WorldWideScience

Sample records for developmental age guidelines

  1. Pervasive Developmental Disorder with Age?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Balfe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of high-functioning pervasive developmental disorder (HFPDD in a community sample of teenagers and adults aged 13 and above in the city of Sheffield, UK. 112 possible and definite cases were found, of whom 65 (57% had a previous diagnosis. The detected prevalence of possible or definite HFPDD was found to be 0.24 per 1000 of the population of Sheffield city aged 13 or over, but the prevalence by year of age fell from a maximum of 1.1 per 1000 in the group aged 13 to 14 years old (1 young adult in every 900 in this age group to 0.03 per 1000 in the over 60s (1 person in every 38500 in this age group. The results of this study are preliminary and need follow-up investigation in larger studies. We suggest several explanations for the findings, including reduced willingness to participate in a study as people get older, increased ascertainment in younger people, and increased mortality. Another contributory factor might be that the prevalence of high-functioning pervasive development disorder may decline with age. This raises the possibility that AS symptoms might become subclinical in adulthood in a proportion of people with HFPDD.

  2. Toddler Developmental Delays After Extensive Hospitalization: Primary Care Practitioner Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Dana C; Sadler, Lois S

    2015-01-01

    This review investigated developmental delays toddlers may encounter after a lengthy pediatric hospitalization (30 days or greater). Physical, motor, cognitive, and psychosocial development of children aged 1 to 3 years was reviewed to raise awareness of factors associated with developmental delay after extensive hospitalization. Findings from the literature suggest that neonatal and pediatric intensive care unit (NICU/PICU) graduates are most at risk for developmental delays, but even non-critical hospital stays interrupt development to some extent. Primary care practitioners (PCPs) may be able to minimize risk for delays through the use of formal developmental screening tests and parent report surveys. References and resources are described for developmental assessment to help clinicians recognize delays and to educate families about optimal toddler development interventions. Pediatric PCPs play a leading role in coordinating health and developmental services for the young child following an extensive hospital stay.

  3. Communication-Based Assessment of Developmental Age for Young Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVeney, Shari L.; Hoffman, Lesa; Cress, Cynthia J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors compared a multiple-domain strategy for assessing developmental age of young children with developmental disabilities who were at risk for long-term reliance on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) with a communication-based strategy composed of receptive language and communication indices that may…

  4. Promoting Healthy Aging in Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Tamar; Sorensen, Amy

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the research on health promotion for adults aging with developmental disabilities. First, it examines barriers to healthy aging, including health behaviors and access to health screenings and services. Second, it reviews the research on health promotion interventions, including physical activity interventions, health education…

  5. Applying a developmental approach to quality of life assessment in children and adolescents with psychological disorders: challenges and guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carona, Carlos; Silva, Neuza; Moreira, Helena

    2015-02-01

    Research on the quality of life (QL) of children/adolescents with psychological disorders has flourished over the last few decades. Given the developmental challenges of QL measurements in pediatric populations, the aim of this study was to ascertain the extent to which a developmental approach to QL assessment has been applied to pedopsychiatric QL research. A systematic literature search was conducted in three electronic databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, SocINDEX) from 1994 to May 2014. Quantitative studies were included if they assessed the self- or proxy-reported QL of children/adolescents with a psychological disorder. Data were extracted for study design, participants, QL instruments and informants, and statistical approach to age-related specificities. The systematic review revealed widespread utilization of developmentally appropriate QL instruments but less frequent use of both self and proxy reports and an inconsistent approach to age group specificities. Methodological guidelines are discussed to improve the developmental validity of QL research for children/adolescents with mental disorders.

  6. Developmental aspects of a life course approach to healthy ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, C.; Aihie Sayer, A.; Eendebak, R. J.; Clough, G. F.; Beard, J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We examine the mechanistic basis and wider implications of adopting a developmental perspective on human ageing. Previous models of ageing have concentrated on its genetic basis, or the detrimental effects of accumulated damage, but also have raised issues about whether ageing can be viewed as adaptive itself, or is a consequence of other adaptive processes, for example if maintenance and repair processes in the period up to reproduction are traded off against later decline in function. A life course model places ageing in the context of the attainment of peak capacity for a body system, starting in early development when plasticity permits changes in structure and function induced by a range of environmental stimuli, followed by a period of decline, the rate of which depends on the peak attained as well as the later life conditions. Such path dependency in the rate of ageing may offer new insights into its modification. Focusing on musculoskeletal and cardiovascular function, we discuss this model and the possible underlying mechanisms, including endothelial function, oxidative stress, stem cells and nutritional factors such as vitamin D status. Epigenetic changes induced during developmental plasticity, and immune function may provide a common mechanistic process underlying a life course model of ageing. The life course trajectory differs in high and low resource settings. New insights into the developmental components of the life course model of ageing may lead to the design of biomarkers of later chronic disease risk and to new interventions to promote healthy ageing, with important implications for public health. PMID:26518329

  7. Youth Assets and Delayed Coitarche across Developmental Age Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspy, Cheryl B.; Vesely, Sara K.; Tolma, Eleni L.; Oman, Roy F.; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; Fluhr, Janene

    2010-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest that assets are associated with youth abstinence, but whether these relationships are constant across developmental age groups has not been shown. Data for this study were obtained from two independent datasets collected across a 2-year period using in-person, in-home interviews of youth (52% female; 44% Caucasian,…

  8. The relative age effect in sport: a developmental systems model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattie, Nick; Schorer, Jörg; Baker, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The policies that dictate the participation structure of many youth sport systems involve the use of a set selection date (e.g. 31 December), which invariably produces relative age differences between those within the selection year (e.g. 1 January to 31 December). Those born early in the selection year (e.g. January) are relatively older—by as much as 12 months minus 1 day—than those born later in the selection year (e.g. December). Research in the area of sport has identified a number of significant developmental effects associated with such relative age differences. However, a theoretical framework that describes the breadth and complexity of relative age effects (RAEs) in sport does not exist in the literature. This paper reviews and summarizes the existing literature on relative age in sport, and proposes a constraints-based developmental systems model for RAEs in sport.

  9. Determinants of developmental delay in infants aged 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slykerman, Rebecca F; Thompson, John M D; Clark, Phillipa M; Becroft, David M O; Robinson, Elizabeth; Pryor, Jan E; Wild, Chris J; Mitchell, Edwin A

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine which demographic, maternal, obstetric and postnatal variables were associated with achievement of developmental milestones at the age of 12 months in term infants. Mothers and babies were enrolled in the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative Study shortly after birth. All infants were full term (gestation >or= 37 weeks). Approximately half of the sample were small for gestational age (SGA = birthweight 10th percentile). A maternal interview was conducted soon after birth. Phase 2 of the study occurred 12 months later when mothers were sent a postal questionnaire requesting information about the child's health and development during the first year of life using the Denver Prescreening Developmental Questionnaire. Seven hundred and forty-four (85.4%) European mothers returned the postal questionnaire. SGA children were not at increased risk of developmental delay at 12 months of age. In a sample representative of New Zealand European children, after adjustment for the effects of potential confounders, maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR = 2.1 [95% CI 1.1, 4.0]), maternal smoking during the first year of life (OR = 1.9 [95% CI 1.0, 3.8]) and low levels of satisfaction with parenting (OR = 2.4 [95% CI 1.1, 5.2]) were associated with significantly increased risk of developmental delay. In the subgroup of SGA children, maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR = 2.9 [95% CI 1.4, 6.2]), high levels of stress associated with parenting (OR = 2.2 [95% CI 1.2, 4.0]), and low levels of satisfaction with parenting (OR = 4.3 [95% CI 1.3, 13.5]) were significantly associated with developmental delay after adjustment for the effects of potential confounders. In conclusion, maternal and postnatal factors were better predictors of developmental delay than demographic variables.

  10. Guidelines for the Institutional Implementation of Developmental Neuroprotective Care in the NICU. Part B: Recommendations and Justification. A Joint Position Statement From the CANN, CAPWHN, NANN, and COINN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milette, Isabelle; Martel, Marie-Josée; da Silva, Margarida Ribeiro; Coughlin McNeil, Mary

    2017-06-01

    The use of age-appropriate care as an organized framework for care delivery in the NICU is founded on the work of Heidelise Als, PhD, and her synactive theory of development. This theoretical construct has recently been advanced by the work of Gibbins and colleagues with the "universe of developmental care" conceptual model and developmental care core measures which were endorsed by the National Association of Neonatal Nurses in their age-appropriate care of premature infant guidelines as best-practice standards for the provision of high-quality care in the NICU. These guidelines were recently revised and expanded. In alignment with the Joint Commission's requirement for healthcare professionals to provide age-specific care across the lifespan, the core measures for developmental care suggest the necessary competencies for those caring for the premature and critically ill hospitalized infant. Further supported by the Primer Standards of Accreditation and Health Canada, the institutional implementation of these core measures require a strong framework for institutional operationalization presented in these guidelines. Part B will present the recommendations and justification of each steps behind the present guidelines to facilitate their implementation.

  11. Developmental aspects of a life course approach to healthy ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, M A; Cooper, C; Aihie Sayer, A; Eendebak, R J; Clough, G F; Beard, J R

    2016-04-15

    We examine the mechanistic basis and wider implications of adopting a developmental perspective on human ageing. Previous models of ageing have concentrated on its genetic basis, or the detrimental effects of accumulated damage, but also have raised issues about whether ageing can be viewed as adaptive itself, or is a consequence of other adaptive processes, for example if maintenance and repair processes in the period up to reproduction are traded off against later decline in function. A life course model places ageing in the context of the attainment of peak capacity for a body system, starting in early development when plasticity permits changes in structure and function induced by a range of environmental stimuli, followed by a period of decline, the rate of which depends on the peak attained as well as the later life conditions. Such path dependency in the rate of ageing may offer new insights into its modification. Focusing on musculoskeletal and cardiovascular function, we discuss this model and the possible underlying mechanisms, including endothelial function, oxidative stress, stem cells and nutritional factors such as vitamin D status. Epigenetic changes induced during developmental plasticity, and immune function may provide a common mechanistic process underlying a life course model of ageing. The life course trajectory differs in high and low resource settings. New insights into the developmental components of the life course model of ageing may lead to the design of biomarkers of later chronic disease risk and to new interventions to promote healthy ageing, with important implications for public health. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  12. A Retrospective Performance Assessment of the Developmental Neurotoxicity Study in Support of OECD Test Guideline 426

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makris, Susan L.; Raffaele, Kathleen; Allen, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We conducted a review of the history and performance of developmental neurotoxicity mic (DNT) testing in support of the finalization and implementation of Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) DNT test guideline 426 (TG 426). INFORMATION SOURCES AND ANALYSIS......: In this review we summarize extensive scientific efforts that form the foundation for this testing paradigm, including basic neurotoxicology research, interlaboratory collaborative studies, expert workshops, and validation studies, and we address the relevance, applicability, and use of the DNT study in risk...... and international acceptance of new or updated test methods for hazard characterization. Multiple independent, expert scientific peer reviews affirm these conclusions....

  13. Age cohort differences in the developmental milestones of gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drasin, Harry; Beals, Kristin P; Elliott, Marc N; Lever, Janet; Klein, David J; Schuster, Mark A

    2008-01-01

    As the social context in which gay men live changes due to greater visibility, greater acceptance, and easier access to gay subculture, gay males may self-identify and take part in gay social activities at earlier ages than in the past. This study examined whether developmental milestones associated with sexual orientation for gay men have changed over the past several decades. A large and diverse sample of 2,402 gay men who responded to a 1994 survey published in a national magazine provided retrospective information on the age at which they reached individual psychological, social, and sexual behavior developmental milestones. We found evidence that individual psychological and sexual behavior milestones (e.g., awareness of attraction to males, having an orgasm with other male) are slowly moving toward earlier chronological ages (by 1 year of age every 8-25 years, p coming out) are moving more rapidly in a similar direction (by 1 year of age every 2-5 years, p < 0.001). The authors perform an innovative sensitivity test to demonstrate the persistence of the finding after correcting for the bias attributable to underrepresentation of those who have not yet self-identified as gay in such samples.

  14. Genome Transfer Prevents Fragmentation and Restores Developmental Potential of Developmentally Compromised Postovulatory Aged Mouse Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsutoshi Yamada

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Changes in oocyte quality can have great impact on the developmental potential of early embryos. Here we test whether nuclear genome transfer from a developmentally incompetent to a developmentally competent oocyte can restore developmental potential. Using in vitro oocyte aging as a model system we performed nuclear transfer in mouse oocytes at metaphase II or at the first interphase, and observed that development to the blastocyst stage and to term was as efficient as in control embryos. The increased developmental potential is explained primarily by correction of abnormal cytokinesis at anaphase of meiosis and mitosis, by a reduction in chromosome segregation errors, and by normalization of the localization of chromosome passenger complex components survivin and cyclin B1. These observations demonstrate that developmental decline is primarily due to abnormal function of cytoplasmic factors involved in cytokinesis, while the genome remains developmentally fully competent.

  15. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants - heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booker, S.; Lehnert, D.; Daavettila, N.; Palop, E.

    1994-06-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in commercial nuclear power plant heat exchangers important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein

  16. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants - heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booker, S.; Lehnert, D.; Daavettila, N.; Palop, E.

    1994-06-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in commercial nuclear power plant heat exchangers important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  17. Structural developmental psychology and health promotion in the third age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauger, Lars; Bongaardt, Rob

    2017-01-12

    In response to the ever-increasing longevity in Western societies, old age has been divided into two different periods, labelled the third and fourth age. Where the third age, with its onset at retirement, mostly involves positive aspects of growing old, the fourth age involves functional decline and increased morbidity. This article focuses on the entry to the third age and its potential for health promotion initiatives. Well-being is an important factor to emphasize in such health promotion, and this article views the lifestyle of third agers as essential for their well-being. The structural developmental theory of Robert Kegan delineates how a person's way of knowing develops throughout the life course. This theory is an untapped and salient perspective for health promotion initiatives in the third age. This article outlines Kegan's approach as a tool for developing psychologically spacious health promotion, and suggests future directions for research on the topic. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants-pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booker, S.; Katz, D.; Daavettila, N.; Lehnert, D.

    1994-03-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant pumps important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein

  19. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants-pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booker, S.; Katz, D.; Daavettila, N.; Lehnert, D. [MDC-Ogden Environmental and Energy Services, Southfield, MI (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant pumps important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  20. Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Electrical switchgear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toman, G.; Gazdzinski, R.; Schuler, K.

    1993-07-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) provides recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant electrical switchgear important to license renewal. The latent of this AMG to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner which allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance, to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein

  1. Comments from the Developmental Neurotoxicology Committee of the Japanese Teratology Society on the OECD Guideline for the Testing of Chemicals, Proposal for a New Guideline 426, Developmental Neurotoxicity Study, Draft Document (October 2006 version), and on the Draft Document of the Retrospective Performance Assessment of the Draft Test Guideline 426 on Developmental Neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ema, Makoto; Fukui, Yoshihiro; Aoyama, Hiroaki; Fujiwara, Michio; Fuji, Junichiro; Inouye, Minoru; Iwase, Takayuki; Kihara, Takahide; Oi, Akihide; Otani, Hiroki; Shinomiya, Mitsuhiro; Sugioka, Kozo; Yamano, Tsunekazu; Yamashita, Keisuke H; Tanimura, Takashi

    2007-06-01

    In October 2006, a new revision of the draft guideline (OECD Guideline for the Testing of Chemicals, Proposal for a New Guideline 426. Developmental Neurotoxicity Study) and Draft Document of the Retrospective Performance Assessment (RPA) of the Draft Test Guideline 426 on Developmental Neurotoxicity were distributed following incorporation of the results of the Expert Consultation Meeting in Tokyo on May 24-26, 2005. The draft guideline consists of 50 paragraphs and an appendix with 102 references; and the draft RPA consists of 37 paragraphs with 109 references. National coordinators were requested to arrange for national expert reviews of these draft documents in their member countries. Members of the Developmental Neurotoxicology (DNT) Committee of the Japanese Teratology Society (JTS) reviewed, discussed, and commented on the draft Test Guideline Proposal. The DNT Committee of the JTS also commented on the draft document of the RPA. These comments were sent to the OECD Secretariat. The DNT Committee of the JTS expects the comments to be useful for the finalization of these draft documents.

  2. Rapamycin Rescues the Poor Developmental Capacity of Aged Porcine Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Eun Lee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Unfertilized oocytes age inevitably after ovulation, which limits their fertilizable life span and embryonic development. Rapamycin affects mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR expression and cytoskeleton reorganization during oocyte meiotic maturation. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of rapamycin treatment on aged porcine oocytes and their in vitro development. Rapamycin treatment of aged oocytes for 24 h (68 h in vitro maturation [IVM]; 44 h+10 μM rapamycin/24 h, 47.52±5.68 or control oocytes (44 h IVM; 42.14±4.40 significantly increased the development rate and total cell number compared with untreated aged oocytes (68 h IVM, 22.04±5.68 (p<0.05. Rapamycin treatment of aged IVM oocytes for 24 h also rescued aberrant spindle organization and chromosomal misalignment, blocked the decrease in the level of phosphorylated-p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, and increased the mRNA expression of cytoplasmic maturation factor genes (MOS, BMP15, GDF9, and CCNB1 compared with untreated, 24 h-aged IVM oocytes (p<0.05. Furthermore, rapamycin treatment of aged oocytes decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS activity and DNA fragmentation (p<0.05, and downregulated the mRNA expression of mTOR compared with control or untreated aged oocytes. By contrast, rapamycin treatment of aged oocytes increased mitochondrial localization (p<0.05 and upregulated the mRNA expression of autophagy (BECN1, ATG7, MAP1LC3B, ATG12, GABARAP, and GABARAPL1, anti-apoptosis (BCL2L1 and BIRC5; p<0.05, and development (NANOG and SOX2; p<0.05 genes, but it did not affect the mRNA expression of pro-apoptosis genes (FAS and CASP3 compared with the control. This study demonstrates that rapamycin treatment can rescue the poor developmental capacity of aged porcine oocytes.

  3. Survey of atypical antipsychotic prescribing by Canadian child psychiatrists and developmental pediatricians for patients aged under 18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doey, Tamison; Handelman, Kenneth; Seabrook, Jamie A; Steele, Margaret

    2007-06-01

    To describe self-reported patterns of prescribing atypical antipsychotics (ATAs) and monitoring practices of child psychiatrists and developmental pediatricians in Canada. We surveyed members of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and members of the Developmental Paediatrics Section of the Canadian Paediatric Society regarding the types and frequencies of ATAs they prescribed, the ages and diagnoses of patients for whom they prescribed these medications, and the types and frequencies of monitoring used. Ninety-four percent of the child psychiatrists (95% CI, 90% to 97%) and 89% of the developmental pediatricians (95% CI, 75% to 96%) prescribed ATAs, most commonly risperidone (69%). Diagnoses included psychotic, mood, anxiety, externalizing, and pervasive developmental disorders. Prescribing for symptoms such as aggression, low frustration tolerance, and affect dysregulation was also common. Twelve percent of all prescriptions were for children under age 9 years. Most clinicians monitored patients, but there were wide variations in the type and frequency of tests performed. Despite the lack of formal indications, ATAs were prescribed by this group of clinicians for many off-label indications in youth under age 18 years, including very young children. Neither evidence-based guidelines nor a consensus on monitoring exist for this age group.

  4. Aging management guidelines for commercial nuclear power plant equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakos, J.T.; Gazdzinski, R.F.; Toman, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy, in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute and nuclear power plant utilities, has prepared ''Aging Management Guidelines'' (AMGs) for commodity types of equipment (e.g., pumps, electrical switchgear) important to license renewal. For the most part, this is also consistent with the Maintenance Rule, 10 CFR 50.65 (1991). AMGs concentrate on technical, (not licensing) issues and are directed toward systems engineers and plant maintenance staff. AMGs include a detailed summary of operating history, stressors, aging mechanisms, and various types of maintenance practices that can be combined to create effective programs that manage aging. All aging mechanisms were addressed; no attempt was made to limit the evaluation to aging mechanisms ''unique to license renewal,'' as defined in the License Renewal Rule, 10 CFR 54 (1991). The first AMG on Electrical Switchgear was published in July 1993. Six (6) additional AMGs will be published by the first quarter of calendar year 1994. It is anticipated that two more AMGs will be started in 1994. The seven ongoing AMG topics are as follows: (1) battery chargers, inverters and uninterruptible power supplies; (2) batteries, stationary; (3) heat exchangers; (4) motor control centers; (5) pumps; (6) switchgear, electric; (7) transformers, power and distribution. In Section 7, industry feedback regarding AMGs is discussed. Overall, the response has been very positive

  5. Principles of the developmental process and implementation of guidelines. An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopp, I.

    2008-01-01

    Guidelines are important tools to improve knowledge management, processes and outcomes in health care. Their function is to assist professionals and patients decisions about appropriate and effective practice, especially in those areas of health care where considerable variation or potential for improvement exists. The achievement of a favourable impact necessitates both a systematic and methodically sound approach in the development of guidelines. The German Instrument for Methodological Guideline Appraisal, an adopted and supplemented version of the AGREE (Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation) instrument, provides 34 quality criteria guideline developers should take into account. However, the impact of guidelines is not only determined by methodological soundness but also by the choice of the guideline topic (need for a guideline), by its dissemination (accessibility) and implementation (acceptance and use). Finally, this impact must be monitored by means of guideline-based quality indicators. (orig.) [de

  6. Using Older People's Life Stories to Teach Developmental Psychology and Aging: Benefits and Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Feliciano; Fabà, Josep; Celdrán, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this study were to design and implement an experiential learning assignment in an undergraduate developmental psychology and aging course and to explore students' perceptions of it. One hundred and forty-three first-year students enrolled in an introductory course on developmental psychology across the life span recorded, transcribed,…

  7. Developmental Screening Using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Standardized versus Real-World Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Antonio, Marianne C.; Fenick, Ada M.; Shabanova, Veronika; Leventhal, John M.; Weitzman, Carol C.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental screens are often used in nonstandardized conditions, such as pediatric waiting rooms, despite validation under standardized conditions. We examined the reproducibility of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ), a developmental screening instrument commonly used in pediatric practices, under standardized versus nonstandardized…

  8. Developmental Trajectories of Structural and Pragmatic Language Skills in School-Aged Children with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Heuvel, E.; Manders, E.; Swillen, A.; Zink, I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to compare developmental courses of structural and pragmatic language skills in school-aged children with Williams syndrome (WS) and children with idiopathic intellectual disability (IID). Comparison of these language trajectories could highlight syndrome-specific developmental features. Method: Twelve monolingual…

  9. Guidelines for the Institutional Implementation of Developmental Neuroprotective Care in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Part A: Background and Rationale. A Joint Position Statement From the CANN, CAPWHN, NANN, and COINN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milette, Isabelle; Martel, Marie-Josée; Ribeiro da Silva, Margarida; Coughlin McNeil, Mary

    2017-06-01

    The use of age-appropriate care as an organized framework for care delivery in the neonatal intensive care unit is founded on the work of Heidelise Als, PhD, and her synactive theory of development. This theoretical construct has recently been advanced by the work of Gibbins and colleagues with the "universe of developmental care" conceptual model and developmental care core measures which were endorsed by the National Association of Neonatal Nurses in their age-appropriate care of premature infant guidelines as best-practice standards for the provision of high-quality care in the neonatal intensive care unit. These guidelines were recently revised and expanded. In alignment with the Joint Commission's requirement for health-care professionals to provide age-specific care across the lifespan, the core measures for developmental care suggest the necessary competencies for those caring for the premature and critically ill hospitalized infant. Further supported by the Primer Standards of Accreditation and Health Canada, the institutional implementation of theses core measures requires a strong framework for institutional operationalization, presented in these guidelines. Part A of this article will present the background and rationale behind the present guidelines and their condensed table of recommendations.

  10. Age, Race, and Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms: A Lifespan Developmental Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Bruce A.; Reintjes, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    This study considered depressive symptoms among a normative sample of 1,900 children, adolescents, and adults (950 males and 950 females) divided across four age-levels to investigate the developmental progression of depressive symptoms by age, race/ethnicity, and gender. The national normative sample of the Clinical Assessment of Depression (CAD)…

  11. Coping and Psychological Health of Aging Parents of Adult Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Vivian E.; Floyd, Frank J.; Mailick, Marsha R.; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2014-01-01

    Among aging parents (mean age = 65, "N" = 139) of adults with developmental disabilities, we examined the effectiveness of multiple forms of coping with caregiver burden. As expected, accommodative strategies of adapting to stress (secondary engagement), used frequently in later life, buffered the impact of caregiver burden, whereas…

  12. Plans to adapt Point Lepreau ageing management to new industry guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenlaw, G.; Gendron, T.; Slade, J.; Rankin, B.

    2008-01-01

    In preparation for PLGS life extension, NBPN spent considerable effort to evaluate the impact of ageing and to develop ageing management processes to maintain the required safety functions for extended operation. These were based on INPO AP-913. Recently, the CNSC has been developing Canadian ageing management guidelines in line with the IAEA approach. In response, NBPN plans to document how current PLGS processes meet the new CNSC guidelines and to identify any areas for improvement. Best practices from utilities that have retrofitted IAEA guidelines and PLGS experience in applying risk-based methods for ageing management will be used to implement improvements. (author)

  13. [Clinical guidelines for the screening and the diagnosis of autism and pervasive developmental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdadli, A; Beuzon, S; Bursztejn, C; Constant, J; Desguerre, I; Rogé, B; Squillante, M; Voisin, J; Aussilloux, C

    2006-04-01

    Autism is the best defined category among PDD. Its high prevalence, its onset in very young children and its persistence in adulthood arise many questions about early screening and early diagnosis. The aim of the study was to identify professional best practices about screening and diagnosis of autism in order to propose clinical guidelines and actions for the future. Scientific experts and parents take part to this procedure. Literature and previous guidelines were analyzed, experts in various fields were interviewed, a national study about the medical practices of the diagnosis of autism was made and questionnaires were send to 1600 psychiatrists and pediatricians. Guidelines built around 2 levels were proposed about screening and diagnosis. Diagnosis needs a multidisciplinary approach, validated instruments and more communication between professionals and parents. Finally one of the more important aims of the diagnosis of autism is to facilitate intervention program.

  14. Educating Parents on Developmentally Age-Appropriate Learning in Preschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mitzi C.

    This practicum paper reports on a project undertaken to enhance the knowledge of age-appropriate learning for parents of 3-year-old preschoolers. The project implemented a variety of techniques and strategies to improve parent knowledge, including parent education classes, a monthly newsletter for parents that addressed current research on…

  15. The developmental potential of art activities at the preschool age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Večanski Vera D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In traditional approaches to the teaching of art and arts activities at the preschool age, art has been viewed mostly in terms of emotional self-expression and development. According to this view, art and arts activities foster the development of creativity, imagination and emotions, but little consideration is given to their link to cognitive processes and to their synthetic character. In general education, art and arts activities are often relegated to marginal status. This paper presents a theoretical examination of the potential of arts activities to enhance the development of a well-rounded personality in children. Through a theoretical analysis of the relevant literature, research and ideas in recent theory which emphasize the synthetic character of art, the potential of arts activities in all segments of development and creativity at the preschool age has been examined. However, in obtaining the full benefit of arts activities in practice, the manner in which arts activities with children at this age are carried out is extremely important. Of particular importance in this process is the influence and role of early childhood educators, who should act as mediators, partners and co-explorers, facilitating, supporting, enriching and participating in the process of free exploration and creativity. Giving primacy to these roles of a teacher would help bring about a change in the child's position in early childhood education and would also change and expand the child's range of activities.

  16. Guideline for ageing management in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herter, K.H.; Schuler, X.; Hienstorfer, W.; Pompe, W.

    2007-01-01

    During operation of nuclear power plants, the quality of systems, structures and components may change as a result of ageing (conceptional ageing, technological ageing or physical ageing), which will affect the system quality. Ageing management is necessary to ensure safety and availability throughout the life of the systems. This necessitates a systematic, integrative and knowledge-based approach. Systems, structures and components are grouped according to their relevance for meeting the set goals. Ageing mangement should be process-oriented and should be integrated in the organisational procedure in cooperation with the safety manager. The procedure should follow the PDCA principle (plan - do - check - act). The data, documents, knowledge and evaluations required for ageing management are part of the knowledge base of the nuclear power station and are updated regularly. The efficiency of ageing management must be reassessed at regular intervals. (orig.)

  17. Comments from the Behavioral Teratology Committee of the Japanese Teratology Society on OECD guideline for the testing of chemicals, proposal for a new guideline 426, developmental neurotoxicity study, draft document (September 2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Yoshihiro; Ema, Makoto; Fujiwara, Michio; Higuchi, Hashihiro; Inouye, Minoru; Iwase, Takayuki; Kihara, Takahide; Nishimura, Tatsuya; Oi, Akihide; Ooshima, Yojiro; Otani, Hiroki; Shinomiya, Mitsuhiro; Sugioka, Kozo; Yamano, Tsunekazu; Yamashita, Keisuke H; Tanimura, Takashi

    2004-09-01

    In September 2003, a new revision of the draft guideline (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] Guideline for the Testing of Chemicals, Proposal for a New Guideline 426, Developmental Neurotoxicity Study) was distributed. The draft guideline consists of 51 paragraphs and an appendix. The National Coordinators were requested to arrange national expert reviews of the guideline proposal in their member countries. The member of the Behavioral Teratology (BT) Committee of the Japanese Teratology Society (JTS) reviewed, discussed and commented on the draft Test Guideline proposal. The BT Committee of the JTS also commented that the International Collaborative Study to validate this protocol should be definitely performed. These comments were sent to the OECD Secretariat. The BT Committee of the JTS expects that the comments are useful for further discussion.

  18. Molecular and Chemical Genetic Approaches to Developmental Origins of Aging and Disease in Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tomoyuki; Kishi, Shuji

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of diseases increases rapidly with age, accompanied by progressive deteriorations of physiological functions in organisms. Aging-associated diseases are sporadic but mostly inevitable complications arising from senescence. Senescence is often considered the antithesis of early development, but yet there may be factors and mechanisms in common between these two phenomena over the dynamic process of aging. The association between early development and late-onset disease with advancing age is thought to come from a consequence of developmental plasticity, the phenomenon by which one genotype can give rise to a range of physiologically and/or morphologically adaptive states in response to different environmental or genetic perturbations. On the one hand, we hypothesized that the future aging process can be predictive based on adaptivity during the early developmental period. Modulating the thresholds of adaptive plasticity by chemical genetic approaches, we have been investigating whether any relationship exists between the regulatory mechanisms that function in early development and in senescence using the zebrafish (Danio rerio), a small freshwater fish and a useful model animal for genetic studies. We have successfully conducted experiments to isolate zebrafish mutants expressing apparently altered senescence phenotypes during embryogenesis (“embryonic senescence”), subsequently showing shortened lifespan in adulthoods. We anticipate that previously uncharacterized developmental genes may mediate the aging process and play a pivotal role in senescence. On the other hand, unexpected senescence-related genes might also be involved in the early developmental process and regulation. The ease of manipulation using the zebrafish system allows us to conduct an exhaustive exploration of novel genes and small molecular compounds that can be linked to the senescence phenotype, and thereby facilitates searching for the evolutionary and developmental origins

  19. Developmental Delay’ Reconsidered: The Critical Role of Age-Dependent, Co-variant Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonata Levy

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In memory of Annette Karmiloff-Smith.This paper reviews recent neurobiological research reporting structural co-variance and temporal dependencies in age-dependent gene expression, parameters of cortical maturation, long range connectivity and interaction of the biological network with the environment. This research suggests that age by size trajectories of brain structures relate to functional properties more than absolute sizes. In line with these findings, recent behavioral studies of typically developing children whose language development was delayed reported long term consequences of such delays. As for neurodevelopmental disorders, disrupted developmental timing and slow acquisitional pace are hallmarks of these populations. It is argued that these behavioral and neuro-biological results highlight the need to commit to a developmental model which will reflect the fact that temporal dependencies overseeing structural co-variance among developmental components are major regulatory factors of typical development of the brain/mind network. Consequently, the concept of ‘developmental delay’ in developmental theorizing needs to be reconsidered.

  20. Correlation Between Mothers' Depression and Developmental Delay in Infants Aged 6-18 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vameghi, Roshanak; Amir Ali Akbari, Sedigheh; Sajjadi, Homeira; Sajedi, Firoozeh; Alavimajd, Hamid

    2015-08-23

    Regarding the importance of children's developmental status and various factors that delay their development, this study was conducted to examine the correlation between mothers' depression levels and the developmental delay in infants. This descriptive study was performed on 1053 mothers and their infants' age 6 to18 month-old in medical centers affiliated with Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Iran, in 2014-2015. The participants were selected through multi-stage random sampling. The following instruments were used in this study: A demographic and obstetric specification questionnaire, infant specification questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Ages and Stages Questionnaire to determine the status of the children's development. The data were analyzed using SPSS19 software, Mann-Whitney; independent T-test and logistic-Regression tests were used. The results showed that 491 mothers (46.7%) suffered mild to extremely severe depression. The delay in infant development was 11.8%. The Mann-Whitney test showed a correlation between mothers' depression levels and developmental delay in infants (P=0.001). Moreover, there was a significant correlation between mothers' depression and developmental delays in gross-motor and problem-solving skills (Pmothers' depression and infant development, it is recommended to screen mothers for depression in order to perform early interventions in developmental delay.

  1. Children with Differing Developmental Trajectories of Prelinguistic Communication Skills: Language and Working Memory at Age 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttä, Sira; Laakso, Marja-Leena; Tolvanen, Asko; Ahonen, Timo; Aro, Tuija

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the authors examine the developmental continuity from prelinguistic communication to kindergarten age in language and working memory capacity. Method: Following work outlining 6 groups of children with different trajectories of early communication development (ECD; Määttä, Laakso, Tolvanen, Ahonen, & Aro, 2012), the…

  2. Recall Memory in Children with Down Syndrome and Typically Developing Peers Matched on Developmental Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milojevich, H.; Lukowski, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whereas research has indicated that children with Down syndrome (DS) imitate demonstrated actions over short delays, it is presently unknown whether children with DS recall information over lengthy delays at levels comparable with typically developing (TD) children matched on developmental age. Method: In the present research, 10…

  3. An Examination of the Relative Age Effect in Developmental Girls' Hockey in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kristy L.; Weir, Patricia L.

    2013-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) suggests that athletes may be provided with greater opportunities for success depending on the position of their birthdate in a sport's selection year. While the effect has been well established in men's sports, less is known about women's sports. This study examined the RAE in developmental girls' hockey in Ontario.…

  4. Developmental Stability in Gender-Typed Preferences between Infancy and Preschool Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Jillian E.; Ilksoy, Sibel D.; Lourenco, Stella F.

    2018-01-01

    Infants exhibit visual preferences for gender-typed objects (e.g., dolls, toy vehicles) that parallel the gender-typed play preferences of preschool-aged children, but the developmental stability of individual differences in early emerging gender-typed preferences has not yet been characterized. In the present study, we examined the longitudinal…

  5. A project for the education psychomotor for developmental age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCESCO PERROTTA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The school, after the family, is found to be the first educational agency to accommodate the children indevelopmental age. .The main purpose is the full and harmonious development of personality of the children fortheir overall education. We chose to implement a project on the body, because we believe that the body is theprivileged tool to explore, learn and interact with the environment, and other items. The body is an expression ofpersonality and is a condition relational, communicative, expressive and operational. Each child's experience(both cognitive, sensory, emotional through the experience of the body, so you should appreciate every situationthat will see the protagonist and create contexts in which to build significant and diverse paths.It 'important to establish a positive environment stimulating and emotionally, the availability of structuredmaterials and not allowing the trial, allowing time to live in that context, depending on how you feel and at yourown pace. Each child builds their self-image of their body image: the self that matches his body graduallyexplore and learn through the lived body. "Then come to the perceptual discrimination and mental representationof the body in motion and in static position. Piaget says, "arises the question of whether teaching patterns andstructures or present to the child in situations where he is active and can be learned alone. The aim of educationis to increase the chances of the child to invent and discover

  6. Developmental stability in gender-typed preferences between infancy and preschool age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Jillian E; Ilksoy, Sibel D; Lourenco, Stella F

    2018-04-01

    Infants exhibit visual preferences for gender-typed objects (e.g., dolls, toy vehicles) that parallel the gender-typed play preferences of preschool-aged children, but the developmental stability of individual differences in early emerging gender-typed preferences has not yet been characterized. In the present study, we examined the longitudinal association between infants' (N = 51) performance on an object-preference task, administered between 6 and 13 months of age, and their play preferences at 4 years of age. Greater visual interest in a toy truck relative to a doll in infancy predicted significantly greater male-typical toy and activity preferences (e.g., play with vehicles, videogames) at age 4. These findings suggest that gender-typed object preferences present during the 1st year of life may represent the developmental precursors of gender-typed play preferences observed later in childhood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Limited access to special education services for school-aged children with developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twardzik, Erica; Smit, Ellen; Hatfield, Bridget; Odden, Michelle C; Dixon-Ibarra, Alicia; MacDonald, Megan

    2018-01-01

    Current policy in Oregon limits eligibility of children diagnosed with developmental delay for school-based services. Due to eligibility definitions, children with developmental delay may face additional barriers transitioning from early intervention/early childhood special education into school-based special education services. Examine the relationship between enrollment in school-based special education programs given a change in primary disability diagnosis. Logistic regression models were fit for children who enrolled in early intervention/early childhood special education services with a primary disability diagnosis of developmental delay and changed primary disability diagnosis before third grade (n=5076). Odds of enrollment in future special education were greater in children with a change in primary disability diagnosis after the age of five in comparison to children that had a change in primary disability diagnosis before the age of five, while adjusting for demographic characteristics (adjusted odds ratio: 2.37, 95% CI 1.92, 2.92). Results suggest that children who are diagnosed with a developmental delay and exit early childhood special education due to maximum age of eligibility are more likely to enroll in special education compared to children without a gap in service access. Gaps in service access during early development are associated with the need for supportive services later on in life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Relationship Between Speech, Language, and Phonological Awareness in Preschool-Age Children With Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton-Hulsey, Andrea; Sevcik, Rose A; Romski, MaryAnn

    2018-05-03

    A number of intrinsic factors, including expressive speech skills, have been suggested to place children with developmental disabilities at risk for limited development of reading skills. This study examines the relationship between these factors, speech ability, and children's phonological awareness skills. A nonexperimental study design was used to examine the relationship between intrinsic skills of speech, language, print, and letter-sound knowledge to phonological awareness in 42 children with developmental disabilities between the ages of 48 and 69 months. Hierarchical multiple regression was done to determine if speech ability accounted for a unique amount of variance in phonological awareness skill beyond what would be expected by developmental skills inclusive of receptive language and print and letter-sound knowledge. A range of skill in all areas of direct assessment was found. Children with limited speech were found to have emerging skills in print knowledge, letter-sound knowledge, and phonological awareness. Speech ability did not predict a significant amount of variance in phonological awareness beyond what would be expected by developmental skills of receptive language and print and letter-sound knowledge. Children with limited speech ability were found to have receptive language and letter-sound knowledge that supported the development of phonological awareness skills. This study provides implications for practitioners and researchers concerning the factors related to early reading development in children with limited speech ability and developmental disabilities.

  9. The Zebrafish Models to Explore Genetic and Epigenetic Impacts on Evolutionary Developmental Origins of Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Shuji

    2014-01-01

    Can we reset, reprogram, rejuvenate or reverse the organismal aging process? Certain genetic manipulations could at least reset and reprogram epigenetic dynamics beyond phenotypic plasticity and elasticity in cells, which can be further manipulated into organisms. However, in a whole complex aging organism, how can we rejuvenate intrinsic resources and infrastructures in an intact/noninvasive manner? The incidence of diseases increases exponentially with age, accompanied by progressive deteriorations of physiological functions in organisms. Aging-associated diseases are sporadic but essentially inevitable complications arising from senescence. Senescence is often considered the antithesis of early development, but yet there may be factors and mechanisms in common between these two phenomena to rejuvenate over the dynamic process of aging. The association between early development and late-onset disease with advancing age is thought to come from a consequence of developmental plasticity, the phenomenon by which one genotype can give rise to a range of physiologically and/or morphologically adaptive states based on diverse epigenotypes, in response to intrinsic or extrinsic environmental cues and genetic perturbations. We hypothesized that the future aging process can be predictive based on adaptivity during the early developmental period. Modulating the thresholds and windows of plasticity and its robustness by molecular genetic and chemical epigenetic approaches, we have successfully conducted experiments to isolate zebrafish mutants expressing apparently altered senescence phenotypes during their embryonic and/or larval stages (“embryonic/larval senescence”). Subsequently, at least some of these mutant animals were found to show shortened lifespan, while some others would be expected to live longer in adulthoods. We anticipate that previously uncharacterized developmental genes may mediate the aging process and play a pivotal role in senescence. On the other

  10. Ageing male and testosterone: Current status and treatment guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Vasan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Because the decline in androgens is generally gradual and not a complete deficiency, clinical significance of this decline is still unclear, and there is controversy as to whether a specific syndrome of androgen deficiency or ′andropause′ exists. The term andropause or androgen deficiency in aging males (ADAM underwent revisions to, partial androgen deficiency in aging male (PADAM, late onset hypogonadism (LOH and now symptomatic late onset hypogonadism (SLOH, signifying, the evolving nature of this phenomenon. Since this happens at a time of life, when many men have associated comorbities, it′s difficult to assess the exact impact of androgen decline, due to which, the issues surrounding androgen replacement therapy in men with symptomatic late-onset hypogonadism have been marred in controversy. Although with age, a decline in testosterone levels will occur in virtually all men, there is no way of predicting, who, will experience andropausal symptoms of sufficient severity and also long-term safety data on testosterone administration in this setting, is lacking. This article will focus on the controversies and practices of androgen replacement.

  11. Maternal age and offspring developmental vulnerability at age five: A population-based cohort study of Australian children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Falster

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, there has been a shift to later childbearing in high-income countries. There is limited large-scale evidence of the relationship between maternal age and child outcomes beyond the perinatal period. The objective of this study is to quantify a child's risk of developmental vulnerability at age five, according to their mother's age at childbirth.Linkage of population-level perinatal, hospital, and birth registration datasets to data from the Australian Early Development Census (AEDC and school enrolments in Australia's most populous state, New South Wales (NSW, enabled us to follow a cohort of 99,530 children from birth to their first year of school in 2009 or 2012. The study outcome was teacher-reported child development on five domains measured by the AEDC, including physical health and well-being, emotional maturity, social competence, language and cognitive skills, and communication skills and general knowledge. Developmental vulnerability was defined as domain scores below the 2009 AEDC 10th percentile cut point. The mean maternal age at childbirth was 29.6 years (standard deviation [SD], 5.7, with 4,382 children (4.4% born to mothers aged <20 years and 20,026 children (20.1% born to mothers aged ≥35 years. The proportion vulnerable on ≥1 domains was 21% overall and followed a reverse J-shaped distribution according to maternal age: it was highest in children born to mothers aged ≤15 years, at 40% (95% CI, 32-49, and was lowest in children born to mothers aged between 30 years and ≤35 years, at 17%-18%. For maternal ages 36 years to ≥45 years, the proportion vulnerable on ≥1 domains increased to 17%-24%. Adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics significantly attenuated vulnerability risk in children born to younger mothers, while adjustment for potentially modifiable factors, such as antenatal visits, had little additional impact across all ages. Although the multi-agency linkage yielded a broad range of

  12. IAEA guidance on ageing management for nuclear power plants. Guidance on effective management of the physical ageing of systems, structures and components important to safety for nuclear power plants. Overview. Programmatic guidelines. Component specific guidelines. Review guidelines. Version 1, 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Operational experience shows that excellent plant safety and excellent performance go hand in hand, and that they are achieved by effective leadership and management that includes a unified approach to safety and production. This is also applicable to ageing management. Effective ageing management leads to both enhanced plant safety and enhanced performance and is a prerequisite for long service life. The IAEA project on Safety Aspects of NPP Ageing has produced since 1990 a comprehensive set of programmatic and component specific guidelines on managing ageing, while providing an interactive environment for information exchange and co-operation among practitioners, and has assisted Member States in the application of the guidelines through the provision of training and advice. The objective of the CD-ROM is to preserve the IAEA's guidance on ageing management and to facilitate its retrieval, updating, extension and dissemination in order to help increase the effectiveness of ageing management at nuclear power plants

  13. Correlation between chronological age and third molar developmental stages in an Iranian population (Demirjian method).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosronejad, Aria; Navabi, Manijeh; Sakhdari, Shirin; Rakhshan, Vahid

    2017-01-01

    Third molar development is the only available tool for estimating the age of individuals after puberty. Since this tooth has very high interethnic variability, formulas calculated to estimate the age from its development stages cannot be generalized to other populations and should be adjusted for each region. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate this method in a sample of Tehran individuals for the first time, and also to compare the development of third molars across sexes and arches, and to estimate cutoff developmental stages for legal minor/major identification. A total of 150 dental patients aged between 15 and 25 years old were prospectively enrolled, and their Demirjian stages were recorded. The associations between chronological age and Demirjian stages were evaluated. Dental formation was compared between sexes and jaws. Cutoff stages were determined to identify legal minor/major cases (above or below 18 years old). Age estimation formula was found for this population. Of the 150 included patients, 56 were males. The difference between the ages of males and females at each given developmental stage was nonsignificant ( P > 0.05), except for the H stage. Age difference between same stage teeth of the maxilla and mandible was nonsignificant. Each of the G and H stages was significantly above 18 years old ( P age were above 90% (all P Third molar development was positively affected by the chronological age ( P = 0.000) and being maxillary ( P = 0.000) but not sex ( P = 0.113). Regression formula for age estimation was: age = 6.52+ (0.64 × sex) + (0.32 × arch) + (1.86 × Demirjian stage). Development of third molar might complete after the age 22. Iranian individuals with third molars at the G and H stages are likely above 18 while those at E and F are likely below 18. Pace of molar development differs for jaws, but intergender differences are open to further investigations.

  14. Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W; Spence, John C

    2012-04-01

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines are in response to a call from health and health care professionals, child care providers, and fitness practitioners for guidance on sedentary behaviour in the early years. The guideline development process followed the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II framework. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between sedentary behaviour (predominantly screen time) and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged 900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guidelines state: for healthy growth and development, caregivers should minimize the time infants (aged spend being sedentary during waking hours. This includes prolonged sitting or being restrained (e.g., stroller, high chair) for more than 1 h at a time. For those under 2 years, screen time (e.g., TV, computer, electronic games) is not recommended. For children 2-4 years, screen time should be limited to under 1 h per day; less is better.

  15. Personality Traits Predict the Developmental Course of Externalizing: A Four-Wave Longitudinal Study Spanning Age 17 to Age 29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Kate E; Krueger, Robert F; Elkins, Irene; D'Accordo, Cassandra; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2017-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine whether and how personality predicts the developmental course of externalizing problems, including antisocial behavior and substance dependence. In a large, population-based longitudinal study (N = 1,252), the 11 personality traits assessed by the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire were measured at age 17, and DSM diagnoses of adult antisocial behavior, alcohol dependence, and drug dependence were obtained at ages 17, 20, 24, and 29. We fit a quadratic multiple indicator latent growth model where the three diagnoses loaded onto an externalizing factor. This model fit the data well, and externalizing increased until it started to decline at age 24. High aggression and low control were the most significant predictors of the development of externalizing, with aggression playing a significant role in the development of externalizing across the 12-year time span, and control predicting the development from age 17 to 24. The findings highlight the importance of considering the developmental course of externalizing in the context of personality and suggest that the specific personality traits of aggression and control might be targeted in externalizing prevention and intervention programs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Personality Traits Predict the Developmental Course of Externalizing: A Four-wave Longitudinal Study Spanning Age 17 to Age 29

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Kate E.; Krueger, Robert F.; Elkins, Irene; D’Accordo, Cassandra; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of the present study was to determine whether and how personality predicts the developmental course of externalizing problems, including antisocial behavior and substance dependence. Method In a large population-based longitudinal study (N=1252), the 11 personality traits assessed by the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire were measured at age 17, and DSM diagnoses of adult antisocial behavior, alcohol dependence, and drug dependence were obtained at ages 17, 20, 24, and 29. We fit a quadratic multiple indicator latent growth model where the three diagnoses loaded onto an externalizing factor. Results This model fit the data well, and externalizing increased until it started to decline at age 24. High aggression and low control were the most significant predictors of the development of externalizing, with aggression playing a significant role in the development of externalizing across the 12-year time span, and control predicting the development from age 17 to 24. Conclusions The findings highlight the importance of considering the developmental course of externalizing in the context of personality and suggest that the specific personality traits of aggression and control might be targeted in externalizing prevention and intervention programs. PMID:26808279

  17. Very pre-term infants' behaviour at 1 and 2 years of age and parental stress following basic developmental care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pal, S.M. van der; Maguire, C.M.; Bruil, J.; Cessie, S. le; Zwieten, P. van; Veen, S.; Wit, J.M.; Walther, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the effects of basic developmental care on the behaviour of very pre-term infants and parental stress at I and 2 years of corrected age. A randomized controlled trial was done to compare basic Developmental Care (standardized nests and incubator covers) and controls (standard

  18. Evaluation of dental age and associated developmental anomalies in subjects with impacted mandibular canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shikha; Shetty, K Sadashiva; Jain, Shweta; Jain, Sachin; Prakash, A T; Agrawal, Mamta

    2015-07-01

    To assess the null hypothesis that there is no difference in the rate of dental development and the occurrence of selected developmental anomalies related to shape, number, structure, and position of teeth between subjects with impacted mandibular canines and those with normally erupted canines. Pretreatment records of 42 subjects diagnosed with mandibular canines impaction (impaction group: IG) were compared with those of 84 subjects serving as a control reference sample (control group: CG). Independent t-tests were used to compare mean dental ages between the groups. Intergroup differences in distribution of subjects based on the rate of dental development and occurrence of selected dental anomalies were assessed using χ(2) tests. Odds of late, normal, and early developers and various categories of developmental anomalies between the IG and the CG were evaluated in terms of odds ratios. Mean dental age for the IG was lower than that for the CG in general. Specifically, this was true for girls (P dental development and occurrence of positional anomalies also reached statistical significance (P anomalies compared with controls (odds ratios 3.00 and 2.82, respectively; P dental development compared with the female orthodontic patients. Increased frequency of positional developmental anomalies was also remarkable in the IG.

  19. Developmental improvement and age-related decline in unfamiliar face matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megreya, Ahmed M; Bindemann, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Age-related changes have been documented widely in studies of face recognition and eyewitness identification. However, it is not clear whether these changes arise from general developmental differences in memory or occur specifically during the perceptual processing of faces. We report two experiments to track such perceptual changes using a 1-in- 10 (experiment 1) and 1-in-1 (experiment 2) matching task for unfamiliar faces. Both experiments showed improvements in face matching during childhood and adult-like accuracy levels by adolescence. In addition, face-matching performance declined in adults of the age of 65 years. These findings indicate that developmental improvements and aging-related differences in face processing arise from changes in the perceptual encoding of faces. A clear face inversion effect was also present in all age groups. This indicates that those age-related changes in face matching reflect a quantitative effect, whereby typical face processes are engaged but do not operate at the best-possible level. These data suggest that part of the problem of eyewitness identification in children and elderly persons might reflect impairments in the perceptual processing of unfamiliar faces.

