was devised by combining several methods. This study will be useful for understanding the characteristics limitations and strengths of the algorithms and searching for a practical correction method for photon attenuation in SPECT. (orig.)
Zhang, L.; Jia, M. C.; Gong, J. J.; Xia, W. M.
2017-12-01
The mass attenuation coefficient of various Lead-Boron Polyethylene samples which can be used as the photon shielding materials in marine reactor, have been simulated using the MCNP-5 code, and compared with the theoretical values at the photon energy range 0.001MeV—20MeV. A good agreement has been observed. The variations of mass attenuation coefficient, linear attenuation coefficient and mean free path with photon energy between 0.001MeV to 100MeV have been plotted. The result shows that all the coefficients strongly depends on the photon energy, material atomic composition and density. The dose transmission factors for source Cesium-137 and Cobalt-60 have been worked out and their variations with the thickness of various sample materials have also been plotted. The variations show that with the increase of materials thickness the dose transmission factors decrease continuously. The results of this paper can provide some reference for the use of the high effective shielding material Lead-Boron Polyethyene.
Roteta, M; Baro, J; Fernandez-Varea, J M; Salvat, F
1994-07-01
The FORTRAN 77 code PHOTAC to compute photon attenuation coefficients of elements and compounds is described. The code is based on the semi analytical approximate atomic cross sections proposed by Baro et al. (1994). Photoelectric cross sections for coherent and incoherent scattering and for pair production are obtained as integrals of the corresponding differential cross sections. These integrals are evaluated, to a pre-selected accuracy, by using a 20-point Gauss adaptive integration algorithm. Calculated attenuation coefficients agree with recently compiled databases to within - 1%, in the energy range from 1 keV to 1 GeV. The complete source listing of the program PHOTAC is included. (Author) 14 refs.
Roteta, M.; Baro, J.; Fernandez-Varea, J. M.; Salvat, F.
1994-01-01
The FORTRAN 77 code PHOTAC to compute photon attenuation coefficients of elements and compounds is described. The code is based on the semi analytical approximate atomic cross sections proposed by Baro et al. (1994). Photoelectric cross sections for coherent and incoherent scattering and for pair production are obtained as integrals of the corresponding differential cross sections. These integrals are evaluated, to a pre-selected accuracy, by using a 20-point Gauss adaptive integration algorithm. Calculated attenuation coefficients agree with recently compiled databases to within - 1%, in the energy range from 1 keV to 1 GeV. The complete source listing of the program PHOTAC is included. (Author) 14 refs
Verification of photon attenuation characteristics for 3D printer based small animal lung model
Lee, Se Ho; Lee, Seung Wook; Han, Su Chul; Park, Seung Woo
2016-01-01
Since it is difficult to measure absorbed dose to mice in vivo, replica mice are mostly used as alternative. In this study, realistic mouse phantom was fabricated by using 3D printer (object500 connex3, Stratasys, USA). Elemental inks as material of 3D printer were selected corresponding to mouse tissue. To represent lung, selected material was partially used with air layer. In order to verify material equivalent, super-flex bolus was simply compared to verify photon attenuation characteristics. In the case of lung, Hounsfield unit (HU) of the phantom were compared with a live mouse. In this study, we fabricated mouse phantom by using 3D printer, and practically verified photon attenuation characteristics. The fabricated phantom shows tissue equivalence as well as similar geometry with live mouse. As more and more growing of 3D printer technique, 3D printer based small preclinical animal phantom would increase reliability of verification of absorbed dose in small animal for preclinical study
Verification of photon attenuation characteristics for 3D printer based small animal lung model
Lee, Se Ho; Lee, Seung Wook [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Han, Su Chul; Park, Seung Woo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2016-05-15
Since it is difficult to measure absorbed dose to mice in vivo, replica mice are mostly used as alternative. In this study, realistic mouse phantom was fabricated by using 3D printer (object500 connex3, Stratasys, USA). Elemental inks as material of 3D printer were selected corresponding to mouse tissue. To represent lung, selected material was partially used with air layer. In order to verify material equivalent, super-flex bolus was simply compared to verify photon attenuation characteristics. In the case of lung, Hounsfield unit (HU) of the phantom were compared with a live mouse. In this study, we fabricated mouse phantom by using 3D printer, and practically verified photon attenuation characteristics. The fabricated phantom shows tissue equivalence as well as similar geometry with live mouse. As more and more growing of 3D printer technique, 3D printer based small preclinical animal phantom would increase reliability of verification of absorbed dose in small animal for preclinical study.
Measurement of photon mass attenuation coefficients of plutonium from 60 to 2615 keV
Rettschlag, M.; Berndt, R.; Mortreau, P.
2007-01-01
Measurements have been made to determine plutonium photon mass attenuation coefficients by using a collimated-beam transmission method in the energy range from 60 to 2615 keV. These experimental results were compared with previous experimental and theoretical data. Good agreements are observed in the 240-800 keV energy range, whereas differences up to maximum 10% are observed out of these limits
Mirji, Rajeshwari; Lobo, Blaise
2017-06-01
The gamma ray mass attenuation coefficients of ten synthetic polymeric materials, namely, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polycarbonate (PC), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), Polypropylene (PP) and Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) have been calculated using second order polynomial equation and logarithmic interpolation formula at selected gamma photon energies, in the energy range starting from 14.4 keV up to 1332 keV. It is important to note that second order polynomial equation fits very well with NIST data for all the polymeric materials considered here, for gamma photon energies ranging from 300 keV up to 2000 keV. Third order polynomial fitting is best suited for lower gamma photon energies (from 10 keV up to 200 keV).
Large photonic band gaps and strong attenuations of two-segment-connected Peano derivative networks
Lu, Jian; Yang, Xiangbo; Zhang, Guogang; Cai, Lianzhang
2011-01-01
In this Letter, based on ancient Peano curves we construct four kinds of interesting Peano derivative networks composed of one-dimensional (1D) waveguides and investigate the optical transmission spectra and photonic attenuation behavior of electromagnetic (EM) waves in one- and two-segment-connected networks. It is found that for some two-segment-connected networks large photonic band gaps (PBGs) can be created and the widths of large PBGs can be controlled by adjusting the matching ratio of waveguide length and are insensitive to generation number. Diamond- and hexagon-Peano networks are good selectable structures for the designing of optical devices with large PBG(s) and strong attenuation(s). -- Highlights: → Peano and Peano derivative networks composed of 1D waveguides are designed. → Large PBGs with strong attenuations have been created by these fractal networks. → New approach for designing optical devices with large PBGs is proposed. → Diamond- and hexagon-Peano networks with d2:d1=2:1 are good selectable structures.
Soussaline, Francoise; Cao, A.; Lecoq, G.
1981-06-01
An analytically exact solution to the attenuated tomographic operator is proposed. Such a technique called Regularizing Iterative Method (RIM) belongs to the iterative class of procedures where a priori knowledge can be introduced on the evaluation of the size and shape of the activity domain to be reconstructed, and on the exact attenuation distribution. The relaxation factor used is so named because it leads to fast convergence and provides noise filtering for a small number of iteractions. The effectiveness of such a method was tested in the Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) reconstruction problem, with the goal of precise correction for attenuation before quantitative study. Its implementation involves the use of a rotating scintillation camera based SPECT detector connected to a mini computer system. Mathematical simulations of cylindical uniformly attenuated phantoms indicate that in the range of a priori calculated relaxation factor a fast converging solution can always be found with a (contrast) accuracy of the order of 0.2 to 4% given that numerical errors and noise are or not, taken into account. The sensitivity of the (RIM) algorithm to errors in the size of the reconstructed object and in the value of the attenuation coefficient μ was studied, using the same simulation data. Extreme variations of +- 15% in these parameters will lead to errors of the order of +- 20% in the quantitative results. Physical phantoms representing a variety of geometrical situations were also studied
Zhang, Lei; Jia, Mingchun; Gong, Junjun; Xia, Wenming
2017-08-01
The linear attenuation coefficient, mass attenuation coefficient and mean free path of various Lead-Boron Polyethylene (PbBPE) samples which can be used as the photon shielding materials in marine reactor have been simulated using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP)-5 code. The MCNP simulation results are in good agreement with the XCOM values and the reported experimental data for source Cesium-137 and Cobalt-60. Thus, this method based on MCNP can be used to simulate the photon attenuation characteristics of various types of PbBPE materials.
Hasegawa, Shuichi; Takashima, Ryuta; Todoriki, Masaru; Kikkawa, Satoshi; Soda, Keita; Takano, Kei; Oishi, Yuji; Nayuki, Takuya; Fujii, Takashi; Nemoto, Koshichi
2011-01-01
We evaluate the simplified method using the Lambert-Beer law to measure the temperature of bremsstrahlung photon generated by an ultraintense laser. Analytical values are compared to the results of the Monte Carlo calculation of GEANT4 and they agreed very well on the condition of the appropriate distance between the attenuator and the detector. We performed the experiment to measure the temperature of bremsstrahlung x-ray emitted from a metal target irradiated by a Ti:sapphire laser with 76 mJ, 72 fs, 2.2 x 10 18 W/cm 2 . For a Cu target of 30 μm thick, the photon temperature was reasonably determined to be 0.18 MeV, which is in good agreement with previous studies.
Roteta, M.; Baro, J.; Fernandez-Varea, J.M.; Salvat, F.
1994-01-01
The FORTRAN 77 code PHOTAC to compute photon attenuation coefficients of elements and compounds is described. The code is based on the semi-analytical approximate atomic cross sections proposed by Baro et al. (1994). Photoelectric cross sections are calculated directly from a simple analytical expression. Atomic cross sections for coherent and incoherent scattering and for pair production are obtained as integrals of the corresponding differential cross sections. These integrals are evaluated, to a pre-selected accuracy, by using a 20-point Gauss adaptive integration algorithm. Calculated attenuation coefficients agree with recently compiled databases to within equal 1%, in the energy range from 1 KeV to 1 GeV. The complete source listing of the program PHOTAC is included
Attenuation correction in pulmonary and myocardial single photon emission computed tomography
Almquist, H
2000-01-01
The objective was to develop and validate methods for single photon emission computed tomography, SPECT, allowing quantitative physiologic and diagnostic studies of lung and heart. A method for correction of variable attenuation in SPECT, based on transmission measurements before administration of an isotope to the subject, was developed and evaluated. A protocol based upon geometrically well defined phantoms was developed. In a mosaic pattern phantom count rates were corrected from 39-43% to 101-110% of reference. In healthy subjects non-gravitational pulmonary perfusion gradients observed without attenuation correctionwere artefacts caused by attenuation. Pulmonary density in centre of right lung, obtained from the transmission measurement, was 0.28 {+-} 0.03 g/ml in normal subjects. Mean density was lower in large lungs compared to smaller ones. We also showed that regional ventilation/perfusion ratios could be measured with SPECT, using the readily available tracer {sup 133}Xe. Because of the low energy of {sup 133}Xe this relies heavily upon attenuation correction. A commercially available system for attenuation correction with simultaneous emission and transmission, considered to improve myocardial SPECT, performed erroneously. This could lead to clinical misjudgement. We considered that manufacturer-independent pre-clinical tests are required. In a test of two other commercial systems, based on different principles, an adapted variant of our initial protocol was proven useful. Only one of the systems provided correct emission count rates independently on phantom configuration. Errors in the other system were related to inadequate compensation of the influence of emission activity on the transmission study.
Attenuation correction in pulmonary and myocardial single photon emission computed tomography
Almquist, H.
2000-01-01
The objective was to develop and validate methods for single photon emission computed tomography, SPECT, allowing quantitative physiologic and diagnostic studies of lung and heart. A method for correction of variable attenuation in SPECT, based on transmission measurements before administration of an isotope to the subject, was developed and evaluated. A protocol based upon geometrically well defined phantoms was developed. In a mosaic pattern phantom count rates were corrected from 39-43% to 101-110% of reference. In healthy subjects non-gravitational pulmonary perfusion gradients observed without attenuation correction were artefacts caused by attenuation. Pulmonary density in centre of right lung, obtained from the transmission measurement, was 0.28 ± 0.03 g/ml in normal subjects. Mean density was lower in large lungs compared to smaller ones. We also showed that regional ventilation/perfusion ratios could be measured with SPECT, using the readily available tracer 133 Xe. Because of the low energy of 133 Xe this relies heavily upon attenuation correction. A commercially available system for attenuation correction with simultaneous emission and transmission, considered to improve myocardial SPECT, performed erroneously. This could lead to clinical misjudgement. We considered that manufacturer-independent pre-clinical tests are required. In a test of two other commercial systems, based on different principles, an adapted variant of our initial protocol was proven useful. Only one of the systems provided correct emission count rates independently on phantom configuration. Errors in the other system were related to inadequate compensation of the influence of emission activity on the transmission study
Mann, Kulwinder Singh
2018-01-01
Scattered photon's influence on measured values of attenuation coefficients (μm, cm2g-1) for six low-Z (effective atomic number) building materials, at three photon energies has been estimated. Narrow-beam transmission geometry has been used for the measurements. Samples of commonly used engineering materials (Cements, Clay, Lime-Stone, Plaster of Paris) have been selected for the present study. Standard radioactive sources Cs137 and Co60 have been used for obtaining γ-ray energies 661.66, 1173.24 and 1332.50 keV. The optical thickness (OT) of 0.5 mfp (mean free path) has been found the optimum optical thickness (OOT) for μm-measurement in the selected energy range (661.66-1332.50 keV). The aim of this investigation is to provide neglected information regarding subsistence of scattered photons in narrow beam geometry measurements for low-Z materials. The measurements have been performed for a wide range of sample-thickness (2-26 cm) such that their OT varies between 0.2-3.5 mfp in selected energy range. A computer program (GRIC2-toolkit) has been used for various theoretical computations required in this investigation. It has been concluded that in selected energy-range, good accuracy in μm-measurement of low-Z materials can be achieved by keeping their sample's OT below 0.5 mfp. The exposure buildup factors have been measured with the help of mathematical-model developed in this investigation.
Uwamino, Y.; Nakamura, T.
1983-01-01
Attenuation of neutrons and photons transmitted through grahite, iron, water and ordinary concrete assemblies were studied using gold foils for thermal neutron and an NE-213 organic scintillation detector with an (n-γ) discrimination technique for spectral measurements. Source neutrons and photons were produced by 52-MeV proton bombardment of a 21.4-mm-thick graphite target placed in front of the assembly. The distributions of the light output from the scintillator were unfolded by the revised FERDO code. These experimental results were used as benchmark data on neutron and photon penetration by neutrons energy above 15MeV. Multigroup Monte Carlo, one-dimensional ANISN and two-dimensional DOT-3.5 transport calculations were performed with the DLC-58/HELLO group cross sections to compare with the measurement and to evaluate the cross sections. The DOT code was also used for the estimation of room-scattered neutron and photon contribution to the measured spectra. The results of the ANISN calculation of neutrons and the three-dimensional Monte Carlo calculation agreed with the experimental values except for high energy neutrons transmitted through water and graphite. The agreement of both calculations was well within the accuracy of 7% in the measured attenuation coefficients. For photons, the ANISN calculation gave >20% overestimation of the attenuation coefficients in the case of deep penetration through the medium for which the photon mean-free-path is shorter than that of neutrons, such as in iron and concrete. The result of the DOT calculation of neutrons down to thermal energy agreed well with the gold foil measurement in the absolute value. (author)
Gullberg, G.T.; Budinger, T.F.
1981-01-01
A back projection of filtered projection (BKFIL) reconstruction algorithm is presented that is applicable to single-photon emission computed tomography (ECT) in the presence of a constant attenuating medium such as the brain. The filters used in transmission computed tomography (TCT)-comprised of a ramp multiplied by window functions-are modified so that the single-photon ECT filter is a function of the constant attenuation coefficient. The filters give good reconstruction results with sufficient angular and lateral sampling. With continuous samples the BKFIL algorithm has a point spread function that is the Hankel transform of the window function. The resolution and statistical properties of the filters are demonstrated by various simulations which assume an ideal detector response. Statistical formulas for the reconstructed image show that the square of the percent-root-mean-square (percent-rms) uncertainty of the reconstruction is inversely proportional to the total measured counts. The results indicate that constant attenuation can be compensated for by using an attenuation-dependent filter that reconstructs the transverse section reliably. Computer time requirements are two times that of conventional TCT or positron ECT and there is no increase in memory requirements
Hayashi, Naoki; Shibamoto, Yuta; Obata, Yasunori; Kimura, Takashi; Nakazawa, Hisato; Hagiwara, Masahiro; Hashizume, Chisa I.; Mori, Yoshimasa; Kobayashi, Tatsuya
2010-01-01
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of megavoltage photon beam attenuation (PBA) by couch tops and to propose a method for correction of PBA. Four series of phantom measurements were carried out. First, PBA by the exact couch top (ECT, Varian) and Imaging Couch Top (ICT, BrainLAB) was evaluated using a water-equivalent phantom. Second, PBA by Type-S system (Med-Tec), ECT and ICT was compared with a spherical phantom. Third, percentage depth dose (PDD) after passing through ICT was measured to compare with control data of PDD. Forth, the gantry angle dependency of PBA by ICT was evaluated. Then, an equation for PBA correction was elaborated and correction factors for PBA at isocenter were obtained. Finally, this method was applied to a patient with hepatoma. PBA of perpendicular beams by ICT was 4.7% on average. With the increase in field size, the measured values became higher. PBA by ICT was greater than that by Type-S system and ECT. PBA increased significantly as the angle of incidence increased, ranging from 4.3% at 180 deg to 11.2% at 120 deg. Calculated doses obtained by the equation and correction factors agreed quite well with the measured doses between 120 deg and 180 deg of angles of incidence. Also in the patient, PBA by ICT was corrected quite well by the equation and correction factors. In conclusion, PBA and its gantry angle dependency by ICT were observed. This simple method using the equation and correction factors appeared useful to correct the isocenter dose when the PBA effect cannot be corrected by a treatment planning system. (author)
Kumpová, I.; Jandejsek, I.; Jakůbek, J.; Vopálenský, M.; Vavřík, D.; Fíla, T.; Koudelka, P.; Kytýř, D.; Zlámal, P.; Gantar, A.
2016-01-01
To overcome certain limitations of contemporary materials used for bone tissue engineering, such as inflammatory response after implantation, a whole new class of materials based on polysaccharide compounds is being developed. Here, nanoparticulate bioactive glass reinforced gelan-gum (GG-BAG) has recently been proposed for the production of bone scaffolds. This material offers promising biocompatibility properties, including bioactivity and biodegradability, with the possibility of producing scaffolds with directly controlled microgeometry. However, to utilize such a scaffold with application-optimized properties, large sets of complex numerical simulations using the real microgeometry of the material have to be carried out during the development process. Because the GG-BAG is a material with intrinsically very low attenuation to X-rays, its radiographical imaging, including tomographical scanning and reconstructions, with resolution required by numerical simulations might be a very challenging task. In this paper, we present a study on X-ray imaging of GG-BAG samples. High-resolution volumetric images of investigated specimens were generated on the basis of micro-CT measurements using a large area flat-panel detector and a large area photon-counting detector. The photon-counting detector was composed of a 010× 1 matrix of Timepix edgeless silicon pixelated detectors with tiling based on overlaying rows (i.e. assembled so that no gap is present between individual rows of detectors). We compare the results from both detectors with the scanning electron microscopy on selected slices in transversal plane. It has been shown that the photon counting detector can provide approx. 3× better resolution of the details in low-attenuating materials than the integrating flat panel detectors. We demonstrate that employment of a large area photon counting detector is a good choice for imaging of low attenuating materials with the resolution sufficient for numerical
Kumpová, I.; Vavřík, D.; Fíla, T.; Koudelka, P.; Jandejsek, I.; Jakůbek, J.; Kytýř, D.; Zlámal, P.; Vopálenský, M.; Gantar, A.
2016-02-01
To overcome certain limitations of contemporary materials used for bone tissue engineering, such as inflammatory response after implantation, a whole new class of materials based on polysaccharide compounds is being developed. Here, nanoparticulate bioactive glass reinforced gelan-gum (GG-BAG) has recently been proposed for the production of bone scaffolds. This material offers promising biocompatibility properties, including bioactivity and biodegradability, with the possibility of producing scaffolds with directly controlled microgeometry. However, to utilize such a scaffold with application-optimized properties, large sets of complex numerical simulations using the real microgeometry of the material have to be carried out during the development process. Because the GG-BAG is a material with intrinsically very low attenuation to X-rays, its radiographical imaging, including tomographical scanning and reconstructions, with resolution required by numerical simulations might be a very challenging task. In this paper, we present a study on X-ray imaging of GG-BAG samples. High-resolution volumetric images of investigated specimens were generated on the basis of micro-CT measurements using a large area flat-panel detector and a large area photon-counting detector. The photon-counting detector was composed of a 010× 1 matrix of Timepix edgeless silicon pixelated detectors with tiling based on overlaying rows (i.e. assembled so that no gap is present between individual rows of detectors). We compare the results from both detectors with the scanning electron microscopy on selected slices in transversal plane. It has been shown that the photon counting detector can provide approx. 3× better resolution of the details in low-attenuating materials than the integrating flat panel detectors. We demonstrate that employment of a large area photon counting detector is a good choice for imaging of low attenuating materials with the resolution sufficient for numerical simulations.
On the Attenuation of Neutrons and Photons in a Duct Filled with a Helical Plug
Aalto, E; Krell, Aa
1966-12-15
Neutron and gamma ray attenuation has been studied in a cylindrical duct, length/diam. ratio 7, partly (36 vol.%) filled by a helical (screw-like) plug with adjustable number of turns. The total neutron leakage through the duct decreased by a factor of six from zero to 0.5 turn, and by an additional factor of three from 0.5 to 2 turns (saturation value). The leakage with less than 0.5 turn is governed by fast flux and above 0.5 turn by epithermal flux. It is observed that the attenuation calculation in a homogenized, infinite material combined with the predicted attenuation in a duct give the measured saturation attenuation. The length coordinates used must be slightly modified in this case. The attenuation of gamma in the saturation case (3 turns) equals that predicted without the duct attenuation in a homogenized infinite material.
Tajuddin, A.A.; Chong, C.S.; Shukri, A.; Bradley, D.A.
1995-01-01
Mass attenuation coefficients for 12 selected moderate-to-high atomic-number elements have been obtained from good-geometry measurements made at five 241 Am photon energies of significant emission intensity. Particular interest focuses on measured values for photon energies close to absorption edges. Comparisons with renormalized cross-section predictions indicate agreement to within stated error limits for the majority of cases. Significant discrepancies (> 10%) are noted for Ta at 17.8 and 26.3 keV and W at 59.5 keV. Some support for a discrepancy between measurement and theory for W in the region of 60 keV is found in the reported measurements of others. (author)
XMuDat: Photon attenuation data on PC. Version 1.0.1 of August 1998. Summary documentation
Pronyaev, V.G.
1998-01-01
XMuDat is a program to be used with Windows 95 or Windows NT for the presentation and calculation of various photon interaction coefficients. Six absorbing materials can be set up individually. Each material can be composed of components chosen from the elements and further from a number of compounds and mixtures of dosimetric interest. Data for mass attenuation-, mass energy transfer- and mass energy absorption coefficients in a photon energy range of 1 keV to 50 MeV can be retrieved. A set of two diskettes with XMuDat files is available upon request, costfree, from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. Users with access to Internet may download xmudat.zip file (1,174 KB) from http://www.nds.iaea.or.at/reports/nds-195.htm. (author)
Larsson, S.A.; Johansson, L.; Jonsson, C.; Pagani, M.; Jacobsson, H.
2000-01-01
A newly designed technique for experimental single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and positron emission tomography (PET) data acquisition with minor disturbing effects from scatter and attenuation has been developed. In principle, the method is based on discrete sampling of the radioactivity distribution in 3D objects by means of equidistant 2D planes. The starting point is a set of digitised 2D sections representing the radioactivity distribution of the 3D object. Having a radioactivity-related grey scale, the 2D images are printed on paper sheets using radioactive ink. The radioactive sheets can be shaped to the outline of the object and stacked into a 3D structure with air or some arbitrary dense material in between. For this work, equidistantly spaced transverse images of a uniform cylindrical phantom and of the digitised Hoffman rCBF phantom were selected and printed out on paper sheets. The uniform radioactivity sheets were imaged on the surface of a low-energy ultra-high-resolution collimator (4 mm full-width at half-maximum) of a three-headed SPET camera. The reproducibility was 0.7% and the uniformity was 1.2%. Each rCBF sheet, containing between 8.3 and 80 MBq of 99m TcO 4 - depending on size, was first imaged on the collimator and then stacked into a 3D structure with constant 12 mm air spacing between the slices. SPET was performed with the sheets perpendicular to the central axis of the camera. The total weight of the stacked rCBF phantom in air was 63 g, giving a scatter contribution comparable to that of a point source in air. The overall attenuation losses were <20%. A second SPET study was performed with 12-mm polystyrene plates in between the radioactive sheets. With polystyrene plates, the total phantom weight was 2300 g, giving a scatter and attenuation magnitude similar to that of a patient study. With the proposed technique, it is possible to obtain ''ideal'' experimental images (essentially built up by primary photons) for comparison with
Ali, E. S. M.; Spencer, B.; McEwen, M. R.; Rogers, D. W. O.
2015-02-01
In this study, a quantitative estimate is derived for the uncertainty in the XCOM photon mass attenuation coefficients in the energy range of interest to external beam radiation therapy—i.e. 100 keV (orthovoltage) to 25 MeV—using direct comparisons of experimental data against Monte Carlo models and theoretical XCOM data. Two independent datasets are used. The first dataset is from our recent transmission measurements and the corresponding EGSnrc calculations (Ali et al 2012 Med. Phys. 39 5990-6003) for 10-30 MV photon beams from the research linac at the National Research Council Canada. The attenuators are graphite and lead, with a total of 140 data points and an experimental uncertainty of ˜0.5% (k = 1). An optimum energy-independent cross section scaling factor that minimizes the discrepancies between measurements and calculations is used to deduce cross section uncertainty. The second dataset is from the aggregate of cross section measurements in the literature for graphite and lead (49 experiments, 288 data points). The dataset is compared to the sum of the XCOM data plus the IAEA photonuclear data. Again, an optimum energy-independent cross section scaling factor is used to deduce the cross section uncertainty. Using the average result from the two datasets, the energy-independent cross section uncertainty estimate is 0.5% (68% confidence) and 0.7% (95% confidence). The potential for energy-dependent errors is discussed. Photon cross section uncertainty is shown to be smaller than the current qualitative ‘envelope of uncertainty’ of the order of 1-2%, as given by Hubbell (1999 Phys. Med. Biol 44 R1-22).
Andrews, David L
2015-01-01
Discusses the basic physical principles underlying Biomedical Photonics, spectroscopy and microscopy This volume discusses biomedical photonics, spectroscopy and microscopy, the basic physical principles underlying the technology and its applications. The topics discussed in this volume are: Biophotonics; Fluorescence and Phosphorescence; Medical Photonics; Microscopy; Nonlinear Optics; Ophthalmic Technology; Optical Tomography; Optofluidics; Photodynamic Therapy; Image Processing; Imaging Systems; Sensors; Single Molecule Detection; Futurology in Photonics. Comprehensive and accessible cov
Andrews, David L
2015-01-01
Discusses the basic physical principles underlying the technology instrumentation of photonics This volume discusses photonics technology and instrumentation. The topics discussed in this volume are: Communication Networks; Data Buffers; Defense and Security Applications; Detectors; Fiber Optics and Amplifiers; Green Photonics; Instrumentation and Metrology; Interferometers; Light-Harvesting Materials; Logic Devices; Optical Communications; Remote Sensing; Solar Energy; Solid-State Lighting; Wavelength Conversion Comprehensive and accessible coverage of the whole of modern photonics Emphas
Andrews, David L
2015-01-01
Discusses the basic physical principles underlying thescience and technology of nanophotonics, its materials andstructures This volume presents nanophotonic structures and Materials.Nanophotonics is photonic science and technology that utilizeslight/matter interactions on the nanoscale where researchers arediscovering new phenomena and developing techniques that go wellbeyond what is possible with conventional photonics andelectronics.The topics discussed in this volume are: CavityPhotonics; Cold Atoms and Bose-Einstein Condensates; Displays;E-paper; Graphene; Integrated Photonics; Liquid Cry
Andrews, David L
2015-01-01
This book covers modern photonics accessibly and discusses the basic physical principles underlying all the applications and technology of photonicsThis volume covers the basic physical principles underlying the technology and all applications of photonics from statistical optics to quantum optics. The topics discussed in this volume are: Photons in perspective; Coherence and Statistical Optics; Complex Light and Singular Optics; Electrodynamics of Dielectric Media; Fast and slow Light; Holography; Multiphoton Processes; Optical Angular Momentum; Optical Forces, Trapping and Manipulation; Pol
The measurement of attenuation coefficients at low photon energies using fluorescent x-radiation
Peaple, L.H.J.; White, D.R.
1978-03-01
A rapid and accurate method has been developed to measure low energy attenuation coefficients for materials of importance in radiation dosimetry. It employs a collimated beam of fluorescent x-rays from which the required radiation is selected by means of a high resolution germanium detector and multi-channel analyser. The method is described in detail and its accuracy and application outlined with reference to the results from nine different materials. (author)
Materials analysis using x-ray linear attenuation coefficient measurements at four photon energies
Midgley, S M
2005-01-01
The analytical properties of an accurate parameterization scheme for the x-ray linear attenuation coefficient are examined. The parameterization utilizes an additive combination of N compositional- and energy-dependent coefficients. The former were derived from a parameterization of elemental cross-sections using a polynomial in atomic number. The compositional-dependent coefficients are referred to as the mixture parameters, representing the electron density and higher order statistical moments describing elemental distribution. Additivity is an important property of the parameterization, allowing measured x-ray linear attenuation coefficients to be written as linear simultaneous equations, and then solved for the unknown coefficients. The energy-dependent coefficients can be determined by calibration from measurements with materials of known composition. The inverse problem may be utilized for materials analysis, whereby the simultaneous equations represent multi-energy linear attenuation coefficient measurements, and are solved for the mixture parameters. For in vivo studies, the choice of measurement energies is restricted to the diagnostic region (approximately 20 keV to 150 keV), where the parameterization requires N ≥ 4 energies. We identify a mathematical pathology that must be overcome in order to solve the inverse problem in this energy regime. An iterative inversion strategy is presented for materials analysis using four or more measurements, and then tested against real data obtained at energies 32 keV to 66 keV. The results demonstrate that it is possible to recover the electron density to within ±4% and fourth mixture parameter. It is also a key finding that the second and third mixture parameters cannot be recovered, as they are of minor importance in the parameterization at diagnostic x-ray energies
Ménesguen, Y.; Gerlach, M.; Pollakowski, B.; Unterumsberger, R.; Haschke, M.; Beckhoff, B.; Lépy, M.-C.
2016-02-01
The knowledge of atomic fundamental parameters such as mass attenuation coefficients with low uncertainties, is of decisive importance in elemental quantification using x-ray fluorescence analysis techniques. Several databases are accessible and frequently used within a large community of users. These compilations are most often in good agreement for photon energies in the hard x-ray ranges. However, they significantly differ for low photon energies and around the absorption edges of any element. In a joint cooperation of the metrology institutes of France and Germany, mass attenuation coefficients of copper and zinc were determined experimentally in the photon energy range from 100 eV to 30 keV by independent approaches using monochromatized synchrotron radiation at SOLEIL (France) and BESSY II (Germany), respectively. The application of high-accuracy experimental techniques resulted in mass attenuation coefficient datasets determined with low uncertainties that are directly compared to existing databases. The novel datasets are expected to enhance the reliability of mass attenuation coefficients.
Verdipoor, Khatibeh; Alemi, Abdolali; Mesbahi, Asghar
2018-06-01
Novel shielding materials for photons based on silicon resin and WO3, PbO, and Bi2O3 Micro and Nano-particles were designed and their mass attenuation coefficients were calculated using Monte Carlo (MC) method. Using lattice cards in MCNPX code, micro and nanoparticles with sizes of 100 nm and 1 μm was designed inside a silicon resin matrix. Narrow beam geometry was simulated to calculate the attenuation coefficients of samples against mono-energetic beams of Co60 (1.17 and 1.33 MeV), Cs137 (663.8 KeV), and Ba133 (355.9 KeV). The shielding samples made of nanoparticles had higher mass attenuation coefficients, up to 17% relative to those made of microparticles. The superiority of nano-shields relative to micro-shields was dependent on the filler concentration and the energy of photons. PbO, and Bi2O3 nanoparticles showed higher attenuation compared to WO3 nanoparticles in studied energies. Fabrication of novel shielding materials using PbO, and Bi2O3 nanoparticles is recommended for application in radiation protection against photon beams.
Mesbahi, A.; Nejad, F.S.
2007-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate the dosimetric effect of various hip prostheses on pelvis lateral fields treated by a 9-MV photon beam using Monte Carlo (MC) and effective path-length (EPL) methods. The head of the Neptun 10 pc linac was simulated using the MCNP4C MC code. The accuracy of the MC model was evaluated using measured dosimetric features including depth dose values and dose profiles in a water phantom. The Alfard treatment planning system (TPS) was used for EPL calculations. A virtual water phantom with dimensions of 30 x 30 x 30 cm 3 and a cube with dimensions of 4 x 4 x 4 cm 3 made of various metals centered in 12 cm depth was used for MC and EPL calculations. Various materials including titanium, Co-Cr-Mo, and steel alloys were used as hip prostheses. Our results showed significant attenuation in absorbed dose for points after and inside the prostheses. Attenuations of 32%, 54% and 55% were seen for titanium, Co-Cr-Mo, and steel alloys, respectively, at a distance of 5 cm from the prosthesis. Considerable dose increase (up to 18%) was found at the water-prosthesis interface due to back-scattered electrons using the MC method. The results of EPL calculations for the titanium implant were comparable to the MC calculations. This method, however, was not able to predict the interface effect or calculate accurately the absorbed dose in the presence of the Co-Cr-Mo and steel prostheses. The dose perturbation effect of hip prostheses is significant and cannot be predicted accurately by the EPL method for Co-Cr-Mo or steel prostheses. The use of MC-based TPS is recommended for treatments requiring fields passing through hip prostheses. (author)
Comparison of photon attenuation coefficients (2-150 KeV) for diagnostic imaging simulations
Dodge, Charles W., III; Flynn, Michael J.
2004-05-01
The Radiology Research Laboratory at the Henry Ford Hospital has been involved in modeling x-ray units in order to predict image quality. A critical part of that modeling process is the accurate choice of interaction coefficients. This paper serves as a review and comparison of existing interaction models. Our objective was to obtain accurate and easily calculated interaction coefficients, at diagnostically relevant energies. We obtained data from: McMaster, Lawrence Berkeley Lab data (LBL), XCOM and FFAST Data from NIST, and the EPDL-97 database via LLNL. Our studies involve low energy photons; therefore, comparisons were limited to Coherent (Rayleigh), Incoherent (Compton) and Photoelectric effects, which were summed to determine a total interaction cross section. Without measured data, it becomes difficult to definitively choose the most accurate method. However, known limitations in the McMaster data and smoothing of photo-edge transitions can be used as a guide to establish more valid approaches. Each method was compared to one another graphically and at individual points. We found that agreement between all methods was excellent when away from photo-edges. Near photo-edges and at low energies, most methods were less accurate. Only the Chanter (FFAST) data seems to have consistently and accurately predicted the placement of edges (through M-shell), while minimizing smoothing errors. The EPDL-97 data by LLNL was the best over method in predicting coherent and incoherent cross sections.
Hashimoto, Jun; Kubo, Atsushi; Ogawa, Koichi; Ichihara, Takashi; Motomura, Nobutoku; Takayama, Takuzo; Iwanaga, Shiro; Mitamura, Hideo; Ogawa, Satoshi
1998-01-01
A practical method for scatter and attenuation compensation was employed in thallium-201 myocardial single-photon emission tomography (SPET or ECT) with the triple-energy-window (TEW) technique and an iterative attenuation correction method by using a measured attenuation map. The map was reconstructed from technetium-99m transmission CT (TCT) data. A dual-headed SPET gamma camera system equipped with parallel-hole collimators was used for ECT/TCT data acquisition and a new type of external source named ''sheet line source'' was designed for TCT data acquisition. This sheet line source was composed of a narrow long fluoroplastic tube embedded in a rectangular acrylic board. After injection of 99m Tc solution into the tube by an automatic injector, the board was attached in front of the collimator surface of one of the two detectors. After acquiring emission and transmission data separately or simultaneously, we eliminated scattered photons in the transmission and emission data with the TEW method, and reconstructed both images. Then, the effect of attenuation in the scatter-corrected ECT images was compensated with Chang's iterative method by using measured attenuation maps. Our method was validated by several phantom studies and clinical cardiac studies. The method offered improved homogeneity in distribution of myocardial activity and accurate measurements of myocardial tracer uptake. We conclude that the above correction method is feasible because a new type of 99m Tc external source may not produce truncation in TCT images and is cost-effective and easy to prepare in clinical situations. (orig.)
Mohd Yusof, Mohd Fahmi; Hamid, Puteri Nor Khatijah Abdul; Tajuddin, Abdul Aziz; Bauk, Sabar; Hashim, Rokiah
2015-01-01
The Rhizophora spp. particleboards were fabricated using ≤ 104 µm particle size at three different fabrication methods; binderless, steam pre-treated and tannin-added. The mass attenuation coefficient of Rhizophora spp. particleboards were measured using x-ray fluorescent (XRF) photon from niobium, molybdenum, palladium, silver and tin metal plates that provided photon energy between 16.59 to 25.26 keV. The results were compared to theoretical values for water calculated using photon cross-section database (XCOM).The results showed that all Rhizophora spp. particleboards having mass attenuation coefficient close to calculated XCOM for water. Tannin-added Rizophora spp. particleboard was nearest to calculated XCOM for water with χ2 value of 13.008 followed by binderless Rizophora spp. (25.859) and pre-treated Rizophora spp. (91.941)
Mohd Yusof, Mohd Fahmi, E-mail: mfahmi@usm.my; Hamid, Puteri Nor Khatijah Abdul; Tajuddin, Abdul Aziz [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Bauk, Sabar [School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Hashim, Rokiah [School of Industrial Technologies, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)
2015-04-29
The Rhizophora spp. particleboards were fabricated using ≤ 104 µm particle size at three different fabrication methods; binderless, steam pre-treated and tannin-added. The mass attenuation coefficient of Rhizophora spp. particleboards were measured using x-ray fluorescent (XRF) photon from niobium, molybdenum, palladium, silver and tin metal plates that provided photon energy between 16.59 to 25.26 keV. The results were compared to theoretical values for water calculated using photon cross-section database (XCOM).The results showed that all Rhizophora spp. particleboards having mass attenuation coefficient close to calculated XCOM for water. Tannin-added Rizophora spp. particleboard was nearest to calculated XCOM for water with χ2 value of 13.008 followed by binderless Rizophora spp. (25.859) and pre-treated Rizophora spp. (91.941)
Joffre, H; Pages, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1968-07-01
In this report are given the elements allowing the definition of the values of mass attenuation coefficients and mass energy absorption coefficients for some elements and mixtures, necessary for the study of tissue equivalent materials, for photons in the energy range 10 keV to 10 MeV. After a short reminding of the definitions of the two coefficients, follows, in table form, a compilation of these coefficients, as a function of energy, for simple elements, for certain mineral compounds, organic compounds, gases and particularly of soft tissues. (author) [French] Dans ce rapport, sont donnes les elements permettant de determiner les valeurs des coefficients d'attenuation massique et d'absorption massique en energie pour certains elements et melanges necessaires a l'etude des materiaux equivalents aux tissus pour les photons dans le domaine d'energie allant de 10 keV a 10 MeV. Apres un bref rappel des definitions des deux coefficients, suit, sous forme de tableaux, un recueil de ces coefficients, en fonction de l'energie, pour les elements simples, certains composes mineraux, composes organiques, gaz, et, particulierement, pour les tissus mous. (auteur)
Saez, D.G.; Hernandez, L.; Borroto, M.; Figueredo, M.
1996-01-01
A semiempirical equation of polynomial-exponential type is presented to describe the transmission data of Co-60 gamma radiation in finite materials of concrete and lead. This equation and the expression obtained for the relationship of scatter-to-incident exposure made easy the developing in computer of an analytical solution for shielding calculations of Co 60 teletherapy rooms, based on the procedures of the NCRP 49 and Simpkin's method. The standard error in the estimation of parameters is less than 1.7 % except for the attenuation of 150 'o' scattered radiation in concrete that resulted in 6.3 % for one of them. The shielding calculations were compared with the data in NCRP 49 for the same conditions with a correlation better than 99 %
Adachi, Itaru; Doi, Kenji; Komori, Tsuyoshi; Hou, Nobuyoshi; Tabuchi, Koujirou; Matsui, Ritsuo; Sueyoshi, Kouzou; Utsunomiya, Keita; Narabayashi, Isamu
1998-01-01
This investigation was undertaken to study clinical usefulness of scatter and attenuation correction (SAC) of brain SPECT in infants to compare the standard reconstruction (STD). The brain SPECT was performed in 31 patients with 19 epilepsy, 5 cerebro-vascular disease, 2 brain tumor, 3 meningitis, 1 hydrocephalus and psychosis (mean age 5.0±4.9 years old). Many patients was necessary to be injected sedatives for restraining body motion after Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO) was injected at the convulsion or rest. Brain SPECT data were acquired with triple detector gamma camera (GCA-9300 Toshiba Japan). These data were reconstructed by filtered backprojection after the raw data were corrected by triple energy windows method of scatter correction and Chang filtered method of attenuation correction. The same data was reconstructed by filtered backprojection without these corrections. Both SAC and STD SPECT images were analyzed by the visual interpretation. The uptake ratio of cerebral basal nuclei was calculated by the counts of the thalamus or lenticular nuclei divided by the cortex. All images of SAC method were excellent than that of STD method. The thalamic uptake ratio in SAC method was higher than that of STD method (1.22±0.09>0.87±0.22 p 1.02±0.16 p<0.01). Transmission scan is the most suitable method of absorption correction. But the transmission scan is not adequate for examination of children, because this scan needs a lot of time and the infants are exposed by the line source radioisotope. It was concluded that these scatter and absorption corrections were most suitable method for brain SPECT in pediatrics. (author)
Adachi, Itaru; Doi, Kenji; Komori, Tsuyoshi; Hou, Nobuyoshi; Tabuchi, Koujirou; Matsui, Ritsuo; Sueyoshi, Kouzou; Utsunomiya, Keita; Narabayashi, Isamu [Osaka Medical Coll., Takatsuki (Japan)
1998-01-01
This investigation was undertaken to study clinical usefulness of scatter and attenuation correction (SAC) of brain SPECT in infants to compare the standard reconstruction (STD). The brain SPECT was performed in 31 patients with 19 epilepsy, 5 cerebro-vascular disease, 2 brain tumor, 3 meningitis, 1 hydrocephalus and psychosis (mean age 5.0{+-}4.9 years old). Many patients was necessary to be injected sedatives for restraining body motion after Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) was injected at the convulsion or rest. Brain SPECT data were acquired with triple detector gamma camera (GCA-9300 Toshiba Japan). These data were reconstructed by filtered backprojection after the raw data were corrected by triple energy windows method of scatter correction and Chang filtered method of attenuation correction. The same data was reconstructed by filtered backprojection without these corrections. Both SAC and STD SPECT images were analyzed by the visual interpretation. The uptake ratio of cerebral basal nuclei was calculated by the counts of the thalamus or lenticular nuclei divided by the cortex. All images of SAC method were excellent than that of STD method. The thalamic uptake ratio in SAC method was higher than that of STD method (1.22{+-}0.09>0.87{+-}0.22 p<0.01). The lenticular nuclear uptake ratio in SAC method was higher than that of STD method (1.26{+-}0.15>1.02{+-}0.16 p<0.01). Transmission scan is the most suitable method of absorption correction. But the transmission scan is not adequate for examination of children, because this scan needs a lot of time and the infants are exposed by the line source radioisotope. It was concluded that these scatter and absorption corrections were most suitable method for brain SPECT in pediatrics. (author)
Effects of attenuation map accuracy on attenuation-corrected micro-SPECT images
Wu, C.; Gratama van Andel, H.A.; Laverman, P.; Boerman, O.C.; Beekman, F.J.
2013-01-01
Background In single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), attenuation of photon flux in tissue affects quantitative accuracy of reconstructed images. Attenuation maps derived from X-ray computed tomography (CT) can be employed for attenuation correction. The attenuation coefficients as well
Marashdeh, M.W., E-mail: mwmarashdeh@yahoo.com [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Bauk, S. [Physics Section, P.P.P. Jarak Jauh, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Tajuddin, A.A. [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Hashim, R. [Division of Bio-resource, Paper and Coatings Technology, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia)
2012-04-15
The mass attenuation coefficients of Rhizophora spp. binderless particleboard with four different particle sizes (samples A, B, C and D) and natural raw Rhizophora spp. wood (sample E) were determined using single-beam photon transmission in the energy range between 16.59 and 25.26 keV. This was done by determining the attenuation of K{sub {alpha}1} X-ray fluorescent (XRF) photons from niobium, molybdenum, palladium, silver and tin targets. The results were compared with theoretical values of young-age breast (Breast 1) and water calculated using a XCOM computer program. It was found that the mass attenuation coefficient of Rhizophora spp. binderless particleboards to be close to the calculated XCOM values in water than natural Rhizophora spp. wood. Computed tomography (CT) scans were then used to determine the density profile of the samples. The CT scan results showed that the Rhizophora spp. binderless particleboard has uniform density compared to natural Rhizophora spp. wood. In general, the differences in the variability of the profile density decrease as the particle size of the pellet samples decreases. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mass attenuation coefficients were determined by X-ray fluorescent photons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sample with smaller particle size found very close to calculated water XCOM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-ray computed tomography scanner was used to investigate the density distribution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The density distribution profile is improved with the decrease in the particle size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rhizophora spp. binderless particleboard could be used as phantom material.
Turgut, Ue.; Simsek, Oe.; Bueyuekkasap, E.; Ertugrul, M.
2004-01-01
To investigate the validity of the mixture rule which is used to compute the mass attenuation coefficients in compounds, the total mass attenuation coefficients for Cu, Cr elements and Cu 2 O, CuC 2 O 4 , CuCl 2 ·2H 2 O, Cu(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 ·H 2 O, Cr 2 O 3 , Cr(NO 3 ) 3 , Cr 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ·H 2 O, Cr 3 (CH 3 CO 7 )(OH) 2 compounds were measured at photon energies between 4.508 and 13.375 keV by using the secondary excitation method. Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Ge, As, Rb elements were used as secondary exciters. 59.5 keV gamma rays emitted from an 241 Am annular source were used to excite the secondary exciters and Kα (K-L 3 , L 2 ) rays emitted from the secondary exciter were counted by a Si(Li) detector with a resolution of 160 eV at 5.9 keV. Our measurements indicate that the mixture rule is not a suitable method for the computation of mass attenuation coefficients of compounds especially at an energy that is near the absorption edge. Obtained values were compared with theoretical values
Single photon emission tomography
Buvat, Irene
2011-09-01
The objective of this lecture is to present the single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging technique. Content: 1 - Introduction: anatomic, functional and molecular imaging; Principle and role of functional or molecular imaging; 2 - Radiotracers: chemical and physical constraints, main emitters, radioisotopes production, emitters type and imaging techniques; 3 - Single photon emission computed tomography: gamma cameras and their components, gamma camera specifications, planar single photon imaging characteristics, gamma camera and tomography; 4 - Quantification in single photon emission tomography: attenuation, scattering, un-stationary spatial resolution, partial volume effect, movements, others; 5 - Synthesis and conclusion
Schramm, Georg, E-mail: georg.schramm@kuleuven.be; Maus, Jens; Hofheinz, Frank; Petr, Jan; Lougovski, Alexandr [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiopharmaceutical Cancer Research, Dresden 01328 (Germany); Beuthien-Baumann, Bettina; Oehme, Liane [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden 01307 (Germany); Platzek, Ivan [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden 01307 (Germany); Hoff, Jörg van den [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute for Radiopharmaceutical Cancer Research, Dresden 01328 (Germany); Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden 01307 (Germany)
2015-11-15
Purpose: MR-based attenuation correction (MRAC) in routine clinical whole-body positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) is based on tissue type segmentation. Due to lack of MR signal in cortical bone and the varying signal of spongeous bone, standard whole-body segmentation-based MRAC ignores the higher attenuation of bone compared to the one of soft tissue (MRAC{sub nobone}). The authors aim to quantify and reduce the bias introduced by MRAC{sub nobone} in the standard uptake value (SUV) of spinal and pelvic lesions in 20 PET/MRI examinations with [{sup 18}F]NaF. Methods: The authors reconstructed 20 PET/MR [{sup 18}F]NaF patient data sets acquired with a Philips Ingenuity TF PET/MRI. The PET raw data were reconstructed with two different attenuation images. First, the authors used the vendor-provided MRAC algorithm that ignores the higher attenuation of bone to reconstruct PET{sub nobone}. Second, the authors used a threshold-based algorithm developed in their group to automatically segment bone structures in the [{sup 18}F]NaF PET images. Subsequently, an attenuation coefficient of 0.11 cm{sup −1} was assigned to the segmented bone regions in the MRI-based attenuation image (MRAC{sub bone}) which was used to reconstruct PET{sub bone}. The automatic bone segmentation algorithm was validated in six PET/CT [{sup 18}F]NaF examinations. Relative SUV{sub mean} and SUV{sub max} differences between PET{sub bone} and PET{sub nobone} of 8 pelvic and 41 spinal lesions, and of other regions such as lung, liver, and bladder, were calculated. By varying the assigned bone attenuation coefficient from 0.11 to 0.13 cm{sup −1}, the authors investigated its influence on the reconstructed SUVs of the lesions. Results: The comparison of [{sup 18}F]NaF-based and CT-based bone segmentation in the six PET/CT patients showed a Dice similarity of 0.7 with a true positive rate of 0.72 and a false discovery rate of 0.33. The [{sup 18}F]NaF-based bone
Vargas, Luis C.B.; Cardoso, Domingos O.; Gavazza, Sérgio; Morales, Rudnei K., E-mail: claudiovargasbrito@gmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, Luciano S. R. [Instituto de Defesa Química Biológica Radiológica Nuclear (IDQBRN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2017-07-01
Radioactive gamma-emitting sources with higher energies than 1.022 MeV, may interact with matter by pair production process, generating two photons of 0.511 MeV in the positron annihilation, that may contribute to increase doses in both IOE´s or public. National regulatory agencies require a radiation protection plan and a shielding project to consider the influence of these photons in the licensing procedure. This work will present all steps for the development of the experimental apparatus for determination of the attenuation coefficients for photons with energy of 0.511 MeV in lead. (author)
Gilman, F.J.
