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Sample records for development yields fresh

  1. Genetic by environment interaction on fresh root yield, dry matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eighteen yellow-fleshed cassava genotypes and two released white-fleshed clones (check) were evaluated in five locations representing the major cassava growing agroecological zones of Nigeria to access their performance for fresh root yield, dry matter content, total carotene content and genotypes by environment ...

  2. Nutritional yield: a proposed index for fresh food improvement illustrated with leafy vegetable data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumgarner, Natalie R; Scheerens, Joseph C; Kleinhenz, Matthew D

    2012-09-01

    Consumer interest in food products, including fresh vegetables, with health promoting properties is rising. In fresh vegetables, these properties include vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, and secondary compounds, which collectively impart a large portion of the dietary, nutritional or health value associated with vegetable intake. Many, including farmers, aim to increase the health-promoting properties of fresh vegetables on the whole but they face at least three obstacles. First, describing crop composition in terms of its nutrition-based impact on human health is complex and there are few, if any, accepted processes and associated metrics for assessing and managing vegetable composition on-farm, at the origin of supply. Second, data suggest that primary and secondary metabolism can be 'in conflict' when establishing the abundance versus composition of a crop. Third, fresh vegetable farmers are rarely compensated for the phytochemical composition of their product. The development and implementation of a fresh vegetable 'nutritional yield' index could be instrumental in overcoming these obstacles. Nutritional yield is a function of crop biomass and tissue levels of health-related metabolites, including bioavailable antioxidant potential. Data from a multi-factor study of leaf lettuce primary and secondary metabolism and the literature suggest that antioxidant yield is sensitive to genetic and environmental production factors, and that changes in crop production and valuation will be required for fresh vegetable production systems to become more focused and purposeful instruments of public health.

  3. Innovations in research: Taking a fresh look at old problems yields ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-27

    Innovations in research: Taking a fresh look at old problems yields greater benefits for communities. October 27, 2010. Image. Family stands in a field of maize in Malwai. IDRC Communications. LASTING IMPACTS. Building knowledge and using it to improve lives across the developing world has always been central to ...

  4. Developing the california fresh fig industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fig (Ficus carica), one of the first cultivated trees in the world, is grown in most of the of the world’s moderate climates. However, fresh figs are highly sensitive to physical damage, and susceptible to postharvest infections which cause high losses during marketing. Preharvest orchard and po...

  5. Sweet corn (Zea mays L.: Fresh ear yield in dependance of genotype and the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srdić Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet corn is used as food in the milky stage of endosperm, when its kernel is tender, succulent and sweet. It is consumed in form of fresh ears, or it is industrially processed. Breeding of sweet corn has several equally important aims that are directed by the market demands and different modes of consumption. The ear yield, in sweet corn is the most important but not the only main goal of breeding. In the two year study (2013, 2014 we observed the effect of the genotype, year and their interactions on the yields of 8 sweet corn hybrids. Two of the hybrids were commercial and six were experimental hybrids. The field experiment was arranged according to the RCBD with four replications. Hybrids were harvested 23 days after pollination, i.e. silking. Average yield in 2013 was significantly higher (12.19 t ha-1 than in 2014 (11.49 t ha- 1. In 2013 it ranged from 10.21 t ha-1 for the experimental hybrid ZP 489/1su, up to 13.52 t ha-1 for the commercial hybrid ZP 355su. In 2014 the lowest yielding hybrid was ZP 485/1su (10.14 t ha-1 while the highest yielding was ZP 486/1su (13.41 t ha-1. On average those two were also the highest (13.19 t ha-1 and the lowest yielding (10.66 t ha-1 hybrids. Statistical analysis showed that the effect of genotype and the year, as well as their interactions had significant impact on the yield performances of sweet corn hybrids.

  6. Improving the yield of fresh water in conventional solar still using low cost energy storage material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris Samuel, D.G.; Nagarajan, P.K.; Sathyamurthy, Ravishankar; El-Agouz, S.A.; Kannan, E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Yield of fresh water from conventional solar still is improved by salt heat energy storage. • Experiments are conducted to analyze the performance. • Payback period of present model with salt heat energy storage is 4 months. - Abstract: As there is a larger need for drinking water, expensive methodologies are employed in order to get portable drinking water. This work aims at improving the yield of freshwater from a conventional solar still using the different low-cost energy storage material. Theoretical and experimental studies are carried out to analyze the performance of a single slope solar still. From this study, it is observed that the yield of freshwater from the solar still with spherical ball salt storage achieves the maximum yield of 3.7 kg/m 2 as compared to a conventional single slope solar still with sponge and without any storage material as 2.7 and 2.2 kg/m 2 respectively. The deviations between theoretical and experimental values for with spherical ball salt storage, with sponge and conventional solar still are found as 16.1%, 9.7% and 4.0% respectively. Payback period of the present solar still is found as 4.3 months as it is quicker than other conventional single slope solar still. Finally, single slope solar still with spherical ball heat storage gives low cost of water.

  7. Effects of Hydrological Parameters on Palm Oil Fresh Fruit Bunch Yield)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nda, M.; Adnan, M. S.; Suhadak, M. A.; Zakaria, M. S.; Lopa, R. T.

    2018-04-01

    Climate change effects and variability have been studied by many researchers in diverse geophysical fields. Malaysia produces large volume of palm oil, the effects of climate change on hydrological parameters (rainfall and precipitation) could have adverse effects on palm oil fresh fruit bunch (FFB) production with implications at both local and international market. It is important to understand the effects of climate change on crop yield to adopt new cultivation techniques and guaranteeing food security globally. Based on this background, the paper’s objective is to investigate the effects of rainfall and temperature pattern on crop yield (FFB) within five years period (2013 - 2017) at Batu Pahat District. The Man - Kendall rank technique (trend test) and statistical analyses (correlation and regression) were applied to the dataset used for the study. The results reveal that there are variabilities in rainfall and temperature from one month to the other and the statistical analysis reveals that the hydrological parameters have an insignificant effect on crop yield.

  8. Genotype × environment interaction effects on early fresh storage root yield and related traits in cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robooni Tumuhimbise

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz is an important root crop worldwide. It exhibits substantial differential genotypic responses to varying environmental conditions, a phenomenon termed genotype × environment interaction (GEI. A significant GEI presents challenges in the selection of superior genotypes. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of genotype, environment and GEI on early fresh storage root yield (FSRY and related traits in cassava. Accordingly, 12 cassava genotypes were evaluated in a randomised complete block design at three contrasting locations (Jinja, Nakasongola and Namulonge in Uganda. Trials were harvested nine months after planting and the data collected were analysed using the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI model. The AMMI analysis of variance showed significant variation among genotypes for early FSRY and all other traits assessed. Locations were significantly different for all traits except for cassava brown streak disease root necrosis. The GEI effect was non-significant for early FSRY, but significant for other traits. For early FSRY, 48.5% of the treatment sum of squares was attributable to genotypes, 27.3% to environments, and 24.1% to GEI, indicating a predominance of genotypic variation for this trait. Predominance of genotypic variation was also observed for all the other traits. A majority of the genotypes (67% had low interaction effects with locations for early FSRY, with Akena, CT2, CT4 and NASE14 being the most stable genotypes for the trait. Significant negative correlation was observed between cassava mosaic disease severity and early FSRY and storage root number, indicating significant negative effects of cassava mosaic disease on early FSRY and stability in cassava. The information generated will inform future selection initiatives for superior early-yielding cassava genotypes combining resistance to cassava mosaic and brown streak diseases in Uganda.

  9. Fresh insights | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-08

    Jul 8, 2011 ... An examination of economic development and fiscal transfers at the county level found huge disparities across China, with fiscal disparities showing a persistent upward trend (Yin Heng, Beijing Normal University). A project now underway is gathering new evidence to support policy recommendations to ...

  10. Fertilization and Embryo Development of Fresh and Cryopreserved Sibling Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert F. Casper

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oocyte cryopreservation is potentially the best way to preserve female fertility forunmarried women or young girls at risk of losing ovarian function. The aim of this study was tocompare fertilization and embryo development in frozen-thawed oocytes to their fresh siblings inwomen undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF and embryo transfer (ET.Materials and Methods: Eleven infertile women undergoing infertility treatment, between theages of 24 to 37 years (mean ± SD = 31.6 ± 3.5, were included in this study. Mature oocytesfrom each patient were randomized into cryopreserved and fresh groups prior to intracytoplasmicsperm injection (ICSI. One hundred and thirty nine oocytes were retrieved, of which 105 were atmetaphase II (MII. Forty- five fresh MII oocytes were kept in culture whereas their sibling 60 MIIoocytes were cryopreserved using a slow cooling protocol. The frozen oocytes remained in LN2for 2 hours before thawing. ICSI was performed 1-2 hours after thawing for frozen oocytes and 4-5hours after retrieval for fresh oocytes. Fertilization and embryo development were compared.Results: Following thawing, 31 oocytes (51.6 % survived and 22 fertilized (79% while 32 freshoocytes fertilized upon ICSI (71%. The mean ± SE scores for embryos developing from frozenthawedoocytes were significantly lower at 48 and 72 hours post-ICSI than for embryos resultingfrom fresh oocytes (p<0.05.Conclusion: Our data demonstrated that oocyte freezing resulted in acceptable survival ratesfollowing cryopreservation, and similar fertilization rates following ICSI as compared to the freshsibling oocytes. However the number of blastomeres and the embryo quality on day three wassuperior in embryos from fresh oocytes when compared to the frozen oocytes.

  11. The effect of different sowing depths on fresh ear yield and some ear characteristics of sweet corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Atar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted with aim to investigate effect on fresh ear yield and some ear characteristics of sweet corn of sowing at different depths during 2015 and 2016 years in Isparta. The experiments were set up according to randomized complete block design with three replicates using BATEM TATLI sweet corn cultivar. Furrows were opened at depths of 10 and 20 cm after the soil preparation, and seeds were sown in the 4-5 cm depth in to these furrows. According to means of years, while furrow sowing increased ear diameter, ear weigh, number of kernels per ear and fresh ear yield compared to control, it was not effect on ear length. In the research, between 10 cm and 20 cm furrow sowing wasn’t significant statistically. Fresh ear yield in control, 10 cm and 20 cm furrow sowing were measured as 1110.9 kg ha-1 , 1228.4 kg ha-1 and 1289.4 kg ha-1 , respectively. According to results of research, 5 cm deep sowing in 10 cm furrows should be advised in sweet corn cultivation.

  12. Feeding Moringa oleifera fresh or ensiled to dairy cows--effects on milk yield and milk flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendieta-Araica, Bryan; Spörndly, Eva; Reyes-Sánchez, Nadir; Spörndly, Rolf

    2011-06-01

    Moringa oleifera, either fresh or ensiled, was compared with Elephant grass as a main feedstuff for dairy cows. To test the effects feed had on milk yield, milk composition, ration digestibility, and the organoleptic characteristics of milk, six lactating dairy cows were used in a Changeover 3 × 3 Latin Square experiment, replicated twice. With equal intake of metabolizable energy the intake of protein and fiber differed (p ensiled Moringa had higher digestibility (P < 0.05) of both protein and fiber. With the exception of DM digestibility, no digestibility differences were found between fresh Moringa and Moringa silage treatments. Milk yield did not differ between any of the treatments and averaged 13.7 kg cow day(-1). Milk composition was similar among all treatments. Milk from the fresh Moringa treatment, however, had a grassy flavor and aroma, significantly different from the other two treatments, even though it was normal in color and appearance. No organoleptic differences were found between milk from the control treatment and the Moringa silage treatment. The conclusion is that Moringa silage can be fed to dairy cows in large quantities to produce the same quantity and quality of milk as traditional diets.

  13. Colored Mulches Affect Yield of Fresh-market Tomato Infected with Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Fortnum, B. A.; Decoteau, D. R.; Kasperbauer, M. J.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of different-colored polyethylene mulches on the quantity and spectra of reflected light, earliness of fruit set, fruit yield and quality, and root-knot disease were studied in field-grown, staked tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). White mulch reflected more photosynthetic light and a lower far-red-to-red ratio than red mulch, whereas black mulch reflected less than 5 percent of any color. Soil temperatures and fruit yields were recorded for tomato plants inoculated with Meloidogyn...

  14. Nutrient solution aeration and growing cycles affect quality and yield of fresh-cut baby leaf red lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Encarnación Conesa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the effects of nutrient solution aeration [no aeration (NA, low aeration (LA or high aeration (HA] and growing cycle (autumn, winter and summer on the yield, quality, and shelf life of red lettuce as a fresh-cut product grown in a floating system. The specific leaf area, yield and root diameter were affected by the growing cycle. The percentage of dry matter and the nitrate content were affected by growing cycle and aeration, total phenolics and mesophilic microorganism by aeration and storage time, hue angle and chromacity by growing cycle and storage time, and antioxidant capacity, vitamin C, lightness and psychrophilic microorganisms were affected by all three factors. NA conditions increased the antioxidant capacity in summer and vitamin C content in winter. The lowest mesophilic and psychrophilic count was observed in autumn. The effect of aeration on most of the quality parameters measured was influenced by the growing cycle.

  15. Development of fresh fuel packaging for ATR demonstration reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurakami, J.; Kurita, I.

    1993-01-01

    Related to development of the demonstration advanced thermal reactor, it is necessary and important to develop transport packaging which is used for transporting fresh fuel assemblies. Therefore, the packaging is now being developed in Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). Currently, PNC is fabricating two prototype packagings based on the final design, and land cruising and vibration tests, handling performance tests and prototype packaging tests will be executed with prototype packagings in order to experimentally confirm the soundness of packaging and its contents and the propriety of design technique. This paper describes the summary of general specifications and structures of this packaging and the summary of preliminary safety analysis of package. (J.P.N.)

  16. Development of high yielding mutants in lentil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, M.A.; Sarwar, G.; Siddiqui, K.A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) locally known as Masoor, is the second most important rabi pulse crop, after chickpea, in Pakistan. It is cultivated on an area of over 63,400 ha, which constitutes about 4.83% of the total area under pulses. The annual production of the crop is 28,200 tones with an average yield of 445 kg/ha. Yield at the national level is very low, about one-half of the world's yield, which is mainly due to non-availability of high yield potential genotypes. Keeping in view the importance of mutants in developing a large number of new varieties, an induced mutations programme was initiated at AEARC, Tandojam during 1987-88, to develop high yielding varieties in lentil. For this, seeds of two lentil varieties, 'Masoor-85' and 'ICARDA-8' had been irradiated with gamma-rays ranging from 100-600 Gy in NIAB, Faisalabad during 1990. Selections were made in M2 on the basis of earliness, plant height, branches/plant and 100 grain weight. After confirming these mutants in M3 they were promoted in station yield trials and studied continuously for three consecutive years (1993- 1995). Overall results revealed that these mutants have consistent improvement of earliness in flowering and maturity. Plant height also increased in all mutant lines except AEL 23/40/91 where reduction in this attribute was observed as compared to parent variety. Mutant lines AEL 49/20/91 and AEL 13/30/91 showed improvement in 100 grain weight. The improvement of some agronomic characters enhanced the yield of mutant lines in comparison to parent varieties (Masoor-85 and ICARDA-8). The diversity in yield over the respective parents was computed from 6.94 to 60.12%. From these encouraging results it is hoped that mutant lines like AEL 12/30/91 and AEL 49/20/91 may serve as potential lentil genotypes in future. (author)

  17. Yield and composition of oil from japanese cornmint fresh and dry material harvested successively

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of harvest time and drying on Mentha canadensis L. cvs. ‘Arvensis 2’ and ‘Arvensis 3’. Biomass yields were high and comparable to those reported in the literature. ‘Arvensis 2’ had greater oil content than ‘Arvensis 3’, while ‘Arvensis 3’ had h...

  18. Excitation-emission spectra and fluorescence quantum yields for fresh and aged biogenic secondary organic aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun Ji; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.

    2013-05-10

    Certain biogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOA) become absorbent and fluorescent when exposed to reduced nitrogen compounds such as ammonia, amines and their salts. Fluorescent SOA may potentially be mistaken for biological particles by detection methods relying on fluorescence. This work quantifies the spectral distribution and effective quantum yields of fluorescence of SOA generated from two monoterpenes, limonene and a-pinene, and two different oxidants, ozone (O3) and hydroxyl radical (OH). The SOA was generated in a smog chamber, collected on substrates, and aged by exposure to ~100 ppb ammonia vapor in air saturated with water vapor. Absorption and excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra of aqueous extracts of aged and control SOA samples were measured, and the effective absorption coefficients and fluorescence quantum yields (~0.005 for 349 nm excitation) were determined from the data. The strongest fluorescence for the limonene-derived SOA was observed for excitation = 420+- 50 nm and emission = 475 +- 38 nm. The window of the strongest fluorescence shifted to excitation = 320 +- 25 nm and emission = 425 +- 38 nm for the a-pinene-derived SOA. Both regions overlap with the excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra of some of the fluorophores found in primary biological aerosols. Our study suggests that, despite the low quantum yield, the aged SOA particles should have sufficient fluorescence intensities to interfere with the fluorescence detection of common bioaerosols.

  19. Recent developments in smart freezing technology applied to fresh foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ji-Cheng; Zhang, Min; Mujumdar, Arun S; Adhikari, Benu

    2017-09-02

    Due to the increased awareness of consumers in sensorial and nutritional quality of frozen foods, the freezing technology has to seek new and innovative technologies for better retaining the fresh like quality of foods. In this article, we review the recent developments in smart freezing technology applied to fresh foods. The application of these intelligent technologies and the associated underpinning concepts have greatly improved the quality of frozen foods and the freezing efficiency. These technologies are able to automatically collect the information in-line during freezing and help control the freezing process better. Smart freezing technology includes new and intelligent technologies and concepts applied to the pretreatment of the frozen product, freezing processes, cold chain logistics as well as warehouse management. These technologies enable real-time monitoring of quality during the freezing process and help improve product quality and freezing efficiency. We also provide a brief overview of several sensing technologies used to achieve automatic control of individual steps of freezing process. These sensing technologies include computer vision, electronic nose, electronic tongue, digital simulation, confocal laser, near infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance technology and ultrasound. Understanding of the mechanism of these new technologies will be helpful for applying them to improve the quality of frozen foods.

  20. Development of analytical methods for iodine speciation in fresh water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaku, Yuichi; Ohtsuka, Yoshihito; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2007-01-01

    Analytical methods for physicochemical speciation of iodine in fresh water samples were developed to elucidate its behavior in the environment. The methods combined inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (SEC) or capillary electrophoresis (CE). Freshwater samples were collected from Lake Towada and rivers surrounding the lake. After filtration through a 0.45 μm pore size membrane filter, iodine in the water samples was pre-concentrated with an ultra-filtration filter which had a cut-off size of 10 kDa. The fraction with molecular size over 10 kDa was concentrated to 100 times in the original water, and then introduced into the SEC-ICP-MS. Molecular size chromatograms of all river and lake water samples showed two peaks for iodine concentrations: 40 kDa and 20 kDa. The method for separately determining two valence states of inorganic iodine, I - and IO 3 - , was also developed using the CE-ICP-MS system and it was successfully applied to the fresh water samples. Analysis results of surface water samples in Lake Towada and rivers surrounding the lake indicated that the chemical form of inorganic iodine in all samples was IO 3 - . Additional lake water samples were collected from Lake O-ike-higashi in the Juni-ko area at Shirakami-Sanchi, which is a UNESCO natural world heritage. The lake has a strong thermocline during all seasons; its bottom layer is in a highly reductive state. Depth profiles of I - and IO 3 - clearly showed that I - was not detected in the surface layer, but it was predominant in the bottom layer, and vice versa for IO 3 - . As this separation method is rapid and sensitive, it will be widely used in the future. (author)

  1. Recent Developments in Film and Gas Research in Modified Atmosphere Packaging of Fresh Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Meng, Xiangyong; Bhandari, Bhesh; Fang, Zhongxiang

    2016-10-02

    Due to the rise of consumer's awareness of fresh foods to health, in the past few years, the consumption of fresh and fresh-cut produces has increased sturdily. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) possesses a potential to become one of the most appropriate technologies for packaging fresh and fresh-cut produces. The MAP has advantages of extending the shelf-life, preserving or stabilizing the desired properties of fresh produces, and convenience in handing and distribution. The success of MAP-fresh foods depends on many factors including types of fresh foods, storage temperature and humidity, gas composition, and the characteristics of package materials. This paper reviews the recent developments highlighting the most critical factors of film and gas on the quality of MAP fresh foods. Although the innovations and development of food packaging technology will continue to promote the development of novel MAP, concentrated research and endeavors from scientists and engineers are still important to the development of MAP that focuses on consumers' requirements, enhancing product quality, environmental friendly design, and cost-effective application.

  2. ACC oxidase and miRNA 159a, and their involvement in fresh fruit bunch yield (FFB) via sex ratio determination in oil palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somyong, Suthasinee; Poopear, Supannee; Sunner, Supreet Kaur; Wanlayaporn, Kitti; Jomchai, Nukoon; Yoocha, Thippawan; Ukoskit, Kittipat; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Tragoonrung, Somvong

    2016-06-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineesis Jacq.) is the most productive oil-bearing crop, yielding more oil per area than any other oil-bearing crops. However, there are still efforts to improve oil palm yield, in order to serve consumer and manufacturer demand. Oil palm produces female and male inflorescences in an alternating cycle. So, high sex ratio (SR), the ratio of female inflorescences to the total inflorescences, is a favorable trait in term of increasing yields in oil palm. This study aims to understand the genetic control for SR related traits, such as fresh fruit bunch yield (FFB), by characterizing genes at FFB quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on linkage 10 (chromosome 6) and linkage 15 (chromosome 10). Published oil palm sequences at the FFB QTLs were used to develop gene-based and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We used the multiple QTL analysis model (MQM) to characterize the relationship of new markers with the SR traits in the oil palm population. The RNA expression of the most linked QTL genes was also evaluated in various tissues of oil palm. We identified EgACCO1 (encoding aminocyclopropane carboxylate (ACC) oxidase) at chromosome 10 and EgmiR159a (microRNA 159a) at chromosome 6 to be the most linked QTL genes or determinants for FFB yield and/or female inflorescence number with a phenotype variance explained (PVE) from 10.4 to 15 % and suggest that these play the important roles in sex determination and differentiation in oil palm. The strongest expression of EgACCO1 and the predicted precursor of EgmiR159a was found in ovaries and, to a lesser extent, fruit development. In addition, highly normalized expression of EgmiR159a was found in female flowers. In summary, the QTL analysis and the RNA expression reveal that EgACCO1 and EgmiR159a are the potential genetic factors involved in female flower determination and hence would affect yield in oil palm. However, to clarify how these genetic factors regulate female flower determination, more investigation

  3. THE ACCOUNT OF DEVELOPMENT OF CROATIAN FRESH-WATER FISHERIES IN THE PERIOD 1938.-1995.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Turk

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The data on the production of fresh-water fish according to their categories; the data on pounds ackerage; fish yields per acre and needed reproductive fish amounts (fry for production of consumption fish have been presented in this account.

  4. Development of process control for the irradiation of fresh mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabalfin, E.G.; Lanuza, L.G.; Maningas, A.L.; Solomon, H.M.; Madera, G.G.; Pares, F.A.

    2001-01-01

    Dose distribution studies in mangoes contained in boxes used in commercial trade for export, were done using the multipurpose irradiation facility at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute. The mangoes were irradiated at a target dose of 100 Gy, the dose required for quarantine treatment of fresh mangoes against fruitflies. Positions of minimum dose and maximum dose were identified and dose uniformity ratio was determined. Fricke and Gammachrome YR dosimeters were used for the dose distribution studies. The performance of STERIN threshold indicators was evaluated by irradiating them at different doses. STERIN 125 indicators were also attached to the surface of the mango boxes during the dose distribution studies. STERIN indicators can be useful to differentiate between irradiated and unirradiated products. (author)

  5. The application dosage of Azolla pinnata in fresh and powder form as organic fertilizer on soil chemical properties, growth and yield of rice plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawati, Mieke Rochimi; Damayani, Maya; Herdiyantoro, Diyan; Suryatmana, Pujawati; Anggraini, Derisfha; Khumairah, Fiqriah Hanum

    2018-02-01

    The yield of rice plants is strongly influenced by N fertilizer. Nitrogen in rice plants has roles in vegetative growth, tiller formation and increasing yield through rice protein formation. Nitrogen supplied from organic fertilizers is better than inorganic fertilizers that may have environmental problem effects. Organic fertilizers from Azolla pinnata water fern contain higher N than other organic fertilizers. Symbiosis between A. pinnata and the N-fixing cyanobacteria results in high content of nitrogen, 3 to 5%. A. pinnata can be added to the rice field as organic fertilizer in form of fresh biomass or composted. Composted form can be ground into powder which passes through 100 mesh sieve. Preparation of compost powder of A. pinnata is done to reduce the constraints of voluminous application of organic fertilizers and to improve the efficiency of its use. The objective of this research was to compare the effect of the use of fresh A. pinnata and compost powder of A. pinnata on some soil and plant chemical properties and rice yield. The treatments applied were fresh A. pinnata at the dose of 0, 10 and 20 ton ha-1 and A. pinnata compost powder at 12.5 and 25 kg ha-1. The results showed that incorporation of fresh A. pinnata at 20 tons ha-1 and its compost powder at 25 kg ha-1 increased the available P of soil, plant P content and tiller number, but did not affect the content of organic-C, total soil N, plant N content and rice yield. This study suggested the benefits of A. pinnata compost powder technology in organic fertilization of soil to increase the nutrient content of soil and rice plants.

  6. The influence of non-living mulch, mechanical and thermal treatments on weed population and yield of rainfed fresh-market tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fontanelli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Weed control is often a major limitation for vegetable crops, since compared to arable crops fewer herbicides are available and the crops are more sensitive to weeds. Field experiments were carried out in the province of Pisa (Central Italy to determine the effect of two different mulches (black biodegradable plastic film and wheat straw and mechanical and thermal treatments on weed population and yield of rain-fed fresh market tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.. Rolling harrow, flaming machine and precision hoe for weed control, which were either built, enhanced or modified by the University of Pisa were used separately (mechanical-thermal strategy or in combination with a straw mulch (mechanical-thermal-straw strategy. These two innovative strategies were compared with the traditional farming system, which uses a biodegradable plastic mulch film. The strategies were compared in terms of machine performance, weed density, total labour requirement, weed dry biomass, and crop fresh yield at harvest. The total operative time for weed control was on average ~25 h ha-1 for the two systems, which included mulching, and over 30 h ha-1 for the mechanical-thermal strategy. The three strategies controlled weeds effectively, with only 30 g m-2 in each treatment. Tomato yield, however, was 35% higher for strategies that included mulching (both biodegradable film and straw.

  7. Supervisory selection and development yields payback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubino, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    The selection and development of first line supervisors is a critical factor in a strategic effort to bring about organizational change, to improve performance and productivity and to enhance professionalism in the work force. Candidates for first line supervisory positions at Philadelphia Electric Company are no longer promoted purely on the basis of seniority. A Supervisory Selection Assessment Center permits candidates to demonstrate leadership potential. Successful candidates then attend an eight week Supervisory Development Academy, away from the work place. On successful completion of the Academy, the supervisor assembles his or her work team and, with training and leadership, shapes a performance based work team ready to plan, execute and assess its own work. Since this radically different program was initiated in September, 1989, results have been highly acclaimed by management. Contractor support has been sharply reduced, budgets have been met and reduced more work has been accomplished and fewer overtime hours have been needed. Workers attend training with no loss of team productivity. Each SDA graduate and his team sets goals to improve quality, increase productivity, increase efficiency, maintain ALARA, improve safety and effect cultural change while improving job satisfaction and morale

  8. An investigation of age and yield of fresh fruit bunches of oil palm based on ALOS PALSAR 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmawan, S.; Takeuchi, W.; Haryati, A.; M, R. Najib A.; Na'aim, M.

    2016-06-01

    The objective on this study is to investigate age and yield of FFB of oil palms based on ALOS PALSAR 2. Study areas in oil palm plantations areas of Jerantut, Pahang Malaysia. Methodology consists collecting of ALOS PALSAR 2 and tabular data on the study area, processing of ALOS PALSAR 2 including of converting digital numbers to normalize radar cross sections (NRCS), topography correction and filtering, making of regions of interest according to areas of age and yield of FFB of oil palms and making of relationship analysis between backscatter value of HH, HV and age and yield of FFB of oil palm. The results have showed relationship between HH, HV and age of oil palm which R2 of 0.63 for HH and 0.42 for HV that indicated increasing of age of oil palm as increasing of HH and HV value. Also relationship between HH, HV and yield of FFB of oil palm which R2 of 0.26 for HH and 0.15 for HV, that indicated increasing of yield of FFB as decreasing of HH and HV value.

  9. Development of a Compact-Sized Falling Needle Rheometer for Measurement of Flow Properties of Fresh Human Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hideki; Kawamura, Kimito; Omura, Kazunobu; Tokudome, Shogo

    2010-12-01

    A compact-sized falling needle rheometer with rapid operation and automatic flow analysis has been developed for viscometry of fresh human blood without anticoagulant. The volume of a fresh blood sample only needs to be 3 mL, and the measuring time is within 2 min after taking a blood sample from the human body. Measured flow properties of human blood are evaluated as a flow curve, that is, the relationship between the shear stress ( τ) and shear rate ( γ). Observed flow curves of fresh human blood show three typical fluid regions, that is, the Casson fluid region for a low shear rate range of 0 140 s-1, the transition region for a shear rate near 140 s-1 400 s-1. Flow properties of human blood such as the yield stress ( τ y) in the Casson fluid region and the apparent viscosity ( μ) in the Newtonian fluid region are measured, and they are compared between male and female blood. It is found that the range of human blood viscosity for males is (5.5 to 6.4) mPa · s, and for females is (4.5 to 5.3) mPa · s. The viscosities of male blood without anticoagulant show higher values than those of female blood. Human blood viscosities with anticoagulant show a lower value than that without anticoagulant. A linear relationship between the hematocrit value, that is, the volume percentage of red corpuscles in the human blood, and the apparent viscosity are observed for both male and female blood. This article is concerned with the flow analysis of fresh human blood viscosity without anticoagulant using a newly developed compact-sized falling needle rheometer.

  10. Cumulative impacts of hydroelectric development on the fresh water balance in Hudson Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anctil, F.; Couture, R.

    1994-01-01

    A study is presented of the impacts of hydroelectric development on the surface water layer of Hudson Bay, including James Bay and the Foxe Basin. These impacts are directly related to the modifications in the fresh water balance of Hudson Bay and originate from the management of hydroelectric complexes. The fresh water balance is determined by identifying, at different scales, the modifications caused by each complex. The main inputs are the freezing and thawing of the ice cover, runoff water, and mass exchange at the air-water interface. Three spatial scales were used to obtain the resolution required to document the cumulative effects of fresh water balance modifications on the water surface layer, one each for Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, and the Labrador Sea. Finally, the addition of the proposed Great Whale hydroelectric complex is examined from the available information and forecasts. 18 refs,. 6 figs., 1 tab

  11. Development of buoyant currents in yield stress fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, P.; Karimfazli, I.

    2017-11-01

    Infinitesimal perturbations are known to decay in a motionless yield stress fluid. We present experimental evidence to reveal other mechanisms promoting free advection from a motionless background state. Development of natural convection in a cavity with differentially heated side-walls is investigated as a benchmark. Velocity and temperature fields are measured using particle image velocimetry/thermometry. We examine time evolution of the flow, compare experimental findings with theoretical predictions and comment on the striking features brought about by the yield stress.

  12. Development of VIS/NIR spectroscopic system for real-time prediction of fresh pork quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyun; Peng, Yankun; Zhao, Songwei; Sasao, Akira

    2013-05-01

    Quality attributes of fresh meat will influence nutritional value and consumers' purchasing power. The aim of the research was to develop a prototype for real-time detection of quality in meat. It consisted of hardware system and software system. A VIS/NIR spectrograph in the range of 350 to 1100 nm was used to collect the spectral data. In order to acquire more potential information of the sample, optical fiber multiplexer was used. A conveyable and cylindrical device was designed and fabricated to hold optical fibers from multiplexer. High power halogen tungsten lamp was collected as the light source. The spectral data were obtained with the exposure time of 2.17ms from the surface of the sample by press down the trigger switch on the self-developed system. The system could automatically acquire, process, display and save the data. Moreover the quality could be predicted on-line. A total of 55 fresh pork samples were used to develop prediction model for real time detection. The spectral data were pretreated with standard normalized variant (SNV) and partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used to develop prediction model. The correlation coefficient and root mean square error of the validation set for water content and pH were 0.810, 0.653, and 0.803, 0.098 respectively. The research shows that the real-time non-destructive detection system based on VIS/NIR spectroscopy can be efficient to predict the quality of fresh meat.

  13. Atomic Oxygen Erosion Yield Dependence Upon Texture Development in Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Loftus, Ryan J.; Miller, Sharon K.

    2016-01-01

    The atomic oxygen erosion yield (volume of a polymer that is lost due to oxidation per incident atom) of polymers is typically assumed to be reasonably constant with increasing fluence. However polymers containing ash or inorganic pigments, tend to have erosion yields that decrease with fluence due to an increasing presence of protective particles on the polymer surface. This paper investigates two additional possible causes for erosion yields of polymers that are dependent upon atomic oxygen. These are the development of surface texture which can cause the erosion yield to change with fluence due to changes in the aspect ratio of the surface texture that develops and polymer specific atomic oxygen interaction parameters. The surface texture development under directed hyperthermal attack produces higher aspect ratio surface texture than isotropic thermal energy atomic oxygen attack. The fluence dependence of erosion yields is documented for low Kapton H (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) effective fluences for a variety of polymers under directed hyperthermal and isotropic thermal energy attack.

  14. A field trial on the effect of propylene glycol on milk yield and resolution of ketosis in fresh cows diagnosed with subclinical ketosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArt, J A A; Nydam, D V; Ospina, P A; Oetzel, G R

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of oral propylene glycol (PG) administration on ketosis resolution and milk yield in cows diagnosed with subclinical ketosis (SCK). Cows from 4 freestall dairy herds (2 in New York and 2 in Wisconsin) were each tested 6 times for SCK from 3 to 16 d in milk on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays. Subclinical ketosis was defined as a β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentration of 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L, [corrected] and clinical ketosis was defined as ≥ 3.0 mmol/L. [corrected]. Cows with SCK were randomized to the treatment group (oral PG) or control group (no PG); treatment cows were drenched with 300 mL of PG once daily from the day they tested 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L [corrected] until the day they tested ketosis than control cows. Across the 3 herds measuring individual milk weights, treated cows produced 0.23 kg more milk per milking in the first 30 d of lactation than control cows, for a total difference of 0.69 kg/cow per day. After identification of a treatment by herd interaction, stratification by herd showed that treated cows produced more milk per milking on farm A (0.44 kg) and farm B (0.53 kg) in the first 30 d of lactation than control cows, for a total difference of 1.34 and 1.59 kg/d, respectively; milk production did not differ (0.02 kg per milking) between the 2 groups on farm D. These results show the positive effects of oral PG administration in fresh cows with SCK by helping to resolve SCK and preventing clinical ketosis. In addition, oral PG improves milk yield during early lactation in cows diagnosed with SCK. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of a fresh MOX fuel transport package for disposition of weapons plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, S.B.; Pope, R.B.; Shappert, L.B.; Michelhaugh, R.D.; Chae, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    The US Department of Energy announced its Record of Decision on January 14, 1997, to embark on a dual-track approach for disposition of surplus weapons-usable plutonium using immobilization in glass or ceramics and burning plutonium as mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel in reactors. In support of the MOX fuel alternative, Oak Ridge National Laboratory initiated development of conceptual designs for a new package for transporting fresh (unirradiated) MOX fuel assemblies between the MOX fabrication facility and existing commercial light-water reactors in the US. This paper summarizes progress made in development of new MOX transport package conceptual designs. The development effort has included documentation of programmatic and technical requirements for the new package and development and analysis of conceptual designs that satisfy these requirements

  16. Harvester development for new high yielding SRC crops and markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-12-01

    Details are given of a project to develop a harvesting system that can produce fuel economically in a single pass to a required specification at a cost that is profitable for the grower while minimising the cost of the product. The project objectives listed include the development of a harvester drive chain and feeding systems to allow harvesting of the higher yielding crops now produced in the UK, determination of the most economic harvesting cycle for SRC crops, and production of fuels suitable for co-firing with coal in pulverised fuel systems or for gasification. The work programme and project conclusions are discussed

  17. Synthetic Brassica napus L.: Development and Studies on Morphological Characters, Yield Attributes, and Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Malek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brassica napus was synthesized by hybridization between its diploid progenitor species B. rapa and B. oleracea followed by chromosome doubling. Cross with B. rapa as a female parent was only successful. Among three colchicine treatments (0.10, 0.15, and 0.20%, 0.15% gave the highest success (86% of chromosome doubling in the hybrids (AC; 2=19. Synthetic B. napus (AACC, 2=38 was identified with bigger petals, fertile pollens and seed setting. Synthetic B. napus had increased growth over parents and exhibited wider ranges with higher coefficients of variations than parents for morphological and yield contributing characters, and yield per plant. Siliqua length as well as beak length in synthetic B. napus was longer than those of the parents. Number of seeds per siliqua, 1000-seed weight and seed yield per plant in synthetic B. napus were higher than those of the parents. Although flowering time in synthetic B. napus was earlier than both parents, however the days to maturity was little higher over early maturing B. rapa parent. The synthesized B. napus has great potential to produce higher seed yield. Further screening and evaluation is needed for selection of desirable genotypes having improved yield contributing characters and higher seed yield.