  20. Fetal functional brain age assessed from universal developmental indices obtained from neuro-vegetative activity patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Hoyer

    Full Text Available Fetal brain development involves the development of the neuro-vegetative (autonomic control that is mediated by the autonomic nervous system (ANS. Disturbances of the fetal brain development have implications for diseases in later postnatal life. In that context, the fetal functional brain age can be altered. Universal principles of developmental biology applied to patterns of autonomic control may allow a functional age assessment. The work aims at the development of a fetal autonomic brain age score (fABAS based on heart rate patterns. We analysed n = 113 recordings in quiet sleep, n = 286 in active sleep, and n = 29 in active awakeness from normals. We estimated fABAS from magnetocardiographic recordings (21.4-40.3 weeks of gestation preclassified in quiet sleep (n = 113, 63 females and active sleep (n = 286, 145 females state by cross-validated multivariate linear regression models in a cross-sectional study. According to universal system developmental principles, we included indices that address increasing fluctuation range, increasing complexity, and pattern formation (skewness, power spectral ratio VLF/LF, pNN5. The resulting models constituted fABAS. fABAS explained 66/63% (coefficient of determination R(2 of training and validation set of the variance by age in quiet, while 51/50% in active sleep. By means of a logistic regression model using fluctuation range and fetal age, quiet and active sleep were automatically reclassified (94.3/93.1% correct classifications. We did not find relevant gender differences. We conclude that functional brain age can be assessed based on universal developmental indices obtained from autonomic control patterns. fABAS reflect normal complex functional brain maturation. The presented normative data are supplemented by an explorative study of 19 fetuses compromised by intrauterine growth restriction. We observed a shift in the state distribution towards active awakeness. The lower WGA

  1. Developmental trajectories for attention and working memory in healthy Japanese school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egami, Chiyomi; Yamashita, Yushiro; Tada, Yasuhiro; Anai, Chiduru; Mukasa, Akiko; Yuge, Kotaro; Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the developmental trajectories of attention, short-term memory, and working memory in school-aged children using a 10 min test battery of cognitive function. Participants comprised 144 typically developing children (TDC) aged 7-12 years and 24 healthy adults, divided according to age into seven groups (12 males and 12 females for each age group). Participants were assessed using CogHealth, which is a computer-based measure composed of five tasks. We measured attention, short-term memory, and working memory (WM) with visual stimulation. Each task was analyzed for age-related differences in reaction time and accuracy rate. Attention tasks were faster in stages from the age of 7-10 years. Accuracy rate of short-term memory gradually increased from 12 years of age and suddenly increased and continued to increase at 22 years of age. Accuracy rate of working memory increased until 12 years of age. Correlations were found between the ages and reaction time, and between ages and accuracy rate of the tasks. These results indicate that there were rapid improvements in attention, short-term memory, and WM performance between 7 and 10 years of age followed by gradual improvement until 12 years of age. Increase in short-term memory continued until 22 years of age. In our experience CogHealth was an easy and useful measure for the evaluation of cognitive function in school-age children. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Age-specific antibiotic prescribing and adherence to guidelines in pediatric patients in primary care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanovska, V.; Hek, K.; Mantel-Teeuwisse, A.K.; Leufkens, H.G.M.; Dijk, L. van

    2018-01-01

    Background: Most antibiotics in children are used to treat viral and self-limiting conditions. This study aims to compare physicians' adherence to guidelines on antibiotic prescribing in fever and in ear and respiratory infections to children in different age groups in the Netherlands. Methods: Data

  3. AMAT guidelines. Reference document for the IAEA Ageing Management Assessment Teams (AMATs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Effective ageing management is an important element for ensuring the safety of nuclear power plant. The IAEA Ageing Management Assessment Team (AMAT) programme provides advice and assistance to utilities or individual NPPs to strengthen and enhance the effectiveness of ageing management programs (AMPs). Such AMPs are required by an increasing number of safety utilities and implemented by an increasing number of utilities, often as a part of NPP life or life cycle management programs that involve the integration of ageing management and economic planning. The guidelines in this report are primarily intended for IAEA-led AMAT team members as a basic structure and common reference for peer reviews of AMPs

  4. SALTO guidelines. Guidelines for peer review of long term operation and ageing management of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    other and apply good practices in dealing with LTO of NPPs. The peer review service is also an important mechanism through which the IAEA supports Member States in enhancing the safety of NPPs. The IAEA has conducted various types of safety review services that indirectly address some aspects of LTO, including safety review services for design, engineering, operation and external hazards. OSART (Operational Safety Review Team) services include some review of ageing management programmes. In addition, several Member States have requested AMAT (Ageing Management Assessment Team) missions. Through these activities and considering the increasing average age of NPPs connected to the grid worldwide, it was recognized that a comprehensive engineering safety review service on LTO would be very useful to Member States. The Safe Long Term Operation (SALTO) peer review is a new comprehensive engineering safety review service directly addressing strategy and the key elements for safe LTO of NPPs, which includes AMAT objectives and complements OSART reviews. The SALTO peer review service is designed to assist NPP operators in adopting a proper approach to long term operation of their plants and in implementing complete and appropriate activities to ensure that plant safety will be maintained during the LTO period. The SALTO peer review service can be tailored to focus on AMPs and/or on other programmes related to LTO to support the Member State in enhancing the safety of its NPPs. The SALTO peer review service can also support regulators in establishing or improving regulatory and licensing strategies for LTO of NPPs. These guidelines are primarily intended for members of the SALTO review team and they provide a basic structure and common reference for peer reviews of LTO. However, the guidelines could provide useful information to operating organizations of NPPs (or technical support organizations) for carrying out their own self-assessments or comprehensive programme reviews. The

  5. Body composition during early infancy and developmental progression from 1 to 5 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abera, Mubarek; Tesfaye, Markos; Admassu, Bitiya

    2018-01-01

    aimed to examine the relation between fat mass (FM) or fat-free mass (FFM) tissues at birth and their accretion during early infancy, and later developmental progression. In a birth cohort from Ethiopia, 455 children who have BC measurement at birth and 416 who have standardised rate of BC growth during...... variables was examined using linear-mixed regression model. The finding revealed that FFM at birth was positively associated with global developmental progression from 1 to 5 years (β=1·75; 95 % CI 0·11, 3·39) and from 4 to 5 years (β=1·34; 95 % CI 0·23, 2·44) in the adjusted model. Furthermore, the rate...... of postnatal FFM tissue accretion was positively associated with development at 1 year of age (β=0·50; 95 % CI 0·01, 0·99). Neither fetal nor postnatal FM showed a significant association. In conclusion, fetal, rather than postnatal, FFM tissue accretion was associated with developmental progression...

  6. In honor of the Teratology Society's 50th anniversary: The role of Teratology Society members in the development and evolution of in vivo developmental toxicity test guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyl, Rochelle W

    2010-06-01

    Members of the Teratology Society (established in 1960) were involved in the first governmental developmental and reproductive toxicity testing guidelines (1966) by FDA following the thalidomide epidemic, followed by other national and international governmental testing guidelines. The Segment II (developmental toxicity) study design, described in rodents and rabbits, has evolved with additional enhanced endpoints and better descriptions, mechanistic insights, range-finding studies, and toxico/pharmacokinetic ADME information (especially for pharmaceuticals). Society members were also involved in the development of the current screening assays and tests for endocrine disruptors (beginning in 1996) and are now involved with developing new testing guidelines (e.g., the extended one-generation protocol), and evaluating the current test guidelines and new initiatives under ILSI/HESI sponsorship. New initiatives include ToxCast from the U.S. EPA to screen, prioritize, and predict toxic chemicals by high throughput and high-content in vitro assays, bioinformation, and modeling to reduce (or eliminate) in vivo whole animal studies. Our Society and its journal have played vital roles in the scientific and regulatory accomplishments in birth defects research over the past 50 years and will continue to do so in the future. Happy 50th anniversary! (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Developmental Scores at 1 Year With Increasing Gestational Age, 37–41 Weeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Olga; Blanco, Estela; Martinez, Suzanna M.; Sim, Eastern Kang; Castillo, Marcela; Lozoff, Betsy; Vaucher, Yvonne E.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between gestational age and mental and psychomotor development scores in healthy infants born between 37 and 41 weeks. METHODS: The cohort included 1562 participants enrolled during infancy in an iron deficiency anemia preventive trial in Santiago, Chile. All participants were healthy, full-term (37–41 weeks) infants who weighed 3 kg or more at birth. Development at 12 months was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Using generalized linear modeling, we analyzed the association between gestational age and 1-year-old developmental status, taking into account potential confounders including birth weight percentile, gender, socioeconomic status, the home environment, iron status, and iron supplementation. RESULTS: For each additional week of gestation, the Mental Development Index increased by 0.8 points (95% confidence interval = 0.2–1.4), and the Psychomotor Development Index increased by 1.4 points (95% confidence interval = 0.6–2.1) controlling for birth weight percentile, gender, socioeconomic status, and home environment. CONCLUSIONS: In a large sample of healthy full-term infants, developmental scores obtained using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development at 12 months increased with gestational age (37–41 weeks). There is increasing evidence that birth at 39 to 41 weeks provides developmental advantages compared with birth at 37 to 38 weeks. Because cesarean deliveries and early-term inductions have increased to 40% of all births, consideration of ongoing brain development during the full-term period is an important medical and policy issue. PMID:23589812

  8. Infancy predictors of hyperkinetic and pervasive developmental disorders at ages 5-7 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Hanne; Linneberg, Allan; Olsen, Else Marie

    2014-01-01

    of autism spectrum disorders were problems of oral-motor development OR 5.02 (95% CI: 1.63-15.42) and overall development OR 4.24 (95% CI: 1.35-13.33). A deviant pattern of activity and interests were predictive of autism spectrum disorder, OR 5.34 (95% CI 1.45-19.70) and hyperkinetic disorder, OR 4.71 (95......% CI: 1.28-17.39). Hyperkinetic disorder was furthermore predicted by mother-infant relationship problems, OR 8.07 (95% CI: 2.90-22.47). The significant associations between infant developmental problems and autism spectrum disorders persisted in multiple logistic regression analyses controlled.......20 (95% CI: 1.55-17.47). No significant infancy predictors were found regarding emotional and behavioural disorders at age 5-7 years. CONCLUSION: Predictors of autism spectrum/pervasive developmental disorders and hyperkinetic disorders at child age 5-7 years were identified between birth and child age...

  9. Children with differing developmental trajectories of prelinguistic communication skills: language and working memory at age 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttä, Sira; Laakso, Marja-Leena; Tolvanen, Asko; Ahonen, Timo; Aro, Tuija

    2014-06-01

    In this article, the authors examine the developmental continuity from prelinguistic communication to kindergarten age in language and working memory capacity. Following work outlining 6 groups of children with different trajectories of early communication development (ECD; Määttä, Laakso, Tolvanen, Ahonen, & Aro, 2012), the authors examined their later development by psychometric assessment. Ninety-one children first assessed at ages 12-21 months completed a battery of language and working memory tests at age 5;3 (years;months). Two of the ECD groups previously identified as being at risk for language difficulties continued to show weaker performance at follow-up. Seventy-nine percent of the children with compromised language skills at follow-up were identified on the basis of the ECD groups, but the number of false positives was high. The 2 at-risk groups also differed significantly from the typically developing groups in the measures tapping working memory capacity. In line with the dimensional view of language impairment, the accumulation of early delays predicted the amount of later difficulties; however, at the individual level, the prediction had rather low specificity. The results imply a strong link between language and working memory and call for further studies examining the early developmental interaction between language and memory.

  10. Relations of Early Motor Skills on Age and Socialization, Communication, and Daily Living in Young Children With Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Megan; Ross, Samantha; McIntyre, Laura Lee; Tepfer, Amanda

    2017-04-01

    Young children with developmental disabilities experience known deficits in salient child behaviors, such as social behaviors, communication, and aspects of daily living, behaviors that generally improve with chronological age. The purpose of this study was to examine the mediating effects of motor skills on relations of age and salient child behaviors in a group of young children with developmental disabilities, thus tapping into the potential influences of motor skills in the development of salient child behaviors. One hundred thirteen young children with developmental disabilities participated in this study. Independent mediation analysis, with gender as a moderator between the mediating and outcome variable, indicated that motor skills meditated relations between age and socialization, communication, and daily living skills in young male children with developmental disabilities, but not female participants. Findings suggest motor skill content needs to be considered in combination with other child behaviors commonly focused on in early intervention.

  11. Predictors of Poor School Readiness in Children Without Developmental Delay at Age 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudovitz, Rebecca N.; Coker, Tumaini R.; Barnert, Elizabeth S.; Biely, Christopher; Li, Ning; Szilagyi, Peter G.; Larson, Kandyce; Halfon, Neal; Zimmerman, Frederick J.; Chung, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Current recommendations emphasize developmental screening and surveillance to identify developmental delays (DDs) for referral to early intervention (EI) services. Many young children without DDs, however, are at high risk for poor developmental and behavioral outcomes by school entry but are ineligible for EI. We developed models for 2-year-olds without DD that predict, at kindergarten entry, poor academic performance and high problem behaviors. METHODS: Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), were used for this study. The analytic sample excluded children likely eligible for EI because of DDs or very low birth weight. Dependent variables included low academic scores and high problem behaviors at the kindergarten wave. Regression models were developed by using candidate predictors feasibly obtainable during typical 2-year well-child visits. Models were cross-validated internally on randomly selected subsamples. RESULTS: Approximately 24% of all 2-year-old children were ineligible for EI at 2 years of age but still had poor academic or behavioral outcomes at school entry. Prediction models each contain 9 variables, almost entirely parental, social, or economic. Four variables were associated with both academic and behavioral risk: parental education below bachelor’s degree, little/no shared reading at home, food insecurity, and fair/poor parental health. Areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve were 0.76 for academic risk and 0.71 for behavioral risk. Adding the mental scale score from the Bayley Short Form–Research Edition did not improve areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for either model. CONCLUSIONS: Among children ineligible for EI services, a small set of clinically available variables at age 2 years predicted academic and behavioral outcomes at school entry. PMID:27432845

  12. Critical Appraisal of Clinical Practice Guidelines for Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie M. Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the methodological quality of age-related macular degeneration (AMD clinical practice guidelines (CPGs. Methods. AMD CPGs published by the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO and Royal College of Ophthalmologists (RCO were appraised by independent reviewers using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II instrument, which comprises six domains (Scope and Purpose, Stakeholder Involvement, Rigor of Development, Clarity of Presentation, Applicability, and Editorial Independence, and an Overall Assessment score summarizing methodological quality across all domains. Results. Average domain scores ranged from 35% to 83% for the AAO CPG and from 17% to 83% for the RCO CPG. Intraclass correlation coefficients for the reliability of mean scores for the AAO and RCO CPGs were 0.74 and 0.88, respectively. The strongest domains were Scope and Purpose and Clarity of Presentation. The weakest were Stakeholder Involvement (AAO and Editorial Independence (RCO. Conclusions. Future AMD CPGs can be improved by involving all relevant stakeholders in guideline development, ensuring transparency of guideline development and review methodology, improving guideline applicability with respect to economic considerations, and addressing potential conflict of interests within the development group.

  13. Developmental Indicators of School-Age Children, Living in the Regions with Iodine Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Sorokman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the results of studying developmental indicators of children living in the areas of iodine deficiency. The basic anthropometric parameters (height and weight, chest circumference were defined, the estimation of intellectual development in 819 children aged 7–16 years living in the regions with mild (472 persons and moderate (347 persons iodine deficiency was carried out. Examined children were standardized by major factors of developmental effect. Anthropometric measurements were carried out by standard methods. Maturity of intellectual functioning was determined using the fragment of R. Cattell test, indicators of mental activity — with proofreading test in conjunction with reading rate test. In all children we have carried out measurement of daily ioduria (Sandell — Kolthoff reaction, palpation of the thyroid gland, determination of its size and structure using ultrasound. It was found that the diet of children is characterized by deficiency of food rich in iodine. Iodized salt was used only by 1 of 50 families. Children living in the regions with moderate iodine deficiency in all age subgroups have lower rates of physical development. A third of children living in areas of iodine deficiency have disharmonic physical development. 13.8 % of children from the regions of iodine deficiency have changes in the majority of the studied cognitive functions. Leading disabilities in the whole group of children were memory impairment and fine motor skills disorders. The level of intellectual maturity, productivity and accuracy of human performance decreases with growing iodine deficiency.

  14. Age estimation by dental developmental stages in children and adolescents in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidisdottir, Sigridur Rosa; Richter, Svend

    2015-12-01

    Studies have shown that it is necessary to create a database for dental maturity for every population and compare it to others. The present study is the first one for dental development in the Icelandic population the age range being 4-24 years. It will help in forensic dental age estimation and will also help dentists, physicians, anthropologists, archaeologists and other professionals who rely on developmental age assessment in children and adolescents. In this present retrospective cross-sectional study, dental maturity was determined in 1100 Icelandic children and adolescents from orthopantomograms (OPGs). The first 100 were used for a pilot study and the remaining 1000 for the main study. A total of 23 subjects were excluded. The sample consisted of 508 girls and 469 boys from the age of 4-24 years and a dental developmental scoring system was used as a standard for determination of dental maturity stages. A total of 200 OPGs were studied both on the left and right side and the remaining on the right side. Dental maturity was established for all teeth and both genders, when the sample permitted, from the beginning of crown formation to the root apex closure. The Cronbach's Alpha reliability test showed high reliability, R=0.982. Girls in Iceland reach dental maturity root completed (stage 10, Rc) at 17.81 years of age for the maxillary and at 18.47 years for the mandibular teeth. Boys reach dental maturity root completed (stage 10, Rc) at 18.00 years of age in the maxilla and 17.63 in the mandible. There was no significant difference between left and right side (r=0.95-1.00) and there was no gender difference, except in root formation in maxillary and mandibular canines where girls reached root completed earlier than boys. A reliable database has been established in Iceland for tooth development in the age range of 4-24 years, which is compatible with international studies. These results will help forensic odontologists and other professionals to estimate with

  15. Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Power and distribution transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toman, G.; Gazdzinski, R.

    1994-05-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) provides recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in power and distribution transformers important to license renewal in commercial nuclear power plants. The intent of this AMG to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner which allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein

  16. Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Battery chargers, inverters and uninterruptible power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, R.; Stroinski, M.; Giachetti, R.

    1994-02-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant battery chargers, inverters and uninterruptible power supplies important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already, experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein

  17. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants-stationary batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, R.; Shao, J.; Krencicki, G.; Giachetti, R.

    1994-03-01

    The Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant stationary batteries important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein

  18. Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Motor control centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toman, G.; Gazdzinski, R.; O'Hearn, E.

    1994-02-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) provides recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) commercial nuclear power plant motor control centers important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein

  19. The search for evolutionary developmental origins of aging in zebrafish: a novel intersection of developmental and senescence biology in the zebrafish model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Shuji

    2011-09-01

    Senescence may be considered the antithesis of early development, but yet there may be factors and mechanisms in common between these two phenomena during the process of aging. We investigated whether any relationship exists between the regulatory mechanisms that function in early development and in senescence using the zebrafish (Danio rerio), a small freshwater fish and a useful model animal for genetic studies. We conducted experiments to isolate zebrafish mutants expressing an apparent senescence phenotype during embryogenesis (embryonic senescence). Some of the genes we thereby identified had already been associated with cellular senescence and chronological aging in other organisms, but many had not yet been linked to these processes. Complete loss-of-function of developmentally essential genes induce embryonic (or larval) lethality, whereas it seems like their partial loss-of-function (i.e., decrease-of-function by heterozygote or hypomorphic mutations) still remains sufficient to go through the early developmental process because of its adaptive plasticity or rather heterozygote advantage. However, in some cases, such partial loss-of-function of genes compromise normal homeostasis due to haploinsufficiency later in adult life having many environmental stress challenges. By contrast, any heterozygote-advantageous genes might gain a certain benefit(s) (much more fitness) by such partial loss-of-function later in life. Physiological senescence may evolutionarily arise from both genetic and epigenetic drifts as well as from losing adaptive developmental plasticity in face of stress signals from the external environment that interacts with functions of multiple genes rather than effects of only a single gene mutation or defect. Previously uncharacterized developmental genes may thus mediate the aging process and play a pivotal role in senescence. Moreover, unexpected senescence-related genes might also be involved in the early developmental process and

  20. Guidelines for a palliative approach for aged care in the community setting: a suite of resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Currow

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn Australia, many people ageing in their own homes are becoming increasingly frail and unwell, approaching the end of life. A palliative approach, which adheres to palliative care principles, is often appropriate. These principles provide a framework for proactive and holistic care in which quality of life and of dying is prioritised, as is support for families. A palliative approach can be delivered by the general practitioner working with the community aged care team, in collaboration with family carers. Support from specialist palliative care services is available if necessary. The Guidelines for a Palliative Approach for Aged Care in the Community Setting were published by the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing to inform practice in this area. There are three resource documents. The main document provides practical evidence based guidelines, good practice points, tools, and links to resources. This document is written for general practitioners, nurses, social workers, therapists, pastoral care workers, and other health professionals and responded to needs identified during national consultation. Evidence based guidelines were underpinned by systematic reviews of the research literature. Good practice points were developed from literature reviews and expert opinion. Two ‘plain English’ booklets were developed in a process involving consumer consultation; one is for older people and their families, the other for care workers. The resources are intended to facilitate home care that acknowledges and plans for the client’s deteriorating functional trajectory and inevitable death. At a time when hospitals and residential aged care facilities are under enormous pressure as the population ages, such a planned approach makes sense for the health system as a whole. The approach also makes sense for older people who wish to die in their own homes. Family needs are recognised and addressed. Unnecessary hospitalisations

  1. Guidelines for a palliative approach for aged care in the community setting: A suite of resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toye, Christine; Blackwell, Scott; Maher, Sean; Currow, David C; Holloway, Kristi; Tieman, Jennifer; Hegarty, Meg

    2012-01-01

    In Australia, many people ageing in their own homes are becoming increasingly frail and unwell, approaching the end of life. A palliative approach, which adheres to palliative care principles, is often appropriate. These principles provide a framework for proactive and holistic care in which quality of life and of dying is prioritised, as is support for families. A palliative approach can be delivered by the general practitioner working with the community aged care team, in collaboration with family carers. Support from specialist palliative care services is available if necessary.The Guidelines for a Palliative Approach for Aged Care in the Community Setting were published by the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing to inform practice in this area. There are three resource documents. The main document provides practical evidence based guidelines, good practice points, tools, and links to resources. This document is written for general practitioners, nurses, social workers, therapists, pastoral care workers, and other health professionals and responded to needs identified during national consultation. Evidence based guidelines were underpinned by systematic reviews of the research literature. Good practice points were developed from literature reviews and expert opinion. Two 'plain English' booklets were developed in a process involving consumer consultation; one is for older people and their families, the other for care workers.The resources are intended to facilitate home care that acknowledges and plans for the client's deteriorating functional trajectory and inevitable death. At a time when hospitals and residential aged care facilities are under enormous pressure as the population ages, such a planned approach makes sense for the health system as a whole. The approach also makes sense for older people who wish to die in their own homes. Family needs are recognised and addressed. Unnecessary hospitalisations or residential placements and

  2. Developmental outcome at 18 and 24 months of age in very preterm children: a cohort study from 1996 to 1997

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoelhorst, Gerlinde M. S. J.; Rijken, Monique; Martens, Shirley E.; van Zwieten, Paul H. T.; Feenstra, J.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Wit, Jan Maarten; Veen, Sylvia

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of prematurity (gestational age (GA) <32 weeks) on developmental outcome at the corrected age of 18 and 24 months in a regionally defined, prospective cohort study. Study design: The Leiden Follow-Up Project on Prematurity (LFUPP) includes all liveborn infants <32

  3. The natural history of developmental dysplasia of the hip: sonographic findings in infants of 1-3 months of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roovers, E.A.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magdalena M.; Mostert, Adriaan K.; Castelein, René M.; Zielhuis, Gerhard A.; Kerkhoff, Antoon

    2005-01-01

    The natural history of sonographic developmental dysplasia of the hip was determined in a population-based study in which 5170 infants were screened by ultrasound using Graf's method. Of the normal hips at the age of 1 month, 99.6% were still normal at the age of 3 months. Of the immature type

  4. Developmental procedures for the clinical practice guidelines for conscious sedation in dentistry for the Korean Academy of Dental Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, So-Youn; Seo, Kwang-Suk; Kim, Seungoh; Kim, Jongbin; Lee, Deok-Won; Hwang, Kyung-Gyun; Kim, Hyun Jeong

    2016-12-01

    Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are defined as "statements that are scientifically reviewed about evidence and systematically developed to assist in the doctors' and patients' decision making in certain clinical situations." This recommendation aims to promote good clinical practice for the provision of safe and effective practices of conscious sedation in dentistry. The development of this clinical practice guideline was conducted by performing a systematic search of the literature for evidence-based CPGs. Existing guidelines, relevant systematic reviews, policy documents, legislation, or other recommendations were reviewed and appraised. To supplement this information, key questions were formulated by the Guideline Development Group and used as the basis for designing systematic literature search strategies to identify literature that may address these questions. Guideline documents were evaluated through a review of domestic and international databases for the development of a renewing of existing conscious sedation guidelines for dentistry. Clinical practice guidelines were critically appraised for their methodologies using Appraisal of guidelines for research and evaluation (AGREE) II. A total of 12 existing CPGs were included and 13 recommendations were made in a range of general, adult, and pediatric areas. The clinical practice guidelines for conscious sedation will be reviewed in 5 years' time for further updates to reflect significant changes in the field.

  5. Individual Differences in Developmental Change: Quantifying the Amplitude and Heterogeneity in Cognitive Change across Old Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Mella

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that cognitive decline in older adults is of smaller amplitude in longitudinal than in cross-sectional studies. Yet, the measure of interest rests generally with aggregated group data. A focus on individual developmental trajectories is rare, mainly because it is difficult to assess intraindividual change reliably. Individual differences in developmental trajectories may differ quantitatively (e.g., larger or smaller decline or qualitatively (e.g., decline vs improvement, as well as in the degree of heterogeneity of change across different cognitive domains or different tasks. The present paper aims at exploring, within the Geneva Variability Study, individual change across several cognitive domains in 92 older adults (aged 59–89 years at baseline over a maximum of seven years and a half. Two novel, complementary methods were used to explore change in cognitive performance while remaining entirely at the intra-individual level. A bootstrap based confidence interval was estimated, for each participant and for each experimental condition, making it possible to define three patterns: stability, increase or decrease in performance. Within-person ANOVAs were also conducted for each individual on all the tasks. Those two methods allowed quantifying the direction, the amplitude and the heterogeneity of change for each individual. Results show that trajectories differed widely among individuals and that decline is far from being the rule.

  6. Developmental antecedents of political ideology: a longitudinal investigation from birth to age 18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, R Chris; Griffin, Brian N; Belsky, Jay; Roisman, Glenn I

    2012-01-01

    The study reported here examined the developmental antecedents of conservative versus liberal ideologies using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development and a follow-up study conducted when the sample was 18 years old. Specifically, we examined variation in conservative versus liberal ideologies at age 18 years as a function of parenting attitudes and child temperament during the first 5 years of life. Consistent with long-standing theories on the development of political attitudes, our results showed that parents' authoritarian attitudes assessed when children were 1 month old predicted conservative attitudes in those children more than 17 years later. Consistent with the findings of Block and Block (2006), our results also showed that early childhood temperament predicted variation in conservative versus liberal ideologies.

  7. Premature reproductive aging in female rats after developmental exposure to mixtures of endocrine disrupters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Christiansen, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    of 13 estrogenic and anti-androgenic chemicals, including phthalates, pesticides, UV-filters, bisphenol A, butylparaben and paracetamol, and the mixture ratio was chosen to reflect high-end human intakes. Groups received combined exposures of 0,100, 150, 200 or 450 times high-end human intake levels......Long-lasting and delayed reproductive effects of developmental exposure to mixtures of environmental chemicals were investigated in female rats. Wistar rats were dosed during gestation and lactation to mixtures of endocrine disrupters, and effects in offspring were studied. The mixtures consisted....... Additionally, groups received mixtures including only the anti-androgens or estrogens at 200 or 450 times human intake. Female offspring exposed to the high dose mixture of all 13 chemicals showed earlier reproductive aging measured as early onset of irregular estrous cycle as compared to controls...

  8. The Role of Age and Social Motivation in Developmental Transitions in Young and Old Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana eNikitin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Two diary studies investigated the role of social approach and avoidance motivation in important developmental transitions in young and old adulthood. Study 1 comprised a sample of young adults (N = 93, M = 21.5 years who moved out of their parental homes. The sample of Study 2 consisted of older adults (N = 69, M = 76.95 years who moved into senior housing. In both studies, participants reported their habitual social approach and avoidance motives as well as their daily social experience and subjective well-being over the course of two weeks. In line with the literature, social approach motives and age were related to higher subjective well-being, whereas social avoidance motives were negatively associated with subjective well-being. Time since the transition was an important moderator of the association between social avoidance motives and negative outcomes. With increasing time from the transition, the negative effects of social avoidance motives decreased. The positive effects of social approach motives remained fairly stable over time. Importantly, age did not moderate any of the associations between social motivation and outcomes. Results are discussed in terms of transition-related instability and age-related stability.

  9. Reducing age of autism diagnosis: developmental social neuroscience meets public health challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klin, Ami; Klaiman, Cheryl; Jones, Warren

    2015-02-25

    Autism spectrum disorder (autism) is a highly prevalent and heterogeneous family of neurodevelopmental disorders of genetic origins with potentially devastating implications for child, family, health and educational systems. Despite advances in paper-and-pencil screening and in standardization of diagnostic procedures, diagnosis of autism in the US still hovers around the ages of four or five years, later still in disadvantaged communities, and several years after the age of two to three years when the condition can be reliably diagnosed by expert clinicians. As early detection and treatment are two of the most important factors optimizing outcome, and given that diagnosis is typically a necessary condition for families to have access to early treatment, reducing age of diagnosis has become one of the greatest priorities of the field. Recent advances in developmental social neuroscience promise the advent of cost-effective and community-viable, performance-based procedures, and suggest a complementary method for promoting universal screening and much greater access to the diagnosis process. Small but critical studies have already reported on experiments that differentiate groups of children at risk for autism from controls, and at least one study so far could predict diagnostic classification and level of disability on the basis of a brief experiment. Although the road to translating such procedures into effective devices for screening and diagnosis is still a long one, and premature claims should be avoided, this effort could be critical in addressing this worldwide public health challenge.

  10. Single Health System Adherence to 2012 Cervical Cancer Screening Guidelines at Extremes of Age and Posthysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Deanna; Isaksson Vogel, Rachel; Hultman, Gretchen; Monu, Minnu; Downs, Levi; Geller, Melissa A; Le, Chap; Melton-Meaux, Genevieve; Kulasingam, Shalini

    2017-03-01

    To estimate the proportion of guideline nonadherent Pap tests in women aged younger than 21 years and older than 65 years and posthysterectomy in a single large health system. Secondary objectives were to describe temporal trends and patient and health care provider characteristics associated with screening in these groups. A retrospective cross-sectional chart review was performed at Fairview Health Services and University of Minnesota Physicians. Reasons for testing and patient and health care provider information were collected. Tests were designated as indicated or nonindicated per the 2012 cervical cancer screening guidelines. Point estimates and descriptive statistics were calculated. Patient and health care provider characteristics were compared between indicated and nonindicated groups using χ and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. A total of 3,920 Pap tests were performed between September 9, 2012, and August 31, 2014. A total of 257 (51%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 46.1-54.9%) of tests in the younger than 21 years group, 536 (40%; 95% CI 37.7-43.1%) in the older than 65 years group, and 605 (29%; 95% CI 27.1-31.0%) in the posthysterectomy group were not indicated. White race in the older than 65 years group was the only patient characteristic associated with receipt of a nonindicated Pap test (P=.007). Health care provider characteristics associated with nonindicated Pap tests varied by screening group. Temporal trends showed a decrease in the proportion of nonindicated tests in the younger than 21 years group but an increase in the posthysterectomy group. For women aged younger than 21 years and older than 65 years and posthysterectomy, 35% of Pap tests performed in our health system were not guideline-adherent. There were no patient or health care provider characteristics associated with guideline nonadherent screening across all groups.

  11. Developmental risk factors in Vietnamese preschool-age children: Cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Nguyen Huu Chau

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood development (ECD) strongly influences children's basic learning, school success, economic participation, social citizenry and health. Although some risk factors related to childhood development are documented, further exploration is necessary considering various sociodemographic, nutritional, and psychosocial factors. This study investigated factors affecting ECD in Vietnamese preschoolers. We used data from the representative, cross-sectional round of the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Clusters Survey 2011. Early Childhood Development Index questionnaires were administered to mothers of all children aged 36-59 months in the household (n = 1459). Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression were used in the analysis. In Vietnam, 17.2% of children did not reach their full developmental potential within the first 5 years. Children who had been breast-fed (AOR, 2.78; 95%CI: 1.28-6.02), attended preschool (AOR, 1.75; 95%CI: 1.28-2.39), were of major ethnicity (AOR, 2.41; 95%CI: 1.55-3.74), had a mother with secondary or higher education (AOR, 1.69; 95%CI: 1.19-2.38) and had relatives who engaged with them in four or more activities that promote learning (AOR, 1.55; 95%CI: 1.13-2.14) were more likely to have a normal developmental trajectory. Furthermore, children who experienced physical punishment and stunting were 0.69-fold (95%CI: 0.51-0.95) and 0.71-fold (95%CI: 0.51-0.98) less likely to be on track for ECD, respectively. The risk factors associated with delayed ECD were low level of maternal education; family ethnicity; lack of preschool attendance; relatives who did not engage with them in learning; physical punishment; not being breast-fed; and stunting. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  12. Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornelas, Lílian de Fátima; Magalhães, Lívia de Castro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD) up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Methods: Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. Results: The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Conclusions: Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems. PMID:26553573

  13. Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian de Fátima Dornelas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Methods: Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. Results: The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Conclusions: Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems.

  14. [Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornelas, Lílian de Fátima; Magalhães, Lívia de Castro

    2016-01-01

    To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD) up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Age matters: Developmental stage of Danio rerio larvae influences photomotor response thresholds to diazinion or diphenhydramine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristofco, Lauren A.; Cruz, Luis Colon; Haddad, Samuel P.; Behra, Martine L; Chambliss, C. Kevin; Brooks, Bryan W.

    2016-01-01

    Because basic toxicological data is unavailable for the majority of industrial compounds, High Throughput Screening (HTS) assays using the embryonic and larval zebrafish provide promising approaches to define bioactivity profiles and identify potential adverse outcome pathways for previously understudied chemicals. Unfortunately, standardized approaches, including HTS experimental designs, for examining fish behavioral responses to contaminants are rarely available. In the present study, we examined movement behavior of larval zebrafish over 7 days (4–10 days post fertilization or dpf) during typical daylight workday hours to determine whether intrinsic activity differed with age and time of day. We then employed an early life stage approach using the Fish Embryo Test (FET) at multiple developmental ages to evaluate whether photomotor response (PMR) behavior differed with zebrafish age following exposure to diazinon (DZN), a well-studied orthophosphate insecticide, and diphenhydramine (DPH), an antihistamine that also targets serotonin reuptake transporters and the acetylcholine receptor. 72 h studies were conducted at 1–4, 4–7 and 7–10 dpf, followed by behavioral observations using a ViewPoint system at 4, 7 and 10 dpf. Distance traveled and swimming speeds were quantified; nominal treatment levels were analytically verified by isotope-dilution LC-MSMS. Larval zebrafish locomotion displayed significantly different (p environmentally realistic lowest observed effect concentration of 200 ng/L. Though ELS and FET studies with zebrafish typically focus on mortality or teratogenicity in 0–4 dpf organisms, behavioral responses of slightly older fish were several orders of magnitude more sensitive to DPH. Our observations highlight the importance of understanding the influence of time of day on intrinsic locomotor activity, and the age-specific hazards of aquatic contaminants to fish behavior. PMID:26431593

  16. Evaluation of surgical outcome in advanced age patients with developmental hip dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiçekli, Özgür; Doğan, Metin

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed at determining the efficacy of the surgical treatment conducted on children with delayed presentation developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). The objective was to provide a good comparison of functional and radiographic outcomes and to determine various surgical treatment options. In this study, we evaluated the results of 38 hips of 27 patients aged 4 years onset which had been operated due to DDH. Radiographic outcomes were evaluated by using acetabular index, CE angle, Tonnis and the Severin classification system. Clinical evaluation was made by using IOWA hip scores. Degenerative changes were evaluated according to Boyer and avascular necrosis according to Kalamchi-MacEwen criteria. The mean age of the patients at the operation time was 10 years 3 months (range: 4 years 3 months-30 years). While the mean acetabular index was 37.97 preoperatively, in the last follow-up it was 19.92. Thirty-six hips (94%) had an excellent and good outcomes, and two hips (%6) had a fair outcome with respect to the Severin criteria. The mean hip score with respect to IOWA was 93.736 (range: 75-98) and the rate of excellent and good outcomes was 98%. For the treatment of patients with DDH of late onset, a one-staged operative procedure is recommended. This method is applied successfully and enables us to achieve good clinical and radiographic results. Copyright © 2018 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The role of Play in the psychodrama for the developmental age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donata Miglietta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The work is based on the results of a clinical research project made over a fifteen year period on open groups in which children of different age groups participated. In groupe with children, the prevailing language is the primitive one of body language, whose alphabet, represented by sensory and motor functions, directly addresses the emotions. With children it is necessary to start with this archaic language of actions because their thought processes are concentrated on motorial “explosions”. The alpha function transforms the beta elements into that which Bion calls alpha elements, namely into those psychic elements that have characteristics that can be used as thoughts. The conductor collects the beta elements and after removing the distressing aspects, returns them to the children, thereby giving them the basis of an ability to think. The transformational path for the children is based primarily upon this passage from motorial action to the ability to describe what they feel. It is therefore necessary to note how narrative in groups of children is generated through forms of bodily contact, which often arrive at the borders of action. Consequently, the function of the conductor must be based mainly on an ability to transform movements into scenes.Keywords: Developmental age, Action, Play, Thought

  18. Maternal mental health predicts risk of developmental problems at 3 years of age: follow up of a community based trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leew Shirley

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Undetected and untreated developmental problems can have a significant economic and social impact on society. Intervention to ameliorate potential developmental problems requires early identification of children at risk of future learning and behaviour difficulties. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of risk for developmental problems among preschool children born to medically low risk women and identify factors that influence outcomes. Methods Mothers who had participated in a prenatal trial were followed up three years post partum to answer a telephone questionnaire. Questions were related to child health and development, child care, medical care, mother's lifestyle, well-being, and parenting style. The main outcome measure was risk for developmental problems using the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS. Results Of 791 children, 11% were screened by the PEDS to be at high risk for developmental problems at age three. Of these, 43% had previously been referred for assessment. Children most likely to have been referred were those born preterm. Risk factors for delay included: male gender, history of ear infections, a low income environment, and a mother with poor emotional health and a history of abuse. A child with these risk factors was predicted to have a 53% chance of screening at high risk for developmental problems. This predicted probability was reduced to 19% if the child had a mother with good emotional health and no history of abuse. Conclusion Over 10% of children were identified as high risk for developmental problems by the screening, and more than half of those had not received a specialist referral. Risk factors for problems included prenatal and perinatal maternal and child factors. Assessment of maternal health and effective screening of child development may increase detection of children at high risk who would benefit from early intervention. Trial registration Current

  19. Age matters: Developmental stage of Danio rerio larvae influences photomotor response thresholds to diazinion or diphenhydramine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristofco, Lauren A.; Cruz, Luis Colon; Haddad, Samuel P.; Behra, Martine L.; Chambliss, C. Kevin; Brooks, Bryan W.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Fish behavior impairments by biological active contaminants are limited yet necessary. • Aquatic toxicology assays with 0–4 dpf larval zebrafish are increasingly important. • Larval zebrafish locomotion varied with age and daylight during typical workday hours. • Photomotor behavior to diazinion and diphenhydramine differed by larval zebrafish age. • Behavioral responses of 7–10 dpf zebrafish were markedly more sensitive than 0–4 dpf. - Abstract: Because basic toxicological data is unavailable for the majority of industrial compounds, High Throughput Screening (HTS) assays using the embryonic and larval zebrafish provide promising approaches to define bioactivity profiles and identify potential adverse outcome pathways for previously understudied chemicals. Unfortunately, standardized approaches, including HTS experimental designs, for examining fish behavioral responses to contaminants are rarely available. In the present study, we examined movement behavior of larval zebrafish over 7 days (4–10 days post fertilization or dpf) during typical daylight workday hours to determine whether intrinsic activity differed with age and time of day. We then employed an early life stage approach using the Fish Embryo Test (FET) at multiple developmental ages to evaluate whether photomotor response (PMR) behavior differed with zebrafish age following exposure to diazinon (DZN), a well-studied orthophosphate insecticide, and diphenhydramine (DPH), an antihistamine that also targets serotonin reuptake transporters and the acetylcholine receptor. 72 h studies were conducted at 1–4, 4–7 and 7–10 dpf, followed by behavioral observations using a ViewPoint system at 4, 7 and 10 dpf. Distance traveled and swimming speeds were quantified; nominal treatment levels were analytically verified by isotope-dilution LC–MSMS. Larval zebrafish locomotion displayed significantly different (p < 0.05) activity profiles over the course of typical daylight and

  20. Age matters: Developmental stage of Danio rerio larvae influences photomotor response thresholds to diazinion or diphenhydramine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristofco, Lauren A. [Department of Environmental Science, Center for Reservoir and Aquatic Systems Research, Baylor University, Waco, TX (United States); Cruz, Luis Colon [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, School of Medicine, University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan (Puerto Rico); Haddad, Samuel P. [Department of Environmental Science, Center for Reservoir and Aquatic Systems Research, Baylor University, Waco, TX (United States); Behra, Martine L. [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, School of Medicine, University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan (Puerto Rico); Chambliss, C. Kevin [Department of Environmental Science, Center for Reservoir and Aquatic Systems Research, Baylor University, Waco, TX (United States); Department of Chemistry, Baylor University, Waco, TX (United States); Brooks, Bryan W., E-mail: Bryan_Brooks@baylor.edu [Department of Environmental Science, Center for Reservoir and Aquatic Systems Research, Baylor University, Waco, TX (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Fish behavior impairments by biological active contaminants are limited yet necessary. • Aquatic toxicology assays with 0–4 dpf larval zebrafish are increasingly important. • Larval zebrafish locomotion varied with age and daylight during typical workday hours. • Photomotor behavior to diazinion and diphenhydramine differed by larval zebrafish age. • Behavioral responses of 7–10 dpf zebrafish were markedly more sensitive than 0–4 dpf. - Abstract: Because basic toxicological data is unavailable for the majority of industrial compounds, High Throughput Screening (HTS) assays using the embryonic and larval zebrafish provide promising approaches to define bioactivity profiles and identify potential adverse outcome pathways for previously understudied chemicals. Unfortunately, standardized approaches, including HTS experimental designs, for examining fish behavioral responses to contaminants are rarely available. In the present study, we examined movement behavior of larval zebrafish over 7 days (4–10 days post fertilization or dpf) during typical daylight workday hours to determine whether intrinsic activity differed with age and time of day. We then employed an early life stage approach using the Fish Embryo Test (FET) at multiple developmental ages to evaluate whether photomotor response (PMR) behavior differed with zebrafish age following exposure to diazinon (DZN), a well-studied orthophosphate insecticide, and diphenhydramine (DPH), an antihistamine that also targets serotonin reuptake transporters and the acetylcholine receptor. 72 h studies were conducted at 1–4, 4–7 and 7–10 dpf, followed by behavioral observations using a ViewPoint system at 4, 7 and 10 dpf. Distance traveled and swimming speeds were quantified; nominal treatment levels were analytically verified by isotope-dilution LC–MSMS. Larval zebrafish locomotion displayed significantly different (p < 0.05) activity profiles over the course of typical daylight and

  1. Obesity and Developmental Functioning among Children Aged 2-4 Years. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series #08-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, John; Spiess, C. Katharina

    2008-01-01

    In developed countries, obesity tends to be associated with worse labor market outcomes. One possible reason is that obesity leads to less human capital formation early in life. This paper investigates the association between obesity and the developmental functioning of children at younger ages (2-4 years) than ever previously examined. Data from…

  2. Effects of Video Self-Modeling on Eliminating Public Undressing by Elementary-Aged Students with Developmental Disabilities during Urination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtake, Yoshihisa; Takeuchi, Ai; Watanabe, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of video self-modeling (VSM) for eliminating the public undressing of two elementary-aged students with developmental disabilities during urination. A multiple-probe design across participants revealed that the degree of exposed body parts decreased immediately after introduction of VSM. However, exposure…

  3. Do pediatricians recognize cognitive developmental problems in preterm children at age 5 years?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sondaar, M.; Kessel, B.J.M. van; Kleine, M.J.K. de; Briët, J.M.; Ouden, A.L. den; Baar, A. van

    2008-01-01

    Often developmental psychologists see children only after referral from physicians. Do pediatricians recognize which children in a known risk group are in need of a cognitive evaluation? A judgment by pediatricians, based on an assessment using a parent questionnaire, the Denver Developmental

  4. Developmental Risk and Young Children's Regulatory Strategies: Predicting Behavior Problems at Age Five

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstein, Emily D.; Pedersen y Arbona, Anita; Crnic, Keith A.; Ryu, Ehri; Baker, Bruce L.; Blacher, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Children with early developmental delays are at heightened risk for behavior problems and comorbid psychopathology. This study examined the trajectories of regulatory capabilities and their potentially mediating role in the development of behavior problems for children with and without early developmental delays. A sample of 231 children comprised…

  5. Development of aging management standard guidelines for HVAC facilities of NPPs in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Se Youl; Lee, Jae Gon; Oh, Seung Jin

    2014-01-01

    Inspection and maintenance activities for air conditioning facilities within the plant are managed mainly for active facilities, and as the years of operation pass, a method for detecting in advance aging-related integrity problems of passive facilities and taking necessary measures against them is required. Therefore, this paper establishes a standard aging management guideline for air conditioning facilities by selecting systems for which those facilities are to be managed, analyzing degradation mechanisms and reviewing the current status of aging degradation management. According to the review of additional equipment-specific aging degradation mechanisms and the current status of management to apply the aging degradation program to air conditioning facilities, it has been found that internal and external visual inspection procedures for fans, dampers, coils, filters and housings have to be added. It has been confirmed that among additional equipment s, fire dampers, fan bearings and belts and air cleaning/conditioning units with charcoal filters do not require additional inspection as they are periodically inspected. It has been found, however, that air cleaning/conditioning units without charcoal filters are to be inspected along with fans, ducts and coils

  6. Interventions for Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Are Practice Guidelines Based on Systematic Reviews?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsley, Kristina; Li, Tianjing; Ssemanda, Elizabeth; Virgili, Gianni; Dickersin, Kay

    2016-04-01

    Are existing systematic reviews of interventions for age-related macular degeneration incorporated into clinical practice guidelines? High-quality systematic reviews should be used to underpin evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and clinical care. We examined the reliability of systematic reviews of interventions for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and described the main findings of reliable reviews in relation to clinical practice guidelines. Eligible publications were systematic reviews of the effectiveness of treatment interventions for AMD. We searched a database of systematic reviews in eyes and vision without language or date restrictions; the database was up to date as of May 6, 2014. Two authors independently screened records for eligibility and abstracted and assessed the characteristics and methods of each review. We classified reviews as reliable when they reported eligibility criteria, comprehensive searches, methodologic quality of included studies, appropriate statistical methods for meta-analysis, and conclusions based on results. We mapped treatment recommendations from the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) Preferred Practice Patterns (PPPs) for AMD to systematic reviews and citations of reliable systematic reviews to support each treatment recommendation. Of 1570 systematic reviews in our database, 47 met inclusion criteria; most targeted neovascular AMD and investigated anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) interventions, dietary supplements, or photodynamic therapy. We classified 33 (70%) reviews as reliable. The quality of reporting varied, with criteria for reliable reporting met more often by Cochrane reviews and reviews whose authors disclosed conflicts of interest. Anti-VEGF agents and photodynamic therapy were the only interventions identified as effective by reliable reviews. Of 35 treatment recommendations extracted from the PPPs, 15 could have been supported with reliable systematic reviews; however, only 1

  7. Enduring effects of severe developmental adversity, including nutritional deprivation, on cortisol metabolism in aging Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehuda, Rachel; Bierer, Linda M; Andrew, Ruth; Schmeidler, James; Seckl, Jonathan R

    2009-06-01

    In animal models, early life exposure to major environmental challenges such as malnutrition and stress results in persisting cardiometabolic, neuroendocrine and affective effects. While such effects have been associated with pathogenesis, the widespread occurrence of 'developmental programming' suggests it has adaptive function. Glucocorticoids may mediate 'programming' and their metabolism is known to be affected by early life events in rodents. To examine these relationships in humans, cortisol metabolism and cardiometabolic disease manifestations were examined in Holocaust survivors in relation to age at exposure and affective dysfunction, notably lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Fifty-one Holocaust survivors and 22 controls without Axis I disorder collected 24-h urine samples and were evaluated for psychiatric disorders and cardiometabolic diagnoses. Corticosteroids and their metabolites were assayed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS); cortisol was also measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Holocaust survivors showed reduced cortisol by RIA, and decreased levels of 5alpha-tetrahydrocortisol (5alpha-THF) and total glucocorticoid production by GC-MS. The latter was associated with lower cortisol metabolism by 5alpha-reductase and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD) type-2. The greatest decrements were associated with earliest age of Holocaust exposure and less severe PTSD symptomatology. Cardiometabolic manifestations were associated with decreased 11beta-HSD-2 activity. In controls, 5alpha-reductase was positively associated with trauma-related symptoms (i.e., to traumatic exposures unrelated to the Holocaust). Extreme malnutrition and related stress during development is associated with long-lived alterations in specific pathways of glucocorticoid metabolism. These effects may be adaptive and link with lower risks of cardiometabolic and stress-related disorders in later life.

  8. Regional Brain Biometrics at Term-Equivalent Age and Developmental Outcome in Extremely Low-Birth-Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbourne, Launice; Murnick, Jonathan; Chang, Taeun; Glass, Penny; Massaro, An N

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate individual regional brain biometrics and their association with developmental outcome in extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants. This is a retrospective study evaluating term-equivalent magnetic resonance imaging (TE-MRI) from 27 ELBW infants with known developmental outcomes beyond 12 months corrected age. Regional biometric measurements were performed by a pediatric neuroradiologist blinded to outcome data. Measures included biparietal width, transcerebellar diameter (TCD), deep gray matter area (DGMA), ventricular dilatation, corpus callosum, and interhemispheric distance. The relationship between regional biometrics and Bayley-II developmental scores were evaluated with linear regression models. The study cohort had an average±standard deviation birth weight of 684±150 g, gestational age of 24.6±2 weeks and 48% males. DGMA was significantly associated with both cognitive and motor outcomes. Significant associations were also observed between TCD and corpus callosum splenium with cognitive and motor outcomes, respectively. Other biometric measures were not associated with outcome (p>0.05). DGMAbiometrics reflecting impaired deep gray matter, callosal, and cerebellar size is associated with worse early childhood cognitive and motor outcomes. DGMA may be the most robust single biometric measure to predict adverse developmental outcome in preterm survivors. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. Relationship between physical activity and physical fitness in school-aged children with developmental language disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Niet, Anneke G.; Hartman, Esther; Moolenaar, Ben J.; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Children with developmental language disorders (DLD) often experience difficulty in understanding and engaging in interactive behavior with other children, which may lead to reduced daily physical activity and fitness levels. The present study evaluated the physical activity and physical fitness

  10. Comparing guidelines for adjuvant endocrine therapy in postmenopausal women with breast cancer: a coming of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sunil; Jackisch, Christian

    2011-02-01

    Following surgery for early breast cancer, the standard of care for postmenopausal women is adjuvant therapy with any combination of radiation therapy, endocrine therapy, chemotherapy and/or targeted therapy. Clinicians rely on many tools, including guidelines, to make these treatment decisions. Such guidelines include the St Gallen consensus statement, the American Society of Clinical Oncology guidelines and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines, as well as various regional and national guidelines. Recommendations may vary, because different methods and criteria were used to assess the strength of supporting data. This article provides an overview of global guidelines for the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer and points out the major differences. Ongoing changes are highlighted, particularly those regarding the adjuvant endocrine treatment of postmenopausal women with breast cancer. While previous guidelines recommended tamoxifen alone, all major guidelines now recommend using third-generation aromatase inhibitors either in sequence with tamoxifen or as upfront treatment.

  11. Developmental continuity of oppositional defiant disorder subdimensions at ages 8, 10, and 13 years and their distinct psychiatric outcomes at age 16 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Yvonne M; Stringaris, Argyris; Maughan, Barbara; Barker, Edward D

    2013-09-01

    To test the developmental continuity, interrelationships, and predictive associations of the oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) subdimensions of irritable, headstrong, and hurtful. Data were collected from 6,328 mother-child pairs participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (United Kingdom). Developmental continuity for each subdimension was strong and interrelationships indicated that headstrong was associated mainly with irritable, whereas irritable did not cross associate with other ODD subdimensions; and hurtful was associated with lower levels of headstrong. With regard to associations at age 16 years, irritable at age 13 years was associated with depression, whereas headstrong at 13 was associated with delinquency and callous attitude; at age 13, hurtful failed to associate with any of the 3 age 16 outcomes. The results suggest that the ODD headstrong and irritable subdimensions are developmentally distinct, with small cross-over (i.e., headstrong to irritable), and are associated with unique outcomes. Hurtful does not appear to be associated with future maladjustment in children. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Medial versus anterior open reduction for developmental hip dislocation in age-matched patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoellwarth, Jason S; Kim, Young-Jo; Millis, Michael B; Kasser, James R; Zurakowski, David; Matheney, Travis H

    2015-01-01

    The difference between medial (MAOR) and anterior (AAOR) approaches for open reduction of developmental hip dysplasia in terms of risk for avascular necrosis (AVN) and need for further corrective surgery (FCS, femoral and/or acetabular osteotomy) is unclear. This study compared age-matched cohorts undergoing either MAOR or AAOR in terms of these 2 primary outcomes. Prognostic impact of presence of ossific nucleus at time of open reduction was also investigated. Institutional review board approval was obtained. Nineteen hips (14 patients) managed by MAOR were matched with 19 hips (18 patients) managed by AAOR based on age at operation (mean 6.0; range, 1.4 to 14.9 mo). Patients with neuromuscular conditions and known connective tissue disorders were excluded. Primary outcomes assessed at minimum 2 years' follow-up included radiographic evidence of AVN (Kalamchi and MacEwen) or requiring FCS. MAOR and AAOR cohorts were similar regarding age at open reduction, sex, laterality, and follow-up duration. One hip in each group had AVN before open reduction thus were excluded from AVN analysis. At minimum 2 years postoperatively (mean 6.2; range, 1.8 to 11.7 y), 4/18 (22%) MAOR and 5/18 (28%) AAOR met the same criteria for AVN (P=1.0). No predictors of AVN could be identified by regression analysis. Presence of an ossific nucleus preoperatively was not a protective factor from AVN (P=0.27). FCS was required in 4/19 (21%) MAOR and 7/19 (37%) AAOR hips (P=0.48). However, 7/12 (54%) hips failing closed reduction required FCS compared with 4/26 (16%) hips without prior failed closed reduction (P=0.024). Cox regression analysis showed that patients who failed closed reduction had an annual risk of requiring FCS approximately 6 times that of patients without a history of failed closed reduction (hazard ratio=6.1; 95% CI, 1.5-24.4; P=0.009), independent of surgical approach (P=0.55) or length of follow-up (P=0.78). In this study of age-matched patients undergoing either MAOR or

  13. Developmental Trends in the Dance Performance of Children Age Six to Nine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Stephanie Lane

    2011-01-01

    Quality elementary physical education programs recognize the changing development and movement abilities of children (NASPE, 2007). Educational dance within these programs provides opportunities to engage in developmentally appropriate rhythmic activities. Research to date provides modest information for physical educators regarding what rhythmic…

  14. Moderate Developmental undernutrition: Impact on growth and cognitive function in youth and old age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low weight at birth is a common adverse developmental effect reported in human populations and animal toxicity studies. Epidemiological evidence links low birth weight to a syndrome ofmetabolic changes that increase later risk for obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardi...