1980-01-01
A brief summary of the present status of photon-photon interactions is presented. Stress is placed on the use of two-photon collisions to test present ideas on the quark constituents of hadrons and on the theory of strong interactions
Attenuation coefficients of soils
Martini, E.; Naziry, M.J.
1989-01-01
As a prerequisite to the interpretation of gamma-spectrometric in situ measurements of activity concentrations of soil radionuclides the attenuation of 60 to 1332 keV gamma radiation by soil samples varying in water content and density has been investigated. A useful empirical equation could be set up to describe the dependence of the mass attenuation coefficient upon photon energy for soil with a mean water content of 10%, with the results comparing well with data in the literature. The mean density of soil in the GDR was estimated at 1.6 g/cm 3 . This value was used to derive the linear attenuation coefficients, their range of variation being 10%. 7 figs., 5 tabs. (author)
XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database
SRD 8 XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database (Web, free access) A web database is provided which can be used to calculate photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, for any element, compound or mixture (Z <= 100) at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV.
Burke, D.L.
1982-10-01
Studies of photon-photon collisions are reviewed with particular emphasis on new results reported to this conference. These include results on light meson spectroscopy and deep inelastic e#betta# scattering. Considerable work has now been accumulated on resonance production by #betta##betta# collisions. Preliminary high statistics studies of the photon structure function F 2 /sup #betta#/(x,Q 2 ) are given and comments are made on the problems that remain to be solved
Haissinski, J.
1986-06-01
The discussions presented in this paper deal with the following points: distinctive features of gamma-gamma collisions; related processes; photon-photon elastic scattering in the continuum and γγ →gg; total cross section; γγ → V 1 V 2 (V=vector meson); radiative width measurements and light meson spectroscopy; exclusive channels at large /t/; jets and inclusive particle distribution in γγ collisions; and, the photon structure function F γ 2
Sessler, A.M.
1995-04-01
Since the seminal work by Ginsburg, et at., the subject of giving the Next Linear Collider photon-photon capability, as well as electron-positron capability, has drawn much attention. A 1990 article by V.I. Teinov describes the situation at that time. In March 1994, the first workshop on this subject was held. This report briefly reviews the physics that can be achieved through the photon-photon channel and then focuses on the means of achieving such a collider. Also reviewed is the spectrum of backscattered Compton photons -- the best way of obtaining photons. We emphasize the spectrum actually obtained in a collider with both polarized electrons and photons (peaked at high energy and very different from a Compton spectrum). Luminosity is estimated for the presently considered colliders, and interaction and conversion-point geometries are described. Also specified are laser requirements (such as wavelength, peak power, and average power) and the lasers that might be employed. These include conventional and free-electron lasers. Finally, we describe the R ampersand D necessary to make either of these approaches viable and explore the use of the SLC as a test bed for a photon-photon collider of very high energy
Attenuation and scatter correction in SPECT
Pant, G.S.; Pandey, A.K.
2000-01-01
While passing through matter, photons undergo various types of interactions. In the process, some photons are completely absorbed, some are scattered in different directions with or without any change in their energy and some pass through unattenuated. These unattenuated photons carry the information with them. However, the image data gets corrupted with attenuation and scatter processes. This paper deals with the effect of these two processes in nuclear medicine images and suggests the methods to overcome them
Brodsky, S.J.
1985-01-01
The study of photon-photon collisions has progressed enormously, stimulated by new data and new calculational tools for QCD. In the future we can expect precise determinations of ..cap alpha../sub s/ and ..lambda../sup ms/ from the ..gamma..*..gamma.. ..-->.. ..pi../sup 0/ form factor and the photon structure function, as well as detailed checks of QCD, determination of the shape of the hadron distribution amplitudes from ..gamma gamma.. ..-->.. H anti H, reconstruction of sigma/sub ..gamma gamma../ from exclusive channels at low W/sub ..gamma gamma../, definitive studies of high p/sub T/ hadron and jet production, and studies of threshold production of charmed systems. Photon-photon collisions, along with radiative decays of the psi and UPSILON, are ideal for the study of multiquark and gluonic resonances. We have emphasized the potential for resonance formation near threshold in virtually every hadronic exclusive channel, including heavy quark states c anti c c anti c, c anti c u anti u, etc. At higher energies SLC, LEP, ...) parity-violating electroweak effects and Higgs production due to equivalent Z/sup 0/ and W/sup + -/ beams from e ..-->.. eZ/sup 0/ and e ..-->.. nu W will become important. 44 references.
Brodsky, S.J.
1985-01-01
The study of photon-photon collisions has progressed enormously, stimulated by new data and new calculational tools for QCD. In the future we can expect precise determinations of α/sub s/ and Λ/sup ms/ from the γ*γ → π 0 form factor and the photon structure function, as well as detailed checks of QCD, determination of the shape of the hadron distribution amplitudes from γγ → H anti H, reconstruction of sigma/sub γγ/ from exclusive channels at low W/sub γγ/, definitive studies of high p/sub T/ hadron and jet production, and studies of threshold production of charmed systems. Photon-photon collisions, along with radiative decays of the psi and UPSILON, are ideal for the study of multiquark and gluonic resonances. We have emphasized the potential for resonance formation near threshold in virtually every hadronic exclusive channel, including heavy quark states c anti c c anti c, c anti c u anti u, etc. At higher energies SLC, LEP, ...) parity-violating electroweak effects and Higgs production due to equivalent Z 0 and W +- beams from e → eZ 0 and e → nu W will become important. 44 references
Field, J.H.
1984-01-01
The current status, both theoretical and experimental, of two photon collision physics is reviewed with special emphasis on recent experimental results from e + e - storage rings. After a complete presentation of the helicity amplitude formalism for the general process e + e - → Xe + e - , various approximations (transverse photon, Weisaecker Williams) are discussed. Beam polarisation effects and radiative corrections are also briefly considered. A number of specific processes, for which experimental results are now available, are then described. In each case existing theoretical prediction are confronted with experimental results. The processes described include single resonance production, lepton and hadron pair production, the structure functions of the photon, the production of high Psub(T) jets and the total photon photon cross section. In the last part of the review the current status of the subject is summarised and some comments are made on future prospects. These include both extrapolations of current research to higher energy machines (LEP, HERA) as well as a brief mention of both the technical realisation and the physics interest of the real γγ and eγ collisions which may be possible using linear electron colliders in the 1 TeV energy range
CONFERENCE: Photon-photon collisions
Anon.
1983-01-01
Despite being difficult to observe, photon-photon collisions have opened up a range of physics difficult, or even impossible, to access by other methods. The progress which has been made in this field was evident at the fifth international workshop on photon-photon collisions, held in Aachen from 13-16 April and attended by some 120 physicists
Photon technology. Hard photon technology; Photon technology. Hard photon gijutsu
NONE
1996-03-01
Research results of hard photon technology have been summarized as a part of novel technology development highly utilizing the quantum nature of photon. Hard photon technology refers to photon beam technologies which use photon in the 0.1 to 200 nm wavelength region. Hard photon has not been used in industry due to the lack of suitable photon sources and optical devices. However, hard photon in this wavelength region is expected to bring about innovations in such areas as ultrafine processing and material synthesis due to its atom selective reaction, inner shell excitation reaction, and spatially high resolution. Then, technological themes and possibility have been surveyed. Although there are principle proposes and their verification of individual technologies for the technologies of hard photon generation, regulation and utilization, they are still far from the practical applications. For the photon source technology, the laser diode pumped driver laser technology, laser plasma photon source technology, synchrotron radiation photon source technology, and vacuum ultraviolet photon source technology are presented. For the optical device technology, the multi-layer film technology for beam mirrors and the non-spherical lens processing technology are introduced. Also are described the reduction lithography technology, hard photon excitation process, and methods of analysis and measurement. 430 refs., 165 figs., 23 tabs.
Evaluation of attenuating materials: model for the distribution of scattered radiation
Costa, Paulo R.
1996-01-01
A mathematical model for the behaviour of the distribution of photon scattered by attenuating media is presented. Shielding barriers or attenuating materials used in tests of quality control in radiology are proposed. Comparative results for Lucite are reported
Keller, Ole
2002-01-01
train quantum electrodynamics. A brief description of particle (photon) position operators is given, and it is shown that photons usually are only algebraically confined in an emission process. Finally, it is demonstrated that the profile of the birth domain of a radio-frequency photon emitted...
Evgenii E. Narimanov
2014-10-01
Full Text Available We introduce a new “universality class” of artificial optical media—photonic hypercrystals. These hyperbolic metamaterials, with periodic spatial variation of dielectric permittivity on subwavelength scale, combine the features of optical metamaterials and photonic crystals. In particular, surface waves supported by a hypercrystal possess the properties of both the optical Tamm states in photonic crystals and surface-plasmon polaritons at the metal-dielectric interface.
Lee, Chi H
2006-01-01
Wireless, optical, and electronic networks continue to converge, prompting heavy research into the interface between microwave electronics, ultrafast optics, and photonic technologies. New developments arrive nearly as fast as the photons under investigation, and their commercial impact depends on the ability to stay abreast of new findings, techniques, and technologies. Presenting a broad yet in-depth survey, Microwave Photonics examines the major advances that are affecting new applications in this rapidly expanding field.This book reviews important achievements made in microwave photonics o
Attenuation studies near K-absorption edges using Compton ...
The results are consistent with theoretical values derived from the XCOM package. Keywords. Photon interaction; 241Am; gamma ray attenuation; Compton scattering; absorption edge; rare earth elements. PACS Nos 32.80.-t; 32.90.+a. 1. Introduction. Photon interaction studies at energies around the absorption edge have ...
Compensation for nonuniform attenuation in SPECT brain imaging
Glick, S.J.; King, M.A.; Pan, T.S.; Soares, E.J.
1996-01-01
Accurate compensation for photon attenuation is needed to perform quantitative brain single-photon-emission computed tomographic (SPECT) imaging. Bellini's attenuation-compensation method has been used with a nonuniform attenuation map to account for the nonuniform attenuation properties of the head. Simulation studies using a three-dimensional (3-D) digitized anthropomorphic brain phantom were conducted to compare quantitative accuracy of reconstructions obtained with the nonuniform Bellini method to that obtained with the Chang method and to iterative reconstruction using maximum-likelihood expectation maximization (ML-EM). Using the Chang method and assuming the head to be a uniform attenuator gave reconstructions with an average bias of approximately 6-8%, whereas using the Bellini or the iterative ML-EM method with a nonuniform attenuation map gave an average bias of approximately 1%. The computation time required to implement nonuniform attenuation compensation with the Bellini algorithm is approximately equivalent to the time required to perform one iteration of ML-EM. Thus, using the Bellini method with a nonuniform attenuation map provides accurate compensation for photon attenuation within the head, and the method can be implemented in computation times suitable for routine clinical use
Photon technology. Hard photon technology; Photon technology. Hard photon gijutsu
NONE
1997-03-01
For the application of photon to industrial technologies, in particular, a hard photon technology was surveyed which uses photon beams of 0.1-200nm in wavelength. Its features such as selective atom reaction, dense inner shell excitation and spacial high resolution by quantum energy are expected to provide innovative techniques for various field such as fine machining, material synthesis and advanced inspection technology. This wavelength region has been hardly utilized for industrial fields because of poor development of suitable photon sources and optical devices. The developmental meaning, usable time and issue of a hard photon reduction lithography were surveyed as lithography in ultra-fine region below 0.1{mu}m. On hard photon analysis/evaluation technology, the industrial use of analysis, measurement and evaluation technologies by micro-beam was viewed, and optimum photon sources and optical systems were surveyed. Prediction of surface and surface layer modification by inner shell excitation, the future trend of this process and development of a vacuum ultraviolet light source were also surveyed. 383 refs., 153 figs., 17 tabs.
Inverse photon-photon processes
Carimalo, C.; Crozon, M.; Kesler, P.; Parisi, J.
1981-12-01
We here consider inverse photon-photon processes, i.e. AB → γγX (where A, B are hadrons, in particular protons or antiprotons), at high energies. As regards the production of a γγ continuum, we show that, under specific conditions the study of such processes might provide some information on the subprocess gg γγ, involving a quark box. It is also suggested to use those processes in order to systematically look for heavy C = + structures (quarkonium states, gluonia, etc.) showing up in the γγ channel. Inverse photon-photon processes might thus become a new and fertile area of investigation in high-energy physics, provided the difficult problem of discriminating between direct photons and indirect ones can be handled in a satisfactory way
Dual photon absorptiometry: Validation of mineral and fat measurements
Heymsfield, S.B.; Wang, J.; Sulet, M.; Lichtman, S.; Pierson, R.N. Jr.; Kehayias, J.; Lindsay, R.
1989-01-01
Photons passing through human tissue undergo attenuation in relation to the specific chemical substances with which they interact. By selecting two appropriate photon energies and recording their attenuation, the investigator can solve simultaneous equations that subdivide body mass into two components: soft tissue and bone mineral ash. The aim of this paper is to describe and to validate the estimates of body composition derived by dual photon systems. The initial studies largely involved dual photon absorptiometers, although the discussion will also include the more recently developed dual energy x-ray absorptiometers. 13 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs
Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni
2002-01-01
A photon generator includes an electron gun for emitting an electron beam, a laser for emitting a laser beam, and an interaction ring wherein the laser beam repetitively collides with the electron beam for emitting a high energy photon beam therefrom in the exemplary form of x-rays. The interaction ring is a closed loop, sized and configured for circulating the electron beam with a period substantially equal to the period of the laser beam pulses for effecting repetitive collisions.
Self-attenuation factors in gamma-ray spectrometry
Korun, M.
1999-01-01
The relation between the self-attenuation factors and the distribution function describing the number of photons detected in the full-energy peaks, as a function of their path length in the sample is presented. The relations between the self-attenuation factor and the moments of the distribution function, the average path length and the variance are also presented. The use of these relations is illustrated by applying them to self-attenuation factors describing attenuation in cylindrical samples. The results of the calculations are compared with the measured average path lengths and discussed in terms of the properties of the distribution function. (author)
Pearsall, Thomas P
2017-01-01
This textbook employs a pedagogical approach that facilitates access to the fundamentals of Quantum Photonics. It contains an introductory description of the quantum properties of photons through the second quantization of the electromagnetic field, introducing stimulated and spontaneous emission of photons at the quantum level. Schrödinger’s equation is used to describe the behavior of electrons in a one-dimensional potential. Tunneling through a barrier is used to introduce the concept of nonlocality of an electron at the quantum level, which is closely-related to quantum confinement tunneling, resonant tunneling, and the origin of energy bands in both periodic (crystalline) and aperiodic (non-crystalline) materials. Introducing the concepts of reciprocal space, Brillouin zones, and Bloch’s theorem, the determination of electronic band structure using the pseudopotential method is presented, allowing direct computation of the band structures of most group IV, group III-V, and group II-VI semiconducto...
Zaske, Sebastian; Lenhard, Andreas; Becher, Christoph
2011-06-20
We report on single photon frequency downconversion from the red part of the spectrum (738 nm) to the telecommunications C-band. By mixing attenuated laser pulses with an average photon number per pulse telecommunications wavelengths.
Attenuation correction using simultaneous emission - transmission tomography
Ljubenov, V.; Marinkovic, P.
1998-01-01
In order to reduce degrading influence of attenuation on SPECT image quality, possibility for correction, based on simultaneous emission / transmission measurements, is discussed. Numerical photon transport simulations through the phantom and acquisition of of tomographic projections are performed by using Monte Carlo code MCNP-4A. Amount of contamination in transmission data due to photon Compton scattering for emission energy window is specially analyzed and appropriate spatial depending 'noise / signal' factors for three different external sources, applied with Tc-99m, are determined (author)
Quan, Frederic
2012-01-01
Photonics, the broad merger of electronics with the optical sciences, encompasses such a wide swath of technology that its impact is almost universal in our everyday lives. This is a broad overview of some aspects of the industry and their contribution to the ‘green’ or environmental movement. The rationale for energy conservation is briefly discussed and the impact of photonics on our everyday lives and certain industries is described. Some opinions from industry are presented along with market estimates. References are provided to some of the most recent research in these areas. (review article)
Schjøth, Lars; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Erleben, Kenny
2007-01-01
illumination features. This is often not desirable as these may lose clarity or vanish altogether. We present an accurate method for reconstruction of indirect illumination with photon mapping. Instead of reconstructing illumination using classic density estimation on finite points, we use the correlation...
Volume 2 Issue 5 May 1997 pp 69-72 Feature Article. Molecule of the Month Molecular–Chameleon: Solvatochromism at its Iridescent Best! Photon Rao · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 16 Issue 12 December 2011 pp 1303-1306. Molecule of the Month - Molecular-Chameleon: Solvatochromism at its Iridescent Best!
Photonics principles and practices
Al-Azzawi, Abdul
2006-01-01
Light The Nature of Light Light and Shadows Thermal Radiation Light Production Light Intensity Light and Colour Laws of Light Optics Plane Mirrors Spherical Mirrors Lenses Prisms Beamsplitters Light Passing through Optical Components Optical Instruments for Viewing Applications Polarization of Light Optical Materials Waves and Diffraction Waves Interference and Diffraction The Diffraction Grating Interferometers Spectrometers and Spectroscopes Optical Fibres Fibre Optic Cables Advanced Fibre Optic Cables Light Attenuation in Optical Components Fibre-Optic Cable Types and Installations Fibre-Optic Connectors Passive Fibre Optic Devices Wavelength Division Multiplexer Optical Amplifiers Optical Receivers Lasers Optical Switches Optical Fibre Communications Fibre Optic Lighting Testing Fibre Optic Testing Safety Photonics Laboratory Safety Miscellaneous Appendix A: Details of the Devices, Components, Tools, and Parts Appendix B: Alignment Procedure of a Conventional Ar...
Interaction of photons with some solutions
Singh, Kulwant; Gagandeep; Lark, B.S.; Sahota, H.S.
2000-01-01
With the advancement and applicability of gamma attenuation coefficients in a variety of applications, accurate data on narrow beam attenuation coefficients are required. In order to make use of the fact that scattering and absorption of gamma radiations are related to the density and effective atomic number of the material, a knowledge of the mass attenuation coefficients, μ/ρ is of prime importance. Hubbell and Seltzer have compiled the mass attenuation coefficients for a large number of compounds and mixtures of dosimetric and biological importance. The previous studies for the determination of attenuation coefficients have been concerned with crystalline samples in the solid form. In the pioneer work, Teli et al. have determined the gamma ray attenuation coefficients in dilute solutions of some salts. Gerward determined linear and mass attenuation coefficients in the general case as well as in the limit of extreme dilution. Recently Singh et al., measured attenuation coefficients of some solutes in water at different concentrations. The present study covers the study of attenuation coefficients of 1:1 and 1:2 electrolytes of some chlorides and sulphates in energy regions in which the influence of all photon processes can be seen and the investigation is expected to yield valuable information. (author)
Photon Collider Physics with Real Photon Beams
Gronberg, J; Asztalos, S
2005-01-01
Photon-photon interactions have been an important probe into fundamental particle physics. Until recently, the only way to produce photon-photon collisions was parasitically in the collision of charged particles. Recent advances in short-pulse laser technology have made it possible to consider producing high intensity, tightly focused beams of real photons through Compton scattering. A linear e + e - collider could thus be transformed into a photon-photon collider with the addition of high power lasers. In this paper they show that it is possible to make a competitive photon-photon collider experiment using the currently mothballed Stanford Linear Collider. This would produce photon-photon collisions in the GeV energy range which would allow the discovery and study of exotic heavy mesons with spin states of zero and two
Analytical inversion formula for uniformly attenuated fan-beam projections
Weng, Y.; Zeng, G.L.; Gullberg, G.T.
1997-01-01
In deriving algorithms to reconstruct single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) projection data, it is important that the algorithm compensates for photon attenuation in order to obtain quantitative reconstruction results. A convolution backprojection algorithm was derived by Tretiak and Metz to reconstruct two-dimensional (2-D) transaxial slices from uniformly attenuated parallel-beam projections. Using transformation of coordinates, this algorithm can be modified to obtain a formulation useful to reconstruct uniformly attenuated fan-beam projections. Unlike that for parallel-beam projections, this formulation does not produce a filtered backprojection reconstruction algorithm but instead has a formulation that is an inverse integral operator with a spatially varying kernel. This algorithm thus requires more computation time than does the filtered backprojection reconstruction algorithm for the uniformly attenuated parallel-beam case. However, the fan-beam reconstructions demonstrate the same image quality as that of parallel-beam reconstructions
Attenuation of the gamma rays in tissues
Arcos P, A.; Rodriguez N, S.; Pinedo S, A.; Amador V, P.; Chacon R, A.; Vega C, H.R.
2005-01-01
The mass and lineal attenuation coefficient and of hepatic tissue, muscular, osseous and of brain before gamma rays of 10 -3 to 10 5 MeV were calculated. For the case of the osseous tissue the calculation was made for the cartilage, the cortical tissue and the bone marrow. During the calculations the elementary composition of the tissues of human origin was used. The calculations include by separate the Photoelectric effect, the Compton scattering and the Pair production, as well as the total. For to establish a comparison with the attenuation capacities, the coefficients of the water, the aluminum and the lead also were calculated. The study was complemented measuring the attenuation coefficient of hepatic tissue of bovine before gamma rays of 0.662 MeV of a source of 137 Cs. The measurement was made through of an experiment of photons transmission through samples frozen of hepatic tissue and with a Geiger-Mueller detector. (Author)
Midgley, Stewart; Schleich, Nanette
2015-05-01
A novel method for dual-energy X-ray analysis (DEXA) is tested using measurements of the X-ray linear attenuation coefficient μ. The key is a mathematical model that describes elemental cross sections using a polynomial in atomic number. The model is combined with the mixture rule to describe μ for materials, using the same polynomial coefficients. Materials are characterized by their electron density Ne and statistical moments Rk describing their distribution of elements, analogous to the concept of effective atomic number. In an experiment with materials of known density and composition, measurements of μ are written as a system of linear simultaneous equations, which is solved for the polynomial coefficients. DEXA itself involves computed tomography (CT) scans at two energies to provide a system of non-linear simultaneous equations that are solved for Ne and the fourth statistical moment R4. Results are presented for phantoms containing dilute salt solutions and for a biological specimen. The experiment identifies 1% systematic errors in the CT measurements, arising from third-harmonic radiation, and 20-30% noise, which is reduced to 3-5% by pre-processing with the median filter and careful choice of reconstruction parameters. DEXA accuracy is quantified for the phantom as the mean absolute differences for Ne and R4: 0.8% and 1.0% for soft tissue and 1.2% and 0.8% for bone-like samples, respectively. The DEXA results for the biological specimen are combined with model coefficients obtained from the tabulations to predict μ and the mass energy absorption coefficient at energies of 10 keV to 20 MeV.
Relationship between attenuation coefficients and dose-spread kernels
Boyer, A.L.
1988-01-01
Dose-spread kernels can be used to calculate the dose distribution in a photon beam by convolving the kernel with the primary fluence distribution. The theoretical relationships between various types and components of dose-spread kernels relative to photon attenuation coefficients are explored. These relations can be valuable as checks on the conservation of energy by dose-spread kernels calculated by analytic or Monte Carlo methods
Tracer attenuation in groundwater
Cvetkovic, Vladimir
2011-12-01
The self-purifying capacity of aquifers strongly depends on the attenuation of waterborne contaminants, i.e., irreversible loss of contaminant mass on a given scale as a result of coupled transport and transformation processes. A general formulation of tracer attenuation in groundwater is presented. Basic sensitivities of attenuation to macrodispersion and retention are illustrated for a few typical retention mechanisms. Tracer recovery is suggested as an experimental proxy for attenuation. Unique experimental data of tracer recovery in crystalline rock compare favorably with the theoretical model that is based on diffusion-controlled retention. Non-Fickian hydrodynamic transport has potentially a large impact on field-scale attenuation of dissolved contaminants.
Burger, C; Goerres, G; Schoenes, S; Buck, A; Lonn, A H R; Von Schulthess, G K
2002-07-01
The CT data acquired in combined PET/CT studies provide a fast and essentially noiseless source for the correction of photon attenuation in PET emission data. To this end, the CT values relating to attenuation of photons in the range of 40-140 keV must be transformed into linear attenuation coefficients at the PET energy of 511 keV. As attenuation depends on photon energy and the absorbing material, an accurate theoretical relation cannot be devised. The transformation implemented in the Discovery LS PET/CT scanner (GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, Wis.) uses a bilinear function based on the attenuation of water and cortical bone at the CT and PET energies. The purpose of this study was to compare this transformation with experimental CT values and corresponding PET attenuation coefficients. In 14 patients, quantitative PET attenuation maps were calculated from germanium-68 transmission scans, and resolution-matched CT images were generated. A total of 114 volumes of interest were defined and the average PET attenuation coefficients and CT values measured. From the CT values the predicted PET attenuation coefficients were calculated using the bilinear transformation. When the transformation was based on the narrow-beam attenuation coefficient of water at 511 keV (0.096 cm(-1)), the predicted attenuation coefficients were higher in soft tissue than the measured values. This bias was reduced by replacing 0.096 cm(-1) in the transformation by the linear attenuation coefficient of 0.093 cm(-1) obtained from germanium-68 transmission scans. An analysis of the corrected emission activities shows that the resulting transformation is essentially equivalent to the transmission-based attenuation correction for human tissue. For non-human material, however, it may assign inaccurate attenuation coefficients which will also affect the correction in neighbouring tissue.
Valkema, R.; Blokland, J.A.K.; Papapoulos, S.E.; Bijvoet, O.L.M.; Pauwels, E.K.J.
1989-01-01
Osteoporosis is a significant health problem in the western world, with important medical, social and economical consequences. Prevention and treatment require reliable methods for in vivo monitoring of the bone mineral content (BMC) and its change in time. This paper presents an overview of currently used radiological methods, based on photon absorptiometry, and their clinical applications. With recent methods based on dual energy X-ray absorptiometry accurate and precise measurements of axial BMC can be obtained. Whether this improvements allows reliable detection of small changes in BMC remains to be investigated. (Author). 95 refs.; 1 tab
Song, Minsoo; Hong, Eugene; Won, Eunil; Yoon, Tai Hyun [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2008-11-15
Quantum information science has been rapidly progressed and matured and matured thanks to the recent developments of the single photon detection technologies. Single photon detectors such as a Si avalanche photo diode(APD)in the infrared, an InGaAs/InP APD in the telecommunication band, and a super conducting transient edge sensor(TES)in the broad region of the spectrum have been widely used. Single photon detectors, however, operating at the ultraviolet to visible (370nm∼800nm)regions has not been actively investigated partly due to the lack of single photon and/or entangled photon sources and the lack of solid state single photon detectors. In this paper, we investigate the single photon detection characteristics of a Si multi pixel photon counter(MPPC), which has a high spectral responsivity between 300nm to 800nm, as a photon number resolving solid state detector. Figure 1 shows the schematic diagram of the single photon detection set up at 399nm by using a temperature stabilized Si MPPC. The output beam of the laser being properly attenuated is directed to the MPPC module, at which fixed number of photo electrons corresponding to incident individual photon are generated at Geiger mode of the Si APD pixels. The detected photo current is converted into a digital signal by using a fast analog to digital converter and a digital oscilloscope stores the time sequence of the photo currents. Figure 2 shows the accumulated charges collected by MPPC at∼10.deg.C showing a clear single photon and two photons peaks, respectively, separated by ∼5 sigma of the coincidence counts at the two output ports of a Mach Zender interferometer as a function of optical path length difference. The research was supported by Seoul R and BD program(NT070127)and by the KRISS.
Song, Minsoo; Hong, Eugene; Won, Eunil; Yoon, Tai Hyun
2008-01-01
Quantum information science has been rapidly progressed and matured and matured thanks to the recent developments of the single photon detection technologies. Single photon detectors such as a Si avalanche photo diode(APD)in the infrared, an InGaAs/InP APD in the telecommunication band, and a super conducting transient edge sensor(TES)in the broad region of the spectrum have been widely used. Single photon detectors, however, operating at the ultraviolet to visible (370nm∼800nm)regions has not been actively investigated partly due to the lack of single photon and/or entangled photon sources and the lack of solid state single photon detectors. In this paper, we investigate the single photon detection characteristics of a Si multi pixel photon counter(MPPC), which has a high spectral responsivity between 300nm to 800nm, as a photon number resolving solid state detector. Figure 1 shows the schematic diagram of the single photon detection set up at 399nm by using a temperature stabilized Si MPPC. The output beam of the laser being properly attenuated is directed to the MPPC module, at which fixed number of photo electrons corresponding to incident individual photon are generated at Geiger mode of the Si APD pixels. The detected photo current is converted into a digital signal by using a fast analog to digital converter and a digital oscilloscope stores the time sequence of the photo currents. Figure 2 shows the accumulated charges collected by MPPC at∼10.deg.C showing a clear single photon and two photons peaks, respectively, separated by ∼5 sigma of the coincidence counts at the two output ports of a Mach Zender interferometer as a function of optical path length difference. The research was supported by Seoul R and BD program(NT070127)and by the KRISS
Photon statistics, antibunching and squeezed states
Leuchs, G.
1986-01-01
This paper attempts to describe the status and addresses future prospects of experiments regarding photon antibunching, and squeezed states. Light correlation is presented in the framework of classical electrodynamics. The extension to quantized radiation fields is discussed and an introduction to the basic principles related to photon statistics, antibunching and squeezed states are presented. The effect of linear attenuation (beam splitters, neutral density filters, and detector quantum efficiency) on the detected signal is discussed. Experiments on the change of photon statistics by the nonlinear interaction of radiation fields with matter are described and some experimental observations of antibunching and sub-Poissonian photon statistics in resonance fluorescence and with possible schemes for the generation and detection of squeezed states are examined
Quantum communications system with integrated photonic devices
Nordholt, Jane E.; Peterson, Charles Glen; Newell, Raymond Thorson; Hughes, Richard John
2017-11-14
Security is increased in quantum communication (QC) systems lacking a true single-photon laser source by encoding a transmitted optical signal with two or more decoy-states. A variable attenuator or amplitude modulator randomly imposes average photon values onto the optical signal based on data input and the predetermined decoy-states. By measuring and comparing photon distributions for a received QC signal, a single-photon transmittance is estimated. Fiber birefringence is compensated by applying polarization modulation. A transmitter can be configured to transmit in conjugate polarization bases whose states of polarization (SOPs) can be represented as equidistant points on a great circle on the Poincare sphere so that the received SOPs are mapped to equidistant points on a great circle and routed to corresponding detectors. Transmitters are implemented in quantum communication cards and can be assembled from micro-optical components, or transmitter components can be fabricated as part of a monolithic or hybrid chip-scale circuit.
Physics at high energy photon photon colliders
Chanowitz, M.S.
1994-06-01
I review the physic prospects for high energy photon photon colliders, emphasizing results presented at the LBL Gamma Gamma Collider Workshop. Advantages and difficulties are reported for studies of QCD, the electroweak gauge sector, supersymmetry, and electroweak symmetry breaking
Resonance formation in photon-photon collisions
Gidal, G.
1988-08-01
Recent experimental progress on resonance formation in photon-photon collisions is reviewed with particular emphasis on the pseudoscalar and tensor nonents and on the γγ* production of spin-one resonances. 37 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs
Mukai, T.; Torizuka, K.; Douglass, K.H.; Wagner, H.N.
1985-01-01
Quantitative assessment of tracer distribution with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is difficult because of attenuation and scattering of gamma rays within the object. A method considering the source geometry was developed, and effects of attenuation and scatter on SPECT quantitation were studied using phantoms with non-uniform attenuation. The distribution of attenuation coefficients (μ) within the source were obtained by transmission CT. The attenuation correction was performed by an iterative reprojection technique. The scatter correction was done by convolution of the attenuation corrected image and an appropriate filter made by line source studies. The filter characteristics depended on μ and SPEC measurement at each pixel. The SPECT obtained by this method showed the most reasonable results than the images reconstructed by other methods. The scatter correction could compensate completely for a 28% scatter components from a long line source, and a 61% component for thick and extended source. Consideration of source geometries was necessary for effective corrections. The present method is expected to be valuable for the quantitative assessment of regional tracer activity
Photosynthetic efficiency of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in attenuated, flashing light
Vejrazka, C.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Streefland, M.; Wijffels, R.H.
2012-01-01
As a result of mixing and light attenuation, algae in a photobioreactor (PBR) alternate between light and dark zones and, therefore, experience variations in photon flux density (PFD). These variations in PFD are called light/dark (L/D) cycles. The objective of this study was to determine how these
Measurement of atomic number and mass attenuation coefficient in ...
literature on the measurement of mass attenuation coefficient in magnesium ferrite. The knowledge of photon ... pure) MgO and Fe2O3. The details of experimental ... and (4 4 0) planes belonging to cubic spinel structure. The XRD pattern ...
Measurement of attenuation cross-sections of some fatty acids in the ...
These quantities were obtained by utilizing experimentally measured values of mass attenuation coefficients ( μ m ) . A NaI(Tl) scintillation detector with 8.2% (at 662 keV) resolution was used for detecting of attenuated γ -photons. The variation in Zeff and Neff of fatty acids with energy is discussed. The experimental and ...
Tarim, Urkiye Akar; Ozmutlu, Emin N.; Yalcin, Sezai; Gundogdu, Ozcan; Bradley, D. A.; Gurler, Orhan
2017-11-01
A Monte Carlo method was developed to investigate radiation shielding properties of bismuth borate glass. The mass attenuation coefficients and half-value layer parameters were determined for different fractional amounts of Bi2O3 in the glass samples for the 356, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV photon energies. A comparison of the theoretical and experimental attenuation coefficients is presented.
Hadron production in photon-photon collisions
Pandita, P.N.; Singh, Y.
1976-01-01
We analyze deep-inelastic photon-photon collisions via the two-photon mechanism in electron-positron (-electron) colliding beams in a form especially suitable for experimental analysis. It is shown that by a helicity analysis similar to that used in electroproduction experiments, we can separate five of the eight structure functions describing the process γ* + γ* → hadrons. The helicity cross sections for this process and for the process with one real photon (inelastic electron-photon scattering) are related to structure functions, and are evaluated using quark light-cone algebra. There are anomalous contributions to the structure functions for the inelastic electron-photon scattering which arise both in parton as well as generalized vector-meson-dominance models. This suggests a connection between these two types of models for photon-photon scattering. Further, we use vector-meson dominance to construct a sum rule for sigma/sub gamma//sub gamma/ /sub arrow-right/ from which it is estimated that roughly 20% of the cross section should be built up from higher-mass vector states. Using a spectral representation for the total transverse cross section, and the ''aligned-jet'' vector-dominance model we achieve a connection, via a ''correspondence principle,'' with the parton model for the hadron multiplicities in photon-photon collisions. We also comment on inclusive pion multiplicities and the approach to scaling for photon-photon processes in the light-cone algebra
An analysis of depth dose characteristics of photon in water
Buzdar, S.A.; Rao, M.A.; Nazir, A.
2009-01-01
Photon beam is most widely being used for radiation therapy. Biological effect of radiation is concerned with the evaluation of energy absorbed in the tissues. It was aimed to analyse the depth dose characteristics of x-ray beams of diverse energies to enhance the quality of radiotherapy treatment planning. Depth dose characteristics of different energy photon beams in water have been analysed. Photon beam is attenuated by the medium and the transmitted beam with less intensity causes lesser absorbed dose as depth increases. Relative attenuation on certain points on the beam axis and certain percentage of doses on different depths for available energies has been investigated. Photon beam depth dose characteristics do not show identical attributes as interaction of x-ray with matter is mainly governed by beam quality. Attenuation and penetration parameters of photon show variation with dosimetric parameters like field size due to scattering and Source to Surface Distance due to inverse square law, but the major parameter in photon interactions is its energy. Detailed analysis of photon Depth Dose characteristics helps to select appropriate beam for radiotherapy treatment when variety of beam energies available. Evaluation of this type of characteristics will help to establish theoretical relationships between dosimetric parameters to confirm measured values of dosimetric quantities, and hence to increase accuracy in radiotherapy treatment. (author)
Mass attenuation coefficient of chromium and manganese compounds around absorption edge.
Sharanabasappa; Kaginelli, S B; Kerur, B R; Anilkumar, S; Hanumaiah, B
2009-01-01
The total mass attenuation coefficient for Potassium dichromate, Potassium chromate and Manganese acetate compounds are measured at different photon energies 5.895, 6.404, 6.490, 7.058, 8.041 and 14.390 keV using Fe-55, Co-57 and 241Am source with Copper target, radioactive sources. The photon intensity is analyzed using a high resolution HPGe detector system coupled to MCA under good geometrical arrangement. The obtained values of mass attenuation coefficient values are compared with theoretical values. This study suggests that measured mass attenuation coefficient values at and near absorption edges differ from the theoretical value by about 5-28%.
Attenuation correction for SPECT
Hosoba, Minoru
1986-01-01
Attenuation correction is required for the reconstruction of a quantitative SPECT image. A new method for detecting body contours, which are important for the correction of tissue attenuation, is presented. The effect of body contours, detected by the newly developed method, on the reconstructed images was evaluated using various techniques for attenuation correction. The count rates in the specified region of interest in the phantom image by the Radial Post Correction (RPC) method, the Weighted Back Projection (WBP) method, Chang's method were strongly affected by the accuracy of the contours, as compared to those by Sorenson's method. To evaluate the effect of non-uniform attenuators on the cardiac SPECT, computer simulation experiments were performed using two types of models, the uniform attenuator model (UAM) and the non-uniform attenuator model (NUAM). The RPC method showed the lowest relative percent error (%ERROR) in UAM (11 %). However, 20 to 30 percent increase in %ERROR was observed for NUAM reconstructed with the RPC, WBP, and Chang's methods. Introducing an average attenuation coefficient (0.12/cm for Tc-99m and 0.14/cm for Tl-201) in the RPC method decreased %ERROR to the levels for UAM. Finally, a comparison between images, which were obtained by 180 deg and 360 deg scans and reconstructed from the RPC method, showed that the degree of the distortion of the contour of the simulated ventricles in the 180 deg scan was 15 % higher than that in the 360 deg scan. (Namekawa, K.)
Zeng, Lunwu; Xu, Jin; Wang, Chengen; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhao, Yuting; Zeng, Jing; Song, Runxia
2017-12-07
When space (time) translation symmetry is spontaneously broken, the space crystal (time crystal) forms; when permittivity and permeability periodically vary with space (time), the photonic crystal (photonic time crystal) forms. We proposed the concept of photonic time crystal and rewritten the Maxwell's equations. Utilizing Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method, we simulated electromagnetic wave propagation in photonic time crystal and photonic space-time crystal, the simulation results show that more intensive scatter fields can obtained in photonic time crystal and photonic space-time crystal.
Landing gear noise attenuation
Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)
2011-01-01
A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.
Attenuated radon transform: theory and application in medicine and biology
Gullberg, G.T.
1979-06-01
A detailed analysis is given of the properties of the attenuated Radon transform and of how increases in photon attenuation influence the numerical accuracy and computation efficiency of iterative and convolution algorithms used to determine its inversion. The practical applications for this work involve quantitative assessment of the distribution of injected radiopharmaceuticals and radionuclides in man and animals for basic physiological and biochemical studies as well as clinical studies in nuclear medicine. A mathematical structure is developed using function theory and the theory of linear operators on Hilbert spaces which lends itself to better understanding the spectral properties of the attenuated Radon transform. The continuous attenuated Radon transform reduces to a matrix operator for discrete angular and lateral sampling, and the reconstruction problem reduces to a system of linear equations. For the situation of variable attenuation coefficient frequently found in nuclear medicine applications of imaging the heart and chest, the procedure developed in this thesis involves iterative techniques of performing the generalized inverse. For constant attenuation coefficient less than 0.15 cm/sup -1/, convolution methods can reliably reconstruct a 30 cm object with 0.5 cm resolution. However, for high attenuation coefficients or for the situation where there is variable attenuation such as reconstruction of distribution of isotopes in the heart, iterative techniques developed in this thesis give the best results. (ERB)
Photon-Photon Collisions -- Past and Future
Brodsky, Stanley J.
2005-01-01
I give a brief review of the history of photon-photon physics and a survey of its potential at future electron-positron colliders. Exclusive hadron production processes in photon-photon and electron-photon collisions provide important tests of QCD at the amplitude level, particularly as measures of hadron distribution amplitudes. There are also important high energy γγ and eγ tests of quantum chromodynamics, including the production of jets in photon-photon collisions, deeply virtual Compton scattering on a photon target, and leading-twist single-spin asymmetries for a photon polarized normal to a production plane. Since photons couple directly to all fundamental fields carrying the electromagnetic current including leptons, quarks, W's and supersymmetric particles, high energy γγ collisions will provide a comprehensive laboratory for Higgs production and exploring virtually every aspect of the Standard Model and its extensions. High energy back-scattered laser beams will thus greatly extend the range of physics of the International Linear Collider
Photon Shielding Features of Quarry Tuff
Vega-Carrillo Hector Rene
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Cantera is a quarry tuff widely used in the building industry; in this work the shielding features of cantera were determined. The shielding characteristics were calculated using XCOM and MCNP5 codes for 0.03, 0.07, 0.1, 0.3, 0.662, 1, 2, and 3 MeV photons. With XCOM the mass interaction coefficients, and the total mass attenuation coefficients, were calculated. With the MCNP5 code a transmission experiment was modelled using a point-like source located 42 cm apart from a point-like detector. Between the source and the detector, cantera pieces with different thickness, ranging from 0 to 40 cm were included. The collided and uncollided photon fluence, the Kerma in air and the Ambient dose equivalent were estimated. With the uncollided fluence the linear attenuation coefficients were determined and compared with those calculated with XCOM. The linear attenuation coefficient for 0.662 MeV photons was compared with the coefficient measured with a NaI(Tl-based γ-ray spectrometer and a 137Cs source.
Photon-photon collisions and photon structure functions at LEP
Patt, J
2000-01-01
The present knowledge of the structure of the photon based on measurements of photon structure functions is discussed. This review covers recent results on QED structure functions and on the hadronic structure function F/sub 2//sup gamma /. (13 refs).
Photonic Crystals Towards Nanoscale Photonic Devices
Lourtioz, Jean-Michel; Berger, Vincent; Gérard, Jean-Michel; Maystre, Daniel; Tchelnokov, Alexei; Pagnoux, Dominique
2008-01-01
Just like the periodical crystalline potential in solid state crystals determines their properties for the conduction of electrons, the periodical structuring of photonic crystals leads to envisioning the possibility of achieving a control of the photon flux in dielectric and metallic materials. The use of photonic crystals as cages for storing, filtering or guiding light at the wavelength scale paves the way to the realization of optical and optoelectronic devices with ultimate properties and dimensions. This will contribute towards meeting the demands for greater miniaturization imposed by the processing of an ever increasing number of data. Photonic Crystals will provide students and researchers from different fields with the theoretical background required for modelling photonic crystals and their optical properties, while at the same time presenting the large variety of devices, ranging from optics to microwaves, where photonic crystals have found application. As such, it aims at building bridges between...
Photonic Crystals Towards Nanoscale Photonic Devices
Lourtioz, Jean-Michel; Berger, Vincent; Gérard, Jean-Michel; Maystre, Daniel; Tchelnokov, Alexis
2005-01-01
Just like the periodical crystalline potential in solid-state crystals determines their properties for the conduction of electrons, the periodical structuring of photonic crystals leads to envisioning the possibility of achieving a control of the photon flux in dielectric and metallic materials. The use of photonic crystals as a cage for storing, filtering or guiding light at the wavelength scale thus paves the way to the realisation of optical and optoelectronic devices with ultimate properties and dimensions. This should contribute toward meeting the demands for a greater miniaturisation that the processing of an ever increasing number of data requires. Photonic Crystals intends at providing students and researchers from different fields with the theoretical background needed for modelling photonic crystals and their optical properties, while at the same time presenting the large variety of devices, from optics to microwaves, where photonic crystals have found applications. As such, it aims at building brid...
Photon and photon reactions: elementary theoretical introduction
Diu, B.
The electromagnetic field and associated quanta, the photons, are simply and briefly studied. The conventional electromagnetism laws are recalled. Fundamental concepts such as gauge invariance, the electromagnetic current conservation, and photon behavior against the internal symmetries of strong interactions are simply introduced. Results and notations are applied to analysis of reactions where photons intervene in initial or final states (photoproduction) within the limits of amplitude properties in the conventional space-time. The helicity and invariant amplitude formalisms are compared [fr
Practical method of breast attenuation correction for cardiac SPECT
Oliveira, Anderson de; Nogueira, Tindyua; Gutterres, Ricardo Fraga; Megueriam, Berdj Aram; Santos, Goncalo Rodrigues dos
2007-01-01
The breast attenuation effects on SPECT (Single Photon Emission Tomography) myocardium perfusion procedures have been lately scope of continuous inquiry. The requested attenuation correction factors are usually achieved by transmission analysis, making up the exposure of a standard external source to the SPECT, as a routine step. However, its high cost makes this methodology not fully available to the most of nuclear medicines services in Brazil and abroad. To overcome the problem, a new trend is presented in this work, implementing computational models to balance the breast attenuation effects on the left ventricle anterior wall, during myocardium perfusion scintigraphy procedures with SPECT. A neural network was put on in order to provide the attenuation correction indexes, based upon the following patients individual biotypes features: mass, age, height, chest and breast thicknesses, heart size, as well as the imparted activity intake levels. (author)
Practical method of breast attenuation correction for cardiac SPECT
Oliveira, Anderson de; Nogueira, Tindyua; Gutterres, Ricardo Fraga [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao Geral de Instalacoes Medicas e Industriais (CGMI)]. E-mails: anderson@cnen.gov.br; tnogueira@cnen.gov.br; rguterre@cnen.gov.br; Megueriam, Berdj Aram [Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: megueriam@hotmail.com; Santos, Goncalo Rodrigues dos [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: goncalo@cnen.gov.br
2007-07-01
The breast attenuation effects on SPECT (Single Photon Emission Tomography) myocardium perfusion procedures have been lately scope of continuous inquiry. The requested attenuation correction factors are usually achieved by transmission analysis, making up the exposure of a standard external source to the SPECT, as a routine step. However, its high cost makes this methodology not fully available to the most of nuclear medicines services in Brazil and abroad. To overcome the problem, a new trend is presented in this work, implementing computational models to balance the breast attenuation effects on the left ventricle anterior wall, during myocardium perfusion scintigraphy procedures with SPECT. A neural network was put on in order to provide the attenuation correction indexes, based upon the following patients individual biotypes features: mass, age, height, chest and breast thicknesses, heart size, as well as the imparted activity intake levels. (author)
Characteristics of liver tissue for attenuate the gamma radiation
Arcos P, A.; Rodriguez N, S.; Pinedo S, A.; Amador V, P.; Chacon R, A.; Vega C, H.R.
2005-01-01
It was determined the lineal attenuation coefficient of hepatic tissue before gamma radiation of a source of 137 Cs. When exposing organic material before X or gamma radiation fields, part of the energy of the photons is absorbed by the material, while another part crosses it without producing any effect. The quantity of energy that is absorbed is a measure of the dose that receives the material. The three main mechanisms by means of which the gamma rays interacting with the matter are: The Photoelectric Effect, the Compton dispersion and the Even production; the sum of these three processes is translated in the attenuation coefficient of the radiation. In this work we have used hepatic tissue of bovine, as substitute of the human hepatic tissue, and we have measured the lineal attenuation coefficient for photons of 0.662 MeV. Through a series of calculations we have determined the lineal attenuation coefficient for photons from 10 -3 to 10 -5 MeV and the measured coefficient was compared with the one calculated. (Author)
Active Photonic Crystal Waveguides
Ek, Sara
This thesis deals with the fabrication and characterization of active photonic crystal waveguides, realized in III-V semiconductor material with embedded active layers. The platform offering active photonic crystal waveguides has many potential applications. One of these is a compact photonic...... due to photonic crystal dispersion. The observations are explained by the enhancement of net gain by light slow down. Another application based on active photonic crystal waveguides is micro lasers. Measurements on quantum dot micro laser cavities with different mirror configurations and photonic...
