WorldWideScience

Sample records for developmentally related alterations

  1. Altered cortical expression of GABA-related genes in schizophrenia: illness progression vs developmental disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoftman, Gil D; Volk, David W; Bazmi, H Holly; Li, Siyu; Sampson, Allan R; Lewis, David A

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder with altered expression of GABA-related genes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, whether these gene expression abnormalities reflect disturbances in postnatal developmental processes before clinical onset or arise as a consequence of clinical illness remains unclear. Expression levels for 7 GABA-related transcripts (vesicular GABA transporter [vGAT], GABA membrane transporter [GAT1], GABAA receptor subunit α1 [GABRA1] [novel in human and monkey cohorts], glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 [GAD67], parvalbumin, calretinin, and somatostatin [previously reported in human cohort, but not in monkey cohort]) were quantified in the PFC from 42 matched pairs of schizophrenia and comparison subjects and from 49 rhesus monkeys ranging in age from 1 week postnatal to adulthood. Levels of vGAT and GABRA1, but not of GAT1, messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were lower in the PFC of the schizophrenia subjects. As previously reported, levels of GAD67, parvalbumin, and somatostatin, but not of calretinin, mRNAs were also lower in these subjects. Neither illness duration nor age accounted for the levels of the transcripts with altered expression in schizophrenia. In monkey PFC, developmental changes in expression levels of many of these transcripts were in the opposite direction of the changes observed in schizophrenia. For example, mRNA levels for vGAT, GABRA1, GAD67, and parvalbumin all increased with age. Together with published reports, these findings support the interpretation that the altered expression of GABA-related transcripts in schizophrenia reflects a blunting of normal postnatal development changes, but they cannot exclude a decline during the early stages of clinical illness. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Altered Modulation of Silent Period in Tongue Motor Cortex of Persistent Developmental Stuttering in Relation to Stuttering Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busan, Pierpaolo; Del Ben, Giovanni; Bernardini, Simona; Natarelli, Giulia; Bencich, Marco; Monti, Fabrizio; Manganotti, Paolo; Battaglini, Piero Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Motor balance in developmental stuttering (DS) was investigated with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), with the aim to define novel neural markers of persistent DS in adulthood. Eleven DS adult males were evaluated with TMS on tongue primary motor cortex, compared to 15 matched fluent speakers, in a "state" condition (i.e. stutterers vs. fluent speakers, no overt stuttering). Motor and silent period thresholds (SPT), recruitment curves, and silent period durations were acquired by recording tongue motor evoked potentials. Tongue silent period duration was increased in DS, especially in the left hemisphere (Pstuttering severity. Pre-TMS electromyography data gave overlapping evidence. Findings suggest the existence of a complex intracortical balance in DS tongue primary motor cortex, with a particular interplay between excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms, also in neural substrates related to silent periods. Findings are discussed with respect to functional and structural impairments in stuttering, and are also proposed as novel neural markers of a stuttering "state" in persistent DS, helping to define more focused treatments (e.g. neuro-modulation).

  3. Saccadic Alterations in Severe Developmental Dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Pensiero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is not sure if persons with dyslexia have ocular motor deficits in addition to their deficits in rapid visual information processing. A 15-year-old boy afflicted by severe dyslexia was submitted to saccadic eye movement recording. Neurological and ophthalmic examinations were normal apart from the presence of an esophoria for near and slightly longer latencies of pattern visual evoked potentials. Subclinical saccadic alterations were present, which could be at the basis of the reading pathology: (1 low velocities (and larger durations of the adducting saccades of the left eye with undershooting and long-lasting postsaccadic onward drift, typical of the internuclear ophthalmoplegia; (2 saccades interrupted in mid-flight and fixation instability, which are present in cases of brainstem premotor disturbances.

  4. Altered morphology of the nucleus accumbens in persistent developmental stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neef, Nicole E; Bütfering, Christoph; Auer, Tibor; Metzger, F Luise; Euler, Harald A; Frahm, Jens; Paulus, Walter; Sommer, Martin

    2018-03-01

    Neuroimaging studies in persistent developmental stuttering repeatedly report altered basal ganglia functions. Together with thalamus and cerebellum, these structures mediate sensorimotor functions and thus represent a plausible link between stuttering and neuroanatomy. However, stuttering is a complex, multifactorial disorder. Besides sensorimotor functions, emotional and social-motivational factors constitute major aspects of the disorder. Here, we investigated cortical and subcortical gray matter regions to study whether persistent developmental stuttering is also linked to alterations of limbic structures. The study included 33 right-handed participants who stutter and 34 right-handed control participants matched for sex, age, and education. Structural images were acquired using magnetic resonance imaging to estimate volumetric characteristics of the nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, amygdala, pallidum, putamen, caudate nucleus, and thalamus. Volumetric comparisons and vertex-based shape comparisons revealed structural differences. The right nucleus accumbens was larger in participants who stutter compared to controls. Recent theories of basal ganglia functions suggest that the nucleus accumbens is a motivation-to-movement interface. A speaker intends to reach communicative goals, but stuttering can derail these efforts. It is therefore highly plausible to find alterations in the motivation-to-movement interface in stuttering. While behavioral studies of stuttering sought to find links between the limbic and sensorimotor system, we provide the first neuroimaging evidence of alterations in the limbic system. Thus, our findings might initialize a unified neurobiological framework of persistent developmental stuttering that integrates sensorimotor and social-motivational neuroanatomical circuitries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Study on frequency of dental developmental alterations in a MEXICAN school-based population

    OpenAIRE

    Ledesma Montes, Constantino; Garcés Ortíz, Maricela; Salcido García, Juan Francisco; Hernández Flores, Florentino

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to know the distribution of dental developmental alterations in the population requesting stomatological attention at the Admission and Diagnosis Clinic of our institution in Mexico City. Material and Methods We reviewed the archives and selected those files with developmental dental alterations. Analyzed data were diagnoses, age, gender, location and number of involved teeth. Results Of the 3.522 patients reviewed, 179 (5.1%) harbored 394 developmental de...

  6. Developmental Bisphenol A Exposure Modulates Immune-Related Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Joella; Huang, Guannan; Guo, Tai L.

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), used in polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, has a widespread exposure to humans. BPA is of concern for developmental exposure resulting in immunomodulation and disease development due to its ability to cross the placental barrier and presence in breast milk. BPA can use various mechanisms to modulate the immune system and affect diseases, including agonistic and antagonistic effects on many receptors (e.g., estrogen receptors), epigenetic modifications, acting on cell signaling pathways and, likely, the gut microbiome. Immune cell populations and function from the innate and adaptive immune system are altered by developmental BPA exposure, including decreased T regulatory (Treg) cells and upregulated pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Developmental BPA exposure can also contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, allergy, asthma and mammary cancer disease by altering immune function. Multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes mellitus may also be exacerbated by BPA, although more research is needed. Additionally, BPA analogs, such as bisphenol S (BPS), have been increasing in use, and currently, little is known about their immune effects. Therefore, more studies should be conducted to determine if developmental exposure BPA and its analogs modulate immune responses and lead to immune-related diseases. PMID:29051427

  7. Developmental Bisphenol A Exposure Modulates Immune-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joella Xu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA, used in polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, has a widespread exposure to humans. BPA is of concern for developmental exposure resulting in immunomodulation and disease development due to its ability to cross the placental barrier and presence in breast milk. BPA can use various mechanisms to modulate the immune system and affect diseases, including agonistic and antagonistic effects on many receptors (e.g., estrogen receptors, epigenetic modifications, acting on cell signaling pathways and, likely, the gut microbiome. Immune cell populations and function from the innate and adaptive immune system are altered by developmental BPA exposure, including decreased T regulatory (Treg cells and upregulated pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Developmental BPA exposure can also contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, allergy, asthma and mammary cancer disease by altering immune function. Multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes mellitus may also be exacerbated by BPA, although more research is needed. Additionally, BPA analogs, such as bisphenol S (BPS, have been increasing in use, and currently, little is known about their immune effects. Therefore, more studies should be conducted to determine if developmental exposure BPA and its analogs modulate immune responses and lead to immune-related diseases.

  8. Developmental Hypothyroidism Alters Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Expression in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severe developmental thyroid hormone (TH) insufficiency results in alterations in brain structure/function and lasting behavioral impairments. Environmental toxicants reduce circulating levels of TH, but the disruption is modest and the doseresponse relationships of TH and neuro...

  9. DEVELOPMENTAL HYPOTHYROIDISM ALTERS SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION IN DENTATE GYRUS AND AREA CA1 OF HIPPOCAMPUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypothyroidism during critical periods of brain developmental leads to learning deficits and alterations in hippocampal structure. Neurophysiological properties of the hippocampus, however, have not been well characterized. The present study examined field potentials evoked in...

  10. Developmental exposure to Passiflora incarnata induces behavioural alterations in the male progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, André D; Ponte, Bianca; Vieira, Milene L; de Paula, Jaqueline C C; Mesquita, Suzana F P; Gerardin, Daniela C C; Moreira, Estefânia G

    2013-01-01

    Passiflora incarnata is marketed in many countries as a phytomedicine and is prescribed mainly as a sedative and anxiolytic. Even though the directions of most marketed phytomedicines recommend them to be used under medical supervision, reproductive and developmental studies are sparse and not mandatory for regulatory purposes. To evaluate the reproductive and developmental toxicity of P. incarnata, Wistar female rats were gavaged with 30 or 300 mg kg(-1) of this herb from gestational Day (GD) 0 to postnatal Day (PND) 21. P. incarnata treatment did not influence dams' bodyweight or food intake or their reproductive performance (post-implantation loss, litter size, litter weight). There was also no influence on the physical development of pups (bodyweight gain, day of vaginal opening or preputial separation) or their behaviour in the open-field at PND 22, 35 and 75. Sexual behaviour was disrupted in adult male pups exposed to 300 mg kg(-1) of P. incarnata; in this group, only 3 out of 11 pups were sexually competent. This behavioural disruption was not accompanied by alterations in plasma testosterone levels, reproductive-related organs and glands weights or sperm count. It is hypothesised that aromatase inhibition may be involved in the observed effect.

  11. Developmental Toxicity Studies with Pregabalin in Rats: Significance of Alterations in Skull Bone Morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Dennis C; Henck, Judith W; Bailey, Steven A

    2016-04-01

    Pregabalin was administered to pregnant Wistar rats during organogenesis to evaluate potential developmental toxicity. In an embryo-fetal development study, compared with controls, fetuses from pregabalin-treated rats exhibited increased incidence of jugal fused to maxilla (pregabalin 1250 and 2500 mg/kg) and fusion of the nasal sutures (pregabalin 2500 mg/kg). The alterations in skull development occurred in the presence of maternal toxicity (reduced body weight gain) and developmental toxicity (reduced fetal body weight and increased skeletal variations), and were initially classified as malformations. Subsequent investigative studies in pregnant rats treated with pregabalin during organogenesis confirmed the advanced jugal fused to maxilla, and fusion of the nasal sutures at cesarean section (gestation day/postmating day [PMD] 21) in pregabalin-treated groups. In a study designed to evaluate progression of skull development, advanced jugal fused to maxilla and fusion of the nasal sutures was observed on PMD 20-25 and PMD 21-23, respectively (birth occurs approximately on PMD 22). On postnatal day (PND) 21, complete jugal fused to maxilla was observed in the majority of control and 2500 mg/kg offspring. No treatment-related differences in the incidence of skull bone fusions occurred on PND 21, indicating no permanent adverse outcome. Based on the results of the investigative studies, and a review of historical data and scientific literature, the advanced skull bone fusions were reclassified as anatomic variations. Pregabalin was not teratogenic in rats under the conditions of these studies. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Study on frequency of dental developmental alterations in a Mexican school-based population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma-Montes, C; Garcés-Ortíz, M; Salcido-García, J-F; Hernández-Flores, F

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to know the distribution of dental developmental alterations in the population requesting stomatological attention at the Admission and Diagnosis Clinic of our institution in Mexico City. We reviewed the archives and selected those files with developmental dental alterations. Analyzed data were diagnoses, age, gender, location and number of involved teeth. Of the 3.522 patients reviewed, 179 (5.1%) harbored 394 developmental dental alterations. Of them, 45.2% were males and 54.8% were females with a mean age of 16.7 years. The most common were supernumeraries, dental agenesia and dilaceration. Adults were 30.7% of the patients with dental developmental alterations. In them, the most common lesions were agenesia and supernumeraries. Mesiodens was the most frequently found supernumerary teeth (14.7%). Our finding that 30.7% of the affected patients were adults is an undescribed and unusually high proportion of patients that have implications on planning and prognosis of their stomatological treatment.

  13. Vascular Alterations Underlie Developmental Problems Manifested in Cloned Cattle before or after Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaron, Phelipe Oliveira; dos Santos, Caio Rodrigues; Alberto, Miryan Lanca; Meirelles, Flavio Vieira; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2015-01-01

    Although assisted reproductive techniques are commonly applied in humans and animals, they are frequently associated with major developmental deficits and reduced viability. To explore abnormalities associated with cloning or nuclear transfer (NT) as the most invasive of these methods, we used a bovine model to characterize abnormalities. Detailed necropsy examinations were done on 13 calves that died soon after birth; in addition, we included data from embryos and fetuses (produced by NT) that terminated prematurely. Bovine clones that survived until the neonatal period differed quantitatively and qualitatively from in-vivo-derived cattle. Although alterations affected a variety of organs (e.g. heart, lung and liver), there was a clear association with abberant vascular developmental during the early intrauterine phase. Therefore, we concluded that vascular problems were key alterations induced by cloning (presumably via epigenetic modifications). PMID:25584533

  14. Salicylic acid-induced germination, biochemical and developmental alterations in rye (Secale cereale L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Yanik, Fatma; Aytürk, Özlem; Çetinbaş-Genç, Aslihan; Vardar, Filiz

    2018-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is one of the endogenous plant growth regulators that modulate various metabolic and physiological events. To evaluate the exogenous SA-induced germination, biochemical and developmental alterations, different concentrations (10, 100, 500 and 1000 μM) of SA were applied to rye (Secale cereale L.) seeds in hydroponic culture conditions for 15 days. The observations revealed that seed germination and root elongation were stimulated in 10 μM SA treatment, however they were in...

  15. Altered dopamine ontogeny in the developmentally vitamin D deficient rat and its relevance to schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesby, James P; Cui, Xiaoying; Burne, Thomas H J; Eyles, Darryl W

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous group of disorders with unknown etiology. Although abnormalities in multiple neurotransmitter systems have been linked to schizophrenia, alterations in dopamine (DA) neurotransmission remain central to the treatment of this disorder. Given that schizophrenia is considered a neurodevelopmental disorder we have hypothesized that abnormal DA signaling in the adult patient may result from altered DA signaling during fetal brain development. Environmental and genetic risk factors can be modeled in rodents to allow for the investigation of early neurodevelopmental pathogenesis that may lead to clues into the etiology of schizophrenia. To address this we created an animal model of one such risk factor, developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency. DVD-deficient adult rats display an altered behavioral profile in response to DA releasing and blocking agents that are reminiscent of that seen in schizophrenia patients. Furthermore, developmental studies revealed that DVD deficiency also altered cell proliferation, apoptosis, and neurotransmission across the embryonic brain. In particular, DVD deficiency reduces the expression of crucial dopaminergic specification factors and alters DA metabolism in the developing brain. We speculate such alterations in fetal brain development may change the trajectory of DA neuron ontogeny to induce the behavioral abnormalities observed in adult offspring. The widespread evidence that both dopaminergic and structural changes are present in people who develop schizophrenia prior to onset also suggest that early alterations in development are central to the disease. Taken together, early alterations in DA ontogeny may represent a core feature in the pathology of schizophrenia. Such a mechanism could bring together evidence from multiple risk factors and genetic vulnerabilities to form a convergent pathway in disease pathophysiology.

  16. Altered dopamine ontogeny in the developmentally vitamin D deficient rat and its relevance to schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Kesby

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous group of disorders with unknown aetiology. Although abnormalities in multiple neurotransmitter systems have been linked to schizophrenia, alterations in dopamine neurotransmission remain central to the treatment of this disorder. Given that schizophrenia is considered a neurodevelopmental disorder we have hypothesised that abnormal dopamine signalling in the adult patient may result from altered dopamine signalling during foetal brain development. Environmental and genetic risk factors can be modelled in rodents to allow for the investigation of early neurodevelopmental pathogenesis that may lead to clues into the aetiology of schizophrenia. To address this we created an animal model of one such risk factor, developmental vitamin D (DVD deficiency. DVD-deficient adult rats display an altered behavioural profile in response to dopamine releasing and blocking agents that are reminiscent of that seen in schizophrenia patients. Furthermore, developmental studies revealed that DVD deficiency also altered cell proliferation, apoptosis and neurotransmission across the embryonic brain. In particular, DVD deficiency reduces the expression of crucial dopaminergic specification factors and alters dopamine metabolism in the developing brain. We speculate such alterations in foetal brain development may change the trajectory of dopamine neuron ontogeny to induce the behavioural abnormalities observed in adult offspring. The widespread evidence that both dopaminergic and structural changes are present in people who develop schizophrenia prior to onset also suggest that early alterations in development are central to the disease. Taken together, early alterations in dopamine ontogeny may represent a core feature in the pathology of schizophrenia. Such a mechanism could bring together evidence from multiple risk factors and genetic vulnerabilities to form a convergent pathway in disease pathophysiology.

  17. A relational framework for understanding bullying: Developmental antecedents and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodkin, Philip C; Espelage, Dorothy L; Hanish, Laura D

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews current research on the relational processes involved in peer bullying, considering developmental antecedents and long-term consequences. The following themes are highlighted: (a) aggression can be both adaptive and maladaptive, and this distinction has implications for bullies' functioning within peer social ecologies; (b) developmental antecedents and long-term consequences of bullying have not been well-distinguished from the extant research on aggressive behavior; (c) bullying is aggression that operates within relationships of power and abuse. Power asymmetry and repetition elements of traditional bullying definitions have been hard to operationalize, but without these specifications and more dyadic measurement approaches there may be little rationale for a distinct literature on bullying--separate from aggression. Applications of a relational approach to bullying are provided using gender as an example. Implications for future research are drawn from the study of relationships and interpersonal theories of developmental psychopathology. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Developmental fluoxetine exposure increases behavioral despair and alters epigenetic regulation of the hippocampal BDNF gene in adult female offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulle, Fabien; Pawluski, Jodi L; Homberg, Judith R; Machiels, Barbie; Kroeze, Yvet; Kumar, Neha; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Kenis, Gunter; van den Hove, Daniel L A

    2016-04-01

    A growing number of infants are exposed to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medications during the perinatal period. Perinatal exposure to SSRI medications alter neuroplasticity and increase depressive- and anxiety-related behaviors, particularly in male offspring as little work has been done in female offspring to date. The long-term effects of SSRI on development can also differ with previous exposure to prenatal stress, a model of maternal depression. Because of the limited work done on the role of developmental SSRI exposure on neurobehavioral outcomes in female offspring, the aim of the present study was to investigate how developmental fluoxetine exposure affects anxiety and depression-like behavior, as well as the regulation of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling in the hippocampus of adult female offspring. To do this female Sprague-Dawley rat offspring were exposed to prenatal stress and fluoxetine via the dam, for a total of four groups of female offspring: 1) No Stress+Vehicle, 2) No Stress+Fluoxetine, 3) Prenatal Stress+Vehicle, and 4) Prenatal Stress+Fluoxetine. Primary results show that, in adult female offspring, developmental SSRI exposure significantly increases behavioral despair measures on the forced swim test, decreases hippocampal BDNF exon IV mRNA levels, and increases levels of the repressive histone 3 lysine 27 tri-methylated mark at the corresponding promoter. There was also a significant negative correlation between hippocampal BDNF exon IV mRNA levels and immobility in the forced swim test. No effects of prenatal stress or developmental fluoxetine exposure were seen on tests of anxiety-like behavior. This research provides important evidence for the long-term programming effects of early-life exposure to SSRIs on female offspring, particularily with regard to affect-related behaviors and their underlying molecular mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Developmental vitamin D deficiency alters multiple neurotransmitter systems in the neonatal rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesby, James P; Turner, Karly M; Alexander, Suzanne; Eyles, Darryl W; McGrath, John J; Burne, Thomas H J

    2017-11-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency is a risk factor for neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. DVD deficiency in rats is associated with altered brain structure and adult behaviours indicating alterations in dopamine and glutamate signalling. Developmental alterations in dopamine neurotransmission have also been observed in DVD-deficient rats but a comprehensive assessment of brain neurochemistry has not been undertaken. Thus, the current study determined the regional concentrations of dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin, glutamine, glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and associated metabolites, in DVD-deficient neonates. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a vitamin D deficient diet or control diet six weeks prior to mating until birth and housed under UVB-free lighting conditions. Neurotransmitter concentration was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography on post-mortem neonatal brain tissue. Ubiquitous reductions in the levels of glutamine (12-24%) were observed in DVD-deficient neonates compared with control neonates. Similarly, in multiple brain regions DVD-deficient neonates had increased levels of noradrenaline and serine compared with control neonates. In contrast, increased levels of dopamine and decreased levels of serotonin in DVD-deficient neonates were limited to striatal subregions compared with controls. Our results confirm that DVD deficiency leads to changes in multiple neurotransmitter systems in the neonate brain. Importantly, this regionally-based assessment in DVD-deficient neonates identified both widespread neurotransmitter changes (glutamine/noradrenaline) and regionally selective neurotransmitter changes (dopamine/serotonin). Thus, vitamin D may have both general and local actions depending on the neurotransmitter system being investigated. Taken together, these data suggest that DVD deficiency alters neurotransmitter systems relevant to schizophrenia in the developing rat

  20. A relational developmental systems approach to moral development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpendale, Jeremy I M; Hammond, Stuart I; Atwood, Sherrie

    2013-01-01

    Morality and cooperation are central to human life. Psychological explanations for moral development and cooperative behavior will have biological and evolutionary dimensions, but they can differ radically in their approach to biology. In particular, many recent proposals have pursued the view that aspects of morality are innate. We briefly review and critique two of these claims. In contrast to these nativist assumptions about the role of biology in morality, we present an alternative approach based on a relational developmental systems view of moral development. The role for biology in this approach is in setting up the conditions--the developmental system--in which forms of interaction and later forms of thinking emerge.

  1. Developmental Relations Between Reading Comprehension and Reading Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijselaar, M.; Swart, N.M.; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G,.; Droop, M.; Verhoeven, L.; de Jong, P.F.

    2017-01-01

    We examined the developmental relations between knowledge of reading strategies and reading comprehension in a longitudinal study of 312 Dutch children from the beginning of fourth grade to the end of fifth grade. Measures for reading comprehension, reading strategies, reading fluency, vocabulary,

  2. Developmental and Neurological Implications for Relating Cognition and Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, William M.

    Elements of a theory relating cognition and affect are outlined. The theory is heavily based upon neuroscience research regarding the hemispheric lateralization of various cognitive processes and emotions; specific examples are provided. Developmental research on intelligence as well as theories of intrinsic motivation, are also discussed.…

  3. The relative age effect in sport: a developmental systems model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattie, Nick; Schorer, Jörg; Baker, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The policies that dictate the participation structure of many youth sport systems involve the use of a set selection date (e.g. 31 December), which invariably produces relative age differences between those within the selection year (e.g. 1 January to 31 December). Those born early in the selection year (e.g. January) are relatively older—by as much as 12 months minus 1 day—than those born later in the selection year (e.g. December). Research in the area of sport has identified a number of significant developmental effects associated with such relative age differences. However, a theoretical framework that describes the breadth and complexity of relative age effects (RAEs) in sport does not exist in the literature. This paper reviews and summarizes the existing literature on relative age in sport, and proposes a constraints-based developmental systems model for RAEs in sport.

  4. Are relative depletions altered inside diffuse clouds?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    The data of Jenkins, Savage, and Spitzer (1986) were used to analyze interstellar abundances and depletions of Fe, P, Mg, and Mn toward 37 stars, spanning nearly 1.0 (dex) in mean line-of-sight depletion. It was found that the depletions of these elements are linearly correlated and do not show evidence of differences in the rates of depletion or sputtering from one element to another. For a given level of overall depletion, the sightline-to-sightline rms variance in the depletion for each of these elements was less than 0.16 (dex), which is significantly smaller than is the element-to-element variance. The results suggest that, for most diffuse lines of sight, the relative abundances of these elements are set early in the lifetime of the grains and are not altered significantly thereafter. 53 references

  5. Developmental relations between reading comprehension and reading strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Muijselaar, M.M.L.; Swart, N.M.; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G.; Droop, W.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Jong, P.F. de

    2017-01-01

    We examined the developmental relations between knowledge of reading strategies and reading comprehension in a longitudinal study of 312 Dutch children from the beginning of fourth grade to the end of fifth grade. Measures for reading comprehension, reading strategies, reading fluency, vocabulary, and working memory were administered. A structural equation model was constructed to estimate the unique relations between reading strategies and reading comprehension, while controlling for reading...

  6. Aroclor 1254, a developmental neurotoxicant, alters energy metabolism- and intracellular signaling-associated protein networks in rat cerebellum and hippocampus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S.; Osorio, Cristina; Royland, Joyce E.; Ramabhadran, Ram; Alzate, Oscar

    2011-01-01

    The vast literature on the mode of action of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) indicates that PCBs are a unique model for understanding the mechanisms of toxicity of environmental mixtures of persistent chemicals. PCBs have been shown to adversely affect psychomotor function and learning and memory in humans. Although the molecular mechanisms for PCB effects are unclear, several studies indicate that the disruption of Ca 2+ -mediated signal transduction plays significant roles in PCB-induced developmental neurotoxicity. Culminating events in signal transduction pathways include the regulation of gene and protein expression, which affects the growth and function of the nervous system. Our previous studies showed changes in gene expression related to signal transduction and neuronal growth. In this study, protein expression following developmental exposure to PCB is examined. Pregnant rats (Long Evans) were dosed with 0.0 or 6.0 mg/kg/day of Aroclor-1254 from gestation day 6 through postnatal day (PND) 21, and the cerebellum and hippocampus from PND14 animals were analyzed to determine Aroclor 1254-induced differential protein expression. Two proteins were found to be differentially expressed in the cerebellum following PCB exposure while 18 proteins were differentially expressed in the hippocampus. These proteins are related to energy metabolism in mitochondria (ATP synthase, sub unit β (ATP5B), creatine kinase, and malate dehydrogenase), calcium signaling (voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 1 (VDAC1) and ryanodine receptor type II (RyR2)), and growth of the nervous system (dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 4 (DPYSL4), valosin-containing protein (VCP)). Results suggest that Aroclor 1254-like persistent chemicals may alter energy metabolism and intracellular signaling, which might result in developmental neurotoxicity. -- Highlights: ► We performed brain proteomic analysis of rats exposed to the neurotoxicant, Aroclor 1254. ► Cerebellum and

  7. Developmental care does not alter sleep and development of premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariagno, R L; Thoman, E B; Boeddiker, M A; Kugener, B; Constantinou, J C; Mirmiran, M; Baldwin, R B

    1997-12-01

    The Neonatal Individualized Developmental Care Program (NIDCAP) for very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants has been suggested by Als et al to improve several medical outcome variables such as time on ventilator, time to nipple feed, the duration of hospital stay, better behavioral performance on Assessment of Preterm Infants' Behavior (APIB), and improved neurodevelopmental outcomes. We have tested the hypothesis of whether the infants who had received NIDCAP would show advanced sleep-wake pattern, behavioral, and neurodevelopmental outcome. Thirty-five VLBW infants were randomly assigned to receive NIDCAP or routine infant care. The goals for NIDCAP intervention were to enhance comfort and stability and to reduce stress and agitation for the preterm infants by: a) altering the environment by decreasing excess light and noise in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and by using covers over the incubators and cribs; b) use of positioning aids such as boundary supports, nests, and buntings to promote a balance of flexion and extension postures; c) modification of direct hands-on caregiving to maximize preparation of infants for, tolerance of, and facilitation of recovery from interventions; d) promotion of self-regulatory behaviors such as holding on, grasping, and sucking; e) attention to the readiness for and the ability to take oral feedings; and f) involving parents in the care of their infants as much as possible. The infants' sleep was recorded at 36 weeks postconceptional age (PCA) and at 3 months corrected age (CA) using the Motility Monitoring System (MMS), an automated, nonintrusive procedure for determining sleep state from movement and respiration patterns. Behavioral and developmental outcome was assessed by the Neurobehavioral Assessment of the Preterm Infant (NAPI) at 36 weeks PCA, the APIB at 42 weeks PCA, and by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID) at 4, 12, and 24 months CA. Sleep developmental measures at 3 months CA showed a

  8. Postnatal choline supplementation selectively attenuates hippocampal microRNA alterations associated with developmental alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaraman, Sridevi; Idrus, Nirelia M; Miranda, Rajesh C; Thomas, Jennifer D

    2017-05-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can result in a range of physical, neuropathological, and behavioral alterations, collectively termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). We have shown that supplementation with the nutrient choline reduces the severity of developmental alcohol-associated deficits in hippocampal-dependent behaviors and normalizes some aspects of hippocampal cholinergic development and DNA methylation patterns. Alcohol's developmental effects may also be mediated, in part, by altering microRNAs (miRNAs) that serve as negative regulators of gene translation. To determine whether choline supplementation alters ethanol's long-lasting effects on miRNAs, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 5.25 g/kg/day ethanol from postnatal days (PD) 4-9 via intubation; controls received sham intubations. Subjects were treated with choline chloride (100 mg/kg/day) or saline vehicle subcutaneously (s.c.) from PD 4-21. On PD 22, subjects were sacrificed, and RNA was isolated from the hippocampus. MiRNA expression was assessed with TaqMan Human MicroRNA Panel Low-Density Arrays. Ethanol significantly increased miRNA expression variance, an effect that was attenuated with choline supplementation. Cluster analysis of stably expressed miRNAs that exceeded an ANOVA p < 0.05 criterion indicated that for both male and female offspring, control and ethanol-exposed groups were most dissimilar from each other, with choline-supplemented groups in between. MiRNAs that expressed an average 2-fold change due to ethanol exposure were further analyzed to identify which ethanol-sensitive miRNAs were protected by choline supplementation. We found that at a false discovery rate (FDR)-adjusted criterion of p < 0.05, miR-200c was induced by ethanol exposure and that choline prevented this effect. Collectively, our data show that choline supplementation can normalize disturbances in miRNA expression following developmental alcohol exposure and can protect specific miRNAs from induction by

  9. Developmental and lactational exposure to dieldrin alters mammary tumorigenesis in Her2/neu transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L Cameron

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer in Western women and while its precise etiology is unknown, environmental factors are thought to play a role. The organochlorine pesticide dieldrin is a persistent environmental toxicant thought to increase the risk of breast cancer and reduce survival in the human population. The objective of this study was to define the effect of developmental exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of dieldrin, on mammary tumor development in the offspring. Sexually mature FVB-MMTV/neu female mice were treated with vehicle (corn oil, or dieldrin (0.45, 2.25, and 4.5 microg/g body weight daily by gavage for 5 days prior to mating and then once weekly throughout gestation and lactation until weaning. Dieldrin concentrations were selected to produce serum levels representative of human background body burdens, occupational exposure, and overt toxicity. Treatment had no effect on litter size, birth weight or the number of pups surviving to weaning. The highest dose of dieldrin significantly increased the total tumor burden and the volume and number of tumors found in the thoracic mammary glands. Increased mRNA and protein expression of the neurotrophin BDNF and its receptor TrkB was increased in tumors from the offspring of dieldrin treated dams. This study indicates that developmental exposure to the environmental contaminant dieldrin causes increased tumor burden in genetically predisposed mice. Dieldrin exposure also altered the expression of BNDF and TrkB, novel modulators of cancer pathogenesis.

  10. Altered Developmental Trajectories for Impulsivity and Sensation Seeking among Adolescent Substance Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Nora E.; Ryan, Stacy R.; Bray, Bethany C.; Mathias, Charles W.; Acheson, Ashley; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have associated impulsivity and sensation seeking with level of substance use and risk for developing a substance use disorder. These relationships may be particularly apparent during adolescence, when developmental changes in impulsivity and sensation seeking occur at the same time as increased opportunities for substance use. To examine this, the current study measured impulsivity and sensation seeking from pre-adolescence to mid-adolescence in a sample of youth, the majority of whom were identified as being at risk for developing a substance use disorder based on their family history of substance use disorders. Youth were separated into those who did (n = 117) and did not (n = 269) initiate substance use by mid-adolescence. Results showed that substance users were more impulsive and more sensation seeking during pre-adolescence, prior to any significant substance use, and that greater sensation seeking in pre-adolescence was related to heavier substance use by mid-adolescence. In addition, developmental trajectories for substance-using youth showed a greater increase in sensation seeking but a more modest decrease in impulsivity from pre-adolescence to mid-adolescence. Taken together, these results indicate that increased impulsivity and sensation seeking is apparent in adolescent substance users as early as pre-adolescence, that the difference between substance users and non-users becomes larger across early adolescence as their developmental trajectories diverge, and that greater sensation seeking in pre-adolescence may predict increased substance use by mid-adolescence. PMID:27174219

  11. The expression of petunia strigolactone pathway genes is altered as part of the endogenous developmental program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revel S M Drummond

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of mutants with increased branching has revealed the strigolactone synthesis/perception pathway which regulates branching in plants. However, whether variation in this well conserved developmental signalling system contributes to the unique plant architectures of different species is yet to be determined. We examined petunia orthologues of the Arabidopsis MAX1 and MAX2 genes to characterise their role in petunia architecture. A single orthologue of MAX1, PhMAX1 which encodes a cytochrome P450, was identified and was able to complement the max1 mutant of Arabidopsis. Petunia has two copies of the MAX2 gene, PhMAX2A and PhMAX2B which encode F-Box proteins. Differences in the transcript levels of these two MAX2-like genes suggest diverging functions. Unlike PhMAX2B, PhMAX2A mRNA levels increase as leaves age. Nonetheless, this gene functionally complements the Arabidopsis max2 mutant indicating that the biochemical activity of the PhMAX2A protein is not significantly different from MAX2. The expression of the petunia strigolactone pathway genes (PhCCD7, PhCCD8, PhMAX1, PhMAX2A, and PhMAX2B was then further investigated throughout the development of wild-type petunia plants. Three of these genes showed changes in mRNA levels over the development series. Alterations to the expression of these genes over time, or in different regions of the plant, may influence the branching growth habit of the plant. Alterations to strigolactone production and/or sensitivity could allow both subtle and dramatic changes to branching within and between species.

  12. Aroclor 1254, a developmental neurotoxicant, alters energy metabolism- and intracellular signaling-associated protein networks in rat cerebellum and hippocampus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S., E-mail: kodavanti.prasada@epa.gov [Neurotoxicology Branch, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina (United States); Osorio, Cristina [Systems Proteomics Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Program on Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Royland, Joyce E.; Ramabhadran, Ram [Genetic and Cellular Toxicology Branch, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina (United States); Alzate, Oscar [Department of Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Systems Proteomics Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Program on Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States)

    2011-11-15

    The vast literature on the mode of action of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) indicates that PCBs are a unique model for understanding the mechanisms of toxicity of environmental mixtures of persistent chemicals. PCBs have been shown to adversely affect psychomotor function and learning and memory in humans. Although the molecular mechanisms for PCB effects are unclear, several studies indicate that the disruption of Ca{sup 2+}-mediated signal transduction plays significant roles in PCB-induced developmental neurotoxicity. Culminating events in signal transduction pathways include the regulation of gene and protein expression, which affects the growth and function of the nervous system. Our previous studies showed changes in gene expression related to signal transduction and neuronal growth. In this study, protein expression following developmental exposure to PCB is examined. Pregnant rats (Long Evans) were dosed with 0.0 or 6.0 mg/kg/day of Aroclor-1254 from gestation day 6 through postnatal day (PND) 21, and the cerebellum and hippocampus from PND14 animals were analyzed to determine Aroclor 1254-induced differential protein expression. Two proteins were found to be differentially expressed in the cerebellum following PCB exposure while 18 proteins were differentially expressed in the hippocampus. These proteins are related to energy metabolism in mitochondria (ATP synthase, sub unit {beta} (ATP5B), creatine kinase, and malate dehydrogenase), calcium signaling (voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 1 (VDAC1) and ryanodine receptor type II (RyR2)), and growth of the nervous system (dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 4 (DPYSL4), valosin-containing protein (VCP)). Results suggest that Aroclor 1254-like persistent chemicals may alter energy metabolism and intracellular signaling, which might result in developmental neurotoxicity. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We performed brain proteomic analysis of rats exposed to the neurotoxicant

  13. Binge drinking and family history of alcoholism are associated with an altered developmental trajectory of impulsive choice across adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Scott A; Steele, Joel S; Nagel, Bonnie J

    2017-07-01

    To test whether binge drinking, the density of familial alcoholism (FHD) and their interaction are associated with an altered developmental trajectory of impulsive choice across adolescence, and whether more life-time drinks are associated with a greater change in impulsive choice across age. Alcohol-naive adolescents, with varying degrees of FHD, were recruited as part of an ongoing longitudinal study on adolescent development, and were grouped based on whether they remained non-drinkers (n = 83) or initiated binge drinking (n = 33) during follow-up. During all visits, adolescents completed a monetary delay discounting task to measure impulsive choice. The effects of binge-drinking status, FHD and their interaction on impulsive choice across adolescence were tested. Developmental Brain Imaging Laboratory, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA. A total of 116 healthy male and female adolescents (ages 10-17 years at baseline) completed two to four visits between July 2008 and May 2016. Discounting rates were obtained based on adolescents' preference for immediate or delayed rewards. FHD was based on parent-reported prevalence of alcohol use disorder in the participant's first- and second-degree relatives. Binge-drinking status was determined based on the number of recent binge-drinking episodes. There was a significant interaction effect of binge-drinking status and FHD on impulsive choice across age (b = 1.090, P alcohol-naive, greater FHD was associated with a steeper decrease in discounting rates across adolescence (b = -0.633, P alcoholism is associated with a steeper decline in impulsive choice across adolescence, but only in those who remain alcohol-naive. Meanwhile, more life-time drinks during adolescence is associated with increases in impulsive choice across age. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. State-related alterations of gene expression in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Vinberg, Maj; Berk, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Munkholm K, Vinberg M, Berk M, Kessing LV. State-related alterations of gene expression in bipolar disorder: a systematic review. Bipolar Disord 2012: 14: 684-696. © 2012 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Objective:  Alterations in gene expression in bipolar disorder...... have been found in numerous studies. It is unclear whether such alterations are related to specific mood states. As a biphasic disorder, mood state-related alterations in gene expression have the potential to point to markers of disease activity, and trait-related alterations might indicate...... vulnerability pathways. This review therefore evaluated the evidence for whether gene expression in bipolar disorder is state or trait related. Methods:  A systematic review, using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guideline for reporting systematic reviews, based...

  15. Developmental alterations in motor coordination and medium spiny neuron markers in mice lacking pgc-1α.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth K Lucas

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence implicates the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α in the pathophysiology of Huntington Disease (HD. Adult PGC-1α (-/- mice exhibit striatal neurodegeneration, and reductions in the expression of PGC-1α have been observed in striatum and muscle of HD patients as well as in animal models of the disease. However, it is unknown whether decreased expression of PGC-1α alone is sufficient to lead to the motor phenotype and striatal pathology characteristic of HD. For the first time, we show that young PGC-1α (-/- mice exhibit severe rotarod deficits, decreased rearing behavior, and increased occurrence of tremor in addition to the previously described hindlimb clasping. Motor impairment and striatal vacuolation are apparent in PGC-1α (-/- mice by four weeks of age and do not improve or decline by twelve weeks of age. The behavioral and pathological phenotype of PGC-1α (-/- mice can be completely recapitulated by conditional nervous system deletion of PGC-1α, indicating that peripheral effects are not responsible for the observed abnormalities. Evaluation of the transcriptional profile of PGC-1α (-/- striatal neuron populations and comparison to striatal neuron profiles of R6/2 HD mice revealed that PGC-1α deficiency alone is not sufficient to cause the transcriptional changes observed in this HD mouse model. In contrast to R6/2 HD mice, PGC-1α (-/- mice show increases in the expression of medium spiny neuron (MSN markers with age, suggesting that the observed behavioral and structural abnormalities are not primarily due to MSN loss, the defining pathological feature of HD. These results indicate that PGC-1α is required for the proper development of motor circuitry and transcriptional homeostasis in MSNs and that developmental disruption of PGC-1α leads to long-term alterations in motor functioning.

  16. Developmental exposure to chlorpyrifos alters reactivity to environmental and social cues in adolescent mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricceri, Laura; Markina, Nadja; Valanzano, Angela; Fortuna, Stefano; Cometa, Maria Francesca; Meneguz, Annarita; Calamandrei, Gemma

    2003-01-01

    Neonatal mice were treated daily on postnatal days (pnds) 1 through 4 or 11 through 14 with the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF), at doses (1 or 3 mg/kg) that do not evoke systemic toxicity. Brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was evaluated within 24 h from termination of treatments. Pups treated on pnds 1-4 underwent ultrasonic vocalization tests (pnds 5, 8, and 11) and a homing test (orientation to home nest material, pnd 10). Pups in both treatment schedules were then assessed for locomotor activity (pnd 25), novelty-seeking response (pnd 35), social interactions with an unfamiliar conspecific (pnd 45), and passive avoidance learning (pnd 60). AChE activity was reduced by 25% after CPF 1-4 but not after CPF 11-14 treatment. CPF selectively affected only the G 4 (tetramer) molecular isoform of AChE. Behavioral analysis showed that early CPF treatment failed to affect neonatal behaviors. Locomotor activity on pnd 25 was increased in 11-14 CPF-treated mice at both doses, and CPF-treated animals in both treatment schedules were more active when exposed to environmental novelty in the novelty-seeking test. All CPF-treated mice displayed more agonistic responses, and such effect was more marked in male mice exposed to the low CPF dose on pnds 11-14. Passive avoidance learning was not affected by CPF. These data indicate that developmental exposure to CPF induces long-term behavioral alterations in the mouse species and support the involvement of neural systems in addition to the cholinergic system in the delayed behavioral toxicity of CPF

  17. Gender-related response in open-field activity following developmental nicotine exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Roland D; Chen, Wei-Jung A

    2004-08-01

    Smoking during pregnancy may lead to low birthweight and behavioral alterations in the offspring. In this study, the effects of developmental nicotine exposure on the somatic growth of the offspring and the behavioral performance in the open-field test were examined. Sprague-Dawley female rats were implanted with nicotine (35 mg for 21-day time release; NIC 35) or placebo pellets on gestational day (GD) 8 (postblastocyst implantation). A normal control group with no pellet implant was also included. There was a significantly higher maternal weight gain in the placebo group possibly due to a larger litter size. However, there were no significant differences in body weights among all three treatment groups for male and female offspring. The amount of activity, measured by the total number of crossings in the open-field test, indicated a gender difference in baseline level and pattern of ambulatory activity, with less activity (lower number of crossings) in male offspring and an increase in the activity of the female offspring as a function of testing day. The increase in the ambulatory activity of the female offspring was observed in the placebo and normal, but not the NIC 35 group suggesting that developmental nicotine exposure interferes with open-field activity, and this behavioral alteration is gender related. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.

  18. Facilitating relational framing in children and individuals with developmental delay using the relational completion procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Sinead; Horgan, Jennifer; May, Richard J; Dymond, Simon; Whelan, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The Relational Completion Procedure is effective for establishing same, opposite and comparative derived relations in verbally able adults, but to date it has not been used to establish relational frames in young children or those with developmental delay. In Experiment 1, the Relational Completion Procedure was used with the goal of establishing two 3-member sameness networks in nine individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (eight with language delay). A multiple exemplar intervention was employed to facilitate derived relational responding when required. Seven of nine participants in Experiment 1 passed tests for derived relations. In Experiment 2, eight participants (all of whom, except one, had a verbal repertoire) were given training with the aim of establishing two 4-member sameness networks. Three of these participants were typically developing young children aged between 5 and 6 years old, all of whom demonstrated derived relations, as did four of the five participants with developmental delay. These data demonstrate that it is possible to reliably establish derived relations in young children and those with developmental delay using an automated procedure. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  19. Developmental programming: gestational bisphenol-A treatment alters trajectory of fetal ovarian gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Luense, Lacey J; Christenson, Lane K; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2013-05-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA), a ubiquitous environmental endocrine disrupting chemical, is a component of polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins. Because of its estrogenic properties, there is increasing concern relative to risks from exposures during critical periods of early organ differentiation. Prenatal BPA treatment in sheep results in low birth weight, hypergonadotropism, and ovarian cycle disruptions. This study tested the hypothesis that gestational exposure to bisphenol A, at an environmentally relevant dose, induces early perturbations in the ovarian transcriptome (mRNA and microRNA). Pregnant Suffolk ewes were treated with bisphenol A (0.5 mg/kg, sc, daily, produced ∼2.6 ng/mL of unconjugated BPA in umbilical arterial samples of BPA treated fetuses approaching median levels of BPA measured in maternal circulation) from days 30 to 90 of gestation. Expression of steroidogenic enzymes, steroid/gonadotropin receptors, key ovarian regulators, and microRNA biogenesis components were measured by RT-PCR using RNA derived from fetal ovaries collected on gestational days 65 and 90. An age-dependent effect was evident in most steroidogenic enzymes, steroid receptors, and key ovarian regulators. Prenatal BPA increased Cyp19 and 5α-reductase expression in day 65, but not day 90, ovaries. Fetal ovarian microRNA expression was altered by prenatal BPA with 45 down-regulated (>1.5-fold) at day 65 and 11 down-regulated at day 90 of gestation. These included microRNAs targeting Sry-related high-mobility-group box (SOX) family genes, kit ligand, and insulin-related genes. The results of this study demonstrate that exposure to BPA at an environmentally relevant dose alters fetal ovarian steroidogenic gene and microRNA expression of relevance to gonadal differentiation, folliculogenesis, and insulin homeostasis.

  20. Gene expression analysis in human osteoblasts exposed to dexamethasone identifies altered developmental pathways as putative drivers of osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadlier Denise M

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoporosis, a disease of decreased bone mineral density represents a significant and growing burden in the western world. Aging population structure and therapeutic use of glucocorticoids have contributed in no small way to the increase in the incidence of this disease. Despite substantial investigative efforts over the last number of years the exact molecular mechanism underpinning the initiation and progression of osteoporosis remain to be elucidated. This has meant that no significant advances in therapeutic strategies have emerged, with joint replacement surgery being the mainstay of treatment. Methods In this study we have used an integrated genomics profiling and computational biology based strategy to identify the key osteoblast genes and gene clusters whose expression is altered in response to dexamethasone exposure. Primary human osteoblasts were exposed to dexamethasone in vitro and microarray based transcriptome profiling completed. Results These studies identified approximately 500 osteoblast genes whose expression was altered. Functional characterization of the transcriptome identified developmental networks as being reactivated with 106 development associated genes found to be differentially regulated. Pathway reconstruction revealed coordinate alteration of members of the WNT signaling pathway, including frizzled-2, frizzled-7, DKK1 and WNT5B, whose differential expression in this setting was confirmed by real time PCR. Conclusion The WNT pathway is a key regulator of skeletogenesis as well as differentiation of bone cells. Reactivation of this pathway may lead to altered osteoblast activity resulting in decreased bone mineral density, the pathological hallmark of osteoporosis. The data herein lend weight to the hypothesis that alterations in developmental pathways drive the initiation and progression of osteoporosis.

  1. Entrepreneurship in Adolescence: A Relational Developmental Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Richard M.; Damon, William

    2012-01-01

    Will significant numbers of today's youth become able to succeed in careers that require entrepreneurial capacities? Who among today's youth will have the talent, skills, knowledge, and drive needed to become successful entrepreneurs? To answer these questions, it will be necessary to understand the developmental bases of individual and ecological…

  2. Is Season of Birth Related to Developmental Dyslexia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donfrancesco, Renato; Iozzino, Roberto; Caruso, Barbara; Ferrante, Laura; Mugnaini, Daniele; Talamo, Alessandra; Miano, Silvia; Dimitri, Andrea; Masi, Gabriele

    2010-01-01

    Different moderators/mediators of risk are involved in developmental dyslexia (DD), but data are inconsistent. We explored the prevalence of season of birth and its association with gender and age of school entry in an Italian sample of dyslexic children compared to an Italian normal control group. The clinical sample included 498 children (345…

  3. Developmental hyperoxia alters CNS mechanisms underlying hypoxic ventilatory depression in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Corey B; Grandgeorge, Samuel H; Bavis, Ryan W

    2013-12-01

    Newborn mammals exhibit a biphasic hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR), but the relative contributions of carotid body-initiated CNS mechanisms versus central hypoxia on ventilatory depression during the late phase of the HVR are not well understood. Neonatal rats (P4-5 or P13-15) were treated with a nonselective P2 purinergic receptor antagonist (pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid, or PPADS; 125mgkg(-1), i.p.) to pharmacologically denervate the peripheral chemoreceptors. At P4-5, rats reared in normoxia showed a progressive decline in ventilation during a 10-min exposure to 12% O2 (21-28% decrease from baseline). No hypoxic ventilatory depression was observed in the older group of neonatal rats (i.e., P13-15), suggesting that the contribution of central hypoxia to hypoxic ventilatory depression diminishes with age. In contrast, rats reared in moderate hyperoxia (60% O2) from birth exhibited no hypoxic ventilatory depression at either age studied. Systemic PPADS had no effect on the ventilatory response to 7% CO2, suggesting that the drug did not cross the blood-brain barrier. These findings indicate that (1) CNS hypoxia depresses ventilation in young, neonatal rats independent of carotid body activation and (2) hyperoxia alters the development of CNS pathways that modulate the late phase of the hypoxic ventilatory response. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Health-Related Physical Fitness in Dutch Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoek, Frouwien D.; Stuive, Ilse; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A.; Holty, Lian; de Blecourt, Alida C. E.; Maathuis, Carel G. B.; van Weert, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare components of health-related physical fitness between Dutch children with clinically diagnosed developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and typically developing children (TDC), and to examine associations between motor performance problems and components of health-related

  5. GABA FUNCTION IS ALTERED FOLLOWING DEVELOPMENTAL HYPOTHYROIDISM: NEUROANATOMICAL AND NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormone deficiency during development produces changes in the structure of neurons and glial cells and alters synaptic function in the hippocampus. GABAergic interneurons comprise the bulk of local inhibitory neuronal circuitry and a subpopulation of these interneurons ...

  6. Identification of cytochrome P450 differentiated expression related to developmental stages in bromadiolone resistance in rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mette; Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Fredholm, Merete

    2008-01-01

    over-express the Cyp2a1 gene. TGhe altered gene expression has been suggested to be involved in the bromadiolone resistance by facilitating enhanced anticoagulant metabolism. To investigate the gene expression of these cytochrome P450 genes in rats of different developmental stages we compared...... expression profiles, from 8-, 12- and 20-week-old resistant rats of the Danish strain to profiles of anticoagulant-susceptible rats of same ages. The three age-groups were selected to represent a group of pre-pubertal, pubertal and adult rats. We found expression profiles of the pre-pubertal and pubertal...... resistant rats to concur with profiles of the adults suggesting that cytochrome P450 enzymes are involved in the Danish bromadiolone resistance regardless of developmental stage. We also investigated the relative importance of the six cytochrome P450s in the different development stages of the resistant...

  7. Developmental vitamin D deficiency alters MK-801-induced behaviours in adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesby, James P; O'Loan, Jonathan C; Alexander, Suzanne; Deng, Chao; Huang, Xu-Feng; McGrath, John J; Eyles, Darryl W; Burne, Thomas H J

    2012-04-01

    Developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency is a candidate risk factor for developing schizophrenia in humans. In rodents DVD deficiency induces subtle changes in the way the brain develops. This early developmental insult leads to select behavioural changes in the adult, such as an enhanced response to amphetamine-induced locomotion in female DVD-deficient rats but not in male DVD-deficient rats and an enhanced locomotor response to the N-methyl-D: -aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, MK-801, in male DVD-deficient rats. However, the response to MK-801-induced locomotion in female DVD-deficient rats is unknown. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to further examine this behavioural finding in male and female rats and assess NMDA receptor density. DVD-deficient Sprague Dawley rats were assessed for locomotion, ataxia, acoustic startle response (ASR) and prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the ASR to multiple doses of MK-801. The NMDA receptor density in relevant brain regions was assessed in a drug-naive cohort. DVD deficiency increased locomotion in response to MK-801 in both sexes. DVD-deficient rats also showed an enhanced ASR compared with control rats, but PPI was normal. Moreover, DVD deficiency decreased NMDA receptor density in the caudate putamen of both sexes. These results suggest that a transient prenatal vitamin D deficiency has a long-lasting effect on NMDA-mediated signalling in the rodent brain and may be a plausible candidate risk factor for schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders.

  8. Altering endocannabinoid neurotransmission at critical developmental ages: impact on rodent emotionality and cognitive performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana eTrezza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid system shows functional activity from early stages of brain development: it plays an important role in fundamental developmental processes such as cell proliferation, migration and differentiation, thus shaping brain organization during pre- and postnatal life. Cannabis sativa preparations are among the illicit drugs most commonly used by young people, including pregnant women. The developing brain can be therefore exposed to cannabis preparations during two critical periods: first, in offspring of cannabis-using mothers through perinatal and/or prenatal exposure; second, in adolescent cannabis users during neural maturation. In the last decade, it has become clear that the endocannabinoid system critically modulates memory processing and emotional responses. Therefore, it is well possible that developmental exposure to cannabinoid compounds induces enduring changes in behaviors and neural processes belonging to the cognitive and emotional domains. We address this issue by focusing on rodent studies, in order to provide a framework for understanding the impact of cannabinoid exposure on the developing brain.

  9. Neural Alterations in Acquired Age-Related Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raksha Anand Mudar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss is one of the most prevalent chronic health conditions in older adults. Growing evidence suggests that hearing loss is associated with reduced cognitive functioning and incident dementia. In this mini-review, we briefly examine literature on anatomical and functional alterations in the brains of adults with acquired age-associated hearing loss, which may underlie the cognitive consequences observed in this population, focusing on studies that have used structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and event-related electroencephalography. We discuss structural and functional alterations observed in the temporal and frontal cortices and the limbic system. These neural alterations are discussed in the context of common cause, information-degradation, and sensory-deprivation hypotheses, and we suggest possible rehabilitation strategies. Although we are beginning to learn more about changes in neural architecture and functionality related to age-associated hearing loss, much work remains to be done. Understanding the neural alterations will provide objective markers for early identification of neural consequences of age-associated hearing loss and for evaluating benefits of intervention approaches.

  10. Cross-fostering alters advertisement vocalizations of grasshopper mice (Onychomys): Evidence for the developmental stress hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, Bret; Abbasi, Mustafa Z; Wilson, Macey; Zhao, Daniel; Searle, Jeremy B; Webster, Michael S; Rice, Aaron N

    2016-04-01

    Nutritional stress can have lasting impacts on the development of traits involved in vocal production. Cross-fostering experiments are often used to examine the propensity for vocal learning in a variety of taxa, but few studies assess the influence of malnourishment that can occur as a byproduct of this technique. In this study, we reciprocally cross-fostered sister taxa of voluble grasshopper mice (genus Onychomys) to explore their propensity for vocal learning. Vocalizations of Onychomys leucogaster did not differ between control and cross-fostered animals, but cross-fostered Onychomys arenicola produced vocalizations that were higher in frequency in a direction away from tutors. These same animals exhibited a transient reduction in body mass early in development, indicative of malnutrition. Our findings simultaneously refute vocal learning and support the developmental stress hypothesis to highlight the importance of early ontogeny on the production of vocalizations later in life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Developmental dyscalculia is related to visuo-spatial memory and inhibition impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szucs, Denes; Devine, Amy; Soltesz, Fruzsina; Nobes, Alison; Gabriel, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia is thought to be a specific impairment of mathematics ability. Currently dominant cognitive neuroscience theories of developmental dyscalculia suggest that it originates from the impairment of the magnitude representation of the human brain, residing in the intraparietal sulcus, or from impaired connections between number symbols and the magnitude representation. However, behavioral research offers several alternative theories for developmental dyscalculia and neuro-imaging also suggests that impairments in developmental dyscalculia may be linked to disruptions of other functions of the intraparietal sulcus than the magnitude representation. Strikingly, the magnitude representation theory has never been explicitly contrasted with a range of alternatives in a systematic fashion. Here we have filled this gap by directly contrasting five alternative theories (magnitude representation, working memory, inhibition, attention and spatial processing) of developmental dyscalculia in 9-10-year-old primary school children. Participants were selected from a pool of 1004 children and took part in 16 tests and nine experiments. The dominant features of developmental dyscalculia are visuo-spatial working memory, visuo-spatial short-term memory and inhibitory function (interference suppression) impairment. We hypothesize that inhibition impairment is related to the disruption of central executive memory function. Potential problems of visuo-spatial processing and attentional function in developmental dyscalculia probably depend on short-term memory/working memory and inhibition impairments. The magnitude representation theory of developmental dyscalculia was not supported. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Developmental dyscalculia is related to visuo-spatial memory and inhibition impairment☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szucs, Denes; Devine, Amy; Soltesz, Fruzsina; Nobes, Alison; Gabriel, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia is thought to be a specific impairment of mathematics ability. Currently dominant cognitive neuroscience theories of developmental dyscalculia suggest that it originates from the impairment of the magnitude representation of the human brain, residing in the intraparietal sulcus, or from impaired connections between number symbols and the magnitude representation. However, behavioral research offers several alternative theories for developmental dyscalculia and neuro-imaging also suggests that impairments in developmental dyscalculia may be linked to disruptions of other functions of the intraparietal sulcus than the magnitude representation. Strikingly, the magnitude representation theory has never been explicitly contrasted with a range of alternatives in a systematic fashion. Here we have filled this gap by directly contrasting five alternative theories (magnitude representation, working memory, inhibition, attention and spatial processing) of developmental dyscalculia in 9–10-year-old primary school children. Participants were selected from a pool of 1004 children and took part in 16 tests and nine experiments. The dominant features of developmental dyscalculia are visuo-spatial working memory, visuo-spatial short-term memory and inhibitory function (interference suppression) impairment. We hypothesize that inhibition impairment is related to the disruption of central executive memory function. Potential problems of visuo-spatial processing and attentional function in developmental dyscalculia probably depend on short-term memory/working memory and inhibition impairments. The magnitude representation theory of developmental dyscalculia was not supported. PMID:23890692

  13. Developmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) alters sexual differentiation in painted turtles (Chrysemys picta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandegian, Caitlin M.; Deem, Sharon L.; Bhandari, Ramji K.; Holliday, Casey M.; Nicks, Diane; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S.; Selcer, Kyle; Tillitt, Donald E.; vom Saal, Fredrick S.; Velez, Vanessa; Yang, Ying; Holliday, Dawn K.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental chemicals can disrupt endocrine signaling and adversely impact sexual differentiation in wildlife. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic chemical commonly found in a variety of habitats. In this study, we used painted turtles (Chrysemys picta), which have temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), as an animal model for ontogenetic endocrine disruption by BPA. We hypothesized that BPA would override TSD and disrupt sexual development. We incubated farm-raised turtle eggs at the male-producing temperature (26 °C), randomly assigned individuals to treatment groups: control, vehicle control, 17β-estradiol (E2, 20 ng/g-egg) or 0.01, 1.0, 100 μg BPA/g-egg and harvested tissues at hatch. Typical female gonads were present in 89% of the E2-treated “males”, but in none of the control males (n = 35). Gonads of BPA-exposed turtles had varying amounts of ovarian-like cortical (OLC) tissue and disorganized testicular tubules in the medulla. Although the percentage of males with OLCs increased with BPA dose (BPA-low = 30%, BPA-medium = 33%, BPA-high = 39%), this difference was not significant (p = 0.85). In all three BPA treatments, SOX9 patterns revealed disorganized medullary testicular tubules and β-catenin expression in a thickened cortex. Liver vitellogenin, a female-specific liver protein commonly used as an exposure biomarker, was not induced by any of the treatments. Notably, these results suggest that developmental exposure to BPA disrupts sexual differentiation in painted turtles. Further examination is necessary to determine the underlying mechanisms of sex reversal in reptiles and how these translate to EDC exposure in wild populations.

  14. Cultural Mediation. The Usefulness of Selected Concepts of Developmental Psychology for Coaching and Mentoring Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Smorczewska, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Some developmental psychological concepts, such as L. S. Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development or H. R. Schaffer’s joint involvement episodes, gave a new perspective in perceiving the process of teaching and development, by providing very detailed characteristics of the situation of acquiring competence in social relations. The mentioned concepts are based on a belief in the developmental potential of humans, and they perceive teaching as future-oriented. These assumptions are also characte...

  15. HDAC4: a key factor underlying brain developmental alterations in CDKL5 disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trazzi, Stefania; Fuchs, Claudia; Viggiano, Rocchina; De Franceschi, Marianna; Valli, Emanuele; Jedynak, Paulina; Hansen, Finn K; Perini, Giovanni; Rimondini, Roberto; Kurz, Thomas; Bartesaghi, Renata; Ciani, Elisabetta

    2016-09-15

    Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) is a Ser/Thr protein kinase predominantly expressed in the brain. Mutations of the CDKL5 gene lead to CDKL5 disorder, a neurodevelopmental pathology that shares several features with Rett Syndrome and is characterized by severe intellectual disability. The phosphorylation targets of CDKL5 are largely unknown, which hampers the discovery of therapeutic strategies for improving the neurological phenotype due to CDKL5 mutations. Here, we show that the histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) is a direct phosphorylation target of CDKL5 and that CDKL5-dependent phosphorylation promotes HDAC4 cytoplasmic retention. Nuclear HDAC4 binds to chromatin as well as to MEF2A transcription factor, leading to histone deacetylation and altered neuronal gene expression. By using a Cdkl5 knockout (Cdkl5 -/Y) mouse model, we found that hypophosphorylated HDAC4 translocates to the nucleus of neural precursor cells, thereby reducing histone 3 acetylation. This effect was reverted by re-expression of CDKL5 or by inhibition of HDAC4 activity through the HDAC4 inhibitor LMK235. In Cdkl5 -/Y mice treated with LMK235, defective survival and maturation of neuronal precursor cells and hippocampus-dependent memory were fully normalized. These results demonstrate a critical role of HDAC4 in the neurodevelopmental alterations due to CDKL5 mutations and suggest the possibility of HDAC4-targeted pharmacological interventions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Relations among motor, social, and cognitive skills in pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Helyn; Carlson, Abby G; Curby, Timothy W; Winsler, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Despite the comorbidity between motor difficulties and certain disabilities, limited research has examined links between early motor, cognitive, and social skills in preschool-aged children with developmental disabilities. The present study examined the relative contributions of gross motor and fine motor skills to the prediction of improvements in children's cognitive and social skills among 2,027 pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities, including specific learning disorder, speech/language impairment, intellectual disability, and autism spectrum disorder. Results indicated that for pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities, fine motor skills, but not gross motor skills, were predictive of improvements in cognitive and social skills, even after controlling for demographic information and initial skill levels. Moreover, depending on the type of developmental disability, the pattern of prediction of gross motor and fine motor skills to improvements in children's cognitive and social skills differed. Implications are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Alterations in white matter pathways underlying phonological and morphological processing in Chinese developmental dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Su

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Chinese is a logographic language that is different from alphabetic languages in visual and semantic complexity. Thus far, it is still unclear whether Chinese children with dyslexia show similar disruption of white matter pathways as in alphabetic languages. The present study focused on the alteration of white matter pathways in Chinese children with dyslexia. Using diffusion tensor imaging tractography, the bilateral arcuate fasciculus (AF-anterior, AF-posterior and AF-direct segments, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF and inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF were delineated in each individual’s native space. Compared with age-matched controls, Chinese children with dyslexia showed reduced fractional anisotropy in the left AF-direct and the left ILF. Further regression analyses revealed a functional dissociation between the left AF-direct and the left ILF. The AF-direct tract integrity was associated with phonological processing skill, an ability important for reading in all writing systems, while the ILF integrity was associated with morphological processing skill, an ability more strongly recruited for Chinese reading. In conclusion, the double disruption locus in Chinese children with dyslexia, and the functional dissociation between dorsal and ventral pathways reflect both universal and specific properties of reading in Chinese.

  18. Developmental fluoxetine exposure increases behavioral despair and alters epigenetic regulation of the hippocampal BDNF gene in adult female offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boulle, F.; Pawluski, J.L.; Homberg, J.R.; Machiels, B.; Kroeze, Y.; Kumar, N.; Steinbusch, H.W.; Kenis, G.; Hove, D.L. van den

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of infants are exposed to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medications during the perinatal period. Perinatal exposure to SSRI medications alter neuroplasticity and increase depressive- and anxiety-related behaviors, particularly in male offspring as little work has

  19. The History of Legislation and Regulations Related to Children with Developmental Disabilities: Implications for School Nursing Practice Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Michelle T.

    2010-01-01

    A significant number of children in the United States have developmental disabilities. Historically, many children with developmental disabilities were institutionalized and rarely seen in public. Currently, children with developmental disabilities are entitled to education and health-related support services that permit them access to public…

  20. Developmental Exposure to Valproate or Ethanol Alters Locomotor Activity and Retino-Tectal Projection Area in Zebrafish Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given the minimal developmental neurotoxicity data available for the large number of new and existing chemicals, there is a critical need for alternative methods to identify and prioritize chemicals for further testing. We outline a developmental neurotoxicity screening approach ...

  1. An Out-of-Math Experience: Einstein, Relativity, and the Developmental Mathematics Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Greg

    2000-01-01

    Discusses Einstein's special relativity theory and some of the developmental mathematics involved. Presents motivational classroom materials used in discussing relative-motion problems, evaluating a radical expression, graphing with asymptotes, interpreting a graph, studying variation, and solving literal and radical equations. (KHR)

  2. Developmental vitamin D deficiency alters MK 801-induced hyperlocomotion in the adult rat: An animal model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesby, James P; Burne, Thomas H J; McGrath, John J; Eyles, Darryl W

    2006-09-15

    Developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency has been proposed as a risk factor for schizophrenia. The behavioral phenotype of adult rats subjected to transient low prenatal vitamin D is characterized by spontaneous hyperlocomotion but normal prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle (PPI). The aim of this study was to examine the impact of selected psychotropic agents and one well-known antipsychotic agent on the behavioral phenotype of DVD deplete rats. Control versus DVD deplete adult rats were assessed on holeboard, open field and PPI. In the open field, animals were given MK-801 and/or haloperidol. For PPI, the animals were given apomorphine or MK-801. DVD deplete rats had increased baseline locomotion on the holeboard task and increased locomotion in response to MK-801 compared to control rats. At low doses, haloperidol antagonized the MK-801 hyperactivity of DVD deplete rats preferentially and, at a high dose, resulted in a more pronounced reduction in spontaneous locomotion in DVD deplete rats. DVD depletion did not affect either baseline or drug-mediated PPI response. These results suggest that DVD deficiency is associated with a persistent alteration in neuronal systems associated with motor function but not those associated with sensory motor gating. In light of the putative association between low prenatal vitamin D and schizophrenia, the discrete behavioral differences associated with the DVD model may help elucidate the neurobiological correlates of schizophrenia.