  15. Developmental Precursors of Number of Sexual Partners from Ages 16 to 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Yu, Tianyi; Erath, Stephen A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines family and child characteristics, parent and peer relationships, and early adolescent behavior as statistical predictors of trajectories of number of sexual partners from midadolescence through early adulthood using data from 527 participants in the Child Development Project. Early adolescent developmental antecedents accounted…

  16. Financial Well-Being of Single, Working-Age Mothers of Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Susan L.; Rose, Roderick A.; Swaine, Jamie G.; Dababnah, Sarah; Mayra, Ellen Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the financial well-being of single mothers who care for children with developmental disabilities is important to ensure that public policies can be effectively targeted to support these vulnerable families. The authors analyze data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation to describe income poverty, asset poverty, income,…

  17. Developmental Outcome of Preterm Infants with Intraventricular Hemorrhage at One and Two Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sostek, Anita Miller; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This study examined developmental outcome at 1 and 2 years in relation to the presence and severity of neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage. Intraventricular hemorrhage related to Bayley mental and motor scores and neurologic ratings at 1 year but not at 2 years. Significant associations were found between the 1- and 2-year measures but not…

  18. Predictive value of developmental testing in the second year for cognitive development at five years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair G Sutcliffe

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available There is mixed evidence about the predictive validity of the Griffiths mental developmental scales. This study aimed to assess the predictive value of developmental assessments of children in their second year using the Griffiths mental development scales for neuro-developmental status at five years using the Wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligence, revised (WPPSI-R. In a longitudinal study 253 children were assessed in their second year of life using the Griffiths scales and again at five years using the WPPSI-R. The scores were compared and the predictability of the WPPSI-R outcome on the basis of Griffiths scores was assessed. The WPPSI-R full scale IQ and the performance IQ at age five could be predicted moderately by the Griffiths general quotient (GQ and by the personal/social scale. The Griffiths GQ was not a significant predictor of verbal IQ at age 5. The Griffiths performance scale predicted subsequent WPPSI-R performance IQ, and marginally the Full Scale IQ. For the early identification of children at risk for language delay, the Griffiths scales may not be suitable. However, a shortened form would be useful to predict overall cognitive development from the second year to school entry, focussing on the personal-social and performance scales.

  19. Using nursing intervention classification in an advance practice registered nurse-led preventive model for adults aging with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Joan Earle

    2014-09-01

    To describe the most frequently reported and the most central nursing interventions in an advance practice registered nurse (APRN)-led in-home preventive intervention model for adults aging with developmental disabilities using the Nursing Intervention Classification (NIC) system. A descriptive data analysis and a market basket analysis were conducted on de-identified nominal nursing intervention data from two home visits conducted by nurse practitioners (NPs) from October 2010 to June 2012 for 80 community-dwelling adults with developmental disabilities, ages 29 to 68 years. The mean number of NIC interventions was 4.7 in the first visit and 6.0 in the second visit and last visit. NPs reported 45 different intervention types as classified using a standardized language, with 376 in Visit One and 470 in Visit Two. Approximately 85% of the sample received the Health education intervention. The market basket analysis revealed common pairs, triples, and quadruple sets of interventions in this preventive model. The NIC nursing interventions that occurred together repeatedly were: Health education, Weight management, Nutrition management, Health screening, and Behavior management. Five NIC interventions form the basis of an APRN-led preventive intervention model for individuals aging with lifelong disability, with health education as the most common intervention, combined with interventions to manage weight and nutrition, promote healthy behaviors, and encourage routine health screening. Less frequently reported NIC interventions suggest the need to tailor prevention to individual needs, whether acute or chronic. APRNs employing prevention among adults aging with developmental disabilities must anticipate the need to focus on health education strategies for health promotion and prevention as well as tailor and target a patient-centered approach to support self-management of health to promote healthy aging in place. These NIC interventions serve not only as a guide for

  20. The developmental trajectory of children's auditory and visual statistical learning abilities: modality-based differences in the effect of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raviv, Limor; Arnon, Inbal

    2017-09-12

    Infants, children and adults are capable of extracting recurring patterns from their environment through statistical learning (SL), an implicit learning mechanism that is considered to have an important role in language acquisition. Research over the past 20 years has shown that SL is present from very early infancy and found in a variety of tasks and across modalities (e.g., auditory, visual), raising questions on the domain generality of SL. However, while SL is well established for infants and adults, only little is known about its developmental trajectory during childhood, leaving two important questions unanswered: (1) Is SL an early-maturing capacity that is fully developed in infancy, or does it improve with age like other cognitive capacities (e.g., memory)? and (2) Will SL have similar developmental trajectories across modalities? Only few studies have looked at SL across development, with conflicting results: some find age-related improvements while others do not. Importantly, no study to date has examined auditory SL across childhood, nor compared it to visual SL to see if there are modality-based differences in the developmental trajectory of SL abilities. We addressed these issues by conducting a large-scale study of children's performance on matching auditory and visual SL tasks across a wide age range (5-12y). Results show modality-based differences in the development of SL abilities: while children's learning in the visual domain improved with age, learning in the auditory domain did not change in the tested age range. We examine these findings in light of previous studies and discuss their implications for modality-based differences in SL and for the role of auditory SL in language acquisition. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3kg35hoF0pw. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effect of Developmental Stimulation Program on the Developmental Measures of Toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Ghayebie

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The variability in the developmental skills is reduced after the first three years of life; therefore, it is necessary to identify and manage early developmental delays. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of developmental stimulation program on the developmental measures of the toddlers. Method: The present randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 31 toddlers aged 1-3 years residing at Ali Asghar Foster Care Center within 2016-2017. Developmental interventions were carried out based on the modified guidelines of West Virginia Early Learning Standards Framework for eight weeks (three 2-hour sessions a week. The interventions included a range of age- and developmental-specific activities described in the given guidelines. Child development age was measured based on motor dimensions (i.e., gross and fine and language development (i.e., receptive and expressive before and after the intervention. The data were analyzed in SPSS software (version 11 using independent t-test and Chi-square test. Results: The mean ages of the participants in the control and intervention groups were 19.9±5.5 and 20±6.02, respectively (P=0.62. The mean ages of receptive language development (P=0.003, expressive language development (P

  2. NICE guidelines for imaging studies in children with UTI adequate only in boys under the age of 6 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristola, Marko Tapani; Hurme, Timo

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the applicability of the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines for imaging studies in children under the age of three with first urinary tract infection (UTI). In our cohort of 112 patients, we gathered data regarding the occurrence of indications for ultrasonography (US) and voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) according to the NICE guidelines, dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy examinations, UTI recurrence, antimicrobial prophylaxis (AMP), anti-reflux procedures, and other urological procedures. If the NICE guidelines had been applied, 13 of the 25 patients (52 %) with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), including 6 of the 12 patients (50 %) with dilating VUR and 3 of the 4 patients who underwent endoscopic anti-reflux treatment, would have been missed, and a negative VCUG would have been avoided in 25 of the 42 patients (60 %) with no VUR. None of the missed diagnoses occurred in the younger boys' group. Based on these preliminary analyses, we feel that the NICE guidelines for imaging studies in children under 3 years old with UTI may be applicable to clinical use only in boys under 6 months of age. For other patients the guidelines were unsuccessful.

  3. Responsibility in the age of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) and epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaili M'hamdi, H; de Beaufort, I; Jack, B; Steegers, E A P

    2018-02-01

    Insights from the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease paradigm and epigenetics are elucidating the biological pathways through which social and environmental signals affect human health. These insights prompt a serious debate about how the structure of society affects health and what the responsibility of society is to counteract health inequalities. Unfortunately, oversimplified interpretations of insights from Developmental Origins of Health and Disease and epigenetics may be (mis)used to focus on the importance of individual responsibility for health rather than the social responsibility for health. In order to advance the debate on responsibility for health, we present an ethical framework to determine the social responsibility to counteract health inequalities. This is particularly important in a time where individual responsibility often justifies a passive response from policymakers.

  4. Developmental Steps in Metaphorical Language Abilities: The Influence of Age, Gender, Cognitive Flexibility, Information Processing Speed, and Analogical Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willinger, Ulrike; Deckert, Matthias; Schmöger, Michaela; Schaunig-Busch, Ines; Formann, Anton K; Auff, Eduard

    2017-12-01

    Metaphor is a specific type of figurative language that is used in various important fields such as in the work with children in clinical or teaching contexts. The aim of the study was to investigate the developmental course, developmental steps, and possible cognitive predictors regarding metaphor processing in childhood and early adolescence. One hundred sixty-four typically developing children (7-year-olds, 9-year-olds) and early adolescents (11-year-olds) were tested for metaphor identification, comprehension, comprehension quality, and preference by the Metaphoric Triads Task as well as for analogical reasoning, information processing speed, cognitive flexibility under time pressure, and cognitive flexibility without time pressure. Metaphor identification and comprehension consecutively increased with age. Eleven-year-olds showed significantly higher metaphor comprehension quality and preference scores than seven- and nine-year-olds, whilst these younger age groups did not differ. Age, cognitive flexibility under time pressure, information processing speed, analogical reasoning, and cognitive flexibility without time pressure significantly predicted metaphor comprehension. Metaphorical language ability shows an ongoing development and seemingly changes qualitatively at the beginning of early adolescence. These results can possibly be explained by a greater synaptic reorganization in early adolescents. Furthermore, cognitive flexibility under time pressure and information processing speed possibly facilitate the ability to adapt metaphor processing strategies in a flexible, quick, and appropriate way.

  5. The relationship between multiple developmental difficulties in very low birth weight children at 3½ years of age and the need for learning support at 5 years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, Gijs; Jeukens-Visser, Martine; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid; Kok, Joke; Nollet, Frans

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether multiple developmental difficulties are more frequent in very low birth weight (VLBW) children than in those born full term. The association between multiple developmental difficulties assessed at 3½ years of age and educational provision for the child at 5½ years was

  6. Age-Relevance of Person Characteristics: Persons' Beliefs about Developmental Change across the Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruhn, Daniel; Gilet, Anne-Laure; Studer, Joseph; Labouvie-Vief, Gisela

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated normative beliefs about personality development. Young, middle-aged, and older adults indicated the age-relevance of 835 French adjectives by specifying person characteristics as typical for any age decade from 0 to 99 years. With this paradigm, the authors determined age-relevance (How typical is a characteristic for a…

  7. The developmental progression of age 14 behavioral disinhibition, early age of sexual initiation, and subsequent sexual risk-taking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samek, Diana R; Iacono, William G; Keyes, Margaret A; Epstein, Marina; Bornovalova, Marina A; McGue, Matt

    2014-07-01

    Research has demonstrated a consistent relationship between early sexual experience and subsequent sexual risk-taking behaviors. We hypothesized that this relationship is due to a general predisposition toward behavioral disinhibition (BD), and that relationships among BD, early sex, and subsequent risky sexual behavior may be influenced by common genetic influences for males and common environmental influences for females. A prospective sample of 1,512 same-sex adolescent twins (50.2% female) was used. Adolescent BD was measured by clinical symptom counts of conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and self-reported delinquent behavior (age 14). Age of sexual initiation was defined as first age of consensual oral or penetrative sex (mean age ~17). Adult risky sexual behavior was defined by sexual behaviors under the influence of drugs and alcohol and number of casual sexual partners in the past year (age 24). Multivariate analyses showed evidence for substantial common genetic variance among age 14 BD, age at sexual initiation, and adult risky sexual behavior for males, but not females. There was no significant difference in the degree of common environmental influence on these variables for females compared to males. Notably, age of sexual initiation was not significantly correlated with age 24 risky sexual behavior for females. The relationship between early sex and later risky sex can be better understood through a general liability toward BD, which is influenced primarily by genetic factors for males. The association between age 14 BD and age of sexual initiation was influenced through a combination of genetic and environmental factors for females; however, age of sexual initiation does not appear to be a salient predictor of adult women’s sexual risk-taking behavior. Findings suggest that prevention programs aimed at reducing sexual risk behavior might target youth exhibiting BD by age 14, particularly males. More research is needed on what predicts

  8. Altering endocannabinoid neurotransmission at critical developmental ages: impact on rodent emotionality and cognitive performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana eTrezza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid system shows functional activity from early stages of brain development: it plays an important role in fundamental developmental processes such as cell proliferation, migration and differentiation, thus shaping brain organization during pre- and postnatal life. Cannabis sativa preparations are among the illicit drugs most commonly used by young people, including pregnant women. The developing brain can be therefore exposed to cannabis preparations during two critical periods: first, in offspring of cannabis-using mothers through perinatal and/or prenatal exposure; second, in adolescent cannabis users during neural maturation. In the last decade, it has become clear that the endocannabinoid system critically modulates memory processing and emotional responses. Therefore, it is well possible that developmental exposure to cannabinoid compounds induces enduring changes in behaviors and neural processes belonging to the cognitive and emotional domains. We address this issue by focusing on rodent studies, in order to provide a framework for understanding the impact of cannabinoid exposure on the developing brain.

  9. Family support and intergenerational caregiving: report from the State of the Science in Aging with Developmental Disabilities Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Tamar; Factor, Alan

    2008-07-01

    This article summarizes the proceedings of the Family Support and Intergenerational Caregiving work group that was part of the "State of the Science in Aging with Developmental Disabilities: Charting Lifespan Trajectories and Supportive Environments for Healthy Living" symposium. The aim was to provide a research and policy agenda that would result in a better social, health, and economic well being for adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities and family caregivers. Key issues addressed were (1) demographic challenges; (2) long-term outcomes, poverty and cultural minority status; (3) interdependent roles of family members; and (4) family support policies and practices. The group identified the following major gaps in knowledge that need to be included in a future research agenda: data on the demography of families, including information on cultural minorities and families living in poverty; research on the interdependent roles of various family members in providing support to each other, including siblings, grandparents, and the person with disabilities; and development and assessment of models for providing supports to families and that bridge the aging and disability networks. The outcomes of this recommended research agenda will result in progressive policies and culturally sensitive supports that will improve the health, social, and economic well-being of adults with I/DD and their families.

  10. Octopus life history relative to age, in a multi-geared developmental fishery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leporati, S.C.; Hart, A.M.; Larsen, R.; Franken, Linda E; De Graaf, M.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to obtain broad-scale age information for an exploited octopus population enables the identification of essential life history information, such as age at maturity, recruitment pulses and seasonal effects on growth. This study uses stylet weight (reduced internal shell) as a proxy to age

  11. Relative Age Effects in Women's Rugby Union from Developmental Leagues to World Cup Tournaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemez, Srdjan; MacMahon, Clare; Weir, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Annual age cohort groupings promote relative age effects (RAEs), which often, inadvertently, create participation and attainment biases between relatively older and younger players within the same age cohort. In a globally evolving sport, women's rugby team selection practices may potentially bypass qualified players as a result of maturational…

  12. Dental age estimation from the developmental stage of the third molars in western Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo; Ren, Jiayin; Zhao, Shuping; Liu, Yuanyuan; Li, Na; Wu, Wanhong; Yuan, Shanshan; Wang, Hu

    2012-06-10

    The purpose of this study is to provide reference data about estimating dental age from third molars of the western Chinese population for comparing with other populations and being applied to the age estimation of western Chinese juveniles and adolescents. A total of 2078 digital panoramic radiographs of 989 male and 1089 female Chinese subjects aged between 5 and 23 years were examined. The mineralization status of the third molars was assessed using the formation stages described by Demirjian et al. with two modifications. The results showed that the development of third molars in the western Chinese population was likely to begin at age 5 in both males and females. The third molars 28 and 48 showed significantly higher frequency in females than in males. The third molars 18 in the stage 1, 38 in the stages 1, A and G, and 48 in the stage H showed significantly older average age in females than in males. The Demirjian's stages C and D could be used as a reference stage to determine dichotomously whether a western Chinese is more likely to be under or above age 14 or 16, respectively. This study provided reference data for the age estimation of western Chinese juveniles and adolescents by the mineralization stages of the third molar. Apart from forensic age determination in living subjects, the presented reference data can also be used for age estimations of unidentified corpses and skeletons. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Developing, Aging Neocortex: How genetics and epigenetics influence early developmental patterning and age-related change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly J. Huffman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A hallmark of mammalian development is the generation of functional subdivisions within the nervous system. In humans, this regionalization creates a complex system that regulates behavior, cognition, memory and emotion. During development, specification of neocortical tissue that leads to functional sensory and motor regions results from an interplay between cortically intrinsic, molecular processes, such as gene expression, and extrinsic processes regulated by sensory input. Cortical specification in mice occurs pre- and perinatally, when gene expression is robust and various anatomical distinctions are observed alongside an emergence of physiological function. After patterning, gene expression continues to shift and axonal connections mature into an adult form. The function of adult cortical gene expression may be to maintain neocortical subdivisions that were established during early patterning. As some changes in neocortical gene expression have been observed past early development into late adulthood, gene expression may also play a role in the altered neocortical function observed in age-related cognitive decline and brain dysfunction. This review provides a discussion of how neocortical gene expression and specific patterns of neocortical sensori-motor axonal connections develop and change throughout the lifespan of the animal. We posit that a role of neocortical gene expression in neocortex is to regulate plasticity mechanisms that impact critical periods for sensory and motor plasticity in aging. We describe results from several studies in aging brain that detail changes in gene expression that may relate to microstructural changes observed in brain anatomy. We discuss the role of altered glucocorticoid signaling in age-related cognitive and functional decline, as well as how aging in the brain may result from immune system activation. We describe how caloric restriction or reduction of oxidative stress may ameliorate effects of aging

  14. Developmental Antecedents of Taxonomic and Thematic Strategies at 3 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Philip; Dunham, Frances

    1995-01-01

    Individual differences in children's conceptual strategies at 3 years of age were predicted by aspects of children's behavior and language at 13 and 24 months. Production of pointing gestures at 13 months and nouns and attributive adjectives at 24 months were positively associated with the use of a taxonomic matching strategy at 3 years of age.…

  15. Developmental Trajectories From Birth to School Age in Healthy Term-Born Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roze, E.; Meijer, Lisethe; Van Braeckel, K.N.J.A.; Ruiter, S.A.J.; Bruggink, J.L.M.; Bos, A.F.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the stability of the scores obtained on tests of motor development from birth until school age in healthy, term singletons and to determine if early motor scores are associated with more complex cognitive functions at school age, such as attention and memory. PATIENTS AND

  16. Human dental age estimation using third molar developmental stages: does a Bayesian approach outperform regression models to discriminate between juveniles and adults?

    OpenAIRE

    Thevissen, P. W.; FIEUWS, Steffen; Willems, G.

    2010-01-01

    Dental age estimation methods based on the radiologically detected third molar developmental stages are implemented in forensic age assessments to discriminate between juveniles and adults considering the judgment of young unaccompanied asylum seekers. Accurate and unbiased age estimates combined with appropriate quantified uncertainties are the required properties for accurate forensic reporting. In this study, a subset of 910 individuals uniformly distributed in age between 16 and 22 years ...

  17. Reducing age of autism diagnosis: developmental social neuroscience meets public health challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Klin, Ami; Klaiman, Cheryl; Jones, Warren

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (autism) is a highly prevalent and heterogeneous family of neurodevelopmental disorders of genetic origins with potentially devastating implications for child, family, health and educational systems. Despite advances in paper-and-pencil screening and in standardization of diagnostic procedures, diagnosis of autism in the US still hovers around the ages of four or five years, later still in disadvantaged communities, and several years after the age of two to three year...

  18. Career readiness, developmental work personality and age of onset in young adult central nervous system survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauser, David; Wagner, Stacia; Wong, Alex W K; O'Sullivan, Deidre

    2013-04-01

    The primary purpose of this paper is to undertake foundational research in the area of career readiness, work personality and age of onset with young adult central nervous system (CNS) survivors. Participants for this study consisted of 43 individuals whose age range from 18 to 30 (M = 21.64, SD = 3.46), an average age of brain tumor onset of 9.50 years (SD = 4.73) and average years off of treatment of 7.25 years (SD = 5.80). Packets were distributed to survivors who were participating in a psychosocial cancer treatment program. Participants completed multiple career instruments and a demographic form. Differences between groups and among the variables were examined and size effect sizes were analyzed. Young adult CNS survivors had significantly lower levels of work personality and career readiness when compared to young adult non-cancer survivors with CNS cancer with those between the ages of 6 and 12 reported significantly lower levels when compared to individuals diagnosed before age 6 and after the age of 13. Young adult CNS survivors at an increased risk for having lower levels of work personality and career readiness then a norm group comparison. Age of onset (between 6 and 12) may be at significant risk factor for developing poor or dysfunctional work and career behaviors. • Young adults with central nervous system (CNS) cancer are at particular risk for experiencing difficulties related to career and employment. • Work personality and career readiness are two constructs that have been found to be related to one's ability to meet the demands of work. • Young adult CNS cancer survivors have lower levels of work personality and career readiness. • Individuals diagnosed between the ages of 6 and 12 may be at particular risk and may need specific vocational rehabilitation interventions. • The results of this study point to the need for comprehensive career and vocational services for young adult CNS cancer survivors.

  19. Human skin basement membrane-associated heparan sulphate proteoglycan: distinctive differences in ultrastructural localization as a function of developmental age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horiguchi, Y; Fine, J D; Couchman, J R

    1991-01-01

    was identical to that observed in neonatal and adult human skin. These findings demonstrate that active remodelling of the dermo-epidermal junction occurs during at least the first two trimesters, and affects not only basement membrane-associated structures but also specific antigens.......Recent studies have demonstrated that skin basement membrane components are expressed within the dermo-epidermal junction in an orderly sequence during human foetal development. We have investigated the ultrastructural localization of basement membrane-related antigens in human foetal skin...... at different developmental ages using two monoclonal antibodies to a well-characterized basement membrane-associated heparan sulphate proteoglycan. A series of foetal skin specimens (range, 54-142 gestational days) were examined using an immunoperoxidase immunoelectron microscopic technique. In specimens...

  20. New technologies and emerging threats: personnel security adjudicative guidelines in the age of social networking

    OpenAIRE

    Festa, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Publicized incidents involving espionage or violence by government employees with security clearances have raised concern for the personnel security community. The guidelines used to adjudicate security clearances were last updated in 2005; since that time, significant technological developments, especially in social media and communications, have emerged. This thesis developed a comprehensive list of current Internet behaviors, and us...

  1. Effects of age and sex on developmental neural networks of visual-spatial attention allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubia, Katya; Hyde, Zoe; Halari, Rozmin; Giampietro, Vincent; Smith, Anna

    2010-06-01

    Compared to our understanding of the functional maturation of brain networks underlying complex cognitive abilities, hardly anything is known of the neurofunctional development of simpler cognitive abilities such as visuo-spatial attention allocation. Furthermore, nothing is known on the effect of gender on the functional development of attention allocation. This study employed event related functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate effects of age, sex, and sex by age interactions on the brain activation of 63 males and females, between 13 to 38years, during a visual-spatial oddball task. Behaviourally, with increasing age, speed was traded for accuracy, indicative of a less impulsive performance style in older subjects. Increasing age was associated with progressively increased activation in typical areas of selective attention of lateral fronto-striatal and temporo-parietal brain regions. Sex difference analysis showed enhanced activation in right-hemispheric inferior frontal and superior temporal regions in females, and in left-hemispheric inferior temporo-parietal regions in males. Importantly, the age by sex interaction findings showed that these sex-dimorphic patterns of brain activation may be the result of underlying sex differences in the functional maturation of these brain regions, as females had sex-specific progressive age-correlations in the same right inferior fronto-striato-temporal areas, while male-specific age-correlations were in left medial temporal and parietal areas. The findings demonstrate progressive functional maturation of fronto-striato-parieto-temporal networks of the relatively simple function of attention allocation between early adolescence and mid-adulthood. They furthermore show that sex-dimorphic patterns of enhanced reliance on right inferior frontal, striatal and superior temporal regions in females and of left temporo-parietal regions in males during attention allocation may be the result of underlying sex

  2. A Direct Comparison of Self-Injurious and Stereotyped Motor Behavior Between Preschool-Aged Children With and Without Developmental Delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, John; Spofford, Lisa; Dimian, Adele; Tervo, Raymond; MacLean, William E; Symons, Frank J

    2016-06-01

    To compare the prevalence of self-injurious behavior (SIB) and stereotyped motor behavior (STY) of preschool-aged children with developmental delays (DD group) and their peers without developmental delays (TD group) using a standardized caregiver report scale. The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised was completed by caregivers of children with developmental delays and their peers without developmental delays. Frequency of occurrence and severity ratings for SIB and STY were compared between groups. SIB and STY were reported more often and at a greater level of severity in the DD group. Older chronological age was associated with more severe STY in the DD group but not the TD group. Gender was not related to STY or SIB for either group. Differences in STY and SIB were evident between preschoolers with and without DD. Findings are discussed from developmental and behavioral psychology perspectives regarding the expression of repetitive behavior in developmentally at-risk pediatric populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Innate immunity and cellular senescence: The good and the bad in the developmental and aged brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Antonietta; Spinelli, Chiara Carmela; Martucciello, Stefania; Nori, Stefania Lucia; Capunzo, Mario; Puca, Annibale Alessandro; Ciaglia, Elena

    2018-03-01

    Ongoing studies evidence cellular senescence in undifferentiated and specialized cells from tissues of all ages. Although it is believed that senescence plays a wider role in several stress responses in the mature age, its participation in certain physiological and pathological processes throughout life is coming to light. The "senescence machinery" has been observed in all brain cell populations, including components of innate immunity (e.g., microglia and astrocytes). As the beneficial versus detrimental implications of senescence is an open question, we aimed to analyze the contribution of immune responses in regulatory mechanisms governing its distinct functions in healthy (development, organogenesis, danger patrolling events) and diseased brain (glioma, neuroinflammation, neurodeneration), and the putative connection between cellular and molecular events governing the 2 states. Particularly this review offers new insights into the complex roles of senescence both as a chronological event as age advances, and as a molecular mechanism of brain homeostasis through the important contribution of innate immune responses and their crosstalk with neighboring cells in brain parenchyma. We also highlight the impact of the recently described glymphatic system and brain lymphatic vasculature in the interplay between peripheral and central immune surveillance and its potential implication during aging. This will open new ways to understand brain development, its deterioration during aging, and the occurrence of several oncological and neurodegenerative diseases. ©2018 Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  4. The Developmental Course of Sleep Disturbances Across Childhood Relates to Brain Morphology at Age 7: The Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocevska, Desana; Muetzel, Ryan L; Luik, Annemarie I; Luijk, Maartje P C M; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Verhulst, Frank C; White, Tonya; Tiemeier, Henning

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of sleep disturbances on the structural properties of the developing brain. This study explored associations between childhood sleep disturbances and brain morphology at 7 years. Mothers from the Generation R cohort reported sleep disturbances in 720 children at ages 2 months, 1.5, 2, 3, and 6 years. T1-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) images were used to assess brain structure at 7 years. Associations of sleep disturbances at each age and of sleep disturbance trajectories with brain volumes (total brain volume, cortical and subcortical grey matter, white matter) were tested with linear regressions. To assess regional differences, sleep disturbance trajectories were tested as determinants for cortical thickness in whole-brain analyses. Sleep disturbances followed a declining trend from toddlerhood onwards. Infant sleep was not associated with brain morphology at age 7. Per SD sleep disturbances (one frequent symptom or two less frequent symptoms) at 2 and 3 years of age, children had -6.3 (-11.7 to -0.8) cm3 and -6.4 (-11.7 to -1.7) cm3 smaller grey matter volumes, respectively. Sleep disturbances at age 6 years were associated with global brain morphology (grey matter: -7.3 (-12.1 to -2.6), p value = .01). Consistently, trajectory analyses showed that more adverse developmental course of childhood sleep disturbances are associated with smaller grey matter volumes and thinner dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Sleep disturbances from age 2 years onwards are associated with smaller grey matter volumes. Thinner prefrontal cortex in children with adverse sleep disturbance trajectories may reflect effects of sleep disturbances on brain maturation. © Sleep Research Society 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Analysis of 1202 orthopantograms to evaluate the potential of forensic age determination based on third molar developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willershausen, B; Löffler, N; Schulze, R

    2001-09-28

    A total of 1202 orthopantograms of young dental patients were analyzed to assess the correlation of third molar root development with chronological age. The investigated patients were treated at a university dental clinic on an outpatient basis, included a variety of demographic characteristics (600 males and 602 females, 28% of other than central European background), and were 15-24 years old when the radiographs were obtained. Radiographs in which more than one third molar were either missing due to agenesia or extraction, or not evaluable because of deep destruction or marked tilting, were not included in the analysis. Our findings show that the growth patterns of third molars, based on seven defined stages of root development, did correlate with chronological age; age estimation when applied to a specific individual would involve a margin of error of +/- 2-4 years. There were no significant differences between the left and right jaw segments, but the stage of root development was generally more advanced in the upper than in the lower third molars. Root development was also more advanced among boys than among girls of the same age. There were no apparent differences in growth patterns based on national/ethnic background. While only 2.5% of 18-year-olds revealed fully developed third molars in all four quadrants, this percentage leaped to 38.4% among the 21-year-olds. To summarize, while the developmental stage of third molars is not per se a highly useful indicator of chronological age in juveniles and young adults, it is nevertheless a valuable supplementary parameter given the scarcity of other available age indicators.

  6. Richtlijn 'Astma bij kinderen (0-19 jaar' voor de jeugdgezondheidszorg [Guidelines for 'Asthma in children (ages 0-19)' for youth healthcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breuning-Boers,J.M.; Heerdink, M.; Kamphuis,M.; Gameren-Oosterom, H. van; Lanting,C.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the evidence-based guidelines 'Asthma in children (ages 0-19)' for youth healthcare (CHC) is the prevention and reduction of asthma symptoms. The guidelines contain a lot of recommendations that apply to all disciplines in healthcare that deal with children. Primary prevention

  7. Toward a Testable Developmental Model of Pedophilia: The Development of Erotic Age Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Kurt; Kuban, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of retrospective self-reports about childhood curiosity to see persons in the nude, with heterosexual and homosexual pedophiles, gynephiles, and androphiles, suggests that establishment of erotic sex preference proceeded that of age preference, and a greater proportion of pedophiles than gynephiles or androphiles remembered childhood…

  8. Word Definitional Skills in School age Persian Speaking Children: A Developmental Study on Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talieh Zarifian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Word definitional skills (WDSs were classified according to the quality of both semantic content and syntactic form. The aim of the present study was to investigate the syntactic development in WDSs in typically developing school- age children. Methods: In this cross-sectional and descriptive-analytical study,  150 of typically developing school-age children participated by the  multistage sampling method in the second to sixth grade from primary schools in 1, 7 and 17 municipal  districts of Tehran. The definition skill was assessed with word definition task. The reliability was assessed by two independent values and the validity was determined by the content. The results were  analyzed by the SPSS (22th version  statistical software and with the method of independent- samples T test, univariate analysis of variance and Tukey test. Results: The form analysis revealed that all children use phrase/clause  or simple sentence, transitional form and Aristotelian form frequently, but by increasing the age, definitions were developed from simple syntactic structure into Aristotelian form, in fact mean score of the form in word definition was significantly increased by age (P<0.001. Discussion: Owing to the findings of this study, the development of word definitional skills in terms of form was developed from phrase/clause or simple sentence and transitional form responses into Aristotelian form. Also WDSs are closely related to academic success and the development of literacy.

  9. Developmental precursors of young school-age children's hostile attribution bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Lane, Jonathan D; Grabell, Adam S; Olson, Sheryl L

    2013-12-01

    This prospective longitudinal study provides evidence of preschool-age precursors of hostile attribution bias in young school-age children, a topic that has received little empirical attention. We examined multiple risk domains, including laboratory and observational assessments of children's social-cognition, general cognitive functioning, effortful control, and peer aggression. Preschoolers (N = 231) with a more advanced theory-of-mind, better emotion understanding, and higher IQ made fewer hostile attributions of intent in the early school years. Further exploration of these significant predictors revealed that only certain components of these capacities (i.e., nonstereotypical emotion understanding, false-belief explanation, and verbal IQ) were robust predictors of a hostile attribution bias in young school-age children and were especially strong predictors among children with more advanced effortful control. These relations were prospective in nature-the effects of preschool variables persisted after accounting for similar variables at school age. We conclude by discussing the implications of our findings for future research and prevention. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. NEUROLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT DURING TODDLING AGE IN NORMAL-CHILDREN AND CHILDREN AT RISK OF DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HEMPEL, MS

    Toddling age (1.5-4 years) is a period in which the quality rather than the quantity of motor functions changes. We examined 305 normal and 43 so called 'risk' children with an examination technique which concentrates on observations of motor functions (grasping, sitting, crawling, standing and

  11. Exploring the Self-Disclosure Process in Peer Mentoring Relationships for Transition-Age Youth With Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Cathryn T; Kramer, Jessica M; Cohn, Ellen S

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of the self-disclosure process in regard to connection development and relationship quality in peer mentoring relationships between transition-age youth (ages 15-20) and young adults (ages 18-36) with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities. Self-disclosure is defined as "the disclosure of inner feelings and experiences to another person" that "fosters liking, caring, and trust, thereby facilitating the deepening of close relationships" ( Reis & Shaver, 1988 , p. 372). Nine peer mentoring dyads with varied interpersonal connections were purposefully selected from a larger intervention study. Recorded mentoring conversations were analyzed for self-disclosure content and peer mentor response. The findings demonstrated trends related to connection development and differences across degree of connection. In relationships with stronger connections, there was a higher quantity of self-disclosure and more frequent disclosure of emotions, and peer mentors responded more frequently with advice and reciprocated self-disclosure. Implications of findings for promoting higher-quality peer mentoring relationships are discussed.

  12. Musicians' Enhanced Neural Differentiation of Speech Sounds Arises Early in Life: Developmental Evidence from Ages 3 to 30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Dana L.; O'Connell, Samantha; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Kraus, Nina

    2014-01-01

    The perception and neural representation of acoustically similar speech sounds underlie language development. Music training hones the perception of minute acoustic differences that distinguish sounds; this training may generalize to speech processing given that adult musicians have enhanced neural differentiation of similar speech syllables compared with nonmusicians. Here, we asked whether this neural advantage in musicians is present early in life by assessing musically trained and untrained children as young as age 3. We assessed auditory brainstem responses to the speech syllables /ba/ and /ga/ as well as auditory and visual cognitive abilities in musicians and nonmusicians across 3 developmental time-points: preschoolers, school-aged children, and adults. Cross-phase analyses objectively measured the degree to which subcortical responses differed to these speech syllables in musicians and nonmusicians for each age group. Results reveal that musicians exhibit enhanced neural differentiation of stop consonants early in life and with as little as a few years of training. Furthermore, the extent of subcortical stop consonant distinction correlates with auditory-specific cognitive abilities (i.e., auditory working memory and attention). Results are interpreted according to a corticofugal framework for auditory learning in which subcortical processing enhancements are engendered by strengthened cognitive control over auditory function in musicians. PMID:23599166

  13. Guideline for ageing management in nuclear power plants; Leitlinie zum Alterungsmanagement in Kernkraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herter, K.H.; Schuler, X. [Materialpruefungsanstalt (MPA), Univ. Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany); Hienstorfer, W.; Pompe, W. [TUeV SUeD Energietechnik GmbH, Filderstadt (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    During operation of nuclear power plants, the quality of systems, structures and components may change as a result of ageing (conceptional ageing, technological ageing or physical ageing), which will affect the system quality. Ageing management is necessary to ensure safety and availability throughout the life of the systems. This necessitates a systematic, integrative and knowledge-based approach. Systems, structures and components are grouped according to their relevance for meeting the set goals. Ageing mangement should be process-oriented and should be integrated in the organisational procedure in cooperation with the safety manager. The procedure should follow the PDCA principle (plan - do - check - act). The data, documents, knowledge and evaluations required for ageing management are part of the knowledge base of the nuclear power station and are updated regularly. The efficiency of ageing management must be reassessed at regular intervals. (orig.)

  14. Age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity modulate rapid auditory processing in developmental dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa eLorusso

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The nature of Rapid Auditory Processing (RAP deficits in dyslexia remains debated, together with the specificity of the problem to certain types of stimuli and/or restricted subgroups of individuals. Following the hypothesis that the heterogeneity of the dyslexic population may have led to contrasting results, the aim of the study was to define the effect of age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity on the discrimination and reproduction of nonverbal tone sequences.Participants were 46 children aged 8 - 14 (26 with dyslexia, subdivided according to age, presence of a previous language delay, and type of dyslexia. Experimental tasks were a Temporal Order Judgment (TOJ (manipulating tone length, ISI and sequence length, and a Pattern Discrimination Task. Dyslexic children showed general RAP deficits. Tone length and ISI influenced dyslexic and control children’s performance in a similar way, but dyslexic children were more affected by an increase from 2 to 5 sounds. As to age, older dyslexic children’s difficulty in reproducing sequences of 4 and 5 tones was similar to that of normally reading younger (but not older children. In the analysis of subgroup profiles, the crucial variable appears to be the advantage, or lack thereof, in processing long vs short sounds. Dyslexic children with a previous language delay obtained the lowest scores in RAP measures, but they performed worse with shorter stimuli, similar to control children, while dyslexic-only children showed no advantage for longer stimuli. As to dyslexia subtype, only surface dyslexics improved their performance with longer stimuli, while phonological dyslexics did not. Differential scores for short vs long tones and for long vs short ISIs predict nonword and word reading, respectively, and the former correlate with phonemic awareness.In conclusion, the relationship between nonverbal RAP, phonemic skills and reading abilities appears to be characterized by complex interactions with

  15. The (safety-related) heat exchangers aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants, and developments since 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and US nuclear power plant utilities, is preparing a series of aging management guidelines (AMGs) for commodity types of components (e.g., heat exchangers, electrical cable and terminations, pumps). Commodities are included in this series based on their importance to continued nuclear plant operation and license renewal. The AMGs contain a detailed summary of operating history, stressors, aging mechanisms, and various types of maintenance and surveillance practices that can be combined to create an effective aging management program. Each AMG is intended for use by the systems engineers and plant maintenance staff (i.e., an AMG is intended to be a hands-on technical document rather than a licensing document). The heat exchangers AMG, published in June 1994, includes the following information of interest to nondestructive examination (NDE) personnel: aging mechanisms determined to be non-significant for all applications; aging mechanisms determined to be significant for some applications; effective conventional programs for managing aging; and effective unconventional programs for managing aging. Since the AMG on heat exchangers was published four years ago, a brief review has been conducted to identify emerging regulatory issues, if any. The results of this review and lessons learned from the collective set of AMGs are presented

  16. Sensitivity of continuous performance test (CPT) at age 14years to developmental methylmercury exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julvez, Jordi; Debes, Frodi; Weihe, Pal

    2010-01-01

    Hit Reaction Time latencies (HRT) in the Continuous Performance Test (CPT) measure the speed of visual information processing. The latencies may involve different neuropsychological functions depending on the time from test initiation, i.e., first orientation, learning and habituation, then cogni......Hit Reaction Time latencies (HRT) in the Continuous Performance Test (CPT) measure the speed of visual information processing. The latencies may involve different neuropsychological functions depending on the time from test initiation, i.e., first orientation, learning and habituation......, then cognitive processing and focused attention, and finally sustained attention as the dominant demand. Prenatal methylmercury exposure is associated with increased reaction time (RT) latencies. We therefore examined the association of methylmercury exposure with the average HRT at age 14years at three...

  17. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants - tanks and pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blocker, E.; Smith, S.; Philpot, L.; Conley, J.

    1996-02-01

    Continued operation of nuclear power plants for periods that extend beyond their original 40-year license period is a desirable option for many U.S. utilities. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approval of operating license renewals is necessary before continued operation becomes a reality. Effective aging management for plant components is important to reliability and safety, regardless of current plant age or extended life expectations. However, the NRC requires that aging evaluations be performed and the effectiveness of aging management programs be demonstrated for components considered within the scope of license renewal before granting approval for operation beyond 40 years. Both the NRC and the utility want assurance that plant components will be highly reliable during both the current license term and throughout the extended operating period. In addition, effective aging management must be demonstrated to support Maintenance Rule (10 CFR 50.65) activities.

  18. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants - tanks and pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blocker, E.; Smith, S.; Philpot, L.; Conley, J.

    1996-02-01

    Continued operation of nuclear power plants for periods that extend beyond their original 40-year license period is a desirable option for many U.S. utilities. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approval of operating license renewals is necessary before continued operation becomes a reality. Effective aging management for plant components is important to reliability and safety, regardless of current plant age or extended life expectations. However, the NRC requires that aging evaluations be performed and the effectiveness of aging management programs be demonstrated for components considered within the scope of license renewal before granting approval for operation beyond 40 years. Both the NRC and the utility want assurance that plant components will be highly reliable during both the current license term and throughout the extended operating period. In addition, effective aging management must be demonstrated to support Maintenance Rule (10 CFR 50.65) activities

  19. The Co-Occurring Development of Executive Function Skills and Receptive Vocabulary in Preschool-Aged Children: A Look at the Direction of the Developmental Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Christina; Barata, M. Clara; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2014-01-01

    Despite consensus in the developmental literature regarding the role of executive function (EF) skills in supporting the development of language skills during the preschool years, we know relatively little about the associations between EF skills, including all EF components, and vocabulary skills among preschool-aged children. In this paper, we…

  20. Developmental Delays in Executive Function from 3 to 5 Years of Age Predict Kindergarten Academic Readiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Michael T; Magnus, Brooke; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Blair, Clancy B

    Substantial evidence has established that individual differences in executive function (EF) in early childhood are uniquely predictive of children's academic readiness at school entry. The current study tested whether growth trajectories of EF across the early childhood period could be used to identify a subset of children who were at pronounced risk for academic impairment in kindergarten. Using data that were collected at the age 3, 4, and 5 home assessments in the Family Life Project ( N = 1,120), growth mixture models were used to identify 9% of children who exhibited impaired EF performance (i.e., persistently low levels of EF that did not show expected improvements across time). Compared to children who exhibited typical trajectories of EF, the delayed group exhibited substantial impairments in multiple indicators of academic readiness in kindergarten (Cohen's ds = 0.9-2.7; odds ratios = 9.8-23.8). Although reduced in magnitude following control for a range of socioeconomic and cognitive (general intelligence screener, receptive vocabulary) covariates, moderate-sized group differences remained (Cohen's ds = 0.2-2.4; odds ratios = 3.9-5.4). Results are discussed with respect to the use of repeated measures of EF as a method of early identification, as well as the resulting translational implications of doing so.

  1. Prime-time television exposure to high priority school-aged social-developmental issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Sherrie; Itano, Davin; Yamamoto, Loren G

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantify the material children and adolescents are exposed to while watching prime-time television so that school educators, health professionals, and parents can focus on issues of maximum exposure that must be addressed. Prime-time programming was recorded from 7 p.m. to 10 p.m. Hawaiian Standard Time daily for 2 weeks in July 2005. Recordings were then viewed to identify social behaviors of interest. Each hour on average, sex was referenced 1.8 times, drugs 0.6 times, tobacco 0.3 times, alcohol 2.4 times, and violence/crime 6.0 times per network. Messages advocating exercise, anti-drug advocacy, and anti-smoking advocacy were each shown 0.2 times per hour; while anti-alcohol advocacy was shown 0.1 times per hour. School educators, health professionals, and parents must recognize that prime-time television frequently exposes viewers to issues that are of critical importance to the health and social development of school-aged children and adolescents.

  2. Motor competence in Czech children aged 11-15: What is the incidence of a risk of developmental coordination disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Kokštejn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Current findings suggest that the prevalence of developmental coordination disorder (DCD ranges widely between countries. A major reason for this wide range of prevalence is how cases of DCD are identified. Gender differences in level of motor competence in children with movement difficulties may play a key role in the choice of type of intervention. Objective: The aim of the study was to reveal the prevalence of significant movement difficulties with high probability of presence of DCD in Czech children aged 11 to 15. At the same time we wanted to assess possible gender differences in different types of the movement difficulties. Methods: A total sample of 507 children (age 11-15 years, 262 boys, 245 girls from all Czech regions was included. The MABC-2 test was used for the identification of movement difficulties with different severity. Children whose total test score (TTS was ≤ 15th percentile were considered at risk for having DCD (children with rDCD. Children whose TTS was ≤ 5th percentile were considered as having significant movement difficulties with high probability of presence of DCD. An analysis of gender differences of children with rDCD in MABC-2 motor components and tests were carried out. Results: From the entire sample, 33 participants (22 boys, 11 girls were identified as at risk of having DCD (rDCD. 1.4% of the total sample met the criterion for significant movement difficulties with high probability of presence of DCD. 5.1% of the total sample met the criterion for identification of the risk for having movement difficulties. Almost twice as high predisposition for the occurrence of movement difficulties was revealed in boys as compared to girls in a population of children with rDCD (OR = 1.95, 95% CI: 1.16-2.74. Girls with rDCD performed better in manual dexterity with a medium effect of the gender (Cohen's d = 0.58, whereas boys with rDCD achieved better results in aiming and catching also with a

  3. Personality in the cockroach Diploptera punctata: Evidence for stability across developmental stages despite age effects on boldness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettke-Hofmann, Claudia; Preziosi, Richard F.

    2017-01-01

    Despite a recent surge in the popularity of animal personality studies and their wide-ranging associations with various aspects of behavioural ecology, our understanding of the development of personality over ontogeny remains poorly understood. Stability over time is a central tenet of personality; ecological pressures experienced by an individual at different life stages may, however, vary considerably, which may have a significant effect on behavioural traits. Invertebrates often go through numerous discrete developmental stages and therefore provide a useful model for such research. Here we test for both differential consistency and age effects upon behavioural traits in the gregarious cockroach Diploptera punctata by testing the same behavioural traits in both juveniles and adults. In our sample, we find consistency in boldness, exploration and sociality within adults whilst only boldness was consistent in juveniles. Both boldness and exploration measures, representative of risk-taking behaviour, show significant consistency across discrete juvenile and adult stages. Age effects are, however, apparent in our data; juveniles are significantly bolder than adults, most likely due to differences in the ecological requirements of these life stages. Size also affects risk-taking behaviour since smaller adults are both bolder and more highly explorative. Whilst a behavioural syndrome linking boldness and exploration is evident in nymphs, this disappears by the adult stage, where links between other behavioural traits become apparent. Our results therefore indicate that differential consistency in personality can be maintained across life stages despite age effects on its magnitude, with links between some personality traits changing over ontogeny, demonstrating plasticity in behavioural syndromes. PMID:28489864

  4. Personality in the cockroach Diploptera punctata: Evidence for stability across developmental stages despite age effects on boldness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Christina R; Mettke-Hofmann, Claudia; Preziosi, Richard F

    2017-01-01

    Despite a recent surge in the popularity of animal personality studies and their wide-ranging associations with various aspects of behavioural ecology, our understanding of the development of personality over ontogeny remains poorly understood. Stability over time is a central tenet of personality; ecological pressures experienced by an individual at different life stages may, however, vary considerably, which may have a significant effect on behavioural traits. Invertebrates often go through numerous discrete developmental stages and therefore provide a useful model for such research. Here we test for both differential consistency and age effects upon behavioural traits in the gregarious cockroach Diploptera punctata by testing the same behavioural traits in both juveniles and adults. In our sample, we find consistency in boldness, exploration and sociality within adults whilst only boldness was consistent in juveniles. Both boldness and exploration measures, representative of risk-taking behaviour, show significant consistency across discrete juvenile and adult stages. Age effects are, however, apparent in our data; juveniles are significantly bolder than adults, most likely due to differences in the ecological requirements of these life stages. Size also affects risk-taking behaviour since smaller adults are both bolder and more highly explorative. Whilst a behavioural syndrome linking boldness and exploration is evident in nymphs, this disappears by the adult stage, where links between other behavioural traits become apparent. Our results therefore indicate that differential consistency in personality can be maintained across life stages despite age effects on its magnitude, with links between some personality traits changing over ontogeny, demonstrating plasticity in behavioural syndromes.

  5. Guidelines to implement the license renewal technical requirements of 10CFR54 for integrated plant assessments and time-limited aging analyses. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, G.; Philpot, L.

    1995-11-01

    This report documents the initial results of the Nuclear Energy Institute License Renewal Implementation Guideline Task Force over the period August 1994 to July 1995 to develop guidance for complying with technical requirements of 10CFR54. The report also provided a starting point for the development of NEI 95-10, ''Industry Guideline for Implementing the Requirements of 10CCR54-The License Renewal Rule''. Information in this document can be used by utilities to prepare the technical material needed in an application for license renewal (LR) of a nuclear power unit. This guideline provides methods for identifying systems, structures, and components (SSCs) and their intended functions within the scope of license renewal. It identifies structures and components (SCs) requiring aging management review and methods for performing the aging management review. The guideline provides a process for identifying and evaluating time-limited aging analyses

  6. Reduced developmental competence of immature, in-vitro matured and postovulatory aged mouse oocytes following IVF and ICSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trounson Alan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study highlights basic physiological differences associated with oocyte maturation and ageing. The study explores the fertilizing capacity and resistance to injury of mouse oocytes at different stages of maturation and ageing following IVF and ICSI. Also, the study examines the developmental competence of embryos obtained from these oocytes. The outcome of the study supports views that the mouse can be a model for human IVF suggesting that utilizing in-vitro matured and failed fertilized oocytes to produce embryos mainly when limited number of oocytes is retrieved in a specific cycle, should be carefully considered. Methods Hybrid strain mouse oocytes were inseminated by in-vitro fertilization (IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. Oocytes groups that were used were germinal vesicle (GV in-vitro matured metaphase II (IVM-MII, freshly ovulated MII (OV-MII, 13 hrs in-vitro aged MII (13 hrs-MII and 24 hrs in-vitro aged MII (24 hrs-MII. Fertilization and embryo development to the blastocyst stage were monitored up to 5 days in culture for IVF and ICSI zygotes. Sperm head decondensation and pronuclear formation were examined up to 9 hrs in oocytes following ICSI. Apoptotic events in blocked embryos were examined using the TUNNEL assay. Differences between females for the number and quality of GV and OV-MII oocytes were examined by ANOVA analyses. Differences in survival after ICSI, fertilization by IVF and ICSI and embryo development were analysed by Chi-square test with Yates correction. Results No differences in number and quality of oocytes were identified between females. The findings suggest that inability of GV oocytes to participate in fertilization and embryo development initiates primarily from their inability to support initial post fertilization events such as sperm decondensation and pronuclei formation. These events occur in all MII oocytes in similar rates (87–98% for IVF and ICSI. Following

  7. Age-Dependent Developmental Response to Temperature: An Examination of the Rarely Tested Phenomenon in Two Species (Gypsy Moth (Lymantria dispar and Winter Moth (Operophtera brumata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Gray

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The pervading paradigm in insect phenology models is that the response to a given temperature does not vary within a life stage. The developmental rate functions that have been developed for general use, or for specific insects, have for the most part been temperature-dependent but not age-dependent, except where age is an ordinal variable designating the larval instar. Age dependence, where age is a continuous variable, is not often reported (or investigated, and is rarely included in phenology models. I provide a short review of the seldom-investigated phenomenon of age dependence in developmental response to temperature, and compare the derivation of the winter moth egg phenology model by Salis et al. to the derivation of another egg phenology model with age-dependent responses to temperature I discuss some probable reasons for the discrepancies (acknowledged by Salis et al. between modelled and observed developmental rates of the winter moth, and discuss the contribution that geographically robust phenology models can make to estimates of species distributions.

  8. Human dental age estimation using third molar developmental stages: does a Bayesian approach outperform regression models to discriminate between juveniles and adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevissen, P W; Fieuws, S; Willems, G

    2010-01-01

    Dental age estimation methods based on the radiologically detected third molar developmental stages are implemented in forensic age assessments to discriminate between juveniles and adults considering the judgment of young unaccompanied asylum seekers. Accurate and unbiased age estimates combined with appropriate quantified uncertainties are the required properties for accurate forensic reporting. In this study, a subset of 910 individuals uniformly distributed in age between 16 and 22 years was selected from an existing dataset collected by Gunst et al. containing 2,513 panoramic radiographs with known third molar developmental stages of Belgian Caucasian men and women. This subset was randomly split in a training set to develop a classical regression analysis and a Bayesian model for the multivariate distribution of the third molar developmental stages conditional on age and in a test set to assess the performance of both models. The aim of this study was to verify if the Bayesian approach differentiates the age of maturity more precisely and removes the bias, which disadvantages the systematically overestimated young individuals. The Bayesian model offers the discrimination of subjects being older than 18 years more appropriate and produces more meaningful prediction intervals but does not strongly outperform the classical approaches.

  9. Teaching in a digital age guidelines for designing teaching and learning

    CERN Document Server

    Bates, Anthony William

    2015-01-01

    The book examines the underlying principles that guide effective teaching in an age when all of us, and in particular the students we are teaching, are using technology. A framework for making decisions about your teaching is provided, while understanding that every subject is different, and every instructor has something unique and special to bring to their teaching.The book enables teachers and instructors to help students develop the knowledge and skills they will need in a digital age: not so much the IT skills, but the thinking and attitudes to learning that will bring them success.