Photonic crystals: towards nanoscale photonic devices
Lourtioz, J.-M
2005-01-01
.... From this point of view, the emergence of photonic bandgap materials and photonic crystals at the end of the 1980s can be seen as a revenge to the benefit this time of optics and electromagnetism. In the same way as the periodicity of solid state crystals determines the energy bands and the conduction properties of electrons, the periodical structur...
Diaz, J.E.
1982-01-01
The non-invasive, fully three-dimensional reconstruction of a radionuclide distribution is studied. The problem is considered in ideal form. Several solutions, ranging from the completely analytical to the completely graphical, are presented for both the non-attenuated and uniformly attenuated cases. A function is defined which, if enacted as a response to each detected photon, will yield, upon superposition, a faithful reconstruction of the radionuclide density. Two and three-dimensional forms of this functions are defined for both the non-attenuated and uniformly attenuated case
Jet and hadron production in photon-photon collisions
Soldner-Rembold, Stefan
1999-01-01
Di-jet and inclusive charged hadron production cross-sections measured in photon-photon collisions by OPAL are compared to NLO pQCD calculations. Jet shapes measured in photon-photon scattering by OPAL, in deep-inelastic ep scattering by H1 and in photon-proton scattering by ZEUS are shown to be consistent in similar kinematic ranges. New results from TOPAZ on prompt photon production in photon-photon interactions are presented.
Anscombe, Nadya
2011-08-01
Over the past ten years, Crystal Fiber, now part of NKT Photonics, has been busy commercializing photonic crystal fibre. Nadya Anscombe finds out about the evolution of the technology and its applications.
Photonic Design for Photovoltaics
Kosten, E.; Callahan, D.; Horowitz, K.; Pala, R.; Atwater, H.
2014-08-28
We describe photonic design approaches for silicon photovoltaics including i) trapezoidal broadband light trapping structures ii) broadband light trapping with photonic crystal superlattices iii) III-V/Si nanowire arrays designed for broadband light trapping.
Fleming, James G [Albuquerque, NM; Lin, Shawn-Yu [Albuquerque, NM; Bur, James A [Corrales, NM
2004-07-27
A light source is provided by a photonic crystal having an enhanced photonic density-of-states over a band of frequencies and wherein at least one of the dielectric materials of the photonic crystal has a complex dielectric constant, thereby producing enhanced light emission at the band of frequencies when the photonic crystal is heated. The dielectric material can be a metal, such as tungsten. The spectral properties of the light source can be easily tuned by modification of the photonic crystal structure and materials. The photonic crystal light source can be heated electrically or other heating means. The light source can further include additional photonic crystals that exhibit enhanced light emission at a different band of frequencies to provide for color mixing. The photonic crystal light source may have applications in optical telecommunications, information displays, energy conversion, sensors, and other optical applications.
Photon structure function - theory
Bardeen, W.A.
1984-12-01
The theoretical status of the photon structure function is reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the hadronic mixing problem and the ability of perturbative QCD to make definitive predictions for the photon structure function. 11 references
Bialynicki-Birula, Iwo
2005-01-01
Photon wave function is a controversial concept. Controversies stem from the fact that photon wave functions can not have all the properties of the Schroedinger wave functions of nonrelativistic wave mechanics. Insistence on those properties that, owing to peculiarities of photon dynamics, cannot be rendered, led some physicists to the extreme opinion that the photon wave function does not exist. I reject such a fundamentalist point of view in favor of a more pragmatic approach. In my view, t...
Radiofrequency attenuator and method
Warner, Benjamin P [Los Alamos, NM; McCleskey, T Mark [Los Alamos, NM; Burrell, Anthony K [Los Alamos, NM; Agrawal, Anoop [Tucson, AZ; Hall, Simon B [Palmerston North, NZ
2009-01-20
Radiofrequency attenuator and method. The attenuator includes a pair of transparent windows. A chamber between the windows is filled with molten salt. Preferred molten salts include quarternary ammonium cations and fluorine-containing anions such as tetrafluoroborate (BF.sub.4.sup.-), hexafluorophosphate (PF.sub.6.sup.-), hexafluoroarsenate (AsF.sub.6.sup.-), trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3C.sup.-). Radicals or radical cations may be added to or electrochemically generated in the molten salt to enhance the RF attenuation.
On-demand single-photon state generation via nonlinear absorption
Hong Tao; Jack, Michael W.; Yamashita, Makoto
2004-01-01
We propose a method for producing on-demand single-photon states based on collision-induced exchanges of photons and unbalanced linear absorption between two single-mode light fields. These two effects result in an effective nonlinear absorption of photons in one of the modes, which can lead to single-photon states. A quantum nonlinear attenuator based on such a mechanism can absorb photons in a normal input light pulse and terminate the absorption at a single-photon state. Because the output light pulses containing single photons preserve the properties of the input pulses, we expect this method to be a means for building a highly controllable single-photon source
Diffusion Based Photon Mapping
Schjøth, Lars; Fogh Olsen, Ole; Sporring, Jon
2007-01-01
. To address this problem we introduce a novel photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way we preserve the important illumination features......, while eliminating noise. We call our method diffusion based photon mapping....
Diffusion Based Photon Mapping
Schjøth, Lars; Olsen, Ole Fogh; Sporring, Jon
2006-01-01
. To address this problem we introduce a novel photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way we preserve the important illumination features......, while eliminating noise. We call our method diffusion based photon mapping....
Lægsgaard, Jesper; Hansen, K P; Nielsen, M D
2003-01-01
Photonic crystal fibers having a complex microstructure in the transverse plane constitute a new and promising class of optical fibers. Such fibers can either guide light through total internal reflection or the photonic bandgap effect, In this paper, we review the different types and applications...... of photonic crystal fibers with particular emphasis on recent advances in the field....
Computer-controlled attenuator.
Mitov, D; Grozev, Z
1991-01-01
Various possibilities for applying electronic computer-controlled attenuators for the automation of physiological experiments are considered. A detailed description is given of the design of a 4-channel computer-controlled attenuator, in two of the channels of which the output signal can change by a linear step, in the other two channels--by a logarithmic step. This, together with the existence of additional programmable timers, allows to automate a wide range of studies in different spheres of physiology and psychophysics, including vision and hearing.
XCOM: Photon cross sections on a personal computer
Berger, M.J.; Hubbell, J.H.
1987-07-01
A computer program and data base are presented which can be used to calculate, with a personal computer, photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, in any element, compound or mixture, at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV
Silicon Microspheres Photonics
Serpenguzel, A.
2008-01-01
Electrophotonic integrated circuits (EPICs), or alternatively, optoelectronic integrated circuit (OEICs) are the natural evolution of the microelectronic integrated circuit (IC) with the addition of photonic capabilities. Traditionally, the IC industry has been based on group IV silicon, whereas the photonics industry on group III-V semiconductors. However, silicon based photonic microdevices have been making strands in siliconizing photonics. Silicon microspheres with their high quality factor whispering gallery modes (WGMs), are ideal candidates for wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) applications in the standard near-infrared communication bands. In this work, we will discuss the possibility of using silicon microspheres for photonics applications in the near-infrared
Photon correlation holography.
Naik, Dinesh N; Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Ezawa, Takahiro; Miyamoto, Yoko; Takeda, Mitsuo
2011-01-17
Unconventional holography called photon correlation holography is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Using photon correlation, i.e. intensity correlation or fourth order correlation of optical field, a 3-D image of the object recorded in a hologram is reconstructed stochastically with illumination through a random phase screen. Two different schemes for realizing photon correlation holography are examined by numerical simulations, and the experiment was performed for one of the reconstruction schemes suitable for the experimental proof of the principle. The technique of photon correlation holography provides a new insight into how the information is embedded in the spatial as well as temporal correlation of photons in the stochastic pseudo thermal light.
Natural attenuation of herbicides
Tuxen, Nina; Højberg, Anker Lajer; Broholm, Mette Martina
2002-01-01
A field injection experiment in a sandy, aerobic aquifer showed that two phenoxy acids MCPP (mecoprop) and dichlorprop were degraded within I in downgradient of the injection wells after an apparent lag period. The plume development and microbial measurements indicated that microbial growth gover....... The observations may be important for application of natural attenuation as a remedy in field scale systems....
Measured attenuation correction methods
Ostertag, H.; Kuebler, W.K.; Doll, J.; Lorenz, W.J.
1989-01-01
Accurate attenuation correction is a prerequisite for the determination of exact local radioactivity concentrations in positron emission tomography. Attenuation correction factors range from 4-5 in brain studies to 50-100 in whole body measurements. This report gives an overview of the different methods of determining the attenuation correction factors by transmission measurements using an external positron emitting source. The long-lived generator nuclide 68 Ge/ 68 Ga is commonly used for this purpose. The additional patient dose from the transmission source is usually a small fraction of the dose due to the subsequent emission measurement. Ring-shaped transmission sources as well as rotating point or line sources are employed in modern positron tomographs. By masking a rotating line or point source, random and scattered events in the transmission scans can be effectively suppressed. The problems of measured attenuation correction are discussed: Transmission/emission mismatch, random and scattered event contamination, counting statistics, transmission/emission scatter compensation, transmission scan after administration of activity to the patient. By using a double masking technique simultaneous emission and transmission scans become feasible. (orig.)
Hryn'ova, Tetiana; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
The identification of prompt photons and the rejection of background coming mostly from photons from hadron decays relies on the high granularity of the ATLAS calorimeter. The electron identification used in ATLAS for run 2 is based on a likelihood discrimination to separate isolated electron candidates from candidates originating from photon conversions, hadron misidentification and heavy flavor decays. In addition, isolation variables are used as further handles to separate signal and background. Several methods are used to measure with data the efficiency of the photon identification requirements, to cover a broad energy spectrum. At low energy, photons from radiative Z decays are used. In the medium energy range, similarities between electrons and photon showers are exploited using Z->ee decays. At high energy, inclusive photon samples are used. The measurement of the efficiencies of the electron identification and isolation cuts are performed with the data using tag and probe techniques with large statis...
Inclusive hard processes in photon-photon and photon-proton interactions
Glasman, Claudia
1999-01-01
Measurements of jet, prompt photon, high-pT hadron and heavy quark production in photon-induced processes provide tests of QCD and are sensitive to the photon parton densities. A review of the latest experimental results in photon-photon and photon-proton interactions is presented. Next-to-leading-order QCD calculations for these measurements are discussed.
Programmable Quantum Photonic Processor Using Silicon Photonics
2017-04-01
8 Figure 6: (a) Proposed on-demand single photon source based on dynamic cavity storage . (b) Example of a gate implementation...electronic architectures tuned to implement artificial neural networks that improve upon both computational speed and energy efficiency. 3.6 All...states are in the dual- rail logic representation. Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited. 6 Figure 3: Schematic of two-photon
Deconvolution based attenuation correction for time-of-flight positron emission tomography
Lee, Nam-Yong
2017-10-01
For an accurate quantitative reconstruction of the radioactive tracer distribution in positron emission tomography (PET), we need to take into account the attenuation of the photons by the tissues. For this purpose, we propose an attenuation correction method for the case when a direct measurement of the attenuation distribution in the tissues is not available. The proposed method can determine the attenuation factor up to a constant multiple by exploiting the consistency condition that the exact deconvolution of noise-free time-of-flight (TOF) sinogram must satisfy. Simulation studies shows that the proposed method corrects attenuation artifacts quite accurately for TOF sinograms of a wide range of temporal resolutions and noise levels, and improves the image reconstruction for TOF sinograms of higher temporal resolutions by providing more accurate attenuation correction.
Borghi, M.; Castellan, C.; Signorini, S.; Trenti, A.; Pavesi, L.
2017-09-01
Silicon photonics is a technology based on fabricating integrated optical circuits by using the same paradigms as the dominant electronics industry. After twenty years of fervid development, silicon photonics is entering the market with low cost, high performance and mass-manufacturable optical devices. Until now, most silicon photonic devices have been based on linear optical effects, despite the many phenomenologies associated with nonlinear optics in both bulk materials and integrated waveguides. Silicon and silicon-based materials have strong optical nonlinearities which are enhanced in integrated devices by the small cross-section of the high-index contrast silicon waveguides or photonic crystals. Here the photons are made to strongly interact with the medium where they propagate. This is the central argument of nonlinear silicon photonics. It is the aim of this review to describe the state-of-the-art in the field. Starting from the basic nonlinearities in a silicon waveguide or in optical resonator geometries, many phenomena and applications are described—including frequency generation, frequency conversion, frequency-comb generation, supercontinuum generation, soliton formation, temporal imaging and time lensing, Raman lasing, and comb spectroscopy. Emerging quantum photonics applications, such as entangled photon sources, heralded single-photon sources and integrated quantum photonic circuits are also addressed at the end of this review.
Lounis, Brahim; Orrit, Michel
2005-01-01
The concept of the photon, central to Einstein's explanation of the photoelectric effect, is exactly 100 years old. Yet, while photons have been detected individually for more than 50 years, devices producing individual photons on demand have only appeared in the last few years. New concepts for single-photon sources, or 'photon guns', have originated from recent progress in the optical detection, characterization and manipulation of single quantum objects. Single emitters usually deliver photons one at a time. This so-called antibunching of emitted photons can arise from various mechanisms, but ensures that the probability of obtaining two or more photons at the same time remains negligible. We briefly recall basic concepts in quantum optics and discuss potential applications of single-photon states to optical processing of quantum information: cryptography, computing and communication. A photon gun's properties are significantly improved by coupling it to a resonant cavity mode, either in the Purcell or strong-coupling regimes. We briefly recall early production of single photons with atomic beams, and the operation principles of macroscopic parametric sources, which are used in an overwhelming majority of quantum-optical experiments. We then review the photophysical and spectroscopic properties and compare the advantages and weaknesses of various single nanometre-scale objects used as single-photon sources: atoms or ions in the gas phase and, in condensed matter, organic molecules, defect centres, semiconductor nanocrystals and heterostructures. As new generations of sources are developed, coupling to cavities and nano-fabrication techniques lead to improved characteristics, delivery rates and spectral ranges. Judging from the brisk pace of recent progress, we expect single photons to soon proceed from demonstrations to applications and to bring with them the first practical uses of quantum information
A promising hybrid approach to SPECT attenuation correction
Lewis, N.H.; Faber, T.L.; Corbett, J.R.; Stokely, E.M.
1984-01-01
Most methods for attenuation compensation in SPECT either rely on the assumption of uniform attenuation, or use slow iteration to achieve accuracy. However, hybrid methods that combine iteration with simple multiplicative correction can accommodate nonuniform attenuation, and such methods converge faster than other iterative techniques. The authors evaluated two such methods, which differ in use of a damping factor to control convergence. Both uniform and nonuniform attenuation were modeled, using simulated and phantom data for a rotating gamma camera. For simulations done with 360 0 data and the correct attenuation map, activity levels were reconstructed to within 5% of the correct values after one iteration. Using 180 0 data, reconstructed levels in regions representing lesion and background were within 5% of the correct values in three iterations; however, further iterations were needed to eliminate the characteristic streak artifacts. The damping factor had little effect on 360 0 reconstruction, but was needed for convergence with 180 0 data. For both cold- and hot-lesion models, image contrast was better from the hybrid methods than from the simpler geometric-mean corrector. Results from the hybrid methods were comparable to those obtained using the conjugate-gradient iterative method, but required 50-100% less reconstruction time. The relative speed of the hybrid methods, and their accuracy in reconstructing photon activity in the presence of nonuniform attenuation, make them promising tools for quantitative SPECT reconstruction
Enhanced Attenuation: Chlorinated Organics
2008-04-01
attenuation capacity of the aquifer downgradient from the source (e.g., permeable reactive barriers or phytoremediation ) Selection of EA remedies should be...prevalence and/or mobility of nitrate and sulfate compounds and/or metals such as iron, manganese, chromium, copper, and arsenic . Furthermore, in...ranging from very aggressive source destruction and removal methods to less energy-intensive methods, such as phytoremediation . In many cases, it
Seitz, Peter
2011-01-01
The acquisition and interpretation of images is a central capability in almost all scientific and technological domains. In particular, the acquisition of electromagnetic radiation, in the form of visible light, UV, infrared, X-ray, etc. is of enormous practical importance. The ultimate sensitivity in electronic imaging is the detection of individual photons. With this book, the first comprehensive review of all aspects of single-photon electronic imaging has been created. Topics include theoretical basics, semiconductor fabrication, single-photon detection principles, imager design and applications of different spectral domains. Today, the solid-state fabrication capabilities for several types of image sensors has advanced to a point, where uncoooled single-photon electronic imaging will soon become a consumer product. This book is giving a specialist´s view from different domains to the forthcoming “single-photon imaging” revolution. The various aspects of single-photon imaging are treated by internati...
Heavy quark pair production in polarized photon-photon collisions
Jikia, G.; Tkabladze, A.
2000-04-01
We present the cross sections of the heavy quark-antiquark pair production in polarized photon photon collision for the general case of photon polarizations. The numerical results for top-antitop production cross sections together with production asymmetries are obtained for linearly polarized photon-photon collisions, including QCD radiative corrections. (orig.)
Summary of existing information on gamma-ray and X-ray attenuation coefficients of solutions
Singh, K.; Gerward, Leif
2002-01-01
Accurate values of X-ray and gamma-ray attenuation coefficients of different chemicals are required in spectrometry as well as in many other scientific, engineering and medical disciplines involving photon radiation. The current state of knowledge of experimental and theoretical gamma-ray and X-r......-ray attenuation coefficients in aqueous solutions of salts is presented and exemplified by recent work. The results presented provide a basis for studying X-ray and gamma-ray photon interactions with ions in solution (hydrated ions) rather than ion compounds in solid form....
Bollig, C
2007-12-01
Full Text Available : photonics, ultrafast and ultra- intense laser science (Heinrich Schwoerer, University of Stellenbosch); quantum information processing and communication (Francesco Petruccione, University of KwaZulu-Natal); medicinal chemistry and nanotechnology... of experience in diamond research, where scientists are now turning their attention to diamond for photonic devices. �ere is an active community in South Africa studying the potential of diamond as a single-photon source for applications in quantum...
Integrated Microwave Photonics
Marpaung, David; Roeloffzen, Chris; Heideman, René; Leinse, Arne; Sales Maicas, Salvador; Capmany Francoy, José
2013-01-01
Microwave photonics (MWP) is an emerging field in which radio frequency (RF) signals are generated, distributed, processed and analyzed using the strength of photonic techniques. It is a technology that enables various functionalities which are not feasible to achieve only in the microwave domain. A particular aspect that recently gains significant interests is the use of photonic integrated circuit (PIC) technology in the MWP field for enhanced functionalities and robustness as well as the r...
Bardeen, W.A.
1981-10-01
A new experimental frontier has recently been opened to the study of two photon processes. The first results of many aspects of these reactions are being presented at this conference. In contrast, the theoretical development of research ito two photon processes has a much longer history. This talk reviews the many different theoretical ideas which provide a detailed framework for our understanding of two photon processes
Curciarello Francesca
2016-01-01
Full Text Available e+e− collider experiments at the intensity frontier are naturally suited to probe the existence of a force beyond the Standard Model between WIMPs, the most viable dark matter candidates. The mediator of this new force, known as dark photon, should be a new vector gauge boson very weakly coupled to the Standard Model photon. No significant signal has been observed so far. I will report on current limits set on the coupling factor ε2 between the photon and the dark photon by e+e− collider experiments.
Towards THz integrated photonics
Hübers, Heinz-Wilhelm
2010-01-01
The demonstration of an integrated terahertz transceiver featuring a quantum cascade laser and a Schottky diode mixer promises new applications for compact and convenient terahertz photonic instrumentation.
Anon.
1994-01-01
A very profitable spinoff from electron- positron collisions is two-photon physics. Rather than the electron and positron interacting directly via an exchanged photon, two virtual (transient) photons, one from each particle, get tangled up. With new electron-positron colliders appearing on the scene, a topical meeting on two-photon physics - 'From DAPHNE to LEP 200 and beyond' - held from 2-4 February in Paris, in the premises of the Ministry of Higher Education and Research, was particularly timely. Some 60 physicists, both experimentalists and theorists, participated, with some thirty speakers
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Photon Source (APS) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratoryprovides this nation's (in fact, this hemisphere's) brightest storage...
Krainak, Michael; Merritt, Scott
2016-01-01
Integrated photonics generally is the integration of multiple lithographically defined photonic and electronic components and devices (e.g. lasers, detectors, waveguides passive structures, modulators, electronic control and optical interconnects) on a single platform with nanometer-scale feature sizes. The development of photonic integrated circuits permits size, weight, power and cost reductions for spacecraft microprocessors, optical communication, processor buses, advanced data processing, and integrated optic science instrument optical systems, subsystems and components. This is particularly critical for small spacecraft platforms. We will give an overview of some NASA applications for integrated photonics.
Inoue, J.; Ohtaka, K.
2004-01-01
We study virtual bound states in photonics, which are a vectorial extension of electron virtual bound states. The condition for these states is derived. It is found that the Mie resonant state which satisfies the condition that the size parameter is less than the angular momentum should be interpreted as a photon virtual bound state. In order to confirm the validity of the concept, we compare the photonic density of states, the width of which represents the lifetime of the photon virtual bound states, with numerical results
Vo-Dinh, Tuan
2003-01-01
1.Biomedical Photonics: A Revolution at the Interface of Science and Technology, T. Vo-DinhPHOTONICS AND TISSUE OPTICS2.Optical Properties of Tissues, J. Mobley and T. Vo-Dinh3.Light-Tissue Interactions, V.V. Tuchin 4.Theoretical Models and Algorithms in Optical Diffusion Tomography, S.J. Norton and T. Vo-DinhPHOTONIC DEVICES5.Laser Light in Biomedicine and the Life Sciences: From the Present to the Future, V.S. Letokhov6.Basic Instrumentation in Photonics, T. Vo-Dinh7.Optical Fibers and Waveguides for Medical Applications, I. Gannot and
Control algorithms for dynamic attenuators
Hsieh, Scott S., E-mail: sshsieh@stanford.edu [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Pelc, Norbert J. [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford California 94305 and Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)
2014-06-15
Purpose: The authors describe algorithms to control dynamic attenuators in CT and compare their performance using simulated scans. Dynamic attenuators are prepatient beam shaping filters that modulate the distribution of x-ray fluence incident on the patient on a view-by-view basis. These attenuators can reduce dose while improving key image quality metrics such as peak or mean variance. In each view, the attenuator presents several degrees of freedom which may be individually adjusted. The total number of degrees of freedom across all views is very large, making many optimization techniques impractical. The authors develop a theory for optimally controlling these attenuators. Special attention is paid to a theoretically perfect attenuator which controls the fluence for each ray individually, but the authors also investigate and compare three other, practical attenuator designs which have been previously proposed: the piecewise-linear attenuator, the translating attenuator, and the double wedge attenuator. Methods: The authors pose and solve the optimization problems of minimizing the mean and peak variance subject to a fixed dose limit. For a perfect attenuator and mean variance minimization, this problem can be solved in simple, closed form. For other attenuator designs, the problem can be decomposed into separate problems for each view to greatly reduce the computational complexity. Peak variance minimization can be approximately solved using iterated, weighted mean variance (WMV) minimization. Also, the authors develop heuristics for the perfect and piecewise-linear attenuators which do not requirea priori knowledge of the patient anatomy. The authors compare these control algorithms on different types of dynamic attenuators using simulated raw data from forward projected DICOM files of a thorax and an abdomen. Results: The translating and double wedge attenuators reduce dose by an average of 30% relative to current techniques (bowtie filter with tube current
Control algorithms for dynamic attenuators
Hsieh, Scott S.; Pelc, Norbert J.
2014-01-01
Purpose: The authors describe algorithms to control dynamic attenuators in CT and compare their performance using simulated scans. Dynamic attenuators are prepatient beam shaping filters that modulate the distribution of x-ray fluence incident on the patient on a view-by-view basis. These attenuators can reduce dose while improving key image quality metrics such as peak or mean variance. In each view, the attenuator presents several degrees of freedom which may be individually adjusted. The total number of degrees of freedom across all views is very large, making many optimization techniques impractical. The authors develop a theory for optimally controlling these attenuators. Special attention is paid to a theoretically perfect attenuator which controls the fluence for each ray individually, but the authors also investigate and compare three other, practical attenuator designs which have been previously proposed: the piecewise-linear attenuator, the translating attenuator, and the double wedge attenuator. Methods: The authors pose and solve the optimization problems of minimizing the mean and peak variance subject to a fixed dose limit. For a perfect attenuator and mean variance minimization, this problem can be solved in simple, closed form. For other attenuator designs, the problem can be decomposed into separate problems for each view to greatly reduce the computational complexity. Peak variance minimization can be approximately solved using iterated, weighted mean variance (WMV) minimization. Also, the authors develop heuristics for the perfect and piecewise-linear attenuators which do not requirea priori knowledge of the patient anatomy. The authors compare these control algorithms on different types of dynamic attenuators using simulated raw data from forward projected DICOM files of a thorax and an abdomen. Results: The translating and double wedge attenuators reduce dose by an average of 30% relative to current techniques (bowtie filter with tube current
Control algorithms for dynamic attenuators.
Hsieh, Scott S; Pelc, Norbert J
2014-06-01
The authors describe algorithms to control dynamic attenuators in CT and compare their performance using simulated scans. Dynamic attenuators are prepatient beam shaping filters that modulate the distribution of x-ray fluence incident on the patient on a view-by-view basis. These attenuators can reduce dose while improving key image quality metrics such as peak or mean variance. In each view, the attenuator presents several degrees of freedom which may be individually adjusted. The total number of degrees of freedom across all views is very large, making many optimization techniques impractical. The authors develop a theory for optimally controlling these attenuators. Special attention is paid to a theoretically perfect attenuator which controls the fluence for each ray individually, but the authors also investigate and compare three other, practical attenuator designs which have been previously proposed: the piecewise-linear attenuator, the translating attenuator, and the double wedge attenuator. The authors pose and solve the optimization problems of minimizing the mean and peak variance subject to a fixed dose limit. For a perfect attenuator and mean variance minimization, this problem can be solved in simple, closed form. For other attenuator designs, the problem can be decomposed into separate problems for each view to greatly reduce the computational complexity. Peak variance minimization can be approximately solved using iterated, weighted mean variance (WMV) minimization. Also, the authors develop heuristics for the perfect and piecewise-linear attenuators which do not require a priori knowledge of the patient anatomy. The authors compare these control algorithms on different types of dynamic attenuators using simulated raw data from forward projected DICOM files of a thorax and an abdomen. The translating and double wedge attenuators reduce dose by an average of 30% relative to current techniques (bowtie filter with tube current modulation) without
Electronic quantum noise and microwave photons
Bize-Reydellet, L.H.
2003-06-01
This work is devoted to the experimental study of quantum electronic noise in mesoscopic conductors. In the first part of this thesis, we studied shot noise in a one-dimensional ballistic conductor: a quantum point contact (QPC). We showed experimentally that, when one of the QPC contacts is irradiated with microwave photons, we observe partition noise in the absence of net current flowing through the sample. Thus, we validate the scattering theory of photo-assisted shot noise first by measuring the Fano factor without bias voltage across the conductor, and then by measuring shot noise in the doubly non equilibrium situation, where both a bias voltage and a microwave modulation are applied. In the second part, we realized the first tests of a new experimental set-up which will be able to measure high frequency noise of a mesoscopic conductor and the photon statistics emitted by this conductor in the measurement circuit. These tests consist in realizing Hanbury-Brown and Twiss type experiments (intensity interferometry) with two kinds of microwave photon source. First, we used a thermal incoherent source (macroscopic 50 Ohms resistor). It showed super-Poissonian noise, since the power fluctuations are proportional to the square of the mean photon power. Secondly, we studied a classical monochromatic source, which shows a Poissonian statistics. The giant Fano factor measured is perfectly explained by the attenuator and amplifier noise. (author)
Photon-phonon interaction in photonic crystals
Ueta, T
2010-01-01
Photon-phonon interaction on the analogy of electron-phonon interaction is considered in one-dimensional photonic crystal. When lattice vibration is artificially introduced to the photonic crystal, a governing equation of electromagnetic field is derived. A simple model is numerically analysed and the following novel phenomena are found out. The lattice vibration generates the light of frequency which added the integral multiple of the vibration frequency to that of the incident wave and also amplifies the incident wave resonantly. On a resonance, the amplification factor increases very rapidly with the number of layers increases. Resonance frequencies change with the phases of lattice vibration. The amplification phenomenon is analytically discussed for low frequency of the lattice vibration.
A vectorized Monte Carlo code for modeling photon transport in SPECT
Smith, M.F.; Floyd, C.E. Jr.; Jaszczak, R.J.
1993-01-01
A vectorized Monte Carlo computer code has been developed for modeling photon transport in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The code models photon transport in a uniform attenuating region and photon detection by a gamma camera. It is adapted from a history-based Monte Carlo code in which photon history data are stored in scalar variables and photon histories are computed sequentially. The vectorized code is written in FORTRAN77 and uses an event-based algorithm in which photon history data are stored in arrays and photon history computations are performed within DO loops. The indices of the DO loops range over the number of photon histories, and these loops may take advantage of the vector processing unit of our Stellar GS1000 computer for pipelined computations. Without the use of the vector processor the event-based code is faster than the history-based code because of numerical optimization performed during conversion to the event-based algorithm. When only the detection of unscattered photons is modeled, the event-based code executes 5.1 times faster with the use of the vector processor than without; when the detection of scattered and unscattered photons is modeled the speed increase is a factor of 2.9. Vectorization is a valuable way to increase the performance of Monte Carlo code for modeling photon transport in SPECT
ALICE Photon Multiplicity Detector
Nayak, T
2013-01-01
Photon Multiplicity Detector (PMD) measures the multiplicity and spatial distribution of photons in the forward region of ALICE on a event-by-event basis. PMD is a pre-shower detector having fine granularity and full azimuthal coverage in the pseudo-rapidity region 2.3 < η < 3.9.
Diffusion Based Photon Mapping
Schjøth, Lars; Sporring, Jon; Fogh Olsen, Ole
2008-01-01
. To address this problem, we introduce a photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way, we preserve important illumination features, while...
Integrated microwave photonics
Marpaung, D.A.I.; Roeloffzen, C.G.H.; Heideman, Rene; Leinse, Arne; Sales, S.; Capmany, J.
2013-01-01
Microwave photonics (MWP) is an emerging field in which radio frequency (RF) signals are generated, distributed, processed and analyzed using the strength of photonic techniques. It is a technology that enables various functionalities which are not feasible to achieve only in the microwave domain. A
Two Photon Distribution Amplitudes
El Beiyad, M.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.
2008-01-01
The factorization of the amplitude of the process γ*γ→γγ in the low energy and high photon virtuality region is demonstrated at the Born order and in the leading logarithmic approximation. The leading order two photon (generalized) distribution amplitudes exhibit a characteristic ln Q 2 behaviour and obey new inhomogeneous evolution equations
2011-01-03
75, pp. 3253-3256, Oct. 1995. [24] F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, and P. S. J. Russell, “Particle levitation and guidance in hollow-core photonic crystal...B. Mizaikoff, “Midinfrared sensors meet nanotechnology: Trace gas sensing with quantum cascade lasers inside photonic band-gap hollow waveguides
Kuzay, Tuncer M.; Shu, Deming
1995-01-01
A photon beam position monitor for use in the front end of a beamline of a high heat flux and high energy photon source such as a synchrotron radiation storage ring detects and measures the position and, when a pair of such monitors are used in tandem, the slope of a photon beam emanating from an insertion device such as a wiggler or an undulator inserted in the straight sections of the ring. The photon beam position monitor includes a plurality of spaced blades for precisely locating the photon beam, with each blade comprised of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond with an outer metal coating of a photon sensitive metal such as tungsten, molybdenum, etc., which combination emits electrons when a high energy photon beam is incident upon the blade. Two such monitors are contemplated for use in the front end of the beamline, with the two monitors having vertically and horizontally offset detector blades to avoid blade "shadowing". Provision is made for aligning the detector blades with the photon beam and limiting detector blade temperature during operation.
Superconducting Single Photon Detectors
Dorenbos, S.N.
2011-01-01
This thesis is about the development of a detector for single photons, particles of light. New techniques are being developed that require high performance single photon detection, such as quantum cryptography, single molecule detection, optical radar, ballistic imaging, circuit testing and
Photonics in wireless transceivers
Bogani, A.; Ghelfi, P.
2013-01-01
During the last few years, the cross-fertilization between photonics and radio systems has been helping to overcome some major limitations of the classical radio technologies, setting new paradigms, and promising improved performance and new applications with strong benefits for public communications and safety. In particular, photonics-based wireless systems, albeit still at research level, are moving toward a new generation of multifunctional systems able to manage the wireless communication with several different frequencies and protocols, even simultaneously while also realizing surveillance operations. Photonics matches the new requirements of flexibility for software-defined architectures, thanks to its ultra-wide bandwidths and ease of tunability, and guarantees low footprint and weight, thanks to integrated photonic technologies. Moreover, photonics also allows increased resolution and sensitivity by means of the inherent low phase noise of lasers. (author)
Nonlinear Photonics 2014: introduction.
Akhmediev, N; Kartashov, Yaroslav
2015-01-12
International Conference "Nonlinear Photonics-2014" took place in Barcelona, Spain on July 27-31, 2014. It was a part of the "Advanced Photonics Congress" which is becoming a traditional notable event in the world of photonics. The current focus issue of Optics Express contains contributions from the participants of the Conference and the Congress. The articles in this focus issue by no means represent the total number of the congress contributions (around 400). However, it demonstrates wide range of topics covered at the event. The next conference of this series is to be held in 2016 in Australia, which is the home of many researchers working in the field of photonics in general and nonlinear photonics in particular.
Fujii, H.
1977-01-01
High energy photon-proton scattering is expected to bring an important information on strong and electromagnetic interaction, and is discussed in this paper. When the ''mass'' of the photon is less than that of the lightest hadron, it is said ''the photon is almost real''. The photon energy is sufficiently high to check the energy dependence of the gamma-proton total cross section, even in the first stage of TRISTAN. The tagging system consists of four multi-wire proportional chambers (MWPC) and a lead glass Cerenkov counter. The energy of scattered electrons is determined with the Cerenkov counter. The equivalent-photon approximation is a useful method to obtain the counting rates. The estimation of the counting rate was made under the expected value of the total cross section. The estimated counting rate is strong enough for the experiment of the gamma-proton total cross section measurement. (Kato, T.)
Tarim, Urkiye Akar; Ozmutlu, Emin N.; Yalcin, Sezai; Gundogdu, Ozcan; Bradley, D.A.; Gurler, Orhan
2017-01-01
A Monte Carlo method was developed to investigate radiation shielding properties of bismuth borate glass. The mass attenuation coefficients and half-value layer parameters were determined for different fractional amounts of Bi 2 O 3 in the glass samples for the 356, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV photon energies. A comparison of the theoretical and experimental attenuation coefficients is presented. - Highlights: • Radiation shielding properties of bismuth borate glass systems have been reported. • Mass attenuation coefficients increase linearly with increase in Bi concentration. • Half-value layer decreases with increasing concentration of Bi. • Half-value layer decreases with the increase in the sample density.
Radiation induced time dependent attenuation in a fiber
Kelly, R.E.; Lyons, P.B.; Looney, L.D.
1985-01-01
Characteristics describing the time dependent attenuation coefficient of an optical fiber during and following a very short and intense radiation pulse are analyzed. This problem is important for transmission applications when the fiber is subjected to gamma, electron, or neutron beams. Besides time, the attenuation coefficient is a function of temperature, dose rate, dose, nature of the radiation (n, e, γ), fiber composition and purity, pre-existing solid state defects, and wavelength of the transmitted signal. The peak attenuation for a given fiber is mainly determined by the dose rate and pulse length, but temperature and strain (or athermal) annealing also contribute to a partial recovery during the pulse duration. The peak attenuation per unit dose appears to be smaller at high doses, perhaps caused by particle track overlap, which produces a saturation effect. After pulse termination, the attenuation coefficient tends to recover towards its pre-radiation value at different rates, depending upon the factors mentioned above. In particular, ionized electrons relax back to the positive lattice ions at a rate which depends upon initial separation distance and temperature. The initial separation distance is a function of beam energy. Some electrons will encounter a trap in the lattice and may recombine by quantum mechanical tunneling or be removed by photons (hence, absorption). Besides ionization, radiation may induce lattice displacements which in turn produce additional absorption centers. The displacement contribution has a different time constant than that associated with ionization. These topics, as they influence fiber characteristics, are discussed, along with supporting experimental data
A practical attenuation compensation method for cone beam spect
Manglos, S.H.; Jaszczak, R.J.; Floyd, C.E.; Greer, K.L.; Coleman, R.E.
1987-01-01
An algorithm for attenuation compensation of cone beam SPECT images has been developed and implemented. The algorithm is based on a multiplicative post-processing method previously used for parallel and fan beam geometries. This method computes the compensation from the estimated average attenuation of photons originating from each image pixel. In the present development, a uniform attenuation coefficient inside of the body contour is assumed, although the method could be extended to include a non-uniform attenuation map. The algorithm is tested with experimental projections of a phantom obtained using a cone beam collimator. Profiles through the reconstructed images are presented as a quantitative test of the improvement due to the compensation. The algorithm provides adequate compensation for attenuation in a simple uniform cylindrical phantom, and the computational time is short compared to that expected for iterative reconstruction techniques. Also observed are image distortions in some reconstructed slices when the source distribution extends beyond the edge of the cone beam axial field-of-view
Photon interaction studies using 241Am γ-rays
Ramachandran, N.; Karunakaran Nair, K.; Abdullah, K.K.; Varier, K.M.
2006-01-01
We have carried out some photon interaction measurements using 59.54 keV γ-rays from a 241 Am source. These include γ attenuation studies as well as photoelectric absorption studies in various samples. The attenuation studies have been made using leaf and wood samples, samples like sand, sugar etc., which contain particles of varying sizes as well as pellets and aqueous solutions of rare earth compounds. In the case of the leaf and wood samples, we have used the γ-ray attenuation technique for the determination of the water content in fresh and dried samples. The variation of the attenuation coefficient with particle size has been investigated for sand and sugar samples. The attenuation studies as well as the photoelectric studies in the case of rare earth elements have been carried out on samples containing such elements whose K-absorption edge energies lie below and close to the γ-energy used. Suitable compounds of the rare earth elements have been chosen as mixture absorbers in these investigations. A narrow beam good geometry set-up was used for the attenuation measurements. A well-shielded scattering geometry was used for the photoelectric measurements. The mixture rule was invoked to extract the values of the mass attenuation coefficients for the elements from those of the corresponding compounds. The results are consistent with theoretical values derived from the XCOM package. (author)
Single-photon interference experiment for high schools
Bondani, Maria
2014-07-01
We follow the reductio ad absurdum reasoning described in the book "Sneaking a Look at God's Cards" by Giancarlo Ghirardi to demonstrate the wave-particle duality of light in a Mach-Zehnder interferometric setup analog to the conventional Young double-slit experiment. We aim at showing the double nature of light by measuring the existence of interference fringes down to the single-photon level. The setup includes a strongly attenuated laser, polarizing beam splitters, half-waveplates, polarizers and single-photon detectors.
Zeng, G.L.; Weng, Y.; Gullberg, G.T.
1997-01-01
Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging with cone-beam collimators provides improved sensitivity and spatial resolution for imaging small objects with large field-of-view detectors. It is known that Tuy's cone-beam data sufficiency condition must be met to obtain artifact-free reconstructions. Even though Tuy's condition was derived for an attenuation-free situation, the authors hypothesize that an artifact-free reconstruction can be obtained even if the cone-beam data are attenuated, provided the imaging orbit satisfies Tuy's condition and the exact attenuation map is known. In the authors' studies, emission data are acquired using nonplanar circle-and-line orbits to acquire cone-beam data for tomographic reconstructions. An extended iterative ML-EM (maximum likelihood-expectation maximization) reconstruction algorithm is derived and used to reconstruct projection data with either a pre-acquired or assumed attenuation map. Quantitative accuracy of the attenuation corrected emission reconstruction is significantly improved
Progress in neuromorphic photonics
Ferreira de Lima, Thomas; Shastri, Bhavin J.; Tait, Alexander N.; Nahmias, Mitchell A.; Prucnal, Paul R.
2017-03-01
As society's appetite for information continues to grow, so does our need to process this information with increasing speed and versatility. Many believe that the one-size-fits-all solution of digital electronics is becoming a limiting factor in certain areas such as data links, cognitive radio, and ultrafast control. Analog photonic devices have found relatively simple signal processing niches where electronics can no longer provide sufficient speed and reconfigurability. Recently, the landscape for commercially manufacturable photonic chips has been changing rapidly and now promises to achieve economies of scale previously enjoyed solely by microelectronics. By bridging the mathematical prowess of artificial neural networks to the underlying physics of optoelectronic devices, neuromorphic photonics could breach new domains of information processing demanding significant complexity, low cost, and unmatched speed. In this article, we review the progress in neuromorphic photonics, focusing on photonic integrated devices. The challenges and design rules for optoelectronic instantiation of artificial neurons are presented. The proposed photonic architecture revolves around the processing network node composed of two parts: a nonlinear element and a network interface. We then survey excitable lasers in the recent literature as candidates for the nonlinear node and microring-resonator weight banks as the network interface. Finally, we compare metrics between neuromorphic electronics and neuromorphic photonics and discuss potential applications.
Grangier, P.; Abram, I.
2004-01-01
Quantum cryptography and information processing are set to benefit from developments in novel light sources that can emit photons one by one. Quantum mechanics has gained a reputation for making counter-intuitive predictions. But we rarely get the chance to witness these effects directly because, being humans, we are simply too big. Take light, for example. The light sources that are familiar to us, such as those used in lighting and imaging or in CD and DVD players, are so huge that they emit billions and billions of photons. But what if there was a light source that emitted just one photon at a time? Over the past few years, new types of light source that are able to emit photons one by one have been emerging from laboratories around the world. Pulses of light composed of a single photon correspond to power flows in the femtowatt range - a million billion times less than that of a table lamp. The driving force behind the development of these single-photon sources is a range of novel applications that take advantage of the quantum nature of light. Quantum states of superposed and entangled photons could lead the way to guaranteed-secure communication, to information processing with unprecedented speed and efficiency, and to new schemes for quantum teleportation. (U.K.)
Carlos, P.
1985-06-01
The present discussion is limited to a presentation of the most recent total photonuclear absorption experiments performed with real photons at intermediate energy, and more precisely in the region of nucleon resonances. The main sources of real photons are briefly reviewed and the experimental procedures used for total photonuclear absorption cross section measurements. The main results obtained below 140 MeV photon energy as well as above 2 GeV are recalled. The experimental study of total photonuclear absorption in the nuclear resonance region (140 MeV< E<2 GeV) is still at its beginning and some results are presented
Photonics: Technology project summary
Depaula, Ramon P.
1991-01-01
Photonics involves the use of light (photons) in conjunction with electronics for applications in communications, computing, control, and sensing. Components used in photonic systems include lasers, optical detectors, optical wave guide devices, fiber optics, and traditional electronic devices. The goal of this program is to develop hybrid optoelectronic devices and systems for sensing, information processing, communications, and control. It is hoped that these new devices will yield at least an order of magnitude improvement in performance over existing technology. The objective of the program is to conduct research and development in the following areas: (1) materials and devices; (2) networking and computing; (3) optical processing/advanced pattern recognition; and (4) sensing.
Chuang, Shun Lien
2009-01-01
The most up-to-date book available on the physics of photonic devices This new edition of Physics of Photonic Devices incorporates significant advancements in the field of photonics that have occurred since publication of the first edition (Physics of Optoelectronic Devices). New topics covered include a brief history of the invention of semiconductor lasers, the Lorentz dipole method and metal plasmas, matrix optics, surface plasma waveguides, optical ring resonators, integrated electroabsorption modulator-lasers, and solar cells. It also introduces exciting new fields of research such as:
Maeda, Toshio; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Tada, Akira; Bunko, Hisashi; Koizumi, Kiyoshi
1982-01-01
The detectability of lesions located deep in a body or overlapped with a physiologically increased activity improve with the help of single photon ECT. In some cases, the ECT is superior to the conventional gamma camera images and X-ray CT scans in the evaluation of the location and size of lesion. The single photon ECT of the brain compares favorably with the contrast enhansed X-ray CT scans. The most important adaptation of the single photon ECT are the detection of recurrent brain tumors after craniotomy and the evaluation of ischemic heart diseases. (author)
Ralf B. Wehrspohn
2012-05-01
Full Text Available A review of recent progress in the field of strained silicon photonics is presented. The application of strain to waveguide and photonic crystal structures can be used to alter the linear and nonlinear optical properties of these devices. Here, methods for the fabrication of strained devices are summarized and recent examples of linear and nonlinear optical devices are discussed. Furthermore, the relation between strain and the enhancement of the second order nonlinear susceptibility is investigated, which may enable the construction of optically active photonic devices made of silicon.
Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Broeng, Jes; Sanchez Bjarklev, Araceli
Photonic crystal fibres represent one of the most active research areas today in the field of optics. The diversity of applications that may be addressed by these fibres and their fundamental appeal, by opening up the possibility of guiding light in a radically new way compared to conventional...... optical fibres, have spun an interest from almost all areas of optics and photonics. The aim of this book is to provide an understanding of the different types of photonic crystal fibres and to outline some of the many new and exciting applications that these fibres offer. The book is intended for both...
Saleh, Bahaa E A
2007-01-01
Now in a new full-color edition, Fundamentals of Photonics, Second Edition is a self-contained and up-to-date introductory-level textbook that thoroughly surveys this rapidly expanding area of engineering and applied physics. Featuring a logical blend of theory and applications, coverage includes detailed accounts of the primary theories of light, including ray optics, wave optics, electromagnetic optics, and photon optics, as well as the interaction of photons and atoms, and semiconductor optics. Presented at increasing levels of complexity, preliminary sections build toward more advan
Tomography of photon-added and photon-subtracted states
Bazrafkan, MR; Man'ko, [No Value
The purpose of this paper is to introduce symplectic and optical tomograms of photon-added and photon-subtracted quantum states. Explicit relations for the tomograms of photon-added and photon-subtracted squeezed coherent states and squeezed number states are obtained. Generating functions for the
Hadronic photon-photon interactions at high energies
Engel, R.; Siegen Univ.; Ranft, J.
1996-01-01
Photon-photon collisions are investigated in the framework of the two-component Dual Parton Model. The model contains contributions from direct, resolved soft and resolved hard interactions. All free parameters of the model are determined in fits to hadron-hadron and photon-hadron cross section data. The model is shown to agree well to hadron production data from hadron-hadron and photon-hadron collisions. The multiparticle production in hadron-hadron, photon-hadron and photon-photon collisions as predicted by the model is compared. Strong differences are only found as function of the transverse momentum variable. (author)
Oliveira, Anderson de
2015-01-01
Introduction: One of the limitations of nuclear medicine studies are false-positive results that lead to unnecessary exams and procedures associated to morbidity and costs to the individual and society. One of the most frequent causes for reducing the specificity of myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is photon attenuation, especially by breast in women. Objective: To develop a new technique to compensate the photon attenuation by women breasts in myocardial perfusion imaging with 99m Tc-sestamibi, using computational methods. Materials and methods: A procedure was proposed which integrates Monte Carlo simulation, computational methods and experimental techniques. Initially, were obtained the chest attenuation correction percentages using a phantom Jaszczak and breast attenuation percentages by Monte Carlo simulation method, using the EGS4 program. The percentages of attenuation correction were linked to individual patients' characteristics by an artificial neural network and a multivariate analysis. A preliminary technical validation was done by comparing the results of the MPI and catheterism (CAT), before and after applying the technique to 4 patients. The t test for parametric data, Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney and X 2 for the others were used. Probability values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Each increment of 1 cm in the thickness of breast was associated to an average increment of 6% on photon attenuation, while the maximum increase related to breast composition was about 2%. The average chest attenuation percentage per unit was 2.9%. Both, the artificial neural network and linear regression, showed an error less than 3% as predictive models for percentage of female attenuation. The anatomical-functional correlation between MPI and CAT was maintained after the use of the technique. Conclusion: Results suggest that the proposed technique is promising and could be a possible alternative to other conventional methods employed
Microwave background constraints on mixing of photons with hidden photons
Mirizzi, Alessandro; Redondo, Javier; Sigl, Guenter
2008-12-01
Various extensions of the Standard Model predict the existence of hidden photons kinetically mixing with the ordinary photon. This mixing leads to oscillations between photons and hidden photons, analogous to the observed oscillations between different neutrino flavors. In this context, we derive new bounds on the photon-hidden photon mixing parameters using the high precision cosmic microwave background spectral data collected by the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer instrument on board of the Cosmic Background Explorer. Requiring the distortions of the CMB induced by the photon-hidden photon mixing to be smaller than experimental upper limits, this leads to a bound on the mixing angle χ 0 -7 - 10 -5 for hidden photon masses between 10 -14 eV and 10 -7 eV. This low-mass and low-mixing region of the hidden photon parameter space was previously unconstrained. (orig.)