  3. Adolescent Friendship Relations and Developmental Outcomes: Ethnic and Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissink, Inge B.; Dekovic, Maja; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2009-01-01

    The first aim of the present study was to examine associations between different aspects of adolescent friendship relations (i.e., frequency of contact with friends, trust in friends, and perceived friends' deviance) on one hand, and adolescent problem behavior and self-esteem on the other hand. The second aim was to determine whether the findings…

  4. Adolescent friendship relations and developmental outcomes: ethnic and gender differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissink, I.B.; Dekovic, M.; Meijer, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The first aim of the present study was to examine associations between different aspects of adolescent friendship relations (i.e., frequency of contact with friends, trust in friends, and perceived friends' deviance) on one hand, and adolescent problem behavior and self-esteem on the other hand. The

  5. Mild developmental foreign accent syndrome and psychiatric comorbidity: Altered white matter integrity in speech and emotion regulation networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo L Berthier

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Foreign accent syndrome (FAS is a speech disorder that is defined by the emergence of a peculiar manner of articulation and intonation which is perceived as foreign. In most cases of acquired FAS (AFAS the new accent is secondary to small focal lesions involving components of the bilaterally distributed neural network for speech production. In the past few years FAS has also been described in different psychiatric conditions (conversion disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia as well as in developmental disorders (specific language impairment, apraxia of speech. In the present study, two adult males, one with atypical phonetic production and the other one with cluttering, reported having developmental FAS (DFAS since their adolescence. Perceptual analysis by naïve judges could not confirm the presence of foreign accent, possibly due to the mildness of the speech disorder. However, detailed linguistic analysis provided evidence of prosodic and segmental errors previously reported in AFAS cases. Cognitive testing showed reduced communication in activities of daily living and mild deficits related to psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric evaluation revealed long-lasting internalizing disorders (neuroticism, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social phobia, depression, alexithymia, hopelessness, and apathy in both subjects. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI data from each subject with DFAS were compared with data from a group of 21 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects. Diffusion parameters (MD, AD, and RD in predefined regions of interest showed changes of white matter microstructure in regions previously related with AFAS and psychiatric disorders. In conclusion, the present findings militate against the possibility that these two subjects have FAS of psychogenic origin. Rather, our findings provide evidence that mild DFAS occurring in the context of subtle, yet persistent, developmental speech disorders may be associated with

  6. The Relative Risk of Divorce in Parents of Children With Developmental Disabilities: Impacts of Lifelong Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkung, Eun Ha; Song, Jieun; Greenberg, Jan S; Mailick, Marsha R; Floyd, Frank J

    2015-11-01

    We prospectively examined the risk of divorce in 190 parents of children with developmental disabilities compared to 7,251 parents of children without disabilities based on a random sample drawn from the community and followed longitudinally for over 50 years. A significant interaction between the parental group status and number of children was found: In the comparison group, having a larger number of children was related to an increased risk of divorce, whereas the number of children did not increase divorce risk among parents of children with developmental disabilities.

  7. The Relative Risk of Divorce in Parents of Children with Developmental Disabilities: Impacts of Lifelong Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jieun; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.; Floyd, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    We examined prospectively the risk of divorce in 190 parents of children with developmental disabilities compared to 7,251 parents of children without disabilities based on a random sample drawn from the community and followed longitudinally for over 50 years. A significant interaction between the parental group status and number of children was found: In the comparison group, having a larger number of children was related to an increased risk of divorce, whereas the number of children did not increase divorce risk among parents of children with developmental disabilities. PMID:26505872

  8. Dual Systems Competence [Image Omitted] Procedural Processing: A Relational Developmental Systems Approach to Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricco, Robert B.; Overton, Willis F.

    2011-01-01

    Many current psychological models of reasoning minimize the role of deductive processes in human thought. In the present paper, we argue that deduction is an important part of ordinary cognition and we propose that a dual systems Competence [image omitted] Procedural processing model conceptualized within relational developmental systems theory…

  9. M-Stream Deficits and Reading-Related Visual Processes in Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Catherine; Giaschi, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    Some visual processing deficits in developmental dyslexia have been attributed to abnormalities in the subcortical M stream and/or the cortical dorsal stream of the visual pathways. The nature of the relationship between these visual deficits and reading is unknown. The purpose of the present article was to characterize reading-related perceptual…

  10. An Examination of the Relative Age Effect in Developmental Girls' Hockey in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kristy L.; Weir, Patricia L.

    2013-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) suggests that athletes may be provided with greater opportunities for success depending on the position of their birthdate in a sport's selection year. While the effect has been well established in men's sports, less is known about women's sports. This study examined the RAE in developmental girls' hockey in Ontario.…

  11. Maternal and pregnancy-related factors associated with developmental delay in moderately preterm-born children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstjens, Jorien M; de Winter, Andrea F; Sollie, Krystyna M; Bocca-Tjeertes, Inger F; Potijk, Marieke R; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Bos, Arend F

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the association between preexisting maternal and pregnancy-related factors and developmental delay in early childhood in moderately preterm-born children. METHODS: We measured development with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire at age 43-49 months in 834 moderately preterm-born

  12. Developmental and sex-related differences in preschoolers' affective decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilman, Renata M; Miu, Andrei C; Benga, Oana

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated developmental and sex-related differences in affective decision making, using a two-deck version of Children's Gambling Task administered to 3- and 4-year-old children. The main findings were that 4-year-old children displayed better decision-making performance than 3-year-olds. This effect was independent of developmental changes in inductive reasoning, language, and working memory. There were also sex differences in decision-making performance, which were apparent only in 3-year-old children and favored girls. Moreover, age predicted awareness of task and the correlation between the latter and decision-making performance was significant, but only in 4-year-old children. This study thus indicates that there is a remarkable developmental leap in affective decision making, whose effects are apparent around the age of 4, which according to our results, also marks the age when the correlation of declarative knowledge and decision-making performance becomes significant.

  13. Developmental post-natal stress can alter the effects of pre-natal stress on the adult redox balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, Valeria; Spencer, Karen A; Robinson, Jane; Herzyk, Pawel; Costantini, David

    2013-09-15

    Across diverse vertebrate taxa, stressful environmental conditions during development can shape phenotypic trajectories of developing individuals, which, while adaptive in the short-term, may impair health and survival in adulthood. Regardless, the long-lasting benefits or costs of early life stress are likely to depend on the conditions experienced across differing stages of development. Here, we used the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) to experimentally manipulate exposure to stress hormones in developing individuals. We tested the hypothesis that interactions occurring between pre- and post-natal developmental periods can induce long-term shifts on the adult oxidant phenotype in non-breeding sexually mature individuals. We showed that early life stress can induce long-term alterations in the basal antioxidant defences. The magnitude of these effects depended upon the timing of glucocorticoid exposure and upon interactions between the pre- and post-natal stressful stimuli. We also found differences among tissues with stronger effects in the erythrocytes than in the brain in which the long-term effects of glucocorticoids on antioxidant biomarkers appeared to be region-specific. Recent experimental work has demonstrated that early life exposure to stress hormones can markedly reduce adult survival (Monaghan et al., 2012). Our results suggest that long-term shifts in basal antioxidant defences might be one of the potential mechanisms driving such accelerated ageing processes and that post-natal interventions during development may be a potential tool to shape the effects induced by pre-natally glucococorticoid-exposed phenotypes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Developmental exposure to terbutaline alters cell signaling in mature rat brain regions and augments the effects of subsequent neonatal exposure to the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Armando; Seidler, Frederic J.; Aldridge, Justin E.; Slotkin, Theodore A.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to apparently unrelated neurotoxicants can nevertheless converge on common neurodevelopmental events. We examined the long-term effects of developmental exposure of rats to terbutaline, a β-adrenoceptor agonist used to arrest preterm labor, and the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) separately and together. Treatments mimicked the appropriate neurodevelopmental stages for human exposures: terbutaline on postnatal days (PN) 2-5 and CPF on PN11-14, with assessments conducted on PN45. Although neither treatment affected growth or viability, each elicited alterations in CNS cell signaling mediated by adenylyl cyclase (AC), a transduction pathway shared by numerous neuronal and hormonal signals. Terbutaline altered signaling in the brainstem and cerebellum, with gender differences particularly notable in the cerebellum (enhanced AC in males, suppressed in females). By itself, CPF exposure elicited deficits in AC signaling in the midbrain, brainstem, and striatum. However, sequential exposure to terbutaline followed by CPF produced larger alterations and involved a wider spectrum of brain regions than were obtained with either agent alone. In the cerebral cortex, adverse effects of the combined treatment intensified between PN45 and PN60, suggesting that exposures alter the long-term program for development of synaptic communication, leading to alterations in AC signaling that emerge even after adolescence. These findings indicate that terbutaline, like CPF, is a developmental neurotoxicant, and reinforce the idea that its use in preterm labor may create a subpopulation that is sensitized to long-term CNS effects of organophosphorus insecticides

  15. Developmental trajectories of pitch-related music skills in children with Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Castilla, Pastora; Rodríguez, Manuel; Campos, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    The study of music cognition in Williams syndrome (WS) has resulted in theoretical debates regarding cognitive modularity and development. However, no research has previously investigated the development of music skills in this population. In this study, we used the cross-sectional developmental trajectories approach to assess the development of pitch-related music skills in children with WS compared with typically developing (TD) peers. Thus, we evaluated the role of change over time on pitch-related music skills and the developmental relationships between music skills and different cognitive areas. In the TD children, the pitch-related music skills improved with chronological age and cognitive development. In the children with WS, developmental relationships were only found between several pitch-related music skills and specific cognitive processes. We also found non-systematic relationships between chronological age and the pitch-related music skills, stabilization in the level reached in music when cognitive development was considered, and uneven associations between cognitive and music skills. In addition, the TD and WS groups differed in their patterns of pitch-related music skill development. These results suggest that the development of pitch-related music skills in children with WS is atypical. Our findings stand in contrast with the views that claim innate modularity for music in WS; rather, they are consistent with neuroconstructivist accounts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Relative developmental toxicity of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lihua; Li, Yifan; Coelhan, Mehmet; Chan, Hing Man; Ma, Wanli; Liu, Liyan

    2016-12-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are ubiquitous in the environment and might cause adverse environmental and human health effects. Little is known about the relative toxicity of different SCCP compounds especially during development. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare effects of seven SCCP groups at environmentally relevant levels, using a zebrafish (Danio rerio) model. Observations on malformation, survival rates at 96 h post fertilization (hpf), and hatching rates at 72 hpf indicated that the C 10- groups (C 10 H 18 Cl 4 , 1,2,5,6,9,10-C 10 H 16 Cl 6 and C 10 H 15 Cl 7 ) were more toxic than the C 12- groups (C 12 H 22 Cl 4 , C 12 H 19 Cl 7 and 1,1,1,3,10,12,12,12-C 12 H 18 Cl 8 ) and Cereclor 63L. The C 10- groups were also more potent than C 12- groups and Cereclor 63L in decreasing thyroid hormone levels. Among the three compounds within the C 10- group, the compounds with less chlorine content had stronger effects on sub-lethal malformations but less effects on triiodothyronine (T3) and tetraiodothyronine (T4). Only C 10 H 18 Cl 4 significantly decreased the mRNA expression of tyr, ttr, dio2 and dio3 at a dose-dependent manner suggesting that the specific mode of actions differ with different congeners. The mechanisms of disruption of thyroid status by different SCCPs could be different. C 10 H 18 Cl 4 might inhibit T3 production through the inhibition effect on dio2. These results indicate that SCCP exposure could alter gene expression in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis and thyroid hormone levels. The mechanisms of disruption of thyroid status by different SCCPs could be different. Our results on the relative developmental toxicities of SCCPs will be useful to reach a better understanding of SCCP toxicity supporting environmental risk evaluation and regulation and used as a guidance for environmental monitoring of SCCPs in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Comparison of attachment-related social behaviors in autistic disorder and developmental disability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Devrim; Pehlivantürk, Berna; Unal, Fatih; Ozusta, Seniz

    2009-01-01

    This study examined social behaviors related to attachment in children with autistic disorder and the differences in these behaviors from those observed in developmentally disabled children. Additionally, we aimed to investigate the relationship between attachment behaviors and clinical variables, such as age, cognitive development, severity of autism, language development, and mothers' attachment styles. The study group consisted of 19 children with autistic disorder (mean age: 37.9 +/- 6.8 months) and the control group consisted of 18 developmentally disabled children without autistic disorder that were matched with respect to age, gender, and cognitive development. The Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) was administered to all the children by two child psychiatrists. Mothers completed the Relationships Scale Questionnaire (RSQ). Cognitive development of the children was assessed with the Stanford-Binet intelligence scale. Attachment behaviors of the children were evaluated with a modified Strange Situation Procedure (SSP). Attachment behaviors in the children with autistic disorder and in the children with developmental disabilities were similar. In contrast to the developmentally disabled group, the children with autistic disorder stayed closer toward their mothers compared with their responses to strangers. In the autistic disorder group, attachment behaviors were not associated with age, intelligence quotient, or mothers' attachment styles; however, a significant relationship between the severity of autism and the presence of speech was observed. Parents' understanding of the attachment needs and the attachment behaviors of their autistic children in the early stages of the disorder may lead to more secure attachment relationships and improved social development.

  18. Cultural Mediation. The Usefulness of Selected Concepts of Developmental Psychology for Coaching and Mentoring Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Smorczewska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Some developmental psychological concepts, such as L. S. Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development or H. R. Schaffer’s joint involvement episodes, gave a new perspective in perceiving the process of teaching and development, by providing very detailed characteristics of the situation of acquiring competence in social relations. The mentioned concepts are based on a belief in the developmental potential of humans, and they perceive teaching as future-oriented. These assumptions are also characteristic for coaching and mentoring which are nowadays becoming more and more popular forms of development in work places; hence an attempt to find some analogy between them. The prepared comparison contributes to extending the theoretical bases of “development cooperation relations,” as coaching and mentoring are jointly referred to.

  19. DSM-V diagnostic criteria for bereavement-related disorders in children and adolescents: developmental considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplow, Julie B; Layne, Christopher M; Pynoos, Robert S; Cohen, Judith A; Lieberman, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Two bereavement-related disorders are proposed for the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V): Adjustment Disorder Related to Bereavement, to be located in the main body of the text as an official diagnostic entity; and Bereavement-Related Disorder, including a Traumatic Death Specifier, to be located in the Appendix as an invitation for further research. These diagnoses currently do not include developmentally informed criteria, despite the importance of developmental processes in the ways children and adolescents grieve. In this article, we draw upon a selective review of the empirical literature and expert clinical knowledge to recommend developmentally informed modifications and specifiers of the proposed criteria for both bereavement disorders and strategies to improve future research. This article is derived from an invited report submitted to the DSM-V Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Trauma, and Dissociative Disorders Sub-Work Group, and suggested modifications have received preliminary approval to be incorporated into the DSM-V at the time of this writing. Adoption of these proposals will have far-reaching consequences, given that DSM-V criteria will influence both critical treatment choices for bereaved youth and the next generation of research studies.

  20. Developmental Continuity and Change in Physical, Verbal, and Relational Aggression and Peer Victimization from Childhood to Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettekal, Idean; Ladd, Gary W.

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the developmental course of aggression and peer victimization in childhood and adolescence, distinct subgroups of children were identified based on similarities and differences in their physical, verbal and relational aggression, and victimization. Developmental continuity and change were assessed by examining transitions within and…

  1. Preliminary Validation of a Parent-Child Relational Framework for Teaching Developmental Assessment to Pediatric Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalado, Michael; Schneiderman, Janet U; Duan, Lei; Ragusa, Gisele

    A parent-child relational framework was used as a method to train pediatric residents in basic knowledge and observation skills for the assessment of child development. Components of the training framework and its preliminary validation as an alternative to milestone-based approaches are described. Pediatric residents were trained during a 4-week clinical rotation to use a semistructured interview and observe parent-child behavior during health visits using clinical criteria for historical information and observed behavior that reflect developmental change in the parent-child relationship. Clinical impressions of concern versus no concern for developmental delay were derived from parent-child relational criteria and the physical examination. A chart review yielded 330 preterm infants evaluated using this methodology at 4 and 15 months corrected age who also had standardized developmental testing at 6 and 18 months corrected age. Sensitivities and specificities were computed to examine the validity of the clinical assessment compared with standardized testing. A subset of residents who completed 50 or more assessments during the rotation was timed at the end of 4 weeks. Parent-child behavioral markers elicited from the history and/or observed during the health visit correlated highly with standardized developmental assessment. Sensitivities and specificities were 0.72/0.98 and 0.87/0.96 at 4 to 6 and 15 to 18 months, respectively. Residents completed their assessments parent-child relational framework is a potentially efficient and effective approach to training residents in the clinical knowledge and skills of child development assessment. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Eco-Evo-Devo: developmental symbiosis and developmental plasticity as evolutionary agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Scott F; Bosch, Thomas C G; Ledón-Rettig, Cristina

    2015-10-01

    The integration of research from developmental biology and ecology into evolutionary theory has given rise to a relatively new field, ecological evolutionary developmental biology (Eco-Evo-Devo). This field integrates and organizes concepts such as developmental symbiosis, developmental plasticity, genetic accommodation, extragenic inheritance and niche construction. This Review highlights the roles that developmental symbiosis and developmental plasticity have in evolution. Developmental symbiosis can generate particular organs, can produce selectable genetic variation for the entire animal, can provide mechanisms for reproductive isolation, and may have facilitated evolutionary transitions. Developmental plasticity is crucial for generating novel phenotypes, facilitating evolutionary transitions and altered ecosystem dynamics, and promoting adaptive variation through genetic accommodation and niche construction. In emphasizing such non-genomic mechanisms of selectable and heritable variation, Eco-Evo-Devo presents a new layer of evolutionary synthesis.

  3. Altered cardiovascular reactivity and osmoregulation during hyperosmotic stress in adult rats developmentally exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Ashini; Coburn, Cary G.; Watson-Siriboe, Abena; Whitley, Rebecca; Shahidzadeh, Anoush; Gillard, Elizabeth R.; Nichol, Robert; Leon-Olea, Martha; Gaertner, Mark; Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S.; Curras-Collazo, Margarita C.

    2011-01-01

    h (358.3 ± 12.4 mOsm/L) relative to 45 min post hyperosmotic injection (325.1 ± 11.4 mOsm/L). Impaired osmoregulation in PBDE-treated animals could not be attributed to decreased levels of plasma vasopressin. Our findings suggest that developmental exposure to PBDEs may disrupt cardiovascular reactivity and osmoregulatory responses to physiological activation in late adulthood. - Highlights: → We examined whether PBDE exposure could impact osmotic and cardiovascular regulation. → Hyperosmotic treatment yielded significant changes in systolic BP in PBDE exposed rats only. → PBDEs may disrupt cardiovascular and osmoregulatory responses to physiological activation.

  4. Suppressing Farnesyl Diphosphate Synthase Alters Chloroplast Development and Triggers Sterol-Dependent Induction of Jasmonate- and Fe-Related Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, David; Andrade, Paola; Caudepón, Daniel; Altabella, Teresa; Arró, Montserrat; Ferrer, Albert

    2016-09-01

    Farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPS) catalyzes the synthesis of farnesyl diphosphate from isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contains two genes (FPS1 and FPS2) encoding FPS. Single fps1 and fps2 knockout mutants are phenotypically indistinguishable from wild-type plants, while fps1/fps2 double mutants are embryo lethal. To assess the effect of FPS down-regulation at postembryonic developmental stages, we generated Arabidopsis conditional knockdown mutants expressing artificial microRNAs devised to simultaneously silence both FPS genes. Induction of silencing from germination rapidly caused chlorosis and a strong developmental phenotype that led to seedling lethality. However, silencing of FPS after seed germination resulted in a slight developmental delay only, although leaves and cotyledons continued to show chlorosis and altered chloroplasts. Metabolomic analyses also revealed drastic changes in the profile of sterols, ubiquinones, and plastidial isoprenoids. RNA sequencing and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction transcriptomic analysis showed that a reduction in FPS activity levels triggers the misregulation of genes involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses, the most prominent one being the rapid induction of a set of genes related to the jasmonic acid pathway. Down-regulation of FPS also triggered an iron-deficiency transcriptional response that is consistent with the iron-deficient phenotype observed in FPS-silenced plants. The specific inhibition of the sterol biosynthesis pathway by chemical and genetic blockage mimicked these transcriptional responses, indicating that sterol depletion is the primary cause of the observed alterations. Our results highlight the importance of sterol homeostasis for normal chloroplast development and function and reveal important clues about how isoprenoid and sterol metabolism is integrated within plant physiology and development. © 2016

  5. Examining the Criterion-Related Validity of the Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavior Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMorris, Carly A.; Perry, Adrienne

    2015-01-01

    The Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavior Inventory is a questionnaire designed to aid in the diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorders or autism spectrum disorders. The Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavior Inventory assesses adaptive and maladaptive behaviors associated with pervasive developmental disorders and provides an…

  6. Low level postnatal methylmercury exposure in vivo alters developmental forms of short-term synaptic plasticity in the visual cortex of rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasari, Sameera; Yuan, Yukun

    2009-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) has been previously shown to affect neurotransmitter release. Short-term synaptic plasticity (STP) is primarily related to changes in the probability of neurotransmitter release. To determine if MeHg affects STP development, we examined STP forms in the visual cortex of rat following in vivo MeHg exposure. Neonatal rats received 0 (0.9% NaCl), 0.75 or 1.5 mg/kg/day MeHg subcutaneously for 15 or 30 days beginning on postnatal day 5, after which visual cortical slices were prepared for field potential recordings. In slices prepared from rats treated with vehicle, field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) evoked by paired-pulse stimulation at 20-200 ms inter-stimulus intervals showed a depression (PPD) of the second fEPSP (fEPSP2). PPD was also seen in slices prepared from rats after 15 day treatment with 0.75 or 1.5 mg/kg/day MeHg. However, longer duration treatment (30 days) with either dose of MeHg resulted in paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) of fEPSP2 in the majority of slices examined. PPF remained observable in slices prepared from animals in which MeHg exposure had been terminated for 30 days after completion of the initial 30 day MeHg treatment, whereas slices from control animals still showed PPD. MeHg did not cause any frequency- or region-preferential effect on STP. Manipulations of [Ca 2+ ] e or application of the GABA A receptor antagonist bicuculline could alter the strength and polarity of MeHg-induced changes in STP. Thus, these data suggest that low level postnatal MeHg exposure interferes with the developmental transformation of STP in the visual cortex, which is a long-lasting effect.

  7. Altered developmental timing in early life stages of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) exposed to p,p'-DDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, Anita H., E-mail: anita.poulsen@uq.edu.au [The University of Queensland, National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Entox), 39 Kessels Rd, Brisbane, Qld 4108 (Australia); Kawaguchi, So, E-mail: so.kawaguchi@aad.gov.au [Australian Antarctic Division, Channel Highway, Kingston, Tas 7050 (Australia); Leppaenen, Matti T., E-mail: matti.t.leppanen@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu Campus, Department of Biology, FIN-80101 (Finland); Kukkonen, Jussi V.K., E-mail: jussi.kukkonen@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu Campus, Department of Biology, FIN-80101 (Finland); Bengtson Nash, Susan M., E-mail: s.bengtsonnash@griffith.edu.au [The University of Queensland, National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (Entox), 39 Kessels Rd, Brisbane, Qld 4108 (Australia); Griffith University, Atmospheric Environment Research Centre, Brisbane, Qld 4111 (Australia)

    2011-11-15

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are persistent, toxic and bioaccumulative anthropogenic organic chemicals, capable of undergoing long range environmental transport to remote areas including the Antarctic. p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) has been identified as a dominant POP accumulating in Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba), which is a key Southern Ocean species. This study examined the developmental toxicity of p,p'-DDE via aqueous exposure to Antarctic krill larvae. p,p'-DDE exposure was found to stimulate developmental timing in the first three larval stages of Antarctic krill, while extended monitoring of larvae after a five day exposure period had ended, revealed delayed inhibitory responses during development to the fourth larval stage. Stimulatory responses were observed from the lowest p,p'-DDE body residue tested of 10.1 {+-} 3.0 {mu}mol/kg (3.2 {+-} 0.95 mg/kg) preserved wet weight, which is comparable to findings for temperate species and an order of magnitude lower than the exposure level found to cause sublethal behavioural effects in Antarctic krill. The delayed responses included increased mortality, which had doubled in the highest p,p'-DDE treatment (95 {+-} 8.9% mortality at 20 {mu}g/L p,p'-DDE) compared to the solvent control (44 {+-} 11% mortality) 2 weeks after end of exposure. Development of surviving metanauplius larvae to calyptopis 1 larvae was delayed by 2 days in p,p'-DDE exposed larvae compared with untreated larvae. Finally, the developmental success of surviving p,p'-DDE exposed larvae was reduced by 50 to 75% compared to the solvent control (100% developmental success). The lowest observed effect concentration for all delayed effects was 1 {mu}g/L, the lowest exposure concentration tested. These findings demonstrate the importance of delayed and indirect effects of toxicant exposure. Further, the findings of this study are important for environmental risk assessment

  8. Cognitive precursors of the developmental relation between lexical quality and reading comprehension in the intermediate elementary grades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, N.M.; Muijselaar, M.M.L.; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G.; Droop, W.; Jong, P.F. de; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2017-01-01

    In a longitudinal study, we investigated how cognitive precursors (short-term memory, working memory, and nonverbal reasoning) influence the developmental relation between lexical quality (decoding and vocabulary) and reading comprehension skill in 282 Dutch students in the intermediate elementary

  9. Cognitive precursors of the developmental relation between lexical quality and reading comprehension in the intermediate elementary grades.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, N.M.; Muijselaar, M.M.L.; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G.; Droop, M.; de Jong, P.F.; Verhoeven, L.

    2017-01-01

    In a longitudinal study, we investigated how cognitive precursors (short-term memory, working memory, and nonverbal reasoning) influence the developmental relation between lexical quality (decoding and vocabulary) and reading comprehension skill in 282 Dutch students in the intermediate elementary

  10. The fatty liver dystrophy (fld) mutation: Developmentally related alterations in hepatic triglyceride metabolism and protein expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reue, K.; Rehnmark, S.; Cohen, R.D.; Leete, T.H.; Doolittle, M.H. [West Los Angeles VA Medical Center, CA (United States). Lipid Research Lab.]|[Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Medicine; Giometti, C.S.; Mishler, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Slavin, B.G. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Fatty liver dystrophy (fld) is an autosomal recessive mutation in mice characterized by hypertriglyceridemia and development of a fatty liver in the early neonatal period. Also associated with the fld phenotype is a tissue-specific deficiency in the expression of lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase, as well as elevations in hepatic apolipoprotein A-IV and apolipoprotein C-II mRNA levels. Although these lipid abnormalities resolve at the age of weaning, adult mutant mice exhibit a peripheral neuropathy associated with abnormal myelin formation. The fatty liver in fld/fld neonates is characterized by the accumulation of large triglyceride droplets within the parenchymal cells, and these droplets persist within isolated hepatocytes maintained in culture for several days. To identify the metabolic defect that leads to lipid accumulation, the authors investigated several aspects of cellular triglyceride metabolism. The mutant mice exhibited normal activity of acid triacylglycerol lipase, an enzyme thought to be responsible for hydrolysis of dietary triglycerides in the liver. Metabolic labeling studies performed with oleic acid revealed that free fatty acids accumulate in the liver of 3 day old fld/fld mice, but not in adults. This accumulation in liver was mirrored by elevated free fatty acid levels in plasma of fld/fld neonates, with levels highest in very young mice and returning to normal by the age of one month. Quantitation of fatty acid oxidation in cells isolated from fld/fld neonates revealed that oxidation rate is reduced 60% in hepatocytes and 40% in fibroblasts; hepatocytes from adult fld/fld mice exhibited an oxidation rate similar to those from wild-type mice.

  11. Developmental improvement and age-related decline in unfamiliar face matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megreya, Ahmed M; Bindemann, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Age-related changes have been documented widely in studies of face recognition and eyewitness identification. However, it is not clear whether these changes arise from general developmental differences in memory or occur specifically during the perceptual processing of faces. We report two experiments to track such perceptual changes using a 1-in- 10 (experiment 1) and 1-in-1 (experiment 2) matching task for unfamiliar faces. Both experiments showed improvements in face matching during childhood and adult-like accuracy levels by adolescence. In addition, face-matching performance declined in adults of the age of 65 years. These findings indicate that developmental improvements and aging-related differences in face processing arise from changes in the perceptual encoding of faces. A clear face inversion effect was also present in all age groups. This indicates that those age-related changes in face matching reflect a quantitative effect, whereby typical face processes are engaged but do not operate at the best-possible level. These data suggest that part of the problem of eyewitness identification in children and elderly persons might reflect impairments in the perceptual processing of unfamiliar faces.

  12. Developmental Neurotoxicity of Traffic-Related Air Pollution: Focus on Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Lucio G; Chang, Yu-Chi; Cole, Toby B

    2017-06-01

    Epidemiological and animal studies suggest that air pollution may negatively affect the central nervous system (CNS) and contribute to CNS diseases. Traffic-related air pollution is a major contributor to global air pollution, and diesel exhaust (DE) is its most important component. Several studies suggest that young individuals may be particularly susceptible to air pollution-induced neurotoxicity and that perinatal exposure may cause or contribute to developmental disabilities and behavioral abnormalities. In particular, a number of recent studies have found associations between exposures to traffic-related air pollution and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), which are characterized by impairment in socialization and in communication and by the presence of repetitive and unusual behaviors. The cause(s) of ASD are unknown, and while it may have a hereditary component, environmental factors are increasingly suspected as playing a pivotal role in its etiology, particularly in genetically susceptible individuals. Autistic children present higher levels of neuroinflammation and systemic inflammation, which are also hallmarks of exposure to traffic-related air pollution. Gene-environment interactions may play a relevant role in determining individual susceptibility to air pollution developmental neurotoxicity. Given the worldwide presence of elevated air pollution, studies on its effects and mechanisms on the developing brain, genetic susceptibility, role in neurodevelopmental disorders, and possible therapeutic interventions are certainly warranted.

  13. Molecular marker differences relate to developmental position and subsets of mesodiencephalic dopaminergic neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone M Smits

    Full Text Available The development of mesodiencephalic dopaminergic (mdDA neurons located in the substantia nigra compacta (SNc and ventral tegmental area (VTA follow a number of stages marked by distinct events. After preparation of the region by signals that provide induction and patterning, several transcription factors have been identified, which are involved in specifying the neuronal fate of these cells. The specific vulnerability of SNc neurons is thought to root in these specific developmental programs. The present study examines the positions of young postmitotic mdDA neurons to relate developmental position to mdDA subset specific markers. MdDA neurons were mapped relative to the neuromeric domains (prosomeres 1-3 (P1-3, midbrain, and hindbrain as well as the longitudinal subdivisions (floor plate, basal plate, alar plate, as proposed by the prosomeric model. We found that postmitotic mdDA neurons are located mainly in the floorplate domain and very few in slightly more lateral domains. Moreover, mdDA neurons are present along a large proportion of the anterior/posterior axis extending from the midbrain to P3 in the diencephalon. The specific positions relate to some extent to the presence of specific subset markers as Ahd2. In the adult stage more of such subsets specific expressed genes are present and may represent a molecular map defining molecularly distinct groups of mdDA neurons.

  14. Sensory retraining: burden in daily life related to altered sensation after orthognathic surgery, a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C; Kim, S H; Tucker, M; Turvey, T A

    2010-08-01

    Assess the long-term effect of sensory retraining exercises, age, gender, type of surgery, and pre-surgical psychological distress on patients' perception of the interference related to altered sensation 2 years after orthognathic surgery. A total of 186 subjects with a developmental dentofacial disharmony were enrolled in a multicenter randomized clinical trial: one center was a community-based practice and the other a university-based center. Subjects were randomly allocated to two groups: standard of care mouth opening exercises after BSSO or a progressive series of sensory retraining facial exercises in addition to the opening exercises. At 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery, subjects scored unusual feelings on the face, numbness, and loss of lip sensitivity from 'no problem (1)' to 'serious problem (7)'. A marginal proportional odds model was fit for each of the ordinal outcomes. Up to 2 years after surgery, the opening exercise only group had a higher likelihood of reporting interference in daily activities related to numbness and loss of lip sensitivity than the sensory retraining exercise group. The difference between the two groups was relatively constant. Older subjects and those with elevated psychological distress before surgery reported higher burdens related to unusual facial feelings, numbness, and loss of lip sensitivity (p pre-surgical counseling regarding the impact on daily life of persistent altered sensation following a mandibular osteotomy.

  15. Developmental exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin alters DNA methyltransferase (dnmt) expression in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluru, Neelakanteswar; Kuo, Elaine; Helfrich, Lily W.; Karchner, Sibel I.; Linney, Elwood A.; Pais, June E.; Franks, Diana G.

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is one of the most important epigenetic modifications involved in the regulation of gene expression. The DNA methylation reaction is catalyzed by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). Recent studies have demonstrated that toxicants can affect normal development by altering DNA methylation patterns, but the mechanisms of action are poorly understood. Hence, we tested the hypothesis that developmental exposure to TCDD affects dnmt gene expression patterns. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to 5 nM TCDD for 1 h from 4 to 5 h post-fertilization (hpf) and sampled at 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hpf to determine dnmt gene expression and DNA methylation patterns. We performed a detailed analysis of zebrafish dnmt gene expression during development and in adult tissues. Our results demonstrate that dnmt3b genes are highly expressed in early stages of development, and dnmt3a genes are more abundant in later stages. TCDD exposure upregulated dnmt1 and dnmt3b2 expression, whereas dnmt3a1, 3b1, and 3b4 are downregulated following exposure. We did not observe any TCDD-induced differences in global methylation or hydroxymethylation levels, but the promoter methylation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) target genes was altered. In TCDD-exposed embryos, AHR repressor a (ahrra) and c-fos promoters were differentially methylated. To characterize the TCDD effects on DNMTs, we cloned the dnmt promoters with xenobiotic response elements and conducted AHR transactivation assays using a luciferase reporter system. Our results suggest that ahr2 can regulate dnmt3a1, dnmt3a2, and dnmt3b2 expression. Overall, we demonstrate that developmental exposure to TCDD alters dnmt expression and DNA methylation patterns. - Highlights: • TCDD altered the dnmt expression in a gene and developmental time-specific manner. • TCDD hypermethylated ahrra and hypomethylated c-fos proximal promoter regions. • Functional analysis suggests that ahr2 can regulate dnmt3a1, 3a2, and 3b2 expression. • Dnmt

  16. Developmental exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin alters DNA methyltransferase (dnmt) expression in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aluru, Neelakanteswar, E-mail: naluru@whoi.edu [Biology Department and Woods Hole Center for Oceans and Human Health, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Kuo, Elaine [Biology Department and Woods Hole Center for Oceans and Human Health, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Stanford University, 450 Serra Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Helfrich, Lily W. [Biology Department and Woods Hole Center for Oceans and Human Health, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Northwestern University, 633 Clark St, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Karchner, Sibel I. [Biology Department and Woods Hole Center for Oceans and Human Health, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Linney, Elwood A. [Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3020, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Pais, June E. [New England Biolabs, 240 County Road, Ipswich, MA 01938 (United States); Franks, Diana G. [Biology Department and Woods Hole Center for Oceans and Human Health, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    DNA methylation is one of the most important epigenetic modifications involved in the regulation of gene expression. The DNA methylation reaction is catalyzed by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). Recent studies have demonstrated that toxicants can affect normal development by altering DNA methylation patterns, but the mechanisms of action are poorly understood. Hence, we tested the hypothesis that developmental exposure to TCDD affects dnmt gene expression patterns. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to 5 nM TCDD for 1 h from 4 to 5 h post-fertilization (hpf) and sampled at 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hpf to determine dnmt gene expression and DNA methylation patterns. We performed a detailed analysis of zebrafish dnmt gene expression during development and in adult tissues. Our results demonstrate that dnmt3b genes are highly expressed in early stages of development, and dnmt3a genes are more abundant in later stages. TCDD exposure upregulated dnmt1 and dnmt3b2 expression, whereas dnmt3a1, 3b1, and 3b4 are downregulated following exposure. We did not observe any TCDD-induced differences in global methylation or hydroxymethylation levels, but the promoter methylation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) target genes was altered. In TCDD-exposed embryos, AHR repressor a (ahrra) and c-fos promoters were differentially methylated. To characterize the TCDD effects on DNMTs, we cloned the dnmt promoters with xenobiotic response elements and conducted AHR transactivation assays using a luciferase reporter system. Our results suggest that ahr2 can regulate dnmt3a1, dnmt3a2, and dnmt3b2 expression. Overall, we demonstrate that developmental exposure to TCDD alters dnmt expression and DNA methylation patterns. - Highlights: • TCDD altered the dnmt expression in a gene and developmental time-specific manner. • TCDD hypermethylated ahrra and hypomethylated c-fos proximal promoter regions. • Functional analysis suggests that ahr2 can regulate dnmt3a1, 3a2, and 3b2 expression. • Dnmt

  17. The relation between working memory components and ADHD symptoms from a developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Carin; Eninger, Lilianne; Forssman, Linda; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to examine the relations between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and four working memory (WM) components (short-term memory and central executive in verbal and visuospatial domains) in 284 6-16-year-old children from the general population. The results showed that verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and verbal central executive uniquely contributed to inattention symptoms. Age interacted with verbal short-term memory in predicting inattention, with the relation being stronger in older children. These findings support the notion of ADHD as a developmental disorder, with changes in associated neuropsychological deficits across time. The results further indicate ADHD-related deficits in several specific WM components.

  18. Developmental dyscalculia is related to visuo-spatial memory and inhibition impairment ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Szucs, Denes; Devine, Amy; Soltesz, Fruzsina; Nobes, Alison; Gabriel, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia is thought to be a specific impairment of mathematics ability. Currently dominant cognitive neuroscience theories of developmental dyscalculia suggest that it originates from the impairment of the magnitude representation of the human brain, residing in the intraparietal sulcus, or from impaired connections between number symbols and the magnitude representation. However, behavioral research offers several alternative theories for developmental dyscalculia and neuro-...

  19. Relations of Early Motor Skills on Age and Socialization, Communication, and Daily Living in Young Children With Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Megan; Ross, Samantha; McIntyre, Laura Lee; Tepfer, Amanda

    2017-04-01

    Young children with developmental disabilities experience known deficits in salient child behaviors, such as social behaviors, communication, and aspects of daily living, behaviors that generally improve with chronological age. The purpose of this study was to examine the mediating effects of motor skills on relations of age and salient child behaviors in a group of young children with developmental disabilities, thus tapping into the potential influences of motor skills in the development of salient child behaviors. One hundred thirteen young children with developmental disabilities participated in this study. Independent mediation analysis, with gender as a moderator between the mediating and outcome variable, indicated that motor skills meditated relations between age and socialization, communication, and daily living skills in young male children with developmental disabilities, but not female participants. Findings suggest motor skill content needs to be considered in combination with other child behaviors commonly focused on in early intervention.

  20. The Domain of Developmental Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, L. Alan; Rutter, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Describes how developmental psychopathology differs from related disciplines, including abnormal psychology, psychiatry, clinical child psychology, and developmental psychology. Points out propositions underlying a developmental perspective and discusses implications for research in developmental psychopathology. (Author/RH)

  1. Altered resting brain connectivity in persistent cancer related fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson P. Hampson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an estimated 3 million women in the US living as breast cancer survivors and persistent cancer related fatigue (PCRF disrupts the lives of an estimated 30% of these women. PCRF is associated with decreased quality of life, decreased sleep quality, impaired cognition and depression. The mechanisms of cancer related fatigue are not well understood; however, preliminary findings indicate dysfunctional activity in the brain as a potential factor. Here we investigate the relationship between PCRF on intrinsic resting state connectivity in this population. Twenty-three age matched breast cancer survivors (15 fatigued and 8 non-fatigued who completed all cancer-related treatments at least 12 weeks prior to the study, were recruited to undergo functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI. Intrinsic resting state networks were examined with both seed based and independent component analysis methods. Comparisons of brain connectivity patterns between groups as well as correlations with self-reported fatigue symptoms were performed. Fatigued patients displayed greater left inferior parietal lobule to superior frontal gyrus connectivity as compared to non-fatigued patients (P < 0.05 FDR corrected. This enhanced connectivity was associated with increased physical fatigue (P = 0.04, r = 0.52 and poor sleep quality (P = 0.04, r = 0.52 in the fatigued group. In contrast greater connectivity in the non-fatigued group was found between the right precuneus to the periaqueductal gray as well as the left IPL to subgenual cortex (P < 0.05 FDR corrected. Mental fatigue scores were associated with greater default mode network (DMN connectivity to the superior frontal gyrus (P = 0.05 FDR corrected among fatigued subjects (r = 0.82 and less connectivity in the non-fatigued group (r = −0.88. These findings indicate that there is enhanced intrinsic DMN connectivity to the frontal gyrus in breast cancer survivors with persistent

  2. Sport-Related Concussion Alters Indices of Dynamic Cerebral Autoregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander D. Wright

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sport-related concussion is known to affect a variety of brain functions. However, the impact of this brain injury on cerebral autoregulation (CA is poorly understood. Thus, the goal of the current study was to determine the acute and cumulative effects of sport-related concussion on indices of dynamic CA. Toward this end, 179 elite, junior-level (age 19.6 ± 1.5 years contact sport (ice hockey, American football athletes were recruited for preseason testing, 42 with zero prior concussions and 31 with three or more previous concussions. Eighteen athletes sustained a concussion during that competitive season and completed follow-up testing at 72 h, 2 weeks, and 1 month post injury. Beat-by-beat arterial blood pressure (BP and middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAv were recorded using finger photoplethysmography and transcranial Doppler ultrasound, respectively. Five minutes of repetitive squat–stand maneuvers induced BP oscillations at 0.05 and 0.10 Hz (20- and 10-s cycles, respectively. The BP–MCAv relationship was quantified using transfer function analysis to estimate Coherence (correlation, Gain (amplitude ratio, and Phase (timing offset. At a group level, repeated-measures ANOVA indicated that 0.10 Hz Phase was significantly reduced following an acute concussion, compared to preseason, by 23% (−0.136 ± 0.033 rads at 72 h and by 18% (−0.105 ± 0.029 rads at 2 weeks post injury, indicating impaired autoregulatory functioning; recovery to preseason values occurred by 1 month. Athletes were cleared to return to competition after a median of 14 days (range 7–35, implying that physiologic dysfunction persisted beyond clinical recovery in many cases. When comparing dynamic pressure buffering between athletes with zero prior concussions and those with three or more, no differences were observed. Sustaining an acute sport-related concussion induces transient impairments in the capabilities of the cerebrovascular

  3. Sport-Related Concussion Alters Indices of Dynamic Cerebral Autoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Alexander D; Smirl, Jonathan D; Bryk, Kelsey; Fraser, Sarah; Jakovac, Michael; van Donkelaar, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Sport-related concussion is known to affect a variety of brain functions. However, the impact of this brain injury on cerebral autoregulation (CA) is poorly understood. Thus, the goal of the current study was to determine the acute and cumulative effects of sport-related concussion on indices of dynamic CA. Toward this end, 179 elite, junior-level (age 19.6 ± 1.5 years) contact sport (ice hockey, American football) athletes were recruited for preseason testing, 42 with zero prior concussions and 31 with three or more previous concussions. Eighteen athletes sustained a concussion during that competitive season and completed follow-up testing at 72 h, 2 weeks, and 1 month post injury. Beat-by-beat arterial blood pressure (BP) and middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAv) were recorded using finger photoplethysmography and transcranial Doppler ultrasound, respectively. Five minutes of repetitive squat-stand maneuvers induced BP oscillations at 0.05 and 0.10 Hz (20- and 10-s cycles, respectively). The BP-MCAv relationship was quantified using transfer function analysis to estimate Coherence (correlation), Gain (amplitude ratio), and Phase (timing offset). At a group level, repeated-measures ANOVA indicated that 0.10 Hz Phase was significantly reduced following an acute concussion, compared to preseason, by 23% (-0.136 ± 0.033 rads) at 72 h and by 18% (-0.105 ± 0.029 rads) at 2 weeks post injury, indicating impaired autoregulatory functioning; recovery to preseason values occurred by 1 month. Athletes were cleared to return to competition after a median of 14 days (range 7-35), implying that physiologic dysfunction persisted beyond clinical recovery in many cases. When comparing dynamic pressure buffering between athletes with zero prior concussions and those with three or more, no differences were observed. Sustaining an acute sport-related concussion induces transient impairments in the capabilities of the cerebrovascular pressure

  4. Developmental success, stability, and plasticity in closely related parthenogenetic and sexual lizards (Heteronotia, Gekkonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Michael; Shine, Richard

    2004-07-01

    The developmental trajectory of an organism is influenced by the interaction between its genes and the environment in which it develops. For example, the phenotypic traits of a hatchling reptile can be influenced by the organism's genotype, by incubation temperature, and by genetically coded norms of reaction for thermally labile traits. The evolution of parthenogenesis provides a unique opportunity to explore such effects: a hybrid origin of this trait in vertebrates modifies important aspects of the genotype (e.g., heterozygosity, polyploidy) and may thus impact not only on the phenotype generally, but also on the ways in which incubation temperature affects expression of the phenotype. The scarcity of vertebrate parthenogenesis has been attributed to developmental disruptions, but previous work has rarely considered reaction norms of embryogenesis in this respect. We used closely related sexual and asexual races of the Australian gecko Heteronotia binoei, which include those with multiple origins of parthenogenesis, to explore the ways in which reproductive modes (sexual, asexual), incubation temperatures (24, 27, and 30 degrees C), and the interaction between these factors affected hatchling phenotypes. The hatchling traits we considered included incubation period, incidence of deformities, hatchling survivorship, body size and shape, scalation (including fluctuating asymmetry), locomotor performance, and growth rate. Developmental success was slightly reduced (higher proportion of abnormal offspring) in parthenogenetic lineages although there was no major difference in hatching success. Incubation temperature affected a suite of traits including incubation period, tail length, body mass relative to egg mass, labial scale counts, running speed, growth rate, and hatchling survival. Our data also reveal an interaction between reproductive modes and thermal regimes, with the phenotypic traits of parthenogenetic lizards less sensitive to incubation temperature than

  5. Not all developmental assets are related to positive health outcomes in college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teoli Daniel A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this investigation was to model the relationships between developmental assets, life satisfaction, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL among a stratified, random sample (n = 765, 56% response rate of college students. Methods Structural equation modeling techniques were employed to test the relationships using Mplus v4.21; Model evaluations were based on 1 theoretical salience, 2 global fit indices (chi-square goodness of fit, comparative fit index: CFI and Tucker-Lewis Index: TLI, 3 microfit indices (parameter estimates, root mean squared error of approximation: RMSEA and residuals and 4 parsimony. Results The model fit the data well: χ2(n = 581, 515 = 1252.23, CFI = .94, TLI = .93 and RMSEA = .05. First, participants who reported increased Family Communication also reported higher levels of life satisfaction. Second, as participants reported having more Non-Parental Role Models, life satisfaction decreased and poor mental HRQOL days increased. Finally increased Future Aspirations was related to increased poor mental HRQOL days. Results were variant across gender. Conclusions Preliminary results suggest not all developmental assets are related to positive health outcomes among college students, particularly mental health outcomes. While the findings for Family Communication were expected, the findings for Non-Parental Role Models suggest interactions with potential role models in college settings may be naturally less supportive. Future Aspirations findings suggest college students may harbor a greater temporal urgency for the rigors of an increasingly competitive work world. In both cases, these assets appear associated with increased poor mental HRQOL days.

  6. Developmental changes in reading do not alter the development of visual processing skills: An application of explanatory item response models in grades K-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi L Santi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Visual processing has been widely studied in regard to its impact on a students’ ability to read. A less researched area is the role of reading in the development of visual processing skills. A cohort-sequential, accelerated-longitudinal design was utilized with 932 kindergarten, first, and second grade students to examine the impact of reading acquisition on the processing of various types of visual discrimination and visual motor test items. Students were assessed four times per year on a variety of reading measures and reading precursors and two popular measures of visual processing over a three-year period. Explanatory item response models were used to examine the roles of person and item characteristics on changes in visual processing abilities and changes in item difficulties over time. Results showed different developmental patterns for five types of visual processing test items, but most importantly failed to show consistent effects of learning to read on changes in item difficulty. Thus, the present study failed to find support for the hypothesis that learning to read alters performance on measures of visual processing. Rather, visual processing and reading ability improved together over time with no evidence to suggest cross-domain influences from reading to visual processing. Results are discussed in the context of developmental theories of visual processing and brain-based research on the role of visual skills in learning to read.

  7. Expression of Msx-1 is suppressed in bisphosphonate associated osteonecrosis related jaw tissue-etiopathology considerations respecting jaw developmental biology-related unique features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlegel Karl A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone-destructive disease treatments include bisphosphonates and antibodies against the osteoclast differentiator, RANKL (aRANKL; however, osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ is a frequent side-effect. Current models fail to explain the restriction of bisphosphonate (BP-related and denosumab (anti-RANKL antibody-related ONJ to jaws. Msx-1 is exclusively expressed in craniofacial structures and pivotal to cranial neural crest (CNC-derived periodontal tissue remodeling. We hypothesised that Msx-1 expression might be impaired in bisphosphonate-related ONJ. The study aim was to elucidate Msx-1 and RANKL-associated signal transduction (BMP-2/4, RANKL in ONJ-altered and healthy periodontal tissue. Methods Twenty ONJ and twenty non-BP exposed periodontal samples were processed for RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. An automated staining-based alkaline phosphatase-anti-alkaline phosphatase method was used to measure the stained cells:total cell-number ratio (labelling index, Bonferroni adjustment. Real-time RT-PCR was performed on ONJ-affected and healthy jaw periodontal samples (n = 20 each to quantitatively compare Msx-1, BMP-2, RANKL, and GAPDH mRNA levels. Results Semi-quantitative assessment of the ratio of stained cells showed decreased Msx-1 and RANKL and increased BMP-2/4 (all p Conclusions These results explain the sclerotic and osteopetrotic changes of periodontal tissue following BP application and substantiate clinical findings of BP-related impaired remodeling specific to periodontal tissue. RANKL suppression substantiated the clinical finding of impaired bone remodelling in BP- and aRANKL-induced ONJ-affected bone structures. Msx-1 suppression in ONJ-adjacent periodontal tissue suggested a bisphosphonate-related impairment in cellular differentiation that occurred exclusively jaw remodelling. Further research on developmental biology-related unique features of jaw bone structures will help to elucidate pathologies restricted to

  8. Noonan syndrome and related disorders: alterations in growth and puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Jacqueline A

    2006-12-01

    Noonan syndrome is a relatively common multiple malformation syndrome with characteristic facies, short stature and congenital heart disease, most commonly pulmonary stenosis (Noonan, Clin Pediatr, 33:548-555, 1994). Recently, a mutation in the PTPN11 gene (Tartaglia, Mehler, Goldberg, Zampino, Brunner, Kremer et al., Nat Genet, 29:465-468, 2001) was found to be present in about 50% of individuals with Noonan syndrome. The phenotype noted in Noonan syndrome is also found in a number of other syndromes which include LEOPARD (Gorlin, Anderson, Blaw, Am J Dis Child, 17:652-662, 1969), Cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (Reynolds, Neri, Hermann, Blumberg, Coldwell, Miles et al., Am J Med Genet, 28:413-427, 1986) and Costello syndrome (Hennekam, Am J Med Genet, 117C(1):42-48, 2003). All three of these syndromes share similar cardiac defects and all have postnatal short stature. Very recently, HRAS mutations (Aoki, Niihori, Kawame, Kurosawa, Ohashi, Tanaka et al., Nat Genet, 37:1038-1040, 2005) have been found in the Costello syndrome and germline mutations in KRAS and BRAF genes (Rodriguez-Viciana, Tetsu, Tidyman, Estep, Conger, Santa Cruz et al., Nat Genet, 2006; Niihori, Aoki, Narumi, Neri, Cave, Verloes et al., Nat Genet, 38:294-296, 2006) in the Cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome. Phenotypic overlap between these genetic disorders can now be explained since each is caused by germline mutations that are major components of the RAS-MAPK pathway. This pathway plays an important role in growth factor and cytokine signaling as well as cancer pathogenesis.

  9. Developmental enamel defects and their impact on child oral health-related quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Vargas-Ferreira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study assessed the impact of Developmental Enamel Defects (DED on Child Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (COHRQoL. A sample of 944 11- to 14-year-old Brazilian schoolchildren was examined for the prevalence and severity of DED. The children completed the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ11-14, and socioeconomic status was also collected using a questionnaire. Poisson regression models were used to assess the association between DED and overall and domain-specific CPQ11-14 scores. The prevalence of DED was 19.7%. In general, children with DED did not indicate any decrease in self-perception. However, this condition was associated with an impact on the functional limitation domain. The presence of DED may cause negative impacts on a child's perception of oral health and on their daily performance.

  10. Endogenous developmental endothelial locus-1 limits ischemia-related angiogenesis by blocking inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotzsche - von Ameln, Anne; Cremer, Sebastian; Hoffmann, Jedrzej; Schuster, Peggy; Khedr, Sherif; Korovina, Irina; Troulinaki, Maria; Neuwirth, Ales; Sprott, David; Chatzigeorgiou, Antonios; Economopoulou, Matina; Orlandi, Alessia; Hain, Andreas; Zeiher, Andreas M.; Deussen, Andreas; Hajishengallis, George; Dimmeler, Stefanie; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Chavakis, Emmanouil

    2017-01-01

    We have recently identified endothelial cell-secreted developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) as an endogenous inhibitor of β2-integrin–dependent leukocyte infiltration. Del-1 was previously also implicated in angiogenesis. Here, we addressed the role of endogenously produced Del-1 in ischemia-related angiogenesis. Intriguingly, Del-1–deficient mice displayed increased neovascularization in two independent ischemic models (retinopathy of prematurity and hind-limb ischemia), as compared to Del-1–proficient mice. On the contrary, angiogenic sprouting in vitro or ex vivo (aortic ring assay) and physiological developmental retina angiogenesis were not affected by Del-1 deficiency. Mechanistically, the enhanced ischemic neovascularization in Del-1-deficiency was linked to higher infiltration of the ischemic tissue by CD45+ hematopoietic and immune cells. Moreover, Del-1-deficiency promoted β2-integrin–dependent adhesion of hematopoietic cells to endothelial cells in vitro, and the homing of hematopoietic progenitor cells and of immune cell populations to ischemic muscles in vivo. Consistently, the increased hind limb ischemia-related angiogenesis in Del-1 deficiency was completely reversed in mice lacking both Del-1 and the β2-integrin LFA-1. Additionally, enhanced retinopathy-associated neovascularization in Del-deficient mice was reversed by LFA-1 blockade. Our data reveal a hitherto unrecognized function of endogenous Del-1 as a local inhibitor of ischemia-induced angiogenesis by restraining LFA-1–dependent homing of pro-angiogenic hematopoietic cells to ischemic tissues. Our findings are relevant for the optimization of therapeutic approaches in the context of ischemic diseases. PMID:28447099

  11. Expression of Msx-1 is suppressed in bisphosphonate associated osteonecrosis related jaw tissue-etiopathology considerations respecting jaw developmental biology-related unique features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrhan, Falk; Hyckel, Peter; Ries, Jutta; Stockmann, Phillip; Nkenke, Emeka; Schlegel, Karl A; Neukam, Friedrich W; Amann, Kerstin

    2010-10-13

    Bone-destructive disease treatments include bisphosphonates and antibodies against the osteoclast differentiator, RANKL (aRANKL); however, osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a frequent side-effect. Current models fail to explain the restriction of bisphosphonate (BP)-related and denosumab (anti-RANKL antibody)-related ONJ to jaws. Msx-1 is exclusively expressed in craniofacial structures and pivotal to cranial neural crest (CNC)-derived periodontal tissue remodeling. We hypothesised that Msx-1 expression might be impaired in bisphosphonate-related ONJ. The study aim was to elucidate Msx-1 and RANKL-associated signal transduction (BMP-2/4, RANKL) in ONJ-altered and healthy periodontal tissue. Twenty ONJ and twenty non-BP exposed periodontal samples were processed for RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. An automated staining-based alkaline phosphatase-anti-alkaline phosphatase method was used to measure the stained cells:total cell-number ratio (labelling index, Bonferroni adjustment). Real-time RT-PCR was performed on ONJ-affected and healthy jaw periodontal samples (n = 20 each) to quantitatively compare Msx-1, BMP-2, RANKL, and GAPDH mRNA levels. Semi-quantitative assessment of the ratio of stained cells showed decreased Msx-1 and RANKL and increased BMP-2/4 (all p Msx-1 (p Msx-1 suppression in ONJ-adjacent periodontal tissue suggested a bisphosphonate-related impairment in cellular differentiation that occurred exclusively jaw remodelling. Further research on developmental biology-related unique features of jaw bone structures will help to elucidate pathologies restricted to maxillofacial tissue.

  12. Developmental Changes in Memory-Related Linguistic Skills and Their Relationship to Episodic Recall in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Izumi

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study of nine children examined two issues concerning infantile amnesia: the time at which memories for events experienced before the age of 3-4 years disappear from consciousness and whether this timing of memory loss is related to the development of specific aspects of episodic and autobiographical memory. This study followed children from infancy to early childhood and examined the central role of three verbal-cognitive milestones related to autobiographical memory: the age at which children begin to report autobiographical memories using the past tense (Milestone 1); the age at which they begin to verbally acknowledge past events (Milestone 2); and the age at which they begin to spontaneously use memory-related verbs (Milestone 3). As expected, memories of events that occurred before 3-4 years of age were affected by infantile amnesia. Achievement of these milestones followed almost the same developmental progression: Milestone 1 (1 year; 10 months (1;10) to 3 years; 4 months (3;4)) was followed by Milestones 2 (3;1 to 4;0) and 3 (3;5 to 4;4). Milestone 2 was typically related to the onset of infantile amnesia, whereas Milestone 1 occurred during the period for which the children became amnesic as they aged. These data suggest that linguistic meta-cognitive awareness of personal memory is the key feature in infantile amnesia.

  13. Maternal exposure to nanoparticulate titanium dioxide during the prenatal period alters gene expression related to brain development in the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umezawa Masakazu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nanotechnology is developing rapidly throughout the world and the production of novel man-made nanoparticles is increasing, it is therefore of concern that nanomaterials have the potential to affect human health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of maternal exposure to nano-sized anatase titanium dioxide (TiO2 on gene expression in the brain during the developmental period using cDNA microarray analysis combined with Gene Ontology (GO and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH terms information. Results Analysis of gene expression using GO terms indicated that expression levels of genes associated with apoptosis were altered in the brain of newborn pups, and those associated with brain development were altered in early age. The genes associated with response to oxidative stress were changed in the brains of 2 and 3 weeks old mice. Changes of the expression of genes associated with neurotransmitters and psychiatric diseases were found using MeSH terms. Conclusion Maternal exposure of mice to TiO2 nanoparticles may affect the expression of genes related to the development and function of the central nervous system.

  14. Altered cellular redox status, sirtuin abundance and clock gene expression in a mouse model of developmentally primed NASH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Kimberley D; Szczepankiewicz, Dawid; Sihota, Kiran K; Ravindraanandan, Manoj; Thomas, Hugh; Lillycrop, Karen A; Burdge, Graham C; Hanson, Mark A; Byrne, Christopher D; Cagampang, Felino R

    2016-07-01

    We have previously shown that high fat (HF) feeding during pregnancy primes the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatits (NASH) in the adult offspring. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Since the endogenous molecular clock can regulate hepatic lipid metabolism, we investigated whether exposure to a HF diet during development could alter hepatic clock gene expression and contribute to NASH onset in later life. Female mice were fed either a control (C, 7%kcal fat) or HF (45%kcal fat) diet. Offspring were fed either a C or HF diet resulting in four offspring groups: C/C, C/HF, HF/C and HF/HF. NAFLD progression, cellular redox status, sirtuin expression (Sirt1, Sirt3), and the expression of core clock genes (Clock, Bmal1, Per2, Cry2) and clock-controlled genes involved in lipid metabolism (Rev-Erbα, Rev-Erbβ, RORα, and Srebp1c) were measured in offspring livers. Offspring fed a HF diet developed NAFLD. However HF fed offspring of mothers fed a HF diet developed NASH, coupled with significantly reduced NAD(+)/NADH (pNASH in adulthood, involving altered cellular redox status, reduced sirtuin abundance, and desynchronized clock gene expression. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Factors Related to the Developmental Experiences of Youth Serving as 4-H Camp Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, David N.; Kotrlik, Joe W.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the developmental experiences of high-school-aged 4-H youth volunteering as counselors at Louisiana 4-H summer camps. A total of 288 counselors from 10 different camping sessions participated in the study. The Youth Experiences Survey 2.0 and the Developmental Experience Survey measured the personal…

  16. Serotonin-related pathways and developmental plasticity: relevance for psychiatric disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayer, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Risk for adult psychiatric disorders is partially determined by early-life alterations occurring during neural circuit formation and maturation. In this perspective, recent data show that the serotonin system regulates key cellular processes involved in the construction of cortical circuits. Translational data for rodents indicate that early-life serotonin dysregulation leads to a wide range of behavioral alterations, ranging from stress-related phenotypes to social deficits. Studies in humans have revealed that serotonin-related genetic variants interact with early-life stress to regulate stress-induced cortisol responsiveness and activate the neural circuits involved in mood and anxiety disorders. Emerging data demonstrate that early-life adversity induces epigenetic modifications in serotonin-related genes. Finally, recent findings reveal that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors can reinstate juvenile-like forms of neural plasticity, thus allowing the erasure of long-lasting fear memories. These approaches are providing new insights on the biological mechanisms and clinical application of antidepressants. PMID:24733969

  17. Syntactic Complexity Effects of Russian Relative Clause Sentences in Children with and without Developmental Language Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhlin, Natalia; Kornilov, Sergey A; Kornilova, Tatiana V; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2016-01-01

    We investigated relative clause (RC) comprehension in 44 Russian-speaking children with typical language (TD) and developmental language disorder (DLD); M age = 10.67, SD = 2.84, and 22 adults. Flexible word order and morphological case in Russian allowed us to isolate factors that are obscured in English, helping us to identify sources of syntactic complexity and evaluate their roles in RC comprehension by children with typical language and their peers with DLD. We administered a working memory and an RC comprehension (picture-choice) task, which contained subject- and object-gap center-embedded and right branching RCs. The TD group, but not adults, demonstrated the effects of gap, embedding, and case. Their lower accuracy relative to adults was not fully attributable to differences in working memory. The DLD group displayed lower than TD children overall accuracy, accounted for by their lower working memory scores. While the effect of gap and embedding on their performance was not different from what was found for the TD group, children with DLD exhibited a diminished effect of case, suggesting reduced sensitivity to morphological case markers as processing cues. The implications of these results to theories of syntactic complexity and core deficits in DLD are discussed.

  18. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in developmental stuttering: Relations with previous neurophysiological research and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busan, P; Battaglini, P P; Sommer, M

    2017-06-01

    Developmental stuttering (DS) is a disruption of the rhythm of speech, and affected people may be unable to execute fluent voluntary speech. There are still questions about the exact causes of DS. Evidence suggests there are differences in the structure and functioning of motor systems used for preparing, executing, and controlling motor acts, especially when they are speech related. Much research has been obtained using neuroimaging methods, ranging from functional magnetic resonance to diffusion tensor imaging and electroencephalography/magnetoencephalography. Studies using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in DS have been uncommon until recently. This is surprising considering the relationship between the functionality of the motor system and DS, and the wide use of TMS in motor-related disturbances such as Parkinson's Disease, Tourette's Syndrome, and dystonia. Consequently, TMS could shed further light on motor aspects of DS. The present work aims to investigate the use of TMS for understanding DS neural mechanisms by reviewing TMS papers in the DS field. Until now, TMS has contributed to the understanding of the excitatory/inhibitory ratio of DS motor functioning, also helping to better understand and critically review evidence about stuttering mechanisms obtained from different techniques, which allowed the investigation of cortico-basal-thalamo-cortical and white matter/connection dysfunctions. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Psychosocial Quality-of-Life Questionnaire for Individuals with Autism and Related Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Leslie A.; Reyes, Charina; Embacher, Rebecca A.; Speer, Leslie L.; Roizen, Nancy; Frazier, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Child and Family Quality of Life scale, a measure of psychosocial quality of life in those with autism and related developmental disorders. Parents of 212 children suspected of autism spectrum disorder completed the Child and Family Quality of Life prior to a diagnostic evaluation. Results…

  20. Flow paths of water and sediment in a tidal marsh: relations with marsh developmental stage and tidal inundation height

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temmerman, S.; Bouma, T.J.; Govers, G.; Lauwaet, D.

    2005-01-01

    This study provides new insights in the relative role of tidal creeks and the marsh edge in supplying water and sediments to and from tidal marshes for a wide range of tidal inundation cycles with different high water levels and for marsh zones of different developmental stage. Net import or export

  1. Adolescent social defeat induced alterations in anxious behavior and cognitive flexibility in adult mice: effects of developmental stage and social condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Negative social experiences during adolescence increase the risk of psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Using resident-intruder stress, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of adolescent social defeat on emotional and cognitive symptoms associated with psychiatric disorders during adulthood and the effects of the developmental stage and social condition on this process. In experiment 1, animals were exposed to social defeat or manipulation for 10 days during early adolescence (EA, PND 28-37, late adolescence (LA, PND 38-47, and adulthood (ADULT, PND 70-79 and then singly housed until the behavioral tests. Behaviors, including social avoidance of the defeat context and cortically mediated cognitive flexibility in an attentional set-shifting task (AST, were assessed during the week following stress or after 6 weeks during adulthood. We determined that social defeat induced significant and continuous social avoidance across age groups at both time points. The mice that experienced social defeat during adulthood exhibited short-term impairments in reversal learning on the AST that dissipated after 6 weeks. In contrast, social defeat during EA but not LA induced a delayed deficit in extra-dimensional set-shifting in adulthood but not during adolescence. In experiment 2, we further examined the effects of social condition (isolation or social housing after stress on the alterations induced by social defeat during EA in adult mice. The adult mice that had experienced stress during EA exhibited social avoidance similar to the avoidance identified in experiment 1 regardless of the isolation or social housing after the stress. However, social housing after the stress ameliorated the cognitive flexibility deficits induced by early adolescent social defeat in the adult mice, and the social condition had no effect on cognitive function. These findings suggest that the effects of social defeat on emotion and cognitive function are differentially

  2. Relation Between Mathematical Performance, Math Anxiety, and Affective Priming in Children With and Without Developmental Dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucian, Karin; Zuber, Isabelle; Kohn, Juliane; Poltz, Nadine; Wyschkon, Anne; Esser, Günter; von Aster, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Many children show negative emotions related to mathematics and some even develop mathematics anxiety. The present study focused on the relation between negative emotions and arithmetical performance in children with and without developmental dyscalculia (DD) using an affective priming task. Previous findings suggested that arithmetic performance is influenced if an affective prime precedes the presentation of an arithmetic problem. In children with DD specifically, responses to arithmetic operations are supposed to be facilitated by both negative and mathematics-related primes (= negative math priming effect ).We investigated mathematical performance, math anxiety, and the domain-general abilities of 172 primary school children (76 with DD and 96 controls). All participants also underwent an affective priming task which consisted of the decision whether a simple arithmetic operation (addition or subtraction) that was preceded by a prime (positive/negative/neutral or mathematics-related) was true or false. Our findings did not reveal a negative math priming effect in children with DD. Furthermore, when considering accuracy levels, gender, or math anxiety, the negative math priming effect could not be replicated. However, children with DD showed more math anxiety when explicitly assessed by a specific math anxiety interview and showed lower mathematical performance compared to controls. Moreover, math anxiety was equally present in boys and girls, even in the earliest stages of schooling, and interfered negatively with performance. In conclusion, mathematics is often associated with negative emotions that can be manifested in specific math anxiety, particularly in children with DD. Importantly, present findings suggest that in the assessed age group, it is more reliable to judge math anxiety and investigate its effects on mathematical performance explicitly by adequate questionnaires than by an affective math priming task.