  18. Harvester development for new high yielding SRC crops and markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulson, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the development of harvesting equipment for short rotation cultivation (SRC) crops produced in the UK that can produce fuel to a required specification in a single pass at a cost that is profitable for the grower while minimising the cost of the product. Details are given of the manufacture and installation of new components for large crop harvesting, and production of fuel suitable for co-firing in a coal combustion system using pulverised fuel and fuel suitable for gasification. The development of the drive chain to cope with the higher yielding crops, field tests on SRC crops, and determination of the most economic harvesting system are discussed along with the remanufacture of the chipping drum, and production of market chip samples. Harvesting guidance and an economic analysis of harvesting systems are presented

  19. Development of high-yield influenza B virus vaccine viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Jihui; Lopes, Tiago J S; Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2016-12-20

    The burden of human infections with influenza A and B viruses is substantial, and the impact of influenza B virus infections can exceed that of influenza A virus infections in some seasons. Over the past few decades, viruses of two influenza B virus lineages (Victoria and Yamagata) have circulated in humans, and both lineages are now represented in influenza vaccines, as recommended by the World Health Organization. Influenza B virus vaccines for humans have been available for more than half a century, yet no systematic efforts have been undertaken to develop high-yield candidates. Therefore, we screened virus libraries possessing random mutations in the six "internal" influenza B viral RNA segments [i.e., those not encoding the major viral antigens, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase NA)] for mutants that confer efficient replication. Candidate viruses that supported high yield in cell culture were tested with the HA and NA genes of eight different viruses of the Victoria and Yamagata lineages. We identified combinations of mutations that increased the titers of candidate vaccine viruses in mammalian cells used for human influenza vaccine virus propagation and in embryonated chicken eggs, the most common propagation system for influenza viruses. These influenza B virus vaccine backbones can be used for improved vaccine virus production.

  20. Development of high-yield influenza B virus vaccine viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Jihui; Lopes, Tiago J. S.; Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The burden of human infections with influenza A and B viruses is substantial, and the impact of influenza B virus infections can exceed that of influenza A virus infections in some seasons. Over the past few decades, viruses of two influenza B virus lineages (Victoria and Yamagata) have circulated in humans, and both lineages are now represented in influenza vaccines, as recommended by the World Health Organization. Influenza B virus vaccines for humans have been available for more than half a century, yet no systematic efforts have been undertaken to develop high-yield candidates. Therefore, we screened virus libraries possessing random mutations in the six “internal” influenza B viral RNA segments [i.e., those not encoding the major viral antigens, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase NA)] for mutants that confer efficient replication. Candidate viruses that supported high yield in cell culture were tested with the HA and NA genes of eight different viruses of the Victoria and Yamagata lineages. We identified combinations of mutations that increased the titers of candidate vaccine viruses in mammalian cells used for human influenza vaccine virus propagation and in embryonated chicken eggs, the most common propagation system for influenza viruses. These influenza B virus vaccine backbones can be used for improved vaccine virus production. PMID:27930325

  1. Estimating Pasture Quality of Fresh Vegetation Based on Spectral Slope of Mixed Data of Dry and Fresh Vegetation—Method Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Lugassi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study was to apply a slope-based spectral method to both dry and fresh pasture vegetation. Differences in eight spectral ranges were identified across the near infrared-shortwave infrared (NIR-SWIR that were indicative of changes in chemical properties. Slopes across these ranges were calculated and a partial least squares (PLS analytical model was constructed for the slopes vs. crude protein (CP and neutral detergent fiber (NDF contents. Different datasets with different numbers of fresh/dry samples were constructed to predict CP and NDF contents. When using a mixed-sample dataset with dry-to-fresh ratios of 85%:15% and 75%:25%, the correlations of CP (R2 = 0.95, in both and NDF (R2 = 0.84 and 0.82, respectively were almost as high as when using only dry samples (0.97 and 0.85, respectively. Furthermore, satisfactory correlations were obtained with a dry-to-fresh ratio of 50%:50% for CP (R2 = 0.92. The results of our study are especially encouraging because CP and NDF contents could be predicted even though some of the selected spectral regions were directly affected by atmospheric water vapor or water in the plants.

  2. Effects of feeding pelleted diets without or with distillers dried grains with solubles on fresh belly characteristics, fat quality, and commercial bacon slicing yields of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, M F; Lowell, J E; Wilson, K B; Matulis, R J; Stein, H H; Dilger, A C; Boler, D D

    2016-05-01

    One hundred ninety-two pigs were blocked by age and stratified by initial BW (25.7 ± 2.3 kg) into pens (2 barrows and 2 gilts/pen), and within blocks, pens were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, with main effects of diet form (meal vs. pelleted) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) inclusion (0% vs. 30%). Pigs were slaughtered after a 91-d feeding trial, and carcasses were fabricated after a 24-h chilling period. Belly dimensions and flop distance were measured, and an adipose tissue sample from each belly was collected for fatty acid analysis. Bacon was manufactured at a commercial processing facility before being returned to the University of Illinois Meat Science Laboratory for further evaluation. Although bellies from pigs fed pelleted diets were 5.3% heavier ( bacon weight and cooked yield were greater ( ≤ 0.01) for bellies from pellet-fed than meal-fed pigs. Despite pellet-fed pigs having a 3.1-unit greater iodine value (IV) than meal-fed pigs, there was no effect ( ≥ 0.16) of diet form on commercial bacon slicing yields. Bacon slabs from pellet-fed pigs produced more ( bacon slices, but 3.1% fewer ( bacon slices than feeding 30% DDGS. Distillers dried grains with solubles inclusion had no effect on slice yields ( ≥ 0.14) or slices per kilogram ( = 0.08). Overall, bellies from pellet-fed pigs were heavier and had greater IV but did not differ in commercial slicing yields from meal-fed pigs. Feeding pigs 30% DDGS produced thinner, softer bellies with greater IV, but slicing yields were not different from bellies of pigs fed 0% DDGS. Thus, swine producers can feed pelleted diets, without or with 30% DDGS, without negatively affecting commercial bacon slicing yield.

  3. Development of sheep primordial follicles encapsulated in alginate or in ovarian tissue in fresh and vitrified samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghnia, Samaneh; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Hossein, Ghamartaj; Mobini, Sahba; Hosseini, Laleh; Naderi, Mohammad Mehdi; Boroujeni, Sara Borjian; Sarvari, Ali; Behzadi, Bahareh; Shirazi, Abolfazl

    2016-04-01

    In vitro follicle growth is a promising strategy for female fertility preservation. This study was conducted to compare the development of ovine follicles either isolated or in the context of ovarian cortical pieces after short term (8 days) three-dimensional culture in fresh and vitrified samples. Four different experiments were conducted; I) culture of ovarian cortical pieces encapsulated in 0.5% and 1% alginate and without alginate encapsulation (CP-0.5%, CP-1% and CP, respectively), II) culture of isolated primordial and primary follicles encapsulated in 1% and 2% alginate (IF-1% and IF-2%, respectively), III) culture of fresh and vitrified-warmed cortical pieces (F-CP and Vit-CP, respectively), and IV) culture of fresh and vitrified-warmed encapsulated isolated follicles (F-IF and Vit-IF, respectively). The number of secondary follicles after culture was negatively influenced by encapsulation of ovarian cortical pieces (6.3 ± 3.3 and 10.6 ± 0.9 vs 21.5 ± 2.3 in CP-0.5% and CP-1% vs CP, respectively). The diameter of follicles in IF-2% was higher than IF-1% (54.06 ± 2 vs 41.9 ± 1.5) and no significant difference in follicular viability was observed between the two groups. The proportions of different follicular types and their viability after culture in vitrified-warmed cortical pieces were comparable with fresh ones. The viability of vitrified-warmed isolated follicles was lower than fresh counterparts. The growth rate of fresh follicles was higher than vitrified-warmed follicles after culture (47.9 ± 1 vs 44.6 ± 1). In conclusion, while encapsulation of ovarian cortical pieces decreased the follicles' development, it could better support the growth of isolated follicles. Moreover, the viability and growth rate of isolated-encapsulated follicles was decreased by vitrification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. THE IMPACT OF FRESH SAWDUST AND DRY PIG MANURE PRODUCED ON SAWDUST BEDDING APPLICATION ON THE NUTRIENTS MOBILITY IN SOIL AND SUGAR BEET YIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kováčik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the pot trial carried out at the area of the Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra was to determine the impact of dry pig manure produced on the sawdust bedding and sawdust litter on the level of nutrients’ mobility in the soil and sugar beet yield. The achieved results showed that one month after the sawdust and manure application to the soil, the contents of mobile nutrients (Nan, P, K, Ca, Mg in soil were lower than in the control unfertilized treatment. The sawdust litter immobilized nutrients more considerably than manure. Four months after the manure application into soil, its immobilization effect was not evident. On the contrary, the manure increased the mobile nutrients content in soil. In the second year of experiment the immobilization effect of sawdust litter was proved even four months after its application into soil. The application of manure increased considerably the beet root yield. The maximum root yield was determined in the treatment where the highest dose of manure was applied. The minimum root yield was detected in the treatment where the highest dose of sawdust litter was applied.

  5. SEQUESTERING AGENTS FOR METAL IMMOBILIZATION APPLICATION TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF ACTIVE CAPS IN FRESH AND SALT WATER SEDIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, A; Michael Paller, M

    2006-11-17

    This research evaluated the removal of inorganic contaminants by a variety of amendments and mixtures of amendments in fresh and salt water. A series of removal and retention batch experiments was conducted to identify the best treatment for metal removal. Metal removal by the amendments was evaluated by calculating the partition coefficient and percent removal. Retention of metals by the amendments was evaluated in retention (desorption) studies in which residue from the removal studies was extracted with 1 M MgCl{sub 2} solution. The results indicated that phosphate amendments, some organoclays (e.g., OCB-750), and the biopolymer, chitosan, are very effective in removal and retention of metals in both fresh and salt water. These amendments are being evaluated further as components in the development of active caps for sediment remediation.

  6. Development of a Potential Probiotic Fresh Cheese Using Two Lactobacillus salivarius Strains Isolated from Human Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivia Cárdenas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cheeses have been proposed as a good alternative to other fermented milk products for the delivery of probiotic bacteria to the consumer. The objective of this study was to assess the survival of two Lactobacillus salivarius strains (CECT5713 and PS2 isolated from human milk during production and storage of fresh cheese for 28 days at 4°C. The effect of such strains on the volatile compounds profile, texture, and other sensorial properties, including an overall consumer acceptance, was also investigated. Both L. salivarius strains remained viable in the cheeses throughout the storage period and a significant reduction in their viable counts was only observed after 21 days. Globally, the addition of the L. salivarius strains did not change significantly neither the chemical composition of the cheese nor texture parameters after the storage period, although cheeses manufactured with L. salivarius CECT5713 presented significantly higher values of hardness. A total of 59 volatile compounds were identified in the headspace of experimental cheeses, and some L. salivarius-associated differences could be identified. All cheeses presented good results of acceptance after the sensory evaluation. Consequently, our results indicated that fresh cheese can be a good vehicle for the two L. salivarius strains analyzed in this study.

  7. Development of a potential probiotic fresh cheese using two Lactobacillus salivarius strains isolated from human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Nivia; Calzada, Javier; Peirotén, Angela; Jiménez, Esther; Escudero, Rosa; Rodríguez, Juan M; Medina, Margarita; Fernández, Leónides

    2014-01-01

    Cheeses have been proposed as a good alternative to other fermented milk products for the delivery of probiotic bacteria to the consumer. The objective of this study was to assess the survival of two Lactobacillus salivarius strains (CECT5713 and PS2) isolated from human milk during production and storage of fresh cheese for 28 days at 4°C. The effect of such strains on the volatile compounds profile, texture, and other sensorial properties, including an overall consumer acceptance, was also investigated. Both L. salivarius strains remained viable in the cheeses throughout the storage period and a significant reduction in their viable counts was only observed after 21 days. Globally, the addition of the L. salivarius strains did not change significantly neither the chemical composition of the cheese nor texture parameters after the storage period, although cheeses manufactured with L. salivarius CECT5713 presented significantly higher values of hardness. A total of 59 volatile compounds were identified in the headspace of experimental cheeses, and some L. salivarius-associated differences could be identified. All cheeses presented good results of acceptance after the sensory evaluation. Consequently, our results indicated that fresh cheese can be a good vehicle for the two L. salivarius strains analyzed in this study.

  8. Development of a new lactic acid bacterial inoculant for fresh rice straw silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Geun Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective Effects of newly isolated Lactobacillus plantarum on the fermentation and chemical composition of fresh rice straw silage was evaluated in this study. Methods Lactic acid bacteria (LAB from good crop silage were screened by growing them in MRS broth and a minimal medium with low carbohydrate content. Selected LAB (LAB 1821 were Gram-positive, rods, catalase negative, and were identified to be Lactobacillus plantarum based on their biochemical characteristics and a 16S rRNA analysis. Fresh rice straw was ensiled with two isolated LAB (1821 and 1841, two commercial inoculants (HM/F and P1132 and no additive as a control. Results After 2 months of storage at ambient temperature, rice straw silages treated with additives were well-preserved, the pH values and butyric and acetic acid contents were lower, and the lactic acid content and lactic/acetic acid ratio were higher than those in the control (p0.05 effect on acid detergent fiber or neutral detergent fiber contents. Crude protein (CP content and in vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD increased after inoculation of LAB 1821 (p<0.05. Conclusion LAB 1821 increased the CP, IVDMD, lactic acid content and ratio of lactic acid to acetic acid in rice straw silage and decreased the pH, acetic acid, NH3-N, and butyric acid contents. Therefore, adding LAB 1821 improved the fermentation quality and feed value of rice straw silage.

  9. Model Development of Cold Chains for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Distribution: A Case Study in Bali Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisnawa, I. N. G. S.; Santosa, I. D. M. C.; Sunu, I. P. W.; Wirajati, IGAB

    2018-01-01

    In developing countries such as Indonesia, as much as 40% of total vegetables and fruits production becomes waste because of lack refrigeration. This condition also contributes a food crisis problem besides other factor such as, climate change and number of population. Cold chain system that will be modelled in this study is for vegetables and fruits and refrigeration system as the main devices. In future, this system will play an important role for the food crisis solution where fresh food can be distributed very well with significant low waste. The fresh food also can be kept with good quality and hygienist (bacteria contaminated). Cold Chain model will be designed using refrigeration components including, pre cooling chiller, cold room, and truck refrigeration. This study will be conducted by survey and observation di around Bali Province focus on vegetables and fruits production center. Interviews and questionnaire will be also done to get some information about the conventional distribution obstacles and problem. Distribution mapping will be developed and created. The data base of the storage characteristic of the fruits and vegetable also collected through experiment and secondary data. Depend on the mapping and data base can be developed a cold chain model that has the best performance application. The model will be can directly apply in Bali to get eligible cold chain in Bali. The cold chain model will be compared with the conventional distribution system using ALCC/LCC method and also others factor and will be weighted to get better results.

  10. Fresh Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    30 July 2004 This full-resolution (1.5 meters, 5 feet, per pixel) Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a fairly small, fresh meteor impact crater in far southeastern Arabia Terra. The crater's bowl, rim, and ejecta exhibit numerous boulders. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is located near 6.9oS, 317.1oW. Sunlight illuminates the terrain from the left.

  11. Using NDVI and guided sampling to develop yield prediction maps of processing tomato crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortes, A.; Henar Prieto, M. del; García-Martín, A.; Córdoba, A.; Martínez, L.; Campillo, C.

    2015-07-01

    The use of yield prediction maps is an important tool for the delineation of within-field management zones. Vegetation indices based on crop reflectance are of potential use in the attainment of this objective. There are different types of vegetation indices based on crop reflectance, the most commonly used of which is the NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index). NDVI values are reported to have good correlation with several vegetation parameters including the ability to predict yield. The field research was conducted in two commercial farms of processing tomato crop, Cantillana and Enviciados. An NDVI prediction map developed through ordinary kriging technique was used for guided sampling of processing tomato yield. Yield was studied and related with NDVI, and finally a prediction map of crop yield for the entire plot was generated using two geostatistical methodologies (ordinary and regression kriging). Finally, a comparison was made between the yield obtained at validation points and the yield values according to the prediction maps. The most precise yield maps were obtained with the regression kriging methodology with RRMSE values of 14% and 17% in Cantillana and Enviciados, respectively, using the NDVI as predictor. The coefficient of correlation between NDVI and yield was correlated in the point samples taken in the two locations, with values of 0.71 and 0.67 in Cantillana and Enviciados, respectively. The results suggest that the use of a massive sampling parameter such as NDVI is a good indicator of the distribution of within-field yield variation. (Author)

  12. Estimating climate change, CO2 and technology development effects on wheat yield in northeast Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannayan, M; Mansoori, H; Rezaei, E Eyshi

    2014-04-01

    Wheat is the main food for the majority of Iran's population. Precise estimation of wheat yield change in future is essential for any possible revision of management strategies. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of climate change, CO2 concentration, technology development and their integrated effects on wheat production under future climate change. This study was performed under two scenarios of the IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES): regional economic (A2) and global environmental (B1). Crop production was projected for three future time periods (2020, 2050 and 2080) in comparison with a baseline year (2005) for Khorasan province located in the northeast of Iran. Four study locations in the study area included Mashhad, Birjand, Bojnourd and Sabzevar. The effect of technology development was calculated by fitting a regression equation between the observed wheat yields against historical years considering yield potential increase and yield gap reduction as technology development. Yield relative increase per unit change of CO2 concentration (1 ppm(-1)) was considered 0.05 % and was used to implement the effect of elevated CO2. The HadCM3 general circulation model along with the CSM-CERES-Wheat crop model were used to project climate change effects on wheat crop yield. Our results illustrate that, among all the factors considered, technology development provided the highest impact on wheat yield change. Highest wheat yield increase across all locations and time periods was obtained under the A2 scenario. Among study locations, Mashhad showed the highest change in wheat yield. Yield change compared to baseline ranged from -28 % to 56 % when the integration of all factors was considered across all locations. It seems that achieving higher yield of wheat in future may be expected in northeast Iran assuming stable improvements in production technology.

  13. Investigating a Random Walk in Air Cargo Exports of Fresh Agricultural Products: Evidence from a Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mawanga Freddie Festo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s exports of fresh agricultural products by air from Uganda have been increasing and making a significant contribution to her International trade. Products include mostly fish, flowers, papain, and vanilla constituting over 95% of all air exports. Farming of the items is mainly by small scale farmers who depend on the natural climate of the country. Consequently, monthly yields are also climate dependent making individual export volumes unpredictable. In spite of these uncertainties, this study was intended to investigate possible existence of a model in the trends. Monthly data were collected from Uganda Civil Aviation Authority from 2009 to 2012. Analysis was by using ARIMA Approach with the help of Eviews 8. Visually the data exhibited irregular patterns and without a trend or seasonality. First order differencing stationarised the data and the residuals had a random non-significant noise suggesting a Random Walk Model expressed as ARIMA (0, 1, 0 and a negative drift. The model shows a link between current and one lag export volumes and the negative drift is a convergence of successive differences in export volumes. These findings have policy implications in expansion and forecasting of the exports potential of applicability of Random Walk Theory in practice.

  14. Development of a Checklist for Assessing Good Hygiene Practices of Fresh-Cut Fruits and Vegetables Using Focus Group Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Jane A M; Esmerino, Erick A; Alvarenga, Verônica O; Cappato, Leandro P; Hora, Iracema C; Silva, Marcia Cristina; Freitas, Monica Q; Pimentel, Tatiana C; Walter, Eduardo H M; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Cruz, Adriano G

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to develop a checklist for good hygiene practices (GHP) for raw material of vegetable origin using the focus groups (FGs) approach (n = 4). The final checklist for commercialization of horticultural products totaled 28 questions divided into six blocks, namely: water supply; hygiene, health, and training; waste control; control of pests; packaging and traceability; and hygiene of facilities and equipment. The FG methodology was efficient to elaborate a participatory and objective checklist, based on minimum hygiene requirements, serving as a tool for diagnosis, planning, and training in GHP of fresh vegetables, besides contributing to raise awareness of the consumers' food safety. The FG methodology provided useful information to establish the final checklist for GHP, with easy application, according to the previous participants' perception and experience.

  15. Operational semi-physical spectral-spatial wheat yield model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, R.; Chaudhary, K. N.; Nigam, R.; Manjunath, K. R.; Chauhan, P.; Ray, S. S.; Parihar, J. S.

    2014-11-01

    Spectral yield models based on Vegetation Index (VI) and the mechanistic crop simulation models are being widely used for crop yield prediction. However, past experience has shown that the empirical nature of the VI based models and the intensive data requirement of the complex mechanistic models has limited their use for regional and spatial crop yield prediction especially for operational use. The present study was aimed at development of an intermediate method based on the use of remote sensing and the physiological concepts such as the photo-synthetically active solar radiation (PAR) and the fraction of PAR absorbed by the crop (fAPAR) in Monteith's radiation use efficiency based equation (Monteith, 1977) for operational wheat yield forecasting by the Department of Agriculture (DoA). Net Primary Product (NPP) has been computed using the Monteith model and stress has been applied to convert the potential NPP to actual NPP. Wheat grain yield has been computed using the actual NPP and Harvest index. Kalpana-VHRR insolation has been used for deriving the PAR. Maximum radiation use efficiency has been collected from literature and wheat crop mask was derived at MNCFC, New Delhi using RS2-AWiFS data. Water stress has been derived from the Land Surface Water Index (LSWI) which has been derived periodically from the MODIS surface reflectance data (NIR and SWIR1). Temperature stress has been derived from the interpolated daily mean temperature. Results indicated that this model underestimated the yield by 3.45 % as compared to the reported yield at state level and hence can be used to predict wheat yield at state level. This study will be able to provide the spatial wheat yield map, as well as the district-wise and state level aggregated wheat yield forecast. It is possible to operationalize this remote sensing based modified Monteith's efficiency model for future yield forecasting with around 0.15 t ha-1 RMSE at state level.

  16. Growth performance, carcass quality, fresh belly characteristics, and commercial bacon slicing yields of growing-finishing pigs fed a subtherapeutic dose of an antibiotic, a natural antimicrobial, or not fed an antibiotic or antimicrobial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, J E; Bohrer, B M; Wilson, K B; Overholt, M F; Harsh, B N; Stein, H H; Dilger, A C; Boler, D D

    2018-02-01

    The objective was to compare growth performance, belly characteristics, and bacon slicing yields of growing-finishing pigs fed a subtherapeutic dose of an antibiotic, a natural antimicrobial, or a diet containing no antibiotics or antimicrobials. Barrows and gilts (96 each, initial BW: 27.52±3.98kg) were housed in 48 pens (8 replications per treatment) in a 2×3 factorial randomized complete block design. Pens were assigned 1 of 3 diets: antibiotic free, oregano or tylosin phosphate. Pigs were slaughtered at an average BW of 127.31±10.18kg. There were no differences among dietary treatments for growth performance (P≥0.06), carcass cutability (P≥0.42), loin quality (P≥0.28), fresh belly dimensional characteristics (P≥0.11), IV (P≥0.87) or bacon processing characteristics (P≥0.07). Given the lack of differences in meat quality from pigs fed diets without antibiotics, the implementation of VFD in the United States should not result in changes in pork quality. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Early phosphorus nutrition, mycorrhizae development, dry matter partitioning and yield of maize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavito, M.E.; Miller, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    We conducted a field experiment to test the hypothesis that improved phosphorus nutrition occurs in maize plants with rapid arbuscular (AM) mycorrhizae development at early developmental stages and that this also is reflected in dry matter allocation and final yield. A split-split plot design...... to a mycorrhizal mycelium network (no-tillage treatments). Maize yield and harvest index were lower after cropping With canola. The yield for conventional tillage was higher than that for no-tillage but the harvest index was lower. The hypothesis was supported at early stages of maize growth by the effect...

  18. Human organomics: a fresh approach to understanding human development using single-cell transcriptomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, J Gray; Treutlein, Barbara

    2017-05-01

    Innovative methods designed to recapitulate human organogenesis from pluripotent stem cells provide a means to explore human developmental biology. New technologies to sequence and analyze single-cell transcriptomes can deconstruct these 'organoids' into constituent parts, and reconstruct lineage trajectories during cell differentiation. In this Spotlight article we summarize the different approaches to performing single-cell transcriptomics on organoids, and discuss the opportunities and challenges of applying these techniques to generate organ-level, mechanistic models of human development and disease. Together, these technologies will move past characterization to the prediction of human developmental and disease-related phenomena. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Genetic Loci Governing Grain Yield and Root Development under Variable Rice Cultivation Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Catolos

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Drought is the major abiotic stress to rice grain yield under unpredictable changing climatic scenarios. The widely grown, high yielding but drought susceptible rice varieties need to be improved by unraveling the genomic regions controlling traits enhancing drought tolerance. The present study was conducted with the aim to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs for grain yield and root development traits under irrigated non-stress and reproductive-stage drought stress in both lowland and upland situations. A mapping population consisting of 480 lines derived from a cross between Dular (drought-tolerant and IR64-21 (drought susceptible was used. QTL analysis revealed three major consistent-effect QTLs for grain yield (qDTY1.1, qDTY1.3, and qDTY8.1 under non-stress and reproductive-stage drought stress conditions, and 2 QTLs for root traits (qRT9.1 for root-growth angle and qRT5.1 for multiple root traits, i.e., seedling-stage root length, root dry weight and crown root number. The genetic locus qDTY1.1 was identified as hotspot for grain yield and yield-related agronomic and root traits. The study identified significant positive correlations among numbers of crown roots and mesocotyl length at the seedling stage and root length and root dry weight at depth at later stages with grain yield and yield-related traits. Under reproductive stage drought stress, the grain yield advantage of the lines with QTLs ranged from 24.1 to 108.9% under upland and 3.0–22.7% under lowland conditions over the lines without QTLs. The lines with QTL combinations qDTY1.3+qDTY8.1 showed the highest mean grain yield advantage followed by lines having qDTY1.1+qDTY8.1 and qDTY1.1+qDTY8.1+qDTY1.3, across upland/lowland reproductive-stage drought stress. The identified QTLs for root traits, mesocotyl length, grain yield and yield-related traits can be immediately deployed in marker-assisted breeding to develop drought tolerant high yielding rice varieties.

  20. TBT effects on the development of intersex (ovotestis) in female fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peranandam, Revathi; Palanisamy, Iyapparaj; Lourdaraj, Arockia Vasanthi; Natesan, Munuswamy; Vimalananthan, Arun Prasanna; Thangaiyan, Suganya; Perumal, Anantharaman; Muthukalingan, Krishnan

    2014-01-01

    The impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the female gonad and the endocrine system in Macrobrachium rosenbergii was studied. Prawns were exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of 10, 100, and 1000 ng/L of TBT for 6 months. Dose dependent effects were noticed in TBT exposed prawns. At 1000 ng/L TBT caused ovotestis formation (formation of male germ cells in ovary). Presence immature oocytes, fusion of developing oocytes, increase in interstitial connective tissues, and its modification into tubular like structure and abundance of spermatogonia in the ovary of TBT treated prawns. The control prawn ovary showed normal architecture of cellular organelles such as mature oocytes with type 2 yolk globules, lipid droplets, normal appearance of yolk envelop, and uniformly arranged microvilli. On the other hand, type 1 yolk globules, reduced size of microvilli, spermatogonial cells in ovary, spermatogonia with centrally located nucleus, and chromatin distribution throughout the nucleoplasm were present in the TBT treated group. Immunofluorescence staining indicated a reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Moreover, TBT had inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. Thus, the present investigation demonstrates that TBT substantially affects sexual differentiation and gonadal development in M. rosenbergii.

  1. TBT Effects on the Development of Intersex (Ovotestis in Female Fresh Water Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revathi Peranandam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of tributyltin (TBT on the female gonad and the endocrine system in Macrobrachium rosenbergii was studied. Prawns were exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of 10, 100, and 1000 ng/L of TBT for 6 months. Dose dependent effects were noticed in TBT exposed prawns. At 1000 ng/L TBT caused ovotestis formation (formation of male germ cells in ovary. Presence immature oocytes, fusion of developing oocytes, increase in interstitial connective tissues, and its modification into tubular like structure and abundance of spermatogonia in the ovary of TBT treated prawns. The control prawn ovary showed normal architecture of cellular organelles such as mature oocytes with type 2 yolk globules, lipid droplets, normal appearance of yolk envelop, and uniformly arranged microvilli. On the other hand, type 1 yolk globules, reduced size of microvilli, spermatogonial cells in ovary, spermatogonia with centrally located nucleus, and chromatin distribution throughout the nucleoplasm were present in the TBT treated group. Immunofluorescence staining indicated a reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Moreover, TBT had inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. Thus, the present investigation demonstrates that TBT substantially affects sexual differentiation and gonadal development in M. rosenbergii.

  2. Recent developments of artificial intelligence in drying of fresh food: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qing; Zhang, Min; Mujumdar, Arun S

    2018-03-01

    Intellectualization is an important direction of drying development and artificial intelligence (AI) technologies have been widely used to solve problems of nonlinear function approximation, pattern detection, data interpretation, optimization, simulation, diagnosis, control, data sorting, clustering, and noise reduction in different food drying technologies due to the advantages of self-learning ability, adaptive ability, strong fault tolerance and high degree robustness to map the nonlinear structures of arbitrarily complex and dynamic phenomena. This article presents a comprehensive review on intelligent drying technologies and their applications. The paper starts with the introduction of basic theoretical knowledge of ANN, fuzzy logic and expert system. Then, we summarize the AI application of modeling, predicting, and optimization of heat and mass transfer, thermodynamic performance parameters, and quality indicators as well as physiochemical properties of dried products in artificial biomimetic technology (electronic nose, computer vision) and different conventional drying technologies. Furthermore, opportunities and limitations of AI technique in drying are also outlined to provide more ideas for researchers in this area.

  3. News, views, trends: a world-wide survey of recent developments, fresh ideas and production plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-01

    Recent developments in the tobacco industry in several countries are described: 1) in the USSR the policy is not to encourage smoking but to produce pleasant cigarettes which are as harmless as possible; 2) in the US, a survey shows that in 1975 not more than 12.4% of men over age 21 smoked a pipe; 3) in Britain a new cigarette tax structure will cripple the cigarette industry's coupon scheme of which manufacturers make great use to secure brand loyalty; 4) in the Philippines a proposal to print a health warning on cigarette packets and in advertisements might affect cigarette and tobacco taxes, which contribute 47% of government income; 5) in the Netherlands health warnings will be printed on cigarette packs, 6) in Austria there has been an increase of 4.2% in cigarette smoking since late 1975; 7) in Poland anti-smoking officials have proposed that the name of the popular "Sport" cigarette be changed; 8) in Indonesia there has been a recovery in kretek sales; 9) in Denmark cigarette consumption increased 6% from 1974; and 10) in western Europe it has been shown that up to 99% of grocery stores in Ireland sell tobacco products, 91% in Britain, 30% in Austria, 17% in Spain, and 7% in Italy.

  4. Development, yield and quality attributes of sugarcane cultivars fertigated by subsurface drip irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L. B. de O. Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study aimed to evaluate the development, yield and quality of four sugarcane cultivars fertigated by subsurface drip system. The experiment was carried out in Campinas-SP, Brazil, from January 2012 to November 2013, with the cultivars SP79-1011, IACSP94-2101, IACSP94-2094 and IACSP95-5000 subjected to daily irrigations. The irrigations depths were applied to bring soil moisture to field capacity. Soil moisture was monitored using soil moisture probes. Samples were collected along the crop cycle in order to evaluate crop development and yield, at the end of the first and second ratoons. Stalk height showed good correlation for the estimation of crop yield, with R2 equal to or higher than 0.96. The cultivar IACSP95-5000 showed the highest yield in the first ratoon. In the second ratoon the highest yield was observed in IACSP94-2101, followed by IACSP95-5000 and SP79-1011. Considering the yield results associated with the technological analysis, such as soluble solids content and apparent sucrose, the cultivar IACSP95-5000 excelled the others in the cultivation under subsurface drip irrigation.

  5. Development of a BALB/c mouse model of Helicobacter pylori infection with fresh and frozen bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M A Rabelo-Gonçalves

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental model for H. pylori infection was established by intragastrically challenging BALB/c mice with 1 ml (10(8 CFU/ml of suspension for two consecutive days. Animals were divided into three groups. GA: mice inoculated with fresh bacteria; GB: mice inoculated with frozen bacteria, and GC: mice inoculated with brucella broth (control group. Animals were killed at 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 60 days pi and fragments of stomach and duodenum were collected, paraffin embedded and stained by hematoxylin-eosin and Giemsa. The results showed that challenged mice exhibited mild duodenitis and gastritis. In group GA, infiltration in the duodenum was lymphoplasmacytic until day 35; in group GB, it was lymphomonocytic for 60 days pi. In the stomach, H. pylori induced lymphomonocytic infiltration that was present from days 7 to 60 in group GA. In group GB, it was only present from days 14 to 35. In conclusion, our data suggested that freezing altered pathogenic properties of H. pylori and probably inhibited expression of bacterial antigens and consequently the establishment and maintenance of infection. Although the animals developed mild duodenitis and gastritis, the BALB/c mouse is not susceptible to developing peptic ulcers during H. pylori infection

  6. Varietal performance and correlation of okra pod yield and yield components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminu Dattijo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Field irrigation experiments were conducted to assess the varietal performance and correlation of pod yield and yield attributes under irrigation at the Teaching and Research Farm, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria, during the 2015 and 2016 dry seasons. The results revealed that the most outstanding for fresh pod yield per plant were okra cultivar Kwadag Y’ar gagure Salkade, and Kwadam, in descending order, with yield ranging from 580.38 to 622.67 g, while the Composite cultivar had the lowest value of pod yield of 428.62 g over the two years. The greatest average values for the number of pods per plant and the number of primary branches per plant were observed for Salkade and Y’ar gagure, respectively. Highest fresh pod length and fresh pod diameter were also exhibited for Salkade and Kwadag. The genotypic coefficient of variation was higher than the phenotypic variation for the entire yield-contributing characters. Days to 50% flowering were positive and highly significant differences associated with plant height, number of pods per plant, and fresh weight per pod could be observed. Path coefficient analysis showed that the number of pods per plant exhibited positive and direct influence on the pod yield across the studied years. Indirect influence of other yield components through this character also contributed mainly towards pod yield. Therefore, days to 50% flowering, plant height, pod length, number of pods per plant, pod diameter, number of primary branches per plant, and fresh weight per pod could be taken into consideration for the selection and development of high pod-yielding varieties in okra.