Microwave background constraints on mixing of photons with hidden photons
Mirizzi, Alessandro [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Redondo, Javier [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Sigl, Guenter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik
2008-12-15
Various extensions of the Standard Model predict the existence of hidden photons kinetically mixing with the ordinary photon. This mixing leads to oscillations between photons and hidden photons, analogous to the observed oscillations between different neutrino flavors. In this context, we derive new bounds on the photon-hidden photon mixing parameters using the high precision cosmic microwave background spectral data collected by the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer instrument on board of the Cosmic Background Explorer. Requiring the distortions of the CMB induced by the photon-hidden photon mixing to be smaller than experimental upper limits, this leads to a bound on the mixing angle {chi}{sub 0}
Won, Rachel
2011-12-01
The combination of microwave photonics and optics has advanced many applications in defence, wireless communications, imaging and network infrastructure. Rachel Won talks to Jianping Yao from the University of Ottawa in Canada about the importance of this growing field.
Mecking, B.A.
1982-04-01
Various aspects of medium energy nuclear reactions induced by real photons are reviewed. Special emphasis is put on high accuracy experiments that will become possible with the next generation of electron accelerators. (orig.)
Pile, P.; Němec, P.; Jungwirth, Tomáš
2013-01-01
Roč. 7, č. 6 (2013), s. 500 ISSN 1749-4885 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : spintronics * photonics * magneto-optics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 29.958, year: 2013
Photonic Crystal Nanocavity Arrays
Altug, Hatice; Vuckovic, Jelena
2006-01-01
We recently proposed two-dimensional coupled photonic crystal nanocavity arrays as a route to achieve a slow-group velocity of light in all crystal directions, thereby enabling numerous applications...
Kristiansen, Rene E
2005-01-01
This report results from a contract tasking Crystal Fibre A/S as follows: Crystal Fibre will conduct research and development of large mode area, dual clad multi-core Yb-doped photonic crystal fiber...
Liu, Jia-Ming
2016-01-01
With this self-contained and comprehensive text, students will gain a detailed understanding of the fundamental concepts and major principles of photonics. Assuming only a basic background in optics, readers are guided through key topics such as the nature of optical fields, the properties of optical materials, and the principles of major photonic functions regarding the generation, propagation, coupling, interference, amplification, modulation, and detection of optical waves or signals. Numerous examples and problems are provided throughout to enhance understanding, and a solutions manual containing detailed solutions and explanations is available online for instructors. This is the ideal resource for electrical engineering and physics undergraduates taking introductory, single-semester or single-quarter courses in photonics, providing them with the knowledge and skills needed to progress to more advanced courses on photonic devices, systems and applications.
Photonic Quantum Information Processing
Walther, P.
2012-01-01
The advantage of the photon's mobility makes optical quantum system ideally suited for delegated quantum computation. I will present results for the realization for a measurement-based quantum network in a client-server environment, where quantum information is securely communicated and computed. Related to measurement-based quantum computing I will discuss a recent experiment showing that quantum discord can be used as resource for the remote state preparation, which might shine new light on the requirements for quantum-enhanced information processing. Finally, I will briefly review recent photonic quantum simulation experiments of four frustrated Heisenberg-interactions spins and present an outlook of feasible simulation experiments with more complex interactions or random walk structures. As outlook I will discuss the current status of new quantum technology for improving the scalability of photonic quantum systems by using superconducting single-photon detectors and tailored light-matter interactions. (author)
Possible nonvanishing mass of photon
Nakazato, Hiromichi; Namiki, Mikio; Yamanaka, Yoshiya; Yokoyama, Kan-ichi.
1985-05-01
From phenomenological and field-theoretical considerations on photon mass, we first show that photon is not limitted to being massless at the present stage. Next we illustrate a possibility of formulating a local field theory for massive photons coupled with nonconserved currents, while we cannot do for massless photons. (author)
Badelek, B.; Bloechinger, C.; Blümlein, J.; Boos, E.; Brinkman, R.; Burkhardt, H.; Bussey, P.; Carimalo, C.; Chýla, Jiří; Ciftci, A.K.
2004-01-01
Roč. 19, č. 30 (2004), s. 5097-5186 ISSN 0217-751X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010920 Keywords : photon collider * linear collider * gamma-gamma * photon-photon * photon electron * Compton scattering Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.054, year: 2004
ALICE photon spectrometer crystals
Maximilien Brice
2006-01-01
Members of the mechanical assembly team insert the last few crystals into the first module of ALICE's photon spectrometer. These crystals are made from lead-tungstate, a crystal as clear as glass but with nearly four times the density. When a high-energy particle passes through one of these crystals it will scintillate, emitting a flash of light allowing the energy of photons, electrons and positrons to be measured.
Bardeen, W.A.
1980-11-01
Theoretical understanding of the photon structure function is reviewed. As an illustration of the pointlike component, the parton model is briefly discussed. However, the systematic study of the photon structure function is presented through the framework of the operator product expansion. Perturbative QCD is used as the theoretical basis for the calculation of leading contributions to the operator product expansion. The influence of higher order QCD effects on these results is discussed. Recent results for the polarized structure functions are discussed
Hard processes in photon-photon interactions
Duchovni, E.
1985-03-01
In this thesis, the existence of hard component in two-photon collisions is investigated. Due to the relative simplicity of the photon, such processes can be exactly calculated in QCD. Untagged (low Q 2 ) two-photon events are used. This leads to relatively high statistics, but to severe background problem due mainly to e + e - annihilation. The background contamination is reduced to a tolerable level using a special set of cuts. Moreover, the remaining contamination is shown to be calculable with a small systematic error. A large number of events of the hard ''γγ'' type is found. An attempt to explain these events using the simplest QCD diagram (the Born term) is done. This process is found to be capable of explaining only a 1/4 of the data. Other options like the constituent intercharge model, integer charged quarks, and higher order diagrams are therefore also discussed. The large cross-section for the production of ρ 0 ρ 0 pairs in ''γγ'' collisions has not been understood yet. Inorder to look at closely related processes, a search for φρ 0 and φφ was initiated. The cross-section for θπ + π - was found to be sizeable. Only upper limits for the production of φρ 0 and φφ are obtained
Horikiri, Tomoyuki; Sasaki, Hideki; Wang, Haibo; Kobayashi, Takayoshi
2005-01-01
We propose a high security quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme utilizing one mode of spontaneous parametric downconversion gated by a photon number resolving detector. This photon number measurement is possible by using single-photon detectors operating at room temperature and optical fibers. By post selection, the multiphoton probability in this scheme can be reduced to lower than that of a scheme using an attenuated coherent light resulting in improvement of security. Furthermore, if distillation protocol (error correction and privacy amplification) is performed, the gain will be increased. Hence a QKD system with higher security and bit rate than the laser-based QKD system can be attained using present available technologies
Ultrasonic attenuation in superconducting zinc
Auluck, S.
1978-01-01
The differences in the Zn ultrasonic attenuation data of different workers are analyzed. The superconducting energy gaps deduced from our analysis of the ultrasonic-attenuation data of Cleavelin and Marshall are consistent with the gaps deduced from the knowledge of the Fermi surface and the electron-phonon mass enhancement factor
Seitz, Peter; Theuwissen, Albert J.P.
2011-01-01
The acquisition and interpretation of images is a central capability in almost all scientific and technological domains. In particular, the acquisition of electromagnetic radiation, in the form of visible light, UV, infrared, X-ray, etc. is of enormous practical importance. The ultimate sensitivity in electronic imaging is the detection of individual photons. With this book, the first comprehensive review of all aspects of single-photon electronic imaging has been created. Topics include theoretical basics, semiconductor fabrication, single-photon detection principles, imager design and applications of different spectral domains. Today, the solid-state fabrication capabilities for several types of image sensors has advanced to a point, where uncooled single-photon electronic imaging will soon become a consumer product. This book is giving a specialist's view from different domains to the forthcoming ''single-photon imaging'' revolution. The various aspects of single-photon imaging are treated by internationally renowned, leading scientists and technologists who have all pioneered their respective fields. (orig.)
A brachytherapy photon radiation quality index Q(BT) for probe-type dosimetry.
Quast, Ulrich; Kaulich, Theodor W; Álvarez-Romero, José T; Carlsson Tedgren, Sa; Enger, Shirin A; Medich, David C; Mourtada, Firas; Perez-Calatayud, Jose; Rivard, Mark J; Zakaria, G Abu
2016-06-01
In photon brachytherapy (BT), experimental dosimetry is needed to verify treatment plans if planning algorithms neglect varying attenuation, absorption or scattering conditions. The detector's response is energy dependent, including the detector material to water dose ratio and the intrinsic mechanisms. The local mean photon energy E¯(r) must be known or another equivalent energy quality parameter used. We propose the brachytherapy photon radiation quality indexQ(BT)(E¯), to characterize the photon radiation quality in view of measurements of distributions of the absorbed dose to water, Dw, around BT sources. While the external photon beam radiotherapy (EBRT) radiation quality index Q(EBRT)(E¯)=TPR10(20)(E¯) is not applicable to BT, the authors have applied a novel energy dependent parameter, called brachytherapy photon radiation quality index, defined as Q(BT)(E¯)=Dprim(r=2cm,θ0=90°)/Dprim(r0=1cm,θ0=90°), utilizing precise primary absorbed dose data, Dprim, from source reference databases, without additional MC-calculations. For BT photon sources used clinically, Q(BT)(E¯) enables to determine the effective mean linear attenuation coefficient μ¯(E) and thus the effective energy of the primary photons Eprim(eff)(r0,θ0) at the TG-43 reference position Pref(r0=1cm,θ0=90°), being close to the mean total photon energy E¯tot(r0,θ0). If one has calibrated detectors, published E¯tot(r) and the BT radiation quality correction factor [Formula: see text] for different BT radiation qualities Q and Q0, the detector's response can be determined and Dw(r,θ) measured in the vicinity of BT photon sources. This novel brachytherapy photon radiation quality indexQ(BT) characterizes sufficiently accurate and precise the primary photon's penetration probability and scattering potential. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Assessing the effect of electron density in photon dose calculations
Seco, J.; Evans, P. M.
2006-01-01
Photon dose calculation algorithms (such as the pencil beam and collapsed cone, CC) model the attenuation of a primary photon beam in media other than water, by using pathlength scaling based on the relative mass density of the media to water. In this study, we assess if differences in the electron density between the water and media, with different atomic composition, can influence the accuracy of conventional photon dose calculations algorithms. A comparison is performed between an electron-density scaling method and the standard mass-density scaling method for (i) tissues present in the human body (such as bone, muscle, etc.), and for (ii) water-equivalent plastics, used in radiotherapy dosimetry and quality assurance. We demonstrate that the important material property that should be taken into account by photon dose algorithms is the electron density, and not the mass density. The mass-density scaling method is shown to overestimate, relative to electron-density predictions, the primary photon fluence for tissues in the human body and water-equivalent plastics, where 6%-7% and 10% differences were observed respectively for bone and air. However, in the case of patients, differences are expected to be smaller due to the large complexity of a treatment plan and of the patient anatomy and atomic composition and of the smaller thickness of bone/air that incident photon beams of a treatment plan may have to traverse. Differences have also been observed for conventional dose algorithms, such as CC, where an overestimate of the lung dose occurs, when irradiating lung tumors. The incorrect lung dose can be attributed to the incorrect modeling of the photon beam attenuation through the rib cage (thickness of 2-3 cm in bone upstream of the lung tumor) and through the lung and the oversimplified modeling of electron transport in convolution algorithms. In the present study, the overestimation of the primary photon fluence, using the mass-density scaling method, was shown
Multi-photon absorption limits to heralded single photon sources
Husko, Chad A.; Clark, Alex S.; Collins, Matthew J.; De Rossi, Alfredo; Combrié, Sylvain; Lehoucq, Gaëlle; Rey, Isabella H.; Krauss, Thomas F.; Xiong, Chunle; Eggleton, Benjamin J.
2013-01-01
Single photons are of paramount importance to future quantum technologies, including quantum communication and computation. Nonlinear photonic devices using parametric processes offer a straightforward route to generating photons, however additional nonlinear processes may come into play and interfere with these sources. Here we analyse spontaneous four-wave mixing (SFWM) sources in the presence of multi-photon processes. We conduct experiments in silicon and gallium indium phosphide photonic crystal waveguides which display inherently different nonlinear absorption processes, namely two-photon (TPA) and three-photon absorption (ThPA), respectively. We develop a novel model capturing these diverse effects which is in excellent quantitative agreement with measurements of brightness, coincidence-to-accidental ratio (CAR) and second-order correlation function g(2)(0), showing that TPA imposes an intrinsic limit on heralded single photon sources. We build on these observations to devise a new metric, the quantum utility (QMU), enabling further optimisation of single photon sources. PMID:24186400
Non-Poissonian photon statistics from macroscopic photon cutting materials.
de Jong, Mathijs; Meijerink, Andries; Rabouw, Freddy T
2017-05-24
In optical materials energy is usually extracted only from the lowest excited state, resulting in fundamental energy-efficiency limits such as the Shockley-Queisser limit for single-junction solar cells. Photon-cutting materials provide a way around such limits by absorbing high-energy photons and 'cutting' them into multiple low-energy excitations that can subsequently be extracted. The occurrence of photon cutting or quantum cutting has been demonstrated in a variety of materials, including semiconductor quantum dots, lanthanides and organic dyes. Here we show that photon cutting results in bunched photon emission on the timescale of the excited-state lifetime, even when observing a macroscopic number of optical centres. Our theoretical derivation matches well with experimental data on NaLaF 4 :Pr 3+ , a material that can cut deep-ultraviolet photons into two visible photons. This signature of photon cutting can be used to identify and characterize new photon-cutting materials unambiguously.
Photon beam convolution using polyenergetic energy deposition kernels
Hoban, P.W.; Murray, D.C.; Round, W.H.
1994-01-01
In photon beam convolution calculations where polyenergetic energy deposition kernels (EDKs) are used, the primary photon energy spectrum should be correctly accounted for in Monte Carlo generation of EDKs. This requires the probability of interaction, determined by the linear attenuation coefficient, μ, to be taken into account when primary photon interactions are forced to occur at the EDK origin. The use of primary and scattered EDKs generated with a fixed photon spectrum can give rise to an error in the dose calculation due to neglecting the effects of beam hardening with depth. The proportion of primary photon energy that is transferred to secondary electrons increases with depth of interaction, due to the increase in the ratio μ ab /μ as the beam hardens. Convolution depth-dose curves calculated using polyenergetic EDKs generated for the primary photon spectra which exist at depths of 0, 20 and 40 cm in water, show a fall-off which is too steep when compared with EGS4 Monte Carlo results. A beam hardening correction factor applied to primary and scattered 0 cm EDKs, based on the ratio of kerma to terma at each depth, gives primary, scattered and total dose in good agreement with Monte Carlo results. (Author)
Is Necessary Attenuation Correction for Cat Brain PET?
Kim, Jin Su; Lee, Jae Sung; Park, Min Hyun; Im, Ki Chun; Oh, Seung Ha; Lee, Dong Soo; Moon, Dae Hyuk
2007-01-01
Photon attenuation and scatter corrections (AC and SC) were necessary for quantification of human PET. However, there is no consensus on whether AC and SC are necessary for the cat brain PET imaging. Since post-injection transmission (TX) PET scans are not permitted or provided to microPET scanner users at present, additional time for performing TX scan and awaiting FDG uptake is required for attenuation and scatter corrections. Increasing probability of subject movement and possible biological effect of long term anesthesia would be the problem in additional TX scan. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of AC and SC for the quantification of cat brain PET data
CMOS-compatible photonic devices for single-photon generation
Xiong Chunle
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Sources of single photons are one of the key building blocks for quantum photonic technologies such as quantum secure communication and powerful quantum computing. To bring the proof-of-principle demonstration of these technologies from the laboratory to the real world, complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS-compatible photonic chips are highly desirable for photon generation, manipulation, processing and even detection because of their compactness, scalability, robustness, and the potential for integration with electronics. In this paper, we review the development of photonic devices made from materials (e.g., silicon and processes that are compatible with CMOS fabrication facilities for the generation of single photons.
Quantum Flows for Secret Key Distribution in the Presence of the Photon Number Splitting Attack
Luis A. Lizama-Pérez
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Physical implementations of quantum key distribution (QKD protocols, like the Bennett-Brassard (BB84, are forced to use attenuated coherent quantum states, because the sources of single photon states are not functional yet for QKD applications. However, when using attenuated coherent states, the relatively high rate of multi-photonic pulses introduces vulnerabilities that can be exploited by the photon number splitting (PNS attack to brake the quantum key. Some QKD protocols have been developed to be resistant to the PNS attack, like the decoy method, but those define a single photonic gain in the quantum channel. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a new QKD protocol, called ack-QKD, which is resistant to the PNS attack. Even more, it uses attenuated quantum states, but defines two interleaved photonic quantum flows to detect the eavesdropper activity by means of the quantum photonic error gain (QPEG or the quantum bit error rate (QBER. The physical implementation of the ack-QKD is similar to the well-known BB84 protocol.
Axion mediated photon to dark photon mixing
Ejlli, Damian [Novosibirsk State University, Department of Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Theory Group, Assergi, L' Aquila (Italy)
2018-01-15
The interaction between the dark/mirror sector and the ordinary sector is considered, where the two sectors interact with each other by sharing the same QCD axion field. This feature makes the mixing between ordinary and dark/mirror photons in ordinary and dark electromagnetic fields possible. Perturbative solutions of the equations of motion describing the evolution of fields in ordinary and dark external magnetic fields are found. User-friendly quantities such as transition probability rates and Stokes parameters are derived. Possible astrophysical and cosmological applications of this model are suggested. (orig.)
Andrews, David L.
2009-08-01
In recent years it has become evident that the primary concept of the photon has multiple interpretations, with widely differing secondary connotations. Despite the all-pervasive nature of this concept in science, some of the ancillary properties with which the photon is attributed in certain areas of application sit uneasily alongside those invoked in other areas. Certainly the range of applications extends far beyond what was envisaged in the original conception, now entering subjects extending from elementary particle physics and cosmology through to spectroscopy, statistical mechanics and photochemistry. Addressing this diverse context invites the question: What is there, that it is possible to assert as incontrovertibly true about the photon? Which properties are non-controversial, if others are the subject of debate? This paper describes an attempt to answer these questions, establishing as far as possible an irreducible core of what can rightly be asserted about the photon, and setting aside some of what often is, but should never be so asserted. Some of the more bewildering difficulties and differences of interpretation owe their origin to careless descriptions, highlighting a need to guard semantic precision; although simplifications are frequently and naturally expedient for didactic purposes, they carry the risk of becoming indelible. Focusing on such issues, the aim is to identify how much or how little about the photon can be regarded as truly non-controversial.
Tsia, Kevin K.; Jalali, Bahram
2010-05-01
An intriguing optical property of silicon is that it exhibits a large third-order optical nonlinearity, with orders-ofmagnitude larger than that of silica glass in the telecommunication band. This allows efficient nonlinear optical interaction at relatively low power levels in a small footprint. Indeed, we have witnessed a stunning progress in harnessing the Raman and Kerr effects in silicon as the mechanisms for enabling chip-scale optical amplification, lasing, and wavelength conversion - functions that until recently were perceived to be beyond the reach of silicon. With all the continuous efforts developing novel techniques, nonlinear silicon photonics is expected to be able to reach even beyond the prior achievements. Instead of providing a comprehensive overview of this field, this manuscript highlights a number of new branches of nonlinear silicon photonics, which have not been fully recognized in the past. In particular, they are two-photon photovoltaic effect, mid-wave infrared (MWIR) silicon photonics, broadband Raman effects, inverse Raman scattering, and periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). These novel effects and techniques could create a new paradigm for silicon photonics and extend its utility beyond the traditionally anticipated applications.
Fuel Effective Photonic Propulsion
Rajalakshmi, N.; Srivarshini, S.
2017-09-01
With the entry of miniaturization in electronics and ultra-small light-weight materials, energy efficient propulsion techniques for space travel can soon be possible. We need to go for such high speeds so that the generation’s time long interstellar missions can be done in incredibly short time. Also renewable energy like sunlight, nuclear energy can be used for propulsion instead of fuel. These propulsion techniques are being worked on currently. The recently proposed photon propulsion concepts are reviewed, that utilize momentum of photons generated by sunlight or onboard photon generators, such as blackbody radiation or lasers, powered by nuclear or solar power. With the understanding of nuclear photonic propulsion, in this paper, a rough estimate of nuclear fuel required to achieve the escape velocity of Earth is done. An overview of the IKAROS space mission for interplanetary travel by JAXA, that was successful in demonstrating that photonic propulsion works and also generated additional solar power on board, is provided; which can be used as a case study. An extension of this idea for interstellar travel, termed as ‘Star Shot’, aims to send a nanocraft to an exoplanet in the nearest star system, which could be potentially habitable. A brief overview of the idea is presented.
Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Bassi, Andrea; Comelli, Daniela; Cova, Sergio; Farina, Andrea; Ghioni, Massimo; Rech, Ivan; Pifferi, Antonio; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Taroni, Paola; Torricelli, Alessandro; Tosi, Alberto; Valentini, Gianluca; Zappa, Franco
2011-01-01
Light is strictly connected with life, and its presence is fundamental for any living environment. Thus, many biological mechanisms are related to light interaction or can be evaluated through processes involving energy exchange with photons. Optics has always been a precious tool to evaluate molecular and cellular mechanisms, but the discovery of lasers opened new pathways of interactions of light with biological matter, pushing an impressive development for both therapeutic and diagnostic applications in biomedicine. The use of light in different fields has become so widespread that the word photonics has been utilized to identify all the applications related to processes where the light is involved. The photonics area covers a wide range of wavelengths spanning from soft X-rays to mid-infrared and includes all devices related to photons as light sources, optical fibers and light guides, detectors, and all the related electronic equipment. The recent use of photons in the field of telecommunications has pushed the technology toward low-cost, compact, and efficient devices, making them available for many other applications, including those related to biology and medicine where these requirements are of particular relevance. Moreover, basic sciences such as physics, chemistry, mathematics, and electronics have recognized the interdisciplinary need of biomedical science and are translating the most advanced researches into these fields. The Politecnico school has pioneered many of them,and this article reviews the state of the art of biomedical research at the Politecnico in the field internationally known as biophotonics.
Brynjolfsson, Ari
2002-04-01
Einstein's general theory of relativity assumes that photons don't change frequency as they move from Sun to Earth. This assumption is correct in classical physics. All experiments proving the general relativity are in the domain of classical physics. This include the tests by Pound et al. of the gravitational redshift of 14.4 keV photons; the rocket experiments by Vessot et al.; the Galileo solar redshift experiments by Krisher et al.; the gravitational deflection of light experiments by Riveros and Vucetich; and delay of echoes of radar signals passing close to Sun as observed by Shapiro et al. Bohr's correspondence principle assures that quantum mechanical theory of general relativity agrees with Einstein's classical theory when frequency and gravitational field gradient approach zero, or when photons cannot interact with the gravitational field. When we treat photons as quantum mechanical particles; we find that gravitational force on photons is reversed (antigravity). This modified theory contradicts the equivalence principle, but is consistent with all experiments. Solar lines and distant stars are redshifted in accordance with author's plasma redshift theory. These changes result in a beautiful consistent cosmology.
Elliott, C.J.; Feldman, B.J.
1979-02-01
A detailed theoretical analysis is presented of the interaction of intense near-resonant monochromatic radiation with an N-level anharmonic oscillator. In particular, the phenomenon of multiple photon resonance, the process by which an N-level system resonantly absorbs two or more photons simultaneously, is investigated. Starting from the Schroedinger equation, diagrammatic techniques are developed that allow the resonant process to be analyzed quantitatively, in analogy with well-known two-level coherent phenomena. In addition, multiple photon Stark shifts of the resonances, shifts absent in two-level theory, are obtained from the diagrams. Insights into the nature of multiple photon resonances are gained by comparing the quantum mechanical system with classical coupled pendulums whose equations of motion possess identical eigenvalues and eigenvectors. In certain limiting cases, including that of the resonantly excited N-level harmonic oscillator and that of the equally spaced N-level system with equal matrix elements, analytic results are derived. The influence of population relaxation and phase-disrupting collisions on the multiple photon process are also analyzed, the latter by extension of the diagrammatic technique to the density matrix equations of motion. 11 figures
Subwavelength silicon photonics
Cheben, P.; Bock, P.J.; Schmid, J.H.; Lapointe, J.; Janz, S.; Xu, D.-X.; Densmore, A.; Delage, A.; Lamontagne, B.; Florjanczyk, M.; Ma, R.
2011-01-01
With the goal of developing photonic components that are compatible with silicon microelectronic integrated circuits, silicon photonics has been the subject of intense research activity. Silicon is an excellent material for confining and manipulating light at the submicrometer scale. Silicon optoelectronic integrated devices have the potential to be miniaturized and mass-produced at affordable cost for many applications, including telecommunications, optical interconnects, medical screening, and biological and chemical sensing. We review recent advances in silicon photonics research at the National Research Council Canada. A new type of optical waveguide is presented, exploiting subwavelength grating (SWG) effect. We demonstrate subwavelength grating waveguides made of silicon, including practical components operating at telecom wavelengths: input couplers, waveguide crossings and spectrometer chips. SWG technique avoids loss and wavelength resonances due to diffraction effects and allows for single-mode operation with direct control of the mode confinement by changing the refractive index of a waveguide core over a range as broad as 1.6 - 3.5 simply by lithographic patterning. The light can be launched to these waveguides with a coupling loss as small as 0.5 dB and with minimal wavelength dependence, using coupling structures similar to that shown in Fig. 1. The subwavelength grating waveguides can cross each other with minimal loss and negligible crosstalk which allows massive photonic circuit connectivity to overcome the limits of electrical interconnects. These results suggest that the SWG waveguides could become key elements for future integrated photonic circuits. (authors)
Reconfigurable topological photonic crystal
Shalaev, Mikhail I.; Desnavi, Sameerah; Walasik, Wiktor; Litchinitser, Natalia M.
2018-02-01
Topological insulators are materials that conduct on the surface and insulate in their interior due to non-trivial topology of the band structure. The edge states on the interface between topological (non-trivial) and conventional (trivial) insulators are topologically protected from scattering due to structural defects and disorders. Recently, it was shown that photonic crystals (PCs) can serve as a platform for realizing a scatter-free propagation of light waves. In conventional PCs, imperfections, structural disorders, and surface roughness lead to significant losses. The breakthrough in overcoming these problems is likely to come from the synergy of the topological PCs and silicon-based photonics technology that enables high integration density, lossless propagation, and immunity to fabrication imperfections. For many applications, reconfigurability and capability to control the propagation of these non-trivial photonic edge states is essential. One way to facilitate such dynamic control is to use liquid crystals (LCs), which allow to modify the refractive index with external electric field. Here, we demonstrate dynamic control of topological edge states by modifying the refractive index of a LC background medium. Background index is changed depending on the orientation of a LC, while preserving the topology of the system. This results in a change of the spectral position of the photonic bandgap and the topological edge states. The proposed concept might be implemented using conventional semiconductor technology, and can be used for robust energy transport in integrated photonic devices, all-optical circuity, and optical communication systems.
Two media method for linear attenuation coefficient determination of irregular soil samples
Vici, Carlos Henrique Georges
2004-01-01
In several situations of nuclear applications, the knowledge of gamma-ray linear attenuation coefficient for irregular samples is necessary, such as in soil physics and geology. This work presents the validation of a methodology for the determination of the linear attenuation coefficient (μ) of irregular shape samples, in such a way that it is not necessary to know the thickness of the considered sample. With this methodology irregular soil samples (undeformed field samples) from Londrina region, north of Parana were studied. It was employed the two media method for the μ determination. It consists of the μ determination through the measurement of a gamma-ray beam attenuation by the sample sequentially immersed in two different media, with known and appropriately chosen attenuation coefficients. For comparison, the theoretical value of μ was calculated by the product of the mass attenuation coefficient, obtained by the WinXcom code, and the measured value of the density sample. This software employs the chemical composition of the samples and supplies a table of the mass attenuation coefficients versus the photon energy. To verify the validity of the two media method, compared with the simple gamma ray transmission method, regular pome stone samples were used. With these results for the attenuation coefficients and their respective deviations, it was possible to compare the two methods. In this way we concluded that the two media method is a good tool for the determination of the linear attenuation coefficient of irregular materials, particularly in the study of soils samples. (author)
Mesoscopic photon heat transistor
Ojanen, T.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2008-01-01
We show that the heat transport between two bodies, mediated by electromagnetic fluctuations, can be controlled with an intermediate quantum circuit-leading to the device concept of a mesoscopic photon heat transistor (MPHT). Our theoretical analysis is based on a novel Meir-Wingreen-Landauer-typ......We show that the heat transport between two bodies, mediated by electromagnetic fluctuations, can be controlled with an intermediate quantum circuit-leading to the device concept of a mesoscopic photon heat transistor (MPHT). Our theoretical analysis is based on a novel Meir......-Wingreen-Landauer-type of conductance formula, which gives the photonic heat current through an arbitrary circuit element coupled to two dissipative reservoirs at finite temperatures. As an illustration we present an exact solution for the case when the intermediate circuit can be described as an electromagnetic resonator. We discuss...
Generation of photon number states
Waks, Edo; Diamanti, Eleni; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa
2006-01-01
The visible light photon counter (VLPC) has the capability to discriminate photon number states, in contrast to conventional photon counters which can only detect the presence or absence of photons. We use this capability, along with the process of parametric down-conversion, to generate photon number states. We experimentally demonstrate generation of states containing 1, 2, 3 and 4 photons with high fidelity. We then explore the effect the detection efficiency of the VLPC has on the generation rate and fidelity of the created states
Graphene-based photonic crystal
Berman, Oleg L.; Boyko, Vladimir S.; Kezerashvili, Roman Ya.; Kolesnikov, Anton A.; Lozovik, Yurii E.
2010-01-01
A novel type of photonic crystal formed by embedding a periodic array of constituent stacks of alternating graphene and dielectric discs into a background dielectric medium is proposed. The photonic band structure and transmittance of such photonic crystal are calculated. The graphene-based photonic crystals can be used effectively as the frequency filters and waveguides for the far infrared region of electromagnetic spectrum. Due to substantial suppression of absorption of low-frequency radiation in doped graphene the damping and skin effect in the photonic crystal are also suppressed. The advantages of the graphene-based photonic crystal are discussed.
Update on photon-photon collisions
Arteaga-Romero, N.; Cochard, G.; Ong, S.; Amiens Univ., 80; Carimalo, C.; Kessler, P.; Nicolaidis, A.; Parisi, J.; Courau, A.
1980-03-01
This report is the continuation of the 'Update' of last year (L.P.C. 79-03, March 1979, in French). In Part I, the structure functions of the photon in QCD are examined. It is shown that, while large psub(T) hadron production is similar to some extent in γγ collisions and in hadron-hadron collisions, the point-like nature of the photon introduces new terms which are entirely calculable, providing new means to test the dynamics of strong interactions. In Part II, problems of analysis in γγ experiments are discussed. The pros and cons of various options with regard to the measurement of outgoing electrons (non-tagging, finite-angle tagging, tagging at 0 0 ) are compared. It is shown that (a) non-tagging may be applied to the study of a limited number of processes only; (b) finite-angle tagging counters allow for various possibilities (double-tagging, single-tagging, double anti-tagging), but none of them is entirely satisfactory; (c) the ideal measurement is double tagging at 0 0 , provided the problem of bremsstrahlung saturation of the tagging counters can be solved
Gagliardi, C.A.; Tribble, R.E.
1991-01-01
During the past year, we have continued work on the photon detector for the MEGA experiment at Los Alamos, a search for the rare decay μ → eγ to a sensitivity of a few parts in 10 13 . The MEGA photon detector is designed to observe the 52.38 MeV photon produced in a μ → eγ decay with an energy resolution of 1.25 MeV, a position resolution of 2 x 5 mm 2 , a directional resolution of 10 degrees, a time resolution of 500 ps, and an efficiency of 7%. It will consists of four independent concentric cylindrical pair spectrometers mounted within a 1.5 T magnetic field produced by a superconducting solenoid magnet. Each pair spectrometer includes two thin Pb foils to convert photons into e + e - pairs, and thereby, determine both their locations and their vector momenta. The inner drift chamber layer includes a delay line cathode to determine the z coordinates needed for track reconstruction. An MWPC located between two Pb layers identifies the conversion layer so that energy loss corrections may be applied, while plastic scintillators provide timing information. Our, group together with a group from the University of Houston, is responsible for the design and construction of the photon detector, as well as developing the computer codes necessary for Monte Carlo simulations and data analysis. During the past year, our efforts have focused primarily on two tasks, delay line cathode read-out and software development. This report describes our recent work on delay lines and data analysis along with a discussion of the new plans for multiplexing in the photon arm
Models for Photon-photon Total Cross-sections
Godbole, RM; Grau, A; Pancheri, G
1999-01-01
We present here a brief overview of recent models describing the photon-photon cross-section into hadrons. We shall show in detail results from the eikonal minijet model, with and without soft gluon summation.
Photonic band gap engineering in 2D photonic crystals
Department of Applied Physics, Delhi College of Engineering, Faculty of Technology. (University of ... Photonic crystal; photonic band gap; plane-wave expansion method. PACS Nos 71.20 .... Numerical analysis and results. To obtain the ...
Workplace photon radiation fields
Burgess, P.H.; Bartlett, D.T.; Ambrosi, P.
1999-01-01
The knowledge of workplace radiation fields is essential for measures in radiation protection. Information about the energy and directional distribution of the incident photon radiation was obtained by several devices developed by the National Radiation Protection Board, United Kingdom, by the Statens Stralskyddsinstitut, Sweden, together with EURADOS and by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany. The devices are described and some results obtained at workplaces in nuclear industry, medicine and science in the photon energy range from 20 keV to 7 MeV are given. (author)
Crandall, R.E.
1983-01-01
A Coulomb null experiment is described that enables physics students to obtain rigorous upper bounds on photon mass. The experimenter searches for subnanovolt signals that would escape a closed shell were photon mass to be positive. The approach can be adapted for several college levels. At the simplest level, a ''miniature'' low-cost experiment allows a student to verify the exponent ''-2'' in Coulomb's law to eight or more decimal places. An advanced student given a full-size apparatus (at greater cost) can obtain mass bounds very close to the established laboratory limit
Ding, Yunhong; Bacco, Davide; Dalgaard, Kjeld
2017-01-01
is intrinsically limited to 1 bit/photon. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, a high-dimensional quantum key distribution protocol based on space division multiplexing in multicore fiber using silicon photonic integrated lightwave circuits. We successfully realized three mutually......-dimensional quantum states, and enables breaking the information efficiency limit of traditional quantum key distribution protocols. In addition, the silicon photonic circuits used in our work integrate variable optical attenuators, highly efficient multicore fiber couplers, and Mach-Zehnder interferometers, enabling...
Recent developments in the theory of photon-photon collisions
Brodsky, S.J.
1984-09-01
Over the past few years the field of photon-photon collisions has emerged as one of the best testing grounds for QCD, particularly in the area of exclusive and inclusive hard scattering processes, exotic resonance production, and detailed tests of the coupling of real and virtual photons to the quark current. In this summary of contributed papers, I will briefly review recent theoretical progress in the analysis of two-photon reactions and possible directions for future work. 29 references
QCD measurements in photon-photon collisions at LEP
Csilling, Akos
2001-01-01
An overview of the latest results of the LEP collaborations on QCD measurements in photon-photon collisions is presented, including measurements of the total hadronic cross-section, the production of heavy quarks and dijets and the structure functions of real and virtual photons.
High brightness single photon sources based on photonic wires
Claudon, J.; Bleuse, J.; Bazin, M.
2009-01-01
We present a novel single-photon-source based on the emission of a semiconductor quantum dot embedded in a single-mode photonic wire. This geometry ensures a very large coupling (> 95%) of the spontaneous emission to the guided mode. Numerical simulations show that a photon collection efficiency...
Tests of perturbative quantum chromodynamics in photon-photon collisions
Brodsky, S.J.
1979-01-01
The production of hadrons in the collision of two photons via the process e + e - → e + e - X can provide an ideal laboratory for testing many of the features of the photon's hadronic interactions, especially its short-distance aspects. That part of two-photon physics which is particularly relevant to tests of perturbative QCD is reviewed here. 6 figures
Photon sources for absorptiometric measurements
Witt, R.M.; Sandrik, J.M.; Cameron, J.R.
1976-01-01
Photon absorptiometry is defined and the requirements of photon sources for these measurements are described. Both x-ray tubes and radionuclide sources are discussed, including the advantages of each in absorptiometric systems
Kharlov, Y
2013-01-01
PHOS provides unique coverage of the following physics topics: - Study initial phase of the collision of heavy nuclei via direct photons, - Jet-quenching as a probe of deconfinement, studied via high Pτ ϒ and π0, - Signals of chiral-symmetry restoration, - QCD studies in pp collisions via identified neutral spectra.
Bergqvist, I.
1976-01-01
Methods for extracting photon strength functions are briefly discussed. We follow the Brink-Axel approach to relate the strength functions to the giant resonances observed in photonuclear work and summarize the available data on the E1, E2 and M1 resonances. Some experimental and theoretical problems are outlined. (author)
Boeggild, H.
1986-11-01
The author reviews the experiments on direct photon production in hadronic collisions. After a description of the experimental methods for the study of such processes he presents some results on differential cross sections and the γ/π 0 ratio in π - p, π + p, pp, and anti pp processes as well as in reactions of π - , π + , and p on carbon. (HSI)
Carlos, P.
1985-01-01
Experimental methods using real photon beams for measurements of total photonuclear absorption cross section σ(Tot : E/sub γ/) are recalled. Most recent σ(Tot : E/sub γ/)results for complex nuclei and in the nucleon resonance region are presented
Lovesey, S.W.
1987-05-01
The report reviews, at an introductory level, the theory of photon scattering from condensed matter. Magnetic scattering, which arises from first-order relativistic corrections to the Thomson scattering amplitude, is treated in detail and related to the corresponding interaction in the magnetic neutron diffraction amplitude. (author)
Telnov, Valery
2001-01-01
High energy photon colliders (γγ, γe) based on backward Compton scattering of laser light is a very natural addition to e + e - linear colliders. In this report, we consider this option for the TESLA project. Recent study has shown that the horizontal emittance in the TESLA damping ring can be further decreased by a factor of four. In this case, the γγ luminosity in the high energy part of spectrum can reach about (1/3)L e + e - . Typical cross-sections of interesting processes in γγ collisions are higher than those in e + e - collisions by about one order of magnitude, so the number of events in γγ collisions will be more than that in e + e - collisions. Photon colliders can, certainly, give additional information and they are the best for the study of many phenomena. The main question is now the technical feasibility. The key new element in photon colliders is a very powerful laser system. An external optical cavity is a promising approach for the TESLA project. A free electron laser is another option. However, a more straightforward solution is ''an optical storage ring (optical trap)'' with a diode pumped solid state laser injector which is today technically feasible. This paper briefly reviews the status of a photon collider based on the linear collider TESLA, its possible parameters and existing problems
IAS Admin
we say we `see' something, what we are talking about is that some photons ... Nobel Prize for his work in QED, and called it the strange theory of light and matter. Strange .... its form was assumed by him in order to get the correct expression for ...
Jet production in photon-photon interactions
Berger, C.; Genzel, H.; Lackas, W.; Pielorz, J.; Raupach, F.; Wagner, W.; Buerger, J.; Criegee, L.; Deuter, A.; Franke, G.; Gerke, C.; Knies, G.; Lewendel, B.; Meyer, J.; Michelsen, U.; Pape, K.H.; Timm, U.; Winter, G.G.; Zimmermann, W.; Zachara, M.; Ferrarotto, F.; Gaspero, M.; Stella, B.; Bussey, P.J.; Cartwright, S.L.; Dainton, J.B.; Hendry, D.; King, B.T.; Raine, C.; Scarr, J.M.; Skillicorn, I.O.; Smith, K.M.; Thomson, J.C.; Achterberg, O.; Blobel, V.; Burkart, D.; Diehlmann, K.; Feindt, M.; Kapitza, H.; Koppitz, B.; Krueger, M.; Poppe, M.; Spitzer, H.; Staa, R. van; Almeida, F.; Baecker, A.; Barreiro, F.; Brandt, S.; Derikum, K.; Grupen, C.; Meyer, H.J.; Mueller, H.; Neumann, B.; Rost, M.; Stupperich, K.; Zech, G.; Alexander, G.; Bella, G.; Gnat, Y.; Grunhaus, J.; Junge, H.; Kraski, K.; Maxeiner, C.; Maxeiner, H.; Meyer, H.; Schmidt, D.
1987-01-01
We present results on jet production in γγ interactions where both photons are quasi-real. The invariant masses of the hadronic system are limited to the range 4≤W vis 12 GeV/c 2 . The data approach the Quark-Parton-Model (QPM) expectation at the highest p T jet values (≥4 GeV/c). Jet production at low p T (≤1 GeV/c) can be described by a Vector Dominance derived model. The data also have a component with no apparent jet structure in the range, 1.0≤p T jet ≤4.0 GeV/c which can be described by phase space or by models of the QCD hard scattering processes γγ→qanti qg and γγ→qanti qqanti q. (orig.)
Vasseur, G.
1996-03-01
Is the photon mass strictly null as it is told in quantum electrodynamics. In fact, a coherent theory can be build with a massive photon. Experiences have been regularly led to try to make obvious an eventual non null photon mass. Superior limits more and more strict have been found. Here is given a general survey of the consequences of a non null photon mass, different methods to measure it and the achieved limits. (author). 30 refs., 1 fig
Biomedical photonics handbook biomedical diagnostics
Vo-Dinh, Tuan
2014-01-01
Shaped by Quantum Theory, Technology, and the Genomics RevolutionThe integration of photonics, electronics, biomaterials, and nanotechnology holds great promise for the future of medicine. This topic has recently experienced an explosive growth due to the noninvasive or minimally invasive nature and the cost-effectiveness of photonic modalities in medical diagnostics and therapy. The second edition of the Biomedical Photonics Handbook presents fundamental developments as well as important applications of biomedical photonics of interest to scientists, engineers, manufacturers, teachers, studen
Photons, photon jets, and dark photons at 750 GeV and beyond.
Dasgupta, Basudeb; Kopp, Joachim; Schwaller, Pedro
2016-01-01
In new physics searches involving photons at the LHC, one challenge is to distinguish scenarios with isolated photons from models leading to "photon jets". For instance, in the context of the 750 GeV diphoton excess, it was pointed out that a true diphoton resonance [Formula: see text] can be mimicked by a process of the form [Formula: see text], where S is a new scalar with a mass of 750 GeV and a is a light pseudoscalar decaying to two collinear photons. Photon jets can be distinguished from isolated photons by exploiting the fact that a large fraction of photons convert to an [Formula: see text] pair inside the inner detector. In this note, we quantify this discrimination power, and we study how the sensitivity of future searches differs for photon jets compared to isolated photons. We also investigate how our results depend on the lifetime of the particle(s) decaying to the photon jet. Finally, we discuss the extension to [Formula: see text], where there are no photons at all but the dark photon [Formula: see text] decays to [Formula: see text] pairs. Our results will be useful in future studies of the putative 750 GeV signal, but also more generally in any new physics search involving hard photons.
Photons, photon jets and dark photons at 750 GeV and beyond
Dasgupta, Basudeb; Kopp, Joachim
2016-03-01
In new physics searches involving photons at the LHC, one challenge is to distinguish scenarios with isolated photons from models leading to ''photon jets''. For instance, in the context of the 750 GeV diphoton excess, it was pointed out that a true diphoton resonance S → γγ can be mimicked by a process of the form pp → S → aa → 4γ, where S is a new scalar with a mass of 750 GeV and a is a light pseudoscalar decaying to two collinear photons. Photon jets can be distinguished from isolated photons by exploiting the fact that a large fraction of photons convert to an e + e - pair inside the inner detector. In this note, we quantify this discrimination power, and we study how the sensitivity of future searches differs for photon jets compared to isolated photons. We also investigate how our results depend on the lifetime of the particle(s) decaying to the photon jet. Finally, we discuss the extension to S → A'A' → e + e - e + e - , where there are no photons at all but the dark photon A' decays to e + e - pairs. Our results will be useful in future studies of the putative 750 GeV signal, but also more generally in any new physics search involving hard photons.
Reconstruction of multiple line source attenuation maps
Celler, A.; Sitek, A.; Harrop, R.
1996-01-01
A simple configuration for a transmission source for the single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was proposed, which utilizes a series of collimated line sources parallel to the axis of rotation of a camera. The detector is equipped with a standard parallel hole collimator. We have demonstrated that this type of source configuration can be used to generate sufficient data for the reconstruction of the attenuation map when using 8-10 line sources spaced by 3.5-4.5 cm for a 30 x 40cm detector at 65cm distance from the sources. Transmission data for a nonuniform thorax phantom was simulated, then binned and reconstructed using filtered backprojection (FBP) and iterative methods. The optimum maps are obtained with data binned into 2-3 bins and FBP reconstruction. The activity in the source was investigated for uniform and exponential activity distributions, as well as the effect of gaps and overlaps of the neighboring fan beams. A prototype of the line source has been built and the experimental verification of the technique has started
Daniell, M.L.
2000-09-01
The motivation of this thesis was to create higher-order entanglements. The first experimental observation of a four-photon entanglement was presented in the experiment of this thesis. And the visibility of this entanglement was 0.79+-0.06, which is sufficient to make claims of the nonlocality of quantum mechanics. This therefore lays a foundation for experiments showing the nonlocality of teleportation, and the purification of entanglement. The work of this thesis brings together a lot of earlier work done by the Zeilinger Group, and lays a foundation for future experiments. Earlier experiments such as teleportation together with entanglement swapping, which are 'complete teleportation' in as much as the state teleported is entirely undefined, can be combined and re-done with this four-photon entanglement. This result would be the first demonstration of complete, nonlocal teleportation. Also this experiment can be slightly modified and used to perform the first experimental quantum purification of entanglement, which is of vital importance to the fields of quantum information, and also is interesting for fundamental experiments on entanglement. Another direct application of this experiment is to perform the first 'event-ready' testing of Bell's Inequality. Here the four-photon entanglement can be used as a source of entangled photons, whereby the photons have no common source. This would enable an even more stringent testing of Bells theorem. Finally this experiment can be used for the demonstration and investigation of many practical, directly applicable quantum information schemes. For instance quantum cryptography, error correction, and computing. (author)
Nonlinear photonic quasicrystals
Freedman, B.; Bartal, G.; Segev, M.; Lifshitz, R.; Christodoulides, D.; Fleischer, J.
2005-01-01
Full Text:Quasicrystals are structures with long-range order and no periodicity, whose unique structural and physical properties have intrigued scientists ever since their discovery and initial theoretical analysis more than two decades ago. The lack of periodicity excludes the use of well-established theoretical and experimental tools for the analysis of quasicrystals, including such notions as the Brillouin zone and Bloch theorem. Instead, the quasiperiodic atomic arrangement gives rise to unique properties such as a hierarchy of effective Brillouin (or Jones) zones, yielding a fractal-like band structure, and the existence of unique phason degrees of freedom. Generally, in atomic quasicrystals it is very difficult to directly observe the evolution of electronic wave-packets propagating through the structure, or the dynamics of the structure itself. Photonic quasicrystals, on the other hand, are macroscopic objects and hence their internal wave dynamics can be locally excited and directly imaged. Here, we employ optical induction to create 2D photonic quasicrystals, and explore wave transport phenomena in quasicrystals in ways that were impossible until now. We demonstrate linear tunneling-transport of light initiated at different crystal sites, and observe the formation of lattice solitons when the light is made sufficiently intense. We experiment with dynamical photonic quasicrystals, in which crystal sites interact with one another, and directly observe dislocation dynamics: creation, healing, and local structural rearrangement due to phason flips. Our experiments show that photonic quasicrystals are an excellent model system through which one can study the universal features of wave dynamics in quasiperiodic structures, that should apply not only to photonics, but also to other systems such as matter waves in quasiperiodic traps, generic pattern-forming systems as in parametrically-excited surface waves, liquid quasicrystals, as well as the more familiar
Delbourgo, R.
1976-01-01
Owing to weak interactions, the three-photon vertex is non-zero. From gauge invariance and symmetry requirements, it is proved that the C = -1P = - 1 vertex amplitudes are at least of order q 7 in the limit of soft photon momentum q and that if any two photons are placed on mass shell the form factors vanish identically. (author)
Optimization of photonic crystal cavities
Wang, Fengwen; Sigmund, Ole
2017-01-01
We present optimization of photonic crystal cavities. The optimization problem is formulated to maximize the Purcell factor of a photonic crystal cavity. Both topology optimization and air-hole-based shape optimization are utilized for the design process. Numerical results demonstrate...... that the Purcell factor of the photonic crystal cavity can be significantly improved through optimization....