  3. Relation Between Mathematical Performance, Math Anxiety, and Affective Priming in Children With and Without Developmental Dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kucian

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Many children show negative emotions related to mathematics and some even develop mathematics anxiety. The present study focused on the relation between negative emotions and arithmetical performance in children with and without developmental dyscalculia (DD using an affective priming task. Previous findings suggested that arithmetic performance is influenced if an affective prime precedes the presentation of an arithmetic problem. In children with DD specifically, responses to arithmetic operations are supposed to be facilitated by both negative and mathematics-related primes (=negative math priming effect.We investigated mathematical performance, math anxiety, and the domain-general abilities of 172 primary school children (76 with DD and 96 controls. All participants also underwent an affective priming task which consisted of the decision whether a simple arithmetic operation (addition or subtraction that was preceded by a prime (positive/negative/neutral or mathematics-related was true or false. Our findings did not reveal a negative math priming effect in children with DD. Furthermore, when considering accuracy levels, gender, or math anxiety, the negative math priming effect could not be replicated. However, children with DD showed more math anxiety when explicitly assessed by a specific math anxiety interview and showed lower mathematical performance compared to controls. Moreover, math anxiety was equally present in boys and girls, even in the earliest stages of schooling, and interfered negatively with performance. In conclusion, mathematics is often associated with negative emotions that can be manifested in specific math anxiety, particularly in children with DD. Importantly, present findings suggest that in the assessed age group, it is more reliable to judge math anxiety and investigate its effects on mathematical performance explicitly by adequate questionnaires than by an affective math priming task.

  4. Relation Between Mathematical Performance, Math Anxiety, and Affective Priming in Children With and Without Developmental Dyscalculia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucian, Karin; Zuber, Isabelle; Kohn, Juliane; Poltz, Nadine; Wyschkon, Anne; Esser, Günter; von Aster, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Many children show negative emotions related to mathematics and some even develop mathematics anxiety. The present study focused on the relation between negative emotions and arithmetical performance in children with and without developmental dyscalculia (DD) using an affective priming task. Previous findings suggested that arithmetic performance is influenced if an affective prime precedes the presentation of an arithmetic problem. In children with DD specifically, responses to arithmetic operations are supposed to be facilitated by both negative and mathematics-related primes (=negative math priming effect).We investigated mathematical performance, math anxiety, and the domain-general abilities of 172 primary school children (76 with DD and 96 controls). All participants also underwent an affective priming task which consisted of the decision whether a simple arithmetic operation (addition or subtraction) that was preceded by a prime (positive/negative/neutral or mathematics-related) was true or false. Our findings did not reveal a negative math priming effect in children with DD. Furthermore, when considering accuracy levels, gender, or math anxiety, the negative math priming effect could not be replicated. However, children with DD showed more math anxiety when explicitly assessed by a specific math anxiety interview and showed lower mathematical performance compared to controls. Moreover, math anxiety was equally present in boys and girls, even in the earliest stages of schooling, and interfered negatively with performance. In conclusion, mathematics is often associated with negative emotions that can be manifested in specific math anxiety, particularly in children with DD. Importantly, present findings suggest that in the assessed age group, it is more reliable to judge math anxiety and investigate its effects on mathematical performance explicitly by adequate questionnaires than by an affective math priming task.

  5. Relation of polymorphism of arsenic metabolism genes to arsenic methylation capacity and developmental delay in preschool children in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Ru-Lan [Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Su, Chien-Tien [Department of Family Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Public Health, College of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Shiue, Horng-Sheng [Department of Chinese Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wei-Jen; Huang, Shiau-Rung [School of Public Health, College of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ying-Chin [Department of Family Medicine, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Health Examination, Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Division of Family Medicine, School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ming-I; Mu, Shu-Chi [Department of Pediatrics, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Ray-Jade [Department of Digestive Surgery, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Yu-Mei, E-mail: ymhsueh@tmu.edu.tw [Department of Family Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2017-04-15

    Inefficient arsenic methylation capacity has been associated with developmental delay in children. The present study was designed to explore whether polymorphisms and haplotypes of arsenic methyltransferase (AS3MT), glutathione-S-transferase omegas (GSTOs), and purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) affect arsenic methylation capacity and developmental delay. A case-control study was conducted from August 2010 to March 2014. All participants were recruited from the Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Teaching Hospital. In total, 179 children with developmental delay and 88 children without delay were recruited. Urinary arsenic species, including arsenite (As{sup III}), arsenate (As{sup V}), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA{sup V}), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA{sup V}) were measured using a high-performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. The polymorphisms of AS3MT, GSTO, and PNP were performed using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform with iPLEX Gold chemistry. Polymorphisms of AS3MT genes were found to affect susceptibility to developmental delay in children, but GSTO and PNP polymorphisms were not. Participants with AS3MT rs3740392 A/G + G/G genotype, compared with AS3MT rs3740392 A/A genotype, had a significantly lower secondary methylation index. This may result in an increased OR for developmental delay. Participants with the AS3MT high-risk haplotype had a significantly higher OR than those with AS3MT low-risk haplotypes [OR and 95% CI, 1.59 (1.08–2.34)]. This is the first study to show a joint dose-response effect of this AS3MT high-risk haplotype and inefficient arsenic methylation capacity on developmental delay. Our data provide evidence that AS3MT genes are related to developmental delay and may partially influence arsenic methylation capacity. - Highlights: • AS3MT genotypes were found to affect susceptibility to developmental delay. • AS3MT rs3740392 A/G and G/G genotype had a significantly low SMI (DMA

  6. Relation of polymorphism of arsenic metabolism genes to arsenic methylation capacity and developmental delay in preschool children in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Ru-Lan; Su, Chien-Tien; Shiue, Horng-Sheng; Chen, Wei-Jen; Huang, Shiau-Rung; Lin, Ying-Chin; Lin, Ming-I; Mu, Shu-Chi; Chen, Ray-Jade; Hsueh, Yu-Mei

    2017-01-01

    Inefficient arsenic methylation capacity has been associated with developmental delay in children. The present study was designed to explore whether polymorphisms and haplotypes of arsenic methyltransferase (AS3MT), glutathione-S-transferase omegas (GSTOs), and purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) affect arsenic methylation capacity and developmental delay. A case-control study was conducted from August 2010 to March 2014. All participants were recruited from the Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Teaching Hospital. In total, 179 children with developmental delay and 88 children without delay were recruited. Urinary arsenic species, including arsenite (As III ), arsenate (As V ), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA V ), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA V ) were measured using a high-performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. The polymorphisms of AS3MT, GSTO, and PNP were performed using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform with iPLEX Gold chemistry. Polymorphisms of AS3MT genes were found to affect susceptibility to developmental delay in children, but GSTO and PNP polymorphisms were not. Participants with AS3MT rs3740392 A/G + G/G genotype, compared with AS3MT rs3740392 A/A genotype, had a significantly lower secondary methylation index. This may result in an increased OR for developmental delay. Participants with the AS3MT high-risk haplotype had a significantly higher OR than those with AS3MT low-risk haplotypes [OR and 95% CI, 1.59 (1.08–2.34)]. This is the first study to show a joint dose-response effect of this AS3MT high-risk haplotype and inefficient arsenic methylation capacity on developmental delay. Our data provide evidence that AS3MT genes are related to developmental delay and may partially influence arsenic methylation capacity. - Highlights: • AS3MT genotypes were found to affect susceptibility to developmental delay. • AS3MT rs3740392 A/G and G/G genotype had a significantly low SMI (DMA/MMA) index. • AS3MT

  7. Large scale expression changes of genes related to neuronal signaling and developmental processes found in lateral septum of postpartum outbred mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian E Eisinger

    Full Text Available Coordinated gene expression changes across the CNS are required to produce the mammalian maternal phenotype. Lateral septum (LS is a brain region critically involved with aspects of maternal care, and we recently examined gene expression of whole septum (LS and medial septum in selectively bred maternal mice. Here, we expand on the prior study by 1 conducting microarray analysis solely on LS in virgin and postpartum mice, 2 using outbred mice, and 3 evaluating the role of sensory input on gene expression changes. Large scale changes in genes related to neuronal signaling were identified, including four GABAA receptor subunits. Subunits α4 and δ were downregulated in maternal LS, likely reflecting a reduction in the extrasynaptic, neurosteroid-sensitive α4/δ containing receptor subtype. Conversely, subunits ε and θ were increased in maternal LS. Fifteen K+ channel related genes showed altered expression, as did dopamine receptors Drd1a and Drd2 (both downregulated, hypocretin receptor 1 (Hcrtr1, kappa opioid receptor 1 (Oprk1, and transient receptor potential channel 4 (Trpc4. Expression of a large number of genes linked to developmental processes or cell differentiation were also altered in postpartum LS, including chemokine (C-X-C motif ligand 12 (Cxcl12, fatty acid binding protein 7 (Fabp7, plasma membrane proteolipid (Pllp, and suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (Socs2. Additional genes that are linked to anxiety, such as glutathione reductase (Gsr, exhibited altered expression. Pathway analysis also identified changes in genes related to cyclic nucleotide metabolism, chromatin structure, and the Ras gene family. The sensory presence of pups was found to contribute to the altered expression of a subset of genes across all categories. This study suggests that both large changes in neuronal signaling and the possible terminal differentiation of neuronal and/or glial cells play important roles in producing the maternal state.

  8. Relating stress of mothers of children with developmental disabilities to family-school partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Meghan M; Hodapp, Robert M

    2014-02-01

    Although mothers of children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) experience high levels of stress and schools constitute an important resource, the relation remains unknown between maternal stress and educational services. Responding to a national, web-based survey, 965 mothers of students with disabilities completed a 163-item questionnaire about parent stress. We examined which child, parent, and parent-school characteristics correlated with maternal stress. Mothers with lower stress levels reported better parent-school relationships and low levels of parent advocacy. However, lower stress levels were predominantly shown by mothers with good-to-excellent parent-school relationships (vs. poor-to-fair partnerships) and who engaged in virtually no (vs. any) advocacy activities. Lower maternal stress levels were also noted when children had fewer behavior problems, Down syndrome, and did not have autism. Less stress was also reported by mothers who had not enacted procedural safeguards, were minorities, and rated themselves lower on neuroticism and were more extroverted, dependable, and open to new experiences. This study has important implications for practitioners and researchers.

  9. Use of airborne multispectral scanner data to map alteration related to roll-front uranium migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, D.C.

    1983-01-01

    Computer-enhanced airborne multispectral scanner (MSS) images have been used to detect and map red oxidized alteration related to roll-front uranium migration in the southern Powder River basin, Wyoming. Information in the 0.4- to 1.1-μm spectral region was used to produce a color ratio composite image, upon which the red-altered areas can be differentiated. The red-altered and incipiently altered sandstones result from the migration of a roll-front (or geochemical cell) through the sandstone in the direction of the hydrologic gradient. Most uranium deposits in the Powder River basin occur at the boundary between this oxidized sandstone and reduced sandstone. Therefore, the ability to detect and map this alteration reliably can provide important information about the potential for uranium mineralization down gradient from the altered areas, at the surface in an area of interest. Spectral reflectance studies indicate that a shift in the absorption band edge from 0.52 μm (for goethitic sandstone) to 0.58 μm (for hematitic sandstone) and an intensification of an absorption band at 0.85 μm (for hematitic sandstone) are the bases for identifying the red-altered sandstone as green anomalous areas on the color ratio composite image. Some of the incipiently altered sandstone also appears green, whereas unaltered material and white-altered sandstone appear as blue to cyan colors. Therefore, the composite image is useful in discriminating hematitic sandstone from goethitic sandstone. At high densities (>65%), vegetation masks the sandstones on the color ratio composite image. Artemisia tridentata (sage) and Stipa comata (grass) are the species that have the greatest individual effect on the image

  10. Developmental sub-chronic exposure to chlorpyrifos reduces anxiety-related behavior in zebrafish larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richendrfer, Holly; Pelkowski, Sean D.; Colwill, Ruth M.; Créton, Robbert

    2013-01-01

    Neurobehavioral disorders such as anxiety, autism, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders are typically influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Although several genetic risk factors have been identified in recent years, little is known about the environmental factors that either cause neurobehavioral disorders or contribute to their progression in genetically predisposed individuals. One environmental factor that has raised concerns is chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate pesticide that is widely used in agriculture and is found ubiquitously in the environment. In the present study, we examined the effects of sub-chronic chlorpyrifos exposure on anxiety-related behavior during development using zebrafish larvae. We found that sub-chronic exposure to 0.01 or 0.1 μM chlorpyrifos during development induces specific behavioral defects in 7-day-old zebrafish larvae. The larvae displayed decreases in swim speed and thigmotaxis, yet no changes in avoidance behavior were seen. Exposure to 0.001 μM chlorpyrifos did not affect swimming, thigmotaxis, or avoidance behavior and exposure to 1 μM chlorpyrifos induced behavioral defects, but also induced defects in larval morphology. Since thigmotaxis, a preference for the edge, is an anxiety-related behavior in zebrafish larvae, we propose that sub-chronic chlorpyrifos exposure interferes with the development of anxiety-related behaviors. The results of this study provide a good starting point for examination of the molecular, cellular, developmental, and neural mechanisms that are affected by environmentally relevant concentrations of organophosphate pesticides. A more detailed understanding of these mechanisms is important for the development of predictive models and refined health policies to prevent toxicant-induced neurobehavioral disorders. PMID:22579535

  11. Relations between altered stramflow variability and fish assemblages in Eastern USA streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Michael R.; Carlisle, Daren M.

    2012-01-01

    Although altered streamflow has been implicated as a major factor affecting fish assemblages, understanding the extent of streamflow alteration has required quantifying attributes of the natural flow regime. We used predictive models to quantify deviation from expected natural streamflow variability for streams in the eastern USA. Sites with >25% change in mean daily streamflow variability compared with what would be expected in a minimally disturbed environment were defined as having altered streamflow variability, based on the 10th and 90th percentiles of the distribution of streamflow variability at 1279 hydrological reference sites. We also used predictive models to assess fish assemblage condition and native species loss based on the proportion of expected native fish species that were observed. Of the 97 sites, 49 (50.5%) were classified as altered with reduced streamflow variability, whereas no sites had increased streamflow variability. Reduced streamflow variability was related to a 35% loss in native fish species, on average, and a >50% loss of species with a preference for riffle habitats. Conditional probability analysis indicated that the probability of fish assemblage impairment increased as the severity of altered streamflow variability increased. Reservoir storage capacity and wastewater discharges were important predictors of reduced streamflow variability as revealed by random forest analysis. Management and conservation of streams will require careful consideration of natural streamflow variation and potential factors contributing to altered streamflow within the entire watershed to limit the loss of critical stream habitats and fish species uniquely adapted to live in those habitats.

  12. Altered mucosal DNA methylation in parallel with highly active Helicobacter pylori-related gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Takeichi; Kato, Jun; Maekita, Takao; Yamashita, Satoshi; Enomoto, Shotaro; Ando, Takayuki; Niwa, Tohru; Deguchi, Hisanobu; Ueda, Kazuki; Inoue, Izumi; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Tamai, Hideyuki; Ushijima, Toshikazu; Ichinose, Masao

    2013-10-01

    Chronic inflammation triggered by Helicobacter pylori causes altered DNA methylation in stomach mucosae, which is deeply involved in gastric carcinogenesis. This study aimed to elucidate the correlation between altered mucosal DNA methylation levels and activity of H. pylori-related gastritis, because inflammatory activity shows particular correlations with the development of diffuse-type cancer. Methylation levels in stomach mucosae of 78 healthy volunteers were determined by real-time methylation-specific PCR or bisulfite pyrosequencing. Examined loci were the promoter CpG islands of six genes (FLNc, HAND1, THBD, p41ARC, HRASLS, and LOX) and the CpG sites of non-coding repetitive elements (Alu and Satα) that are reportedly altered by H. pylori infection. Activity of H. pylori-related gastritis was evaluated using two serum markers: H. pylori antibody titer and pepsinogen II. Methylation levels of the six CpG islands were consistently increased, and those of the two repetitive elements were consistently decreased in a stepwise manner with the activity of gastric inflammation as represented by serum marker levels. Each serum marker level was well correlated with the overall DNA methylation status of stomach mucosa, and these two serologic markers were additive in the detection of the mucosa with severely altered DNA methylation. Alteration in mucosal DNA methylation level was closely correlated with activity of H. pylori-related gastritis as evaluated by serum markers. The observed correlation between altered DNA methylation levels and activity of H. pylori-related gastritis appears to be one of the relevant molecular mechanisms underlying the development of diffuse-type cancer.

  13. Developmental Links Between Children's Working Memory and their Social Relations with Teachers and Peers in the Early School Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wilde, Amber; Koot, Hans M; van Lier, Pol A C

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the developmental links between children's working memory development and their relations with teachers and peers across 2 years of kindergarten and early elementary school. Kindergarten and first grade children, N = 1109, 50% boys, were followed across 2 school-years. Children were assessed across 3 waves, in the fall and spring of the first school-year (within school-year), and finally in the spring of the second school-year. Working memory was assessed using a visuo-spatial working memory task. The developmental links between working memory and child-reported teacher-child relationship quality (warmth and conflict) and peer-nominated likeability and friendedness were assessed using autoregressive cross-lagged models. Lower working memory scores were related to increases in teacher-child conflict and decreases in teacher-child warmth one school-year later, in addition to decreases in likeability by peers within the same school-year. Conversely, teacher-child conflict was negatively associated with the development of working memory across the studied period. Path estimates between working memory and social relational factors were similar for boys and girls. Findings show developmental links between working memory and social-relational factors and vice versa. These results suggest that children's working memory development can be fostered through pro-social relations with teachers in early elementary school children.

  14. Do the Effects of Testwiseness Relate More to the Achievement of Remedial, Developmental, or Advanced Readers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montferrante, Esther Reese

    This study investigated the effects of instruction and practice in test-taking techniques upon the standardized reading scores of 7 remedial, 19 developmental, and 9 advanced reading students in the sixth grade. "The Nelson Reading Test (Revised Edition), Form A" served as a pretest. Both constructed and commercial materials were used to instruct…

  15. Pragmatic Language Skills of Children with Developmental Disabilities: A Descriptive and Relational Study in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diken, Özlem

    2014-01-01

    Problem Statement: Because communication skills, particularly pragmatic skills, are fundamental for living an independent life in society, these skills are vital to the quality of life of individuals with developmental disabilities (DD) and their families. Studies of the pragmatic skills of individuals with DD can provide important insights into…

  16. Nonspeech Oral Motor Treatment Issues Related to Children with Developmental Speech Sound Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscello, Dennis M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article examines nonspeech oral motor treatments (NSOMTs) in the population of clients with developmental speech sound disorders. NSOMTs are a collection of nonspeech methods and procedures that claim to influence tongue, lip, and jaw resting postures; increase strength; improve muscle tone; facilitate range of motion; and develop…

  17. Factors Related to Problem Solving by College Students in Developmental Algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberger, Ann K.

    A study was conducted to contrast the characteristics of three groups of college students who completed a developmental algebra course at the University of Maine at Orono during 1980-81. On the basis of a two-part final examination, involving a multiple-choice test of algebraic concepts and skills and a free-response test of problem-solving…

  18. Are extremes of consumption in eating disorders related to an altered balance between reward and inhibition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina E Wierenga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary defining characteristic of a diagnosis of an eating disorder (ED is the disturbance of eating or eating-related behavior that results in the altered consumption or absorption of food (DSM V; American Psychiatric Association, 2013. There is a spectrum, ranging from those who severely restrict eating and become emaciated on one end to those who binge and overconsume, usually accompanied by some form of compensatory behaviors, on the other. How can we understand reasons for such extremes of food consummatory behaviors? Recent work on obesity and substance use disorders has identified behaviors and neural pathways that play a powerful role in human consummatory behaviors. That is, corticostriatal limbic and dorsal cognitive neural circuitry can make drugs and food rewarding, but also engage self-control mechanisms that may inhibit their use. Importantly, there is considerable evidence that alterations of these systems also occur in ED. This paper explores the hypothesis that an altered balance of reward and inhibition contributes to altered extremes of response to salient stimuli, such as food. We will review recent studies that show altered sensitivity to reward and punishment in ED, with evidence of altered activity in corticostriatal and insula processes with respect to monetary gains or losses, and tastes of palatable foods. We will also discuss evidence for a spectrum of extremes of inhibition and dysregulation behaviors in ED supported by studies suggesting that this is related to top-down self-control mechanisms. The lack of a mechanistic understanding of ED has thwarted efforts for evidence-based approaches to develop interventions. Understanding how ED behavior is encoded in neural circuits would provide a foundation for developing more specific and effective treatment approaches.

  19. Are Extremes of Consumption in Eating Disorders Related to an Altered Balance between Reward and Inhibition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierenga, Christina E; Ely, Alice; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Bailer, Ursula F; Simmons, Alan N; Kaye, Walter H

    2014-01-01

    The primary defining characteristic of a diagnosis of an eating disorder (ED) is the "disturbance of eating or eating-related behavior that results in the altered consumption or absorption of food" (DSM V; American Psychiatric Association, 2013). There is a spectrum, ranging from those who severely restrict eating and become emaciated on one end to those who binge and overconsume, usually accompanied by some form of compensatory behaviors, on the other. How can we understand reasons for such extremes of food consummatory behaviors? Recent work on obesity and substance use disorders has identified behaviors and neural pathways that play a powerful role in human consummatory behaviors. That is, corticostriatal limbic and dorsal cognitive neural circuitry can make drugs and food rewarding, but also engage self-control mechanisms that may inhibit their use. Importantly, there is considerable evidence that alterations of these systems also occur in ED. This paper explores the hypothesis that an altered balance of reward and inhibition contributes to altered extremes of response to salient stimuli, such as food. We will review recent studies that show altered sensitivity to reward and punishment in ED, with evidence of altered activity in corticostriatal and insula processes with respect to monetary gains or losses, and tastes of palatable foods. We will also discuss evidence for a spectrum of extremes of inhibition and dysregulation behaviors in ED supported by studies suggesting that this is related to top-down self-control mechanisms. The lack of a mechanistic understanding of ED has thwarted efforts for evidence-based approaches to develop interventions. Understanding how ED behavior is encoded in neural circuits would provide a foundation for developing more specific and effective treatment approaches.

  20. Metabolic Syndrome in Obese Men and Women with Binge Eating Disorder: Developmental Trajectories of Eating and Weight-Related Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Blomquist, Kerstin K.; Milsom, Vanessa A.; Barnes, Rachel D.; Boeka, Abbe G.; White, Marney A.; Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetSyn), characterized by vascular symptoms, is strongly correlated with obesity, weight-related medical diseases and mortality, and has increased commensurately with secular increases in obesity in the U.S. Little is known about the distribution of MetSynin obese patients with binge eating disorder (BED) or its associations with different developmental trajectories of dieting, binge eating, and obesity problems. Further, inconsistencies in the limited data necessitate...

  1. Relative sensitivity of developmental and immune parameters in juvenile versus adult male rats after exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonk, Elisa C.M.; Verhoef, Aart; Gremmer, Eric R.; Loveren, Henk van; Piersma, Aldert H.

    2012-01-01

    The developing immune system displays a relatively high sensitivity as compared to both general toxicity parameters and to the adult immune system. In this study we have performed such comparisons using di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as a model compound. DEHP is the most abundant phthalate in the environment and perinatal exposure to DEHP has been shown to disrupt male sexual differentiation. In addition, phthalate exposure has been associated with immune dysfunction as evidenced by effects on the expression of allergy. Male wistar rats were dosed with corn oil or DEHP by gavage from postnatal day (PND) 10–50 or PND 50–90 at doses between 1 and 1000 mg/kg/day. Androgen-dependent organ weights showed effects at lower dose levels in juvenile versus adult animals. Immune parameters affected included TDAR parameters in both age groups, NK activity in juvenile animals and TNF-α production by adherent splenocytes in adult animals. Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels compared to developmental parameters. Overall, more immune parameters were affected in juvenile animals compared to adult animals and effects were observed at lower dose levels. The results of this study show a relatively higher sensitivity of juvenile versus adult rats. Furthermore, they illustrate the relative sensitivity of the developing immune system in juvenile animals as compared to general toxicity and developmental parameters. This study therefore provides further argumentation for performing dedicated developmental immune toxicity testing as a default in regulatory toxicology. -- Highlights: ► In this study we evaluate the relative sensitivities for DEHP induced effects. ► Results of this study demonstrate the age-dependency of DEHP toxicity. ► Functional immune parameters were more sensitive than structural immune parameters. ► Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels than developmental parameters. ► Findings demonstrate the susceptibility of the

  2. Relative sensitivity of developmental and immune parameters in juvenile versus adult male rats after exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonk, Elisa C.M., E-mail: ilse.tonk@rivm.nl [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Verhoef, Aart; Gremmer, Eric R. [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Loveren, Henk van [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Piersma, Aldert H. [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Veterinary Faculty, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-04-01

    The developing immune system displays a relatively high sensitivity as compared to both general toxicity parameters and to the adult immune system. In this study we have performed such comparisons using di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as a model compound. DEHP is the most abundant phthalate in the environment and perinatal exposure to DEHP has been shown to disrupt male sexual differentiation. In addition, phthalate exposure has been associated with immune dysfunction as evidenced by effects on the expression of allergy. Male wistar rats were dosed with corn oil or DEHP by gavage from postnatal day (PND) 10–50 or PND 50–90 at doses between 1 and 1000 mg/kg/day. Androgen-dependent organ weights showed effects at lower dose levels in juvenile versus adult animals. Immune parameters affected included TDAR parameters in both age groups, NK activity in juvenile animals and TNF-α production by adherent splenocytes in adult animals. Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels compared to developmental parameters. Overall, more immune parameters were affected in juvenile animals compared to adult animals and effects were observed at lower dose levels. The results of this study show a relatively higher sensitivity of juvenile versus adult rats. Furthermore, they illustrate the relative sensitivity of the developing immune system in juvenile animals as compared to general toxicity and developmental parameters. This study therefore provides further argumentation for performing dedicated developmental immune toxicity testing as a default in regulatory toxicology. -- Highlights: ► In this study we evaluate the relative sensitivities for DEHP induced effects. ► Results of this study demonstrate the age-dependency of DEHP toxicity. ► Functional immune parameters were more sensitive than structural immune parameters. ► Immune parameters were affected at lower dose levels than developmental parameters. ► Findings demonstrate the susceptibility of the

  3. ICan: an integrated co-alteration network to identify ovarian cancer-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuanshuai; Liu, Yongjing; Li, Kening; Zhang, Rui; Qiu, Fujun; Zhao, Ning; Xu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, an increasing number of integrative studies on cancer-related genes have been published. Integrative analyses aim to overcome the limitation of a single data type, and provide a more complete view of carcinogenesis. The vast majority of these studies used sample-matched data of gene expression and copy number to investigate the impact of copy number alteration on gene expression, and to predict and prioritize candidate oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. However, correlations between genes were neglected in these studies. Our work aimed to evaluate the co-alteration of copy number, methylation and expression, allowing us to identify cancer-related genes and essential functional modules in cancer. We built the Integrated Co-alteration network (ICan) based on multi-omics data, and analyzed the network to uncover cancer-related genes. After comparison with random networks, we identified 155 ovarian cancer-related genes, including well-known (TP53, BRCA1, RB1 and PTEN) and also novel cancer-related genes, such as PDPN and EphA2. We compared the results with a conventional method: CNAmet, and obtained a significantly better area under the curve value (ICan: 0.8179, CNAmet: 0.5183). In this paper, we describe a framework to find cancer-related genes based on an Integrated Co-alteration network. Our results proved that ICan could precisely identify candidate cancer genes and provide increased mechanistic understanding of carcinogenesis. This work suggested a new research direction for biological network analyses involving multi-omics data.

  4. The influence of altered working-side occlusal guidance on masticatory muscles and related jaw movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belser, U C; Hannam, A G

    1985-03-01

    The effect of four different occlusal situations (group function, canine guidance, working side occlusal interference, and hyperbalancing occlusal interference) on EMG activity in jaw elevator muscles and related mandibular movement was investigated on 12 subjects. With a computer-based system, EMG and displacement signals were collected simultaneously during specific functional (unilateral chewing) and parafunctional tasks (mandibular gliding movements and various tooth clenching efforts) and analyzed quantitatively. When a naturally acquired group function was temporarily and artificially changed into a dominant canine guidance, a significant general reduction of elevator muscle activity was observed when subjects exerted full isometric tooth-clenching efforts in a lateral mandibular position. The original muscular coordination pattern (relative contraction from muscle to muscle) remained unaltered during this test. With respect to unilateral chewing, no significant alterations in the activity or coordination of the muscles occurred when an artificial canine guidance was introduced. Introduction of a hyperbalancing occlusal contact caused significant alterations in muscle activity and coordination during maximal tooth clenching in a lateral mandibular position. A marked shift of temporal muscle EMG activity toward the side of the interference and unchanged bilateral activity of the two masseter muscles were observed. The results suggest that canine-protected occlusions do not significantly alter muscle activity during mastication but significantly reduce muscle activity during parafunctional clenching. They also suggest that non-working side contacts dramatically alter the distribution of muscle activity during parafunctional clenching, and that this redistribution may affect the nature of reaction forces at the temporomandibular joints.

  5. Suppressing Farnesyl Diphosphate Synthase Alters Chloroplast Development and Triggers Sterol-Dependent Induction of Jasmonate- and Fe-Related Responses1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Paola; Caudepón, Daniel; Arró, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPS) catalyzes the synthesis of farnesyl diphosphate from isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contains two genes (FPS1 and FPS2) encoding FPS. Single fps1 and fps2 knockout mutants are phenotypically indistinguishable from wild-type plants, while fps1/fps2 double mutants are embryo lethal. To assess the effect of FPS down-regulation at postembryonic developmental stages, we generated Arabidopsis conditional knockdown mutants expressing artificial microRNAs devised to simultaneously silence both FPS genes. Induction of silencing from germination rapidly caused chlorosis and a strong developmental phenotype that led to seedling lethality. However, silencing of FPS after seed germination resulted in a slight developmental delay only, although leaves and cotyledons continued to show chlorosis and altered chloroplasts. Metabolomic analyses also revealed drastic changes in the profile of sterols, ubiquinones, and plastidial isoprenoids. RNA sequencing and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction transcriptomic analysis showed that a reduction in FPS activity levels triggers the misregulation of genes involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses, the most prominent one being the rapid induction of a set of genes related to the jasmonic acid pathway. Down-regulation of FPS also triggered an iron-deficiency transcriptional response that is consistent with the iron-deficient phenotype observed in FPS-silenced plants. The specific inhibition of the sterol biosynthesis pathway by chemical and genetic blockage mimicked these transcriptional responses, indicating that sterol depletion is the primary cause of the observed alterations. Our results highlight the importance of sterol homeostasis for normal chloroplast development and function and reveal important clues about how isoprenoid and sterol metabolism is integrated within plant physiology and development. PMID

  6. Relation between infants'/toddlers' developmental status and their levels of object play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Fekonja

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of introduced study was to establish the connection between the highest achieved levels of infant' and toddler's object play and their developmental status. 23 Slovenian infants and toddlers were included in the sample. They were engaged in solitary play with standard toys. Global and partial quotients were established using the early childhood development scale RT-R. The levels of child's solitary play were estimated using assesment scale designed by Belsky and Most. The results showed some statisticaly significant correlations between children's developmental qoutients (global and partial and their highest achieved levels of object play. As the basis for the interpretation of results I used the theories which explain the development of child's language, cognition and play.

  7. On the relation between face and object recognition in developmental prosopagnosia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Klargaard, Solja K.; Starrfelt, Randi

    2016-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about whether face recognition and object recognition constitute separate domains. Clarification of this issue can have important theoretical implications as face recognition is often used as a prime example of domain-specificity in mind and brain. An important source...... of input to this debate comes from studies of individuals with developmental prosopagnosia, suggesting that face recognition can be selectively impaired. We put the selectivity hypothesis to test by assessing the performance of 10 individuals with developmental prosopagnosia on demanding tests of visual...... object processing involving both regular and degraded drawings. None of the individuals exhibited a clear dissociation between face and object recognition, and as a group they were significantly more affected by degradation of objects than control participants. Importantly, we also find positive...

  8. Developmental Database for Phenology Models: Related Insect and Mite Species Have Similar Thermal Requirements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jarošík, Vojtěch; Honěk, A.; Magarey, R. D.; Skuhrovec, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 6 (2011), s. 1870-1876 ISSN 0022-0493 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA ČR GA206/09/0563 Grant - others:European Comission(XE) 212459 Program:FP7 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : lower developmental threshold * base temperature * rate of development Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 1.699, year: 2011

  9. Developmental pathways of change in health-related fitness and motor competence are related to obesity development in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Luis Paulo; Lopes, Vítor P.

    2013-01-01

    The epidemic obesity in chi1dhood is well acknowledged worldwide. Althongh researchers agree that explaining models for childhood obesity can include several risk factors, the question remains as to which speci fic predictors can be the touchstone to solving the probIem. In recent years, a modeI of developmental mechanisms influencing the physical activity and weight pathways of children has been presented by Stodden and colleagnes (2008). In this model it is predicted that children ...

  10. Developmental changes in visuo-spatial working memory in normally developing children: event-related potentials study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myatchin, Ivan; Lagae, Lieven

    2013-10-01

    Working memory (WM) is very important for normal development. The fronto-parietal neuronal network supporting WM has already been well-studied. Less is known about the cortical activity changes during development of WM. We evaluated the maturation of visual WM network at the electrophysiological level in a group of normally developing children. Multichannel (n=31) event-related potentials (ERP) were measured during a visuo-spatial backmatching task in 69 childrens (6-16 years old). One-backmatching (BM1) and two-backmatching (BM2) tasks were performed. Age-related changes in behavioral parameters (commission and omission errors and reaction times) and ERP parameters (peak amplitudes and latencies) were analyzed between different ages. Clear improvement in performance from young childhood toward adolescence was seen at the behavioral level: decrease of errors and fastening of reaction times. At the electrophysiological level age-related changes were seen in peak latencies and especially in amplitudes. Different peaks have different dynamics in amplitudes and latencies: early peak amplitude decreased and latency shortened with age, which was not always seen in late peaks. This reflects developmental changes in intensity and speed of WM processing. Later peaks were more clearly seen over the right hemisphere in older children, illustrating hemispheric lateralization in visuo-spatial working memory. Our results indicate that not only at the behavioral but also at the electrophysiological level clear age-related dynamics in WM processing can be seen. Furthermore, with ERP we showed that different WM components follow different developmental trajectories. Our work demonstrates that age-related dynamics in intensity and speed of information processing during WM task is reflected in developmental changes in different ERP components. It also states that fronto-parietal visual WM network can be functional even before all its nodes are fully mature. Copyright © 2012 The

  11. Prenatal exposure to disaster-related traumatic stress and developmental trajectories of temperament in early childhood: Superstorm Sandy pregnancy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Rajendran, Khushmand; Ham, Jacob; Finik, Jackie; Buthmann, Jessica; Davey, Kei; Pehme, Patricia M; Dana, Kathryn; Pritchett, Alexandra; Laws, Holly; Nomura, Yoko

    2018-07-01

    Little is known about the impact of prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) on the developmental trajectory of temperament and few studies have been able to incorporate a natural disaster as a quasi-experimental stressor. The current study investigated PNMS related to Superstorm Sandy ('Sandy'), a hurricane that struck the New York metropolitan area in October 2012, in terms of objective exposure during pregnancy, subjective stress reaction as assessed by maternal symptoms of post-traumatic stress, and their impact on the developmental changes in temperament during early childhood. A subsample of 318 mother-child dyads was drawn from the Stress in Pregnancy Study. Temperament was measured at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of age. Objective exposure was associated with greater High-Intensity Pleasure, Approach, Perceptual Sensitivity and Fearfulness, but lower Cuddliness and Duration of Orientation at 6 months. Objective exposure and its interaction with subjective stress reaction predicted developmental changes in temperament. In particular, objective exposure was linked to greater increases in Activity Level but decreases in High-Intensity Pleasure, Approach, and Fearfulness. The combination of objective exposure and subjective stress reaction was also associated with greater increases in Activity Level. Temperament was measured solely via maternal report. Trimester-specific effects of Sandy on temperament were not examined. This is the first study to examine the effects of prenatal maternal exposure to a natural disaster on trajectories of early childhood temperament. Findings suggest that both objective stress exposure and subjective stress reaction in-utero predict developmental trajectories of temperament in early childhood. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in relation to autism and developmental delay: a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants used widely and in increasing amounts in the U.S. over the last few decades. PBDEs and their metabolites cross the placenta and studies in rodents demonstrate neurodevelopmental toxicity from prenatal exposures. PBDE exposures occur both via breastfeeding and hand-to-mouth activities in small children. Methods Participants were 100 children from the CHARGE (CHildhood Autism Risk from Genetics and the Environment) Study, a case-control epidemiologic investigation of children with autism/autism spectrum disorder, with developmental delay and from the general population. Diagnoses of autism were confirmed by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and Autism Diagnostic Inventory-Revised, and of developmental delay using the Mullen's Scales of Early Learning and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Typically developing controls were those with no evidence of delay, autism, or autism spectrum disorder. Eleven PBDE congeners were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry from serum specimens collected after children were assessed. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between plasma PBDEs and autism. Results Children with autism/autism spectrum disorder and developmental delay were similar to typically developing controls for all PBDE congeners, but levels were high for all three groups. Conclusions Plasma samples collected post-diagnosis in this study may not represent early life exposures due to changes in diet and introduction of new household products containing PBDEs. Studies with direct measurements of prenatal or infant exposures are needed to assess the possible causal role for these compounds in autism spectrum disorders. PMID:21205326

  13. Impact of DNA mismatch repair system alterations on human fertility and related treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Min-hao; Liu, Shu-yuan; Wang, Ning; Wu, Yan; Jin, Fan

    2016-01-01

    DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is one of the biological pathways, which plays a critical role in DNA homeostasis, primarily by repairing base-pair mismatches and insertion/deletion loops that occur during DNA replication. MMR also takes part in other metabolic pathways and regulates cell cycle arrest. Defects in MMR are associated with genomic instability, predisposition to certain types of cancers and resistance to certain therapeutic drugs. Moreover, genetic and epigenetic alterations in the MMR system demonstrate a significant relationship with human fertility and related treatments, which helps us to understand the etiology and susceptibility of human infertility. Alterations in the MMR system may also influence the health of offspring conceived by assisted reproductive technology in humans. However, further studies are needed to explore the specific mechanisms by which the MMR system may affect human infertility. This review addresses the physiological mechanisms of the MMR system and associations between alterations of the MMR system and human fertility and related treatments, and potential effects on the next generation.

  14. Computers in Education of Children with Intellectual and Related Developmental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Kirinic

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Children suffering from intellectual deficiency and disorders arising from such a condition tend to be provided with a specific form of education, depending on the deficiency type and degree. Apart from the disorder itself, the acquisition of knowledge, skills and learning habits depends on the children’s motivation for learning, as well as the accessibility of the computer. When used in conformance with pedagogical, didactic and clinical standards, the computer as an educational aid may prove helpful for education and training of children with developmental disorders. Using computers also enables communication and fosters communication skills resulting in the development of self-confidence.

  15. Developmental aspects of the interaction between narcissism, self-esteem and object relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, C; Holder, A

    1981-01-01

    This paper reviews the history, within psycho-analysis, of narcissism and shows that it cannot be understood as a unitary concept. This is reflected in much of the extensive literature on the topic. The definition of narcissism solely in terms of the libidinal drive cathexis of the self representation is rejected. Instead, narcissism is defined as the sum of the positively-coloured feeling states attached to the self-representation. By pursuing a developmental investigation of narcissistic and opposing phenomena, the multiple sources which contribute to or detract from the overall level of self-esteem are demonstrated. Such an investigation clarifies the close relationship between the concepts of self-esteem, well-being and narcissism, and differentiating definitions are put forward. The term 'counter-narcissistic' is introduced to denote the negative contributions to self-esteem which detract from the narcissistic input. The interplay between the contributions to the overall quality of self-esteem, deriving on the one hand from somatic and instinctual drive sources, and on the other from object relationships, exemplifies the multiple origins of its qualities at any one time. This interplay is pursued through the sequential developmental phases from infancy to the oedipal level in order to show the complex epigenesis of narcissism, counter-narcissism and self-esteem.

  16. Alterations of ubiquitin related proteins in the pathology and development of schizophrenia: Evidence from human and animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jessica L; Goodfellow, Frederic J; Matosin, Natalie; Snelling, Mollie K; Newell, Kelly A; Huang, Xu-Feng; Fernandez-Enright, Francesca

    2017-07-01

    Gene expression analyses in post-mortem schizophrenia brains suggest that a number of ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) genes are associated with schizophrenia; however the status of UPS proteins in the schizophrenia brain is largely unknown. Ubiquitin related proteins are inherently involved in memory, neuronal survival and morphology, which are processes implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia. We examined levels of five UPS proteins (Protein Inhibitor of Activated STAT2 [PIAS2], F-Box and Leucine rich repeat protein 21 [FBXL21], Mouse Double Minute 2 homolog [MDM2], Ubiquitin Carboxyl-Terminal Hydrolase-L1 [UCHL1] and Ubiquitin Conjugating Enzyme E2D1 [UBE2D1]) involved in these neuronal processes, within the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of post-mortem schizophrenia subjects and matched controls (n = 30/group), in addition to across neurodevelopmental time-points (juvenile, adolescent and adult stages of life), utilizing a well-established neurodevelopmental phencyclidine (PCP) animal model of schizophrenia. We observed significant reductions in PIAS2, FBXL21 and MDM2 in schizophrenia subjects compared to controls (p-values ranging from 0.002 to 0.004). In our developmental PCP model, MDM2 protein was significantly reduced in adult PCP-treated rats compared to controls (p = 0.034). Additionally, FBXL21 (p = 0.022) and UCHL1 (p = 0.022) were significantly decreased, whilst UBE2D1 was increased (p = 0.022), in juvenile phencyclidine-treated rats compared to controls. This is the first study reporting alterations of UPS proteins in post-mortem human schizophrenia subjects and in a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. The findings from this study provide strong support for a role of these UPS proteins in the pathology and development of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Environmental and genetic variables related with alterations in language acquisition in early childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriano-Gutierrez, A; Colomer-Revuelta, J; Sanjuan, J; Carot-Sierra, J M

    2017-01-01

    A great deal of research has addressed problems in the correct acquisition of language, but with few overall conclusions. The reasons for this lie in the individual variability, the existence of different measures for assessing language and the fact that a complex network of genetic and environmental factors are involved in its development. To review the environmental and genetic variables that have been studied to date, in order to gain a better under-standing of the causes of specific language impairment and create new evidence that can help in the development of screening systems for the early detection of these disorders. The environmental variables related with poorer early child language development include male gender, low level of education of the mother, familial history of problems with language or psychiatric problems, perinatal problems and health problems in early childhood. Bilingualism seems to be a protective factor. Temperament and language are related. Within the genetic factors there are several specific genes associated with language, two of which have a greater influence on its physiological acquisition: FOXP2 and CNTNAP2. The other genes that are most related with specific language disorders are ATP2C2, CMIP, ROBO2, ZNF277 and NOP9. The key to comprehending the development of specific language disorders lies in reaching an understanding of the true role played by genes in the ontogenesis, in the regulation of the different developmental processes, and how this role is modulated by the environment.

  18. Change in running kinematics after cycling are related to alterations in running economy in triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacci, Jason; Green, Daniel; Saunders, Philo U; Blanch, Peter; Franettovich, Melinda; Chapman, Andrew R; Vicenzino, Bill

    2010-07-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that cycling may influence neuromuscular control during subsequent running but the relationship between altered neuromuscular control and run performance in triathletes is not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine if a 45 min high-intensity cycle influences lower limb movement and muscle recruitment during running and whether changes in limb movement or muscle recruitment are associated with changes in running economy (RE) after cycling. RE, muscle activity (surface electromyography) and limb movement (sagittal plane kinematics) were compared between a control run (no preceding cycle) and a run performed after a 45 min high-intensity cycle in 15 moderately trained triathletes. Muscle recruitment and kinematics during running after cycling were altered in 7 of 15 (46%) triathletes. Changes in kinematics at the knee and ankle were significantly associated with the change in VO(2) after cycling (precruitment in some triathletes and that changes in kinematics, especially at the ankle, are closely related to alterations in running economy after cycling. Copyright 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Brain Microstructural Abnormalities Are Related to Physiological Alterations in End-Stage Renal Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Bai

    Full Text Available To study whole-brain microstructural alterations in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD and examine the relationship between brain microstructure and physiological indictors in the disease.Diffusion tensor imaging data were collected from 35 patients with ESRD (28 men, 18-61 years and 40 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs, 32 men, 22-58 years. A voxel-wise analysis was then used to identify microstructural alterations over the whole brain in the ESRD patients compared with the HCs. Multiple biochemical measures of renal metabolin, vascular risk factors, general cognitive ability and dialysis duration were correlated with microstructural integrity for the patients.Compared to the HCs, the ESRD patients exhibited disrupted microstructural integrity in not only white matter (WM but also gray matter (GM regions, as characterized by decreased fractional anisotropy (FA and increased mean diffusivity (MD, axial diffusivity (AD and radial diffusivity (RD. Further correlation analyses revealed that the in MD, AD and RD values showed significantly positive correlations with the blood urea nitrogen in the left superior temporal gyrus and significantly negative correlations with the calcium levels in the left superior frontal gyrus (orbital part in the patients.Our findings suggest that ESRD is associated with widespread diffusion abnormalities in both WM and GM regions in the brain, and microstructural integrity of several GM regions are related to biochemical alterations in the disease.

  20. Altered aortic shape in bicuspid aortic valve relatives influences blood flow patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Susanne; Smith, Danielle A; Barker, Alex J; Entezari, Pegah; Honarmand, Amir R; Carr, Maria L; Malaisrie, S Chris; McCarthy, Patrick M; Collins, Jeremy; Carr, James C; Markl, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is known to exhibit familial inheritance and is associated with aortopathy and altered aortic haemodynamics. However, it remains unclear whether BAV-related aortopathy can be inherited independently of valve morphology. Four-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging for the in vivo assessment of thoracic aortic 3D blood flow was performed in 24 BAV relatives with trileaflet aortic valves (age = 40 ± 14 years) and 15 healthy controls (age = 37 ± 10 years). Data analysis included aortic dimensions, shape (round/gothic/cubic), and 3D blood flow characteristics (semi-quantitative vortex/helix grading and peak velocities). Cubic and gothic aortic shapes were markedly more prevalent in BAV relatives compared with controls (38 vs. 7%). Ascending aorta (AAo) vortex flow in BAV relatives was significantly increased compared with controls (grading = 1.5 ± 1.0 vs. 0.6 ± 0.9, P = 0.015). Aortic haemodynamics were influenced by aortic shape: peak velocities were reduced for gothic aortas vs. round aortas (P = 0.003); vortex flow was increased for cubic aortas in the AAo (P gothic aortas in the AAo and descending aorta (P = 0.003, P = 0.029). Logistic regression demonstrated significant associations of shape with severity of vortex flow in AAo (P < 0.001) and aortic arch (P = 0.016) in BAV relatives. BAV relatives expressed altered aortic shape and increased vortex flow despite the absence of valvular disease or aortic dilatation. These data suggest a heritable component of BAV-related aortopathy affecting aortic shape and aberrant blood flow, independent of valve morphology. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Children's white blood cell counts in relation to developmental exposures to methylmercury and persistent organic pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oulhote, Youssef; Shamim, Z; Kielsen, Katrine

    2017-01-01

    ), and total mercury (Hg) were measured in maternal (n = 56) and children's blood at 18 months (n = 42) and 5 years (n = 54). We constructed latent functions for exposures at three different ages using factor analyses and applied structural equation models adjusted for covariates. Results Prenatal mercury....... In contrast, the 5-year PFASs concentrations were associated with higher basophil counts (B = 46% SD, 95% CI: 13, 79). Significantly reduced subpopulations of lymphocytes such as B cells, CD4-positive T helper cells and CD4 positive recent thymic emigrants may suggest cellular immunity effects...... and dysregulation of T-cell mediated immunity. Conclusion Developmental exposure to environmental immunotoxicants appears to have different impacts on WBC counts in childhood....

  2. Sex-related differences in cadmium-induced alteration of drug action in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnell, R.C.; Pence, D.H.; Prosser, T.D.; Miya, T.S.

    1976-01-01

    Three days after pretreatment of rats of both sexes with cadmium (2 mg/kg, i.p.), the duration of hypnosis induced by hexobarbital (75 mg/kg, i.p.) was potentiated in males but not females. Likewise, similar treatment with cadmium leads to significant inhibition of the metabolism of hexobarbital by hepatic microsomal enzymes obtained from male but not female animals. These data suggest that there is a sex-related difference in the ability of cadmium to alter drug action in rats.

  3. Alterations in theory of mind in patients with schizophrenia and non-psychotic relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, I; Krabbendam, L; Jolles, J; van Os, Jim

    2003-08-01

    It has been proposed that alterations in theory of mind underlie specific symptoms of psychosis. The present study examined whether alterations in theory of mind reflect a trait that can be detected in non-psychotic relatives of patients with schizophrenia. Participants were 43 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, 41 first-degree non-psychotic relatives and 43 controls from the general population. Theory of mind was assessed using a hinting task and a false-belief task. There was a significant association between schizophrenia risk and failure on the hinting task (OR linear trend = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.22-3.31), with relatives having intermediate values between patients and controls. Adjustment for IQ and neuropsychological factors reduced the association by small amounts. The association between schizophrenia risk and failure on the false-belief tasks was not significant. Changes in theory of mind are associated with schizophrenia liability. General cognitive ability and neuropsychological measures seem to mediate only part of this association.

  4. Neuroimmune mechanisms of stress: sex differences, developmental plasticity, and implications for pharmacotherapy of stress-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deak, Terrence; Quinn, Matt; Cidlowski, John A; Victoria, Nicole C; Murphy, Anne Z; Sheridan, John F

    2015-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed profound growth in studies examining the role of fundamental neuroimmune processes as key mechanisms that might form a natural bridge between normal physiology and pathological outcomes. Rooted in core concepts from psychoneuroimmunology, this review utilizes a succinct, exemplar-driven approach of several model systems that contribute significantly to our knowledge of the mechanisms by which neuroimmune processes interact with stress physiology. Specifically, we review recent evidence showing that (i) stress challenges produce time-dependent and stressor-specific patterns of cytokine/chemokine expression in the CNS; (ii) inflammation-related genes exhibit unique expression profiles in males and females depending upon individual, cooperative or antagonistic interactions between steroid hormone receptors (estrogen and glucocorticoid receptors); (iii) adverse social experiences incurred through repeated social defeat engage a dynamic process of immune cell migration from the bone marrow to brain and prime neuroimmune function and (iv) early developmental exposure to an inflammatory stimulus (carageenin injection into the hindpaw) has a lasting influence on stress reactivity across the lifespan. As such, the present review provides a theoretical framework for understanding the role that neuroimmune mechanisms might play in stress plasticity and pathological outcomes, while at the same time pointing toward features of the individual (sex, developmental experience, stress history) that might ultimately be used for the development of personalized strategies for therapeutic intervention in stress-related pathologies.

  5. Selective alterations of neurons and circuits related to early memory loss in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María eLlorens-Martín

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A progressive loss of episodic memory is a well-known clinical symptom that characterizes Alzheimer’s disease (AD. The beginning of this loss of memory has been associated with the very early, pathological accumulation of tau and neuronal degeneration observed in the entorhinal cortex (EC. Tau-related pathology is thought to then spread progressively to the hippocampal formation and other brain areas as the disease progresses. The major cortical afferent source of the hippocampus and dentate gyrus is the EC through the perforant pathway. At least two main circuits participate in the connection between EC and the hippocampus; one originating in layer II and the other in layer III of the EC giving rise to the classical trisynaptic (ECII→dentate gyrus→CA3→CA1 and monosynaptic (ECIII→CA1 circuits. Thus, the study of the early pathological changes in these circuits is of great interest. In this review, we will discuss mainly the alterations of the granule cell neurons of the dentate gyrus and the atrophy of CA1 pyramidal neurons that occur in AD in relation to the possible differential alterations of these two main circuits.

  6. Altered Clock and Lipid Metabolism-Related Genes in Atherosclerotic Mice Kept with Abnormal Lighting Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The risk of atherosclerosis is elevated in abnormal lipid metabolism and circadian rhythm disorder. We investigated whether abnormal lighting condition would have influenced the circadian expression of clock genes and clock-controlled lipid metabolism-related genes in ApoE-KO mice. Methods. A mouse model of atherosclerosis with circadian clock genes expression disorder was established using ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO LD/DL mice by altering exposure to light. C57 BL/6J mice (C57 mice and ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO mice exposed to normal day and night and normal diet served as control mice. According to zeitgeber time samples were acquired, to test atheromatous plaque formation, serum lipids levels and rhythmicity, clock genes, and lipid metabolism-related genes along with Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1 levels and rhythmicity. Results. Atherosclerosis plaques were formed in the aortic arch of ApoE-KO LD/DL mice. The serum lipids levels and oscillations in ApoE-KO LD/DL mice were altered, along with the levels and diurnal oscillations of circadian genes, lipid metabolism-associated genes, and Sirt1 compared with the control mice. Conclusions. Abnormal exposure to light aggravated plaque formation and exacerbated disorders of serum lipids and clock genes, lipid metabolism genes and Sirt1 levels, and circadian oscillation.

  7. White matter alterations in cocaine users are negatively related to the number of additionally (ab)used substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaag, A.M.; van Wingen, G.A.; Caan, M.W.A.; Homberg, J.R.; van den Brink, W.; Reneman, L.

    Diffusion tensor imaging studies have provided evidence for white matter (WM) alterations in cocaine users. While polysubstance use is a widespread phenomenon among cocaine users, its role in WM alterations in cocaine users is currently unknown. This study examined the relation between the number of

  8. Interleukin-6 Contributes to Age-Related Alteration of Cytokine Production by Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Christian R.; Karavitis, John; Palmer, Jessica L.; Faunce, Douglas E.; Ramirez, Luis; Nomellini, Vanessa; Kovacs, Elizabeth J.

    2010-01-01

    Here, we studied in vitro cytokine production by splenic macrophages obtained from young and aged BALB/c wild type (WT) and IL-6 knockout (IL-6 KO) mice. Relative to macrophages obtained from young WT mice given lipopolysaccharide (LPS), those from aged WT mice had decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines. In contrast, when compared to macrophages from young IL-6 KO mice, LPS stimulation yielded higher levels of these cytokines by cells from aged IL-6 KO mice. Aging or IL-6 deficiency did not affected the percentage of F4/80+ macrophages, or the surface expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and components of the IL-6 receptor. Overall, our results indicate that IL-6 plays a role in regulating the age-related defects in macrophages through alteration of proinflammatory cytokines, adding to the complexity of IL-6-mediated impairment of immune cell function with increasing age. PMID:20671912

  9. Sex and disease-related alterations of anterior insula functional connectivity in chronic abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jui-Yang; Kilpatrick, Lisa A; Labus, Jennifer S; Gupta, Arpana; Katibian, David; Ashe-McNalley, Cody; Stains, Jean; Heendeniya, Nuwanthi; Smith, Suzanne R; Tillisch, Kirsten; Naliboff, Bruce; Mayer, Emeran A

    2014-10-22

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging has been used to investigate intrinsic brain connectivity in healthy subjects and patients with chronic pain. Sex-related differences in the frequency power distribution within the human insula (INS), a brain region involved in the integration of interoceptive, affective, and cognitive influences, have been reported. Here we aimed to test sex and disease-related alterations in the intrinsic functional connectivity of the dorsal anterior INS. The anterior INS is engaged during goal-directed tasks and modulates the default mode and executive control networks. By comparing functional connectivity of the dorsal anterior INS in age-matched female and male healthy subjects and patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a common chronic abdominal pain condition, we show evidence for sex and disease-related alterations in the functional connectivity of this region: (1) male patients compared with female patients had increased positive connectivity of the dorsal anterior INS bilaterally with the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) and dorsal posterior INS; (2) female patients compared with male patients had greater negative connectivity of the left dorsal anterior INS with the left precuneus; (3) disease-related differences in the connectivity between the bilateral dorsal anterior INS and the dorsal medial PFC were observed in female subjects; and (4) clinical characteristics were significantly correlated to the insular connectivity with the dorsal medial PFC in male IBS subjects and with the precuneus in female IBS subjects. These findings are consistent with the INS playing an important role in modulating the intrinsic functional connectivity of major networks in the resting brain and show that this role is influenced by sex and diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3414252-08$15.00/0.

  10. Leaf phenotypic variation and developmental instability in relation to different light regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Venâncio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT For pioneer plants, shaded habitats represent a stressful condition, where sunlight exposure is below the optimum level and so leaves expand in order to intercept a greater amount of light. We investigated changes in both phenotypic variation and stress of Bauhinia brevipes in sunny and shaded microhabitats. Leaf area was used as a measure of phenotypic variation, whereas leaf asymmetry (difference between right and left sides of leaves, was used as a measure of stress. We hypothesized an increase in leaf area and stress in shaded locations, which might indicate that B. brevipes was compensating for low light absorption, and elevated levels of stress, respectively. Plants in the sun fitted a fluctuating asymmetry pattern (normal distribution of right minus left sides, while shaded plants were clearly antisymmetric (bimodal distribution of leaf side differences. Leaf asymmetry and area were 5% and 26.8% higher in plants in the shade compared to plants in the sun, respectively. These results were expected since B. brevipes is found predominantly in open areas; so sunlight exposure is important for its development. The presence of antisymmetry is rare in studies of developmental instability, and here it might indicate higher stress compared to plants with fluctuating asymmetry.

  11. Developmental programming: effect of prenatal steroid excess on intraovarian components of insulin signaling pathway and related proteins in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Hugo H; Rey, Florencia; Velazquez, Melisa M L; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2010-06-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T) excess increases ovarian follicular recruitment, follicular persistence, insulin resistance, and compensatory hyperinsulinemia. Considering the importance of insulin in ovarian physiology, in this study, using prenatal T- and dihydrotestosterone (DHT, a nonaromatizable androgen)-treated female sheep, we tested the hypothesis that prenatal androgen excess alters the intraovarian insulin signaling cascade and metabolic mediators that have an impact on insulin signaling. Changes in ovarian insulin receptor (INSRB), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), mammalian target of rapamycin (MTOR), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PIK3), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARG), and adiponectin proteins were determined at fetal (Days 90 and 140), postpubertal (10 mo), and adult (21 mo) ages by immunohistochemistry. Results indicated that these proteins were expressed in granulosa, theca, and stromal compartments, with INSRB, IRS1, PPARG, and adiponectin increasing in parallel with advanced follicular differentiation. Importantly, prenatal T excess induced age-specific changes in PPARG and adiponectin expression, with increased PPARG expression evident during fetal life and decreased antral follicular adiponectin expression during adult life. Comparison of developmental changes in prenatal T and DHT-treated females found that the effects on PPARG were programmed by androgenic actions of T, whereas the effects on adiponectin were likely by its estrogenic action. These results suggest a role for PPARG in the programming of ovarian disruptions by prenatal T excess, including a decrease in antral follicular adiponectin expression and a contributory role for adiponectin in follicular persistence and ovulatory failure.

  12. Swimming exercise reverses aging-related contractile abnormalities of female heart by improving structural alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Nihal; Olgar, Yusuf; Er, Hakan; Kucuk, Murathan; Ozdemir, Semir

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of swimming exercise on aging-related Ca2+ handling alterations and structural abnormalities of female rat heart. For this purpose, 4-month and 24-month old female rats were used and divided into three following groups: sedentary young (SY), sedentary old (SO), and exercised old (Ex-O). Swimming exercise was performed for 8 weeks (60 min/day, 5 days/week). Myocyte shortening, L-type Ca2+ currents and associated Ca2+ transients were measured from ventricular myocytes at 36 ± 1°C. NOX-4 levels, aconitase activity, glutathione measurements and ultrastructural examination by electron microscopy were conducted in heart tissue. Swimming exercise reversed the reduced shortening and slowed kinetics of aged cardiomyocytes. Although the current density was similar for all groups, Ca2+ transients were higher in SO and Ex-O myocytes with respect to the SY group. Caffeine-induced Ca2+ transients and the integrated NCX current were lower in cardiomyocytes of SY rats compared with other groups, suggesting an increased sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ content in an aged heart. Aging led to upregulated cardiac NOX-4 along with declined aconitase activity. Although it did not reverse these oxidative parameters, swimming exercise achieved a significant increase in glutathione levels and improved structural alterations of old rats' hearts. We conclude that swimming exercise upregulates antioxidant defense capacity and improves structural abnormalities of senescent female rat heart, although it does not change Ca2+ handling alterations further. Thereby, it improves contractile function of aged myocardium by mitigating detrimental effects of oxidative stress.

  13. Ground and surface water developmental toxicity at a municipal landfill--Description and weather-related variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, M.A.; Rao, M.; Dumont, J.N.; Hull, M.; Jones, T.; Bantle, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    Contaminated groundwater poses a significant health hazard and may also impact wildlife such as amphibians when it surfaces. Using FETAX (Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus), the developmental toxicity of ground and surface water samples near a closed municipal landfill at Norman, OK, were evaluated. The groundwater samples were taken from a network of wells in a shallow, unconfined aquifer downgradient from the landfill. Surface water samples were obtained from a pond and small stream adjacent to the landfill. Surface water samples from a reference site in similar habitat were also analyzed. Groundwater samples were highly toxic in the area near the landfill, indicating a plume of toxicants. Surface water samples from the landfill site demonstrated elevated developmental toxicity. This toxicity was temporally variable and was significantly correlated with weather conditions during the 3 days prior to sampling. Mortality was negatively correlated with cumulative rain and relative humidity. Mortality was positively correlated with solar radiation and net radiation. No significant correlations were observed between mortality and weather parameters for days 4–7 preceding sampling.

  14. Action Video Game Experience Related to Altered Large-Scale White Matter Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Diankun; Ma, Weiyi; Gong, Jinnan; He, Hui; Dong, Li; Zhang, Dan; Li, Jianfu; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2017-01-01

    With action video games (AVGs) becoming increasingly popular worldwide, the cognitive benefits of AVG experience have attracted continuous research attention over the past two decades. Research has repeatedly shown that AVG experience can causally enhance cognitive ability and is related to neural plasticity in gray matter and functional networks in the brain. However, the relation between AVG experience and the plasticity of white matter (WM) network still remains unclear. WM network modulates the distribution of action potentials, coordinating the communication between brain regions and acting as the framework of neural networks. And various types of cognitive deficits are usually accompanied by impairments of WM networks. Thus, understanding this relation is essential in assessing the influence of AVG experience on neural plasticity and using AVG experience as an interventional tool for impairments of WM networks. Using graph theory, this study analyzed WM networks in AVG experts and amateurs. Results showed that AVG experience is related to altered WM networks in prefrontal networks, limbic system, and sensorimotor networks, which are related to cognitive control and sensorimotor functions. These results shed new light on the influence of AVG experience on the plasticity of WM networks and suggested the clinical applicability of AVG experience.

  15. Action Video Game Experience Related to Altered Large-Scale White Matter Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diankun Gong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With action video games (AVGs becoming increasingly popular worldwide, the cognitive benefits of AVG experience have attracted continuous research attention over the past two decades. Research has repeatedly shown that AVG experience can causally enhance cognitive ability and is related to neural plasticity in gray matter and functional networks in the brain. However, the relation between AVG experience and the plasticity of white matter (WM network still remains unclear. WM network modulates the distribution of action potentials, coordinating the communication between brain regions and acting as the framework of neural networks. And various types of cognitive deficits are usually accompanied by impairments of WM networks. Thus, understanding this relation is essential in assessing the influence of AVG experience on neural plasticity and using AVG experience as an interventional tool for impairments of WM networks. Using graph theory, this study analyzed WM networks in AVG experts and amateurs. Results showed that AVG experience is related to altered WM networks in prefrontal networks, limbic system, and sensorimotor networks, which are related to cognitive control and sensorimotor functions. These results shed new light on the influence of AVG experience on the plasticity of WM networks and suggested the clinical applicability of AVG experience.

  16. Stress-related behavioral alterations accompanying cocaine toxicity: the effects of mixed opioid drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayase, T; Yamamoto, Y; Yamamoto, K

    2000-12-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of mixed opioid drugs on the severity of cocaine (COCA) toxicity by examining stress-related behavioral alterations in mice. In order to ascertain the strength of the stress, the continuous observation of the behavioral symptoms in the cage and the forced swimming test (Porsolt test) were performed in the COCA (75 mg/kg, i.p.)-treated groups, with or without the mixed mu-kappa receptor-related opioid drugs, buprenorphine (BUP) and pentazocine (PEN). Using the high-sensitivity activity measuring instrument Supermex, both the spontaneous behaviors in the cage and the forced swimming behaviors in the water were assessed as activity counts. The behavioral alterations in the COCA-treated groups were compared with a group of mice given a 10 min immobilization stress (IM group). In the COCA-only group, a prolonged increase in the spontaneous behaviors accompanied by convulsive seizures was observed even in the surviving mice, unlike in the IM group. However, an acceleration of behavioral despair in the Porsolt test similar to that observed in the IM group was observed in the COCA group after the disappearance of the acute toxic symptoms (5 hours after the COCA treatment). Among the opioid-treated groups, the mortality rate was attenuated only in the COCA-BUP (0.25 mg/kg, i.p.) group. In the COCA-BUP group, a prolonged suppression of the morbid hyperactivity in the cage except for the convulsive seizures, and a normalization of the swimming behavior in the Porsolt test were observed in the survivors. On the other hand, in the COCA-PEN (5 mg/kg, i.p.) group, the swimming behavior in the Porsolt test was abnormally increased in addition to the prolonged morbid hyperactivity in the cage. Therefore, the COCA-induced stress-related behaviors were normalized in the group of mice treated with BUP, a group with a good prognosis.

  17. Common raven occurrence in relation to energy transmission line corridors transiting human-altered sagebrush steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Howe, Kristy B.; Casazza, Michael L.; Delehanty, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Energy-related infrastructure and other human enterprises within sagebrush steppe of the American West often results in changes that promote common raven (Corvus corax; hereafter, raven) populations. Ravens, a generalist predator capable of behavioral innovation, present a threat to many species of conservation concern. We evaluate the effects of detailed features of an altered landscape on the probability of raven occurrence using extensive raven survey (n= 1045) and mapping data from southern Idaho, USA. We found nonlinear relationships between raven occurrence and distances to transmission lines, roads, and facilities. Most importantly, raven occurrence was greater with presence of transmission lines up to 2.2 km from the corridor.We further explain variation in raven occurrence along anthropogenic features based on the amount of non-native vegetation and cover type edge, such that ravens select fragmented sagebrush stands with patchy, exotic vegetative introgression. Raven occurrence also increased with greater length of edge formed by the contact of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentate spp.) with non-native vegetation cover types. In consideration of increasing alteration of sagebrush steppe, these findings will be useful for planning energy transmission corridor placement and other management activities where conservation of sagebrush obligate species is a priority.

  18. Here, there be dragons: charting autophagy-related alterations in human tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebovitz, Chandra B; Bortnik, Svetlana B; Gorski, Sharon M

    2012-03-01

    Macroautophagy (or autophagy) is a catabolic cellular process that is both homeostatic and stress adaptive. Normal cells rely on basal levels of autophagy to maintain cellular integrity (via turnover of long-lived proteins and damaged organelles) and increased levels of autophagy to buoy cell survival during various metabolic stresses (via nutrient and energy provision through lysosomal degradation of cytoplasmic components). Autophagy can function in both tumor suppression and tumor progression, and is under investigation in clinical trials as a novel target for anticancer therapy. However, its role in cancer pathogenesis has yet to be fully explored. In particular, it remains unknown whether in vitro observations will be applicable to human cancer patients. Another outstanding question is whether there exists tumor-specific selection for alterations in autophagy function. In this review, we survey reported mutations in autophagy genes and key autophagy regulators identified in human tumor samples and summarize the literature regarding expression levels of autophagy genes and proteins in various cancer tissues. Although it is too early to draw inferences from this collection of in vivo studies of autophagy-related alterations in human cancers, their results highlight the challenges that must be overcome before we can accurately assess the scope of autophagy's predicted role in tumorigenesis.