  7. Impact of Sowing Date Induced Temperature and Management Practices on Development Events and Yield of Mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSA Khan, MA Aziz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted at the research field of the Agronomy Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI, Joydebpur, Gazipur, during rabi season of 2014-2015 to find out the relationship between different development events of mustard crop and sowing dates induced temperature as well as to minimize the yield reduction of the crop by adopting appropriate management practices. The mustard var. BARI Sarisha-15 was sown on 06, 25 November and 14 December 2014. Crop accumulated lower growing degree days (GDD i.e., 72.15, 521.10 and 1070 to 1154 °C were observed for the events of emergence, 50 % flowering and maturity on 14 December sowing. Late sown plants took minimum time from flowering to maturity (36 days due to increased temperature and high variability in both maximum and minimum temperature. The highest seed yield (1569 kg ha-1 was recorded from 06 November sowing with high management practices while the lowest seed yield (435 kg ha-1 from 14 December sowing with low management practices. At high management practices the crop yielded 1183 kg ha-1 at 14 December sowing. Yield reduction at late sowing condition was reduced to some extent with high management practices. The seed yield reductions at 14 December sowing as compared to high management practices at 06 November sowing were 72, 43 and 25% under low, medium and high management, respectively.

  8. Development of standardized methods to verify absorbed dose of irradiated fresh and dried fruits, tree nuts in trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, A.K.; Amin, M.R.; Chowdhury, N.A.; Begum, F.; Mollah, A.S.; Mollah, R.A.; Chowdhury, A.H.

    2001-01-01

    Investigations were carried out on standardization of desired process control parameters such as dose distribution in trade containers, container standardization and development of 'label' dosimeters. A prototype 'label' dose indicators Sterins for threshold doses of 125 Gy and 300 Gy was studied. Dose distribution was studied using fresh fruits and tree nuts in trade and standardized containers with varying product densities. The distribution of absorbed doses was measured by Fricke, Gammachrome YR, clear Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), EthanolChlorobenzene (ECB) and Sterin 300. These values are given as Dmax/Dmin ratios in relation to product bulk densities. It was observed that bulk densities varied greatly among different products depending on the types of fruits, containers and pattern of loading which also affected dose distribution. Dmax/Dmin obtained by proper dose mapping could be kept low by arranging proper irradiation conditions which ensured uniform dose distribution. Prototype 'label' dose indicators like Sterins and clear PMMA were used for dose mapping along with the standard primary and secondary dosimeters. Sterins and clear PMMA were also studied for their dosimetric properties, particularly for use in label dosimetry. Sterins 125 and 300 evaluated visually showed their integrity at their threshold doses. The word NOT on Sterin 125 eclipsed after 115 Gy and on Sterin 300 after 270 Gy dose. Clear PMMA samples of 410 mm thickness irradiated at 200-1000 Gy showed linear response and had postirradiation stability for over a month storage at normal temperatures (21-35 deg. C) and humidities. These could be investigated further for developing as 'label' dosimeters in insect control quarantine treatment. Other low dose indicators studied such as coloured perspex, dye solutions were not found useful at quarantine dose levels. Further investigations are required for developing a 'label' dosimeter for commercial use. (author)

  9. Development of a Telemetry and Yield-Mapping System of Olive Harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Castillo-Ruiz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sensors, communication systems and geo-reference units are required to achieve an optimized management of agricultural inputs with respect to the economic and environmental aspects of olive groves. In this study, three commercial olive harvesters were tracked during two harvesting seasons in Spain and Chile using remote and autonomous equipment that was developed to determine their time efficiency and effective based on canopy shaking for fruit detachment. These harvesters work in intensive/high-density (HD and super-high-density (SHD olive orchards. A GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System and GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications device was installed to track these harvesters. The GNSS receiver did not affect the driver’s work schedule. Time elements methodology was adapted to the remote data acquisition system. The effective field capacity and field efficiency were investigated. In addition, the field shape, row length, angle between headland alley and row, and row alley width were measured to determinate the optimum orchard design parameters value. The SHD olive harvester showed significant lower effective field capacity values when alley width was less than 4 m. In addition, a yield monitor was developed and installed on a traditional olive harvester to obtain a yield map from the harvested area. The hedge straddle harvester stood out for its highly effective field capacity; nevertheless, a higher field efficiency was provided by a non-integral lateral canopy shaker. All of the measured orchard parameters have influenced machinery yields, whether effective field capacity or field efficiency. A saving of 40% in effective field capacity was achieved with a reduction from 4 m or higher to 3.5 m in alley width for SHD olive harvester. A yield map was plotted using data that were acquired by a yield monitor, reflecting the yield gradient in spite of the larger differences between tree yields.

  10. Development of Models for Predicting the Yield and Quality of Soymilk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Models were developed to predict the yield and quality of soymilk, one of soybean products. The quality characteristics investigated were total solids, protein content and fat content. The processing parameters considered were Amount of water added during grinding per Kg of dry seed, AW; Blanching time, BT and Heating ...

  11. Developing a Coffee Yield Prediction and Integrated Soil Fertility Management Recommendation Model for Northern Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maro, G.P.; Mrema, J.P.; Msanya, B.M.; Janssen, B.H.; Teri, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a simple and quantitative system for coffee yield estimation and nutrient input advice, so as to address the problem of declining annual coffee production in Tanzania (particularly in its Northern coffee zone), which is related to declining soil fertility. The

  12. Frozen and fresh ovarian tissue require different culture media to promote in vitro development of bovine preantral follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Simone Vieira; Carvalho, Adeline Andrade; Silva, Cleidson Manoel Gomes; Santos, Francielli Weber; Campello, Cláudio Cabral; de Figueiredo, José Ricardo; Rodrigues, Ana Paula Ribeiro

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of different media in the in vitro culture of bovine preantral follicles that were used either fresh or following slow freezing treatment. Frozen and fresh noncultured or cultured ovarian fragments were processed for histological, viability, and cell proliferation analyses. For cryopreservation, a solution containing 1.5 M ethylene glycol was frozen in a programmable biological freezer. After thawing, a portion of the samples was destined for frozen controls. The remainder were cultured in vitro for 5 days in three media: α-MEM, McCoy, or M199. Samples from these culture media were collected on days 1 and 5 for quantification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and for hormonal assays. In fresh-cultured tissues, the percentage of morphologically normal follicles was significantly higher when cultured in M199 compared to that in the other media. In frozen-cultured tissues, McCoy medium was significantly superior to the other media, and was the only treatment that helped in maintaining the viability similar to fresh and frozen controls. Upon quantification of the nucleolus organizer region, we observed greater proliferation of granulosa cells in the frozen-cultured tissues with McCoy medium, and lesser proliferation in fresh-cultured tissues only with α-MEM. In frozen-cultured tissues, ROS levels were highest at day 1 and progressively reduced during culture, independent of the media used. In conclusion, under the conditions used in this study, the M199 and McCoy media are recommended for the culture of follicles derived from fresh and frozen ovarian tissues, respectively.

  13. Differential metabolite profiles during fruit development in high-yielding oil palm mesocarp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huey Fang Teh

    Full Text Available To better understand lipid biosynthesis in oil palm mesocarp, in particular the differences in gene regulation leading to and including de novo fatty acid biosynthesis, a multi-platform metabolomics technology was used to profile mesocarp metabolites during six critical stages of fruit development in comparatively high- and low-yielding oil palm populations. Significantly higher amino acid levels preceding lipid biosynthesis and nucleosides during lipid biosynthesis were observed in a higher yielding commercial palm population. Levels of metabolites involved in glycolysis revealed interesting divergence of flux towards glycerol-3-phosphate, while carbon utilization differences in the TCA cycle were proven by an increase in malic acid/citric acid ratio. Apart from insights into the regulation of enhanced lipid production in oil palm, these results provide potentially useful metabolite yield markers and genes of interest for use in breeding programmes.

  14. Development of bioprocess for high density cultivation yield of the probiotic Bacillus coagulans and its spores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita R. Pandey

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus coagulans is a spore forming lactic acid bacterium. Spore forming bacteria, have been extensively studied and commercialized as probiotics. Probiotics are produced by fermentation technology. There is a limitation to biomass produced by conventional modes of fermentation. With the great demand generated by range of probiotic products, biomass is becoming very valuable for several pharmaceutical, dairy and probiotic companies. Thus, there is a need to develop high cell density cultivation processes for enhanced biomass accumulation. The bioprocess development was carried out in 6.6 L bench top lab scale fermentor. Four different cultivation strategies were employed to develop a bioprocess for higher growth and sporulation efficiencies of probiotic B. coagulans. Batch fermentation of B. coagulans yielded 18 g L-1 biomass (as against 8.0 g L-1 productivity in shake flask with 60% spore efficiency. Fed-batch cultivation was carried out for glucose, which yielded 25 g L-1 of biomass. C/N ratio was very crucial in achieving higher spore titres. Maximum biomass yield recorded was 30 g L-1, corresponding to 3.8 × 1011 cells mL-1 with 81% of cells in sporulated stage. The yield represents increment of 85 times the productivity and 158 times the spore titres relative to the highest reported values for high density cultivation of B. coagulans.

  15. Developing the greatest Blue Economy: Water productivity, fresh water depletion, and virtual water trade in the Great Lakes basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, A. S.; Ruddell, B. L.; Mubako, S. T.

    2016-12-01

    The Great Lakes basin hosts the world's most abundant surface fresh water reserve. Historically an industrial and natural resource powerhouse, the region has suffered economic stagnation in recent decades. Meanwhile, growing water resource scarcity around the world is creating pressure on water-intensive human activities. This situation creates the potential for the Great Lakes region to sustainably utilize its relative water wealth for economic benefit. We combine economic production and trade datasets with water consumption data and models of surface water depletion in the region. We find that, on average, the current economy does not create significant impacts on surface waters, but there is some risk that unregulated large water uses can create environmental flow impacts if they are developed in the wrong locations. Water uses drawing on deep groundwater or the Great Lakes themselves are unlikely to create a significant depletion, and discharge of groundwater withdrawals to surface waters offsets most surface water depletion. This relative abundance of surface water means that science-based management of large water uses to avoid accidentally creating "hotspots" is likely to be successful in avoiding future impacts, even if water use is significantly increased. Commercial water uses are the most productive, with thermoelectric, mining, and agricultural water uses in the lowest tier of water productivity. Surprisingly for such a water-abundant economy, the region is a net importer of water-derived goods and services. This, combined with the abundance of surface water, suggests that the region's water-based economy has room to grow in the 21st century.

  16. Development of Yield and Tensile Strength Design Curves for Alloy 617

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nancy Lybeck; T. -L. Sham

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Very High Temperature Reactor Program is acquiring data in preparation for developing an Alloy 617 Code Case for inclusion in the nuclear section of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel (B&PV) Code. A draft code case was previously developed, but effort was suspended before acceptance by ASME. As part of the draft code case effort, a database was compiled of yield and tensile strength data from tests performed in air. Yield strength and tensile strength at temperature are used to set time independent allowable stress for construction materials in B&PV Code, Section III, Subsection NH. The yield and tensile strength data used for the draft code case has been augmented with additional data generated by Idaho National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the U.S. and CEA in France. The standard ASME Section II procedure for generating yield and tensile strength at temperature is presented, along with alternate methods that accommodate the change in temperature trends seen at high temperatures, resulting in a more consistent design margin over the temperature range of interest.

  17. Salt-stressed fresh cut leek accelerates CO₂ and C₂H₄ production and enhances the development of quality characteristics of traditional Greek sausages during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madentzidou, Eleftheria; Gerasopoulos, Dimitrios; Siomos, Anastasios; Bloukas, Ioannis

    2012-12-01

    Fresh cut leek was mixed with salt for 0.5 (IM) and 5 (LM) min or remained untreated (control) and stored alone or mixed with minced meat and seasonings, cased and stored at 15 °C for 7 days. The fresh cut leek and sausage metabolics and sausage microbiological and physicochemical traits were measured during storage. Sausages with LM leek had significantly higher counts of lactic acid bacteria, faster rates of pH drop and dehydration and increased red color compared with the other treatments. Sausage to fresh cut leek peaks of CO₂ or C₂H₄ production was 5 or 2 fold higher in LM than the other treatments indicating that the sausage flora was the source of both. The use of salt-stressed fresh cut leek before manufacture of sausages enhances microbial activity as well as its stability and shortens the necessary storage time needed for the development of the quality characteristics of Greek traditional sausages. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of a remote sensing-based rice yield forecasting model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosleh, M.K.; Hassan, Q.K.; Chowdhury, E.H.

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to develop a remote sensing-based method for forecasting rice yield by considering vegetation greenness conditions during initial and peak greenness stages of the crop; and implemented for “boro” rice in Bangladeshi context. In this research, we used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived two 16-day composite of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) images at 250 m spatial resolution acquired during the initial (January 1 to January 16) and peak greenness (March 23/24 to April 6/7 depending on leap year) stages in conjunction with secondary datasets (i.e., boro suitability map, and ground-based information) during 2007-2012 period. The method consisted of two components: (i) developing a model for delineating area under rice cultivation before harvesting; and (ii) forecasting rice yield as a function of NDVI. Our results demonstrated strong agreements between the model (i.e., MODIS-based) and ground-based area estimates during 2010-2012 period, i.e., coefficient of determination (R2); root mean square error (RMSE); and relative error (RE) in between 0.93 to 0.95; 30,519 to 37,451 ha; and ±10% respectively at the 23 district-levels. We also found good agreements between forecasted (i.e., MODIS-based) and ground-based yields during 2010-2012 period (R2 between 0.76 and 0.86; RMSE between 0.21 and 0.29 Mton/ha, and RE between -5.45% and 6.65%) at the 23 district-levels. We believe that our developments of forecasting the boro rice yield would be useful for the decision makers in addressing food security in Bangladesh. (Author)

  19. Development of High Yield Feedstocks and Biomass Conversion Technology for Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Andrew G. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Crow, Susan [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); DeBeryshe, Barbara [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Ha, Richard [Hamakua Springs County Farms, Hilo, HI (United States); Jakeway, Lee [Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar Company, Puunene, HI (United States); Khanal, Samir [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Nakahata, Mae [Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar Company, Puunene, HI (United States); Ogoshi, Richard [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Shimizu, Erik [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Stern, Ivette [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Turano, Brian [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Turn, Scott [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Yanagida, John [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2015-04-09

    This project had two main goals. The first goal was to evaluate several high yielding tropical perennial grasses as feedstock for biofuel production, and to characterize the feedstock for compatible biofuel production systems. The second goal was to assess the integration of renewable energy systems for Hawaii. The project focused on high-yield grasses (napiergrass, energycane, sweet sorghum, and sugarcane). Field plots were established to evaluate the effects of elevation (30, 300 and 900 meters above sea level) and irrigation (50%, 75% and 100% of sugarcane plantation practice) on energy crop yields and input. The test plots were extensive monitored including: hydrologic studies to measure crop water use and losses through seepage and evapotranspiration; changes in soil carbon stock; greenhouse gas flux (CO2, CH4, and N2O) from the soil surface; and root morphology, biomass, and turnover. Results showed significant effects of environment on crop yields. In general, crop yields decrease as the elevation increased, being more pronounced for sweet sorghum and energycane than napiergrass. Also energy crop yields were higher with increased irrigation levels, being most pronounced with energycane and less so with sweet sorghum. Daylight length greatly affected sweet sorghum growth and yields. One of the energy crops (napiergrass) was harvested at different ages (2, 4, 6, and 8 months) to assess the changes in feedstock characteristics with age and potential to generate co-products. Although there was greater potential for co-products from younger feedstock, the increased production was not sufficient to offset the additional cost of harvesting multiple times per year. The feedstocks were also characterized to assess their compatibility with biochemical and thermochemical conversion processes. The project objectives are being continued through additional support from the Office of Naval Research, and the Biomass Research and Development

  20. Development of a community-sensitive strategy to increase availability of fresh fruits and vegetables in Nashville's urban food deserts, 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Celia; Haushalter, Alisa; Buck, Tracy; Campbell, David; Henderson, Trevor; Schlundt, David

    2013-07-25

    Food deserts, areas that lack full-service grocery stores, may contribute to rising rates of obesity and chronic diseases among low-income and racial/ethnic minority residents. Our corner store project, part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Communities Putting Prevention to Work initiative, aimed to increase availability of healthful foods in food deserts in Nashville, Tennessee. We identified 4 food deserts in which most residents are low-income and racially and ethnically diverse. Our objectives were to develop an approach to increase availability of fresh fruits and vegetables, low-fat or nonfat milk, and 100% whole-wheat bread in Nashville's food deserts and to engage community members to inform our strategy. Five corner stores located in food deserts met inclusion criteria for our intervention. We then conducted community listening sessions, proprietor surveys, store audits, and customer-intercept surveys to identify needs, challenges to retailing the products, and potential intervention strategies. Few stores offered fresh fruits, fresh vegetables, low-fat or nonfat milk, or 100% whole-wheat bread, and none stocked items from all 4 categories. Major barriers to retailing healthful options identified by community members are mistrust of store owners, history of poor-quality produce, and limited familiarity with healthful options. Store owners identified neighborhood crime as the major barrier. We used community input to develop strategies. Engaging community residents and understanding neighborhood context is critical to developing strategies that increase access to healthful foods in corner stores.

  1. Grazing management in an integrated crop-livestock system: soybean development and grain yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taise Robinson Kunrath

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTGrazing livestock in integrated crop-livestock systems can cause impacts in the subsequent crop cycle. Aiming to investigate how grazing could affect soybean, the 9th crop cycle of a pasture/soybean rotation was assessed. Treatments were grazing intensities (10, 20, 30 and 40 cm of sward height applied since 2001 in a mixed of oat and annual ryegrass; and an additional no grazing area as control. Treatments were arranged in a completely randomized block design with three replicates. Grazing affected soybean population and the mass of individual nodules (P0.05. Soybean yield showed differences among treatments, but no difference was found between grazed and non-grazed areas. Grazing intensities impact the coverage and frequency of weeds (P>0.05. In conclusion, grazing intensity impacts different parameters of soybean yield and development, but only the grazing intensity of 10 cm can jeopardize the succeeding soybean crop.

  2. Development and implementation of FRESH--a post-secondary nutrition education program incorporating population strategies, experiential learning and intersectoral partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, June I; Zok, Anne V; Quenneville, Emily P M; Dworatzek, Paula D N

    2014-07-11

    The FRESH (Food Resources and Education for Student Health) peer nutrition education program engages undergraduate and graduate students in experiential learning to improve the campus food and nutrition environment and promote healthy behaviours among university students. University students in general, and graduate and undergraduate food and nutrition students as program designers and peer educators, respectively. Large university campus in southwestern Ontario. A peer nutrition education program, utilizing multiple population strategies and intersectoral partnerships, was created by and for university students with faculty and food service personnel as mentors. The population health strategies employed were building awareness and program branding; developing personal skills through peer nutrition education and hands-on cooking demonstrations; and creating supportive environments through incentive programs for fruit and dairy as well as point-of-purchase menu labelling. The program has reached students, staff and faculty through over 60 interactive FRESH displays and education sessions. Website and social media have also had a significant reach with over 4,000 website visits and 277 Facebook "likes". FRESH has also improved the food environment for over 5,000 students in residence, e.g., 1,931 FRESH Fruit/Dairy Cards have been returned for free fruit/milk cartons. Graduate students in Foods and Nutrition continue to participate every year (cumulative n=60) in ongoing program development. Peer educators have developed enhanced leadership, public speaking and group facilitation skills, and the ability to creatively apply what they have learned in the classroom to new contexts. Increased nutrition knowledge and an improved food environment could, over the long term, support improved university student health.

  3. Estudo de custo-rendimento do precessamento de queijos tipo minas frescal com derivado de soja e diferentes agentes coagulantes Study of cost and yield of minas like fresh cheese produced with added fat freee soybean hydro-soluble extract powder with curd formed by different coagulants agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Neves-Souza

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento de alimentos é uma constante nas indústrias, nas universidades e nos institutos de pesquisa visando otimizar processamentos, agregar diferentes ingredientes em produtos já existentes, entre outros fatores. Após o desenvolvimento de um produto, informações adicionais podem ser obtidas pela determinação do rendimento e do custo do produto final. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar o rendimento e o custo de queijos Minas frescal tradicionais e adicionados de extrato hidrossolúvel de soja desengordurado (EHS processados com coalho bovino e com coagulante microbiano (Aspergillus niger var. awamori. A introdução de 8% do EHS (em relação ao teor de sólidos totais do leite no queijo Minas frescal processado com coalho bovino proporcionou rendimento em gramas de sólidos totais por litro de leite (g ST/L superior de 16,67% em relação ao queijo Minas frescal tradicional processado com o mesmo coalho. O queijo tipo Minas frescal processado com coagulante microbiano e com 8% de EHS apresentou rendimento (g ST/L superior de 16,54%, quando comparado ao seu tradicional. O custo das formulações-base (kg de queijo/100L de leite processadas com coalho bovino e com coagulante microbiano foi US$ 36,75 e US$ 37,50, respectivamente, ao passo que os queijos tradicionais processados com os mesmos agentes coagulantes apresentaram custo equivalente a US$ 35,12 e US$ 35,36.Food products development occur in industries, universities and research centers with the aim of optimizing processes, to include different ingredients to existing products or for other reasons. After developing a product, additional information may be obtained by determining yield and cost of the final product. The objective of this research was to estimate yield and cost of traditional Minas fresh cheese and those produced with added fat free soybean hydro-soluble extract powder (SEP, with curd formed by rennet or microbial coagulant (Aspergillus niger var

  4. Development of high yield reassortants for influenza type B viruses and analysis of their gene compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Jianhua; Orff, Edward J; Fulvini, Andrew A; Huang, Liling; Onodera, Shiroh; Pokorny, Barbara A; Malewicz, Andrew; Primakov, Patricia; Bucher, Doris J

    2015-02-11

    A critical step in producing the annual inactivated influenza vaccine is the development of high yield (hy) seed viruses by reassortment for improved growth in ovo. Although hy reassortants for type A influenza viruses have been developed for many years, hy B influenza reassortant virus development for vaccine production has proven difficult. In this study, we have developed fourteen hy influenza type B reassortants as vaccine candidate strains with B/Lee/40 as the donor virus. Upon characterization by the Influenza Division at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the verification of HA by sequencing, all B reassortants were found to be antigenically indistinguishable from the wild type (wt) parents and suitable for vaccine production. However, only one hy reassortant seed virus from this group was used by a manufacturer for vaccine production. In general, hy reassortants showed an increase in hemagglutination (HA) titers over their wt parents by approximately 8 fold (range 1-32 fold). Gene compositions of the hy B reassortants were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and the wt origin of the HA and neuraminidase (NA) were confirmed. However, in contrast to hy A reassortants which require the M gene (hy donor A/PR/8/34) for high yield, all fourteen hy B reassortants obtained the NP gene from the hy donor strain (B/Lee/40). The parental source for the remaining genes varied among the hy B reassortants. The results indicate that the B/Lee/40 NP and PB1 gene segments are important contributors to high yield growth in influenza B reassortant viruses for both Yamagata and Victoria lineages. The B/Lee/40 PB2 gene along with wt NS gene also contributed to the improved growth for hy reassortants of Yamagata lineage. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of yield prediction models in the maize crop using spectral data for precisión agriculture applications

    OpenAIRE

    Rueda Ayala, Victor Patricio

    2015-01-01

    Yield estimation for the maize crop (Zea mays L.) is required in Ecuador for decision making on imports and commercialization. In the literature many yield predictive models have been developed for different crops, but they need to be adapted to the local conditions. In this study, machine learning techniques and statistical tools such as simple, logistic and polynomial regression were applied in order to develop yield predictive algorithms. Spectral information was gathered from ...

  6. Algorithm for evaluating the effectiveness of a high-rise development project based on current yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soboleva, Elena

    2018-03-01

    The article is aimed at the issues of operational evaluation of development project efficiency in high-rise construction under the current economic conditions in Russia. The author touches the following issues: problems of implementing development projects, the influence of the operational evaluation quality of high-rise construction projects on general efficiency, assessing the influence of the project's external environment on the effectiveness of project activities under crisis conditions and the quality of project management. The article proposes the algorithm and the methodological approach to the quality management of the developer project efficiency based on operational evaluation of the current yield efficiency. The methodology for calculating the current efficiency of a development project for high-rise construction has been updated.

  7. Simulate the Effect of Climate Change on Development, Irrigation Requirements and Soybean Yield in Gorgan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Nehbandani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Atmospheric CO2 concentration has continuously been increasing during the past century and it is expected to increase from current 384 ppm to 550 ppm in 2050. This increase is expected to increase global temperature by 1.4 to 5.8 oC which can have major effects on crop plants. Since both CO2 and temperature are among the most important environmental variables that regulate physiological and phenological processes in plants, it is critical to evaluate the effects of CO2 and air temperature on the growth and yield of key crop plants. Warming of Earth's atmosphere can increase dark respiration and photorespiration in C3 plants. Rate of photosynthesis is affected by temperature, Therefore, rate of biochemical reactions, morphological reactions, CO2 and energy exchange with the atmosphere could be affected by temperature. Increase in CO2 concentration causes further yield improvement in C3 plants (Such as wheat, rice and soybeans in comparison with C4 plants (Such as corn, sorghum and sugarcane. In general, increasing CO2 concentration affects plant processes in two ways:direct effect on physiological processes in plant and indirect effect by changes in temperature and rainfall. Studying climate change effects including increase in temperature and CO2 concentration can help understanding adaptation strategies to reach higher and sustainable crop yields. Therefore, the objective of this research was to examine the effects of temperature and CO2 changes on days to maturity, irrigation water requirement, and yield in soybean under irrigation conditions of Gorganusing SSM-iLegume-Soybean model. Materials and methods: The model SSM-iLegume-Soybean simulates phenological development, leaf development and senescence, crop mass production and partitioning, plant nitrogen balance, yield formation and soil water and nitrogen balances. The model includes responses of crop processes to environmental factors of solar radiation, temperature and

  8. Desenvolvimento experimental de queijo fresco de leite da espécie bubalina Experimental development of a fresh cheese from buffalo’s milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgínia Maria YUNES

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um queijo fresco, utilizando como matéria prima o leite de búfala, na tentativa de introduzir esta rica fonte de proteína no hábito alimentar do brasileiro. Foram realizados experimentos buscando estabelecer o valor ideal de alguns parâmetros fundamentais do processamento de queijos (cloreto de cálcio, coalho e tempo de salga: teor de cloreto de sódio, combinando-os entre si. O leite e os queijos resultantes dos experimentos foram caracterizados físico-químicamente. Em média, a composição química do queijo foi: gordura 21,40; proteína 12,68; extrato seco 40,36; cinzas 3,13; umidade 58,77 e rendimento 29,25. A análise sensorial mostrou que os queijos elaborados encontravam-se dentro dos padrões aceitáveis de qualidade para os atributos de intensidade de sabor, sabor salgado, consistência e sabor amargo. A aceitabilidade geral dos queijos obtidos foi considerada satisfatória e os resultados mostraram quais fatores devem ser considerados mais importantes, permitindo delinear futuros processos para obter produtos de maior qualidade.The main objective of this work, was to develop a fresh cheese using buffalo’s milk, as the main raw material, in attempt to introduce this proteins rich source in the brazilian’s alimentary habits. Several experiments were done to establish the optimum values for fundamental cheesemaking parameters (calcium cloride, rennet and salting time: sodium cloride value, and combinations. Physical and chemical characteristics of the milk and the resulting cheese were described. The cheese’s average composition was: fat 21,50%; protein12,68%; dry extract 40,36%; ash 3,13%; moisture 58,77%; with a yield of 29,25%. Sensory analysis showed that the buffalo cheese was within quality standards for flavor intensity, saltness, consistency and bitterness. The general acceptance of the cheeses was satisfactory . The results showed which factors should be considered

  9. Development of a hierarchical Bayesian model to estimate the growth parameters of Listeria monocytogenes in minimally processed fresh leafy salads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crépet, Amélie; Stahl, Valérie; Carlin, Frédéric

    2009-05-31

    The optimal growth rate mu(opt) of Listeria monocytogenes in minimally processed (MP) fresh leafy salads was estimated with a hierarchical Bayesian model at (mean+/-standard deviation) 0.33+/-0.16 h(-1). This mu(opt) value was much lower on average than that in nutrient broth, liquid dairy, meat and seafood products (0.7-1.3 h(-1)), and of the same order of magnitude as in cheese. Cardinal temperatures T(min), T(opt) and T(max) were determined at -4.5+/-1.3 degrees C, 37.1+/-1.3 degrees C and 45.4+/-1.2 degrees C respectively. These parameters were determined from 206 growth curves of L. monocytogenes in MP fresh leafy salads (lettuce including iceberg lettuce, broad leaf endive, curly leaf endive, lamb's lettuce, and mixtures of them) selected in the scientific literature and in technical reports. The adequacy of the model was evaluated by comparing observed data (bacterial concentrations at each experimental time for the completion of the 206 growth curves, mean log(10) increase at selected times and temperatures, L. monocytogenes concentrations in naturally contaminated MP iceberg lettuce) with the distribution of the predicted data generated by the model. The sensitivity of the model to assumptions about the prior values also was tested. The observed values mostly fell into the 95% credible interval of the distribution of predicted values. The mu(opt) and its uncertainty determined in this work could be used in quantitative microbial risk assessment for L. monocytogenes in minimally processed fresh leafy salads.

  10. Development of predictive weather scenarios for early prediction of rice yield in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Y.; Cho, J.; Jung, I.

    2017-12-01

    International grain prices are becoming unstable due to frequent occurrence of abnormal weather phenomena caused by climate change. Early prediction of grain yield using weather forecast data is important for stabilization of international grain prices. The APEC Climate Center (APCC) is providing seasonal forecast data based on monthly climate prediction models for global seasonal forecasting services. The 3-month and 6-month seasonal forecast data using the multi-model ensemble (MME) technique are provided in their own website, ADSS (APCC Data Service System, http://adss.apcc21.org/). The spatial resolution of seasonal forecast data for each individual model is 2.5°×2.5°(about 250km) and the time scale is created as monthly. In this study, we developed customized weather forecast scenarios that are combined seasonal forecast data and observational data apply to early rice yield prediction model. Statistical downscale method was applied to produce meteorological input data of crop model because field scale crop model (ORYZA2000) requires daily weather data. In order to determine whether the forecasting data is suitable for the crop model, we produced spatio-temporal downscaled weather scenarios and evaluated the predictability by comparison with observed weather data at 57 ASOS stations in South Korea. The customized weather forecast scenarios can be applied to various application fields not only early rice yield prediction. Acknowledgement This work was carried out with the support of "Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development (Project No: PJ012855022017)" Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea.

  11. From safe yield to sustainable development of water resources - The Kansas experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophocleous, M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a synthesis of water sustainability issues from the hydrologic perspective. It shows that safe yield is a flawed concept and that sustainability is an idea that is broadly used but perhaps not well understood. In general, the sustainable yield of an aquifer must be considerably less than recharge if adequate amounts of water are to be available to sustain both the quantity and quality of streams, springs, wetlands, and ground-water-dependent ecosystems. To ensure sustainability, it is imperative that water limits be established based on hydrologic principles of mass balance. To establish water-use policies and planning horizons, the transition curves of aquifer systems from ground-water storage depletion to induced recharge of surface water need to be developed. Present-day numerical models are capable of generating such transition curves. Several idealized examples of aquifer systems show how this could be done. Because of the complexity of natural systems and the uncertainties in characterizing them, the current philosophy underlying sustainable management of water resources is based on the interconnected systems approach and on adaptive management. Examples of water-resources management from Kansas illustrate some of these concepts in a real-world setting. Some of the hallmarks of Kansas water management are the formation of local ground-water management districts, the adoption of minimum streamflow standards, the use of modified safe-yield policies in some districts, the implementation of integrated resource planning by the City of Wichita, and the subbasin water-resources management program in potential problem areas. These are all appropriate steps toward sustainable development. The Kansas examples show that local decision-making is the best way to fully account for local variability in water management. However, it is imperative that public education and involvement be encouraged, so that system complexities and constraints are better

  12. Development of a comprehensive watershed model applied to study stream yield under drought conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, S.P.; Sophocleous, M.

    1999-01-01

    We developed a model code to simulate a watershed's hydrology and the hydraulic response of an interconnected stream-aquifer system, and applied the model code to the Lower Republican River Basin in Kansas. The model code links two well-known computer programs: MODFLOW (modular 3-D flow model), which simulates ground water flow and stream-aquifer interaction; and SWAT (soil water assessment tool), a soil water budget simulator for an agricultural watershed. SWAT represents a basin as a collection of subbasins in terms of soil, land use, and weather data, and simulates each subbasin on a daily basis to determine runoff, percolation, evaporation, irrigation, pond seepages and crop growth. Because SWAT applies a lumped hydrologic model to each subbasin, spatial heterogeneities with respect to factors such as soil type and land use are not resolved geographically, but can instead be represented statistically. For the Republican River Basin model, each combination of six soil types and three land uses, referred to as a hydrologic response unit (HRU), was simulated with a separate execution of SWAT. A spatially weighted average was then taken over these results for each hydrologic flux and time step by a separate program, SWBAVG. We wrote a package for MOD-FLOW to associate each subbasin with a subset of aquifer grid cells and stream reaches, and to distribute the hydrologic fluxes given for each subbasin by SWAT and SWBAVG over MODFLOW's stream-aquifer grid to represent tributary flow, surface and ground water diversions, ground water recharge, and evapotranspiration from ground water. The Lower Republican River Basin model was calibrated with respect to measured ground water levels, streamflow, and reported irrigation water use. The model was used to examine the relative contributions of stream yield components and the impact on stream yield and base flow of administrative measures to restrict irrigation water use during droughts. Model results indicate that tributary

  13. Development of frontage road yield treatment analysis tool (FRYTAT) database software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) sponsored Project 0-4986, An Assessment of Frontage Road : Yield Treatments, to assess the effectiveness of a wide variety of frontage roadexit ramp and frontage roadU-turn : yield treatments...