  10. In vitro analysis of age-related changes in the developmental potential of bone marrow thymocyte progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, A; Kukulansky, T; Globerson, A

    1990-12-01

    Mechanisms underlying the age-related decrease in the developmental capacity of thymocyte progenitors from the bone marrow (BM) were analyzed, focussing on interaction of these cells with the thymic microenvironment. We employed the experimental model in which mixtures of young and old mouse BM cells, congenic for the Thy-1 marker, were seeded onto fetal thymus (FT) explains depleted of self lymphocytes and the levels of Thy-1+ cells developing from each of the two donor types were measured. When cells from young and old BM donors were seeded simultaneously, in saturating quantities, a higher level of T cells developed from the young donors. To find out whether there were originally more thymocyte progenitors in the young BM, we carried out the competitive colonization under limiting dilution conditions and found that the advantage of the young had diminished under these conditions, thus suggesting that the age-related changes could not be related solely to quantitative differences. We then incubated the FT sequentially with old donor cells for 24 h, followed by young for an additional 48 h and found that the advantage of the young progenitors was eliminated. We thus established that the initial stage of colonization of the FT was important in determining the outcome of the subsequent development. The kinetics of simultaneous competition within the FT, however, revealed that the advantage of the young BM-derived cells became significant only from day 7 in organ culture, thus suggesting that sequential divisions of these cells were at a higher level than those of the old. Recolonization of FT explants by young or old BM-derived thymocytes obtained from the first colonization of the FT stroma showed a reduced, but still significant advantage for the young BM-derived cells over the old. Thus, we concluded that the old BM thymocyte progenitors manifested a qualitative disadvantage which became apparent during competitive colonization of the FT.

  11. Distinct roles of the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol in social behavior and emotionality at different developmental ages in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manduca, Antonia; Morena, Maria; Campolongo, Patrizia; Servadio, Michela; Palmery, Maura; Trabace, Luigia; Hill, Matthew N; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Cuomo, Vincenzo; Trezza, Viviana

    2015-08-01

    To date, our understanding of the relative contribution and potential overlapping roles of the endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the regulation of brain function and behavior is still limited. To address this issue, we investigated the effects of systemic administration of JZL195, that simultaneously increases AEA and 2-AG signaling by inhibiting their hydrolysis, in the regulation of socio-emotional behavior in adolescent and adult rats. JZL195, administered at the dose of 0.01mg/kg, increased social play behavior, that is the most characteristic social activity displayed by adolescent rats, and increased social interaction in adult animals. At both ages, these behavioral effects were antagonized by the CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist SR141716A and were associated with increased brain levels of 2-AG, but not AEA. Conversely, at the dose of 1mg/kg, JZL195 decreased general social exploration in adolescent rats without affecting social play behavior, and induced anxiogenic-like effects in the elevated plus-maze test both in adolescent and adult animals. These effects, mediated by activation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors, were paralleled by simultaneous increase in AEA and 2-AG levels in adolescent rats, and by an increase of only 2-AG levels in adult animals. These findings provide the first evidence for a role of 2-AG in social behavior, highlight the different contributions of AEA and 2-AG in the modulation of emotionality at different developmental ages and suggest that pharmacological inhibition of AEA and 2-AG hydrolysis is a useful approach to investigate the role of these endocannabinoids in neurobehavioral processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  12. Guidelines for the Management of Wet Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Recommendations from a Panel of Greek Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androudi, Sofia; Dastiridou, Anna; Pharmakakis, Nikolaos; Stefaniotou, Maria; Kalogeropoulos, Christos; Symeonidis, Chrysanthos; Charonis, Alexandros; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis

    2016-05-01

    To propose guidelines for the management of patients with wet age-related macular degeneration (wAMD), taking into account the results of large multicenter studies and clinical experience of retina experts. A team of retina experts developed a consensus paper after three consecutive meetings. The group was focused on guidelines to help clinical decision-making around the definition of successful treatment and the definition of non-response to therapy. Parameters suggestive of a successful response to treatments included: any gain in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) or vision loss that is less than 5-10 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) letters, reduction of central retinal thickness, partial or complete absorption of subretinal fluid (SRF), reduction of intraretinal fluid, reduction of pigment epithelial detachment or restoration of the anatomy of outer retinal layers. Non-response to current treatment was considered in the case of loss of BCVA greater than 10 ETDRS letters, increased retinal edema or increase of SRF as evidenced by optical coherence tomography or new bleeding in biomicroscopy. The introduction of anti-VEGF agents revolutionized the treatment of wAMD. Given the complexity of the disease, the emerging new agents and the difference of cases recruited in clinical trials compared to those appearing in every-day practice, it is essential to individualize treatment options taking into account the results of clinical trials.

  13. Management of uncomplicated malaria in children under 13 years of age at a district hospital in senegal : from official guidelines to usual practices

    OpenAIRE

    Sarrassat, Sophie; Lalou, Richard; Cisse, M.; Le Hesran, Jean-Yves

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background To be effective, national malaria guidelines must be properly followed. This study evaluated nurses' practices in the management of uncomplicated malaria cases at a District Hospital. Its objective was to identify the reasons for discrepancies between official guidelines and usual practices. Methods This study took place at Oussouye hospital, south-western Senegal. Blood smears were available for biological diagnosis in patients aged more than five years while the Integrat...

  14. Recommendations for harmonization of data collection and analysis of developmental neurotoxicity endpoints in regulatory guideline studies: Proceedings of workshops presented at Society of Toxicology and joint Teratology Society and Neurobehavioral Teratology Society meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Abby A; Sheets, Larry P; Raffaele, Kathleen; Moser, Virginia; Hofstra, Angela; Hoberman, Alan; Makris, Susan L; Garman, Robert; Bolon, Brad; Kaufmann, Wolfgang; Auer, Roland; Lau, Edmund; Vidmar, Thomas; Bowers, Wayne J

    2017-09-01

    The potential for developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) of environmental chemicals may be evaluated using specific test guidelines from the US Environmental Protection Agency or the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). These guidelines generate neurobehavioral, neuropathological, and morphometric data that are evaluated by regulatory agencies globally. Data from these DNT guideline studies, or the more recent OECD extended one-generation reproductive toxicity guideline, play a pivotal role in children's health risk assessment in different world areas. Data from the same study may be interpreted differently by regulatory authorities in different countries resulting in inconsistent evaluations that may lead to inconsistencies in risk assessment decisions internationally, resulting in regional differences in public health protection or in commercial trade barriers. These issues of data interpretation and reporting are also relevant to juvenile and pre-postnatal studies conducted more routinely for pharmaceuticals and veterinary medicines. There is a need for development of recommendations geared toward the operational needs of the regulatory scientific reviewers who apply these studies in risk assessments, as well as the scientists who generate DNT data sets. The workshops summarized here draw upon the experience of the authors representing government, industry, contract research organizations, and academia to discuss the scientific issues that have emerged from diverse regulatory evaluations. Although various regulatory bodies have different risk management decisions and labeling requirements that are difficult to harmonize, the workshops provided an opportunity to work toward more harmonized scientific approaches for evaluating DNT data within the context of different regulatory frameworks. Five speakers and their coauthors with neurotoxicology, neuropathology, and regulatory toxicology expertise discussed issues of variability, data reporting

  15. Age correction in cognitive, linguistic, and motor domains for infants born preterm: an analysis of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition developmental patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsan, Valentina; Fantoni, Carlo; Tallandini, Maria Anna

    2018-03-15

    To verify whether it is appropriate to use age correction for infants born preterm in all the developmental domains (cognitive, linguistic, and motor) considered by the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III). Seventy-three infants born preterm (26-35wks) without major neurological sequelae and 67 infants born at term were assessed at 12 months (corrected age for infants born preterm). The performance of the infants born preterm was assessed with two different evaluations: scores based on uncorrected age and scores based on corrected age. The developmental trends of infants born at term and infants born preterm differ across domains. Statistical analysis shows that age correction produces an overrated estimate of motor performance (12.5 points [95% confidence interval 9.05-16.01]) but not of cognitive performance. Given the broad use of the Bayley-III by psychologists and paediatricians, these results are important in the early diagnosis of developmental difficulties for children born preterm. Correction for gestational age should be applied for the cognitive domain only; whereas for the motor domain, chronological age should be used. No clear data emerged for language. Age correction with Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III) for infants born preterm should be applied differently in cognitive, language, and motor domains. Using corrected age with Bayley-III, the motor skills are overrated. Correction for preterm births adequately measures cognitive skills. No clear indication emerged about language skills. © 2018 Mac Keith Press.

  16. Latent profiles of early developmental vulnerabilities in a New South Wales child population at age 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Melissa J; Tzoumakis, Stacy; Laurens, Kristin R; Dean, Kimberlie; Kariuki, Maina; Harris, Felicity; O'Reilly, Nicole; Chilvers, Marilyn; Brinkman, Sally A; Carr, Vaughan J

    2018-06-01

    Detecting the early emergence of childhood risk for adult mental disorders may lead to interventions for reducing subsequent burden of these disorders. We set out to determine classes of children who may be at risk for later mental disorder on the basis of early patterns of development in a population cohort, and associated exposures gleaned from linked administrative records obtained within the New South Wales Child Development Study. Intergenerational records from government departments of health, education, justice and child protection were linked with the Australian Early Development Census for a state population cohort of 67,353 children approximately 5 years of age. We used binary data from 16 subdomains of the Australian Early Development Census to determine classes of children with shared patterns of Australian Early Development Census-defined vulnerability using latent class analysis. Covariates, which included demographic features (sex, socioeconomic status) and exposure to child maltreatment, parental mental illness, parental criminal offending and perinatal adversities (i.e. birth complications, smoking during pregnancy, low birth weight), were examined hierarchically within latent class analysis models. Four classes were identified, reflecting putative risk states for mental disorders: (1) disrespectful and aggressive/hyperactive behaviour, labelled 'misconduct risk' ( N = 4368; 6.5%); (2) 'pervasive risk' ( N = 2668; 4.0%); (3) 'mild generalised risk' ( N = 7822; 11.6%); and (4) 'no risk' ( N = 52,495; 77.9%). The odds of membership in putative risk groups (relative to the no risk group) were greater among children from backgrounds of child maltreatment, parental history of mental illness, parental history of criminal offending, socioeconomic disadvantage and perinatal adversities, with distinguishable patterns of association for some covariates. Patterns of early childhood developmental vulnerabilities may provide useful indicators

  17. Contribution of free play towards physical activity guidelines for New Zealand primary school children aged 7-9 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGall, S E; McGuigan, M R; Nottle, C

    2011-02-01

    the objectives of this study were to investigate children's physical activity patterns to gain comparisons between home and school and to determine whether the current physical activity guidelines of 60 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) daily were being met. participants were recruited from two New Zealand primary schools (60 children, mean age (SD) 8.3 (0.7) years). Physical activity was measured for seven consecutive days using Actigraph accelerometers. Total activity and average counts were determined for school playtime, after school and weekends. Differences between average counts for these intervals were compared using the t statistic. Time and percentage of time spent were categorised into the activity thresholds: sedentary (5200). Total activity for each day was also determined. no child met the recommended 60 min of MVPA daily during the investigation. Compared to school playtime, activity counts were lower by 36% (CI 25% to 45.5%, p<0.001, effect size (ES)=-1.29) after school, 50.1% (CI 37% to 60.5%, p<0.001, ES=-2.01) on Saturday and 57.4% (CI 46.3% to 66.3%, p<0.001, ES=-2.47) on Sunday. Mean results showed children spent 91-96% of their time engaged in light or sedentary activities. Even during school playtime, where the children were most active, only 8 of 80 min were spent engaged in MVPA. this study found activity levels were considerably lower than the recommended guidelines, and children were more active during school playtime compared to after school and weekends.

  18. Financial Well-Being of US Parents Caring for Coresident Children and Adults with Developmental Disabilities: An Age Cohort Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Susan L.; Rose, Roderick A.; Swaine, Jamie G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Understanding how financial well-being changes through the life course of caregiving parents of children with developmental disabilities is critically important. Methods: We analyse SIPP (U.S. Census Bureau) data to describe income poverty, asset poverty, income, net worth, and liquid assets of US parents (N = 753) of children with…

  19. De standaard vroegtijdige opsporing van gehoorstoornissen 0-19 jaar van de jeugdgezondheidszorg [The youth health care guideline early screening for hearing impairment ages 0-19 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leerdam, F.J.M. van

    2000-01-01

    The Youth Health Care guideline 'Early screening for hearing impairment, ages 0-19 years' draws the attention of all parties involved to the case finding of, notably, perceptive hearing loss; it helps workers in the Youth Health Care argue their referrals and improve the next steps in the process.

  20. Management of uncomplicated malaria in children under 13 years of age at a district hospital in Senegal: from official guidelines to usual practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrassat, Sophie; Lalou, Richard; Cissé, Moustapha; Le Hesran, Jean-Yves

    2011-09-29

    To be effective, national malaria guidelines must be properly followed. This study evaluated nurses' practices in the management of uncomplicated malaria cases at a District Hospital. Its objective was to identify the reasons for discrepancies between official guidelines and usual practices. This study took place at Oussouye hospital, south-western Senegal. Blood smears were available for biological diagnosis in patients aged more than five years while the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness recommended treating fevers presumptively in children under five. First line anti-malarial was Amodiaquine plus sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AQ+SP) bi-therapy. Hospital records of children under 13 years of age seen between 2004 and 2005 were reviewed. Among children treated with anti-malarials, 74% (2, 063/2, 789) received AQ+SP. However, only 22% (406/1, 879) of febrile children and 19% (429/2, 198) of children diagnosed with malaria got a blood smear. Moreover, an anti-malarial was prescribed for 80% (377/474) of children with a negative blood smear. The transition from chloroquine to AQ+SP was well followed. Nonetheless, blood smear use was very low and many over-prescriptions were reported. Reasons for discrepancies between guidelines and practices can be classified in three main categories: ambiguous guidelines, health system's dysfunctions and nurses' own considerations. Aside from the strengthening of the public health system, in order to guarantee practices complying with guidelines, training content should be more adapted to nurses' own considerations.

  1. New treatment method for developmental dysplasia of the hips after walking age. Arthroscopic reduction with limboplasty based on the findings of preoperative imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitano, Toshio; Morita, Mitsuaki; Nakagawa, Keisuke; Wada, Mayuko; Kuroda, Takaaki; Imai, Yuuki; Sakai, Toshiyuki; Eguchi, Yoshitaka

    2010-01-01

    What makes treatment choice for developmental dysplasia of the hips diagnosed after walking age difficult is the poor understanding of prereduction conditions that obstruct the reduction in spatial terms. To evaluate these problems, we employed subtraction three-dimensional imaging to search for the factors involved in intraarticular obstruction. On the basis of the findings of preoperative subtraction three-dimensional imaging from computed tomography, we developed a new method, a minimum invasive arthroscopic reduction with limboplasty, for reduction of developmental dysplasia of the hips after walking age. The purposes of this report were to: describe the technique of the arthroscopic procedure, and evaluate our new method using radiographic parameters. Ten patients with ten hips with developmental dysplasia after walking age treated by arthroscopic reduction with limboplasty were included in this study. The mean age of the patients at reduction was 22.6 months (range, 18.6-29.7 months); mean age at follow up was 7.2 years (range, 3.9-10.9 years); and mean follow up was 5.4 years (range, 1.7-9.0 years). These ten hips were evaluated using radiographic measurements. Moderate or severe avascular necrosis of the femoral head was not observed. Two hips that had a spherical-shaped head with minimal residual height loss or coxa magna were classified as Kalamchi and MacEwen grade 1. Additional surgery had been performed for two hips classified as Severin group 4 during the course of follow up. These two hips were classified as Severin group 1 at final examination. One more hip was classified as Severin group 4 at final examination, and additional surgery was recommended. The remaining seven hips (70%) therefore obtained good evaluations by arthroscopic reduction with limboplasty alone. We developed a new reduction method by using an arthroscopic procedure for the reduction of developmental dysplasia of the hips after walking age when this dysplasia failed to be reduced

  2. Proportion of preschool-aged children meeting the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines and associations with adiposity: results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Chaput

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years have been released in 2017. According to the guidelines, within a 24-h period, preschoolers should accumulate at least 180 min of physical activity (of which at least 60 min is moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, engage in no more than 1 h of screen time, and obtain between 10 and 13 h of sleep. This study examined the proportions of preschool-aged (3 to 4 years Canadian children who met these new guidelines and different recommendations within the guidelines, and the associations with adiposity indicators. Methods Participants were 803 children (mean age: 3.5 years from cycles 2–4 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS, a nationally representative cross-sectional sample of Canadians. Physical activity was accelerometer-derived, and screen time and sleep duration were parent-reported. Participants were classified as meeting the overall 24-Hour Movement Guidelines if they met all three specific time recommendations for physical activity, screen time, and sleep. The adiposity indicators in this study were body mass index (BMI z-scores and BMI status (World Health Organization Growth Standards. Results A total of 12.7% of preschool-aged children met the overall 24-Hour Movement Guidelines, and 3.3% met none of the three recommendations. A high proportion of children met the sleep duration (83.9% and physical activity (61.8% recommendations, while 24.4% met the screen time recommendation. No associations were found between meeting individual or combined recommendations and adiposity. Conclusions Very few preschool-aged children in Canada (~13% met all three recommendations contained within the 24-Hour Movement Guidelines. None of the combinations of recommendations were associated with adiposity in this sample. Future work should focus on identifying innovative ways to reduce screen time in this population, and should examine the associations of

  3. Initial evaluation of the effects of an environmental-focused problem-solving intervention for transition-age young people with developmental disabilities: Project TEAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Jessica M; Helfrich, Christine; Levin, Melissa; Hwang, I-Ting; Samuel, Preethy S; Carrellas, Ann; Schwartz, Ariel E; Goeva, Aleksandrina; Kolaczyk, Eric D

    2018-03-12

    Project TEAM (Teens making Environment and Activity Modifications) teaches transition-age young people with developmental disabilities, including those with co-occurring intellectual or cognitive disabilities, to identify and resolve environmental barriers to participation. We examined its effects on young people's attainment of participation goals, knowledge, problem-solving, self-determination, and self-efficacy. We used a quasi-experimental, repeated measures design (initial, outcome, 6-week follow-up) with two groups: (1) Project TEAM (28 males, 19 females; mean age 17y 6mo); and (2) goal-setting comparison (21 males, 14 females; mean age 17y 6mo). A matched convenience sample was recruited in two US states. Attainment of participation goals and goal attainment scaling (GAS) T scores were compared at outcome. Differences between groups for all other outcomes were analyzed using linear mixed effects models. At outcome, Project TEAM participants demonstrated greater knowledge (estimated mean difference: 1.82; confidence interval [CI]: 0.90, 2.74) and ability to apply knowledge during participation (GAS: t[75]=4.21; CI: 5.21, 14.57) compared to goal-setting. While both groups achieved significant improvements in knowledge, problem-solving, and self-determination, increases in parent reported self-determination remained at 6-week follow-up only for Project TEAM (estimated mean difference: 4.65; CI: 1.32, 7.98). Significantly more Project TEAM participants attained their participation goals by follow-up (Project TEAM=97.6%, goal-setting=77.1%, p=0.009). Both approaches support attainment of participation goals. Although inconclusive, Project TEAM may uniquely support young people with developmental disabilities to act in a self-determined manner and apply an environmental problem-solving approach over time. Individualized goal-setting, alone or during Project TEAM (Teens making Environment and Activity Modifications) appears to support attainment of participation

  4. The neurite growth inhibitory effects of soluble TNFα on developing sympathetic neurons are dependent on developmental age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Aoife M; Collins, Louise M; Wyatt, Sean L; Gutierrez, Humberto; O'Keeffe, Gerard W

    2014-01-01

    During development, the growth of neural processes is regulated by an array of cellular and molecular mechanisms which influence growth rate, direction and branching. Recently, many members of the TNF superfamily have been shown to be key regulators of neurite growth during development. The founder member of this family, TNFα can both promote and inhibit neurite growth depending on the cellular context. Specifically, transmembrane TNFα promotes neurite growth, while soluble TNFα inhibits it. While the growth promoting effects of TNFα are restricted to a defined developmental window of early postnatal development, whether the growth inhibitory effects of soluble TNFα occur throughout development is unknown. In this study we used the extensively studied, well characterised neurons of the superior cervical ganglion to show that the growth inhibitory effects of soluble TNFα are restricted to a specific period of late embryonic and early postnatal development. Furthermore, we show that this growth inhibitory effect of soluble TNFα requires NF-κB signalling at all developmental stages at which soluble TNFα inhibits neurite growth. These findings raise the possibility that increases in the amount of soluble TNFα in vivo, for example as a result of maternal inflammation, could negatively affect neurite growth in developing neurons at specific stages of development. Copyright © 2015 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A cohort study of developmental polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in relation to post-vaccination antibody response at 6-months of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jusko, Todd A.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Paige Lawrence, B.; Palkovicova, Lubica; Nemessanyi, Tomas; Drobna, Beata; Fabisikova, Anna; Kocan, Anton; Sonneborn, Dean; Jahnova, Eva; Kavanagh, Terrance J.; Trnovec, Tomas; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2010-01-01

    Background: Extensive experimental data in animals indicate that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during pregnancy leads to changes in offspring immune function during the postnatal period. Whether developmental PCB exposure influences immunologic development in humans has received little study. Methods: The study population was 384 mother-infant pairs recruited from two districts of eastern Slovakia for whom prospectively collected maternal, cord, and 6-month infant blood specimens were available. Several PCB congeners were measured in maternal, cord, and 6-month infant sera by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Concentrations of IgG-specific anti-haemophilus influenzae type b, tetanus toxoid, and diphtheria toxoid were assayed in 6-month infant sera using ELISA methods. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the relation between maternal, cord, and 6-month infant PCB concentrations and the antibody concentrations evaluated at 6-months of age. Results: Overall, there was little evidence of an association between infant antibody concentrations and PCB measures during the pre- and early postnatal period. In addition, our results did not show specificity in terms of associations limited to a particular developmental period (e.g. pre- vs. postnatal), a particular antibody, or a particular PCB congener. Conclusions: At the PCB concentrations measured in this cohort, which are high relative to most human populations today, we did not detect an association between maternal or early postnatal PCB exposure and specific antibody responses at 6-months of age.

  6. A cohort study of developmental polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in relation to post-vaccination antibody response at 6-months of age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jusko, Todd A., E-mail: juskota@niehs.nih.gov [Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, PO Box 12233, MD A3-05, 111 T.W. Alexander Dr, Rall Bldg 101, Rm A361, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2233 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Schwartz, Stephen M. [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Program in Epidemiology, Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Paige Lawrence, B. [Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY (United States); Palkovicova, Lubica [Department of Environmental Medicine, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Nemessanyi, Tomas [Department of Immunology and Immunotoxicology, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Drobna, Beata; Fabisikova, Anna; Kocan, Anton [Department of Toxic Organic Pollutants, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Sonneborn, Dean [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Jahnova, Eva [Department of Immunology and Immunotoxicology, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Kavanagh, Terrance J. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Trnovec, Tomas [Department of Toxic Organic Pollutants, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Hertz-Picciotto, Irva [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Background: Extensive experimental data in animals indicate that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during pregnancy leads to changes in offspring immune function during the postnatal period. Whether developmental PCB exposure influences immunologic development in humans has received little study. Methods: The study population was 384 mother-infant pairs recruited from two districts of eastern Slovakia for whom prospectively collected maternal, cord, and 6-month infant blood specimens were available. Several PCB congeners were measured in maternal, cord, and 6-month infant sera by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Concentrations of IgG-specific anti-haemophilus influenzae type b, tetanus toxoid, and diphtheria toxoid were assayed in 6-month infant sera using ELISA methods. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the relation between maternal, cord, and 6-month infant PCB concentrations and the antibody concentrations evaluated at 6-months of age. Results: Overall, there was little evidence of an association between infant antibody concentrations and PCB measures during the pre- and early postnatal period. In addition, our results did not show specificity in terms of associations limited to a particular developmental period (e.g. pre- vs. postnatal), a particular antibody, or a particular PCB congener. Conclusions: At the PCB concentrations measured in this cohort, which are high relative to most human populations today, we did not detect an association between maternal or early postnatal PCB exposure and specific antibody responses at 6-months of age.

  7. Age- and sex-related differences in use of guideline-recommended care and mortality among patients with incident heart failure in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, Anne; Egstrup, Kenneth; Svendsen, Marie Louise Overgaard

    2016-01-01

    was associated with lower use of recommended processes of care. Relative risk (RR) for receiving processes of care varied for men >80 years from 0.52 to 0.91 compared with men ≤65 years. Corresponding RRs among women >80 years varied from 0.55 to 0.89 compared with women ≤65 years. Older age was as expected......% and >40%. CONCLUSION: older patients with HF were less likely to receive guideline-recommended processes of care, irrespective of sex. Lower level of care may contribute to an excess mortality observed among the older patients....... Failure Registry. The registry monitors guideline-recommended processes of care: echocardiography, New York Heart Association Classification, treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers, betablockers, physical training and patient education. RESULTS: older age...

  8. Management of uncomplicated malaria in children under 13 years of age at a district hospital in senegal: from official guidelines to usual practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Hesran Jean-Yves

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To be effective, national malaria guidelines must be properly followed. This study evaluated nurses' practices in the management of uncomplicated malaria cases at a District Hospital. Its objective was to identify the reasons for discrepancies between official guidelines and usual practices. Methods This study took place at Oussouye hospital, south-western Senegal. Blood smears were available for biological diagnosis in patients aged more than five years while the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness recommended treating fevers presumptively in children under five. First line anti-malarial was Amodiaquine plus sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AQ+SP bi-therapy. Hospital records of children under 13 years of age seen between 2004 and 2005 were reviewed. Results Among children treated with anti-malarials, 74% (2, 063/2, 789 received AQ+SP. However, only 22% (406/1, 879 of febrile children and 19% (429/2, 198 of children diagnosed with malaria got a blood smear. Moreover, an anti-malarial was prescribed for 80% (377/474 of children with a negative blood smear. Conclusions The transition from chloroquine to AQ+SP was well followed. Nonetheless, blood smear use was very low and many over-prescriptions were reported. Reasons for discrepancies between guidelines and practices can be classified in three main categories: ambiguous guidelines, health system's dysfunctions and nurses' own considerations. Aside from the strengthening of the public health system, in order to guarantee practices complying with guidelines, training content should be more adapted to nurses' own considerations.

  9. Prevalence and Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among Children Aged 8 Years--Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 Sites, United States, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Deborah L; Baio, Jon; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Bilder, Deborah; Charles, Jane; Constantino, John N; Daniels, Julie; Durkin, Maureen S; Fitzgerald, Robert T; Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; Lee, Li-Ching; Pettygrove, Sydney; Robinson, Cordelia; Schulz, Eldon; Wells, Chris; Wingate, Martha S; Zahorodny, Walter; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2016-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). 2012. The Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network is an active surveillance system that provides estimates of the prevalence and characteristics of ASD among children aged 8 years whose parents or guardians reside in 11 ADDM Network sites in the United States (Arkansas, Arizona, Colorado, Georgia, Maryland, Missouri, New Jersey, North Carolina, South Carolina, Utah, and Wisconsin). Surveillance to determine ASD case status is conducted in two phases. The first phase consists of screening and abstracting comprehensive evaluations performed by professional service providers in the community. Data sources identified for record review are categorized as either 1) education source type, including developmental evaluations to determine eligibility for special education services or 2) health care source type, including diagnostic and developmental evaluations. The second phase involves the review of all abstracted evaluations by trained clinicians to determine ASD surveillance case status. A child meets the surveillance case definition for ASD if one or more comprehensive evaluations of that child completed by a qualified professional describes behaviors that are consistent with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision diagnostic criteria for any of the following conditions: autistic disorder, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (including atypical autism), or Asperger disorder. This report provides ASD prevalence estimates for children aged 8 years living in catchment areas of the ADDM Network sites in 2012, overall and stratified by sex, race/ethnicity, and the type of source records (education and health records versus health records only). In addition, this report describes the proportion of children with ASD with a score consistent with intellectual disability on a standardized intellectual ability test, the age at which the earliest known

  10. Prediction of cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years using developmental follow-up assessments at the age of 2 and 3 years in very preterm children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potharst, E.S.; Houtzager, B.A.; van Sonderen, L.; Tamminga, P.; Kok, J.H.; Last, B.F.; van Wassenaer, A.G.

    2012-01-01

    Aim This study investigated prediction of separate cognitive abilities at the age of 5years by cognitive development at the ages of both 2 and 3years, and the agreement between these measurements, in very preterm children. Methods Preterm children (n=102; 44 males; 58 females) with a gestational age

  11. Advanced Age and Female Gender are Predictors of Minor Adherence to Guidelines in Acute Pharmacotherapy of Myocardial Infarction Patients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Monhart, Z.; Grünfeldová, H.; Zvárová, Jana; Janský, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 2 (2010), e247 ISSN 0009-7322. [World Congress of Cardiology . 16.06.2010-19.06.2010, Beijing] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : cardiology * clinical guidelines * myocardial infarction Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  12. Subs��dios para uma leitura desenvolvimental do processo de envelhecimento Conceptualizing a developmental approach of the process of aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António M. Fonseca

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se um conjunto de perspectivas teóricas que encaram o desenvolvimento psicológico como uma sucessão coerente de mudanças sistemáticas e organizadas ao nível do funcionamento e do comportamento individuais, implicando uma adaptação constante dos indivíduos face a transformações ocorridas a nível interno e externo. Inspiradas por uma compreensão contextualista do desenvolvimento, comparam-se os principais aspectos de quatro teorias que procuram explicar o modo como o desenvolvimento se faz no decurso da vida humana: abordagem ecológica, contextualismo desenvolvimental, teoria da acção e do controle, perspectiva desenvolvimental do ciclo de vida. Algumas implicações dos aspectos comuns a estas teorias são finalmente concretizadas em termos do estudo do processo de envelhecimento, salientando a importância cada vez maior de que se reveste o estudo das diferenças inter-individuais em tal processo a partir da análise de percursos individuais de desenvolvimento.Some theoretical approaches that look into human development as a coherent movement of systematic and organized changes in individual functioning and behavior are presented. These changes will demand a constant individual adaptation coping with transformations occurring in internal and external levels. Inspired by a contextualist paradigm of human development, the main aspects of four theories that try to explain the way how development occurs throughout human life are compared: ecological approach, developmental contextualism, theory of action and control, life-span developmental perspective. Some implications of common features of these theories are applied in what concerns the study of the process of aging, focusing the growing importance of the study of inter-individual differences in such process from the analysis of individual developmental pathways.

  13. Retrospective radiographic evaluation of treatment results of developmental dysplasia of the hip in walking-age children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesakkers, Nicole A. M.; Witbreuk, Melinda M. E. H.; Besselaar, Philip P.; van der Sluijs, Johannes A.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated treatment results of 22 children (32 hips) with idiopathic hip dislocation after walking age in two Dutch academic hospitals. The Tonnis classification was used preoperatively. Outcome was measured using the Severin and Kalamchi classification. The mean age at treatment was 24 months

  14. Life Span Developmental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Eryilmaz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Life Span Developmental Approach examines development of individuals which occurs from birth to death. Life span developmental approach is a multi-disciplinary approach related with disciplines like psychology, psychiatry, sociology, anthropology and geriatrics that indicates the fact that development is not completed in adulthood, it continues during the life course. Development is a complex process that consists of dying and death. This approach carefully investigates the development of individuals with respect to developmental stages. This developmental approach suggests that scientific disciplines should not explain developmental facts only with age changes. Along with aging, cognitive, biological, and socioemotional development throughout life should also be considered to provide a reasonable and acceptable context, guideposts, and reasonable expectations for the person. There are three important subjects whom life span developmental approach deals with. These are nature vs nurture, continuity vs discontinuity, and change vs stability. Researchers using life span developmental approach gather and produce knowledge on these three most important domains of individual development with their unique scientific methodology.

  15. Comparison of Birth-and Conception-Based Definitions of Postnatal Age in Developmental and Reproductive Rodent Toxicity Studies: lnfluence of Gestation Length on Measurements of Offspring Body Weight and Puberty in Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most laboratories conducting developmental and reproductive toxicity studies in rodents assign age by defining postnatal day (PND) 0 or 1 as the day of birth (DOB); i.e., gestation length affects PND and the timing of postnatal measurements. Some laboratories, however, define age...

  16. Developmental Course of Impulsivity and Capability from Age 10 to Age 25 as Related to Trajectory of Suicide Attempt in a Community Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian

    2011-01-01

    Hierarchical linear models were used to examine trajectories of impulsivity and capability between ages 10 and 25 in relation to suicide attempt in 770 youths followed longitudinally: intercepts were set at age 17. The impulsivity measure assessed features of urgency (e.g., poor control, quick provocation, and disregard for external constraints);…

  17. Prediction of cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years using developmental follow-up assessments at the age of 2 and 3 years in very preterm children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potharst, Eva S.; Houtzager, Bregje A.; van Sonderen, Loekie; Tamminga, Pieter; Kok, Joke H.; Last, Bob F.; van Wassenaer, Aleid G.

    2012-01-01

    Aim This study investigated prediction of separate cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years by cognitive development at the ages of both 2 and 3 years, and the agreement between these measurements, in very preterm children. METHODS Preterm children (n=102; 44males; 58 females) with a gestational

  18. Effects of age, comorbidity and adherence to current antimicrobial guidelines on mortality in hospitalized elderly patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiudi; Zhou, Fei; Li, Hui; Xing, Xiqian; Chen, Liang; Wang, Yimin; Zhang, Chunxiao; Liu, Xuedong; Suo, Lijun; Wang, Jinxiang; Yu, Guohua; Wang, Guangqiang; Yao, Xuexin; Yu, Hongxia; Wang, Lei; Liu, Meng; Xue, Chunxue; Liu, Bo; Zhu, Xiaoli; Li, Yanli; Xiao, Ying; Cui, Xiaojing; Li, Lijuan; Purdy, Jay E; Cao, Bin

    2018-04-24

    Limited information exists on the clinical characteristics predictive of mortality in patients aged ≥65 years in many countries. The impact of adherence to current antimicrobial guidelines on the mortality of hospitalized elderly patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has never been assessed. A total of 3131 patients aged ≥65 years were enrolled from a multi-center, retrospective, observational study initiated by the CAP-China network. Risk factors for death were screened with multivariable logistic regression analysis, with emphasis on the evaluation of age, comorbidities and antimicrobial treatment regimen with regard to the current Chinese CAP guidelines. The mean age of the study population was 77.4 ± 7.4 years. Overall in-hospital and 60-day mortality were 5.7% and 7.6%, respectively; these rates were three-fold higher in those aged ≥85 years than in the 65-74 group (11.9% versus 3.2% for in-hospital mortality and 14.1% versus 4.7% for 60-day mortality, respectively). The mortality was significantly higher among patients with comorbidities compared with those who were otherwise healthy. According to the 2016 Chinese CAP guidelines, 62.1% of patients (1907/3073) received non-adherent treatment. For general-ward patients without risk factors for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) infection (n = 2258), 52.3% (1094/2090) were over-treated, characterized by monotherapy with an anti-pseudomonal β-lactam or combination with fluoroquinolone + β-lactam; while 71.4% of intensive care unit (ICU) patients (120/168) were undertreated, without coverage of atypical bacteria. Among patients with risk factors for PA infection (n = 815), 22.9% (165/722) of those in the general ward and 74.2% of those in the ICU (69/93) were undertreated, using regimens without anti-pseudomonal activity. The independent predictors of 60-day mortality were age, long-term bedridden status, congestive heart failure, CURB-65, glucose, heart rate, arterial oxygen

  19. School-age effects of the newborn individualized developmental care and assessment program for preterm infants with intrauterine growth restriction: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAnulty, Gloria; Duffy, Frank H; Kosta, Sandra; Weisenfeld, Neil I; Warfield, Simon K; Butler, Samantha C; Alidoost, Moona; Bernstein, Jane Holmes; Robertson, Richard; Zurakowski, David; Als, Heidelise

    2013-02-19

    The experience in the newborn intensive care nursery results in premature infants' neurobehavioral and neurophysiological dysfunction and poorer brain structure. Preterms with severe intrauterine growth restriction are doubly jeopardized given their compromised brains. The Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program improved outcome at early school-age for preterms with appropriate intrauterine growth. It also showed effectiveness to nine months for preterms with intrauterine growth restriction. The current study tested effectiveness into school-age for preterms with intrauterine growth restriction regarding executive function (EF), electrophysiology (EEG) and neurostructure (MRI). Twenty-three 9-year-old former growth-restricted preterms, randomized at birth to standard care (14 controls) or to the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (9 experimentals) were assessed with standardized measures of cognition, achievement, executive function, electroencephalography, and magnetic resonance imaging. The participating children were comparable to those lost to follow-up, and the controls to the experimentals, in terms of newborn background health and demographics. All outcome measures were corrected for mother's intelligence. Analysis techniques included two-group analysis of variance and stepwise discriminate analysis for the outcome measures, Wilks' lambda and jackknifed classification to ascertain two-group classification success per and across domains; canonical correlation analysis to explore relationships among neuropsychological, electrophysiological and neurostructural domains at school-age, and from the newborn period to school-age. Controls and experimentals were comparable in age at testing, anthropometric and health parameters, and in cognitive and achievement scores. Experimentals scored better in executive function, spectral coherence, and cerebellar volumes. Furthermore, executive function, spectral coherence

  20. Developmental Course of Impulsivity and Capability from Age 10 to Age 25 as Related to Trajectory of Suicide Attempt in a Community Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian

    2011-01-01

    Hierarchical linear models were used to examine trajectories of impulsivity and capability between ages 10 and 25 in relation to suicide attempt in 770 youths followed longitudinally: intercepts were set at age 17. The impulsivity measure assessed features of urgency (e.g., poor control, quick provocation, and disregard for external constraints); the capability measure assessed aspects of self-esteem and mastery. Compared to nonattempters, attempters reported significantly higher impulsivity ...

  1. Developmental Outcomes at 24 Months of Age in Toddlers Supplemented with Arachidonic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid: Results of a Double Blind Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M. Devlin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about arachidonic acid (ARA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA requirements in toddlers. A longitudinal, double blind, controlled trial in toddlers (n = 133 age 13.4 ± 0.9 months (mean ± standard deviation, randomized to receive a DHA (200 mg/day and ARA (200 mg/day supplement (supplement or a corn oil supplement (control until age 24 months determined effects on neurodevelopment. We found no effect of the supplement on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development 3rd Edition (Bayley-III cognitive and language composites and Beery–Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual–Motor Integration (Beery VMI at age 24 months. Supplemented toddlers had higher RBC phosphatidylcholine (PC, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE, and plasma DHA and ARA compared to placebo toddlers at age 24 months. A positive relationship between RBC PE ARA and Bayley III Cognitive composite (4.55 (0.21–9.00, B (95% CI, p = 0.045 in supplemented boys, but not in control boys, was observed in models adjusted for baseline fatty acid, maternal non-verbal intelligence, and BMI z-score at age 24 months. A similar positive relationship between RBC PE ARA and Bayley III Language composite was observed for supplemented boys (11.52 (5.10–17.94, p < 0.001 and girls (11.19 (4.69–17.68, p = 0.001. These findings suggest that increasing the ARA status in toddlers is associated with better neurodevelopment at age 24 months.

  2. Developmental Outcomes at 24 Months of Age in Toddlers Supplemented with Arachidonic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid: Results of a Double Blind Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Angela M.; Chau, Cecil M. Y.; Matheson, Julie; McCarthy, Deanna; Yurko-Mauro, Karin; Innis, Sheila M.; Grunau, Ruth E.

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) requirements in toddlers. A longitudinal, double blind, controlled trial in toddlers (n = 133) age 13.4 ± 0.9 months (mean ± standard deviation), randomized to receive a DHA (200 mg/day) and ARA (200 mg/day) supplement (supplement) or a corn oil supplement (control) until age 24 months determined effects on neurodevelopment. We found no effect of the supplement on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development 3rd Edition (Bayley-III) cognitive and language composites and Beery–Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual–Motor Integration (Beery VMI) at age 24 months. Supplemented toddlers had higher RBC phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and plasma DHA and ARA compared to placebo toddlers at age 24 months. A positive relationship between RBC PE ARA and Bayley III Cognitive composite (4.55 (0.21–9.00), B (95% CI), p = 0.045) in supplemented boys, but not in control boys, was observed in models adjusted for baseline fatty acid, maternal non-verbal intelligence, and BMI z-score at age 24 months. A similar positive relationship between RBC PE ARA and Bayley III Language composite was observed for supplemented boys (11.52 (5.10–17.94), p < 0.001) and girls (11.19 (4.69–17.68), p = 0.001). These findings suggest that increasing the ARA status in toddlers is associated with better neurodevelopment at age 24 months. PMID:28878181

  3. Brief Report: Ages of Language Milestones as Predictors of Developmental Trajectories in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kover, Sara T.; Edmunds, Sarah R.; Ellis Weismer, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing early risk markers in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is critical for timely diagnosis and intervention. The purpose of this study was to extend previous findings regarding language milestones to a longitudinal design, in which ages of expressive language milestones (i.e., first words, first phrases) could serve as…

  4. Developmental differences in episodic memory across school ages: evidence from enacted events performed by self and others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badinlou, Farzaneh; Kormi-Nouri, Reza; Mousavi Nasab, S M Hossein; Knopf, Monika

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine action memory as a form of episodic memory among school-aged subjects. Most research on action memory has focused on memory changes in adult populations. This study explored the action memory of children over time. A total of 410 school-aged child participants, comprising 201 girls and 208 boys in four age groups (8, 10, 12, and 14), were included in this study. We studied two forms of action encoding, subject-performed tasks (SPTs) and experimenter-performed tasks (EPTs), which were compared with one verbal encoding task as a control condition. At retrieval, we used three memory tests (free recall, cued recall, and recognition). We observed significant differences in memory performance in children aged 8-14 years with respect to free recall and cued recall but not recognition. The largest memory enhancement was observed for the SPTs in the 8-14-year-old participants under all test conditions. Participants performed equally well on the free recall of SPTs and EPTs, whereas they displayed better performances on the cued recall and recognition of SPTs compared to EPTs. The strategic nature of SPTs and the distinction between item-specific information and relational information are discussed.

  5. Modeling Developmental Changes in Functional Capacities and Soccer-Specific Skills in Male Players Aged 11-17 Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valente-dos-Santos, Joao; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel J.; Simoes, Filipe; Figueiredo, Antonio J.; Leite, Neiva; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Malina, Robert M.; Sherar, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the contributions of age. growth, skeletal maturation, playing position and training to longitudinal changes in functional and skill performance in male youth soccer. Players were annually followed over 5 years (n = 83, 4.4 measurements per player). Composite scores for

  6. Developmental trends of hot and cool executive function in school-aged children with and without autism spectrum disorder: Links with theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouklari, Evangelia-Chrysanthi; Tsermentseli, Stella; Monks, Claire P

    2018-03-26

    The development of executive function (EF) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been investigated using only "cool"-cognitive EF tasks while there is limited knowledge regarding the development of "hot"-affective EF. Although cool EF development and its links to theory of mind (ToM) have been widely examined, understanding of the influence of hot EF to ToM mechanisms is minimal. The present study introduced a longitudinal design to examine the developmental changes in cool and hot EF of children with ASD (n = 45) and matched (to age and IQ) controls (n = 37) as well as the impact of EF on ToM development over a school year. For children with ASD, although selective cool (working memory and inhibition) and hot (affective decision making) EF domains presented age-related improvements, they never reached the performance level of the control group. Early cool working memory predicted later ToM in both groups but early hot delay discounting predicted later ToM only in the ASD group. No evidence was found for the reverse pattern (early ToM predicting later EF). These findings suggest that improvements in some EF aspects are evident in school age in ASD and highlight the crucial role that both cool and hot EF play in ToM development.

  7. A Developmental Examination of the Psychometric Properties and Predictive Utility of a Revised Psychological Self-Concept Measure for Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Rongfang; Lang, Sarah N.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate assessment of psychological self-concept in early childhood relies on the development of psychometrically sound instruments. From a developmental perspective, the current study revised an existing measure of young children's psychological self-concepts, the Child Self-View Questionnaire (CSVQ, Eder, 1990), and examined its psychometric properties using a sample of preschool-aged children assessed at approximately 4 years old with a follow-up at age 5 (N = 111). The item compositions of lower-order dimensions were revised, leading to improved internal consistency. Factor Analysis revealed three latent psychological self-concept factors (i.e., Sociability, Control, and Assurance) from the lower-order dimensions. Measurement invariance by gender was supported for Sociability and Assurance, not for Control. Test-retest reliability was supported by stability of the psychological self-concept measurement model during the preschool years, although some evidence of increasing differentiation was obtained. Validity of children's scores on the three latent psychological self-concept factors was tested by investigating their concurrent associations with teacher-reported behavioral adjustment on the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale – Short Form (SCBE-SF, LaFreniere & Dumas, 1996). Children who perceived themselves as higher in Sociability at 5 years old displayed less internalizing behavior and more social competence; boys who perceived themselves as higher in Control at age 4 exhibited lower externalizing behavior; children higher in Assurance had greater social competence at age 4, but displayed more externalizing behavior at age 5. Implications relevant to the utility of the revised psychological self-concept measure are discussed. PMID:26098231

  8. A developmental examination of the psychometric properties and predictive utility of a revised psychological self-concept measure for preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Rongfang; Lang, Sarah N; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J

    2016-02-01

    Accurate assessment of psychological self-concept in early childhood relies on the development of psychometrically sound instruments. From a developmental perspective, the current study revised an existing measure of young children's psychological self-concepts, the Child Self-View Questionnaire (CSVQ; Eder, 1990), and examined its psychometric properties using a sample of preschool-age children assessed at approximately 4 years old with a follow-up at age 5 (N = 111). The item compositions of lower order dimensions were revised, leading to improved internal consistency. Factor analysis revealed 3 latent psychological self-concept factors (i.e., sociability, control, and assurance) from the lower order dimensions. Measurement invariance by gender was supported for sociability and assurance, not for control. Test-retest reliability was supported by stability of the psychological self-concept measurement model during the preschool years, although some evidence of increasing differentiation was obtained. Validity of children's scores on the 3 latent psychological self-concept factors was tested by investigating their concurrent associations with teacher-reported behavioral adjustment on the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale-Short Form (SCBE-SF; LaFreniere & Dumas, 1996). Children who perceived themselves as higher in sociability at 5 years old displayed less internalizing behavior and more social competence; boys who perceived themselves as higher in control at age 4 exhibited lower externalizing behavior; children higher in assurance had greater social competence at age 4, but displayed more externalizing behavior at age 5. Implications relevant to the utility of the revised psychological self-concept measure are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Developmental ORIgins of Healthy and Unhealthy AgeiNg: The Role of Maternal Obesity - Introduction to DORIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Iozzo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Europe has the highest proportion of elderly people in the world. Cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, sarcopenia and cognitive decline frequently coexist in the same aged individual, sharing common early risk factors and being mutually reinforcing. Among conditions which may contribute to establish early risk factors, this review focuses on maternal obesity, since the epidemic of obesity involves an ever growing number of women of reproductive age and children, calling for appropriate studies to understand the consequences of maternal obesity on the offspring's health and for developing effective measures and policies to improve people's health before their conception and birth. Though the current knowledge suggests that the long-term impact of maternal obesity on the offspring's health may be substantial, the outcomes of maternal obesity over the lifespan have not been quantified, and the molecular changes induced by maternal obesity remain poorly characterized. We hypothesize that maternal insulin resistance and reduced placental glucocorticoid catabolism, leading to oxidative stress, may damage the DNA, either in its structure (telomere shortening or in its function (via epigenetic changes, resulting in altered gene expression/repair, disease during life, and pathological ageing. This review illustrates the background to the EU-FP7-HEALTH-DORIAN project.

  10. Empirically based assessment and taxonomy of psychopathology for ages 1½-90+ years: Developmental, multi-informant, and multicultural findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achenbach, Thomas M; Ivanova, Masha Y; Rescorla, Leslie A

    2017-11-01

    Originating in the 1960s, the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) comprises a family of instruments for assessing problems and strengths for ages 1½-90+ years. To provide an overview of the ASEBA, related research, and future directions for empirically based assessment and taxonomy. Standardized, multi-informant ratings of transdiagnostic dimensions of behavioral, emotional, social, and thought problems are hierarchically scored on narrow-spectrum syndrome scales, broad-spectrum internalizing and externalizing scales, and a total problems (general psychopathology) scale. DSM-oriented and strengths scales are also scored. The instruments and scales have been iteratively developed from assessments of clinical and population samples of hundreds of thousands of individuals. Items, instruments, scales, and norms are tailored to different kinds of informants for ages 1½-5, 6-18, 18-59, and 60-90+ years. To take account of differences between informants' ratings, parallel instruments are completed by parents, teachers, youths, adult probands, and adult collaterals. Syndromes and Internalizing/Externalizing scales derived from factor analyses of each instrument capture variations in patterns of problems that reflect different informants' perspectives. Confirmatory factor analyses have supported the syndrome structures in dozens of societies. Software displays scale scores in relation to user-selected multicultural norms for the age and gender of the person being assessed, according to ratings by each type of informant. Multicultural norms are derived from population samples in 57 societies on every inhabited continent. Ongoing and future research includes multicultural assessment of elders; advancing transdiagnostic progress and outcomes assessment; and testing higher order structures of psychopathology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Canadian sedentary behaviour guidelines for children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Hicks, Audrey; Murumets, Kelly; Colley, Rachel C; Duggan, Mary

    2011-02-01

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), in partnership with the Healthy Active Living and Obesity Research Group (HALO) at the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute, and in collaboration with ParticipACTION, and others, has developed the Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for Children (aged 5-11 years) and Youth (aged 12-17 years). The guidelines include a preamble to provide context, followed by the specific recommendations for sedentary behaviour. The entire development process was guided by the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument, which is the international standard for clinical practice guideline development. Thus, the guidelines have gone through a rigorous and transparent developmental process and the recommendations are based on evidence from a systematic review and interpretation of the research evidence. The final guidelines benefitted from an extensive online consultation process with 230 domestic and international stakeholders and key informants. The final guideline recommendations state that for health benefits, children (aged 5-11 years) and youth (aged 12-17 years) should minimize the time that they spend being sedentary each day. This may be achieved by (i) limiting recreational screen time to no more than 2 h per day - lower levels are associated with additional health benefits; and (ii) limiting sedentary (motorized) transport, extended sitting time, and time spent indoors throughout the day. These are the first evidence-based Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for Children and Youth and provide important and timely recommendations for the advancement of public health based on a systematic synthesis, interpretation, and application of the current scientific evidence.

  12. Feasibility of electronic peer mentoring for transition-age youth and young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities: Project Teens making Environment and Activity Modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Jessica M; Ryan, Cathryn T; Moore, Rachel; Schwartz, Ariel

    2018-01-01

    There is a need for mentoring interventions in which transition-age youth and young adults with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities (I/DD) participate as both mentors and mentees. Project TEAM (Teens making Environment and Activity Modifications) is a problem-solving intervention that includes an electronic peer-mentoring component. Forty-two mentees and nine mentors with I/DD participated. The present authors analysed recorded peer-mentoring calls and field notes for mentee engagement, mentor achievement of objectives and supports needed to implement peer mentoring. Overall, mentees attended 87% of scheduled calls and actively engaged during 94% of call objectives. Across all mentoring dyads, mentors achieved 87% of objectives and there was a significant relationship between the use of supports (mentoring script, direct supervision) and fidelity. Transition-age mentees with I/DD can engage in electronic peer mentoring to further practice problem-solving skills. Mentors with I/DD can implement electronic peer mentoring when trained personnel provide supports and individualized job accommodations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Measurement of center-edge angle in developmental dysplasia of the hip: a comparison of two methods in patients under 20 years of age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oemeroglu, H. [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Osmangazi University Hospital, Eskisehir (Turkey); Genclik Cad., Ankara (Turkey); Bicimoglu, A. [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Ankara Numune Hospital, Ankara (Turkey); Agus, H. [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, S.S.K. Tepecik Hospital, Izmir (Turkey); Tuemer, Y. [Orthopaedics and Traumatology Center, Ankara (Turkey)

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To analyse in detail the two methods for the measurement of the center-edge (CE) angle in developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in children and adolescents. Design: Four observers independently interpreted the radiographs of 51 surgically treated and 15 unaffected hips on two occasions. CE angle was measured by using two methods: classic (Wiberg) and refined (Ogata et al.). Intraobserver and interobserver variations of both methods were calculated and the effect of age and treatment type on the two measurement methods were analysed. Results: Following 528 measurements in 66 hips, the mean classic CE angle was 28.2 and the mean refined CE angle, 19.9 . The classic CE angle had nearly 1 less intraobserver and interobserver variation than the refined CE angle. Classic angle measurements were obviously higher than refined ones in the hips of children under 9 years of age and in hips in which an innominate osteotomy had been performed. Conclusion: Although CE angle of Wiberg, which is an important radiographic indicator, has an adequate level of reliability and reproducibility it may not reflect the true lateral femoral head coverage in some cases. (orig.)

  14. "First, do no harm": legal guidelines for health programmes affecting adolescents aged 10-17 who sell sex or inject drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    There is a strong evidence base that the stigma, discrimination and criminalization affecting adolescent key populations (KPs) aged 10-17 is intensified due to domestic and international legal constructs that rely on law-enforcement-based interventions dependent upon arrest, pre-trial detention, incarceration and compulsory "rehabilitation" in institutional placement. While there exists evidence and rights-based technical guidelines for interventions among older cohorts, these guidelines have not yet been embraced by international public health actors for fear that international law applies different standards to adolescents aged 10-17 who engage in behaviours such as selling sex or injecting drugs. As a matter of international human rights, health, juvenile justice and child protection law, interventions among adolescent KPs aged 10-17 must not involve arrest, prosecution or detention of any kind. It is imperative that interventions not rely on law enforcement, but instead low-threshold, voluntary services, shelter and support, utilizing peer-based outreach as much as possible. These services must be mobile and accessible, and permit alternatives to parental consent for the provision of life-saving support, including HIV testing, treatment and care, needle and syringe programmes, opioid substitution therapy, safe abortions, antiretroviral therapy and gender-affirming care and hormone treatment for transgender adolescents. To ensure enrolment in services, international guidance indicates that informed consent and confidentiality must be ensured, including by waiver of parental consent requirements. To remove the disincentive to health practitioners and researchers to engaging with adolescent KPs aged 10-17 government agencies and ethical review boards are advised to exempt or grant waivers for mandatory reporting. In the event that, in violation of international law and guidance, authorities seek to involuntarily place adolescent KPs in institutions, they are

  15. Developmental Immunotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal models suggest that the immature immune system is more susceptible to xenobiotics than the fully mature system, and sequelae of developmental immunotoxicant exposure may be persistent well into adulthood. Immune maturation may be delayed by xenobiotic exposure and recover...