  19. Alterations of white matter integrity related to the season of birth in schizophrenia: a DTI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Giezendanner

    Full Text Available In schizophrenia there is a consistent epidemiological finding of a birth excess in winter and spring. Season of birth is thought to act as a proxy indicator for harmful environmental factors during foetal maturation. There is evidence that prenatal exposure to harmful environmental factors may trigger pathologic processes in the neurodevelopment, which subsequently increase the risk of schizophrenia. Since brain white matter alterations have repeatedly been found in schizophrenia, the objective of this study was to investigate whether white matter integrity was related to the season of birth in patients with schizophrenia. Thirty-four patients with schizophrenia and 33 healthy controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging. Differences in the fractional anisotropy maps of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls born in different seasons were analysed with tract-based spatial statistics. A significant main effect of season of birth and an interaction of group and season of birth showed that patients born in summer had significantly lower fractional anisotropy in widespread white matter regions than those born in the remainder of the year. Additionally, later age of schizophrenia onset was found in patients born in winter months. The current findings indicate a relationship of season of birth and white matter alterations in schizophrenia and consequently support the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of early pathological mechanisms in schizophrenia.

  20. ALTERATION RELATED TO HYDROTHERMAL ACTIVITY OF THE NEVADO DEL RUIZ VOLCANO (NRV), COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Forero, Jhon; Zuluaga, Carlos; Mojica, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    The hydrothermal activity in the NRV generates alteration characterized by mineral associations depending on a number of physic-chemical factors of the hydrothermal system. Petrography of unaltered rocks was used to establish the mineral assemblage prior to rock-fluid interaction. XRD was used in altered rocks, where it was not possible to recognize the alteration products. The observed mineral assemblages indicate advanced and intermediate argillic alterations, this and the observation of ve...

  1. Sexual Abuse Exposure Alters Early Processing of Emotional Words: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grégoire, Laurent; Caparos, Serge; Leblanc, Carole-Anne; Brisson, Benoit; Blanchette, Isabelle

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the time course of emotional information processing between trauma-exposed and control participants, using electrophysiological measures. We conceived an emotional Stroop task with two types of words: trauma-related emotional words and neutral words. We assessed the evoked cerebral responses of sexual abuse victims without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and no abuse participants. We focused particularly on an early wave (C1/P1), the N2pc, and the P3b. Our main result indicated an early effect (55–165 ms) of emotionality, which varied between non-exposed participants and sexual abuse victims. This suggests that potentially traumatic experiences modulate early processing of emotional information. Our findings showing neurobiological alterations in sexual abuse victims (without PTSD) suggest that exposure to highly emotional events has an important impact on neurocognitive function even in the absence of psychopathology. PMID:29379428

  2. Sexual Abuse Exposure Alters Early Processing of Emotional Words: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Grégoire

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the time course of emotional information processing between trauma-exposed and control participants, using electrophysiological measures. We conceived an emotional Stroop task with two types of words: trauma-related emotional words and neutral words. We assessed the evoked cerebral responses of sexual abuse victims without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and no abuse participants. We focused particularly on an early wave (C1/P1, the N2pc, and the P3b. Our main result indicated an early effect (55–165 ms of emotionality, which varied between non-exposed participants and sexual abuse victims. This suggests that potentially traumatic experiences modulate early processing of emotional information. Our findings showing neurobiological alterations in sexual abuse victims (without PTSD suggest that exposure to highly emotional events has an important impact on neurocognitive function even in the absence of psychopathology.

  3. The alteration of oxidation and related properties of metals by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnaley, G.

    1981-01-01

    A review is given of the various ways in which ion implanted additives can affect the thermal oxidation of metals, for example by blocking diffusion paths for ions, by catalytic effects or by altering the plasticity of the oxide. The versatility of the process has already proved useful in the study of oxidation mechanisms. Ways of achieving a long-lasting protection are discussed in relation to the dominant mechanisms of oxidation inhibition. In many practical applications at elevated temperatures oxidation and mechanical stresses co-exist. In steels the process of oxidative wear is important under conditions of poor lubrication and implanted metallic ions have been shown to be effective. In titanium alloys fatigue cracks probably initiate at dislocation sites at which oxidation proceeds most rapidly, and hence the same implanted species can improve both types of behaviour. Successful implantation treatments for fretting fatigue in titanium and a corrosion-erosion problem in steel are described. (orig.)

  4. Physical activity attenuates age-related biomarker alterations in preclinical AD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonkwo, Ozioma C; Schultz, Stephanie A; Oh, Jennifer M; Larson, Jordan; Edwards, Dorothy; Cook, Dane; Koscik, Rebecca; Gallagher, Catherine L; Dowling, N M; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Bendlin, Barbara B; LaRue, Asenath; Rowley, Howard A; Christian, Brad T; Asthana, Sanjay; Hermann, Bruce P; Johnson, Sterling C; Sager, Mark A

    2014-11-04

    To examine whether engagement in physical activity might favorably alter the age-dependent evolution of Alzheimer disease (AD)-related brain and cognitive changes in a cohort of at-risk, late-middle-aged adults. Three hundred seventeen enrollees in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention underwent T1 MRI; a subset also underwent (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B-PET (n = 186) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET (n = 152) imaging. Participants' responses on a self-report measure of current physical activity were used to classify them as either physically active or physically inactive based on American Heart Association guidelines. They also completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Covariate-adjusted regression analyses were used to test whether the adverse effect of age on imaging and cognitive biomarkers was modified by physical activity. There were significant age × physical activity interactions for β-amyloid burden (p = 0.014), glucose metabolism (p = 0.015), and hippocampal volume (p = 0.025) such that, with advancing age, physically active individuals exhibited a lesser degree of biomarker alterations compared with the physically inactive. Similar age × physical activity interactions were also observed on cognitive domains of Immediate Memory (p = 0.042) and Visuospatial Ability (p = 0.016). In addition, the physically active group had higher scores on Speed and Flexibility (p = 0.002) compared with the inactive group. In a middle-aged, at-risk cohort, a physically active lifestyle is associated with an attenuation of the deleterious influence of age on key biomarkers of AD pathophysiology. However, because our observational, cross-sectional design cannot establish causality, randomized controlled trials/longitudinal studies will be necessary for determining whether midlife participation in structured physical exercise forestalls the development of AD and related disorders in later life. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  5. Feather pecking in chickens is genetically related to behavioural and developmental traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, P; Keeling, L; Schütz, K; Andersson, L; Mormède, P; Brändström, H; Forkman, B; Kerje, S; Fredriksson, R; Ohlsson, C; Larsson, S; Mallmin, H; Kindmark, A

    2005-09-15

    effects of sire and dam on the risk of being a victim of feather pecking, and victims grew faster pre- and post-hatching, had lower corticosterone levels and were less active in a restraint test. Hence, a wide array of behavioural and developmental traits were genetically linked to FP.

  6. Impaired postural control in children with developmental coordination disorder is related to less efficient central as well as peripheral control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Speedtsberg, Merete Brink; Christensen, Sofie Bouschinger; Andersen, Ken Kjøller

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a neurodevelopmental impairment that affects approximately 6% of children in primary school age. Children with DCD are characterized by impaired postural control. It has yet to be determined what effect peripheral and central neuromuscular...... control has on their balance control. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms to impaired postural control in children with DCD using the rambling-trembling decomposition of the center of pressure (CoP). METHOD: Nine children with DCD (9.0±0.5years, 7 boys, 2 girls...... with fixed support surface. In ML direction children with DCD had a lower relative contribution of rambling to total sway (p=0.013). CONCLUSION: This study showed that impaired postural control in children with DCD is associated with less efficient supraspinal control represented by increased rambling...

  7. Addiction and Reward-related Genes Show Altered Expression in the Postpartum Nucleus Accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjiu eZhao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Motherhood involves a switch in natural rewards, whereby offspring become highly rewarding. Nucleus accumbens (NAC is a key CNS region for natural rewards and addictions, but to date no study has evaluated on a large scale the events in NAC that underlie the maternal change in natural rewards. In this study we utilized microarray and bioinformatics approaches to evaluate postpartum NAC gene expression changes in mice. Modular Single-set Enrichment Test (MSET indicated that postpartum (relative to virgin NAC gene expression profile was significantly enriched for genes related to addiction and reward in 5 of 5 independently curated databases (e.g., Malacards, Phenopedia. Over 100 addiction/reward related genes were identified and these included: Per1, Per2, Arc, Homer2, Creb1, Grm3, Fosb, Gabrb3, Adra2a, Ntrk2, Cry1, Penk, Cartpt, Adcy1, Npy1r, Htr1a, Drd1a, Gria1, and Pdyn. ToppCluster analysis found maternal NAC expression profile to be significantly enriched for genes related to the drug action of nicotine, ketamine, and dronabinol. Pathway analysis indicated postpartum NAC as enriched for RNA processing, CNS development/differentiation, and transcriptional regulation. Weighted Gene Coexpression Network Analysis identified possible networks for transcription factors, including Nr1d1, Per2, Fosb, Egr1, and Nr4a1. The postpartum state involves increased risk for mental health disorders and MSET analysis indicated postpartum NAC to be enriched for genes related to depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. Mental health related genes included: Fabp7, Grm3, Penk, and Nr1d1. We confirmed via quantitative PCR Nr1d1, Per2, Grm3, Penk, Drd1a, and Pdyn. This study indicates for the first time that postpartum NAC involves large scale gene expression alterations linked to addiction and reward. Because the postpartum state also involves decreased response to drugs, the findings could provide insights into how to mitigate addictions.

  8. Developmental programming and transgenerational transmission of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, M H

    2014-01-01

    The global obesity pandemic is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle, namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high-energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, far less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from environmental perturbations during the early-life period. Human and animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the early-life environment and increased susceptibility to obesity and related metabolic disorders in later life. In particular, altered maternal nutrition, including both undernutrition and maternal obesity, has been shown to lead to transgenerational transmission of metabolic disorders. This association has been conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby the impact of environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the physiology of the offspring. Further, evidence to date suggests that this developmental programming is a transgenerational phenomenon, with a number of studies showing transmission of programming effects to subsequent generations, even in the absence of continued environmental stressors, thus perpetuating a cycle of obesity and metabolic disorders. The mechanisms responsible for these transgenerational effects remain poorly understood; evidence to date suggests a number of potential mechanisms underpinning the transgenerational transmission of the developmentally programmed phenotype through both the maternal and paternal lineage. Transgenerational phenotype transmission is often seen as a form of epigenetic inheritance with evidence showing both germline and somatic inheritance of epigenetic modifications leading to phenotype changes across generations. However, there is also evidence for non-genomic components as well as an interaction between the developing fetus with the in utero

  9. Effects of developmental bisphenol A exposure on reproductive-related behaviors in California mice (Peromyscus californicus: a monogamous animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Williams

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA, a pervasive, endocrine disrupting compound (EDC, acts as a mixed agonist-antagonist with respect to estrogens and other steroid hormones. We hypothesized that sexually selected traits would be particularly sensitive to EDC. Consistent with this concept, developmental exposure of males from the polygynous deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, to BPA resulted in compromised spatial navigational ability and exploratory behaviors, while there was little effect on females. Here, we have examined a related, monogamous species, the California mouse (Peromyscus californicus, where we predicted that males would be less sensitive to BPA in terms of navigational and exploratory behaviors, while displaying other traits related to interactions with females and territorial marking that might be vulnerable to disruption. As in the deer mouse experiments, females were fed either a phytoestrogen-free CTL diet through pregnancy and lactation or the same diet supplemented with BPA (50 mg/kg feed weight or ethinyl estradiol (EE (0.1 part per billion to provide a "pure" estrogen control. After weaning, pups were maintained on CTL diet until they had reached sexual maturity, at which time behaviors were evaluated. In addition, territorial marking was assessed in BPA-exposed males housed alone and when a control male was visible in the testing arena. In contrast to deer mice, BPA and EE exposure had no effect on spatial navigational skills in either male or female California mice. While CTL females exhibited greater exploratory behavior than CTL males, BPA exposure abolished this sex difference. BPA-exposed males, however, engaged in less territorial marking when CTL males were present. These studies demonstrate that developmental BPA exposure can disrupt adult behaviors in a sex- and species-dependent manner and are consistent with the hypothesis that sexually selected traits are particularly vulnerable to endocrine disruption and should be a

  10. Observing purchase-related parent-child communication in retail environments: a developmental and socialization perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    In a quantitative observation study, we unobtrusively examined purchase-related communication between 0- to 12-year-old children and their parents (N= 269 dyads) during supermarket and toy store visits. The aims of the study were to determine (a) the development of purchase-related parent-child

  11. Relative Age Effects in Women's Rugby Union from Developmental Leagues to World Cup Tournaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemez, Srdjan; MacMahon, Clare; Weir, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Annual age cohort groupings promote relative age effects (RAEs), which often, inadvertently, create participation and attainment biases between relatively older and younger players within the same age cohort. In a globally evolving sport, women's rugby team selection practices may potentially bypass qualified players as a result of maturational…

  12. Observing Purchase-Related Parent-Child Communication in Retail Environments: A Developmental and Socialization Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijzen, Moniek; Valkenburg, Patti M.

    2008-01-01

    In a quantitative observation study, we unobtrusively examined purchase-related communication between 0- to 12-year-old children and their parents (N = 269 dyads) during supermarket and toy store visits. The aims of the study were to determine (a) the development of purchase-related parent-child communication (i.e., children's purchase influence…

  13. Trisomy 21 and facial developmental instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, John M; Cole, Theodore M; Reeves, Roger H; Richtsmeier, Joan T

    2013-05-01

    The most common live-born human aneuploidy is trisomy 21, which causes Down syndrome (DS). Dosage imbalance of genes on chromosome 21 (Hsa21) affects complex gene-regulatory interactions and alters development to produce a wide range of phenotypes, including characteristic facial dysmorphology. Little is known about how trisomy 21 alters craniofacial morphogenesis to create this characteristic appearance. Proponents of the "amplified developmental instability" hypothesis argue that trisomy 21 causes a generalized genetic imbalance that disrupts evolutionarily conserved developmental pathways by decreasing developmental homeostasis and precision throughout development. Based on this model, we test the hypothesis that DS faces exhibit increased developmental instability relative to euploid individuals. Developmental instability was assessed by a statistical analysis of fluctuating asymmetry. We compared the magnitude and patterns of fluctuating asymmetry among siblings using three-dimensional coordinate locations of 20 anatomic landmarks collected from facial surface reconstructions in four age-matched samples ranging from 4 to 12 years: (1) DS individuals (n = 55); (2) biological siblings of DS individuals (n = 55); 3) and 4) two samples of typically developing individuals (n = 55 for each sample), who are euploid siblings and age-matched to the DS individuals and their euploid siblings (samples 1 and 2). Identification in the DS sample of facial prominences exhibiting increased fluctuating asymmetry during facial morphogenesis provides evidence for increased developmental instability in DS faces. We found the highest developmental instability in facial structures derived from the mandibular prominence and lowest in facial regions derived from the frontal prominence. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Exploring relational regulation in computer-mediated (collaborative) learning interaction: a developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Puil, Chiel; Andriessen, Jerry; Kanselaar, Gellof

    2004-04-01

    This article presents a qualitative analysis showing the dependency of effective collaborative argumentation on interpersonal relational aspects that develop during synchronous interaction. Four regulatory principles are proposed as propelling the interaction, and of these, autoregulation, or the conservative restraints within the existing relation, appears to be the dominant force. When using a structured dialogue system (SDS), instead of free chat, via roles and sentence-openers, the social dimension of the relation between participants disappears from the surface interaction. Even though using the SDS seems to foster a more focused and task-functional approach, argumentation appears to affect the relations between participants in a negative way, since after an argumentative sequence, repair of the relationship takes place. It might even be argued that, because of relational stress, in many cases, argumentation is momentarily suspended.

  15. Developmental expression of "germline"- and "sex determination"-related genes in the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzel, Adam M; Pang, Kevin; Martindale, Mark Q

    2016-01-01

    An essential developmental pathway in sexually reproducing animals is the specification of germ cells and the differentiation of mature gametes, sperm and oocytes. The "germline" genes vasa, nanos and piwi are commonly identified in primordial germ cells, suggesting a molecular signature for the germline throughout animals. However, these genes are also expressed in a diverse set of somatic stem cells throughout the animal kingdom leaving open significant questions for whether they are required for germline specification. Similarly, members of the Dmrt gene family are essential components regulating sex determination and differentiation in bilaterian animals, but the functions of these transcription factors, including potential roles in sex determination, in early diverging animals remain unknown. The phylogenetic position of ctenophores and the genome sequence of the lobate Mnemiopsis leidyi motivated us to determine the compliment of these gene families in this species and determine expression patterns during development. Our phylogenetic analyses of the vasa, piwi and nanos gene families show that Mnemiopsis has multiple genes in each family with multiple lineage-specific paralogs. Expression domains of Mnemiopsis nanos, vasa and piwi, during embryogenesis from fertilization to the cydippid stage, were diverse, with little overlapping expression and no or little expression in what we think are the germ cells or gametogenic regions. piwi paralogs in Mnemiopsis had distinct expression domains in the ectoderm during development. We observed overlapping expression domains in the apical organ and tentacle apparatus of the cydippid for a subset of "germline genes," which are areas of high cell proliferation, suggesting that these genes are involved with "stem cell" specification and maintenance. Similarly, the five Dmrt genes show diverse non-overlapping expression domains, with no clear evidence for expression in future gametogenic regions of the adult. We also

  16. Relative contribution of different altered motor unit control to muscle weakness in stroke: a simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Henry; Suresh, Nina L.; Zev Rymer, William; Hu, Xiaogang

    2018-02-01

    Objective. Chronic muscle weakness impacts the majority of individuals after a stroke. The origins of this hemiparesis is multifaceted, and an altered spinal control of the motor unit (MU) pool can lead to muscle weakness. However, the relative contribution of different MU recruitment and discharge organization is not well understood. In this study, we sought to examine these different effects by utilizing a MU simulation with variations set to mimic the changes of MU control in stroke. Approach. Using a well-established model of the MU pool, this study quantified the changes in force output caused by changes in MU recruitment range and recruitment order, as well as MU firing rate organization at the population level. We additionally expanded the original model to include a fatigue component, which variably decreased the output force with increasing length of contraction. Differences in the force output at both the peak and fatigued time points across different excitation levels were quantified and compared across different sets of MU parameters. Main results. Across the different simulation parameters, we found that the main driving factor of the reduced force output was due to the compressed range of MU recruitment. Recruitment compression caused a decrease in total force across all excitation levels. Additionally, a compression of the range of MU firing rates also demonstrated a decrease in the force output mainly at the higher excitation levels. Lastly, changes to the recruitment order of MUs appeared to minimally impact the force output. Significance. We found that altered control of MUs alone, as simulated in this study, can lead to a substantial reduction in muscle force generation in stroke survivors. These findings may provide valuable insight for both clinicians and researchers in prescribing and developing different types of therapies for the rehabilitation and restoration of lost strength after stroke.

  17. Neonicotinoid Insecticides Alter Induced Defenses and Increase Susceptibility to Spider Mites in Distantly Related Crop Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepaniec, Adrianna; Raupp, Michael J.; Parker, Roy D.; Kerns, David; Eubanks, Micky D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Chemical suppression of arthropod herbivores is the most common approach to plant protection. Insecticides, however, can cause unintended, adverse consequences for non-target organisms. Previous studies focused on the effects of pesticides on target and non-target pests, predatory arthropods, and concomitant ecological disruptions. Little research, however, has focused on the direct effects of insecticides on plants. Here we demonstrate that applications of neonicotinoid insecticides, one of the most important insecticide classes worldwide, suppress expression of important plant defense genes, alter levels of phytohormones involved in plant defense, and decrease plant resistance to unsusceptible herbivores, spider mites Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), in multiple, distantly related crop plants. Methodology/Principal Findings Using cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), corn (Zea mays) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants, we show that transcription of phenylalanine amonia lyase, coenzyme A ligase, trypsin protease inhibitor and chitinase are suppressed and concentrations of the phytohormone OPDA and salicylic acid were altered by neonicotinoid insecticides. Consequently, the population growth of spider mites increased from 30% to over 100% on neonicotinoid-treated plants in the greenhouse and by nearly 200% in the field experiment. Conclusions/Significance Our findings are important because applications of neonicotinoid insecticides have been associated with outbreaks of spider mites in several unrelated plant species. More importantly, this is the first study to document insecticide-mediated disruption of plant defenses and link it to increased population growth of a non-target herbivore. This study adds to growing evidence that bioactive agrochemicals can have unanticipated ecological effects and suggests that the direct effects of insecticides on plant defenses should be considered when the ecological costs of insecticides are evaluated. PMID

  18. Social network size relates to developmental neural sensitivity to biological motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Kirby

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability to perceive others’ actions and goals from human motion (i.e., biological motion perception is a critical component of social perception and may be linked to the development of real-world social relationships. Adult research demonstrates two key nodes of the brain’s biological motion perception system—amygdala and posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS—are linked to variability in social network properties. The relation between social perception and social network properties, however, has not yet been investigated in middle childhood—a time when individual differences in social experiences and social perception are growing. The aims of this study were to (1 replicate past work showing amygdala and pSTS sensitivity to biological motion in middle childhood; (2 examine age-related changes in the neural sensitivity for biological motion, and (3 determine whether neural sensitivity for biological motion relates to social network characteristics in children. Consistent with past work, we demonstrate a significant relation between social network size and neural sensitivity for biological motion in left pSTS, but do not find age-related change in biological motion perception. This finding offers evidence for the interplay between real-world social experiences and functional brain development and has important implications for understanding disorders of atypical social experience. Keywords: Biological motion, Social networks, Middle childhood, Neural specialization, Brain-behavior relations, pSTS

  19. Field Trip Guide to Serpentinite, Silica-Carbonate Alteration, and Related Hydrothermal Activity in the Clear Lake Region, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser Goff; George Guthrie

    1999-06-01

    This guide is designed to familiarize scientists with the geology, structure, alteration, and fluids typical of California serpentinites for purposes of carbon dioxide sequestration (Lackner et al., 1995). Goff et al. (1997) and Goff and Lackner (1998) describe the geology and geochemistry of some of the serpentinites from this area. Mechanisms of silica-carbonate alteration were outlined by Barnes et al. (1973). Donnelly-Nolan et al. (1993) most recently reviewed relations between regional hydrothermal alteration and Quarternary volcanic activity. Stanley et al. (1998) summarized geophysical characteristics of the region.

  20. Age-related alteration in the composition of immunocompetent blood cells in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Bloom, E.T.; Makinodan, Takashi; California Univ., Los Angeles

    1988-01-01

    1328 survivors of Hiroshima were studied for alterations in the number of blood lymphocytes belonging to T-cell subpopulations, CD19 antigen-positive B cells and Leu 7 and CD16 antigen-positive lymphocytes. With increasing age, significant decreasing trends in the numbers of some lymphocytes in T-cell subpopulations and of B-cells were seen. The number of blood lymphocytes positive for CD5 antigen was significantly lower in those exposed to radiation (> 1Gy) in the older age group (more than 30 years at the time of bombing) and a similar tendency for decreases in the numbers of CD4, CD8, and CD19 antigen-positive cells was observed, but differences were not significant. The results suggest aging of the T-cell related immune system is accelerated in the irradiated people of advanced age, explained by the age-related decrease in thymic function in those subjects. The number of Leu 7 or CD19 antigen-positive cells was found to be increased significantly in the older age group compared to the younger, although there was little dose dependence. (U.K.)

  1. Mindfulness meditation training alters stress-related amygdala resting state functional connectivity: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taren, Adrienne A; Gianaros, Peter J; Greco, Carol M; Lindsay, Emily K; Fairgrieve, April; Brown, Kirk Warren; Rosen, Rhonda K; Ferris, Jennifer L; Julson, Erica; Marsland, Anna L; Bursley, James K; Ramsburg, Jared; Creswell, J David

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that mindfulness meditation training interventions reduce stress and improve stress-related health outcomes, but the neural pathways for these effects are unknown. The present research evaluates whether mindfulness meditation training alters resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the amygdala, a region known to coordinate stress processing and physiological stress responses. We show in an initial discovery study that higher perceived stress over the past month is associated with greater bilateral amygdala-subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) rsFC in a sample of community adults (n = 130). A follow-up, single-blind randomized controlled trial shows that a 3-day intensive mindfulness meditation training intervention (relative to a well-matched 3-day relaxation training intervention without a mindfulness component) reduced right amygdala-sgACC rsFC in a sample of stressed unemployed community adults (n = 35). Although stress may increase amygdala-sgACC rsFC, brief training in mindfulness meditation could reverse these effects. This work provides an initial indication that mindfulness meditation training promotes functional neuroplastic changes, suggesting an amygdala-sgACC pathway for stress reduction effects. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Event-related potentials elicited during working memory are altered in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Zunini, Rocío A; Knoefel, Frank; Lord, Courtney; Dzuali, Fiatsogbe; Breau, Michael; Sweet, Lisa; Goubran, Rafik; Taler, Vanessa

    2016-11-01

    Persons with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) can experience deficits in working memory. In the present study, we investigated working memory in persons with MCI and cognitively healthy older adults using event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants performed an n-back working memory task with baseline (0-back), low load (1-back), and high load (2-back) working memory conditions. MCI participants' performance was less accurate than that of healthy older adults in both the 1-back and 2-back conditions, and reaction times were longer in MCI than control participants in the 0-back, 1-back and 2-back conditions. ERP analyses revealed delayed P200 and N200 latencies and smaller P300 amplitudes in MCI relative to control participants in the 0-back, 1-back and 2-back conditions. Deterioration in working memory performance concomitant with marked electrophysiological alterations suggests that persons with MCI exhibit deficits in several cognitive processes that include early attention, stimulus discrimination and classification, and updating and manipulation of information held in working memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Stress-Related Alterations of Visceral Sensation: Animal Models for Irritable Bowel Syndrome Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulak, Agata; Taché, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    Stressors of different psychological, physical or immune origin play a critical role in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome participating in symptoms onset, clinical presentation as well as treatment outcome. Experimental stress models applying a variety of acute and chronic exteroceptive or interoceptive stressors have been developed to target different periods throughout the lifespan of animals to assess the vulnerability, the trigger and perpetuating factors determining stress influence on visceral sensitivity and interactions within the brain-gut axis. Recent evidence points towards adequate construct and face validity of experimental models developed with respect to animals' age, sex, strain differences and specific methodological aspects such as non-invasive monitoring of visceromotor response to colorectal distension as being essential in successful identification and evaluation of novel therapeutic targets aimed at reducing stress-related alterations in visceral sensitivity. Underlying mechanisms of stress-induced modulation of visceral pain involve a combination of peripheral, spinal and supraspinal sensitization based on the nature of the stressors and dysregulation of descending pathways that modulate nociceptive transmission or stress-related analgesic response. PMID:21860814

  4. Health-related quality of life, developmental milestones, and self-esteem in young adults with bleeding disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limperg, P. F.; Haverman, L.; Maurice-Stam, H.; Coppens, M.; Valk, C.; Kruip, M. J. H. A.; Eikenboom, J.; Peters, M.; Grootenhuis, M. A.

    2018-01-01

    The treatment of bleeding disorders improved in the last decades. However, the effect of growing up with bleeding disorders on developmental, emotional, and social aspects is understudied. Therefore, this study assesses HRQOL, developmental milestones, and self-esteem in Dutch young adults (YA) with

  5. Health-related quality of life, developmental milestones, and self-esteem in young adults with bleeding disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limperg, P.F. (P. F.); L. Haverman (Lotte); H. Maurice-Stam (Heleen); M. Coppens; Valk, C. (C.); M.J.H.A. Kruip (Marieke); J.C.J. Eikenboom (Jeroen); M. Peters; M.A. Grootenhuis (Martha)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The treatment of bleeding disorders improved in the last decades. However, the effect of growing up with bleeding disorders on developmental, emotional, and social aspects is understudied. Therefore, this study assesses HRQOL, developmental milestones, and self-esteem in

  6. Developmental Trajectories of Chinese Children's Relational and Physical Aggression: Associations with Social-Psychological Adjustment Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this short-term longitudinal study was to examine Chinese children's trajectories of physical and relational aggression and their association with social-psychological adjustment problems (i.e., depressive symptoms and delinquency) and gender. Fourth and fifth grade children in Taiwan (n = 739, age 9-11) were followed across 1 year.…

  7. Gender Differences in Predicting Antisocial Behaviors: Developmental Consequences of Physical and Relational Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, Amber D.; Snyder, James

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences in the relationship of early physical and relational aggression to later peer rejection and overt and covert antisocial behaviors. Significant gender differences were found indicating physically aggressive boys were more likely than girls to experience later peer rejection. Early physical aggression was…

  8. The Function of Repeating: The Relation between Word Class and Repetition Type in Developmental Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhr, Anthony P.; Jones, Robin M.; Conture, Edward G.; Kelly, Ellen M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is already known that preschool-age children who stutter (CWS) tend to stutter on function words at the beginning of sentences. It is also known that phonological errors potentially resulting in part-word repetitions tend to occur on content words. However, the precise relation between word class and repetition type in preschool-age…

  9. Developmental Relations between Alcohol Expectancies and Social Norms in Predicting Alcohol Onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Tim; Treloar Padovano, Hayley; Merrill, Jennifer E.; Jackson, Kristina M.

    2018-01-01

    Expectations about alcohol's effects and perceptions of peers' behaviors and beliefs related to alcohol use are each shown to strongly influence the timing of drinking onset during adolescence. The present study builds on prior work by examining the conjoint effects of within-person changes in these social-cognitive factors on age of adolescent…

  10. Developmental Differences in Relational Reasoning among Primary and Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablansky, Sophie; Alexander, Patricia A.; Dumas, Denis; Compton, Vicki

    2016-01-01

    Relational reasoning, the ability to discern meaningful patterns within a stream of information, is considered a critical capacity for students. However, little is known about how this ability is demonstrated by children of different ages in the context of discourse with a more knowledgeable other. Thus, this study sought to investigate the ways…

  11. Implicit Phonological and Semantic Processing in Children with Developmental Dyslexia: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jednorog, K.; Marchewka, A.; Tacikowski, P.; Grabowska, A.

    2010-01-01

    Dyslexia is characterized by a core phonological deficit, although recent studies indicate that semantic impairment also contributes to this condition. In this study, event-related potentials (ERP) were used to examine whether the N400 wave in dyslexic children is modulated by phonological or semantic priming, similarly to age-matched controls.…

  12. Ontogeny of Sex-Related Differences in Foetal Developmental Features, Lipid Availability and Fatty Acid Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consolacion Garcia-Contreras

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sex-related differences in lipid availability and fatty acid composition during swine foetal development were investigated. Plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in the mother were strongly related to the adequacy or inadequacy of foetal development and concomitant activation of protective growth in some organs (brain, heart, liver and spleen. Cholesterol and triglyceride availability was similar in male and female offspring, but female foetuses showed evidence of higher placental transfer of essential fatty acids and synthesis of non-essential fatty acids in muscle and liver. These sex-related differences affected primarily the neutral lipid fraction (triglycerides, which may lead to sex-related postnatal differences in energy partitioning. These results illustrate the strong influence of the maternal lipid profile on foetal development and homeorhesis, and they confirm and extend previous reports that female offspring show better adaptive responses to maternal malnutrition than male offspring. These findings may help guide dietary interventions to ensure adequate fatty acid availability for postnatal development.

  13. Developmental Sex Differences in the Relation of Neuroanatomical Connectivity to Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmithorst, Vincent J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging research has shown sex-related differences in the relationship between brain structure and cognitive function. Anatomical studies have shown a greater reliance for cognitive function on white matter structure in adult females, and a greater reliance on gray matter structure in adult males. Functional neuroimaging studies have…

  14. Developmental Pathway Genes and Neural Plasticity Underlying Emotional Learning and Stress-Related Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheau, Marissa E.; Ressler, Kerry J.

    2017-01-01

    The manipulation of neural plasticity as a means of intervening in the onset and progression of stress-related disorders retains its appeal for many researchers, despite our limited success in translating such interventions from the laboratory to the clinic. Given the challenges of identifying individual genetic variants that confer increased risk…

  15. Recent Advances in Developmental Pediatrics Related to Achievement and Social Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Wendy S.; Barabas, Gabor

    1985-01-01

    Recent advances related to the achievement and school behavior in children with tic syndromes, seizure disorders, and minor physical anomolies are discussed. The role of the school psychologist as liaison between the pupil's teacher, family, and physician is described, as well as his or her role with the children themselves. (Author/EGS)

  16. Developmental and functional expression of miRNA-stability related genes in the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Érica; Walter, Lais Takata; Higa, Guilherme Shigueto Vilar; Casado, Otávio Augusto Nocera; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    In the nervous system, control of gene expression by microRNAs (miRNAs) has been investigated in fundamental processes, such as development and adaptation to ambient demands. The action of these short nucleotide sequences on specific genes depends on intracellular concentration, which in turn reflects the balance of biosynthesis and degradation. Whereas mechanisms underlying miRNA biogenesis has been investigated in recent studies, little is known about miRNA-stability related proteins. We first detected two genes in the retina that have been associated to miRNA stability, XRN2 and PAPD4. These genes are highly expressed during retinal development, however with distinct subcellular localization. We investigated whether these proteins are regulated during specific phases of the cell cycle. Combined analyses of nuclei position in neuroblastic layer and labeling using anti-cyclin D1 revealed that both proteins do not accumulate in S or M phases of the cell cycle, being poorly expressed in progenitor cells. Indeed, XRN2 and PAPD4 were observed mainly after neuronal differentiation, since low expression was also observed in astrocytes, endothelial and microglial cells. XRN2 and PAPD4 are expressed in a wide variety of neurons, including horizontal, amacrine and ganglion cells. To evaluate the functional role of both genes, we carried out experiments addressed to the retinal adaptation in response to different ambient light conditions. PAPD4 is upregulated after 3 and 24 hours of dark- adaptation, revealing that accumulation of this protein is governed by ambient light levels. Indeed, the fast and functional regulation of PAPD4 was not related to changes in gene expression, disclosing that control of protein levels occurs by post-transcriptional mechanisms. Furthermore, we were able to quantify changes in PAPD4 in specific amacrine cells after dark -adaptation, suggesting for circuitry-related roles in visual perception. In summary, in this study we first described the

  17. Developmental and Functional Expression of miRNA-Stability Related Genes in the Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    de Sousa, ?rica; Walter, Lais Takata; Higa, Guilherme Shigueto Vilar; Casado, Ot?vio Augusto Nocera; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    In the nervous system, control of gene expression by microRNAs (miRNAs) has been investigated in fundamental processes, such as development and adaptation to ambient demands. The action of these short nucleotide sequences on specific genes depends on intracellular concentration, which in turn reflects the balance of biosynthesis and degradation. Whereas mechanisms underlying miRNA biogenesis has been investigated in recent studies, little is known about miRNA-stability related proteins. We fi...

  18. Does relative body fat influence the Movement ABC-2 assessment in children with and without developmental coordination disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faught, Brent E; Demetriades, Stephen; Hay, John; Cairney, John

    2013-12-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a condition that results in an impairment of gross and/or fine motor coordination. Compromised motor coordination contributes to lower levels of physical activity, which is associated with elevated body fat. The impact of elevated body fat on motor coordination diagnostic assessments in children with DCD has not been established. The purpose of this study was to determine if relative body fat influences performance on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, 2nd Edition (MABC-2) test items in children with and without DCD. A nested case-control, design was conducted within the Physical Health Activity Study Team longitudinal cohort study. The MABC-2 was used to assess motor coordination to categorize cases and matched controls. Relative body fat was assessed using whole body air displacement plethysmography. Relative body fat was negatively associated with the MABC-2 "balance" subcategory after adjusting for physical activity and DCD status. Relative body fat did not influence the subcategories of "manual dexterity" or "aiming and catching". Item analysis of the three balance tasks indicated that relative body fat significantly influences both "2-board balance" and "zig-zag hopping", but not "walking heel-toe backwards". Children with higher levels of relative body fat do not perform as well on the MABC-2, regardless of whether the have DCD or not. Dynamic balance test items are most negatively influenced by body fat. Health practitioners and researchers should be aware that body fat can influence results when interpreting MABC-2 test scores. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Time related alterations in digestibility and faecal characteristics as affected by dietary composition in the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amirkolaie, A.K.; Schrama, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    After being shifted to a new diet, time related alterations in digestibility, faecal waste production and faeces recovery in Nile tilapia were assessed in relation with dietary ingredient composition. Four experimental diets were formulated according to a 2 by 2 factorial design: two starch

  20. Developmental and functional expression of miRNA-stability related genes in the nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica de Sousa

    Full Text Available In the nervous system, control of gene expression by microRNAs (miRNAs has been investigated in fundamental processes, such as development and adaptation to ambient demands. The action of these short nucleotide sequences on specific genes depends on intracellular concentration, which in turn reflects the balance of biosynthesis and degradation. Whereas mechanisms underlying miRNA biogenesis has been investigated in recent studies, little is known about miRNA-stability related proteins. We first detected two genes in the retina that have been associated to miRNA stability, XRN2 and PAPD4. These genes are highly expressed during retinal development, however with distinct subcellular localization. We investigated whether these proteins are regulated during specific phases of the cell cycle. Combined analyses of nuclei position in neuroblastic layer and labeling using anti-cyclin D1 revealed that both proteins do not accumulate in S or M phases of the cell cycle, being poorly expressed in progenitor cells. Indeed, XRN2 and PAPD4 were observed mainly after neuronal differentiation, since low expression was also observed in astrocytes, endothelial and microglial cells. XRN2 and PAPD4 are expressed in a wide variety of neurons, including horizontal, amacrine and ganglion cells. To evaluate the functional role of both genes, we carried out experiments addressed to the retinal adaptation in response to different ambient light conditions. PAPD4 is upregulated after 3 and 24 hours of dark- adaptation, revealing that accumulation of this protein is governed by ambient light levels. Indeed, the fast and functional regulation of PAPD4 was not related to changes in gene expression, disclosing that control of protein levels occurs by post-transcriptional mechanisms. Furthermore, we were able to quantify changes in PAPD4 in specific amacrine cells after dark -adaptation, suggesting for circuitry-related roles in visual perception. In summary, in this study we

  1. Introgression from cultivated rice alters genetic structures of wild relative populations: implications for in situ conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xin; Chen, Yu; Liu, Ping; Li, Chen; Cai, Xingxing; Rong, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Maintaining genetic integrity is essential for in situ and ex situ conservation of crop wild relative (CWR) species. However, introgression of crop alleles into CWR species/populations may change their genetic structure and diversity, resulting in more invasive weeds or, in contrast, the extinction of endangered populations. To determine crop-wild introgression and its consequences, we examined the genetic structure and diversity of six wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) populations under in situ conservation in China. Thirty-four simple sequence repeat (SSR) and 34 insertion/deletion markers were used to genotype the wild rice populations and two sets of rice cultivars (O. sativa), corresponding to the two types of molecular markers. Shared alleles and STRUCTURE analyses suggested a variable level of crop-wild introgression and admixture. Principal coordinates and cluster analyses indicated differentiation of wild rice populations, which was associated with the spatial distances to cultivated rice fields. The level of overall genetic diversity was comparable between wild rice populations and rice cultivars, but a great number of wild-specific alleles was detected in the wild populations. We conclude based on the results that crop-wild introgression can considerably alter the pattern of genetic structure and relationships of CWR populations. Appropriate measures should be taken for effective in situ conservation of CWR species under the scenario of crop-wild introgression. PMID:29308123

  2. Electrocardiographic alteration among first degree relatives with serologic evidence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection: a sibship study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio C. Morini

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available To analyze whether electrocardiographic alterations (ECGA in patients with antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi showed a patttern of familial aggregation, a sample of 379 young adults (166 men and 213 women distributed in sibships, were assessed for the presence of anti-T.cruzi antibodies, and subjected to a complete clinical examination and a standard resting electrocardiogram (ECG. Positive T. cruzi serology was detected in 165 individuals, 48 of them showing an abnormal ECG (overall prevalence 29 por cento. One hundred and eleven seropositive individuals were distributed in 45 sibships, each of them constituted by more than one seropositive sib, with ECGA being present in 34 out of these patients. Seropositive subjects with ECGA were detected in 27 sibships. Since the index case within each sibship is counted exactly once, affected individuals selected at random as propositi were extracted to calculate the prevalence of ECGA among first degree relatives of probands. Abnormal ECGs were recorded in 7 out of 45 sibs yielding a prevalence that did not differ from estimations registered in the general population or seropositive sibs. Data from the present sample show no familial aggregation for the occurrence of ECGA in patients with T.cruzi infection.

  3. Calcitonin gene-related peptide alters the firing rates of hypothalamic temperature sensitive and insensitive neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimm Eleanor R

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transient hyperthermic shifts in body temperature have been linked to the endogenous hormone calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, which can increase sympathetic activation and metabolic heat production. Recent studies have demonstrated that these centrally mediated responses may result from CGRP dependent changes in the activity of thermoregulatory neurons in the preoptic and anterior regions of the hypothalamus (POAH. Results Using a tissue slice preparation, we recorded the single-unit activity of POAH neurons from the adult male rat, in response to temperature and CGRP (10 μM. Based on the slope of firing rate as a function of temperature, neurons were classified as either warm sensitive or temperature insensitive. All warm sensitive neurons responded to CGRP with a significant decrease in firing rate. While CGRP did not alter the firing rates of some temperature insensitive neurons, responsive neurons showed an increase in firing rate. Conclusion With respect to current models of thermoregulatory control, these CGRP dependent changes in firing rate would result in hyperthermia. This suggests that both warm sensitive and temperature insensitive neurons in the POAH may play a role in producing this hyperthermic shift in temperature.

  4. Arsenic-induced alteration in the expression of genes related to type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Villasenor, Andrea; Burns, Anna L.; Hiriart, Marcia; Cebrian, Mariano E.; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Chronic exposure to high concentrations of arsenic in drinking water is associated with an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes. The present revision focuses on the effect of arsenic on tissues that participate directly in glucose homeostasis, integrating the most important published information about the impairment of the expression of genes related to type 2 diabetes by arsenic as one of the possible mechanisms by which it leads to the disease. Many factors are involved in the manner in which arsenic contributes to the occurrence of diabetes. The reviewed studies suggest that arsenic might increase the risk for type 2 diabetes via multiple mechanisms, affecting a cluster of regulated events, which in conjunction trigger the disease. Arsenic affects insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissue by modifying the expression of genes involved in insulin resistance and shifting away cells from differentiation to the proliferation pathway. In the liver arsenic disturbs glucose production, whereas in pancreatic beta-cells arsenic decreases insulin synthesis and secretion and reduces the expression of antioxidant enzymes. The consequences of these changes in gene expression include the reduction of insulin secretion, induction of oxidative stress in the pancreas, alteration of gluconeogenesis, abnormal proliferation and differentiation pattern of muscle and adipocytes as well as peripheral insulin resistance

  5. Age-dependent alterations of monocyte subsets and monocyte-related chemokine pathways in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trautwein Christian

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent experimental approaches have unraveled essential migratory and functional differences of monocyte subpopulations in mice. In order to possibly translate these findings into human physiology and pathophysiology, human monocyte subsets need to be carefully revisited in health and disease. In analogy to murine studies, we hypothesized that human monocyte subsets dynamically change during ageing, potentially influencing their functionality and contributing to immunosenescence. Results Circulating monocyte subsets, surface marker and chemokine receptor expression were analyzed in 181 healthy volunteers (median age 42, range 18-88. Unlike the unaffected total leukocyte or total monocyte counts, non-classical CD14+CD16+ monocytes significantly increased with age, but displayed reduced HLA-DR and CX3CR1 surface expression in the elderly. Classical CD14++CD16- monocyte counts did not vary dependent on age. Serum MCP-1 (CCL2, but not MIP1α (CCL3, MIP1β (CCL4 or fractalkine (CX3CL1 concentrations increased with age. Monocyte-derived macrophages from old or young individuals did not differ with respect to cytokine release in vitro at steady state or upon LPS stimulation. Conclusions Our study demonstrates dynamic changes of circulating monocytes during ageing in humans. The expansion of the non-classical CD14+CD16+ subtype, alterations of surface protein and chemokine receptor expression as well as circulating monocyte-related chemokines possibly contribute to the preserved functionality of the monocyte pool throughout adulthood.

  6. Developmental pathway genes and neural plasticity underlying emotional learning and stress-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheu, Marissa E; Ressler, Kerry J

    2017-09-01

    The manipulation of neural plasticity as a means of intervening in the onset and progression of stress-related disorders retains its appeal for many researchers, despite our limited success in translating such interventions from the laboratory to the clinic. Given the challenges of identifying individual genetic variants that confer increased risk for illnesses like depression and post-traumatic stress disorder, some have turned their attention instead to focusing on so-called "master regulators" of plasticity that may provide a means of controlling these potentially impaired processes in psychiatric illnesses. The mammalian homolog of Tailless (TLX), Wnt, and the homeoprotein Otx2 have all been proposed to constitute master regulators of different forms of plasticity which have, in turn, each been implicated in learning and stress-related disorders. In the present review, we provide an overview of the changing distribution of these genes and their roles both during development and in the adult brain. We further discuss how their distinct expression profiles provide clues as to their function, and may inform their suitability as candidate drug targets in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. © 2017 Maheu and Ressler; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  7. Child anxiety symptoms related to longitudinal cortisol trajectories and acute stress responses: evidence of developmental stress sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Gilliam, Kathryn S; Wright, Dorianne B; Fisher, Philip A

    2015-02-01

    Cross-sectional research suggests that individuals at risk for internalizing disorders show differential activation levels and/or dynamics of stress-sensitive physiological systems, possibly reflecting a process of stress sensitization. However, there is little longitudinal research to clarify how the development of these systems over time relates to activation during acute stress, and how aspects of such activation map onto internalizing symptoms. We investigated children's (n = 107) diurnal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity via salivary cortisol (morning and evening levels) across 29 assessments spanning 6+ years, and related longitudinal patterns to acute stress responses at the end of this period (age 9-10). Associations with child psychiatric symptoms at age 10 were also examined to determine internalizing risk profiles. Increasing morning cortisol levels across assessments predicted less of a cortisol decline following interpersonal stress at age 9, and higher cortisol levels during performance stress at age 10. These same profiles of high and/or sustained cortisol elevation during psychosocial stress were associated with child anxiety symptoms. Results suggest developmental sensitization to stress-reflected in rising morning cortisol and eventual hyperactivation during acute stress exposure-may distinguish children at risk for internalizing disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Developmental and ethnic issues experienced by emerging adult African American women related to developing a mature love relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Sheryl Y

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored perspectives of emerging adult African American women on the development of mature love relationships. Inductive analysis of focus group interviews, conducted with a purposive sample of 31 African American women, yielded themes related to relationship goals and characteristics, and interpersonal and societal challenges to finding the right partner and developing a mature love relationship. Core categories that emerged from analysis of the discussions were (1) age and relationship goal differences within the emerging adult group, (2) mature love relationship goals and characteristics, (3) interpersonal obstacles to finding the right partner, and (4) societal obstacles to finding the right partner. Two approaches-black womanist/feminist thought (Collins, 2000 ; Walker, 1983 ) and relationship maturity theory (Paul & White, 1990 )-were then combined to explain the influence of historic and contemporary interpersonal and societal factors on developmental and ethnic issues that challenge positive gender identity formation, hasten intimacy maturity, and hinder the development of mature love relationships among emerging adult African American women. For these women, premature responsibility, especially early caregiver burden, was related to the early development of intimacy capacity and the desire for a mature love relationship, to be protected, and to have someone to help carry the load. Interracial dating, negative stereotypic images of African American women, and even positive images of enduring black love relationships posed difficult challenges to positive identity formation and intimacy maturity. A primary challenge was to counteract negative stereotypic images, so that they could develop their own self-identities as women and as relationship partners.

  9. Age- and gender-related hemorheological alterations in intestinal ischemia-reperfusion in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mester, Anita; Magyar, Zsuzsanna; Molnar, Akos; Somogyi, Viktoria; Tanczos, Bence; Peto, Katalin; Nemeth, Norbert

    2018-05-01

    Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is a life-threatening clinical disorder. During I/R, the microrheological parameters of blood (red blood cell deformability and aggregation) worsen, which may contribute to microcirculatory deterioration. Age and gender also have a great influence on hemorheological parameters. We aimed to investigate the gender and age-related microrheological alterations during intestinal I/R. After the cannulation of the left femoral artery, median laparotomy was performed in Crl:WI rats under general anesthesia. In the young control animals there were no other interventions (female n = 7; male n = 7). In the young (female n = 7; male n = 7) and older I/R groups (female n = 6; male n = 6), the superior mesenteric artery was clipped for 30 min, and a 120-min reperfusion period was observed afterward. Blood samples were taken before and at the 30-min ischemia, in the 30th, 60th, and 120th min of the reperfusion. Hematological parameters, erythrocyte deformability, and aggregation were determined. Hematocrit increased significantly in the younger female I/R group. Red blood cell count was higher in male and older animals. In case of white blood cell count, male animals had higher values compared with females. Platelet count elevated in the younger male and older female I/R animals. Red blood cell deformability worsened, mainly in the male and older I/R groups. Enhanced erythrocyte aggregation was seen in all groups, being more expressed in the female I/R groups. Microrheological parameters show gender and age-related differences during intestinal I/R. These observations have importance in the planning and evaluation of experimental data. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Research on structure-alteration zone related to uranium mineralization and its exploration significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xianfang; Liu Dechang; Ye Fawang; Dong Xiuzhen; Yang Xu Zhang Hongguang

    2008-01-01

    The paper is focused on recommending geological characteristics of structure-alteration zone which is found from image interpretation in Bashibulake District, north of Tarim Basin, expounding remote sensing information enhancement and extraction technique, analyzing image feature, genetic mechanism and discussing the relationship between uranium mineralization and structure-alteration zone. A new discovery is raised through applying remote sensing information analysis and geologic analysis, that is, the uranium deposits in Bashibulake District are controlled by structure-alteration zone. The new understanding provides a new view point for reconsidering main controlling factors and uranium mineralization distribution in the area. It is helpful for further reconnaissance and exploration in the area. (authors)

  11. Developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucian, Karin; von Aster, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Numerical skills are essential in our everyday life, and impairments in the development of number processing and calculation have a negative impact on schooling and professional careers. Approximately 3 to 6 % of children are affected from specific disorders of numerical understanding (developmental dyscalculia (DD)). Impaired development of number processing skills in these children is characterized by problems in various aspects of numeracy as well as alterations of brain activation and brain structure. Moreover, DD is assumed to be a very heterogeneous disorder putting special challenges to define homogeneous diagnostic criteria. Finally, interdisciplinary perspectives from psychology, neuroscience and education can contribute to the design for interventions, and although results are still sparse, they are promising and have shown positive effects on behaviour as well as brain function. In the current review, we are going to give an overview about typical and atypical development of numerical abilities at the behavioural and neuronal level. Furthermore, current status and obstacles in the definition and diagnostics of DD are discussed, and finally, relevant points that should be considered to make an intervention as successful as possible are summarized.

  12. 4D Flow Analysis of BAV-Related Fluid-Dynamic Alterations: Evidences of Wall Shear Stress Alterations in Absence of Clinically-Relevant Aortic Anatomical Remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Piatti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV is the most common congenital cardiac disease and is a foremost risk factor for aortopathies. Despite the genetic basis of BAV and of the associated aortopathies, BAV-related alterations in aortic fluid-dynamics, and particularly in wall shear stresses (WSSs, likely play a role in the progression of aortopathy, and may contribute to its pathogenesis. To test whether WSS may trigger aortopathy, in this study we used 4D Flow sequences of phase-contrast cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR to quantitatively compare the in vivo fluid dynamics in the thoracic aorta of two groups of subjects: (i five prospectively enrolled young patients with normo-functional BAV and with no aortic dilation and (ii ten age-matched healthy volunteers. Through the semi-automated processing of 4D Flow data, the aortic bulk flow at peak systole was quantified, and WSSs acting on the endothelium of the ascending aorta were characterized throughout the systolic phase in terms of magnitude and time-dependency through a method recently developed by our group. Variables computed for each BAV patient were compared vs. the corresponding distribution of values obtained for healthy controls. In BAV patients, ascending aorta diameter was measured on cine-CMR images at baseline and at 3-year follow-up. As compared to controls, normo-functional BAV patients were characterized by minor bulk flow disturbances at peak systole. However, they were characterized by evident alterations of WSS distribution and peak values in the ascending aorta. In particular, in four BAV patients, who were characterized by right-left leaflet fusion, WSS peak values exceeded by 27–46% the 90th percentile of the distribution obtained for healthy volunteers. Only in the BAV patient with right-non-coronary leaflet fusion the same threshold was exceeded by 132%. Also, evident alterations in the time-dependency of WSS magnitude and direction were observed. Despite, these fluid

  13. Organophosphate-Related Alterations in Myelin and Axonal Transport in the Living Mammalian Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    stress, impairments of mitochondrial function, neuroinflammation, altered neurotrophin responses, etc. (reviewed, Soltaninejad and Abdollahi, 2009...Exposure to Chlorpyrifos in Rats: Protracted Effects on Axonal Transport, Neurotrophin Receptors, Cholinergic Markers, and Information Processing

  14. Methyl parathion inhibits the nuclear maturation, decreases the cytoplasmic quality in oocytes and alters the developmental potential of embryos of Swiss albino mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Ramya; Singh, Vikram Jeet; Salian, Sujith Raj [Division of Clinical Embryology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India); Kalthur, Sneha Guruprasad; D' Souza, Antony Sylvan [Department of Anatomy, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India); Shetty, Pallavi K.; Mutalik, Srinivas [Department of Pharmaceutics, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India); Kalthur, Guruprasad, E-mail: guru.kalthur@manipal.edu [Division of Clinical Embryology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India); Adiga, Satish Kumar [Division of Clinical Embryology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India)

    2014-09-15

    Methyl parathion (MP) is one of the most commonly used and extremely toxic organophosphorous group of pesticide. A large number of studies in the literature suggest that it has adverse effects on the male reproductive system. However, there is limited information about its toxicity to the female reproductive system. In the present study we report the toxic effects of methyl parathion on the female reproductive system using Swiss albino mice as the experimental model. The female mice were administered orally with 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg of MP. One week later, the mice were superovulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) to study the quality of the oocytes, spindle organization, developmental potential of early embryos and the DNA integrity in blastocysts. MP exposure resulted in a non-significant decrease in the number of primordial follicles and increased DNA damage in granulosa cells. Though MP did not have any effect on the ovulation it had a significant inhibitory effect on the nuclear maturity of oocytes which was associated with spindle deformity. In addition, the oocytes had higher cytoplasmic abnormalities with depleted glutathione level. Even though it did not have any effect on the fertilization and blastocyst rate at lower doses, at 20 mg/kg MP it resulted in a significant decrease in blastocyst hatching, decrease in cell number and high DNA damage. While low body weight gain was observed in F1 generation from 5 mg/kg group, at higher dose, the body weight in F1 generation was marginally higher than control. Post-natal death in F1 generation was observed only in mice treated with 20 mg/kg MP. In conclusion, we report that MP has adverse effects on the oocyte quality, developmental potential of the embryo and reproductive outcome. - Highlights: • Methyl parathion induces severe cytoplasmic abnormalities in oocytes. • Inhibits nuclear maturation and spindle damage • Poor blastocyst quality and high DNA

  15. Methyl parathion inhibits the nuclear maturation, decreases the cytoplasmic quality in oocytes and alters the developmental potential of embryos of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Ramya; Singh, Vikram Jeet; Salian, Sujith Raj; Kalthur, Sneha Guruprasad; D'Souza, Antony Sylvan; Shetty, Pallavi K.; Mutalik, Srinivas; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Methyl parathion (MP) is one of the most commonly used and extremely toxic organophosphorous group of pesticide. A large number of studies in the literature suggest that it has adverse effects on the male reproductive system. However, there is limited information about its toxicity to the female reproductive system. In the present study we report the toxic effects of methyl parathion on the female reproductive system using Swiss albino mice as the experimental model. The female mice were administered orally with 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg of MP. One week later, the mice were superovulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) to study the quality of the oocytes, spindle organization, developmental potential of early embryos and the DNA integrity in blastocysts. MP exposure resulted in a non-significant decrease in the number of primordial follicles and increased DNA damage in granulosa cells. Though MP did not have any effect on the ovulation it had a significant inhibitory effect on the nuclear maturity of oocytes which was associated with spindle deformity. In addition, the oocytes had higher cytoplasmic abnormalities with depleted glutathione level. Even though it did not have any effect on the fertilization and blastocyst rate at lower doses, at 20 mg/kg MP it resulted in a significant decrease in blastocyst hatching, decrease in cell number and high DNA damage. While low body weight gain was observed in F1 generation from 5 mg/kg group, at higher dose, the body weight in F1 generation was marginally higher than control. Post-natal death in F1 generation was observed only in mice treated with 20 mg/kg MP. In conclusion, we report that MP has adverse effects on the oocyte quality, developmental potential of the embryo and reproductive outcome. - Highlights: • Methyl parathion induces severe cytoplasmic abnormalities in oocytes. • Inhibits nuclear maturation and spindle damage • Poor blastocyst quality and high DNA

  16. Behavioral difficulties in 7-year old children in relation to developmental exposure to perfluorinated alkyl substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulhote, Youssef; Steuerwald, Ulrike; Debes, Frodi; Weihe, Pal; Grandjean, Philippe

    2016-12-01

    Perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) are suspected endocrine disruptors that are highly persistent and neurotoxic in animals. Human epidemiological studies of exposure-related deviations of children's behaviors are sparse. We assessed the associations between prenatal, 5- and 7-year PFAS exposures and behavioral problem scores in 7-year Faroese children. Concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) were measured in maternal serum and in serum from children at ages 5 and 7years (n=539, 508, and 491, respectively). We used multivariable regressions and structural equations models to estimate the covariate-adjusted associations between serum-PFAS concentrations and behavioral difficulties, as assessed by the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) at age 7. Serum-PFOS and PFHxS concentrations declined over time, whereas PFOA, PFNA, and PFDA tended to increase. No associations were observed between prenatal PFAS concentrations and SDQ scores. However, a two-fold increase in 5-year serum-PFOA, PFNA, and PFDA concentrations was associated with increases in total SDQ scores by 1.03 (95% CI: 0.11, 1.95), 0.72 (95% CI: 0.07, 1.38) and 0.78 points (95% CI: 0.01, 1.55), respectively. For SDQ subscales, significant associations were found in regard to hyperactivity, peer relationship, and conduct problems, as well as internalizing and externalizing problems and autism screening composite scores. Cross-sectional analyses at age 7years showed possible sex-dimorphic associations between PFAS concentrations and SDQ scores, where girls had consistently positive associations with SDQ scores whereas boys exhibited a pattern of negative or null associations. Higher serum PFAS concentrations at ages 5- and 7-years, but not prenatally, were associated with parent-reported behavioral problems at age 7. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  17. Outcomes of HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer patients treated by radiotherapy alone using altered fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Sullivan, Brian; Huang Shaohui; Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo; Massey, Christine; Siu, Lillian L.; Weinreb, Ilan; Hope, Andrew; Kim, John; Bayley, Andrew J.; Cummings, Bernard; Ringash, Jolie; Dawson, Laura A.; Cho, B.C. John; Chen, Eric; Irish, Jonathan; Gilbert, Ralph W.; Hui, Angela; Liu Feifei; Zhao, Helen; Waldron, John N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To report outcome of HPV-related [HPV(+)] oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) managed predominantly by altered-fractionation radiotherapy-alone (RT-alone). Methods: OPCs treated with RT-alone (n = 207) or chemoradiotherapy (CRT) (n = 151) from 2001 to 2008 were included. Overall survival (OS), local (LC), regional (RC) and distant (DC) control were compared for HPV(+) vs. HPV-unrelated [HPV(−)], by RT-alone vs. CRT, and by smoking pack-years (⩽10 vs. >10). Multivariate analysis identified predictors. Results: HPV(+) (n = 277) had better OS (81% vs. 44%), LC (93% vs. 76%), RC (94% vs. 79%) (all p < 0.01) but similar DC (89% vs. 86%, p = 0.87) vs. HPV(−) (n = 81). HPV(+) stage IV CRT (n = 125) had better OS (89% vs. 70%, p < 0.01), but similar LC (93% vs. 90%, p = 0.41), RC (94% vs. 90%, p = 0.31) and DC (90% vs. 83%, p = 0.22) vs. RT-alone (n = 96). Both HPV(+) RT-alone (n = 37) and CRT (n = 67) stage IV minimal smokers had favorable OS (86% vs. 88%, p = 0.45), LC (95% vs. 92%, p = 0.52), RC (97% vs. 93%, p = 0.22), and DC (92% vs. 86%, p = 0.37). RT-alone and heavy-smoking were independent predictors for lower OS but not CSS in multivariate analysis. Conclusions: Overall, HPV(+) RT-alone stage IV demonstrated lower survival but comparable disease control vs. CRT, but no difference was apparent among minimal smokers.

  18. Minocycline restores cognitive-relative altered proteins in young bile duct-ligated rat prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shih-Wen; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Hsu, Mei-Hsin; Tain, You-Lin; Chang, Kow-Aung; Huang, Li-Tung

    2017-07-01

    Bile duct ligation (BDL) model is used to study hepatic encephalopathy accompanied by cognitive impairment. We employed the proteomic analysis approach to evaluate cognition-related proteins in the prefrontal cortex of young BDL rats and analyzed the effect of minocycline on these proteins and spatial memory. BDL was induced in young rats at postnatal day 17. Minocycline as a slow-release pellet was implanted into the peritoneum. Morris water maze test and two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were used to evaluate spatial memory and prefrontal cortex protein expression, respectively. We used 2D/LC-MS/MS to analyze for affected proteins in the prefrontal cortex of young BDL rats. Results were verified with Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative real-time PCR. The effect of minocycline in BDL rats was assessed. BDL induced spatial deficits, while minocycline rescued it. Collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) and manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) were upregulated and nucleoside diphosphate kinase B (NME2) was downregulated in young BDL rats. BDL rats exhibited decreased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA as compared with those by the control. However, minocycline treatment restored CRMP2 and NME2 protein expression, BDNF mRNA level, and MnSOD activity to control levels. We demonstrated that BDL altered the expression of CRMP2, NME2, MnSOD, and BDNF in the prefrontal cortex of young BDL rats. However, minocycline treatment restored the expression of the affected mediators that are implicated in cognition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Myocardial perfusion alterations observed months after radiotherapy are related to the cellular damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogan, I.; Sonmez, B. [Karadeniz Technical Univ., Trabzon (Turkey). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Sezen, O.; Zengin, A.Y.; Bahat, Z. [Karadeniz Technical Univ., Trabzon (Turkey). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Yenilmez, E.; Yulug, E. [Karadeniz Technical Univ., Trabzon (Turkey). Dept. of Histology and Embryology; Abidin, I. [Karadeniz Technical Univ., Trabzon (Turkey). Dept. of Biophysics

    2010-07-01

    Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) is one of the widely used tools to follow developing radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD). But the clinical significance of MPS defects has not been fully understood. We have investigated the biodistribution alterations related to perfusion defects following radiotherapy (RT) and showed coexisting morphological changes. Animals, methods: A total of 18 Wistar rats were divided into three groups (1 control and 2 irradiated groups). A single cardiac 20 Gy radiation dose was used to induce long term cardiac defects. Biodistribution studies with technetium ({sup 99m}Tc) sestamibi and histological evaluations were performed 4 and 6 months after irradiation. The percent radioactivity (%ID/g) was calculated for each heart. For determination of the myocardial damage, positive apoptotic cardiomyocytes, myocardial cell degeneration, myocardial fibrosis, vascular damage and ultrastructural structures were evaluated. Results: Six months after treatment, a significant drop of myocardial uptake was observed (p < 0.05). Irradiation-induced apoptosis rose within the first 4 months after radiation treatment and were stayed elevated until the end of the observation period (p < 0.05). Also, the irradiation has induced myocardial degeneration, perivascular and interstitial fibrosis in the heart at the end of six and four months (p < 0.01). The severity and extent of myocardial injury has became more evident at the end of six month (p < 0.05). At ultrastructural level, prominent changes have been observed in the capillary endothelial and myocardial cells. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the reduced rest myocardial perfusion, occuring months after the radiation, indicates a serious myocard tissue damage which is characterized by myocardial degeneration and fibrosis. (orig.)

  20. Myocardial perfusion alterations observed months after radiotherapy are related to the cellular damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogan, I.; Sonmez, B.; Sezen, O.; Zengin, A.Y.; Bahat, Z.; Yenilmez, E.; Yulug, E.; Abidin, I.

    2010-01-01

    Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) is one of the widely used tools to follow developing radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD). But the clinical significance of MPS defects has not been fully understood. We have investigated the biodistribution alterations related to perfusion defects following radiotherapy (RT) and showed coexisting morphological changes. Animals, methods: A total of 18 Wistar rats were divided into three groups (1 control and 2 irradiated groups). A single cardiac 20 Gy radiation dose was used to induce long term cardiac defects. Biodistribution studies with technetium ( 99m Tc) sestamibi and histological evaluations were performed 4 and 6 months after irradiation. The percent radioactivity (%ID/g) was calculated for each heart. For determination of the myocardial damage, positive apoptotic cardiomyocytes, myocardial cell degeneration, myocardial fibrosis, vascular damage and ultrastructural structures were evaluated. Results: Six months after treatment, a significant drop of myocardial uptake was observed (p < 0.05). Irradiation-induced apoptosis rose within the first 4 months after radiation treatment and were stayed elevated until the end of the observation period (p < 0.05). Also, the irradiation has induced myocardial degeneration, perivascular and interstitial fibrosis in the heart at the end of six and four months (p < 0.01). The severity and extent of myocardial injury has became more evident at the end of six month (p < 0.05). At ultrastructural level, prominent changes have been observed in the capillary endothelial and myocardial cells. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the reduced rest myocardial perfusion, occuring months after the radiation, indicates a serious myocard tissue damage which is characterized by myocardial degeneration and fibrosis. (orig.)