  14. Development of a Community-Sensitive Strategy to Increase Availability of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables in Nashville’s Urban Food Deserts, 2010–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haushalter, Alisa; Buck, Tracy; Campbell, David; Henderson, Trevor; Schlundt, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Food deserts, areas that lack full-service grocery stores, may contribute to rising rates of obesity and chronic diseases among low-income and racial/ethnic minority residents. Our corner store project, part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Communities Putting Prevention to Work initiative, aimed to increase availability of healthful foods in food deserts in Nashville, Tennessee. Community Context We identified 4 food deserts in which most residents are low-income and racially and ethnically diverse. Our objectives were to develop an approach to increase availability of fresh fruits and vegetables, low-fat or nonfat milk, and 100% whole-wheat bread in Nashville’s food deserts and to engage community members to inform our strategy. Methods Five corner stores located in food deserts met inclusion criteria for our intervention. We then conducted community listening sessions, proprietor surveys, store audits, and customer-intercept surveys to identify needs, challenges to retailing the products, and potential intervention strategies. Outcome Few stores offered fresh fruits, fresh vegetables, low-fat or nonfat milk, or 100% whole-wheat bread, and none stocked items from all 4 categories. Major barriers to retailing healthful options identified by community members are mistrust of store owners, history of poor-quality produce, and limited familiarity with healthful options. Store owners identified neighborhood crime as the major barrier. We used community input to develop strategies. Interpretation Engaging community residents and understanding neighborhood context is critical to developing strategies that increase access to healthful foods in corner stores. PMID:23886044

  15. Evaluation of the Nutritive and Organoleptic Values of Food Products Developed by Incorporated Catharanthus roseus (Sadabahar Fresh Leaves Explore Their Hypoglycemic Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Bisla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes becomes a real problem of public health in developing countries, where its prevalence is increasing steadily. Diabetes mellitus can be found in almost every population in the world. Since the Ayurvedic practice started in India, plants are being used in the cure of diseases. Although the Catharanthus roseus have been used for their alleged health benefits and avail their hypoglycemic effect, used as medicine by diabetics. Medicinal plants have rarely been incorporated in food preparations. To fill these lacunae, food products were prepared by using Catharanthus roseus (Sadabahar fresh leaves with hypoglycemic properties. Commonly consumed recipes in India are prepared for diabetic patients and were developed at different levels at 3 g, 4 g, and 6 g per serving. Food product development and their acceptability appraisal through organoleptic evaluation were carried out by semitrained panel comprising 15 trained panelists from the department of Food Science and Nutrition, Banasthali University. Seven products were developed by incorporating Catharanthus roseus fresh leaves. Nine point hedonic scale was used as a medium to know about the product acceptability at various variances. All products are moderately acceptable at different concentrations except product fare “6 g” which was more acceptable than the standard. Among the three variations of incorporating the Catharanthus roseus (Sadabahar Leaves, 3 g variation is more acceptable than other variations.

  16. Modified atmosphere packaging for fresh-cut fruits and vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    The latest development in and different aspects of modified atmosphere packaging for fresh-cut fruits and vegetables are reviewed in the book. This book provides all readers, including fresh-cut academic researchers, fresh-cut R&D personnel, and fresh-cut processing engineers, with unique, essential...

  17. Induced mutagenesis for the development of high yielding varieties in mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, M.L.; Rahman, A.

    1988-01-01

    Variation for resistance to Alternaria brassicae (Berk.) Sacc. was induced in the oleiferous Brassica campestris cultivar yellow sarson, 'YS 52' using gamma rays. Variations were identified and isolated from the M 2 population. Screening in the subsequent generations (M 3 -M 4 ) confirmed the varying degrees of field resistance of the mutants. A total of 8 mutants of mustard developed by gamma irradiation was compared with the parental line and a released variety 'Sampad' as a check. Maximum plant height, highest number of pods and primary branches/plant were recorded in mutant '17-5-83'. The mutants '17-5-83' and '70-7-82' gave 45 and 21 per cent more grain yield respectively than the parent cultivar 'YS 52'. The mutant '17-5-83' appeared resistant while the mutants '70-7-82' and '53-11-82' were found to be moderately resistant against the disease. (author). 6 refs., 2 tables

  18. Development of an on-line exposure system to determine freshly produced diesel engine emission-induced cellular effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostingh, Gertie J; Papaioannou, Eleni; Chasapidis, Leonidas; Akritidis, Theofylaktos; Konstandopoulos, Athanasios G; Duschl, Albert

    2013-09-01

    Diesel engine emission particle filters are often placed at exhaust outlets to remove particles from the exhaust. The use of filters results in the exposure to a reduced number of nanometer-sized particles, which might be more harmful than the exposure to a larger number of micrometer-sized particles. An in vitro exposure system was established to expose human alveolar epithelial cells to freshly generated exhaust. Computer simulations were used to determine the optimal flow characteristics and ensure equal exposure conditions for each well of a 6-well plate. A selective particle size sampler was used to continuously deliver diesel soot particles with different particle size distributions to cells in culture. To determine, whether the system could be used for cellular assays, alterations in cytokine production and cell viability of human alveolar A549 cells were determined after 3h on-line exposure followed by a 21-h conventional incubation period. Data indicated that complete diesel engine emission slightly affected pre-stimulated cells, but naive cells were not affected. The fractions containing large or small particles never affected the cells. The experimental set-up allowed a reliable exposure of the cells to the complete exhaust fraction or to the fractions containing either large or small diesel engine emission particles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Developing a Hybrid Solar/Wind Powered Drip Irrigation System for Dragon Fruit Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiastuti, I.; Wijayanto, D. S.

    2017-03-01

    Irrigation operations take a large amount of water and energy which impact to total costs of crop production. Development of an efficient irrigation supplying precise amount of water and conserving the use of energy can have benefits not only by reducing the operating costs but also by enhancing the farmland productivity. This article presents an irrigation method that promotes sustainable use of water and energy appropriate for a developing tropical country. It proposes a drip irrigation system supported by a combined solar-wind electric power generation system for efficient use of water in dragon fruit cultivation. The electric power generated is used to drive a water pump filling a storage tank for irrigating a 3000 m2 dragon fruit yield in Nguntoronadi, Wonogiri, Indonesia. In designing the irrigation system, the plant’s water requirement was identified based on the value of reference evapotranspiration of the area. A cost/benefit analysis was performed to evaluate the economic feasibility of the proposed scheme. The installation of this solar and wind drip irrigation helps provide sufficient quantity of water to each plant using renewable energy sources which reduce dependence on fossil fuel.

  20. Analysis of coelom development in the sea urchin Holopneustes purpurescens yielding a deuterostome body plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie B. Morris

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of early coelom development in the echinoid Holopneustes purpurescens yields a deuterostome body plan that explains the disparity between the pentameral plan of echinoderms and the bilateral plans of chordates and hemichordates, the three major phyla of the monophyletic deuterostomes. The analysis shows an early separation into a medial hydrocoele and lateral coelomic mesoderm with an enteric channel between them before the hydrocoele forms the pentameral plan of five primary podia. The deuterostome body plan thus has a single axial or medial coelom and a pair of lateral coeloms, all surrounding an enteric channel, the gut channel. Applied to the phyla, the medial coelom is the hydrocoele in echinoderms, the notochord in chordates and the proboscis coelom in hemichordates: the lateral coeloms are the coelomic mesoderm in echinoderms, the paraxial mesoderm in chordates and the lateral coeloms in hemichordates. The plan fits frog and chick development and the echinoderm fossil record, and predicts genes involved in coelomogenesis as the source of deuterostome macroevolution.

  1. Development of eggplant hybrid cultivar ‘BATEM FILIZI’ and determination of yield performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Filiz BOYACI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Eggplant (Solanum melongena L. cultivation is an important part of vegetable production in Turkey. It is highly affected by abiotic stress factors such as low temperatures during growth and development. The present study was aimed to improve new hybrid varieties with high quality and fruit setting under undesirable environmental conditions in eggplant. The 39 inbred lines were developed from eggplant genepool by using pedigree breeding method at the Bati Akdeniz Agricultural Research Institute. They were characterized morphologically and evaluated for phylogenetic relationship among them. Selected seven lines were crossed each other to obtain F1 hybrids. Thirteen hybrids from these crosses were examined for their rate of heterosis and heterobeltiosis. These hybrids were not suitable for market demands although F1 hybrids including P350 as parental line had high heterosis rate. Oval fruit shaped P350 inbred line as female parent showed good performance and crossed with long fruit shaped P599 inbred line. The resultant F1 hybrid cultivar higher yielding, suitable for production under greenhouse and highly adaptable was registered with the name of BATEM FILIZI. It is recommended that this hybrid can be used in greenhouse production especially in single crop season.

  2. Developing a machine vision system for simultaneous prediction of freshness indicators based on tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) pupil and gill color during storage at 4°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ce; Qian, Jianping; Han, Shuai; Fan, Beilei; Yang, Xinting; Wu, Xiaoming

    2018-03-15

    The study assessed the feasibility of developing a machine vision system based on pupil and gill color changes in tilapia for simultaneous prediction of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), thiobarbituric acid (TBA) and total viable counts (TVC) during storage at 4°C. The pupils and gills were chosen and color space conversion among RGB, HSI and L ∗ a ∗ b ∗ color spaces was performed automatically by an image processing algorithm. Multiple regression models were established by correlating pupil and gill color parameters with TVB-N, TVC and TBA (R 2 =0.989-0.999). However, assessment of freshness based on gill color is destructive and time-consuming because gill cover must be removed before images are captured. Finally, visualization maps of spoilage based on pupil color were achieved using image algorithms. The results show that assessment of tilapia pupil color parameters using machine vision can be used as a low-cost, on-line method for predicting freshness during 4°C storage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Silicon fertilization and soil water tensions on rice development and yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakeline R. de Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The cultivation of upland rice (Oryza sativa in Brazil occurs mainly in the Cerrado, a region with adverse weather conditions. The use of silicon in its cultivation becomes important, since this nutrient provides higher rigidity, lower transpiration and higher resistance to dry spells in rice plants. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of silicon fertilization and soil water tensions on upland rice development and yield in a Cerrado Oxisol. A 5 x 5 fractionated factorial with five soil water tensions (0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 kPa and five silicon doses (0, 120, 240, 480 and 960 mg dm-3 was used, which were distributed in a randomized block design, with four replicates. Plant height, number of tillers, number of panicles, number of grains per panicle, numbers of full and empty grains and percentage of empty grains were evaluated. Silicon fertilization promotes increased tillering in rice plants at the dose of 960 mg dm-3. The numbers of tillers and panicles decreased with the application of silicon up to the doses of 460 and 490 mg dm-3, respectively. The increase in soil water tensions reduced plant height and the number of full grains, and increased the percentage of empty grains of upland rice.

  4. Increasing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Yield to Develop Mice with Human Immune Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Carlos Biancotti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs are unique in their capacity to give rise to all mature cells of the immune system. For years, HSC transplantation has been used for treatment of genetic and neoplastic diseases of the hematopoietic and immune systems. The sourcing of HSCs from human umbilical cord blood has salient advantages over isolation from mobilized peripheral blood. However, poor sample yield has prompted development of methodologies to expand HSCs ex vivo. Cytokines, trophic factors, and small molecules have been variously used to promote survival and proliferation of HSCs in culture, whilst strategies to lower the concentration of inhibitors in the culture media have recently been applied to promote HSC expansion. In this paper, we outline strategies to expand HSCs in vitro, and to improve engraftment and reconstitution of human immune systems in immunocompromised mice. To the extent that these “humanized” mice are representative of the endogenous human immune system, they will be invaluable tools for both basic science and translational medicine.

  5. Differential gene expression at different stages of mesocarp development in high- and low-yielding oil palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yick Ching; Teh, Huey Fang; Mebus, Katharina; Ooi, Tony Eng Keong; Kwong, Qi Bin; Koo, Ka Loo; Ong, Chuang Kee; Mayes, Sean; Chew, Fook Tim; Appleton, David R; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna

    2017-06-21

    The oil yield trait of oil palm is expected to involve multiple genes, environmental influences and interactions. Many of the underlying mechanisms that contribute to oil yield are still poorly understood. In this study, we used a microarray approach to study the gene expression profiles of mesocarp tissue at different developmental stages, comparing genetically related high- and low- oil yielding palms to identify genes that contributed to the higher oil-yielding palm and might contribute to the wider genetic improvement of oil palm breeding populations. A total of 3412 (2001 annotated) gene candidates were found to be significantly differentially expressed between high- and low-yielding palms at at least one of the different stages of mesocarp development evaluated. Gene Ontologies (GO) enrichment analysis identified 28 significantly enriched GO terms, including regulation of transcription, fatty acid biosynthesis and metabolic processes. These differentially expressed genes comprise several transcription factors, such as, bHLH, Dof zinc finger proteins and MADS box proteins. Several genes involved in glycolysis, TCA, and fatty acid biosynthesis pathways were also found up-regulated in high-yielding oil palm, among them; pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component Subunit Beta (PDH), ATP-citrate lyase, β- ketoacyl-ACP synthases I (KAS I), β- ketoacyl-ACP synthases III (KAS III) and ketoacyl-ACP reductase (KAR). Sucrose metabolism-related genes such as Invertase, Sucrose Synthase 2 and Sucrose Phosphatase 2 were found to be down-regulated in high-yielding oil palms, compared to the lower yield palms. Our findings indicate that a higher carbon flux (channeled through down-regulation of the Sucrose Synthase 2 pathway) was being utilized by up-regulated genes involved in glycolysis, TCA and fatty acid biosynthesis leading to enhanced oil production in the high-yielding oil palm. These findings are an important stepping stone to understand the processes that lead to

  6. Correlations between yield and fruit quality characteristics of fresh market tomatoes Correlações entre caracteres de produção e qualidade de frutos de tomate de mesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia M de Souza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Genotypic, phenotypic and environmental correlations were estimated for all possible pairs among eleven characters of tomatoes. Fifteen treatments including five parents and ten hybrids of Instituto Agronômico (IAC tomato breeding program were evaluated using a randomized complete block experimental design, with tree replications in Itatiba, São Paulo state, Brazil, during 2005/2006. The following traits were evaluated: fruit yield per plant (FP, fruit number per plant (FN, average fruit weight (FW, cluster number per plant (CN, fruit number per cluster (FC, number of locules per fruit (NL, fruit length (FL, fruit width (WI, fruit wall thickness (FT, total soluble solids (SS, and total titratable acidity (TA. The genotypic (rG, phenotypic (rF and environmental correlations (rA for two pairs of plant traits were estimated using the Genes© program. High similarity was found among the estimates of genotypic and phenotypic correlations. Positive and high phenotypic and genotypic correlations were observed between FP and the traits FN, FW and FT, and these associations contributed for yield increasing. FW and FT contributed to yield increase and should be considered together as primary yield components in tomato. Positive values of the genotypic and phenotypic correlations revealed that FP influenced FN with high direct effect and significant positive correlation. These traits may be included as the main selection criteria for tomato yield improvement.Correlações fenotípica, genotípica e ambiental foram estimadas entre todos os possíveis pares de onze caracteres de tomate de mesa. Quinze tratamentos, incluindo cinco parentais e dez híbridos do programa de melhoramento de tomate do Instituto Agronômico (IAC foram testados no delineamento em blocos casualizados completos, em Itatiba-SP, em 2005/2006. Os seguintes caracteres foram avaliados: produção (FP, número (FN e peso médio do fruto (FW, número de pencas por planta (CN, número de

  7. Development of a LC-MS/MS method for the analysis of enniatins and beauvericin in whole fresh and ensiled maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Rasmussen, Peter Have; Thrane, Ulf

    2008-11-12

    A LC-MS/MS method for the detection of beauvericin and the four enniatins A, A1, B, and B1 in maize and maize silage was developed. The method uses direct injection of maize extracts without any tedious and laborious cleanup procedures. The limit of quantification was determined at 13 ng g(-1) for beauvericin and at 17, 34, 24, and 26 ng g(-1) for enniatins A, A1, B, and B1, respectively. The method was used in surveys of the compounds in fresh maize samples collected at harvest in 2005 and 2006. All samples had the same distribution of the enniatins: B > B1 > A1 > A. Enniatin B was present in 90% of the samples in 2005 and in 100% in 2006 at levels up to 489 and 2598 ng g(-1), respectively. Beauvericin contamination was more frequently detected in 2006 than in 2005 (89 and 10%, respectively) and in higher amounts (988 and 71 ng g(-1), respectively). The occurrence of beauvericin and the four enniatins was examined in 3-month-old maize silage stacks from 20 different farms. As observed in fresh maize, enniatin B was the most abundant compound in ensiled maize and was found from 19 stacks at levels up to 218 ng g(-1). The stability of enniatin B in maize silage was assessed by analyzing samples from 10 of the silage stacks taken after 3, 7, and 11 months of ensiling. Enniatin B could be detected at all locations after 11 months and appeared to be stable during ensiling.

  8. Timing of mounding for bambara groundnut affects crop development and yield in a rainfed tropical environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouedrago, Mahama; M'bi, Bertin Zagre; Liu, Fulai

    2013-01-01

    -ecological zone of Burkina Faso were conducted. Yield data confirm the findings from a drier part of Burkina Faso; i.e., mounding of bambara groundnut should not be carried out around the time of flowering. In a semi-arid area, such as Sudan–Sahel agro-ecological zone and with germplasm maturing within 90 days...

  9. Development of growth and yield models for southern hardwoods: site index determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Paul McTague; Daniel J. Robison; David O' Loughlin; Joseph Roise; Robert Kellison

    2006-01-01

    Growth and yield data from across 13 southern States, collected from 1967 to 2004 from fully-stocked even-aged southern hardwood forests on a variety of site types, was used to calculate site index curves. These derived curves provide an efficient means to evaluate the productivity-age relation which varies across many sites. These curves were derived for mixed-species...

  10. Developing robust crop plants for sustaining growth and yield under adverse climatic changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural production and quality are expected to suffer from adverse changes in climatic conditions, including global warming, and this will affect worldwide human and animal food security. Global warming has been shown to negatively impact crop yield and therefore will affect sustainability of a...

  11. Effect of fungicide on the development of wheat stem rust and yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f.sp tritici Erik. & E. Henn. is a highly destructive disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The effects of fungicide application on stem rust (Puccinia graminis tritici) epidemics and yield of three bread wheat varieties varying in reaction to the disease were studied in two major wheat ...

  12. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE FIELD CROPS YIELD IN TEISANI AREA HOUSEHOLDS, PRAHOVA COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Elena ANGELESCU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to analyze the technological performance of the field crops on luvisoils in Teisani area, Prahova County, where corn and potato are cultivated for personal consumption and beet for animal nutrition. The cultivation of wheat and fodder plants has been an exception. Studies conducted have firstly referred to the introduction of crops in rotation system, through cooperation and exchange between households and within their own household for those with larger surfaces. To compare the productivity of crops, the yield energy value has been used as a measure unit, which facilitates the comparison. The yields was reduced up to the lower limit of crop potential because of monocultures and the lack of appropriate technologies, even for small farming machinery. The results showed that using improved technologies, in 2013 and 2014, the yields were significantly superior, the highest ones, for potatoes and alfalfa, the last one as jumper field. Introducing alfalfa in the crop rotation system has led to the potato yield doubling, but also of those of wheat, corn and beet. Using manure and organic material available and degradable in the form of compost made in their own household, to which are added small amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus, there were obtained average yields by 40% higher than the average of the experience and by 139%, i.e. 2.4 times higher than the unfertilized variant, very much used in the area. Therefore, it was demonstrated, that there are huge resources to produce agricultural products and primary food in the Teisani rural area. Small peasant households should be encouraged and financially supported to participate to food production both for their own consumption, but also for the market.

  13. Development and validation of a spectrophotometry method for the determination of histamine in fresh tuna (Thunnus tunna)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacon-Silva, Fainier; Barquero-Quiros, Miriam

    2002-01-01

    Histamine in foods can promote allergic reactions in sensitive persons. A colorimetric microscale method for histamine determination was developed and validated. Cu 2+ histamine chelation occurs at 9,5 ph. Dichloromethane extraction of the complex as the salt with tetrabromo phenolphthalein ethyl ester, allows photometric quantitation at 515 nm. The validation of micro method was accomplished trough its performance parameters, detection limit, quantitation limit, sensitivity, linearity, precision, recuperation. This methodology was applied to twenty raw tuna samples, collected in San Jose metropolitan area. It was found that 45% of analyzed samples had a histamine content in the range between 100-200 mg/kg. This finding indicates bacterial contamination, 15% of samples analyzed were over 500 mg/kg FDA level of sanitary risk. (Author) [es

  14. EFFECT OF NITROGEN-FIXING BACTERIA ON GRAIN YIELD AND DEVELOPMENT OF FLOODED IRRIGATED RICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMAURI NELSON BEUTLER

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effect of Azospirillum brasilense , a nitrogen - fixing bacterium, on flooded irrigated rice yield. Evaluations were carried out in a shaded nursery, with seedlings grown on an Alfisol. Were performed two sets of experiments. In the first, were carried out four experiments using the flooded rice cultivars INIA Olimar, Puitá Inta - CL, Br Irga 409 and Irga 424; these trials were set up as completely randomized design in a 5x4 factorial scheme, with four replications. Treatments consisted of five nitrogen rates (0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 kg ha - 1 and four levels of liquid inoculant Ab - V5 and Ab - V6 - A. brasilense (0, 1, 2 and 4 times the manufacturer's recommendation without seed treatment. In second set, were performed two experiments using the cultivars Puitá Inta - CL and Br Irga 409, arranged in the same design, but using a 4x2 factorial. In this set, treatments were composed of four levels of Ab - V5 and Ab - V6 - A. brasilense liquid inoculant (0, 1, 2 and 4 times the recommendation of 100 mL ha - 1 , using rice seeds with and without insecticide and fungicide treatment. Shoot dry matter, number of panicles, and rice grain yield per pot were the assessed variables. The results showed that rice seed inoculation with A. brasilense had no effects on rice grain yield of the cultivars INIA Olimar, Puitá Inta - CL, Br Irga 409 and Irga 424.

  15. The Effects of Mixing, Reaction Rates, and Stoichiometry on Yield for Mixing Sensitive Reactions—Part I: Model Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Imran A. Shah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two classes of mixing sensitive reactions: competitive-consecutive and competitive-parallel. The yield of desired product from these coupled reactions depends on how fast the reactants are brought together. Recent experimental results have suggested that the mixing effect may depend strongly on the stoichiometry of the reactions. To investigate this, a 1D, dimensionless, reaction-diffusion model at the micromixing scale was developed. Assuming constant mass concentration and mass diffusivities, systems of PDE's were derived on a mass fraction basis for both types of reactions. Two dimensionless reaction rate ratios and a single general Damköhler number emerged from the analysis. The resulting dimensionless equations were used to investigate the effects of mixing, reaction rate ratio, and reaction stoichiometry. As expected, decreasing either the striation thickness or the dimensionless rate ratio maximizes yield, the reaction stoichiometry has a considerable effect on yield, and all three variables interact strongly.

  16. Climate change and agroecosystems: the effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 and temperature on crop growth, development, and yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Streck Nereu Augusto

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The amount of carbon dioxide (CO2 of the Earths atmosphere is increasing, which has the potential of increasing greenhouse effect and air temperature in the future. Plants respond to environment CO2 and temperature. Therefore, climate change may affect agriculture. The purpose of this paper was to review the literature about the impact of a possible increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature on crop growth, development, and yield. Increasing CO2 concentration increases crop yield once the substrate for photosynthesis and the gradient of CO2 concentration between atmosphere and leaf increase. C3 plants will benefit more than C4 plants at elevated CO2. However, if global warming will take place, an increase in temperature may offset the benefits of increasing CO2 on crop yield.

  17. Development of a New Class of Scintillating Fibres with Very Short Decay Time and High Light Yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borshchev, O.; Ponomarenko, S.; Surin, N.; Cavalcante, A.B.R.; Gavardi, L.; Gruber, L.; Joram, C.; Shinji, O.

    2017-01-01

    We present first studies of a new class of scintillating fibres which are characterised by very short decay times and high light yield. The fibres are based on a novel type of luminophores admixed to a polystyrene core matrix. These so-called Nanostructured Organosilicon Luminophores (NOL) have high photoluminescense quantum yield and decay times just above 1 ns. A blue and a green emitting prototype fibre with 250 μm diameter were produced and characterised in terms of attenuation length, ionisation light yield, decay time and tolerance to x-ray irradiation. The well-established Kuraray SCSF-78 and SCSF-3HF fibres were taken as references. Even though the two prototype fibres mark just an intermediate step in an ongoing development, their performance is already on a competitive level. In particular, their decay time constants are about a factor of two shorter than the fastest known fibres, which makes them promising candidates for time critical applications.

  18. Innovative Fresh Water Production Process for Fossil Fuel Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight; Venugopal Jogi

    2005-09-01

    This project concerns a diffusion driven desalination (DDD) process where warm water is evaporated into a low humidity air stream, and the vapor is condensed out to produce distilled water. Although the process has a low fresh water to feed water conversion efficiency, it has been demonstrated that this process can potentially produce low cost distilled water when driven by low grade waste heat. This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. A dynamic analysis of heat and mass transfer demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production of 1.03 million gallon/day by utilizing waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant based on a condensing steam pressure of only 3 Hg. The optimum operating condition for the DDD process with a high temperature of 50 C and sink temperature of 25 C has an air mass flux of 1.5 kg/m{sup 2}-s, air to feed water mass flow ratio of 1 in the diffusion tower, and a fresh water to air mass flow ratio of 2 in the condenser. Operating at these conditions yields a fresh water production efficiency (m{sub fW}/m{sub L}) of 0.031 and electric energy consumption rate of 0.0023 kW-hr/kg{sub fW}. Throughout the past year, the main focus of the desalination process has been on the direct contact condenser. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze these heat and mass transfer devices are described. The analyses agree quite well with the current data. Recently, it has been recognized that the fresh water production efficiency can be significantly enhanced with air heating. This type of configuration is well suited for power plants utilizing air-cooled condensers. The experimental DDD facility has been modified with an air heating section, and temperature and humidity data have been collected over a range of flow and thermal conditions. It has been experimentally observed that the fresh water production rate is enhanced when air

  19. Development of performance properties of ternary mixtures and concrete pavement mixture design and analysis (MDA) : effect of paste quality on fresh and hardened properties of ternary mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of cement paste quality on the concrete performance, particularly fresh properties, : by changing the water-to-cementitious materials ratio (w/cm), type and dosage of supplementary cementitious ...

  20. Effects of photoperiod on wheat growth, development and yield in CELSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunze, Shen; Shuangsheng, Guo

    2014-12-01

    A Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) is a sealed system used in spaceflight in order to provide astronauts with food and O2 by plants. It is of great significance to increase the energy-using efficiency because energy is extremely deficient in the space. Therefore, the objective of this research was to increase the energy-using efficiency of wheat by regulating the photoperiod. Sixteen treatments were set in total: four photoperiods before flowering (PBF) combined with four photoperiods after flowering (PAF) of 12 h, 16 h, 20 h and 24 h. The light source was red-blue LED (90% red+10% blue). As a result, the growth period of wheat was largely extended by shorter PBF, particularly the number of days from tillering to jointing and from jointing to heading. The period from flowering to maturity was extended by shorter PAF. Shorter PBF and longer PAF could increase not only the yield but also the energy-using efficiency of wheat. As for the nutritional quality, longer photoperiod (both PBF and PAF) increased starch concentration as well as decreased protein concentration of seeds. The effects of PBF and PAF were interactional. The lighting strategy with PBF of 12 h and PAF of 24 h was proved to be the optimum photoperiod for wheat cultivation in CELSS. The mechanisms of photoperiod effect contain two aspects. Firstly, photoperiod is a signal for many processes in plant growth, particularly the process of ear differentiation. Shorter PBF promoted the ear differentiation of wheat, increasing the spikelet number, floret number and seed number and thus enhancing the yield. Secondly, longer photoperiod leads to more light energy input and longer time of photosynthesis, so that longer PAF provided more photosynthate and increased seed yield.

  1. INNOVATIVE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Mohamed Darwish; Diego Acevedo; Jessica Knight

    2003-09-01

    This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system, which is powered by the waste heat from low pressure condensing steam in power plants. The desalination is driven by water vapor saturating dry air flowing through a diffusion tower. Liquid water is condensed out of the air/vapor mixture in a direct contact condenser. A thermodynamic analysis demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production efficiency of 4.5% based on a feed water inlet temperature of only 50 C. An example is discussed in which the DDD process utilizes waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant to produce 1.51 million gallons of fresh water per day. The main focus of the initial development of the desalination process has been on the diffusion tower. A detailed mathematical model for the diffusion tower has been described, and its numerical implementation has been used to characterize its performance and provide guidance for design. The analysis has been used to design a laboratory scale diffusion tower, which has been thoroughly instrumented to allow detailed measurements of heat and mass transfer coefficient, as well as fresh water production efficiency. The experimental facility has been described in detail.

  2. Evaluation of the development and yielding potential of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under the climatic conditions of Europe. Part Two: Yielding potential of Chenopodium quinoa under different conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Gęsiński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of Chenopodium quinoa cultivation effects in Poland has been compared with European research results. It was found that the conditions in Europe are favorable to Chenopodium quinoa cultivation. Poland has the mean length of the vegetation period. The maximum value of this trait was found in Sweden. The conditions in Bydgoszcz (Poland are very favorable to the cultivation for green matter and favorable as far as the seed yield is concerned. The most favorable seed yield was recorded in Greece.

  3. Sage Russet: A new high yielding dual-purpose russet variety, with cold-sweetening resistance, high vitamin C and protein contents and excellent fresh pack and processing potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage Russet was released in 2009 by Oregon State University, in cooperation with the USDA-ARS and the Agricultural Experiment Stations of Idaho and Washington. It is a product of the Northwest Potato Variety (Tri-State) Development Program. Sage Russet has a medium-early maturity and produces long, ...

  4. MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES, YIELD AND POPULATION DEVELOPMENT OF THE NOBLE CRAYFISH ASTACUS ASTACUS IN LAKE STEINSFJORDEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SKURDAL J.

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Lake Steinsfjorden is the most important noble crayfish locality in Norway. The crayfish population has been monitored annually since 1979 including data on total trapping effort, yield and population composition before and after the catching season. The harvest has ranged from 0.7-4.7 kg.ha-1. The catch per trap night decreased prior to 1991 and the yield was reduced by some 50% over the years 1987-1992 as compared to 1979-1986. This was due to removal of small crayfish, high exploitation and the establishment of dense stands of Canadian pondweed (Elodea canadensis. Baited traps catch a large fraction of crayfish < 95 mm total length minimum size. These should according to the regulations immediately be released into the lake. However, it is apparent from the size composition that release of these small crayfish was rather incomplete. In 1983, trap mesh size was increased from 17.5 mm to 21 mm to reduce the fraction of undersized crayfish in the trap catches, yet no effects of this increased mesh size on crayfish size distribution were observed. The legal season has been reduced three times during the study period. In 1983, the closing date was changed from 31 December to 15 September. In 1989 the legal season was further reduced to two weeks and finally in 1995 to 10 days. This reduced total trap effort by 45%. The shorter season allow many crayfish to moult twice instead of once between seasons and the fraction of large crayfish has thus increased and so has the catch per trap night. Canadian pondweed has established dense annual stands and thus has made large parts of the shallow areas unsuitable for crayfish, causing an overall decrease in crayfish population size and production.

  5. Intelligent Fish Freshness Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Gholam Hosseini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish species identification and automated fish freshness assessment play important roles in fishery industry applications. This paper describes a method based on support vector machines (SVMs to improve the performance of fish identification systems. The result is used for the assessment of fish freshness using artificial neural network (ANN. Identification of the fish species involves processing of the images of fish. The most efficient features were extracted and combined with the down-sampled version of the images to create a 1D input vector. Max-Win algorithm applied to the SVM-based classifiers has enhanced the reliability of sorting to 96.46%. The realisation of Cyranose 320 Electronic nose (E-nose, in order to evaluate the fish freshness in real-time, is experimented. Intelligent processing of the sensor patterns involves the use of a dedicated ANN for each species under study. The best estimation of freshness was provided by the most sensitive sensors. Data was collected from four selected species of fishes over a period of ten days. It was concluded that the performance can be increased using individual trained ANN for each specie. The proposed system has been successful in identifying the number of days after catching the fish with an accuracy of up to 91%.

  6. Development and characterization of a high yield transportable pulsed neutron source with efficient and compact pulsed power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rishi; Mishra, Ekansh; Dhang, Prosenjit; Sagar, Karuna; Meena, Manraj; Shyam, Anurag

    2016-09-01

    The results of characterization experiments carried out on a newly developed dense plasma focus device based intense pulsed neutron source with efficient and compact pulsed power system are reported. Its high current sealed pseudospark switch based low inductance capacitor bank with maximum stored energy of ˜10 kJ is segregated into four modules of ˜2.5 kJ each and it cumulatively delivers peak current in the range of 400 kA-600 kA (corresponding to charging voltage range of 14 kV-18 kV) in a quarter time period of ˜2 μs. The neutron yield performance of this device has been optimized by discretely varying deuterium filling gas pressure in the range of 6 mbar-11 mbar at ˜17 kV/550 kA discharge. At ˜7 kJ/8.5 mbar operation, the average neutron yield has been measured to be in the order of ˜4 × 109 neutrons/pulse which is the highest ever reported neutron yield from a plasma focus device with the same stored energy. The average forward to radial anisotropy in neutron yield is found to be ˜2. The entire system is contained on a moveable trolley having dimensions 1.5 m × 1 m × 0.7 m and its operation and control (up to the distance of 25 m) are facilitated through optically isolated handheld remote console. The overall compactness of this system provides minimum proximity to small as well as large samples for irradiation. The major intended application objective of this high neutron yield dense plasma focus device development is to explore the feasibility of active neutron interrogation experiments by utilization of intense pulsed neutron sources.

  7. Development and characterization of a high yield transportable pulsed neutron source with efficient and compact pulsed power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Rishi, E-mail: rishiv9@gmail.com, E-mail: rishiv@barc.gov.in; Mishra, Ekansh; Dhang, Prosenjit; Sagar, Karuna; Meena, Manraj; Shyam, Anurag [Energetics and Electromagnetics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Autonagar, Vishakapatnam 530012 (India)

    2016-09-15

    The results of characterization experiments carried out on a newly developed dense plasma focus device based intense pulsed neutron source with efficient and compact pulsed power system are reported. Its high current sealed pseudospark switch based low inductance capacitor bank with maximum stored energy of ∼10 kJ is segregated into four modules of ∼2.5 kJ each and it cumulatively delivers peak current in the range of 400 kA–600 kA (corresponding to charging voltage range of 14 kV–18 kV) in a quarter time period of ∼2 μs. The neutron yield performance of this device has been optimized by discretely varying deuterium filling gas pressure in the range of 6 mbar–11 mbar at ∼17 kV/550 kA discharge. At ∼7 kJ/8.5 mbar operation, the average neutron yield has been measured to be in the order of ∼4 × 10{sup 9} neutrons/pulse which is the highest ever reported neutron yield from a plasma focus device with the same stored energy. The average forward to radial anisotropy in neutron yield is found to be ∼2. The entire system is contained on a moveable trolley having dimensions 1.5 m × 1 m × 0.7 m and its operation and control (up to the distance of 25 m) are facilitated through optically isolated handheld remote console. The overall compactness of this system provides minimum proximity to small as well as large samples for irradiation. The major intended application objective of this high neutron yield dense plasma focus device development is to explore the feasibility of active neutron interrogation experiments by utilization of intense pulsed neutron sources.

  8. Desenvolvimento e produção de genótipos de couve manteiga Development and yield of kale genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo de SS Novo

    2010-09-01

    leaves were harvested and counted. Leaf areas were measured and their fresh and dry weights were determined. The sprout number and all totally expanded but not yet commercial leaves were counted and the total number of leaves was calculated. Vale das Garças was the cultivar with highest vegetative development for all variables analyzed. Although the sprout, commercial leaves and total number of leaves showed lower values in 'Orelha de Elefante', the final yield of fresh and dry leaves of this cultivar presented higher specific foliar area and its fresh and dry weight were similar to that of Vale das Garças. 'Vale das Garças' and 'Orelha de Elefante' presented themselves as a good alternative for kale production.