Neuromorphic photonic networks using silicon photonic weight banks.
Tait, Alexander N; de Lima, Thomas Ferreira; Zhou, Ellen; Wu, Allie X; Nahmias, Mitchell A; Shastri, Bhavin J; Prucnal, Paul R
2017-08-07
Photonic systems for high-performance information processing have attracted renewed interest. Neuromorphic silicon photonics has the potential to integrate processing functions that vastly exceed the capabilities of electronics. We report first observations of a recurrent silicon photonic neural network, in which connections are configured by microring weight banks. A mathematical isomorphism between the silicon photonic circuit and a continuous neural network model is demonstrated through dynamical bifurcation analysis. Exploiting this isomorphism, a simulated 24-node silicon photonic neural network is programmed using "neural compiler" to solve a differential system emulation task. A 294-fold acceleration against a conventional benchmark is predicted. We also propose and derive power consumption analysis for modulator-class neurons that, as opposed to laser-class neurons, are compatible with silicon photonic platforms. At increased scale, Neuromorphic silicon photonics could access new regimes of ultrafast information processing for radio, control, and scientific computing.
Attenuation in Superconducting Circular Waveguides
K. H. Yeap
2016-09-01
Full Text Available We present an analysis on wave propagation in superconducting circular waveguides. In order to account for the presence of quasiparticles in the intragap states of a superconductor, we employ the characteristic equation derived from the extended Mattis-Bardeen theory to compute the values of the complex conductivity. To calculate the attenuation in a circular waveguide, the tangential fields at the boundary of the wall are first matched with the electrical properties (which includes the complex conductivity of the wall material. The matching of fields with the electrical properties results in a set of transcendental equations which is able to accurately describe the propagation constant of the fields. Our results show that although the attenuation in the superconducting waveguide above cutoff (but below the gap frequency is finite, it is considerably lower than that in a normal waveguide. Above the gap frequency, however, the attenuation in the superconducting waveguide increases sharply. The attenuation eventually surpasses that in a normal waveguide. As frequency increases above the gap frequency, Cooper pairs break into quasiparticles. Hence, we attribute the sharp rise in attenuation to the increase in random collision of the quasiparticles with the lattice structure.
Photorefractive Photonics 2017
2017-01-01
Preface This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series represents a selection of the contributions presented in the Photorefractive Photonics 2017 (PR17) conference which was held in Qingdao, Shandong, China from July 17 through July 20, 2017. The conference is the successor of the traditional Photorefractive (PR) Conference Series: the International Conference on Photorefractive Effects, Materials and Devices. The first PR Conference was held in Los Angeles, California, USA in 1987. After that, the PR Conference was held every two years around the world: Aussois, France (1989), Beverly, Massachusetts, USA (1991), Kiev, Ukraine (1993), Aspen Lodge, Colorado, USA (1995), Chiba, Japan (1997), Elsinore, Denmark (1999), Delevan, Wisconsin, USA (2001), Nice, France (2003), Sanya, Hainan, China (2005), Olympic Valley, California, USA (2007), Bad Honnef, Germany (2009), Ensenada, Mexico (2011), Winchester, UK (2013) and Villars, Switzerland (2015). The Conference was renamed to be Photorefractive Photonics Conference in 2015. The PR17 conference was organized by Nankai University, Qingdao University and Qingdao Society of Physics. The scientific topics of the PR17 conference include, but not limited to, wave mixing and its applications (T1), nonlinear light-matter interaction and its applications (T2), material engineering and photonic micro-structures (T3), photorefractive lattice photonics (T4), digital photorefractive photonics (T5), and novel photorefractive effects, materials and applications (T6). Note that both traditional topics such as photorefractive wave mixing and new topics such as energy photonics and nano/micro-structures based on photorefractive effects and materials are included, especially, basic issues such as the influence of pyroelectric effect on the photorefractive wave-mixing are considered, and much attention was paid to the development of new applications of photorefractive effects and materials, which reflect the current state of the art
CERN. Geneva
2011-01-01
The fine granularity ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter provides a precise measurement of the photon energy and direction, as well as efficient rejection of background from fake photons, while the high precision inner detector allows also the reconstruction of photons that convert into electron-positron pairs.Isolated photons are measured using well-defined infrared-safe isolation criteria corrected for underlying event and the effects of additional proton-proton collisions. Differential cross sections for inclusive photons and diphotons are presented, and the spectrum of diphoton production is used to search for the Higgs boson in this decay channel.
Roy, Dibyendu
2010-01-01
We propose a novel scheme of realizing an optical diode at the few-photon level. The system consists of a one-dimensional waveguide coupled asymmetrically to a two-level system. The two or multi-photon transport in this system is strongly correlated. We derive exactly the single and two-photon current and show that the two-photon current is asymmetric for the asymmetric coupling. Thus the system serves as an optical diode which allows transmission of photons in one direction much more efficie...
Sonnenschein, Lars; /RWTH Aachen U.
2009-06-01
Photon plus jet production has been studied by the D0 experiment in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at a centre of mass energy of {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. Measurements of the inclusive photon, inclusive photon plus jet, photon plus heavy flavour jet cross sections and double parton interactions in photon plus three jet events are presented. They are based on integrated luminosities between 0.4 fb{sup -1} and 1.0 fb{sup -1}. The results are compared to perturbative QCD calculations in various approximations.
Chofor, Ndimofor; Harder, Dietrich; Willborn, Kay; Rühmann, Antje; Poppe, Björn
2011-09-01
The varying low-energy contribution to the photon spectra at points within and around radiotherapy photon fields is associated with variations in the responses of non-water equivalent dosimeters and in the water-to-material dose conversion factors for tissues such as the red bone marrow. In addition, the presence of low-energy photons in the photon spectrum enhances the RBE in general and in particular for the induction of second malignancies. The present study discusses the general rules valid for the low-energy spectral component of radiotherapeutic photon beams at points within and in the periphery of the treatment field, taking as an example the Siemens Primus linear accelerator at 6 MV and 15 MV. The photon spectra at these points and their typical variations due to the target system, attenuation, single and multiple Compton scattering, are described by the Monte Carlo method, using the code BEAMnrc/EGSnrc. A survey of the role of low energy photons in the spectra within and around radiotherapy fields is presented. In addition to the spectra, some data compression has proven useful to support the overview of the behaviour of the low-energy component. A characteristic indicator of the presence of low-energy photons is the dose fraction attributable to photons with energies not exceeding 200 keV, termed P(D)(200 keV). Its values are calculated for different depths and lateral positions within a water phantom. For a pencil beam of 6 or 15 MV primary photons in water, the radial distribution of P(D)(200 keV) is bellshaped, with a wide-ranging exponential tail of half value 6 to 7 cm. The P(D)(200 keV) value obtained on the central axis of a photon field shows an approximately proportional increase with field size. Out-of-field P(D)(200 keV) values are up to an order of magnitude higher than on the central axis for the same irradiation depth. The 2D pattern of P(D)(200 keV) for a radiotherapy field visualizes the regions, e.g. at the field margin, where changes of
Monitoring moisture movements in building materials using x-ray attenuation
Pease, Bradley Justin; Scheffler, Gregor A.; Janssen, Hans
2012-01-01
analysis with a composite model consisting of a dry porous material and a thickness of water equivalent to the moisture content of the material. The current formulation of this composite model relies on certain assumptions, including a monochromatic x-ray photon beam source (i.e., x-ray photons of a single....... Implications of this inconsistency are introduced and discussed. This paper presents both an overview of fundamental descriptions of the x-ray attenuation measurement technique and results from a parametric experimental study of various porous construction materials, including calcium silicate board, aerated...
A comparison study for mass attenuation coefficients of some amino acids using MCNP code
Vahabi, Seyed Milad; Bahreynipour, Mostean; Shamsaie-Zafarghandi, Mojtaba [Amirkabir Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Energy Engineering and Physics
2017-07-15
In this study, a novel model of MCNP4C code reported recently was used to determine the photon mass attenuation coefficients of some amino acids at energies, 123, 360, 511, 662, 1170, 1280 and 1330 keV. The simulation results were compared with the XCOM data. It was indicated that the results were highly close to the calculated XCOM values. Obtained results were used to calculate the molar extinction coefficient. All the results showed the convenience and usefulness of the model in calculation of mass attenuation coefficients of amino acids.
Photonic-powered cable assembly
Sanderson, Stephen N.; Appel, Titus James; Wrye, IV, Walter C.
2013-01-22
A photonic-cable assembly includes a power source cable connector ("PSCC") coupled to a power receive cable connector ("PRCC") via a fiber cable. The PSCC electrically connects to a first electronic device and houses a photonic power source and an optical data transmitter. The fiber cable includes an optical transmit data path coupled to the optical data transmitter, an optical power path coupled to the photonic power source, and an optical feedback path coupled to provide feedback control to the photonic power source. The PRCC electrically connects to a second electronic device and houses an optical data receiver coupled to the optical transmit data path, a feedback controller coupled to the optical feedback path to control the photonic power source, and a photonic power converter coupled to the optical power path to convert photonic energy received over the optical power path to electrical energy to power components of the PRCC.
A scanner for single photon emission tomography
Smith, D.B.; Cumpstey, D.E.; Evans, N.T.S.; Coleman, J.D.; Ettinger, K.V.; Mallard, J.R.
1982-01-01
The technique of single photon ECT has now been available for some eighteen years, but has yet still to be exploited fully. The difficulties of doing this lie in the need for gathering data of sufficiently good statistical accuracy in a reasonable counting time, in the uniformity of detector sensitivity, and in the means for correcting the image satisfactorily for photon attenuation within the body. The relative ease with which a general purpose gamma camera can be adapted to give rotation around the patient makes this an attractive practical approach to the problem. However, the sensitivity of gamma cameras over their field of view is by no means uniform, and their sensitivity is less good than that of purpose-designed scanners when no more than about ten sections through the body are required. There is therefore a need to assess the clinical usefulness of a whole body tomographic scanner of high sensitivity and uniformity. Such a machine is the Aberdeen Section Scanner Mark II described
Rogers, Alan; Baets, Roel
2008-01-01
Photons and ElectronsHistorical SketchThe Wave Nature of LightPolarizationThe Electromagnetic SpectrumEmission and Absorption ProcessesPhoton Statistics The Behaviour of Electrons LasersSummaryWave Properties of LightThe Electromagnetic SpectrumWave RepresentationElectromagnetic WavesReflection and RefractionTotal Internal ReflectionInterference of LightLight WaveguidingInterferometersDiffractionGaussian Beams and Stable Optical ResonatorsPolarization OpticsThe Polarization EllipseCrystal OpticsRetarding WaveplatesA Variable Waveplate: The Soleil-Babinet Compensator Polarizing PrismsLinear BirefringenceCircular BirefringenceElliptical BirefringencePractical Polarization EffectsPolarization AnalysisThe Form of the Jones MatricesLight and Matter Emission, Propagation, and Absorption ProcessesClassical Theory of Light Propagation in Uniform Dielectric Media Optical Dispersion Emission and Absorption of LightOptical Coherence and CorrelationIntroductionMeasure of Coherence Wiener-Khinchin TheoremDual-Beam Interfe...
Nonlocal structures: bilocal photon
Clapp, R.E.
1980-01-01
It is postulated that all particles and fields are built from a single primitive field, a massless fermion with a σ spin of one-half. Two helicities are embodied in a tau spin of one-half. The vacuum is an open Fermi sea whose height is a wave number kappa. Elementary particles are structures having the form of standing-wave systems floating on the vacuum sea. A bilocal photon starts with a function describing two primitive quanta with parallel σ spin and opposite tau spin. A centroid-time wave equation then couples-in and infinite set of orthogonal functions. The introduction of an operator Qlambda permits the reduction of the infinite secular determinant to finite six-by-six determinant. Solutions are obtained describing photons with right-handed and left-handed polarizations. Electric and magnetic field vectors satisfying the vacuum Maxwell equations, are obtained from a bilocal Hertz vector. (author)
Quantum communication with photons
Tittel, W.
2005-01-01
Full text: The discovery that transmission of information encoded into single quantum systems enables new forms of communication let to the emergence of the domain of quantum communication. During the last ten years, various key experiments based on photons as carrier of the quantum information have been realized. Today, quantum cryptography systems based on faint laser pulses can be purchased commercially, bi-partite entanglement has been distributed over long distances and has been used for quantum key distribution, and quantum purification, teleportation and entanglement swapping have been demonstrated. I will give a general introduction into this fascinating field and will review experimental achievements in the domain of quantum communication with discrete two-level quantum systems (qubits) encoded into photons. (author)
Reider, Georg A
2016-01-01
This book provides a comprehensive introduction into photonics, from the electrodynamic and quantum mechanic fundamentals to the level of photonic components and building blocks such as lasers, amplifiers, modulators, waveguides, and detectors. The book will serve both as textbook and as a reference work for the advanced student or scientist. Theoretical results are derived from basic principles with convenient, yet state-of-the-art mathematical tools, providing not only deeper understanding but also familiarization with formalisms used in the relevant technical literature and research articles. Among the subject matters treated are polarization optics, pulse and beam propagation, waveguides, light–matter interaction, stationary and transient behavior of lasers, semiconductor optics and lasers (including low-dimensional systems such as quantum wells), detector technology, photometry, and colorimetry. Nonlinear optics are elaborated comprehensively. The book is intended for both students of physics and elect...
MCNP: Photon benchmark problems
Whalen, D.J.; Hollowell, D.E.; Hendricks, J.S.
1991-09-01
The recent widespread, markedly increased use of radiation transport codes has produced greater user and institutional demand for assurance that such codes give correct results. Responding to these pressing requirements for code validation, the general purpose Monte Carlo transport code MCNP has been tested on six different photon problem families. MCNP was used to simulate these six sets numerically. Results for each were compared to the set's analytical or experimental data. MCNP successfully predicted the analytical or experimental results of all six families within the statistical uncertainty inherent in the Monte Carlo method. From this we conclude that MCNP can accurately model a broad spectrum of photon transport problems. 8 refs., 30 figs., 5 tabs
Nonlinear Photonic Crystal Fibers
Hansen, Kim Per
2004-01-01
Despite the general recession in the global economy and the collapse of the optical telecommunication market, research within specialty fibers is thriving. This is, more than anything else, due to the technology transition from standard all-glass fibers to photonic crystal fibers, which, instead....... The freedom to design the dispersion profile of the fibers is much larger and it is possible to create fibers, which support only a single spatial mode, regardless of wavelength. In comparison, the standard dispersion-shifted fibers are limited by a much lower index-contrast between the core and the cladding...... in 1996, and are today on their way to become the dominating technology within the specialty fiber field. Whether they will replace the standard fiber in the more traditional areas like telecommunication transmission, is not yet clear, but the nonlinear photonic crystal fibers are here to stay....
Vigneron, Jean Pol, E-mail: jean-pol.vigneron@fundp.ac.be [Research Center in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur (FUNDP), rue de Bruxelles, 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Simonis, Priscilla [Research Center in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur (FUNDP), rue de Bruxelles, 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium)
2012-10-15
Photonic structures appeared in nature several hundred millions years ago. In the living world, color is used for communication and this important function strongly impacts the individual chances of survival as well as the chances to reproduce. This has a statistical influence on species populations. Therefore, because they are involved in evolution, natural color-generating structures are - from some point of view - highly optimized. In this short review, a survey is presented of the development of natural photonic crystal-type structures occurring in insects, spiders, birds, fishes and other marine animals, in plants and more, from the standpoint of light-waves propagation. One-, two-, and three-dimensional structures will be reviewed with selected examples.
Chapman, D.
1988-01-01
PHOTON has proven very useful in the development of the X17 superconducting wiggler beamline. Its use has determined the shielding required from the wiggler device to the very end of the beamline in the hutches and angiography section. Doses calculated by this program have been compared with experimental results from conventional bending magnet beamline with great success. In each case the program consistently overestimated the dose by factors ranging from 2 to 10. The reason for this overestimation is understood and was not refined further in the program in order to maintain some level of safety in the shielding calculations. PHOTON should prove useful in the design of any beamline. Its ability to calculate power deposited and spectra transmitted through nearly arbitrary beamline configurations as well as the scattered radiation doses through shielding walls make it a very powerful tool
Vigneron, Jean Pol; Simonis, Priscilla
2012-01-01
Photonic structures appeared in nature several hundred millions years ago. In the living world, color is used for communication and this important function strongly impacts the individual chances of survival as well as the chances to reproduce. This has a statistical influence on species populations. Therefore, because they are involved in evolution, natural color-generating structures are - from some point of view - highly optimized. In this short review, a survey is presented of the development of natural photonic crystal-type structures occurring in insects, spiders, birds, fishes and other marine animals, in plants and more, from the standpoint of light-waves propagation. One-, two-, and three-dimensional structures will be reviewed with selected examples.
The LCLS Gas Attenuator Revisited
Ryutov, D
2005-01-01
In the report ''X-ray attenuation cell'' [1] a preliminary analysis of the gas attenuator for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) was presented. This analysis was carried out for extremely stringent set of specifications. In particular, a very large diameter for the unobstructed beam was set (1 cm) to accommodate the spontaneous radiation; the attenuator was supposed to cover the whole range of energies of the coherent radiation, from 800 eV to 8000 eV; the maximum attenuation was set at the level of 10 4 ; the use of solid attenuators was not allowed, as well as the use of rotating shutters. The need to reach a sufficient absorption at the high-energy end of the spectrum predetermined the choice of Xe as the working gas (in order to have a reasonable absorption at a not-too-high pressure). A sophisticated differential pumping system that included a Penning-type ion pump was suggested in order to minimize the gas leak into the undulator/accelerator part of the facility. A high cost of xenon meant also that an efficient (and expensive) gas-recovery system would have to be installed. The main parameter that determined the high cost and the complexity of the system was a large radius of the orifice. The present viewpoint allows for much smaller size of the orifice, r 0 = 1.5 mm. (1) The use of solid attenuators is also allowed (R.M. Bionta, private communication). It is, therefore, worthwhile to reconsider various parameters of the gas attenuator for these much less stringent conditions. This brief study should be considered as a physics input for the engineering design. As a working gas we consider now the argon, which, on the one hand, provides a reasonable absorption lengths and, on the other hand, is inexpensive enough to be exhausted into the atmosphere (no recovery). The absorption properties of argon are illustrated by Fig.1 where the attenuation factor A is shown for various beam energies, based on Ref. [2]. The other relevant parameters for argon are
Josephson tunnel junction microwave attenuator
Koshelets, V. P.; Shitov, S. V.; Shchukin, A. V.
1993-01-01
A new element for superconducting electronic circuitry-a variable attenuator-has been proposed, designed, and successfully tested. The principle of operation is based on the change in the microwave impedance of a superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) Josephson tunnel junction when dc biased...... at different points in the current-voltage characteristic. Both numerical calculations based on the Tien-Gordon theory and 70-GHz microwave experiments have confirmed the wide dynamic range (more than 15-dB attenuation for one stage) and the low insertion loss in the ''open'' state. The performance of a fully...
Simple and efficient absorption filter for single photons from a cold atom quantum memory.
Stack, Daniel T; Lee, Patricia J; Quraishi, Qudsia
2015-03-09
The ability to filter unwanted light signals is critical to the operation of quantum memories based on neutral atom ensembles. Here we demonstrate an efficient frequency filter which uses a vapor cell filled with (85)Rb and a buffer gas to attenuate both residual laser light and noise photons by nearly two orders of magnitude with little loss to the single photons associated with our cold (87)Rb quantum memory. This simple, passive filter provides an additional 18 dB attenuation of our pump laser and erroneous spontaneous emissions for every 1 dB loss of the single photon signal. We show that the addition of a frequency filter increases the non-classical correlations and the retrieval efficiency of our quantum memory by ≈ 35%.
Illuminating WISPs with photons
Arias, Paola
2011-10-01
Physics beyond the Standard Model naturally gives rise to very light and weakly interacting particles, dubbed WISPs (Weakly Interacting Slim Particles). A prime example is the axion, that has eluded experimental detection for more than thirty years. In this talk we review some of the strongly motivated candidates for such particles, the observational hints for them and the present status of searches with photon regeneration experiments, as well as possible future improvements. (orig.)
Manipulating atoms with photons
Cohen-Tannoudji, C.N.
1998-01-01
The article is a translation of the lecture delivered on the occasion of the 1997 Nobel Prize awarding ceremony. The physical mechanisms which allow manipulating of neutral atoms with laser photons are described. A remark is also made concerning several possible applications of ultra-cool atoms and streams of future research. The article is completed by Prof. Cohen-Tannoudji's autobiography. (Z.J.)
Obada, A.S.F.; Abu Sitta, A.M.M.; Yasin, O.M.
1993-01-01
A non-degenerate 3-photon micromaser is analyzed. A 4-level atom is taken and 3 models of the field are considered. The model is solved for the case of resonance and the master equation for the density matrix is obtained. Semi-analytical solutions are obtained under specified approximations. Three modes can exist depending on the time of interaction. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs
Goldhaber, A.S.; Nieto, M.M.
1976-01-01
Several experiments are discussed for which results are equivalent to the catching and weighing of a photon. It is noted that none of the experiments has proved the rest mass to be zero and that such a proof may be impossible. It is shown by such experiments that the rest mass is less than the limit of accuracy of the experiment. These limits have approached ever closer to zero, and the most recent values are exceedingly small
Photonic Molecule Lasers Revisited
Gagnon, Denis; Dumont, Joey; Déziel, Jean-Luc; Dubé, Louis J.
2014-05-01
Photonic molecules (PMs) formed by coupling two or more optical resonators are ideal candidates for the fabrication of integrated microlasers, photonic molecule lasers. Whereas most calculations on PM lasers have been based on cold-cavity (passive) modes, i.e. quasi-bound states, a recently formulated steady-state ab initio laser theory (SALT) offers the possibility to take into account the spectral properties of the underlying gain transition, its position and linewidth, as well as incorporating an arbitrary pump profile. We will combine two theoretical approaches to characterize the lasing properties of PM lasers: for two-dimensional systems, the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory will obtain the resonant modes of the coupled molecules in an active medium described by SALT. Not only is then the theoretical description more complete, the use of an active medium provides additional parameters to control, engineer and harness the lasing properties of PM lasers for ultra-low threshold and directional single-mode emission. We will extend our recent study and present new results for a number of promising geometries. The authors acknowledge financial support from NSERC (Canada) and the CERC in Photonic Innovations of Y. Messaddeq.
Berger, C.
1984-01-01
In principle we have to distinguish between three cases: In no-tag experiments, none of the outgoing leptons e + e - is detected. The photon flux is completely dominated by transversely polarized photons, which are practically on-mass-shell. In single-tag experiments, either the outgoing e - or e + is detected in a forward spectrometer. Sometimes the tagging information is only used for separating a multihadronic twophoton final state from e + e - annihilation states. On the other hand, the information from the forward detectors can be used to investigate the Q 2 behaviour of the cross-section. A combination of tagging on one side with antitagging on the other allows an easy interpretation of the results in terms of electron scattering off a real photon target. In double-tag experiments, both outgoing leptons are measured. In principle, the full kinematical structure of the process can be studied, but we are still a long way from starting to tackle this difficult task
Slotted Photonic Crystal Sensors
Scullion, Mark G.; Krauss, Thomas F.; Di Falco, Andrea
2013-01-01
Optical biosensors are increasingly being considered for lab-on-a-chip applications due to their benefits such as small size, biocompatibility, passive behaviour and lack of the need for fluorescent labels. The light guiding mechanisms used by many of them results in poor overlap of the optical field with the target molecules, reducing the maximum sensitivity achievable. This review article presents a new platform for optical biosensors, namely slotted photonic crystals, which provide higher sensitivities due to their ability to confine, spatially and temporally, the optical mode peak within the analyte itself. Loss measurements showed values comparable to standard photonic crystals, confirming their ability to be used in real devices. A novel resonant coupler was designed, simulated, and experimentally tested, and was found to perform better than other solutions within the literature. Combining with cavities, microfluidics and biological functionalization allowed proof-of-principle demonstrations of protein binding to be carried out. Higher sensitivities were observed in smaller structures than possible with most competing devices reported in the literature. This body of work presents slotted photonic crystals as a realistic platform for complete on-chip biosensing; addressing key design, performance and application issues, whilst also opening up exciting new ideas for future study. PMID:23503295
Nonlinear photonic metasurfaces
Li, Guixin; Zhang, Shuang; Zentgraf, Thomas
2017-03-01
Compared with conventional optical elements, 2D photonic metasurfaces, consisting of arrays of antennas with subwavelength thickness (the 'meta-atoms'), enable the manipulation of light-matter interactions on more compact platforms. The use of metasurfaces with spatially varying arrangements of meta-atoms that have subwavelength lateral resolution allows control of the polarization, phase and amplitude of light. Many exotic phenomena have been successfully demonstrated in linear optics; however, to meet the growing demand for the integration of more functionalities into a single optoelectronic circuit, the tailorable nonlinear optical properties of metasurfaces will also need to be exploited. In this Review, we discuss the design of nonlinear photonic metasurfaces — in particular, the criteria for choosing the materials and symmetries of the meta-atoms — for the realization of nonlinear optical chirality, nonlinear geometric Berry phase and nonlinear wavefront engineering. Finally, we survey the application of nonlinear photonic metasurfaces in optical switching and modulation, and we conclude with an outlook on their use for terahertz nonlinear optics and quantum information processing.
Slotted Photonic Crystal Sensors
Andrea Di Falco
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Optical biosensors are increasingly being considered for lab-on-a-chip applications due to their benefits such as small size, biocompatibility, passive behaviour and lack of the need for fluorescent labels. The light guiding mechanisms used by many of them results in poor overlap of the optical field with the target molecules, reducing the maximum sensitivity achievable. This review article presents a new platform for optical biosensors, namely slotted photonic crystals, which provide higher sensitivities due to their ability to confine, spatially and temporally, the optical mode peak within the analyte itself. Loss measurements showed values comparable to standard photonic crystals, confirming their ability to be used in real devices. A novel resonant coupler was designed, simulated, and experimentally tested, and was found to perform better than other solutions within the literature. Combining with cavities, microfluidics and biological functionalization allowed proof-of-principle demonstrations of protein binding to be carried out. Higher sensitivities were observed in smaller structures than possible with most competing devices reported in the literature. This body of work presents slotted photonic crystals as a realistic platform for complete on-chip biosensing; addressing key design, performance and application issues, whilst also opening up exciting new ideas for future study.
Fairchild, R.G.; Bond, V.P.
1982-01-01
Photon Activation Therapy (PAT) is a technique in which radiation dose to tumor is enhanced via introduction of stable 127 I in the form of iodinated deoxyuridine (IdUrd). Stimulation of cytotoxic effects from IdUrd is accomplished by activation with external (or implanted) radiation sources. Thus, accumulations of this nucleoside in actively competing cellpools do not preclude therapy in so far as such tissues can be excluded from the radiation field. Calculations show that 5% replacement of thymidine (Tyd) in tumor DNA should enhance the biological effectiveness of a given photon radiotherapy dose by a factor of approx. 3. Proportionally higher gains would result from higher replacements of Tyd and IdUrd. In addition, biological response is enhanced by chemical sensitization with IdUrd. The data indicate that damage from photon activation as well as chemical sensitization does not repair. Thus, at low dose rates, a further increase in therapeutic gain should accrue as normal tissues are allowed to repair and regenerate. A samarium-145 source has been developed for PAT, with activating x-ray energies of from 38 to 45 keV. Favorable clinical results can be expected through the use of IdUrd and protracted irradiations with low energy x-rays. In particular, PAT may provide unique advantages at selected sites such as brain, or head and neck tumors
Photonic crystal based polarization insensitive flat lens
Turduev, M; Bor, E; Kurt, H
2017-01-01
The paper proposes a new design of an inhomogeneous artificially created photonic crystal lens structure consisting of annular dielectric rods to efficiently focus both transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations of light into the same focal point. The locations of each individual cell that contains the annular dielectric rods are determined according to a nonlinear distribution function. The inner and outer radii of the annular photonic dielectric rods are optimized with respect to the polarization insensitive frequency response of the transmission spectrum of the lens structure. The physical background of the polarization insensitive focusing mechanism is investigated in both spatial and frequency domains. Moreover, polarization independent wavefront transformation/focusing has been explored in detail by investigating the dispersion relation of the structure. Corresponding phase index distribution of the lens is attained for polarization insensitive normalized frequency range of a / λ = 0.280 and a / λ = 0.300, where a denotes the lattice constant of the designed structure and λ denotes the wavelength of the incident light. We show the wave transformation performance and focal point movement dynamics for both polarizations of the lens structure by specially adjusting the length of the structure. The 3D finite-difference time domain numerical analysis is also performed to verifiy that the proposed design is able to focus the wave regardless of polarization into approximately the same focal point (difference between focal distances of both polarizations stays below 0.25 λ ) with an operating bandwidth of 4.30% between 1476 nm and 1541 nm at telecom wavelengths. The main superiorities of the proposed lens structure are being all dielectric and compact, and having flat front and back surfaces, rendering the proposed lens design more practical in the photonic integration process in various applications such as optical switch
Detecting The EBL Attenuation Of Blazars With GLAST
Reyes, Luis C.
2006-09-01
The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board GLAST (Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope) due for launch in Fall 2007 will study the gamma-ray sky in the energy range 20 MeV to >300 GeV. GLAST-LAT's improved sensitivity with respect to previous missions will increase the number of known Blazars from about 100 to thousands, with redshifts up to z 5. Since Gamma rays with energy above 10 GeV interact via pair-production with photons from the Extragalactic Background Light (EBL), the systematic attenuation of GLAST-detected Blazars as a function of redshift would constitute and effective and unique probe to the optical-UV EBL density and its evolution over cosmic history. Based on the GLAST-LAT instrument performance, detailed simulations of expected blazar populations attenuated by EBL have been performed. In this poster we present an analysis of such simulations in order to measure the EBL attenuation, ensuing a clear distinction between competing EBL models.
Gain attenuation of gated framing camera
Xiao Shali; Liu Shenye; Cao Zhurong; Li Hang; Zhang Haiying; Yuan Zheng; Wang Liwei
2009-01-01
The theoretic model of framing camera's gain attenuation is analyzed. The exponential attenuation curve of the gain along the pulse propagation time is simulated. An experiment to measure the coefficient of gain attenuation based on the gain attenuation theory is designed. Experiment result shows that the gain follows an exponential attenuation rule with a quotient of 0.0249 nm -1 , the attenuation coefficient of the pulse is 0.00356 mm -1 . The loss of the pulse propagation along the MCP stripline is the leading reason of gain attenuation. But in the figure of a single stripline, the gain dose not follow the rule of exponential attenuation completely, instead, there is a gain increase at the stripline bottom. That is caused by the reflection of the pulse. The reflectance is about 24.2%. Combining the experiment and theory, which design of the stripline MCP can improved the gain attenuation. (authors)
INDIA: Photon multiplicity detector
Anon.
1995-01-01
Full text: The team of Indian scientists from Calcutta's Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Bhubaneswar Institute of Physics, Panjab (Chandigarh), Rajasthan (Jaipur) and Jammu in collaboration with GSI Darmstadt have contributed a large and highly granular preshower photon multiplicity detector (PMD) for the WA98 experiment at the CERN SPS proton synchrotron. This experiment studies high energy collisions of lead ions and will measure both charged particle and photon multiplicity in a large overlap region. The motivation for measuring photon multiplicity in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions stems from theoretical predictions of changes in the relative production of photons and charged particles in the phase transition of hadronic matter to quarkgluon plasma and its subsequent hadronization. The photon multiplicity detector consists of a matrix of scintillator pads placed in light-tight boxes and mounted behind the lead converter plates. The light from the scintillator pads is transported to the readout system using wavelength shifting (WLS) fibres. Developing on the team's earlier experience with a smaller version for the WA93 experiment (September 1991, page 16), several modifications were incorporated to improve light collection and transport. Use of improved WLS fibres, short WLS pieces to minimize self-absorption, and thermal splicing with long clear fibres were some of the important changes incorporated. Tests showed signficantly improved light collection. The scintillator pads were fabricated at all the five collaborating centres in India and the complicated assembly in the detector box modules carried out at the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta. More than 400 lead converter plates were machined in Calcutta to rigorous tolerances of 0.2 mm. The assembled detector box modules and lead plates were shipped to CERN in spring 1994 for tests and installation. The WA98 PMD consists of over 50,000 scintillator pads of sizes varying from 15 to
INDIA: Photon multiplicity detector
Anon.
1995-01-15
Full text: The team of Indian scientists from Calcutta's Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Bhubaneswar Institute of Physics, Panjab (Chandigarh), Rajasthan (Jaipur) and Jammu in collaboration with GSI Darmstadt have contributed a large and highly granular preshower photon multiplicity detector (PMD) for the WA98 experiment at the CERN SPS proton synchrotron. This experiment studies high energy collisions of lead ions and will measure both charged particle and photon multiplicity in a large overlap region. The motivation for measuring photon multiplicity in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions stems from theoretical predictions of changes in the relative production of photons and charged particles in the phase transition of hadronic matter to quarkgluon plasma and its subsequent hadronization. The photon multiplicity detector consists of a matrix of scintillator pads placed in light-tight boxes and mounted behind the lead converter plates. The light from the scintillator pads is transported to the readout system using wavelength shifting (WLS) fibres. Developing on the team's earlier experience with a smaller version for the WA93 experiment (September 1991, page 16), several modifications were incorporated to improve light collection and transport. Use of improved WLS fibres, short WLS pieces to minimize self-absorption, and thermal splicing with long clear fibres were some of the important changes incorporated. Tests showed signficantly improved light collection. The scintillator pads were fabricated at all the five collaborating centres in India and the complicated assembly in the detector box modules carried out at the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta. More than 400 lead converter plates were machined in Calcutta to rigorous tolerances of 0.2 mm. The assembled detector box modules and lead plates were shipped to CERN in spring 1994 for tests and installation. The WA98 PMD consists of over 50,000 scintillator pads of sizes varying from 15 to 25 mm
Photon-photon inclusive scattering and perturbative QCD
Maor, U.
1988-01-01
Perturbative QCD expectations and problems associated with the study of the photon structure function data are reviewed. An assessment is given for the viability and sensitivity of photon-photon scattering as a decisive tool for the determination of the QCD scale. Particular attention is given to the theoretical problems of singularity cancellations at x = 0 and threshold-associated difficulties at x = 1 and their implications on the actual data analysis. It is concluded that the experimental results, while not providing a decisive verification of QCD at small distances, do add to other independent experiments which are all consistent with the theory and suggest a reasonably well defined QCD scale parameter. The importance of the small Q 2 limit to photon-photon analysis is discussed and the data are examined in an attempt to identify and isolate the contributions of the hadronic and point-like sectors of the target photon. 21 refs., 7 figs. (author)
Transient attenuation in optical fibers
Hopkins, A.A.; Kelly, R.E.; Looney, L.D.; Lyons, P.B.
1984-01-01
Low and high energy pulsed electron beams were used to generate radiation-induced transient attenuation in high-OH, Suprasil core, PCS fibers, demonstrating the energy dependence of the radiation damage and recovery mechanisms. A radiation resistant low-OH fiber was studied and its performance contrasted to that of high-OH materials. Several fibers with differing core compositions were also studied
A Generalized Correction for Attenuation.
Petersen, Anne C.; Bock, R. Darrell
Use of the usual bivariate correction for attenuation with more than two variables presents two statistical problems. This pairwise method may produce a covariance matrix which is not at least positive semi-definite, and the bivariate procedure does not consider the possible influences of correlated errors among the variables. The method described…
Compact plasmonic variable optical attenuator
Leosson, Kristjan; Rosenzveig, Tiberiu; Hermannsson, Pétur Gordon
2008-01-01
We demonstrate plasmonic nanowire-based thermo-optic variable optical attenuators operating in the 1525-1625 nm wavelength range. The devices have a footprint as low as 1 mm, extinction ratio exceeding 40 dB, driving voltage below 3 V, and full modulation bandwidth of 1 kHz. The polarization...
Attenuation of Vrancea events revisited
Radulian, M.; Popa, M.; Grecu, B.; Panza, G.F.
2003-11-01
New aspects of the frequency-dependent attenuation of the seismic waves traveling from Vrancea subcrustal sources toward NW (Transylvanian Basin) and SE (Romanian Plain) are evidenced by the recent experimental data made available by the CALIXTO'99 tomography experiment. The observations validate the previous theoretical computations performed for the assessment, by means of a deterministic approach, of the seismic hazard in Romania. They reveal an essential aspect of the seismic ground motion attenuation, that has important implications on the probabilistic assessment of seismic hazard from Vrancea intermediate-depth earthquakes. The attenuation toward NW is shown to be a much stronger frequency-dependent effect than the attenuation toward SE and the seismic hazard computed by the deterministic approach fits satisfactorily well the observed ground motion distribution in the low-frequency band (< 1 Hz). The apparent contradiction with the historically-based intensity maps arises mainly from a systematic difference in the vulnerability (buildings eigenperiod) of the buildings in the intra- and extra-Carpathians regions. (author)
First Swiss bachelor in Photonics
Leutenegger, Tobias; Studer, Bruno
2015-10-01
Swissmem, the Swiss association of mechanical and electrical engineering industries, founded a new photonics group in 2013. This reflects the importance of this key technology for Switzerland. Swissmem requested from the Swiss Universities of Applied Sciences to introduce a new bachelor program to fulfill the increasing demand of the Swiss industry of young academics in the field of photonics. Optech Consulting is investigating the Swiss photonics market since many years on behalf of Swissphotonics, the Swiss national thematic network for photonics. The study concluded that the total production volume of the Swiss photonics industry in the year 2013 was 3 billion Swiss francs and a slight growth is expected for 2014. The University of Applied Science HTW Chur is located in the Eastern part of Switzerland. This area of the Rhine valley is a technology cluster of innovative companies in the field of optics and electronics. The industry is growing and the R&D departments of the worldwide active companies are lacking well-educated photonics engineers. The HTW Chur is dedicated to establish the first Swiss bachelor in Photonics. Supported by strong industrial players and an excellent network, the HTW Chur developed different job descriptions and a complete curriculum, which reflect the needs of the Swiss photonics industry. Almost 60% of the ECTS of this national degree program are assigned to photonics specific courses and the practical projects are organized in close collaboration with the photonics industry. Curriculum, job descriptions and the industrial needs will be discussed in detail in this paper.
Optics of globular photonic crystals
Gorelik, V S
2007-01-01
The results of experimental and theoretical studies of the optical properties of globular photonic crystals - new physical objects having a crystal structure with the lattice period exceeding considerably the atomic size, are presented. As globular photonic crystals, artificial opal matrices consisting of close-packed silica globules of diameter ∼200 nm were used. The reflection spectra of these objects characterising the parameters of photonic bands existing in these crystals in the visible spectral region are presented. The idealised models of the energy band structure of photonic crystals investigated in the review give analytic dispersion dependences for the group velocity and the effective photon mass in a globular photonic crystal. The characteristics of secondary emission excited in globular photonic crystals by monochromatic and broadband radiation are presented. The results of investigations of single-photon-excited delayed scattering of light observed in globular photonic crystals exposed to cw UV radiation and radiation from a repetitively pulsed copper vapour laser are presented. The possibilities of using globular photonic crystals as active media for lasing in different spectral regions are considered. It is proposed to use globular photonic crystals as sensitive sensors in optoelectronic devices for molecular analysis of organic and inorganic materials by the modern methods of laser spectroscopy. The results of experimental studies of spontaneous and stimulated globular scattering of light are discussed. The conditions for observing resonance and two-photon-excited delayed scattering of light are found. The possibility of accumulation and localisation of the laser radiation energy inside a globular photonic crystal is reported. (review)
Photon correlation in single-photon frequency upconversion.
Gu, Xiaorong; Huang, Kun; Pan, Haifeng; Wu, E; Zeng, Heping
2012-01-30
We experimentally investigated the intensity cross-correlation between the upconverted photons and the unconverted photons in the single-photon frequency upconversion process with multi-longitudinal mode pump and signal sources. In theoretical analysis, with this multi-longitudinal mode of both signal and pump sources system, the properties of the signal photons could also be maintained as in the single-mode frequency upconversion system. Experimentally, based on the conversion efficiency of 80.5%, the joint probability of simultaneously detecting at upconverted and unconverted photons showed an anti-correlation as a function of conversion efficiency which indicated the upconverted photons were one-to-one from the signal photons. While due to the coherent state of the signal photons, the intensity cross-correlation function g(2)(0) was shown to be equal to unity at any conversion efficiency, agreeing with the theoretical prediction. This study will benefit the high-speed wavelength-tunable quantum state translation or photonic quantum interface together with the mature frequency tuning or longitudinal mode selection techniques.
Photon technology. Laser process technology; Photon technology. Laser process gijutsu
NONE
1997-03-01
For developing laser process technology by interaction between substance and photon, the present state, system, R and D issues and proposal of such technology were summarized. Development of the photon technology aims at the modification of bonding conditions of substances by quantum energy of photon, and the new process technology for generating ultra- high temperature and pressure fields by concentrating photon on a minute region. Photon technology contributes to not only the conventional mechanical and thermal forming and removal machining but also function added machining (photon machining) in quantum level and new machining technology ranging from macro- to micro-machining, creating a new industrial field. This technology extends various fields from the basis of physics and chemistry to new bonding technology. Development of a compact high-quality high-power high-efficiency photon source, and advanced photon transmission technology are necessary. The basic explication of an unsolved physicochemical phenomenon related to photon and substance, and development of related application technologies are essential. 328 refs., 147 figs., 13 tabs.
Resonant Photonic States in Coupled Heterostructure Photonic Crystal Waveguides
Sabarinathan J
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we study the photonic resonance states and transmission spectra of coupled waveguides made from heterostructure photonic crystals. We consider photonic crystal waveguides made from three photonic crystals A, B and C, where the waveguide heterostructure is denoted as B/A/C/A/B. Due to the band structure engineering, light is confined within crystal A, which thus act as waveguides. Here, photonic crystal C is taken as a nonlinear photonic crystal, which has a band gap that may be modified by applying a pump laser. We have found that the number of bound states within the waveguides depends on the width and well depth of photonic crystal A. It has also been found that when both waveguides are far away from each other, the energies of bound photons in each of the waveguides are degenerate. However, when they are brought close to each other, the degeneracy of the bound states is removed due to the coupling between them, which causes these states to split into pairs. We have also investigated the effect of the pump field on photonic crystal C. We have shown that by applying a pump field, the system may be switched between a double waveguide to a single waveguide, which effectively turns on or off the coupling between degenerate states. This reveals interesting results that can be applied to develop new types of nanophotonic devices such as nano-switches and nano-transistors.
Evaluation of attenuation and scatter correction requirements in small animal PET and SPECT imaging
Konik, Arda Bekir
Positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission tomography (SPECT) are two nuclear emission-imaging modalities that rely on the detection of high-energy photons emitted from radiotracers administered to the subject. The majority of these photons are attenuated (absorbed or scattered) in the body, resulting in count losses or deviations from true detection, which in turn degrades the accuracy of images. In clinical emission tomography, sophisticated correction methods are often required employing additional x-ray CT or radionuclide transmission scans. Having proven their potential in both clinical and research areas, both PET and SPECT are being adapted for small animal imaging. However, despite the growing interest in small animal emission tomography, little scientific information exists about the accuracy of these correction methods on smaller size objects, and what level of correction is required. The purpose of this work is to determine the role of attenuation and scatter corrections as a function of object size through simulations. The simulations were performed using Interactive Data Language (IDL) and a Monte Carlo based package, Geant4 application for emission tomography (GATE). In IDL simulations, PET and SPECT data acquisition were modeled in the presence of attenuation. A mathematical emission and attenuation phantom approximating a thorax slice and slices from real PET/CT data were scaled to 5 different sizes (i.e., human, dog, rabbit, rat and mouse). The simulated emission data collected from these objects were reconstructed. The reconstructed images, with and without attenuation correction, were compared to the ideal (i.e., non-attenuated) reconstruction. Next, using GATE, scatter fraction values (the ratio of the scatter counts to the total counts) of PET and SPECT scanners were measured for various sizes of NEMA (cylindrical phantoms representing small animals and human), MOBY (realistic mouse/rat model) and XCAT (realistic human model
Direct Reconstruction of CT-based Attenuation Correction Images for PET with Cluster-Based Penalties
Kim, Soo Mee; Alessio, Adam M.; De Man, Bruno; Asma, Evren; Kinahan, Paul E.
2015-01-01
Extremely low-dose CT acquisitions for the purpose of PET attenuation correction will have a high level of noise and biasing artifacts due to factors such as photon starvation. This work explores a priori knowledge appropriate for CT iterative image reconstruction for PET attenuation correction. We investigate the maximum a posteriori (MAP) framework with cluster-based, multinomial priors for the direct reconstruction of the PET attenuation map. The objective function for direct iterative attenuation map reconstruction was modeled as a Poisson log-likelihood with prior terms consisting of quadratic (Q) and mixture (M) distributions. The attenuation map is assumed to have values in 4 clusters: air+background, lung, soft tissue, and bone. Under this assumption, the MP was a mixture probability density function consisting of one exponential and three Gaussian distributions. The relative proportion of each cluster was jointly estimated during each voxel update of direct iterative coordinate decent (dICD) method. Noise-free data were generated from NCAT phantom and Poisson noise was added. Reconstruction with FBP (ramp filter) was performed on the noise-free (ground truth) and noisy data. For the noisy data, dICD reconstruction was performed with the combination of different prior strength parameters (β and γ) of Q- and M-penalties. The combined quadratic and mixture penalties reduces the RMSE by 18.7% compared to post-smoothed iterative reconstruction and only 0.7% compared to quadratic alone. For direct PET attenuation map reconstruction from ultra-low dose CT acquisitions, the combination of quadratic and mixture priors offers regularization of both variance and bias and is a potential method to derive attenuation maps with negligible patient dose. However, the small improvement in quantitative accuracy relative to the substantial increase in algorithm complexity does not currently justify the use of mixture-based PET attenuation priors for reconstruction of CT
Photon-splitting cross sections
Johannessen, A.M.; Mork, K.J.; Overbo, I.
1980-01-01
The differential cross section for photon splitting (scattering of one photon into two photons) in a Coulomb field, obtained earlier by Shima, has been integrated numerically to yield various differential cross sections. Energy spectra differential with respect to the energy of one of the outgoing photons are presented for several values of the primary photon energy. Selected examples of recoil momentum distributions and some interesting doubly or multiply differential cross sections are also given. Values for the total cross section are obtained essentially for all energies. The screening effect caused by atomic electrons is also taken into account, and is found to be important for high energies, as in e + e - pair production. Comparisons with various approximate results obtained by previous authors mostly show fair agreement. We also discuss the possibilities for experimental detection and find the most promising candidate to be a measurement of both photons, and their energies, at a moderately high energy
Very energetic photons at HERA
Bawa, A.C.; Krawczyk, M.
1991-01-01
We show that every energetic photons in the backward direction can be produced in deep inelastic Compton scattering at HERA. Assuming a fixed energy of 9 GeV for the initial photons and 820 GeV for the protons a high rate is found for the production of final photons with a transverse momentum equal to 5 GeV/c and energy between 40 GeV and 300 GeV. These energetic photons arise mainly from the scattering of the soft gluonic constituents of the initial photon with quarks from the proton. They are produced in the backward direction in coincidence with a photon beam jet of energy ∝ 9 GeV in the forward direction. (orig.)
All-photonic quantum repeaters
Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong
2015-01-01
Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories. PMID:25873153
Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Fox, Patrick J.; Kearney, John [Fermilab, Theoretical Physics Department, Batavia, IL (United States)
2017-10-15
We study models that produce a Higgs boson plus photon (h{sup 0}γ) resonance at the LHC. When the resonance is a Z{sup '} boson, decays to h{sup 0}γ occur at one loop. If the Z{sup '} boson couples at tree level to quarks, then the h{sup 0}γ branching fraction is typically of order 10{sup -5} or smaller. Nevertheless, there are models that would allow the observation of Z{sup '} → h{sup 0}γ at √(s) = 13 TeV with a cross section times branching fraction larger than 1 fb for a Z{sup '} mass in the 200-450 GeV range, and larger than 0.1 fb for a mass up to 800 GeV. The one-loop decay of the Z{sup '} into lepton pairs competes with h{sup 0}γ, even if the Z{sup '} couplings to leptons vanish at tree level. We also present a model in which a Z{sup '} boson decays into a Higgs boson and a pair of collimated photons, mimicking an h{sup 0}γ resonance. In this model, the h{sup 0}γ resonance search would be the discovery mode for a Z{sup '} as heavy as 2 TeV. When the resonance is a scalar, although decay to h{sup 0}γ is forbidden by angular momentum conservation, the h{sup 0} plus collimated photons channel is allowed. We comment on prospects of observing an h{sup 0}γ resonance through different Higgs decays, on constraints from related searches, and on models where h{sup 0} is replaced by a nonstandard Higgs boson. (orig.)
Kinnischtzke, Laura A.