  16. Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years - autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 11 sites, United States, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-28

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). 2010. The Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network is an active surveillance system in the United States that provides estimates of the prevalence of ASD and other characteristics among children aged 8 years whose parents or guardians live in 11 ADDM sites in the United States. ADDM surveillance is conducted in two phases. The first phase consists of screening and abstracting comprehensive evaluations performed by professional providers in the community. Multiple data sources for these evaluations include general pediatric health clinics and specialized programs for children with developmental disabilities. In addition, most ADDM Network sites also review and abstract records of children receiving special education services in public schools. The second phase involves review of all abstracted evaluations by trained clinicians to determine ASD surveillance case status. A child meets the surveillance case definition for ASD if a comprehensive evaluation of that child completed by a qualified professional describes behaviors consistent with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for any of the following conditions: autistic disorder, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (including atypical autism), or Asperger disorder. This report provides updated prevalence estimates for ASD from the 2010 surveillance year. In addition to prevalence estimates, characteristics of the population of children with ASD are described. For 2010, the overall prevalence of ASD among the ADDM sites was 14.7 per 1,000 (one in 68) children aged 8 years. Overall ASD prevalence estimates varied among sites from 5.7 to 21.9 per 1,000 children aged 8 years. ASD prevalence estimates also varied by sex and racial/ethnic group. Approximately one in 42 boys and one in 189 girls living in the ADDM Network communities were identified as having ASD

  17. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among Children Aged 8 Years — Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 Sites, United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Lisa; Christensen, Deborah L.; Maenner, Matthew J; Daniels, Julie; Warren, Zachary; Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; Zahorodny, Walter; Robinson Rosenberg, Cordelia; White, Tiffany; Durkin, Maureen S.; Imm, Pamela; Nikolaou, Loizos; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Lee, Li-Ching; Harrington, Rebecca; Lopez, Maya; Fitzgerald, Robert T.; Hewitt, Amy; Pettygrove, Sydney; Constantino, John N.; Vehorn, Alison; Shenouda, Josephine; Hall-Lande, Jennifer; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Dowling, Nicole F.

    2018-01-01

    Problem/Condition Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Period Covered 2014. Description of System The Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network is an active surveillance system that provides estimates of the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among children aged 8 years whose parents or guardians reside within 11 ADDM sites in the United States (Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, Missouri, New Jersey, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Wisconsin). ADDM surveillance is conducted in two phases. The first phase involves review and abstraction of comprehensive evaluations that were completed by professional service providers in the community. Staff completing record review and abstraction receive extensive training and supervision and are evaluated according to strict reliability standards to certify effective initial training, identify ongoing training needs, and ensure adherence to the prescribed methodology. Record review and abstraction occurs in a variety of data sources ranging from general pediatric health clinics to specialized programs serving children with developmental disabilities. In addition, most of the ADDM sites also review records for children who have received special education services in public schools. In the second phase of the study, all abstracted information is reviewed systematically by experienced clinicians to determine ASD case status. A child is considered to meet the surveillance case definition for ASD if he or she displays behaviors, as described on one or more comprehensive evaluations completed by community-based professional providers, consistent with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for autistic disorder; pervasive developmental disorder–not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS, including atypical autism); or Asperger disorder. This report provides updated ASD prevalence estimates for children aged 8

  18. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among Children Aged 8 Years - Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 Sites, United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baio, Jon; Wiggins, Lisa; Christensen, Deborah L; Maenner, Matthew J; Daniels, Julie; Warren, Zachary; Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; Zahorodny, Walter; Robinson Rosenberg, Cordelia; White, Tiffany; Durkin, Maureen S; Imm, Pamela; Nikolaou, Loizos; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Lee, Li-Ching; Harrington, Rebecca; Lopez, Maya; Fitzgerald, Robert T; Hewitt, Amy; Pettygrove, Sydney; Constantino, John N; Vehorn, Alison; Shenouda, Josephine; Hall-Lande, Jennifer; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Dowling, Nicole F

    2018-04-27

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). 2014. The Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network is an active surveillance system that provides estimates of the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among children aged 8 years whose parents or guardians reside within 11 ADDM sites in the United States (Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, Missouri, New Jersey, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Wisconsin). ADDM surveillance is conducted in two phases. The first phase involves review and abstraction of comprehensive evaluations that were completed by professional service providers in the community. Staff completing record review and abstraction receive extensive training and supervision and are evaluated according to strict reliability standards to certify effective initial training, identify ongoing training needs, and ensure adherence to the prescribed methodology. Record review and abstraction occurs in a variety of data sources ranging from general pediatric health clinics to specialized programs serving children with developmental disabilities. In addition, most of the ADDM sites also review records for children who have received special education services in public schools. In the second phase of the study, all abstracted information is reviewed systematically by experienced clinicians to determine ASD case status. A child is considered to meet the surveillance case definition for ASD if he or she displays behaviors, as described on one or more comprehensive evaluations completed by community-based professional providers, consistent with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for autistic disorder; pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS, including atypical autism); or Asperger disorder. This report provides updated ASD prevalence estimates for children aged 8 years during the 2014 surveillance year, on the basis of DSM

  19. Civic-Political Engagement: Developmental Science Comes of Age. Commentary on the Thematic Issue "The Development of Civic Engagement: Results from Longitudinal Studies"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youniss, James

    2014-01-01

    In this commentary, the author states that a major step in bringing developmental studies into correspondence with other disciplines that give civic and political engagement central importance has taken place. The projects reported in this issue represent an important historical development within the discipline of developmental studies. Seen is a…

  20. Transgenerational developmental programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Catherine E; Ozanne, Susan E

    2014-01-01

    The concept of developmental programming suggests that the early life environment influences offspring characteristics in later life, including the propensity to develop diseases such as the metabolic syndrome. There is now growing evidence that the effects of developmental programming may also manifest in further generations without further suboptimal exposure. This review considers the evidence, primarily from rodent models, for effects persisting to subsequent generations, and evaluates the mechanisms by which developmental programming may be transmitted to further generations. In particular, we focus on the potential role of the intrauterine environment in contributing to a developmentally programmed phenotype in subsequent generations. The literature was systematically searched at http://pubmed.org and http://scholar.google.com to identify published findings regarding transgenerational (F2 and beyond) developmental programming effects in human populations and animal models. Transmission of programming effects is often viewed as a form of epigenetic inheritance, either via the maternal or paternal line. Evidence exists for both germline and somatic inheritance of epigenetic modifications which may be responsible for phenotypic changes in further generations. However, there is increasing evidence for the role of both extra-genomic components of the zygote and the interaction of the developing conceptus with the intrauterine environment in propagating programming effects. The contribution of a suboptimal reproductive tract environment or maternal adaptations to pregnancy may be critical to inheritance of programming effects via the maternal line. As the effects of age exacerbate the programmed metabolic phenotype, advancing maternal age may increase the likelihood of developmental programming effects being transmitted to further generations. We suggest that developmental programming effects could be propagated through the maternal line de novo in generations

  1. Comparative Cost-Effectiveness of Conservative or Intensive Blood Pressure Treatment Guidelines in Adults Aged 35-74 Years: The Cardiovascular Disease Policy Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moise, Nathalie; Huang, Chen; Rodgers, Anthony; Kohli-Lynch, Ciaran N; Tzong, Keane Y; Coxson, Pamela G; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Goldman, Lee; Moran, Andrew E

    2016-07-01

    The population health effect and cost-effectiveness of implementing intensive blood pressure goals in high-cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk adults have not been described. Using the CVD Policy Model, CVD events, treatment costs, quality-adjusted life years, and drug and monitoring costs were simulated over 2016 to 2026 for hypertensive patients aged 35 to 74 years. We projected the effectiveness and costs of hypertension treatment according to the 2003 Joint National Committee (JNC)-7 or 2014 JNC8 guidelines, and then for adults aged ≥50 years, we assessed the cost-effectiveness of adding an intensive goal of systolic blood pressure cost-effectiveness ratios cost-effective. JNC7 strategies treat more patients and are more costly to implement compared with JNC8 strategies. Adding intensive systolic blood pressure goals for high-risk patients prevents an estimated 43 000 and 35 000 annual CVD events incremental to JNC8 and JNC7, respectively. Intensive strategies save costs in men and are cost-effective in women compared with JNC8 alone. At a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50 000 per quality-adjusted life years gained, JNC8+intensive had the highest probability of cost-effectiveness in women (82%) and JNC7+intensive the highest probability of cost-effectiveness in men (100%). Assuming higher drug and monitoring costs, adding intensive goals for high-risk patients remained consistently cost-effective in men, but not always in women. Among patients aged 35 to 74 years, adding intensive blood pressure goals for high-risk groups to current national hypertension treatment guidelines prevents additional CVD deaths while saving costs provided that medication costs are controlled. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Implications of the Eighth Joint National Committee Guidelines for the Management of High Blood Pressure for Aging Adults: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miedema, Michael D; Lopez, Faye L; Blaha, Michael J; Virani, Salim S; Coresh, Josef; Ballantyne, Christie M; Folsom, Aaron R

    2015-09-01

    The recent 2014 Evidence-Based Guideline for the Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults from the Eight Joint National Committee Panel may significantly affect the aging US population. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of black and white participants in Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities who participated in the fifth study visit (2011-2013). Sitting blood pressure was calculated from the average of 3 successive readings taken after a 5-minute rest. Currently, prescribed antihypertensive medications were recorded by reviewing medication containers brought to the visit. Blood pressure control was defined using both the Seventh and Eighth Joint National Committee thresholds. Of 6088 participants (mean age, 75.6 [range, 66-90] years, 58.4% women; 23.2% black), 54.9% had either diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease. The prevalence of hypertension according to Seventh Joint National Committee thresholds was 81.9%, and 62.8% of the entire sample were at blood pressure goal. Using the Eighth Joint National Committee thresholds, 79.4% were at blood pressure goal (16.6% were reclassified as at-goal). Reclassification was higher for individuals with diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease (20.6%) when compared with individuals without either condition (11.6%). The use of antihypertensive medications in our cohort was high, with 75.0% prescribed at least 1 antihypertensive medication and 46.7% on ≥2 antihypertensive agents. In conclusion, in a US cohort of aging white and black individuals, ≈1 in 6 individuals were reclassified as having blood pressure at goal by Eighth Joint National Committee guidelines. Despite these less aggressive goals, >20% remain uncontrolled by the new criteria. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Implications of the Eighth Joint National Committee Guidelines for the Management of High Blood Pressure for Aging Adults: The ARIC Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miedema, Michael D; Lopez, Faye L; Blaha, Michael J; Virani, Salim S; Coresh, Josef; Ballantyne, Christie M; Folsom, Aaron R.

    2015-01-01

    The recent 2014 Evidence-Based Guideline for the Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults from the Eight Joint National Committee Panel may significantly impact the aging US population. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of black and white participants in ARIC who participated in the 5th study visit (2011–2013). Sitting blood pressure was calculated from the average of 3 successive readings taken after a 5-minute rest. Currently prescribed antihypertensive medications were recorded by reviewing medication containers brought to the visit. Blood pressure control was defined using both the 7th and 8th Joint National Committee thresholds. Of 6,088 participants (mean age 75.6 years [range 66–90], 58.4% female, 23.2% African American), 54.9% had either diabetes or chronic kidney disease. The prevalence of hypertension according to 7th Joint National Committee thresholds was 81.9%, and 62.8% of the entire sample were at blood pressure goal. Using the 8th Joint National Committee thresholds, 79.4% were at blood pressure goal (16.6% were reclassified as at goal). Reclassification was higher for individuals with diabetes or chronic kidney disease (20.6%) compared to individuals without either condition (11.6%). Use of antihypertensive medications in our cohort was high, with 75.0% prescribed at least one antihypertensive medication and 46.7% on 2 or more antihypertensive agents. In conclusion, in a US cohort of aging white and black individuals, approximately 1 in 6 individuals were reclassified as having blood pressure at goal by 8th Joint National Committee guidelines. Despite these less aggressive goals, over 20% remain uncontrolled by the new criteria. PMID:26150438

  4. Guidelines for the management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration by the European Society of Retina Specialists (EURETINA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula; Chong, Victor; Loewenstein, Anat

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is still referred to as the leading cause of severe and irreversible visual loss world-wide. The disease has a profound effect on quality of life of affected individuals and represents a major socioeconomic challenge for societies due...

  5. The Spanish Society of Neurology's official clinical practice guidelines for epilepsy. Special considerations in epilepsy: comorbidities, women of childbearing age, and elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri Llerda, J A; Suller Marti, A; de la Peña Mayor, P; Martínez Ferri, M; Poza Aldea, J J; Gomez Alonso, J; Mercadé Cerdá, J M

    2015-10-01

    The characteristics of some population groups (patients with comorbidities, women of childbearing age, the elderly) may limit epilepsy management. Antiepileptic treatment in these patients may require adjustments. We searched articles in Pubmed, clinical practice guidelines for epilepsy, and recommendations by the most relevant medical societies regarding epilepsy in special situations (patients with comorbidities, women of childbearing age, the elderly). Evidence and recommendations are classified according to the prognostic criteria of Oxford Centre of Evidence-Based Medicine (2001) and the European Federation of Neurological Societies (2004) for therapeutic interventions. Epilepsy treatment in special cases of comorbidities must be selected properly to improve efficacy with the fewest side effects. Adjusting antiepileptic medication and/or hormone therapy is necessary for proper seizure management in catamenial epilepsy. Exposure to antiepileptic drugs (AED) during pregnancy increases the risk of birth defects and may affect fetal growth and/or cognitive development. Postpartum breastfeeding is recommended, with monitoring for adverse effects if sedative AEDs are used. Finally, the elderly are prone to epilepsy, and diagnostic and treatment characteristics in this group differ from those of other age groups. Although therapeutic limitations may be more frequent in older patients due to comorbidities, they usually respond better to lower doses of AEDs than do other age groups. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Developmental stability, age at onset of foraging and longevity of Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) under heat stress (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Rubén G; Paxton, Robert J; De Luna, Efraín; Fleites-Ayil, Fernando A; Medina Medina, Luis A; Quezada-Euán, José Javier G

    2018-05-01

    Beekeeping with the western honey bee (Apis mellifera) is important in tropical regions but scant information is available on the possible consequences of global warming for tropical beekeeping. We evaluated the effect of heat stress on developmental stability, the age at onset of foraging (AOF) and longevity in Africanized honey bees (AHBs) in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico, one of the main honey producing areas in the Neotropics, where high temperatures occur in spring and summer. To do so, we reared worker AHB pupae under a fluctuating temperature regime, simulating current tropical heatwaves, with a high temperature peak of 40.0 °C for 1 h daily across six days, and compared them to control pupae reared at stable temperatures of 34.0-35.5 °C. Heat stress did not markedly affect overall body size, though the forewing of heat-stressed bees was slightly shorter than controls. However, bees reared under heat stress showed significantly greater fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in forewing shape. Heat stress also decreased AOF and reduced longevity. Our results show that changes occur in the phenotype and behavior of honey bees under heat stress, with potential consequences for colony fitness. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Friendship in school-age boys with autism spectrum disorders: A meta-analytic summary and developmental, process-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Jenna L; Gates, Jacquelyn A; Lerner, Matthew D

    2016-06-01

    Friendship-making is considered a well-established domain of deficit for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD; American Psychiatric Association, 2013), with this population sometimes described as incapable of making friends. However, the majority of children with ASD indicate a desire for friends, and many report having friends. To what degree, then, do youth with ASD succeed in achieving friendships with peers? If and when they do succeed, by what means do these friendships emerge relative to models of typically developing (TD) youths' friendships? To address these questions, we first meta-analyzed the descriptive friendship literature (peer-reported sociometrics, self-report, parent-report) among school-age boys with ASD. Using random effects models, we found that youth with ASD do make friends according to peers and parents (Hedges's g > 2.84). However, self-reported friendship quality (Hedges's g = -1.09) and parent- and peer-reported quantity (Hedges's g friendship in TD youth (Hartup & Stevens, 1997). We then present a model that synthesizes these domains through the construct of social information processing speed, and thereby present the first developmental, process-based model of friendship development among youth with ASD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Developmental dysplasia of the hip, age, BMI, place of residence and tobacco abuse increase the odds of aseptic loosening in Chinese patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanlong Wu

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The purpose of this hospital-based case-control study was to evaluate the patient-related risk factors for aseptic loosening after total hip arthroplasty (THA and total knee arthroplasty (TKA in Chinese patients. METHODS: From January 2000 to December 2012, 67 patients undergoing THA and TKA who developed aseptic loosening were detected as case subjects and 336 patients without aseptic loosening, matched by the year of index surgery and type of surgery, were selected as controls. Conditional logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. RESULTS: The demographic factors and comorbid conditions associated with a risk-adjusted increase in aseptic loosening (in decreasing order of significance were a rural place of residence (OR = 2.28; 95% CI: 1.21-4.30; p = 0.011, body mass index (BMI ≥ 28 kg/m(2 (vs. 18.5-28 kg/m(2 (OR = 2.29; 95% CI: 1.19-4.41; p = 0.013, developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH (OR = 2.91; 95% CI: 1.11-7.66; p = 0.030, tobacco abuse (OR = 2.88; 95% CI: 1.05-7.89; p = 0.039, and age <45 years (vs. 45-65 years (OR = 2.63; 95% CI: 1.01-6.80; p = 0.047. CONCLUSIONS: Patients aged <45 years and those with a BMI of ≥ 28 kg/m(2, a preoperative diagnosis of DDH, history of tobacco abuse, or living in rural areas are at increased risk for aseptic loosening after THA and TKA in Chinese population. Additional systematic large-scale studies are needed to verify these results.

  9. Radiographic study on the anterior portion of the neck of the condylar process. Aged-related developmental changes based on Hellman's dental stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Hiroshi; Yamato, Rieko; Tada, Miwako [Meikai Univ., Sakado, Saitama (Japan). School of Dentistry] [and others

    2003-02-01

    The condylar process is directly and indirectly influenced by the masticatory muscles and the temporomandibular joint, which functions to regulate jaw movement. Age-related changes in the condylar process were found in both external and internal structures. Observation of X-ray profiles afforded identification of areas of interest in the anterior portion of the neck of condylar process. This portion anatomically includes the pterygoid fovea; moreover, the process serves as a terminal for the lateral pterygoid muscle. Rather than directly analyzing bone structure, we made distinct measurements in regions of interest by X-ray image analysis. Subsequently, changes in occlusion during each developmental stage were evaluated. In addition, bone mineral density measurements were performed. Greater growth was recognized in the long axis of the condylar process in comparison to the short axis. The long axis indicated a 2.7-fold increase in ODL (length along the major axis) from the IA period to the VA period; additionally, the total absolute length increased by 3.1-fold. The short axis demonstrated a 2.3-fold increase in ODS (length along the minor axis) from the IA period to the VA period; furthermore, the total average length revealed a 1.9-fold increase. Bone mineral density was highest in the anterior portion (region of interest) and was higher in the posterior portion (cortical bone); than in the middle portion (central bone). Among these 3 areas, density differences became larger as the developmental stage of occlusion progressed. Detailed measurements in the region of interest demonstrated significant increases from the IIC period to the IIIA (B) period, and distinct peak times of increases were observed in bone mineral density: the center bone structure, as well as the posterior cortical bone, showed significant increases between the IIIC period and the IVA period. The anterior border displayed to constant increase with an exception for the period between stages

  10. Experience with developmental facial paralysis: part II. Outcomes of reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzis, Julia K; Anesti, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the 30-year experience of the authors' center in the management of developmental facial paralysis and to analyze the outcomes of microsurgical reconstruction. Forty-two cases of developmental facial paralysis were identified in a retrospective clinical review (1980 to 2010); 34 (80.95 percent) were children (age, 8 ± 6 years) and eight (19.05 percent) were adults (age, 27 ± 12 years). Comparisons between preoperative and postoperative results were performed with electrophysiologic studies and video evaluations by three independent observers. Mean follow-up was 8 ± 6.3 years (range, 1 to 23 years). Overall, outcome scores improved in all of the patients, as was evident from the observers' mean scores (preoperatively, 2.44; 2 years postoperatively, 3.66; final, 4.11; p children as compared with adults (p children with developmental facial paralysis and reduces the prevalence of aesthetic and functional sequelae of the condition, thus facilitating reintegration among their peers. The experience of this center should serve as a framework for the establishment of accurate and reliable guidelines that will facilitate early diagnosis and management of developmental facial paralysis and provide support and counseling to the family.

  11. Quality Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/criteria.html MedlinePlus Quality Guidelines To use the sharing features on this ... materials must also meet our existing quality guidelines. Quality, authority and accuracy of health content The organization's ...

  12. Spatial distribution of metals in soils in Baltimore, Maryland: Role of native parent material, proximity to major roads, housing age and screening guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yesilonis, I.D.; Pouyat, R.V.; Neerchal, N.K.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the spatial distribution of heavy metal above-background (anthropic) contents of Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Ti, V, and Zn in Baltimore City surface soils and related these levels to potential contaminating sources. Composite soil samples (0-10 cm depth) were digested using a nitric and hydrochloric extraction technique. Slightly more than 10% of plots exceeded United States Environmental Protection Agency screening guidelines for Pb. In a principal component analysis, the first component corresponded to Co, Cr, and Fe, which are constituents of local mafic rocks. The second component corresponded to Cu, Pb, and Zn which were significantly higher within than beyond a 100 m buffer of the major roads within the city; furthermore, Pb and Zn were higher in older residential lots. - Spatial distribution of metals in soils of an older US city (Baltimore) was affected by parent material, proximity to major roads, and housing age

  13. Developmental Scaffolding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giorgi, Franco; Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2015-01-01

    . Within the developmental hierarchy, each module yields an inter-level relationship that makes it possible for the scaffolding to mediate the production of selectable variations. Awide range of genetic, cellular and morphological mechanisms allows the scaffolding to integrate these modular variations...... to the complexity of sign recognition proper of a cellular community. In this semiotic perspective, the apparent goal directness of any developmental strategy should no longer be accounted for by a predetermined genetic program, but by the gradual definition of the relationships selected amongst the ones...

  14. Utility of electrocardiogram in the assessment and monitoring of pulmonary hypertension (idiopathic or secondary to pulmonary developmental abnormalities) in patients≤18 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kelvin C; Frank, David B; Hanna, Brian D; Patel, Akash R

    2014-07-15

    Electrocardiograms have utility in disease stratification and monitoring in adult pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We examined the electrocardiographic findings that are common in pediatric PAH and assessed for correlation with disease severity and progression. We retrospectively identified patients aged≤18 years followed at a single institution from January 2001 to June 2012 with catheterization-confirmed diagnosis of idiopathic PAH and PAH secondary to pulmonary developmental abnormalities. Patients with an electrocardiography performed within 60 days of catheterization were included. Primary and secondary outcomes are the prevalence of abnormal electrocardiographic findings at the time of catheterization and the association between electrocardiographic and hemodynamic findings and electrocardiographic changes with disease progression on follow-up catheterization, respectively. Of the 100 electrocardiography-catheterization pairs derived from the 46 patients identified, 93% had an electrocardiographic abnormality: 78% had right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) and 52% had right axis deviation (RAD) for age. In patients with idiopathic PAH, the presence of RVH and RAD correlated with pulmonary vascular resistance and transpulmonary gradient. RAD and RVH on baseline electrocardiogram was associated with an increased risk of disease progression on subsequent catheterization (odds ratio 11.0, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 96.2, p=0.03) after adjusting for PAH subgroup. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of RAD and RVH on baseline electrocardiogram for disease progression were 92%, 48%, 33%, and 95%, respectively. In conclusion, electrocardiographic abnormalities are common in pediatric PAH. RAD and RVH on electrocardiogram were associated with worse hemodynamics, whereas their absence is suggestive of a lack of disease progression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Developmental delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrition support is essential for the care of the child with developmental delay. After a thorough evaluation, an individualized intervention plan that accounts for the child’s nutrition status, feeding ability, and medical condition may be determined. Nutrition assessments may be performed at leas...

  16. Developmental Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels; Hvid, Helge; Kristensen, Tage Søndergaard

    2003-01-01

    Human Deveoplment and Working Life - Work for Welfare explores whether the development of human resources at company level can improve individuals' quality of life, companies' possibilities of development, and welfare and democracy in society. Chapter two discuss the concept "developmental work...

  17. Guidelines for the management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration by the European Society of Retina Specialists (EURETINA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula; Chong, Victor; Loewenstein, Anat; Larsen, Michael; Souied, Eric; Schlingemann, Reinier; Eldem, Bora; Monés, Jordi; Richard, Gisbert; Bandello, Francesco

    2014-09-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is still referred to as the leading cause of severe and irreversible visual loss world-wide. The disease has a profound effect on quality of life of affected individuals and represents a major socioeconomic challenge for societies due to the exponential increase in life expectancy and environmental risks. Advances in medical research have identified vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as an important pathophysiological player in neovascular AMD and intraocular inhibition of VEGF as one of the most efficient therapies in medicine. The wide introduction of anti-VEGF therapy has led to an overwhelming improvement in the prognosis of patients affected by neovascular AMD, allowing recovery and maintenance of visual function in the vast majority of patients. However, the therapeutic benefit is accompanied by significant economic investments, unresolved medicolegal debates about the use of off-label substances and overwhelming problems in large population management. The burden of disease has turned into a burden of care with a dissociation of scientific advances and real-world clinical performance. Simultaneously, ground-breaking innovations in diagnostic technologies, such as optical coherence tomography, allows unprecedented high-resolution visualisation of disease morphology and provides a promising horizon for early disease detection and efficient therapeutic follow-up. However, definite conclusions from morphologic parameters are still lacking, and valid biomarkers have yet to be identified to provide a practical base for disease management. The European Society of Retina Specialists offers expert guidance for diagnostic and therapeutic management of neovascular AMD supporting healthcare givers and doctors in providing the best state-of-the-art care to their patients. NCT01318941. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Guidelines for the management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration by the European Society of Retina Specialists (EURETINA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula; Chong, Victor; Loewenstein, Anat; Larsen, Michael; Souied, Eric; Schlingemann, Reinier; Eldem, Bora; Monés, Jordi; Richard, Gisbert; Bandello, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is still referred to as the leading cause of severe and irreversible visual loss world-wide. The disease has a profound effect on quality of life of affected individuals and represents a major socioeconomic challenge for societies due to the exponential increase in life expectancy and environmental risks. Advances in medical research have identified vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as an important pathophysiological player in neovascular AMD and intraocular inhibition of VEGF as one of the most efficient therapies in medicine. The wide introduction of anti-VEGF therapy has led to an overwhelming improvement in the prognosis of patients affected by neovascular AMD, allowing recovery and maintenance of visual function in the vast majority of patients. However, the therapeutic benefit is accompanied by significant economic investments, unresolved medicolegal debates about the use of off-label substances and overwhelming problems in large population management. The burden of disease has turned into a burden of care with a dissociation of scientific advances and real-world clinical performance. Simultaneously, ground-breaking innovations in diagnostic technologies, such as optical coherence tomography, allows unprecedented high-resolution visualisation of disease morphology and provides a promising horizon for early disease detection and efficient therapeutic follow-up. However, definite conclusions from morphologic parameters are still lacking, and valid biomarkers have yet to be identified to provide a practical base for disease management. The European Society of Retina Specialists offers expert guidance for diagnostic and therapeutic management of neovascular AMD supporting healthcare givers and doctors in providing the best state-of-the-art care to their patients. Trial registration number NCT01318941. PMID:25136079

  19. Guideline of guidelines: asymptomatic microscopic haematuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Brian J; Bass, Edward J; Mostafid, Hugh; Boorjian, Stephen A

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to review major organizational guidelines on the evaluation and management of asymptomatic microscopic haematuria (AMH). We reviewed the haematuria guidelines from: the American Urological Association; the consensus statement by the Canadian Urological Association, Canadian Urologic Oncology Group and Bladder Cancer Canada; the American College of Physicians; the Joint Consensus Statement of the Renal Association and British Association of Urological Surgeons; and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. All guidelines reviewed recommend evaluation for AMH in the absence of potential benign aetiologies, with the evaluation including cystoscopy and upper urinary tract imaging. Existing guidelines vary in their definition of AMH (role of urine dipstick vs urine microscopy), the age threshold for recommending evaluation, and the optimal imaging method (computed tomography vs ultrasonography). Of the reviewed guidelines, none recommended the use of urine cytology or urine markers during the initial AMH evaluation. Patients should have ongoing follow-up after a negative initial AMH evaluation. Significant variation exists among current guidelines for AMH with respect to who should be evaluated and in what manner. Given the patient and health system implications of balancing appropriately focused and effective diagnostic evaluation, AMH represents a valuable future research opportunity. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Guidelines for children's work in agriculture: implications for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlenga, Barbara; Lee, Barbara C; Pickett, William

    2012-01-01

    The North American Guidelines for Children's Agricultural Tasks (NAGCAT) were developed to assist parents in assigning developmentally appropriate and safe farm work to their children aged 7-16 years. Since their release in 1999, a growing body of evidence has accumulated regarding the content and application of these guidelines to populations of working children on farms. The purpose of this paper is to review the scientific and programmatic evidence about the content, efficacy, application, and uptake of NAGCAT and propose key recommendations for the future. The methods for this review included a synthesis of the peer-reviewed literature and programmatic evidence gathered from safety professionals. From the review, it is clear that the NAGCAT tractor guidelines and the manual material handling guidelines need to be updated based upon the latest empirical evidence. While NAGCAT do have the potential to prevent serious injuries to working children in the correct age range (7-16 years), the highest incidence of farm related injuries and fatalities occur to children aged 1-6 years and NAGCAT are unlikely to have any direct effect on this leading injury problem. It is also clear that NAGCAT, as a voluntary educational strategy, is not sufficient by itself to protect children working on farms. Uptake of NAGCAT has been sporadic, despite being geographically widespread and has depended, almost solely, on a few interested and committed professionals. Key recommendations for the future are provided based upon this review.

  1. IGF-1 deficiency in a critical period early in life influences the vascular aging phenotype in mice by altering miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional gene regulation: implications for the developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantini, Stefano; Giles, Cory B; Wren, Jonathan D; Ashpole, Nicole M; Valcarcel-Ares, M Noa; Wei, Jeanne Y; Sonntag, William E; Ungvari, Zoltan; Csiszar, Anna

    2016-08-01

    Epidemiological findings support the concept of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease, suggesting that early-life hormonal influences during a sensitive period of development have a fundamental impact on vascular health later in life. The endocrine changes that occur during development are highly conserved across mammalian species and include dramatic increases in circulating IGF-1 levels during adolescence. The present study was designed to characterize the effect of developmental IGF-1 deficiency on the vascular aging phenotype. To achieve that goal, early-onset endocrine IGF-1 deficiency was induced in mice by knockdown of IGF-1 in the liver using Cre-lox technology (Igf1 f/f mice crossed with mice expressing albumin-driven Cre recombinase). This model exhibits low-circulating IGF-1 levels during the peripubertal phase of development, which is critical for the biology of aging. Due to the emergence of miRNAs as important regulators of the vascular aging phenotype, the effect of early-life IGF-1 deficiency on miRNA expression profile in the aorta was examined in animals at 27 months of age. We found that developmental IGF-1 deficiency elicits persisting late-life changes in miRNA expression in the vasculature, which significantly differed from those in mice with adult-onset IGF-1 deficiency (TBG-Cre-AAV8-mediated knockdown of IGF-1 at 5 month of age in Igf1 f/f mice). Using a novel computational approach, we identified miRNA target genes that are co-expressed with IGF-1 and associate with aging and vascular pathophysiology. We found that among the predicted targets, the expression of multiple extracellular matrix-related genes, including collagen-encoding genes, were downregulated in mice with developmental IGF-1 deficiency. Collectively, IGF-1 deficiency during a critical period during early in life results in persistent changes in post-transcriptional miRNA-mediated control of genes critical targets for vascular health, which likely contribute to the

  2. Current status of developmental neurotoxicity: regulatory view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    in the testing strategy for new and existing substances, and biocides. Hopefully, this will lead to an improved database for risk assessment of potential developmental neurotoxicants. However, the regulatory authorities and toxicologists will also be faced with the challenge that decisions have to be made......The need for developmental neurotoxicity testing has been recognized for decades and guidelines are available, as the USEPA guideline and the OECD draft TG 426. Regulatory testing of industrial chemicals for developmental neurotoxicity is required to some extent, especially for pesticides in the US....... Until recently, however, developmental neurotoxicity testing of industrial chemicals has not been a clear regulatory requirement in EU, probably due to the lack of an accepted OECD TG. The revised EU Technical Guidance Document for Risk Assessment (EU-TGD) has now included the OECD draft TG 426...

  3. Age Differences in the Contribution of Recollection and Familiarity to False-Memory Formation: A New Paradigm to Examine Developmental Reversals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Kristen E.; Ghetti, Simona; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2010-01-01

    Using a new method for studying the development of false-memory formation, we examined developmental differences in the rates at which 6-, 7-, 9-, 10-, and 18-year-olds made two types of memory errors: backward causal-inference errors (i.e. falsely remembering having viewed the non-viewed cause of a previously viewed effect), and gap-filling…

  4. Predicting Mental Health among Mothers of School-Aged Children with Developmental Disabilities: The Relative Contribution of Child, Maternal and Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke-Taylor, Helen; Pallant, Julie F.; Law, Mary; Howie, Linsey

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Many mothers of children with developmental disabilities are known to experience high levels of stress, and compromised mental health. Research is crucial to better understand and assist mothers with compromised mental health, and ultimately better service families raising and supporting a child with a disability. Method: Data were collected…

  5. Summary guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K.; Painuly, J.P.; Turkson, J.; Meyer, H.J.; Markandya, A.

    1999-09-01

    This document is a summary version of the methodological guidelines for climate change mitigation assessment developed as part of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) project Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations; Methodological Guidelines. The objectives of this project have been to develop a methodology, an implementing framework and a reporting system which countries can use in the construction of national climate change mitigation policies and in meeting their future reporting obligations under the FCCC. The methodological framework developed in the Methodological Guidelines covers key economic concepts, scenario building, modelling tools and common assumptions. It was used by several country studies included in the project. (au) 13 refs.

  6. Interconnection Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Interconnection Guidelines provide general guidance on the steps involved with connecting biogas recovery systems to the utility electrical power grid. Interconnection best practices including time and cost estimates are discussed.

  7. Effluent Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effluent guidelines are national standards for wastewater discharges to surface waters and municipal sewage treatment plants. We issue the regulations for industrial categories based on the performance of treatment and control technologies.

  8. OSART guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-02-01

    The IAEA Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) programme provides advice and assistance to Member States to enhance the operational safety of nuclear power plants. These OSART Guidelines provide overall guidance for the experts to ensure the consistency and comprehensiveness of the operational safety review. Specific guidelines are provided as guide for the systematic review in the following areas important to operational safety: management, organization and administration, training and qualification, operations, maintenance, technical support, radiation protection, chemistry, emergency planning and preparedness

  9. Prevalence of developmental coordination disorder in children aged 7 to 10 years. http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n2p233

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Aparecida Pereira dos Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Children’s movements are initially characterized by inconsistent and imprecise actions. However, with practice and experience, the motor patterns become more refined and they present better coordination and control. However, it is not rare to observe children that manifest certain movement difficulties that might interfere in the children’s emotional, affectionate, school and social relationships. We investigated the prevalence of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD in schoolchildren aged 7 to 10 years and which motor tasks the children with probable DCD and risk of DCD present larger motor difficulty. The evaluation included 581 children registered regularly from the 2nd to the 5th grade of Elementary School of public schools of Maringá-PR was conducted through the battery II and III of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC test. The results indicated that 78,1% of the children present Typical Development (DT, 10,5% presented risk of Developmental Coordination Disorder (Risk of DCD and 11,4% were diagnosed with potential Developmental Coordination Disorder (Potential DCD. Therefore, the results showed high prevalence of population for Risk of DCD and Potential DCD, predicting unfavorable levels in the acquisition and improvement of fundamental skills, which may harm the continuity of the process of the children’s motor development. Manual skills were the major motor difficulty found in children with DT while ball skills were the major motor difficulty in children with probable DCD and risk of DCD.

  10. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education. To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system: First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page. Second p age and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion. Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Subheading of the Content 1.1.1 Subheading of the Content For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table. For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure. The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples:   Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v. whole-class activities. Retrieved October 1, 2012 from http://www.teachingenglish.org

  11. Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adults? How can you reduce anesthesia risks in older patients? Age Age may bring wisdom but it also brings ... Ask your physician to conduct a pre-surgery cognitive test — an assessment of your mental function. The physician can use the results as a ...

  12. The Quick Peek Program: A Model for Developmental Screening within Underserved Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jill; Norton, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Developmental screening of young children is important in all populations, especially underserved communities with known health care disparities. The American Academy of Pediatrics created guidelines and a toolkit for pediatricians to conduct developmental surveillance and screening, yet these guidelines are not uniformly implemented within…

  13. Developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucian, Karin; von Aster, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Numerical skills are essential in our everyday life, and impairments in the development of number processing and calculation have a negative impact on schooling and professional careers. Approximately 3 to 6 % of children are affected from specific disorders of numerical understanding (developmental dyscalculia (DD)). Impaired development of number processing skills in these children is characterized by problems in various aspects of numeracy as well as alterations of brain activation and brain structure. Moreover, DD is assumed to be a very heterogeneous disorder putting special challenges to define homogeneous diagnostic criteria. Finally, interdisciplinary perspectives from psychology, neuroscience and education can contribute to the design for interventions, and although results are still sparse, they are promising and have shown positive effects on behaviour as well as brain function. In the current review, we are going to give an overview about typical and atypical development of numerical abilities at the behavioural and neuronal level. Furthermore, current status and obstacles in the definition and diagnostics of DD are discussed, and finally, relevant points that should be considered to make an intervention as successful as possible are summarized.

  14. Aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Hideo; Kodama, Kazunori; Yamada, Michiko

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis that exposure to ionizing radiation accelerates the aging process has been actively investigated at ABCC-RERF since 1958, when longitudinal cohort studies of the Adult Health Study (AHS) and the Life Span Study (LSS) were initiated. In their 1975 overall review of aging studies related to the atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors, Finch and Beebe concluded that while most studies had shown no correlation between aging and radiation exposure, they had not involved the large numbers of subjects required to provide strong evidence for or against the hypothesis. Extending LSS mortality data up to 1978 did not alter the earlier conclusion that any observed life-shortening was associated primarily with cancer induction rather than with any nonspecific cause. The results of aging studies conducted during the intervening 15 years using data from the same populations are reviewed in the present paper. Using clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory techniques, a broad spectrum of aging parameters have been studied, such as postmortem morphological changes, tests of functional capacity, physical tests and measurements, laboratory tests, tissue changes, and morbidity. With respect to the aging process, the overall results have not been consistent and are generally thought to show no relation to radiation exposure. Although some preliminary results suggest a possible radiation-induced increase in atherosclerotic diseases and acceleration of aging in the T-cell-related immune system, further study is necessary to confirm these findings. In the future, applying the latest gerontological study techniques to data collected from subjects exposed 45 years ago to A-bomb radiation at relatively young ages will present a new body of data relevant to the study of late radiation effects. (author) 103 refs

  15. Aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, S.C.; Beebe, G.W.

    1975-01-01

    The hypothesis that ionizing radiation accelerates natural aging has been under investigation at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission since 1959. Postmortem observations of morphologic and chemical changes, tests of functional capacity, physical tests and measurements, clinical laboratory tests, tissue changes, morbidity, and mortality have all been examined by ABCC investigators interested in this hypothesis. These studies have been beset with conceptual difficulties centered on the definition and measurement of aging. An empirical approach early led to the calculation of an index of physiologic age as a linear combination of age-related tests of various organ systems. Most studies have been negative but have not involved the large numbers that might be required to provide strong evidence for or against the hypothesis. Mortality, however, has been examined on the basis of a large sample and over the period 1950-1972 had provided no support for the hypothesis of radiation-accelerated aging. Ionizing radiation dose, of course shorten human life, but its life-shortening effect appears to be the result of specific radiation-induced disease, especially neoplasms. The hypothesis is now much less attractive than it was 10-20 years ago but still has some value in stimulating research on aging. The experience of the A-bomb survivors provides an unusual opportunity for a definitive test of the hypothesis. (auth.)

  16. Emotion Regulation from Early Adolescence to Emerging Adulthood and Middle Adulthood: Age Differences, Gender Differences, and Emotion-Epecific Developmental Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Peter; Iwanski, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growing research on emotion regulation, the empirical evidence for normative age-related emotion regulation patterns is rather divergent. From a life-span perspective, normative age changes in emotion regulation may be more salient applying the same methodological approach on a broad age range examining both growth and decline during…

  17. Free-Labeling Facial Expressions and Emotional Situations in Children Aged 3-7 Years: Developmental Trajectory and a Face Inferiority Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenhong; Lü, Wei; Zhang, Hui; Surina, Alyssa

    2014-01-01

    Chinese children (N = 185, aged 3-7 years) were assessed on their abilities to freely label facial expressions and emotional situations. Results indicated that the overall accuracy of free-labeling facial expressions increased relatively quickly in children aged 3-5 years, but slowed down in children aged 5-7 years. In contrast, the overall…

  18. Determinación de la edad ósea a través del desarrollo dental en pacientes de Ortodoncia Assessment of bone age by dental developmental seen in Orthodontia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladia Toledo Mayarí

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available La tendencia actual en Ortodoncia consiste en reducir el número de radiaciones con fines diagnósticos a las estrictamente necesarias, por lo que se han desarrollado índices de maduración ósea a través del desarrollo dental, dentro de los que se encuentra el método de Demirjian y colaboradores, sustituyéndose la radiografía de la mano que constituye una radiografía adicional para los pacientes, además de que la misma no se realiza en los servicios de Estomatología. Con el objetivo de determinar la edad ósea a través del desarrollo dental, se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal, para lo cual fueron realizadas una radiografía de la mano izquierda y una radiografía panóramica o periapicales de la hemiarcada mandibular izquierda, a 150 pacientes de Ortodoncia y se determinó la edad ósea, a través de los métodos Tanner-Whitehouse 2 (TW2 y Demirjian y colaboradores. Se encontraron correlaciones altas muy significativas entre las edades óseas calculadas en ambos sexos (hembras r= 0,828 y varones r= 0,957. Concluyéndose que la edad ósea calculada a través del desarrollo dental, en nuestra muestra, puede ser aplicada para predecir la edad ósea a través del método TW2, siendo posible sustituir la radiografía de la mano izquierda.Present trend in Orthodontics is to reduce the number of strictly needed diagnostic radiations that is why bone maturation indexes have been created by dental developmental including the Demirjian et al method, substituting the hand radiography which is an additional strategy for patients due to it is not performed in Stomatology Services. To determine the bone age by dental developmental, a cross-sectional and transversal study was carried out and also a left hand radiography and a panoramic and a periapical one of left mandibular hemicardia in 150 orthodontic patients determining the bone age by Tanner-Whitehouse 2 method (TW2 and Demirjian et al. There were very significant high

  19. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Author GuidelinesIJCH strictly adheres on the recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals as per the standard universal guidelines given by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE - Recommendations for Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts. Authors are requested to visit http://www.icmje.org/index.html before making online submission of their manuscript(s.  http://www.icmje.org/recommendations/browse/manuscript-preparation/preparing-for-submission.html Preparing for SubmissionPAGE CONTENTSGeneral PrinciplesReporting GuidelinesManuscript SectionsTitle PageAbstractIntroductionMethodsResultsDiscussionReferencesTablesIllustrations (FiguresUnits of MeasurementAbbreviations and Symbols1. General PrinciplesThe text of articles reporting original research is usually divided into Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion sections. This so-called “IMRAD” structure is not an arbitrary publication format but a reflection of the process of scientific discovery. Articles often need subheadings within these sections to further organize their content. Other types of articles, such as meta-analyses, may require different formats, while case reports, narrative reviews, and editorials may have less structured or unstructured formats.Electronic formats have created opportunities for adding details or sections, layering information, cross-linking, or extracting portions of articles in electronic versions. Supplementary electronic-only material should be submitted and sent for peer review simultaneously with the primary manuscript.2. Reporting GuidelinesReporting guidelines have been developed for different study designs; examples include CONSORT for randomized trials, STROBE for observational studies, PRISMA for systematic reviews and meta-analyses, and STARD for studies of diagnostic accuracy. Journals are encouraged to ask authors to follow these guidelines because

  20. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AUTHOR GUIDELINES Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH accepts only online submission of manuscript(s by using Open Journal software (OJS at http://www.iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/login Online SubmissionsAlready have a Username/Password for Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH? GO TO LOGINNeed a Username/Password?GO TO REGISTRATIONNote: Registration and login are required to submit items online and to track the status of current submissions.Author GuidelinesIJCH strictly adheres on the recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals as per the standard universal guidelines given by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE - Recommendations for Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts. Authors are requested to visit http://www.icmje.org/index.html before making online submission of their manuscript(s. http://www.icmje.org/recommendations/browse/manuscript-preparation/preparing-for-submission.html Preparing for SubmissionGeneral PrinciplesReporting GuidelinesManuscript SectionsTitle PageAbstractIntroductionMethodsResultsDiscussionReferencesTablesIllustrations (FiguresUnits of MeasurementAbbreviations and Symbols 1. General PrinciplesThe text of articles reporting original research is usually divided into Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion sections. This so-called “IMRAD” structure is not an arbitrary publication format but a reflection of the process of scientific discovery. Articles often need subheadings within these sections to further organize their content. Other types of articles, such as meta-analyses, may require different formats, while case reports, narrative reviews, and editorials may have less structured or unstructured formats.Electronic formats have created opportunities for adding details or sections, layering information, cross-linking, or extracting portions of articles in electronic versions. Supplementary electronic

  1. Methodological guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsnaes, K.; Callaway, J.M.; Meyer, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    The guideline document establishes a general overview of the main components of climate change mitigation assessment. This includes an outline of key economic concepts, scenario structure, common assumptions, modelling tools and country study assumptions. The guidelines are supported by Handbook Reports that contain more detailed specifications of calculation standards, input assumptions and available tools. The major objectives of the project have been provided a methodology, an implementing framework and a reporting system which countries can follow in meeting their future reporting obligations under the FCCC and for GEF enabling activities. The project builds upon the methodology development and application in the UNEP National Abatement Coasting Studies (UNEP, 1994a). The various elements provide countries with a road map for conducting climate change mitigation studies and submitting national reports as required by the FCCC. (au) 121 refs

  2. Methodological guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K.; Callaway, J.M.; Meyer, H.J.

    1999-04-01

    The guideline document establishes a general overview of the main components of climate change mitigation assessment. This includes an outline of key economic concepts, scenario structure, common assumptions, modelling tools and country study assumptions. The guidelines are supported by Handbook Reports that contain more detailed specifications of calculation standards, input assumptions and available tools. The major objectives of the project have been provided a methodology, an implementing framework and a reporting system which countries can follow in meeting their future reporting obligations under the FCCC and for GEF enabling activities. The project builds upon the methodology development and application in the UNEP National Abatement Coasting Studies (UNEP, 1994a). The various elements provide countries with a road map for conducting climate change mitigation studies and submitting national reports as required by the FCCC. (au) 121 refs.

  3. Body composition during early infancy and developmental progression from 1 to 5 years of age: the Infant Anthropometry and Body Composition (iABC) cohort study among Ethiopian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abera, Mubarek; Tesfaye, Markos; Admassu, Bitiya; Hanlon, Charlotte; Ritz, Christian; Wibaek, Rasmus; Michaelsen, Kim F; Friis, Henrik; Wells, Jonathan C; Andersen, Gregers S; Girma, Tsinuel; Kæstel, Pernille

    2018-06-01

    Early nutrition and growth have been found to be important early exposures for later development. Studies of crude growth in terms of weight and length/height, however, cannot elucidate how body composition (BC) might mediate associations between nutrition and later development. In this study, we aimed to examine the relation between fat mass (FM) or fat-free mass (FFM) tissues at birth and their accretion during early infancy, and later developmental progression. In a birth cohort from Ethiopia, 455 children who have BC measurement at birth and 416 who have standardised rate of BC growth during infancy were followed up for outcome variable, and were included in the statistical analysis. The study sample was restricted to mothers living in Jimma town who gave birth to a term baby with a birth weight ≥1500 g and no evident congenital anomalies. The relationship between the exposure and outcome variables was examined using linear-mixed regression model. The finding revealed that FFM at birth was positively associated with global developmental progression from 1 to 5 years (β=1·75; 95 % CI 0·11, 3·39) and from 4 to 5 years (β=1·34; 95 % CI 0·23, 2·44) in the adjusted model. Furthermore, the rate of postnatal FFM tissue accretion was positively associated with development at 1 year of age (β=0·50; 95 % CI 0·01, 0·99). Neither fetal nor postnatal FM showed a significant association. In conclusion, fetal, rather than postnatal, FFM tissue accretion was associated with developmental progression. Intervention studies are needed to assess whether nutrition interventions increasing FFM also increase cognitive development.

  4. AIDS guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, R

    1986-04-30

    The Sun article, "Employers finding that AIDS in the workplace is a managerial nightmare" (April 3), did not accurately portray the status of AIDS in the workplace. The AIDS virus, HTLV III, is transmitted by body fluids, primarily semen and blood, and there is no known risk of transmitting the virus by casual contact in the workplace. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) released guidelines for child care workers last August. Guidelines on preventing transmission of AIDS in the workplace were issued by CDC in November 1985. These guidelines specifically discussed health care, personal service, and food service workers. The recommendations were against routine screening. Furthermore, employment should not be restricted on the basis of a positive HTLV III antibody test. A person with HTLV III infection should be exempt from the workplace only if there are circumstances interfering with job performance. In Maryland, the Governor's Task Force on AIDS has gone on record as endorsing CDC guidelines related to employment. Furthermore, the task force condemns discrimination based on the disease AIDS, AIDS Related Complex (ARC), or HTLV III infection. Increasingly AIDS patients are being considered legally disabled and therefore are protected by federal and state laws prohibiting discrimination on the basis of a handicap. Marylanders who are subjected to mandatory HTLV III screening in the workplace, or if discriminated against on the basis of HTLV III inefction, should contact the Maryland Commission on Human Relations, the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, or the Health Education Resource Organization (HERO). All 3 of these resources guarantee confidentiality. It is only by employees reporting incidents that a nightmare in the workplace can be avoided in Maryland. full text

  5. GRADE guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guyatt, Gordon H; Thorlund, Kristian; Oxman, Andrew D

    2013-01-01

    Presenting continuous outcomes in Summary of Findings tables presents particular challenges to interpretation. When each study uses the same outcome measure, and the units of that measure are intuitively interpretable (e.g., duration of hospitalization, duration of symptoms), presenting differences...... and absolute effects, presenting the ratio of the means of intervention and control groups, and presenting the results in minimally important difference units. We outline the merits and limitations of each alternative and provide guidance for meta-analysts and guideline developers....

  6. ASCOT guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    These guidelines describe an approach used in conducting an Assessment of Safety Culture in Organizations Team (ASCOT) review. They are intended to assist the team members in conducting their reviews and at the same time provide guidance to hosts preparing to receive an ASCOT review. They may also be used by any organization wishing to conduct their own self-assessment of safety culture, independent of an ASCOT review

  7. Developmental programming of happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Louis A; Fortier, Paz; Lahat, Ayelet; Tang, Alva; Mathewson, Karen J; Saigal, Saroj; Boyle, Michael H; Van Lieshout, Ryan J

    2017-09-01

    Being born at an extremely low birth weight (ELBW; programming hypotheses. Interfacing prenatal programming and differential susceptibility hypotheses, we tested whether individuals with ELBW in different childhood rearing environments showed different attention biases to positive and negative facial emotions in adulthood. Using the oldest known, prospectively followed cohort of ELBW survivors, we found that relative to normal birth weight controls (NBW; >2,500 grams), ELBW survivors displayed the highest and lowest attention bias to happy faces at age 30-35, depending on whether their total family income at age 8 was relatively low (environmental match) or high (environmental mismatch), respectively. This bias to happy faces was associated with a reduced likelihood of emotional problems. Findings suggest that differential susceptibility to positive emotions may be prenatally programmed, with effects lasting into adulthood. We discuss implications for integrating prenatal programming and differential susceptibility hypotheses, and the developmental origins of postnatal plasticity and resilience. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The Fears, Phobias and Anxieties of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Down Syndrome: Comparisons with Developmentally and Chronologically Age Matched Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David W.; Canavera, Kristin; Kleinpeter, F. Lee; Maccubbin, Elise; Taga, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the fears and behavior problems of 25 children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 43 children with Down syndrome (DS), 45 mental age (MA) matched children, and 37 chronologically age (CA) matched children. Children's fears, phobias, anxieties and behavioral problems were assessed using parent reports. Significant…

  9. Adolescent Pregnancy Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Nathalie; O'Driscoll, Teresa; Becker, Gisela; Spitzer, Rachel F

    2015-08-01

    To describe the needs and evidence-based practice specific to care of the pregnant adolescent in Canada, including special populations. Healthy pregnancies for adolescent women in Canada, with culturally sensitive and age-appropriate care to ensure the best possible outcomes for these young women and their infants and young families, and to reduce repeat pregnancy rates. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed and The Cochrane Library on May 23, 2012 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., Pregnancy in Adolescence) and key words (e.g., pregnancy, teen, youth). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. Results were limited to English or French language materials published in or after 1990. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to July 6, 2013. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, national and international medical specialty societies, and clinical practice guideline collections. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). BENEFITS/HARMS/COSTS: These guidelines are designed to help practitioners caring for adolescent women during pregnancy in Canada and allow them to take the best care of these young women in a manner appropriate for their age, cultural backgrounds, and risk profiles. 1. Health care providers should adapt their prenatal care for adolescents and offer multidisciplinary care that is easily accessible to the adolescent early in the pregnancy, recognizing that adolescents often present to care later than their adult counterparts. A model that provides an opportunity to address all of these needs at one site may be the preferred model of care for pregnant adolescents. (II-1A) 2. Health

  10. Dietary guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsøe, Erling

    2015-01-01

    to food and eating and the emergence of proposals for integrated guidelines. It explores the conflicts and controversies that have arisen in the wake of the various proposals and identifies a number of different types of conflicts. These relate to conflicts of interests between the various actors involved...... and political resistance against initiatives that are perceived as being in conflict with the values of a market economy and free trade. Furthermore, there are controversies that can be broadly characterised as relating to the politics of knowledge and have to do with the differentiation of expertise...