  9. Method for attaining rosemary essential oil with differential composition from dried or fresh material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Astatkie, Tess; Zhalnov, Ivan; Georgieva, Tonya D

    2015-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis L.) is a well-known medicinal and essential oil plant, utilized by humankind since ancient times. The objective was to determine the effect of steam distillation time (DT) and material (dry or fresh biomass) on essential oil yield, composition, and bioactivity; and to develop regression models that can predict oil yield and composition at specific DT. The oil yield (content) from dry biomass was higher (0.43%) than that from fresh biomass (0.35%) and ranged from 0.18% in the 1.25 min DT to 0.51% in the 40 min DT. There was no yield advantage in extending the DT beyond 40 min, which is much shorter than the DT used by industry. In this study, the antioxidant capacity of the rosemary oil using the ORACoil method was 4,108 μmolVE/L. Rosemary oil did not exhibit significant antileishmanial, antimalarial, or antimicrobial activity. In general, the low-boiling constituents eluted earlier than the higher boiling constituents of the essential oil, resulting in a great variation of essential oil composition obtained at different DT. The most important constituents are α-pinene, eucalyptol, and camphor. The highest α-pinene concentration in the oil (30.4%) was obtained from dry biomass at 2.5 min DT; eucalyptol (23.3% of the total oil) from fresh biomass at 2.5 min DT; and camphor (15.9% of the total oil) from fresh biomass at 160 min DT. The DT could be used as an inexpensive tool to alter essential oil composition of the essential oil from fresh or dried rosemary biomass, and to produce rosemary oils with elevated or lowered concentration of specific targeted oil constituents to meet specific market demands.

  10. High-yield secretion of recombinant proteins expressed in tobacco cell culture with a designer glycopeptide tag: Process development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ningning; Gonzalez, Maria; Savary, Brett; Xu, Jianfeng

    2016-03-01

    Low-yield protein production remains the most significant economic hurdle with plant cell culture technology. Fusions of recombinant proteins with hydroxyproline-O-glycosylated designer glycopeptide tags have consistently boosted secreted protein yields. This prompted us to study the process development of this technology aiming to achieve productivity levels necessary for commercial viability. We used a tobacco BY-2 cell culture expressing EGFP as fusion with a glycopeptide tag comprised of 32 repeat of "Ser-Pro" dipeptide, or (SP)32 , to study cell growth and protein secretion, culture scale-up, and establishment of perfusion cultures for continuous production. The BY-2 cells accumulated low levels of cell biomass (~7.5 g DW/L) in Schenk & Hildebrandt medium, but secreted high yields of (SP)32 -tagged EGFP (125 mg/L). Protein productivity of the cell culture has been stable for 6.0 years. The BY-2 cells cultured in a 5-L bioreactor similarly produced high secreted protein yield at 131 mg/L. Successful operation of a cell perfusion culture for 30 days was achieved under the perfusion rate of 0.25 and 0.5 day(-1) , generating a protein volumetric productivity of 17.6 and 28.9 mg/day/L, respectively. This research demonstrates the great potential of the designer glycopeptide technology for use in commercial production of valuable proteins with plant cell cultures. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Minas-type fresh cheese developed from buffalo milk with addition of L. acidophilus Desenvolvimento de queijo minas frescal de leite de búfala com adição de L. acidophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Marcatti

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Effective incorporation of a probiotic into foods requires the culture to remain viable all along processing and storage, without adverse alterations to sensory characteristics. The objective of this work was developing Minas-type fresh cheese with probiotic properties from buffalo milk. Four batches of Minas-type fresh cheese were prepared using buffalo milk: batch T1 in which neither culture nor lactic acid added; batch T3 in which only lactic acid added; batches T2 and T4 , both added of Lactobacillus acidophilus LAC 4, but T4 was also acidified. Resulting cheeses were evaluated for probiotic culture stability, texture profile, sensory acceptance, and changes in pH. The T4 probiotic cheese presented hardness, gumminess, and chewiness significantly lower than the other treatments. However, values for springiness and cohesiveness did not differ between all cheeses, and no sensory differences (p > 0.05 were found between treatments for texture, taste, and overall acceptance. The addition of probiotic to the acidified cheese (T4 yielded best aroma. The populations of L. acidophilus were greater than 10(6 CFU g-1 after 28 days of storage all products. Minas-type fresh cheese from buffalo milk is a suitable food for the delivery of L. acidophilus, since the culture remained viable during the shelf life of the products and did not negative affect analysed parameters.Para incorporação efetiva de probióticos em alimentos é imprescindível que a cultura mantenha-se viável durante todo o processamento e a estocagem e que não ocorram alterações adversas nas características sensoriais do produto. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver queijo Minas frescal com propriedades probióticas a partir do leite de búfala. Foram avaliados quatro tratamentos (T1 a T4, sendo T1 e T3 controles, sem e com acidificação, respectivamente em T2 e T4 foram adicionados da cultura probiótica Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAC 4, porém T4 foi também acidificado

  12. Development of Performance-Related Specification for Fresh Emulsions Used for Surface Treatments and Performance Study of Chip Seals and Microsurfacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilias, Mohammad

    Pavement preservation is a rapidly growing strategy for prolonging pavement service life. Pavement preservation consists of applying a thin layer of asphalt binder or emulsion with or without aggregate to the surface of an existing pavement. Preservation treatments do not provide any structural strength to the pavement but restores skid resistance, seals existing cracks, protects the underlying pavement from intrusion of water, and reduces further oxidative aging of the underlying pavement. In recent years, significant research has been dedicated to improving design of pavement preservation treatments. In pavement preservation treatments, asphalt emulsion is the predominant binding material used because of its low viscosity compared to asphalt cement which allows for production at greatly reduced temperatures, leading to energy efficiency, and potential cost savings. Currently, specifications for emulsions used in pavement preservation treatments are empirical and lack of direct relationship to performance. This study seeks to improve specifications for emulsions used in preservation treatments by developing performancerelated specifications (PRS) for (a) fresh emulsion properties, (b) microsurfacing emulsion residue, and (c) low-temperature raveling of chip seal emulsion residues. Fresh emulsion properties dictate constructability and stability, and consequently the resultant performance of a preservation treatment once placed. Specification test methods are proposed for chip seals, microsurfacings, and spray seals that reflect storage and construction conditions of the emulsions. Performance is quantified using viscosity measurements. Specification limits are determined based on a prior knowledge of emulsion performance coupled with statistical analyses. Microsurfacings are a preservation treatment consisting of application of a thin layer of asphalt emulsion -- fine aggregate mixture. Presently, mixture design and performances of microsurfacing mixtures are

  13. Developing an automated database for monitoring ultrasound- and computed tomography-guided procedure complications and diagnostic yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itri, Jason N; Jones, Lisa P; Kim, Woojin; Boonn, William W; Kolansky, Ana S; Hilton, Susan; Zafar, Hanna M

    2014-04-01

    Monitoring complications and diagnostic yield for image-guided procedures is an important component of maintaining high quality patient care promoted by professional societies in radiology and accreditation organizations such as the American College of Radiology (ACR) and Joint Commission. These outcome metrics can be used as part of a comprehensive quality assurance/quality improvement program to reduce variation in clinical practice, provide opportunities to engage in practice quality improvement, and contribute to developing national benchmarks and standards. The purpose of this article is to describe the development and successful implementation of an automated web-based software application to monitor procedural outcomes for US- and CT-guided procedures in an academic radiology department. The open source tools PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP) and MySQL were used to extract relevant procedural information from the Radiology Information System (RIS), auto-populate the procedure log database, and develop a user interface that generates real-time reports of complication rates and diagnostic yield by site and by operator. Utilizing structured radiology report templates resulted in significantly improved accuracy of information auto-populated from radiology reports, as well as greater compliance with manual data entry. An automated web-based procedure log database is an effective tool to reliably track complication rates and diagnostic yield for US- and CT-guided procedures performed in a radiology department.

  14. Development of FT-NIR Models for the Simultaneous Estimation of Chlorophyll and Nitrogen Content in Fresh Apple (Malus Domestica Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tamburini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural practices determine the level of food production and, to great extent, the state of the global environment. During the last decades, the indiscriminate recourse to fertilizers as well as the nitrogen losses from land application have been recognized as serious issues of modern agriculture, globally contributing to nitrate pollution. The development of a reliable Near-Infra-Red Spectroscopy (NIRS-based method, for the simultaneous monitoring of nitrogen and chlorophyll in fresh apple (Malus domestica leaves, was investigated on a set of 133 samples, with the aim of estimating the nutritional and physiological status of trees, in real time, cheaply and non-destructively. By means of a FT (Fourier Transform-NIR instrument, Partial Least Squares (PLS regression models were developed, spanning a concentration range of 0.577%–0.817% for the total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN content (R2 = 0.983; SEC = 0.012; SEP = 0.028, and of 1.534–2.372 mg/g for the total chlorophyll content (R2 = 0.941; SEC = 0.132; SEP = 0.162. Chlorophyll-a and chlorophyll-b contents were also evaluated (R2 = 0.913; SEC = 0.076; SEP = 0.101 and R2 = 0.899; SEC = 0.059; SEP = 0.101, respectively. All calibration models were validated by means of 47 independent samples. The NIR approach allows a rapid evaluation of the nitrogen and chlorophyll contents, and may represent a useful tool for determining nutritional and physiological status of plants, in order to allow a correction of nutrition programs during the season.

  15. Development of FT-NIR models for the simultaneous estimation of chlorophyll and nitrogen content in fresh apple (Malus domestica) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, Elena; Ferrari, Giuseppe; Marchetti, Maria Gabriella; Pedrini, Paola; Ferro, Sergio

    2015-01-26

    Agricultural practices determine the level of food production and, to great extent, the state of the global environment. During the last decades, the indiscriminate recourse to fertilizers as well as the nitrogen losses from land application have been recognized as serious issues of modern agriculture, globally contributing to nitrate pollution. The development of a reliable Near-Infra-Red Spectroscopy (NIRS)-based method, for the simultaneous monitoring of nitrogen and chlorophyll in fresh apple (Malus domestica) leaves, was investigated on a set of 133 samples, with the aim of estimating the nutritional and physiological status of trees, in real time, cheaply and non-destructively. By means of a FT (Fourier Transform)-NIR instrument, Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression models were developed, spanning a concentration range of 0.577%-0.817% for the total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) content (R2 = 0.983; SEC = 0.012; SEP = 0.028), and of 1.534-2.372 mg/g for the total chlorophyll content (R2 = 0.941; SEC = 0.132; SEP = 0.162). Chlorophyll-a and chlorophyll-b contents were also evaluated (R2 = 0.913; SEC = 0.076; SEP = 0.101 and R2 = 0.899; SEC = 0.059; SEP = 0.101, respectively). All calibration models were validated by means of 47 independent samples. The NIR approach allows a rapid evaluation of the nitrogen and chlorophyll contents, and may represent a useful tool for determining nutritional and physiological status of plants, in order to allow a correction of nutrition programs during the season.

  16. Development of a cottonseed dehulling process to yield intact seed meats

    Science.gov (United States)

    With recent genetic advances in development of gossypol-free cotton varieties, there is interest in retrieving undamaged, dehulled cottonseed kernels for consumption. The objective of the described work was to develop a process for dehulling fuzzy cottonseed to render a high percentage of undamaged ...

  17. New observations on gametogenic development and reproductive experimental tools to support seed yield improvement in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Gamboa, Rigel; Johnson, Susan D; Sánchez-León, Nidia; Koltunow, Anna M G; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe

    2016-06-01

    Cowpea reproductive tools. Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. (cowpea) is recognized as a major legume food crop in Africa, but seed yields remain low in most varieties adapted to local conditions. The development of hybrid cowpea seed that could be saved after each generation, enabling significant yield increases, will require manipulation of reproductive development from a sexual to an asexual mode. To develop new technologies that could support the biotechnological manipulation of reproductive development in cowpea, we examined gametogenesis and seed formation in two transformable, African-adapted, day-length-insensitive varieties. Here, we show that these two varieties exhibit distinct morphological and phenological traits but share a common developmental sequence in terms of ovule formation and gametogenesis. We present a reproductive calendar that allows prediction of male and female gametogenesis on the basis of sporophytic parameters related to floral bud size and reproductive organ development, determining that gametogenesis occurs more rapidly in the anther than in the ovule. We also show that the mode of megagametogenesis is of the Polygonum-type and not Oenothera-type, as previously reported. Finally, we developed a whole-mount immunolocalization protocol and applied it to detect meiotic proteins in the cowpea megaspore mother cell, opening opportunities for comparing the dynamics of protein localization during male and female meiosis, as well as other reproductive events in this emerging legume model system.

  18. Development and essential oil yield of mint (Mentha x piperita L. cultivated in nutritive solution under different levels of phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelize de Fátima Saraiva David

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the development and essential oil yield of Mentha x piperita L, plants were cultivated using complete Hoagland and Arnon (1950 no 2 solution with a 50% increase or decrease in the phosphorus (P concentration. The following were evaluated: Leaf number, leaf area, stem length, dry mass of several organs, total dry mass, leaf area ratio (LAR, leaf mass ratio (RMF, net assimilatory rate (NAR, relative growth rate (RGR, specific leaf area (SLA, dry mass distribution, and essential oil yield. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial scheme 3x5, with three levels and five crops, each with four replications. For essential oil, a randomized 3x3 factorial design was used. Data analysis consisted in application of ANOVA and regression analysis, using a 5% level of significance. The results led to the conclusion that the levels of phosphorus affect the development of Mentha x piperita L. Although plants showed variations in several of the parameters evaluated when submitted to different levels of phosphorus, they adjusted to these conditions, as demonstrated by the relative growth rate (RGR. However, the plants cultivated with lower levels of phosphorus resulted in a higher essential oil yield at 60 DAT.

  19. Development of heat and drought related extreme weather events and their effect on winter wheat yields in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüttger, Andrea B.; Feike, Til

    2018-04-01

    Climate change constitutes a major challenge for high productivity in wheat, the most widely grown crop in Germany. Extreme weather events including dry spells and heat waves, which negatively affect wheat yields, are expected to aggravate in the future. It is crucial to improve the understanding of the spatiotemporal development of such extreme weather events and the respective crop-climate relationships in Germany. Thus, the present study is a first attempt to evaluate the historic development of relevant drought and heat-related extreme weather events from 1901 to 2010 on county level (NUTS-3) in Germany. Three simple drought indices and two simple heat stress indices were used in the analysis. A continuous increase in dry spells over time was observed over the investigated periods from 1901-1930, 1931-1960, 1961-1990 to 2001-2010. Short and medium dry spells, i.e., precipitation-free periods longer than 5 and 8 days, respectively, increased more strongly compared to longer dry spells (longer than 11 days). The heat-related stress indices with maximum temperatures above 25 and 28 °C during critical wheat growth phases showed no significant increase over the first three periods but an especially sharp increase in the final 1991-2010 period with the increases being particularly pronounced in parts of Southwestern Germany. Trend analysis over the entire 110-year period using Mann-Kendall test revealed a significant positive trend for all investigated indices except for heat stress above 25 °C during flowering period. The analysis of county-level yield data from 1981 to 2010 revealed declining spatial yield variability and rather constant temporal yield variability over the three investigated (1981-1990, 1991-2000, and 2001-2010) decades. A clear spatial gradient manifested over time with variability in the West being much smaller than in the east of Germany. Correlating yield variability with the previously analyzed extreme weather indices revealed strong

  20. Development and characterization of a Z-pinch-driven hohlraum high-yield inertial confinement fusion target concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuneo, Michael E.; Vesey, Roger A.; Porter, John L. Jr.; Chandler, Gordon A.; Fehl, David L.; Gilliland, Terrance L.; Hanson, David L.; McGurn, John S.; Reynolds, Paul G.; Ruggles, Laurence E.; Seamen, Hans; Spielman, Rick B.; Struve, Ken W.; Stygar, William A.; Simpson, Walter W.; Torres, Jose A.; Wenger, David F.; Hammer, James H.; Rambo, Peter W.; Peterson, Darrell L.

    2001-01-01

    Initial experiments to study the Z-pinch-driven hohlraum high-yield inertial confinement fusion (ICF) concept of Hammer, Tabak, and Porter [Hammer et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 2129 (1999)] are described. The relationship between measured pinch power, hohlraum temperature, and secondary hohlraum coupling ('hohlraum energetics') is well understood from zero-dimensional semianalytic, and two-dimensional view factor and radiation magnetohydrodynamics models. These experiments have shown the highest x-ray powers coupled to any Z-pinch-driven secondary hohlraum (26±5 TW), indicating the concept could scale to fusion yields of >200 MJ. A novel, single-sided power feed, double-pinch driven secondary that meets the pinch simultaneity requirements for polar radiation symmetry has also been developed. This source will permit investigation of the pinch power balance and hohlraum geometry requirements for ICF relevant secondary radiation symmetry, leading to a capsule implosion capability on the Z accelerator [Spielman et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 2105 (1998)

  1. Utilization of physicochemical variables developed from changes in sensory attributes and consumer acceptability to predict the shelf life of fresh-cut mango fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Hernández, Rosa María; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Tiznado-Hernández, Martín Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Sensory evaluation is the ideal tool for shelf-life determination. With the objective to develop an easy shelf-life indicator, color (L*, a*, b*, chroma and hue angle), total soluble solids (TSS), firmness (F), pH, acidity, and the sensory attributes of appearance, brightness, browning, odor, flavor, texture, color, acidity and sweetness were evaluated in fresh cut mangoes (FCM) stored at 5, 10, 15 and 20 °C. Overall acceptability was evaluated by consumers. Correlation analysis between sensory attributes and physicochemical variables was carried out. Physicochemical cut-off points based on sensory attributes and consumer acceptability was obtained by regression analysis and utilized to estimate FCM shelf-life by kinetic models fitted to each variable. The validation of the model was done by comparing the shelf life estimated by kinetic models and consumers. It was recorded large correlations between appearance, brightness, and color with L*; appearance and color with chroma and hue angle; sweetness and flavor with TSS, and between F and texture. The shelf life estimated based on consumer using a 9 point hedonic scale was in the range of 10-12, 2.3-2.6, 1.3-1.5 and 1.0-1.1 days for 5, 10, 15 and 20 °C. It was recorded large correlation coefficients between the shelf life estimated by consumer acceptability scores and physicochemical variables. Kinetic models based on physicochemical variables showed a tendency to overestimate the shelf life as compared with the models bases on the sensory attributes. It was concluded that physicochemical variables can be used as a tool to estimate the FCM shelf life.

  2. Fresh-cow handling practices and methods for identification of health disorders on 45 dairy farms in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espadamala, A; Pallarés, P; Lago, A; Silva-Del-Río, N

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe fresh-cow handling practices and techniques used during fresh cow evaluations to identify postpartum health disorders on 45 dairy farms in California ranging from 450 to 9,500 cows. Fresh cow practices were surveyed regarding (a) grouping and housing, (b) scheduling and work organization, (c) screening for health disorders, and (d) physical examination methods. Information was collected based on cow-side observations and responses from fresh cow evaluators. Cows were housed in the fresh cow pen for 3 to 14 (20%), 15 to 30 (49%), or >31 (31%) d in milk. Fresh cow evaluations were performed daily (78%), 6 times a week (11%), 2 to 5 times a week (9%), or were not routinely performed (2%). There was significant correlation between the duration of fresh cow evaluations and the number of cows housed in the fresh pen. Across all farms, the duration of evaluations ranged from 5 to 240 min, with an average of 16 s spent per cow. During fresh cow checks, evaluators always looked for abnormal vaginal discharge, retained fetal membranes, and down cows. Dairies evaluated appetite based on rumen fill (11%), reduction of feed in the feed bunk (20%), rumination sensors (2%), or a combination of these (29%). Milk yield was evaluated based on udder fill at fresh cow checks (40%), milk flow during milking (11%), milk yield records collected by milk meters (2%), or a combination of udder fill and milk meters (5%). Depressed attitude was evaluated on 64% of the dairies. Health-monitoring exams for early detection of metritis were implemented on 42% of the dairies based on rectal examination (13%), rectal temperature (22%), or both (7%). Dairies implementing health-monitoring exams took longer to perform fresh cow evaluations. Physical examination methods such as rectal examination, auscultation, rectal temperature evaluation, and cow-side ketosis tests were used on 76, 67, 38, and 9% of dairies, respectively. Across dairies, we found large

  3. Equity yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrugt, E.; van Binsbergen, J.H.; Koijen, R.S.J.; Hueskes, W.

    2013-01-01

    We study a new data set of dividend futures with maturities up to ten years across three world regions: the US, Europe, and Japan. We use these asset prices to construct equity yields, analogous to bond yields. We decompose the equity yields to obtain a term structure of expected dividend growth

  4. Wielding and yielding : power, subordination and gender identity in the context of a Mexican development project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villarreal, M.

    1994-01-01

    Three lines of inquiry can be found in the present study. The first is of an empirical nature. It is a story of a group of women and a development project, based upon field research I carried out in 1987-88 concerning a group of female beekeepers who were organized as an UAIM

  5. [Impacts of drought stress on the growth and development and grain yield of spring maize in Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Rui-Peng; Che, Yu-Sheng; Zhu, Yong-Ning; Liang, Tao; Feng, Rui; Yu, Wen-Ying; Zhang, Yu-Shu

    2012-11-01

    Taking spring maize variety Danyu-39 as test object, an experiment was conducted in a large-scale agricultural water controlling experimental field to study the impacts of drought stress at three key growth stages, i. e. , 3-leaf-jointing, jointing-silking, and silking-milk ripe, on the growth and development and grain yield of spring maize in Northeast China. Two treatments were installed, including moderate drought stress (MS) and re-watering to suitable water (CK). Compared with CK, the MS at 3-leaf-jointing stage postponed the whole growth period of Danyu-39 by 13 d, and the plant height and leaf area at jointing stage were decreased by 29.8% and 41.2%, respectively. After re-watering, the plant height and grain yield recovered obviously, and the differences in ear characteristics and final yield were insignificant. The MS at jointing-silking stage shortened the whole growth period by 7 d, the plant height and leaf area at silking stage were decreased by 18.6% and 14.1%, respectively, the ear length, grain number per ear, ear dry mass, and grain mass per ear decreased by 6.9%, 19.1%, 28.1%, and 29.4%, respectively, and the blank stem rate increased by 13.3%. When the maize suffered from moderate drought stress at silking-milk ripe stage, the whole growth period was shortened by 15 d, the plant height and leaf area at milk ripe stage were decreased by 2.3% and 37.3%, respectively, the ear length, grain number per ear, ear dry mass, and grain mass per ear decreased by 9.2%, 24.1%, 30.8%, and 27.9%, respectively, and the blank stem rate increased by 24.5%. After re-watering at the latter two stages, the recovery of plant height was little, and the grain yield decreased significantly.

  6. Effect of biofertilizers on yield and yield components of cucumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faranak Moshabaki Isfahani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofertilizer is defined as a substance which contains living organisms which, when applied to seed, plant surface, or soil, colonize the rhizosphere or interior of the plant and promote growth by increasing the supply or availability of primary nutrients to the host plant. Biofertilizers are well recognized as an important component of integrated plant nutrient management for sustainable agriculture and hold a great promise improve crop yield. The present study for the sake of evaluating the use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria produced by Pseudomonas sp. and phosphate bio fertilizers produced by Pseudomonas putida strain P13 and Pantoea agglomerans strain P5 and chemical fertilizers in the separate treatments on yield and yield components of cucumber by using a factorial experiment in completely randomized block design with three repetition were performed in the field. The symbol of P represents chemical fertilizer by amount of respectively (0, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%, B1 shows plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and B2 indicates bio fertilizer-2. The results showed that P1B0 has the most yield, and control treatments has the least yield. P100B1 has the most length of plant and P100B0 has the least length of plant, P25B1 has the most amount of chlorophyll and P75B2 has the least chlorophyll. P75B2 has the most shoots dry weight and P100B0 has the least shoots dry weight. B1P50 has the most shoots fresh weight and P25B2 has the least shoots fresh weight. B1P50 has the most roots dry weight and P100B0 has the least roots dry weight. B1P50 has the most roots fresh weight and P25B2 has the least roots fresh weight. So the results indicate that use of biological fertilizers have caused increase yield and components yield of cucumber.

  7. Development of an FPW Biosensor with Low Insertion Loss and High Fabrication Yield for Detection of Carcinoembryonic Antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Je-Wei; Huang, I-Yu; Lin, Yu-Cheng; Lin, Chang-Yu; Chen, Jian-Lin; Hsieh, Chia-Hsu

    2016-11-08

    In the last two decades, various flexural plate-wave (FPW)-based biosensors with low phase velocity, low operation frequency, high sensitivity, and short response time, have been developed. However, conventional FPW transducers have low fabrication yield because controlling the thickness of silicon/isolation/metal/piezoelectric multilayer floating thin-plate is difficult. Additionally, conventional FPW devices usually have high insertion loss because of wave energy dissipation to the silicon substrate or outside area of the output interdigital transducers (IDTs). These two disadvantages hinder the application of FPW devices. To reduce the high insertion loss of FPW devices, we designed two focus-type IDTs (fan-shaped and circular, respectively) that can effectively confine the launched wave energy, and adopted a focus-type silicon-grooved reflective grating structure (RGS) that can reduce the wave propagation loss. To accurately control the thickness of the silicon thin-plate and substantially improve the fabrication yield of FPW transducers, a 60 °C/27 °C two-step anisotropic wet etching process was developed. Compared with conventional FPW devices (with parallel-type IDTs and without RGS), the proposed FPW devices have lower insertion loss (36.04 dB) and higher fabrication yield (63.88%). Furthermore, by using cystamine-based self-assembled monolayer (SAM) nanotechnology, we used the improved FPW device to develop a novel FPW-based carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) biosensor for detection of colorectal cancer, and this FPW-CEA biosensor has a low detection limit (5 ng/mL), short response time (<10 min), high sensitivity (60.16-70.06 cm²/g), and high sensing linearity (R-square = 0.859-0.980).

  8. The genome and transcriptome of Phalaenopsis yield insights into floral organ development and flowering regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Zhi Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Phalaenopsis orchid is an important potted flower of high economic value around the world. We report the 3.1 Gb draft genome assembly of an important winter flowering Phalaenopsis ‘KHM190’ cultivar. We generated 89.5 Gb RNA-seq and 113 million sRNA-seq reads to use these data to identify 41,153 protein-coding genes and 188 miRNA families. We also generated a draft genome for Phalaenopsis pulcherrima ‘B8802,’ a summer flowering species, via resequencing. Comparison of genome data between the two Phalaenopsis cultivars allowed the identification of 691,532 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. In this study, we reveal that the key role of PhAGL6b in the regulation of labellum organ development involves alternative splicing in the big lip mutant. Petal or sepal overexpressing PhAGL6b leads to the conversion into a lip-like structure. We also discovered that the gibberellin pathway that regulates the expression of flowering time genes during the reproductive phase change is induced by cool temperature. Our work thus depicted a valuable resource for the flowering control, flower architecture development, and breeding of the Phalaenopsis orchids.

  9. Effects of straw mulch on yield, weed development, nitrate dynamics and soil erosion in organically grown potatoes

    OpenAIRE

    Döring, Thomas F.; Brandt, M; Heß, J; Finckh , M; Saucke, H

    2005-01-01

    The application of straw mulch to organic seed potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) has been shown to reduce virus incidence. In order to determine the associated agronomic effects of straw mulch, applied at 2.5–5 t ha�1, on soil nitrate dynamics, weed development, tuber yield and soil erosion, 12 field experiments were evaluated. Experiments were conducted on organic farms over 3 years at two locations in a temperate climate (635–709 mm precipitation/year; 8.1 8C mean air temperature) on loamy si...

  10. Development of a portable transfer standard for the neutron source yield measurement using Fluka simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Meghnath, E-mail: meghms@barc.gov.in; Sathian, V.; Shobha, G.; Sujatha, P.N.; Yashoda, S.; Kulkarni, M.S.; Babu, D.A.R.

    2015-10-01

    A novel light weight portable transfer standard has been developed for the standardization of the laboratory neutron sources conforming to in-situ measurements. Fluka simulation was used to optimize various design parameters in such a way that it has almost constant efficiency for the neutron energy range of few keV to 10 MeV and also for the commonly available laboratory neutron sources. The optimized total length and radius of the system is 39.4 cm and 13.5 cm, respectively. The weight of the system is about 22 kg. The efficiency of the system obtained from experiment for four laboratory neutron sources ({sup 241}Am–Be, {sup 241}Am–B, {sup 252}Cf and {sup 241}Am–F) is constant within the deviation of ±8% having the average value of 2.85 counts/n.cm{sup 2}. The efficiency of the system was also calculated from Fluka simulation. For mono-energetic neutrons from 1 MeV to 10 MeV the efficiency of the system was found to be constant within ±10% having the average value of 2.9 counts/n.cm{sup 2} and for the above mentioned four neutron sources also it is constant within ±4% with the same average value.

  11. Development of a CSP plant energy yield calculation tool applying predictive models to analyze plant performance sensitivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Lukas; Peniche, Ricardo; Sommer, Lutz; Kather, Alfons

    2017-06-01

    At early project stages, the main CSP plant design parameters such as turbine capacity, solar field size, and thermal storage capacity are varied during the techno-economic optimization to determine most suitable plant configurations. In general, a typical meteorological year with at least hourly time resolution is used to analyze each plant configuration. Different software tools are available to simulate the annual energy yield. Software tools offering a thermodynamic modeling approach of the power block and the CSP thermal cycle, such as EBSILONProfessional®, allow a flexible definition of plant topologies. In EBSILON, the thermodynamic equilibrium for each time step is calculated iteratively (quasi steady state), which requires approximately 45 minutes to process one year with hourly time resolution. For better presentation of gradients, 10 min time resolution is recommended, which increases processing time by a factor of 5. Therefore, analyzing a large number of plant sensitivities, as required during the techno-economic optimization procedure, the detailed thermodynamic simulation approach becomes impracticable. Suntrace has developed an in-house CSP-Simulation tool (CSPsim), based on EBSILON and applying predictive models, to approximate the CSP plant performance for central receiver and parabolic trough technology. CSPsim significantly increases the speed of energy yield calculations by factor ≥ 35 and has automated the simulation run of all predefined design configurations in sequential order during the optimization procedure. To develop the predictive models, multiple linear regression techniques and Design of Experiment methods are applied. The annual energy yield and derived LCOE calculated by the predictive model deviates less than ±1.5 % from the thermodynamic simulation in EBSILON and effectively identifies the optimal range of main design parameters for further, more specific analysis.

  12. The writing retreat: a high-yield clinical faculty development opportunity in academic writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, Christian T; Boyer, Debra; Colbert, Colleen Y; Boyer, Edward W

    2013-06-01

    The need for consistent academic productivity challenges junior clinician-scholars, who often lack the aptitude to ensure efficient production of manuscripts. To solve this problem, an academic division of a major medical center developed an off-site writing retreat. The purpose of the retreat was not to teach writing skills, but to offer senior mentor assistance with a focus on the elements of manuscript writing. The retreat paired senior faculty members with junior staff. Senior faculty identified manuscript topics and provided real-time writing and editing supervision. Team-building exercises, midcourse corrections, and debriefing interviews were built into the retreat. The number of manuscripts and grant proposals generated during the 2008-2011 retreats was recorded, and the program was evaluated by using unstructured debriefing interviews. An average of 6 to 7 faculty members and fellows participated in each retreat. During the past 4 years, participants produced an average of 3 grant proposals and 7 manuscripts per retreat. After the writing retreat, each fellow and junior faculty member produced an average of 4 scholarly products per year, compared to fewer than 2 for prior years' retreats. Participant feedback indicated the success of the retreat resulted from protected time, direct mentorship by the scholars involved, and pairing of authors, which allows for rapid production of manuscripts and accelerated the editing process. More than 80% of mentors returned each year to participate. The writing retreat is a feasible, effective strategy to increase scholarship among faculty, acceptable to mentees and mentors, and sustainable over time.

  13. Genetic analysis of yield and flesh colour in sweetpotato | Naidoo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pre-breeding information on the inheritance mechanism of important sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) agronomic traits is still limited. This study aimed at assessing the inheritance of five sweetpotato agronomic traits, viz. marketable fresh root yield (MFRY) and number (MNR), total fresh root yield (TFRY) and number (TNR) ...

  14. YIELD INDICATORS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, East and Southern Africa, Centre, P.O. Box 7878,. Kampala, Uganda. Makerere ... would have great potential in terms of human nutrition. Storage root yield , the ... Inter-relationships among traits and path analysis for yield components of cassava. 604 collected included plant ...

  15. Determination of rheological properties of fresh concrete and similar materials in a vibration rheometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Juradin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A vibration rheometer has been developed for the purpose of determining the viscosity coefficient and the yield value of fresh concrete under vibration. The main parts of the apparatus, a test specimen and a vibration source form a unitary oscillatory system whose parameters can be measured with sufficient precision. Two types of fine grained reference material have been prepared and examined; one with a high coefficient of viscosity and the other with a high yield value. The rheological properties of reference materials have been determined in a capillary tube viscometer. Since there is no analytical solution to the flow in the vibration rheometer, the constants of the vibration rheometer have been determined by experiment, for each position of the apparatus piston within the measuring range. The parameters of the flow depend on the maximum acceleration of the vibration source. An increase in acceleration causes an increase in the yield value as well as a reduction in the plastic viscosity coefficient of the material specimen. A testing of fresh mortar has been carried out as well. The obtained results have been compared with the impact on reference materials, which makes the results of our research applicable to fresh vibrated concrete.

  16. Sombreamento e o desenvolvimento e produção de rabanete Shading and the development and yield of radish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Pinto Souza

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available O efeito de três níveis de sombreamento (0, 30 e 50% sobre o desenvolvimento, partição dos assimilados e a produção de rabanetes (Raphanus sativus L., cultivar "Vermelho Redondo", foi estudado em condições de campo, município de São Manuel, SP. As avaliações foram realizadas aos 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias após a emergência. O sombreamento prolongou o ciclo de desenvolvimento da cultura, reduziu o teor de clorofila, expandiu a área foliar e afetou a produção de raízes tuberosas, enquanto que com 30% de sombreamento não houve redução no tamanho nem na massa das raízes.The effect of three levels of shading (0; 30 and 50% on the development and tuberous root yield of radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. "Vermelho Redondo" was studied under field conditions, at the São Manuel County, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The plants were evaluated at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after the emergency. The 50% level of shading increased the life cycle and foliar area, reduced the leave chlorophryll content and the tuberous root yield. The 30% level of shading did not reduce the size and weight of the roots.

  17. Environmental effects on growth and development of cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz). II. Crop growth rate and biomass yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, B.A.; Evenson, J.P.; Fukai, S.

    1982-12-01

    Frequent harvests of serial plantings of cassava (cv. M Aus 10) in S.E. Queensland, Australia (latitude 27 degrees 37'S) were used to examine the effect of environment on dry matter growth and biomass yield. Maximum crop growth rates (CGR) calculated from fitted logistic curves ranged from 23.8 to 2.4 g m-2 day-1 for the various planting dates and occurred in late summer to autumn, becoming progressively smaller and later for plantings made later in the growth season. Crop growth rate declined to zero or near zero for all planting dates in late winter. Maximum CGR's were higher than those reported for cassava at lower latitudes but, because of the restricted growing season, annual biomass yields from early planting times were similar and of the order of 30 tons per hectare-1 year-1. Multiple regression models were developed which could account for 89% of the variation in CGR in terms of mean air temperature or solar radiation and leaf area index (LAI). Temperature and solar radiation were highly correlated at this experimental site and it was not possible to distinguish their separate effects on CGR. (Refs. 18).

  18. Environmental effects on growth and development of cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz). III. Assimilate distribution and storage organ yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, B.A.; Evenson, J.P.; Fukai, S.