We report on several experiments using single excitons confined to single semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). Electric and magnetic fields have previously been used as experimental knobs to understand and control individual excitons in single quantum dots. We realize new ways of electric field control by changing materials and device geometry in the first two experiments with strain-based InAs QDs. A standard Schottky diode heterostructure is demonstrated with graphene as the Schottky gate material, and its performance is bench-marked against a diode with a standard gate material, semi-transparent nickel-chromium (NiCr). This change of materials increases the photon collection rate by eliminating absorption in the metallic NiCr layer. A second set of experiments investigates the electric field response of QDs as a possible metrology source. A linear voltage potential drop in a plane near the QDs is used to describe how the spatially varying voltage profile is also imparted on the QDs. We demonstrate a procedure to map this voltage profile as a preliminary route towards a full quantum sensor array. Lastly, InAs QDs are explored as potential spin-photon interfaces. We describe how a magnetic field is used to realize a reversible exchange of information between light and matter, including a discussion of the polarization-dependence of the photoluminesence, and how that can be linked to the spin of a resident electron or hole. We present evidence of this in two wavelength regimes for InAs quantum dots, and discuss how an external magnetic field informs the spin physics of these 2-level systems. This thesis concludes with the discovery of a new class of quantum dots. As-yet unidentified defect states in single layer tungsten diselenide (WSe 2 ) are shown to host quantum light emission. We explore the spatial extent of electron confinement and tentatively identify a radiative lifetime of 1 ns for these single photon emitters.
Nuclear studies with tagged photons
Axel, P.
1979-01-01
First, the photon tagging technique will be described schematically, and a brief history of photon tagging will be given, including the 20 year development of this technique at Illinois. In the second part some typical operating conditions will be indicated for our tagged photon facility. The final section of this paper will illustrate some types of experiments by showing data obtained recently. (KBE) 891 KBE/KBE 892 ARA
Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Angelis, Aris L S; Antonenko, V G; Arefev, V; Astakhov, V A; Avdeichikov, V; Awes, T C; Baba, P V K S; Badyal, S K; Barlag, C; Bathe, S; Batyunya, B; Bernier, T; Bhalla, K B; Bhatia, V S; Blume, C; Bock, R; Bohne, E M; Böröcz, Z K; Bucher, D; Buijs, A; Büsching, H; Carlén, L; Chalyshev, V; Chattopadhyay, S; Cherbachev, R; Chujo, T; Claussen, A; Das, A C; Decowski, M P; Delagrange, H; Dzhordzhadze, V; Dönni, P; Dubovik, I; Dutt, S; Dutta-Majumdar, M R; El-Chenawi, K F; Eliseev, S; Enosawa, K; Foka, P Y; Fokin, S L; Ganti, M S; Garpman, S; Gavrishchuk, O P; Geurts, F J M; Ghosh, T K; Glasow, R; Gupta, S K; Guskov, B; Gustafsson, Hans Åke; Gutbrod, H H; Higuchi, R; Hrivnacova, I; Ippolitov, M S; Kalechofsky, H; Kamermans, R; Kampert, K H; Karadzhev, K; Karpio, K; Kato, S; Kees, S; Klein-Bösing, C; Knoche, S; Kolb, B W; Kosarev, I G; Kucheryaev, I; Krümpel, T; Kugler, A; Kulinich, P A; Kurata, M; Kurita, K; Kuzmin, N A; Langbein, I; Lee, Y Y; Löhner, H; Luquin, Lionel; Mahapatra, D P; Man'ko, V I; Martin, M; Martínez, G; Maksimov, A; Mgebrishvili, G; Miake, Y; Mir, M F; Mishra, G C; Miyamoto, Y; Mohanty, B; Morrison, D; Mukhopadhyay, D S; Naef, H; Nandi, B K; Nayak, S K; Nayak, T K; Neumaier, S; Nyanin, A; Nikitin, V A; Nikolaev, S; Nilsson, P O; Nishimura, S; Nomokonov, V P; Nystrand, J; Obenshain, F E; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, I; Pachr, M; Pavlyuk, S; Peitzmann, Thomas; Petracek, V; Pinganaud, W; Plasil, F; Von Poblotzki, U; Purschke, M L; Rak, J; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ramamurthy, V S; Rao, N K; Retière, F; Reygers, K; Roland, G; Rosselet, L; Rufanov, I A; Roy, C; Rubio, J M; Sako, H; Sambyal, S S; Santo, R; Sato, S; Schlagheck, H; Schmidt, H R; Schutz, Y; Shabratova, G; Shah, T H; Sibiryak, Yu; Siemiarczuk, T; Silvermyr, D; Sinha, B C; Slavin, N V; Söderström, K; Solomey, Nickolas; Sood, G; Sørensen, S P; Stankus, P; Stefanek, G; Steinberg, P; Stenlund, E; Stüken, D; Sumbera, M; Svensson, S; Trivedi, M D; Tsvetkov, A A; Tykarski, L; Urbahn, J; Van den Pijll, E C; van Eijndhoven, N; van Nieuwenhuizen, G J; Vinogradov, A; Viyogi, Y P; Vodopyanov, A S; Vörös, S; Wyslouch, B; Yagi, K; Yokota, Y; Young, G R
2002-01-01
A measurement of direct photon production in /sup 208/Pb+/sup 208/Pb collisions at 158 A GeV has been carried out in the CERN WA98 experiment. The invariant yield of direct photons was extracted as a function of transverse momentum in the interval 0.51.5 GeV/c. the result constitutes the first observation of direct photons in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. (19 refs).
Silicon photonic integration in telecommunications
Christopher Richard Doerr
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Silicon photonics is the guiding of light in a planar arrangement of silicon-based materials to perform various functions. We focus here on the use of silicon photonics to create transmitters and receivers for fiber-optic telecommunications. As the need to squeeze more transmission into a given bandwidth, a given footprint, and a given cost increases, silicon photonics makes more and more economic sense.
CERN manufactured hybrid photon detectors
Maximilien Brice
2004-01-01
These hybrid photon detectors (HPDs) produce an electric signal from a single photon. An electron is liberated from a photocathode and accelerated to a silicon pixel array allowing the location of the photon on the cathode to be recorded. The electronics and optics for these devices have been developed in close collaboration with industry. HPDs have potential for further use in astrophysics and medical imaging.
Nanodiamond Emitters of Single Photons
Vlasov I.I.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Luminescence properties of single color centers were studied in nanodiamonds of different origin. It was found that single photon emitters could be realized even in molecularsized diamond (less than 2 nm capable of housing stable luminescent center “silicon-vacancy.” First results on incorporation of single-photon emitters based on luminescent nanodiamonds in plasmonic nanoantennas to enhance the photon count rate and directionality, diminish the fluorescence decay time, and provide polarization selectivity are presented.
Spaceborne Photonics Institute
Venable, D. D.; Farrukh, U. O.; Han, K. S.; Hwang, I. H.; Jalufka, N. W.; Lowe, C. W.; Tabibi, B. M.; Lee, C. J.; Lyons, D.; Maclin, A.
1994-01-01
This report describes in chronological detail the development of the Spaceborne Photonics Institute as a sustained research effort at Hampton University in the area of optical physics. This provided the research expertise to initiate a PhD program in Physics. Research was carried out in the areas of: (1) modelling of spaceborne solid state laser systems; (2) amplified spontaneous emission in solar pumped iodine lasers; (3) closely simulated AM0 CW solar pumped iodine laser and repeatedly short pulsed iodine laser oscillator; (4) a materials spectroscopy and growth program; and (5) laser induced fluorescence and atomic and molecular spectroscopy.
Wiersma, D.S.
2013-01-01
We discuss in detail the optical properties of complex photonic structures, in particular those with a dominating disorder component. We will focus on their general transport properties, as well as on their use as light sources (random lasers). The basis for the theory of multiple light scattering in random systems will be explained as a tutorial introduction to the topic, including the explicit calculation of the effect of coherent backscattering. We will discuss various structures that go beyond regular disordered ones, in particular Levy glasses, liquid crystals, and quasicrystals, and show examples of their optical properties both from a conceptual and practical point of view.
Photon mass and electrogenesis
Dolgov, Alexander; Pelliccia, Diego N.
2007-01-01
We show that if the photon possesses a tiny but non-vanishing mass, the universe cannot be electrically neutral. A cosmological electric asymmetry could be generated either at an early stage by the different evaporation rates of the primordial black holes with respect to positively and negatively charged particles or by a predominant capture of protons in comparison to electrons by the heavy galactic black holes in the contemporary universe. An impact of this phenomenon on the generation of large scale magnetic fields and on the acceleration of the universe is considered
Gupta, Sourendu
2007-01-01
In this talk I discuss measures of fluctuations, especially those leading to the proof that the quark gluon plasma indeed contains quarks. I discuss the quark mass dependence of the critical end point of QCD. Then I discuss probes of the QCD critical point. Non-gaussian behaviour of event-to-event fluctuations of conserved quantum numbers is one such probe. Another is due to the coupling of fluctuations in baryon number and electrical charge, giving rise to long range random fluctuations of local charge density which relax slowly. These fluctuations can scatter photons, giving rise to critical opalescence
Gupta, Sourendu
2007-02-01
In this talk I discuss measures of fluctuations, especially those leading to the proof that the quark gluon plasma indeed contains quarks. I discuss the quark mass dependence of the critical end point of QCD. Then I discuss probes of the QCD critical point. Non-gaussian behaviour of event-to-event fluctuations of conserved quantum numbers is one such probe. Another is due to the coupling of fluctuations in baryon number and electrical charge, giving rise to long range random fluctuations of local charge density which relax slowly. These fluctuations can scatter photons, giving rise to critical opalescence.
Gupta, Sourendu [Department of Theoretical Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India)
2007-02-15
In this talk I discuss measures of fluctuations, especially those leading to the proof that the quark gluon plasma indeed contains quarks. I discuss the quark mass dependence of the critical end point of QCD. Then I discuss probes of the QCD critical point. Non-gaussian behaviour of event-to-event fluctuations of conserved quantum numbers is one such probe. Another is due to the coupling of fluctuations in baryon number and electrical charge, giving rise to long range random fluctuations of local charge density which relax slowly. These fluctuations can scatter photons, giving rise to critical opalescence.
Dirac tensor with heavy photon
Bytev, V.V.; Kuraev, E.A. [Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation). Bogoliubov Lab. of Theoretical Physics; Scherbakova, E.S. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 1. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik
2012-01-15
For the large-angles hard photon emission by initial leptons in process of high energy annihilation of e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} to hadrons the Dirac tensor is obtained, taking into account the lowest order radiative corrections. The case of large-angles emission of two hard photons by initial leptons is considered. This result is being completed by the kinematics case of collinear hard photons emission as well as soft virtual and real photons and can be used for construction of Monte-Carlo generators. (orig.)
Recent photon results from ATLAS
Glasman, Claudia; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
The production of prompt isolated photons at hadron colliders provides a stringent test of perturbative QCD and can be used to probe the gluon density function of the proton. The ATLAS collaboration has performed precise measurements of the inclusive production o f isolated prompt photons at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, differential in both rap idity and the photon transverse momentum. In addition, the integrated and differential c ross sections for isolated photon pair production 8 TeV have been measured. The results are compared with state-of-the-art theory predictions at NLO in QCD and with predictions of several MC generators.
Physics with Photons at the ATLAS experiment
Perez-Reale, V.
2008-01-01
The identification of photons in the ATLAS experiment is crucial for the study of a number of physics channels, including the search for a Higgs boson decaying to photon pairs, and measurements of direct production of single photons and photon pairs. The photon-photon and photon-jet channels are interesting in their own right, allowing the study of QCD at the new energy range of the LHC. The photon-identification strategy in ATLAS will be presented along with photon-jet cross section measurements and the potential ATLAS constrains on the gluon structure function
Integrable microwave filter based on a photonic crystal delay line.
Sancho, Juan; Bourderionnet, Jerome; Lloret, Juan; Combrié, Sylvain; Gasulla, Ivana; Xavier, Stephane; Sales, Salvador; Colman, Pierre; Lehoucq, Gaelle; Dolfi, Daniel; Capmany, José; De Rossi, Alfredo
2012-01-01
The availability of a tunable delay line with a chip-size footprint is a crucial step towards the full implementation of integrated microwave photonic signal processors. Achieving a large and tunable group delay on a millimetre-sized chip is not trivial. Slow light concepts are an appropriate solution, if propagation losses are kept acceptable. Here we use a low-loss 1.5 mm-long photonic crystal waveguide to demonstrate both notch and band-pass microwave filters that can be tuned over the 0-50-GHz spectral band. The waveguide is capable of generating a controllable delay with limited signal attenuation (total insertion loss below 10 dB when the delay is below 70 ps) and degradation. Owing to the very small footprint of the delay line, a fully integrated device is feasible, also featuring more complex and elaborate filter functions.
Kim, E.; Bowsher, J.; Thomas, A. S.; Sakhalkar, H.; Dewhirst, M.; Oldham, M.
2008-10-01
Optical computed tomography (optical-CT) and optical-emission computed tomography (optical-ECT) are new techniques for imaging the 3D structure and function (including gene expression) of whole unsectioned tissue samples. This work presents a method of improving the quantitative accuracy of optical-ECT by correcting for the 'self'-attenuation of photons emitted within the sample. The correction is analogous to a method commonly applied in single-photon-emission computed tomography reconstruction. The performance of the correction method was investigated by application to a transparent cylindrical gelatin phantom, containing a known distribution of attenuation (a central ink-doped gelatine core) and a known distribution of fluorescing fibres. Attenuation corrected and uncorrected optical-ECT images were reconstructed on the phantom to enable an evaluation of the effectiveness of the correction. Significant attenuation artefacts were observed in the uncorrected images where the central fibre appeared ~24% less intense due to greater attenuation from the surrounding ink-doped gelatin. This artefact was almost completely removed in the attenuation-corrected image, where the central fibre was within ~4% of the others. The successful phantom test enabled application of attenuation correction to optical-ECT images of an unsectioned human breast xenograft tumour grown subcutaneously on the hind leg of a nude mouse. This tumour cell line had been genetically labelled (pre-implantation) with fluorescent reporter genes such that all viable tumour cells expressed constitutive red fluorescent protein and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 transcription-produced green fluorescent protein. In addition to the fluorescent reporter labelling of gene expression, the tumour microvasculature was labelled by a light-absorbing vasculature contrast agent delivered in vivo by tail-vein injection. Optical-CT transmission images yielded high-resolution 3D images of the absorbing contrast agent, and
Kim, E; Bowsher, J; Thomas, A S; Sakhalkar, H; Dewhirst, M; Oldham, M
2008-01-01
Optical computed tomography (optical-CT) and optical-emission computed tomography (optical-ECT) are new techniques for imaging the 3D structure and function (including gene expression) of whole unsectioned tissue samples. This work presents a method of improving the quantitative accuracy of optical-ECT by correcting for the 'self'-attenuation of photons emitted within the sample. The correction is analogous to a method commonly applied in single-photon-emission computed tomography reconstruction. The performance of the correction method was investigated by application to a transparent cylindrical gelatin phantom, containing a known distribution of attenuation (a central ink-doped gelatine core) and a known distribution of fluorescing fibres. Attenuation corrected and uncorrected optical-ECT images were reconstructed on the phantom to enable an evaluation of the effectiveness of the correction. Significant attenuation artefacts were observed in the uncorrected images where the central fibre appeared ∼24% less intense due to greater attenuation from the surrounding ink-doped gelatin. This artefact was almost completely removed in the attenuation-corrected image, where the central fibre was within ∼4% of the others. The successful phantom test enabled application of attenuation correction to optical-ECT images of an unsectioned human breast xenograft tumour grown subcutaneously on the hind leg of a nude mouse. This tumour cell line had been genetically labelled (pre-implantation) with fluorescent reporter genes such that all viable tumour cells expressed constitutive red fluorescent protein and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 transcription-produced green fluorescent protein. In addition to the fluorescent reporter labelling of gene expression, the tumour microvasculature was labelled by a light-absorbing vasculature contrast agent delivered in vivo by tail-vein injection. Optical-CT transmission images yielded high-resolution 3D images of the absorbing contrast agent
Photon Differentials in Space and Time
Schjøth, Lars; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Erleben, Kenny
2011-01-01
We present a novel photon mapping algorithm for animations. We extend our previous work on photon differentials [12] with time differentials. The result is a first order model of photon cones in space an time that effectively reduces the number of required photons per frame as well as efficiently...... reduces temporal aliasing without any need for in-between-frame photon maps....
Two-dimensional 'photon fluid': effective photon-photon interaction and physical realizations
Chiao, R Y; Hansson, T H; Leinaas, J M; Viefers, S
2004-01-01
We describe a recently developed effective theory for atom-mediated photon-photon interactions in a two-dimensional 'photon fluid' confined to a Fabry-Perot resonator. The photons in the lowest longitudinal cavity mode will appear as massive bosons interacting via a renormalized delta-function potential with a strength determined by physical parameters such as the density of atoms and the detuning of the photons relative to the resonance frequency of the atoms. We discuss novel quantum phenomena for photons, such as Bose-Einstein condensation and bound state formation, as well as possible experimental scenarios based on Rydberg atoms in a microwave cavity, or alkali atoms in an optical cavity
Ou, Bao-Quan; Liu, Chang; Sun, Yuan; Chen, Ping-Xing
2018-02-01
Inspired by the recent developments of the research on the atom-photon quantum interface and energy-time entanglement between single-photon pulses, we are motivated to study the deterministic protocol for the frequency-bin entanglement of the atom-photon hybrid system, which is analogous to the frequency-bin entanglement between single-photon pulses. We show that such entanglement arises naturally in considering the interaction between a frequency-bin entangled single-photon pulse pair and a single atom coupled to an optical cavity, via straightforward atom-photon phase gate operations. Its anticipated properties and preliminary examples of its potential application in quantum networking are also demonstrated. Moreover, we construct a specific quantum entanglement witness tool to detect such extended frequency-bin entanglement from a reasonably general set of separable states, and prove its capability theoretically. We focus on the energy-time considerations throughout the analysis.
Determining photon energy absorption parameters for different soil samples
Kucuk, Nil; Cakir, Merve; Tumsavas, Zeynal
2013-01-01
The mass attenuation coefficients (μ s ) for five different soil samples were measured at 661.6, 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV photon energies. The soil samples were separately irradiated with 137 Cs and 60 Co (370 kBq) radioactive point gamma sources. The measurements were made by performing transmission experiments with a 2″ x 2″ NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, which had an energy resolution of 7% at 0.662 MeV for the gamma-rays from the decay of 137 Cs. The effective atomic numbers (Z eff ) and the effective electron densities (N eff ) were determined experimentally and theoretically using the obtained μ s values for the soil samples. Furthermore, the Z eff and N eff values of the soil samples were computed for the total photon interaction cross-sections using theoretical data over a wide energy region ranging from 1 keV to 15 MeV. The experimental values of the soils were found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values. Sandy loam and sandy clay loam soils demonstrated poor photon energy absorption characteristics. However, clay loam and clay soils had good photon energy absorption characteristics. (author)
Quantification in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)
Buvat, Irene
2005-01-01
The objective of this lecture is to understand the possibilities and limitations of the quantitative analysis of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. It is also to identify the conditions to be fulfilled to obtain reliable quantitative measurements from images. Content: 1 - Introduction: Quantification in emission tomography - definition and challenges; quantification biasing phenomena; 2 - quantification in SPECT, problems and correction methods: Attenuation, scattering, un-stationary spatial resolution, partial volume effect, movement, tomographic reconstruction, calibration; 3 - Synthesis: actual quantification accuracy; 4 - Beyond the activity concentration measurement
Photonic band gap engineering in 2D photonic crystals
-dimensional photonic crystals with square lattices composed of air holes in dielectric and vice versa i.e., dielectric rods in air, using the plane-wave expansion method are investigated. We then study, how the photonic band gap size is ...
Waveguide superconducting single-photon autocorrelators for quantum photonic applications
Sahin, D.; Gaggero, A.; Frucci, G.; Jahanmirinejad, S.; Sprengers, J.P.; Mattioli, F.; Leoni, R.; Beetz, J.; Lermer, M.; Kamp, M.; Höfling, S.; Fiore, A.; Hasan, Z.U.; Hemmer, P.R.; Lee, H.; Santori, C.M.
2013-01-01
We report a novel component for integrated quantum photonic applications, a waveguide single-photon autocorrelator. It is based on two superconducting nanowire detectors patterned onto the same GaAs ridge waveguide. Combining the electrical output of the two detectors in a correlation card enables
Non-Poissonian photon statistics from macroscopic photon cutting materials
De Jong, Mathijs; Meijerink, A; Rabouw, Freddy T.
2017-01-01
In optical materials energy is usually extracted only from the lowest excited state, resulting in fundamental energy-efficiency limits such as the Shockley-Queisser limit for single-junction solar cells. Photon-cutting materials provide a way around such limits by absorbing high-energy photons and
Exclusive Channels in Photon-Photon Collisions at LEP
Braccini, Saverio
2002-01-01
The study of exclusive channels in photon-photon collisions at e+e- colliders allows to investigate the structure and the properties of hadrons in a very clean experimental environment. A concise review of the most recent results obtained at LEP is presented.
Quantum photonics with quantum dots in photonic wires
Munsch, Mathieu; Kuhlmann, Andreas; Cadeddu, Davide
2016-01-01
We present results from the spectroscopy of a single quantum dot in a photonic wire. The device presents a high photon extraction efficiency, and strong hybrid coupling to mechanical modes. We use resonance fluorescence to probe the emitter’s properties with the highest sensitivity. Weperform...
Sidewall roughness measurement of photonic wires and photonic crystals
Svalgaard, Mikael; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Garnæs, Jørgen
2007-01-01
The performance of nanophotonic building blocks such as photonic wires and photonic crystals are rapidly improving, with very low propagation loss and very high cavity Q-factors being reported. In order to facilitate further improvements in performance the ability to quantitatively measure...
SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION
Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin
2002-01-01
In Section 1 of this first report we will describe the work we are doing to collect and analyze rock physics data for the purpose of modeling seismic attenuation from other measurable quantities such as porosity, water saturation, clay content and net stress. This work and other empirical methods to be presented later, will form the basis for ''Q pseudo-well modeling'' that is a key part of this project. In Section 2 of this report, we will show the fundamentals of a new method to extract Q, dispersion, and attenuation from field seismic data. The method is called Gabor-Morlet time-frequency decomposition. This technique has a number of advantages including greater stability and better time resolution than spectral ratio methods.
Macroseismic intensity attenuation in Iran
Yaghmaei-Sabegh, Saman
2018-01-01
Macroseismic intensity data plays an important role in the process of seismic hazard analysis as well in developing of reliable earthquake loss models. This paper presents a physical-based model to predict macroseismic intensity attenuation based on 560 intensity data obtained in Iran in the time period 1975-2013. The geometric spreading and energy absorption of seismic waves have been considered in the proposed model. The proposed easy to implement relation describes the intensity simply as a function of moment magnitude, source to site distance and focal depth. The prediction capability of the proposed model is assessed by means of residuals analysis. Prediction results have been compared with those of other intensity prediction models for Italy, Turkey, Iran and central Asia. The results indicate the higher attenuation rate for the study area in distances less than 70km.
Maximon, L.C.; Ganz, Eric; Aniel, Thierry; Miniac, Arlette de.
1982-03-01
We consider in detail the differential cross section for polarized bremsstrahlung for angles and energies in the range of interest for a tagging system and derive a high energy, small angle approximation for this cross section. We use these approximations to determine the maxima and minima of the cross sections for these two polarization states, dσperpendicular and dσparallel, and to evaluate these cross sections at the extrema. It is shown that both dσperpendicular and dσparallel have a very sharp dip in the region of small momentum transfers. However, their behavior in the region of the dip, as a function of the azimuthal angle phi, is quite different over most of the photon spectrum. The cross section dσperpendicular behaves similarly to the cross section for unpolarized photons in that as phi increases, the sharp dip vanishes, the minimum fuses with the second maximum, and the cross section then has only a single maximum. In contrast, the sharp dip in the cross section dσparallel remains as phi increases. Coulomb corrections to the Born approximation are considered, and do not fill in these dips
Photon compression in cylinders
Ensley, D.L.
1977-01-01
It has been shown theoretically that intense microwave radiation is absorbed non-classically by a newly enunciated mechanism when interacting with hydrogen plasma. Fields > 1 Mg, lambda > 1 mm are within this regime. The predicted absorption, approximately P/sub rf/v/sub theta/sup e/, has not yet been experimentally confirmed. The applications of such a coupling are many. If microwave bursts approximately > 5 x 10 14 watts, 5 ns can be generated, the net generation of power from pellet fusion as well as various military applications becomes feasible. The purpose, then, for considering gas-gun photon compression is to obtain the above experimental capability by converting the gas kinetic energy directly into microwave form. Energies of >10 5 joules cm -2 and powers of >10 13 watts cm -2 are potentially available for photon interaction experiments using presently available technology. The following topics are discussed: microwave modes in a finite cylinder, injection, compression, switchout operation, and system performance parameter scaling
ENHANCEMENTS TO NATURAL ATTENUATION: SELECTED CASE STUDIES
Vangelas, K; W. H. Albright, W; E. S. Becvar, E; C. H. Benson, C; T. O. Early, T; E. Hood, E; P. M. Jardine, P; M. Lorah, M; E. Majche, E; D. Major, D; W. J. Waugh, W; G. Wein, G; O. R. West, O
2007-05-15
In 2003 the US Department of Energy (DOE) embarked on a project to explore an innovative approach to remediation of subsurface contaminant plumes that focused on introducing mechanisms for augmenting natural attenuation to achieve site closure. Termed enhanced attenuation (EA), this approach has drawn its inspiration from the concept of monitored natural attenuation (MNA).
Meinert, Tobias; Tietz, Olaf; Palme, Klaus J.; Rohrbach, Alexander
2016-01-01
Image quality in light-sheet fluorescence microscopy is strongly affected by the shape of the illuminating laser beam inside embryos, plants or tissue. While the phase of Gaussian or Bessel beams propagating through thousands of cells can be partly controlled holographically, the propagation of fluorescence light to the detector is difficult to control. With each scatter process a fluorescence photon loses information necessary for the image generation. Using Arabidopsis root tips we demonstrate that ballistic and diffusive fluorescence photons can be separated by analyzing the image spectra in each plane without a priori knowledge. We introduce a theoretical model allowing to extract typical scattering parameters of the biological material. This allows to attenuate image contributions from diffusive photons and to amplify the relevant image contributions from ballistic photons through a depth dependent deconvolution. In consequence, image contrast and resolution are significantly increased and scattering artefacts are minimized especially for Bessel beams with confocal line detection. PMID:27553506
Quantitative single-photon emission tomography for cerebral flow and receptor distribution imaging
Budinger, T.F.
1985-01-01
Recently there has been renewed interest in single-photon emission tomography for two major reasons. First, correction methods have been devised for attenuation compensation, nonuniform resolution, and scattered radiation. Second, new radiopharmaceuticals with 1-5% uptake in the brain provide adequate statistics for quantitative imaging of flow using properly designed single-photon tomographic instruments. The lack of commercially available instruments designed specifically to optimize sensitivity for a resolution finer than 15 mm full width at half maximum (FWHM) seems now to be the major deterrent to the widespread use of single-photon emission tomography. But it appears now that some development in this respect also might lead to a widespread renewed interest in single-photon tomography of the brain. Major activities of the past few years can be placed in three distinct categories of instrumentation and methodology
Meinert, Tobias; Tietz, Olaf; Palme, Klaus J; Rohrbach, Alexander
2016-08-24
Image quality in light-sheet fluorescence microscopy is strongly affected by the shape of the illuminating laser beam inside embryos, plants or tissue. While the phase of Gaussian or Bessel beams propagating through thousands of cells can be partly controlled holographically, the propagation of fluorescence light to the detector is difficult to control. With each scatter process a fluorescence photon loses information necessary for the image generation. Using Arabidopsis root tips we demonstrate that ballistic and diffusive fluorescence photons can be separated by analyzing the image spectra in each plane without a priori knowledge. We introduce a theoretical model allowing to extract typical scattering parameters of the biological material. This allows to attenuate image contributions from diffusive photons and to amplify the relevant image contributions from ballistic photons through a depth dependent deconvolution. In consequence, image contrast and resolution are significantly increased and scattering artefacts are minimized especially for Bessel beams with confocal line detection.
Damla, N.; Baltas, H.; Celik, A.; Kiris, E.; Cevik, U.
2008-01-01
Some building materials, regularly used in Turkey, such as sand, cement, gas concrete (lightweight, aerated concrete), tile and brick, have been investigated in terms of mass attenuation coefficient, effective atomic, numbers (Z eff ), effective electron densities (N e ) and photon interaction cross section (σ a ) at 14 different energies from 81- to 1332-keV gamma-ray energies. The gamma rays were detected by using gamma-ray spectroscopy, a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. The elemental compositions of samples were analysed using an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Mass attenuation coefficients of these samples have been compared with tabulations based upon the results of WinXcom. The theoretical mass attenuation coefficients were estimated using the mixture rule and the experimental values of investigated parameters were compared with the calculated values. The agreement of measured values of mass attenuation coefficient, effective atomic numbers, effective electron densities and photon interaction cross section with the theory has been found to be quite satisfactory. (authors)
Attenuation of the gamma rays in tissues; Atenuacion de los rayos gamma en tejidos
Arcos P, A.; Rodriguez N, S.; Pinedo S, A.; Amador V, P.; Chacon R, A.; Vega C, H.R. [Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)
2005-07-01
The mass and lineal attenuation coefficient and of hepatic tissue, muscular, osseous and of brain before gamma rays of 10{sup -3} to 10{sup 5} MeV were calculated. For the case of the osseous tissue the calculation was made for the cartilage, the cortical tissue and the bone marrow. During the calculations the elementary composition of the tissues of human origin was used. The calculations include by separate the Photoelectric effect, the Compton scattering and the Pair production, as well as the total. For to establish a comparison with the attenuation capacities, the coefficients of the water, the aluminum and the lead also were calculated. The study was complemented measuring the attenuation coefficient of hepatic tissue of bovine before gamma rays of 0.662 MeV of a source of {sup 137} Cs. The measurement was made through of an experiment of photons transmission through samples frozen of hepatic tissue and with a Geiger-Mueller detector. (Author)
Gaidash, A A; Egorov, V I; Gleim, A V
2016-01-01
Quantum cryptography allows distributing secure keys between two users so that any performed eavesdropping attempt would be immediately discovered. However, in practice an eavesdropper can obtain key information from multi-photon states when attenuated laser radiation is used as a source of quantum states. In order to prevent actions of an eavesdropper, it is generally suggested to implement special cryptographic protocols, like decoy states or SARG04. In this paper, we describe an alternative method based on monitoring photon number statistics after detection. We provide a useful rule of thumb to estimate approximate order of difference of expected distribution and distribution in case of attack. Formula for calculating a minimum value of total pulses or time-gaps to resolve attack is shown. Also formulas for actual fraction of raw key known to Eve were derived. This method can therefore be used with any system and even combining with mentioned special protocols. (paper)
Robust Adaptive Photon Tracing using Photon Path Visibility
Hachisuka, Toshiya; Jensen, Henrik Wann
2011-01-01
We present a new adaptive photon tracing algorithm which can handle illumination settings that are considered difficult for photon tracing approaches such as outdoor scenes, close-ups of a small part of an illuminated region, and illumination coming through a small gap. The key contribution in our...... algorithm is the use of visibility of photon path as the importance function which ensures that our sampling algorithm focuses on paths that are visible from the given viewpoint. Our sampling algorithm builds on two recent developments in Markov chain Monte Carlo methods: adaptive Markov chain sampling...... and replica exchange. Using these techniques, each photon path is adaptively mutated and it explores the sampling space efficiently without being stuck at a local peak of the importance function. We have implemented this sampling approach in the progressive photon mapping algorithm which provides visibility...
Modification of equivalent photon approximation (EPA) for resolved photon processes
Drees, M.; Godbole, R.M.
1995-05-01
The authors propose a modification of the equivalent photon approximation (EPA) for processes which involve the parton content of the photon, to take into account the suppression of the photonic parton fluxes due to the virtuality of the photon. They present simple, physically motivated ansaetze to model this suppression and show that even though the parton content of the electron no longer factorizes into an electron flux function and photon structure function, it is still possible to express it as a single integral. They also show that for the TRISTAN (transposable ring intersecting storage accelerators in Nippon) experiments its effects can be numerically of the same size as that of the NLO corrections. Further, it is discussed a possible measurements at HERA (hadron electron ring an large), which can be provide an experimental handle on the effect the authors model through their ansaetze
Amplified Photon Upconversion by Photonic Shell of Cholesteric Liquid Crystals.
Kang, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Shin-Hyun; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto; Reichmanis, Elsa
2017-04-26
As an effective platform to exploit triplet-triplet-annihilation-based photon upconversion (TTA-UC), microcapsules composed of a fluidic UC core and photonic shell are microfluidically prepared using a triple emulsion as the template. The photonic shell consists of cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs) with a periodic helical structure, exhibiting a photonic band gap. Combined with planar anchoring at the boundaries, the shell serves as a resonance cavity for TTA-UC emission and enables spectral tuning of the UC under low-power-density excitation. The CLC shell can be stabilized by introducing a polymerizable mesogen in the LC host. Because of the microcapsule spherical symmetry, spontaneous emission of the delayed fluorescence is omnidirectionally amplified at the edge of the stop band. These results demonstrate the range of opportunities provided by TTA-UC systems for the future design of low-threshold photonic devices.
Photonic integration and photonics-electronics convergence on silicon platform
Liu, Jifeng; Baba, Toshihiko; Vivien, Laurent; Xu, Dan-Xia
2015-01-01
Silicon photonics technology, which has the DNA of silicon electronics technology, promises to provide a compact photonic integration platform with high integration density, mass-producibility, and excellent cost performance. This technology has been used to develop and to integrate various photonic functions on silicon substrate. Moreover, photonics-electronics convergence based on silicon substrate is now being pursued. Thanks to these features, silicon photonics will have the potential to be a superior technology used in the construction of energy-efficient cost-effective apparatuses for various applications, such as communications, information processing, and sensing. Considering the material characteristics of silicon and difficulties in microfabrication technology, however, silicon by itself is not necessarily an ideal material. For example, silicon is not suitable for light emitting devices because it is an indirect transition material. The resolution and dynamic range of silicon-based interference de...
Bouvard, G.; Fernandez, Y.; Petit-Taboue, M.C.; Derlon, J.M.; Travere, J.M.; Le Poec, C.
1991-01-01
The quantified measurement of cerebral blood volume is interesting for the brain blood circulation studies. This measurement is often used in positron computed tomography. It's more difficult in single photon emission computed tomography: there are physical problems with the limited resolution of the detector, the Compton effect and the photon attenuation. The objectif of this study is to compare the results between these two techniques. The quantified measurement of brain blood volume is possible with the single photon emission computer tomogragry. However, there is a loss of contrast [fr
Topological Order in Silicon Photonics
2017-02-07
photonic edge states and quantum emitters [ S. Barik , H. Miyake, W. DeGottardi, E. Waks and M. Hafezi, New J. Phys., 18, 11301 (2016) ]. Entanglement... Barik , H. Miyake, W. DeGottardi, E. Waks, and M. Hafezi “Two-Dimensionally Confined Topological Edge States in Photonic Crystals”, New J. Phys., 18
Photonic nanowires for quantum optics
Munsch, M.; Claudon, J.; Bleuse, J.
Photonic nanowires (PWs) are simple dielectric structures for which a very efficient and broadband spontaneous emission (SE) control has been predicted [1]. Recently, a single photon source featuring a record high efficiency was demonstrated using this geometry [2]. Using time-resolved micro-phot...
Photonic-crystal fibers gyroscope
Ali Muse Haider
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we proposed to use of a photonic crystal fiber with an inner hollow defect. The use of such fibers is not affected by a material medium on the propagation of optical radiation. Photonic crystal fibers present special properties and capabilities that lead to an outstanding potential for sensing applications
Experimental test of magnetic photons
Lakes, R.S.
2004-01-01
A 'magnetic' photon hypothesis associated with magnetic monopoles is tested experimentally. These photons are predicted to easily penetrate metal. Experimentally the optical transmittance T of a metal foil was less than 2x10-17. The hypothesis is not supported since it predicts T=2x10-12
Advances on integrated microwave photonics
Dong, Jianji; Liao, Shasha; Yan, Siqi
2017-01-01
Integrated microwave photonics has attracted a lot of attentions and makes significant improvement in last 10 years. We have proposed and demonstrated several schemes about microwave photonics including waveform generation, signal processing and energy-efficient micro-heaters. Our schemes are all...
The STAR Photon Multiplicity Detector
Aggarwal, M.M.; Badyal, S.K.; Bhaskar, P.; Bhatia, V.S.; Chattopadhyay, S. E-mail: sub@veccal.ernet.in; Das, S.; Datta, R.; Dubey, A.K.; Dutta Majumdar, M.R.; Ganti, M.S.; Ghosh, P.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M.; Gupta, R.; Kaur, I.; Kumar, A.; Mahajan, S.; Mahapatra, D.P.; Mangotra, L.K.; Mishra, D.; Mohanty, B.; Nayak, S.K.; Nayak, T.K.; Pal, S.K.; Phatak, S.C.; Potukuchi, B.V.K.S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Sahoo, R.; Sharma, A.; Singaraju, R.N.; Sood, G.; Trivedi, M.D.; Varma, R.; Viyogi, Y.P
2003-03-01
Details concerning the design, fabrication and performance of STAR Photon Multiplicity Detector (PMD) are presented. The PMD will cover the forward region, within the pseudorapidity range 2.3-3.5, behind the forward time projection chamber. It will measure the spatial distribution of photons in order to study collective flow, fluctuation and chiral symmetry restoration.
van der Slot, Petrus J.M.; Denis, T.; Lee, J.H.H.; van Dijk, M.W.; Boller, Klaus J.
2012-01-01
A photonic free-electron laser (pFEL) produces coherent Cerenkov radiation from a set of parallel electron beams streaming through a photonic crystal. The function of the crystal is to slow down the phase velocity of a copropagating electromagnetic wave, such that also mildly relativistic electrons
Nanodiamond particles forming photonic structures
Grichko, Varvara; Tyler, Talmage; Grishko, Victor I; Shenderova, Olga
2008-01-01
Colloid suspensions of irregularly shaped, highly charged detonation nanodiamond particles are found to have unexpected optical properties, similar to those of photonic crystals. This finding is all the more surprising since the particles used in this work are far more polydisperse than those typically forming photonic crystals. Intensely iridescent structures have been fabricated using the centrifugation of aqueous suspensions of nanodiamonds
Nanodiamond particles forming photonic structures
Grichko, Varvara; Tyler, Talmage; Grishko, Victor I; Shenderova, Olga [International Technology Center, 8100 Brownleigh Drive, Suite 120, Raleigh, NC 27617 (United States)], E-mail: oshenderova@itc-inc.org
2008-06-04
Colloid suspensions of irregularly shaped, highly charged detonation nanodiamond particles are found to have unexpected optical properties, similar to those of photonic crystals. This finding is all the more surprising since the particles used in this work are far more polydisperse than those typically forming photonic crystals. Intensely iridescent structures have been fabricated using the centrifugation of aqueous suspensions of nanodiamonds.
Silicon photonics fundamentals and devices
Deen, M Jamal
2012-01-01
The creation of affordable high speed optical communications using standard semiconductor manufacturing technology is a principal aim of silicon photonics research. This would involve replacing copper connections with optical fibres or waveguides, and electrons with photons. With applications such as telecommunications and information processing, light detection, spectroscopy, holography and robotics, silicon photonics has the potential to revolutionise electronic-only systems. Providing an overview of the physics, technology and device operation of photonic devices using exclusively silicon and related alloys, the book includes: * Basic Properties of Silicon * Quantum Wells, Wires, Dots and Superlattices * Absorption Processes in Semiconductors * Light Emitters in Silicon * Photodetectors , Photodiodes and Phototransistors * Raman Lasers including Raman Scattering * Guided Lightwaves * Planar Waveguide Devices * Fabrication Techniques and Material Systems Silicon Photonics: Fundamentals and Devices outlines ...
Two-dimensional topological photonics
Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Shvets, Gennady
2017-12-01
Originating from the studies of two-dimensional condensed-matter states, the concept of topological order has recently been expanded to other fields of physics and engineering, particularly optics and photonics. Topological photonic structures have already overturned some of the traditional views on wave propagation and manipulation. The application of topological concepts to guided wave propagation has enabled novel photonic devices, such as reflection-free sharply bent waveguides, robust delay lines, spin-polarized switches and non-reciprocal devices. Discrete degrees of freedom, widely used in condensed-matter physics, such as spin and valley, are now entering the realm of photonics. In this Review, we summarize the latest advances in this highly dynamic field, with special emphasis on the experimental work on two-dimensional photonic topological structures.
Photon Entanglement Through Brain Tissue.
Shi, Lingyan; Galvez, Enrique J; Alfano, Robert R
2016-12-20
Photon entanglement, the cornerstone of quantum correlations, provides a level of coherence that is not present in classical correlations. Harnessing it by study of its passage through organic matter may offer new possibilities for medical diagnosis technique. In this work, we study the preservation of photon entanglement in polarization, created by spontaneous parametric down-conversion, after one entangled photon propagates through multiphoton-scattering brain tissue slices with different thickness. The Tangle-Entropy (TS) plots show the strong preservation of entanglement of photons propagating in brain tissue. By spatially filtering the ballistic scattering of an entangled photon, we find that its polarization entanglement is preserved and non-locally correlated with its twin in the TS plots. The degree of entanglement correlates better with structure and water content than with sample thickness.
Degiorgio, Vittorio
2016-01-01
This extended and revised edition will serve as a concise, self-contained, up-to-date introduction to Photonics for undergraduate students. It can also be used as a primer by researchers and professionals who start working in the field. Blending theory with technical descriptions, the book covers a wide range of topics, including the general mechanism of laser action, continuous and pulsed laser operation, optical propagation in isotropic and anisotropic media, operating principles and structure of passive optical components, electro-optic and acousto-optic modulation, solid-state lasers, semiconductor lasers and LEDs, nonlinear optical phenomena, and optical fiber components and devices. The book concludes with an overview of applications, including optical communications, telemetry and sensing, industrial and biomedical applications, solid-state lighting, displays, and photovoltaics. This second edition includes a set of problems at the end of all but the last chapter. These problems deal with numerical c...
Photon enhanced thermionic emission
Schwede, Jared; Melosh, Nicholas; Shen, Zhixun
2014-10-07
Photon Enhanced Thermionic Emission (PETE) is exploited to provide improved efficiency for radiant energy conversion. A hot (greater than 200.degree. C.) semiconductor cathode is illuminated such that it emits electrons. Because the cathode is hot, significantly more electrons are emitted than would be emitted from a room temperature (or colder) cathode under the same illumination conditions. As a result of this increased electron emission, the energy conversion efficiency can be significantly increased relative to a conventional photovoltaic device. In PETE, the cathode electrons can be (and typically are) thermalized with respect to the cathode. As a result, PETE does not rely on emission of non-thermalized electrons, and is significantly easier to implement than hot-carrier emission approaches.
Lecoq, P; Gundacker, S; Hillemanns, H; Jarron, P; Knapitsch, A; Leclercq, J L; Letartre, X; Meyer, T; Pauwels, K; Powolny, F; Seassal, C
2010-01-01
The renewal of interest for Time of Flight Positron Emission Tomography (TOF PET) has highlighted the need for increasing the light output of scintillating crystals and in particular for improving the light extraction from materials with a high index of refraction. One possible solution to overcome the problem of total internal reflection and light losses resulting from multiple bouncing within the crystal is to improve the light extraction efficiency at the crystal/photodetector interface by means of photonic crystals, i.e. media with a periodic modulation of the dielectric constant at the wavelength scale. After a short reminder of the underlying principles this contribution proposes to present the very encouraging results we have recently obtained on LYSO pixels and the perspectives on other crystals such as BGO, LuYAP and LuAG. These results confirm the impressive predictions from our previously published Monte Carlo simulations. A detailed description of the sample preparation procedure is given as well ...
Degiorgio, Vittorio
2014-01-01
This book will serve as a concise, self-contained, up-to-date introduction to Photonics, to be used as a textbook for undergraduate students or as a reference book for researchers and professionals. Blending theory with technical descriptions, the book covers a wide range of topics, including the general mechanism of laser action, continuous and pulsed laser operation, optical propagation in isotropic and anisotropic media, operating principles and structure of passive optical components, electro-optical and acousto-optical modulation, solid-state lasers, semiconductor lasers and LEDs, nonlinear optics, and optical fiber components and devices.. The book concludes with an overview of applications, including optical communications, telemetry and sensing, industrial and biomedical applications, solid-state lighting, displays, and photovoltaics.
Ordered photonic microstructures
Chen, Kevin Ming
2001-09-01
This thesis examines novel photonic materials systems possessing order in the atomic, microscopic, and macroscopic dimensional regimes. In the atomic order regime, a structure-property investigation is done for Er2O3 in which the first report of room temperature photoluminescence (PL) is provided. Thin films of the rare earth oxide were deposited via reactive sputtering of Er metal in an Ar/O2 ambient, and subsequently annealed to promote grain growth. Heat treatment consisting of a 650°C followed by 1000°C anneal produces maximum crystallinity as measured by glancing angle x-ray diffraction. These films show characteristic PL at λ = 1.54 μm. In the microscopic order regime, omnidirectional reflectors and thin film microcavities are demonstrated using sol-gel and solid-state materials. A first demonstration of omnidirectional reflectivity in sol-gel structures was accomplished using a dielectric stack consisting of 12 spin-on SiO 2/TiO2 quarterwave sol-gel films. Similarly, solid-state dielectric stacks consisting of 6 Si/SiO2 sputtered films were used to demonstrate the same principle. Microcavities were formed using solgel structures, producing a low quality factor Q = 35 due to limitations in film thickness control and lossy interfaces from stress-induced cracks. The high index contrast Si/SiO2 microcavities enabled Q ~ 1000 using 17 total layers following hydrogenation of dangling bonds within the amorphous Si films. Combining fabrication processes for the solid-state microcavity and Er2O3 films, a device was fabricated to demonstrate photoluminescence enhancement of an Er2O3 film embedded in a microcavity. The structure consisted of 3-bilayer mirrors on either side of an SiO2/Er2O3/SiO2 cavity. The Q ~ 300 was near the theoretical value for such a structure. At room temperature, PL of Er2O3 was enhanced by a factor of 1000 in the microcavity compared to a single thin film. In the macroscopic order regime, self-assembly of micron- sized SiO 2 and
Galayda, J.N.
1995-01-01
The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a 7-GeV third-generation synchrotron radiation storage ring and full-energy positron injector. Construction project funding began in 1989, and ground breaking took place on 5 May 1990. Construction of all accelerator facilities was completed in January 1995 and storage ring commissioning is underway. First observation of x-rays from a bending magnet source took place on 26 March 1995. Nearly all performance specifications of the injector have been reached, and first observations indicate that the reliability, dynamic aperture, emittance, and orbit stability in the storage ring are satisfactory. Observation of radiation from the first of 20 insertion device beamlines is scheduled for October 1995. Start of regular operations is expected to take place well before the APS Project target date of December 1996
Photonic quantum information: science and technology.
Takeuchi, Shigeki
2016-01-01
Recent technological progress in the generation, manipulation and detection of individual single photons has opened a new scientific field of photonic quantum information. This progress includes the realization of single photon switches, photonic quantum circuits with specific functions, and the application of novel photonic states to novel optical metrology beyond the limits of standard optics. In this review article, the recent developments and current status of photonic quantum information technology are overviewed based on the author's past and recent works.
Spatial photon correlations in multiple scattering media
Smolka, Stephan; Muskens, O.; Lagendijk, A.
2010-01-01
We present the first angle-resolved measurements of spatial photon correlations that are induced by multiple scattering of light. The correlation relates multiple scattered photons at different spatial positions and depends on incident photon fluctuations.......We present the first angle-resolved measurements of spatial photon correlations that are induced by multiple scattering of light. The correlation relates multiple scattered photons at different spatial positions and depends on incident photon fluctuations....
Aikio, Sanna; Hiltunen, Jussi; Hiitola-Keinänen, Johanna; Hiltunen, Marianne; Kontturi, Ville; Siitonen, Samuli; Puustinen, Jarkko; Karioja, Pentti
2016-02-08
Flexible photonic integrated circuit technology is an emerging field expanding the usage possibilities of photonics, particularly in sensor applications, by enabling the realization of conformable devices and introduction of new alternative production methods. Here, we demonstrate that disposable polymeric photonic integrated circuit devices can be produced in lengths of hundreds of meters by ultra-high volume roll-to-roll methods on a flexible carrier. Attenuation properties of hundreds of individual devices were measured confirming that waveguides with good and repeatable performance were fabricated. We also demonstrate the applicability of the devices for the evanescent wave sensing of ambient refractive index. The production of integrated photonic devices using ultra-high volume fabrication, in a similar manner as paper is produced, may inherently expand methods of manufacturing low-cost disposable photonic integrated circuits for a wide range of sensor applications.