  11. The fears, phobias and anxieties of children with autism spectrum disorders and Down syndrome: comparisons with developmentally and chronologically age matched children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David W; Canavera, Kristin; Kleinpeter, F Lee; Maccubbin, Elise; Taga, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the fears and behavior problems of 25 children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 43 children with Down syndrome (DS), 45 mental age (MA) matched children, and 37 chronologically age (CA) matched children. Children's fears, phobias, anxieties and behavioral problems were assessed using parent reports. Significant differences emerged across the diagnostic groups on a variety of fears. Children with ASD were reported to have more situation phobias and medical fears, but fewer fears of harm/injury compared to all other groups. The groups also differed in terms of the pattern of correlations between fears, phobias, anxieties and behavior problems. For children with ASD, fears, phobias and anxieties were closely related to problem behaviors, whereas fears, phobias, and anxieties were less related to behavioral symptoms for the other groups of subjects. Such findings suggest that children with ASD exhibit a distinct profile of fear and anxiety compared to other mental age and chronologically age-matched children, and these fears are related to the symptoms associated with ASD.

  12. Developmental and age-specific effects of selection on divergent virgin life span on fat content and starvation resistance in Drosophila melanogaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Cornelis; Van de Zande, Louis; Bijlsma, R.

    Investigations into the genetic basis of longevity variation have shown life span to be positively correlated with starvation resistance and negatively with female fecundity, both of which rely on lipid content. To assess the firmness of this relation, we assayed correlated responses in age-specific

  13. Cancer screening guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoorob, R; Anderson, R; Cefalu, C; Sidani, M

    2001-03-15

    Numerous medical organizations have developed cancer screening guidelines. Faced with the broad, and sometimes conflicting, range of recommendations for cancer screening, family physicians must determine the most reasonable and up-to-date method of screening. Major medical organizations have generally achieved consensus on screening guidelines for breast, cervical and colorectal cancer. For breast cancer screening in women ages 50 to 70, clinical breast examination and mammography are generally recommended every one or two years, depending on the medical organization. For cervical cancer screening, most organizations recommend a Papanicolaou test and pelvic examination at least every three years in patients between 20 and 65 years of age. Annual fecal occult blood testing along with flexible sigmoidoscopy at five-year to 10-year intervals is the standard recommendation for colorectal cancer screening in patients older than 50 years. Screening for prostate cancer remains a matter of debate. Some organizations recommend digital rectal examination and a serum prostate-specific antigen test for men older than 50 years, while others do not. In the absence of compelling evidence to indicate a high risk of endometrial cancer, lung cancer, oral cancer and ovarian cancer, almost no medical organizations have developed cancer screening guidelines for these types of cancer.

  14. The Domain of Developmental Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, L. Alan; Rutter, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Describes how developmental psychopathology differs from related disciplines, including abnormal psychology, psychiatry, clinical child psychology, and developmental psychology. Points out propositions underlying a developmental perspective and discusses implications for research in developmental psychopathology. (Author/RH)

  15. A developmental study of risky decisions on the cake gambling task: age and gender analyses of probability estimation and reward evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leijenhorst, Linda; Westenberg, P Michiel; Crone, Eveline A

    2008-01-01

    Decision making, or the process of choosing between competing courses of actions, is highly sensitive to age-related change, showing development throughout adolescence. In this study, we tested whether the development of decision making under risk is related to changes in risk-estimation abilities. Participants (N = 93) between ages 8-30 performed a child friendly gambling task, the Cake Gambling task, which was inspired by the Cambridge Gambling Task (Rogers et al., 1999), which has previously been shown to be sensitive to orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) damage. The task allowed comparisons of the contributions to risk perception of (1) the ability to estimate probabilities and (2) evaluate rewards. Adult performance patterns were highly similar to those found in previous reports, showing increased risk taking with increases in the probability of winning and the magnitude of potential reward. Behavioral patterns in children and adolescents did not differ from adult patterns, showing a similar ability for probability estimation and reward evaluation. These data suggest that participants 8 years and older perform like adults in a gambling task, previously shown to depend on the OFC in which all the information needed to make an advantageous decision is given on each trial and no information needs to be inferred from previous behavior. Interestingly, at all ages, females were more risk-averse than males. These results suggest that the increase in real-life risky behavior that is seen in adolescence is not a consequence of changes in risk perception abilities. The findings are discussed in relation to theories about the protracted development of the prefrontal cortex.

  16. Gestational Hyperandrogenism in Developmental Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Christopher; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2017-01-01

    Androgen excess (hyperandrogenism) is a common endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age. The potential causes of androgen excess in women include polycystic ovary syndrome, congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), adrenal tumors, and racial disparity among many others. During pregnancy, luteoma, placental aromatase deficiency, and fetal CAH are additional causes of gestational hyperandrogenism. The present report reviews the various phenotypes of hyperandrogenism during pregnancy and its origin, pathophysiology, and the effect of hyperandrogenism on the fetal developmental trajectory and offspring consequences. PMID:27967205

  17. ASSET guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    The IAEA Assessment of Safety Significant Events Team (ASSET) Service provides advice and assistance to Member States to enhance the overall level of plant safety while dealing with the policy of prevention of incidents at nuclear power plants. The ASSET programme, initiated in 1986, is not restricted to any particular group of Member States, whether developing or industrialized, but is available to all countries with nuclear power plants in operation or approaching commercial operation. The IAEA Safety Series publications form common basis for the ASSET reviews, including the Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) and the Basic Safety Principles (Recommendations of Safety Series No. 75-INSAG-3). The ASSET Guidelines provide overall guidance for the experts to ensure the consistency and comprehensiveness of their review of incident investigations. Additional guidance and reference material is provided by the IAEA to complement the expertise of the ASSET members. ASSET reviews accept different approaches that contribute to ensuring an effective prevention of incidents at plants. Suggestions are offered to enhance plant safety performance. Commendable good practices are identified and generic lessons are communicated to other plants, where relevant, for long term improvement

  18. Inhibitory control efficiency in a Piaget-like class-inclusion task in school-age children and adults: a developmental negative priming study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borst, G; Poirel, N; Pineau, A; Cassotti, M; Houdé, O

    2013-07-01

    Most children under 7 years of age presented with 10 daisies and 2 roses fail to indicate that there are more flowers than daisies. Instead of the appropriate comparison of the relative numerosities of the superordinate class (flowers) to its subordinate class (daisies), they perform a direct perceptual comparison of the extensions of the 2 subordinate classes (daisies vs. roses). In our experiment, we investigated whether increasing efficiency in solving the Piagetian class-inclusion task is related to increasing efficiency in the ability to resist (inhibit) this direct comparison of the subordinate classes' extensions. Ten-year-old and young adult participants performed a computerized priming version of a Piaget-like class-inclusion task. The experimental design was such that the misleading perceptual strategy to inhibit on the prime (in which a superordinate class had to be compared with a subordinate class) became a congruent strategy to activate on the probe (in which the two subordinate classes' extensions were directly compared). We found a negative priming effect of 291 ms in children and 129 ms in adults. These results provide evidence for the first time (a) that adults still need to inhibit the comparison of the subordinate classes' extensions in class-inclusion tasks and (b) that the ability to inhibit this heuristic increases with age (resulting in a lower executive cost). Taken together, these findings provide additional support for the neo-Piagetian approach of cognitive development that suggests that the acquisition of increasingly complex knowledge is based on the ability to resist (inhibit) heuristics and previously acquired knowledge.

  19. Developmental dyscalculia: a dysconnection syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucian, Karin; Ashkenazi, Simone Schwizer; Hänggi, Jürgen; Rotzer, Stephanie; Jäncke, Lutz; Martin, Ernst; von Aster, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Numerical understanding is important for everyday life. For children with developmental dyscalculia (DD), numbers and magnitudes present profound problems which are thought to be based upon neuronal impairments of key regions for numerical understanding. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible differences in white matter fibre integrity between children with DD and controls using diffusion tensor imaging. White matter integrity and behavioural measures were evaluated in 15 children with developmental dyscalculia aged around 10 years and 15 matched controls. The main finding, obtained by a whole brain group comparison, revealed reduced fractional anisotropy in the superior longitudinal fasciculus in children with developmental dyscalculia. In addition, a region of interest analysis exhibited prominent deficits in fibres of the superior longitudinal fasciculus adjacent to the intraparietal sulcus, which is thought to be the core region for number processing. To conclude, our results outline deficient fibre projection between parietal, temporal and frontal regions in children with developmental dyscalculia, and therefore raise the question of whether dyscalculia can be seen as a dysconnection syndrome. Since the superior longitudinal fasciculus is involved in the integration and control of distributed brain processes, the present results highlight the importance of considering broader domain-general mechanisms in the diagnosis and therapy of dyscalculia.

  20. Functional Brain Activation to Emotional and non-Emotional Faces in Healthy Children: Evidence for Developmentally Undifferentiated Amygdala Function During the School Age Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliaccio, David; Luby, Joan L.; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Belden, Andrew C.; Botteron, Kelly N.; Harms, Michael P.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2013-01-01

    The amygdala is a key region in emotion processing. Particularly, fMRI studies have demonstrated that the amygdala is active during the viewing of emotional faces. Previous research has consistently found greater amygdala responses to fearful faces as compared to neutral faces in adults, convergent with a focus in the animal literature on the amygdala's role in fear processing. Studies have found that the amygdala also responds differentially to other facial emotion types in adults. Yet, the literature regarding when this differential amygdala responsivity develops is limited and mixed. Thus, the goal of current study was to examine amygdala responses to emotional and neutral faces in a relatively large sample of healthy school age children (N = 52). While the amygdala was active in response to emotional and neutral faces, the results do not support the hypothesis that the amygdala responds differentially to emotional faces in 7 – 12 year old children. Nonetheless, amygdala activity was correlated with the severity of subclinical depression symptoms and emotional regulation skills. Additionally, sex differences were observed in frontal, temporal, and visual regions as well as effects of pubertal development in visual regions. These findings suggest important differences in amygdala reactivity in childhood. PMID:23636982

  1. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education. To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system: First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page. Second page and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion. Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Subheading of the content 1.1.1 Subheading of the content For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table. For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure. The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples: Back Matter| 79 80 | STUDIES IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND EDUCATION, Volume 1, Number 1, March 2014 Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v

  2. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission   SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education. To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system: First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page. Second page and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion. Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1         INTRODUCTION 1.1      Subheading of the Content  1.1.1   Subheading of the Content  For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table. For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure. The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples:   Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v. whole-class activities. Retrieved October 1, 2012 from

  3. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission   SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education. To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system: First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page. Second page and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion. Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1         INTRODUCTION 1.1      Subheading of the content  1.1.1   Subheading of the content  For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table. For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure. The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples:   Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v. whole-class activities. Retrieved October 1, 2012 from

  4. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission   SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education. To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system: First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page. Second page and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion. Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1         INTRODUCTION 1.1      Subheading of the content  1.1.1   Subheading of the content  For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table. For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure. The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples:   Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v. whole-class activities. Retrieved October 1, 2012 from

  5. Vitamin D supplementation guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pludowski, Pawel; Holick, Michael F; Grant, William B; Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Mascarenhas, Mario R; Haq, Afrozul; Povoroznyuk, Vladyslav; Balatska, Nataliya; Barbosa, Ana Paula; Karonova, Tatiana; Rudenka, Ema; Misiorowski, Waldemar; Zakharova, Irina; Rudenka, Alena; Łukaszkiewicz, Jacek; Marcinowska-Suchowierska, Ewa; Łaszcz, Natalia; Abramowicz, Pawel; Bhattoa, Harjit P; Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2018-01-01

    Research carried out during the past two-decades extended the understanding of actions of vitamin D, from regulating calcium and phosphate absorption and bone metabolism to many pleiotropic actions in organs and tissues in the body. Most observational and ecological studies report association of higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations with improved outcomes for several chronic, communicable and non-communicable diseases. Consequently, numerous agencies and scientific organizations have developed recommendations for vitamin D supplementation and guidance on optimal serum 25(OH)D concentrations. The bone-centric guidelines recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 20ng/mL (50nmol/L), and age-dependent daily vitamin D doses of 400-800IU. The guidelines focused on pleiotropic effects of vitamin D recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 30ng/mL (75nmol/L), and age-, body weight-, disease-status, and ethnicity dependent vitamin D doses ranging between 400 and 2000IU/day. The wise and balanced choice of the recommendations to follow depends on one's individual health outcome concerns, age, body weight, latitude of residence, dietary and cultural habits, making the regional or nationwide guidelines more applicable in clinical practice. While natural sources of vitamin D can raise 25(OH)D concentrations, relative to dietary preferences and latitude of residence, in the context of general population, these sources are regarded ineffective to maintain the year-round 25(OH)D concentrations in the range of 30-50ng/mL (75-125nmol/L). Vitamin D self-administration related adverse effects, such as hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria are rare, and usually result from taking extremely high doses of vitamin D for a prolonged time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. DRD4 Genotype and the Developmental Link of Peer Social Preference with Conduct Problems and Prosocial Behavior Across Ages 9-12 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buil, J Marieke; Koot, Hans M; Olthof, Tjeert; Nelson, Kelly A; van Lier, Pol A C

    2015-07-01

    The peer environment is among the most important factors for children's behavioral development. However, not all children are equally influenced by their peers, which is potentially due to their genetic make-up. The dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) is a potential candidate gene that may influence children's susceptibility to the peer environment. In the present study, we explored whether variations in the DRD4 gene moderated the association between children's social standing in the peer group (i.e., social preference among classmates) with subsequent conduct problems and prosocial behavior among 405 (51% females) elementary school children followed annually throughout early adolescence (ages 9-12 years). The behavioral development of children with and without the DRD4 7-repeat allele was compared. The results indicated that children who had higher positive social preference scores (i.e., who were more liked relative to disliked by their peers) showed less conduct problem development in subsequent years relative to children who had lower positive social preference scores. In contrast, children who had more negative preference scores (i.e., who were more disliked relative to liked among peers) showed more conduct problem development in subsequent years, relative to children who had less negative preference scores. However, these effects only occurred when children had a 7-repeat allele. For children who did not have a 7-repeat allele, the level of social preference was not associated with subsequent conduct problems. No evidence for gene-environment interaction effects for prosocial behavior was found. The implications for our understanding of conduct problem development and its prevention are discussed.

  7. Acetaminophen developmental pharmacokinetics in premature neonates and infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Brian J; van Lingen, Richard A; Hansen, Tom G

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe acetaminophen developmental pharmacokinetics in premature neonates through infancy to suggest age-appropriate dosing regimens.......The aim of this study was to describe acetaminophen developmental pharmacokinetics in premature neonates through infancy to suggest age-appropriate dosing regimens....

  8. Guidelines for Description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Links, P.; Horsman, Peter; Kühnel, Karsten; Priddy, M.; Reijnhoudt, Linda; Merenmies, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Guidelines follow the conceptual metadata model (deliverable 17.2). They include guidelines for description of collection-holding institutions, document collections, organisations, personalities, events, camps and ghettos. As much as possible the guidelines comply with the descriptive standards

  9. The diagnosis of dementia due to Alzheimer's disease: Recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKhann, G.M.; Knopman, D.S.; Chertkow, H.; Hyman, B.T.; Jack, C.R.; Kawas, C.H.; Klunk, W.E.; Koroshetz, W.J.; Manly, J.J.; Mayeux, R.; Mohs, R.C.; Morris, J.C.; Rossor, M.N.; Scheltens, P.; Carrillo, M.C.; Thies, B.; Weintraub, S.; Phelps, C.H.

    2011-01-01

    The National Institute on Aging and the Alzheimer's Association charged a workgroup with the task of revising the 1984 criteria for Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. The workgroup sought to ensure that the revised criteria would be flexible enough to be used by both general healthcare providers

  10. Developmentally sensitive diagnostic criteria for mental health disorders in early childhood: the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-IV, the research diagnostic criteria-preschool age, and the diagnostic classification of mental health and developmental disorders of infancy and early childhood-revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Helen L; Emde, Robert N

    2011-01-01

    As the infant mental health field has turned its focus to the presentation, course, and treatment of clinically significant mental health disorders, the need for reliable and valid criteria for identifying and assessing mental health symptoms and disorders in early childhood has become urgent. In this article we offer a critical perspective on diagnostic classification of mental health disorders in young children. We place the issue of early childhood diagnosis within the context of classification of psychopathology at other ages and describe, in some detail, diagnostic classifications that have been developed specifically for young children, including the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood (DC:0-3R; ZERO TO THREE, 2005), a diagnostic classification for mental health symptoms and disorders in infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. We briefly outline the role of diagnostic classification in clinical assessment and treatment planning. Last, we review the limitations of current approaches to the diagnostic classification of mental health disorders in young children. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Reproductive and developmental toxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Ramesh C

    2011-01-01

    .... Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology is a comprehensive and authoritative resource providing the latest literature enriched with relevant references describing every aspect of this area of science...

  12. AUTHOR GUIDELINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AUTHOR GUIDELINESIndian Journal of Community Health (IJCH accepts only online submission of manuscript(s by using Open Journal software (OJS at http://www.iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/loginOnline SubmissionsAlready have a Username/Password for Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH? GO TO LOGINNeed a Username/Password?GO TO REGISTRATIONNote: Registration and login are required to submit items online and to track the status of current submissions.Author GuidelinesIJCH strictly adheres on the recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals as per the standard universal guidelines given by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE - Recommendations for Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts. Authors are requested to visit http://www.icmje.org/index.html before making online submission of their manuscript(s.SectionsEditorial:On issues of current public health needAbout 1000 – 1200 wordsReferences: 5 – 10 (PubMed - Citation preferredInvited Commentary:Brief, provocative, opinionated communicationsOn issues of current public health needMain Text: 750-1000 words excluding referencesReferences: 5 – 10 (PubMed - Citation preferredOriginal Article:Articles from Original ResearchStructured abstract: 250 wordsMain Text: 2500 - 3000 words, IMRD formatKey Words: 5 - 8References: 20 – 25 (PubMed - Citation preferredTables / Figures: 3 – 4*Certificate of clearance from respective Institutional Ethical Committee (IECReview Article:On subject of public health relevanceAbstract: 250 wordsMain Text: 2500 - 3000 wordsKey Words: 3 - 4References: 20 – 25 (PubMed - Citation preferredTables / Figures: 3 – 4Short Communication / Article:Short report of a research project / outbreakMain Text : 1000 – 1200 wordsReferences: 10 – 15 (PubMed - Citation preferredTable / Figure: 01*Certificate of clearance from respective Institutional Ethical Committee (IECReport from the field

  13. The influence of natural organic matter and aging on suspension stability in guideline toxicity testing of silver, zinc oxide, and titanium dioxide nanoparticles with Daphnia magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cupi, Denisa; Hartmann, Nanna Isabella Bloch; Baun, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated changes in suspension stability and ecotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) by addition of Suwannee River natural organic matter and aging of stock and test suspensions prior to testing. Acute toxicity tests of silver (Ag), zinc oxide (ZnO), and titanium...... not decrease toxicity significantly. Conversely, the presence of Suwannee River natural organic matter (NOM; 20mgL-1) completely alleviated Ag ENP toxicity in all testing scenarios and did not aid in stabilizing suspensions. In contrast, addition of Suwannee River NOM stabilized ZnO ENP suspensions and did...... in stock suspensions. The authors' results suggest that aging and presence of Suwannee River NOM are important parameters in standard toxicity testing of ENPs, which in some cases may aid in gaining better control over the exposure conditions but in other cases might contribute to agglomeration...

  14. Developmental insights into mature cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Frank C

    2015-02-01

    Three cases are described that illustrate new ways in which developmental research is informing the study of cognition in adults: statistical learning, neural substrates of cognition, and extended concepts. Developmental research has made clear the ubiquity of statistical learning while also revealing is limitations as a stand-alone way to acquire knowledge. With respect to neural substrates, development has uncovered links between executive processing and fronto-striatal circuits while also pointing to many aspects of high-level cognition that may not be neatly reducible to coherent neural descriptions. For extended concepts, children have made especially clear the weaknesses of intuitive theories in both children and adults while also illustrating other cognitive capacities that are used at all ages to navigate the socially distributed aspects of knowledge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mexican Asthma Guidelines: GUIMA 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Désirée Larenas-Linnemann

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The need for a national guideline, with a broad basis among specialists and primary care physicians was felt in Mexico, to try unifying asthma management. As several high-quality asthma guidelines exist worldwide, it was decided to select the best three for transculturation. Methods: Following the internationally recommended methodology for guideline transculturation, ADAPTE, a literature search for asthma guidelines, published 1-1-2007 through 31-12-2015 was conducted. AGREE-II evaluations yielded 3/40 most suitable for transculturation. Their compound evidence was fused with local reality, patient preference, cost and safety considerations to draft the guideline document. Subsequently, this was adjusted by physicians from 12 national medical societies in several rounds of a Delphi process and 3 face-to-face meetings to reach the final version. Results: Evidence was fused from British Thoracic Society Asthma Guideline 2014, Global Initiative on Asthma 2015, and Guía Española del Manejo del Asma 2015 (2016 updates included. After 3 Delphi-rounds we developed an evidence-based document taking into account patient characteristics, including age, treatment costs and safety and best locally available medication. Conclusion: In cooperation pulmonologists, allergists, ENT physicians, paediatricians and GPs were able to develop an evidence-based document for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of asthma and its exacerbations in Mexico.

  16. Cyberbullying among students with intellectual and developmental disability in special education settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, H.C.M.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Moor, J.M.H. de; Vermeulen, A.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Lang, R.B.; Lancioni, G.E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the types, prevalence and associated variables of cyberbullying among students with intellectual and developmental disability attending special education settings. Methods: Students (n = 114) with intellectual and developmental disability who were between 12–19 years of age

  17. Cyberbullying among students with intellectual and developmental disability in special education settings.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, R.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Korzilius, H.; Moor, J.M.H. de; Vermeulen, A.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Lang, R.; Lancioni, G.E.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the types, prevalence and associated variables of cyberbullying among students with intellectual and developmental disability attending special education settings. METHODS: Students (n = 114) with intellectual and developmental disability who were between 12-19 years of age

  18. Cyberbullying among students with intellectual and developmental disability in special education settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, R.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Moor, J.M.H. de; Vermeulen, A.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Lang, R.; Lancioni, G.E.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the types, prevalence and associated variables of cyberbullying among students with intellectual and developmental disability attending special education settings. METHODS: Students (n = 114) with intellectual and developmental disability who were between 12-19 years of age

  19. Use of drawings in children with pervasive developmental disorder during hospitalization: a developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanatou, Athena

    2008-12-01

    The level and nature of emotional upheaval and relationship to developmental stage was studied in children with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) hospitalized for head injury. The sample consisted of 25 hospitalized children aged 5-12 years. Children were asked to make the drawing of a ;person in hospital'. The drawings were evaluated by Koppitz's emotional indicators. Punishment and persecution were the main cognitive constructs of children in order to explain hospitalization.

  20. Music cognition: a developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalinski, Stephanie M; Schellenberg, E Glenn

    2012-10-01

    Although music is universal, there is a great deal of cultural variability in music structures. Nevertheless, some aspects of music processing generalize across cultures, whereas others rely heavily on the listening environment. Here, we discuss the development of musical knowledge, focusing on four themes: (a) capabilities that are present early in development; (b) culture-general and culture-specific aspects of pitch and rhythm processing; (c) age-related changes in pitch perception; and (d) developmental changes in how listeners perceive emotion in music. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  1. Infant developmental milestones and adult intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2015-01-01

    Intelligence Scale (WAIS). Associations between motor developmental milestones and IQwere analysed bymultiple linear regression adjusting for potential confounding factors. Results: Later acquisition of infant developmental milestones was associated with lower subsequent IQ, and the majority of significant......Background: A number of studies suggest a positive association between faster infant motor development and intellectual function in childhood and adolescence. However, studies investigating the relationship between infant motor development and intelligence in adulthood are lacking. Aims......: To investigate whether age at achievement of 12 motor developmental milestones was associated with adult intelligence and to evaluate the influence of sex, parental social status, parity,mother's cigarette consumption in the last trimester, gestational age, birthweight, and birth length on this association...

  2. Reproductive and developmental toxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Ramesh C

    2011-01-01

    .... With a special focus on placental toxicity, this book is the only available reference to connect the three key risk stages, and is the only resource to include reproductive and developmental toxicity in domestic animals, fish, and wildlife.

  3. Developmental coordination disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental coordination disorder can lead to: Learning problems Low self-esteem resulting from poor ability at sports and teasing by other children Repeated injuries Weight gain as a result of not wanting to participate ...

  4. Facts about Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... play, learn, speak, behave, and move (for example, crawling and walking). Children develop at their own pace, ... person’s lifetime. Most developmental disabilities begin before a baby is born, but some can happen after birth ...

  5. Revision of the ICH guideline on detection of toxicity to reproduction for medicinal products: SWOT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Paul

    2016-09-01

    SWOT analysis was used to gain insights and perspectives into the revision of the ICH S5(R2) guideline on detection of toxicity to reproduction for medicinal products. The current ICH guideline was rapidly adopted worldwide and has an excellent safety record for more than 20 years. The revised guideline should aim to further improve reproductive and developmental (DART) safety testing for new drugs. Alternative methods to animal experiments should be used whenever possible. Modern technology should be used to obtain high quality data from fewer animals. Additions to the guideline should include considerations on the following: limit dose setting, maternal toxicity, biopharmaceuticals, vaccines, testing strategies by indication, developmental immunotoxicity, and male-mediated developmental toxicity. Emerging issues, such as epigenetics and the microbiome, will most likely pose challenges to DART testing in the future. It is hoped that the new guideline will be adopted even outside the ICH regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Life Span Developmental Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Eryilmaz

    2011-01-01

    The Life Span Developmental Approach examines development of individuals which occurs from birth to death. Life span developmental approach is a multi-disciplinary approach related with disciplines like psychology, psychiatry, sociology, anthropology and geriatrics that indicates the fact that development is not completed in adulthood, it continues during the life course. Development is a complex process that consists of dying and death. This approach carefully investigates the development of...

  7. Revised dietary guidelines for Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Young Ai; Lee, Haeng Shin; Kim, Bok Hee; Lee, Yoonna; Lee, Hae Jeung; Moon, Jae Jin; Kim, Cho-il

    2008-01-01

    With rapidly changing dietary environment, dietary guidelines for Koreans were revised and relevant action guides were developed. First, the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee was established with experts and government officials from the fields of nutrition, preventive medicine, health promotion, agriculture, education and environment. The Committee set dietary goals for Koreans aiming for a better nutrition state of all after a thorough review and analysis of recent information related to nutritional status and/or problems of Korean population, changes in food production/supply, disease pattern, health policy and agricultural policy. Then, the revised dietary guidelines were proposed to accomplish these goals in addition to 6 different sets of dietary action guides to accommodate specific nutrition and health problems of respective age groups. Subsequently, these guidelines and guides were subjected to the focus group review, consumer perception surveys, and a public hearing for general and professional comments. Lastly, the language was clarified in terms of public understanding and phraseology. The revised Dietary guidelines for Koreans are as follows: eat a variety of grains, vegetables, fruits, fish, meat, poultry and dairy products; choose salt-preserved foods less, and use less salt when you prepare foods; increase physical activity for a healthy weight, and balance what you eat with your activity; enjoy every meal, and do not skip breakfast; if you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation; prepare foods properly, and order sensible amounts; enjoy our rice-based diet.

  8. Children's Coping Resources Subsequent to Parental Divorce: A Developmental Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Linda; And Others

    The impact of divorce upon the children's adaptation has increasingly become a topic of concern in developmental research. This study investigates how specific coping resources (self-efficacy, self-esteem) vary according to age and as a correlate of developmental level in children from divorced and intact homes. Researchers also examined the…

  9. Associations of Early Developmental Milestones with Adult Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Mortensen, Erik L.

    2018-01-01

    The study investigated whether age at attainment of 20 developmental milestones within the areas of language, walking, eating, dressing, social interaction, and toilet training was associated with adult intelligence. Mothers of 821 children of the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort recorded 20 developmental milestones at a 3-year examination, and all…

  10. Developmental Trajectories of Young Girls with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Deborah D.; Wheeler, Anne; Sideris, John; Sullivan, Kelly; Reichardt, Alison; Roberts, Jane; Clark, Renee; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    To describe the early phenotype of girls with full mutation fragile X, we used 54 observations of 15 girls between the ages of 6 months and 9 years to examine developmental trajectories as measured by the Battelle Development Inventory. In this sample, autistic behavior was associated with poorer developmental outcomes, primarily due to…

  11. Trisomy 21 and facial developmental instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, John M; Cole, Theodore M; Reeves, Roger H; Richtsmeier, Joan T

    2013-05-01

    The most common live-born human aneuploidy is trisomy 21, which causes Down syndrome (DS). Dosage imbalance of genes on chromosome 21 (Hsa21) affects complex gene-regulatory interactions and alters development to produce a wide range of phenotypes, including characteristic facial dysmorphology. Little is known about how trisomy 21 alters craniofacial morphogenesis to create this characteristic appearance. Proponents of the "amplified developmental instability" hypothesis argue that trisomy 21 causes a generalized genetic imbalance that disrupts evolutionarily conserved developmental pathways by decreasing developmental homeostasis and precision throughout development. Based on this model, we test the hypothesis that DS faces exhibit increased developmental instability relative to euploid individuals. Developmental instability was assessed by a statistical analysis of fluctuating asymmetry. We compared the magnitude and patterns of fluctuating asymmetry among siblings using three-dimensional coordinate locations of 20 anatomic landmarks collected from facial surface reconstructions in four age-matched samples ranging from 4 to 12 years: (1) DS individuals (n = 55); (2) biological siblings of DS individuals (n = 55); 3) and 4) two samples of typically developing individuals (n = 55 for each sample), who are euploid siblings and age-matched to the DS individuals and their euploid siblings (samples 1 and 2). Identification in the DS sample of facial prominences exhibiting increased fluctuating asymmetry during facial morphogenesis provides evidence for increased developmental instability in DS faces. We found the highest developmental instability in facial structures derived from the mandibular prominence and lowest in facial regions derived from the frontal prominence. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Differences in Health Care, Family, and Community Factors Associated with Mental, Behavioral, and Developmental Disorders Among Children Aged 2-8 Years in Rural and Urban Areas - United States, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lara R; Holbrook, Joseph R; Bitsko, Rebecca H; Hartwig, Sophie A; Kaminski, Jennifer W; Ghandour, Reem M; Peacock, Georgina; Heggs, Akilah; Boyle, Coleen A

    2017-03-17

    Mental, behavioral, and developmental disorders (MBDDs) begin in early childhood and often affect lifelong health and well-being. Persons who live in rural areas report more health-related disparities than those in urban areas, including poorer health, more health risk behaviors, and less access to health resources. 2011-2012. The National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) is a cross-sectional, random-digit-dial telephone survey of parents or guardians that collects information on noninstitutionalized children aged health and well-being, health care access, and family and community characteristics. Using data from the 2011-2012 NSCH, this report examines variations in health care, family, and community factors among children aged 2-8 years with and without MBDDs in rural and urban settings. Restricting the data to U.S. children aged 2-8 years with valid responses for child age and sex, each MBDD, and zip code resulted in an analytic sample of 34,535 children; MBDD diagnosis was determined by parent report and was not validated with health care providers or medical records. A higher percentage of all children in small rural and large rural areas compared with all children in urban areas had parents who reported experiencing financial difficulties (i.e., difficulties meeting basic needs such as food and housing). Children in all rural areas more often lacked amenities and lived in a neighborhood in poor condition. However, a lower percentage of children in small rural and isolated areas had parents who reported living in an unsafe neighborhood, and children in isolated areas less often lived in a neighborhood lacking social support, less often lacked a medical home, and less often had a parent with fair or poor mental health. Across rural subtypes, approximately one in six young children had a parent-reported MBDD diagnosis. A higher prevalence was found among children in small rural areas (18.6%) than in urban areas (15.2%). In urban and the majority of rural

  13. Differences in Health Care, Family, and Community Factors Associated with Mental, Behavioral, and Developmental Disorders Among Children Aged 2–8 Years in Rural and Urban Areas — United States, 2011–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Joseph R.; Bitsko, Rebecca H.; Hartwig, Sophie A.; Kaminski, Jennifer W.; Ghandour, Reem M.; Peacock, Georgina; Heggs, Akilah; Boyle, Coleen A.

    2017-01-01

    Problem/Condition Mental, behavioral, and developmental disorders (MBDDs) begin in early childhood and often affect lifelong health and well-being. Persons who live in rural areas report more health-related disparities than those in urban areas, including poorer health, more health risk behaviors, and less access to health resources. Reporting Period 2011–2012. Description of System The National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) is a cross-sectional, random-digit–dial telephone survey of parents or guardians that collects information on noninstitutionalized children aged health and well-being, health care access, and family and community characteristics. Using data from the 2011–2012 NSCH, this report examines variations in health care, family, and community factors among children aged 2–8 years with and without MBDDs in rural and urban settings. Restricting the data to U.S. children aged 2–8 years with valid responses for child age and sex, each MBDD, and zip code resulted in an analytic sample of 34,535 children; MBDD diagnosis was determined by parent report and was not validated with health care providers or medical records. Results A higher percentage of all children in small rural and large rural areas compared with all children in urban areas had parents who reported experiencing financial difficulties (i.e., difficulties meeting basic needs such as food and housing). Children in all rural areas more often lacked amenities and lived in a neighborhood in poor condition. However, a lower percentage of children in small rural and isolated areas had parents who reported living in an unsafe neighborhood, and children in isolated areas less often lived in a neighborhood lacking social support, less often lacked a medical home, and less often had a parent with fair or poor mental health. Across rural subtypes, approximately one in six young children had a parent-reported MBDD diagnosis. A higher prevalence was found among children in small rural areas

  14. Physical Activity Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use this site. health.gov Physical Activity Guidelines Physical Activity Physical activity is key to improving the health of the Nation. Based on the latest science, the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans is an essential resource for ...

  15. Descriptive Developmental Research: Why Only Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labouvie, Erich W.

    1975-01-01

    The usefulness of the concepts of cohort and time of measurement in descriptive developmental research was examined by comparing the time-specific cross-sectional and cohort-specific longitudinal age gradients of stable and unstable children. (Author/ED)

  16. Developmental Levels of the Child's Storytelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic-Umek, Ljubica; Kranjc, Simona; Fekonja, Urska

    Noting that examining the storytelling skills of children between 4 and 8 years of age can provide insights into the child's overall language development, this study explored the development of children's storytelling, using story coherence and story cohesion to evaluate the developmental level of the child's storytelling. Participating in the…

  17. Family Life and Developmental Idealism in Yazd, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jalal Abbasi-Shavazi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This paper is motivated by the theory that developmental idealism has been disseminated globally and has become an international force for family and demographic change. Developmental idealism is a set of cultural beliefs and values about development and how development relates to family and demographic behavior. It holds that modern societies are causal forces producing modern families, that modern families help to produce modern societies, and that modern family change is to be expected. OBJECTIVE We examine the extent to which developmental idealism has been disseminated in Iran. We also investigate predictors of the dissemination of developmental idealism. METHODS We use survey data collected in 2007 from a sample of women in Yazd, a city in Iran. We examine the distribution of developmental idealism in the sample and the multivariate predictors of developmental idealism. RESULTS We find considerable support for the expectation that many elements of developmental idealism have been widely disseminated. Statistically significant majorities associate development with particular family attributes, believe that development causes change in families, believe that fertility reductions and age-at-marriage increases help foster development, and perceive family trends in Iran headed toward modernity. As predicted, parental education, respondent education, and income affect adherence to developmental idealism. CONCLUSIONS Developmental idealism has been widely disseminated in Yazd, Iran and is related to social and demographic factors in predicted ways. COMMENTS Although our data come from only one city, we expect that developmental idealism has been widely distributed in Iran, with important implications for family and demographic behavior.

  18. Visitor's Computer Guidelines | CTIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visitor's Computer Guidelines Network Connection Request Instruments Instruments by Telescope IR Instruments Guidelines Library Facilities Outreach NOAO-S EPO Program team Art of Darkness Image Gallery EPO/CADIAS ‹› You are here CTIO Home » Astronomers » Visitor's Computer Guidelines Visitor's Computer

  19. The new hypertension guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Ralph H

    2013-10-01

    The Canadian Hypertension Education Program (CHEP) has published guidelines annually since 2000. The CHEP guidelines are a model of concise, comprehensive, up-to-date, evidence-rated guidelines for physicians who diagnose and treat hypertension. The guidelines address measurement of blood pressure and the definition of hypertension, secondary hypertension evaluation and treatment, and blood pressure targets and medication choices in patients with and without compelling indications. This review describes CHEP's process for developing guidelines and provides an overview of the 2013 recommendations. ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Everyday Preschool Interpersonal Speech Usage: Methodological, Developmental, and Sociolinguistic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, Frances Fuchs; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Reports on a study designed to provide data on developmental and sociolinguistic patterns of interpersonal speech usage from ages 2 to 5 years which may have important implications for poverty school programs. (Author/CS)

  1. Reading in developmental prosopagnosia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Klargaard, Solja K; Petersen, Anders

    2018-01-01

    exposure durations (targeting the word superiority effect), and d) text reading. RESULTS: Participants with developmental prosopagnosia performed strikingly similar to controls across the four reading tasks. Formal analysis revealed a significant dissociation between word and face recognition......, that is, impaired reading in developmental prosopagnosia. METHOD: We tested 10 adults with developmental prosopagnosia and 20 matched controls. All participants completed the Cambridge Face Memory Test, the Cambridge Face Perception test and a Face recognition questionnaire used to quantify everyday face...... recognition experience. Reading was measured in four experimental tasks, testing different levels of letter, word, and text reading: (a) single word reading with words of varying length,(b) vocal response times in single letter and short word naming, (c) recognition of single letters and short words at brief...

  2. Guidelines for the undergraduate psychology major: Version 2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The APA Guidelines for the Undergraduate Psychology Major: Version 2.0 (henceforth Guidelines 2.0; APA, 2013) represents a national effort to describe and develop high-quality undergraduate programs in psychology. The task force charged with the revision of the original guidelines for the undergraduate major examined the success of the document's implementation and made changes to reflect emerging best practices and to integrate psychology's work with benchmarking scholarship in higher education. Guidelines 2.0 abandoned the original distinction drawn between psychology-focused skills and psychology skills that enhance liberal arts development. Instead, Guidelines 2.0 describes five inclusive goals for the undergraduate psychology major and two developmental levels of student learning outcomes. Suggestions for assessment planning are provided for each of the five learning goals. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. The Developmental Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels; Hvid, Helge

    2001-01-01

    AbstractIn the nineties, the concept of the developmental work (DW) has become a significant point of orientation for the actors on Danish labour market. The DW has moved the focus of the labour market from wages and working time towards work and production. For employees, the DW promises...... developmental possibilities, influence and responsibility, but also greater social responsibility for the firm. For firms, the DW promises increased competitiveness and better products. In this paper we present the concept of the DW as one which encourages the development of work, production and organisation...... of the firm and show that the DW is different from mainstream management concepts, as the DW...

  4. Radiological risk comparison guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallinan, E.J.; Muhlestein, L.D.; Brown, L.F.; Yoder, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    An important aspect of DOE safety analyses is estimating potential accident risk. The estimates are used to: determine if additional controls are needed, identify Safety Class Items, and demonstrate adequate risk reduction. Thus, guidelines are needed to measure comparative risks. The Westinghouse M ampersand O Nuclear Facility Safety Committee and the Safety Envelope Working Group have developed radiological risk guidelines for comparing the risks from individual accident analyses. These guidelines were prepared under contract with the US Department of Energy. These guidelines are based on historical DOE guidelines and current requirements, and satisfy DOE and technical community proposals. for goals that demonstrate acceptable risk. The guidelines consist of a frequency versus consequence curve for credible accidents. Offsite and onsite guidelines are presented. The offsite risk acceptance guidelines are presented in Figure 1. The guidelines are nearly isorisk for anticipated events where impacts are chronic, and provide additional reduction for unlikely events where impacts may be acute and risk uncertainties may be significant. The guidelines are applied to individual release accident scenarios where a discrete frequency and consequence has been estimated. The guideline curves are not to be used for total risk assessments. Common cause events are taken into consideration only for an individual facility. Frequencies outside the guideline range are considered to be local site option (analyst judgement) as far as assessments of risk acceptance are concerned. If the curve is exceeded, then options include either a more detailed analysis or imposing additional preventive or mitigative features. Another presentation discusses implementation in detail. Additional work is needed to provide risk comparison guidelines for releases from multiple facilities and for toxic releases

  5. Arguments from Developmental Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckle-Schobel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I investigate a special type of argument regarding the role of development in theorizing about psychological processes and cognitive capacities. Among the issues that developmental psychologists study, discovering the ontogenetic trajectory of mechanisms or capacities underpinning our cognitive functions ranks highly. The order in which functions are developed or capacities are acquired is a matter of debate between competing psychological theories, and also philosophical conceptions of the mind - getting the role and the significance of the different steps in this order right could be seen as an important virtue of such theories. Thus, a special kind of strategy in arguments between competing philosophical or psychological theories is using developmental order in arguing for or against a given psychological claim. In this article, I will introduce an analysis of arguments from developmental order, which come in two general types: arguments emphasizing the importance of the early cognitive processes and arguments emphasizing the late cognitive processes. I will discuss their role in one of the central tools for evaluating scientific theories, namely in making inferences to the best explanation. I will argue that appeal to developmental order is, by itself, an insufficient criterion for theory choice and has to be part of an argument based on other core explanatory or empirical virtues. I will end by proposing a more concerted study of philosophical issues concerning (cognitive) development, and I will present some topics that also pertain to a full-fledged 'philosophy of development.'

  6. Developmental Education Evaluation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry-Miller, Mitzi; And Others

    A developmental education evaluation model designed to be used at a multi-unit urban community college is described. The purpose of the design was to determine the cost effectiveness/worth of programs in order to initiate self-improvement. A needs assessment was conducted by interviewing and taping the responses of students, faculty, staff, and…

  7. Arguments from Developmental Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard eStöckle-Schobel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I investigate a special type of argument regarding the role of development in theorising about psychological processes and cognitive capacities. Among the issues that developmental psychologists study, discovering the ontogenetic trajectory of mechanisms or capacities underpinning our cognitive functions ranks highly. The order in which functions are developed or capacities are acquired is a matter of debate between competing psychological theories, and also philosophical conceptions of the mind – getting the role and the significance of the different steps in this order right could be seen as an important virtue of such theories.Thus, a special kind of strategy in arguments between competing philosophical or psychological theories is using developmental order in arguing for or against a given psychological claim. In this article, I will introduce an analysis of arguments from developmental order, which come in two general types: arguments emphasising the importance of the early cognitive processes and arguments emphasising the late cognitive processes. I will discuss their role in one of the central tools for evaluating scientific theories, namely in making inferences to the best explanation. I will argue that appeal to developmental order is, by itself, an insufficient criterion for theory choice and has to be part of an argument based on other core explanatory or empirical virtues. I will end by proposing a more concerted study of philosophical issues concerning (cognitive development, and I will present some topics that also pertain to a full-fledged ‘philosophy of development’.

  8. Developmental paediatric anaesthetic pharmacology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing

    2015-01-01

    Safe and effective drug therapy in neonates, infants and children require detailed knowledge about the ontogeny of drug disposition and action as well how these interact with genetics and co-morbidity of children. Recent advances in developmental pharmacology in children follow the increased...

  9. Developmental stages of developmental screening: steps to implementation of a successful program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Martin, Jennifer A; Dunkle, Margaret; Earls, Marian; Fliedner, Dane; Landes, Cynthia

    2005-11-01

    Through the use of 2-stage screening strategies, research studies have shown that autism spectrum disorders and other developmental disabilities can now be detected reliably and with greater validity and in children as young as 18 months of age. Screening and diagnostic practices in the medical and educational arena lag far behind clinical research, however, with the average patient age at time of diagnosis being 3 to 6 years.We discuss the challenges of instituting universal developmental screening as part of pediatric care and present 2 models of existing or planned programs of early screening for autism spectrum disorder and developmental disability (1 in a community-based setting and 1 in a pediatric setting), and discuss the pros and cons of the different strategies.

  10. Public informations guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    The purpose of these Public Information Guidelines is to provide principles for the implementation of the NWPA mandate and the Mission Plan requirements for the provision of public information. These Guidelines set forth the public information policy to be followed by all Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) performance components. The OCRWM offices should observe these Guidelines in shaping and conducting public information activities

  11. Public informations guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1986-06-01

    The purpose of these Public Information Guidelines is to provide principles for the implementation of the NWPA mandate and the Mission Plan requirements for the provision of public information. These Guidelines set forth the public information policy to be followed by all Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) performance components. The OCRWM offices should observe these Guidelines in shaping and conducting public information activities.

  12. IMAGE Programming Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehfest, E; De Waal, L.

    2010-09-15

    This document describes the requirements and guidelines for the software of the IMAGE system. The motivation for this report was a substantial restructuring of the source code for IMAGE version 2.5. The requirements and guidelines relate to design considerations as well as to aspects of maintainability and portability. The design considerations determine guidelines about subjects, such as program structure, model hierarchy, the use of data modules, and the error message system. Maintainability and portability aspects determine the guidelines on, for example, the Fortran 90 standard, naming conventions, code lay-out, and internal documentation.

  13. Guidelines for radiological interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffmann, G.W.

    1998-01-01

    The German Radiological Society, in cooperation with other German professional bodies, set up draft Guidelines for Radiological Interventions and submitted them to the professional community for discussion. The Guidelines are meant to assess the potential of radiological interventions as treatment alternatives to surgery or aggressive therapy such as chemotherapy. In fact, technical practicability on its own is insufficient to warrant intervention. The Guidelines are systematically compiled notions and recommendations whose aim it is to provide support to physicians and patients in choosing suitable medical care provisions (prevention, diagnosis, therapy, aftertreatment) in specific circumstances. A complete Czech translation of the Guidelines is given. (P.A.)

  14. Developmental dyslexia and dysgraphia: What can we learn from the one about the other?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana eDöhla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Up to 17 % of German school children suffer from reading and writing disabilities. Unlike developmental dyslexia, only few studies have addressed dysgraphia. Presenting a comprehensive overview of the current state of the art in developmental dyslexia and dysgraphia, this paper aims to determine how far existing knowledge about the causes of developmental dyslexia also apply to developmental dysgraphia. To promote understanding of developmental dysgraphia, the paper discusses relevant aspects such as predictors, causes and comorbidities, models of acquisition as well as existing deficit models. A comparison of definitions in the DSM-V and ICD-10 complemented by an overview of the most recent German guideline ought to give the reader deeper insight into this topic. The current issue of growing up bilingually and the connection between reading and writing deficits are also discussed. In conclusion, this paper presents a critical survey of theoretical and practical implications for the diagnostics and treatment of developmental dysgraphia.

  15. Content and quality of workplace guidelines developed to prevent mental health problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexø, Mette Andersen; Kristensen, Josefine Vejlby; Grønvad, Majbritt Thorhauge

    2018-01-01

    Objectives A wide range of guidelines have been developed to prevent work-related mental health problems (MHP), but little is known about the quality of such guidelines. We systematically reviewed the content and quality of workplace guidelines aiming to prevent, detect, and/or manage work......-related MHP. Methods We conducted systematic online and database searches (MEDLINE; Web of Science; PsychNET; occupational safety and health databases) to identify guidelines. Eligibility criteria included guidelines recommending primary, secondary, or tertiary preventive interventions to be implemented...... at the workplace by employers, employees or organizational staff. A minimum of minimum three independent reviewers assessed the quality of guidelines using the Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II). Guidelines rated ≥65% with regards to domain I, II, and III were considered to be of good developmental...

  16. Predictive values derived from lower wisdom teeth developmental stages on orthopantomograms to calculate the chronological age in adolescence and young adults as a prerequisite to obtain age-adjusted informed patient consent prior to elective surgical procedures in young patients with incomplete or mismatched personal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Reinhard E; Schmidt, Kirsten; Treszl, András; Kersten, Jan F

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Surgical procedures require informed patient consent, which is mandatory prior to any procedure. These requirements apply in particular to elective surgical procedures. The communication with the patient about the procedure has to be comprehensive and based on mutual understanding. Furthermore, the informed consent has to take into account whether a patient is of legal age. As a result of large-scale migration, there are eventually patients planned for medical procedures, whose chronological age can't be assessed reliably by physical inspection alone. Age determination based on assessing wisdom tooth development stages can be used to help determining whether individuals involved in medical procedures are of legal age, i.e., responsible and accountable. At present, the assessment of wisdom tooth developmental stages barely allows a crude estimate of an individual's age. This study explores possibilities for more precise predictions of the age of individuals with emphasis on the legal age threshold of 18 years. Material and Methods: 1,900 dental orthopantomograms (female 938, male 962, age: 15-24 years), taken between the years 2000 and 2013 for diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the jaws, were evaluated. 1,895 orthopantomograms (female 935, male 960) of 1,804 patients (female 872, male 932) met the inclusion criteria. The archives of the Department of Diagnostic Radiology in Dentistry, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, and of an oral and maxillofacial office in Rostock, Germany, were used to collect a sufficient number of radiographs. An effort was made to achieve almost equal distribution of age categories in this study group; 'age' was given on a particular day. The radiological criteria of lower third molar investigation were: presence and extension of periodontal space, alveolar bone loss, emergence of tooth, and stage of tooth mineralization (according to Demirjian). Univariate and multivariate general linear models were calculated

  17. Developmental psychopathology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petermann Franz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. Method According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Results Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. Conclusion These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274.

  18. Developmental psychopathology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sören; Petermann, Franz

    2009-09-17

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274.

  19. Bioassay guideline 2: guidelines for tritium bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This guideline is one of a series under preparation by the Federal-Provincial Working Group on Bioassay and In Vivo Monitoring Criteria. In this report tritium compounds have been grouped into four categories for the purpose of calculating Annual Limits on Intake and Investigation Levels: tritium gas, tritiated water, tritium-labelled compounds and nucleic acid precursors

  20. Evidence-based guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovira, Àlex; Wattjes, Mike P; Tintoré, Mar

    2015-01-01

    diagnosis in patients with MS. The aim of this article is to provide guidelines for the implementation of MRI of the brain and spinal cord in the diagnosis of patients who are suspected of having MS. These guidelines are based on an extensive review of the recent literature, as well as on the personal...

  1. Whitebark pine planting guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward McCaughey; Glenda L. Scott; Kay L. Izlar

    2009-01-01

    This article incorporates new information into previous whitebark pine guidelines for planting prescriptions. Earlier 2006 guidelines were developed based on review of general literature, research studies, field observations, and standard US Forest Service survival surveys of high-elevation whitebark pine plantations. A recent study of biotic and abiotic factors...

  2. Guidelines for Learning Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehrle, Carl C.; Schulz, Jolene

    Guidelines for designing and planning learning stations for pupils at the elementary grade level include suggestions on how to develop a station that will be successful in meeting the learners' needs. Instructions for the use of tapes at a station and matching pupils with stations are given, as are guidelines on classroom arrangement and record…

  3. D 59 Design Guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Lamberti, Alberto

    The present guidelines are specifically dedicated to Low Crested Structures on attempt to provide methodological tools both for the engineering design of structures and for prediction of performance and environmental impacts. It is anticipated that the guidelines will provide valuable inputs to c...

  4. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, D. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States); Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States); German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States)

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  5. Maintenance Trades Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, Theodore J.

    2008-01-01

    In 2002, APPA published "Maintenance Staffing Guidelines for Educational Facilities," the first building maintenance trades staffing guideline designed to assist educational facilities professionals with their staffing needs. addresses how facilities professionals can determine the appropriate size and mix of their organization. Contents…

  6. Primary care guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ijäs, Jarja; Alanen, Seija; Kaila, Minna

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the adoption of the national Hypertension Guideline in primary care and to evaluate the consistency of the views of the health centre senior executives on the guideline's impact on clinical practices in the treatment of hypertension in their health centres. DESIGN: A cross...... Guideline. RESULTS: Data were available from 143 health centres in Finland (49%). The views of head physicians and senior nursing officers on the adoption of the Hypertension Guideline were not consistent. Head physicians more often than senior nursing officers (44% vs. 29%, p ...: Hypertension Guideline recommendations that require joint agreements between professionals are less often adopted than simple, precise recommendations. More emphasis on effective multidisciplinary collaboration is needed....