    1982-12-01

    Assimilate distribution and storage organ (storage roots plus swollen planting piece) yield of serial plantings of the cassava cultivar M Aus 10, made throughout a year, and grown for one year duration were studied with sequential harvests in S.E. Queensland (latitude 27 degrees 37'S), Australia. Seasonal differences in the proportion of total dry matter assimilation partioned to storage organs over a given time period (referred to as distribution ratio, DR) were observed with low DR over the mid-summer (January to March) period (0.1 to 0.3) when crop growth rate (CGR) was at a maximum compared with 0.4 to 0.5 in November to December and 0.5 to 1.0 in late autumn to winter (April to July). This period of low DR restricted storage organ yields which generally lower (6-9 t DW ha-1 year-1) than those reported for adapted germplasm at lower latitudes. Multiple regression models were developed which accounted for much of the variation in DR in terms of mean air temperature of photoperiod and leaf area index (R2 = 0.73). High temperatures, long photoperiods and high leaf area indices were associated with reduced DR. Mean air temperature and photoperiod are highly correlated in this environment and their separate effects on DR could not be distinguised. This model of distribution ratio was combined with earlier published models of CGR, and storage organ growth rate predicted. (Refs. 20).

  19. Development of a Team-Based On-Farm Learning Program While Challenging Soybean Growers to Increase Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Vince M.; Kull, Linda S.; Nelson, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Illinois soybean growers have not been satisfied with recent lagging yield trends. A yield "challenge" was created to blend the motivation and creativity of a yield contest with the learning power of teamwork and on-farm demonstration. In the initial year (2010), 123 on-farm side-by-side demonstration plots were located throughout the…

  20. Irradiation of fresh fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh-jen, Yen; Jin-lai, Zhou; Shao-chun, Lai

    Occasionally, in China, marine products can not be provided for the markets in good quality, for during the time when they are being transported from the sea port to inland towns or even at the time when they are unloaded from the ship, they are beginning to spoil. Obviously, it is very important that appropiate measures should be taken to prevent them from decay. Our study has proved that the shelf life of fresh Flatfish (Cynoglossue robustus) and Silvery pomfret (stromateoides argenteus), which, packed in sealed containers, are irradiated by 1.5 kGy, 2.2 kGy and 3.0 kGy, can be stored for about 13-26 days at 3° - 5° C.

  1. Development of a LC-MS/MS Method for the Analysis of Enniatins and Beauvericin in Whole Fresh and Ensiled Maize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Rasmussen, Peter Have

    2008-01-01

    was examined in 3-month-old maize silage stacks from 20 different farms. As observed in fresh maize, enniatin B was the most abundant compound in ensiled maize and was found from 19 stacks at levels up to 218 ng g-1. The stability of enniatin B in maize silage was assessed by analyzing samples from 10...... of the silage stacks taken after 3, 7, and 11 months of ensiling. Enniatin B could be detected at all locations after 11 months and appeared to be stable during ensiling....

  2. Ionising energy treatment of fresh fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigney, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    The main purposes of the ionising energy treatment of fresh fruit are: the extension of shelf life of the commodity due to a direct physiological effect on the particular product; the extension of shelf life of the commodity due to a reduction in the development of moulds and rots which would normally render the product worthless; and the killing of insect pests of quarantine significance, to allow for normal marketing of fresh fruit without the risk of introducing insect pests to previously pest-free areas

  3. Fresh water generators onboard a floating platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewari, P.K.; Verma, R.K.; Misra, B.M.; Sadhulkan, H.K.

    1997-01-01

    A dependable supply of fresh water is essential for any ocean going vessel. The operating and maintenance personnel on offshore platforms and marine structures also require a constant and regular supply of fresh water to meet their essential daily needs. A seawater thermal desalination unit onboard delivers good quality fresh water from seawater. The desalination units developed by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) suitable for ocean going vessels and offshore platforms have been discussed. Design considerations of such units with reference to floating platforms and corrosive environments have been presented. The feasibility of coupling a low temperature vacuum evaporation (LTVE) desalination plant suitable for an onboard floating platform to a PHWR nuclear power plant has also been discussed. (author). 1 ref., 3 figs, 2 tabs

  4. Effects of carbon dioxide on the fate of Listeria monocytogenes, of aerobic bacteria and on the development of spoilage in minimally processed fresh endive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, F; Nguyen-the, C; Abreu Da Silva, A; Cochet, C

    1996-09-01

    Minimally processed fresh broad-leaved endive (Cichorium endivia L.) were stored at 3 and 10 degrees C in modified atmospheres containing air, 10% CO2/10% O2, 30% CO2/10% O2, and 50% CO2/10% O2. The effects of these modified atmospheres on the fate of both aerobic bacteria and three strains of Listeria monocytogenes, was investigated. Increases in CO2 concentrations significantly reduced the growth of the aerobic microflora. The best preservation of the visual quality occurred on endive leaves stored in 10% CO2/10% O2, whereas leaves stored in 30% CO2/10% O2 and 50% CO2/10% O2, and to a lesser extent in air, showed extensive spoilage after storage. Listeria monocytogenes was slightly affected at 3 degrees C by the modified atmospheres, as compared to air. At 10 degrees C, results varied between replicate experiments, but L. monocytogenes generally grew better as the CO2 concentration was increased. The three test strains behaved in a similar way. In conclusion, among the modified atmospheres tested, a modified atmosphere containing 10% CO2/10% O2 resulted in improved visual quality of minimally processed fresh endive, without a marked effect on the growth of the aerobic microflora or of L. monocytogenes.

  5. Evaluation of yield and yield components of lamb’s lettuce (Valerianella locusta grown in thin layer soilless systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGAN ŽNIDARČIČ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Znidarcic D. 2016. Evaluation of yield and yield components of lamb’s lettuce (Valerianella locusta grown in thin layer soilless systems. Nusantara Bioscience 8: 89-93. Growth and development of lamb’s lettuce (Valerianella locusta L. have been studied on thin layer soilless systems in plastic greenhouse on the Laboratory field of Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana. The trial lasted from 23rd of February till 10th of March 2016. The experiment was included cultivar 'Ljubljanski'. Four different substrates have been used: expanded clay aggregate, perlite, vermiculite and peat. Seedlings were transplanted at distance of 10x10 cm. At the harvest the following parameters were measured: leaves fresh and dry yield, plant height, number of leaves per plant and the nitrate-N content in leaves. The overall effect of the type of substrate on lamb’s lettuce growth and yield in the present experiment suggests that the examined materials are suitable substrates for lamb’s lettuce soilless cultivation production. The outcomes of the research point to the fact that the lamb’s lettuce in perlite treatments brings greater fresh yields compared the other inert substrates. On the other hand peat produced higher leaf dry mass as compared to other substrates. A quantitative analysis of the nitrate-N content in leaves showed that the peat is the most effective substrate in terms of low plant nitrate concentration.

  6. Modelling predicts that tolerance to drought during reproductive development will be required for high yield potential and stability of wheat in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Mikhail A.; Stratonovitch, Pierre; Paul, Matthew J.

    2017-04-01

    Short periods of extreme weather, such as a spell of high temperature or drought during a sensitive stage of development, could result in substantial yield losses due to reduction in grain number and grain size. In a modelling study (Stratonovitch & Semenov 2015), heat tolerance around flowering in wheat was identified as a key trait for increased yield potential in Europe under climate change. Ji et all (Ji et al. 2010) demonstrated cultivar specific responses of yield to drought stress around flowering in wheat. They hypothesised that carbohydrate supply to anthers may be the key in maintaining pollen fertility and grain number in wheat. It was shown in (Nuccio et al. 2015) that genetically modified varieties of maize that increase the concentration of sucrose in ear spikelets, performed better under non-drought and drought conditions in field experiments. The objective of this modelling study was to assess potential benefits of tolerance to drought during reproductive development for wheat yield potential and yield stability across Europe. We used the Sirius wheat model to optimise wheat ideotypes for 2050 (HadGEM2, RCP8.5) climate scenarios at selected European sites. Eight cultivar parameters were optimised to maximise mean yields, including parameters controlling phenology, canopy growth and water limitation. At those sites where water could be limited, ideotypes sensitive to drought produced substantially lower mean yields and higher yield variability compare with tolerant ideotypes. Therefore, tolerance to drought during reproductive development is likely to be required for wheat cultivars optimised for the future climate in Europe in order to achieve high yield potential and yield stability.

  7. INNOVATIVE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight

    2004-09-01

    An innovative Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) process was recently described where evaporation of mineralized water is driven by diffusion within a packed bed. The energy source to drive the process is derived from low pressure condensing steam within the main condenser of a steam power generating plant. Since waste heat is used to drive the process, the main cost of fresh water production is attributed to the energy cost of pumping air and water through the packed bed. This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. A combined thermodynamic and dynamic analysis demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production of 1.03 million gallon/day by utilizing waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant based on a condensing steam pressure of only 3'' Hg. Throughout the past year, the main focus of the desalination process has been on the diffusion tower and direct contact condenser. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze these heat and mass transfer devices are described. An experimental DDD facility has been fabricated, and temperature and humidity data have been collected over a range of flow and thermal conditions. The analyses agree quite well with the current data and the information available in the literature. Direct contact condensers with and without packing have been investigated. It has been experimentally observed that the fresh water production rate is significantly enhanced when packing is added to the direct contact condensers.

  8. Mutation induction, evaluation and utilization for development of high yielding varieties in Indian mustard and sunflower: an overview of BARC work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jambhulkar, S.J.; Shitre, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Mutation breeding programme in Indian mustard and sunflower at BARC has resulted into the development of wide spectrum of mutations for seed coat colour, chlorophyll, plant height, maturity, flower morphology, seed weight and oil content. In Indian mustard, TM1 and TM50 are high yielding yellow seed coat mutants, which were exploited in hybridisation to develop bold, yellow seed coat and high yielding genotypes. Light green leaf and variegated leaf are novel mutation in mustard. Putative mutants for drought tolerance have been isolated. Variability for zero erucic acid and zero glucosinolates genotypes have been developed in B. napus and B. juncea. In sunflower, high yielding black seed coat mutant were isolated. Extreme dwarf measuring only 11 cm is novel. Three high yielding varieties namely TM2, TM4, and TPM1 in mustard and one i.e.TAS82 in sunflower have been released for cultivation in collaboration with state agricultural universities. (author)

  9. Assessment of water-limited winter wheat yield potential at spatially contrasting sites in Ireland using a simple growth and development model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynch J.P.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Although Irish winter wheat yields are among the highest globally, increases in the profitability of this crop are required to maintain its economic viability. However, in order to determine if efforts to further increase Irish wheat yields are likely to be successful, an accurate estimation of the yield potential is required for different regions within Ireland. A winter wheat yield potential model (WWYPM was developed, which estimates the maximum water-limited yield achievable, within the confines of current genetic resources and technologies, using parameters for winter wheat growth and development observed recently in Ireland and a minor amount of daily meteorological input (maximum and minimum daily temperature, total daily rainfall and total daily incident radiation. The WWYPM is composed of three processes: (i an estimation of potential green area index, (ii an estimation of light interception and biomass accumulation and (iii an estimation of biomass partitioning to grain yield. Model validation indicated that WWYPM estimations of water-limited yield potential (YPw were significantly related to maximum yields recorded in variety evaluation trials as well as regional average and maximum farm yields, reflecting the model’s sensitivity to alterations in the climatic environment with spatial and seasonal variations. Simulations of YPw for long-term average weather data at 12 sites located at spatially contrasting regions of Ireland indicated that the typical YPw varied between 15.6 and 17.9 t/ha, with a mean of 16.7 t/ha at 15% moisture content. These results indicate that the majority of sites in Ireland have the potential to grow high-yielding crops of winter wheat when the effects of very high rainfall and other stresses such as disease incidence and nutrient deficits are not considered.

  10. Development of a Chemically Defined Medium for Better Yield and Purification of Enterocin Y31 from Enterococcus faecium Y31

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenli Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The macro- and micronutrients in traditional medium, such as MRS, used for cultivating lactic acid bacteria, especially for bacteriocin production, have not been defined, preventing the quantitative monitoring of metabolic flux during bacteriocin biosynthesis. To enhance Enterocin Y31 production and simplify steps of separation and purification, we developed a simplified chemically defined medium (SDM for the growth of Enterococcus faecium Y31 and production of its bacteriocin, Enterocin Y31. We found that the bacterial growth was unrelated to Enterocin Y31 production in MRS; therefore, both the growth rate and the Enterocin Y31 production were set as the index for investigation. Single omission experiments revealed that 5 g/L NaCl, five vitamins, two nucleic acid bases, MgSO4·7H2O, MnSO4·4H2O, KH2PO4, K2HPO4, CH3COONa, fourteen amino acids, and glucose were essential for the strain’s growth and Enterocin Y31 production. Thus, a novel simplified and defined medium (SDM was formulated with 30 components in total. Consequently, Enterocin Y31 production yield was higher in SDM as compared to either MRS or CDM. SDM improved the Enterocin Y31 production and simplified the steps of purification (only two steps, which has broad potential applications.

  11. Climate change, crop yields, and undernutrition: development of a model to quantify the impact of climate scenarios on child undernutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Simon J; Kovats, R Sari; Chalabi, Zaid

    2011-12-01

    Global climate change is anticipated to reduce future cereal yields and threaten food security, thus potentially increasing the risk of undernutrition. The causation of undernutrition is complex, and there is a need to develop models that better quantify the potential impacts of climate change on population health. We developed a model for estimating future undernutrition that accounts for food and nonfood (socioeconomic) causes and can be linked to available regional scenario data. We estimated child stunting attributable to climate change in five regions in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) in 2050. We used current national food availability and undernutrition data to parameterize and validate a global model, using a process-driven approach based on estimations of the physiological relationship between a lack of food and stunting. We estimated stunting in 2050 using published modeled national calorie availability under two climate scenarios and a reference scenario (no climate change). We estimated that climate change will lead to a relative increase in moderate stunting of 1-29% in 2050 compared with a future without climate change. Climate change will have a greater impact on rates of severe stunting, which we estimated will increase by 23% (central SSA) to 62% (South Asia). Climate change is likely to impair future efforts to reduce child malnutrition in South Asia and SSA, even when economic growth is taken into account. Our model suggests that to reduce and prevent future undernutrition, it is necessary to both increase food access and improve socioeconomic conditions, as well as reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  12. Chemical qualities of oils from some fresh and market vegetable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JTEkanem

    higher molecular weight of fatty acids in market sample for groundnut and palm oil over the corresponding fresh sample. High level of ash content (4.605%) for almond seed was observed, making a good source of mineral nutrition to consumers. Due to their high oil yield and abundance, oils from almond seed and castor ...

  13. Biological activity and phytoconstituents of essential oil from fresh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-04

    Feb 4, 2009 ... 3School of therapeutic Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical School, University of Witwatersrand,. Johannesburg, South ... fresh leaves of E. englerianum yield essential oil which contains medicinal properties. Key words: ..... aromatic medicinal plants growing in the Democratic Republic of. Congo.

  14. Effect of solarization with fresh chicken manure on verticillium wilt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of reducing wilt disease through the medium of fresh chicken manure (FCM) mixed with soil before solarized and then artificial Verticillium dahliae (V.d) inoculation on yield of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) under field conditions. According to the splitplot design, ...

  15. Effect of solarization with fresh chicken manure on verticillium wilt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BİM

    2016-12-28

    Dec 28, 2016 ... The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of reducing wilt disease through the medium of fresh chicken manure (FCM) mixed with soil before solarized and then artificial Verticillium dahliae (V.d) inoculation on yield of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) under field conditions. According to the ...

  16. Biological activity and phytoconstituents of essential oil from fresh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Essential oil was extracted from fresh leaves of Eriosema englerianum by hydrodistillation and its major phytoconstituents determined by GC-MS. The major phytoconstituents were O-cymene, terpinolene and ascaridole with a yield of 0.28%. Antimicrobial activity of the oil was tested against nine human bacterial pathogens ...

  17. Effect of halide salts on development of surface browning on fresh-cut 'Granny Smith' (Malus × domestica Borkh) apple slices during storage at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongxin; Wills, Ron B H; Golding, John B; Huque, Roksana

    2015-03-30

    The postharvest life of fresh-cut apple slices is limited by browning on cut surfaces. Dipping in halide salt solutions was examined for their inhibition of surface browning on 'Granny Smith' apple slices and the effects on biochemical factors associated with browning. Delay in browning by salts was greatest with chloride = phosphate > sulfate > nitrate with no difference between sodium, potassium and calcium ions. The effectiveness of sodium halides on browning was fluoride > chloride = bromide > iodide = control. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity of tissue extracted from chloride- and fluoride-treated slices was not different to control but when added into the assay solution, NaF > NaCl both showed lower PPO activity at pH 3-5 compared to control buffer. The level of polyphenols in treated slices was NaF > NaCl > control. Addition of chlorogenic acid to slices enhanced browning but NaCl and NaF counteracted this effect. There was no effect of either halide salt on respiration, ethylene production, ion leakage, and antioxidant activity. Dipping apple slices in NaCl is a low cost treatment with few impediments to commercial use and could be a replacement for other anti-browning additives. The mode of action of NaCl and NaF is through decreasing PPO activity resulting in reduced oxidation of polyphenols. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Brazilian Soybean Yields and Yield Gaps Vary with Farm Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, G. R.; Cohn, A.; Griffin, T. S.; Bragança, A.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the farm size-specific characteristics of crop yields and yield gaps may help to improve yields by enabling better targeting of technical assistance and agricultural development programs. Linking remote sensing-based yield estimates with property boundaries provides a novel view of the relationship between farm size and yield structure (yield magnitude, gaps, and stability over time). A growing literature documents variations in yield gaps, but largely ignores the role of farm size as a factor shaping yield structure. Research on the inverse farm size-productivity relationship (IR) theory - that small farms are more productive than large ones all else equal - has documented that yield magnitude may vary by farm size, but has not considered other yield structure characteristics. We examined farm size - yield structure relationships for soybeans in Brazil for years 2001-2015. Using out-of-sample soybean yield predictions from a statistical model, we documented 1) gaps between the 95th percentile of attained yields and mean yields within counties and individual fields, and 2) yield stability defined as the standard deviation of time-detrended yields at given locations. We found a direct relationship between soy yields and farm size at the national level, while the strength and the sign of the relationship varied by region. Soybean yield gaps were found to be inversely related to farm size metrics, even when yields were only compared to farms of similar size. The relationship between farm size and yield stability was nonlinear, with mid-sized farms having the most stable yields. The work suggests that farm size is an important factor in understanding yield structure and that opportunities for improving soy yields in Brazil are greatest among smaller farms.

  19. Smart storage technologies applied to fresh foods: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingyu; Zhang, Min; Gao, Zhongxue; Adhikari, Benu

    2017-06-30

    Fresh foods are perishable, seasonal and regional in nature and their storage, transportation, and preservation of freshness are quite challenging. Smart storage technologies can online detection and monitor the changes of quality parameters and storage environment of fresh foods during storage, so that operators can make timely adjustments to reduce the loss. This article reviews the smart storage technologies from two aspects: online detection technologies and smartly monitoring technologies for fresh foods. Online detection technologies include electronic nose, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), hyperspectral imaging and computer vision. Smartly monitoring technologies mainly include some intelligent indicators for monitoring the change of storage environment. Smart storage technologies applied to fresh foods need to be highly efficient and nondestructive and need to be competitively priced. In this work, we have critically reviewed the principles, applications, and development trends of smart storage technologies.

  20. Production of fresh probiotic cheese with addition of transglutaminase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinka Radošević

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to examine the influence of probiotic culture Lactobacillus acidophilus and enzyme transglutaminase (TG on quality and sensory properties of autochthonous fresh cheese from Zagreb region. Fresh, unpasteurized, skimmed milk was inoculated with TG at different temperatures and activation time (8 h at 11 ºC and 4 h at 25 ºC. Inactivation of the enzyme was carried out during the process of pasteurization (65ºC/30 min. The milk for fresh cheese production was further inoculated with mesophilic culture of lactic acid bacteria MM101 and probiotic strain Lactobacillus acidophilus LAC-1. Besides the trial samples with addition of TG and probiotic bacteria, control samples without addition of TG and probiotic were produced, as well as the samples without addition of TG but with probiotic bacteria addition. Samples of fresh cheese produced with addition of TG, especially in which TG was active at 11 ºC, had greater weight then samples produced without the enzyme addition. Therefore, their yield was also greater then yield of cheese produced without the addition of the enzyme. Furthermore, the samples of fresh cheese produced with addition of TG have shown lesser syneresis than other samples during 10 days of storage at 10 ºC. The same samples also had the best sensory properties. Metabolic activity of mesophilic culture MM101 and probiotic culture L. acidophilus LAC-1 has resulted in better taste and odour of fresh cheese. The viable cell number of probiotic strain L. acidophilus LAC-1 in prepared samples was around 5 x 106 cells/g after 10 days of storage at 10 ºC, which is higher than the minimal dose required for 27 probiotic products. Addition of transgultaminase contributed to better consistency and general appearance of produced fresh cheese.

  1. Larval development of Spodoptera eridania and Spodoptera frugiperda fed on fresh ear of field corn expressing the Bt proteins (Cry1F and Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orcial Ceolin Bortolotto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate extent of larval period, larval survival (%, food consumption, and pupal biomass of Spodoptera eridania and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae fed on fresh ears of field corn expressing Bt proteins (Cry1F and Cry1F+Cry1A.105+Cry2Ab2. Larvae of Spodoptera spp. survived less than two days when they consumed Bt corncobs and showed 100% mortality. Spodoptera eridania reared on non-Bt corn cobs showed higher larval development (21.6 days than S. frugiperda (18.4 days and lower viability (56.4% and 80.2% for S. eridania and S. frugiperda , respectively. A higher amount of corn grains was consumed by S. eridania (5.4g than by S. frugiperda (3.9g. In summary, this study demonstrated that the toxins Cry1F and Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 expressed in fresh corn cobs contributed to protect ears of corn against S. frugiperda and the non-target pest S. eridania . However, itis important to monitor non-Bt cornfields because of the potential of both species to cause damage to ear sof corn.

  2. Stand development and yields of Appalachian hardwood stands managed with single-tree selection for at least 30 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil I Lamson; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1991-01-01

    Appalachian hardwood stands in West Virginia were managed for 30 or more years using single-tree selection regeneration practices. Stand yield data suggest that current stand growth will provide economical harvest cuts for several future cutting cycles. This case study indicates that the single-tree selection practice has potential for landowners who want to maintain...

  3. Impact of enhanced ultraviolet-B irradiance on cotton growth, development, yield, and qualities under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei Gao; Youfei Zheng; James R. Slusser; Gordon M. Heisler

    2003-01-01

    The stratospheric ozone depletion and enhanced solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) irradiance may have adverse impacts on the productivity of agricultural crops. The effect of UV-B enhancements on agricultural crops includes reduction in yield, alteration in species competition, decrease in photosynthetic activity, susceptibility to disease, and changes in structure and...

  4. Application of an organic halophytic manure on yield characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this field study was to evaluate the effect of three different types of halophytic composts in combination with farmyard manure (FYM) and phosphate solubilising bacteria (Bacillus megaterium) on yield characteristics such as number of pods per plant, fresh pod weight, dry pod weight , pod yield, haulm yield, ...

  5. Salty vs. Fresh Water

    KAUST Repository

    Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2012-11-14

    One possibility of obtaining sustainable energy from seawater is the use of osmosis. The key to this technology is the development of efficient membranes which allow water to pass through, but not salt. © 2013 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  6. Pharmacologic study of irradiated fresh ginseng

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ziwen; Xu Dechun; Meng Lifen

    1992-01-01

    The pharmacologic effect of 2 kGy irradiated fresh ginseng juice on small white mouse was studied. The results showed that irradiated fresh ginsengs have significant effects against lack of oxygen, diuresis and fatigue of mice. The statistical analysis indicated that there was no marked difference of pharmacologic effect between irradiated fresh ginseng and raw fresh one

  7. Soil compaction limits root development, radiation-use efficiency and yield of three winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Nielsen, Anne Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    , equivalent to decreases in the available soil water in the root zone of up to ca. 90 mm. These differences indicate some genetic variation in the ability of cultivars to penetrate compacted soil, although the interaction between compaction treatment and cultivar was not significant. Due to almost sufficient......Soil compaction has increased during recent years due to the traffic with increasingly heavier machinery. We evaluated the effect of soil compaction on soil penetration resistance, rooting depth, light interception, radiation-use efficiency (RUE) and yield of three different cultivars of winter....... The RUE was positively correlated with an estimated effective rooting depth across cultivars, while DM yield was not. This correlation probably was a result of restrictions on stomatal opening mediated by drought stress and abscisic acid produced in the root system in response to occasional soil drying...

  8. Genetic parameters for body weight, carcass chemical composition and yield in a broiler-layer cross developed for QTL mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Beatriz do Nascimento; Ramos, Salvador Boccaletti; Savegnago, Rodrigo Pelicioni; Ledur, Mônica Corrêa; Nones, Kátia; Klein, Claudete Hara; Munari, Danísio Prado

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic and phenotypic correlations of body weight at 6 weeks of age (BW6), as well as final carcass yield, and moisture, protein, fat and ash contents, using data from 3,422 F2 chickens originated from reciprocal cross between a broiler and a layer line. Variance components were estimated by the REML method, using animal models for evaluating random additive genetic and fixed contemporary group (sex, hatch and genetic group) effects. The heritability estimates (h2) for BW6, carcass yield and percentage of carcass moisture were 0.31 ± 0.07, 0.20 ± 0.05 and 0.33 ± 0.07, respectively. The h2 for the percentages of protein, fat and ash on a dry matter basis were 0.48 ± 0.09, 0.55 ± 0.10 and 0.36 ± 0.08, respectively. BW6 had a positive genetic correlation with fat percentage in the carcass, but a negative one with protein and ash contents. Carcass yield, thus, appears to have only low genetic association with carcass composition traits. The genetic correlations observed between traits, measured on a dry matter basis, indicated that selection for carcass protein content may favor higher ash content and a lower percentage of carcass fat. PMID:21931515

  9. On-line fresh-cut lettuce quality measurement system using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce, which is a main type of fresh-cut vegetable, has been used in various fresh-cut products. In this study, an online quality measurement system for detecting foreign substances on the fresh-cut lettuce was developed using hyperspectral reflectance imaging. The online detection system with a s...

  10. Base isolation: Fresh insight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shustov, V.

    1993-07-15

    The objective of the research is a further development of the engineering concept of seismic isolation. Neglecting the transient stage of seismic loading results in a widespread misjudgement: The force of resistance associated with velocity is mostly conceived as a source of damping vibrations, though it is an active force at the same time, during an earthquake type excitation. For very pliant systems such as base isolated structures with relatively low bearing stiffness and with artificially added heavy damping mechanism, the so called `damping`` force may occur even the main pushing force at an earthquake. Thus, one of the two basic pillars of the common seismic isolation philosophy, namely, the doctrine of usefulness and necessity of a strong damping mechanism, is turning out to be a self-deception, sometimes even jeopardizing the safety of structures and discrediting the very idea of seismic isolation. There is a way out: breaking with damping dependancy.

  11. Development of a high-yielding bioprocess for 11-α hydroxylation of canrenone under conditions of oxygen-enriched air supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contente, Martina Letizia; Guidi, Benedetta; Serra, Immacolata; De Vitis, Valerio; Romano, Diego; Pinto, Andrea; Lenna, Roberto; de Souza Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro; Molinari, Francesco

    2016-12-01

    A high yielding bioprocess for 11-α hydroxylation of canrenone (1a) using Aspergillus ochraceus ATCC 18500 was developed. The optimization of the biotransformation involved both fermentation (for achieving highly active mycelium of A. ochraceus) and biotransformation with the aim to obtain 11-α hydroxylation with high selectivity and yield. A medium based on sucrose as C-source resulted particularly suitable for conversion of canrenone into the corresponding 11-hydroxy derivative, whereas the use of O 2 -enriched air and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a co-solvent for increasing substrate solubility played a crucial role for obtaining high yields (>95%) of the desired product in high chemical purity starting from 30mM (10.2g/L) of substrate. The structure of the hydroxylated product was confirmed by a combination of two-dimensional NMR proton-proton correlation techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nutrition-induced Changes of Growth from Birth to First Calving and Its Impact on Mammary Development and First-lactation Milk Yield in Dairy Heifers: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohakare, J D; Südekum, K-H; Pattanaik, A K

    2012-09-01

    This review focuses on the nutritional effects from birth until age at first calving on growth, mammary developmental changes, and first-lactation milk yield in heifer calves. The advancement in the genetic potential and the nutritional requirements of the animals has hastened the growth rate. Genetic selection for high milk yield has suggested higher growth capacity and hence increasing nutritional inputs are required. Rapid rearing by feeding high energy or high concentrate diets not only reduces the age of sexual maturity but also lowers the time period of attaining the age of first calving. However, high energy diets may cause undesirable fat deposition thereby affecting future milk yield potential. Discrepancies exist whether overfed or overweight heifers at puberty can influence the mammary development and future milk yield potential and performance. The data on post-pubertal nutritional management suggested that body weight at calving and post-pubertal growth rate is important in first lactation milk yield. There is a continuous research need for strategic feeding that accelerates growth of dairy heifers without reduction in subsequent production. Nutritional management from birth, across puberty and during pregnancy is critical for mammary growth and for producing a successful cow. This review will mostly highlight studies carried out on dairy breeds and possible available opportunities to manipulate nutritional status from birth until age at first calving.

  13. Variations and Transmission of QTL Alleles for Yield and Fiber Qualities in Upland Cotton Cultivars Developed in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianzhen; Qian, Neng; Zhu, Xiefei; Chen, Hong; Wang, Sen; Mei, Hongxian; Zhang, Yuanming

    2013-01-01

    Cotton is the world’s leading cash crop, and genetic improvement of fiber yield and quality is the primary objective of cotton breeding program. In this study, we used various approaches to identify QTLs related to fiber yield and quality. Firstly, we constructed a four-way cross (4WC) mapping population with four base core cultivars, Stoneville 2B, Foster 6, Deltapine 15 and Zhongmiansuo No.7 (CRI 7), as parents in Chinese cotton breeding history and identified 83 QTLs for 11 agronomic and fiber quality traits. Secondly, association mapping of agronomical and fiber quality traits was based on 121 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers using a general linear model (GLM). For this, 81 Gossypium hirsutum L. accessions including the four core parents and their derived cultivars were grown in seven diverse environments. Using these approaches, we successfully identified 180 QTLs significantly associated with agronomic and fiber quality traits. Among them were 66 QTLs that were identified via linkage disequilibrium (LD) and 4WC family-based linkage (FBL) mapping and by previously published family-based linkage (FBL) mapping in modern Chinese cotton cultivars. Twenty eight and 44 consistent QTLs were identified by 4WC and LD mapping, and by FBL and LD mapping methods, respectively. Furthermore, transmission and variation of QTL-alleles mapped by LD association in the three breeding periods revealed that some could be detected in almost all Chinese cotton cultivars, suggesting their stable transmission and some identified only in the four base cultivars and not in the modern cultivars, suggesting they were missed in conventional breeding. These results will be useful to conduct genomics-assisted breeding effectively using these existing and novel QTL alleles to improve yield and fiber qualities in cotton. PMID:23468939

  14. Crop yields in intercropping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract

    Intercropping, the cultivation of two or more crop species simultaneously in the same field, has been widely practiced by smallholder farmers in developing countries and is gaining increasing interest in developed countries. Intercropping can increase the yield per unit

  15. Spiniferites cruciformis: a fresh water dinoflagellate cyst?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouli, K; Brinkhuis, H; Dale, B

    2001-04-01

    Palynological studies of cored lacustrine sediments from the late Quaternary of Lake Kastoria, northern Greece, revealed a Late Glacial interval with abundant dinoflagellate cysts. Cyst assemblages include two identifiable species, Spiniferites cruciformis and Gonyaulax apiculata. The presence of the fresh water species G. apiculata is consistent with the lacustrine setting of these deposits, but that of S. cruciformis is anomalous. Previously, this species has only been recorded in abundance from presumed brackish marine sediments from the Black Sea and Marmara Sea sediments where geochemical data clearly record brackish salinities. Therefore, it has been regarded as a low salinity cyst type with a wide range of morphological variation that some workers have suggested to reflect salinity fluctuations. Specimens from Greece display only part of the range of morphological variability previously described from these (brackish) marine settings. Encountered morphological variation includes ellipsoidal/pentameral and cruciform endocyst shapes with rare intermediate shapes, and highly variable septa development. Specimens characterized by extremely reduced ornamentation known from (brackish) marine environments have not been recorded. Our records of S. cruciformis indicate that: (1) it could thrive in fresh water conditions; and (2) that apparently most of the strong morphological variations of the cysts are an intrinsic phenomenon for this taxon, and may only partly be linked to salinity variations as suggested earlier. We suggest that S. cruciformis essentially is a fresh water taxon, and that its records in (brackish) marine environments, with the exception of specimens with strongly reduced ornamentation, may be due to transportation, to short-lived fresh water surface conditions in such environments, or to tolerance of the species to brackish conditions.

  16. Regulating N application for rice yield and sustainable eco-agro development in the upper reaches of Yellow River basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aiping; Liu, Ruliang; Gao, Ji; Yang, Shiqi; Chen, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    High N fertilizer and flooding irrigation applied to rice on anthropogenic-alluvial soil often result in N leaching and low recovery of applied fertilizer N from the rice fields in Ningxia irrigation region in the upper reaches of the Yellow River, which threatens ecological environment, food security, and sustainable agricultural development. This paper reported the regulating N application for rice yield and sustainable Eco-Agro development in the upper reaches of Yellow River basin. The results showed that reducing and postponing N application could maintain crop yields while substantially reducing N leaching losses to the environment and improving the nitrogen use efficiency. Considering the high food production, the minimum environmental threat, and the low labor input, we suggested that regulating N application is an important measure to help sustainable agricultural development in this region.

  17. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Fresh Leaf Extract of Centella asiatica and Their Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Le Dai; Luan, Nguyen Dinh Tung; Ngoc, Dao Duy Hong; Anh, Phan Tuan; Bao, Vo-Van Quoc

    The synthesis, characterization and application of biologically synthesized nanomaterials have become an important branch of nanotechnology. In the present study, we report the synthesis of silver nanoparticles from fresh leaf extract of Centella asiatica (LEC). UV-Vis spectrum for silver colloids contains a strong plasmon band near 425nm, which confirms the formation of nanoparticles. The experimental results show that the silver nanoparticles are formed easily in the extract at ambient temperature. The resulting silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were in the spherical form and the average size of the nanoparticles was in the range from 3nm to 30nm. From the above silver nanoparticles, we were taken up to investigate the effects of various concentrations of AgNPs on growth, development and yield of peanut plants. The results of the present experiment showed that the optimized concentration of AgNPs of the good germination, growth and pod yield of peanut plant is 5ppm.

  18. Competitiveness of Zacatecas (Mexico) Protected Agriculture: The Fresh Tomato Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Padilla-Bernal, Luz E.; Rumayor-Rodriguez, Agustin; Perez-Veyna, Oscar; Reyes-Rivas, Elivier

    2010-01-01

    The industry of fresh tomato production under protective structures in Zacatecas has undergone accelerated growth in recent years. Free trade, market globalization, new trends in the agro-food sector, as well as the food and financial crises, are impacting its competitiveness. In this study competitiveness of the industry of fresh tomato production under protective structures in Zacatecas was evaluated to provide elements that contribute to the design of policies aimed toward development of s...