Nonlocal hyperconcentration on entangled photons using photonic module system
Cao, Cong; Wang, Tie-Jun; Mi, Si-Chen [School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Zhang, Ru [School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); School of Ethnic Minority Education, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Wang, Chuan, E-mail: wangchuan@bupt.edu.cn [School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China)
2016-06-15
Entanglement distribution will inevitably be affected by the channel and environment noise. Thus distillation of maximal entanglement nonlocally becomes a crucial goal in quantum information. Here we illustrate that maximal hyperentanglement on nonlocal photons could be distilled using the photonic module and cavity quantum electrodynamics, where the photons are simultaneously entangled in polarization and spatial-mode degrees of freedom. The construction of the photonic module in a photonic band-gap structure is presented, and the operation of the module is utilized to implement the photonic nondestructive parity checks on the two degrees of freedom. We first propose a hyperconcentration protocol using two identical partially hyperentangled initial states with unknown coefficients to distill a maximally hyperentangled state probabilistically, and further propose a protocol by the assistance of an ancillary single photon prepared according to the known coefficients of the initial state. In the two protocols, the total success probability can be improved greatly by introducing the iteration mechanism, and only one of the remote parties is required to perform the parity checks in each round of iteration. Estimates on the system requirements and recent experimental results indicate that our proposal is realizable with existing or near-further technologies.
Photon technology. Laser processing technology; Photon technology. Laser process gijutsu
NONE
1996-03-01
Survey has been conducted to develop laser processing technology utilizing the interaction between substance and photon. This is a part of the leading research on photon technology development. The photon technology development is aimed at novel technology development highly utilizing the quantum nature of photons. In the field of laser processing, high quality photons are used as tools, special functions of atoms and molecules will be discovered, and processing for functional fabrication (photon machining) will be established. A role of laser processing in industries has become significant, which is currently spreading not only into cutting and welding of materials and scalpels but also into such a special field as ultrafine processing of materials. The spreading is sometimes obstructed due to the difficulty of procurement of suitable machines and materials, and the increase of cost. The purpose of this study is to develop the optimal laser technology, to elucidate the interaction between substance and photon, and to develop the laser system and the transmission and regulation systems which realize the optimal conditions. 387 refs., 115 figs., 25 tabs.
Nonlocal hyperconcentration on entangled photons using photonic module system
Cao, Cong; Wang, Tie-Jun; Mi, Si-Chen; Zhang, Ru; Wang, Chuan
2016-01-01
Entanglement distribution will inevitably be affected by the channel and environment noise. Thus distillation of maximal entanglement nonlocally becomes a crucial goal in quantum information. Here we illustrate that maximal hyperentanglement on nonlocal photons could be distilled using the photonic module and cavity quantum electrodynamics, where the photons are simultaneously entangled in polarization and spatial-mode degrees of freedom. The construction of the photonic module in a photonic band-gap structure is presented, and the operation of the module is utilized to implement the photonic nondestructive parity checks on the two degrees of freedom. We first propose a hyperconcentration protocol using two identical partially hyperentangled initial states with unknown coefficients to distill a maximally hyperentangled state probabilistically, and further propose a protocol by the assistance of an ancillary single photon prepared according to the known coefficients of the initial state. In the two protocols, the total success probability can be improved greatly by introducing the iteration mechanism, and only one of the remote parties is required to perform the parity checks in each round of iteration. Estimates on the system requirements and recent experimental results indicate that our proposal is realizable with existing or near-further technologies.
Multi-Photon Entanglement and Quantum Teleportation
Shih, Yanhua
1999-01-01
The project 'Multi-Photon Entanglement and Quantum Teleportation' concerns a series of experimental and theoretical investigations on multi-photon entangled states and the applications, for example...
Holographic Two-Photon Induced Photopolymerization
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Holographic two-photon-induced photopolymerization (HTPIP) offers distinct advantages over conventional one-photon-induced photopolymerization and current techniques...
Photonic crystals, amorphous materials, and quasicrystals.
Edagawa, Keiichi
2014-06-01
Photonic crystals consist of artificial periodic structures of dielectrics, which have attracted much attention because of their wide range of potential applications in the field of optics. We may also fabricate artificial amorphous or quasicrystalline structures of dielectrics, i.e. photonic amorphous materials or photonic quasicrystals. So far, both theoretical and experimental studies have been conducted to reveal the characteristic features of their optical properties, as compared with those of conventional photonic crystals. In this article, we review these studies and discuss various aspects of photonic amorphous materials and photonic quasicrystals, including photonic band gap formation, light propagation properties, and characteristic photonic states.
Arcos P, A.; Rodriguez N, S.; Pinedo S, A.; Amador V, P.; Chacon R, A.; Vega C, H.R. [Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)
2005-07-01
It was determined the lineal attenuation coefficient of hepatic tissue before gamma radiation of a source of {sup 137} Cs. When exposing organic material before X or gamma radiation fields, part of the energy of the photons is absorbed by the material, while another part crosses it without producing any effect. The quantity of energy that is absorbed is a measure of the dose that receives the material. The three main mechanisms by means of which the gamma rays interacting with the matter are: The Photoelectric Effect, the Compton dispersion and the Even production; the sum of these three processes is translated in the attenuation coefficient of the radiation. In this work we have used hepatic tissue of bovine, as substitute of the human hepatic tissue, and we have measured the lineal attenuation coefficient for photons of 0.662 MeV. Through a series of calculations we have determined the lineal attenuation coefficient for photons from 10{sup -3} to 10{sup -5} MeV and the measured coefficient was compared with the one calculated. (Author)
Analysis of photonic band gap in novel piezoelectric photonic crystal
Malar Kodi, A.; Doni Pon, V.; Joseph Wilson, K. S.
2018-03-01
The transmission properties of one-dimensional novel photonic crystal having silver-doped novel piezoelectric superlattice and air as the two constituent layers have been investigated by means of transfer matrix method. By changing the appropriate thickness of the layers and filling factor of nanocomposite system, the variation in the photonic band gap can be studied. It is found that the photonic band gap increases with the filling factor of the metal nanocomposite and with the thickness of the layer. These structures possess unique characteristics enabling one to operate as optical waveguides, selective filters, optical switches, integrated piezoelectric microactuators, etc.
Photonic Paint Developed with Metallic Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystals
Sun, Po; Williams, John D.
2012-01-01
This work details the design and simulation of an inconspicuous photonic paint that can be applied onto an object for anticounterfeit and tag, track, and locate (TTL) applications. The paint consists of three-dimensional metallic tilted woodpile photonic crystals embedded into a visible and infrared transparent polymer film, which can be applied to almost any surface. The tilted woodpile photonic crystals are designed with a specific pass band detectable at nearly all incident angles of light. When painted onto a surface, these crystals provide a unique reflective infra-red optical signature that can be easily observed and recorded to verify the location or contents of a package.
Single photon imaging. New instrumentation and techniques
Muehllehner, G.; Colsher, J.
1981-01-01
The performance of Anger scintillation cameras continues to be enhanced through a series of small improvements which result in significantly better imaging characteristics. The most recent changes in camera design consist of: (1) the introduction of photomultipliers with better photocathode and electron collection efficiencies, (2) the use of thinner (3/8 or 1/4 in) crystals giving slightly better intrinsic resolution for low gamma-ray energies, (3) inclusion of a spatially varying energy window to compensate for variations of light collection efficiency, (4) event-by-event, real-time distortion removal for uniformity correction, and (5) introduction of new methods to improve the count-rate capability. Whereas some of these improvements are due to better understanding of the fundamentals of camera design, others are the result of technological advances in electronic components such as analogue-to-digital converters, microprocessors and high-density digital memories. The development of single photon tomography has developed along two parallel paths. Multipinhole and rotating slant-hole collimator attachments provide some degree of longitudinal tomography, and are currently being applied to cardiac imaging. At the same time rotating camera systems capable of transverse as well as longitudinal imaging are being refined technically and evaluated clinically. Longitudinal tomography is of limited use in quantitative studies and is likely to be an interim solution to three-dimensional imaging. Rotating camera systems, on the other hand, not only provide equal resolution in all three dimensions but are also capable of providing quantitative accuracy. This is the result of progress in attenuation correction and the design of special collimators. Single photon tomography provides a small but noticeable improvement in diagnostic accuracy which is likely to result in widespread use of rotating camera systems in the future
Gaidash, A A; Egorov, V I; Gleim, A V
2014-01-01
Quantum cryptography in theory allows distributing secure keys between two users so that any performed eavesdropping attempt would be immediately discovered. However, in practice an eavesdropper can obtain key information from multi-photon states when attenuated laser radiation is used as a source. In order to overcome this possibility, it is generally suggested to implement special cryptographic protocols, like decoy states or SARG04. We present an alternative method based on monitoring photon number statistics after detection. This method can therefore be used with any existing protocol
Photon-photon and photon-hadron processes in relativistic heavy ion collisions
Baron, N.C.
1993-11-01
Photon-photon and photon-hadron interactions in relativistic heavy ion collisions are studied in the framework of the impact parameter dependent equivalent photon approximation. Improvements of this method, like formfactor inclusion and geometrical modifications are developed. In disruptive relativistic heavy ion collisions where the heavy ions overlapp during the collision, electromagnetic processes are an important background to other mechanisms. In peripheral (non-disruptive) relativistic heavy ion collisions where the ions pass each other without strong interactions, the electromagnetic processes can be studied in their pure form. The lepton pair production is an important diagnostic tool in relativistic heavy ion collisions. The coherent γγ lepton pair production is therefore extensively studied in disruptive but also in non-disruptive collisions. The effects of strong interactions on the coherent γγ lepton pair production in disruptive collisions are discussed in terms of a simple stopping model. Coherent γγ dielectron production contributes to the dilepton production in high energy hadron-hadron collisions. As an example, the coherent dielectron production in π - p collisions is studied in terms of the equivalent photon approximation. Peripheral ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions open up new possibilities for γγ physics. Taking into account γA background reactions, typical γγ processes in the relevant invariant mass ranges are discussed. The extreme high energy part of the equivalent photon spectrum leads to hard photon-parton reactions. As a potential tool to investigate the gluon distribution function of nucleons, thee q anti q production via the γg fusion in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions is studied. It is the purpose of this work to investigate how photon-photon and photon-hadron reactions in relativistic heavy ion collisions may contribute to the understanding of QCD and the standard model. (orig.) [de
ITMO Photonics: center of excellence
Voznesenskaya, Anna; Bougrov, Vladislav; Kozlov, Sergey; Vasilev, Vladimir
2016-09-01
ITMO University, the leading Russian center in photonics research and education, has the mission to train highlyqualified competitive professionals able to act in conditions of fast-changing world. This paradigm is implemented through creation of a strategic academic unit ITMO Photonics, the center of excellence concentrating organizational, scientific, educational, financial, laboratory and human resources. This Center has the following features: dissemination of breakthrough scientific results in photonics such as advanced photonic materials, ultrafast optical and quantum information, laser physics, engineering and technologies, into undergraduate and graduate educational programs through including special modules into the curricula and considerable student's research and internships; transformation of the educational process in accordance with the best international educational practices, presence in the global education market in the form of joint educational programs with leading universities, i.e. those being included in the network programs of international scientific cooperation, and international accreditation of educational programs; development of mechanisms for the commercialization of innovative products - results of scientific research; securing financial sustainability of research in the field of photonics of informationcommunication systems via funding increase and the diversification of funding sources. Along with focusing on the research promotion, the Center is involved in science popularization through such projects as career guidance for high school students; interaction between student's chapters of international optical societies; invited lectures of World-famous experts in photonics; short educational programs in optics, photonics and light engineering for international students; contests, Olympics and grants for talented young researchers; social events; interactive demonstrations.
Babaei, Hassan; Mostafazadeh, Ali
2017-08-01
A first-quantized free photon is a complex massless vector field A =(Aμ ) whose field strength satisfies Maxwell's equations in vacuum. We construct the Hilbert space H of the photon by endowing the vector space of the fields A in the temporal-Coulomb gauge with a positive-definite and relativistically invariant inner product. We give an explicit expression for this inner product, identify the Hamiltonian for the photon with the generator of time translations in H , determine the operators representing the momentum and the helicity of the photon, and introduce a chirality operator whose eigenfunctions correspond to fields having a definite sign of energy. We also construct a position operator for the photon whose components commute with each other and with the chirality and helicity operators. This allows for the construction of the localized states of the photon with a definite sign of energy and helicity. We derive an explicit formula for the latter and compute the corresponding electric and magnetic fields. These turn out to diverge not just at the point where the photon is localized but on a plane containing this point. We identify the axis normal to this plane with an associated symmetry axis and show that each choice of this axis specifies a particular position operator, a corresponding position basis, and a position representation of the quantum mechanics of a photon. In particular, we examine the position wave functions determined by such a position basis, elucidate their relationship with the Riemann-Silberstein and Landau-Peierls wave functions, and give an explicit formula for the probability density of the spatial localization of the photon.
Quantum imaging with undetected photons.
Lemos, Gabriela Barreto; Borish, Victoria; Cole, Garrett D; Ramelow, Sven; Lapkiewicz, Radek; Zeilinger, Anton
2014-08-28
Information is central to quantum mechanics. In particular, quantum interference occurs only if there exists no information to distinguish between the superposed states. The mere possibility of obtaining information that could distinguish between overlapping states inhibits quantum interference. Here we introduce and experimentally demonstrate a quantum imaging concept based on induced coherence without induced emission. Our experiment uses two separate down-conversion nonlinear crystals (numbered NL1 and NL2), each illuminated by the same pump laser, creating one pair of photons (denoted idler and signal). If the photon pair is created in NL1, one photon (the idler) passes through the object to be imaged and is overlapped with the idler amplitude created in NL2, its source thus being undefined. Interference of the signal amplitudes coming from the two crystals then reveals the image of the object. The photons that pass through the imaged object (idler photons from NL1) are never detected, while we obtain images exclusively with the signal photons (from NL1 and NL2), which do not interact with the object. Our experiment is fundamentally different from previous quantum imaging techniques, such as interaction-free imaging or ghost imaging, because now the photons used to illuminate the object do not have to be detected at all and no coincidence detection is necessary. This enables the probe wavelength to be chosen in a range for which suitable detectors are not available. To illustrate this, we show images of objects that are either opaque or invisible to the detected photons. Our experiment is a prototype in quantum information--knowledge can be extracted by, and about, a photon that is never detected.
Photon energy tunability of advanced photon source undulators
Viccaro, P.J.; Shenoy, G.K.
1987-08-01
At a fixed storage ring energy, the energy of the harmonics of an undulator can be shifted or ''tuned'' by changing the magnet gap of the device. The possible photon energy interval spanned in this way depends on the undulator period, minimum closed gap, minimum acceptable photon intensity and storage ring energy. The minimum magnet gap depends directly on the stay clear particle beam aperture required for storage ring operation. The tunability of undulators planned for the Advanced Photon Source with first harmonic photon energies in the range of 5 to 20 keV are discussed. The results of an analysis used to optimize the APS ring energy is presented and tunability contours and intensity parameters are presented for two typical classes of devices
In vivo three-photon imaging of deep cerebellum
Wang, Mengran; Wang, Tianyu; Wu, Chunyan; Li, Bo; Ouzounov, Dimitre G.; Sinefeld, David; Guru, Akash; Nam, Hyung-Song; Capecchi, Mario R.; Warden, Melissa R.; Xu, Chris
2018-02-01
We demonstrate three-photon microscopy (3PM) of mouse cerebellum at 1 mm depth by imaging both blood vessels and neurons. We compared 3PM and 2PM in the mouse cerebellum for imaging green (using excitation sources at 1300 nm and 920 nm, respectively) and red fluorescence (using excitation sources at 1680 nm and 1064 nm, respectively). 3PM enabled deeper imaging than 2PM because the use of longer excitation wavelength reduces the scattering in biological tissue and the higher order nonlinear excitation provides better 3D localization. To illustrate these two advantages quantitatively, we measured the signal decay as well as the signal-to-background ratio (SBR) as a function of depth. We performed 2-photon imaging from the brain surface all the way down to the area where the SBR reaches 1, while at the same depth, 3PM still has SBR above 30. The segmented decay curve shows that the mouse cerebellum has different effective attenuation lengths at different depths, indicating heterogeneous tissue property for this brain region. We compared the third harmonic generation (THG) signal, which is used to visualize myelinated fibers, with the decay curve. We found that the regions with shorter effective attenuation lengths correspond to the regions with more fibers. Our results indicate that the widespread, non-uniformly distributed myelinated fibers adds heterogeneity to mouse cerebellum, which poses additional challenges in deep imaging of this brain region.
Teranishi, Nobukazu; Theuwissen, Albert; Stoppa, David; Charbon, Edoardo
2017-01-01
The field of photon-counting image sensors is advancing rapidly with the development of various solid-state image sensor technologies including single photon avalanche detectors (SPADs) and deep-sub-electron read noise CMOS image sensor pixels. This foundational platform technology will enable opportunities for new imaging modalities and instrumentation for science and industry, as well as new consumer applications. Papers discussing various photon-counting image sensor technologies and selected new applications are presented in this all-invited Special Issue.
Photonics activities at DTU Fotonik
Jeppesen, Palle; Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Lodahl, Peter
2010-01-01
DTU Fotonik, Department of Photonics Engineering at the Technical University of Denmark has about 200 employees including 60 PhD students. The ambition is to be among the world’s leading University departments within photonics research, education and innovation. To fulfil this ambition, DTU Fotonik...... tries to attract excellent researchers and students from all over the world and to collaborate with world leading research institutes and companies. The activities span from quantum photonics, nanotechnology and metamaterials over nonlinear fiber optics, optical sensors and diode lasers & LED systems...
Ultrafast Graphene Photonics and Optoelectronics
2017-04-14
AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0032 Ultrafast Graphene Photonics and Optoelectronics Kuang-Hsiung Wu National Chiao Tung University Final Report 04/14/2017...DATES COVERED (From - To) 18 Apr 2013 to 17 Apr 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ultrafast Graphene Photonics and Optoelectronics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Final Report for AOARD Grant FA2386-13-1-4022 “Ultrafast Graphene Photonics and Optoelectronics” Date May 23th, 2016
Slow Images and Entangled Photons
Swordy, Simon
2007-01-01
I will discuss some recent experiments using slow light and entangled photons. We recently showed that it was possible to map a two dimensional image onto very low light level signals, slow them down in a hot atomic vapor while preserving the amplitude and phase of the images. If time remains, I will discuss some of our recent work with time-energy entangled photons for quantum cryptography. We were able to show that we could have a measurable state space of over 1000 states for a single pair of entangled photons in fiber.
Photonic Microresonator Research and Applications
Chremmos, Ioannis; Uzunoglu, Nikolaos
2010-01-01
Photonic Microresonator Research and Applications explores advances in the fabrication process that enable nanometer waveguide separations. The technology surrounding the design and fabrication of optical microresonators has matured to a point where there is a need for commercialization. Consequently, there is a need for device research involving more advanced architectures and more esoteric operating princples. This volume discusses these issues, while also: Showing a reader how to design and fabricate microresonators Discussing microresonators in photonic crystals, microsphere circuits, and sensors, and provides application oriented examples Covering the latest in microresonator research with contributions from the leading researchers Photonic Microresonator Research and Applications would appeal to researchers and academics working in the optical sciences.
Peskin, Michael E.; /SLAC
2012-03-14
In this lecture, I summarize developments presented at the Lepton Photon 2011 conference and give my perspective on the current situation in high-energy physics. I am grateful to the organizers of Lepton Photon 2011 for providing us a very pleasant and simulating week in Mumbai. This year's Lepton Photon conference has covered the full range of subjects that fall within the scope of high-energy physics, including connections to cosmology, nuclear physics, and atomic physics. The experiments that were discussed detect particles ranging in energy from radio frequencies to EeV.
Random photonic crystal optical memory
Wirth Lima Jr, A; Sombra, A S B
2012-01-01
Currently, optical cross-connects working on wavelength division multiplexing systems are based on optical fiber delay lines buffering. We designed and analyzed a novel photonic crystal optical memory, which replaces the fiber delay lines of the current optical cross-connect buffer. Optical buffering systems based on random photonic crystal optical memory have similar behavior to the electronic buffering systems based on electronic RAM memory. In this paper, we show that OXCs working with optical buffering based on random photonic crystal optical memories provides better performance than the current optical cross-connects. (paper)
Photon-Photon Luminosities in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions at LHC Energies
Hencken, Kai; Trautmann, Dirk; Baur, Gerhard
1994-01-01
Effective photon-photon luminosities are calculated for various realistic hadron collider scenarios. The main characteristics of photon-photon processes at relativistic heavy-ion colliders are established and compared to the corresponding photon-photon luminosities at electron-positron and future Photon Linear Colliders (PLC). Higher order corrections as well as inelastic processes are discussed. It is concluded that feasible high luminosity Ca-Ca collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)...
Tailoring single-photon and multiphoton probabilities of a single-photon on-demand source
Migdall, A.L.; Branning, D.; Castelletto, S.
2002-01-01
As typically implemented, single-photon sources cannot be made to produce single photons with high probability, while simultaneously suppressing the probability of yielding two or more photons. Because of this, single-photon sources cannot really produce single photons on demand. We describe a multiplexed system that allows the probabilities of producing one and more photons to be adjusted independently, enabling a much better approximation of a source of single photons on demand
gPhoton: THE GALEX PHOTON DATA ARCHIVE
Million, Chase [Million Concepts LLC, P.O. Box 119, 141 Mary Street, Lemont, PA 16851 (United States); Fleming, Scott W.; Shiao, Bernie; Smith, Myron; Thompson, Randy; White, Richard L. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Seibert, Mark [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Loyd, Parke [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, Boulder, Colorado, 80309 (United States); Tucker, Michael [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC 28608 (United States)
2016-12-20
gPhoton is a new database product and software package that enables analysis of GALEX ultraviolet data at the photon level. The project’s stand-alone, pure-Python calibration pipeline reproduces the functionality of the original mission pipeline to reduce raw spacecraft data to lists of time-tagged, sky-projected photons, which are then hosted in a publicly available database by the Mikulski Archive at Space Telescope. This database contains approximately 130 terabytes of data describing approximately 1.1 trillion sky-projected events with a timestamp resolution of five milliseconds. A handful of Python and command-line modules serve as a front end to interact with the database and to generate calibrated light curves and images from the photon-level data at user-defined temporal and spatial scales. The gPhoton software and source code are in active development and publicly available under a permissive license. We describe the motivation, design, and implementation of the calibration pipeline, database, and tools, with emphasis on divergence from prior work, as well as challenges created by the large data volume. We summarize the astrometric and photometric performance of gPhoton relative to the original mission pipeline. For a brief example of short time-domain science capabilities enabled by gPhoton, we show new flares from the known M-dwarf flare star CR Draconis. The gPhoton software has permanent object identifiers with the ASCL (ascl:1603.004) and DOI (doi:10.17909/T9CC7G). This paper describes the software as of version v1.27.2.
Vector-vector production in photon-photon interactions
Ronan, M.T.
1988-01-01
Measurements of exclusive untagged /rho/ 0 /rho/ 0 , /rho//phi/, K/sup *//bar K//sup */, and /rho/ω production and tagged /rho/ 0 /rho/ 0 production in photon-photon interactions by the TPC/Two-Gamma experiment are reviewed. Comparisons to the results of other experiments and to models of vector-vector production are made. Fits to the data following a four quark model prescription for vector meson pair production are also presented. 10 refs., 9 figs
The photonic nanowire: A highly efficient single-photon source
Gregersen, Niels
2014-01-01
The photonic nanowire represents an attractive platform for a quantum light emitter. However, careful optical engineering using the modal method, which elegantly allows access to all relevant physical parameters, is crucial to ensure high efficiency.......The photonic nanowire represents an attractive platform for a quantum light emitter. However, careful optical engineering using the modal method, which elegantly allows access to all relevant physical parameters, is crucial to ensure high efficiency....
Chlorine signal attenuation in concrete.
Naqvi, A A; Maslehuddin, M; Ur-Rehman, Khateeb; Al-Amoudi, O S B
2015-11-01
The intensity of prompt gamma-ray was measured at various depths from chlorine-contaminated silica fume (SF) concrete slab concrete specimens using portable neutron generator-based prompt gamma-ray setup. The intensity of 6.11MeV chloride gamma-rays was measured from the chloride contaminated slab at distance of 15.25, 20.25, 25.25, 30.25 and 35.25cm from neutron target in a SF cement concrete slab specimens. Due to attenuation of thermal neutron flux and emitted gamma-ray intensity in SF cement concrete at various depths, the measured intensity of chlorine gamma-rays decreases non-linearly with increasing depth in concrete. A good agreement was noted between the experimental results and the results of Monte Carlo simulation. This study has provided useful experimental data for evaluating the chloride contamination in the SF concrete utilizing gamma-ray attenuation method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION
Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin
2003-12-01
We have developed and tested technology for a new type of direct hydrocarbon detection. The method uses inelastic rock properties to greatly enhance the sensitivity of surface seismic methods to the presence of oil and gas saturation. These methods include use of energy absorption, dispersion, and attenuation (Q) along with traditional seismic attributes like velocity, impedance, and AVO. Our approach is to combine three elements: (1) a synthesis of the latest rock physics understanding of how rock inelasticity is related to rock type, pore fluid types, and pore microstructure, (2) synthetic seismic modeling that will help identify the relative contributions of scattering and intrinsic inelasticity to apparent Q attributes, and (3) robust algorithms that extract relative wave attenuation attributes from seismic data. This project provides: (1) Additional petrophysical insight from acquired data; (2) Increased understanding of rock and fluid properties; (3) New techniques to measure reservoir properties that are not currently available; and (4) Provide tools to more accurately describe the reservoir and predict oil location and volumes. These methodologies will improve the industry's ability to predict and quantify oil and gas saturation distribution, and to apply this information through geologic models to enhance reservoir simulation. We have applied for two separate patents relating to work that was completed as part of this project.
Engineering Photon-Photon Interactions within Rubidium-Filled Waveguides
Perrella, C.; Light, P. S.; Vahid, S. Afshar; Benabid, F.; Luiten, A. N.
2018-04-01
Strong photon-photon interactions are a required ingredient for deterministic two-photon optical quantum logic gates. Multiphoton transitions in dense atomic vapors have been shown to be a promising avenue for producing such interactions. The strength of a multiphoton interaction can be enhanced by conducting the interaction in highly confined geometries such as small-cross-section optical waveguides. We demonstrate, both experimentally and theoretically, that the strength of such interactions scale only with the optical mode diameter, d , not d2 as might be initially expected. This weakening of the interaction arises from atomic motion inside the waveguides. We create an interaction between two optical signals, at 780 and 776 nm, using the 5 S1 /2→5 D5 /2 two-photon transition in rubidium vapor within a range of hollow-core fibers with different core sizes. The interaction strength is characterized by observing the absorption and phase shift induced on the 780-nm beam, which is in close agreement with theoretical modeling that accounts for the atomic motion inside the fibers. These observations demonstrate that transit-time effects upon multiphoton transitions are of key importance when engineering photon-photon interactions within small-cross-section waveguides that might otherwise be thought to lead to enhanced optical nonlinearity through increased intensities.
Dose attenuation by a carbon fiber linac couch and modeling with a treatment planning system
Sanchez Galiano, P.; Garcia Sancho, J.M.; Crelgo, D.; Pamos, M.; Fernandez, J.; Vivanco, J.
2010-01-01
The purpose of this work is to investigate the attenuation caused by a carbon fiber linac treatment couch and the ability of a commercial radiotherapy treatment planning system to simulate it. The attenuation caused by an Exact treatment couch in a Varian Clinac 2100 C/D was characterized in detail. Both 6 MV and 18 MV photon beams were studied. The treatment couch was modeled and incorporated to Elekta XiO treatment planning system. Measured and computed attenuation values were compared. As a result we found that the attenuation caused by this complex treatment couch is strongly dependent on the incidence angle of the beam. The measured attenuation values reach 16% for 6 MV and 10% for 18 MV. The model incorporated to the treatment planning software allows reducing the differences between measured and calculated data below 2.5% and 2.0% for 6 MV and 18 MV respectively. In conclusion, it is strongly recommended accounting for the perturbation caused by this carbon fiber treatment couch when the beam intersects it. The treatment planning system studied can simulate this treatment couch accurately. Clinical implementation of the described method requires a reliable procedure to reproduce the same patient geometry in the treatment delivery and planning. (Author).
Alles, J.; Mudde, R. F.
2007-01-01
Polychromatic x-ray beams traveling though material are prone to beam hardening, i.e., the high energy part of the incident spectrum gets over represented when traveling farther into the material. This study discusses the concept of a mean attenuation coefficient in a formal way. The total energy fluence is one-to-one related to the traveled distance in case of a polychromatic beam moving through a given, inhomogeneous material. On the basis of this one-to-one relation, it is useful to define a mean attenuation coefficient and study its decrease with depth. Our results are based on a novel parametrization of the energy dependence of the attenuation coefficient that allows for closed form evaluation of certain spectral integrals. This approach underpins the ad hoc semianalytical expressions given in the literature. An analytical model for the average attenuation coefficient is proposed that uses a simple fit of the attenuation coefficient as a function of the photon energy as input. It is shown that a simple extension of this model gives a rather good description of beam hardening for x-rays traveling through water
EDITORIAL: Photonic terahertz technology
Lisauskas, Alvydas; Löffler, Torsten; Roskos, Hartmut G.
2005-07-01
In recent years, when reading newspapers and journals or watching TV, one has been able to find feature presentations dealing with the prospects of terahertz (THz) technology and its potential impact on market applications. THz technology aims to fill the THz gap in the electro-magnetic spectrum in order to make the THz frequency regime, which spans the two orders of magnitude from 100 GHz to 10 THz, accessible for applications. From the lower-frequency side, electronics keeps pushing upwards, while photonic approaches gradually improve our technological options at higher frequencies. The popular interest reflects the considerable advances in research in the THz field, and it is mainly advances in the photonic branch, with the highlight being the development of the THz quantum cascade laser, which in recent years have caught the imagination of the public, and of potential users and investors. This special issue of Semiconductor Science and Technology provides an overview of key scientific developments which currently represent the cutting edge of THz photonic technology. In order to be clear about the implications, we should define exactly what we mean by 'THz photonic technology', or synonymously 'THz photonics'. It is characterized by the way in which THz radiation (or a guided THz wave) is generated, namely by the use of lasers. This may be done in one of two fundamentally different schemes: (i) by laser action in the terahertz frequency range itself (THz lasers), or (ii) by down-conversion processes (photomixing) involving the radiation of lasers which operate in the visible, near-infrared or infrared spectral ranges, either in pulsed or continuous-wave mode. The field of THz photonics has grown so considerably that it is out of the question to cover all its aspects in a single special issue of a journal. We have elected, instead, to focus our attention on two types of development with a potentially strong impact on the THz field: first, on significant advances
New cardiac cameras: single-photon emission CT and PET.
Slomka, Piotr J; Berman, Daniel S; Germano, Guido
2014-07-01
Nuclear cardiology instrumentation has evolved significantly in the recent years. Concerns about radiation dose and long acquisition times have propelled developments of dedicated high-efficiency cardiac SPECT scanners. Novel collimator designs, such as multipinhole or locally focusing collimators arranged in geometries that are optimized for cardiac imaging, have been implemented to enhance photon-detection sensitivity. Some of these new SPECT scanners use solid-state photon detectors instead of photomultipliers to improve image quality and to reduce the scanner footprint. These new SPECT devices allow dramatic up to 7-fold reduction in acquisition times or similar reduction in radiation dose. In addition, new hardware for photon attenuation correction allowing ultralow radiation doses has been offered by some vendors. To mitigate photon attenuation artifacts for the new SPECT scanners not equipped with attenuation correction hardware, 2-position (upright-supine or prone-supine) imaging has been proposed. PET hardware developments have been primarily driven by the requirements of oncologic imaging, but cardiac imaging can benefit from improved PET image quality and improved sensitivity of 3D systems. The time-of-flight reconstruction combined with resolution recovery techniques is now implemented by all major PET vendors. These new methods improve image contrast and image resolution and reduce image noise. High-sensitivity 3D PET without interplane septa allows reduced radiation dose for cardiac perfusion imaging. Simultaneous PET/MR hybrid system has been developed. Solid-state PET detectors with avalanche photodiodes or digital silicon photomultipliers have been introduced, and they offer improved imaging characteristics and reduced sensitivity to electromagnetic MR fields. Higher maximum count rate of the new PET detectors allows routine first-pass Rb-82 imaging, with 3D PET acquisition enabling clinical utilization of dynamic imaging with myocardial flow
Two-Photon Fluorescence Microscope for Microgravity Research
Fischer, David G.; Zimmerli, Gregory A.; Asipauskas, Marius
2005-01-01
A two-photon fluorescence microscope has been developed for the study of biophysical phenomena. Two-photon microscopy is a novel form of laser-based scanning microscopy that enables three-dimensional imaging without many of the problems inherent in confocal microscopy. Unlike one-photon optical microscopy, two-photon microscopy utilizes the simultaneous nonlinear absorption of two near-infrared photons. However, the efficiency of two-photon absorption is much lower than that of one-photon absorption, so an ultra-fast pulsed laser source is typically employed. On the other hand, the critical energy threshold for two-photon absorption leads to fluorophore excitation that is intrinsically localized to the focal volume. Consequently, two-photon microscopy enables optical sectioning and confocal performance without the need for a signal-limiting pinhole. In addition, there is a reduction (relative to one-photon optical microscopy) in photon-induced damage because of the longer excitation wavelength. This reduction is especially advantageous for in vivo studies. Relative to confocal microscopy, there is also a reduction in background fluorescence, and, because of a reduction in Rayleigh scattering, there is a 4 increase of penetration depth. The prohibitive cost of a commercial two-photon fluorescence-microscope system, as well as a need for modularity, has led to the construction of a custom-built system (see Figure 1). This system includes a coherent mode-locked titanium: sapphire laser emitting 120-fs-duration pulses at a repetition rate of 80 MHz. The pulsed laser has an average output power of 800 mW and a wavelength tuning range of 700 to 980 nm, enabling the excitation of a variety of targeted fluorophores. The output from the laser is attenuated, spatially filtered, and then directed into a confocal scanning head that has been modified to provide for side entry of the laser beam. The laser output coupler has been replaced with a dichroic filter that reflects the
SU-F-T-261: Reconstruction of Initial Photon Fluence Based On EPID Images
Seliger, T; Engenhart-Cabillic, R [Philipp University of Marburg, Marburg (Germany); Czarnecki, D; Maeder, U; Zink, K [Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen - University of Applied Sciences, Giessen (Germany); Kussaether, R [MedCom GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Poppe, B [University Hospital for Medical Radiation Physics, Pius-Hospital, Medical Campus, Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg (Germany)
2016-06-15
Purpose: Verifying an algorithm to reconstruct relative initial photon fluence for clinical use. Clinical EPID and CT images were acquired to reconstruct an external photon radiation treatment field. The reconstructed initial photon fluence could be used to verify the treatment or calculate the applied dose to the patient. Methods: The acquired EPID images were corrected for scatter caused by the patient and the EPID with an iterative reconstruction algorithm. The transmitted photon fluence behind the patient was calculated subsequently. Based on the transmitted fluence the initial photon fluence was calculated using a back-projection algorithm which takes the patient geometry and its energy dependent linear attenuation into account. This attenuation was gained from the acquired cone-beam CT or the planning CT by calculating a water-equivalent radiological thickness for each irradiation direction. To verify the algorithm an inhomogeneous phantom consisting of three inhomogeneities was irradiated by a static 6 MV photon field and compared to a reference flood field image. Results: The mean deviation between the reconstructed relative photon fluence for the inhomogeneous phantom and the flood field EPID image was 3% rising up to 7% for off-axis fluence. This was probably caused by the used clinical EPID calibration, which flattens the inhomogeneous fluence profile of the beam. Conclusion: In this clinical experiment the algorithm achieved good results in the center of the field while it showed high deviation of the lateral fluence. This could be reduced by optimizing the EPID calibration, considering the off-axis differential energy response. In further progress this and other aspects of the EPID, eg. field size dependency, CT and dose calibration have to be studied to realize a clinical acceptable accuracy of 2%.
Photonics for aerospace sensors
Pellegrino, John; Adler, Eric D.; Filipov, Andree N.; Harrison, Lorna J.; van der Gracht, Joseph; Smith, Dale J.; Tayag, Tristan J.; Viveiros, Edward A.
1992-11-01
The maturation in the state-of-the-art of optical components is enabling increased applications for the technology. Most notable is the ever-expanding market for fiber optic data and communications links, familiar in both commercial and military markets. The inherent properties of optics and photonics, however, have suggested that components and processors may be designed that offer advantages over more commonly considered digital approaches for a variety of airborne sensor and signal processing applications. Various academic, industrial, and governmental research groups have been actively investigating and exploiting these properties of high bandwidth, large degree of parallelism in computation (e.g., processing in parallel over a two-dimensional field), and interconnectivity, and have succeeded in advancing the technology to the stage of systems demonstration. Such advantages as computational throughput and low operating power consumption are highly attractive for many computationally intensive problems. This review covers the key devices necessary for optical signal and image processors, some of the system application demonstration programs currently in progress, and active research directions for the implementation of next-generation architectures.
Patterned Colloidal Photonic Crystals.
Hou, Jue; Li, Mingzhu; Song, Yanlin
2018-03-01
Colloidal photonic crystals (PCs) have been well developed because they are easy to prepare, cost-effective, and versatile with regards to modification and functionalization. Patterned colloidal PCs contribute a novel approach to constructing high-performance PC devices with unique structures and specific functions. In this review, an overview of the strategies for fabricating patterned colloidal PCs, including patterned substrate-induced assembly, inkjet printing, and selective immobilization and modification, is presented. The advantages of patterned PC devices are also discussed in detail, for example, improved detection sensitivity and response speed of the sensors, control over the flow direction and wicking rate of microfluidic channels, recognition of cross-reactive molecules through an array-patterned microchip, fabrication of display devices with tunable patterns, well-arranged RGB units, and wide viewing-angles, and the ability to construct anti-counterfeiting devices with different security strategies. Finally, the perspective of future developments and challenges is presented. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
THE PHOTON UNDERPRODUCTION CRISIS
Kollmeier, Juna A.; Weinberg, David H.; McEwen, Joseph; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.; Danforth, Charles; Haardt, Francesco; Katz, Neal; Fardal, Mark; Davé, Romeel; Madau, Piero; Ford, Amanda B.; Peeples, Molly S.
2014-01-01
We examine the statistics of the low-redshift Lyα forest from smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations in light of recent improvements in the estimated evolution of the cosmic ultraviolet background (UVB) and recent observations from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS). We find that the value of the metagalactic photoionization rate (Γ HI ) required by our simulations to match the observed properties of the low-redshift Lyα forest is a factor of five larger than the value predicted by state-of-the art models for the evolution of this quantity. This mismatch in Γ HI results in the mean flux decrement of the Lyα forest being overpredicted by at least a factor of two (a 10σ discrepancy with observations) and a column density distribution of Lyα forest absorbers systematically and significantly elevated compared to observations over nearly two decades in column density. We examine potential resolutions to this mismatch and find that either conventional sources of ionizing photons (galaxies and quasars) must contribute considerably more than current observational estimates or our theoretical understanding of the low-redshift universe is in need of substantial revision
Photon interactions with nuclei
Thornton, S.T.; Sealock, R.M.
1989-01-01
This document is a progress report for DOE Grant No. FG05-89ER40501, A000. The grant began March, 1989. Our primary research effort has been expended at the LEGS project at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This report will summarize our present research effort at LEGS as well as data analysis and publications from previous experiments performed at SLAC. In addition the principal investigators are heavily involved in the CLAS collaboration in Hall B at CEBAF. We have submitted several letters of intent and proposals and have made commitments to construct experimental equipment for CEBAF. We expect our primary experimental effort to continue at LEGS until CEBAF becomes operational. This report will be divided into separate sections describing our progress at LEGS, SLAC, and CEBAF. We will also discuss our significant efforts in the education and training of both undergraduate and graduate students. Photon detectors are described as well as experiments on delta deformation in nuclei of quasielastic scattering and excitation of the delta by 4 He(e,e')
Mehranian, Abolfazl; Arabi, Hossein [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva CH-1211 (Switzerland); Zaidi, Habib, E-mail: habib.zaidi@hcuge.ch [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva CH-1211 (Switzerland); Geneva Neuroscience Centre, University of Geneva, Geneva CH-1205 (Switzerland); Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen, Groningen 9700 RB (Netherlands)
2016-03-15
Attenuation correction is an essential component of the long chain of data correction techniques required to achieve the full potential of quantitative positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. The development of combined PET/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems mandated the widespread interest in developing novel strategies for deriving accurate attenuation maps with the aim to improve the quantitative accuracy of these emerging hybrid imaging systems. The attenuation map in PET/MRI should ideally be derived from anatomical MR images; however, MRI intensities reflect proton density and relaxation time properties of biological tissues rather than their electron density and photon attenuation properties. Therefore, in contrast to PET/computed tomography, there is a lack of standardized global mapping between the intensities of MRI signal and linear attenuation coefficients at 511 keV. Moreover, in standard MRI sequences, bones and lung tissues do not produce measurable signals owing to their low proton density and short transverse relaxation times. MR images are also inevitably subject to artifacts that degrade their quality, thus compromising their applicability for the task of attenuation correction in PET/MRI. MRI-guided attenuation correction strategies can be classified in three broad categories: (i) segmentation-based approaches, (ii) atlas-registration and machine learning methods, and (iii) emission/transmission-based approaches. This paper summarizes past and current state-of-the-art developments and latest advances in PET/MRI attenuation correction. The advantages and drawbacks of each approach for addressing the challenges of MR-based attenuation correction are comprehensively described. The opportunities brought by both MRI and PET imaging modalities for deriving accurate attenuation maps and improving PET quantification will be elaborated. Future prospects and potential clinical applications of these techniques and their integration in commercial
Calculation Of Pneumatic Attenuation In Pressure Sensors
Whitmore, Stephen A.
1991-01-01
Errors caused by attenuation of air-pressure waves in narrow tubes calculated by method based on fundamental equations of flow. Changes in ambient pressure transmitted along narrow tube to sensor. Attenuation of high-frequency components of pressure wave calculated from wave equation derived from Navier-Stokes equations of viscous flow in tube. Developed to understand and compensate for frictional attenuation in narrow tubes used to connect aircraft pressure sensors with pressure taps on affected surfaces.
Estimating Rain Attenuation In Satellite Communication Links
Manning, R. M.
1991-01-01
Attenuation computed with help of statistical model and meteorological data. NASA Lewis Research Center Satellite Link Attenuation Model (SLAM) program QuickBASIC computer program evaluating static and dynamic statistical assessment of impact of rain attenuation on communication link established between Earth terminal and geosynchronous satellite. Application in specification, design, and assessment of satellite communication links for any terminal location in continental United States. Written in Microsoft QuickBASIC.
Thermoelectric single-photon detector
Kuzanyan, A A; Petrosyan, V A; Kuzanyan, A S
2012-01-01
The ability to detect a single photon is the ultimate level of sensitivity in the measurement of optical radiation. Sensors capable of detecting single photons and determining their energy have many scientific and technological applications. Kondo-enhanced Seebeck effect cryogenic detectors are based on thermoelectric heat-to-voltage conversion and voltage readout. We evaluate the prospects of CeB 6 and (La,Ce)B 6 hexaboride crystals for their application as a sensitive element in this type of detectors. We conclude that such detectors can register a single UV photon, have a fast count rate (up to 45 MHz) and a high spectral resolution of 0.1 eV. We calculate the electric potential generated along the thermoelectric sensor upon registering a UV single photon.
Manipulating continuous variable photonic entanglement
Plenio, M.B.
2005-01-01
I will review our work on photonic entanglement in the continuous variable regime including both Gaussian and non-Gaussian states. The feasibility and efficiency of various entanglement purification protocols are discussed this context. (author)
Femtosecond Photon-Counting Receiver
Krainak, Michael A.; Rambo, Timothy M.; Yang, Guangning; Lu, Wei; Numata, Kenji
2016-01-01
An optical correlation receiver is described that provides ultra-precise distance and/or time/pulse-width measurements even for weak (single photons) and short (femtosecond) optical signals. A new type of optical correlation receiver uses a fourth-order (intensity) interferometer to provide micron distance measurements even for weak (single photons) and short (femtosecond) optical signals. The optical correlator uses a low-noise-integrating detector that can resolve photon number. The correlation (range as a function of path delay) is calculated from the variance of the photon number of the difference of the optical signals on the two detectors. Our preliminary proof-of principle data (using a short-pulse diode laser transmitter) demonstrates tens of microns precision.
Photon management in solar cells
Rau, Uwe; Gombert, Andreas
2015-01-01
Written by renowned experts in the field of photon management in solar cells, this one-stop reference gives an introduction to the physics of light management in solar cells, and discusses the different concepts and methods of applying photon management. The authors cover the physics, principles, concepts, technologies, and methods used, explaining how to increase the efficiency of solar cells by splitting or modifying the solar spectrum before they absorb the sunlight. In so doing, they present novel concepts and materials allowing for the cheaper, more flexible manufacture of solar cells and systems. For educational purposes, the authors have split the reasons for photon management into spatial and spectral light management. Bridging the gap between the photonics and the photovoltaics communities, this is an invaluable reference for materials scientists, physicists in industry, experimental physicists, lecturers in physics, Ph.D. students in physics and material sciences, engineers in power technology, appl...
Hill, M.T.; Oei, Y.S.; Smit, M.K.
2007-01-01
We examine the use of micro and nano lasers to form digital photonic VLSI building blocks. Problems such as isolation and cascading of building blocks are addressed, and the potential of future nano lasers explored.
Modelling of photonic crystal fibres
Knudsen, Erik
2003-01-01
, as well as a honeycomb bandgap fibre and the first analysis of semi-periodic layered air-hole fibres. Using the modelling framework established as a basis, we provide an analysis of microbend loss, by regarding displacement of a fibre core as a stationary stochastic process, inducing mismatch between......In the presenta ph.d. work a theoretical study of aspects of modelling photonic crystal fibres was carried out. Photonic crystal fibres form a class of optical waveguides where guidance is no longer provided by a difference in refractive index between core and cladding. Instead, guidance...... is provided by an arrangement of air-holes running along the length of the fibre. Depending on the geometry of the fibre, the guiding mechanism may be either arising from the formation of a photonic bandgap in the cladding structure (photonic bandgap fibre), or by an effect resembling total internal...
Quantum photonic networks in diamond
Lončar, Marko; Faraon, Andrei
2013-01-01
Advances in nanotechnology have enabled the opportunity to fabricate nanoscale optical devices and chip-scale systems in diamond that can generate, manipulate, and store optical signals at the single-photon level. In particular, nanophotonics has
Parity-Time Symmetric Photonics
Zhao, Han
2018-01-17
The establishment of non-Hermitian quantum mechanics (such as parity-time (PT) symmetry) stimulates a paradigmatic shift for studying symmetries of complex potentials. Owing to the convenient manipulation of optical gain and loss in analogy to the complex quantum potentials, photonics provides an ideal platform for visualization of many conceptually striking predictions from the non-Hermitian quantum theory. A rapidly developing field has emerged, namely, PT symmetric photonics, demonstrating intriguing optical phenomena including eigenstate coalescence and spontaneous PT symmetry breaking. The advance of quantum physics, as the feedback, provides photonics with brand-new paradigms to explore the entire complex permittivity plane for novel optical functionalities. Here, we review recent exciting breakthroughs in PT symmetric photonics while systematically presenting their underlying principles guided by non-Hermitian symmetries. The potential device applications for optical communication and computing, bio-chemical sensing, and healthcare are also discussed.
Buvat, Irene
2010-10-01
The objective of this lecture is to present the single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and the positron emission tomography (PET) imaging techniques. Part 1 Content: 1 - Introduction: anatomic, functional and molecular imaging; 2 - Radiotracers: chemical and physical constraints, gamma photon emitters, positon emitters, radioisotopes production, emitters type and imaging techniques; 3 - Gamma cameras; 4 - Quantification in emission tomography: attenuation, scattering, un-stationary spatial resolution; 5 - Synthesis and conclusion. Part 2 content: 1 - Positon emitters; 2 - Positons detection: Coincidence detection (electronic collimation, PET detectors with gamma cameras, dedicated PET detectors, spectrometry); PET detectors type; time-of-flight PET; 2D PET; 3D PET; 3 - Quantification in emission tomography: detected events, attenuation, scattering, fortuitous coincidences, standardisation; 4 - Common SPECT and PET problems: partial volume effect, movement, tomographic reconstruction, calibration, dead time; 5 - Synthesis and conclusion
Coupling the photon kinetics of soft photons with high energy photons
Silva, L. O.; Bingham, R.
2017-10-01
The description of electromagnetic fields based on the generalized photon kinetic theory, which takes advantage of the Wigner-Moyal description for the corresponding classical field theory, is capable of capturing collective plasma dynamics in the relativistic regime driven by broadband incoherent or partially coherent sources. We explore the possibility to extend this description to include the dynamics of hard photons in the plasma, whose interaction is dominated by single scattering processes. Examples of the modification of classical plasma instabilities due to the presence of hard photons is discussed. Work supported by the European Research Council (ERC-AdG-2015 InPairs Grant No. 695088).