  7. Global Imaging referral guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawooya, M.; Perez, M.; Lau, L.; Reeed, M.

    2010-01-01

    The medical imaging specialists called for global referral guidelines which would be made available to referring doctors. These referral guidelines should be:- Applicable in different health care settings, including resource-poor settings; Inclusive in terms of the range of clinical conditions; User-friendly and accessible (format/media); Acceptable to stakeholders, in particular to the referrers as the main target audience. To conceive evidence-based medicine as an integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values. The Direct recipients of the Referral Guidelines would be:- Referrers: general practitioners / family doctors; paediatricians; emergency department doctors; other specialists and health workers. Providers (medical imaging practitioners): radiologists; nuclear medicine physicians; radiographers; other appropriately qualified practitioners providing diagnostic imaging services. For the Referral Guidelines to be effective there need to be: Credibility evidence-based Practicality end user involvement Context local resources, disease profiles Endorsement, opinion leaders Implementation- policy, education, CPOE - Monitoring of the use clinical audit, report feedback. The aim of the Referral Guidelines Project was to: Produce global referral guidelines that are evidence-based, cost effective and appropriate for the local setting, and include consideration of available equipment and expertise (RGWG; SIGs); Include supporting information about radiation doses, potential risks, protection of children and pregnant women (introductory chapter); Facilitate the implementation of the guidelines through guidance and tools (e.g. implementation guides, checklists, capacity building tools, guides on stakeholders engagement, audit support criteria); Conduct pilot testing in different clinical settings from each of the six WHO regions; Promote the inclusion of the referral guidelines in the curricula of medical schools; Develop and implement

  8. NIDCAP and developmental care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Haumont

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal mortality in very low birth weight infants has dramatically decreased during the last decades. However, 15-25% of these infants will show neurodevelopmental impairment later on. The aim of implementing early developmental care (EDC, emerged as a new field in neonatology, is to create an intervention program designed to provide support for optimal neurobehavioral development during this highly vulnerable period of brain growth. The theoretical framework, which underlies the approach, is supported by research in different scientific fields, including neuroscience, psychology, medicine and nursing. EDC utilizes a range of medical and nursing interventions that aim to decrease the stress of preterm neonates in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs. The Neonatal Individualized Developmental Care Assessment Program (NIDCAP is an integrated and holistic form of family-centered developmental care. Changing the traditional NICU towards an EDC-NICU includes training nursing and medical staff, investing in their quality and most importantly keeping parents in proximity to the infants. The new challenge of modern neonatology is to restore the mother-infant dyad applying “couplet care” starting at birth until discharge. Most of the European NICUs apply some elements of EDC, but it is more consistent in northern Europe. The development of NIDCAP training centers in Europe demonstrates the evolution of care. It is likely that future research and intervention programs will optimize our practices. Developmental care could prove to be an important recent step in improving outcome in extremely preterm neonates. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  9. Evolutionary and developmental modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacquaniti, Francesco; Ivanenko, Yuri P; d'Avella, Andrea; Zelik, Karl E; Zago, Myrka

    2013-01-01

    The identification of biological modules at the systems level often follows top-down decomposition of a task goal, or bottom-up decomposition of multidimensional data arrays into basic elements or patterns representing shared features. These approaches traditionally have been applied to mature, fully developed systems. Here we review some results from two other perspectives on modularity, namely the developmental and evolutionary perspective. There is growing evidence that modular units of development were highly preserved and recombined during evolution. We first consider a few examples of modules well identifiable from morphology. Next we consider the more difficult issue of identifying functional developmental modules. We dwell especially on modular control of locomotion to argue that the building blocks used to construct different locomotor behaviors are similar across several animal species, presumably related to ancestral neural networks of command. A recurrent theme from comparative studies is that the developmental addition of new premotor modules underlies the postnatal acquisition and refinement of several different motor behaviors in vertebrates.

  10. A roadmap for the integration of culture into developmental psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causadias, José M

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, I propose a roadmap for the integration of culture in developmental psychopathology. This integration is pressing because culture continues to be somewhat disconnected from theory, research, training, and interventions in developmental psychopathology, thus limiting our understanding of the epigenesis of mental health. I argue that in order to successfully integrate culture into developmental psychopathology, it is crucial to (a) study cultural development, (b) consider both individual-level and social-level cultural processes, (c) examine the interplay between culture and biology, and (d) promote improved and direct cultural assessment. I provide evidence in support of each of these guidelines, present alternative conceptual frameworks, and suggest new lines of research. Hopefully, that these directions will contribute to the emerging field of cultural development and psychopathology, which focuses on the elucidation of the cultural processes that initiate, maintain, or derail trajectories of normal and abnormal behavior.

  11. European-French Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire and Pretest in French-Speaking Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray-Kaeser, Sylvie; Satink, Ton; Andresen, Mette; Martini, Rose; Thommen, Evelyne; Bertrand, Anne Martine

    2015-05-01

    The Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ'07) is a Canadian-English instrument recommended for screening children aged 5 to 15 years who are at risk for developmental coordination disorder. While a Canadian-French version of the DCDQ'07 presently exists, a European-French version does not. To produce a cross-cultural adaptation of the DCDQ'07 for use in areas of Europe where French is spoken and to test its cultural relevance in French-speaking Switzerland. Cross-cultural adaptation was done using established guidelines. Cultural relevance was analyzed with cognitive interviews of thirteen parents of children aged 5.0 to 14.6 years (mean age: 8.5 years, SD = 3.4), using think-aloud and probing techniques. Cultural and linguistic differences were noted between the European-French, the Canadian-French, and the original versions of the DCDQ'07. Despite correct translation and expert committee review, cognitive interviews revealed that certain items of the European-French version were unclear or misinterpreted and further modifications were needed. After rewording items as a result of the outcomes of the cognitive interview, the European-French version of the DCDQ'07 is culturally appropriate for use in French-speaking Switzerland. Further studies are necessary to determine its psychometric properties.

  12. Dietary Guidelines should reflect new understandings about adult protein needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layman Donald K

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dietary Guidelines for Americans provide nutrition advice aimed at promoting healthy dietary choices for life-long health and reducing risk of chronic diseases. With the advancing age of the population, the 2010 Dietary Guidelines confront increasing risks for age-related problems of obesity, osteoporosis, type 2 diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome, heart disease, and sarcopenia. New research demonstrates that the meal distribution and amount of protein are important in maintaining body composition, bone health and glucose homeostasis. This editorial reviews the benefits of dietary protein for adult health, addresses omissions in current nutrition guidelines, and offers concepts for improving the Dietary Guidelines.

  13. Overview of guidelines on breast screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl Jørgensen, Karsten; Kalager, Mette; Barratt, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Updated guidelines on breast cancer screening have been published by several major organisations over the past five years. Recommendations vary regarding both age range, screening interval, and even on whether breast screening should be offered at all. The variation between recommendations reflects....... The estimates vary according to the methodology of the randomised trials, and the design of the observational studies. Guideline recommendations reflect the choice of evidence informing them. While there are well-developed tools to deal with randomised trials in guideline work, these are not always used......, or they may not be followed as recommended. Further, results of trials performed decades ago may no longer be applicable. For observational studies, the framework for inclusion in guidelines is not similarly well-developed and there are methodological concerns specific to screening interventions...

  14. Japanese Guideline for Childhood Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Nishimuta

    2011-01-01

    JAGL differs from the Global Initiative for Asthma Guideline (GINA in that the former emphasizes long-term management of childhood asthma based on asthma severity and early diagnosis and intervention at <2 years and 2–5 years of age. However, a management method, including step-up or step-down of long-term management agents based on the status of asthma symptoms, is easy to understand and thus JAGL is suitable for routine medical treatment. JAGL also introduced treatment and management using a control test for children, recommending treatment and management aimed at complete control through avoiding exacerbation factors and appropriate use of antiinflammatory agents.

  15. Parenting Children with Developmental Delays: The Role of Positive Beliefs

    OpenAIRE

    PACZKOWSKI, EMILIE; BAKER, BRUCE L.

    2008-01-01

    Parents of children with developmental delays consistently report higher levels of child behavior problems and also parenting stress than parents of typically developing children. This study examined how mothers' positive beliefs influence the relation between children's behavior problems and mothers' parenting stress among families of children who are developmentally delayed (DD: n = 72) or typically developing (TD: n = 95) and assessed at ages 3, 5, and 7 years. Positive beliefs had a main ...

  16. EMI Messaging Guidelines

    CERN Document Server

    Cons, L.

    2011-01-01

    Guidelines for potential users of messaging within EMI. The goal is to provide enough practical information so that EMI product teams can start investigating whether using messaging in their products can be beneficial or not.

  17. London 2012 packaging guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    These guidelines are intended to provide supplemental advice to suppliers and licensees regarding the provisions of the LOCOG Sustainable Sourcing Code that relate to packaging design and materials selection.

  18. Curriculum Guidelines for Periodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Guidelines describe the interrelationships of this and other dental fields, give an overview of the curriculum and its primary educational objectives, and outline the suggested prerequisites, core content, specific behavioral objectives, sequencing, and faculty requirements. (MSE)

  19. Transparent Guideline Methodology Needed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidal, Ingeborg; Norén, Camilla; Mäkelä, Marjukka

    2013-01-01

    As part of learning at the Nordic Workshop of Evidence-based Medicine, we have read with interest the practice guidelines for central venous access, published in your Journal in 2012.1 We appraised the quality of this guideline using the checklist developed by The Evidence-Based Medicine Working ...... are based on best currently available evidence. Our concerns are in two main categories: the rigor of development, including methodology of searching, evaluating, and combining the evidence; and editorial independence, including funding and possible conflicts of interest....... Group.2 Similar criteria for guideline quality have been suggested elsewhere.3 Our conclusion was that this much needed guideline is currently unclear about several aspects of the methodology used in developing the recommendations. This means potential users cannot be certain that the recommendations...

  20. Adopting preoperative fasting guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Megan; Comrie, Rhonda

    2009-07-01

    In 1999, the American Society of Anesthesiologists adopted preoperative fasting guidelines to enhance the quality and efficiency of patient care. Guidelines suggest that healthy, non-pregnant patients should fast six hours from solids and two hours from liquids. Although these guidelines are in place, studies suggest that providers are still using the blanket statement "NPO after midnight" without regard to patient characteristics, the procedure, or the time of the procedure. Using theory to help change provider's beliefs may help make change more successful. Rogers' Theory of Diffusion of Innovations can assist in changing long-time practice by laying the groundwork for an analysis of the benefits and disadvantages of proposed changes, such as changes to fasting orders, while helping initiate local protocols instead of additional national guidelines.

  1. OCULAR DISORDERS IN CHILDREN WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meera Suresh Joshi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In India, an estimated 1.5-2.5% children below 2 years of age are developmentally delayed. A higher incidence of ocular disability is seen in these children, refractive errors and strabismus being most common. These can add to the overall burden of health as most of them have developmental comorbidities. The aim of the study is to study the ocular disorders in children with developmental delay. MATERIALS AND METHODS We studied 112 children between the 2-12 years of age diagnosed to have developmental delay. All the subjects underwent a detailed ophthalmic evaluation including visual acuity testing using Snellen’s charts (3m and 6m and Log MAR charts (recorded as per Snellen’s vision testing to maintain uniformity, cycloplegic refraction, torchlight and slit-lamp evaluation and dilated fundus examination. The data was tabulated and represented using bar diagrams, Pie charts and graphs. The results were expressed as percentages. Design-Cross-sectional, observational study. RESULTS 66 boys and 46 girls (total 112 were evaluated. The mean age of the study population was 7.8 years ± 2.4 SD. The aetiology of developmental delay was cerebral palsy (64%, Down syndrome (22%, autism (7%, intellectual disability (4.5% and 1 case each of congenital hypothyroidism and ataxia telangiectasia. The prevalence of ocular disorders was found to be 84.8%, which was slightly higher in girls (87% as compared to boys (83%. Refractive error (79.5% was the commonest ocular disorder followed by strabismus (46.4%. Astigmatism (44.6% was the commonest refractive error, which was divided into myopic astigmatism (19.6%, hyperopic astigmatism (13.8% and mixed astigmatism (11.2%. Simple hyperopia was seen in 21.9% subjects and simple myopia in 12.1%. Exotropia (52% was commoner than esotropia (48%. Other ocular abnormalities included optic atrophy, nystagmus, epicanthal folds, cataract, mongoloid slant, ptosis, telecanthus, conjunctival telangiectasia and

  2. OSART guidelines. 1992 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The IAEA Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) Guidelines provide overall guidance for the experts to ensure the consistency and comprehensiveness of the operational safety review. Specific guidelines are provided as a guide for the systematic review in the following areas important to operational safety: management, organization and administration, training and qualification, operations, maintenance, technical support, radiation protection, chemistry, emergency planning and preparedness. Additional guidance and reference material has been prepared by the IAEA to complement the expertise of the OSART members

  3. Electrical safety guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Electrical Safety Guidelines prescribes the DOE safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety standards and guidance for DOE installations in order to affect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of these guidelines are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

  4. Ecologo guidelines spark disagreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    Defining what renewable means has been a challenge, but the authors of a new set of guidelines for the Ecologo certification of renewable low-impact electrcity expect after some delay to have the new rules on the street by March 2000.. There was contention in developing the guideline, according to Terra Choice Environmental Services, the company that created and applied criteria for Ecologo certification under the federal government's Environmetal Choice Program. Interim guidleines were developed and have been in place for renewable power since 1996, and have since been used to certify wood-waste biomass, landfill gas, small hydro and wind power plants, in addition to three green power marketing programs. The first draft of the revised guidelines was issued in March. It was one of the harder guidelines to have been worked on because Canadian power producers did not readily agree on what should qualify as renewable, particularly around the whole area of hydro. While small run-of-river hydro plants will continue to fit within the Ecologo guidelines, larger projects will not. Wind power producers are relatively happy with the latest version of TerraChoice's draft guidelines, released at the end of November. A significant revision of the original rules is a limit on the amount of older generation green power marketers who want to promote the green power Ecologo electricity can sell. At least 50% of their capacity must originate from plants installed after January 1, 1991

  5. Web Accessibility and Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Simon; Yesilada, Yeliz

    Access to, and movement around, complex online environments, of which the World Wide Web (Web) is the most popular example, has long been considered an important and major issue in the Web design and usability field. The commonly used slang phrase ‘surfing the Web’ implies rapid and free access, pointing to its importance among designers and users alike. It has also been long established that this potentially complex and difficult access is further complicated, and becomes neither rapid nor free, if the user is disabled. There are millions of people who have disabilities that affect their use of the Web. Web accessibility aims to help these people to perceive, understand, navigate, and interact with, as well as contribute to, the Web, and thereby the society in general. This accessibility is, in part, facilitated by the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) currently moving from version one to two. These guidelines are intended to encourage designers to make sure their sites conform to specifications, and in that conformance enable the assistive technologies of disabled users to better interact with the page content. In this way, it was hoped that accessibility could be supported. While this is in part true, guidelines do not solve all problems and the new WCAG version two guidelines are surrounded by controversy and intrigue. This chapter aims to establish the published literature related to Web accessibility and Web accessibility guidelines, and discuss limitations of the current guidelines and future directions.

  6. Incidence of hypoglycemia in newborns at risk and an audit of the 2011 American academy of pediatrics guideline for hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosagasi, Nihan Hilal; Aydin, Mustafa; Zenciroglu, Aysegul; Ustun, Nuran; Beken, Serdar

    2017-11-15

    Hypoglycemia is low blood glucose level that may negatively affect neurological and developmental prognosis. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), Committee on Fetus and Newborn defined the safe glucose concentrations in the 2011 guideline for newborns at risk for hypoglycemia. This study aimed to investigate the incidence and associated risk factors for hypoglycemia in newborn infants having risk and to assess compliance with the AAP guideline. According to 2011 AAP guideline for hypoglycemia, the newborns at risk for hypoglycemia included in this study were divided to four groups [infant of diabetic mother (IDM), large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants, small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants, and late preterm infants (LPI)]. Of the 207 newborn infants, there were 12 cases in IDM group (5.7%), 79 cases in LGA group (38.1%), 66 cases in SGA group (31.8%) and 50 cases in LPI group (24.1%). The incidences of hypoglycemia in these four groups were 2 (16.6%), 10 (12.7%), 8 (12.2%) and 17 (34%), respectively. Although the gender, delivery method, birth weight and 5-min Apgar score at 5-min were not found to be associated with hypoglycemia (P > 0.05), lower gestational age was determined to be associated with higher incidence of hypoglycemia (P = 0.02). Median first feeding time was 55 min and time between first nutrition and blood glucose measurement was 30 min in all cases. Highest risk for hypoglycemia in early postnatal period was present especially in LPI group. Our compliance levels with the AAP guideline was found to be satisfactory. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Attention Dysfunction Subtypes of Developmental Dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Lewandowska, Monika; Milner, Rafał; Ganc, Małgorzata; Włodarczyk, Elżbieta; Skarżyński, Henryk

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies indicate that many different aspects of attention are impaired in children diagnosed with developmental dyslexia (DD). The objective of the present study was to identify cognitive profiles of DD on the basis of attentional test performance. Material/Methods 78 children with DD (30 girls, 48 boys, mean age of 12 years ±8 months) and 32 age- and sex-matched non-dyslexic children (14 girls, 18 boys) were examined using a battery of standardized tests of reading, phono...

  8. Topographic processing in developmental prosopagnosia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klargaard, Solja K.; Starrfelt, Randi; Petersen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    deficit in visual processing or visual short-term memory. Interestingly, a classical dissociation could be demonstrated between impaired face memory and preserved topographic memory in two developmental prosopagnosics. We conclude that impairments in topographic memory tend to co-occur with developmental......Anecdotal evidence suggests a relation between impaired spatial (navigational) processing and developmental prosopagnosia. To address this formally, we tested two aspects of topographic processing – that is, perception and memory of mountain landscapes shown from different viewpoints. Participants...

  9. DEVELOPMENTAL TAXONOMY OF CONDUCT DISORDER

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Kostić; Milkica Nešić; Jasminka Marković; Miodrag Stanković

    2015-01-01

    Conduct disorder is a heterogeneous disorder in terms of etiology, course and prognosis, and currently, there is no singular model that would describe the development of the disorder. The results of empirical research on males confirm this heterogeneity, as they point out to two possible developmental pathways: childhood-onset and adolescentonset type. This paper presents the basic elements of developmental taxonomic theory which argues that there are two different developmental pathways to c...

  10. Centre-level variation in outcomes and treatment for otitis media with effusion and hearing loss and the association of hearing loss with developmental outcomes at ages 5 and 7 years in children with non-syndromic unilateral cleft lip and palate: The Cleft Care UK study. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, A; Wills, A K; Mahmoud, O; Sell, D; Waylen, A; Grewal, S; Sandy, J R; Ness, A R

    2017-06-01

    To explore centre-level variation in otitis media with effusion (OME), hearing loss and treatments in children in Cleft Care UK (CCUK) and to examine the association between OME, hearing loss and developmental outcomes at 5 and 7 years. Two hundred and sixty-eight 5-year-old British children with non-syndromic unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) recruited to CCUK. Children had air and bone conduction audiometry at age 5. Information on grommet and hearing aid treatment was obtained from parental questionnaire and medical notes. Hearing loss at age 5 was defined as >20 dB in the better ear and history of OME and hearing loss was determined from past treatment. Children with sensorineural hearing loss were excluded. Associations were examined with speech, behaviour and self-confidence at age 5 and educational attainment at age 7. Centre variation was examined using hierarchical models and associations between hearing variables and developmental outcomes were examined using logistic regression. There was centre-level variation in early grommet placement (variance partition coefficient (VPC) 18%, P=.001) and fitting of hearing aids (VPC 8%, P=.03). A history of OME and hearing loss was associated with poor intelligibility of speech (adjusted odds ratio=2.87, 95% CI 1.42-5.77) and aspects of educational attainment. Hearing loss is an important determinant of poor speech and treatment variation across centres suggest management of OME and hearing loss could be improved. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Overweight and Obesity among Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Sukanya; Small, Jacqueline; Baur, Louise A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children with developmental disabilities attending a metropolitan Diagnosis and Assessment Service. Method: A retrospective chart review was carried out for 98 children (67 male) aged 2-18 years. Data on age, sex, weight, height, and severity of…

  12. Mapping the Developmental Constraints on Working Memory Span Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Donna M.; Jarrold, Christopher; Baddeley, Alan D.; Gunn, Deborah M.; Leigh, Eleanor

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the constraints underlying developmental improvements in complex working memory span performance among 120 children of between 6 and 10 years of age. Independent measures of processing efficiency, storage capacity, rehearsal speed, and basic speed of processing were assessed to determine their contribution to age-related…

  13. Developmental plasticity: Friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Karin B

    2017-01-01

    Developmental plasticity - the concept that adaptation to changing and unfavorable environmental conditions are possible but may come at the price of compromised health potentials - has evolutionary grounding as it facilitates survival but dissents with fundamental evolutionary principles in that it may advance the lesser fit. It is an important cornerstone of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Unlike evolutionary adaptation developmental plasticity may be short-lived and restricted to one or few generations and inheritance is uncertain. Potential mechanisms include epigenetic modifications adopted in utero which may not transmit to the next generation; future insights may allow adjustments of the outcomes of developmental plasticity.

  14. Qualitative methodology in developmental psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin; Mey, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative methodology presently is gaining increasing recognition in developmental psychology. Although the founders of developmental psychology to a large extent already used qualitative procedures, the field was long dominated by a (post) positivistic quantitative paradigm. The increasing rec...... in qualitative research offers a promising avenue to advance the field in this direction.......Qualitative methodology presently is gaining increasing recognition in developmental psychology. Although the founders of developmental psychology to a large extent already used qualitative procedures, the field was long dominated by a (post) positivistic quantitative paradigm. The increasing...

  15. Building a developmental toxicity ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Nancy; Boobis, Alan; Burgoon, Lyle; Carney, Edward; Currie, Richard; Fritsche, Ellen; Knudsen, Thomas; Laffont, Madeleine; Piersma, Aldert H; Poole, Alan; Schneider, Steffen; Daston, George

    2018-04-03

    As more information is generated about modes of action for developmental toxicity and more data are generated using high-throughput and high-content technologies, it is becoming necessary to organize that information. This report discussed the need for a systematic representation of knowledge about developmental toxicity (i.e., an ontology) and proposes a method to build one based on knowledge of developmental biology and mode of action/ adverse outcome pathways in developmental toxicity. This report is the result of a consensus working group developing a plan to create an ontology for developmental toxicity that spans multiple levels of biological organization. This report provide a description of some of the challenges in building a developmental toxicity ontology and outlines a proposed methodology to meet those challenges. As the ontology is built on currently available web-based resources, a review of these resources is provided. Case studies on one of the most well-understood morphogens and developmental toxicants, retinoic acid, are presented as examples of how such an ontology might be developed. This report outlines an approach to construct a developmental toxicity ontology. Such an ontology will facilitate computer-based prediction of substances likely to induce human developmental toxicity. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Developmental immunotoxicology of lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietert, Rodney R.; Lee, Ji-Eun; Hussain, Irshad; Piepenbrink, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The heavy metal, lead, is a known developmental immunotoxicant that has been shown to produce immune alterations in humans as well as other species. Unlike many compounds that exert adverse immune effects, lead exposure at low to moderate levels does not produce widespread loss of immune cells. In contrast, changes resulting from lead exposure are subtle at the immune cell population level but, nevertheless, can be functionally dramatic. A hallmark of lead-induced immunotoxicity is a pronounced shift in the balance in T helper cell function toward T helper 2 responses at the expense of T helper 1 functions. This bias alters the nature and range of immune responses that can be produced thereby influencing host susceptibility to various diseases. Immunotoxic responses to lead appear to differ across life stages not only quantitatively with regard to dose response, but also qualitatively in terms of the spectrum of immune alterations. Experimental studies in several lab animal species suggest the latter stages of gestation are a period of considerable sensitivity for lead-induced immunotoxicity. This review describes the basic characteristics of lead-induced immunotoxicity emphasizing experimental animal results. It also provides a framework for the consideration of toxicant exposure effects across life stages. The existence of and probable basis for developmental windows of immune hyper-susceptibility are presented. Finally, the potential for lead to serve as a perinatal risk factor for childhood asthma as well as other diseases is considered

  17. A taxometric investigation of developmental dyslexia subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Beth A; Wolf, Maryanne; Lovett, Maureen W

    2012-02-01

    Long-standing issues with the conceptualization, identification and subtyping of developmental dyslexia persist. This study takes an alternative approach to examine the heterogeneity of developmental dyslexia using taxometric classification techniques. These methods were used with a large sample of 671 children ages 6-8 who were diagnosed with severe reading disorders. Latent characteristics of the sample are assessed in regard to posited subtypes with phonological deficits and naming speed deficits, thus extending prior work by addressing whether these deficits embody separate classes of individuals. Findings support separate taxa of dyslexia with and without phonological deficits. Different latent structure for naming speed deficits was found depending on the definitional criterion used to define dyslexia. Non-phonologically based forms of dyslexia showed particular difficulty with naming speed and reading fluency. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. I. DEVELOPMENTAL METHODOLOGY AS A CENTRAL SUBDISCIPLINE OF DEVELOPMENTAL SCIENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Noel A

    2017-06-01

    This first chapter introduces the main goals of the monograph and previews the remaining chapters. The goals of this monograph are to provide summaries of our current understanding of advanced developmental methodologies, provide information that can advance our understanding of human development, identify shortcomings in our understanding of developmental methodology, and serve as a flagpost for organizing developmental methodology as a subdiscipline within the broader field of developmental science. The remaining chapters in this monograph address issues in design (sampling and big data), longitudinal data analysis, and issues of replication and research accumulation. The final chapter describes the history of developmental methodology, considers how the previous chapters in this monograph fit within this subdiscipline, and offers recommendations for further advancement. © 2017 The Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  19. Constructivist developmental theory is needed in developmental neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsalidou, Marie; Pascual-Leone, Juan

    2016-12-01

    Neuroscience techniques provide an open window previously unavailable to the origin of thoughts and actions in children. Developmental cognitive neuroscience is booming, and knowledge from human brain mapping is finding its way into education and pediatric practice. Promises of application in developmental cognitive neuroscience rests however on better theory-guided data interpretation. Massive amounts of neuroimaging data from children are being processed, yet published studies often do not frame their work within developmental models—in detriment, we believe, to progress in this field. Here we describe some core challenges in interpreting the data from developmental cognitive neuroscience, and advocate the use of constructivist developmental theories of human cognition with a neuroscience interpretation.

  20. Physicians' preferences for asthma guidelines implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Koo; Kim, Byung-Keun; Kim, Tae-Wan; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Kang, Hye-Ryun; Park, Heung-Woo; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Sun-Sin; Min, Kyung-Up; Kim, You-Young; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2010-10-01

    Patient care based on asthma guidelines is cost-effective and leads to improved treatment outcomes. However, ineffective implementation strategies interfere with the use of these recommendations in clinical practice. This study investigated physicians' preferences for asthma guidelines, including content, supporting evidence, learning strategies, format, and placement in the clinical workplace. We obtained information through a questionnaire survey. The questionnaire was distributed to physicians attending continuing medical education courses and sent to other physicians by airmail, e-mail, and facsimile. A total of 183 physicians responded (male to female ratio, 2.3:1; mean age, 40.4±9.9 years); 89.9% of respondents were internists or pediatricians, and 51.7% were primary care physicians. Physicians preferred information that described asthma medications, classified the disease according to severity and level of control, and provided methods of evaluation/treatment/monitoring and management of acute exacerbation. The most effective strategies for encouraging the use of the guidelines were through continuing medical education and discussions with colleagues. Physicians required supporting evidence in the form of randomized controlled trials and expert consensus. They preferred that the guidelines be presented as algorithms or flow charts/flow diagrams on plastic sheets, pocket cards, or in electronic medical records. This study identified the items of the asthma guidelines preferred by physicians in Korea. Asthma guidelines with physicians' preferences would encourage their implementation in clinical practice.

  1. The Menopausal Transition: Guidelines for Researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Phyllis Kernoff; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Research guidelines are presented to encourage sound research on the menopausal transition. Included is a review of current literature covering three aspects of menopausal transition: age span, changes in menstrual bleeding during the transition, and other psychological and somatic changes during premenopausal stages. (IAH)

  2. Design patterns for modelling guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serban, Radu; Ten Teije, Annette; Marcos, Mar; Polo-Conde, Cristina; Rosenbrand, Kitty C J G M; Wittenberg, Jolanda; van Croonenborg, Joyce

    2005-01-01

    It is by now widely accepted that medical guidelines can help to significantly improve the quality of medical care. Unfortunately, constructing the required medical guidelines is a very labour intensive and costly process. The cost of guideline construction would decrease if guidelines could be

  3. Development of cancer treatment guidelines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Krystyna Kiel

    2011-05-26

    May 26, 2011 ... KEYWORDS. Cancer;. Therapy;. Guidelines. Contents. 1. Why develop guidelines? ... Widely available guideline resources in cancer care. ... The use of guidelines in medicine has a long history. Many .... She has a negative family history. ... The patient has 1 cm grade 3 infiltrating ductal carcinoma.

  4. Japanese Guideline for Atopic Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Katayama

    2011-01-01

    The basics of treatment discussed in this guideline are based on the “Guidelines for the Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis 2008” prepared by the Health and Labour Sciences Research and the “Guidelines for the Management of Atopic Dermatitis 2009 (ADGL2009” prepared by the Atopic Dermatitis Guidelines Advisory Committee, Japanese Society of Allergology in principle.

  5. BWR emergency procedure guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, J.S.; Karner, E.F.; Stratman, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter describes plans for dealing with reactor accidents developed by the Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) Owners' Group in response to post-Three Mile Island US NRC requirements. The devised Emergency Procedure Guidelines (EPGs), applicable to all BWRs, are symptom-based rather than event-based. According to the EPGs, the operator does not need to identify what event is occurring in the plant in order to decide what action to take, but need only observe the symptoms (values and trends of key control parameters) which exist and take appropriate action to control these symptoms. The original objective was to provide reactor operator guidance in responding to a small break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), but subsequent revisions have included other types of reactor accidents. Topics considered include the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) control guideline, the primary containment control guideline, the secondary containment control guideline, the radioactivity release control guideline, multiple failures vs. the design basis, safe limits vs. technical specifications, the technical status, licensing, and implementation. The EPGs are based upon maintaining both adequate core cooling and primary containment integrity

  6. Are BTS guidelines followed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    In 1993, the British Thoracic Society (BTS) issued guidelines for the management of spontaneous pneumothorax. The study's aim was to determine the level of adherence to these guidelines at a London teaching hospital. A retrospective case note audit of 59 episodes was performed. In patients undergoing intervention, the initial procedure was simple aspiration in 32 (73 per cent) and chest tube insertion in 12 (27 per cent) cases, contrasting with the BTS recommendation that aspiration should be attempted first in all such patients. Simple aspiration was successful on 34 per cent of occasions. Successful aspiration was associated with a significantly shorter hospital stay (median 3, range 1-11 days) than either failed aspiration (7, 3-66 days) or chest tube insertion without aspiration (9, 3-16 days). Other areas where practice differed from the BTS guidelines were clamping of chest tubes and use of a pursestring suture for wound closure. A follow up questionnaire suggested a lack of familiarity with the guidelines. These findings indicate that current management of spontaneous pneumothorax deviates from the BTS guidelines in potentially important respects.

  7. Developmental trajectory of time perspective: From children to older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Liu, Lu-Lu; Cui, Ji-Fang; Chen, Xing-Jie; Wang, Ya

    2016-12-01

    Time perspective is a fundamental dimension of the psychological time construct, with a pervasive and powerful influence on human behavior. However, the developmental trajectory of time perspective across a human lifespan remains unclear. The current study aimed to portray the developmental trajectory of all dimensions of time perspectives from children to older adults in a large sample. A total of 1,901 individuals (aged 9-84 years) completed measures of time perspective. They were then divided into five age groups: children, teenagers, young adults, middle-aged adults, and older adults. Results suggested that each time perspective showed a unique developmental pattern across the lifespan. Moreover, perceived economic situation and education were related to some dimensions of time perspective. © 2016 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Developmentally Appropriate Peace Education Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewsader, Joellen; Myers-Walls, Judith A.

    2017-01-01

    Peace education has been offered to children for decades, but those curricula have been only minimally guided by children's developmental stages and needs. In this article, the authors apply their research on children's developmental understanding of peace along with peace education principles and Vygotsky's sociocultural theory to present…

  9. Developmental Kindergarten Program Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, George T.; Cushing, Katherine S.

    The evaluation of the Developmental Kindergarten (DK) Program at the Harrison School District #2, Colorado Springs, Colorado, involved pre- and post-testing of student academic gains and interviewing of principals and teachers. The program aimed to provide developmentally appropriate activities for students believed to be "at risk" of…

  10. Developmental colour agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zandvoort, Martine J E; Nijboer, Tanja C W; de Haan, Edward

    2007-08-01

    Colour agnosia concerns the inability to recognise colours despite intact colour perception, semantic memory for colour information, and colour naming. Patients with selective colour agnosia have been described and the deficit is associated with left hemisphere damage. Here we report a case study of a 43-year-old man who was referred to us with a stroke in his right cerebellar hemisphere. During the standard assessment it transpired that he was unable to name coloured patches. Detailed assessment of his colour processing showed that he suffers from a selective colour agnosia. As he claimed to have had this problem all his life, and the fact that the infratentorial infarct that he had incurred was in an area far away from the brain structures that are known to be involved in colour processing, we suggest that he is the first reported case of developmental colour agnosia.

  11. as a food-based dietary guideline for South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-04-08

    Apr 8, 2013 ... Food-Based Dietary Guidelines for South Africa: “Enjoy a variety of foods”: as a food-based dietary guideline. 13. 2013 .... of age and culture. She further .... on the French national food consumption study estimated the cost of ...

  12. [Neurotransmission in developmental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yoshihiro

    2008-11-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) is a heterogeneous developmental disorder with an etiology that is not fully understood. AD/HD has been considered to occur due to a disturbance in cathecholaminergic neurotransmission, with particular emphasis on dopamine. The neurotransmission of dopamine in subcortical regions such as the basal ganglia and limbic areas is synaptic; on the other hand, dopamine neurotransmission in the frontal cortex is quite different, because there are very few dopamine transporters (DAT) in the frontal cortex that allow dopamine to diffuse away from the dopamine synapse ("volume transmission"). It is now clear that noradrenergic neurons play a key regulatory role in dopaminergic function in the frontal cortex. Furthermore, serotonergic neurons exert an inhibitory effect on midbrain dopamine cell bodies, and they have an influence on dopamine release in terminal regions. There is accumulating neurobiological evidence pointing toward a role of the serotonin system in AD/HD. The etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is still unclear, but information from genetics, neuropathology, brain imaging, and basic neuroscience has provided insights into the understanding of this developmental disorder. In addition to abnormal circuitry in specific limbic and neocortical areas of the cerebral cortex, impairments in brainstem, cerebellar, thalamic, and basal ganglia connections have been reported. Numerous studies have pointed to abnormalities in serotonin and glutamate neurotransmission. Three important aspects involved in the pathophysiology of ASD have been proposed. The first is cell migration, the second is unbalanced excitatory-inhibitory networks, and the third is synapse formation and pruning, the key factors being reelin, neurexin, and neuroligin. Serotonin is considered to play an important role in all of these aspects of the pathophysiology of ASD. Finally, I would like to emphasize that it is crucial in the field of child

  13. 236 children with developmental hydrocephalus: causes and clinical consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Hannah M; Ishak, Gisele E; Rue, Tessa C; Dempsey, Jennifer C; Browd, Samuel R; Millen, Kathleen J; Doherty, Dan; Dobyns, William B

    2016-01-01

    Few systematic assessments of developmental forms of hydrocephalus exist. We reviewed MRIs and clinical records of patients with infancy-onset hydrocephalus. Among 411 infants, 236 had hydrocephalus with no recognizable extrinsic cause. These children were assigned to one of five subtypes and compared on the basis of clinical characteristics, developmental and surgical outcomes. At an average age of 5.3 years, 72% of children were walking independently and 87% could eat by mouth. 18% had epilepsy. Distinct patterns of associated malformations and syndromes were observed within each subtype. On average, children with aqueductal obstruction, cysts and encephaloceles had worse clinical outcomes than those with other forms of developmental hydrocephalus. 53% of surgically-treated patients experienced at least one shunt failure, but hydrocephalus associated with posterior fossa crowding required fewer shunt revisions. We conclude that each subtype of developmental hydrocephalus is associated with distinct clinical characteristics, syndromology, and outcomes, suggesting differences in underlying mechanisms. PMID:26184484

  14. OSART guidelines. 1994 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    These guidelines have been prepared to provide a basic structure and common reference both across the various areas covered by an OSART mission and across all the missions in the programme. As such, they are addressed, principally, to the team members of OSART missions but they will also provide guidance to a host nuclear plant preparing to receive a mission. The guidelines are intended to help each expert to formulate his review in the light of this own experience. They are not all inclusive and should not limit the expert's investigations, but are better considered as illustrating the adequate requirements for his review

  15. Data Qualification guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, T.B.; Shine, E.P.

    1992-01-01

    Data Qualification (DQ) is a formal, technical process whose objective is to affirm that experimental data are suitable for their intended use. Although it is not possible to develop a fixed recipe for the DQ process to cover all test situations, these general guidelines have been developed for the Nuclear Engineering Section to establish a framework for qualifying data from steady-state processing. These guidelines outline the role of the DQ team providing insight into the planning and conducting of the DQ process

  16. Strategy Guideline: Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, C.; Hunt, A.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  17. Strategy Guideline. Demonstration Home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A.; Savage, C.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  18. Developmental Screening Disparities for Languages Other than English and Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuti Rodrigues, Kristine; Hambidge, Simon J; Dickinson, Miriam; Richardson, Douglas B; Davidson, Arthur J

    2016-01-01

    Limited English proficiency (LEP) is a known barrier to preventive care. Children from families with LEP face socioeconomic circumstances associated with increased odds of developmental delays and decreased participation in early care and education programs. Little is known about developmental surveillance and screening for children from families who speak languages other than English and Spanish. We sought to compare developmental surveillance and screening at well-child visits (WCVs) by preferred parental language. Using a retrospective cohort (n = 15,320) of children aged 8 to 40 months with ≥2 WCVs from January 1, 2006, to July 1, 2010, in a community health system, 450 children from 3 language groups (150 English, 150 Spanish, and 150 non-English, non-Spanish) were randomly selected. Chart review assessed 2 primary outcomes, developmental surveillance at 100% of WCVs and screened with a standardized developmental screening tool, and also determined whether children were referred for diagnostic developmental evaluation. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. Compared to the English-speaking group, the non-English, non-Spanish group had lower odds of receiving developmental surveillance at 100% of WCVs (odds ratio, 0.3; 95% confidence interval, 0.2, 0.5) and of being screened with a standardized developmental screening tool (odds ratio, 0.1; 95% confidence interval, 0.1, 0.2). There were no differences between the English- and Spanish-speaking groups. Though underpowered, no differences were found for referral. Improved developmental surveillance and screening are needed for children from families who speak languages other than English and Spanish. Lack of statistically significant differences between English- and Spanish-speaking groups suggests that improved translation and interpretation resources may decrease disparities. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Role of toys in the development and rehabilitation of children with developmental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Mikołajewska

    2015-04-01

    Emilia Mikołajewska Rehabilitation Clinic Military Clinical Hospital No. 10 and Polyclinic Bydgoszcz, Poland e-mail: e.mikolajewska@wp.pl, emiliam@cm.umk.pl www: http://emikolajewska.netstrefa.eu   Keywords: rehabilitation; physiotherapy; developmental disorders; toy use; parent–child interaction; patient-therapist relationship.   Abstract   Developmental disorders (called also developmental disabilities are disorders beginning before age 18 and characterized by delay of developmental skills expected to achieve in particular age or developmental stage. Every effort toward new ways of intervention is precious, and achievement of the therapeutical success still constitutes tru challenge. This study aims at assessment how toys can be incorporated into principles of the eclectic approach toward therapy of children with developmental disabilities.

  20. LEARNING AND MEMORY TESTS IN DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY TESTING: A CROSS-LABORATORY COMPARISON OF CONTROL DATA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPA Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Study Test Guideline (OPPTS 870.6300) calls for functional tests to assess the impact of chemicals on cognitive function in offspring following maternal exposure. A test of associative learning and memory is to be conducted around th...

  1. Food preferences in young Dutch children and recommendations for feeding intervention in developmental disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MSc Stijn Deckers; Jan J.W. van der Burg; Jan M.H. de Moor

    2011-01-01

    Total and chronic food refusal (i.e., the refusal of all types of food during a prolonged period) in young children with developmental disabilities can be treated effectively using a combination of environmental interventions. However, no guidelines for the selection of food items to offer the child

  2. "We Want Respect": Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Address Respect in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Katherine Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Respect is central to ethical guidelines for research. The scientific community has long debated, and at times disagreed on, how to demonstrate respect in research with adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. To illuminate the voices of those most affected, the author studies the views of adults with intellectual and developmental…

  3. Cervical and Breast Cancer-Screening Knowledge of Women with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Susan L.; Swaine, Jamie G.; Luken, Karen; Rose, Roderick A.; Dababnah, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Women with developmental disabilities are significantly less likely than women without disabilities to receive cervical and breast cancer screening according to clinical guidelines. The reasons for this gap are not understood. The present study examined the extent of women's knowledge about cervical and breast cancer screening, with the intention…

  4. Instructional Guidelines. Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, H. L.; Doshier, Dale

    Using the standards of the American Welding Society and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, this welding instructional guidelines manual presents a course of study in accordance with the current practices in industry. Intended for use in welding programs now practiced within the Federal Prison System, the phases of the program are…

  5. pre-art guidelines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    2004-11-01

    Nov 1, 2004 ... As these guidelines address pre-ART issues, only conditions that occur at ... All HIV-infected adults who are immunosuppressed, i.e. ... therefore recommended that HIV-infected health care ... vaccine in severely immunosuppressed persons, i.e. those ... with residual insecticides, the use of larvicides, and.

  6. Curricular Guidelines for Endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Guidelines developed by the Section on Endodontics of the American Association of Dental Schools for use by educational institutions as curriculum development aids are provided. Endodontics is that branch of dentistry dealing with diagnosis and treatment of oral conditions that arise as a result of pathoses of dental pulp. (MLW)

  7. Evidence-based guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wattjes, Mike P; Rovira, Àlex; Miller, David

    2015-01-01

    . This use of MRI can help predict treatment response and assess the efficacy and safety of new therapies. In the second part of the MAGNIMS (Magnetic Resonance Imaging in MS) network's guidelines on the use of MRI in MS, we focus on the implementation of this technique in prognostic and monitoring tasks. We...

  8. Guidelines for Authors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Please follow the instructions given below while preparing the manuscript. Articles which do not conform to the guidelines will not be considered. Authors are encouraged to submit their article in ASCII/MS Word/Latex version in a CD or by email to resonanc@ias.ernet.in. Title: Authors are requested to provide a) first title ...

  9. Formalization of Medical Guidelines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peleška, Jan; Anger, Z.; Buchtela, David; Šebesta, K.; Tomečková, Marie; Veselý, Arnošt; Zvára, K.; Zvárová, Jana

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 1, - (2005), s. 133-141 ISSN 1801-5603 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET200300413 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : GLIF model * formalization of guidelines * prevention of cardiovascular diseases Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  10. Record Keeping Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2007

    2007-01-01

    These guidelines are designed to educate psychologists and provide a framework for making decisions regarding professional record keeping. State and federal laws, as well as the American Psychological Association's "Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct," generally require maintenance of appropriate records of psychological…

  11. GRADE Equity Guidelines 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welch, Vivian A; Akl, Elie A; Pottie, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to describe a conceptual framework for how to consider health equity in the GRADE (Grading Recommendations Assessment and Development Evidence) guideline development process. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Consensus-based guidance developed by the GRADE working grou...

  12. Field Campaign Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, J. W. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Chapman, L. A. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This document establishes a common set of guidelines for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility for planning, executing, and closing out field campaigns. The steps that guide individual field campaigns are described in the Field Campaign Tracking System and are specifically tailored to meet the scope of each field campaign.

  13. Curricular Guidelines for Neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Presented are the curricular guidelines for Neuroanatomy developed by the Section on Anatomical Sciences of the American Association of Dental Schools for use by individual educational institutions as curriculum development aids. Included are recommendations for primary educational goals, prerequisites, scope, content, behavioral objectives,…

  14. Space Guidelines for Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Coordinating Committee for Higher Education, Madison.

    The following guidelines are recommended: stack space--for each 10 volumes, one square foot of space; reading room--25 square feet per station x 20% of the total undergraduate population; carrel space--25% of the graduate enrollment x 45 square feet; office and auxilliary space--135 square feet x full time equivalent staff. (NI)

  15. Guidelines on testicular cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Peter; Albrecht, Walter; Algaba, Ferran; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Cohn-Cedermark, Gabriella; Horwich, Alan; Klepp, Olbjoern; Laguna, M. Pilar; Pizzocaro, Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    To up-date the 2001 version of the EAU testicular cancer guidelines. A non-structured literature review until January 2005 using the MEDLINE database has been performed. Literature has been classified according to evidence-based medicine levels. Testicular cancer is a highly curable disease.

  16. Guidelines for Urban Labs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholl, Christian; Agger Eriksen, Mette; Baerten, Nik

    2017-01-01

    urban lab initiatives from five different European cities: Antwerp (B), Graz and Leoben (A), Maastricht (NL) and Malmö (S). We do not pretend that these guidelines touch upon all possible challenges an urban lab may be confronted with, but we have incorporated all those we encountered in our...

  17. Study on frequency of dental developmental alterations in a MEXICAN school-based population

    OpenAIRE

    Ledesma Montes, Constantino; Garcés Ortíz, Maricela; Salcido García, Juan Francisco; Hernández Flores, Florentino

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to know the distribution of dental developmental alterations in the population requesting stomatological attention at the Admission and Diagnosis Clinic of our institution in Mexico City. Material and Methods We reviewed the archives and selected those files with developmental dental alterations. Analyzed data were diagnoses, age, gender, location and number of involved teeth. Results Of the 3.522 patients reviewed, 179 (5.1%) harbored 394 developmental de...

  18. Attentional networks in developmental dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henik Avishai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very little is known about attention deficits in developmental dyscalculia, hence, this study was designed to provide the missing information. We examined attention abilities of participants suffering from developmental dyscalculia using the attention networks test - interactions. This test was designed to examine three different attention networks--executive function, orienting and alerting--and the interactions between them. Methods Fourteen university students that were diagnosed as suffering from developmental dyscalculia--intelligence and reading abilities in the normal range and no indication of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder--and 14 matched controls were tested using the attention networks test - interactions. All participants were given preliminary tests to measure mathematical abilities, reading, attention and intelligence. Results The results revealed deficits in the alerting network--a larger alerting effect--and in the executive function networks--a larger congruity effect in developmental dyscalculia participants. The interaction between the alerting and executive function networks was also modulated by group. In addition, developmental dyscalculia participants were slower to respond in the non-cued conditions. Conclusions These results imply specific attentional deficits in pure developmental dyscalculia. Namely, those with developmental dyscalculia seem to be deficient in the executive function and alertness networks. They suffer from difficulty in recruiting attention, in addition to the deficits in numerical processing.

  19. Attentional networks in developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askenazi, Sarit; Henik, Avishai

    2010-01-07

    Very little is known about attention deficits in developmental dyscalculia, hence, this study was designed to provide the missing information. We examined attention abilities of participants suffering from developmental dyscalculia using the attention networks test - interactions. This test was designed to examine three different attention networks--executive function, orienting and alerting--and the interactions between them. Fourteen university students that were diagnosed as suffering from developmental dyscalculia--intelligence and reading abilities in the normal range and no indication of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder--and 14 matched controls were tested using the attention networks test-interactions. All participants were given preliminary tests to measure mathematical abilities, reading, attention and intelligence. The results revealed deficits in the alerting network--a larger alerting effect--and in the executive function networks--a larger congruity effect in developmental dyscalculia participants. The interaction between the alerting and executive function networks was also modulated by group. In addition, developmental dyscalculia participants were slower to respond in the non-cued conditions. These results imply specific attentional deficits in pure developmental dyscalculia. Namely, those with developmental dyscalculia seem to be deficient in the executive function and alertness networks. They suffer from difficulty in recruiting attention, in addition to the deficits in numerical processing.

  20. Xeroderma pigmentosum clinical practice guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriwaki, Shinichi; Kanda, Fumio; Hayashi, Masaharu; Yamashita, Daisuke; Sakai, Yoshitada; Nishigori, Chikako

    2017-10-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a genetic photosensitive disorder in which patients are highly susceptibe to skin cancers on the sun-exposed body sites. In Japan, more than half of patients (30% worldwide) with XP show complications of idiopathic progressive, intractable neurological symptoms with poor prognoses. Therefore, this disease does not merely present with dermatological symptoms, such as photosensitivity, pigmentary change and skin cancers, but is "an intractable neurological and dermatological disease". For this reason, in March 2007, the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare added XP to the neurocutaneous syndromes that are subject to government research initiatives for overcoming intractable diseases. XP is one of the extremely serious photosensitive disorders in which patients easily develop multiple skin cancers if they are not completely protected from ultraviolet radiation. XP patients thus need to be strictly shielded from sunlight throughout their lives, and they often experience idiopathic neurodegenerative complications that markedly reduce the quality of life for both the patients and their families. Hospitals in Japan often see cases of XP as severely photosensitive in children, and as advanced pigmentary disorders of the sun-exposed area with multiple skin cancers in adults (aged in their 20-40s), making XP an important disease to differentiate in everyday clinical practice. It was thus decided that there was a strong need for clinical practice guidelines dedicated to XP. This process led to the creation of new clinical practice guidelines for XP. © 2017 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  1. Inspector qualification guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batty, A.C.; Van Binnebeek, J.J.; Ericsson, P.O.; Fisher, J.C.; Geiger, P.; Grandame, M.; Grimes, B.K.; Joode, A. de; Kaufer, B.; Kinoshita, M.; Klonk, H.; Koizumi, H.; Maeda, N.; Maqua, M.; Perez del Moral, C.; Roselli, F.; Warren, T.; Zimmerman, R.

    1994-07-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) has a Working Group on Inspection Practices (WGIP). The WGIP provides a forum for the exchange of Information and experience on the safety Inspection practices of regulatory authorities In the CNRA member countries. A consistent qualification process and well defined level of training for all Inspectors who participate In the safety Inspections are needed to provide consistent Inspections and reliable Inspection results. The WGIP organized in 1992 a workshop on the conduct of inspections, inspector qualification and training, and shutdown inspections at the Technical Training Center of the US NRC in Chattanooga, Tennessee. In the connection of workshop the WGIP identified a need to develop guidance for inspector qualification which could be used as a model by those who are developing their qualification practices. The inspector qualification journals of US NRC provided a good basis for the work. The following inspector qualification guideline has been developed for guidance of qualification of a new inspector recruited to the regulatory body. This guideline has been developed for helping the supervisors and training officers to give the initial training and familiarization to the duties of a new inspector in a controlled manner. US NRC inspector qualification journals have been used to define the areas of attention. This guideline provides large flexibility for application in different type organizations. Large organizations can develop separate qualification journals for each inspector positions. Small regulatory bodies can develop individual training programmes by defining the necessary training topics on case by case basis. E.g. the guideline can be used to define the qualifications of contracted inspectors used in some countries. The appropriate part would apply. Annex 1 gives two examples how this guideline could be applied

  2. Inspector qualification guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batty, A. C.; Van Binnebeek, J. J.; Ericsson, P. O.; Fisher, J. C.; Geiger, P.; Grandame, M.; Grimes, B. K.; Joode, A. de; Kaufer, B.; Kinoshita, M.; Klonk, H.; Koizumi, H.; Maeda, N.; Maqua, M.; Perez del Moral, C.; Roselli, F.; Warren, T.; Zimmerman, R.

    1994-07-15

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) has a Working Group on Inspection Practices (WGIP). The WGIP provides a forum for the exchange of Information and experience on the safety Inspection practices of regulatory authorities In the CNRA member countries. A consistent qualification process and well defined level of training for all Inspectors who participate In the safety Inspections are needed to provide consistent Inspections and reliable Inspection results. The WGIP organized in 1992 a workshop on the conduct of inspections, inspector qualification and training, and shutdown inspections at the Technical Training Center of the US NRC in Chattanooga, Tennessee. In the connection of workshop the WGIP identified a need to develop guidance for inspector qualification which could be used as a model by those who are developing their qualification practices. The inspector qualification journals of US NRC provided a good basis for the work. The following inspector qualification guideline has been developed for guidance of qualification of a new inspector recruited to the regulatory body. This guideline has been developed for helping the supervisors and training officers to give the initial training and familiarization to the duties of a new inspector in a controlled manner. US NRC inspector qualification journals have been used to define the areas of attention. This guideline provides large flexibility for application in different type organizations. Large organizations can develop separate qualification journals for each inspector positions. Small regulatory bodies can develop individual training programmes by defining the necessary training topics on case by case basis. E.g. the guideline can be used to define the qualifications of contracted inspectors used in some countries. The appropriate part would apply. Annex 1 gives two examples how this guideline could be applied.

  3. Awareness of hypertension guidelines among family physicians in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kholod A. Al-Ali

    2012-08-04

    Aug 4, 2012 ... to facilitate the correct implementation of hypertension guidelines in PHC clinical practices in ... aged in the outpatient setting and is one of the most common ..... tion, sodium restriction, physical exercise, and behavioral.