  19. Productivity and stability of the yield from common winter wheat cultivars developed at IPGR Sadovo under the conditions of Dobrudzha region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chamurliyski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. One of the main directions of the common winter wheat breeding programs in Bulgaria is related to enhancing productivity. Since wheat is a crop of the microclimate, yield is strongly influenced by the conditions of the environment. The contemporary tendencies in the breeding of this crop are directed not only towards achieving high results with regard to productivity but also towards maintaining a relative stability of yield under changeable climatic factors. The aim of this investigation was to study the productivity and determine the stability of the yield from common winter wheat cultivars developed at the Institute for Plant and Genetic Resources (IPGR Sadovo under the conditions of Dobrudzha region, Bulgaria. The field experiment was carried out in the trial field of Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute (DAI during 2011 – 2013. Nineteen cultivars, breeding of IPGR, were tested in three replications. Cultivar Enola was used as a standard. The productive potential, the elements of yield and its stability were investigated. Two-factor dispersion, variation and correlation analyses were applied for statistical evaluation of the results, and the method of Kang, PCA analysis and AMMI models were involved to describe stability. With regard to vegetation period, the investigated materials did not differ from the standard cultivar Enola. They possessed typical good combination of high tillering capacity and grain weight per spike. The productivity of the studied accessions was formed mainly by these two indices. The cultivars, which realized highest yields averaged for the tree years of the investigation, were Mustang, Diamant, Tsarevets and Geya 1, and cultivars Bononya, Momchil and Lusil demonstrated stability by this trait. The optimal ratio between high productive potential and yield stability was observed in cultivars Mustang, Tsarevets, Momchil and Boryana

  20. Develop a field grid system for yield mapping and machine control. Quarterly report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, F.; Windish, J.

    1995-10-01

    Build and test the Field Grid Sense system for yield mapping and machine control during harvesting. Secondly, use Field Grid Sense with chemical application equipment to demonstrate a workable in-field system. More specifically, the operation of the patented hardware/software Field Grid Sense (FGS) system will be tested in crop harvesting to demonstrate the system`s utility and to analyze the flexibility of operation under true field conditions. Additionally, FGS will again be used with chemical application equipment - equipment that needs modification to correct one or two slight shortcomings. This action will create improved systems and establish the worthiness, efficiency and necessity of chemical application equipment that is controlled and directed via the FGS package.

  1. Developing an in-Field Yield Monitoring System and Predicting Some Nutritional Quality Properties of Alfalfa Using Shear and Compressive Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M Maharlooei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Precision Agriculture is continuously trying to address the sources and factors affecting the in-field variability and taking appropriate managerial decisions. One of the popular research focuses in the recent three decades has been on the development of new approaches to making yield variability maps. Advancement in development of sensors and the importance of quality factor in high value crops has motivated scientists to investigate real-time and nondestructive testing methods. This study tried to introduce and evaluate a new approach to concurrent yield mapping and to estimate some nutritional qualitative factors of alfalfa production. In this study, yield quantity was determined by measurement of added hay slice in every hay compression cycle by employing a new star wheel and integrating its output with positioning data from Global Positioning System. To predict some nutritional quality properties, measurement of specific shear energy applied on the cutting blade and compressive energy on plunger head of a hay baler in field conditions were also evaluated. The results of statistical analysis of yield quantity measurement data showed a very good correlation between the suggested approach and yield mass (r=0.96 and R2=0.92. The results of using specific shear energy for estimation of crude fiber and cumulative index RFV with regard to field conditions were rated as acceptable. Using specific compression energy was suitable only for estimating the dry matter. None of the suggested methods was able to estimate the hay crude protein. Further investigations at more extensive variations of quality indices and alfalfa varieties are suggested.

  2. Influence of uranium chemical speciation taken into consideration in the analysis of its eco-toxic effects in fresh water. Methodological development and application to the Ritord case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaugelin-Seiller, K.; Garnier-Laplace, J.; Gilbin, R.; Fevrier, L.

    2009-01-01

    The pluralistic expert group on uranium mine sites in Limousin ('GEP mines'), following the recommendation of its working group devoted to environmental and health impacts (WG2), has confirmed the interest of studying the influence of uranium speciation on the analysis of its eco-toxic effects. The WG2 produced specifications to which the SECRE applied successfully. This report presents the results of the corresponding study, funded by AREVA NC. The first point was to develop the required methodological aspects, the second their application in relation with the chemical risk assessment due to uranium exposure of the Ritord aquatic ecosystem. (authors)

  3. Determination of 222Rn in fresh water: development of a robust method of analysis by alpha/beta separation liquid scintillation spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pates, Jacqueline M; Mullinger, Neil J

    2007-01-01

    Liquid scintillation spectrometry is used widely for determining (222)Rn in natural waters; however, the benefits of alpha/beta separation have not been fully explored. The extractants toluene and Ultima Gold F were compared, and both performed well for a range of extreme waters. A robust method for calibrating extraction and counting efficiencies has been developed. Detection limits are 20 mBql(-1) (toluene) and 16 mBql(-1) (UGF) for a 60 min count and 600-ml sample, halving the required sample volume.

  4. Purification of papain from fresh latex of Carica papaya

    OpenAIRE

    Monti, Rubens; Basilio, Carmelita A.; Trevisan, Henrique C.; Contiero, Jonas

    2000-01-01

    In the present study we wish to report a method of crystallizing papain from fresh papaya latex which gave higher yields than previously reported. This method does not involve the use of sulphydryl reagents. The papain thus obtained is practically pure and shows a single band when submitted to electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel, and is identical to the papain obtained by other methods. In routine enzymatic assays, specific activity was measured using Z-gly-pNP and BAEE as substrates. Papai...

  5. Addition of whey protein to fresh cheese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rafael Arce-Méndez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work has been conducted in order to assess the effect of adding whey protein (WP to fresh cheese. The yield, proximal chemical composition, tryptophan content,and texture and consumer sensorial acceptance were obtained. The study was conducted at a cheese factory located in San Carlos, Costa Rica, in 2011. The protein obtained from whey was added during the cheese manufacturing process, before adding the microbial rennet; and four enrichment levels were evaluated, including one control. The supplemented cheese showed an acceptance rating between 6.8 and 7.1. Products with 75 and 120 g of added whey protein per kilogram of milk showed no significant differences versus non-supplemented cheese, while the preference towards the cheese with 150 g WP/kg was less than that of the control (p<0.05. A cluster analysis revealed the existence of two consumer groups: one, accounting for 65% of the members of the panel, whose preference was unaffected by the protein supplemented; and, the other group where the added protein affected their liking negatively. Adding whey protein to the cheese resulted in a significant increase in yield and in the protein-to-water ratio, as well as a reduction in fat content (p<0.05. Nevertheless, there were structural changes in the cheese that caused the reduction of certain texture properties, generating changes in their sensory properties that reduced the preference of a representative group of consumers towards the product.

  6. Using RPAS Multi-Spectral Imagery to Characterise Vigour, Leaf Development, Yield Components and Berry Composition Variability within a Vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Rey-Caramés

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of precision viticulture techniques requires the use of emerging sensing technologies to assess the vineyard spatial variability. This work shows the capability of multispectral imagery acquired from a remotely piloted aerial system (RPAS, and the derived spectral indices to assess the vegetative, productive, and berry composition spatial variability within a vineyard (Vitis vinifera L.. Multi-spectral imagery of 17 cm spatial resolution was acquired using a RPAS. Classical vegetation spectral indices and two newly defined normalised indices, NVI1 = (R802 − R531/(R802 + R531 and NVI2 = (R802 − R570/(R802 + R570, were computed. Their spatial distribution and relationships with grapevine vegetative, yield, and berry composition parameters were studied. Most of the spectral indices and field data varied spatially within the vineyard, as showed through the variogram parameters. While the correlations were significant but moderate among the spectral indices and the field variables, the kappa index showed that the spatial pattern of the spectral indices agreed with that of the vegetative variables (0.38–0.70 and mean cluster weight (0.40. These results proved the utility of the multi-spectral imagery acquired from a RPAS to delineate homogeneous zones within the vineyard, allowing the grapegrower to carry out a specific management of each subarea.

  7. Tailoring the fresh state properties of concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tregger, Nathan Allen

    In this research, two types of concrete whose performance relies on their fresh-state abilities will be discussed. The first is self-consolidating concrete, which possesses high flowability without aggregate segregation. Quality control of flowability is typically predicted by the final diameter ( Df) of the slump-flow test, which in turn, has been related to yield stress of the fresh concrete. Currently, there are no reliable measures of viscosity from a field-friendly test such as the slump-flow test. It will be demonstrated that the viscosity can be related to the time to final diameter (Tf) from the minislump-flow tests for cement pastes. This relationship is extended to concrete systems where T f of the slump-flow test is correlated to dynamic segregation. For the concrete system, Tf was increased systematically using a viscosity modifying agent, while the Df was kept constant by adjusting the superplasticizer content. Segregation is determined by measuring the radial aggregate distribution from the slump-flow test. The results demonstrate that increasing the Tf improves dynamic segregation resistance. Furthermore, Tf was more indicative of viscosity than the time to reach a diameter of 50 cm (T50), which is currently used in the field as a measure of viscosity. Computational models are implemented to investigate these relationships for both cement and concrete systems. The second type of concrete is an improved slipform concrete with the ability to consolidate under minimal external energy yet maintain shape stability after being slipformed. This balance between flowability and shape stability is achieved through combination of fly ash and small dosages of micro and nano clays. A microstructural investigation of the effect of clays on the fresh state is carried out to relate macro behaviors with changes in the paste microstructure. Shear and compressive rheology techniques are used to measure how the solids volume fraction of the suspensions with different

  8. Effects of Row Spacing and Plant Density on Yield and Yield Components of Sweet Corn in Climatic Conditions of Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Khodaeian

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of row spacing and plant density on yield and yield components of sweet corn, variety KSC403, an experiment was conducted in Research Farm of Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran, in 2007, as randomized complete block design with a split-plot layout and three replications. The main plots were allocated to two row spacing (60 and 75 cm and the sub-plots accommodated four levels of plant density (50000, 70000, 90000 and 110000 plants per ha. There was significant increase in leaf area index, shoot dry weight, 100-grain fresh weight and grain fresh yield, as row width was decreased from 75 to 60 cm but the plant height was decreased. There was no significant effect of row spacing on number of rows per ear, number of grains per row and number of grains per ear. Plant height, leaf area index, shoot dry weight per m2 and number of ears per m2 were increased with an increase in plant density. The number of rows per ear, number of grains per row, number of grains per ear, 100-grain fresh weight and grain fresh yield were significantly higher under plant densities of 90000 and 110000 as compared to 50000 and 70000 plants per ha. There was significant interaction between row spacing and plant density for leaf area index, shoot dry weight, number of grains per ear, 100-grain fresh weight and grain fresh yield. Under all plant densities, the grain fresh yield was higher in 60-cm row width compared to 70-cm row width. However, the difference between these two row spacing was not significant in plant densities of 50000 and 110000 plants per ha. The highest grain fresh yield (33940 kg/ha was achieved under row spacing 60 cm and 70000 plants per ha and the least grain fresh yield (20750 kg/ha was obtained in under 75 cm row width and 110000 plants per ha. Considering the obtained results of this experiment, to have maximum grain fresh yield of sweet corn under Isfahan climate, the row spacing of 60 cm and plant density of

  9. Study on storage efficiency of the fresh food e-commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Sun, Jie; Li, Huihui

    2017-06-01

    As the last cake in the area of e-commerce industry, the temperature of fresh food e-commerce is always rising starting from about 2014. This paper is based on the imperfection that the existing study about fresh food e-commerce is lack of studies on storage efficiency. And we took some variables in this paper such as consumers’ satisfaction and length for preservation and storage time. On this basis we built the model of storage efficiency of fresh food e-commerce. We find that as the development of fresh food e-commerce, the fresh food e-commerce enterprise will pay more attention to the consumers’ satisfaction. They can take some effective ways like reducing the wastage of fresh food and lengthening the refreshing time of fresh food and so on.

  10. Yield performances and nutritional contents of three oyster ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine nutritive value and yield performance of the three types of oyster mushroom; Pleurotus eryngii (Dc. Ex Fr.) quel), Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) Kumm.) and. Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Singer, cultivated on wheat stalk. The total fresh mushroom yields obtained with 100 g material (70% ...

  11. Development of a prototype fresh-air window to be used in combination with off-air systems, especially for modernisation of multistorey apartment buildings; Entwicklung des Prototypes eines Zuluftfensters fuer den Einsatz in Verbindung mit Abluftanlagen, insbesondere bei der Sanierung von mehrgeschossigen Mietwohngebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronau, H.J.; Helbig, S. [Weimar Univ. (Germany). Materialforschungs- und Pruefanstalt

    1997-12-31

    Off-air systems depend on whether there is a sufficient supply of fresh air. This research project aims to develop a prototype of a fresh-air element in the form of a three-pane composite window. The state of progress, results of the numerical studies, and problems encountered are reported. (MSK) [Deutsch] Da Abluftanlagen von einer hinreichend gesicherten Zuluftversorgung abhaengig sind, ist es das Ziel dieses Forschungsvorhabens, den Prototyp eines Zuluftelements in Form eines 3-Scheiben-Verbundfensters zu entwickeln. Im Folgenden werden der Stand der Arbeiten, die Ergebnisse der numerischen Untersuchungen sowie auftretende Probleme erlaeutert.

  12. Using an Active-Optical Sensor to Develop an Optimal NDVI Dynamic Model for High-Yield Rice Production (Yangtze, China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojun; Ferguson, Richard B; Zheng, Hengbiao; Cao, Qiang; Tian, Yongchao; Cao, Weixing; Zhu, Yan

    2017-03-24

    The successful development of an optimal canopy vegetation index dynamic model for obtaining higher yield can offer a technical approach for real-time and nondestructive diagnosis of rice (Oryza sativa L) growth and nitrogen (N) nutrition status. In this study, multiple rice cultivars and N treatments of experimental plots were carried out to obtain: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), leaf area index (LAI), above-ground dry matter (DM), and grain yield (GY) data. The quantitative relationships between NDVI and these growth indices (e.g., LAI, DM and GY) were analyzed, showing positive correlations. Using the normalized modeling method, an appropriate NDVI simulation model of rice was established based on the normalized NDVI (RNDVI) and relative accumulative growing degree days (RAGDD). The NDVI dynamic model for high-yield production in rice can be expressed by a double logistic model: RNDVI = ( 1 + e - 15.2829 × ( R A G D D i - 0.1944 ) ) - 1 - ( 1 + e - 11.6517 × ( R A G D D i - 1.0267 ) ) - 1 (R2 = 0.8577**), which can be used to accurately predict canopy NDVI dynamic changes during the entire growth period. Considering variation among rice cultivars, we constructed two relative NDVI (RNDVI) dynamic models for Japonica and Indica rice types, with R2 reaching 0.8764** and 0.8874**, respectively. Furthermore, independent experimental data were used to validate the RNDVI dynamic models. The results showed that during the entire growth period, the accuracy (k), precision (R2), and standard deviation of RNDVI dynamic models for the Japonica and Indica cultivars were 0.9991, 1.0170; 0.9084**, 0.8030**; and 0.0232, 0.0170, respectively. These results indicated that RNDVI dynamic models could accurately reflect crop growth and predict dynamic changes in high-yield crop populations, providing a rapid approach for monitoring rice growth status.

  13. The Chemical Forms of Mercury in Aged and Fresh Dental Amalgam Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    George, Graham N.; Singh, Satya P.; Hoover, Jay; Pickering, Ingrid J.

    2009-01-01

    Mercury-containing dental amalgam is known to be a source of human exposure to mercury. We have explored the use of electron-yield Hg LIII X-ray absorption spectroscopy to characterize the chemical nature of dental amalgam surfaces. We find that the method is practical, and that it shows extensive mercury depletion in the surface of the aged amalgam with significant differences between old and fresh amalgam surfaces. Whereas the fresh amalgam gives spectra that are typical of metallic mercury...

  14. Environmental assessment of Ultra-High Pressure Homogenisation for milk and fresh cheese production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsasina, Lucia; Pizzol, Massimo; Smetana, Sergiy

    2015-01-01

    Temperature (UHT) treatment and, at the same time, to lower energy consumptions through the combination of pasteurisation and homogenisation in a single process. Furthermore, the use of UHPH treated milk for the production of fresh cheese has been proven to increase shelf life days and increase yield...... This study provides an LCA of UHPH and UHT processing of milk and fresh cheese production from processing to end-of-life....

  15. Development of a chamber system for rapid, high yield and cost-effective purification of deoxyribonucleic acid fragments from agarose gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Gilda; Salehi, Rasoul

    2014-01-01

    There are several methods commonly practicing for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) purification from agarose gel. In most laboratories, especially in developing countries, present methods for recovering of DNA fragments from the gel are mostly involved organic solvents. However, manual purification using organic solvents are toxic, labor intensive, time consuming and prone to contamination owing to several handling steps. The above mentioned burdens as well as cost and long time to import them, especially in developing countries, prompted us to design and develop a chamber system for rapid, non-toxic, cost-effective and user friendly device for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products purification from agarose gel. The device was made from plexiglass plates. After amplification of two fragments of 250 and 850 bp, PCR products were electrophoresed. Subsequently, the desired bands were excised and purified with three method: HiPer Mini chamber, phenol extraction method and spin column procedure. To assess the suitability of the purified DNAs, restriction digestion was applied. Results showed that the yield of recovered DNA in our method was above 95%, whereas the yields obtained with conventional phenol extraction and spin column methods were around 60%. In conclusion, the current method for DNA elution is quick, inexpensive and robust and it does not require the use of toxic organic solvents. In addition, the purified DNA was well has suited for further manipulations such as restriction digestion, ligation, cloning, sequencing and hybridization.

  16. A fresh look at space solar power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankins, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Studies of systems to provide solar power from space for terrestrial use defined very large, geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) satellite concepts that--given massive initial government investments and extremely low cost space launch--might have led to power production at costs only somewhat higher than expected commercial prices. These studies of space solar power (SSP) succeeded in establishing technical feasibility. Shortly after the completion of the 1970s study, however, US funding came to an abrupt and seemingly permanent halt--in part because projected costs for the reference system were staggering: well in excess of $100B to achieve the first commercial kilowatt-hour of power. SSP has seen sporadic study and limited experimentation during the past decade (e.g., in Japan). Still, no existing SSP concept has engendered private development. New technologies now make possible concepts and approaches that suggest that SSP economic feasibility may be achievable early in the next century. In 1995, NASA's Advanced Concepts Office initiated a study taking a fresh look at innovative concepts for SSP that differ markedly from previously examined concepts, addressing innovative system architectures, markets and technologies that could radically reduce initial and operational costs. This paper will explore the issues associated with SSP and will summarize the results to date of NASA's recent fresh look at this important and increasingly timely field of space applications

  17. Yielding impressive results. The Egyptian experience in family planning communication campaign has been an exemplary model for many developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafai, M

    1994-09-01

    planning IEC has been an exemplary model for many developing countries.

  18. Varietal performance and correlation of okra pods yield and yield components under irrigation in Sudan savannah of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dattijo Aminu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Field irrigation experiments were conducted to assess the varietal performance and correlation of pod yield and yield attributes under irrigation at the Teaching and Research Farm, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria, during 2015 and 2016 dry seasons. The results revealed that the most outstanding for fresh pod yield were okra cultivar Salkade, Y’ar gagure and Kwadag, in descending order with yield ranging from 34.69–4.83 t ha–1, while cultivar Y’ar kwami had the lowest value of pod yield (3.17 t ha–1 over the two years. The highest mean values for number of pods per plant and number of primary branches per plant were observed for Salkade and Y’ar gagure, respectively, Highest fresh pod length and fresh pod diameter were also exhibited for Salkade and Kwadag, respectively. Pods Genotypic coefficient of variation was higher than the phenotypic variation for all the yield contributing characters. Days to 50% flowering were positive and highly significance difference associated with plant height, number of pods per plant and fresh pod weight. Path coefficient analysis showed that number of pods per plant exhibited positive and direct effects on pod yield across years. Indirect effect of other yield components through this character also contributed mainly towards pod yield. Therefore, plant height, days to 50% flowering, number of pods per plant, pod length, pod diameter, number of primary branches per plant and fresh pod weight could be considered for selection and improvement for high yielding varieties in okra.

  19. NSAIDs acutely inhibit TRPC channels in freshly isolated rat glomeruli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilatovskaya, Daria V. [Department of Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Institute of Cytology RAS, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Levchenko, Vladislav; Ryan, Robert P.; Cowley, Allen W. [Department of Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Staruschenko, Alexander, E-mail: Staruschenko@mcw.edu [Department of Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2011-05-06

    Highlights: {yields} We have established a unique approach to search for physiologically relevant mechanisms of TRPC channels in podocytes. {yields} This study describes endogenous TRPC channels in the isolated decapsulated glomeruli preparation. {yields} We report for the first time that NSAIDs inhibit TRPC channels in podocytes. -- Abstract: Using a novel approach for analysis of TRPC channel activity, we report here that NSAIDs are involved into regulation of TRPC channels in the podocytes of the freshly isolated decapsulated glomeruli. Fluorescence and electron microscopy techniques confirmed the integrity of podocytes in the glomeruli. Western blotting showed that TRPC1, 3 and 6 are highly expressed in the glomeruli. Single-channel patch clamp analysis revealed cation currents with distinct TRPC properties. This is the first report describing single TRPC-like currents in glomerular podocytes. Furthermore, our data provide a novel mechanism of NSAIDs regulation of TRPC channels, which might be implicated in maintaining the glomerular filtration barrier.

  20. From fresh to marine waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonçalves-Araujo, Rafael; Stedmon, Colin; Heim, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    and evaluates the behavior of DOM across the fresh water-marine gradient. Six fluorescent components (four humic-like; one marine humic-like; one protein-like) were identified by Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC) with a clear dominance of allochthonous humic-like signals. Colored DOM (CDOM) and dissolved...... organic carbon (DOC) were highly correlated and had their distribution coupled with hydrographical conditions. Higher DOM concentration and degree of humification were associated with the low salinity waters of the Lena River. Values decreased towards the higher salinity Laptev Sea shelf waters. Results...... demonstrate different responses of DOM mixing in relation to the vertical structure of the water column, as reflecting the hydrographical dynamics in the region. Two mixing curves for DOM were apparent. In surface waters above the pycnocline there was a sharper decrease in DOM concentration in relation...

  1. Effective lactation yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Akke; Middelaar, van C.E.; Engel, B.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Hogeveen, H.; Kemp, B.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    To compare milk yields between cows or management strategies, lactations are traditionally standardized to 305-d yields. The 305-d yield, however, gives no insight into the combined effect of additional milk yield before calving, decreased milk yield after calving, and a possible shorter calving

  2. Systematic Study of the Content of Phytochemicals in Fresh and Fresh-Cut Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Alarcón-Flores

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Vegetables and fruits have beneficial properties for human health, because of the presence of phytochemicals, but their concentration can fluctuate throughout the year. A systematic study of the phytochemical content in tomato, eggplant, carrot, broccoli and grape (fresh and fresh-cut has been performed at different seasons, using liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. It was observed that phenolic acids (the predominant group in carrot, eggplant and tomato were found at higher concentrations in fresh carrot than in fresh-cut carrot. However, in the case of eggplant, they were detected at a higher content in fresh-cut than in fresh samples. Regarding tomato, the differences in the content of phenolic acids between fresh and fresh-cut were lower than in other matrices, except in winter sampling, where this family was detected at the highest concentration in fresh tomato. In grape, the flavonols content (predominant group was higher in fresh grape than in fresh-cut during all samplings. The content of glucosinolates was lower in fresh-cut broccoli than in fresh samples in winter and spring sampling, although this trend changes in summer and autumn. In summary, phytochemical concentration did show significant differences during one-year monitoring, and the families of phytochemicals presented different behaviors depending on the matrix studied.

  3. Measurement of the W{yields}{tau}{nu}{sub {tau}} cross section in proton-proton collisions at ATLAS and development of the HepMCAnalysis tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnert, Sebastian

    2012-04-15

    The goal of modern particle physics experiments is the most precise measurement of known phenomena and the discovery of new physics. The complexity of these experiments requires dedicated tools to ensure the correct functionality of every part of the experiment and the analyses. One of these tools is the HepMCAnalysis Tool, a software framework for Monte Carlo (MC) generator validation and comparisons, using the generator independent HepMC event record. In this thesis, the development of the HepMCAnalysis Tool is presented. Its wide range of applications extends from validation and regression tests at the ATLAS experiment, over generator level studies and preparations of analyses, up to histogram based validation in the Generator Services Project. Examples of its applications are given. In November 2009, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) started operation and the ATLAS detector, the largest of the four LHC experiments, began taking data. Many Standard Model (SM) processes can already be rediscovered and are used to optimise the detector performance. Amongst those SM processes, processes involving particles from the third generation, like {tau} leptons, play an important role e.g. in the decay of the Higgs boson. Also in models of new physics like supersymmetry (SUSY), third generation particles, especially {tau} leptons, can be found in the final state. An accurate understanding of underlying SM processes with {tau} leptons is therefore one of the keys for the search of new physics. Among these, one of the most important processes is the W{yields}{tau}{nu}{sub {tau}} decay. In the second part of this thesis, the cross section measurement of W{yields}{tau}{nu}{sub {tau}} decays in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}(s)=7 TeV with the ATLAS experiment is presented. This was measured to be {sigma}{sup tot}{sub W{yields}{tau}{nu}{sub {tau}}}=(11.1{+-}0.3 (stat.){+-}1.7 (syst.){+-}0.4 (lumi.)) nb. This result is in agreement with the NNLO

  4. Development of a benchmark parameter scan for Higgs bosons in the NMSSM Model and a study of the sensitivity for H{yields}AA{yields}4{tau} in vector boson fusion with the ATLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rottlaender, Iris

    2008-08-15

    An evaluation of the discovery potential for NMSSM Higgs bosons of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is presented. For this purpose, seven two-dimensional benchmark planes in the six-dimensional parameter space of the NMSSM Higgs sector are defined. These planes include different types of phenomenology for which the discovery of NMSSM Higgs bosons is especially challenging and which are considered typical for the NMSSM. They are subsequently used to give a detailed evaluation of the Higgs boson discovery potential based on Monte Carlo studies from the ATLAS collaboration. Afterwards, the possibility of discovering NMSSM Higgs bosons via the H{sub 1}{yields}A{sub 1}A{sub 1}{yields}4{tau}{yields}4{mu}+8{nu} decay chain and with the vector boson fusion production mode is investigated. A particular emphasis is put on the mass reconstruction from the complex final state. Furthermore, a study of the jet reconstruction performance at the ATLAS experiment which is of crucial relevance for vector boson fusion searches is presented. A good detectability of the so-called tagging jets that originate from the scattered partons in the vector boson fusion process is of critical importance for an early Higgs boson discovery in many models and also within the framework of the NMSSM. (orig.)

  5. Development of an iron-enriched high-yieldings indica rice cultivar by introgression of a high-iron trait from transgenic iron-biofortified rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Soumitra; Ali, Nusrat; Datta, Swapan K; Datta, Karabi

    2014-09-01

    Low level of iron in staple food crops is one reason for the predominance of iron-deficiency anemia in developing countries. Most of the iron in rice grains accumulates in the outer aleurone layer and embryo, which are removed during milling, and the edible endosperm contains very low amounts of iron. In an effort to increase iron nutrition, we report here the transgene introgression of a high-iron trait into a high-yielding indica rice cultivar. The ferritin gene from soybean (soyfer1) was introduced into rice plants through interbreeding between soybean ferritin-overexpressing transgenic IR68144 and the high-yielding cultivar Swarna. The stable integration of the soyfer1 gene was confirmed in the BC2F4 generation, and the hybrid seeds showed 2.6-fold soybean ferritin gene expression over the recurrent parent Swarna. The hybrid milled seeds revealed a 2.54-fold increase in iron and 1.54-fold increase in zinc compared to Swarna. Agronomic data and an SSR marker analysis of the hybrid rice plants were taken into account for NIL character identification.

  6. Analysis of fresh maize marketing in Anambra state, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Research in National Development ... Examining the efficiency of fresh maize marketing and effects of socio-economic and demographic factors on marketing income in Anambra State, this study ... Marketing income was significantly influenced by age, gender, marketing experience, marketing cost and savings.

  7. Machine vision system for online inspection of freshly slaughtered chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    A machine vision system was developed and evaluated for the automation of online inspection to differentiate freshly slaughtered wholesome chickens from systemically diseased chickens. The system consisted of an electron-multiplying charge-coupled-device camera used with an imaging spectrograph and ...

  8. Semi-continuous anaerobic treatment of fresh leachate from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A semi-continuous leachate treatment process was developed in the present study. The fresh leachate was obtained from a municipal solid waste transfer station and palm oil mill effluent (POME) sludge was used as sources of anaerobic microbial complex. The semi-continuous treatment of leachate was operated in two ...

  9. Prevention of ligneous conjunctivitis by topical and subconjunctival fresh frozen plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Khalid F

    2004-08-01

    To present a case of ligneous conjunctivitis where the recurrence of membranous conjunctivitis was prevented by subconjunctival and topical instillation of fresh frozen plasma. Interventional case report. A case of ligneous conjunctivitis with multiple recurrences since the age of 3 years developed recurrent membranous conjunctivitis after transconjunctival levator recession. Blood plasminogen activity was determined. The membrane was excised, and the membrane reappeared 4 days later. The patient was treated with excision of the membrane and subconjunctival injection of fresh frozen plasma and topical fresh frozen plasma. Plasminogen activity of the fresh frozen plasma was normal. Plasminogen blood functional activity was 52% (normal is 80%-120%). The patient had complete remission with no recurrences of membranous conjunctivitis after topical and subconjunctival fresh frozen plasma. Prophylactic use of topical and subconjunctival fresh frozen plasma may help in the prevention of membranes in susceptible patients with plasminogen deficiency.

  10. Consumers' store choice behavior for fresh food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Consumers' preference for fresh food stores is analyzed. In particular the choice between supermarkets and specialized shops for purchasing fresh food is analyzed. Attention is given to the factors influencing this choice. For this purpose a number of research questions with respect to store choice

  11. Waste Reduction in Fresh Food Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaipia, Riikka; Loikkanen, Lauri; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra

    2011-01-01

    The paper studies a well-known phenomenon, information sharing in supply chains, in a new context, fresh foods, with a specific goal, supporting sustainable performance in the supply chain. Fresh foods are important for retail stores, representing around half of retail sales, but form a challenging...

  12. What determines fresh fish consumption in Croatia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomić, Marina; Matulić, Daniel; Jelić, Margareta

    2016-11-01

    Although fresh fish is widely available, consumption still remains below the recommended intake levels among the majority of European consumers. The economic crisis affects consumer food behaviour, therefore fresh fish is perceived as healthy but expensive food product. The aim of this study was to determine the factors influencing fresh fish consumption using an expanded Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1991) as a theoretical framework. The survey was conducted on a heterogeneous sample of 1151 Croatian fresh fish consumers. The study investigated the relationship between attitudes, perceived behavioural control, subjective norm, moral obligation, involvement in health, availability, intention and consumption of fresh fish. Structural Equation Modeling by Partial Least Squares was used to analyse the collected data. The results indicated that attitudes are the strongest positive predictor of the intention to consume fresh fish. Other significant predictors of the intention to consume fresh fish were perceived behavioural control, subjective norm, health involvement and moral obligation. The intention to consume fresh fish showed a strong positive correlation with behaviour. This survey provides valuable information for food marketing professionals and for the food industry in general. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Postharvest treatment of fresh fruit from California with methyl bromide for control of light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walse, Spencer S; Myers, Scott W; Liu, Yong-Biao; Bellamy, David E; Obenland, David; Simmons, Greg S; Tebbets, Steve

    2013-06-01

    Methyl bromide (MB) chamber fumigations were evaluated for postharvest control of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in fresh fruit destined for export from California. To simulate external feeding, larvae were contained in gas-permeable cages and distributed throughout loads of peaches, plums, nectarines (all Prunus spp.), apples (Malus spp.), raspberries (Rubus spp.), or grapes (Vitis spp.). Varying the applied MB dose and the differential sorption of MB by the loads resulted in a range of exposures, expressed as concentration x time cross products (CTs) that were verified by gas-chromatographic quantification of MB in chamber headspace over the course of each fumigation. CTs > or = 60 and > or = 72 mg liter(-1) h at 10.0 +/- 0.5 and 15.6 +/- 0.5 degrees C (x +/- s, average +/- SD), respectively, yielded complete mortality of approximately 6,200 larvae at each temperature. These confirmatory fumigations corroborate E. postvittana mortality data for the first time in relation to measured MB exposures and collectively comprise the largest number of larval specimens tested to date. In addition, akinetic model of MB sorption was developed for the quarantine fumigation of fresh fruit based on the measurement of exposures and how they varied across the fumigation trials. The model describes how to manipulate the applied MB dose, the load factor, and the load geometry for different types of packaged fresh fruit so that the resultant exposure is adequate for insect control.

  14. On-line prediction of fresh pork quality using visible/near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yi-Tao; Fan, Yu-Xia; Cheng, Fang

    2010-12-01

    Visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy was tested to predict the quality attributes of fresh pork (content of intramuscular fat, protein and water, pH and shear force value) on-line. Vis/NIR spectra (350-1100 nm) were obtained from 211 samples using a prototype. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) models were developed by external validation with wavelet de-noising and several pre-processing methods. The 6th order Daubechies wavelet with 6 decomposition levels (db6-6) showed high de-noising ability with good information preservation. The first derivative of db6-6 de-noised spectra combined with multiplicative scatter correction yielded the prediction models with the highest coefficient of determination (R(2)) for all traits in both calibration and validation periods, which were all above 0.757 except for the prediction of shear force value. The results indicate that Vis/NIR spectroscopy is a promising technique to roughly predict the quality attributes of intact fresh pork on-line. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Search Results | Page 87 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 861 - 870 of 1119 ... Innovations in research: Taking a fresh look at old problems yields greater benefits for communities. Building knowledge and using it to improve lives across the developing world has always been central to IDRC's work. Research in Action. Health ...

  16. The Mirror Neuron System: A Fresh View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casile, Antonino; Caggiano, Vittorio; Ferrari, Pier Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Mirror neurons are a class of visuomotor neurons in the monkey premotor and parietal cortices that discharge during the execution and observation of goal-directed motor acts. They are deemed to be at the basis of primates’ social abilities. In this review, the authors provide a fresh view about two still open questions about mirror neurons. The first question is their possible functional role. By reviewing recent neurophysiological data, the authors suggest that mirror neurons might represent a flexible system that encodes observed actions in terms of several behaviorally relevant features. The second question concerns the possible developmental mechanisms responsible for their initial emergence. To provide a possible answer to question, the authors review two different aspects of sensorimotor development: facial and hand movements, respectively. The authors suggest that possibly two different “mirror” systems might underlie the development of action understanding and imitative abilities in the two cases. More specifically, a possibly prewired system already present at birth but shaped by the social environment might underlie the early development of facial imitative abilities. On the contrary, an experience-dependent system might subserve perception-action couplings in the case of hand movements. The development of this latter system might be critically dependent on the observation of own movements. PMID:21467305

  17. Fluorescence hyperspectral imaging technique for the foreign substance detection on fresh-cut lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nondestructive methods based on fluorescence hyperspectral imaging (HSI) techniques were developed in order to detect worms on fresh-cut lettuce. The optimal wavebands for detecting worms on fresh-cut lettuce were investigated using the one-way ANOVA analysis and correlation analysis. The worm detec...

  18. Modelling RGB colour aspects and translucency of fresh-cut tomatoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Lana, M.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Kooten, van O.