  1. Evaluating the developmental trajectory of the episodic buffer component of working memory and its relation to word recognition in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shinmin; Allen, Richard J; Lee, Jun Ren; Hsieh, Chia-En

    2015-05-01

    The creation of temporary bound representation of information from different sources is one of the key abilities attributed to the episodic buffer component of working memory. Whereas the role of working memory in word learning has received substantial attention, very little is known about the link between the development of word recognition skills and the ability to bind information in the episodic buffer of working memory and how it may develop with age. This study examined the performance of Grade 2 children (8 years old), Grade 3 children (9 years old), and young adults on a task designed to measure their ability to bind visual and auditory-verbal information in working memory. Children's performance on this task significantly correlated with their word recognition skills even when chronological age, memory for individual elements, and other possible reading-related factors were taken into account. In addition, clear developmental trajectories were observed, with improvements in the ability to hold temporary bound information in working memory between Grades 2 and 3, and between the child and adult groups, that were independent from memory for the individual elements. These findings suggest that the capacity to temporarily bind novel auditory-verbal information to visual form in working memory is linked to the development of word recognition in children and improves with age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Weak task-related modulation and stimulus representations during arithmetic problem solving in children with developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazi, Sarit; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Tenison, Caitlin; Menon, Vinod

    2012-02-15

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a disability that impacts math learning and skill acquisition in school-age children. Here we investigate arithmetic problem solving deficits in young children with DD using univariate and multivariate analysis of fMRI data. During fMRI scanning, 17 children with DD (ages 7-9, grades 2 and 3) and 17 IQ- and reading ability-matched typically developing (TD) children performed complex and simple addition problems which differed only in arithmetic complexity. While the TD group showed strong modulation of brain responses with increasing arithmetic complexity, children with DD failed to show such modulation. Children with DD showed significantly reduced activation compared to TD children in the intraparietal sulcus, superior parietal lobule, supramarginal gyrus and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in relation to arithmetic complexity. Critically, multivariate representational similarity revealed that brain response patterns to complex and simple problems were less differentiated in the DD group in bilateral anterior IPS, independent of overall differences in signal level. Taken together, these results show that children with DD not only under-activate key brain regions implicated in mathematical cognition, but they also fail to generate distinct neural responses and representations for different arithmetic problems. Our findings provide novel insights into the neural basis of DD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Speaking-related changes in cortical functional connectivity associated with assisted and spontaneous recovery from developmental stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Christian A; Neumann, Katrin; Behrens, Marion; von Gudenberg, Alexander W; Giraud, Anne-Lise

    2018-03-01

    We previously reported speaking-related activity changes associated with assisted recovery induced by a fluency shaping therapy program and unassisted recovery from developmental stuttering (Kell et al., Brain 2009). While assisted recovery re-lateralized activity to the left hemisphere, unassisted recovery was specifically associated with the activation of the left BA 47/12 in the lateral orbitofrontal cortex. These findings suggested plastic changes in speaking-related functional connectivity between left hemispheric speech network nodes. We reanalyzed these data involving 13 stuttering men before and after fluency shaping, 13 men who recovered spontaneously from their stuttering, and 13 male control participants, and examined functional connectivity during overt vs. covert reading by means of psychophysiological interactions computed across left cortical regions involved in articulation control. Persistent stuttering was associated with reduced auditory-motor coupling and enhanced integration of somatosensory feedback between the supramarginal gyrus and the prefrontal cortex. Assisted recovery reduced this hyper-connectivity and increased functional connectivity between the articulatory motor cortex and the auditory feedback processing anterior superior temporal gyrus. In spontaneous recovery, both auditory-motor coupling and integration of somatosensory feedback were normalized. In addition, activity in the left orbitofrontal cortex and superior cerebellum appeared uncoupled from the rest of the speech production network. These data suggest that therapy and spontaneous recovery normalizes the left hemispheric speaking-related activity via an improvement of auditory-motor mapping. By contrast, long-lasting unassisted recovery from stuttering is additionally supported by a functional isolation of the superior cerebellum from the rest of the speech production network, through the pivotal left BA 47/12. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. In vitro analysis of age-related changes in the developmental potential of bone marrow thymocyte progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, A; Kukulansky, T; Globerson, A

    1990-12-01

    Mechanisms underlying the age-related decrease in the developmental capacity of thymocyte progenitors from the bone marrow (BM) were analyzed, focussing on interaction of these cells with the thymic microenvironment. We employed the experimental model in which mixtures of young and old mouse BM cells, congenic for the Thy-1 marker, were seeded onto fetal thymus (FT) explains depleted of self lymphocytes and the levels of Thy-1+ cells developing from each of the two donor types were measured. When cells from young and old BM donors were seeded simultaneously, in saturating quantities, a higher level of T cells developed from the young donors. To find out whether there were originally more thymocyte progenitors in the young BM, we carried out the competitive colonization under limiting dilution conditions and found that the advantage of the young had diminished under these conditions, thus suggesting that the age-related changes could not be related solely to quantitative differences. We then incubated the FT sequentially with old donor cells for 24 h, followed by young for an additional 48 h and found that the advantage of the young progenitors was eliminated. We thus established that the initial stage of colonization of the FT was important in determining the outcome of the subsequent development. The kinetics of simultaneous competition within the FT, however, revealed that the advantage of the young BM-derived cells became significant only from day 7 in organ culture, thus suggesting that sequential divisions of these cells were at a higher level than those of the old. Recolonization of FT explants by young or old BM-derived thymocytes obtained from the first colonization of the FT stroma showed a reduced, but still significant advantage for the young BM-derived cells over the old. Thus, we concluded that the old BM thymocyte progenitors manifested a qualitative disadvantage which became apparent during competitive colonization of the FT.

  5. Major Changes in Growth Rate and Growth Variability of Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Related to Soil Alteration and Climate Change in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Latte, Nicolas; Perin, Jérôme; Kint, Vincent; Lebourgeois, François; Claessens, Hugues

    2016-01-01

    Global change-particularly climate change, forest management, and atmospheric deposition-has significantly altered forest growing conditions in Europe. The influences of these changes on beech growth (Fagus sylvatica L.) were investigated for the past 80 years in Belgium, using non-linear mixed effects models on ring-width chronologies of 149 mature and dominant beech trees (87-186 years old). The effects of the developmental stage (i.e., increasing tree size) were filtered out in order to fo...

  6. Brain region-specific altered expression and association of mitochondria-related genes in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitha, Ayyappan; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Thanseem, Ismail; Yamada, Kazuo; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Toyota, Tomoko; Matsuzaki, Hideo; Miyachi, Taishi; Yamada, Satoru; Tsujii, Masatsugu; Tsuchiya, Kenji J; Matsumoto, Kaori; Iwata, Yasuhide; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Ichikawa, Hironobu; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Mori, Norio

    2012-11-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction (MtD) has been observed in approximately five percent of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). MtD could impair highly energy-dependent processes such as neurodevelopment, thereby contributing to autism. Most of the previous studies of MtD in autism have been restricted to the biomarkers of energy metabolism, while most of the genetic studies have been based on mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Despite the mtDNA, most of the proteins essential for mitochondrial replication and function are encoded by the genomic DNA; so far, there have been very few studies of those genes. Therefore, we carried out a detailed study involving gene expression and genetic association studies of genes related to diverse mitochondrial functions. For gene expression analysis, postmortem brain tissues (anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG), motor cortex (MC) and thalamus (THL)) from autism patients (n=8) and controls (n=10) were obtained from the Autism Tissue Program (Princeton, NJ, USA). Quantitative real-time PCR arrays were used to quantify the expression of 84 genes related to diverse functions of mitochondria, including biogenesis, transport, translocation and apoptosis. We used the delta delta Ct (∆∆Ct) method for quantification of gene expression. DNA samples from 841 Caucasian and 188 Japanese families were used in the association study of genes selected from the gene expression analysis. FBAT was used to examine genetic association with autism. Several genes showed brain region-specific expression alterations in autism patients compared to controls. Metaxin 2 (MTX2), neurofilament, light polypeptide (NEFL) and solute carrier family 25, member 27 (SLC25A27) showed consistently reduced expression in the ACG, MC and THL of autism patients. NEFL (P = 0.038; Z-score 2.066) and SLC25A27 (P = 0.046; Z-score 1.990) showed genetic association with autism in Caucasian and Japanese samples, respectively. The expression of DNAJC19, DNM1L, LRPPRC

  7. Brain region-specific altered expression and association of mitochondria-related genes in autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Ayyappan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial dysfunction (MtD has been observed in approximately five percent of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. MtD could impair highly energy-dependent processes such as neurodevelopment, thereby contributing to autism. Most of the previous studies of MtD in autism have been restricted to the biomarkers of energy metabolism, while most of the genetic studies have been based on mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA. Despite the mtDNA, most of the proteins essential for mitochondrial replication and function are encoded by the genomic DNA; so far, there have been very few studies of those genes. Therefore, we carried out a detailed study involving gene expression and genetic association studies of genes related to diverse mitochondrial functions. Methods For gene expression analysis, postmortem brain tissues (anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG, motor cortex (MC and thalamus (THL from autism patients (n=8 and controls (n=10 were obtained from the Autism Tissue Program (Princeton, NJ, USA. Quantitative real-time PCR arrays were used to quantify the expression of 84 genes related to diverse functions of mitochondria, including biogenesis, transport, translocation and apoptosis. We used the delta delta Ct (∆∆Ct method for quantification of gene expression. DNA samples from 841 Caucasian and 188 Japanese families were used in the association study of genes selected from the gene expression analysis. FBAT was used to examine genetic association with autism. Results Several genes showed brain region-specific expression alterations in autism patients compared to controls. Metaxin 2 (MTX2, neurofilament, light polypeptide (NEFL and solute carrier family 25, member 27 (SLC25A27 showed consistently reduced expression in the ACG, MC and THL of autism patients. NEFL (P = 0.038; Z-score 2.066 and SLC25A27 (P = 0.046; Z-score 1.990 showed genetic association with autism in Caucasian and Japanese samples, respectively. The

  8. Sex-related alterations of gut microbiota composition in the BTBR mouse model of autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coretti, Lorena; Cristiano, Claudia; Florio, Ermanno; Scala, Giovanni; Lama, Adriano; Keller, Simona; Cuomo, Mariella; Russo, Roberto; Pero, Raffaela; Paciello, Orlando; Mattace Raso, Giuseppina; Meli, Rosaria; Cocozza, Sergio; Calignano, Antonio; Chiariotti, Lorenzo; Lembo, Francesca

    2017-03-28

    Alterations of microbiota-gut-brain axis have been invoked in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Mouse models could represent an excellent tool to understand how gut dysbiosis and related alterations may contribute to autistic phenotype. In this study we paralleled gut microbiota (GM) profiles, behavioral characteristics, intestinal integrity and immunological features of colon tissues in BTBR T + tf/J (BTBR) inbred mice, a well established animal model of ASD. Sex differences, up to date poorly investigated in animal models, were specifically addressed. Results showed that BTBR mice of both sexes presented a marked intestinal dysbiosis, alterations of behavior, gut permeability and immunological state with respect to prosocial C57BL/6j (C57) strain. Noticeably, sex-related differences were clearly detected. We identified Bacteroides, Parabacteroides, Sutterella, Dehalobacterium and Oscillospira genera as key drivers of sex-specific gut microbiota profiles associated with selected pathological traits. Taken together, our findings indicate that alteration of GM in BTBR mice shows relevant sex-associated differences and supports the use of BTBR mouse model to dissect autism associated microbiota-gut-brain axis alteration.

  9. The Developing, Aging Neocortex: How genetics and epigenetics influence early developmental patterning and age-related change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly J. Huffman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A hallmark of mammalian development is the generation of functional subdivisions within the nervous system. In humans, this regionalization creates a complex system that regulates behavior, cognition, memory and emotion. During development, specification of neocortical tissue that leads to functional sensory and motor regions results from an interplay between cortically intrinsic, molecular processes, such as gene expression, and extrinsic processes regulated by sensory input. Cortical specification in mice occurs pre- and perinatally, when gene expression is robust and various anatomical distinctions are observed alongside an emergence of physiological function. After patterning, gene expression continues to shift and axonal connections mature into an adult form. The function of adult cortical gene expression may be to maintain neocortical subdivisions that were established during early patterning. As some changes in neocortical gene expression have been observed past early development into late adulthood, gene expression may also play a role in the altered neocortical function observed in age-related cognitive decline and brain dysfunction. This review provides a discussion of how neocortical gene expression and specific patterns of neocortical sensori-motor axonal connections develop and change throughout the lifespan of the animal. We posit that a role of neocortical gene expression in neocortex is to regulate plasticity mechanisms that impact critical periods for sensory and motor plasticity in aging. We describe results from several studies in aging brain that detail changes in gene expression that may relate to microstructural changes observed in brain anatomy. We discuss the role of altered glucocorticoid signaling in age-related cognitive and functional decline, as well as how aging in the brain may result from immune system activation. We describe how caloric restriction or reduction of oxidative stress may ameliorate effects of aging

  10. Maternal undernutrition does not alter Sertoli cell numbers or the expression of key developmental markers in the mid-gestation ovine fetal testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Luis P

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine the effects of maternal undernutrition on ovine fetal testis morphology and expression of relevant histological indicators. Maternal undernutrition, in sheep, has been reported, previously, to alter fetal ovary development, as indicated by delayed folliculogenesis and the altered expression of ovarian apoptosis-regulating gene products, at day 110 of gestation. It is not known whether or not maternal undernutrition alters the same gene products in the day 110 fetal testis. Design and methods Mature Scottish Blackface ewes were fed either 100% (Control; C or 50% (low; L of estimated metabolisable energy requirements of a pregnant ewe, from mating to day 110 of gestation. All pregnant ewes were euthanized at day 110 and a sub-set of male fetuses was randomly selected (6 C and 9 L for histology studies designed to address the effect of nutritional state on several indices of testis development. Sertoli cell numbers were measured using a stereological method and Ki67 (cell proliferation index, Bax (pro-apoptosis, Mcl-1 (anti-apoptosis, SCF and c-kit ligand (development and apoptosis gene expression was measured in Bouins-fixed fetal testis using immunohistochemistry. Results No significant differences were observed in numbers of Sertoli cells or testicular Ki67 positive cells. The latter were localised to the testicular cords and interstitium. Bax and Mcl-1 were localised specifically to the germ cells whereas c-kit was localised to both the cords and interstitium. SCF staining was very sparse. No treatment effects were observed for any of the markers examined. Conclusions These data suggest that, unlike in the fetal ovary, maternal undernutrition for the first 110 days of gestation affects neither the morphology of the fetal testis nor the expression of gene products which regulate apoptosis. It is postulated that the effects of fetal undernutrition on testis function may be expressed

  11. Cpt1a gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells as an early biomarker of diet-related metabolic alterations

    KAUST Repository

    Diaz-Rua, Ruben

    2016-11-23

    Background: Research on biomarkers that provide early information about the development of future metabolic alterations is an emerging discipline. Gene expression analysis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) is a promising tool to identify subjects at risk of developing diet-related diseases.

  12. The Relationship between Instructor Misbehaviors and Student Antisocial Behavioral Alteration Techniques: The Roles of Instructor Attractiveness, Humor, and Relational Closeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, Christopher J.; Booth-Butterfield, Melanie; Chory, Rebecca M.

    2012-01-01

    Using rhetorical/relational goal theory as a guiding frame, we examined relationships between instructor misbehaviors (i.e., indolence, incompetence, and offensiveness) and the likelihood of students communicating antisocial behavioral alteration techniques (BATs). More specifically, the study focused on whether students' perceptions of instructor…

  13. Developmental Science: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of developmental science is to describe, explain, and optimize intraindividual changes in adaptive developmental regulations and, as well, interindividual differences in such relations, across life. The history of developmental science is reviewed and its current foci, which are framed by relational developmental systems models that…

  14. 3-Bromopyruvate treatment induces alterations of metabolic and stress-related pathways in glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiasserini, Davide; Davidescu, Magdalena; Orvietani, Pier Luigi; Susta, Federica; Macchioni, Lara; Petricciuolo, Maya; Castigli, Emilia; Roberti, Rita; Binaglia, Luciano; Corazzi, Lanfranco

    2017-01-30

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive brain tumour of adults. The metabolic phenotype of GBM cells is highly dependent on glycolysis; therefore, therapeutic strategies aimed at interfering with glycolytic pathways are under consideration. 3-Bromopyruvate (3BP) is a potent antiglycolytic agent, with a variety of targets and possible effects on global cell metabolism. Here we analyzed the changes in protein expression on a GBM cell line (GL15 cells) caused by 3BP treatment using a global proteomic approach. Validation of differential protein expression was performed with immunoblotting and enzyme activity assays in GL15 and U251 cell lines. The results show that treatment of GL15 cells with 3BP leads to extensive changes in the expression of glycolytic enzymes and stress related proteins. Importantly, other metabolisms were also affected, including pentose phosphate pathway, aminoacid synthesis, and glucose derivatives production. 3BP elicited the activation of stress response proteins, as shown by the phosphorylation of HSPB1 at serine 82, caused by the concomitant activation of the p38 pathway. Our results show that inhibition of glycolysis in GL15 cells by 3BP influences different but interconnected pathways. Proteome analysis may help in the molecular characterization of the glioblastoma response induced by pharmacological treatment with antiglycolytic agents. Alteration of the glycolytic pathway characterizes glioblastoma (GBM), one of the most common brain tumours. Metabolic reprogramming with agents able to inhibit carbohydrate metabolism might be a viable strategy to complement the treatment of these tumours. The antiglycolytic agent 3-bromopyruvate (3BP) is able to strongly inhibit glycolysis but it may affect also other cellular pathways and its precise cellular targets are currently unknown. To understand the protein expression changes induced by 3BP, we performed a global proteomic analysis of a GBM cell line (GL15) treated with 3BP. We

  15. Spaceflight-related suboptimal conditions can accentuate the altered gravity response of Drosophila transcriptome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herranz, R.; Benguría, A.; Laván, D.A.; López-Vidriero, I.; Gasset, G.; Javier Medina, F.; van Loon, J.J.W.A.; Marco, R.

    2010-01-01

    Genome-wide transcriptional profiling shows that reducing gravity levels during Drosophila metamorphosis in the International Space Station (ISS) causes important alterations in gene expression: a large set of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) are observed compared to 1g controls. However, the

  16. Alteration related to hydrothermal activity of the Nevado del Ruiz volcano (NRV), Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forero, Jhon; Zuluaga, Carlos; Mojica, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    The hydrothermal activity in the NRV generates alteration characterized by mineral associations depending one number of physic-chemical factors of the hydrothermal system. Petrography of unaltered rocks was used to establish the mineral assemblage prior to rock-fluid interaction. XRD was used in altered rocks, where it was not possible to recognize the alteration products. the observed mineral assemblages indicate advanced and intermediate argillic alterations, this and the observation of very low modal proportion of sulphates, sulphides and native sulphur in some areas could point to a low sulphidation zone. However, the proximity to the volcano and the presence of acid thermal waters and steam pose an apparent contradiction with an expected high sulphidation zone which is explained by climatic conditions, where excess water has dissolved and leached sulfides, sulphur and sulphates close to the volcano. fault zones serve as conducts for fluid transport and have acid-sulphate mineral associations produced by atmospheric oxidation at the water table in a steam-heated environment of H 2 S released by deeper, boiling fluids or by the disproportionation of magmatic SO 2 to H 2 S and H 2 SO 4 during condensation of magmatic vapor plume at intermedia depths in magmatic hydrothermal environment in andesitic volcanic terrain characteristic of high sulphidation zones.

  17. Health-related quality of life and emotional and behavioral difficulties after extreme preterm birth: developmental trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente Johanne Vederhus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Knowledge of long-term health related outcomes in contemporary populations born extremely preterm (EP is scarce. We aimed to explore developmental trajectories of health-related quality of life (HRQoL and behavior from mid-childhood to early adulthood in extremely preterm and term-born individuals.Methods. Subjects born at gestational age ≤28 weeks or with birth weight ≤1,000 g within a region of Norway in 1991–92 and matched term-born control subjects were assessed at 10 and 18 years. HRQoL was measured with the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ and behavior with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, using parent assessment at both ages and self-assessment at 18 years.Results. All eligible EP (n = 35 and control children participated at 10 years, and 31 (89% and 29 (83% at 18 years. At 10 years, the EP born boys were given significantly poorer scores by their parents than term-born controls on most CHQ and CBCL scales, but the differences were minor at 18 years; i.e., significant improvements had occurred in several CHQ (self-esteem, general health and parental impact-time and CBCL (total problem, internalizing and anxious/depressed scales. For the girls, the differences were smaller at 10 years and remained unchanged by 18 years. Emotional/behavioral difficulties at 10 years similarly predicted poorer improvement on CHQ-scales for both EP and term-born subjects at 18 years. Self-assessment of HRQoL and behavior at 18 years was similar in the EP and term-born groups on most scales.Conclusions. HRQoL and behavior improved towards adulthood for EP born boys, while the girls remained relatively similar, and early emotional and behavioral difficulties predicted poorer development in HRQoL through adolescence. These data indicate that gender and a longitudinal perspective should be considered when addressing health and wellbeing after extremely preterm birth.

  18. Alterations in Resting-State Activity Relate to Performance in a Verbal Recognition Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Zunini, Rocío A.; Thivierge, Jean-Philippe; Kousaie, Shanna; Sheppard, Christine; Taler, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    In the brain, resting-state activity refers to non-random patterns of intrinsic activity occurring when participants are not actively engaged in a task. We monitored resting-state activity using electroencephalogram (EEG) both before and after a verbal recognition task. We show a strong positive correlation between accuracy in verbal recognition and pre-task resting-state alpha power at posterior sites. We further characterized this effect by examining resting-state post-task activity. We found marked alterations in resting-state alpha power when comparing pre- and post-task periods, with more pronounced alterations in participants that attained higher task accuracy. These findings support a dynamical view of cognitive processes where patterns of ongoing brain activity can facilitate –or interfere– with optimal task performance. PMID:23785436

  19. Exposure to altered gravity during specific developmental periods differentially affects growth, development, the cerebellum and motor functions in male and female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguon, K.; Ladd, B.; Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported that perinatal exposure to hypergravity affects cerebellar structure and motor coordination in rat neonates. In the present study, we explored the hypothesis that neonatal cerebellar structure and motor coordination may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of hypergravity during specific developmental stages. To test this hypothesis, we compared neurodevelopment, motor behavior and cerebellar structure in rat neonates exposed to 1.65 G on a 24-ft centrifuge during discrete periods of time: the 2nd week of pregnancy [gestational day (G) 8 through G15; group A], the 3rd week of pregnancy (G15 through birth on G22/G23; group B), the 1st week of nursing [birth through postnatal day (P) 6; group C], the 2nd and 3rd weeks of nursing (P6 through P21; group D), the combined 2nd and 3rd weeks of pregnancy and nursing (G8 through P21; group E) and stationary control (SC) neonates (group F). Prenatal exposure to hypergravity resulted in intrauterine growth retardation as reflected by a decrease in the number of pups in a litter and lower average mass at birth. Exposure to hypergravity immediately after birth impaired the righting response on P3, while the startle response in both males and females was most affected by exposure during the 2nd and 3rd weeks after birth. Hypergravity exposure also impaired motor functions, as evidenced by poorer performance on a rotarod; while both males and females exposed to hypergravity during the 2nd and 3rd weeks after birth performed poorly on P21, male neonates were most dramatically affected by exposure to hypergravity during the second week of gestation, when the duration of their recorded stay on the rotarod was one half that of SC males. Cerebellar mass was most reduced by later postnatal exposure. Thus, for the developing rat cerebellum, the postnatal period that overlaps the brain growth spurt is the most vulnerable to hypergravity. However, male motor behavior is also affected by midpregnancy exposure to

  20. Alterations in GABA-related transcriptome in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Hashimoto, T; Arion, D; Unger, T; Maldonado-Avilés, JG; Morris, HM; Volk, DW; Mirnics, K; Lewis, DA

    2007-01-01

    In subjects with schizophrenia, impairments in working memory are associated with dysfunction of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). This dysfunction appears to be due, at least in part, to abnormalities in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibitory circuitry. To test the hypothesis that altered GABA-mediated circuitry in the DLPFC of subjects with schizophrenia reflects expression changes of genes that encode selective presynaptic and postsynaptic components of GABA neurotransmis...

  1. Oral Supplementation of Melatonin Protects against Fibromyalgia-Related Skeletal Muscle Alterations in Reserpine-Induced Myalgia Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favero, Gaia; Trapletti, Valentina; Bonomini, Francesca; Stacchiotti, Alessandra; Lavazza, Antonio; Rodella, Luigi Fabrizio; Rezzani, Rita

    2017-06-29

    Fibromyalgia is a chronic syndrome characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and an extensive array of other symptoms including disordered sleep, fatigue, depression and anxiety. Important factors involved in the pathogenic process of fibromyalgia are inflammation and oxidative stress, suggesting that ant-inflammatory and/or antioxidant supplementation might be effective in the management and modulation of this syndrome. Recent evidence suggests that melatonin may be suitable for this purpose due to its well known ant-inflammatory, antioxidant and analgesic effects. Thus, in the current study, the effects of the oral supplementation of melatonin against fibromyalgia-related skeletal muscle alterations were evaluated. In detail, 90 Sprague Dawley rats were randomly treated with reserpine, to reproduce the pathogenic process of fibromyalgia and thereafter they received melatonin. The animals treated with reserpine showed moderate alterations at hind limb skeletal muscles level and had difficulty in moving, together with significant morphological and ultrastructural alterations and expression of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in the gastrocnemius muscle. Interestingly, melatonin, dose and/or time dependently, reduced the difficulties in spontaneous motor activity and the musculoskeletal morphostructural, inflammatory, and oxidative stress alterations. This study suggests that melatonin in vivo may be an effective tool in the management of fibromyalgia-related musculoskeletal morphofunctional damage.

  2. IGF-1 deficiency in a critical period early in life influences the vascular aging phenotype in mice by altering miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional gene regulation: implications for the developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantini, Stefano; Giles, Cory B; Wren, Jonathan D; Ashpole, Nicole M; Valcarcel-Ares, M Noa; Wei, Jeanne Y; Sonntag, William E; Ungvari, Zoltan; Csiszar, Anna

    2016-08-01

    Epidemiological findings support the concept of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease, suggesting that early-life hormonal influences during a sensitive period of development have a fundamental impact on vascular health later in life. The endocrine changes that occur during development are highly conserved across mammalian species and include dramatic increases in circulating IGF-1 levels during adolescence. The present study was designed to characterize the effect of developmental IGF-1 deficiency on the vascular aging phenotype. To achieve that goal, early-onset endocrine IGF-1 deficiency was induced in mice by knockdown of IGF-1 in the liver using Cre-lox technology (Igf1 f/f mice crossed with mice expressing albumin-driven Cre recombinase). This model exhibits low-circulating IGF-1 levels during the peripubertal phase of development, which is critical for the biology of aging. Due to the emergence of miRNAs as important regulators of the vascular aging phenotype, the effect of early-life IGF-1 deficiency on miRNA expression profile in the aorta was examined in animals at 27 months of age. We found that developmental IGF-1 deficiency elicits persisting late-life changes in miRNA expression in the vasculature, which significantly differed from those in mice with adult-onset IGF-1 deficiency (TBG-Cre-AAV8-mediated knockdown of IGF-1 at 5 month of age in Igf1 f/f mice). Using a novel computational approach, we identified miRNA target genes that are co-expressed with IGF-1 and associate with aging and vascular pathophysiology. We found that among the predicted targets, the expression of multiple extracellular matrix-related genes, including collagen-encoding genes, were downregulated in mice with developmental IGF-1 deficiency. Collectively, IGF-1 deficiency during a critical period during early in life results in persistent changes in post-transcriptional miRNA-mediated control of genes critical targets for vascular health, which likely contribute to the

  3. Biotic Responses of Headwater Streams to Geophysical Alteration and Disturbance Related to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresswell, R. E.; Sedell, E. R.; Cannon, S.; Hostetler, S. W.; Williams, J. E.; Haak, A. L.; Kershner, J. L.

    2009-12-01

    Climate change will potentially alter physical habitat availability for trout species (both native and nonnative) in the western USA, and ultimately affect population distribution and abundance in watersheds across the region. To understand the biological consequences of habitat alteration associated with climate change, we have developed models linking contemporary patterns of occurrence and abundance to geomorphic variables (e.g., aspect, elevation, and slope) and stream conditions derived from the habitat (e.g., temperature, discharge, and flood regimes). Because headwater streams may be especially susceptible to catastrophic disturbances in the form of debris flow torrents that have the potential to radically alter the physical structure of channels and sometimes extirpate local fish populations, we are focusing fine-scale spatial analyses in the high elevation systems. Risks of such disturbances increase exponentially in landscapes that have experienced recent wildfires when high-intensity precipitation or runoff events occur. Although predicting the timing, extent, and severity of future wildfires or subsequent precipitation and runoff events is difficult, it is possible to identify channels within stream networks that may be prone to debris flows. These channels can be identified using models based on characteristic storm and burn scenarios and geographic information describing topographic, soil, and vegetation characteristics. At-risk channels are being mapped throughout the stream networks within the study areas in the headwaters of the Colorado River to provide information about the potential for catastrophic population disturbance in response to variety of wildfire and post-wildfire storm scenarios.

  4. Cpt1a gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells as an early biomarker of diet-related metabolic alterations

    KAUST Repository

    Diaz Rua, Ruben; Palou, Andreu; Oliver, Paula

    2016-01-01

    subjects at risk of developing diet-related diseases.Objective: We analysed PBMC expression of key energy homeostasis-related genes in a time-course analysis in order to find out early markers of metabolic alterations due to sustained intake of high-fat (HF) and highprotein (HP) diets.Design: We administered HF and HP diets (4 months) to adult Wistar rats in isocaloric conditions to a control diet, mainly to avoid overweight associated with the intake of hyperlipidic diets and, thus, to be able to characterise markers of metabolically obese normal-weight (MONW) syndrome. PBMC samples were collected at different time points of dietary treatment and expression of relevant energy homeostatic genes analysed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Serum parameters related with metabolic syndrome, as well as fat deposition in liver, were also analysed.Results: The most outstanding results were those obtained for the expression of the lipolytic gene carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (Cpt1a). Cpt1a expression in PBMC increased after only 1 month of exposure to both unbalanced diets, and this increased expression was maintained thereafter. Interestingly, in the case of the HF diet, Cpt1a expression was altered even in the absence of increased body weight but correlated with alterations such as higher insulin resistance, alteration of serum lipid profile and, particularly, increased fat deposition in liver, a feature characteristic of metabolic syndrome, which was even observed in animals fed with HP diet.Conclusions: We propose Cpt1a gene expression analysis in PBMC as an early biomarker of metabolic alterations associated with MONW phenotype due to the intake of isocaloric HF diets, as well as a marker of increased risk of metabolic diseases

  5. Parenting Stress and Child Behavior Problems within Families of Children with Developmental Disabilities: Transactional Relations across 15 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Ashley C.; Mawdsley, Helena P.; Hauser-Cram, Penny

    2015-01-01

    Parents of children with developmental disabilities (DD) are at increased risk of experiencing psychological stress compared to other parents. Children's high levels of internalizing and externalizing problems have been found to contribute to this elevated level of stress. Few studies have considered the reverse direction of effects, however, in…

  6. Children's Expression and Control of Emotion-Related Behavior: Developmental and Gender Influences on Children's and Parents' Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorr, Aimee; And Others

    This study examined the developmental and gender influences on children's normative emotional expression and control. The study surveyed 307 pairs of middle-class European-American children who were 7, 11, and 15 years old, and one parent of each child. The results of the survey showed that children were closer to the norm in their expressive…

  7. Mothers' Perceived Physical Health during Early and Middle Childhood: Relations with Child Developmental Delay and Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhower, Abbey; Blacher, Jan; Baker, Bruce L.

    2013-01-01

    The self-perceived physical health of mothers raising children with developmental delay (DD; N = 116) or typical development (TD; N = 129) was examined across child ages 3-9 years, revealing three main findings. First, mothers of children with DD experienced poorer self-rated physical health than mothers of children with TD at each age. Latent…

  8. Neglect-like characteristics of developmental disregard in children with cerebral palsy revealed by event related potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zielinski, I.M.; Steenbergen, B.; Baas, C.M.; Aarts, P.B.M.; Jongsma, M.L.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Children with unilateral Cerebral Palsy (CP) often show diminished awareness of the remaining capacity of their affected upper limb. This phenomenon is known as Developmental Disregard (DD). DD has been explained by operant conditioning. Alternatively, DD can be described as a

  9. Gender Differences in Solving Mathematics Problems among Two-Year College Students in a Developmental Algebra Class and Related Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberger, Ann K.

    A study was conducted at the University of Maine at Orono (UMO) to examine gender differences with respect to mathematical problem-solving ability, visual spatial ability, abstract reasoning ability, field independence/dependence, independent learning style, and developmental problem-solving ability (i.e., formal reasoning ability). Subjects…

  10. Remote sensing detection of gold related alteration zones in Um Rus area, Central Eastern Desert of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Reda; Kusky, Timothy; El Mezayen, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) images covering the Um Rus area in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt were evaluated for mapping geologic structure, lithology, and gold-related alteration zones. The study area is covered by Pan-African basement rocks including gabbro and granodiorite intruded into a variable mixture of metavolcanics and metasediments. The first three principal component analyses (PCA1, PCA2, PCA3) in a Red-Green-Blue (RGB) of the visible through shortwave-infrared (VNIR + SWIR) ASTER bands enabled the discrimination between lithological units. The results show that ASTER band ratios ((2 + 4)/3, (5 + 7)/6, (7 + 9)/8) in RGB identifies the lithological units and discriminates the granodiorite very well from the adjacent rock units.The granodiorites are dissected by gold-bearing quartz veins surrounded by alteration zones. The microscopic examination of samples collected from the alteration zones shows sericitic and argillic alteration zones. The Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Spectral Information Divergence (SID) supervised classification methods were applied using the reference spectra of the USGS spectral library. The results show that these classification methods are capable of mapping the alteration zones as indicated by field verification work. The PALSAR image was enhanced for fracture mapping using the second moment co-occurrence filter. Overlying extracted faults and alteration zone classification images show that the N30E and N-S fractures represent potential zones for gold exploration. It is concluded that the proposed methods can be used as a powerful tool for ore deposit exploration.

  11. Does altered aortic flow in marfan syndrome relate to aortic root dilatation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hung-Hsuan; Chiu, Hsin-Hui; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac; Peng, Hsu-Hsia

    2016-08-01

    To examine possible hemodynamic alterations in adolescent to adult Marfan syndrome (MFS) patients with aortic root dilatation. Four-dimensional flow MRI was performed in 20 MFS patients and 12 age-matched normal subjects with a 3T system. The cross-sectional areas of 10 planes along the aorta were segmented for calculating the axial and circumferential wall shear stress (WSSaxial , WSScirc ), oscillatory shear index (OSIaxial , OSIcirc ), and the nonroundness (NR), presenting the asymmetry of segmental WSS. Pearson's correlation analysis was performed to present the correlations between the quantified indices and the body surface area (BSA), aortic root diameter (ARD), and Z score of the ARD. P < 0.05 indicated statistical significance. Patients exhibited lower WSSaxial in the aortic root and the WSScirc in the arch (P < 0.05-0.001). MFS patients exhibited higher OSIaxial and OSIcirc in the sinotubular junction and arch, but lower OSIcirc in the descending aorta (all P < 0.05). The NR values were lower in patients (P < 0.05). The WSSaxial or WSScirc exhibited moderate to strong correlations with BSA, ARD, or Z score (R(2)  = 0.50-0.72) in MFS patients. The significant differences in the quantified indices, which were associated with BSA, ARD, or Z score, in MFS were opposite to previous reports for younger MFS patients, indicating that altered flows in MFS patients may depend on the disease progress. The possible time dependency of hemodynamic alterations in MFS patients strongly suggests that longitudinal follow-up of 4D Flow is needed to comprehend disease progress. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:500-508. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Cognitive and emotional alterations are related to hippocampal inflammation in a mouse model of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinel, Anne-Laure; André, Caroline; Aubert, Agnès; Ferreira, Guillaume; Layé, Sophie; Castanon, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    Converging clinical data suggest that peripheral inflammation is likely involved in the pathogenesis of the neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the question arises as to whether the increased prevalence of behavioral alterations in MetS is also associated with central inflammation, i.e. cytokine activation, in brain areas particularly involved in controlling behavior. To answer this question, we measured in a mouse model of MetS, namely the diabetic and obese db/db mice, and in their healthy db/+ littermates emotional behaviors and memory performances, as well as plasma levels and brain expression (hippocampus; hypothalamus) of inflammatory cytokines. Our results shows that db/db mice displayed increased anxiety-like behaviors in the open-field and the elevated plus-maze (i.e. reduced percent of time spent in anxiogenic areas of each device), but not depressive-like behaviors as assessed by immobility time in the forced swim and tail suspension tests. Moreover, db/db mice displayed impaired spatial recognition memory (hippocampus-dependent task), but unaltered object recognition memory (hippocampus-independent task). In agreement with the well-established role of the hippocampus in anxiety-like behavior and spatial memory, behavioral alterations of db/db mice were associated with increased inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6) and reduced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus but not the hypothalamus. These results strongly point to interactions between cytokines and central processes involving the hippocampus as important contributing factor to the behavioral alterations of db/db mice. These findings may prove valuable for introducing novel approaches to treat neuropsychiatric complications associated with MetS.

  13. Cognitive and emotional alterations are related to hippocampal inflammation in a mouse model of metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Dinel

    Full Text Available Converging clinical data suggest that peripheral inflammation is likely involved in the pathogenesis of the neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS. However, the question arises as to whether the increased prevalence of behavioral alterations in MetS is also associated with central inflammation, i.e. cytokine activation, in brain areas particularly involved in controlling behavior. To answer this question, we measured in a mouse model of MetS, namely the diabetic and obese db/db mice, and in their healthy db/+ littermates emotional behaviors and memory performances, as well as plasma levels and brain expression (hippocampus; hypothalamus of inflammatory cytokines. Our results shows that db/db mice displayed increased anxiety-like behaviors in the open-field and the elevated plus-maze (i.e. reduced percent of time spent in anxiogenic areas of each device, but not depressive-like behaviors as assessed by immobility time in the forced swim and tail suspension tests. Moreover, db/db mice displayed impaired spatial recognition memory (hippocampus-dependent task, but unaltered object recognition memory (hippocampus-independent task. In agreement with the well-established role of the hippocampus in anxiety-like behavior and spatial memory, behavioral alterations of db/db mice were associated with increased inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 and reduced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the hippocampus but not the hypothalamus. These results strongly point to interactions between cytokines and central processes involving the hippocampus as important contributing factor to the behavioral alterations of db/db mice. These findings may prove valuable for introducing novel approaches to treat neuropsychiatric complications associated with MetS.

  14. Developmental exposure to second-hand smoke increases adult atherogenesis and alters mitochondrial DNA copy number and deletions in apoE(-/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Fetterman

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. While many studies have focused upon the effects of adult second-hand smoke exposure on cardiovascular disease development, disease development occurs over decades and is likely influenced by childhood exposure. The impacts of in utero versus neonatal second-hand smoke exposure on adult atherosclerotic disease development are not known. The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of in utero versus neonatal exposure to a low dose (1 mg/m(3 total suspended particulate of second-hand smoke on adult atherosclerotic lesion development using the apolipoprotein E null mouse model. Consequently, apolipoprotein E null mice were exposed to either filtered air or second-hand smoke: (i in utero from gestation days 1-19, or (ii from birth until 3 weeks of age (neonatal. Subsequently, all animals were exposed to filtered air and sacrificed at 12-14 weeks of age. Oil red-O staining of whole aortas, measures of mitochondrial damage, and oxidative stress were performed. Results show that both in utero and neonatal second-hand smoke exposure significantly increased adult atherogenesis in mice compared to filtered air controls. These changes were associated with changes in aconitase and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase activities consistent with increased oxidative stress in the aorta, changes in mitochondrial DNA copy number and deletion levels. These studies show that in utero or neonatal exposure to second-hand smoke significantly influences adult atherosclerotic lesion development and results in significant alterations to the mitochondrion and its genome that may contribute to atherogenesis.

  15. Developmental exposure to second-hand smoke increases adult atherogenesis and alters mitochondrial DNA copy number and deletions in apoE(-/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, Jessica L; Pompilius, Melissa; Westbrook, David G; Uyeminami, Dale; Brown, Jamelle; Pinkerton, Kent E; Ballinger, Scott W

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. While many studies have focused upon the effects of adult second-hand smoke exposure on cardiovascular disease development, disease development occurs over decades and is likely influenced by childhood exposure. The impacts of in utero versus neonatal second-hand smoke exposure on adult atherosclerotic disease development are not known. The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of in utero versus neonatal exposure to a low dose (1 mg/m(3) total suspended particulate) of second-hand smoke on adult atherosclerotic lesion development using the apolipoprotein E null mouse model. Consequently, apolipoprotein E null mice were exposed to either filtered air or second-hand smoke: (i) in utero from gestation days 1-19, or (ii) from birth until 3 weeks of age (neonatal). Subsequently, all animals were exposed to filtered air and sacrificed at 12-14 weeks of age. Oil red-O staining of whole aortas, measures of mitochondrial damage, and oxidative stress were performed. Results show that both in utero and neonatal second-hand smoke exposure significantly increased adult atherogenesis in mice compared to filtered air controls. These changes were associated with changes in aconitase and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase activities consistent with increased oxidative stress in the aorta, changes in mitochondrial DNA copy number and deletion levels. These studies show that in utero or neonatal exposure to second-hand smoke significantly influences adult atherosclerotic lesion development and results in significant alterations to the mitochondrion and its genome that may contribute to atherogenesis.

  16. Developmental Exposure to Second-Hand Smoke Increases Adult Atherogenesis and Alters Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number and Deletions in apoE−/− Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, Jessica L.; Pompilius, Melissa; Westbrook, David G.; Uyeminami, Dale; Brown, Jamelle; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Ballinger, Scott W.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. While many studies have focused upon the effects of adult second-hand smoke exposure on cardiovascular disease development, disease development occurs over decades and is likely influenced by childhood exposure. The impacts of in utero versus neonatal second-hand smoke exposure on adult atherosclerotic disease development are not known. The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of in utero versus neonatal exposure to a low dose (1 mg/m3 total suspended particulate) of second-hand smoke on adult atherosclerotic lesion development using the apolipoprotein E null mouse model. Consequently, apolipoprotein E null mice were exposed to either filtered air or second-hand smoke: (i) in utero from gestation days 1–19, or (ii) from birth until 3 weeks of age (neonatal). Subsequently, all animals were exposed to filtered air and sacrificed at 12–14 weeks of age. Oil red-O staining of whole aortas, measures of mitochondrial damage, and oxidative stress were performed. Results show that both in utero and neonatal second-hand smoke exposure significantly increased adult atherogenesis in mice compared to filtered air controls. These changes were associated with changes in aconitase and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase activities consistent with increased oxidative stress in the aorta, changes in mitochondrial DNA copy number and deletion levels. These studies show that in utero or neonatal exposure to second-hand smoke significantly influences adult atherosclerotic lesion development and results in significant alterations to the mitochondrion and its genome that may contribute to atherogenesis. PMID:23825571

  17. Life Span Developmental Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Eryilmaz

    2011-01-01

    The Life Span Developmental Approach examines development of individuals which occurs from birth to death. Life span developmental approach is a multi-disciplinary approach related with disciplines like psychology, psychiatry, sociology, anthropology and geriatrics that indicates the fact that development is not completed in adulthood, it continues during the life course. Development is a complex process that consists of dying and death. This approach carefully investigates the development of...

  18. Life Span Developmental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Eryilmaz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Life Span Developmental Approach examines development of individuals which occurs from birth to death. Life span developmental approach is a multi-disciplinary approach related with disciplines like psychology, psychiatry, sociology, anthropology and geriatrics that indicates the fact that development is not completed in adulthood, it continues during the life course. Development is a complex process that consists of dying and death. This approach carefully investigates the development of individuals with respect to developmental stages. This developmental approach suggests that scientific disciplines should not explain developmental facts only with age changes. Along with aging, cognitive, biological, and socioemotional development throughout life should also be considered to provide a reasonable and acceptable context, guideposts, and reasonable expectations for the person. There are three important subjects whom life span developmental approach deals with. These are nature vs nurture, continuity vs discontinuity, and change vs stability. Researchers using life span developmental approach gather and produce knowledge on these three most important domains of individual development with their unique scientific methodology.

  19. Altered patterns of directed connectivity within the reading network of dyslexic children and their relation to reading dysfluency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gojko Žarić

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Reading is a complex cognitive skill subserved by a distributed network of visual and language-related regions. Disruptions of connectivity within this network have been associated with developmental dyslexia but their relation to individual differences in the severity of reading problems remains unclear. Here we investigate whether dysfunctional connectivity scales with the level of reading dysfluency by examining EEG recordings during visual word and false font processing in 9-year-old typically reading children (TR and two groups of dyslexic children: severely dysfluent (SDD and moderately dysfluent (MDD dyslexics. Results indicated weaker occipital to inferior-temporal connectivity for words in both dyslexic groups relative to TRs. Furthermore, SDDs exhibited stronger connectivity from left central to right inferior-temporal and occipital sites for words relative to TRs, and for false fonts relative to both MDDs and TRs. Importantly, reading fluency was positively related with forward and negatively with backward connectivity. Our results suggest disrupted visual processing of words in both dyslexic groups, together with a compensatory recruitment of right posterior brain regions especially in the SDDs during word and false font processing. Functional connectivity in the brain’s reading network may thus depend on the level of reading dysfluency beyond group differences between dyslexic and typical readers.

  20. Substance-related and addictive disorders among adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD): an Ontario population cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Elizabeth; Balogh, Robert; McGarry, Caitlin; Selick, Avra; Dobranowski, Kristin; Wilton, Andrew S; Lunsky, Yona

    2016-09-02

    Describe the prevalence of substance-related and addictive disorders (SRAD) in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) and compare the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of adults with IDD and SRAD to those with IDD or SRAD only. Population-based cohort study (the Health Care Access Research and Development Disabilities (H-CARDD) cohort). All legal residents of Ontario, Canada. 66 484 adults, aged 18-64, with IDD identified through linked provincial health and disability income benefits administrative data from fiscal year 2009. 96 589 adults, aged 18-64, with SRAD but without IDD drawn from the provincial health administrative data. Sociodemographic (age group, sex, neighbourhood income quintile, rurality) and clinical (psychiatric and chronic disease diagnoses, morbidity) characteristics. The prevalence of SRAD among adults with IDD was 6.4%, considerably higher than many previous reports and also higher than found for adults without IDD in Ontario (3.5%). Among those with both IDD and SRAD, the rate of psychiatric comorbidity was 78.8%, and the proportion with high or very high overall morbidity was 59.5%. The most common psychiatric comorbidities were anxiety disorders (67.6%), followed by affective (44.6%), psychotic (35.8%) and personality disorders (23.5%). These adults also tended to be younger and more likely to live in the poorest neighbourhoods compared with adults with IDD but no SRAD and adults with SRAD but no IDD. SRAD is a significant concern for adults with IDD. It is associated with high rates of psychiatric and other comorbidities, indicating that care coordination and system navigation may be important concerns. Attention should be paid to increasing the recognition of SRAD among individuals with IDD by both healthcare and social service providers and to improving staff skills in successfully engaging those with both IDD and SRAD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  1. Developmental pathways of change in fitness and motor competence are related to overweight and obesity status at the end of primary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Luis P; Stodden, David F; Lopes, Vítor P

    2016-01-01

    To test how different developmental pathways of health-related physical fitness and motor competence tests relate to weight status (overweight and obesity) at the end of primary school. Longitudinal study on growth, health-related physical fitness, and motor competence of 472 primary school children assessed yearly throughout 1st to 4th grade, with an average age of 6.3±0.7 years of age at 1st grade. Children's pathways of change on each of the fitness and motor competence tests were determined along the four years of the study. Participants were divided into three groups according to their rate of change in each test over time: Low Rate of Change, Average Rate of Change, and High Rate of Change. A logistic regression was used to predict the odds ratio of becoming overweight or obese, depending on the developmental pathway of change in fitness and motor competence across childhood. Children with a low or average rate of change in their developmental pathways of fitness and motor competence were several times more prone to become overweight or obese at the end of primary school (OR 2.0 to 6.3), independent of sex and body mass index at baseline. Specifically, a negative developmental pathway (Low Rate of Change) in cardiorespiratory fitness demonstrated over a six-fold elevated risk of being overweight or obese, compared to peers with a positive pathway. Not all children improve their motor competence and fitness levels over time and many actually regress over time. Developing positive fitness and motor competence pathways during childhood protects from obesity and overweight. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Glycomics and glycoproteomics focused on aging and age-related diseases--Glycans as a potential biomarker for physiological alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Yuri; Endo, Tamao

    2016-08-01

    Since glycosylation depends on glycosyltransferases, glycosidases, and sugar nucleotide donors, it is susceptible to the changes associated with physiological and pathological conditions. Therefore, alterations in glycan structures may be good targets and biomarkers for monitoring health conditions. Since human aging and longevity are affected by genetic and environmental factors such as diseases, lifestyle, and social factors, a scale that reflects various environmental factors is required in the study of human aging and longevity. We herein focus on glycosylation changes elucidated by glycomic and glycoproteomic studies on aging, longevity, and age-related diseases including cognitive impairment, diabetes mellitus, and frailty. We also consider the potential of glycan structures as biomarkers and/or targets for monitoring physiological and pathophysiological changes. Glycan structures are altered in age-related diseases. These glycans and glycoproteins may be involved in the pathophysiology of these diseases and, thus, be useful diagnostic markers. Age-dependent changes in N-glycans have been reported previously in cohort studies, and characteristic N-glycans in extreme longevity have been proposed. These findings may lead to a deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying aging as well as the factors influencing longevity. Alterations in glycosylation may be good targets and biomarkers for monitoring health conditions, and be applicable to studies on age-related diseases and healthy aging. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Glycans in personalised medicine" Guest Editor: Professor Gordan Lauc. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Issues related to volatilization, phase alteration, and presence of unreacted feed in the borosilicate glass wasteform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, V.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has outlined the requirements in the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) that must be met before they will accept West Valley canistered vitrified waste forms for shipment to a federal depository. In this study the glass volatilization was studied using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) to evaluate the absence of free gases, free liquids, explosives, pyrophorics, combustibles, and organics in the waste form. The total carbon in the samples was analyzed using a carbon determinator, phase alteration by heat-treating samples for extended periods of time (45-day) at T g -10 degrees C and T g +10 degrees C (where T g is the glass transition temperature), and the presence of unreacted feed in glass by comparing x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns for glass and dried feed. The results of this study indicate that the West Valley vitrification process completely transforms the feed into glass. Also the TGA, XRD, and scanning transmission electron microscopy data indicates that there is no significant volatilization, redox reactions, and phase alterations in the waste form up to more than 200 degrees C above the T g . 7 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  4. Cpt1a gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells as an early biomarker of diet-related metabolic alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Díaz-Rúa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research on biomarkers that provide early information about the development of future metabolic alterations is an emerging discipline. Gene expression analysis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC is a promising tool to identify subjects at risk of developing diet-related diseases. Objective: We analysed PBMC expression of key energy homeostasis-related genes in a time-course analysis in order to find out early markers of metabolic alterations due to sustained intake of high-fat (HF and high-protein (HP diets. Design: We administered HF and HP diets (4 months to adult Wistar rats in isocaloric conditions to a control diet, mainly to avoid overweight associated with the intake of hyperlipidic diets and, thus, to be able to characterise markers of metabolically obese normal-weight (MONW syndrome. PBMC samples were collected at different time points of dietary treatment and expression of relevant energy homeostatic genes analysed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Serum parameters related with metabolic syndrome, as well as fat deposition in liver, were also analysed. Results: The most outstanding results were those obtained for the expression of the lipolytic gene carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (Cpt1a. Cpt1a expression in PBMC increased after only 1 month of exposure to both unbalanced diets, and this increased expression was maintained thereafter. Interestingly, in the case of the HF diet, Cpt1a expression was altered even in the absence of increased body weight but correlated with alterations such as higher insulin resistance, alteration of serum lipid profile and, particularly, increased fat deposition in liver, a feature characteristic of metabolic syndrome, which was even observed in animals fed with HP diet. Conclusions: We propose Cpt1a gene expression analysis in PBMC as an early biomarker of metabolic alterations associated with MONW phenotype due to the intake of isocaloric HF diets, as

  5. Developmental Immunotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal models suggest that the immature immune system is more susceptible to xenobiotics than the fully mature system, and sequelae of developmental immunotoxicant exposure may be persistent well into adulthood. Immune maturation may be delayed by xenobiotic exposure and recover...

  6. Is the Development of Offenders Related to Crime Scene Behaviors for Burglary? Including Situational Influences in Developmental and Life-Course Theories of Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Bryanna Hahn; Farrington, David P

    2016-12-01

    Developmental and life-course (DLC) theories of crime aim to identify the causes and correlates of offending over the life span, focusing on the within-individual variations that result in criminal and delinquent behavior. Although there are several notable theories in the field, few contain both developmental and situational factors related to offending, and none explain why individuals commit crimes in different ways. This study aims to address these issues by developing typologies of burglars based on developmental and situational characteristics to help identify the various criminal career paths of the offenders, and how these different criminal careers may relate to the commission of offenses. Results of this study indicate that there are five different criminal career paths among the sampled burglars and four different styles of committing the same offense, and that burglars with certain criminal career features tend to commit a specific style of burglary. Through this research, we aim to extend DLC theories to create a more practical and contextual explanation of the relationship between criminal careers and the commission of offenses, and increase the level of within-individual explained variance in criminal behavior.

  7. Flexible Goal Adjustment from Late Childhood to Late Adolescence: Developmental Differences and Relations to Cognitive Coping and Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    One way to avert negative influences on well-being when confronted with blocked goals is the flexible adjustment of one's goals to the given situation. This study examines developmental differences in flexible goal adjustment (FGA) regarding age and gender in a sample of N = 815 participants (10 to 20 years; M = 13.63, SD = 2.60, 48.5% male).…

  8. Possible Link Between Stress-related Factors and Altered Body Composition in Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Barnali Ray; Chowdhury, Olivia; Saha, Sudip Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Stress is an invisible factor affecting modern day living and is strongly associated with many disease pathogenesis including polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) in women. PCOS is the most frequent endocrinological disorder that affects women of reproductive age, leading to metabolic dysfunction and body composition alterations. Salivary amylase and cortisol are major stress mediators that have been implicated in PCOS. However, their role in altering body composition in PCOS is yet to be deciphered. The present study aimed at understanding the relation between stress-associated factors and alterations in body composition among PCOS patients. This study enrolled a total of 100 patients (PCOS) and 60 age-matched controls. The female patients were of ages between 13 and 30 years. Standard assay kits were used to evaluate the α-amylase activity and cortisol level in saliva. The participants were chosen on the basis of the Rotterdam American Society for Reproductive Medicine/European Society of Human Reproduction criteria. Saliva was collected from each participant as per the protocol of Salimetrics, USA. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 20 for Windows. The quantitative variables are described as mean ± standard deviation. P stress scenario in their system. Moreover, overweight PCOS participants reflected higher amylase activity than the lean patients participants. Pulse rate, body mass index (BMI), visceral adiposity, and waist-hip ratio (WHR) was considerably higher in the PCOS patients participants compared to controls. A significant correlation could be drawn between the α-amylase activity and BMI or WHR, respectively, among PCOS patients. These observations indicate a strong link between the stress marker and alterations in the body composition parameters of PCOS patients participants. Higher prevalence of stress in PCOS patients participants has a critical role in their altered body composition.

  9. The role of relational binding in item memory: evidence from face recognition in a case of developmental amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Rosanna K; Lee, Yunjo; Kube, Jana; Rosenbaum, R Shayna; Grady, Cheryl L; Moscovitch, Morris; Ryan, Jennifer D

    2015-04-01

    Current theories state that the hippocampus is responsible for the formation of memory representations regarding relations, whereas extrahippocampal cortical regions support representations for single items. However, findings of impaired item memory in hippocampal amnesics suggest a more nuanced role for the hippocampus in item memory. The hippocampus may be necessary when the item elements need to be bound within and across episodes to form a lasting representation that can be used flexibly. The current investigation was designed to test this hypothesis in face recognition. H.C., an individual who developed with a compromised hippocampal system, and control participants incidentally studied individual faces that either varied in presentation viewpoint across study repetitions or remained in a fixed viewpoint across the study repetitions. Eye movements were recorded during encoding and participants then completed a surprise recognition memory test. H.C. demonstrated altered face viewing during encoding. Although the overall number of fixations made by H.C. was not significantly different from that of controls, the distribution of her viewing was primarily directed to the eye region. Critically, H.C. was significantly impaired in her ability to subsequently recognize faces studied from variable viewpoints, but demonstrated spared performance in recognizing faces she encoded from a fixed viewpoint, implicating a relationship between eye movement behavior in the service of a hippocampal binding function. These findings suggest that a compromised hippocampal system disrupts the ability to bind item features within and across study repetitions, ultimately disrupting recognition when it requires access to flexible relational representations. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/355342-09$15.00/0.

  10. Some mica-vermiculite alterations-relation to the exchange capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misak, N.Z.; Abdel-Gawad, A.S.; Maghrawy, H.B.; Shafik, A.; Sayyah, T.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of treatment of six Indian mica-vermiculite minerals with sodium cobaltinitrite (I) and NaCl+H 2 O 2 (II) with the aim of producing more vermiculite in the structure and thus a higher sorption capacity, was studied. The changes occuring in the minerals were followed by X-ray, TG, DTA, and chemical analyses. The measured Sr 2+ and Co 2+ capacities were in basic agreement with the detected changes that revealed generally a minor alteration due to treatment I and a considerable one but to treatment II. Treatment II increased tremendously the capacity of the main-mica minerals, having a very small capacity in the natural form, and made them suitable for use as potential ion exchangers

  11. Developmental exposure to low concentrations of two brominated flame retardants, BDE-47 and BDE-99, causes life-long behavioral alterations in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Lilah; Wells, Corinne N; Drastal, Meghan; Odamah, Kathryn-Ann; Galat, Richard E; Behl, Mamta; Levin, Edward D

    2018-05-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were widely used as flame retardants until the early 2000s, mainly in home furnishings and electronics. The persistence of PBDEs in the environment leads to continued ubiquitous exposure to low levels, with infants and children experiencing higher exposures than adults. Accumulating evidence suggest that low-level exposures during early life stages can affect brain development and lead to long-term behavioral impairments. We investigated the effects of zebrafish exposure to low doses of the two prominent PBDEs; 2,2',4,4',5,-Pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99) and 2,2',4,4',-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), during embryo-development on short- and long-term behavioral endpoints. We included the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) due to its well documented neurotoxicity across species from zebrafish to humans. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to the following individual treatments; 0.1% DMSO (vehicle control); 0.3μM CPF; 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3μM BDE-47; 0.003, 0.03, 0.3, 1, 3, 10, 20μM BDE-99 from 5 until 120h post fertilization (hpf). Low exposure levels were determined as those not causing immediate overt toxicity, and behavior assays were conducted in the low-level range. At 144 hpf the larvae were tested for locomotor activity. At approximately 6 months of age adult zebrafish were tested in a behavioral battery including assays for anxiety-related behavior, sensorimotor response and habituation, social interaction, and predator avoidance. In the short-term, larval locomotor activity was reduced in larvae treated with 0.3μM CPF and 0.1μM BDE-47. BDE-99 treatment caused non-monotonic dose effects, with 0.3μM causing hyperactivity and 1μM or higher causing hypoactivity. In the long-term, adult anxiety-related behavior was reduced in all treatments as measured in both the novel tank dive test and tap test. We show that exposure of zebrafish embryos to low concentrations of the brominated flame retardants BDE-47 and

  12. Alteration of apoptosis-related genes in postmenopausal women with uterine prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatli, Bahadir; Kizildag, Sefa; Cagliyan, Erkan; Dogan, Erbil; Saygili, Ugur

    2014-07-01

    We aimed to compare expression levels of antiapoptotic and proapoptotic genes in parametrial and vaginal tissues from postmenopausal women with and without pelvic organ prolapse (POP). We hypothesized that the expression of genes that induce apoptosis may be altered in vaginal and parametrial tissues in postmenopausal women with POP. Samples of vaginal and parametrial tissues were obtained from postmenopausal women with (n = 10) and without (n = 10) POP who underwent vaginal or abdominal hysterectomy. Expression levels of antiapoptotic (BCL-2, BCL-XL) and proapoptotic (BAX, BAD) genes were studied by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Gene expression levels of BCL-2 (P gene expression levels of BCL-2 (p gene expression levels differed significantly between postmenopausal women with and without POP. Bcl-2 family genes were overexpressed in the parametrium of patients with POP compared with vaginal tissue, suggesting that the processes responsible for POP have a greater effect on parametrial tissue than vaginal tissue during the development of POP.

  13. Alterations in brain structures related to taste reward circuitry in ill and recovered anorexia nervosa and in bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Guido K; Shott, Megan E; Hagman, Jennifer O; Mittal, Vijay A

    2013-10-01

    The pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa remains obscure, but structural brain alterations could be functionally important biomarkers. The authors assessed taste pleasantness and reward sensitivity in relation to brain structure, which may be related to food avoidance commonly seen in eating disorders. The authors used structural MR imaging to study gray and white matter volumes in women with current restricting-type anorexia nervosa (N=19), women recovered from restricting-type anorexia nervosa (N=24), women with bulimia nervosa (N=19), and healthy comparison women (N=24). All eating disorder groups exhibited increased gray matter volume of the medial orbitofrontal cortex (gyrus rectus). Manual tracing confirmed larger gyrus rectus volume, and volume predicted taste pleasantness ratings across all groups. Analyses also indicated other morphological differences between diagnostic categories. Antero-ventral insula gray matter volumes were increased on the right side in the anorexia nervosa and recovered anorexia nervosa groups and on the left side in the bulimia nervosa group relative to the healthy comparison group. Dorsal striatum volumes were reduced in the recovered anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa groups and predicted sensitivity to reward in all three eating disorder groups. The eating disorder groups also showed reduced white matter in right temporal and parietal areas relative to the healthy comparison group. The results held when a range of covariates, such as age, depression, anxiety, and medications, were controlled for. Brain structure in the medial orbitofrontal cortex, insula, and striatum is altered in eating disorders and suggests altered brain circuitry that has been associated with taste pleasantness and reward value.

  14. Dominance of legume trees alters nutrient relations in mixed species forest restoration plantings within seven years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyas Siddique; Vera Lex Engel; David Lamb; Gabriela B. Nardoto; Jean P.H.B. Ometto; Luiz A. Martinelli; Susanne. Schmidt

    2008-01-01

    Failures in reforestation are often attributed to nutrient limitation for tree growth. We compared tree performance and nitrogen and phosphorus relations in adjacent mixed-species plantings of contrasting composition, established for forest restoration on Ultisol soil, originally covered by tropical semi-deciduous Atlantic Forest in Southeast Brazil. Nutrient relations...

  15. Health-related quality of life, developmental milestones, and self-esteem in young adults with bleeding disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limperg, P F; Haverman, L; Maurice-Stam, H; Coppens, M; Valk, C; Kruip, M J H A; Eikenboom, J; Peters, M; Grootenhuis, M A

    2018-01-01

    The treatment of bleeding disorders improved in the last decades. However, the effect of growing up with bleeding disorders on developmental, emotional, and social aspects is understudied. Therefore, this study assesses HRQOL, developmental milestones, and self-esteem in Dutch young adults (YA) with bleeding disorders compared to peers. Ninety-five YA (18-30 years) with bleeding disorders (78 men; mean 24.7 years, SD 3.5) and 17 women (mean 25.1 years, SD 3.8) participated and completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Young Adult version, the Course of Life Questionnaire, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Differences between patients with bleeding disorders and their peers, and between hemophilia severity groups, were tested using Mann-Whitney U tests. YA men with bleeding disorders report a slightly lower HRQOL on the total scale, physical functioning, and school/work functioning in comparison to healthy peers (small effect sizes). YA men with severe hemophilia report more problems on the physical functioning scale than non-severe hemophilia. YA men with bleeding disorders achieved more psychosexual developmental milestones than peers, but show a delay in 'paid jobs, during middle and/or high school.' A somewhat lower self-esteem was found in YA men with bleeding disorders in comparison to peers (small effect size). For YA women with bleeding disorders, no differences were found on any of the outcomes in comparison to peers. This study demonstrates some impairments in HRQOL and self-esteem in YA men with bleeding disorders. By monitoring HRQOL, problems can be identified early, especially with regard to their physical and professional/school functioning.

  16. Revisiting Metchnikoff: Age-related alterations in microbiota-gut-brain axis in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Karen A; Ida, Masayuki; Peterson, Veronica L; Prenderville, Jack A; Moloney, Gerard M; Izumo, Takayuki; Murphy, Kiera; Murphy, Amy; Ross, R Paul; Stanton, Catherine; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2017-10-01

    Over the last decade, there has been increased interest in the role of the gut microbiome in health including brain health. This is by no means a new theory; Elie Metchnikoff proposed over a century ago that targeting the gut by consuming lactic acid bacteria such as those in yogurt, could improve or delay the onset of cognitive decline associated with ageing. However, there is limited information characterising the relationship between the behavioural and physiological sequelae of ageing and alterations in the gut microbiome. To this end, we assessed the behavioural, physiological and caecal microbiota profile of aged male mice. Older mice (20-21months old) exhibited deficits in spatial memory and increases in anxiety-like behaviours compared to younger mice (2-3months old). They also exhibited increased gut permeability, which was directly correlated with elevations in peripheral pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, stress exacerbated the gut permeability of aged mice. Examination of the caecal microbiota revealed significant increases in phylum TM7, family Porphyromonadaceae and genus Odoribacter of aged mice. This represents a shift of aged microbiota towards a profile previously associated with inflammatory disease, particularly gastrointestinal and liver disorders. Furthermore, Porphyromonadaceae, which has also been associated with cognitive decline and affective disorders, was directly correlated with anxiety-like behaviour in aged mice. These changes suggest that changes in the gut microbiota and associated increases in gut permeability and peripheral inflammation may be important mediators of the impairments in behavioural, affective and cognitive functions seen in ageing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Unpredictable neonatal stress enhances adult anxiety and alters amygdala gene expression related to serotonin and GABA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarro, E C; Sullivan, R M; Barr, G

    2014-01-31

    Anxiety-related disorders are among the most common psychiatric illnesses, thought to have both genetic and environmental causes. Early-life trauma, such as abuse from a caregiver, can be predictable or unpredictable, each resulting in increased prevalence and severity of a unique set of disorders. In this study, we examined the influence of early unpredictable trauma on both the behavioral expression of adult anxiety and gene expression within the amygdala. Neonatal rats were exposed to unpaired odor-shock conditioning for 5 days, which produces deficits in adult behavior and amygdala dysfunction. In adulthood, we used the Light/Dark box test to measure anxiety-related behaviors, measuring the latency to enter the lit area and quantified urination and defecation. The amygdala was then dissected and a microarray analysis was performed to examine changes in gene expression. Animals that had received early unpredictable trauma displayed significantly longer latencies to enter the lit area and more defecation and urination. The microarray analysis revealed over-represented genes related to learning and memory, synaptic transmission and trans-membrane transport. Gene ontology and pathway analysis identified highly represented disease states related to anxiety phenotypes, including social anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder and bipolar disorder. Addiction-related genes were also overrepresented in this analysis. Unpredictable shock during early development increased anxiety-like behaviors in adulthood with concomitant changes in genes related to neurotransmission, resulting in gene expression patterns similar to anxiety-related psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mothers' perceived physical health during early and middle childhood: relations with child developmental delay and behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhower, Abbey; Blacher, Jan; Baker, Bruce L

    2013-03-01

    The self-perceived physical health of mothers raising children with developmental delay (DD; N=116) or typical development (TD; N=129) was examined across child ages 3-9 years, revealing three main findings. First, mothers of children with DD experienced poorer self-rated physical health than mothers of children with TD at each age. Latent growth curve analyses indicated that mothers in the DD group experienced poorer health from age 3 but that the two groups showed similar growth across ages 3-9 years. Second, cross-lagged panel analyses supported a child-driven pathway in early childhood (ages 3-5) by which early mother-reported child behavior problems predicted poorer maternal health over time, while the reversed, health-driven path was not supported. Third, this cross-lagged path was significantly stronger in the DD group, indicating that behavior problems more strongly impact mothers' health when children have developmental delay than when children have typical development. The health disparity between mothers of children with DD vs. TD stabilized by child age 5 and persisted across early and middle childhood. Early interventions ought to focus on mothers' well-being, both psychological and physical, in addition to child functioning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Topographic processing in developmental prosopagnosia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klargaard, Solja K.; Starrfelt, Randi; Petersen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    deficit in visual processing or visual short-term memory. Interestingly, a classical dissociation could be demonstrated between impaired face memory and preserved topographic memory in two developmental prosopagnosics. We conclude that impairments in topographic memory tend to co-occur with developmental......Anecdotal evidence suggests a relation between impaired spatial (navigational) processing and developmental prosopagnosia. To address this formally, we tested two aspects of topographic processing – that is, perception and memory of mountain landscapes shown from different viewpoints. Participants...