Gamma-ray attenuation studies of PbO-BaO-B2O3 glass system
Singh, Narveer; Singh, Kanwar Jit; Singh, Kulwant; Singh, Harvinder
2006-01-01
PbO-BaO-B 2 O 3 glass system has been investigated in terms of molar mass, mass attenuation coefficient and half value layer parameters by using gamma-ray at 511,662 and 1274keV photon energies. Gamma-ray attenuation coefficients of the prepared glass samples have been compared with tabulations based upon the results of XCOM. Good agreement has been observed between experimental and theoretical tabulations. Our results have uncertainty less than 3%. Radiation shielding properties of the glass system have been compared with some standard radiation shielding concretes
National Photonics Skills Standard for Technicians.
Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.
This document defines "photonics" as the generation, manipulation, transport, detection, and use of light information and energy whose quantum unit is the photon. The range of applications of photonics extends from energy generation to detection to communication and information processing. Photonics is at the heart of today's…
Photon final states at the Tevatron
Campanelli, Mario; /University Coll. London
2008-04-01
The authors present here several recent measurements involving associate production of photons and jets at the Tevatron. In particular, inclusive photon + met from D0, and photon + b-jets and photon + b-jet + leptons + MET from CDF are described in some detail. These measurements offer a good test of QCD predictions in rather complex final states.
Experimental search for muonic photons
Vilain, P; Beyer, R; Flegel, Wilfried; Mouthuy, T; Øverås, H; Panman, J; Rozanov, A N; Winter, Klaus; Zacek, G; Zacek, V; Büsser, F W; Foos, C; Gerland, L; Layda, T; Niebergall, F; Rädel, G; Stähelin, P; Voss, T; Favart, D; Grégoire, G; Knoops, E; Lemaître, V; Gorbunov, P; Grigoriev, E A; Ilyin, V A; Khovanskii, V D; Maslennikov, A M; Okun, Lev Borisovich; Lippich, W; Nathaniel, A; Staude, A; Vogt, J; Cocco, A G; Ereditato, A; Fiorillo, G; Marchetti-Stasi, F; Palladino, Vittorio; Strolin, P; Capone, A; De Pedis, D; Dore, U; Frenkel-Rambaldi, A; Loverre, P F; Macina, Daniela; Piredda, G; Santacesaria, R; Di Capua, E; Ricciardi, S; Saitta, B; Akkus, B; Arik, E; Serin-Zeyrek, M; Sever, R; Tolun, P; Hiller, K; Nahnhauer, R; Roloff, H
1998-01-01
We report new limits on the production of muonic photons in the CERN neutrino beam. The results are based on the analysis of neutrino production of dimuons in the CHARM II detector. A $90\\%$ CL limit on the coupling constant of muonic photons, $\\alpha_{\\mu} / \\alpha < (1.5 \\div 3.2) \\times10^{-6}$ is derived for a muon neutrino mass in the range $m_{\
Photon factory activity report, 1992
1993-01-01
This issue is the annual report of the Photon Factory, National laboratory of High Energy Physics. First, the outline of the Photon Factory is presented. Injector linac, light source, beamlines and instrumentation, the Tristan synchrotron radiation facility at the accumulation ring, and the Tristan super light facility are described in detail. The facility is open to researchers. The user's reports are collected as well. (J.P.N.) (435 refs.)
Modeling of photonic Crystal Fibres
Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Broeng, Jes; Barkou, Stig Eigil
1999-01-01
Diferent theoretical models for analysis of photonic crystal fibres are reviewed and compaired. The methods span from simple scalar approaches to full-vectorial models using different mode-field decompositions. The specific advantages of the methods are evaluated.......Diferent theoretical models for analysis of photonic crystal fibres are reviewed and compaired. The methods span from simple scalar approaches to full-vectorial models using different mode-field decompositions. The specific advantages of the methods are evaluated....
Topology Optimized Photonic Wire Splitters
Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Borel, Peter Ingo; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard
2006-01-01
Photonic wire splitters have been designed using topology optimization. The splitters have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and display broadband low-loss 3dB splitting in a bandwidth larger than 100 nm.......Photonic wire splitters have been designed using topology optimization. The splitters have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and display broadband low-loss 3dB splitting in a bandwidth larger than 100 nm....
Photon factory activity report, 1993
1994-01-01
This issue is the annual report of the Photon Factory, National Laboratory of High Energy Physics. First the outline of the Photon Factory is presented. Injector linac, light source, beamlines and instrumentation, synchrotron radiation facility at the Tristan accumulation ring, and the Tristan super light facility are described in detail. The facility is open to researchers. The user's reports are collected as well. (J.P.N.)
Approaches to single photon detection
Thew, R.T.; Curtz, N.; Eraerds, P.; Walenta, N.; Gautier, J.-D.; Koller, E.; Zhang, J.; Gisin, N.; Zbinden, H.
2009-01-01
We present recent results on our development of single photon detectors, including: gated and free-running InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes (APDs); hybrid detection systems based on sum-frequency generation (SFG) and Si APDs-SFG-Si APDs; and SSPDs (superconducting single photon detectors), for telecom wavelengths; as well as SiPM (Silicon photomultiplier) detectors operating in the visible regime.
Spin dependent photon structure functions
Manohar, A.V.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge
1989-01-01
Spin dependent structure functions of the photon are studied using the operator product expansion. There are new twist-two photon and gluon operators which contribute. The structure functions g 1 and F 3 are calculable in QCD, but differ from their free quark values. The corrections to F 3 are suppressed by 1/log Q 2 . The calculation is an extension of the analysis of Witten for the spin averaged structure functions F 1 and F 2 . (orig.)
Quasimetallic silicon micromachined photonic crystals
Temelkuran, B.; Bayindir, Mehmet; Ozbay, E.; Kavanaugh, J. P.; Sigalas, M. M.; Tuttle, G.
2001-01-01
We report on fabrication of a layer-by-layer photonic crystal using highly doped silicon wafers processed by semiconductor micromachining techniques. The crystals, built using (100) silicon wafers, resulted in an upper stop band edge at 100 GHz. The transmission and defect characteristics of these structures were found to be analogous to metallic photonic crystals. We also investigated the effect of doping concentration on the defect characteristics. The experimental results agree well with predictions of the transfer matrix method simulations
Fontainha, C.C.P.; Nunes, M.; Rosas, V.A., E-mail: crissia@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Anatomia e Imagem; Furtado, C.A.; Faria, L.O. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)
2017-07-01
Medical radiology offers great benefit to patients, however, the radiation contributes for the workers and individuals exposure, significantly increasing dose to population. New attenuators materials have been widely investigated for radiation shielding to apply in medical procedures. Polymeric composites filled with attenuating metals and functionalized with carbon nanotubes (NTC) are being largely developed. In this work, composites were produced for radiation attenuation in radiodiagnostic imaging procedures. Two types of polymer matrices, polyvinylidene fluoride, PVDF, and its copolymer, poly(vinylidene-trifluorylene fluoride), P(VDF-TrFE), were filled bismuth oxide nanoparticles. Carbon nanotubes were added with different concentrations at the solution of attenuator metal under controlled magnetic stirring. The composites were characterized by differential heat flow scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dispersive energy X-ray spectrometry (EDS) for thermal analysis. In this setup, one reference measure is directly exposed to the x-rays being diffracted by single crystal of Si (111). Another measure the attenuated beam is performed with the composite sample under detector. The samples present a good dispersion of the attenuator metal and the nanotube carbon. On the other hand, composites with PVDF matrix lost their plasticity, stiffening their structure, becoming brittle, even using the same methodology of synthesis. The P(VDF-Trfe) matrix showed better maleability than PVDF matrix. The cheaptube dispersion in the P(VDF-Trfe) matrix presented better than the 3100 carbon nanotubes. The attenuation for 8.047 keV monoenergetic photons was about 90% to 100 μm thickness for all composites. (author)
Attenuation correction for the large non-human primate brain imaging using microPET
Naidoo-Variawa, S; Lehnert, W; Kassiou, M; Banati, R; Meikle, S R
2010-01-01
Assessment of the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of radiopharmaceuticals in vivo is often performed on animal models of human disease prior to their use in humans. The baboon brain is physiologically and neuro-anatomically similar to the human brain and is therefore a suitable model for evaluating novel CNS radioligands. We previously demonstrated the feasibility of performing baboon brain imaging on a dedicated small animal PET scanner provided that the data are accurately corrected for degrading physical effects such as photon attenuation in the body. In this study, we investigated factors affecting the accuracy and reliability of alternative attenuation correction strategies when imaging the brain of a large non-human primate (papio hamadryas) using the microPET Focus 220 animal scanner. For measured attenuation correction, the best bias versus noise performance was achieved using a 57 Co transmission point source with a 4% energy window. The optimal energy window for a 68 Ge transmission source operating in singles acquisition mode was 20%, independent of the source strength, providing bias-noise performance almost as good as for 57 Co. For both transmission sources, doubling the acquisition time had minimal impact on the bias-noise trade-off for corrected emission images, despite observable improvements in reconstructed attenuation values. In a [ 18 F]FDG brain scan of a female baboon, both measured attenuation correction strategies achieved good results and similar SNR, while segmented attenuation correction (based on uncorrected emission images) resulted in appreciable regional bias in deep grey matter structures and the skull. We conclude that measured attenuation correction using a single pass 57 Co (4% energy window) or 68 Ge (20% window) transmission scan achieves an excellent trade-off between bias and propagation of noise when imaging the large non-human primate brain with a microPET scanner.
Fontainha, C.C.P.; Nunes, M.; Rosas, V.A.
2017-01-01
Medical radiology offers great benefit to patients, however, the radiation contributes for the workers and individuals exposure, significantly increasing dose to population. New attenuators materials have been widely investigated for radiation shielding to apply in medical procedures. Polymeric composites filled with attenuating metals and functionalized with carbon nanotubes (NTC) are being largely developed. In this work, composites were produced for radiation attenuation in radiodiagnostic imaging procedures. Two types of polymer matrices, polyvinylidene fluoride, PVDF, and its copolymer, poly(vinylidene-trifluorylene fluoride), P(VDF-TrFE), were filled bismuth oxide nanoparticles. Carbon nanotubes were added with different concentrations at the solution of attenuator metal under controlled magnetic stirring. The composites were characterized by differential heat flow scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dispersive energy X-ray spectrometry (EDS) for thermal analysis. In this setup, one reference measure is directly exposed to the x-rays being diffracted by single crystal of Si (111). Another measure the attenuated beam is performed with the composite sample under detector. The samples present a good dispersion of the attenuator metal and the nanotube carbon. On the other hand, composites with PVDF matrix lost their plasticity, stiffening their structure, becoming brittle, even using the same methodology of synthesis. The P(VDF-Trfe) matrix showed better maleability than PVDF matrix. The cheaptube dispersion in the P(VDF-Trfe) matrix presented better than the 3100 carbon nanotubes. The attenuation for 8.047 keV monoenergetic photons was about 90% to 100 μm thickness for all composites. (author)
Topological Photonics for Continuous Media
Silveirinha, Mario
Photonic crystals have revolutionized light-based technologies during the last three decades. Notably, it was recently discovered that the light propagation in photonic crystals may depend on some topological characteristics determined by the manner how the light states are mutually entangled. The usual topological classification of photonic crystals explores the fact that these structures are periodic. The periodicity is essential to ensure that the underlying wave vector space is a closed surface with no boundary. In this talk, we prove that it is possible calculate Chern invariants for a wide class of continuous bianisotropic electromagnetic media with no intrinsic periodicity. The nontrivial topology of the relevant continuous materials is linked with the emergence of edge states. Moreover, we will demonstrate that continuous photonic media with the time-reversal symmetry can be topologically characterized by a Z2 integer. This novel classification extends for the first time the theory of electronic topological insulators to a wide range of photonic platforms, and is expected to have an impact in the design of novel photonic systems that enable a topologically protected transport of optical energy. This work is supported in part by Fundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia Grant Number PTDC/EEI-TEL/4543/2014.
Spatial filtering with photonic crystals
Maigyte, Lina [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Rambla Sant Nebridi 22, Terrassa 08222 (Spain); Staliunas, Kestutis [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Rambla Sant Nebridi 22, Terrassa 08222 (Spain); Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Pg. Lluís Companys 23, Barcelona 08010 (Spain)
2015-03-15
Photonic crystals are well known for their celebrated photonic band-gaps—the forbidden frequency ranges, for which the light waves cannot propagate through the structure. The frequency (or chromatic) band-gaps of photonic crystals can be utilized for frequency filtering. In analogy to the chromatic band-gaps and the frequency filtering, the angular band-gaps and the angular (spatial) filtering are also possible in photonic crystals. In this article, we review the recent advances of the spatial filtering using the photonic crystals in different propagation regimes and for different geometries. We review the most evident configuration of filtering in Bragg regime (with the back-reflection—i.e., in the configuration with band-gaps) as well as in Laue regime (with forward deflection—i.e., in the configuration without band-gaps). We explore the spatial filtering in crystals with different symmetries, including axisymmetric crystals; we discuss the role of chirping, i.e., the dependence of the longitudinal period along the structure. We also review the experimental techniques to fabricate the photonic crystals and numerical techniques to explore the spatial filtering. Finally, we discuss several implementations of such filters for intracavity spatial filtering.
Ultra-broadband photonic internet
Romaniuk, Ryszard S.
2011-06-01
In this paper, there is presented a review of our today's understanding of the ultimately broadband photonic Internet. A simple calculation is presented showing the estimate of the throughput of the core photonic network branches. Optoelectronic components, circuits, systems and signals, together with analogous electronic entities and common software layers, are building blocks of the contemporary Internet. Participation of photonics in development of the physical layer in the future Internet will probably increase. The photonics leads now to a better usage of the available bandwidth (increase of the spectral efficiency measured in Bit/s/Hz), increase in the transmission rate (from Gbps, via Tbps up to probably Pbps), increase in the transmission distance without signal regeneration (in distortion compensated active optical cables), increase in energy/power efficiency measured in W/Gbps, etc. Photonics may lead, in the future, to fully transparent optical networks and, thus, to essential increase in bandwidth and network reliability. It is expected that photonics (with biochemistry, electronics and mechatronics) may build psychological and physiological interface for humans to the future global network. The following optical signal multiplexing methods were considered, which are possible without O/E/O conversion: TDM-OTDM, FDM-CO-OFDM, OCDM-OCDMA, WDM-DWDM.
Tunable Multiband Microwave Photonic Filters
Mable P. Fok
2017-11-01
Full Text Available The increasing demand for multifunctional devices, the use of cognitive wireless technology to solve the frequency resource shortage problem, as well as the capabilities and operational flexibility necessary to meet ever-changing environment result in an urgent need of multiband wireless communications. Spectral filter is an essential part of any communication systems, and in the case of multiband wireless communications, tunable multiband RF filters are required for channel selection, noise/interference removal, and RF signal processing. Unfortunately, it is difficult for RF electronics to achieve both tunable and multiband spectral filtering. Recent advancements of microwave photonics have proven itself to be a promising candidate to solve various challenges in RF electronics including spectral filtering, however, the development of multiband microwave photonic filtering still faces lots of difficulties, due to the limited scalability and tunability of existing microwave photonic schemes. In this review paper, we first discuss the challenges that were facing by multiband microwave photonic filter, then we review recent techniques that have been developed to tackle the challenge and lead to promising developments of tunable microwave photonic multiband filters. The successful design and implementation of tunable microwave photonic multiband filter facilitate the vision of dynamic multiband wireless communications and radio frequency signal processing for commercial, defense, and civilian applications.
Computational Modeling of Photonic Crystal Microcavity Single-Photon Emitters
Saulnier, Nicole A.
Conventional cryptography is based on algorithms that are mathematically complex and difficult to solve, such as factoring large numbers. The advent of a quantum computer would render these schemes useless. As scientists work to develop a quantum computer, cryptographers are developing new schemes for unconditionally secure cryptography. Quantum key distribution has emerged as one of the potential replacements of classical cryptography. It relics on the fact that measurement of a quantum bit changes the state of the bit and undetected eavesdropping is impossible. Single polarized photons can be used as the quantum bits, such that a quantum system would in some ways mirror the classical communication scheme. The quantum key distribution system would include components that create, transmit and detect single polarized photons. The focus of this work is on the development of an efficient single-photon source. This source is comprised of a single quantum dot inside of a photonic crystal microcavity. To better understand the physics behind the device, a computational model is developed. The model uses Finite-Difference Time-Domain methods to analyze the electromagnetic field distribution in photonic crystal microcavities. It uses an 8-band k · p perturbation theory to compute the energy band structure of the epitaxially grown quantum dots. We discuss a method that combines the results of these two calculations for determining the spontaneous emission lifetime of a quantum dot in bulk material or in a microcavity. The computational models developed in this thesis are used to identify and characterize microcavities for potential use in a single-photon source. The computational tools developed are also used to investigate novel photonic crystal microcavities that incorporate 1D distributed Bragg reflectors for vertical confinement. It is found that the spontaneous emission enhancement in the quasi-3D cavities can be significantly greater than in traditional suspended slab
Scolari, Lara; Gauza, Sebastian; Xianyu, Haiqing; Zhai, Lei; Eskildsen, Lars; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Wu, Shin-Tson; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard
2009-01-01
We infiltrate liquid crystals doped with BaTiO3 nanoparticles in a photonic crystal fiber and compare the measured transmission spectrum with the one achieved without dopant. New interesting features, such as frequency modulation response of the device and a transmission spectrum with tunable attenuation on the short wavelength side of the widest bandgap, suggest a potential application of this device as a tunable all-in-fiber gain equalization filter with an adjustable slope. The tunability ...
Rhodes, William T.
2011-09-01
An ideal beam splitter model for an absorber presented by Leonhardt in his book Measuring the Quantum State of Light (Cambridge University Press, 1997) has intriguing implications for the simple Young's fringe experiment in the photon-counting regime. Specifically, it suggests that different results will be obtained depending on whether the light forming the fringes is attenuated at the source or at the slits.
Some theoretical aspects of electron and photon dosimetry
Seltzer, S.M.; Hubbell, J.H.; Berger, M.J.
1978-01-01
The dosimetry standardization programme at the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) has a number of theoretical components. These include the compilation of standard cross-section data sets, the theoretical analysis of detector response to various radiations, the spectral and directional characterization of radiation sources, and the determination of absorbed-dose distributions in irradiated media. This paper describes recent results, with emphasis on photon and electron dosimetry. A discussion is given of some recent developments pertaining to photon attenuation coefficients and electron stopping powers. Response functions are presented for intrinsic germanium detectors (used to measure the output of diagnostic X-ray machines) and for sodium iodide detectors (used to measure the spectral characteristics of one of the NBS 60 Co irradiation facilities). As examples of source characterization, calculations are described pertaining to the passage of high-energy electron beams through foils. Consideration is given to thin foils used to spread the electron beam, and to thick foils used as bremsstrahlung converters. The results include the energy spectra and angular distributions of the transmitted electrons and emergent bremsstrahlung photons. An example of the calculation of absorbed-dose distributions is given for irradiation of a carbon phantom by a 60 Co gamma-ray beam. (author)
Neutron-induced photon production in MCNP
Little, R.C.; Seamon, R.E.
1983-01-01
An improved method of neutron-induced photon production has been incorporated into the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP. The new method makes use of all partial photon-production reaction data provided by ENDF/B evaluators including photon-production cross sections as well as energy and angular distributions of secondary photons. This faithful utilization of sophisticated ENDF/B evaluations allows more precise MCNP calculations for several classes of coupled neutron-photon problems
Exact Reconstruction From Uniformly Attenuated Helical Cone-Beam Projections in SPECT
Gullberg, Grant T.; Huang, Qiu; You, Jiangsheng; Zeng, Gengsheng L.
2008-01-01
In recent years the development of cone-beam reconstruction algorithms has been an active research area in x-ray computed tomography (CT), and significant progress has been made in the advancement of algorithms. Theoretically exact and computationally efficient analytical algorithms can be found in the literature. However, in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), published cone-beam reconstruction algorithms are either approximate or involve iterative methods. The SPECT reconstruction problem is more complicated due to degradations in the imaging detection process, one of which is the effect of attenuation of gamma ray photons. Attenuation should be compensated for to obtain quantitative results. In this paper, an analytical reconstruction algorithm for uniformly attenuated cone-beam projection data is presented for SPECT imaging. The algorithm adopts the DBH method, a procedure consisting of differentiation and backprojection followed by a finite inverse cosh-weighted Hilbert transform. The significance of the proposed approach is that a selected region of interest can be reconstructed even with a detector with a reduced field of view. The algorithm is designed for a general trajectory. However, to validate the algorithm, a numerical study was performed using a helical trajectory. The implementation is efficient and the simulation result is promising
Ash, B J; Worsfold, S R; Vukusic, P; Nash, G R
2017-08-02
Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are widely used for signal processing, sensing and increasingly for lab-on-a-chip applications. Phononic crystals can control the propagation of SAW, analogous to photonic crystals, enabling components such as waveguides and cavities. Here we present an approach for the realisation of robust, tailorable SAW phononic crystals, based on annular holes patterned in a SAW substrate. Using simulations and experiments, we show that this geometry supports local resonances which create highly attenuating phononic bandgaps at frequencies with negligible coupling of SAWs into other modes, even for relatively shallow features. The enormous bandgap attenuation is up to an order-of-magnitude larger than that achieved with a pillar phononic crystal of the same size, enabling effective phononic crystals to be made up of smaller numbers of elements. This work transforms the ability to exploit phononic crystals for developing novel SAW device concepts, mirroring contemporary progress in photonic crystals.The control and manipulation of propagating sound waves on a surface has applications in on-chip signal processing and sensing. Here, Ash et al. deviate from standard designs and fabricate frequency tailorable phononic crystals with an order-of-magnitude increase in attenuation.
Formation of η' mesons in photon-photon collisions
Uitert, B.K. van.
1986-01-01
This thesis describes an experiment performed at the positron electron storage ring PEP at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center on the formation of the η' resonance which is observed in its decay mode ρ 0 γ, where the ρ decays into a π + π - pair. Some general features of the relatively new subject of photon-photon physics are introduced. The η' and the coupling of photons to the η' are discussed in the context of the quark model. It is shown how the mixing angle in the nonet of pseudoscalar mesons can be derived from ratios of γγ widths. The kinematics of the two-photon exchange process, the formation of the η' resonance by the two virtual photons and its subsequent electromagnetic decay into ρ 0 γ are discussed. The selected sample of events is used to determine the γγ width of the η' under the conventional assignment J P = 0 - for the η' and J P = 1 - for the ρ. The result is combined with measurements by other experiments to a world average, which is used to determine the mixing angle for the pseudoscalar nonet under various assumptions. The decay angular and energy distributions are investigated in detail. (Auth.)
On the validity of the equivalent-photon approximation for virtual photon-photon collisions
Carimalo, C.; Kessler, P.; Parisi, J.
1979-05-01
For virtual photon-photon collisions in electron storage rings, one derive the equivalent-photon approximation from a helicity treatment, and present it in two forms, involving respectively (i) polarized transverse photons ('transverse-photon approximation') and (ii) unpolarized ones ('Williams-Weizsaecker approximation'). One first postulates the conditions of validity of the approximation on the basis of analytic considerations, and then check them numerically in the case of the process e e → e e μ + μ - . For this check, we consider the completely differentiated cross section as far as approximation (i) is concerned; and in the case of approximation (ii), the cross section differentiated with respect to all variables except the azimuthal angles. The results are given in the form of Tables showing the lower and higher limit of the error involved in the approximation for a large variety of kinematic configurations (i. e., energy losses and scattering angles of both electrons). Those Tables are discussed in detail, and conclusions are drawn as to the applicability of the equivalent-photon approximation to future experiments to be performed with high-energy electron storage rings
Behnke, Olaf; Diehl, Markus; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Steinbrueck, Georg [eds.
2010-01-15
The following topics were dealt with: Electroweak and new physics, photon-collider technology, low-energy photon experiments, prompt photons, photon structure, jets and heavy flavours, vacuum polarization and light-by-light scattering, small-x processes, diffraction, total cross sections, exclusive channels and resonances, photons in astroparticle physics. (HSI)
Behnke, Olaf; Diehl, Markus; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Steinbrueck, Georg
2010-01-01
The following topics were dealt with: Electroweak and new physics, photon-collider technology, low-energy photon experiments, prompt photons, photon structure, jets and heavy flavours, vacuum polarization and light-by-light scattering, small-x processes, diffraction, total cross sections, exclusive channels and resonances, photons in astroparticle physics. (HSI)
Silicon photonics: some remaining challenges
Reed, G. T.; Topley, R.; Khokhar, A. Z.; Thompson, D. J.; Stanković, S.; Reynolds, S.; Chen, X.; Soper, N.; Mitchell, C. J.; Hu, Y.; Shen, L.; Martinez-Jimenez, G.; Healy, N.; Mailis, S.; Peacock, A. C.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Gardes, F. Y.; Soler Penades, J.; Alonso-Ramos, C.; Ortega-Monux, A.; Wanguemert-Perez, G.; Molina-Fernandez, I.; Cheben, P.; Mashanovich, G. Z.
2016-03-01
This paper discusses some of the remaining challenges for silicon photonics, and how we at Southampton University have approached some of them. Despite phenomenal advances in the field of Silicon Photonics, there are a number of areas that still require development. For short to medium reach applications, there is a need to improve the power consumption of photonic circuits such that inter-chip, and perhaps intra-chip applications are viable. This means that yet smaller devices are required as well as thermally stable devices, and multiple wavelength channels. In turn this demands smaller, more efficient modulators, athermal circuits, and improved wavelength division multiplexers. The debate continues as to whether on-chip lasers are necessary for all applications, but an efficient low cost laser would benefit many applications. Multi-layer photonics offers the possibility of increasing the complexity and effectiveness of a given area of chip real estate, but it is a demanding challenge. Low cost packaging (in particular, passive alignment of fibre to waveguide), and effective wafer scale testing strategies, are also essential for mass market applications. Whilst solutions to these challenges would enhance most applications, a derivative technology is emerging, that of Mid Infra-Red (MIR) silicon photonics. This field will build on existing developments, but will require key enhancements to facilitate functionality at longer wavelengths. In common with mainstream silicon photonics, significant developments have been made, but there is still much left to do. Here we summarise some of our recent work towards wafer scale testing, passive alignment, multiplexing, and MIR silicon photonics technology.
Attenuation in Melting Layer of Precipitation
Klaassen, W.
1988-01-01
A model of the melting layer is employed on radar measurements to simulate the attenuation of radio waves at 12, 20 and 30GHz. The attenuation in the melting layer is simulated to be slightly larger than that of rain with the same path length and precipitation intensity. The result appears to depend
Precision Model for Microwave Rotary Vane Attenuator
Guldbrandsen, Tom
1979-01-01
A model for a rotary vane attenuator is developed to describe the attenuator reflection and transmission coefficients in detail. All the parameters of the model can be measured in situ, i.e., without diassembling any part. The tranmission errors caused by internal reflections are calculated from ...
Photostimulated attenuation of hypersound in superlattice
Mensah, S.Y.; Allotey, F.K.; Adjepong, S.K.
1992-10-01
Photostimulated attenuation of hypersound in semiconductor superlattice has been investigated. It is shown that the attenuation coefficient depends on the phonon wave vector q in an oscillatory manner and that from this oscillation the band width Δ of superlattice can be found. (author). 14 refs, 1 fig
Photonics Research and Development
Dickson, Elizabeth [UNLV Research Foundation, Las Vegas, NV (United States)
2010-01-15
During the period August 2005 through October 2009, the UNLV Research Foundation (UNLVRF), a non-profit affiliate of the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), in collaboration with UNLV's Colleges of Science and Engineering; Boston University (BU); Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); and Sunlight Direct, LLC, has managed and conducted a diverse and comprehensive research and development program focused on light-emitting diode (LED) technologies that provide significantly improved characteristics for lighting and display applications. This final technical report provides detailed information on the nature of the tasks, the results of the research, and the deliverables. It is estimated that about five percent of the energy used in the nation is for lighting homes, buildings and streets, accounting for some 25 percent of the average home's electric bill. However, the figure is significantly higher for the commercial sector. About 60 percent of the electricity for businesses is for lighting. Thus replacement of current lighting with solid-state lighting technology has the potential to significantly reduce this nation's energy consumption by some estimates, possibly as high as 20%. The primary objective of this multi-year R&D project has been to develop and advance lighting technologies to improve national energy conversion efficiencies; reduce heat load; and significantly lower the cost of conventional lighting technologies. The UNLVRF and its partners have specifically focused these talents on (1) improving LED technologies; (2) optimizing hybrid solar lighting, a technology which potentially offers the benefits of blending natural with artificial lighting systems, thus improving energy efficiency; and (3) building a comprehensive academic infrastructure within UNLV which concentrates on photonics R&D. Task researchers have reported impressive progress in (1) the development of quantum dot laser emitting diodes (QDLEDs) which will ultimately improve
Ultrasound fields in an attenuating medium
Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gandhi,, D; O'Brien,, W.D., Jr.
1993-01-01
of the rectangles and sums all contributions to arrive at the spatial impulse response for the aperture and field point. This approach makes it possible to model all transducer apertures, and the program can readily calculate the emitted, pulse-echo and continuous wave field. Attenuation is included by splitting...... it into a frequency dependent part and frequency independent part. The latter results in an attenuation factor that is multiplied onto the responses from the individual elements, and the frequency dependent part is handled by attenuating the basic one-dimensional pulse. The influence on ultrasound fields from......Ultrasound fields propagating in tissue will undergo changes in shape not only due to diffraction, but also due to the frequency dependent attenuation. Linear fields can be fairly well predicted for a non-attenuating medium like water by using the Tupholme-Stepanishen method for calculating...
Vetrov, S Y
2001-01-01
The properties of the localized electromagnetic modes in the one-dimensional photon crystal with a structural defective layer are studied. The anisotropic layer of the nematic liquid layer is considered as the defect. It is shown that the frequency and coefficient of the defective modes attenuation essentially depend on the defective layer thickness and nematic optical axis orientation. The spectrum of the photon crystal transmittance with one or two defects in the lattice is studied. The possibility of controlling the the photon crystal transmittance spectrum on the count of changing the orientation of the nematic optical axis, for example, through the external electric field is shown with an account of strong anisotropy of the dielectric permittivity
Shantappa, A.; Hanagodimath, S. M.
2014-01-01
Effective atomic numbers, electron densities of some vitamins (Retinol, Riboflavin, Niacin, Biotin, Folic acid, Cobalamin, Phylloquinone and Flavonoids) composed of C, H, O, N, Co, P and S have been calculated for total and partial photon interactions by the direct method for energy range 1 keV-100 GeV by using WinXCOM and kinetic energy released in matter (Kerma) relative to air is calculated in energy range of 1 keV-20 MeV. Change in effective atomic number and electron density with energy is calculated for all photon interactions. Variation of photon mass attenuation coefficients with energy are shown graphically only for total photon interaction. It is observed that change in mass attenuation coefficient with composition of different chemicals is very large below 100 keV and moderate between 100 keV and 10 MeV and negligible above 10 MeV. Behaviour of vitamins is almost indistinguishable except biotin and cobalamin because of large range of atomic numbers from 1(H) to 16 (S) and 1(H) to 27(Co) respectively. K a value shows a peak due to the photoelectric effect around K-absorption edge of high- Z constituent of compound for biotin and cobalamin.
Gamma irradiation of minimal latency Hollow-Core Photonic Bandgap Fibres
Olanterae, L; Richardson, D J; Vasey, F; Wooler, J P; Petrovich, M N; Wheeler, N V; Poletti, F; Troska, J
2013-01-01
Hollow-Core Photonic-Bandgap Fibres (HC-PBGFs) offer several distinct advantages over conventional fibres, such as low latency and radiation hardness; properties that make HC-PBGFs interesting for the high energy physics community. This contribution presents the results from a gamma irradiation test carried out using a new type of HC-PBGF that combines sufficiently low attenuation over distances that are compatible with high energy physics applications together with a transmission bandwidth that covers the 1550 nm region. The radiation induced attenuation of the HC-PBGF was two orders of magnitude lower than that of a conventional fibre during a 67.5 h exposure to gamma-rays, resulting in a radiation-induced attenuation of only 2.1 dB/km at an accumulated dose of 940 kGy.
Ishizawa, Yoshiki; Dobashi, Suguru; Kadoya, Noriyuki; Ito, Kengo; Chiba, Takahito; Takayama, Yoshiki; Sato, Kiyokazu; Takeda, Ken
2018-05-17
An accurate source model of a medical linear accelerator is essential for Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations. This study aims to propose an analytical photon source model based on particle transport in parameterized accelerator structures, focusing on a more realistic determination of linac photon spectra compared to existing approaches. We designed the primary and secondary photon sources based on the photons attenuated and scattered by a parameterized flattening filter. The primary photons were derived by attenuating bremsstrahlung photons based on the path length in the filter. Conversely, the secondary photons were derived from the decrement of the primary photons in the attenuation process. This design facilitates these sources to share the free parameters of the filter shape and be related to each other through the photon interaction in the filter. We introduced two other parameters of the primary photon source to describe the particle fluence in penumbral regions. All the parameters are optimized based on calculated dose curves in water using the pencil-beam-based algorithm. To verify the modeling accuracy, we compared the proposed model with the phase space data (PSD) of the Varian TrueBeam 6 and 15 MV accelerators in terms of the beam characteristics and the dose distributions. The EGS5 Monte Carlo code was used to calculate the dose distributions associated with the optimized model and reference PSD in a homogeneous water phantom and a heterogeneous lung phantom. We calculated the percentage of points passing 1D and 2D gamma analysis with 1%/1 mm criteria for the dose curves and lateral dose distributions, respectively. The optimized model accurately reproduced the spectral curves of the reference PSD both on- and off-axis. The depth dose and lateral dose profiles of the optimized model also showed good agreement with those of the reference PSD. The passing rates of the 1D gamma analysis with 1%/1 mm criteria between the model and PSD were 100% for 4
Enhanced axion-photon coupling in GUT with hidden photon
Daido, Ryuji; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Yokozaki, Norimi
2018-05-01
We show that the axion coupling to photons can be enhanced in simple models with a single Peccei-Quinn field, if the gauge coupling unification is realized by a large kinetic mixing χ = O (0.1) between hypercharge and unbroken hidden U(1)H. The key observation is that the U(1)H gauge coupling should be rather strong to induce such large kinetic mixing, leading to enhanced contributions of hidden matter fields to the electromagnetic anomaly. We find that the axion-photon coupling is enhanced by about a factor of 10-100 with respect to the GUT-axion models with E / N = 8 / 3.
Photon statistics characterization of a single-photon source
Alleaume, R; Treussart, F; Courty, J-M; Roch, J-F
2004-01-01
In a recent experiment, we reported the time-domain intensity noise measurement of a single-photon source relying on single-molecule fluorescence control. In this paper, we present data processing starting from photocount timestamps. The theoretical analytical expression of the time-dependent Mandel parameter Q(T) of an intermittent single-photon source is derived from ON↔OFF dynamics. Finally, source intensity noise analysis, using the Mandel parameter, is quantitatively compared with the usual approach relying on the time autocorrelation function, both methods yielding the same molecular dynamical parameters
Poster - 18: New features in EGSnrc for photon cross sections
Ali, Elsayed; Mainegra-Hing, Ernesto; Rogers, David W.O. [The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, National Research Council Canada, Carleton University (Canada)
2016-08-15
Purpose: To implement two new features in the EGSnrc Monte Carlo system. The first is an option to account for photonuclear attenuation, which can contribute a few percent to the total cross section at the higher end of the energy range of interest to medical physics. The second is an option to use exact NIST XCOM photon cross sections. Methods: For the first feature, the photonuclear total cross sections are generated from the IAEA evaluated data. In the current, first-order implementation, after a photonuclear event, there is no energy deposition or secondary particle generation. The implementation is validated against deterministic calculations and experimental measurements of transmission signals. For the second feature, before this work, if the user explicitly requested XCOM photon cross sections, EGSnrc still used its own internal incoherent scattering cross sections. These differ by up to 2% from XCOM data between 30 keV and 40 MeV. After this work, exact XCOM incoherent scattering cross sections are an available option. Minor interpolation artifacts in pair and triplet XCOM cross sections are also addressed. The default for photon cross section in EGSnrc is XCOM except for the new incoherent scattering cross sections, which have to be explicitly requested. The photonuclear, incoherent, pair and triplet data from this work are available for elements and compounds for photon energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV. Results: Both features are implemented and validated in EGSnrc.Conclusions: The two features are part of the standard EGSnrc distribution as of version 4.2.3.2.
Sun, Hongwei; Pistorius, Stephen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, CancerCare, Manitoba (Canada)
2016-08-15
PET images are affected by the presence of scattered photons. Incorrect scatter-correction may cause artifacts, particularly in 3D PET systems. Current scatter reconstruction methods do not distinguish between single and higher order scattered photons. A dual-scattered reconstruction method (GDS-MLEM) that is independent of the number of Compton scattering interactions and less sensitive to the need for high energy resolution detectors, is proposed. To avoid overcorrecting for scattered coincidences, the attenuation coefficient was calculated by integrating the differential Klein-Nishina cross-section over a restricted energy range, accounting only for scattered photons that were not detected. The optimum image can be selected by choosing an energy threshold which is the upper energy limit for the calculation of the cross-section and the lower limit for scattered photons in the reconstruction. Data was simulated using the GATE platform. 500,000 multiple scattered photon coincidences with perfect energy resolution were reconstructed using various methods. The GDS-MLEM algorithm had the highest confidence (98%) in locating the annihilation position and was capable of reconstructing the two largest hot regions. 100,000 photon coincidences, with a scatter fraction of 40%, were used to test the energy resolution dependence of different algorithms. With a 350–650 keV energy window and the restricted attenuation correction model, the GDS-MLEM algorithm was able to improve contrast recovery and reduce the noise by 7.56%–13.24% and 12.4%–24.03%, respectively. This approach is less sensitive to the energy resolution and shows promise if detector energy resolutions of 12% can be achieved.
Spectroscopic Measurements of the Far-Ultraviolet Dust Attenuation Curve at z ˜ 3
Reddy, Naveen A.; Steidel, Charles C.; Pettini, Max; Bogosavljević, Milan
2016-09-01
We present the first spectroscopic measurements of the shape of the far-ultraviolet (far-UV; λ =950{--}1500 Å) dust attenuation curve at high redshift (z˜ 3). Our analysis employs rest-frame UV spectra of 933 galaxies at z˜ 3, 121 of which have very deep spectroscopic observations (≳ 7 hr) at λ =850{--}1300 \\mathring{{A}} , with the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrograph on the Keck Telescope. By using an iterative approach in which we calculate the ratios of composite spectra in different bins of continuum color excess, E(B-V), we derive a dust curve that implies a lower attenuation in the far-UV for a given E(B-V) than those obtained with standard attenuation curves. We demonstrate that the UV composite spectra of z˜ 3 galaxies can be modeled well by assuming our new attenuation curve, a high covering fraction of H I, and absorption from the Lyman-Werner bands of {{{H}}}2 with a small (≲ 20 % ) covering fraction. The low covering fraction of {{{H}}}2 relative to that of the {{H}} {{I}} and dust suggests that most of the dust in the ISM of typical galaxies at z˜ 3 is unrelated to the catalysis of {{{H}}}2, and is associated with other phases of the ISM (I.e., the ionized and neutral gas). The far-UV dust curve implies a factor of ≈ 2 lower dust attenuation of Lyman continuum (ionizing) photons relative to those inferred from the most commonly assumed attenuation curves for L* galaxies at z˜ 3. Our results may be utilized to assess the degree to which ionizing photons are attenuated in H II regions or, more generally, in the ionized or low column density (N({{H}} {{I}})≲ {10}17.2 cm-2) neutral ISM of high-redshift galaxies. Based on data obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA, and was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.
Beta attenuation transmission system (BATS)
Hagan, R.C.; Fullbright, H.J.
1977-01-01
The beta attenuation transmission system (BATS) is an automated radiation gauge designed for quantitative measurement of component thickness in explosive detonators. The BATS was designed and built by Group M-1, the Nondestructive Testing Group, of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to measure the areal thickness, in mg/cm/sup 2/, of a cylinder of high explosive (HE) enclosed within a plastic holder. The problem is to determine the density of the HE. A /sup 90/Sr source is collimated by a 0.25 x 1.59-mm slit, and the transmitted beta-particle flux is detected by a plastic scintillator, coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The detonator is transported through the radiation beam by a leadscrew, ballnut, stepping-motor combination. Continuous analog position data are available, derived from the output from a linear-actuated potentiometer attached to the scanner. A linear electrometer amplifies the detected signal, which is then integrated for a preselected time, to obtain the desired statistical accuracy. A microprocessor (..mu..P) is used to control the scanner position and to make the data readings at the assigned positions. The data are stored, and, at the completion of the scan, are processed into the desired format. The final answer is displayed to the operator or output to a peripheral device for permanent record. The characteristics of the radiation source, the collimator, the signal detection and conditioning, and the final results are described in detail. The scanner and the microprocessor control system are briefly outlined.
Transport and attenuation of radiations
Nimal, J C
2003-01-01
This article treats of the calculation methods used for the dimensioning of the protections against radiations. The method consists in determining for a given point the flux of particles coming from a source at a given time. A strong attenuation (of about some few mu Sv.h sup - sup 1) is in general expected between the source and the areas accessible to the personnel or the public. The calculation has to take into account a huge number of radiation-matter interactions and to solve the integral-differential transport equation which links the particles flux to the source. Several methods exist from the simplified physical model with numerical developments to the more or less precise resolution of the transport equation. These methods allows also the calculation of the uncertainties of equivalent dose rates, heat sources, structure damages using the data covariances (efficient cross-sections, modeling, etc..): 1 - transport equation; 2 - Monte-Carlo method; 3 - semi-numerical methods S sub N; 4 - methods based o...
Plasmodium falciparum: attenuation by irradiation
Waki, S.; Yonome, I.; Suzuki, M.
1983-01-01
The effect of irradiation on the in vitro growth of Plasmodium falciparum was investigated. The cultured malarial parasites at selected stages of development were exposed to gamma rays and the sensitivity of each stage was determined. The stages most sensitive to irradiation were the ring forms and the early trophozoites; late trophozoites were relatively insensitive. The greatest resistance was shown when parasites were irradiated at a time of transition from the late trophozoite and schizont stages to young ring forms. The characteristics of radiosensitive variation in the parasite cycle resembled that of mammalian cells. Growth curves of parasites exposed to doses of irradiation upto 150 gray had the same slope as nonirradiated controls but parasites which were exposed to 200 gray exhibited a growth curve which was less steep than that for parasites in other groups. Less than 10 organisms survived from the 10(6) parasites exposed to this high dose of irradiation; the possibility exists of obtaining radiation-attenuated P. falciparum
Beta attenuation transmission system (BATS)
Hagan, R.C.; Fullbright, H.J.
1977-01-01
The beta attenuation transmission system (BATS) is an automated radiation gauge designed for quantitative measurement of component thickness in explosive detonators. The BATS was designed and built by Group M-1, the Nondestructive Testing Group, of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to measure the areal thickness, in mg/cm 2 , of a cylinder of high explosive (HE) enclosed within a plastic holder. The problem is to determine the density of the HE. A 90 Sr source is collimated by a 0.25 x 1.59-mm slit, and the transmitted beta-particle flux is detected by a plastic scintillator, coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The detonator is transported through the radiation beam by a leadscrew, ballnut, stepping-motor combination. Continuous analog position data are available, derived from the output from a linear-actuated potentiometer attached to the scanner. A linear electrometer amplifies the detected signal, which is then integrated for a preselected time, to obtain the desired statistical accuracy. A microprocessor (μP) is used to control the scanner position and to make the data readings at the assigned positions. The data are stored, and, at the completion of the scan, are processed into the desired format. The final answer is displayed to the operator or output to a peripheral device for permanent record. The characteristics of the radiation source, the collimator, the signal detection and conditioning, and the final results are described in detail. The scanner and the microprocessor control system are briefly outlined
Attenuation characteristics of gypsum wallboard
Christensen, Ralph C.; Sayeg, Joseph
1978-01-01
Increased cost of lead is promoting enhanced usage of common building materials for shielding in diagnostic medical and dental facilities where only a few half value layers (HVLs) are needed. We have measured attenuation of x-rays in gypsum wallboard as a function of kVp, filtration, and wallboard thickness. Our findings, obtained using a Victoreen 555 with an 0.1 DAS probe in poor geometry, are in agreement with the sparse data in the literature (Gross and McCullough (1977), Radiology 122: 825. Moos et al. (1961), Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, and Oral Pathology 14: 569) but extend to thicker wall configurations and different kVp and filtration parameters. We conclude that gypsum wallboard as sole shielding material should be used with great caution. These findings are of value in maximizing the benefit/cost ratio for diagnostic shielding, and strengthen the conviction that, where used for shielding purposes, common building materials must be installed carefully and HVL-depth dependence considered thoroughly. (author)
Entangled photons and quantum communication
Yuan Zhensheng, E-mail: yuanzs@ustc.edu.c [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 12, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Bao Xiaohui [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 12, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Lu Chaoyang; Zhang Jun; Peng Chengzhi [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Pan Jianwei, E-mail: pan@ustc.edu.c [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 12, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)
2010-12-15
This article reviews the progress of quantum communication that utilizes photonic entanglement. We start with a survey of various methods for generating entangled photons, followed by an introduction of the theoretical principles and the experimental implementations of quantum key distribution. We then move on to a discussion of more involved quantum communication protocols including quantum dense coding, teleportation and quantum communication complexity. After that, we review the progress in free-space quantum communication, decoherence-free subspace, and quantum repeater protocols which are essential ingredients for long-distance quantum communication. Practical realizations of quantum repeaters, which require an interface between photons and quantum memories, are discussed briefly. Finally, we draw concluding remarks considering the technical challenges, and put forward an outlook on further developments of this field.
Photonic quantum technologies (Presentation Recording)
O'Brien, Jeremy L.
2015-09-01
The impact of quantum technology will be profound and far-reaching: secure communication networks for consumers, corporations and government; precision sensors for biomedical technology and environmental monitoring; quantum simulators for the design of new materials, pharmaceuticals and clean energy devices; and ultra-powerful quantum computers for addressing otherwise impossibly large datasets for machine learning and artificial intelligence applications. However, engineering quantum systems and controlling them is an immense technological challenge: they are inherently fragile; and information extracted from a quantum system necessarily disturbs the system itself. Of the various approaches to quantum technologies, photons are particularly appealing for their low-noise properties and ease of manipulation at the single qubit level. We have developed an integrated waveguide approach to photonic quantum circuits for high performance, miniaturization and scalability. We will described our latest progress in generating, manipulating and interacting single photons in waveguide circuits on silicon chips.
Photon Factory activity report, 1991
1992-01-01
The Photon Factory is a national synchrotron radiation research facility affiliated with the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics located in Tsukuba Science City. The Photon Factory consists of a 2.5 GeV electron/positron linear accelerator, a 2.5 GeV electron/positron storage ring, beam lines and experimental stations. All the facilities for synchrotron radiation research are open to scientists. A part of the accumulation ring of the TRISTAN main ring has been used as a synchrotron radiation source in the energy range from 5.8 to 6.5 GeV. The Photon Factory is composed of three divisions of Injector Linac, Light Source and Instrumentation. The researches of each divisions are reviewed, and the users' short reports are collected. The list of published papers with author index is also included in the publication. (K.I.) 233 refs
Quenching effects in photon production
Durand, M.
1989-01-01
Contraints on the photon production calculated by kinetic approaches are studied by means of sum-rules a finite temperature for simple quantum system. For the square-well potential the exact production rate is compared with its semi-classical limit in order to introduce the principle problem. For the scattering of hard spheres the photon production cross section is derived exactly by partial wave expansion. This serves to study the more realistic example of a gas of hard spheres. The corresponding kinetic photon production rates are found to violate the sum-rules, due to a singular behaviour at small gamma energies. Thus the hypothesis of incoherent free scattering is not valid in that range because of destructive interferences which quench the production rates significantly. For the application to nuclear collisions at intermediate energies these quenching effects are found to be important for gamma energies even up to a few hundred MeV. (orig.)
Quantum photonics hybrid integration platform
Murray, E.; Floether, F. F. [Cambridge Research Laboratory, Toshiba Research Europe Limited, 208 Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Ellis, D. J. P.; Meany, T.; Bennett, A. J., E-mail: anthony.bennet@crl.toshiba.co.uk; Shields, A. J. [Cambridge Research Laboratory, Toshiba Research Europe Limited, 208 Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Lee, J. P. [Cambridge Research Laboratory, Toshiba Research Europe Limited, 208 Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, 9 J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Griffiths, J. P.; Jones, G. A. C.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)
2015-10-26
Fundamental to integrated photonic quantum computing is an on-chip method for routing and modulating quantum light emission. We demonstrate a hybrid integration platform consisting of arbitrarily designed waveguide circuits and single-photon sources. InAs quantum dots (QD) embedded in GaAs are bonded to a SiON waveguide chip such that the QD emission is coupled to the waveguide mode. The waveguides are SiON core embedded in a SiO{sub 2} cladding. A tuneable Mach Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulates the emission between two output ports and can act as a path-encoded qubit preparation device. The single-photon nature of the emission was verified using the on-chip MZI as a beamsplitter in a Hanbury Brown and Twiss measurement.