  4. Smoking education and prevention: a developmental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oei, T P; Baldwin, A R

    1992-01-01

    A developmental approach to smoking education and prevention for children and adolescents is proposed. Literature is reviewed concerning the most appropriate agent, content, and presentation, of anti-smoking education for each of three age groups: children to age ten, pre/early adolescents eleven to fifteen, and adolescents fifteen to eighteen. For children to age ten, it is suggested that parents are the best agents of education, with teachers, peers, and the mass media, also playing some role. For pre/early adolescents, peers are suggested as the best agents of education, building onto the earlier and ongoing work of the agents mentioned above. For adolescents, the role of the media hero-figure is discussed. It is emphasized that sources of influence may function additively in affecting the child or adolescent's decisions about smoking, and that education in each stage must build on the stage before.

  5. Normal female puberty in a developmental perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre; Juul, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Puberty is unique in the sense that its onset shows an extraordinary individual variability of about 5 years, the basis of which being still elusive despite research efforts to understand the reason why. Continuing changes in environmental influences and interaction with genetic determinants...... with less obvious changes in menarcheal age. Conceptually, puberty and subsequent reproduction appear now to be influenced by conditions not only at the time when they occur, but also during fetal and perinatal life. In addition, these influences can be apparently opposing since early maturation follows...... fetal malnourishment and postnatal overfeeding. In this review, the semiology and pathophysiology of puberty are discussed in a lifelong developmental perspective....

  6. Temporal abnormalities in children with developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicario, Carmelo Mario; Rappo, Gaetano; Pepi, Annamaria; Pavan, Andrea; Martino, Davide

    2012-01-01

    Recent imaging studies have associated Developmental dyscalculia (DD) to structural and functional alterations corresponding Parietal and the Prefrontal cortex (PFC). Since these areas were shown also to be involved in timing abilities, we hypothesized that time processing is abnormal in DD. We compared time processing abilities between 10 children with pure DD (8 years old) and 11 age-matched healthy children. Results show that the DD group underestimated duration of a sub-second scale when asked to perform a time comparison task. The timing abnormality observed in our DD participants is consistent with evidence of a shared fronto-parietal neural network for representing time and quantity.

  7. Current Cervical Carcinoma Screening Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan J. Schlichte

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A formidable threat to the health of women, cervical carcinoma can be prevented in many cases with adequate screening. The current guidelines for cervical carcinoma screening were created as joint recommendations of the American Cancer Society (ACS, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP and the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP in 2012, and later accepted and promoted by the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG. The 2012 recommendations underscore the utility of molecular testing as an adjunct to cytology screening for certain women and provide guidance to clinicians based on different risk-benefit considerations for different ages. This manuscript will review screening techniques and current recommendations for cervical cancer screening and human papilloma virus (HPV testing, as well as possible future screening strategies.

  8. Japanese guidelines for childhood asthma 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Hirokazu; Hamasaki, Yuhei; Kohno, Yoichi; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Kondo, Naomi; Nishima, Sankei; Nishimuta, Toshiyuki; Morikawa, Akihiro

    2017-04-01

    The Japanese Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Allergic Diseases 2017 (JAGL 2017) includes a minor revision of the Japanese Pediatric Guideline for the Treatment and Management of Asthma 2012 (JPGL 2012) by the Japanese Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology. The section on child asthma in JAGL 2017 provides information on how to diagnose asthma between infancy and adolescence (0-15 years of age). It makes recommendations for best practices in the management of childhood asthma, including management of acute exacerbations and non-pharmacological and pharmacological management. This guideline will be of interest to non-specialist physicians involved in the care of children with asthma. JAGL differs from the Global Initiative for Asthma Guideline in that JAGL emphasizes diagnosis and early intervention of children with asthma at asthma control levels, is easy to understand; thus, this guideline is suitable for the routine medical care of children with asthma. JAGL also recommends using a control test in children, so that the physician aims for complete control by avoiding exacerbating factors and appropriately using anti-inflammatory drugs (for example, inhaled corticosteroids and leukotriene receptor antagonists). Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Infant Formula Supplementation With Long-chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Has No Effect on Bayley Developmental Scores at 18 Months of Age-IPD Meta-analysis of 4 Large Clinical Trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyerlein, Andreas; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Kennedy, Katherine; Fewtrell, Mary; Singhal, Atul; Rosenfeld, Eva; Lucas, Alan; Bouwstra, Hylco; Koletzko, Berthold; von Kries, Ruediger

    Objectives: To find out whether supplementation of formula milk by long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) affects neurodevelopment at 18 months of age in term or preterm infants by an individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis. Materials and Methods: Data of 870 children from 4 large

  10. Computerization of guidelines: towards a "guideline markup language".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dart, T; Xu, Y; Chatellier, G; Degoulet, P

    2001-01-01

    Medical decision making is one of the most difficult daily tasks for physicians. Guidelines have been designed to reduce variance between physicians in daily practice, to improve patient outcomes and to control costs. In fact, few physicians use guidelines in daily practice. A way to ease the use of guidelines is to implement computerised guidelines (computer reminders). We present in this paper a method of computerising guidelines. Our objectives were: 1) to propose a generic model that can be instantiated for any specific guidelines; 2) to use eXtensible Markup Language (XML) as a guideline representation language to instantiate the generic model for a specific guideline. Our model is an object representation of a clinical algorithm, it has been validated by running two different guidelines issued by a French official Agency. In spite of some limitations, we found that this model is expressive enough to represent complex guidelines devoted to diabetes and hypertension management. We conclude that XML can be used as a description format to structure guidelines and as an interface between paper-based guidelines and computer applications.

  11. Young Children’s Developmental Ecologies and Kindergarten Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Children enter the crucial transition to school with sociodemographic disparities firmly established. Domain-specific research (e.g., on poverty and family structure) has shed light on these disparities, but we need broader operationalizations of children’s environments to explain them. Building on existing theory, this study articulates the concept of developmental ecology—those interrelated features of a child’s proximal environment that shape development and health. Developmental ecology links structural and demographic factors with interactional, psychological, and genetic factors. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), this study conducts latent class analyses to identify how 41 factors from three domains—namely, household resources, health risks, and ecological changes—cluster within children as four overarching developmental ecologies. Because it documents how numerous factors co-occur within children, this method allows an approximation of their lived environments. Findings illuminate powerful relationships between race/ethnicity, parental age, socioeconomic background, and nativity and a child’s developmental ecology, as well as associations between developmental ecology and kindergarten cognition, behavior, and health. Developmental ecology represents a major pathway through which demographic characteristics shape school readiness. Because specific factors have different implications depending on the ecologies in which they are embedded, findings support the usefulness of a broad ecological approach. PMID:27873222

  12. Clinical profile of children with developmental delay and microcephaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anju; Mittal, Hema; Patil, Rahul; Debnath, Sanjib; Rai, Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To study the profile of children with developmental delay and microcephaly. Materials and Methods: Children attending child development clinic with developmental delay were evaluated as per protocol. Z scores of head circumference were calculated using WHO charts. Clinical, radiological and etiological profile of those with microcephaly and those without was compared. Results: Of the 414 children with developmental delay 231 had microcephaly (z score ≤ -3). Mean age of children with microcephaly was 35.1 ± 27.9 months (range 4-184), males (72.7%). Comorbidities were epilepsy (42.9%), visual abnormality (26.4%), hearing abnormality (16.9%). Mean DQ was 29.75 + 17.8 in those with microcephaly was significantly lower compared to the rest (P = 0.002). Secondary microcephaly was associated with cerebral palsy in 69.7%. Other causes were congenital infections (4), inborn error of metabolism (3), post-meningoencephalitis (5), malformations (12), and syndromic (13). Neuroimaging was done in 118 (51.1%) cases of which 104 (88.1%) were abnormal. On comparison children with microcephaly had more epilepsy, lower developmental quotient, vision abnormalities findings as compared to normocephalic children with developmental delay (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Microcephaly was associated with lower, DQ, higher comorbidities in children with developmental delay. Spastic CP is commonly associated with microcephaly. PMID:24250161

  13. Developmental transcriptome of Aplysia californica'

    KAUST Repository

    Heyland, Andreas; Vue, Zer; Voolstra, Christian R.; Medina, Mó nica; Moroz, Leonid L.

    2010-01-01

    developmental transcriptome with similar studies in the zebra fish Danio rerio, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and other studies on molluscs suggests an overall highly divergent pattern of gene regulatory mechanisms

  14. PREVALENCE AND EFFECT OF DEVELOPMENTAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uvp

    among children might even be higher, as medical and educational systems frequently fail to ... formally diagnosed, but rather described by their teachers as lazy or ..... Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire for Brazilian children.

  15. The Management of Developmental Apraxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbay, S. S.

    1978-01-01

    Of 39 children (5-12 years old) with developmental apraxia and agnosia, who were assessed neurologically, 19 were also given simple standarized tests of motor ability. Journal availability: see EC 112 661. (Author/SBH)

  16. Guidelines for Better Heart Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Guidelines for Better Heart Health Past Issues / Winter 2007 ... women either had or did not have CVD. Guidelines at a Glance: Prevention should be tailored to ...

  17. 2012 Guidelines for Water Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manual is a revision of the "2004 Water Reuse Guidelines." This document is a summary of reuse guidelines, with supporting information, for the benefit of utilities of utilities and regulatory agencies, particularly EPA.

  18. Paralympic emblem guidelines: London 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of these guidelines is to preserve and enhance the value of the Emblem for the benefit of all authorised users. These guidelines apply to LOCOG and IPC creative, marketing and communications personnel, agencies and consultants only.

  19. Developmental toxicity of engineered nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin S.; Hansen, Jitka S.; Jackson, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Study of air pollution indicates that minute particles may adversely interfere with pregnancy and fetal development. As engineering of nanoparticles have emerged, so has concern that these might interfere with reproductive and developmental functions. This is because nanotechnology may potentially...... increase the overall particle burden in air and introduce particles with novel characteristics and surface reactivity. To evaluate safety for pregnant women, we have studied developmental toxicity of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs), following exposure of pregnant mice by inhalation (ENPs of titanium...

  20. Unilateral implicit motor learning deficit in developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Hong-Yan, Bi

    2011-02-01

    It has been suggested that developmental dyslexia involves various literacy, sensory, motor skill, and processing speed deficits. Some recent studies have shown that individuals with developmental dyslexia exhibit implicit motor learning deficits, which may be related to cerebellar functioning. However, previous studies on implicit motor learning in developmental dyslexics have produced conflicting results. Findings from cerebellar lesion patients have shown that patients' implicit motor learning performance varied when different hands were used to complete tasks. This suggests that dyslexia may have different effects on implicit motor learning between the two hands if cerebellar dysfunction is involved. To specify this question, we used a one-handed version of a serial reaction time task to compare the performance of 27 Chinese children with developmental dyslexics with another 27 age-matched children without reading difficulties. All the subjects were students from two primary schools, Grades 4 to 6. The results showed that children with developmental dyslexic responded more slowly than nondyslexic children, and exhibited no implicit motor learning in the condition of left-hand response. In contrast, there was no significant difference in reaction time between two groups of children when they used the right hand to respond. This finding indicates that children with developmental dyslexia exhibited normal motor skill and implicit motor learning ability provided the right hand was used. Taken together, these results suggested that Chinese children with developmental dyslexia exhibit unilateral deficits in motor skill and implicit motor learning in the left hand. Our findings lend partial support to the cerebellar deficit theory of developmental dyslexia.

  1. Guidelines for emergency laparoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauerland Stefan

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acute abdominal pain is a leading symptom in many surgical emergency patients. Laparoscopy allows for accurate diagnosis and immediate therapy of many intraabdominal pathologies. The guidelines of the EAES (European Association for Endoscopic Surgery provides scientifically founded recommendations about the role of laparoscopy in the different situations. Generally, laparoscopy is well suited for the therapy of the majority of diseases that cause acute abdominal pain.

  2. Severe accident management guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhle, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The events at Fukushima Daiichi have highlighted the importance of Severe Accident Management Guidelines (SAMGs). As the world has learned from the catastrophe and countries are considering changes to their nuclear regulatory programs, the content of SAMGs and their regulatory control are being evaluated. This presentation highlights several factors that are being addressed in the United States as rulemaking is underway pertaining to SAMGs. The question of how to be prepared for the unexpected is discussed with specific insights gleaned from Fukushima. (author)

  3. Guidelines on oncologic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The present issue of European Journal of Radiology is devoted to guidelines on oncologic imaging. 9 experts on imaging in suspected or evident oncologic disease have compiled a broad survey on strategies as well as techniques on oncologic imaging. The group gives advice for detecting tumours at specific tumour sites and use modern literature to emphasize their recommendations. All recommendations are short, comprehensive and authoritative. (orig./MG)

  4. Guidelines for Urban Labs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholl, Christian; Agger Eriksen, Mette; Baerten, Nik

    2017-01-01

    These guidelines are intended for team members and managers of urban labs and, more generally, for civil servants and facilitators in cities working with experimental processes to tackle complex challenges. They aim to support the everyday practice of collaboratively experimenting and learning ho...... the result is inspiring and instructive for all those who want to wrap their minds around experimental co-creative approaches to urban governance and city development....

  5. Effects of Teaching Simultaneous Prompting through Visual Supports to Parents of Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batu, Sema

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the effectiveness of visual supports on teaching simultaneous prompting procedure to mothers to provide home-based instruction to their children with developmental disabilities. Three preschool-aged children with moderate developmental disabilities and their mothers were the participants. A multiple probe…

  6. Family Members' Reports of the Technology Use of Family Members with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, S. B.; Wehmeyer, M. L.; Davies, D. K.; Stock, S. E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A nationwide survey of family members of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities ranging in age from birth through adulthood was conducted to replicate a similar effort by Wehmeyer and update the knowledge base concerning technology use by people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Method: Survey responses…

  7. Brief Report: Developmental Change in Theory of Mind Abilities in Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Shelly; Joseph, Robert M.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2003-01-01

    A longitudinal study investigated developmental change in theory of mind among 57 children (ages 4-14) with autism. Theory of mind tests were administered on an initial visit and one year later. Data indicated significant developmental improvement in theory of mind ability, which was primarily related to the children's language ability. (Contains…

  8. Factors Related to the Developmental Experiences of Youth Serving as 4-H Camp Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, David N.; Kotrlik, Joe W.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the developmental experiences of high-school-aged 4-H youth volunteering as counselors at Louisiana 4-H summer camps. A total of 288 counselors from 10 different camping sessions participated in the study. The Youth Experiences Survey 2.0 and the Developmental Experience Survey measured the personal…

  9. Developmental Changes in Cognitive and Behavioural Functioning of Adolescents with Fragile-X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolli, A.; Piscopo, S.; Conson, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Individuals with fragile-X syndrome exhibit developmental delay, hyperexcitation and social anxiety; they also show lack of attention and hyperactivity. Few studies have investigated whether levels of functioning change with increasing age. Here, we explored developmental changes across adolescence in the cognitive and behavioural…

  10. Early motor developmental milestones and level of neuroticism in young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, T; Sørensen, H J; Revsbech, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    traits is almost non-existent. This study is therefore the first to investigate associations between early motor developmental milestones and neuroticism in adulthood. Method Mothers of 9125 children of the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort recorded 12 developmental milestones during the child's first year...... of life. A subsample of the cohort comprising 1182 individuals participated in a follow-up when they were aged 20-34 years and were administered the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). Associations between motor developmental milestones and level of neuroticism, extraversion and psychoticism were...... analysed by multiple linear regression adjusting for for sex, single-mother status, parity, mother's age, father's age, parental social status and birth weight....

  11. CT of Normal Developmental and Variant Anatomy of the Pediatric Skull: Distinguishing Trauma from Normality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idriz, Sanjin; Patel, Jaymin H; Ameli Renani, Seyed; Allan, Rosemary; Vlahos, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    The use of computed tomography (CT) in clinical practice has been increasing rapidly, with the number of CT examinations performed in adults and children rising by 10% per year in England. Because the radiology community strives to reduce the radiation dose associated with pediatric examinations, external factors, including guidelines for pediatric head injury, are raising expectations for use of cranial CT in the pediatric population. Thus, radiologists are increasingly likely to encounter pediatric head CT examinations in daily practice. The variable appearance of cranial sutures at different ages can be confusing for inexperienced readers of radiologic images. The evolution of multidetector CT with thin-section acquisition increases the clarity of some of these sutures, which may be misinterpreted as fractures. Familiarity with the normal anatomy of the pediatric skull, how it changes with age, and normal variants can assist in translating the increased resolution of multidetector CT into more accurate detection of fractures and confident determination of normality, thereby reducing prolonged hospitalization of children with normal developmental structures that have been misinterpreted as fractures. More important, the potential morbidity and mortality related to false-negative interpretation of fractures as normal sutures may be avoided. The authors describe the normal anatomy of all standard pediatric sutures, common variants, and sutural mimics, thereby providing an accurate and safe framework for CT evaluation of skull trauma in pediatric patients. (©)RSNA, 2015.

  12. Guideline Implementation: Hand Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Judith L

    2017-02-01

    Performing proper hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis is essential to reducing the rates of health care-associated infections, including surgical site infections. The updated AORN "Guideline for hand hygiene" provides guidance on hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis, the wearing of fingernail polish and artificial nails, proper skin care to prevent dermatitis, the wearing of jewelry, hand hygiene product selection, and quality assurance and performance improvement considerations. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel make informed decisions about hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis. The key points address the necessity of keeping fingernails and skin healthy, not wearing jewelry on the hands or wrists in the perioperative area, properly performing hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis, and involving patients and visitors in hand hygiene initiatives. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures. Copyright © 2017 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Developmental Science: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of developmental science is to describe, explain, and optimize intraindividual changes in adaptive developmental regulations and, as well, interindividual differences in such relations, across life. The history of developmental science is reviewed and its current foci, which are framed by relational developmental systems models that…

  14. Aging assessment of auxiliary feedwater pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenstreet, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    ORNL is conducting aging assessments of auxiliary feedwater pumps to provide recommendations for monitoring and assessing the severity of time-dependent degradation as well as to recommend maintenance and replacement practices. Cornerstones of these activities are the identification of failure modes and causes and ranking of causes. Failure modes and causes of interest are those due to aging and service wear. Design details, functional requirements, and operating experience data were used to identify failure modes and causes and to rank the latter. Based on this input, potentially useful inspection, surveillance, and condition monitoring methods that are currently available for use or in the developmental stage were examined and recommendations made. The methods selected are listed and discussed in terms of use and information to be obtained. Relationships between inspection, surveillance, and monitoring and maintenance practices entered prominently into maintenance recommendations. These recommendations, therefore, embrace predictive as well as corrective and preventative maintenance practices. The recommendations are described, inspection details are discussed, and periodic inspection and maintenance interval guidelines are given. Surveillance testing at low-flow conditions is also discussed. It is shown that this type of testing can lead to accelerated aging

  15. Older Women's Development: A Comparison of Women in Their 60s and 80s on a Measure of Erikson's Developmental Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Suzanne M.; McCluskey-Fawcett, Kathleen; Ashcraft, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Compares women from two ages groups in order to understand their development across the life span. Measures of Psychosocial Development, which assesses Erikson's developmental stages, were administered to 41 women in 2 cohorts (ages 60-70, ages 80-90). Age group differences in the resolution of Erikson's identity and trust developmental tasks were…

  16. Glaucoma-service provision in Scotland: introduction and need for Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrogiannis, Andreas; Rotchford, Alan P; Agarwal, Pankaj Kumar; Kumarasamy, Manjula; Montgomery, Donald; Burr, Jennifer; Sanders, Roshini

    2015-01-01

    To describe the pattern of glaucoma-service delivery in Scotland and identify areas for improvement, taking into account Scottish General Ophthalmic Services (GOS) arrangements and the Eye Care Integration project, and to design Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) guidelines to refine the primary and secondary interface of glaucoma care. A glaucoma-survey questionnaire was sent to all consultant glaucomatologists in Scotland. The design of SIGN guidelines was based on the results of the questionnaire using SIGN methodology. Over 90% of Scottish glaucoma care is triaged and delivered within hospital services. Despite GOS referral, information is variable. There are no consistent discharge practices to the community. These results led to defined research questions that were answered, thus formulating the content of the SIGN guidelines. The guideline covers the assessment of patients in primary care, referral criteria to hospital, discharge criteria from hospital to community, and monitoring of patients at risk of glaucoma. With increasing age and limitations to hospital resources, refining glaucoma pathways between primary and secondary care has become a necessity. Scotland has unique eye care arrangements with both the GOS and Eye Care Integration project. It is hoped that implementation of SIGN guidelines will identify glaucoma at the earliest opportunity and reduce the rate of false-positive referrals to hospital.

  17. Developmental Trajectories of Form Perception: A Story of Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovshoff, Hanna; Iarocci, Grace; Shore, David I.; Burack, Jacob A.

    2015-01-01

    The developmental trajectories of selective and divided attention were examined in relation to the processing of hierarchically integrated stimuli. The participants included children in 4 age groups (6, 8, 10, and 12 years) and a group of young adults (24 years) who completed 2 computer-based attention tasks. In the selective attention task, the…

  18. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Developmentally Delayed Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Momen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Developmental disorders are failure or inability to acquire various age-specific skills at expected maturational age, which affects about 5–10% of preschool children. One of the most important methods for evaluation of developmentally delayed children is neuroimaging, especially, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI that provides useful information regarding brain tissue structures and anomalies. Method and Material. In this study, hospital records of 580 developmentally delayed children (aged 2 months to 15 years who admitted in pediatric ward of Golestan Hospital from 1997 to 2009 were selected. Information such as age, MRI findings were collected in the questionnaire and statistically analyzed. Results. Total, 580 children including 333 males (57.4% and 247 females (42.6% were studied. Abnormal brain MRI was observed in 340 (58.6% cases (204 Males, 136 females. The finding includes nonspecific in 38 (6.6%, congenital and developmental anomalies of brain in 39 (6.7%, recognizable syndromes in 3 (0.5%, neurovascular diseases or trauma in 218 (37.6%, and metabolic or neurodegenerative diseases in 42 (7.2% cases. Conclusion. Because 60% of all study groups showed abnormal brain MRI, using this method could be effective in diagnosis, management, and almost prognosis determination processes.

  19. Promoting Healthy Weight among Children with Developmental Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Ruby R.; Camejo, Stephanie T.; Asfour, Lila; Uhlhorn, Susan B.; Delamater, Alan; Messiah, Sarah E.

    2017-01-01

    An extensive body of research demonstrates a higher prevalence of obesity among children with developmental delays (DD) versus children without delays. This analysis examined the effectiveness of a randomized controlled trial to promote healthy weight in a subsample of preschool-age children with DD (n = 71) on the adoption of quality nutrition…

  20. Correlation between high-risk pregnancy and developmental delay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The future development of children is considered more than ever now due to the advances in medical knowledge and thus the increase in survival rates of high-risk infants. This study investigated the correlation between high-risk pregnancy and developmental delay in children aged 4- 60 months. Methods: ...

  1. Neural Correlates of Symbolic Number Comparison in Developmental Dyscalculia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussolin, Christophe; De Volder, Anne; Grandin, Cecile; Schlogel, Xavier; Nassogne, Marie-Cecile; Noel, Marie-Pascale

    2010-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a deficit in number processing and arithmetic that affects 3-6% of schoolchildren. The goal of the present study was to analyze cerebral bases of DD related to symbolic number processing. Children with DD aged 9-11 years and matched children with no learning disability history were investigated using fMRI. The two…

  2. Universal Developmental Screening: Preliminary Studies in Galicia, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento Campos, Jose A.; Squires, Jane; Ponte, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    "A_Tempo" is a research project that is currently under development in Galicia, an autonomous community of Spain. Its main aim is to propose an effective universal screening procedure for early identification of developmental disorders in children from zero to three years of age who attend Galician pre-primary schools.…

  3. Developmental Differences in Implicit and Explicit Memory Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Lori A.; Peynircioglu, Zehra F.; Blaxton, Teresa A.

    1998-01-01

    Compared perceptual and conceptual implicit and explicit memory performance of preschool, elementary, and college students. Found that conceptual explicit memory improved with age. Perceptual explicit memory and implicit memory showed no developmental change. Perceptual processing during study led to better performance than conceptual processing…

  4. Developmental and Social Determinants of Religious Social Categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Straten Waillet, Nastasya; Roskam, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess developmental and social determinants of the age at which children become aware that the social environment can be marked by categorization into religious groups and that those groups are associated with different religious beliefs. The results show that middle childhood is a critical period for this…

  5. Longitudinal Stability of Phonological and Surface Subtypes of Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Robin L.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Olson, Richard K.; Wadsworth, Sally J.

    2014-01-01

    Limited evidence supports the external validity of the distinction between developmental phonological and surface dyslexia. We previously identified children ages 8 to 13 meeting criteria for these subtypes (Peterson, Pennington, & Olson, 2013) and now report on their reading and related skills approximately 5 years later. Longitudinal…

  6. Developmental Changes in Parent-Child Communication throughout Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijsers, Loes; Poulin, François

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how parent-child communication regarding adolescent unsupervised activities develops over the course of adolescence. We used questionnaire data from 390 adolescents (58% girls; 90% European Canadian) who were followed from age 12 to 19. Latent growth curve modeling revealed curvilinear developmental changes that differed for…

  7. Predictors of Developmental Outcomes for Infants Who Are Medically Fragile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy B.; Boyce, Glenna C.

    This paper presents results of a preliminary study which evaluated medical birth data as potential predictors of developmental outcome, and developed and tested an instrument designed for this purpose. Forty low birthweight children, all of whom had experienced neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage, were evaluated at school age (66 months) on the…

  8. The Impact of Obesity on Developmental Coordination Disorder in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Matthias Oliver; Kastner, Julia; Petermann, Franz; Jekauc, Darko; Worth, Annette; Bos, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) as well as overweight and obesity are of increasing importance in the study of human development. Data on the relation between DCD and obesity in adolescence are of particular interest because both phenomena are unlikely to disappear with age. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of…

  9. Is Season of Birth Related to Developmental Dyslexia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donfrancesco, Renato; Iozzino, Roberto; Caruso, Barbara; Ferrante, Laura; Mugnaini, Daniele; Talamo, Alessandra; Miano, Silvia; Dimitri, Andrea; Masi, Gabriele

    2010-01-01

    Different moderators/mediators of risk are involved in developmental dyslexia (DD), but data are inconsistent. We explored the prevalence of season of birth and its association with gender and age of school entry in an Italian sample of dyslexic children compared to an Italian normal control group. The clinical sample included 498 children (345…

  10. Insomnia and Psychosocial Crisis: Two Studies of Erikson's Developmental Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Karen Dineen; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examines the role of internal stressors in the development of sleep disturbances in two studies of 122 older adults and 66 college students. Results confirmed Erikson's (1959) developmental theory. Failure to resolve the psychosocial crises of old age and adolescence were related to insomnia. (WAS)

  11. Developmental Trajectories of Childhood Obesity and Risk Behaviors in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, David Y. C.; Lanza, H. Isabella; Wright-Volel, Kynna; Anglin, M. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Using group-based trajectory modeling, this study examined 5156 adolescents from the child sample of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to identify developmental trajectories of obesity from ages 6-18 and evaluate associations of such trajectories with risk behaviors and psychosocial health in adolescence. Four distinctive obesity…

  12. Rich Man, Poor Man: Developmental Differences in Attributions and Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigelman, Carol K.

    2012-01-01

    In an examination guided by cognitive developmental and attribution theory of how explanations of wealth and poverty and perceptions of rich and poor people change with age and are interrelated, 6-, 10-, and 14-year-olds (N = 88) were asked for their causal attributions and trait judgments concerning a rich man and a poor man. First graders, like…

  13. Review on Factors Influencing Physician Guideline Adherence in Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorn, C J G M; Crijns, H J G M; Dierick-van Daele, A T M; Dekker, L R C

    2018-04-09

    Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in Western countries. Physician adherence to guidelines is often suboptimal, resulting in impaired patient outcome and prognosis. Multiple studies have been conducted to evaluate patterns and the influencing factors of patient adherence, but little is known about factors influencing physician guideline adherence. This review aims to identify factors influencing physician guideline adherence relevant to cardiology and to provide insights and suggestions for future improvement. Physician adherence was measured as adherence to standard local medical practice and applicable guidelines. Female gender and older age had a negative effect on physician guideline adherence. In addition, independent of the type of heart disease, physicians without cardiologic specialization were linked to physician noncompliance. Also, guideline adherence in primary care centers was at a lower level compared to secondary or tertiary care centers. The importance of guideline adherence increases as patients age, and complex diseases and comorbidity arise. Appropriate resources and interventions, taking important factors for nonadherence in account, are necessary to improve guideline adoption and adherence in every level of the chain. This in turn should improve patient outcome.

  14. The developmental sequence of social-communicative skills in young children with autism: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chin-Chin; Chiang, Chung-Hsin

    2014-05-01

    To explore the different developmental trajectories of social-communicative skills in children with autism and typically developing infants, two longitudinal studies were conducted. In Study 1, we examined the developmental sequence of social-communicative skills in 26 typically developing infants when they were 9 months old and reexamined them when they were 12 and 15 months old. The results indicated a reliable developmental sequence of social-communicative skills in infants with typical development. In Study 2, we explored the emergence sequence of social-communicative skills of 23 children with autism and 23 children with developmental delay between the ages of 2 and 4 years. The results demonstrated that the developmental sequence of social-communicative skills in young children with autism and children with developmental delays was different.

  15. Effectiveness of Traumatic Brain Injury Management Guideline Introduction in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorinola, Abayomi; Buki, Andras; Sandor, Janos; Czeiter, Endre

    2018-01-01

    To describe the impact of the Traumatic Brain Injury management guideline introduction in Hungary. Hospital discharge records (HDR) including age, gender, codes of interventions applied, ICD codes of diagnosed disorders of patients admitted between 01/01/2004 and 31/12/2010 with the diagnosis of intracranial injury (S06 by ICD10) from every inpatient institution in Hungary were collected from the database of National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF). The Case Fatality Ratios (CFR) for one week, one month and six months were calculated for the periods before and after the guideline introduction. The change of CFRs was applied as indicators for change of clinical quality elicited by the guideline. The centers together at one week, one month and six months had pre-guideline introduction CFRs of 23.4%, 37.7% and 47.5% and post-guideline introduction CFRs of 22.1%, 39.1%, and 50.0% respectively. The secondary institutions together at one week, one month and six months had pre-guideline introduction CFRs of 21.5%, 34.8% and 46.3% and post-guideline introduction CFRs of 21.9%, 37.0%, and 48.9% respectively. None of the CFRs showed significant change. The effectiveness of TBI management guideline adaptation in Hungary is poor. Without supportive financing and external auditing system, guideline introduction alone cannot achieve standard clinical practice and a reduction in CFR.

  16. Developmental Color Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Rosslyn; Little, Angela C.

    1975-01-01

    A sample of 107 subjects including kindergarteners, fifth graders, high school sophomores, parents of kindergarteners, and master artists were presented with a 108-item color perception test to investigate surface color perception at these age levels. A set of surface color perception rules was generated. (GO)

  17. Systematic review of guidelines for the physical management of osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmer, Peter J; Reay, Nicholas D; Aubert, Elizabeth R; Kersten, Paula

    2014-02-01

    To undertake a systematic critical appraisal of guidelines to provide a summary of recommendations for the physical management of osteoarthritis (OA). The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus with Full Text, Scopus, ScienceDirect, PEDro, and Google Scholar databases were searched (2000-2013) to identify all guidelines, protocols, and recommendations for the management or treatment of OA. In addition, Internet searches of all relevant arthritis organizations were undertaken. All searches were performed between July 2012 and end of April 2013. Guidelines that included only pharmacological, injection therapy, or surgical interventions were excluded. Guidelines published only in English were retrieved. OA guidelines developed from evidence-based research, consensus, and/or expert opinion were retrieved. There were no restrictions on severity or site of OA, sex, or age. Nineteen guidelines were identified for evaluation. The quality of all guidelines was critically appraised using the Appraisal of Guidelines for REsearch and Evaluation II instrument. Each guideline was independently reviewed. All relevant recommendations for the physical management of OA were synthesized, graded, and ranked according to available evidence. Seventeen guidelines with recommendations on the physical management of OA met the inclusion criteria and underwent a full critical appraisal. There were variations in the interventions, levels of evidence, and strength of recommendations across the guidelines. Forty different interventions were identified. Recommendations were graded from "strongly recommended" to "unsupported." Exercise and education were found to be strongly recommended by most guidelines. Exercise and education were key recommendations supporting the importance of rehabilitation in the physical management of OA. This critical appraisal can assist health care providers who are involved in the management of people with OA. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of

  18. Mapping the developmental constraints on working memory span performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Donna M; Jarrold, Christopher; Baddeley, Alan D; Gunn, Deborah M; Leigh, Eleanor

    2005-07-01

    This study investigated the constraints underlying developmental improvements in complex working memory span performance among 120 children of between 6 and 10 years of age. Independent measures of processing efficiency, storage capacity, rehearsal speed, and basic speed of processing were assessed to determine their contribution to age-related variance in complex span. Results showed that developmental improvements in complex span were driven by 2 age-related but separable factors: 1 associated with general speed of processing and 1 associated with storage ability. In addition, there was an age-related contribution shared between working memory, processing speed, and storage ability that was important for higher level cognition. These results pose a challenge for models of complex span performance that emphasize the importance of processing speed alone.

  19. Nurses' experiences of guideline implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alanen, Seija; Välimäki, Marita; Kaila, Minna

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of the study was to address the following questions: What kind of experiences do primary care nurses have of guideline implementation? What do nurses think are the most important factors affecting the adoption of guidelines? BACKGROUND: The implementation of clinical guidelines seems...... to be dependent on multiple context-specific factors. This study sets out to explore the experiences of primary care nurses concerning guideline implementation. DESIGN: Qualitative interview. METHODS: Data were generated by four focus group interviews involving nurses working in out-patient services in primary...... to nurses, (iii) factors related to the anticipated consequences and (iv) factors related to the patient group. Nurses' awareness and acceptance of guidelines and the anticipated positive consequences facilitate the implementation of guidelines. Organisational support, especially the adapting of guidelines...

  20. A review of clinical guidelines.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Andrews, E J

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Clinical guidelines are increasingly used in patient management but few clinicians are familiar with their origin or appropriate application. METHODS: A Medline search using the terms \\'clinical guidelines\\' and \\'practice guidelines\\' was conducted. Additional references were sourced by manual searching from the bibliographies of articles located. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Clinical guidelines originated in the USA in the early 1980s, initially as a cost containment exercise. Significant improvements in the process and outcomes of care have been demonstrated following their introduction, although the extent of improvement varies considerably. The principles for the development of guidelines are well established but many published guidelines fall short of these basic quality criteria. Guidelines are only one aspect of improving quality and should be used within a wider framework of promoting clinical effectiveness. Understanding their limitations as well as their potential benefits should enable clinicians to have a clearer view of their place in everyday practice.

  1. Bone Marrow Adipocyte Developmental Origin and Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowska, Joanna; Frazier, Trivia; Smith, Stanley; Brown, Theodore; Bender, Robert; McCarthy, Michelle; Wu, Xiying; Bunnell, Bruce A; Gimble, Jeffrey M

    2018-06-01

    This review explores how the relationships between bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) adipogenesis with advancing age, obesity, and/or bone diseases (osteopenia or osteoporosis) contribute to mechanisms underlying musculoskeletal pathophysiology. Recent studies have re-defined adipose tissue as a dynamic, vital organ with functions extending beyond its historic identity restricted solely to that of an energy reservoir or sink. "State of the art" methodologies provide novel insights into the developmental origin, physiology, and function of different adipose tissue depots. These include genetic tracking of adipose progenitors, viral vectors application, and sophisticated non-invasive imaging modalities. While constricted within the rigid bone cavity, BMAT vigorously contributes to local and systemic metabolic processes including hematopoiesis, osteogenesis, and energy metabolism and undergoes dynamic changes as a function of age, diet, bone topography, or sex. These insights will impact future research and therapies relating to osteoporosis.

  2. Practice guidelines. Cookbook medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, J

    1994-08-01

    A large measure of the confusion and doubt currently being sowed in the ongoing debate over the advisability and effectiveness of practice guidelines is a matter of terminology. In deference to the wishes and fears of physicians, the term "requirements" is not used. But requirements they are. Their quality and the degree to which they are useful will depend on their level of detail and the degree to which they are based on positive outcomes. Regardless, attorneys and others will always view and use them as requirements.

  3. CAD-guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlechtendahl, E.G.; Lang-Lendorff, G.

    1982-10-01

    The CAD-guidelines (CAD = Computer Aided Design) contain rules for programming, structuring and documentation of programs. The standard deals with the structure of CAD-programs, their components, the programming-methods, the language etc. It describes what documents and references are necessary for a CAD-program. In order to gain a broad application of CAD criteria like portability and completeness of the documentation for an effective maintenance are as important as a transparent way of producing CAD-software. (orig.) [de

  4. [Developmental changes in visuospatial working memory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Makio; Takeuchi, Akihito; Morooka, Teruko; Ogino, Tatsuya; Ohtsuka, Yoko

    2010-07-01

    We investigated the developmental changes in visuospatial working memory using the Visuospatial Span Task (VST) and the Matrix Visuospatial Working Memory Test (VSWMT). VST is a short-term storage task, while VSWMT is a complex dual task. VSWMT requires the use of storage, processing, and selective attention, all of which are thought to be supported by the central executive (Baddeley). The subjects of this study were 60 typically developing children (43 boys and 17 girls) aged 6-14 years (average 10.4 years). For each task we evaluated span scores and the number of total passed trials, and investigated the changes that occurred with age. To further elucidate age-related changes in visuospatial working memory, we divided the subjects into three age groups (Group A: 6-8 years, Group B: 9-11 years, and Group C: 12-14 years of age), and statistically evaluated the differences between the groups. In both tasks, span scores and the number of total passed trials showed definite age-related changes from 6 to 14 years of age. Span scores and the number of total passed trials in VSMWT continued to increase until adolescence, with significant differences between the three age groups, while those in VST increased significantly between Groups A and B (the number of total passed trials only) and between Groups A and C (span scores and the number of total passed trials); there was no significant difference between Groups B and C, however. These results suggest that the network of the brain involved in visuospatial working memory gradually matures during early school years and adolescence, and that the basic mechanisms of this network exist by 6-7 years of age. Our results also show that VST and VSWMT are suitable tests for the evaluation of visuospatial working memory in childhood and adolescence.

  5. Computerizing clinical practice guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Karen Marie

    It is well described that hospitals have problems with sustaining high quality of care and expedient introduction of new medical knowledge. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have been promoted as a remedy to deal with these problems. It is, however, also well described that application and comp......It is well described that hospitals have problems with sustaining high quality of care and expedient introduction of new medical knowledge. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have been promoted as a remedy to deal with these problems. It is, however, also well described that application...... is comprised by fieldwork in three oncology departments and a case study of advanced life support. Although close to all patients within oncology are treated according to a CPG, I found limited application of physical CPGs and web-based CPG portals. However, I found comprehensive application of activity...... of the business strategic aims, and 3) analysis and formalization of CPGs. This will imply orchestration of design teams with competencies from a wide array of disciplines such as health practice, business management, knowledge management and information systems....

  6. [Anemia: guidelines comparison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    The development of recombinant human erythropoietin and its introduction into the market in the late 1980s has significantly improved the quality of life of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and reduced the need for blood transfusions. Starting from a cautious target, a progressive increase in the recommended hemoglobin levels has been observed over the years, in parallel with an increase in the obtained levels. This trend has gone together with the publication of findings of observational studies showing a relationship between the increase in hemoglobin levels and a reduction in the mortality risk, with the conduction of clinical trials testing the effects of complete anemia correction, and with the compilation of guidelines on anemia control in CKD patients by scientific societies and organizations. In the last two years, evidence of a possible increase in the mortality risk in those patients who were randomized to high hemoglobin levels has resulted in a decrease in the upper limit of the recommended Hb target to be obtained with erythropoietin stimulating agents (ESA), and consequently in a narrowing of the target range. Comparison of guidelines on anemia control in CKD patients is an interesting starting point to discuss single recommendations, strengthen their importance, or suggest new topics of research to fill up important gaps in knowledge.

  7. Postdoctoral program guidelines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teich-McGoldrick, Stephanie; Miller, Andrew W.; Sava, Dorina Florentina; Liu, Yanli; Ferreira, Summer Rhodes; Biedermann, Laura Butler; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Hall, Lisa Michelle; Liu, Xiaohua H.; Ekoto, Isaac

    2012-04-01

    We, the Postdoc Professional Development Program (PD2P) leadership team, wrote these postdoc guidelines to be a starting point for communication between new postdocs, their staff mentors, and their managers. These guidelines detail expectations and responsibilities of the three parties, as well as list relevant contacts. The purpose of the Postdoc Program is to bring in talented, creative people who enrich Sandia's environment by performing innovative R&D, as well as by stimulating intellectual curiosity and learning. Postdocs are temporary employees who come to Sandia for career development and advancement reasons. In general, the postdoc term is 1 year, renewable up to five times for a total of six years. However, center practices may vary; check with your manager. At term, a postdoc may apply for a staff position at Sandia or choose to move to university, industry or another lab. It is our vision that those who leave become long-term collaborators and advocates whose relationships with Sandia have a positive effect upon our national constituency.

  8. Interpersonal Problems and Developmental Trajectories of Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomquist, Kerstin K.; Ansell, Emily B.; White, Marney A.; Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore associations between specific interpersonal constructs and the developmental progression of behaviors leading to binge eating disorder (BED). Method Eighty-four consecutively evaluated, treatment-seeking obese (BMI ≥ 30) men and women with BED were assessed with structured diagnostic and clinical interviews and completed a battery of established measures to assess the current and developmental eating- and weight-related variables as well as interpersonal functioning. Results Using the interpersonal circumplex structural summary method, amplitude, elevation, the affiliation dimension, and the quadratic coefficient for the dominance dimension were associated with eating and weight-related developmental variables. The amplitude coefficient and more extreme interpersonal problems on the dominance dimension (quadratic)—i.e., problems with being extremely high (domineering) or low in dominance (submissive)—were significantly associated with ayounger age at onset of binge eating, BED, and overweight as well as accounted for significant variance in age at binge eating, BED, and overweight onset. Greater interpersonal problems with having an overly affiliative interpersonal style were significantly associated with, and accounted for significant variance in, ayounger age at diet onset. Discussion Findings provide further support for the importance of interpersonal problems among adults with BED and converge with recent work highlighting the importance of specific types of interpersonal problems for understanding heterogeneity and different developmental trajectories of individuals with BED. PMID:22727087

  9. Neurobehavioural effects of developmental toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Landrigan, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disabilities, including autism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, dyslexia, and other cognitive impairments, affect millions of children worldwide, and some diagnoses seem to be increasing in frequency. Industrial chemicals that injure the developing brain are among...... the known causes for this rise in prevalence. In 2006, we did a systematic review and identified five industrial chemicals as developmental neurotoxicants: lead, methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls, arsenic, and toluene. Since 2006, epidemiological studies have documented six additional developmental...... chemicals should not be presumed to be safe to brain development, and chemicals in existing use and all new chemicals must therefore be tested for developmental neurotoxicity. To coordinate these efforts and to accelerate translation of science into prevention, we propose the urgent formation of a new...

  10. DEVELOPMENTAL TAXONOMY OF CONDUCT DISORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Kostić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Conduct disorder is a heterogeneous disorder in terms of etiology, course and prognosis, and currently, there is no singular model that would describe the development of the disorder. The results of empirical research on males confirm this heterogeneity, as they point out to two possible developmental pathways: childhood-onset and adolescentonset type. This paper presents the basic elements of developmental taxonomic theory which argues that there are two different developmental pathways to conduct disorder which have different causes and serve as the basis for the current typology of conduct disorders in the classification systems. Such a typology of conduct disorders in the diagnostic classification allows better understanding, prognosis and choice of treatment.

  11. Developmental analytic view on narcissism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Matjan Štuhec

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Narcissistic pathology is connected to the pathology of the self. This article makes an overview of definitions of developmental analytic theories and stops with Kohut, Kernberg, Masterson, Auerbach and Mollon. The self is understood as a separate personality structure and has its own developmental line. Narcissism is a personality disorder that has its roots in preodipal developmental phases, mostly in the practicing and rapprochement subphase and in the oedipal phase as well. Recent research shows that the oedipal phase and the relation between the mother, the child's father (or her partner in general and the child is crucial for the maintenance of the pathological narcissism. Mothers who do not believe in a satisfying relationship with a man in general, keep the child in the dyadic position and do not support the development of the child's own identity.

  12. Developmental orthopaedic diseases in foals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Şİrİn, Özlem; Alkan, Zeki

    2010-01-01

    Developmental Orthopaedic Diseases (DOD) is seen frequently in horses which completed their maturity. Osteochondrosis, physitis, angular limb deformities, flexural deformities, juvenil arthritis, cervical vertebral anomalies, cuboidal bone abnormalities are problems investigated under Developmental Orthopaedic Diseases title. This diseases can develop single or some together in fast growing, heavy animals (especially Arabian and English Thoroughbreds). Multifactorial causes of this diseases etiopathogenesis can be listed as genetic predisposition, trauma, nutrition, vitamins/minerals and endocrine disorders. But the exact causes of these diseases are not known. In this review detailed information are given about the diseases mentioned above

  13. Spelling performance of students with developmental dyslexia and with developmental dyslexia associated to attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Débora Cristina; Casella, Erasmo Barbante; Ferraro, Alexandre Arcanjo

    2016-04-01

    Purpose to analyze and classify the spelling performance according to the semiology of spelling error of children with developmental dyslexia (DD) and with developmental dyslexia associated to attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity(DD and ADHD) comparing them to a group of children without learning process complaints. Methods Seventy students, from the third to fifth grade, participated in this study divided as follows: 32 children without complaints of learning difficulties (GI), mean age 9.5 years; 22 students with developmental dyslexia (GII), mean age 10 years; 16 scholars with developmental dyslexia associated to attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity (GIII), mean age 9.9. Spelling skills were assessed through a standardized word dictation task. Results Data indicated that GII and GIII children presented lower performance when compared with typically developed children. There was no statistical difference between the performance of GII and GIII children regarding the score reached in spelling, although GIII children presented the lowest performance. We observed differences between GII and GIII only in the type of misspelling. Conclusion Data from this research contribute to develop better programs for intervention in the studied population.

  14. Autism in community pre-schoolers: developmental profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantzer, Anne-Katrin; Fernell, Elisabeth; Gillberg, Christopher; Miniscalco, Carmela

    2013-09-01

    Autism is often a complex developmental disorder. The aim of the present study was to describe the developmental characteristics of 129 1-4-year-old children (102 boys, 27 girls) referred for clinical assessment (mean age 2.9 years) due to suspicion of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) after community screening at Child Health Care centers. All children were clinically assessed at the Child Neuropsychiatry Clinic (CNC) in Gothenburg by a research team (neurodevelopmental examination, structured interviews and general cognitive and language examinations). Of the 129 children, 100 met diagnostic criteria for ASD (69 with autistic disorder, and 31 with atypical autism/pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified). The remaining 29 children had a variety of developmental disorders, most often attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), language disorder, borderline intellectual functioning, and intellectual developmental disorder (IDD) with (n=25) or without (n=4) autistic traits (AT). IDD was found in 36% of the 100 children with ASD, and in 4% of the 25 children with AT. Of the children with ASD, 56% had language disorder with no or just a few words at the initial assessment at the CNC, many of whom in combination with IDD. Hyperactivity was found in 37% of those with ASD and in 40% of those with AT. Epilepsy was found in 6% of the total group and in 7% of those with a diagnosis of ASD. Of the latter group 11% had a history of regression, while none of the AT cases had a similar background. When results were compared with a non-screened preschool ASD group of 208 children, referred for ASD intervention at a mean age of 3.4 years, very similar developmental profiles were seen. In conclusion, early community ASD screening appears to systematically identify those children who are in need of intervention and follow-up. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Water chemistry guidelines for BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilanin, W.J.; Jones, R.L.; Welty, C.S.

    1984-01-01

    Guidelines for BWR water chemistry control have been prepared by a committee of experienced utility industry personnel sponsored by the BWR Owners Group on IGSCC Research and coordinated by the Electric Power Research Institute. The guidelines are based on extensive plant operational experience and laboratory research data. The purpose of the guidelines is to provide guidance to the electric utility industry on water chemistry control to help reduce corrosion, especially stress corrosion cracking, in boiling water reactors

  16. Olympic emblem guidelines: London 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    These guidelines issued by the London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games Ltd (“LOCOG”) provide standards, requirements and guidelines for use of the London 2012 Olympic Games Emblem (the “Emblem”) by LOCOG and the International Olympic Committee (IOC) creative, marketing and communications personnel, agencies and consultants only who are authorised to use the London 2012 marks. The purpose of these guidelines is to preserve and enhance the value of the Emblem for t...

  17. Cost analysis guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    The first phase of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program (Program)--management strategy selection--consists of several program elements: Technology Assessment, Engineering Analysis, Cost Analysis, and preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Cost Analysis will estimate the life-cycle costs associated with each of the long-term management strategy alternatives for depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6). The scope of Cost Analysis will include all major expenditures, from the planning and design stages through decontamination and decommissioning. The costs will be estimated at a scoping or preconceptual design level and are intended to assist decision makers in comparing alternatives for further consideration. They will not be absolute costs or bid-document costs. The purpose of the Cost Analysis Guidelines is to establish a consistent approach to analyzing of cost alternatives for managing Department of Energy's (DOE's) stocks of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6). The component modules that make up the DUF6 management program differ substantially in operational maintenance, process-options, requirements for R and D, equipment, facilities, regulatory compliance, (O and M), and operations risk. To facilitate a consistent and equitable comparison of costs, the guidelines offer common definitions, assumptions or basis, and limitations integrated with a standard approach to the analysis. Further, the goal is to evaluate total net life-cycle costs and display them in a way that gives DOE the capability to evaluate a variety of overall DUF6 management strategies, including commercial potential. The cost estimates reflect the preconceptual level of the designs. They will be appropriate for distinguishing among management strategies

  18. SARIS Guidelines. 2014 Ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The IAEA fundamental safety principles provide the basis for IAEA safety standards and IAEA related programmes. IAEA safety standards reflect an international consensus on what constitutes a high level of safety for protecting people and the environment, and therefore represent what all regulators should achieve. These standards, in particular IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 1, Governmental, Legal and Regulatory Framework for Safety, provide the basics for establishing, maintaining and continuously improving the governmental, legal and regulatory framework for safety. Additional IAEA requirements and guidance, such as the IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 3 (Interim), Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards, and IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-3, The Management System for Facilities and Activities, are also used to establish and develop the national infrastructure for safety and for establishing and implementing a management system. Assessment of the regulatory framework for safety with respect to the IAEA safety standards can be made either through an external review or through internal self-assessment. Self-assessment offers a mechanism by which an organization can assess its performance against established standards and models and thereby identify areas for improvement. The IAEA has developed a methodology and tool for Self-assessment of the Regulatory Infrastructure for Safety (SARIS), to assist States in undertaking self-assessment of their national safety framework in accordance with the requirements and recommendations of the IAEA safety standards, and to develop an action plan for improvement. The IAEA self-assessment methodology and the associated tools are fully compatible with the IAEA safety standards and are also used in the preparation for regulatory review missions, such as the Integrated Regulatory Review Service and advisory missions. These guidelines have been developed to

  19. Tracing developmental trajectories of oppositional defiant behaviors in preschool children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Ezpeleta

    Full Text Available Previous studies on developmental trajectories have used ad hoc definitions of oppositional defiant behaviors (ODB, which makes it difficult to compare results. This article defines developmental trajectories of ODB from ages 3-5 based on five different standard measurements derived from three separate instruments.A sample of 622 three-year-old preschoolers, followed up at ages 4, 5, and 6, was assessed with the five measures of oppositionality answered by parents and teachers. Growth-Mixture-Modeling (GMM estimated separate developmental trajectories for each ODB measure for ages 3 to 5.The number of classes-trajectories obtained in each GMM depended on the ODB measure, but two clear patterns emerged: four trajectories (persistent low, decreasers, increasers/high increasers, persistent moderate/persistent high or three trajectories (persistent low, decreasers, increasers/high increasers. Persistent high trajectories accounted for 4.4%-9.5% of the children. The trajectories emerging from the different ODB measures at ages 3 to 5 discriminated disruptive disorders, comorbidity, use of services, and impairment at age 6, and globally showed a similar pattern, summarizing longitudinal information on oppositionality in preschool children in a similar way.Trajectories resulting from standard scales of the questionnaires have predictive validity for identifying relevant clinical outcomes, but are measure-specific. The results contribute to knowledge about the development of ODB in preschool children.

  20. Interoception and psychopathology: A developmental neuroscience perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jennifer; Brewer, Rebecca; Catmur, Caroline; Bird, Geoffrey

    2017-02-01

    Interoception refers to the perception of the physiological condition of the body, including hunger, temperature, and heart rate. There is a growing appreciation that interoception is integral to higher-order cognition. Indeed, existing research indicates an association between low interoceptive sensitivity and alexithymia (a difficulty identifying one's own emotion), underscoring the link between bodily and emotional awareness. Despite this appreciation, the developmental trajectory of interoception across the lifespan remains under-researched, with clear gaps in our understanding. This qualitative review and opinion paper provides a brief overview of interoception, discussing its relevance for developmental psychopathology, and highlighting measurement issues, before surveying the available work on interoception across four stages of development: infancy, childhood, adolescence and late adulthood. Where gaps in the literature addressing the development of interoception exist, we draw upon the association between alexithymia and interoception, using alexithymia as a possible marker of atypical interoception. Evidence indicates that interoceptive ability varies across development, and that this variance correlates with established age-related changes in cognition and with risk periods for the development of psychopathology. We suggest a theory within which atypical interoception underlies the onset of psychopathology and risky behaviour in adolescence, and the decreased socio-emotional competence observed in late adulthood. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.