  20. Does inflammation induced by ultraviolet B and heat rekindling alter pain-related behaviour in rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Melissa; Taylor, Collette; Weerasinghe, Nirosha; Koutsikou, Stella; Lumb, Bridget; Murrell, Jo

    2016-09-01

    To investigate whether induction of the ultraviolet B and heat rekindling (UVB/HR) model alters burrowing behaviour in rats. Randomized, blinded, prospective experimental study. Sixteen adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g. In the UVB/HR group (n = 8), UV irradiation was delivered to the heel area of the right plantar pelvic limb paw at a dose of 1000 mJ cm(-2) , using a narrow-band UVB light source. Twenty-four hours later, heat rekindling was performed by placement of a feedback-controlled thermode set at a constant temperature of 45 °C over the area of UVB irradiation for 5 minutes. Both interventions were carried out under pentobarbital anaesthesia. The 'sham' group (n = 8) was anaesthetized only. In the burrowing test, rats were housed singly for 2 hours in cages furnished with a burrow filled with sand. The amount of sand remaining in the burrow after 2 hours was weighed and the amount displaced from the burrow calculated. The burrowing test was carried out for two consecutive days prior to UVB irradiation (day 0), on day 1 prior to HR, on days 2 and 3 after UVB exposure and at equivalent time points in the sham group. Rats in the sham group burrowed means (SD) of 2429 (73) g and 2358 (124) g of sand on days -2 and 3, respectively, while those in the UVB/HR group burrowed 2460 (26) and 2419 (58) g on days -2 and 3, respectively. There was no significant effect of treatment on the amount of sand burrowed at any time point. Pain associated with UVB/HR model induction is below the threshold required to affect rat burrowing behaviour and therefore questions the face validity of UVB/HR as a translational model of inflammatory pain. © 2016 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  1. Developmental Scaffolding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giorgi, Franco; Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2015-01-01

    . Within the developmental hierarchy, each module yields an inter-level relationship that makes it possible for the scaffolding to mediate the production of selectable variations. Awide range of genetic, cellular and morphological mechanisms allows the scaffolding to integrate these modular variations...... to the complexity of sign recognition proper of a cellular community. In this semiotic perspective, the apparent goal directness of any developmental strategy should no longer be accounted for by a predetermined genetic program, but by the gradual definition of the relationships selected amongst the ones...

  2. Altered immune parameters correlate with infection-related hospitalizations in children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Elizabeth; Castañeda, Diana; Jaramillo, Sonia; Iregui, Alejandro; Quiñonez, Tatiana; Rodríguez, Jairo A; Herrera, Eddy; Gómez, Ana Milena; Rondón, Martin A; Prieto, Juan Carlos; Angel, Juana; Franco, Manuel A; Mesa, Martha C

    2016-07-01

    In addition to previously studied immunological variables, the relative expression of IFNGR2, IFNAR1, CD18, and CD275 (all encoded in chromosome 21) on circulating leucocytes and multifunctional T cells (evaluated by an intracellular cytokine/proliferation assay) were compared between children with Down syndrome (DS) and healthy controls (HC). As previously reported, numbers of lymphocytes, CD4(+) T cells, Treg cells, B cells, and levels of serum IgM were decreased, and levels of IgG and IgA were increased in children with DS. Moreover, the relative expression of CD18 on T and B cells (previously and not previously reported, respectively) were elevated in DS children (p⩽0.01). Age and numbers of B and Treg cells moderately correlated with retrospectively identified infection related hospitalizations (rho: 0.300-0.460, p⩽0.003). Age and the numbers of Treg cells also correlated with prospectively identified infection related hospitalizations. Future studies are necessary to clarify the role of these parameters in the immunity of DS patients. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Altered medial temporal activation related to local glutamate levels in subjects with prodromal signs of psychosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Valli, I; Stone, J; Mechelli, A; Bhattacharyya, S; Raffin, M; Allen, P; Fusar-Poli, P; Lythgoe, D; O'Gorman, R; Seal, M; McGuire, P

    2011-01-01

    In individuals at high risk of psychosis, medial temporal dysfunction seemed related to a loss of the normal relationship with local glutamate levels. This study provides the first evidence that links medial temporal dysfunction with the central glutamate system in humans and is consistent with evidence that drugs that modulate glutamatergic transmission might be useful in the treatment of psychosis.

  4. Sex Commonalities and Differences in Obesity-Related Alterations in Intrinsic Brain Activity and Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arpana; Mayer, Emeran A; Labus, Jennifer S; Bhatt, Ravi R; Ju, Tiffany; Love, Aubrey; Bal, Amanat; Tillisch, Kirsten; Naliboff, Bruce; Sanmiguel, Claudia P; Kilpatrick, Lisa A

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to characterize obesity-related sex differences in the intrinsic activity and connectivity of the brain's reward networks. Eighty-six women (n = 43) and men (n = 43) completed a 10-minute resting functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. Sex differences and commonalities in BMI-related frequency power distribution and reward seed-based connectivity were investigated by using partial least squares analysis. For whole-brain activity in both men and women, increased BMI was associated with increased slow-5 activity in the left globus pallidus (GP) and substantia nigra. In women only, increased BMI was associated with increased slow-4 activity in the right GP and bilateral putamen. For seed-based connectivity in women, increased BMI was associated with reduced slow-5 connectivity between the left GP and putamen and the emotion and cortical regulation regions, but in men, increased BMI was associated with increased connectivity with the medial frontal cortex. In both men and women, increased BMI was associated with increased slow-4 connectivity between the right GP and bilateral putamen and the emotion regulation and sensorimotor-related regions. The stronger relationship between increased BMI and decreased connectivity of core reward network components with cortical and emotion regulation regions in women may be related to the greater prevalence of emotional eating. The present findings suggest the importance of personalized treatments for obesity that consider the sex of the affected individual. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  5. Prefrontal alterations in GABAergic and glutamatergic gene expression in relation to depression and suicide.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Juan; Verwer, R.W.H.; Gao, S.; Qi, Xin-Rui; Lucassen, P.J.; Kessels, H.W.; Swaab, D.F.

    2018-01-01

    People that committed suicide were reported to have enhanced levels of gene transcripts for synaptic proteins in their prefrontal cortex (PFC). Given the close association of suicide with major depressive disorder (MDD), we here assessed whether these changes are related to suicide or rather to

  6. Prefrontal alterations in GABAergic and glutamatergic gene expression in relation to depression and suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, J.; Verwer, R.W.H.; Gao, S.-F.; Qi, X.-R.; Lucassen, P.J.; Kessels, H.W.; Swaab, D.F.

    People that committed suicide were reported to have enhanced levels of gene transcripts for synaptic proteins in their prefrontal cortex (PFC). Given the close association of suicide with major depressive disorder (MDD), we here assessed whether these changes are related to suicide or rather to

  7. Chromosome aberrations and oncogene alterations in atomic bomb related leukemias - different mechanisms from de novo leukemias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, H.; Kamada, N.

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that leukemia occurred more frequently among atomic bomb survivors. In 132 atomic bomb related ( AB- related) leukemia patients during 1978-1999, 33 acute myeloid leukemia (AML)/myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients had their exposure doses of more than 1Gy (DS86). Chromosome aberrations of the 33 patients were compared with those from 588 de novo AML/MDS patients who had been bone before August 1945 as control. No FAB M3 patient was observed in the exposed group. Most AB-related AML preceded a long term of MDS stage. Twenty seven of the 33 patients showed complex types of chromosome aberrations with more than three chromosomes involving chromosomes 5,7 and 11. The number of chromosomes abnormality per cell in the AB-related leukemia was 3.78 while 0.92 in de novo leukemia. Only one of the 33 patients had normal karyotype, while 44.1% in de novo leukemia patients. Translocations of chromosome 11 at 11q13 to 11q23 and deletion/ loss of chromosome 20 were frequently observed in AB-related leukemia. No leukemia-type specific translocations such as t(8;21),t(15;17) and 11q23 were found in the 33 AB-related leukemia patients. Furthermore, molecular analyses using FISH and PCR-SSCP revealed the presence of breakpoint located outside of MLL gene in the patients with translocations at 11q22-23 and DNA base derangements of RUNT domain of AML1(CBF β 2)gene with AML/MDS patients without t(8;21) and with a high dose of exposure. These results suggest that AB-related leukemia derives from an exposed pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell which has been preserved for a long time in the bone marrow, expressing high genetic instability such as microsatellite instability. On the other hand, de novo leukemia develops from a committed hematopoietic stem cell and shows simple and leukemia-type specific chromosome aberrations. These findings are important for understanding mechanisms for radiation-induced leukemia

  8. Possible link between stress-related factors and altered body composition in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnali Ray Basu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress is an invisible factor affecting modern day living and is strongly associated with many disease pathogenesis including polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS in women. PCOS is the most frequent endocrinological disorder that affects women of reproductive age, leading to metabolic dysfunction and body composition alterations. Salivary amylase and cortisol are major stress mediators that have been implicated in PCOS. However, their role in altering body composition in PCOS is yet to be deciphered. Aim: The present study aimed at understanding the relation between stress-associated factors and alterations in body composition among PCOS patients. Design: This study enrolled a total of 100 patients (PCOS and 60 age-matched controls. The female patients were of ages between 13 and 30 years. Materials and Methods: Standard assay kits were used to evaluate the α-amylase activity and cortisol level in saliva. The participants were chosen on the basis of the Rotterdam American Society for Reproductive Medicine/European Society of Human Reproduction criteria. Saliva was collected from each participant as per the protocol of Salimetrics, USA. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 20 for Windows. The quantitative variables are described as mean ± standard deviation. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Increased salivary cortisol level and α-amylase activity were seen in the PCOS population as compared to age-matched controls suggesting patients a sustained stress scenario in their system. Moreover, overweight PCOS participants reflected higher amylase activity than the lean patients participants. Pulse rate, body mass index (BMI, visceral adiposity, and waist-hip ratio (WHR was considerably higher in the PCOS patients participants compared to controls. A significant correlation could be drawn between the α-amylase activity and BMI or WHR, respectively, among PCOS patients. These observations

  9. Altered Olfactory Processing of Stress Related Body Odors and Artificial Odors in Patients with Panic Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Wintermann, Gloria-Beatrice; Donix, Markus; Joraschky, Peter; Gerber, Johannes; Petrowski, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with Panic Disorder (PD) direct their attention towards potential threat, followed by panic attacks, and increased sweat production. Onés own anxiety sweat odor influences the attentional focus, and discrimination of threat or non-threat. Since olfactory projection areas overlap with neuronal areas of a panic-specific fear network, the present study investigated the neuronal processing of odors in general and of stress-related sweat odors in particular in patients with PD...

  10. Alterations in the energy budget of Arctic benthic species exposed to oil-related compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Gro Harlaug [Akvaplan-niva, Polar Environmental Center, N-9296 Tromso (Norway) and Norwegian College of Fishery Science, University of Tromso, N-9037 Tromso (Norway)]. E-mail: gho@akvaplan.niva.noph; Sva, Eirin [Akvaplan-niva, Polar Environmental Center, N-9296 Tromso (Norway); Carroll, JoLynn [Akvaplan-niva, Polar Environmental Center, N-9296 Tromso (Norway); Camus, Lionel [Akvaplan-niva, Polar Environmental Center, N-9296 Tromso (Norway); De Coen, Wim [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp (UA), Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Smolders, Roel [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp (UA), Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Environmental Toxicology, VITO, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Overaas, Helene [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), CIENS, Gaustadalleen, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Multiconsult AS, Hoffsveien 1, N-0275 Oslo (Norway); Hylland, Ketil [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), CIENS, Gaustadalleen, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Department of Biology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066, Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway)

    2007-06-15

    We studied cellular energy allocation (CEA) in three Arctic benthic species (Gammarus setosus (Amphipoda), Onisimus litoralis (Amphipoda), and Liocyma fluctuosa (Bivalvia)) exposed to oil-related compounds. The CEA biomarker measures the energy budget of organisms by biochemically assessing changes in energy available (carbohydrates, protein and lipid content) and the integrated energy consumption (electron transport system activity (ETS) as the cellular aspect of respiration). Energy budget was measured in organisms subjected to water-accommodated fraction (WAF) of crude oil and drill cuttings (DC) to evaluate whether these compounds affect the energy metabolism of the test species. We observed significantly lower CEA values and higher ETS activity in G. setosus subjected to WAF treatment compared to controls (p {<=} 0.03). Higher CEA value and lower cellular respiration were observed in O. litoralis exposed to DC compared to controls (p = 0.02). No difference in the energy budget of L. fluctuosa was observed between the treatments (p {>=} 0.19). Different responses to oil-related compounds between the three test species are likely the result of differences in feeding and burrowing behavior and species-specific sensitivity to petroleum-related compounds.

  11. Altered processing of visual emotional stimuli in posttraumatic stress disorder: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar-Ashkenazy, Rotem; Shalev, Hadar; Kanthak, Magdalena K; Guez, Jonathan; Friedman, Alon; Cohen, Jonathan E

    2015-08-30

    Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) display abnormal emotional processing and bias towards emotional content. Most neurophysiological studies in PTSD found higher amplitudes of event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to trauma-related visual content. Here we aimed to characterize brain electrical activity in PTSD subjects in response to non-trauma-related emotion-laden pictures (positive, neutral and negative). A combined behavioral-ERP study was conducted in 14 severe PTSD patients and 14 controls. Response time in PTSD patients was slower compared with that in controls, irrespective to emotional valence. In both PTSD and controls, response time to negative pictures was slower compared with that to neutral or positive pictures. Upon ranking, both control and PTSD subjects similarly discriminated between pictures with different emotional valences. ERP analysis revealed three distinctive components (at ~300, ~600 and ~1000 ms post-stimulus onset) for emotional valence in control subjects. In contrast, PTSD patients displayed a similar brain response across all emotional categories, resembling the response of controls to negative stimuli. We interpret these findings as a brain-circuit response tendency towards negative overgeneralization in PTSD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mitochondrial Dysfunctions and Altered Metals Homeostasis: New Weapons to Counteract HCV-Related Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Arciello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hepatitis C virus (HCV infection produces several pathological effects in host organism through a wide number of molecular/metabolic pathways. Today it is worldwide accepted that oxidative stress actively participates in HCV pathology, even if the antioxidant therapies adopted until now were scarcely effective. HCV causes oxidative stress by a variety of processes, such as activation of prooxidant enzymes, weakening of antioxidant defenses, organelle damage, and metals unbalance. A focal point, in HCV-related oxidative stress onset, is the mitochondrial failure. These organelles, known to be the “power plants” of cells, have a central role in energy production, metabolism, and metals homeostasis, mainly copper and iron. Furthermore, mitochondria are direct viral targets, because many HCV proteins associate with them. They are the main intracellular free radicals producers and targets. Mitochondrial dysfunctions play a key role in the metal imbalance. This event, today overlooked, is involved in oxidative stress exacerbation and may play a role in HCV life cycle. In this review, we summarize the role of mitochondria and metals in HCV-related oxidative stress, highlighting the need to consider their deregulation in the HCV-related liver damage and in the antiviral management of patients.

  13. Developmental delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrition support is essential for the care of the child with developmental delay. After a thorough evaluation, an individualized intervention plan that accounts for the child’s nutrition status, feeding ability, and medical condition may be determined. Nutrition assessments may be performed at leas...

  14. Developmental Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels; Hvid, Helge; Kristensen, Tage Søndergaard

    2003-01-01

    Human Deveoplment and Working Life - Work for Welfare explores whether the development of human resources at company level can improve individuals' quality of life, companies' possibilities of development, and welfare and democracy in society. Chapter two discuss the concept "developmental work...

  15. Developmental immunotoxicology of lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietert, Rodney R.; Lee, Ji-Eun; Hussain, Irshad; Piepenbrink, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The heavy metal, lead, is a known developmental immunotoxicant that has been shown to produce immune alterations in humans as well as other species. Unlike many compounds that exert adverse immune effects, lead exposure at low to moderate levels does not produce widespread loss of immune cells. In contrast, changes resulting from lead exposure are subtle at the immune cell population level but, nevertheless, can be functionally dramatic. A hallmark of lead-induced immunotoxicity is a pronounced shift in the balance in T helper cell function toward T helper 2 responses at the expense of T helper 1 functions. This bias alters the nature and range of immune responses that can be produced thereby influencing host susceptibility to various diseases. Immunotoxic responses to lead appear to differ across life stages not only quantitatively with regard to dose response, but also qualitatively in terms of the spectrum of immune alterations. Experimental studies in several lab animal species suggest the latter stages of gestation are a period of considerable sensitivity for lead-induced immunotoxicity. This review describes the basic characteristics of lead-induced immunotoxicity emphasizing experimental animal results. It also provides a framework for the consideration of toxicant exposure effects across life stages. The existence of and probable basis for developmental windows of immune hyper-susceptibility are presented. Finally, the potential for lead to serve as a perinatal risk factor for childhood asthma as well as other diseases is considered

  16. Alterations in conflict monitoring are related to functional connectivity in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg-Katz, Keren; Maidan, Inbal; Jacob, Yael; Giladi, Nir; Mirelman, Anat; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M

    2016-09-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have difficulties in executive functions including conflict monitoring. The neural mechanisms underlying these difficulties are not yet fully understood. In order to examine the neural mechanisms related to conflict monitoring in PD, we evaluated 35 patients with PD and 20 healthy older adults while they performed a word-color Stroop paradigm in the MRI. Specifically, we focused on changes between the groups in task-related functional connectivity using psycho-physiological interaction (PPI) analysis. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which is a brain node previously associated with the Stroop paradigm, was selected as the seed region for this analysis. Patients with PD, as compared to healthy controls, had reduced task-related functional connectivity between the ACC and parietal regions including the precuneus and inferior parietal lobe. This was seen only in the incongruent Stroop condition. A higher level of connectivity between the ACC and precuneus was correlated with a lower error rate in the conflicting, incongruent Stroop condition in the healthy controls, but not in the patients with PD. Furthermore, the patients also had reduced functional connectivity between the ACC and the superior frontal gyrus which was present in both the incongruent and congruent task condition. The present findings shed light on brain mechanisms that are apparently associated with specific cognitive difficulties in patients with PD. Among patients with PD, impaired conflict monitoring processing within the ACC-based fronto-parietal network may contribute to difficulties under increased executive demands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Thermotolerance and Heat-Shock Protein Gene Expression Patterns in Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Mediterranean in Relation to Developmental Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rui; Qi, Lan-Da; Du, Yu-Zhou; Li, Yuan-Xi

    2017-10-01

    Temperature plays an important role in the growth, development, and geographic distribution of insects. There is convincing evidence that heat-shock proteins (HSPs) play important roles in helping organisms adapt to thermal stress. To better understand the physiological and ecological influence of thermal stress on the different development stages of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Mediterranean species (MED), nymphs and adults were shocked with temperatures of 35, 38, and 41℃ for 1 and 2 h, respectively, and the survival rate, fecundity, and developmental duration were investigated in the laboratory. The expression levels of the hsp40, hsp70, and hsp90 genes were assessed using real-time PCR. The results indicate that the survival rates of the nymphs and adults decreased with increased temperature. A 2-h heat shock at 41℃ induced a significant reduction in fecundity in adults and an increase in developmental duration in young nymphs. Hsp90 showed higher temperature responses to thermal stress than hsp40 or hsp70. The expression levels of the hsps in the adults were significantly down-regulated by a 2-h heat shock at 41℃ compared with that by a 1-h treatment. A significant decrease in the expression levels of the hsps also occurred in the adults when the temperature increased from 38 to 41℃ for the 2-h treatment, whereas no significant decrease occurred in the nymphs. Compared with previous studies, we provide some evidence indicating that MED has the potential to adapt to a wider temperature range than the Middle East-Asia Minor 1 species. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Acupuncture Alters Expression of Insulin Signaling Related Molecules and Improves Insulin Resistance in OLETF Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Yu Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine effect of acupuncture on insulin resistance in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF rats and to evaluate expression of insulin signaling components. Rats were divided into three groups: Sprague-Dawley (SD rats, OLETF rats, and acupuncture+OLETF rats. Acupuncture was subcutaneously applied to Neiguan (PC6, Zusanli (ST36, and Sanyinjiao (SP6; in contrast, acupuncture to Shenshu (BL23 was administered perpendicularly. For Neiguan (PC6 and Zusanli (ST36, needles were connected to an electroacupuncture (EA apparatus. Fasting blood glucose (FPG was measured by glucose oxidase method. Plasma fasting insulin (FINS and serum C peptide (C-P were determined by ELISA. Protein and mRNA expressions of insulin signaling molecules were determined by Western blot and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. OLETF rats exhibit increased levels of FPG, FINS, C-P, and homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, which were effectively decreased by acupuncture treatment. mRNA expressions of several insulin signaling related molecules IRS1, IRS2, Akt2, aPKCζ, and GLUT4 were decreased in OLETF rats compared to SD controls. Expression of these molecules was restored back to normal levels upon acupuncture administration. PI3K-p85α was increased in OLETF rats; this increase was also reversed by acupuncture treatment. Acupuncture improves insulin resistance in OLETF rats, possibly via regulating expression of key insulin signaling related molecules.

  19. Altered Functional Connectivity of Cognitive-Related Cerebellar Subregions in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Zheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the most common cause of dementia. Previous studies have found disrupted resting state functional connectivities (rsFCs in various brain networks in the AD patients. However, few studies have focused on the rsFCs of the cerebellum and its sub-regions in the AD patients. In this study, we collected resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI data including 32 AD patients and 38 healthy controls (HCs. We selected two cognitive-related subregions of the cerebellum as seed region and mapped the whole-brain rsFCs for each subregion. We identified several distinct rsFC patterns of the two cognitive-related cerebellar subregions: default-mode network (DMN, frontoparietal network (FPN, visual network (VN and sensorimotor network (SMN. Compared with the controls, the AD patients showed disrupted rsFCs in several different networks (DMN, VN and SMN, predicting the impairment of the functional integration in the cerebellum. Notably, these abnormal rsFCs of the two cerebellar subregions were closely associated with cognitive performance. Collectively, we demonstrated the distinct rsFCs patterns of cerebellar sub-regions with various functional networks, which were differentially impaired in the AD patients.

  20. Osteoporosis and anorexia nervosa: relative role of endocrine alterations and malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoangeli, F; Zoli, A; Taranto, A; Staar Mezzasalma, F; Ficoneri, C; Pierangeli, S; Menzinger, G; Bollea, M R

    2002-09-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder characterised by self-induced starvation or a very reduced caloric intake, and frequently by severe life-threatening protein calory malnutrition. Its physiological consequences include amenorrhea, estrogen deficiency and osteoporosis. Osteoporosis may develop as a consequence of a lack of estrogens, low calcium or vitamin D intake, hypercortisolemia or the duration of the illness. The aim of this study was to identify the best endocrinological and nutritional indicators of bone density. The study involved 49 young females with AN and malnutrition and 24 age-matched normal controls in whom AN had been excluded on the basis of a clinical evaluation using DSM IV criteria. We studied bone density in early osteopenia, a condition in which the potential risk of fractures is certainly high and traditionally related to a variety of endocrinological and nutritional factors. Bone density was significantly lower in the AN than the control group in all of the examined bone districts: bone mineral density (BMD) spine 0.89 +/- 0.19 vs 1.27 +/- 0.2 (pexercise, urinary free cortisol osteocalcin and type I collagen-telopeptide (NTX) did not significantly correlate with the degree of osteopenia. Our data suggest the importance of nutritional factors (particularly lean body mass and BMI) in determining bone mass, and the relatively limited importance of endocrinological factors with the exception of the duration of amenorrhea as an indirect indicator of endocrinological status.

  1. Age-related differences in body weight loss in response to altered thyroidal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooradian, A D

    1990-01-01

    To determine whether age-related differences in body weight loss in hyperthyroidism could be related to caloric intake, the body weight and food consumption of Fischer 344 male rats were monitored every other day for four weeks. Six-month-old (young) rats were compared to 16-month-old rats (intermediate age) and 25-month-old (aged) rats. Hypothyroidism was induced with 0.025% methimazole in the drinking water for four weeks. Hyperthyroidism was induced with triiodothyronine (T3) injections (15 micrograms/100 g body weight i.p.) for the last 10 days of observation. A group of young rats pair fed with aged rats was included as a control group. The body weight changes of aged rats were similar to hypothyroid young rats. An index of T3 catabolic effect was calculated based on the net weight loss and food intake. This index was not different in aged rats compared to young rats. The apparent hypersensitivity of aged rats to T3 as evidenced by excessive weight loss could totally be attributed to decreased caloric intake. It is concluded that aged rats compared to the young are not more sensitive to the overall catabolic effects of thyroid hormones.

  2. Altered brain processing of decision-making in healthy first-degree biological relatives of suicide completers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Y; Pereira, F; Hoehne, A; Beaulieu, M-M; Lepage, M; Turecki, G; Jollant, F

    2017-08-01

    Suicidal behavior is heritable, with the transmission of risk being related to the transmission of vulnerability traits. Previous studies suggest that risky decision-making may be an endophenotype of suicide. Here, we aimed at investigating brain processing of decision-making in relatives of suicide completers in order to shed light on heritable mechanisms of suicidal vulnerability. Seventeen healthy first-degree biological relatives of suicide completers with no personal history of suicidal behavior, 16 relatives of depressed patients without any personal or family history of suicidal behavior, and 19 healthy controls were recruited. Functional 3 T magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired while participants underwent the Iowa Gambling Task, an economic decision-making test. Whole-brain analyses contrasting activations during risky vs safe choices were conducted with AFNI and FSL. Individuals with a family history of suicide in comparison to control groups showed altered contrasts in left medial orbitofrontal cortex, and right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. This pattern was different from the neural basis of familial depression. Moreover, controls in comparison to relatives showed increased contrast in several regions including the post-central gyrus, posterior cingulate and parietal cortices, and cerebellum (culmen) in familial suicide; and inferior parietal, temporal, occipital, anteromedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, and cerebellum (vermis) in familial depression. These findings most likely represent a complex combination of vulnerability and protective mechanisms in relatives. They also support a significant role for deficient risk processing, and ventral and dorsal prefrontal cortex functioning in the suicidal diathesis.

  3. Non-conscious visual cues related to affect and action alter perception of effort and endurance performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony William Blanchfield

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The psychobiological model of endurance performance proposes that endurance performance is determined by a decision-making process based on perception of effort and potential motivation. Recent research has reported that effort-based decision-making during cognitive tasks can be altered by non-conscious visual cues relating to affect and action. The effect of these non-conscious visual cues on effort and performance during physical tasks is however unknown. We report two experiments investigating the effect of subliminal priming with visual cues related to affect and action on perception of effort and endurance performance. In Experiment 1 thirteen individuals were subliminally primed with happy or sad faces as they cycled to exhaustion in a counterbalanced and randomized crossover design. A paired t-test (happy vs. sad faces revealed that individuals cycled for significantly longer (178 s, p = .04 when subliminally primed with happy faces. A 2 x 5 (condition x iso-time ANOVA also revealed a significant main effect of condition on rating of perceived exertion (RPE during the time to exhaustion (TTE test with lower RPE when subjects were subliminally primed with happy faces (p = .04. In Experiment 2, a single-subject randomization tests design found that subliminal priming with action words facilitated a significantly longer (399 s, p = .04 TTE in comparison to inaction words (p = .04. Like Experiment 1, this greater TTE was accompanied by a significantly lower RPE (p = .03. These experiments are the first to show that subliminal visual cues relating to affect and action can alter perception of effort and endurance performance. Non-conscious visual cues may therefore influence the effort-based decision-making process that is proposed to determine endurance performance. Accordingly, the findings raise notable implications for individuals who may encounter such visual cues during endurance competitions, training, or health related exercise.

  4. Impulse Control Disorders in Parkinson's Disease are Associated with Alterations in Reward-Related Cortical Oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriere, Nicolas; Bourriez, Jean-Louis; Delval, Arnaud; Derambure, Philippe; Defebvre, Luc; Dujardin, Kathy

    2016-06-28

    Impulse control disorders (ICDs) in Parkinson's disease (PD) are related to treatment with dopamine agonists, which is thought to deregulate the dopaminergic mesolimbic pathway and impair reward evaluation. EEG studies in healthy controls (HCs) have suggested that the increase in theta power observed after negative outcome is a marker of reward processing. To compare outcome-locked, event-related spectral perturbation in a gambling task in PD patients with and without ICDs and in HCs. Twelve PD patients with ICDs, 12 PD patients without ICDs and 14 HCs underwent EEG while performing a gambling task. The groups were compared in terms of (i) the peak EEG power in the theta (4-7 Hz), alpha (8-14 Hz) and beta (15-30 Hz) frequency bands between 200 and 500 ms after the outcome, and (ii) time-frequency plots at Fz, FCz and Cz. Positive outcomes were associated with greater theta power than negative outcomes in patients without ICDs and in HCs, but not in patients with ICDs. Patients with ICDs and HCs displayed greater theta power following unexpectedly high outcomes. HCs displayed greater beta power following high amplitude than low amplitude outcomes, whereas patients with ICD showed the opposite pattern. In PD, ICDs are associated with (i) weaker modulation of frontocentral theta power by reward valence, (ii) greater frontocentral theta power following unexpected, high outcomes, and (iii) a reversal of the effect of risk on beta oscillations. These observations are consistent with an impairment in prediction error computation in the medial prefrontal cortex.

  5. [Altered identification with relative preservation of emotional prosody production in patients with Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templier, Lorraine; Chetouani, Mohamed; Plaza, Monique; Belot, Zoé; Bocquet, Patrick; Chaby, Laurence

    2015-03-01

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) show cognitive and behavioral disorders, which they and their caregivers have difficulties to cope with in daily life. Psychological symptoms seem to be increased by impaired emotion processing in patients, this ability being linked to social cognition and thus essential to maintain good interpersonal relationships. Non-verbal emotion processing is a genuine way to communicate, especially so for patients whose language may be rapidly impaired. Many studies focus on emotion identification in AD patients, mostly by means of facial expressions rather than emotional prosody; even fewer consider emotional prosody production, despite its playing a key role in interpersonal exchanges. The literature on this subject is scarce with contradictory results. The present study compares the performances of 14 AD patients (88.4±4.9 yrs; MMSE: 19.9±2.7) to those of 14 control subjects (87.5±5.1 yrs; MMSE: 28.1±1.4) in tasks of emotion identification through faces and voices (non linguistic vocal emotion or emotional prosody) and in a task of emotional prosody production (12 sentences were to be pronounced in a neutral, positive, or negative tone, after a context was read). The Alzheimer's disease patients showed weaker performances than control subjects in all emotional recognition tasks and particularly when identifying emotional prosody. A negative relation between the identification scores and the NPI (professional caregivers) scores was found which underlines their link to psychological and behavioral disorders. The production of emotional prosody seems relatively preserved in a mild to moderate stage of the disease: we found subtle differences regarding acoustic parameters but in a qualitative way judges established that the patients' productions were as good as those of control subjects. These results suggest interesting new directions for improving patients' care.

  6. Alterations of serum levels of BDNF-related miRNAs in patients with depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Jie Li

    Full Text Available Depression is a serious and potentially life-threatening mental disorder with unknown etiology. Emerging evidence shows that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and microRNAs (miRNAs play critical roles in the etiology of depression. Here this study was aimed to identify and characterize the roles of BDNF and its putative regulatory miRNAs in depression. First, we identified that miR-182 may be a putative miRNA that regulates BDNF levels by bioinformatic studies, and characterized the effects of miR-182 on the BDNF levels using cell-based studies, side by side with miR-132 (a known miRNA that regulates BDNF expression. We showed that treatment of miR-132 and miR-182 respectively decreased the BDNF protein levels in a human neuronal cell model, supporting the regulatory roles of miR-132 and miR-182 on the BDNF expression. Furthermore, we explored the roles of miR-132 and miR-182 on the BDNF levels in depression using human subjects by assessing their serum levels. Compared with the healthy controls, patients with depression showed lower serum BDNF levels (via the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and higher serum miR-132 and miR-182 levels (via the real-time PCR. Finally, the Pearson's (or Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated to study whether there was a relationship among the Self-Rating Depression Scale score, the serum BDNF levels, and serum BDNF-related miRNA levels. Our results revealed that there was a significant negative correlation between the SDS scores and the serum BDNF levels, and a positive correlation between the SDS scores and miR-132 levels. In addition, we found a reverse relationship between the serum BDNF levels and the miR-132/miR-182 levels in depression. Collectively, we provided evidence supporting that miR-182 is a putative BDNF-regulatory miRNA, and suggested that the serum BDNF and its related miRNAs may be utilized as important biomarkers in the diagnosis or as therapeutic targets of depression.

  7. A cohort study of developmental polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in relation to post-vaccination antibody response at 6-months of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jusko, Todd A.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Paige Lawrence, B.; Palkovicova, Lubica; Nemessanyi, Tomas; Drobna, Beata; Fabisikova, Anna; Kocan, Anton; Sonneborn, Dean; Jahnova, Eva; Kavanagh, Terrance J.; Trnovec, Tomas; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2010-01-01

    Background: Extensive experimental data in animals indicate that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during pregnancy leads to changes in offspring immune function during the postnatal period. Whether developmental PCB exposure influences immunologic development in humans has received little study. Methods: The study population was 384 mother-infant pairs recruited from two districts of eastern Slovakia for whom prospectively collected maternal, cord, and 6-month infant blood specimens were available. Several PCB congeners were measured in maternal, cord, and 6-month infant sera by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Concentrations of IgG-specific anti-haemophilus influenzae type b, tetanus toxoid, and diphtheria toxoid were assayed in 6-month infant sera using ELISA methods. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the relation between maternal, cord, and 6-month infant PCB concentrations and the antibody concentrations evaluated at 6-months of age. Results: Overall, there was little evidence of an association between infant antibody concentrations and PCB measures during the pre- and early postnatal period. In addition, our results did not show specificity in terms of associations limited to a particular developmental period (e.g. pre- vs. postnatal), a particular antibody, or a particular PCB congener. Conclusions: At the PCB concentrations measured in this cohort, which are high relative to most human populations today, we did not detect an association between maternal or early postnatal PCB exposure and specific antibody responses at 6-months of age.

  8. A cohort study of developmental polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in relation to post-vaccination antibody response at 6-months of age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jusko, Todd A., E-mail: juskota@niehs.nih.gov [Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, PO Box 12233, MD A3-05, 111 T.W. Alexander Dr, Rall Bldg 101, Rm A361, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2233 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Schwartz, Stephen M. [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Program in Epidemiology, Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Paige Lawrence, B. [Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY (United States); Palkovicova, Lubica [Department of Environmental Medicine, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Nemessanyi, Tomas [Department of Immunology and Immunotoxicology, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Drobna, Beata; Fabisikova, Anna; Kocan, Anton [Department of Toxic Organic Pollutants, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Sonneborn, Dean [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Jahnova, Eva [Department of Immunology and Immunotoxicology, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Kavanagh, Terrance J. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Trnovec, Tomas [Department of Toxic Organic Pollutants, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Hertz-Picciotto, Irva [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Background: Extensive experimental data in animals indicate that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during pregnancy leads to changes in offspring immune function during the postnatal period. Whether developmental PCB exposure influences immunologic development in humans has received little study. Methods: The study population was 384 mother-infant pairs recruited from two districts of eastern Slovakia for whom prospectively collected maternal, cord, and 6-month infant blood specimens were available. Several PCB congeners were measured in maternal, cord, and 6-month infant sera by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Concentrations of IgG-specific anti-haemophilus influenzae type b, tetanus toxoid, and diphtheria toxoid were assayed in 6-month infant sera using ELISA methods. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the relation between maternal, cord, and 6-month infant PCB concentrations and the antibody concentrations evaluated at 6-months of age. Results: Overall, there was little evidence of an association between infant antibody concentrations and PCB measures during the pre- and early postnatal period. In addition, our results did not show specificity in terms of associations limited to a particular developmental period (e.g. pre- vs. postnatal), a particular antibody, or a particular PCB congener. Conclusions: At the PCB concentrations measured in this cohort, which are high relative to most human populations today, we did not detect an association between maternal or early postnatal PCB exposure and specific antibody responses at 6-months of age.

  9. Acute tamponade alters subendo- and subepicardial pressure-flow relations differently during vasodilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingma, J G; Martin, J; Rouleau, J R

    1994-07-01

    Instantaneous diastolic left coronary artery pressure-flow relations (PFR) shift during acute tamponade as pressure surrounding the heart increases. Coronary pressure at zero flow (Pf = 0) on the linear portion of the PFR is the weighted mean of the different myocardial waterfall pressures, the distribution of which varies across the left ventricular wall during diastole. However, instantaneous PFR measured in large epicardial coronary arteries cannot be used to estimate Pf = 0 in the different myocardial tissue layers. During coronary vasodilatation in a capacitance-free model, myocardial PFR differs from subendocardium to subepicardium. Therefore, we studied the effects of acute tamponade during maximal pharmacology induced coronary vasodilatation on myocardial PFR in in situ anesthetized dogs. Tamponade reduced cardiac output, aortic pressure, and coronary blood flow. Results demonstrate that different mechanisms influence distribution of myocardial blood flow during tamponade. Subepicardial vascular resistance is unchanged and the extrapolated Pf = 0 is increased, thereby shifting PFR to a higher intercept on the pressure axis. Subendocardial vascular resistance is increased while the extrapolated Pf = 0 remains unchanged. Results indicate that in the setting of acute tamponade with coronary vasodilatation different mechanisms regulate the distribution of myocardial blood flow: in the subepicardium only outflow pressure increases, whereas in the subendocardium only vascular resistance increases.

  10. Obesity Related Alterations in Plasma Cytokines and Metabolic Hormones in Chimpanzees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Nehete

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation and serves as a major risk factor for hypertension, coronary artery disease, dyslipidemias, and type-2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in metabolic hormones, inflammatory cytokines, and immune function, in lean, overweight, and obese chimpanzees in a controlled environment. We observed increased plasma circulating levels of proinflammatory TH-1 cytokines, Interferon gamma, interleukin-6, interleukin-12p40, tumor necrosis factor, soluble CD40 ligand, and Interleukin-1β and anti-inflammatory TH-2 cytokines, Interleukin-4, Interleukin-RA, Interleukin-10, and Interleukin-13 in overweight and obese chimpanzees. We also observed increased levels of metabolic hormones glucagon-like-peptide-1, glucagon, connecting peptide, insulin, pancreatic peptide YY3–36, and leptin in the plasma of overweight and obese chimpanzees. Chemokine, eotaxin, fractalkine, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were higher in lean compared to obese chimpanzees, while chemokine ligand 8 increased in plasma of obese chimpanzees. We also observed an obesity-related effect on immune function as demonstrated by lower mitogen induced proliferation, and natural killer activity and higher production of IFN-γ by PBMC in Elispot assay, These findings suggest that lean, overweight, and obese chimpanzees share circulating inflammatory cytokines and metabolic hormone levels with humans and that chimpanzees can serve as a useful animal model for human studies.

  11. Altered medial temporal activation related to local glutamate levels in subjects with prodromal signs of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli, Isabel; Stone, James; Mechelli, Andrea; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Raffin, Marie; Allen, Paul; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Lythgoe, David; O'Gorman, Ruth; Seal, Marc; McGuire, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Both medial temporal cortical dysfunction and perturbed glutamatergic neurotransmission are regarded as fundamental pathophysiological features of psychosis. However, although animal models of psychosis suggest that these two abnormalities are interrelated, their relationship in humans has yet to be investigated. We used a combination of functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate the relationship between medial temporal activation during an episodic memory task and local glutamate levels in 22 individuals with an at-risk mental state for psychosis and 14 healthy volunteers. We observed a significant between-group difference in the coupling of medial temporal activation with local glutamate levels. In control subjects, medial temporal activation during episodic encoding was positively associated with medial temporal glutamate. However, in the clinical population, medial temporal activation was reduced, and the relationship with glutamate was absent. In individuals at high risk of psychosis, medial temporal dysfunction seemed related to a loss of the normal relationship with local glutamate levels. This study provides the first evidence that links medial temporal dysfunction with the central glutamate system in humans and is consistent with evidence that drugs that modulate glutamatergic transmission might be useful in the treatment of psychosis. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Trauma exposure relates to heightened stress, altered amygdala morphology and deficient extinction learning: Implications for psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciaglia, Raffaele; Nees, Frauke; Grimm, Oliver; Ridder, Stephanie; Pohlack, Sebastian T; Diener, Slawomira J; Liebscher, Claudia; Flor, Herta

    2017-02-01

    Stress exposure causes a structural reorganization in neurons of the amygdala. In particular, animal models have repeatedly shown that both acute and chronic stress induce neuronal hypertrophy and volumetric increase in the lateral and basolateral nuclei of amygdala. These effects are visible on the behavioral level, where stress enhances anxiety behaviors and provokes greater fear learning. We assessed stress and anxiety levels in a group of 18 healthy human trauma-exposed individuals (TR group) compared to 18 non-exposed matched controls (HC group), and related these measurements to amygdala volume. Traumas included unexpected adverse experiences such as vehicle accidents or sudden loss of a loved one. As a measure of aversive learning, we implemented a cued fear conditioning paradigm. Additionally, to provide a biological marker of chronic stress, we measured the sensitivity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis using a dexamethasone suppression test. Compared to the HC, the TR group showed significantly higher levels of chronic stress, current stress and trait anxiety, as well as increased volume of the left amygdala. Specifically, we observed a focal enlargement in its lateral portion, in line with previous animal data. Compared to HC, the TR group also showed enhanced late acquisition of conditioned fear and deficient extinction learning, as well as salivary cortisol hypo-suppression to dexamethasone. Left amygdala volumes positively correlated with suppressed morning salivary cortisol. Our results indicate differences in trauma-exposed individuals which resemble those previously reported in animals exposed to stress and in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. These data provide new insights into the mechanisms through which traumatic stress might prompt vulnerability for psychopathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Microsatellite alterations in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and relation to expression of pimonidazole, CA IX and GLUT-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schutter, Harlinde de; Barbe, Barbara; Spaepen, Marijke

    2006-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Because the locoregional control for HNSCC is still disappointing, research efforts focus on the exploration of new molecular markers located in both tumour and microenvironment, which could help stratify patients. The aim of the present work was therefore first to assess microsatellite alterations and hypoxia in HNSCC as possible molecular markers. Second, a relation between both was investigated, as hypoxia is known to select for genetic alterations. Material and methods: Forty-eight patients with advanced HNSCC treated by surgery ± radiotherapy were included. MSI and LOH were investigated with microsatellite markers using automatic fragment analysis. The presence of hypoxia was assessed by immunohistochemistry for pimonidazole, CA IX and GLUT-1. The mutual relationship between MSI/LOH and hypoxia was evaluated. Results: No MSI was detected in this patient group. LOH occurred mostly on chromosomal arms 3p, 5q, 9p, 17p and 17q. Patients with LOH at D17S799, located in the near environment of p53, showed a higher CA IX expression (p = 0.01). Conclusions: LOH is a possible molecular marker in HNSCC. The positive correlation between LOH at D17S799 and CA IX is in full concordance with previous publications linking hypoxia to selective pressure on the p53 gene

  14. Electrocorticographic Temporal Alteration Mapping: A Clinical Technique for Mapping the Motor Cortex with Movement-Related Cortical Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehan Wu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose electrocorticographic temporal alteration mapping (ETAM for motor cortex mapping by utilizing movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs within the low-frequency band [0.05-3] Hz. This MRCP waveform-based temporal domain approach was compared with the state-of-the-art electrocorticographic frequency alteration mapping (EFAM, which is based on frequency spectrum dynamics. Five patients (two epilepsy cases and three tumor cases were enrolled in the study. Each patient underwent intraoperative direct electrocortical stimulation (DECS procedure for motor cortex localization. Moreover, the patients were required to perform simple brisk wrist extension task during awake craniotomy surgery. Cross-validation results showed that the proposed ETAM method had high sensitivity (81.8% and specificity (94.3% in identifying sites which exhibited positive DECS motor responses. Moreover, although the sensitivity of the ETAM and EFAM approaches was not significantly different, ETAM had greater specificity compared with EFAM (94.3 vs. 86.1%. These results indicate that for the intraoperative functional brain mapping, ETAM is a promising novel approach for motor cortex localization with the potential to reduce the need for cortical electrical stimulation.

  15. Fossil gaps inferred from phylogenies alter the apparent nature of diversification in dragonflies and their relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholson David B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fossil record has suggested that clade growth may differ in marine and terrestrial taxa, supporting equilibrial models in the former and expansionist models in the latter. However, incomplete sampling may bias findings based on fossil data alone. To attempt to correct for such bias, we assemble phylogenetic supertrees on one of the oldest clades of insects, the Odonatoidea (dragonflies, damselflies and their extinct relatives, using MRP and MRC. We use the trees to determine when, and in what clades, changes in taxonomic richness have occurred. We then test whether equilibrial or expansionist models are supported by fossil data alone, and whether findings differ when phylogenetic information is used to infer gaps in the fossil record. Results There is broad agreement in family-level relationships between both supertrees, though with some uncertainty along the backbone of the tree regarding dragonflies (Anisoptera. "Anisozygoptera" are shown to be paraphyletic when fossil information is taken into account. In both trees, decreases in net diversification are associated with species-poor extant families (Neopetaliidae, Hemiphlebiidae, and an upshift is associated with Calopterygidae + Polythoridae. When ghost ranges are inferred from the fossil record, many families are shown to have much earlier origination dates. In a phylogenetic context, the number of family-level lineages is shown to be up to twice as high as the fossil record alone suggests through the Cretaceous and Cenozoic, and a logistic increase in richness is detected in contrast to an exponential increase indicated by fossils alone. Conclusions Our analysis supports the notion that taxa, which appear to have diversified exponentially using fossil data, may in fact have diversified more logistically. This in turn suggests that one of the major apparent differences between the marine and terrestrial fossil record may simply be an artifact of incomplete sampling

  16. Annual alteration in the growth and health-related physical fitness of the school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Del Corona Lorenzi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The follow-up of growth and physical fitness is important because it enables to verify health status during determined periods in a population. The aim of this study was to track the changes in growth and health-related physical fitness (HRPF of students during a year period and also to compare them with HRPF criteria. The sample consisted of 61 students of both sexes (31 boys and 30 girls measured in August 2001 and in August 2002 as well. Growth was evaluated by stature and body weight and HRPF by some tests of the battery proposed by PROESP-BR, having as reference the HRPF health zone of the Physical Best (AAHPERD, 1988 and Fitnessgram (COOPER INSTITUTE OF AEROBICS RESEARCH, 1987. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and Student’s t-test for paired samples. The results showed that students had high indexes for stature and body weight. Excepted for body composition, the students had low HRPF, presenting high prevalence of below health zone for the physical fitness components. RESUMO O monitoramento do crescimento e da aptidão física é importante por possibilitar que se verifique o estado de saúde ao longo de determinados períodos de uma dada população. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar as alterações, após o período de um ano, no crescimento e na aptidão física relacionada à saúde de escolares dos dois sexos, e compará-las com critérios de saúde. O estudo teve como sujeitos 61 escolares dos dois sexos (31 meninos e 30 meninas selecionados de forma não aleatória voluntária, avaliados em agosto de 2001 e agosto de 2002. O crescimento físico dos escolares foi avaliado por meio da estatura e massa corporal, a aptidão física relacionada à saúde foi avaliada através de alguns dos testes da bateria proposta pelo PROESP-BR, tendo como referência os critérios de zona saudável de aptidão física do Physical Best (AAPHERD, 1988 e Fitnessgram (COOPER INSTITUTE FOR AEROBICS RESEARCH, 1987. A análise dos dados

  17. Health-related quality of life and peer relationships in adolescents with developmental coordination disorder and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Deborah; Volkovinskaia, Anna

    2018-07-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and peer relationships were investigated in adolescents with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Adolescents with DCD (n=9), ADHD (n=9), DCD and ADHD (n=10), and typically developing adolescents (n=16) completed the following questionnaires: KIDSCREEN-52 Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaire and Peer Relations Questionnaire for Children. Twenty-five participants took part in semi-structured interviews. Adolescents with DCD and ADHD had lower HRQoL on the mood and emotions, school environment, and financial resources scales of the KIDSCREEN-52 than adolescents in the DCD and typically developing groups (all p<0.05). On the Peer Relations Questionnaire for Children, the DCD and ADHD group reported significantly higher victimization compared with those in the typically developing (p=0.030) and DCD (p=0.010) groups. Qualitative interviews among young people with DCD and ADHD revealed feelings of marginalization and victimization. Descriptors such as 'misfits', 'oddballs', 'weird', and 'the rejects' were used to describe themselves. HRQoL and peer relationships are negatively affected in adolescents with DCD and ADHD. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS?: Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) do not display poorer overall health-related quality of life (HRQoL) versus typically developing controls. Having DCD and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was associated with poorer HRQoL. Adolescents with DCD and ADHD experience significantly higher levels of peer victimization than typically developing adolescents. HRQoL and peer relationships are significantly associated in adolescent respondents. © 2018 Mac Keith Press.

  18. Altered Neural Activity during Semantic Object Memory Retrieval in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment as Measured by Event-Related Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsueh-Sheng; Mudar, Raksha A; Pudhiyidath, Athula; Spence, Jeffrey S; Womack, Kyle B; Cullum, C Munro; Tanner, Jeremy A; Eroh, Justin; Kraut, Michael A; Hart, John

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in semantic memory in individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) have been previously reported, but the underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain to be clarified. We examined event-related potentials (ERPs) associated with semantic memory retrieval in 16 individuals with aMCI as compared to 17 normal controls using the Semantic Object Retrieval Task (EEG SORT). In this task, subjects judged whether pairs of words (object features) elicited retrieval of an object (retrieval trials) or not (non-retrieval trials). Behavioral findings revealed that aMCI subjects had lower accuracy scores and marginally longer reaction time compared to controls. We used a multivariate analytical technique (STAT-PCA) to investigate similarities and differences in ERPs between aMCI and control groups. STAT-PCA revealed a left fronto-temporal component starting at around 750 ms post-stimulus in both groups. However, unlike controls, aMCI subjects showed an increase in the frontal-parietal scalp potential that distinguished retrieval from non-retrieval trials between 950 and 1050 ms post-stimulus negatively correlated with the performance on the logical memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III. Thus, individuals with aMCI were not only impaired in their behavioral performance on SORT relative to controls, but also displayed alteration in the corresponding ERPs. The altered neural activity in aMCI compared to controls suggests a more sustained and effortful search during object memory retrieval, which may be a potential marker indicating disease processes at the pre-dementia stage.

  19. Vascular alterations in PDAPP mice after anti-Aβ immunotherapy: Implications for amyloid-related imaging abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Wagner; Schroeter, Sally; Guido, Teresa; Khan, Karen; Seubert, Peter; Yednock, Ted; Schenk, Dale; Gregg, Keith M; Games, Dora; Bard, Frédérique; Kinney, Gene G

    2013-10-01

    Clinical studies of β-amyloid (Aβ) immunotherapy in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients have demonstrated reduction of central Aβ plaque by positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and the appearance of amyloid-related imaging abnormalities (ARIA). To better understand the relationship between ARIA and the pathophysiology of AD, we undertook a series of studies in PDAPP mice evaluating vascular alterations in the context of central Aβ pathology and after anti-Aβ immunotherapy. We analyzed PDAPP mice treated with either 3 mg/kg/week of 3D6, the murine form of bapineuzumab, or isotype control antibodies for periods ranging from 1 to 36 weeks and evaluated the vascular alterations in the context of Aβ pathology and after anti-Aβ immunotherapy. The number of mice in each treatment group ranged from 26 to 39 and a total of 345 animals were analyzed. The central vasculature displayed morphological abnormalities associated with vascular Aβ deposits. Treatment with 3D6 antibody induced clearance of vascular Aβ that was spatially and temporally associated with a transient increase in microhemorrhage and in capillary Aβ deposition. Microhemorrhage resolved over a time period that was associated with a recovery of vascular morphology and a decrease in capillary Aβ accumulation. These data suggest that vascular leakage events, such as microhemorrhage, may be related to the removal of vascular Aβ. With continued treatment, this initial susceptibility period is followed by restoration of vascular morphology and reduced vulnerability to further vascular leakage events. The data collectively suggested a vascular amyloid clearance model of ARIA, which accounts for the currently known risk factors for the incidence of ARIA in clinical studies. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. DEFINING RELATIONAL PATHOLOGY IN EARLY CHILDHOOD: THE DIAGNOSTIC CLASSIFICATION OF MENTAL HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS OF INFANCY AND EARLY CHILDHOOD DC:0-5 APPROACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeanah, Charles H; Lieberman, Alicia

    2016-09-01

    Infant mental health is explicitly relational in its focus, and therefore a diagnostic classification system for early childhood disorders should include attention not only to within-the-child psychopathology but also between child and caregiver psychopathology. In this article, we begin by providing a review of previous efforts to introduce this approach that date back more than 30 years. Next, we introduce changes proposed in the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood DC:0-5 (ZERO TO THREE, in press). In a major change from previous attempts, the DC:0-5 includes an Axis I "Relationship Specific Disorder of Early Childhood." This disorder intends to capture disordered behavior that is limited to one caregiver relationship rather than cross contextually. An axial characterization is continued from the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood DC:0-3R (ZERO TO THREE, 2005), but two major changes are introduced. First, the DC:0-5 proposes to simplify ratings of relationship adaptation/maladaptation, and to expand what is rated so that in addition to characterizing the child's relationship with his or her primary caregiver, there also is a characterization of the network of family relationships in which the child develops. This includes coparenting relationships and the entire network of close relationships that impinge on the young child's development and adaptation. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  1. Developmental inter-relations between early maternal depression, contextual risks, and interpersonal stress, and their effect on later child cognitive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Sarah K G; Dumontheil, Iroise; Barker, Edward D

    2014-07-01

    Maternal depression and contextual risks (e.g. poverty) are known to impact children's cognitive and social functioning. However, few published studies have examined how stress in the social environment (i.e. interpersonal stress) might developmentally inter-relate with maternal depression and contextual risks to negatively affect a child in these domains. This was the purpose of the current study. Mother-child pairs (n = 6979) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents were the study participants. Mothers reported on depression, contextual risks, and interpersonal stress between pregnancy and 33 months child age. At age 8, the children underwent cognitive assessments and the mothers reported on the children's social cognitive skills. Maternal depression, contextual risks, and interpersonal stress showed strong continuity and developmental inter-relatedness. Maternal depression and contextual risks directly predicted a range of child outcomes, including executive functions and social cognitive skills. Interpersonal stress worked indirectly via maternal depression and contextual risks to negatively affect child outcomes. Maternal depression and contextual risks each increased interpersonal stress in the household, which, in turn, contributed to reduced child cognitive and social functioning. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The Developmental Course of Sleep Disturbances Across Childhood Relates to Brain Morphology at Age 7: The Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocevska, Desana; Muetzel, Ryan L; Luik, Annemarie I; Luijk, Maartje P C M; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Verhulst, Frank C; White, Tonya; Tiemeier, Henning

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of sleep disturbances on the structural properties of the developing brain. This study explored associations between childhood sleep disturbances and brain morphology at 7 years. Mothers from the Generation R cohort reported sleep disturbances in 720 children at ages 2 months, 1.5, 2, 3, and 6 years. T1-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) images were used to assess brain structure at 7 years. Associations of sleep disturbances at each age and of sleep disturbance trajectories with brain volumes (total brain volume, cortical and subcortical grey matter, white matter) were tested with linear regressions. To assess regional differences, sleep disturbance trajectories were tested as determinants for cortical thickness in whole-brain analyses. Sleep disturbances followed a declining trend from toddlerhood onwards. Infant sleep was not associated with brain morphology at age 7. Per SD sleep disturbances (one frequent symptom or two less frequent symptoms) at 2 and 3 years of age, children had -6.3 (-11.7 to -0.8) cm3 and -6.4 (-11.7 to -1.7) cm3 smaller grey matter volumes, respectively. Sleep disturbances at age 6 years were associated with global brain morphology (grey matter: -7.3 (-12.1 to -2.6), p value = .01). Consistently, trajectory analyses showed that more adverse developmental course of childhood sleep disturbances are associated with smaller grey matter volumes and thinner dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Sleep disturbances from age 2 years onwards are associated with smaller grey matter volumes. Thinner prefrontal cortex in children with adverse sleep disturbance trajectories may reflect effects of sleep disturbances on brain maturation. © Sleep Research Society 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Interplay of normative beliefs and behavior in developmental patterns of physical and relational aggression in adolescence: a four-wave longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahé, Barbara; Busching, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In a longitudinal study with N = 1,854 adolescents from Germany, we investigated patterns of change and gender differences in physical and relational aggression in relation to normative beliefs about these two forms of aggression. Participants, whose mean age was 13 years at T1, completed self-report measures of physically and relationally aggressive behavior and indicated their normative approval of both forms of aggression at four data waves separated by 12-month intervals. Boys scored higher than did girls on both forms of aggression, but the gender difference was more pronounced for physical aggression. Physical aggression decreased and relational aggression increased over the four data waves in both gender groups. The normative acceptance of both forms of aggression decreased over time, with a greater decrease for the approval of physical aggression. In both gender groups, normative approval of relational aggression prospectively predicted relational aggression across all data waves, and the normative approval of physical aggression predicted physically aggressive behavior at the second and third data waves. A reciprocal reinforcement of aggressive norms and behavior was found for both forms of aggression. The findings are discussed as supporting a social information processing perspective on developmental patterns of change in physical and relational aggression in adolescence.

  4. Interplay of normative beliefs and behavior in developmental patterns of physical and relational aggression in adolescence: A four-wave longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eKrahé

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A longitudinal study with N = 1,854 adolescents from Germany investigated patterns of change and gender differences in physical and relational aggression in relation to normative beliefs about aggression. Participants, whose mean age was 13 years at T1, completed self-report measures of physically and relationally aggressive behavior and indicated their normative approval about both forms of aggression at four data waves separated by 12-month intervals. Boys scored higher than did girls on both forms of aggression, but the gender difference was more pronounced for physical aggression. Physical aggression decreased and relational aggression increased over the four data waves in both gender groups. The normative acceptance of both forms of aggression decreased over time, with a greater decrease for the approval of physical aggression. In both gender groups, normative approval of relational aggression prospectively predicted relational aggression across all data waves, and the normative approval of physical aggression predicted physically aggressive behavior at the second and third data waves. A reciprocal reinforcement of aggressive norms and behavior was found for both forms of aggression. The findings are discussed as supporting a social information processing perspective on developmental patterns of change in physical and relational aggression in adolescence.

  5. Hydrothermal alteration and permeability changes in granitic intrusions related to Sn-W deposits : case study of Panasqueira (Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launay, Gaetan; Sizaret, Stanislas; Guillou-Frottier, Laurent; Gloaguen, Eric; Melleton, Jérémie; Pichavant, Michel; Champallier, Rémi; Pinto, Filipe

    2017-04-01

    The Panasqueira Sn-W deposit occurs as a dense network of flat wolframite and cassiterite-bearing quartz veins concentrated in the vicinity of a hidden greisen cupola, and to a lesser extent as disseminated cassiterites in the greisen. Previous studies (Thadeu 1951; 1979) have suggested that the Panasqueira deposit is genetically related to magmatic activity for which the most part is unexposed, and being only represented by the greisen cupola. Hydrothermal fluid circulation during the final stages of granite crystallisation has probably led to the greisenisation of the cupola followed by the deposition of the mineralization in the veins system. Mineral replacement reactions that occurred during the greisenisation could affect rock properties (porosity, density and permeability) which control fluid circulation in the granite. This study aims to investigate effects of greisenisation reactions on the dynamic (time varying) permeability that ultimately leads to fluid circulation in the greisen cupola. To do so, petrological study and experimental determinations of hydrodynamic features (porosity and permeability) for different granite alteration levels and petrographic types (unaltered granite to greisen) are combined and then integrated in coupled numerical models of fluid circulation around the granitic intrusion. Greisen occurs in the apical part of the granitic body and results in the pervasive alteration of the granite along the granite-schist contact. This greisen consists mainly of quartz and muscovite formed by the replacement of feldspars and bleaching of biotites of the initial granite. Otherwise, greisen is generally vuggy which suggests a porosity increase of the granite during hydrothermal alteration processes. This porosity increase has a positive effect on the permeability of the granitic system. Indeed, experimental measurements of permeability with the Paterson press indicate that the initial granite is impermeable (10-20 m2) whereas the greisen is

  6. Instrumental and Reactive Functions and Overt and Relational Forms of Aggression: Developmental Trajectories and Prospective Associations during Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojanen, Tiina; Kiefer, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the development of adolescent self-reported instrumental-overt, instrumental-relational, reactive-overt, and reactive-relational aggression during middle school ("N" = 384; 12-14 years; 53% boys). Growth modeling indicated average increases in instrumental-relational aggression, and decreases in reactive-overt and…

  7. Developmental programming of energy balance regulation: is physical activity more 'programmable' than food intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shaoyu; Eclarinal, Jesse; Baker, Maria S; Li, Ge; Waterland, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Extensive human and animal model data show that environmental influences during critical periods of prenatal and early postnatal development can cause persistent alterations in energy balance regulation. Although a potentially important factor in the worldwide obesity epidemic, the fundamental mechanisms underlying such developmental programming of energy balance are poorly understood, limiting our ability to intervene. Most studies of developmental programming of energy balance have focused on persistent alterations in the regulation of energy intake; energy expenditure has been relatively underemphasised. In particular, very few studies have evaluated developmental programming of physical activity. The aim of this review is to summarise recent evidence that early environment may have a profound impact on establishment of individual propensity for physical activity. Recently, we characterised two different mouse models of developmental programming of obesity; one models fetal growth restriction followed by catch-up growth, and the other models early postnatal overnutrition. In both studies, we observed alterations in body-weight regulation that persisted to adulthood, but no group differences in food intake. Rather, in both cases, programming of energy balance appeared to be due to persistent alterations in energy expenditure and spontaneous physical activity (SPA). These effects were stronger in female offspring. We are currently exploring the hypothesis that developmental programming of SPA occurs via induced sex-specific alterations in epigenetic regulation in the hypothalamus and other regions of the central nervous system. We will summarise the current progress towards testing this hypothesis. Early environmental influences on establishment of physical activity are likely an important factor in developmental programming of energy balance. Understanding the fundamental underlying mechanisms in appropriate animal models will help determine whether early life

  8. Trauma-related altered states of consciousness in women with BPD with or without co-occurring PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Frewen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: A “4-D model” was recently described as a theoretical framework for categorizing trauma-related symptoms into four phenomenological dimensions (the experience of time, thought, body, and emotion that can present either in the form of normal waking consciousness (NWC or as dissociative experiences, that is, trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC. Methods: The present study examined the predictions of the 4-D model in 258 persons with borderline personality disorder (BPD with (n=126 versus without (n=132 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Results: As measured by the Borderline Symptom List, consistent with the predictions of the 4-D model, in comparison with symptom endorsements theorized to be associated with NWC, measures of TRASC were less frequent, and more strongly correlated with both Dissociative Experience Scale scores and severity of childhood emotional neglect, particularly in persons with both BPD and PTSD. Our prediction that symptoms of TRASC would be less intercorrelated in comparison with distress associated with NWC symptoms, however, was not supported. Conclusions: Findings are discussed as they pertain to the symptomatology of BPD, PTSD, and dissociation.

  9. Side effect of acting on the world: Acquisition of action-outcome statistic relation alters visual interpretation of action outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro eKawabe

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Humans can acquire the statistical features of the external world and employ them to control behaviors. Some external events occur in harmony with an agent’s action, and thus humans should also be able to acquire the statistical features between an action and its external outcome. We report that the acquired action-outcome statistical features alter the visual appearance of the action outcome. Pressing either of two assigned keys triggered visual motion whose direction was statistically biased either upward or downward, and observers judged the stimulus motion direction. Points of subjective equality (PSE for judging motion direction were shifted repulsively from the mean of the distribution associated with each key. Our Bayesian model accounted for the PSE shifts, indicating the optimal acquisition of the action-effect statistical relation. The PSE shifts were moderately attenuated when the action-outcome contingency was reduced. The Bayesian model again accounted for the attenuated PSE shifts. On the other hand, when the action-outcome contiguity was greatly reduced, the PSE shifts were greatly attenuated, and however, the Bayesian model could not accounted for the shifts. The results indicate that visual appearance can be modified by prediction based on the optimal acquisition of action-effect causal relation.

  10. Patients with Chronic Visceral Pain Show Sex-Related Alterations in Intrinsic Oscillations of the Resting Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jui-Yang; Kilpatrick, Lisa A.; Labus, Jennifer; Gupta, Arpana; Jiang, Zhiguo; Ashe-McNalley, Cody; Stains, Jean; Heendeniya, Nuwanthi; Ebrat, Bahar; Smith, Suzanne; Tillisch, Kirsten; Naliboff, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal responses of the brain to delivered and expected aversive gut stimuli have been implicated in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a visceral pain syndrome occurring more commonly in women. Task-free resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can provide information about the dynamics of brain activity that may be involved in altered processing and/or modulation of visceral afferent signals. Fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation is a measure of the power spectrum intensity of spontaneous brain oscillations. This approach was used here to identify differences in the resting-state activity of the human brain in IBS subjects compared with healthy controls (HCs) and to identify the role of sex-related differences. We found that both the female HCs and female IBS subjects had a frequency power distribution skewed toward high frequency to a greater extent in the amygdala and hippocampus compared with male subjects. In addition, female IBS subjects had a frequency power distribution skewed toward high frequency in the insula and toward low frequency in the sensorimotor cortex to a greater extent than male IBS subjects. Correlations were observed between resting-state blood oxygen level-dependent signal dynamics and some clinical symptom measures (e.g., abdominal discomfort). These findings provide the first insight into sex-related differences in IBS subjects compared with HCs using resting-state fMRI. PMID:23864686

  11. Altered olfactory processing of stress-related body odors and artificial odors in patients with panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintermann, Gloria-Beatrice; Donix, Markus; Joraschky, Peter; Gerber, Johannes; Petrowski, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Patients with Panic Disorder (PD) direct their attention towards potential threat, followed by panic attacks, and increased sweat production. Onés own anxiety sweat odor influences the attentional focus, and discrimination of threat or non-threat. Since olfactory projection areas overlap with neuronal areas of a panic-specific fear network, the present study investigated the neuronal processing of odors in general and of stress-related sweat odors in particular in patients with PD. A sample of 13 patients with PD with/ without agoraphobia and 13 age- and gender-matched healthy controls underwent an fMRI investigation during olfactory stimulation with their stress-related sweat odors (TSST, ergometry) as well as artificial odors (peach, artificial sweat) as non-fearful non-body odors. The two groups did not differ with respect to their olfactory identification ability. Independent of the kind of odor, the patients with PD showed activations in fronto-cortical areas in contrast to the healthy controls who showed activations in olfaction-related areas such as the amygdalae and the hippocampus. For artificial odors, the patients with PD showed a decreased neuronal activation of the thalamus, the posterior cingulate cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex. Under the presentation of sweat odor caused by ergometric exercise, the patients with PD showed an increased activation in the superior temporal gyrus, the supramarginal gyrus, and the cingulate cortex which was positively correlated with the severity of the psychopathology. For the sweat odor from the anxiety condition, the patients with PD showed an increased activation in the gyrus frontalis inferior, which was positively correlated with the severity of the psychopathology. The results suggest altered neuronal processing of olfactory stimuli in PD. Both artificial odors and stress-related body odors activate specific parts of a fear-network which is associated with an increased severity of the psychopathology.

  12. Altered olfactory processing of stress-related body odors and artificial odors in patients with panic disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria-Beatrice Wintermann

    Full Text Available Patients with Panic Disorder (PD direct their attention towards potential threat, followed by panic attacks, and increased sweat production. Onés own anxiety sweat odor influences the attentional focus, and discrimination of threat or non-threat. Since olfactory projection areas overlap with neuronal areas of a panic-specific fear network, the present study investigated the neuronal processing of odors in general and of stress-related sweat odors in particular in patients with PD.A sample of 13 patients with PD with/ without agoraphobia and 13 age- and gender-matched healthy controls underwent an fMRI investigation during olfactory stimulation with their stress-related sweat odors (TSST, ergometry as well as artificial odors (peach, artificial sweat as non-fearful non-body odors.The two groups did not differ with respect to their olfactory identification ability. Independent of the kind of odor, the patients with PD showed activations in fronto-cortical areas in contrast to the healthy controls who showed activations in olfaction-related areas such as the amygdalae and the hippocampus. For artificial odors, the patients with PD showed a decreased neuronal activation of the thalamus, the posterior cingulate cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex. Under the presentation of sweat odor caused by ergometric exercise, the patients with PD showed an increased activation in the superior temporal gyrus, the supramarginal gyrus, and the cingulate cortex which was positively correlated with the severity of the psychopathology. For the sweat odor from the anxiety condition, the patients with PD showed an increased activation in the gyrus frontalis inferior, which was positively correlated with the severity of the psychopathology.The results suggest altered neuronal processing of olfactory stimuli in PD. Both artificial odors and stress-related body odors activate specific parts of a fear-network which is associated with an increased severity of the

  13. Altered cortico-striatal-thalamic connectivity in relation to spatial working memory capacity in children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn L. Mills

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD captures a heterogeneous group of children, who are characterized by a range of cognitive and behavioral symptoms. Previous resting state functional connectivity (rs-fcMRI studies have sought to understand the neural correlates of ADHD by comparing connectivity measurements between those with and without the disorder, focusing primarily on cortical-striatal circuits mediated by the thalamus. To integrate the multiple phenotypic features associated with ADHD and help resolve its heterogeneity, it is helpful to determine how specific circuits relate to unique cognitive domains of the ADHD syndrome. Spatial working memory has been proposed as a key mechanism in the pathophysiology of ADHD.Methods: We correlated the rs-fcMRI of five thalamic regions of interest with spatial span working memory scores in a sample of 67 children aged 7-11 years (ADHD and typically developing children; TDC. In an independent dataset, we then examined group differences in thalamo-striatal functional connectivity between 70 ADHD and 89 TDC (7-11 years from the ADHD-200 dataset. Thalamic regions of interest were created based on previous methods that utilize known thalamo-cortical loops and rs-fcMRI to identify functional boundaries in the thalamus.Results/Conclusions: Using these thalamic regions, we found atypical rs-fcMRI between specific thalamic groupings with the basal ganglia. To identify the thalamic connections that relate to spatial working memory in ADHD, only connections identified in both the correlational and comparative analyses were considered. Multiple connections between the thalamus and basal ganglia, particularly between medial and anterior dorsal thalamus and the putamen, were related to spatial working memory and also altered in ADHD. These thalamo-striatal disruptions may be one of multiple atypical neural and cognitive mechanisms that relate to the ADHD clinical phenotype.

  14. Brain and behavioral evidence for altered social learning mechanisms among women with assault-related posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisler, Josh M; Bush, Keith; Scott Steele, J; Lenow, Jennifer K; Smitherman, Sonet; Kilts, Clinton D

    2015-04-01

    Current neurocircuitry models of PTSD focus on the neural mechanisms that mediate hypervigilance for threat and fear inhibition/extinction learning. Less focus has been directed towards explaining social deficits and heightened risk of revictimization observed among individuals with PTSD related to physical or sexual assault. The purpose of the present study was to foster more comprehensive theoretical models of PTSD by testing the hypothesis that assault-related PTSD is associated with behavioral impairments in a social trust and reciprocity task and corresponding alterations in the neural encoding of social learning mechanisms. Adult women with assault-related PTSD (n = 25) and control women (n = 15) completed a multi-trial trust game outside of the MRI scanner. A subset of these participants (15 with PTSD and 14 controls) also completed a social and non-social reinforcement learning task during 3T fMRI. Brain regions that encoded the computationally modeled parameters of value expectation, prediction error, and volatility (i.e., uncertainty) were defined and compared between groups. The PTSD group demonstrated slower learning rates during the trust game and social prediction errors had a lesser impact on subsequent investment decisions. PTSD was also associated with greater encoding of negative expected social outcomes in perigenual anterior cingulate cortex and bilateral middle frontal gyri, and greater encoding of social prediction errors in the left temporoparietal junction. These data suggest mechanisms of PTSD-related deficits in social functioning and heightened risk for re-victimization in assault victims; however, comorbidity in the PTSD group and the lack of a trauma-exposed control group temper conclusions about PTSD specifically. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Exploring the oral microbiota of children at various developmental stages of their dentition in the relation to their oral health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crielaard, W.; Zaura, E.; Schuller, A.A.; Huse, S.M.; Montijn, R.C.; Keijser, B.J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Background An understanding of the relation of commensal microbiota to health is essential in preventing disease. Here we studied the oral microbial composition of children (N = 74, aged 3 - 18 years) in natural transition from their deciduous to a permanent dentition and related the microbial

  16. Exploring the oral microbiota of children at various developmental stages of their dentition in the relation to their oral health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crielaard, W.; Zaura, E.; Schuller, A.A.; Huse, S.M.; Montijn, R.C.; Keijser, B.J.F.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An understanding of the relation of commensal microbiota to health is essential in preventing disease. Here we studied the oral microbial composition of children (N = 74, aged 3 - 18 years) in natural transition from their deciduous to a permanent dentition and related the microbial

  17. Developmental expression of “germline”- and “sex determination”-related genes in the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M. Reitzel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An essential developmental pathway in sexually reproducing animals is the specification of germ cells and the differentiation of mature gametes, sperm and oocytes. The “germline” genes vasa, nanos and piwi are commonly identified in primordial germ cells, suggesting a molecular signature for the germline throughout animals. However, these genes are also expressed in a diverse set of somatic stem cells throughout the animal kingdom leaving open significant questions for whether they are required for germline specification. Similarly, members of the Dmrt gene family are essential components regulating sex determination and differentiation in bilaterian animals, but the functions of these transcription factors, including potential roles in sex determination, in early diverging animals remain unknown. The phylogenetic position of ctenophores and the genome sequence of the lobate Mnemiopsis leidyi motivated us to determine the compliment of these gene families in this species and determine expression patterns during development. Results Our phylogenetic analyses of the vasa, piwi and nanos gene families show that Mnemiopsis has multiple genes in each family with multiple lineage-specific paralogs. Expression domains of Mnemiopsis nanos, vasa and piwi, during embryogenesis from fertilization to the cydippid stage, were diverse, with little overlapping expression and no or little expression in what we think are the germ cells or gametogenic regions. piwi paralogs in Mnemiopsis had distinct expression domains in the ectoderm during development. We observed overlapping expression domains in the apical organ and tentacle apparatus of the cydippid for a subset of “germline genes,” which are areas of high cell proliferation, suggesting that these genes are involved with “stem cell” specification and maintenance. Similarly, the five Dmrt genes show diverse non-overlapping expression domains, with no clear evidence for

  18. Altered Cortico-Striatal Connectivity in Offspring of Schizophrenia Patients Relative to Offspring of Bipolar Patients and Controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Solé-Padullés

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia (SZ and bipolar disorder (BD share clinical features, genetic risk factors and neuroimaging abnormalities. There is evidence of disrupted connectivity in resting state networks in patients with SZ and BD and their unaffected relatives. Resting state networks are known to undergo reorganization during youth coinciding with the period of increased incidence for both disorders. We therefore focused on characterizing resting state network connectivity in youth at familial risk for SZ or BD to identify alterations arising during this period. We measured resting-state functional connectivity in a sample of 106 youth, aged 7-19 years, comprising offspring of patients with SZ (N = 27, offspring of patients with BD (N = 39 and offspring of community control parents (N = 40. We used Independent Component Analysis to assess functional connectivity within the default mode, executive control, salience and basal ganglia networks and define their relationship to grey matter volume, clinical and cognitive measures. There was no difference in connectivity within any of the networks examined between offspring of patients with BD and offspring of community controls. In contrast, offspring of patients with SZ showed reduced connectivity within the left basal ganglia network compared to control offspring, and they showed a positive correlation between connectivity in this network and grey matter volume in the left caudate. Our findings suggest that dysconnectivity in the basal ganglia network is a robust correlate of familial risk for SZ and can be detected during childhood and adolescence.

  19. Social Isolation Stress Induces Anxious-Depressive-Like Behavior and Alterations of Neuroplasticity-Related Genes in Adult Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ieraci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a major risk factor in the onset of several neuropsychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression. Although several studies have shown that social isolation stress during postweaning period induces behavioral and brain molecular changes, the effects of social isolation on behavior during adulthood have been less characterized. Aim of this work was to investigate the relationship between the behavioral alterations and brain molecular changes induced by chronic social isolation stress in adult male mice. Plasma corticosterone levels and adrenal glands weight were also analyzed. Socially isolated (SI mice showed higher locomotor activity, spent less time in the open field center, and displayed higher immobility time in the tail suspension test compared to group-housed (GH mice. SI mice exhibited reduced plasma corticosterone levels and reduced difference between right and left adrenal glands. SI showed lower mRNA levels of the BDNF-7 splice variant, c-Fos, Arc, and Egr-1 in both hippocampus and prefrontal cortex compared to GH mice. Finally, SI mice exhibited selectively reduced mGluR1 and mGluR2 levels in the prefrontal cortex. Altogether, these results suggest that anxious- and depressive-like behavior induced by social isolation stress correlates with reduction of several neuroplasticity-related genes in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of adult male mice.

  20. Differential alterations of the concentrations of endocannabinoids and related lipids in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verde Roberta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The endocannabinoids, anandamide and 2-AG, are produced by adipocytes, where they stimulate lipogenesis via cannabinoid CB1 receptors and are under the negative control of leptin and insulin. Endocannabinoid levels are elevated in the blood of obese individuals and nonobese type 2 diabetes patients. To date, no study has evaluated endocannabinoid levels in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT of subjects with both obesity and type 2 diabetes (OBT2D, characterised by similar adiposity and whole body insulin resistance and lower plasma leptin levels as compared to non-diabetic obese subjects (OB. Design and Methods The levels of anandamide and 2-AG, and of the anandamide-related PPARα ligands, oleoylethanolamide (OEA and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA, in the SAT obtained by abdominal needle biopsy in 10 OBT2D, 11 OB, and 8 non-diabetic normal-weight (NW subjects, were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. All subjects underwent a hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp. Results As compared to NW, anandamide, OEA and PEA levels in the SAT were 2-4.4-fold elevated (p Conclusions The observed alterations emphasize, for the first time in humans, the potential different role and regulation of adipose tissue anandamide (and its congeners and 2-AG in obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  1. Thyroid Function in Pregnant Women With Moderate to Severe Alcohol Consumption Is Related to Infant Developmental Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten A. Donald

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionFetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD have an estimated global prevalence of 2–5% of births, but prevalence is reported to be as high as 15.5% for FASD in certain high-risk communities in South Africa. Preclinical studies demonstrate that alcohol consumption during pregnancy interferes with thyroid hormone availability and function and negatively impacts exposed offspring. Very little is currently reported on this phenomenon in humans.MethodsThis pilot study was embedded in the Drakenstein Child Health Study, a multi-disciplinary longitudinal birth cohort study investigating the early biological and psychosocial determinants of child health in South Africa. Twenty one mothers and their children with moderate–severe prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE and 19 mothers and their children with no alcohol exposure were investigated. Maternal exposure history and blood samples were collected in mid-pregnancy and analyzed for serum-free thyroxin (FT4, free triiodothyronine (FT3, and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH. Children were assessed with formally measured growth parameters and development was evaluated using the Bayley III Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID III at 6 and 24 months of age.ResultsWhile there were no significant differences in serum TSH and FT4 between groups, FT3 levels were significantly higher in mothers with moderate–severe prenatal alcohol use. In abstinent pregnant women, levels of FT4 were significantly correlated with infants’ scores on cognitive measures at 6 and 24 months of age and with levels of gross motor skills at 24 months. However, in mothers with alcohol use, FT4 levels were not correlated with any cognitive or motor skills, but FT3 levels were significantly associated with scores on children’s social-emotional development at 24 months of age.DiscussionThyroid function in PAE is sufficiently disrupted to lead to alterations in serum FT3 levels. The contrast in findings between

  2. Neuroimmune mechanisms of behavioral alterations in a syngeneic murine model of human papilloma virus-related head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichaya, Elisabeth G; Vermeer, Daniel W; Christian, Diana L; Molkentine, Jessica M; Mason, Kathy A; Lee, John H; Dantzer, Robert

    2017-05-01

    Patients with cancer often experience a high symptom burden prior to the start of treatment. As disease- and treatment-related neurotoxicities appear to be additive, targeting disease-related symptoms may attenuate overall symptom burden for cancer patients and improve the tolerability of treatment. It has been hypothesized that disease-related symptoms are a consequence of tumor-induced inflammation. We tested this hypothesis using a syngeneic heterotopic murine model of human papilloma virus (HPV)-related head and neck cancer. This model has the advantage of being mildly aggressive and not causing cachexia or weight loss. We previously showed that this tumor leads to increased IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α expression in the liver and increased IL-1β expression in the brain. The current study confirmed these features and demonstrated that the tumor itself exhibits high inflammatory cytokine expression (e.g., IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α) compared to healthy tissue. While there is a clear relationship between cytokine levels and behavioral deficits in this model, the behavioral changes are surprisingly mild. Therefore, we sought to confirm the relationship between behavior and inflammation by amplifying the effect using a low dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.1mg/kg). In tumor-bearing mice LPS induced deficits in nest building, tail suspension, and locomotor activity approximately 24h after LPS. However, these mice did not display an exacerbation of LPS-induced weight loss, anorexia, or anhedonia. Further, while heightened serum IL-6 was observed there was minimal priming of liver or brain cytokine expression. Next we sought to inhibit tumor-induced burrowing deficits by reducing inflammation using minocycline. Minocycline (∼50mg/kg/day in drinking water) was able to attenuate tumor-induced inflammation and burrowing deficits. These data provide evidence in favor of an inflammatory-like mechanism for the behavioral alterations associated with tumor growth in a syngeneic

  3. Age-Related Alterations in the Expression of Genes and Synaptic Plasticity Associated with Nitric Oxide Signaling in the Mouse Dorsal Striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisa N. Chepkova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related alterations in the expression of genes and corticostriatal synaptic plasticity were studied in the dorsal striatum of mice of four age groups from young (2-3 months old to old (18–24 months of age animals. A significant decrease in transcripts encoding neuronal nitric oxide (NO synthase and receptors involved in its activation (NR1 subunit of the glutamate NMDA receptor and D1 dopamine receptor was found in the striatum of old mice using gene array and real-time RT-PCR analysis. The old striatum showed also a significantly higher number of GFAP-expressing astrocytes and an increased expression of astroglial, inflammatory, and oxidative stress markers. Field potential recordings from striatal slices revealed age-related alterations in the magnitude and dynamics of electrically induced long-term depression (LTD and significant enhancement of electrically induced long-term potentiation in the middle-aged striatum (6-7 and 12-13 months of age. Corticostriatal NO-dependent LTD induced by pharmacological activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors underwent significant reduction with aging and could be restored by inhibition of cGMP hydrolysis indicating that its age-related deficit is caused by an altered NO-cGMP signaling cascade. It is suggested that age-related alterations in corticostriatal synaptic plasticity may result from functional alterations in receptor-activated signaling cascades associated with increasing neuroinflammation and a prooxidant state.

  4. Altered microstructural connectivity of the superior cerebellar peduncle is related to motor dysfunction in children with autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaie, Ryuzo; Mohri, Ikuko; Kagitani-Shimono, Kuriko; Tachibana, Masaya; Azuma, Junji; Matsuzaki, Junko; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Fujita, Norihiko; Taniike, Masako

    2013-10-01

    Many studies have reported motor impairments in autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). However, the brain mechanism underlying motor impairment in ASD remains unclear. Recent neuroimaging studies have suggested that underconnectivity between the cerebellum and other brain regions contributes to the features of ASD. In this study, we investigated the microstructural integrity of the cerebellar pathways, including the superior, middle, and inferior cerebellar peduncles, of children with and without ASD by using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography to determine whether the microstructural integrity of the cerebellar pathways is related to motor function in children with ASD. Thirteen children with ASD and 11 age-, gender-, handedness-, and IQ-matched typically developing (TD) controls were enrolled in this study. DTI outcome measurements, such as fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD), for the cerebellar pathways were calculated. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2 (M-ABC 2) was used for assessing motor functions. There were no significant differences between the two groups in RD. However, compared to the TD subjects, patients with ASD had a significantly lower FA in the right superior cerebellar peduncle and lower AD in the left superior cerebellar peduncle, in addition to a significantly lower score in ball skills and the total test score of M-ABC 2. There was a significant positive correlation between the total test score of M-ABC 2 and FA in the right superior cerebellar peduncle in the ASD group. These findings suggest that the altered microstructural integrity of the superior cerebellar peduncle may be related to motor impairment in ASD.

  5. ARTIFICIAL SELECTION FOR DEVELOPMENTAL TIME IN DROSOPHILA-MELANOGASTER IN RELATION TO THE EVOLUTION OF AGING - DIRECT AND CORRELATED RESPONSES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZWAAN, B; BIJLSMA, R; HOEKSTRA, RF

    A wild-type strain of Drosophila melanogaster was successfully selected for both fast and slow larval development. The realized heritabilities (h(2)) ranged from 0.20 to 0.30 for the fast lines and 0.35 to 0.60 for the slow lines. The selection applied is relevant in relation to the evolution of

  6. Dental anomalies in different cleft groups related to neural crest developmental fields contributes to the understanding of cleft aetiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Louise Claudius; Kjær, Inger; Mølsted, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze dental deviations in three cleft groups and relate findings to embryological neural crest fields (frontonasal, maxillary, and palatal). The overall purpose was to evaluate how fields are involved in different cleft types. DESIGN: Retrospective audit of clinical photographs...

  7. Facial Speech Gestures: The Relation between Visual Speech Processing, Phonological Awareness, and Developmental Dyslexia in 10-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaadt, Gesa; Männel, Claudia; van der Meer, Elke; Pannekamp, Ann; Friederici, Angela D.

    2016-01-01

    Successful communication in everyday life crucially involves the processing of auditory and visual components of speech. Viewing our interlocutor and processing visual components of speech facilitates speech processing by triggering auditory processing. Auditory phoneme processing, analyzed by event-related brain potentials (ERP), has been shown…

  8. Relative sensitivity of developmental and immune parameters in juvenile versus adult male rats after exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonk, E.C.M.; Verhoef, A.; Gremmer, E.R.; van Loveren, H.; Piersma, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    The developing immune system displays a relatively high sensitivity as compared to both general toxicity parameters and to the adult immune system. In this study we have performed such comparisons using di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as a model compound. DEHP is the most abundant phthalate in the

  9. Trajectories of Diurnal Cortisol in Mothers of Children with Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities: Relations to Health and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykens, Elisabeth M.; Lambert, Warren

    2013-01-01

    This study used a stress biomarker, diurnal cortisol, to identify how elevated stress in mothers of children and adults with autism and other disabilities relates to their health and mental health. Based on semi-parametric, group-based trajectory analysis of 91 mothers, two distinctive cortisol trajectories emerged: blunted (63%) or steep (37%).…

  10. Using feminist, emotion-focused, and developmental approaches to enhance cognitive-behavioral therapies for posttraumatic stress disorder related to childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jacqueline N

    2008-06-01

    A body of research indicates the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral interventions for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subsequent to sexual assault in adulthood. The generalizability of these treatments to women who present with trauma symptoms associated with childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has yet to be shown, however. A number of characteristics and dynamics of CSA that make it unique from sexual assault in adulthood are described, specifically its disruption of normal childhood development, its impact on attachment style and interpersonal relationships, its inescapability, and the stigma attached to it. Then, drawing on the developmental, emotion-focused, and feminist literatures, a number of considerations that would enhance the application of cognitive- behavioral trauma therapies to the treatment of women with PTSD related to CSA are delineated. These considerations relate to providing clients with corrective interpersonal experiences, creating new relationship events, enhancing affect regulation skills before initiating exposure therapy, considering the time elapsed since the abuse, addressing themes of power, betrayal, self-blame, stigma, and sex-related cognitions and emotions, and helping clients develop a feminist consciousness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Major Changes in Growth Rate and Growth Variability of Beech (Fagus sylvatica L. Related to Soil Alteration and Climate Change in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Latte

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Global change—particularly climate change, forest management, and atmospheric deposition—has significantly altered forest growing conditions in Europe. The influences of these changes on beech growth (Fagus sylvatica L. were investigated for the past 80 years in Belgium, using non-linear mixed effects models on ring-width chronologies of 149 mature and dominant beech trees (87–186 years old. The effects of the developmental stage (i.e., increasing tree size were filtered out in order to focus on time-dependent growth changes. Beech radial growth was divided into a low-frequency signal (=growth rate, mainly influenced by forest management and atmospheric deposition, and into a high-frequency variability (≈mean sensitivity, mainly influenced by climate change. Between 1930 and 2008, major long-term and time-dependent changes were highlighted. The beech growth rate has decreased by about 38% since the 1950–1960s, and growth variability has increased by about 45% since the 1970–1980s. Our results indicate that (1 before the 1980s, beech growth rate was not predominantly impacted by climate change but rather by soil alteration (i.e., soil compaction and/or nitrogen deposition; and (2 since the 1980s, climate change induced more frequent and intense yearly growth reductions that amplified the growth rate decrease. The highlighted changes were similar in the two ecoregions of Belgium, although more pronounced in the lowlands than in the uplands.

  12. Petrography and mineralogy of alteration halos around the Cigar Lake deposit and their relation to the mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacquet, A.; Weber, F.

    1993-01-01

    Around the Cigar Lake orebody, the present zoneography of alteration halos reflects several alteration episodes, some of which are anterior to and others coeval with the mineralizing events and have a regional extension. In the main pod, the uraninite mineralization was dated 1341 ± 12 Ma. In the sandstones, it is surrounded by ferromagnesian chlorites with a variable sudoitic character. This proximal alteration halo grades into a more distal envelope, visible in the sandstone and in the basement, that is composed of magnesium sudoite and 3T hydromuscovite. During this mineralizing event, dravite crystallized in the form of urchin-like clusters in the basement and xenotime overgrowth, around altered zircon, and apatite formed in the sandstones. Around the main pod and in some perched orebodies, an alteration zone of vanadium-bearing ferrikaolinite and iron-bearing 3T hydromuscovite, crosscut by a later siderite, surrounds the pitchblende dated 323 ± 4 Ma. Coffinite and an aluminous hydromuscovite crystallized during a later fracture event. The aluminous hydromuscovite also appears, with a silica-carbon-uranium complex, in perched mineralizations. Kaolinization and iron-sulfide oxidation into iron hydroxides occurred in perched orebodies that were more exposed to meteoric alteration. 19 refs., 12 figs., 11 tabs [fr

  13. Children’s Confession- and Lying-Related Emotion Expectancies: Developmental Differences and Connections to Parent-Reported Confession Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Young children understand that lying is wrong, yet little is known about the emotions children connect to the acts of lying and confessing, and how children’s emotion expectancies relate to real-world behavior. In the present study, 4-to-9-year-old children (N = 48) heard stories about protagonists 1) committing transgressions, 2) failing to disclose their misdeeds, and 3) subsequently lying or confessing. Younger children (4-to-5 years) expected relatively positive feelings to follow self-serving transgressions, failure to disclose, and lying, and they often used gains-oriented- and punishment-avoidance-reasoning when justifying their responses. Older children (7-to-9 years) had the opposite pattern of emotional responses (better feelings linked to confession, compared to lying). Older children expected a more positive parental response to a confession than did younger children. Further, children who expected more positive parental responses to confession were reported by parents to confess more in real life than children who expected more negative parental responses to a confession. Thus, the present research demonstrates a link between children’s emotion expectancies and actual confession behavior. PMID:28063404

  14. Children's confession- and lying-related emotion expectancies: Developmental differences and connections to parent-reported confession behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Craig E; Rizzo, Michael T

    2017-04-01

    Young children understand that lying is wrong, yet little is known about the emotions children connect to the acts of lying and confessing and how children's emotion expectancies relate to real-world behavior. In the current study, 4- to 9-year-old children (N=48) heard stories about protagonists (a) committing transgressions, (b) failing to disclose their misdeeds, and (c) subsequently lying or confessing. Younger children (4-5years) expected relatively positive feelings to follow self-serving transgressions, failure to disclose, and lying, and they often used gains-oriented and punishment-avoidance reasoning when justifying their responses. Older children (7-9years) had the opposite pattern of emotional responses (better feelings linked to confession compared with lying). Older children expected a more positive parental response to a confession than younger children. Furthermore, children who expected more positive parental responses to confession were reported by parents to confess more in real life than children who expected more negative parental responses to confession. Thus, the current research demonstrates a link between children's emotion expectancies and actual confession behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Semantic, syntactic, and phonological processing of written words in adult developmental dyslexic readers: an event-related brain potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Sönke

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study used event-related brain potentials to investigate semantic, phonological and syntactic processes in adult German dyslexic and normal readers in a word reading task. Pairs of German words were presented one word at a time. Subjects had to perform a semantic judgment task (house – window; are they semantically related?, a rhyme judgment task (house – mouse; do they rhyme? and a gender judgment task (das – Haus [the – house]; is the gender correct? [in German, house has a neutral gender: das Haus]. Results Normal readers responded faster compared to dyslexic readers in all three tasks. Onset latencies of the N400 component were delayed in dyslexic readers in the rhyme judgment and in the gender judgment task, but not in the semantic judgment task. N400 and the anterior negativity peak amplitudes did not differ between the two groups. However, the N400 persisted longer in the dyslexic group in the rhyme judgment and in the semantic judgment tasks. Conclusion These findings indicate that dyslexics are phonologically impaired (delayed N400 in the rhyme judgment task but that they also have difficulties in other, non-phonological aspects of reading (longer response times, longer persistence of the N400. Specifically, semantic and syntactic integration seem to require more effort for dyslexic readers and take longer irrespective of the reading task that has to be performed.

  16. Parental Attributions of Control for Child Behaviour and Their Relation to Discipline Practices in Parents of Children with and Without Developmental Delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Myrthe; Marks Woolfson, Lisa; Hunter, Simon C

    2017-01-01

    Children with developmental delays (DD) are at risk for developing behavior problems. Research suggests that parents' causal attributions for child behavior are related to parenting. This study investigated this association in parents of children with DD compared to parents of typically developing (TD) children. It specifically focused on attributions of child control by separating these from attributions of responsibility, blame and intent, and from attributions of parent control and responsibility. Fifty-one parents of children with DD and 69 parents of TD children completed two questionnaires. The Written Analogue Questionnaire measured causal attributions. The Parenting Scale measured dysfunctional discipline practices. Parents of children with DD viewed the child's role in problematic behavior more positively while also viewing misbehavior as more fixed than parents of TD children. Parents of TD children who viewed their child as more in control over misbehavior used less dysfunctional discipline, but this association was not found for parents of children with DD. The results advance understanding of how parents perceive behavior problems in children with DD and the important role these perceptions play in parental behavior management strategies. More importantly, these perceptions relate to discipline practices differently for parents of children with DD compared to parents of TD children, highlighting that parent interventions should be adapted to the specific needs of parents of children with DD.

  17. Developmental intervals during the larval and juvenile stages of the Antarctic myctophid fish Electrona antarctica in relation to changes in feeding and swimming functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moteki, Masato; Tsujimura, Eri; Hulley, Percy-Alexander

    2017-06-01

    The Antarctic myctophid fish species Electrona antarctica is believed to play a key role in the Southern Ocean food web, but there have been few studies on its early life history. This study examined the developmental changes in the external morphology and osteology of E. antarctica from the early larva to juvenile stages through the transformation phase and inferred changes in its behaviour and feeding mode. Once the larvae reached 12-13 mm body length (BL), they adopted a primordial suction feeding mode along with the acquisition of early swimming capabilities. Thereafter, both swimming and feeding functions were enhanced through fin development and ossification and acquisition of elements of the jaw and suspensorium. These processes indicate that larvae transition from the planktonic to nektonic phase upon reaching 12-13 mm BL when they enhance their both swimming and feeding abilities with growth. Transformation occurred when larvae reached 19-21 mm BL with changes such as discontinuous increases in eye diameter and upper jaw length and the appearance of photophores and dense body pigmentation. Osteological development of swimming- and feeding-related structures were mostly complete after transformation. Rapid changes in external morphology and osteology during the transformation stage are most likely related to ontogenetic vertical migration into deep waters.

  18. Chronic unpredictable mild stress alters an anxiety-related defensive response, Fos immunoreactivity and hippocampal adult neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, J S; Céspedes, I C; Abrão, R O; Dos Santos, T B; Diniz, L; Britto, L R G; Spadari-Bratfisch, R C; Ortolani, D; Melo-Thomas, L; da Silva, R C B; Viana, M B

    2013-08-01

    Previous results show that elevated T-maze (ETM) avoidance responses are facilitated by acute restraint. Escape, on the other hand, was unaltered. To examine if the magnitude of the stressor is an important factor influencing these results, we investigated the effects of unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) on ETM avoidance and escape measurements. Analysis of Fos protein immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) was used to map areas activated by stress exposure in response to ETM avoidance and escape performance. Additionally, the effects of the UCMS protocol on the number of cells expressing the marker of migrating neuroblasts doublecortin (DCX) in the hippocampus were investigated. Corticosterone serum levels were also measured. Results showed that UCMS facilitates ETM avoidance, not altering escape. In unstressed animals, avoidance performance increases Fos-ir in the cingulate cortex, hippocampus (dentate gyrus) and basomedial amygdala, and escape increases Fos-ir in the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray and locus ceruleus. In stressed animals submitted to ETM avoidance, increases in Fos-ir were observed in the cingulate cortex, ventrolateral septum, hippocampus, hypothalamus, amygdala, dorsal and median raphe nuclei. In stressed animals submitted to ETM escape, increases in Fos-ir were observed in the cingulate cortex, periaqueductal gray and locus ceruleus. Also, UCMS exposure decreased the number of DCX-positive cells in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus and increased corticosterone serum levels. These data suggest that the anxiogenic effects of UCMS are related to the activation of specific neurobiological circuits that modulate anxiety and confirm that this stress protocol activates the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and decreases hippocampal adult neurogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Hyperglycemia-related advanced glycation end-products is associated with the altered phosphatidylcholine metabolism in osteoarthritis patients with diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Zhang

    Full Text Available To test whether type 2 diabetic patients have an elevated level of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs and responsible for altered phosphatidylcholine metabolism, which we recently found to be associated with osteoarthritis (OA and diabetes mellitus (DM, synovial fluid (SF and plasma samples were collected from OA patients with and without DM. Hyperglycemia-related AGEs including methylglyoxal (MG, free methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone (MG-H1, and protein bound N-(Carboxymethyllysine (CML and N-(Carboxyethyllysine (CEL levels were measured in both SF and plasma samples using liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry methodology. The correlation between these AGEs and phosphatidylcholine acyl-alkyl C34:3 (PC ae C34:3 and C36:3 (PC ae C36:3 were examined. Eighty four patients with knee OA, including 46 with DM and 38 without DM, were included in the study. There was no significant difference in plasma levels of MG, MG-H1, CML, and CEL between OA patients with and without DM. However, the levels of MG and MG-H1, but not CML and CEL in SF were significantly higher in OA patients with DM than in those without (all p ≤0.04. This association strengthened after adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI, sex and hexose level (p<0.02. Moreover, the levels of MG-H1 in SF was negatively and significantly correlated with PC ae C34:3 (ρ = -0.34; p = 0.02 and PC ae C36:3 (ρ = -0.39; P = 0.03 after the adjustment of age, BMI, sex and hexose level. Our data indicated that the production of non-protein bound AGEs was increased within the OA-affected joint of DM patients. This is associated with changes in phosphatidylcholine metabolism and might be responsible for the observed epidemiological association between OA and DM.

  20. Existence of a photoinducible phase for ovarian development and photoperiod-related alteration of clock gene expression in a damselfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yuki; Hada, Noriko; Imamura, Satoshi; Hur, Sung-Pyo; Bouchekioua, Selma; Takemura, Akihiro

    2015-10-01

    The sapphire devil, Chrysiptera cyanea, is a reef-associated damselfish and their ovarian development can be induced by a long photoperiod. In this study, we demonstrated the existence of a photoinducible phase for the photoperiodic ovarian development in the sapphire devil. Induction of ovarian development under night-interruption light schedules and Nanda-Hamner cycles revealed that the photoinducible phase appeared in a circadian manner between ZT12 and ZT13. To characterize the effect of photoperiod on clock gene expression in the brain of this species, we determined the expression levels of the sdPer1, sdPer2, sdCry1, and sdCry2 clock genes under constant light and dark conditions (LL and DD) and photoperiodic (short and long photoperiods). The expression of sdPer1 exhibited clear circadian oscillation under both LL and DD conditions, while sdPer2 and sdCry1 expression levels were lower under DD than under LL conditions and sdCry2 expression was lower under LL than under DD conditions. These results suggest a key role for sdPer1 in circadian clock cycling and that sdPer2, sdCry1, and sdCry2 are light-responsive clock genes in the sapphire devil. After 1 week under a long photoperiod, we observed photoperiod-related changes in sdPer1, sdPer2, and sdCry2 expression, but not in sdCry1 expression. These results suggest that the expression patterns of some clock genes exhibit seasonal variation according to seasonal changes in day length and that such seasonal alteration of clock gene expression may contribute to seasonal recognition by the sapphire devil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Developmental Relations between Perceived Social Support and Depressive Symptoms through Emerging Adulthood: Blood is Thicker than Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Jeremy W.; Roberts, Robert E.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Seeley, John R.; Yaroslavsky, Ilya

    2010-01-01

    Longitudinal trajectories of depressive symptoms, perceived support from family, and perceived support from friends were examined among 816 emerging adults (480 women; 59%). In the context of a larger longitudinal investigation on the predictors and course of depression, data were drawn from eight self-report questionnaire assessments that roughly spanned the third decade of life. An age-based scaling approach was used to model trajectories of depressive symptoms and perceived social support between the ages of 21 and 30. Associative models of the relations between depressive symptoms and perceived social support from family and friends were tested. Results indicated that depressive symptoms decreased and perceived social support increased during the study period. Associative models suggested that among women, higher initial levels of perceived support from family predicted slower decreases in depressive symptoms (b = .34, p perceived family support (b = −.23, p perceived support from friends and depressive symptoms. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:21355652

  2. Exploring the oral microbiota of children at various developmental stages of their dentition in the relation to their oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montijn Roy C

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An understanding of the relation of commensal microbiota to health is essential in preventing disease. Here we studied the oral microbial composition of children (N = 74, aged 3 - 18 years in natural transition from their deciduous to a permanent dentition and related the microbial profiles to their oral health status. The microbial composition of saliva was assessed by barcoded pyrosequencing of the V5-V6 hypervariable regions of the 16 S rRNA, as well as by using phylogenetic microarrays. Results Pyrosequencing reads (126174 reads, 1045 unique sequences represented 8 phyla and 113 higher taxa in saliva samples. Four phyla - Firmicutes, Bacteriodetes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria - predominated in all groups. The deciduous dentition harboured a higher proportion of Proteobacteria (Gammaproteobacteria, Moraxellaceae than Bacteroidetes, while in all other groups Bacteroidetes were at least as abundant as Proteobacteria. Bacteroidetes (mainly genus Prevotella, Veillonellaceae family, Spirochaetes and candidate division TM7 increased with increasing age, reflecting maturation of the microbiome driven by biological changes with age. Microarray analysis enabled further analysis of the individual salivary microbiota. Of 350 microarray probes, 156 gave a positive signal with, on average, 77 (range 48-93 probes per individual sample. A caries-free oral status significantly associated with the higher signal of the probes targeting Porphyromonas catoniae and Neisseria flavescens. Conclusions The potential role of P. catoniae and N. flavescens as oral health markers should be assessed in large-scale clinical studies. The combination of both, open-ended and targeted molecular approaches provides us with information that will increase our understanding of the interplay between the human host and its microbiome.

  3. Noise and vibration levels in artificial polar bear dens as related to selected petroleum exploration and developmental activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, A.S.; Lentfer, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    Petroleum exploration and development are occurring in various locations in the Arctic, where there are important denning sites for polar bears. Petroleum activities usually coincide with winter denning activities by bears, who may abandon dens if subject to prolonged annoyance. A study was carried out to measure noise and vibration levels in artificial polar bear dens at Prudhoe's Bar, Alaska, resulting from seismic testing, drilling and transport. A microphone and an accelerometer were frozen to the floor of the dens, with leads passed through a consolidated snow filled entrance to a truck, tent or helicopter. Tests were carried out on land, sea ice, and next to a drilling tower on an artificial island, which was also used to measure noise levels resulting from a helicopter taking off. It was concluded that the dry and wind-beaten arctic snow muffles both sound and vibration extremely well, and it is unlikely that polar bears in their dens will be disturbed by the type of petroleum-related activities measured, provided they do not take place within 100 m of the dens. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  4. [Clinical and developmental aspects of care-related tetanus in the reference service of the teaching hospital of Abidjan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aba, T; Kra, O; Ehui, E; Tanon, K A; Kacou, A R; Ouatara, B; Bissagnéné, E; Kadio, A

    2011-02-01

    A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from medical data of inpatients with tetanus in the Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases of the University Hospital of Treichville in Abidjan from January 2003 to December 2007. In five years, 221 cases of tetanus have been hospitalized. The tetanus gateway was found in 188 patients (85%). Tetanus gateway linked to care was found in 22 patients (11.7%). Acts of care in question were intramuscular injections (10 cases) and operative procedures (12 cases). Concerning medical care by intramuscular injection, quinine (four cases), sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (one case), and long-acting penicillin (one case) were the identified drugs. The operative procedures mainly involved were skin sutures (nine cases), cures of hernia (two cases), and flattening of Fournier's gangrene (one case). The average incubation period was 9.5 days. The invasion lasted for an average of 1.8 days. On admission, tetanus was immediately generalized for all patients with the presence of paroxysms in 20 patients (90.9%). The lethality of tetanus related care was 54.5%. The death rate in the first 48 hours of hospitalization was estimated at 83.3%. The average length of hospital stay was 14.6 days. Health workers should be involved in the prevention of tetanus in improving the quality of care and especially in reducing intramuscular injections. Also, any patient not immunized against tetanus should receive anti-tetanus serum and an update of its tetanus vaccine before any invasive procedures.

  5. Toward an understanding of late life suicidal behavior: the role of lifespan developmental theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Amy; O'Riley, Alisa A

    2016-01-01

    Suicidal behavior in late life differs in important ways from suicidal behavior that occurs earlier in the lifespan, suggesting the possibility of developmental differences in the etiology of suicidal behavior. This paper examines late life suicidal behavior within the context of lifespan developmental theory. This paper presents a conceptual framework for using lifespan developmental theory to better understand late life suicidal behavior. We argue that the motivational theory of lifespan development, which focuses on control, is particularly relevant to late life suicide. This theory posits that opportunities to exert control over important aspects of one's life diminish in late life as a result of declines in physical functioning and other factors, and that successful aging is associated with adaptive regulation of this developmental change. Although continued striving to meet goals is normative throughout the lifespan, most individuals also increase the use of compensatory strategies in old age or when faced with a decline in functioning. We propose that individuals who do not adapt to developmental changes by altering their strategies for exerting control will be at risk for suicidal behavior in late life. This paper reviews evidence that supports the importance of control with respect to suicidal outcomes in older adults, as well as findings regarding specific types of control strategies that may be related to suicide risk in older adults with health-related limitations. Although suicidal behavior is not a normal part of aging, the application of lifespan developmental theory may be useful in understanding and potentially preventing suicide among older adults.

  6. The relative abundance of predicted genes associated with ammonia-oxidation, nitrate reduction, and biomass decomposition in mineral soil are altered by intensive timber harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushinski, R. M.; Zhou, Y.; Gentry, T. J.; Boutton, T. W.

    2017-12-01

    Forest ecosystems in the southern United States are substantially altered by anthropogenic disturbances such as timber harvest and land conversion, with effects being observed in carbon and nutrient pools as well as biogeochemical processes. Furthermore, the desire to develop renewable energy sources in the form of biomass extraction from logging residues may result in alterations in soil community structure and function. While the impact of forest management on soil physicochemical properties of the region has been studied, its' long-term effect on soil bacterial community composition and metagenomic potential is relatively unknown, especially at deeper soil depths. This study investigates how intensive organic matter removal intensities associated with timber harvest influence decadal-scale alterations in bacterial community structure and functional potential in the upper 1-m of the soil profile, 18 years post-harvest in a Pinus taeda L. forest of eastern Texas. Amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used in conjunction with soil chemical analyses to evaluate treatment-induced differences in community composition and potential environmental drivers of associated change. Furthermore, functional potential was assessed by using amplicon data to make metagenomic predictions. Results indicate that increasing organic matter removal intensity leads to altered community composition and the relative abundance of dominant OTUs annotated to Burkholderia and Aciditerrimonas. The relative abundance of predicted genes associated with dissimilatory nitrate reduction and denitrification were highest in the most intensively harvested treatment while genes involved in nitrification were significantly lower in the most intensively harvested treatment. Furthermore, genes associated with glycosyltransferases were significantly reduced with increasing harvest intensity while polysaccharide lyases increased. These results imply that intensive organic matter removal may create

  7. Radiographic study on the anterior portion of the neck of the condylar process. Aged-related developmental changes based on Hellman's dental stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Hiroshi; Yamato, Rieko; Tada, Miwako [Meikai Univ., Sakado, Saitama (Japan). School of Dentistry] [and others

    2003-02-01

    The condylar process is directly and indirectly influenced by the masticatory muscles and the temporomandibular joint, which functions to regulate jaw movement. Age-related changes in the condylar process were found in both external and internal structures. Observation of X-ray profiles afforded identification of areas of interest in the anterior portion of the neck of condylar process. This portion anatomically includes the pterygoid fovea; moreover, the process serves as a terminal for the lateral pterygoid muscle. Rather than directly analyzing bone structure, we made distinct measurements in regions of interest by X-ray image analysis. Subsequently, changes in occlusion during each developmental stage were evaluated. In addition, bone mineral density measurements were performed. Greater growth was recognized in the long axis of the condylar process in comparison to the short axis. The long axis indicated a 2.7-fold increase in ODL (length along the major axis) from the IA period to the VA period; additionally, the total absolute length increased by 3.1-fold. The short axis demonstrated a 2.3-fold increase in ODS (length along the minor axis) from the IA period to the VA period; furthermore, the total average length revealed a 1.9-fold increase. Bone mineral density was highest in the anterior portion (region of interest) and was higher in the posterior portion (cortical bone); than in the middle portion (central bone). Among these 3 areas, density differences became larger as the developmental stage of occlusion progressed. Detailed measurements in the region of interest demonstrated significant increases from the IIC period to the IIIA (B) period, and distinct peak times of increases were observed in bone mineral density: the center bone structure, as well as the posterior cortical bone, showed significant increases between the IIIC period and the IVA period. The anterior border displayed to constant increase with an exception for the period between stages

  8. A principled relation between reading and naming in acquired and developmental anomia: Surface dyslexia following impairment in the phonological output lexicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naama eFriedmann

    2016-03-01

    from it to lexical semantics. This pattern was shown both by the adults with acquired anomia and by the participants with developmental anomia. These results thus suggest a principled relation between anomia and dyslexia, and point to a distinct type of surface dyslexia. They further show the possibility of good comprehension of written words when the phonological output stages are impaired.

  9. Spatial coordinate systems for tactile spatial attention depend on developmental vision: evidence from event-related potentials in sighted and congenitally blind adult humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röder, Brigitte; Föcker, Julia; Hötting, Kirsten; Spence, Charles

    2008-08-01

    Changes in limb posture (such as crossing the hands) can impair people's performance in tasks such as those involving temporal order judgements, when one tactile stimulus is presented to either hand. This crossed hands deficit has been attributed to a conflict between externally and anatomically anchored reference systems when people localize tactile stimuli. Interestingly, however, the performance of congenitally blind adults does not seem to be affected by crossing the hands, suggesting a default use of an anatomically rather than an externally anchored reference system for tactile localization. In the present study, 12 congenitally blind and 12 sighted adults were instructed to attend to either the left or the right hand on a trial-by-trial basis in order to detect rare deviants (consisting of a double touch) at that hand, while ignoring both deviants at the other hand and frequent standard stimuli (consisting of a single touch) presented to either hand. Only the sighted participants performed less accurately when they crossed their hands. Concurrent electroencephalogram recordings revealed an early contralateral attention positivity, followed by an attention negativity in the sighted group when they adopted the uncrossed hands posture. For the crossed hand posture, only the attention negativity was observed with reduced amplitude in the sighted group. By contrast, the congenitally blind group displayed an event-related potential attention negativity that did not vary when the posture of their hands was changed. These results demonstrate that the default use of an external frame of reference for tactile localization seems to depend on developmental vision.

  10. Health-related quality of life in fathers of children with or without developmental disability: the mediating effect of parental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Ping; Chang, Ming-yuh; Chi, Yu-Lin; Lai, Fei-Chen

    2014-02-01

    The aims of this study were to compare parental stress and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) between Taiwanese fathers of children with and without developmental disabilities (DDs) and to examine the mediating effect of parental stress on the association between having a child with DD and paternal HRQOL within Chinese culture. This cross-sectional, prospective, unmatched case-control study included 206 fathers of children with DDs and 207 fathers of healthy children. HRQOL was assessed by the SF-36 short-form questionnaire, and parental stress was assessed by the Chinese version Parental Stress Scale. Fathers of children with DDs experienced poorer mental and physical HRQOL and higher parental stress than fathers of healthy children. Parental stress acted as a complete mediator for paternal physical HRQOL, while parental stress had a partial mediating effect on the relationship between having a child with DD and paternal mental HRQOL. Having a child with DD also directly affected paternal mental HRQOL. Fathers of children with DDs should be monitored for parental stress and HRQOL, and interventions should be provided to empower them with the knowledge and skills to reduce their stress and to enhance their HRQOL.

  11. Identification of age- and disease-related alterations in circulating miRNAs in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia eGarza-Manero

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized clinically by the progressive decline of memory and cognition. Histopathologically, two main hallmarks have been identified in AD: amyloid-β peptide extracellular neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles formed by posttranslational modified tau protein. A definitive diagnosis can only be achieved after the post mortem verification of the histological mentioned alterations. Therefore the development of biomarkers that allow an early diagnosis and/or predict disease progression is imperative. The prospect of a blood-based biomarker is possible with the finding of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs, a class of small non-coding RNAs of 22-25 nucleotides length that regulate mRNA translation rate. miRNAs travel through blood and recent studies performed in potential AD cases suggest the possibility of finding pathology-associated differences in circulating miRNA levels that may serve to assist in early diagnosis of the disease. However, these studies analyzed samples at a single time-point, limiting the use of miRNAs as biomarkers in AD progression. In this study we evaluated miRNA levels in plasma samples at different time-points of the evolution of an AD-like pathology in a transgenic mouse model of the disease (3xTg-AD. We performed multiplex qRT-PCR and compared the plasmatic levels of 84 miRNAs previously associated to central nervous system development and disease. No significant differences were detected between WT and transgenic young mice. However, age-related significant changes in miRNA abundance were observed for both WT and transgenic mice, and some of these were specific for the 3xTg-AD. In agreement, variations in the levels of particular miRNAs were identified between WT and transgenic old mice thus suggesting that the age-dependent evolution of the AD-like pathology, rather than the presence and expression of the transgenes, modifies the circulating miRNA levels in

  12. Early endocrine alterations reflect prolonged stress and relate to one year functional outcome in patients with severe brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marina, Djordje; Klose, Marianne; Nordenbo, Annette

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Severe brain injury poses a risk of developing acute and chronic hypopituitarism. Pituitary hormone alterations developed in the early recovery phase after brain injury may have implications for long-term functional recovery. The objective was to assess the pattern and prevalence...

  13. Evolutionary and developmental modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacquaniti, Francesco; Ivanenko, Yuri P; d'Avella, Andrea; Zelik, Karl E; Zago, Myrka

    2013-01-01

    The identification of biological modules at the systems level often follows top-down decomposition of a task goal, or bottom-up decomposition of multidimensional data arrays into basic elements or patterns representing shared features. These approaches traditionally have been applied to mature, fully developed systems. Here we review some results from two other perspectives on modularity, namely the developmental and evolutionary perspective. There is growing evidence that modular units of development were highly preserved and recombined during evolution. We first consider a few examples of modules well identifiable from morphology. Next we consider the more difficult issue of identifying functional developmental modules. We dwell especially on modular control of locomotion to argue that the building blocks used to construct different locomotor behaviors are similar across several animal species, presumably related to ancestral neural networks of command. A recurrent theme from comparative studies is that the developmental addition of new premotor modules underlies the postnatal acquisition and refinement of several different motor behaviors in vertebrates.

  14. Developmental toxicity of engineered nanomaterials in rodents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ema, Makoto, E-mail: ema-makoto@aist.go.jp; Gamo, Masashi; Honda, Kazumasa

    2016-05-15

    We summarized significant effects reported in the literature on the developmental toxicity of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in rodents. The developmental toxicity of ENMs included not only structural abnormalities, but also death, growth retardation, and behavioral and functional abnormalities. Most studies were performed on mice using an injection route of exposure. Teratogenic effects were indicated when multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), and TiO{sub 2}-nanoparticles were administered to mice during early gestation. Reactive oxygen species levels were increased in placentas and malformed fetuses and their placentas after prenatal exposure to MWCNTs and SWCNTs, respectively. The pre- and postnatal mortalities and growth retardation in offspring increased after prenatal exposure to ENMs. Histopathological and functional abnormalities were also induced in placentas after prenatal exposure to ENMs. Maternal exposure to ENMs induced behavioral alterations, histopathological and biochemical changes in the central nervous system, increased susceptibility to allergy, transplacental genotoxicity, and vascular, immunological, and reproductive effects in offspring. The size- and developmental stage-dependent placental transfer of ENMs was noted after maternal exposure. Silver accumulated in the visceral yolk sac after being injected with Ag-NPs during early gestation. Although currently available data has provided initial information on the potential developmental toxicity of ENMs, that on the developmental toxicity of ENMs is still very limited. Further studies using well-characterized ENMs, state-of the-art study protocols, and appropriate routes of exposure are required in order to clarify these developmental effects and provide information suitable for risk assessments of ENMs. - Highlights: • We review the developmental toxicity studies of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). • Various developmental endpoints have been

  15. Relative uptake of technetium 99m stannous colloid by neutrophils and monocytes is altered by gram-negative infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsay, Stuart C.; Maggs, Jacqueline A.; Ketheesan, Natkunam; Norton, Robert; LaBrooy, Justin

    2005-01-01

    Gram-negative infection alters phagocytic cell function; hence, it could affect phagocytic uptake of inorganic colloids by these cells. Neutrophil and monocyte uptake of technetium 99m stannous colloid ( 99m Tc SnC) in whole blood was measured in 10 patients with gram-negative infection (Burkholderia pseudomallei) and 7 controls. Mean uptake per individual neutrophil was reduced in infection. Uptake per monocyte was not significantly different. Blood from six normal individuals was incubated with lysed B. pseudomallei and colloid, which showed reduced neutrophil uptake, but increased monocyte uptake. These results indicate that uptake of 99m Tc SnC stannous colloid can be used to measure alteration in phagocytic cell function. They suggest that infection with B. pseudomallei is associated with reduced phagocytosis by individual neutrophils, possibly through toxic effects of bacterial products. This could have immunopathogenic consequences for this gram-negative infection and may explain why it responds to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor

  16. Genotype Modulates Age-Related Alterations in Sensitivity to the Aversive Effects of Ethanol: An 8 Inbred Strain Analysis of Conditioned Taste Aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Eileen M.; Forrest, Robert D.; Boehm, Stephen L.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent individuals display altered behavioral sensitivity to ethanol, which may contribute to the increased ethanol consumption seen in this age-group. However, genetics also exert considerable influence on both ethanol intake and sensitivity. Thus far there is little research assessing the combined influence of developmental and genetic alcohol sensitivities. Sensitivity to the aversive effects of ethanol using a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) procedure was measured during both adolescence (P30) and adulthood (P75) in 8 inbred mouse strains (C57BL/6J, DBA/2J, 129S1/SvImJ, A/J, BALB/cByJ, BTBR T+tf/J, C3H/HeJ, and FVB/NJ). Adolescent and adult mice were water deprived, and subsequently provided with access to 0.9% (v/v) NaCl solution for 1h. Immediately following access mice were administered ethanol (0, 1.5, 2.25, 3g/kg, ip). This procedure was repeated in 72h intervals for a total of 5 CTA trials. Sensitivity to the aversive effects of ethanol was highly dependent upon both strain and age. Within an inbred strain, adolescent animals were consistently less sensitive to the aversive effects of ethanol than their adult counterparts. However, the dose of ethanol required to produce an aversion response differed as a function of both age and strain. PMID:23171343

  17. Genotype modulates age-related alterations in sensitivity to the aversive effects of ethanol: an eight inbred strain analysis of conditioned taste aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, E M; Forrest, R D; Boehm, S L

    2013-02-01

    Adolescent individuals display altered behavioral sensitivity to ethanol, which may contribute to the increased ethanol consumption seen in this age-group. However, genetics also exert considerable influence on both ethanol intake and sensitivity. Currently there is little research assessing the combined influence of developmental and genetic alcohol sensitivities. Sensitivity to the aversive effects of ethanol using a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) procedure was measured during both adolescence (P30) and adulthood (P75) in eight inbred mouse strains (C57BL/6J, DBA/2J, 129S1/SvImJ, A/J, BALB/cByJ, BTBR T(+) tf/J, C3H/HeJ and FVB/NJ). Adolescent and adult mice were water deprived, and subsequently provided with access to 0.9% (v/v) NaCl solution for 1 h. Immediately following access mice were administered ethanol (0, 1.5, 2.25 and 3 g/kg, ip). This procedure was repeated in 72 h intervals for a total of five CTA trials. Sensitivity to the aversive effects of ethanol was highly dependent upon both strain and age. Within an inbred strain, adolescent animals were consistently less sensitive to the aversive effects of ethanol than their adult counterparts. However, the dose of ethanol required to produce an aversion response differed as a function of both age and strain. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  18. Changes in Pain Modulation Occur Soon After Whiplash Trauma but are not Related to Altered Perception of Distorted Visual Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daenen, Liesbeth; Nijs, Jo; Cras, Patrick; Wouters, Kristien; Roussel, Nathalie

    2014-09-01

    Widespread sensory hypersensitivity has been observed in acute whiplash associated disorders (WAD). Changes in descending pain modulation take part in central sensitization. However, endogenous pain modulation has never been investigated in acute WAD. Altered perception of distorted visual feedback has been observed in WAD. Both mechanisms (ie, pain modulation and perception of distorted visual feedback) may be different components of one integrated system orchestrated by the brain. This study evaluated conditioned pain modulation (CPM) in acute WAD. Secondly, we investigated whether changes in CPM are associated with altered perception of distorted visual feedback. Thirty patients with acute WAD, 35 patients with chronic WAD and 31 controls were subjected to an experiment evaluating CPM and a coordination task inducing visual mediated changes between sensory feedback and motor output. A significant CPM effect was observed in acute WAD (P = 0.012 and P = 0.006), which was significantly lower compared to controls (P = 0.004 and P = 0.020). No obvious differences in CPM were found between acute and chronic WAD (P = 0.098 and P = 0.041). Changes in CPM were unrelated to altered perception of distorted visual feedback (P > 0.01). Changes in CPM were observed in acute WAD, suggesting less efficient pain modulation. The results suggest that central pain and sensorimotor processing underlie distinctive mechanisms. © 2013 World Institute of Pain.

  19. Epigenetic Alteration by DNA Promoter Hypermethylation of Genes Related to Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) Signaling in Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khin, Sann Sanda [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Division of Diagnostic Molecular Pathology, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Pathology Research Unit, Department of Medical Research (Central Myanmar), Naypyitaw, Union of (Myanmar); Kitazawa, Riko [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Division of Diagnostic Molecular Pathology, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Toon 791-0295, Ehime (Japan); Kondo, Takeshi; Idei, Yuka; Fujimoto, Masayo [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Division of Diagnostic Molecular Pathology, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Haraguchi, Ryuma [Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Toon 791-0295, Ehime (Japan); Mori, Kiyoshi [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Division of Diagnostic Molecular Pathology, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Kitazawa, Sohei, E-mail: kitazawa@m.ehime-u.ac.jp [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Division of Diagnostic Molecular Pathology, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Toon 791-0295, Ehime (Japan)

    2011-03-03

    Epigenetic alterations in cancer, especially DNA methylation and histone modification, exert a significant effect on the deregulated expression of cancer-related genes and lay an epigenetic pathway to carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Global hypomethylation and local hypermethylation of CpG islands in the promoter region, which result in silencing tumor suppressor genes, constitute general and major epigenetic modification, the hallmark of the neoplastic epigenome. Additionally, methylation-induced gene silencing commonly affects a number of genes and increases with cancer progression. Indeed, cancers with a high degree of methylation (CpG island methylator phenotype/CIMP) do exist and represent a distinct subset of certain cancers including colorectal, bladder and kidney. On the other hand, signals from the microenvironment, especially those from transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), induce targeted de novo epigenetic alterations of cancer-related genes. While TGF-β signaling has been implicated in two opposite roles in cancer, namely tumor suppression and tumor promotion, its deregulation is also partly induced by epigenetic alteration itself. Although the epigenetic pathway to carcinogenesis and cancer progression has such reciprocal complexity, the important issue is to identify genes or signaling pathways that are commonly silenced in various cancers in order to find early diagnostic and therapeutic targets. In this review, we focus on the epigenetic alteration by DNA methylation and its role in molecular modulations of the TGF-β signaling pathway that cause or underlie altered cancer-related gene expression in both phases of early carcinogenesis and late cancer progression.

  20. Epigenetic Alteration by DNA Promoter Hypermethylation of Genes Related to Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) Signaling in Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khin, Sann Sanda; Kitazawa, Riko; Kondo, Takeshi; Idei, Yuka; Fujimoto, Masayo; Haraguchi, Ryuma; Mori, Kiyoshi; Kitazawa, Sohei

    2011-01-01

    Epigenetic alterations in cancer, especially DNA methylation and histone modification, exert a significant effect on the deregulated expression of cancer-related genes and lay an epigenetic pathway to carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Global hypomethylation and local hypermethylation of CpG islands in the promoter region, which result in silencing tumor suppressor genes, constitute general and major epigenetic modification, the hallmark of the neoplastic epigenome. Additionally, methylation-induced gene silencing commonly affects a number of genes and increases with cancer progression. Indeed, cancers with a high degree of methylation (CpG island methylator phenotype/CIMP) do exist and represent a distinct subset of certain cancers including colorectal, bladder and kidney. On the other hand, signals from the microenvironment, especially those from transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), induce targeted de novo epigenetic alterations of cancer-related genes. While TGF-β signaling has been implicated in two opposite roles in cancer, namely tumor suppression and tumor promotion, its deregulation is also partly induced by epigenetic alteration itself. Although the epigenetic pathway to carcinogenesis and cancer progression has such reciprocal complexity, the important issue is to identify genes or signaling pathways that are commonly silenced in various cancers in order to find early diagnostic and therapeutic targets. In this review, we focus on the epigenetic alteration by DNA methylation and its role in molecular modulations of the TGF-β signaling pathway that cause or underlie altered cancer-related gene expression in both phases of early carcinogenesis and late cancer progression

  1. Epigenetic Alteration by DNA Promoter Hypermethylation of Genes Related to Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β Signaling in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Mori

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic alterations in cancer, especially DNA methylation and histone modification, exert a significant effect on the deregulated expression of cancer-related genes and lay an epigenetic pathway to carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Global hypomethylation and local hypermethylation of CpG islands in the promoter region, which result in silencing tumor suppressor genes, constitute general and major epigenetic modification, the hallmark of the neoplastic epigenome. Additionally, methylation-induced gene silencing commonly affects a number of genes and increases with cancer progression. Indeed, cancers with a high degree of methylation (CpG island methylator phenotype/CIMP do exist and represent a distinct subset of certain cancers including colorectal, bladder and kidney. On the other hand, signals from the microenvironment, especially those from transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β, induce targeted de novo epigenetic alterations of cancer-related genes. While TGF-β signaling has been implicated in two opposite roles in cancer, namely tumor suppression and tumor promotion, its deregulation is also partly induced by epigenetic alteration itself. Although the epigenetic pathway to carcinogenesis and cancer progression has such reciprocal complexity, the important issue is to identify genes or signaling pathways that are commonly silenced in various cancers in order to find early diagnostic and therapeutic targets. In this review, we focus on the epigenetic alteration by DNA methylation and its role in molecular modulations of the TGF-β signaling pathway that cause or underlie altered cancer-related gene expression in both phases of early carcinogenesis and late cancer progression.

  2. Frequency-dependent brain regional homogeneity alterations in patients with mild cognitive impairment during working memory state relative to resting state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyun eWang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported working memory deficits in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. However, previous studies investigating the neural mechanisms of MCI have primarily focused on brain activity alterations during working memory tasks. No study to date has compared brain network alterations in the working memory state between MCI patients and normal control subjects. Therefore, using the index of regional homogeneity (ReHo, we explored brain network impairments in MCI patients during a working memory task relative to the resting state, and identified frequency-dependent effects in separate frequency bands.Our results indicate that, in MCI patients, ReHo is altered in the posterior cingulate cortex in the slow-3 band (0.073–0.198 Hz, and in the bottom of the right occipital lobe and part of the right cerebellum, the right thalamus, a diffusing region in the bilateral prefrontal cortex, the left and right parietal-occipital regions, and the right angular gyrus in the slow-5 band (0.01–0.027 Hz. Furthermore, in normal controls, the value of ReHo in clusters belonging to the default mode network decreased, while the value of ReHo in clusters belonging to the attentional network increased during the task state. However, this pattern was reversed in MCI patients, and was associated with decreased working memory performance. In addition, we identified altered functional connectivity of the abovementioned regions with other parts of the brain in MCI patients.This is the first study to compare frequency-dependent alterations of ReHo in MCI patients between resting and working memory states. The results provide a new perspective regarding the neural mechanisms of working memory deficits in MCI patients, and extend our knowledge of altered brain patterns in resting and task-evoked states.

  3. Characterization and modelling of fluid flows in fissured and fractured media. relation with hydrothermal alterations and paleo-stress quantification; Caracterisation et modelisation des ecoulements fluides en milieu fissure. relation avec les alterations hydrothermales et quantification des paleocontraintes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sausse, J.

    1998-10-15

    In all materials (rocks, concretes, ceramics,...), the presence of fractures at different scales implies high permeability and often oriented fluid flows. These fluid circulations in fractures induce more or less intense fluid-rock interactions with mineral crystallisation and/or dissolution. These phenomena directly depend on the nature of the fluids and the rocks, the physical and chemical properties of the media and the rate of fluid renewal (permeabilities). Usually, the development of such alterations leads to a massive sealing of the fractures (vein alterations) and of the fissures (fluid inclusion planes and microcracks, pervasive alteration). Therefore, their study brings us precious indications for the understanding of the mechanisms of fluid migrations in fossil systems. A geometrical study of the fracture systems at micro or macroscopic scales, based on the spatial distribution of sealing minerals, is applied to two different granites: the Soultz-sous-Foret granite (Bas-Rhin, France) and the Brezouard granite (Vosges, France). At the macroscopic scale, a new graphical method is proposed in order to study drilling data (Soultz granite). It allows to identify the presence of three independent mineral associations (quartz - illite, calcite-chlorite and hematite) in independent fracture systems characterised by a specific 3D geometry and hydraulic properties. These three types of vein alteration correspond to distinct and non contemporaneous fluid percolations. At the microscopic scale, the reconstitution of crack opening - fluid percolation - crack sealing stages is delicate. However, the study of their geometrical characteristics (orientations, radius, volume densities) and thereby the quantification of their porosities, exchange surfaces and permeabilities, allow to identify their respective roles in the fluid propagation. These microstructures, which are very numerous in granites, imply high but variable matrix permeabilities. This has been confirmed by

  4. Altered Neural Activity during Irony Comprehension in Unaffected First-Degree Relatives of Schizophrenia Patients—An fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert Herold

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Irony is a type of figurative language in which the literal meaning of the expression is the opposite of what the speaker intends to communicate. Even though schizophrenic patients are known as typically impaired in irony comprehension and in the underlying neural functions, to date no one has explored the neural correlates of figurative language comprehension in first-degree relatives of schizophrenic patients. In the present study, we examined the neural correlates of irony understanding in schizophrenic patients and in unaffected first-degree relatives of patients compared to healthy adults with functional MRI. Our aim was to investigate if possible alterations of the neural circuits supporting irony comprehension in first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia would fulfill the familiality criterion of an endophenotype. We examined 12 schizophrenic patients, 12 first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients and 12 healthy controls with functional MRI while they were performing irony and control tasks. Different phases of irony processing were examined, such as context processing and ironic statement comprehension. Patients had significantly more difficulty understanding irony than controls or relatives. Patients also showed markedly different neural activation pattern compared to controls in both stages of irony processing. Although no significant differences were found in the performance of the irony tasks between the control group and the relative group, during the fMRI analysis, the relatives showed stronger brain activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during the context processing phase of irony tasks than the control group. However, the controls demonstrated higher activations in the left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and in the right inferior frontal gyrus during the ironic statement phase of the irony tasks than the relative group. Our results show that despite good task performance, first-degree relatives of

  5. In Utero Exposure to Arsenic Alters Lung Development and Genes Related to Immune and Mucociliary Function in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsey, Kathryn A.; Bosco, Anthony; McKenna, Katherine L.; Carter, Kim W.; Elliot, John G.; Berry, Luke J.; Sly, Peter D.; Larcombe, Alexander N.; Zosky, Graeme R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Exposure to arsenic via drinking water is a global environmental health problem. In utero exposure to arsenic via drinking water increases the risk of lower respiratory tract infections during infancy and mortality from bronchiectasis in early adulthood. Objectives: We aimed to investigate how arsenic exposure in early life alters lung development and pathways involved in innate immunity. Methods: Pregnant BALB/c, C57BL/6, and C3H/HeARC mice were exposed to 0 (control) or 100 ?g/L...

  6. Developmental trends in adaptive memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Howe, Mark L; Smeets, Tom; Garner, Sarah R

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that memory is enhanced when information is processed for fitness-related purposes. The main objective of the current experiments was to test developmental trends in the evolutionary foundation of memory using different types of stimuli and paradigms. In Experiment 1, 11-year-olds and adults were presented with neutral, negative, and survival-related DRM word lists. We found a memory benefit for the survival-related words and showed that false memories were more likely to be elicited for the survival-related word lists than for the other lists. Experiment 2 examined developmental trends in the survival processing paradigm using neutral, negative, and survival-related pictures. A survival processing advantage was found for survival-related pictures in adults, for negative pictures in 11/12-year-olds, and for neutral pictures in 7/8-year-olds. In Experiment 3, 11/12-year-olds and adults had to imagine the standard survival scenario or an adapted survival condition (or pleasantness condition) that was designed to reduce the possibilities for elaborative processing. We found superior memory retention for both survival scenarios in children and adults. Collectively, our results evidently show that the survival processing advantage is developmentally invariant and that certain proximate mechanisms (elaboration and distinctiveness) underlie these developmental trends.

  7. Expression of the Blood-Group-Related Gene B4galnt2 Alters Susceptibility to Salmonella Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Rausch

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Glycans play important roles in host-microbe interactions. Tissue-specific expression patterns of the blood group glycosyltransferase β-1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 (B4galnt2 are variable in wild mouse populations, and loss of B4galnt2 expression is associated with altered intestinal microbiota. We hypothesized that variation in B4galnt2 expression alters susceptibility to intestinal pathogens. To test this, we challenged mice genetically engineered to express different B4galnt2 tissue-specific patterns with a Salmonella Typhimurium infection model. We found B4galnt2 intestinal expression was strongly associated with bacterial community composition and increased Salmonella susceptibility as evidenced by increased intestinal inflammatory cytokines and infiltrating immune cells. Fecal transfer experiments demonstrated a crucial role of the B4galnt2-dependent microbiota in conferring susceptibility to intestinal inflammation, while epithelial B4galnt2 expression facilitated epithelial invasion of S. Typhimurium. These data support a critical role for B4galnt2 in gastrointestinal infections. We speculate that B4galnt2-specific differences in host susceptibility to intestinal pathogens underlie the strong signatures of balancing selection observed at the B4galnt2 locus in wild mouse populations.

  8. Developmental evolution: this side of paradise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, A; McGonnell, I

    1999-09-09

    It has long been appreciated that the evolution of snakes involved the loss of limbs and axis elongation, but their developmental basis has been obscure. It has now been shown that alterations in the deployment of Hox genes and an early block in the formation of hindlimb primordia underpin these modifications.

  9. Effects of Exercise Intervention on Event-Related Potential and Task Performance Indices of Attention Networks in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Liang; Wang, Chun-Hao; Tseng, Yu-Ting

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated whether 10-week soccer training can benefit the inhibitory control and neuroelectric indices in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Fifty-one children were divided into groups of typically developing (TD, n = 21), DCD-training (n = 16), and DCD non-training (n=14) individuals using the for Children test,…

  10. Predicting Mental Health among Mothers of School-Aged Children with Developmental Disabilities: The Relative Contribution of Child, Maternal and Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke-Taylor, Helen; Pallant, Julie F.; Law, Mary; Howie, Linsey

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Many mothers of children with developmental disabilities are known to experience high levels of stress, and compromised mental health. Research is crucial to better understand and assist mothers with compromised mental health, and ultimately better service families raising and supporting a child with a disability. Method: Data were collected…

  11. Salivary Alpha Amylase and Cortisol Levels in Children with Global Developmental Delay and Their Relation with the Expectation of Dental Care and Behavior during the Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Marcio Jose Possari; Bernabe, Daniel Galera; Nakamune, Ana Claudia de Melo Stevanato; Perri, Silvia Helena Venturoli; de Aguiar, Sandra Maria Herondina Coelho Avila; de Oliveira, Sandra Helena Penha

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol levels in children with Global developmental delay (GDD) before and after dental treatment and its association with the children's behavior during treatment. The morning salivary cortisol levels and activity of sAA of 33 children with GDD were evaluated before and after…

  12. Abnormal morphology of the penis in male rats exposed neonatally to diethylstilbestrol is associated with altered profile of estrogen receptor-alpha protein, but not of androgen receptor protein: a developmental and immunocytochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, H O; Braden, T D; Williams, C S; Dalvi, P; Mansour, M M; Mansour, M; Williams, J W; Bartol, F F; Wiley, A A; Birch, L; Prins, G S

    2004-05-01

    Objectives of the study were to determine developmental changes in morphology and expression of androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor (ER)alpha in the body of the rat penis exposed neonatally to diethylstilbestrol (DES). Male pups received DES at a dose of 10 microg per rat on alternate days from Postnatal Day 2 to Postnatal Day 12. Controls received olive oil vehicle only. Tissue samples were collected on Days 18 (prepuberty), 41 (puberty), and 120 (adult) of age. DES-induced abnormalities were evident at 18 days of age and included smaller, lighter, and thinner penis, loss of cavernous spaces and associated smooth muscle cells, and increased deposition of fat cells in the corpora cavernosa penis. Fat cells virtually filled the entire area of the corpora cavernosa at puberty and adulthood. Plasma testosterone (T) was reduced to an undetectable level, while LH was unaltered in all treated groups. AR-positive cells were ubiquitous and their profile (incidence and staining intensity) did not differ between control and treated rats of the respective age groups. Conversely, ERalpha-positive cells were limited to the stroma of corpus spongiosus in all age groups of both control and treated rats, but the expression in treated rats at 18 days was up-regulated in stromal cells of corpora cavernosa, coincident with the presence of morphological abnormalities. Hence, this study reports for the first time DES-induced developmental, morphological abnormalities in the body of the penis and suggests that these abnormalities may have resulted from decreased T and/or overexpression of ERalpha.

  13. Developmental model of static allometry in holometabolous insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingleton, Alexander W; Mirth, Christen K; Bates, Peter W

    2008-08-22

    The regulation of static allometry is a fundamental developmental process, yet little is understood of the mechanisms that ensure organs scale correctly across a range of body sizes. Recent studies have revealed the physiological and genetic mechanisms that control nutritional variation in the final body and organ size in holometabolous insects. The implications these mechanisms have for the regulation of static allometry is, however, unknown. Here, we formulate a mathematical description of the nutritional control of body and organ size in Drosophila melanogaster and use it to explore how the developmental regulators of size influence static allometry. The model suggests that the slope of nutritional static allometries, the 'allometric coefficient', is controlled by the relative sensitivity of an organ's growth rate to changes in nutrition, and the relative duration of development when nutrition affects an organ's final size. The model also predicts that, in order to maintain correct scaling, sensitivity to changes in nutrition varies among organs, and within organs through time. We present experimental data that support these predictions. By revealing how specific physiological and genetic regulators of size influence allometry, the model serves to identify developmental processes upon which evolution may act to alter scaling relationships.

  14. Desiccation stress induces developmental heterochrony in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stressful environments are known to perturb developmental patterns in insects. In the purview of desiccation as astressor, relatively little is known about the developmental consequences linked with desiccation tolerance. In thisstudy, we have particularly focused on the exploration of the temporal profile of postembryonic ...

  15. Prevalence and sociodemographic determinants of developmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birth order and household size also had significant association with delay in various domains. There was no significant association between socioeconomic class and developmental delay in any of the domains. Conclusion: The study showed that developmental delay was relatively common among under-five children in ...

  16. A Free-Choice High-Fat High-Sugar Diet Alters Day-Night Per2 Gene Expression in Reward-Related Brain Areas in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancas-Velazquez, Aurea Susana; Unmehopa, Unga A; Eggels, Leslie; Koekkoek, Laura; Kalsbeek, Andries; Mendoza, Jorge; la Fleur, Susanne E

    2018-01-01

    Under normal light-dark conditions, nocturnal rodents consume most of their food during the dark period. Diets high in fat and sugar, however, may affect the day-night feeding rhythm resulting in a higher light phase intake. In vitro and in vivo studies showed that nutrients affect clock-gene expression. We therefore hypothesized that overconsuming fat and sugar alters clock-gene expression in brain structures important for feeding behavior. We determined the effects of a free-choice high-fat high-sugar (fcHFHS) diet on clock-gene expression in rat brain areas related to feeding and reward and compared them with chow-fed rats. Consuming a fcHFHS diet for 6 weeks disrupted day-night differences in Per2 mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and lateral hypothalamus but not in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, habenula, and ventral tegmental area. Furthermore, short-term sugar drinking, but not fat feeding, upregulates Per2 mRNA expression in the NAc. The disruptions in day-night differences in NAc Per2 gene expression were not accompanied by altered day-night differences in the mRNA expression of peptides related to food intake. We conclude that the fcHFHS diet and acute sugar drinking affect Per2 gene expression in areas involved in food reward; however, this is not sufficient to alter the day-night pattern of food intake.

  17. Regulation of tumour related genes by dynamic epigenetic alteration at enhancer regions in gastric epithelial cells infected by Epstein-Barr virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Atsushi; Funata, Sayaka; Matsusaka, Keisuke; Namba, Hiroe; Fukuyo, Masaki; Rahmutulla, Bahityar; Oshima, Motohiko; Iwama, Atsushi; Fukayama, Masashi; Kaneda, Atsushi

    2017-08-11

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is associated with tumours such as Burkitt lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and gastric cancer. We previously showed that EBV(+) gastric cancer presents an extremely high-methylation epigenotype and this aberrant DNA methylation causes silencing of multiple tumour suppressor genes. However, the mechanisms that drive EBV infection-mediated tumorigenesis, including other epigenomic alteration, remain unclear. We analysed epigenetic alterations induced by EBV infection especially at enhancer regions, to elucidate their contribution to tumorigenesis. We performed ChIP sequencing on H3K4me3, H3K4me1, H3K27ac, H3K27me3, and H3K9me3 in gastric epithelial cells infected or not with EBV. We showed that repressive marks were redistributed after EBV infection, resulting in aberrant enhancer activation and repression. Enhancer dysfunction led to the activation of pathways related to cancer hallmarks (e.g., resisting cell death, disrupting cellular energetics, inducing invasion, evading growth suppressors, sustaining proliferative signalling, angiogenesis, and tumour-promoting inflammation) and inactivation of tumour suppressive pathways. Deregulation of cancer-related genes in EBV-infected gastric epithelial cells was also observed in clinical EBV(+) gastric cancer specimens. Our analysis showed that epigenetic alteration associated with EBV-infection may contribute to tumorigenesis through enhancer activation and repression.

  18. Developmental analytic view on narcissism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Matjan Štuhec

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Narcissistic pathology is connected to the pathology of the self. This article makes an overview of definitions of developmental analytic theories and stops with Kohut, Kernberg, Masterson, Auerbach and Mollon. The self is understood as a separate personality structure and has its own developmental line. Narcissism is a personality disorder that has its roots in preodipal developmental phases, mostly in the practicing and rapprochement subphase and in the oedipal phase as well. Recent research shows that the oedipal phase and the relation between the mother, the child's father (or her partner in general and the child is crucial for the maintenance of the pathological narcissism. Mothers who do not believe in a satisfying relationship with a man in general, keep the child in the dyadic position and do not support the development of the child's own identity.

  19. Developmental neuroimaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehaene-Lambertz, G. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot (CEA/DSV/DRM), INSERM U562, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2006-07-01

    Cognitive capacities, such as language, mathematics, music, etc... are highly developed in humans as compared to animals. Numerous studies have found precursors of these capacities in infants: For example, infants are able to discriminate sentences in different languages (Mehler et al., 1988), distinguish sets of objects based on their numerosity (Feigenson et al., 2002) or recognize known faces (Bushnell, 1982). These abilities are not very different from those of other animals. Monkeys are also able to discriminate two human languages (Ramus et al., 2000), two quantities of items (Hauser et al., 2002), or respond to particular faces (Parr et al., 2000). In a few years, however, children surpass these animals. To explain the development of the cognitive capacities of our species, our approach consists in studying the initial stages of cerebral organization during the first months of life in order to characterize the critical parameters that allow infants to take advantage of their environment to achieve the adults' cognitive sophistication. Thanks to the recent progress of brain imaging, it is now possible to examine cerebral functioning of the very young child in entire security. In our team, we used two complementary methods: event-related potentials (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (f MRI). ERPs, used since numerous years in infants, consist of the recording of the brain electrical activity consecutive to the presentation of a stimulus. By using a careful experimental design, it is possible to infer the succession of processing stages that the stimulus follows and to measure their latency (Dehaene-Lambertz and Dehaene, 1994; Gliga and Dehaene-Lambertz, 2006). High-density ERPs system allows also to record even small topographical differences between conditions and thus to infer that the underlying network s involved in the tested conditions are different. With this method, we have decomposed syllable perception in infants and underscore a

  20. Developmental neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehaene-Lambertz, G.

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive capacities, such as language, mathematics, music, etc... are highly developed in humans as compared to animals. Numerous studies have found precursors of these capacities in infants: For example, infants are able to discriminate sentences in different languages (Mehler et al., 1988), distinguish sets of objects based on their numerosity (Feigenson et al., 2002) or recognize known faces (Bushnell, 1982). These abilities are not very different from those of other animals. Monkeys are also able to discriminate two human languages (Ramus et al., 2000), two quantities of items (Hauser et al., 2002), or respond to particular faces (Parr et al., 2000). In a few years, however, children surpass these animals. To explain the development of the cognitive capacities of our species, our approach consists in studying the initial stages of cerebral organization during the first months of life in order to characterize the critical parameters that allow infants to take advantage of their environment to achieve the adults' cognitive sophistication. Thanks to the recent progress of brain imaging, it is now possible to examine cerebral functioning of the very young child in entire security. In our team, we used two complementary methods: event-related potentials (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (f MRI). ERPs, used since numerous years in infants, consist of the recording of the brain electrical activity consecutive to the presentation of a stimulus. By using a careful experimental design, it is possible to infer the succession of processing stages that the stimulus follows and to measure their latency (Dehaene-Lambertz and Dehaene, 1994; Gliga and Dehaene-Lambertz, 2006). High-density ERPs system allows also to record even small topographical differences between conditions and thus to infer that the underlying network s involved in the tested conditions are different. With this method, we have decomposed syllable perception in infants and underscore a

  1. Developmental programming of happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Louis A; Fortier, Paz; Lahat, Ayelet; Tang, Alva; Mathewson, Karen J; Saigal, Saroj; Boyle, Michael H; Van Lieshout, Ryan J

    2017-09-01

    Being born at an extremely low birth weight (ELBW; programming hypotheses. Interfacing prenatal programming and differential susceptibility hypotheses, we tested whether individuals with ELBW in different childhood rearing environments showed different attention biases to positive and negative facial emotions in adulthood. Using the oldest known, prospectively followed cohort of ELBW survivors, we found that relative to normal birth weight controls (NBW; >2,500 grams), ELBW survivors displayed the highest and lowest attention bias to happy faces at age 30-35, depending on whether their total family income at age 8 was relatively low (environmental match) or high (environmental mismatch), respectively. This bias to happy faces was associated with a reduced likelihood of emotional problems. Findings suggest that differential susceptibility to positive emotions may be prenatally programmed, with effects lasting into adulthood. We discuss implications for integrating prenatal programming and differential susceptibility hypotheses, and the developmental origins of postnatal plasticity and resilience. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Carbohydrate metabolism in ripening banana and its alteration on gamma irradiation in relation to delay in ripening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surendranathan, K.K.; Nair, P.M.

    1980-01-01

    Ripening, of climacteric class of fruits like banana, is accompanied with an upsurge in respiration, indicating a change in metabolism from hexose monophosphate (HMP) shunt pathway to glycolytic pathway. The key enzyme in glycolytic pathway, namely, phosphofructokinase, is activated and this activation paralleled with the increase in respiration rate. The enhancement in the activity of enzymes of glycolytic and Kreb's cycle help the fruit to assimilate energy as ATP produced from the breakdown and oxidation of storage starch. The demand for energy supply is great for the different ripening processes. Gamma irradiation of the fruit at the preclimacteric stage delayed the onset of climacteric to about 7 to 8 days, thereby extending the ripening to 15-20 days. This delay was brought about by the alterations in the metabolism of carbohydrate. There is a predominance of HMP pathway in irradiated banana. This along with the activation of phosphatases like FDPase and F-6-Pase restricted the entrance of sugar phosphate esters to Kreb's cycle for oxidation. The functioning of Kreb's cycle is also affected by the inhibition of succinic dehydrogenase. But activation of glyoxylate shunt pathway helped to maintain the levels of Kreb's cycle intermediates, like citrate and malate, although energy production is reduced. Finally the activation of gluconeogenic pathway helps in channelling the metabolites back to sugars. All these metabolic changes cause a considerable depletion in the production of ATP. (auth.)

  3. Evidence of early alterations in adipose tissue biology and function and its association with obesity-related inflammation and insulin resistance in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, Kathrin; Rockstroh, Denise; Wagner, Isabel V; Weise, Sebastian; Tauscher, Roy; Schwartze, Julian T; Löffler, Dennis; Bühligen, Ulf; Wojan, Magdalena; Till, Holger; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Kiess, Wieland; Blüher, Matthias; Körner, Antje

    2015-04-01

    Accumulation of fat mass in obesity may result from hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia and is frequently associated with adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction in adults. Here we assessed early alterations in AT biology and function by comprehensive experimental and clinical characterization of 171 AT samples from lean and obese children aged 0 to 18 years. We show an increase in adipocyte size and number in obese compared with lean children beginning in early childhood. These alterations in AT composition in obese children were accompanied by decreased basal lipolytic activity and significantly enhanced stromal vascular cell proliferation in vitro, potentially underlying the hypertrophy and hyperplasia seen in obese children, respectively. Furthermore, macrophage infiltration, including the formation of crown-like structures, was increased in AT of obese children from 6 years on and was associated with higher hs-CRP serum levels. Clinically, adipocyte hypertrophy was not only associated with leptin serum levels but was highly and independently correlated with HOMA-IR as a marker of insulin resistance in children. In summary, we show that adipocyte hypertrophy is linked to increased inflammation in AT in obese children, thereby providing evidence that obesity-associated AT dysfunction develops in early childhood and is related to insulin resistance. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  4. Lead Exposure Impairs Hippocampus Related Learning and Memory by Altering Synaptic Plasticity and Morphology During Juvenile Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Guan, Rui-Li; Liu, Ming-Chao; Shen, Xue-Feng; Chen, Jing Yuan; Zhao, Ming-Gao; Luo, Wen-Jing

    2016-08-01

    Lead (Pb) is an environmental neurotoxic metal. Pb exposure may cause neurobehavioral changes, such as learning and memory impairment, and adolescence violence among children. Previous animal models have largely focused on the effects of Pb exposure during early development (from gestation to lactation period) on neurobehavior. In this study, we exposed Sprague-Dawley rats during the juvenile stage (from juvenile period to adult period). We investigated the synaptic function and structural changes and the relationship of these changes to neurobehavioral deficits in adult rats. Our results showed that juvenile Pb exposure caused fear-conditioned memory impairment and anxiety-like behavior, but locomotion and pain behavior were indistinguishable from the controls. Electrophysiological studies showed that long-term potentiation induction was affected in Pb-exposed rats, and this was probably due to excitatory synaptic transmission impairment in Pb-exposed rats. We found that NMDA and AMPA receptor-mediated current was inhibited, whereas the GABA synaptic transmission was normal in Pb-exposed rats. NR2A and phosphorylated GluR1 expression decreased. Moreover, morphological studies showed that density of dendritic spines declined by about 20 % in the Pb-treated group. The spine showed an immature form in Pb-exposed rats, as indicated by spine size measurements. However, the length and arborization of dendrites were unchanged. Our results suggested that juvenile Pb exposure in rats is associated with alterations in the glutamate receptor, which caused synaptic functional and morphological changes in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, thereby leading to behavioral changes.

  5. Alterations of neurotransmitter norepinephrine and gamma-aminobutyric acid correlate with murine behavioral perturbations related to bisphenol A exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogi, Hiroshi; Itoh, Kyoko; Ikegaya, Hiroshi; Fushiki, Shinji

    2015-09-01

    Humans are commonly exposed to endocrine-disrupting chemical bisphenol A (BPA), giving rise to concern over the psychobehavioral effects of BPA. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of prenatal and lactational BPA exposure on neurotransmitters, including norepinephrine (NE), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate (Glu), and to assess the association with behavioral phenotypes. C57BL/6J mice were orally administered with BPA (500 μg/bwkg/day) or vehicle daily from embryonic day 0 to postnatal week 3 (P3W), through their dams. The IntelliCage behavioral experiments were conducted from P11W to P15W. At around P14-16W, NE, GABA and Glu levels in nine brain regions were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Furthermore, the associations between the neurotransmitter levels and the behavioral indices were statistically analyzed. In females exposed to BPA, the GABA and Glu levels in almost all regions, and the NE levels in the cortex, hypothalamus and thalamus were higher than those in the controls. In males exposed to BPA, the GABA levels in the amygdala and hippocampus showed lower values, while Glu levels were higher in some regions, compared with the controls. In regard to the associations, the number of "diurnal corner visits without drinking" was correlated with the NE levels in the cortex and thalamus in females. The "nocturnal corner visit duration without drinking" was correlated with the GABA level in the hippocampus in males. These results suggest that prenatal and lactational exposure to low doses of BPA might modulate the NE, GABA and Glu systems, resulting in behavioral alterations. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A paleomagnetic and stable isotope study of the pluton at Rio Hondo near Questa, New Mexico: Implications for CRM related to hydrothermal alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagstrum, J.T.; Johnson, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic data combined with stable isotope data from the middle Tertiary pluton along the Rio Hondo in northern New Mexico suggest that its magnetic remanence has both thermal (TRM) and high-temperature chemical (CRM) components. Oxygen isotope temperatures indicate that magnetite associated with the more rapidly cooled higher levels of the pluton, and with mafic inclusions and cogenetic rhyolitic dikes sampled at lower levels of exposure, ceased subsolidus recrystallization and isotopic exchange above its Curie temperature (580 0 C) in the presence of a magmatic fluid. Continued cooling imparted a TRM to these portions of the pluton. The more slowly cooled granodiorite at lower levels has quartz-magnetite isotopic temperatures that are below the Curie temperature of magnetite implying that its magnetization is high-temperature CRM. Sub-Curie isotopic temperatures for other granitic plutons in the western U.S.A. suggest that CRM may be commonly derived from subsolidus interactions between magnetite and magmatic fluids in plutonic rocks. A meteoric-hydrothermal system generated by the cooling Rio Hondo pluton, and not by younger adjacent intrusions, resulted in limited alteration along zones of high permeability near the southern margin of the Rio Hondo pluton, and in more prevasive alteration of the pluton to the north. The meteoric-hydrothermal alteration occurred at relatively high temperatures (>350 0 C) and, with the exception of local chloritization, caused little visible alteration of the rocks. The isotopic ratios indicate that little of the magnetite could have grown from or exchanged with a meteoric-hydrothermal fluid. (orig.)

  7. Paleomagnetic and stable isotope study of the pluton at Rio Hondo near Questa, New Mexico: Implications for CRM related to hydrothermal alteration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagstrum, J T; Johnson, C M

    1986-06-01

    Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic data combined with stable isotope data from the middle Tertiary pluton along the Rio Hondo in northern New Mexico suggest that its magnetic remanence has both thermal (TRM) and high-temperature chemical (CRM) components. Oxygen isotope temperatures indicate that magnetite associated with the more rapidly cooled higher levels of the pluton, and with mafic inclusions and cogenetic rhyolitic dikes sampled at lower levels of exposure, ceased subsolidus recrystallization and isotopic exchange above its Curie temperature (580/sup 0/C) in the presence of a magmatic fluid. Continued cooling imparted a TRM to these portions of the pluton. The more slowly cooled granodiorite at lower levels has quartz-magnetite isotopic temperatures that are below the Curie temperature of magnetite implying that its magnetization is high-temperature CRM. Sub-Curie isotopic temperatures for other granitic plutons in the western U.S.A. suggest that CRM may be commonly derived from subsolidus interactions between magnetite and magmatic fluids in plutonic rocks. A meteoric-hydrothermal system generated by the cooling Rio Hondo pluton, and not by younger adjacent intrusions, resulted in limited alteration along zones of high permeability near the southern margin of the Rio Hondo pluton, and in more prevasive alteration of the pluton to the north. The meteoric-hydrothermal alteration occurred at relatively high temperatures (>350/sup 0/C) and, with the exception of local chloritization, caused little visible alteration of the rocks. The isotopic ratios indicate that little of the magnetite could have grown from or exchanged with a meteoric-hydrothermal fluid.

  8. Altered structural connectivity of pain-related brain network in burning mouth syndrome-investigation by graph analysis of probabilistic tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Akihiko; Shizukuishi, Takashi; Kikuta, Junko; Yamada, Haruyasu; Watanabe, Yusuke; Imamura, Yoshiki; Shinozaki, Takahiro; Dezawa, Ko; Haradome, Hiroki; Abe, Osamu

    2017-05-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic intraoral pain syndrome featuring idiopathic oral pain and burning discomfort despite clinically normal oral mucosa. The etiology of chronic pain syndrome is unclear, but preliminary neuroimaging research has suggested the alteration of volume, metabolism, blood flow, and diffusion at multiple brain regions. According to the neuromatrix theory of Melzack, pain sense is generated in the brain by the network of multiple pain-related brain regions. Therefore, the alteration of pain-related network is also assumed as an etiology of chronic pain. In this study, we investigated the brain network of BMS brain by using probabilistic tractography and graph analysis. Fourteen BMS patients and 14 age-matched healthy controls underwent 1.5T MRI. Structural connectivity was calculated in 83 anatomically defined regions with probabilistic tractography of 60-axis diffusion tensor imaging and 3D T1-weighted imaging. Graph theory network analysis was used to evaluate the brain network at local and global connectivity. In BMS brain, a significant difference of local brain connectivity was recognized at the bilateral rostral anterior cingulate cortex, right medial orbitofrontal cortex, and left pars orbitalis which belong to the medial pain system; however, no significant difference was recognized at the lateral system including the somatic sensory cortex. A strengthened connection of the anterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex with the basal ganglia, thalamus, and brain stem was revealed. Structural brain network analysis revealed the alteration of the medial system of the pain-related brain network in chronic pain syndrome.

  9. Age-Related Alterations in Signaling Pathways in Articular Chondrocytes: Implications for the Pathogenesis and Progression of Osteoarthritis - A Mini-Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kraan, Peter; Matta, Csaba; Mobasheri, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Musculoskeletal conditions are a major burden on individuals, healthcare systems, and social care systems throughout the world, with indirect costs having a predominant economic impact. Aging is a major contributing factor to the development and progression of arthritic and musculoskeletal diseases. Indeed, aging and inflammation (often referred to as 'inflammaging') are critical risk factors for the development of osteoarthritis (OA), which is one of the most common forms of joint disease. The term 'chondrosenescence' has recently been introduced to define the age-dependent deterioration of chondrocyte function and how it undermines cartilage function in OA. An important component of chondrosenescence is the age-related deregulation of subcellular signaling pathways in chondrocytes. This mini-review discusses the role of age-related alterations in chondrocyte signaling pathways. We focus our attention on two major areas: age-dependent alterations in transforming growth factor-β signaling and changes in protein kinase and phosphoprotein phosphatase activities in aging chondrocytes. A better understanding of the basic signaling mechanisms underlying aging in chondrocytes is likely to facilitate the development of new therapeutic and preventive strategies for OA and a range of other age-related osteoarticular disorders. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Peripartal alterations of calcitonin gene-related peptide and minerals in dairy cows affected by milk fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebeli, Qendrim; Beitz, Donald C; Bradford, Barry J; Dunn, Suzanna M; Ametaj, Burim N

    2013-03-01

    Milk fever, a metabolic disease of dairy cattle, is associated with perturbations of calcium homeostasis, the pathogenesis of which is not yet completely understood. The aim of this study was to investigate plasma concentrations of calcitonin gene-related peptide and selected minerals and metabolites in periparturient cows with and without milk fever. Plasma concentrations of calcitonin gene-related peptide, as well as calcium, phosphate, magnesium, iron, glucose, lactate, and cortisol, were determined in multiple plasma samples from Jersey cows with and without spontaneous milk fever. Cows affected by milk fever (n = 5) had lower concentrations of calcitonin gene-related peptide (P = .038) and inorganic phosphate (P cows tended to have lower calcium concentrations (P = .071). Magnesium, iron, lactate, glucose, and cortisol concentrations were comparable between both groups of cows (P > .10). Around the day of calving, plasma concentrations of lactate, glucose, and cortisol increased and the concentration of iron decreased in all cows (P ≤ .01). Despite the limited number of cows evaluated, this report is the first to indicate lowered concentrations of calcitonin gene-related peptide as part of the metabolic changes during milk fever in cows. Further work with a larger cohort of animals is warranted to understand the precise role of calcitonin gene-related peptide and the potential associations with disturbances in plasma minerals typically observed during milk fever. © 2013 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  11. Partial sleep deprivation does not alter processes involved in semantic word priming: event-related potential evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Paniz; Muller-Gass, Alexandra; Campbell, Kenneth

    2015-03-01

    Sleep deprivation has generally been observed to have a detrimental effect on tasks that require sustained attention for successful performance. It might however be possible to counter these effects by altering cognitive strategies. A recent semantic word priming study indicated that subjects used an effortful predictive-expectancy search of semantic memory following normal sleep, but changed to an automatic, effortless strategy following total sleep deprivation. Partial sleep deprivation occurs much more frequently than total sleep deprivation. The present study therefore employed a similar priming task following either 4h of sleep or following normal sleep. The purpose of the study was to determine whether partial sleep deprivation would also lead to a shift in cognitive strategy to compensate for an inability to sustain attention and effortful processing necessary for using the predicative expectancy strategy. Sixteen subjects were presented with word pairs, a prime and a target that were either strongly semantically associated (cat...dog), weakly associated (cow...barn) or not associated (apple...road). The subject's task was to determine if the target word was semantically associated to the prime. A strong priming effect was observed in both conditions. RTs were slower, accuracy lower, and N400 larger to unassociated targets, independent of the amount of sleep. The overall N400 did not differ as a function of sleep. The scalp distribution of the N400 was also similar following both normal sleep and sleep loss. There was thus little evidence of a difference in the processing of the target stimulus as a function of the amount sleep. Similarly, ERPs in the period between the onset of the prime and the subsequent target also did not differ between the normal sleep and sleep loss conditions. In contrast to total sleep deprivation, subjects therefore appeared to use a common predictive expectancy strategy in both conditions. This strategy does however require an

  12. Developmental programming: the role of growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbauer, Anita M

    2015-01-01

    Developmental programming of the fetus has consequences for physiologic responses in the offspring as an adult and, more recently, is implicated in the expression of altered phenotypes of future generations. Some phenotypes, such as fertility, bone strength, and adiposity are highly relevant to food animal production and in utero factors that impinge on those traits are vital to understand. A key systemic regulatory hormone is growth hormone (GH), which has a developmental role in virtually all tissues and organs. This review catalogs the impact of GH on tissue programming and how perturbations early in development influence GH function.

  13. Developmental plasticity: re-conceiving the genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Sonia E

    2017-10-06

    In recent decades, the phenotype of an organism (i.e. its traits and behaviour) has been studied as the outcome of a developmental 'programme' coded in its genotype. This deterministic view is implicit in the Modern Synthesis approach to adaptive evolution as a sorting process among genetic variants. Studies of developmental pathways have revealed that genotypes are in fact differently expressed depending on environmental conditions. Accordingly, the genotype can be understood as a repertoire of potential developmental outcomes or norm of reaction. Reconceiving the genotype as an environmental response repertoire rather than a fixed developmental programme leads to three critical evolutionary insights. First, plastic responses to specific conditions often comprise functionally appropriate trait adjustments, resulting in an individual-level, developmental mode of adaptive variation. Second, because genotypes are differently expressed depending on the environment, the genetic diversity available to natural selection is itself environmentally contingent. Finally, environmental influences on development can extend across multiple generations via cytoplasmic and epigenetic factors transmitted to progeny individuals, altering their responses to their own, immediate environmental conditions and, in some cases, leading to inherited but non-genetic adaptations. Together, these insights suggest a more nuanced understanding of the genotype and its evolutionary role, as well as a shift in research focus to investigating the complex developmental interactions among genotypes, environments and previous environments.

  14. Unified Common Fixed Point Theorems for a Hybrid Pair of Mappings via an Implicit Relation Involving Altering Distance Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunny Chauhan

    2014-01-01

    implicit relation, we prove a new coincidence and common fixed point theorem for a hybrid pair of occasionally coincidentally idempotent mappings in a metric space employing the common limit range property. Our main result improves and generalizes a host of previously known results. We also utilize suitable illustrative examples to substantiate the realized improvements in our results.

  15. Dynamics of spatial heterogeneity of stomatal closure in Tradescantia virginiana altered by growth at high relative air humidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rezaei Nejad, A.; Harbinson, J.; Meeteren, van U.

    2006-01-01

    The spatial heterogeneity of stomatal closure in response to rapid desiccation of excised well-watered Tradescantia virginiana leaves grown at moderate (55%) or high (90%) relative air humidity (RH) was studied using a chlorophyll fluorescence imaging system under non-photorespiratory conditions.

  16. White matter alterations related to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and COMT val158met polymorphism: children with valine homozygote attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder have altered white matter connectivity in the right cingulum (cingulate gyrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabukcu Basay B

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Burge Kabukcu Basay,1 Ahmet Buber,1 Omer Basay,1 Huseyin Alacam,2 Onder Ozturk,1 Serkan Suren,3 Ozlem Izci Ay,4 Cengizhan Acikel,5 Kadir Agladioglu,6 Mehmet Emin Erdal,4 Eyup Sabri Ercan,7 Hasan Herken21Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Department, Pamukkale University Medical Faculty, Denizli, 2Psychiatry Department, Pamukkale University Medical Faculty, Denizli, 3Medical Park Samsun Hospital, Samsun, 4Medical Biology and Genetics Department, Mersin University Medical Faculty, Mersin, 5Biostatistics Department, GATA (GMMA, Ankara, 6Radiology Department, Pamukkale University Medical Faculty, Denizli, 7Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Department, Ege University Medical Faculty, Izmir, TurkeyIntroduction: In this article, the COMT gene val158met polymorphism and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD-related differences in diffusion-tensor-imaging-measured white matter (WM structure in children with ADHD and controls were investigated.Patients and methods: A total of 71 children diagnosed with ADHD and 24 controls aged 8–15 years were recruited. Using diffusion tensor imaging, COMT polymorphism and ADHD-related WM alterations were investigated, and any interaction effect between the COMT polymorphism and ADHD was also examined. The effects of age, sex, and estimated total IQ were controlled by multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA.Results: First, an interaction between the COMT val158met polymorphism and ADHD in the right (R cingulum (cingulate gyrus (CGC was found. According to this, valine (val homozygote ADHD-diagnosed children had significantly lower fractional anisotropy (FA and higher radial diffusivity (RD in the R-CGC than ADHD-diagnosed methionine (met carriers, and val homozygote controls had higher FA and lower RD in the R-CGC than val homozygote ADHD patients. Second, met carriers had higher FA and axial diffusivity in the left (L-uncinate fasciculus and lower RD in the L-posterior corona radiata and L

  17. Author's Response to Commentaries on: "An Interpretation of Part of Gilbert Gottlieb's Legacy: Developmental Systems Theory Contra Developmental Behavior Genetics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Peter C. M.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Peter Molenaar responds to three commentaries (this issue) on his article, "An Interpretation of Part of Gilbert Gottlieb's Legacy: Developmental Systems Theory Contra Developmental Behavior Genetics." He addresses aspects of relational developmental systems (RDS) mentioned and questions raised in each of the…

  18. Renal tissue alterations were size-dependent with smaller ones induced more effects and related with time exposure of gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarrar Bashir M

    2011-09-01

    interfering with the antioxidant defense mechanism and leading to reactive oxygen species (ROS generation which in turn may induce stress in the renal cells to undergo atrophy and necrosis. The produced alterations were size-dependent with smaller ones induced more affects and related with time exposure of GNPs.

  19. Does eating particular diets alter risk of age-related macular degeneration in users of the Age-Related Eye Disease Study supplements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Recent information suggests that the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) supplement, enhanced intake of omega-3 fatty acids, and diminishing dietary glycemic index (dGI) are protective against advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods: Dietary information was collected a...

  20. Altered reward processing in the orbitofrontal cortex and hippocampus in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, J; Knorr, U; Skimminge, A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Healthy first-degree relatives of patients with major depression (rMD+) show brain structure and functional response anomalies and have elevated risk for developing depression, a disorder linked to abnormal serotonergic neurotransmission and reward processing. METHOD: In a two...... intervention compared to placebo. Conversely, for positive outcomes, the left hippocampus showed attenuated response to high wins in the rMD+ compared to the rMD- group. The SSRI intervention reinforced the hippocampal response to large wins. A subsequent structural analysis revealed that the abnormal neural...... responses were not accounted for by changes in gray matter density in rMD+ individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Our study in first-degree relatives of depressive patients showed abnormal brain responses to aversive and rewarding outcomes in regions known to be dysfunctional in depression. We further confirmed...

  1. Acute nicotine fails to alter event-related potential or behavioral performance indices of auditory distraction in cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Verner J; Scherling, Carole S; Blais, Crystal M; Camarda, Jordan; Fisher, Derek J; Millar, Anne; McIntosh, Judy F

    2006-04-01

    Behavioral studies have shown that nicotine enhances performance in sustained attention tasks, but they have not shown convincing support for the effects of nicotine on tasks requiring selective attention or attentional control under conditions of distraction. We investigated distractibility in 14 smokers (7 females) with event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and behavioral performance measures extracted from an auditory discrimination task requiring a choice reaction time response to short- and long-duration tones, both with and without embedded deviants. Nicotine gum (4 mg), administered in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, failed to counter deviant-elicited behavioral distraction (i.e., slower reaction times and increased response errors), and it did not influence the distracter-elicited mismatch negativity, the P300a, or the reorienting negativity ERP components reflecting acoustic change detection, involuntary attentional switching, and attentional reorienting, respectively. Results are discussed in relation to a stimulus-filter model of smoking and in relation to future research directions.

  2. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy reveals altered hemispheric laterality in relation to schizotypy during verbal fluency task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Hiroaki; Ozeki, Yuji; Terada, Sumio; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2008-12-12

    Previous functional neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that patients with schizophrenia and those with schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) show reduced laterality, or relative right hemispheric dominance, during the performance of cognitive activation tasks; however, neuroimaging studies looking at non-clinical schizotypy have been few. We have recently reported that schizotypal traits at a non-clinical level are associated with right prefrontal dominance during a letter version of the verbal fluency task (VFT), but it is unknown whether such relationship between schizotypy and functional laterality would be observed across various cognitive tasks. Here we examined the relationships of schizotypal traits as measured by the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) in healthy adults with hemispheric lateralization of prefrontal activation during letter and category VFTs, using near-infrared spectroscopy. Thirty-two participants were divided into high- (n=16) and low- (n=16) SPQ groups by the median split of the total SPQ score. The high-SPQ group, but not low-SPQ group, showed significantly right-greater-than-left asymmetry of prefrontal activation during letter VFT, whereas such pronounced hemispheric asymmetry in relation to schizotypy was not found during category VFT. These results indicate that non-clinical schizotypy is related to right prefrontal preference during the letter version of VFT in particular, suggesting that the association between schizotypal traits and functional laterality may vary depending on cognitive activation tasks.

  3. Reproductive and developmental toxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Ramesh C

    2011-01-01

    .... Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology is a comprehensive and authoritative resource providing the latest literature enriched with relevant references describing every aspect of this area of science...

  4. Altered visual strategies and attention are related to increased force fluctuations during a pinch grip task in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kevin G; Huddleston, Wendy E; Ernest, Bradley E

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the visual strategies used by older adults during a pinch grip task and to assess the relations between visual strategy, deficits in attention, and increased force fluctuations in older adults. Eye movements of 23 older adults (>65 yr) were monitored during a low-force pinch grip task while subjects viewed three common visual feedback displays. Performance on the Grooved Pegboard test and an attention task (which required no concurrent hand movements) was also measured. Visual strategies varied across subjects and depended on the type of visual feedback provided to the subjects. First, while viewing a high-gain compensatory feedback display (horizontal bar moving up and down with force), 9 of 23 older subjects adopted a strategy of performing saccades during the task, which resulted in 2.5 times greater force fluctuations in those that exhibited saccades compared with those who maintained fixation near the target line. Second, during pursuit feedback displays (force trace moving left to right across screen and up and down with force), all subjects exhibited multiple saccades, and increased force fluctuations were associated ( r s = 0.6; P = 0.002) with fewer saccades during the pursuit task. Also, decreased low-frequency (attention z scores. Comparison of these results with our previously published results in young subjects indicates that saccadic eye movements and attention are related to force control in older adults. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The significant contributions of the study are the addition of eye movement data and an attention task to explain differences in hand motor control across different visual displays in older adults. Older participants used different visual strategies across varying feedback displays, and saccadic eye movements were related with motor performance. In addition, those older individuals with deficits in attention had impaired motor performance on two different hand motor control tasks, including

  5. Monosodium glutamate-associated alterations in open field, anxiety-related and conditioned place preference behaviours in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaolapo, Olakunle James; Aremu, Olaleye Samuel; Onaolapo, Adejoke Yetunde

    2017-07-01

    The present study investigated changes in behaviour associated with oral monosodium glutamate (a flavouring agent), using the open field, elevated plus maze and conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigms, respectively. Mice were assigned to two groups for CPP [monosodium glutamate (MSG)-naïve (n = 40) and MSG-pretreated (n = 40)] and two groups for open field (OF) and elevated plus maze (EPM) tests [n = 40 each], respectively. Animals in respective groups were then divided into four subgroups (n = 10) (vehicle or MSG (80, 160 and 320 mg/kg)). MSG-naïve mice were observed in the CPP box in three phases (pre-conditioning, conditioning and post-conditioning). Mice were conditioned to MSG or an equivalent volume of saline. The MSG pretreatment group received vehicle or respective doses of MSG daily for 21 days, prior to conditioning. Mice in the OF or EPM groups received vehicle or doses of MSG (orally) for 21 days, at 10 ml/kg. Open field or EPM behaviours were assessed on days 1 and 21. At the end of the experiments, mice in the OF groups were sacrificed and brain homogenates used to assay glutamate and glutamine. Results showed that administration of MSG was associated with a decrease in rearing, dose-related mixed horizontal locomotor, grooming and anxiety-related response and an increase in brain glutamate/glutamine levels. Following exposure to the CPP paradigm, MSG-naïve and MSG-pretreated mice both showed 'drug-paired' chamber preference. The study concluded that MSG (at the administered doses) was associated with changes in open field activities, anxiety-related behaviours and brain glutamate/glutamine levels; its ingestion also probably leads to a stimulation of the brain reward system.

  6. Differential alterations of phospholipid metabolism in cultured cells of neural origin by phorbol esters, fatty acids, diacylglycerols and related compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, H.W.; Spence, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    The uptake and metabolism of [ 3 H]methylcholine, [1,2- 14 C]-ethanolamine, [1- 14 C]fatty acids and [ 32 P] were studied in glioma (C6), neuroblastoma (N1E-115) and neuroblastoma-glioma hybrid (NG108-15) cells in culture in the presence of tetradecanoylphorbolacetate (TPA) and related analogues, fatty acids and diacylglycerol (DAG) to assess mechanisms of stimulation of phospholipid synthesis. Choline incorporation into phosphatidylcholine (PC) was stimulated 1.5-3 fold by phorbol esters and 3-10 fold by 18:1(n-9) in C6 cultures; these agents were without effect on N1E-115 and had intermediate effects on NG108-15 cells. Stimulation of [ 32 P] incorporation was predominantly into PC, ethanolamine incorporation into phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) was less stimulated ( 3 H]choline and its incorporation via intracellular phosphocholine into PC whereas exogenous 18:1(n-9) stimulated only utilization of intracellular P-choline in C6 cells. Choline incorporation into PC and relative stimulation by TPA or 18:1 was influenced by medium glucose and choline. Thus, metabolism of phospholipids and their precursors in neural cells can be markedly influenced by phorbol esters and fatty acids but this stimulation is dependent on cell type, growth medium, phospholipid class and nature of the stimulator

  7. Altered depression-related behavior and neurochemical changes in serotonergic neurons in mutant R406W human tau transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egashira, Nobuaki; Iwasaki, Katsunori; Takashima, Akihiko; Watanabe, Takuya; Kawabe, Hideyuki; Matsuda, Tomomi; Mishima, Kenichi; Chidori, Shozo; Nishimura, Ryoji; Fujiwara, Michihiro

    2005-10-12

    Mutant R406W human tau was originally identified in frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17) and causes a hereditary tauopathy that clinically resembles Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the current study, we examined the performance of R406W transgenic (Tg) mice in the forced swimming test, a test with high predictivity of antidepressant efficacy in human depression, and found an enhancement of the immobility time. In contrast, the motor function and anxiety-related emotional response of R406W Tg mice were normal. Furthermore, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), fluvoxamine (100 mg/kg, p.o.), significantly reduced this enhancement of the immobility time, whereas a noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, desipramine, had no effect. In an in vivo microdialysis study, R406W Tg mice exhibited a significantly decreased extracellular 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) level in the frontal cortex and also exhibited a tendency toward a decreased extracellular 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) level. Moreover, fluvoxamine, which reduced the enhancement of the immobility time, significantly increased the extracellular 5-HT level in R406W Tg mice. These results suggest that R406W Tg mice exhibit changes in depression-related behavior involving serotonergic neurons and provide an animal model for investigating AD with depression.

  8. Tumor-Promoting Circuits That Regulate a Cancer-Related Chemokine Cluster: Dominance of Inflammatory Mediators Over Oncogenic Alterations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibovich-Rivkin, Tal; Buganim, Yosef; Solomon, Hilla; Meshel, Tsipi; Rotter, Varda; Ben-Baruch, Adit

    2012-01-01

    Here, we investigated the relative contribution of genetic/signaling components versus microenvironmental factors to the malignancy phenotype. In this system, we took advantage of non-transformed fibroblasts that carried defined oncogenic modifications in Ras and/or p53. These cells were exposed to microenvironmental pressures, and the expression of a cancer-related chemokine cluster was used as readout for the malignancy potential (CCL2, CCL5, CXCL8, CXCL10). In cells kept in-culture, synergism between Ras hyper-activation and p53 dysfunction was required to up-regulate the expression of the chemokine cluster. The in vivo passage of Ras High /p53 Low -modified cells has led to tumor formation, accompanied by potentiation of chemokine release, implicating a powerful role for the tumor microenvironment in up-regulating the chemokine cluster. Indeed, we found that inflammatory mediators which are prevalent in tumor sites, such as TNFα and IL-1β, had a predominant impact on the release of the chemokines, which was substantially higher than that obtained by the oncogenic modifications alone, possibly acting through the transcription factors AP-1 and NF-κB. Together, our results propose that in the unbiased model system that we were using, inflammatory mediators of the tumor milieu have dominating roles over oncogenic modifications in dictating the expression of a pro-malignancy chemokine readout

  9. Altered Intrinsic Functional Connectivity in Language-Related Brain Regions in Association with Verbal Memory Performance in Euthymic Bipolar Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. J. Linden

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Potential abnormalities in the structure and function of the temporal lobes have been studied much less in bipolar disorder than in schizophrenia. This may not be justified because language-related symptoms, such as pressured speech and flight of ideas, and cognitive deficits in the domain of verbal memory are amongst the hallmark of bipolar disorder (BD, and contribution of temporal lobe dysfunction is therefore likely. In the current study, we examined resting-state functional connectivity (FC between the auditory cortex (Heschl’s gyrus [HG], planum temporale [PT] and whole brain using seed correlation analysis in n = 21 BD euthymic patients and n = 20 matched healthy controls and associated it with verbal memory performance. In comparison to controls BD patients showed decreased functional connectivity between Heschl’s gyrus and planum temporale and the left superior and middle temporal gyrus. Additionally, fronto-temporal functional connectivity with the right inferior frontal/precentral gyrus and the insula was increased in patients. Verbal episodic memory deficits in the investigated sample of BD patients and language-related symptoms might therefore be associated with a diminished FC within the auditory/temporal gyrus and a compensatory fronto-temporal pathway.

  10. Fermented green tea extract alleviates obesity and related complications and alters gut microbiota composition in diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dae-Bang; Jeong, Hyun Woo; Cho, Donghyun; Lee, Bum Jin; Lee, Ji Hae; Choi, Jae Young; Bae, Il-Hong; Lee, Sung-Joon

    2015-05-01

    Obesity is caused by an imbalance between caloric intake and energy expenditure and accumulation of excess lipids in adipose tissues. Recent studies have demonstrated that green tea and its processed products (e.g., oolong and black tea) are introduced to exert beneficial effects on lipid metabolism. Here, we propose that fermented green tea (FGT) extract, as a novel processed green tea, exhibits antiobesity effects. FGT reduced body weight gain and fat mass without modifying food intake. mRNA expression levels of lipogenic and inflammatory genes were downregulated in white adipose tissue of FGT-administered mice. FGT treatment alleviated glucose intolerance and fatty liver symptoms, common complications of obesity. Notably, FGT restored the changes in gut microbiota composition (e.g., the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes and Bacteroides/Prevotella ratios), which is reported to be closely related with the development of obesity and insulin resistance, induced by high-fat diets. Collectively, FGT improves obesity and its associated symptoms and modulates composition of gut microbiota; thus, it could be used as a novel dietary component to control obesity and related symptoms.

  11. Treatment of Donor Cells and Reconstructed Embryos with a Combination of Trichostatin-A and 5-aza-2'-Deoxycytidine Improves the Developmental Competence and Quality of Buffalo Embryos Produced by Handmade Cloning and Alters Their Epigenetic Status and Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Monika; Selokar, Naresh L; Agrawal, Himanshu; Singla, Suresh Kumar; Chauhan, Manmohan Singh; Manik, Radheysham S; Palta, Prabhat

    2017-06-01

    The application of cloning technology on a large scale is limited by very low offspring rate primarily due to aberrant or incomplete epigenetic reprogramming. Trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC), an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferases, are widely used for altering the epigenetic status of cloned embryos. We optimized the doses of these epigenetic modifiers for production of buffalo embryos by handmade cloning and examined whether combined treatment with these epigenetic modifiers offered any advantage over treatment with the individual epigenetic modifier. Irrespective of whether donor cells or reconstructed embryos or both were treated with 50 nM TSA +7.5 nM 5-aza-dC, (1) the blastocyst rate was significantly higher (71.6 ± 3.5, 68.3 ± 2.6, and 71.8 ± 2.4, respectively, vs. 43.1 ± 3.4 for controls, p cells or reconstructed embryos or both with the combination of TSA +5-aza-dC. Therefore, there is no advantage in treating both donor cells and reconstructed embryos when the combination of TSA and 5-aza-dC is used.

  12. Alteration of cancer pain-related signals by radiation: Proteomic analysis in an animal model with cancer bone invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hee Chul; Seong, Jinsil; An, Jung Hee; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Un Jung; Lee, Bae Whan

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Although radiotherapy is highly effective in relieving bone pain due to cancer invasion, its mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to explore this mechanism in an animal model system. Methods and Materials: A hind paw model of cancer pain was developed by transplanting a murine hepatocarcinoma, HCa-1, into the periosteal membrane of the foot dorsum of C3H/HeJ mice. Bone invasion from HCa-1 was histopathologically confirmed from sequential tumor sampling. For three experimental groups, a control (N), tumor without radiation (T), and tumor with radiation (TR), the development and level of pain were objectively examined in mice with a growing tumor by assessing pain-associated behavior. The differential expression of pain-related signals in the spinal cord was analyzed by proteomic analysis using high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry, and those of proteins by Western blotting. The pain-mediating neurotransmitters in the spinal cord were also examined by immunohistochemical staining for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P. Results: In the histopathologic examinations, bone invasion from HCa-1 was seen from Day 7 and was evident at Day 14 after transplantation, and measurable pain-associated behaviors were developed from Day 7. After 25 Gy of radiation to the tumors, the objective level of pain in the TR group decreased, with higher thresholds to mechanical and thermal stimulation than in the T group. From the 2-DE of spinal cord, 107 spots were identified; 12 proteins were changed more than fivefold because of tumor formation but then reversed after radiation in the tumor-bearing mice. The proteins involved included secretagogin, syntenin, P2X purinoreceptor 6 (P2X6), and Ca 2+ /Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 1 (CaM kinase 1), the functions of which have been known to be involved in the Ca 2+ -signaling cascade, ATP-mediated fast synaptic transmission, or control of vesicular

  13. Alteration of cancer pain-related signals by radiation: Proteomic analysis in an animal model with cancer bone invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee Chul [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Jinsil [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); An, Jung Hee [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jiyoung [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Un Jung [Yonsei Medical Research Center, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Bae Whan [Yonsei Medical Research Center, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: Although radiotherapy is highly effective in relieving bone pain due to cancer invasion, its mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to explore this mechanism in an animal model system. Methods and Materials: A hind paw model of cancer pain was developed by transplanting a murine hepatocarcinoma, HCa-1, into the periosteal membrane of the foot dorsum of C3H/HeJ mice. Bone invasion from HCa-1 was histopathologically confirmed from sequential tumor sampling. For three experimental groups, a control (N), tumor without radiation (T), and tumor with radiation (TR), the development and level of pain were objectively examined in mice with a growing tumor by assessing pain-associated behavior. The differential expression of pain-related signals in the spinal cord was analyzed by proteomic analysis using high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry, and those of proteins by Western blotting. The pain-mediating neurotransmitters in the spinal cord were also examined by immunohistochemical staining for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P. Results: In the histopathologic examinations, bone invasion from HCa-1 was seen from Day 7 and was evident at Day 14 after transplantation, and measurable pain-associated behaviors were developed from Day 7. After 25 Gy of radiation to the tumors, the objective level of pain in the TR group decreased, with higher thresholds to mechanical and thermal stimulation than in the T group. From the 2-DE of spinal cord, 107 spots were identified; 12 proteins were changed more than fivefold because of tumor formation but then reversed after radiation in the tumor-bearing mice. The proteins involved included secretagogin, syntenin, P2X purinoreceptor 6 (P2X6), and Ca{sup 2+}/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 1 (CaM kinase 1), the functions of which have been known to be involved in the Ca{sup 2+}-signaling cascade, ATP-mediated fast synaptic transmission, or control of

  14. Altered expression of the TCR signaling related genes CD3 and FcεRIγ in patients with aplastic anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Bo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aplastic anemia (AA is characterized by pancytopenia and bone marrow hypoplasia, which results from immune-mediated hematopoiesis suppression. Understanding the pathophysiology of the immune system, particularly T cells immunity, has led to improved AA treatment over the past decades. However, primary and secondary failure after immunosuppressive therapy is frequent. Thus, knowledge of the immune mechanisms leading to AA is crucial to fundamentally understand the disease. Findings To elucidate the T cell receptor (TCR signal transduction features in AA, the expression levels of CD3γ, δ, ε and ζ chain and FcεRIγ genes, which are involved in TCR signal transduction, and the negative correlation of the expression levels between the CD3ζ and FcεRIγ genes in T cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were analyzed. Real-time RT-PCR using the SYBR Green method was used to detect the expression level of these genes in PBMCs from 18 patients with AA and 14 healthy individuals. The β2microglobulin gene (β2M was used as an endogenous reference. The expression levels of the CD3γ, CD3δ, CD3ε and CD3ζ genes in patients with AA were significantly increased compared to a healthy control group, whereas the FcεRIγ gene expression level was significantly decreased in patients with AA in comparison with the healthy control group. Moreover, the negative correlation of the expression levels between the CD3ζ and FcεRIγ genes was lost. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of the CD3γ, CD3δ, CD3ε, CD3ζ and FcεRIγ gene expression in patients with AA. The abnormally expressed TCR signaling related genes may relate to T cells dysfunction in AA.

  15. Longitudinal assessment of chemotherapy-induced alterations in brain activation during multitasking and its relation with cognitive complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprez, Sabine; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Peeters, Ronald; Emsell, Louise; Smeets, Ann; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Amant, Frederic; Sunaert, Stefan

    2014-07-01

    To examine whether cognitive complaints after treatment for breast cancer are associated with detectable changes in brain activity during multitasking. Eighteen patients who were scheduled to receive chemotherapy performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging multitasking task in the scanner before the start of treatment (t1) and 4 to 6 months after finishing treatment (t2). Sixteen patients who were not scheduled to receive chemotherapy and 17 matched healthy controls performed the same task at matched intervals. Task difficulty level was adjusted individually to match performance across participants. Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 (SPM8) software was used for within-group, between-group, and group-by-time interaction image analyses. Voxel-based paired t tests revealed significantly decreased activation (P multitasking network of chemotherapy-treated patients, whereas no changes were noted in either of the control groups. At baseline, there were no differences between the groups. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, the chemotherapy-treated patients reported a significant increase in cognitive complaints (P multitasking-related brain activation. Moreover, a significant group-by-time interaction (P < .05) was found whereby chemotherapy-treated patients showed decreased activation and healthy controls did not. These results suggest that changes in brain activity may underlie chemotherapy-induced cognitive complaints. The observed changes might be related to chemotherapy-induced damage to the brain or reduced connectivity between brain regions rather than to changes in effort or changes in functional strategy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first longitudinal study providing evidence for a relationship between longitudinal changes in cognitive complaints and changes in brain activation after chemotherapy. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  16. Midlife stress alters memory and mood-related behaviors in old age: Role of locally activated glucocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelan, Nicola; Kenyon, Christopher J; Harris, Anjanette P; Cairns, Carolynn; Al Dujaili, Emad; Seckl, Jonathan R; Yau, Joyce L W

    2018-03-01

    Chronic exposure to stress during midlife associates with subsequent age-related cognitive decline and may increase the vulnerability to develop psychiatric conditions. Increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity has been implicated in pathogenesis though any causative role for glucocorticoids is unestablished. This study investigated the contribution of local glucocorticoid regeneration by the intracellular enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1), in persisting midlife stress-induced behavioral effects in mice. Middle-aged (10 months old) 11β-HSD1-deficient mice and wild-type congenic controls were randomly assigned to 28 days of chronic unpredictable stress or left undisturbed (non-stressed). All mice underwent behavioral testing at the end of the stress/non-stress period and again 6-7 months later. Chronic stress impaired spatial memory in middle-aged wild-type mice. The effects, involving a wide spectrum of behavioral modalities, persisted for 6-7 months after cessation of stress into early senescence. Enduring effects after midlife stress included impaired spatial memory, enhanced contextual fear memory, impaired fear extinction, heightened anxiety, depressive-like behavior, as well as reduced hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor mRNA expression. In contrast, 11β-HSD1 deficient mice resisted both immediate and enduring effects of chronic stress, despite similar stress-induced increases in systemic glucocorticoid activity during midlife stress. In conclusion, chronic stress in midlife exerts persisting effects leading to cognitive and affective dysfunction in old age via mechanisms that depend, at least in part, on brain glucocorticoids generated locally by 11β-HSD1. This finding supports selective 11β-HSD1 inhibition as a novel therapeutic target to ameliorate the long-term consequences of stress-related psychiatric disorders in midlife. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. The diversification of developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Nathan; Dietrich, Michael R; Alomepe, Beverly S; Antrim, Amelia F; ByrneSim, Bay Lauris; He, Yi

    2015-10-01

    In the 1960s, "developmental biology" became the dominant term to describe some of the research that had previously been included under the rubrics of embryology, growth, morphology, and physiology. As scientific societies formed under this new label, a new discipline took shape. Historians, however, have a number of different perspectives on what changes led to this new field of developmental biology and how the field itself was constituted during this period. Using the General Embryological Information Service, a global index of post-World War II development-related research, we have documented and visualized significant changes in the kinds of research that occurred as this new field formed. In particular, our analysis supports the claim that the transition toward developmental biology was marked by a growth in new topics and forms of research. Although many historians privilege the role of molecular biology and/or the molecularization of biology in general during this formative period, we have found that the influence of molecular biology is not sufficient to account for the wide range of new research that constituted developmental biology at the time. Overall, our work creates a robust characterization of the changes that occurred with regard to research on growth and development in the decades following World War II and provides a context for future work on the specific drivers of those changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Gene expression profiles in the cerebellum and hippocampus following exposure to a neurotoxicant, Aroclor 1254: Developmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royland, Joyce E.; Wu, Jinfang; Zawia, Nasser H.; Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S.

    2008-01-01

    The developmental consequences of exposure to the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been widely studied, making PCBs a unique model to understand issues related to environmental mixture of persistent chemicals. PCB exposure in humans adversely affects neurocognitive development, causes psychomotor difficulties, and contributes to attention deficits in children, all of which seem to be associated with altered patterns of neuronal connectivity. In the present study, we examined gene expression profiles in the rat nervous system following PCB developmental exposure. Pregnant rats (Long-Evans) were dosed perinatally with 0 or 6 mg/kg/day of Aroclor 1254 from gestation day 6 through postnatal day (PND) 21. Gene expression in cerebellum and hippocampus from PND7 and PND14 animals was analyzed with an emphasis on developmental aspects. Changes in gene expression (≥ 1.5 fold) in control animals identified normal developmental changes. These basal levels of expression were compared to data from Aroclor 1254-treated animals to determine the impact of gestational PCB exposure on developmental parameters. The results indicate that the expression of a number of developmental genes related to cell cycle, synaptic function, cell maintenance, and neurogenesis is significantly altered from PND7 to PND14. Aroclor 1254 treatment appears to dampen the overall growth-related gene expression levels in both regions with the effect being more pronounced in the cerebellum. Functional analysis suggests that Aroclor 1254 delays maturation of the developing nervous system, with the consequences dependent on the ontological state of the brain area and the functional role of the individual gene. Such changes may underlie learning and memory deficits observed in PCB exposed animals and humans

  19. Raclopride or high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus stops cocaine-induced motor stereotypy and restores related alterations in prefrontal basal ganglia circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliane, Verena; Pérez, Sylvie; Deniau, Jean-Michel; Kemel, Marie-Louise

    2012-11-01

    Motor stereotypy is a key symptom of various neurological or neuropsychiatric disorders. Neuroleptics or the promising treatment using deep brain stimulation stops stereotypies but the mechanisms underlying their actions are unclear. In rat, motor stereotypies are linked to an imbalance between prefrontal and sensorimotor cortico-basal ganglia circuits. Indeed, cortico-nigral transmission was reduced in the prefrontal but not sensorimotor basal ganglia circuits and dopamine and acetylcholine release was altered in the prefrontal but not sensorimotor territory of the dorsal striatum. Furthermore, cholinergic transmission in the prefrontal territory of the dorsal striatum plays a crucial role in the arrest of motor stereotypy. Here we found that, as previously observed for raclopride, high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (HFS STN) rapidly stopped cocaine-induced motor stereotypies in rat. Importantly, raclopride and HFS STN exerted a strong effect on cocaine-induced alterations in prefrontal basal ganglia circuits. Raclopride restored the cholinergic transmission in the prefrontal territory of the dorsal striatum and the cortico-nigral information transmissions in the prefrontal basal ganglia circuits. HFS STN also restored the N-methyl-d-aspartic-acid-evoked release of acetylcholine and dopamine in the prefrontal territory of the dorsal striatum. However, in contrast to raclopride, HFS STN did not restore the cortico-substantia nigra pars reticulata transmissions but exerted strong inhibitory and excitatory effects on neuronal activity in the prefrontal subdivision of the substantia nigra pars reticulata. Thus, both raclopride and HFS STN stop cocaine-induced motor stereotypy, but exert different effects on the related alterations in the prefrontal basal ganglia circuits. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Intracranial developmental venous anomaly: is it asymptomatic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, A Bolívar; de Asís Bravo Rodríguez, F; Bravo Rey, I; Romero, E Roldán

    2018-03-16

    Intracranial developmental venous anomalies are the most common vascular malformation. In the immense majority of cases, these anomalies are asymptomatic and discovered incidentally, and they are considered benign. Very exceptionally, however, they can cause neurological symptoms. In this article, we present three cases of patients with developmental venous anomalies that presented with different symptoms owing to complications derived from altered venous drainage. These anomalies were located in the left insula, right temporal lobe, and cerebellum. The exceptionality of the cases presented as well as of the images associated, which show the mechanism through which the symptoms developed, lies in the low incidence of symptomatic developmental venous anomalies reported in the literature. Copyright © 2018 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of factors related to increased zooplankton biomass and altered species composition following impoundment of a Newfoundland reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, C.E.; Knoechel, R.; Copeman, D.

    1998-01-01

    An 11-year study of the zooplankton community in Cat Arm Hydroelectric Reservoir in Newfoundland was conducted to assess long-term zooplankton community dynamics in a subarctic system. Zooplankton biomass and species compositions were monitored from 1983 to 1993. The monitoring program documented the trophic evolution of the Cat Arm system as it changed from a shallow lake with short water retention time to a deep reservoir with a much lower flushing rate. Zooplankton biomass increased approximately 19-fold in the oligotrophic hydroelectric reservoir following impoundment in 1984, relative to biomass in the preexisting lake. During the first three years of impoundment, there were no increases in either phytoplankton biomass or primary productivity. Natality of the dominant cladoceran (Daphnia catawba) did not increase. Summer water retention time increased from pre-impoundment levels of 4 days in 1983 to 338 days in 1993. The study showed that zooplankton biomass was greatly correlated with water retention time, and showed no major correlation with phytoplankton biomass, primary productivity, nutrient concentrations, pH, colour, or epilimnetic temperature. It was concluded that changes in the zooplankton community in the hydroelectric reservoir were a result of decreases in losses due to washout. 41 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  2. Expression of inflammation-related genes is altered in gastric tissue of patients with advanced stages of NAFLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Rohini; Birerdinc, Aybike; Neupane, Arpan; Shamsaddini, Amirhossein; Afendy, Arian; Elariny, Hazem; Chandhoke, Vikas; Baranova, Ancha; Younossi, Zobair M

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation perpetuated by visceral adipose. Other organs, particularly stomach and intestine, may also overproduce proinflammatory molecules. We examined the gene expression patterns in gastric tissue of morbidly obese patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and compared the changes in gene expression in different histological forms of NAFLD. Stomach tissue samples from 20 morbidly obese NAFLD patients who were undergoing sleeve gastrectomy were profiled using qPCR for 84 genes encoding inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, their receptors, and other components of inflammatory cascades. Interleukin 8 receptor-beta (IL8RB) gene overexpression in gastric tissue was correlated with the presence of hepatic steatosis, hepatic fibrosis, and histologic diagnosis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Expression levels of soluble interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN) were correlated with the presence of NASH and hepatic fibrosis. mRNA levels of interleukin 8 (IL8), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4 (CCL4), and its receptor chemokine (C-C motif) receptor type 5 (CCR5) showed a significant increase in patients with advanced hepatic inflammation and were correlated with the severity of the hepatic inflammation. The results of our study suggest that changes in expression patterns for inflammatory molecule encoding genes within gastric tissue may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity-related NAFLD.

  3. Expression of Inflammation-Related Genes Is Altered in Gastric Tissue of Patients with Advanced Stages of NAFLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini Mehta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation perpetuated by visceral adipose. Other organs, particularly stomach and intestine, may also overproduce proinflammatory molecules. We examined the gene expression patterns in gastric tissue of morbidly obese patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and compared the changes in gene expression in different histological forms of NAFLD. Stomach tissue samples from 20 morbidly obese NAFLD patients who were undergoing sleeve gastrectomy were profiled using qPCR for 84 genes encoding inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, their receptors, and other components of inflammatory cascades. Interleukin 8 receptor-beta (IL8RB gene overexpression in gastric tissue was correlated with the presence of hepatic steatosis, hepatic fibrosis, and histologic diagnosis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. Expression levels of soluble interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN were correlated with the presence of NASH and hepatic fibrosis. mRNA levels of interleukin 8 (IL8, chemokine (C-C motif ligand 4 (CCL4, and its receptor chemokine (C-C motif receptor type 5 (CCR5 showed a significant increase in patients with advanced hepatic inflammation and were correlated with the severity of the hepatic inflammation. The results of our study suggest that changes in expression patterns for inflammatory molecule encoding genes within gastric tissue may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity-related NAFLD.

  4. Age- and gender-related alteration in plasma advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) concentrations in physiological ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komosinska-Vassev, Katarzyna; Olczyk, Pawel; Winsz-Szczotka, Katarzyna; Kuznik-Trocha, Kornelia; Klimek, Katarzyna; Olczyk, Krystyna

    2012-02-13

    The authors studied the role of increased oxidative stress in the development of oxidative protein damage and extracellular matrix (ECM) components in ageing. The age- and gender-associated disturbances in connective tissue metabolism were evaluated by the plasma chondroitin sulphated glycosaminoglycans (CS-GAG) and non-sulphated GAG-hyaluronan (HA) measurements. Plasma concentration of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) was analysed in order to assess oxidative protein damage and evaluate the possible deleterious role of oxidative phenomenon on tissue proteoglycans' metabolism during the physiological ageing process. Sulphated and non-sulphated GAGs as well as AOPP were quantified in plasma samples from 177 healthy volunteers. A linear age-related decline of plasma CS-GAG level was found in this study (r=-0.46; page (r=0.44; page-dependent relationship has been shown in regard to AOPP. AOPP levels significantly increased with age (r=0.63; pphysiological ageing. A significant correlation was found between the concentrations of AOPP and both CS-GAG (r=-0.31; page changes in the ECM are reflected by CS-GAG and HA plasma levels. Strong correlations between AOPP and ECM components indicate that oxidative stress targets protein and non-protein components of the connective tissue matrix during human ageing.

  5. Alterations in TNF- and IL-related gene expression in space-flown WI38 human fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semov, Alexandre; Semova, Nathalia; Lacelle, Chantale; Marcotte, Richard; Petroulakis, Emmanuel; Proestou, Gregory; Wang, Eugenia

    2002-01-01

    Spaceflight, just like aging, causes profound changes in musculoskeletal parameters, which result in decreased bone density and muscular weakness. As these conditions decrease our ability to conduct long-term manned space missions, and increase bone frailty in the elderly, the identification of genes responsible for the apparition of these physiological changes will be of great benefit. Thus, we developed and implemented a new microarray approach to investigate the changes in normal WI38 human fibroblast gene expression that arise as a consequence of space flight. Using our microarray, we identified changes in the level of expression of 10 genes, belonging to either the tumor necrosis factor- (TNF) or interleukin- (IL) related gene families in fibroblasts when WI38 c