    2006-01-01

    Translucency is one of the major problems in fresh-cut fruit. This phenomenon seriously limits the use of fruit by the fresh-cut industries. Techniques for measuring translucency in this kind of product are not readily available. As a consequence, the processes that are important in the development

  19. Internet Usage In The Fresh Produce Supply Chainin China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoxiao; Duan, Yanqing; Fu, Zetian; Liu, Xue

    Although effective implementation of the Internet technologies has a great potential for improving efficiency and reducing wastage within the fresh produce supply chain. the situation of the Internet usage by SMEs (small and medium sized enterprises) in the fresh produce supply chain is still unclear in China. As the main players, SMEs haven't been given enough attention from both academics and governments. Therefore, this research attempts to address this issue by, first, investigating the current usage of the Internet and related software by Chinese SMEs in the fresh produce supply chain, and then, by identifying enablers and barriers faced by SMEs to call government's attention. As a part of an EU-Asia IT&C funded project, a survey was carried out with SMEs in this industry from five major cities in China. The results reveal that in the relatively developed areas of China, SMEs in the fresh produce supply chain are rapidly adopting the Internet and software packages, but the level of adoption varies greatly and there is a significant lack of integration among the supply chain partners. Chinese SMEs are keen to embrace emerging technologies and have acted to adopt new software and tools. Given that cost of implementation is not a barrier, their concern over legal protection and online security must be addressed for further development.

  20. Development and validation of polar RP-HPLC method for screening for ectoine high-yield strains in marine bacteria with green chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Chen, Jianwei; Wang, Sijia; Zhou, Guangmin; Chen, Danqing; Zhang, Huawei; Wang, Hong

    2018-04-02

    A novel, green, rapid, and precise polar RP-HPLC method has been successfully developed and screened for ectoine high-yield strain in marine bacteria. Ectoine is a polar and extremely useful solute which allows microorganisms to survive in extreme environmental salinity. This paper describes a polar-HPLC method employed polar RP-C18 (5 μm, 250 × 4.6 mm) using pure water as the mobile phase and a column temperature of 30 °C, coupled with a flow rate at 1.0 mL/min and detected under a UV detector at wavelength of 210 nm. Our method validation demonstrates excellent linearity (R 2  = 0.9993), accuracy (100.55%), and a limit of detection LOQ and LOD of 0.372 and 0.123 μgmL -1 , respectively. These results clearly indicate that the developed polar RP-HPLC method for the separation and determination of ectoine is superior to earlier protocols.

  1. Quantification of Unimolecular Photoreaction Kinetics: Determination of Quantum Yields and Development of Actinometers—The Photodegradation Case of Cardiovascular Drug Nisoldipine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounir Maafi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The lack of integrated rate-laws for photoreactions has led to carry out the treatment of drugs photodegradation kinetic data using the classical zeroth-, first-, and second-order kinetics that were originally developed for thermal reactions. The recent developments of Φ-order kinetic models has opened new perspectives in the treatment of photoreaction kinetics of systems involving a photolabile molecule (A transforming into a photochemically and thermally stable product (B, that is, the AB(1Φ photoreaction systems. Within this framework, the kinetics of cardiovascular and photosensitive drug nisoldipine (NIS has been rationalised. Continuous and monochromatic irradiation of NIS in ethanol obeyed Φ-order kinetics with a sigmoid-shaped quantum yield variation with irradiation wavelength (0.0041–0.35 within 235–390 nm spectral region. Both NIS initial concentration-induced self-photostabilisation effect and the photostabilisation by absorption competitors were quantified (up 70% and related to a reduction of the photokinetic factor. Finally, the Φ-order kinetics also served to demonstrate the actinometric potential of NIS for the 320–400 nm dynamic range.

  2. Colheita de citros e obtenção de dados para mapeamento da produtividade Characterization of harvest systems and development yield mapping for citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José P. Molin

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A citricultura é de fundamental importância para a economia brasileira devido a sua expressiva participação na exportação e pela geração de empregos. A colheita manual é atualmente realizada na totalidade das propriedades citrícolas nacionais. A ausência de técnicas para a geração de mapas de produtividade em citros é uma das grandes dificuldades para a implantação da agricultura de precisão, o que justifica empreender técnicas e equipamentos para essa finalidade. Neste trabalho, teve-se o objetivo de ter o correto entendimento dos sistemas de colheita existentes, suas características úteis e limitações. A partir de então, desenvolveu-se e testou-se uma proposta de geração de dados para obtenção de mapas de produtividade sem interferir no processo vigente. Procedeu-se à pesagem de uma população de sacolões ("big bag" para aferir a informação de massa estimada pelo responsável pela colheita. Na seqüência, realizou-se o georreferenciamento de todos os sacolões de uma área. A partir da largura da faixa de colheita e do cálculo de distância entre os sacolões, obtiveram-se as áreas de contribuição de cada um, e com a massa estimada determinou-se a produtividade dos pontos. Esses dados foram interpolados gerando o mapa de produtividade. A estimativa de massa dos sacolões mostrou-se aceitável e o método válido para a coleta de dados e a geração do mapa de produtividade.Citriculture activity is important for the Brazilian economy due to its expressive participation on exporting and for the generation of a number of job positions. Manual harvesting is currently predominant. Routine generation of yield mapping for citrus is necessary for implementing precision agriculture practices, what justifies efforts for developing techniques for data collection. The objective of this research was to promote the correct understanding of the variations on harvesting systems, their useful characteristics and

  3. 9 CFR 319.142 - Fresh beef sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh beef sausage. 319.142 Section... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Sausage Generally: Fresh Sausage § 319.142 Fresh beef sausage. “Fresh Beef Sausage” is sausage prepared with fresh beef or frozen...

  4. Comparative study of essential oil composition of fresh and dry peel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Citrus essential oils have an impressive range of food and medicinal uses. In this study investigation has been conducted on the variation in the yield, chemical composition and their identities in oils isolated from fresh and air-dried peel and seed of orange (Citrus sinensis) and grape(Citrus paradisi) planted in a cocoa farm.

  5. Evaluation of sealed-tube neutron generators for the assay of fresh LWR fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutter, J.; Lee, D.; Lindquist, L.O.; Menlove, H.O.; Caldwell, J.T.; Atencio, J.D.; Kunz, W.E.

    1981-11-01

    The use of sealed-tube neutron generators for the active assay of fresh light-water reactor fuel assemblies has been investigated. The results of experimental tests of the Kaman 801 generator are presented. Neutron yields, source moderation, and transportability are discussed. A comparison is made with the AmLi neutron source for use in the Coincidence Collar

  6. Nitrogen uptake kinetics of freshly isolated zooxanthellae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar; Wafar; Rajkumar, R.

    Zooxanthellae freshly isolated from the coral host Pocillopora damicornis exhibited substrate-saturable uptake kinetics for ammonium, nitrate and urea. Maximum uptake velocity for ammonium [10.1 nmol. ( mu chl-a)./1h/1] was greater than...

  7. The draft genomes of soft-shell turtle and green sea turtle yield insights into the development and evolution of the turtle-specific body plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuo; Pascual-Anaya, Juan; Zadissa, Amonida; Li, Wenqi; Niimura, Yoshihito; Huang, Zhiyong; Li, Chunyi; White, Simon; Xiong, Zhiqiang; Fang, Dongming; Wang, Bo; Ming, Yao; Chen, Yan; Zheng, Yuan; Kuraku, Shigehiro; Pignatelli, Miguel; Herrero, Javier; Beal, Kathryn; Nozawa, Masafumi; Li, Qiye; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Hongyan; Yu, Lili; Shigenobu, Shuji; Wang, Junyi; Liu, Jiannan; Flicek, Paul; Searle, Steve; Wang, Jun; Kuratani, Shigeru; Yin, Ye; Aken, Bronwen; Zhang, Guojie; Irie, Naoki

    2013-06-01

    The unique anatomical features of turtles have raised unanswered questions about the origin of their unique body plan. We generated and analyzed draft genomes of the soft-shell turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) and the green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas); our results indicated the close relationship of the turtles to the bird-crocodilian lineage, from which they split ∼267.9-248.3 million years ago (Upper Permian to Triassic). We also found extensive expansion of olfactory receptor genes in these turtles. Embryonic gene expression analysis identified an hourglass-like divergence of turtle and chicken embryogenesis, with maximal conservation around the vertebrate phylotypic period, rather than at later stages that show the amniote-common pattern. Wnt5a expression was found in the growth zone of the dorsal shell, supporting the possible co-option of limb-associated Wnt signaling in the acquisition of this turtle-specific novelty. Our results suggest that turtle evolution was accompanied by an unexpectedly conservative vertebrate phylotypic period, followed by turtle-specific repatterning of development to yield the novel structure of the shell.

  8. The draft genomes of soft–shell turtle and green sea turtle yield insights into the development and evolution of the turtle–specific body plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimura, Yoshihito; Huang, Zhiyong; Li, Chunyi; White, Simon; Xiong, Zhiqiang; Fang, Dongming; Wang, Bo; Ming, Yao; Chen, Yan; Zheng, Yuan; Kuraku, Shigehiro; Pignatelli, Miguel; Herrero, Javier; Beal, Kathryn; Nozawa, Masafumi; Li, Qiye; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Hongyan; Yu, Lili; Shigenobu, Shuji; Wang, Junyi; Liu, Jiannan; Flicek, Paul; Searle, Steve; Wang, Jun; Kuratani, Shigeru; Yin, Ye; Aken, Bronwen; Zhang, Guojie; Irie, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    The unique anatomical features of turtles have raised unanswered questions about the origin of their unique body plan. We generated and analyzed draft genomes of the soft-shell turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) and the green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas); our results indicated the close relationship of the turtles to the bird-crocodilian lineage, from which they split ~267.9–248.3 million years ago (Upper Permian to Triassic). We also found extensive expansion of olfactory receptor genes in these turtles. Embryonic gene expression analysis identified an hourglass-like divergence of turtle and chicken embryogenesis, with maximal conservation around the vertebrate phylotypic period, rather than at later stages that show the amniote-common pattern. Wnt5a expression was found in the growth zone of the dorsal shell, supporting the possible co-option of limb-associated Wnt signaling in the acquisition of this turtle-specific novelty. Our results suggest that turtle evolution was accompanied by an unexpectedly conservative vertebrate phylotypic period, followed by turtle-specific repatterning of development to yield the novel structure of the shell. PMID:23624526

  9. Handbook of fresh produce transportation to Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Borbon-Galvez, Yari

    1998-01-01

    This handbook presents the current logistics operations for fresh produce exports and lists relevant service providers. For each logistics section such as packing, transportation, insurance, customs brokerage, and other related services, there is a list of quoting firms and those related with the investigation. The handbook was designed not only to identify the cheapest routes to move cargo from Mexico to Europe, but also provided various alternatives according to the fresh produce shelf-life.

  10. Analysis of the erosion processes in the Rendina watershed and development of PESERA-L for modelling the contribution of shallow landslides to sediment yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolini, D.; Borselli, L.; Cassi, P.; Lollino, P.; Mitaritonna, G.; Salvador Sanchis, P.,

    2012-04-01

    The Rendina dam watershed (Basilicata, Southern Italy) can be classified as a fragile zone in terms of desertification risk. From the climatic point of view, the area can be identified as "semiarid" and rainfalls are not sufficient to cover the water demand of the area. Moreover, the area is affected by diffuse soil erosion processes, mainly produced by poor land use management. The most evident consequence of such erosion processes is the progressive filling of the Rendina dam reservoir of sediments resulting from erosion all over the watershed. The research has focused on the detection of the areas of highest erosion rates, of the main predisposing factors, of alternative strategies of land use and of eventual prevention techniques that are easily accessible to stakeholders. In particular, the monitoring work developed during the project has pointed out that erosion mainly results from bad practices of land use, that induce soil loss and reduction of fertility, as well as high sediment supply. Alternative techniques are proposed that can allow for benefits for agricolture and land management. Shallow landslides also occur within the Rendina area, mainly during winter season, as a result from local severe degradation processes. In agriculture, mass movements inhibit farm operations due to loss of accessibility, exposure of infertile subsoil and also leave the soil surface unprotected against splash and rill erosion, and net downslope movement of the soil mass. As a consequence, diffuse landslides tend to increase desertification risk. In the framework of DESIRE project, we developed an additional component for PESERA, which is called PESERA-L (PESERA-shallow Landslides), that is able to model the impact and contribution of shallow landslides to sediment yield delivered to the channel network. In order to allow for a direct integration with PESERA model, PESERA-L has been developed according to the existing PESERA basic approach, with a set of stochastic components

  11. effects of preharvest treatments on yield and chemical composition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    quantity and quality of tomato fruits in the market. Options to avert these losses ... conducted to study effects of preharvest treatment of ComCat® spray, manure, NP fertilisation and the combi- nations of ..... TABLE 3. The effect of ComCat®, manure, nitrogen and phosphorous fertiliser on the yield components of fresh market.

  12. Maximizing plant density affects broccoli yield and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased demand for fresh market bunch broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has led to increased production along the United States east coast. Maximizing broccoli yields is a primary concern for quickly expanding southeastern commercial markets. This broccoli plant density study was carr...

  13. Growth and Yield Components of Tomato as Influenced by Nitrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determining Soil Organic Matter and a Proposed Modification of the Chromic. Acid Titration Method, Soil Sci., 37: 29–38. Zhang T. Q., C. S. Tan, K. Liu, C. F. Drury, A. P. Papadopoulos and J. Warner. 2010. Yield and Economic Assessments of Fertilizer Nitrogen and Phosphorus for. Fresh Tomato with Drip Fertigation, Agron ...

  14. Whole sales market for fresh potatoes in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. JALONOJA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The study estimates a conditional mean and conditional variance model for producer prices of fresh potatoes. The results suggest that potato price movements are volatile exhibiting a symmetric and non-stationary process. Prices respond symmetrically to exogenous shocks and the shocks are, thereafter, predicted to prevail in prices to the end of the marketing year. The persistency of the price shocks makes potato price movements unpredictable and, therefore, increases price risks of holding potato inventories. The estimates indicate elastic price response with respect to annual potato yield shocks. A ten percent yield increase is predicted to decrease prices by 20%. The information on inventory levels is included in prices and this information is not increased by surveying the inventory levels. Because of the elastic price response, the largest risk for a farmer is an exceptionally large total yield of potatoes. Information on the aggregate potato yield, which arrives during the growing season, will be quickly incorporated in prices. Therefore, pre-harvest hedging strategies are more efficient than after-harvest hedging strategies in managing potato price risks.

  15. Strategies for safe exploitation of fresh water through multi-strainer skimming wells in saline groundwater areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, M.M.; Jaffery, H.M.; Hanif, M.

    2005-01-01

    Due to growing population of Pakistan, there is a tremendous pressure on our agriculture sector to increase its production to meet the food and fiber requirement. Water is a basic need to increase the agriculture production and to bring more areas under cultivation. The exploitation of groundwater resources is increasing because of limited surface water availability. Statistics indicated that number of public and private tube-wells have increased to more than 5 lacs. Over exploitations of groundwater caused a number of environmental problems including salt water intrusion and increase in the soil and groundwater salinity. A large number of fresh water tube-wells have started pumping saline groundwater in various parts of Pakistan indicating up-coning of saline groundwater in the relatively fresh water aquifers. Use of poor quality groundwater for irrigation is considered as one of the major causes of salinity in the areas of irrigated agriculture. Indiscriminate pumping of the groundwater of marginal quality through skimming fresh water overlain by saline groundwater can not be helpful in the long run. It can add to the root zone salinity and ultimately reduction of crops yield. Mona Reclamation Experimental Project (MREP) is conducting a collaborative research study on 'Root Zone Salinity Management using Fractional Skimming Wells with Pressurized Irrigation' under a research and studies portfolio of the country wide National Drainage Programme (NDP) MREP, IWMI Pakistan and Water Resources Research Institute of PARC are collaborators in this joint research effort. MREP is responsible to specifically address the objective of the study to identify and test a limited number of promising skimming well techniques in the shallow fresh water aquifers which could control the saline water up-coning phenomenon as a consequence of groundwater pumping. Detailed investigations have been done at various locations in the north-central part of Chaj Doab (Sargodha Region) in the

  16. Development of a “Fission-proxy” Method for the Measurement of 14-MeV Neutron Fission Yields at CAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharibyan, Narek [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-10-25

    Relative fission yield measurements were made for 50 fission products from 25.6±0.5 MeV alpha-induced fission of Th-232. Quantitative comparison of these experimentally measured fission yields with the evaluated fission yields from 14-MeV neutron-induced fission of U-235 demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed fission-proxy method. This new technique, based on the Bohr-independence hypothesis, permits the measurement of fission yields from an alternate reaction pathway (Th-232 + 25.6 MeV α → U-236* vs. U-235 + 14-MeV n → U-236*) given that the fission process associated with the same compound nucleus is independent of its formation. Other suitable systems that can potentially be investigated in this manner include (but are not limited to) Pu-239 and U-237.

  17. Evaluation of the development and yielding potential of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under the climatic conditions of Europe. Part one: accomodation of Chenopodium quinoa (Willd. to different conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Gęsiński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the evaluation of selected varieties of Chenopodium quinoa, their requirements were identified; it was shown which varieties demonstrated the best effects in what conditions. It was found that the best varieties for Europe's conditions were E-DK-4-PQCIP and RU-5-PQCIP. E-DK-4-PQCIP variety showed the best effects under the conditions of cluster II which included e.g. Bydgoszcz (Poland and cluster IV which included Southern European countries (Greece and Italy, while the best effects found in RU-5-PQCIP variety were identified in cluster I which included Sweden. E-DK-4-PQCIP variety in cluster II showed a very high yield of green matter and a mean seed yield, and in cluster IV - a very high seed yield and a high yield of green matter.

  18. Monitoring of phytochemicals in fresh and fresh-cut vegetables: a comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón-Flores, María Isabel; Romero-González, Roberto; Martínez Vidal, José Luis; Egea González, Francisco Javier; Garrido Frenich, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    Bearing in mind that fresh-cut market is currently the fastest growing subsector in the food industry, a comparison of the levels of phytochemicals in fresh and fresh-cut vegetables has been carried out. Thus, several families of phytochemicals, such as phenolic acids, isoflavones, flavones, flavonols and glucosinolates were determined in fresh and fresh-cut samples including tomato, carrot, grape, eggplant and broccoli. Both type of products have potential and similar beneficial properties, regarding its content as phytochemicals, except tomato, which should be consumed as fresh. Other factors such as commercial presentation (sliced, grated, diced) and storage conditions (temperature and light) were evaluated observing that in eggplant, the content of phenolic acids is statistically different depending on the presentation. On the other hand, the content of phytochemicals was higher when fresh-cut carrots were stored at 4°C regardless of the presence or absence of light. Multivariate analysis, based on cluster analysis was used as a first approach to distinguish between fresh and fresh-cut samples, obtaining good results except for eggplant and carrot. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Potentials for export of fresh raspberries from Serbia to EU fresh markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Ivan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present potentials of the most significant EU national markets for imports of fresh raspberries from Serbia. We carried out analysis of three markets with highest trade deficit of fresh raspberries expressed in quantities: Germany, Netherlands and Austria. The paper further analyses production and foreign trade trends in selected countries. According to results of this analysis, we identified monthly periods with highest potential for exports of fresh raspberries from Serbia to target markets. The paper also analyses wholesale prices of fresh raspberries and EU policy of direct support to raspberry producers.

  20. Yield stress fluids slowly yield to analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonn, D.; Denn, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    We are surrounded in everyday life by yield stress fluids: materials that behave as solids under small stresses but flow like liquids beyond a critical stress. For example, paint must flow under the brush, but remain fixed in a vertical film despite the force of gravity. Food products (such as

  1. Establishing the Global Fresh Water Sensor Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Peter H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to measuring the major components of the water cycle from space using the concept of a sensor-web of satellites that are linked to a data assimilation system. This topic is of increasing importance, due to the need for fresh water to support the growing human population, coupled with climate variability and change. The net effect is that water is an increasingly valuable commodity. The distribution of fresh water is highly uneven over the Earth, with both strong latitudinal distributions due to the atmospheric general circulation, and even larger variability due to landforms and the interaction of land with global weather systems. The annual global fresh water budget is largely a balance between evaporation, atmospheric transport, precipitation and runoff. Although the available volume of fresh water on land is small, the short residence time of water in these fresh water reservoirs causes the flux of fresh water - through evaporation, atmospheric transport, precipitation and runoff - to be large. With a total atmospheric water store of approx. 13 x 10(exp 12)cu m, and an annual flux of approx. 460 x 10(exp 12)cu m/y, the mean atmospheric residence time of water is approx. 10 days. River residence times are similar, biological are approx. 1 week, soil moisture is approx. 2 months, and lakes and aquifers are highly variable, extending from weeks to years. The hypothesized potential for redistribution and acceleration of the global hydrological cycle is therefore of concern. This hypothesized speed-up - thought to be associated with global warming - adds to the pressure placed upon water resources by the burgeoning human population, the variability of weather and climate, and concerns about anthropogenic impacts on global fresh water availability.

  2. Aquecimento global: efeitos no crescimento, no desenvolvimento e na produtividade de batata Global warming: effects on growth, development, and yield of potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelma Dutra Fagundes

    2010-06-01

    C and projections indicate a possible 1.1 to 6.4°C increase in temperature by the end of the XXI century, depending upon each region. The increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration and air temperature directly affect plant physiological processes, such as photosynthesis and respiration, which may affect crops performance, including potato. The objective of this review was to assemble information from the literature on the possible effects of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and air temperature on growth, development and yield of potato. In general, the increase in CO2 concentration followed by an increase in air temperature will result in lower growth, reduction in the duration of the developmental cycle, lower yield and increase of potato diseases. A strategy to minimize the effects of a possible global warming on potato would be to develop cultivars that are tolerant to high temperatures, adapt planting time in each location, change management practices and even, expand growing areas to colder regions.

  3. Silver nanoparticles in polymeric matrices for fresh food packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Carbone, M; Donia, D; Sabbatella, G; Anctiochia, R

    2016-01-01

    The growing demand for increased fresh food shelf life as well as the need of protection against foodborne diseases urged the development of antimicrobial food packaging. Among the most efficient methods, the combination of organic–inorganic, packaging, i.e. polymer embedded metal nanoparticles proved to be highly effective. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), in particular, have antimicrobial, anti-fungi, anti-yeasts and anti-viral activities and can be combined with both non-degradable and edible...

  4. Fission yield data evaluation system FYDES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tingjin

    1998-01-01

    Taking account of some features of fission yield data, to do the fission yield data evaluation conveniently, a fission yield data evaluation system FYDES has been developed for last two years. Outline of the system, data retrieval and data table standardization, data correction codes, data averaging code, simultaneous evaluation code and data fit programs were introduced

  5. Analysis of yield advantage in mixed cropping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranganathan, R.

    1993-01-01

    It has long been recognized that mixed cropping can give yield advantages over sole cropping, but methods that can identify such yield benefits are still being developed. This thesis presents a method that combines physiological and economic principles in the evaluation of yield advantage.

  6. Bond yield curve construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožul Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the broadest sense, yield curve indicates the market's view of the evolution of interest rates over time. However, given that cost of borrowing it closely linked to creditworthiness (ability to repay, different yield curves will apply to different currencies, market sectors, or even individual issuers. As government borrowing is indicative of interest rate levels available to other market players in a particular country, and considering that bond issuance still remains the dominant form of sovereign debt, this paper describes yield curve construction using bonds. The relationship between zero-coupon yield, par yield and yield to maturity is given and their usage in determining curve discount factors is described. Their usage in deriving forward rates and pricing related derivative instruments is also discussed.

  7. The chemical forms of mercury in aged and fresh dental amalgam surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Graham N; Singh, Satya P; Hoover, Jay; Pickering, Ingrid J

    2009-11-01

    Mercury-containing dental amalgam is known to be a source of human exposure to mercury. We have explored the use of electron yield Hg L(III) X-ray absorption spectroscopy to characterize the chemical nature of dental amalgam surfaces. We find that the method is practical and that it shows extensive mercury depletion in the surface of the aged amalgam with significant differences between old and fresh amalgam surfaces. Whereas the fresh amalgam gives spectra that are typical of metallic mercury, the aged amalgam is predominantly beta-mercuric sulfide. The toxicological implications of these results are discussed.

  8. Fresh fruit: microstructure, texture, and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Delilah F.; Imam, Syed H.; Orts, William J.; Glenn, Gregory M.

    2009-05-01

    Fresh-cut produce has a huge following in today's supermarkets. The trend follows the need to decrease preparation time as well as the desire to follow the current health guidelines for consumption of more whole "heart-healthy" foods. Additionally, consumers are able to enjoy a variety of fresh produce regardless of the local season because produce is now shipped world-wide. However, most fruits decompose rapidly once their natural packaging has been disrupted by cutting. In addition, some intact fruits have limited shelf-life which, in turn, limits shipping and storage. Therefore, a basic understanding of how produce microstructure relates to texture and how microstructure changes as quality deteriorates is needed to ensure the best quality in the both the fresh-cut and the fresh produce markets. Similarities between different types of produce include desiccation intolerance which produces wrinkling of the outer layers, cracking of the cuticle and increased susceptibility to pathogen invasion. Specific examples of fresh produce and their corresponding ripening and storage issues, and degradation are shown in scanning electron micrographs.

  9. An Assessment of the Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Production and Marketing Systems in the Sultanate of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Omezzine

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruit and vegetable sector in the Sultanate of Oman has developed remarkably in the last two decades. It has undergone technological changes that have resulted in an upward trend in cultivated areas, yields and total production. Furthermore, it is Widely recognized that the sector has moved from the subsistence status to a more market- outlet system. For all of the Sultanate’s fruit and vegetable production, the domestic market is by tar the most important outlet. The present paper explores market dimension and identifies opportunities and constraints of these production and marketing systems. Results indicate that development in this sector faces serious market constraints. Studying current structures reveals a lack of market arbitrage and vertical coordination. The pricing mechanisms are tilted to the advantage of merchants and market dealers. Marketing of fresh produce can be improved by the enhancement of facilitating functions.

  10. Nutrient and suspended-sediment trends, loads, and yields and development of an indicator of streamwater quality at nontidal sites in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, 1985-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langland, Michael; Blomquist, Joel; Moyer, Douglas; Hyer, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) updates information on loads of, and trends in, nutrients and sediment annually to help the Chesapeake Bay Program (CBP) investigators assess progress toward improving water-quality conditions in the Chesapeake Bay and its watershed. CBP scientists and managers have worked since 1983 to improve water quality in the bay. In 2010, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) established a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for the Chesapeake Bay. The TMDL specifies nutrient and sediment load allocations that need to be achieved in the watershed to improve dissolved oxygen, water-clarity, and chlorophyll conditions in the bay. The USEPA, USGS, and state and local jurisdictions in the watershed operate a CBP nontidal water-quality monitoring network and associated database that are used to update load and trend information to help assess progress toward reducing nutrient and sediment inputs to the bay. Data collected from the CBP nontidal network were used to estimate loads and trends for two time periods: a long-term period (1985-2010) at 31 "primary" sites (with storm sampling) and a 10-year period (2001-10) at 33 primary sites and 16 "secondary" sites (without storm sampling). In addition, loads at 64 primary sites were estimated for the period 2006 to 2010. Results indicate improving flow-adjusted trends for nitrogen and phosphorus for 1985 to 2010 at most of the sites in the network. For nitrogen, 21 of the 31 sites showed downward (improving) trends, whereas 2 sites showed upward (degrading) trends, and 8 sites showed no trends. The results for phosphorus were similar: 22 sites showed improving trends, 4 sites showed degrading trends, and 5 sites indicated no trends. For sediment, no trend was found at 40 percent of the sites, with 10 sites showing improving trends and 8 sites showing degrading trends. The USGS, working with CBP partners, developed a new water-quality indicator that combines the results of the 10-year trend

  11. A fresh fruit and vegetable program improves high school students' consumption of fresh produce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low fruit and vegetable intake may be associated with overweight. The United States Department of Agriculture implemented the Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program in 2006-2007. One Houston-area high school was selected and received funding to provide baskets of fresh fruits and vegetables daily for eac...

  12. Decontamination of fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables with cold plasma technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables by foodborne pathogens has prompted research into novel interventions. Cold plasma is a nonthermal food processing technology which uses energetic, reactive gases to inactivate contaminating microbes. This flexible sanitizing method uses ele...

  13. Consumer's Fresh Produce Food Safety Practices: Outcomes of a Fresh Produce Safety Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Amanda R.; Pope, Paul E.; Thompson, Britta M.

    2009-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that there are 76 million cases of foodborne disease annually. Foodborne disease is usually associated with beef, poultry, and seafood. However, there is an increasing number of foodborne disease cases related to fresh produce. Consumers may not associate fresh produce with foodborne disease…

  14. Response of Physiological Growth Indices and Bulb Dry Yield of Onion (Allium cepa L. Genotypes to Priming and Seed Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Izadkhah

    2016-02-01

    , leaf area index, crop growth rate, bulb growth rate, relative growth rate and net assimilation rate were achieved in larger seeds compared to other sizes. Accordingly, the importance of seed priming and grading seeds were obvious in this study, so seed priming with Falomin Amino Acid 2% and large seed size should be used for onion planting in order to insure high bulb fresh and dry yield and physiological growth indices of onion. Nevertheless, seed priming and seed size improved bulb fresh, and dry yield and physiological growth indices of onion cultivars were attributed to rapid seedling emergence and establishment, and consequently the optimum use of light, soil moisture and nutrients by the plants developed from the primed seeds and seed size. Therefore priming with falomin Amino Acid 2% and large seeds are recommended in onion planting for the places with the same environmental conditions of this experiment.

  15. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Anguiano, Ana María; Landa-Salgado, Patricia; Eslava-Campos, Carlos Alberto; Vargas-Hernández, Mateo; Patel, Jitendra

    2016-12-10

    The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices ( n = 162) made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli . Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower ( p nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination.

  16. Meat and fish freshness inspection system based on odor sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najam ul Hasan; Ejaz, Naveed; Ejaz, Waleed; Kim, Hyung Seok

    2012-11-09

    We propose a method for building a simple electronic nose based on commercially available sensors used to sniff in the market and identify spoiled/contaminated meat stocked for sale in butcher shops. Using a metal oxide semiconductor-based electronic nose, we measured the smell signature from two of the most common meat foods (beef and fish) stored at room temperature. Food samples were divided into two groups: fresh beef with decayed fish and fresh fish with decayed beef. The prime objective was to identify the decayed item using the developed electronic nose. Additionally, we tested the electronic nose using three pattern classification algorithms (artificial neural network, support vector machine and k-nearest neighbor), and compared them based on accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The results demonstrate that the k-nearest neighbor algorithm has the highest accuracy.

  17. Meat and Fish Freshness Inspection System Based on Odor Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Seok Kim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose a method for building a simple electronic nose based on commercially available sensors used to sniff in the market and identify spoiled/contaminated meat stocked for sale in butcher shops. Using a metal oxide semiconductor-based electronic nose, we measured the smell signature from two of the most common meat foods (beef and fish stored at room temperature. Food samples were divided into two groups: fresh beef with decayed fish and fresh fish with decayed beef. The prime objective was to identify the decayed item using the developed electronic nose. Additionally, we tested the electronic nose using three pattern classification algorithms (artificial neural network, support vector machine and k-nearest neighbor, and compared them based on accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The results demonstrate that the k-nearest neighbor algorithm has the highest accuracy.

  18. BEHAVIOUR OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES IN FRESH SAUCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Grassi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ready to use fresh sauces are among Ready to Eat foods for which producers need to respect the 100 UFC/g limit for the presence of L. monocytogenes. In the current research a Challenge test was performed on fresh mushroom and cheese sauces. Both were placed at two storage temperatures and the L. monocytogenes potential growth (d was evaluated. Only cheese sauce stored at 8°C showed a δ> 0,5 log10 UFC/g. However, considering the limited initial contamination it can be excluded that the product could reach 100 UFC/g by the expiration date.

  19. Study of criticality safety of fresh fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, M.; Dasic, N.

    1998-01-01

    A study on criticality safety of fresh low and high enriched uranium (LEU and HEU) fuel elements, in the original metal containers (OMC) placed in the special metal protection 'cage' and in a designed wooden storage case (WSC), at the RB research reactor is carried out by using the well-known MCNP TM computer code. It is shown for the first time that these HEU and LEU fresh fuel elements, stored in the WSC or in the OMCs, are far away from criticality, even in a case of unexpected flooding of the storage by light water. (author)

  20. Hot water, fresh beer, and salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, F.S.

    1990-01-01

    In the ''hot chocolate effect'' the best musical scales (those with the finest tone quality, largest range, and best tempo) are obtained by adding salt to a glass of hot water supersaturated with air. Good scales can also be obtained by adding salt to a glass of freshly opened beer (supersaturated with CO 2 ) provided you first (a) get rid of much of the excess CO 2 so as to produce smaller, hence slower, rising bubbles, and (b) get rid of the head of foam, which damps the standing wave and ruins the tone quality. Finally the old question, ''Do ionizing particles produce bubbles in fresh beer?'' is answered experimentally

  1. Quality and Acceptability of Meat Nuggets with Fresh Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rajkumar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aloe vera has been used worldwide for pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries due to its wide biological activities. However, quality improvement of low fat meat products and their acceptability with added Aloe vera gel (AVG is scanty. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of using fresh AVG on physicochemical, textural, sensory and nutritive qualities of goat meat nuggets. The products were prepared with 0%, 2.5%, and 5% fresh AVG replacing goat meat and were analyzed for proximate composition, physicochemical and textural properties, fatty acid profile and sensory parameters. Changes in lipid oxidation and microbial growth of nuggets were also evaluated over 9 days of refrigerated storage. The results showed that AVG significantly (p<0.05 decreased the pH value and protein content of meat emulsion and nuggets. Product yield was affected at 5% level of gel. Addition of AVG in the formulation significantly affected the values of texture profile analysis. The AVG reduced the lipid oxidation and microbial growth in nuggets during storage. Sensory panelists preferred nuggets with 2.5% AVG over nuggets with 5% AVG. Therefore, AVG up to 2.5% level could be used for quality improvement in goat meat nuggets without affecting its sensorial, textural and nutritive values.

  2. [A long-term experiment on the complex influence of cultivating, fertilizing, and crop rotation measures on humic substances in soil and development of yield (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisig, W; Müller, G; Völker, U

    1977-01-01

    In a 10-year field experiment, the influence of fertilizing, cultivating, and crop rotation measures on the C-content of the soil, humus quality of the organic soil substance, and the yield was investigated. With cultivation of fodder plants only, the C-content of the soil can be improved by increased mineral and increased organo-mineral fertilization at any depth of cultivation. When in the same location there was a turn between cereals and green crops, a decrease of C-rate can only be prevented by increased organo-mineral fertilization. Continuous cultivation of root crops resulted in a decrease of the C-content. Deeper tillage of the soil generally decreased C-content. Within the years, a variability of the pure humin substances could be detected, depending on the rotation of crops and C-content. The composition of the fulvic acids is differentiated in dependence on the factors "time" and "cultivation". The effect of fertilization variants on the yield was different. Fertilization in that location with manure only, compared with mineral fertilization, caused in most cases depression in yield. Decrease on yield by deeper ploughing had the least influence with root crops.

  3. More for less: Improving the biomass yield of a pear cell suspension culture by design of experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasche, Stefan; Herwartz, Denise; Schuster, Flora; Jablonka, Natalia; Weber, Andrea; Fischer, Rainer; Schillberg, Stefan

    2016-03-18

    Plant cell suspension cultures are widely used for the production of recombinant proteins and secondary metabolites. One of the most important steps during process development is the optimization of yields by testing different cultivation parameters, including the components of the growth medium. However, we have shown that the biomass yield of a cell suspension culture derived from the pear cultivar Pyrus communis cv. Champagner Bratbirne can be significantly improved solely by varying the temperature, inoculum density, illumination, and incubation time. In contrast to medium optimization, these simple physical factors are easily controlled and varied, thereby reducing the effort required. Using an experimental design approach, we improved the biomass yield from 146 g fresh weight (FW)/L to 407 g FW/L in only 5 weeks, simultaneously reducing the costs of goods sold per kg biomass from € 125 to € 45. Our simple approach therefore offers a rapid, efficient and economical process for the optimization of plant cell suspension cultures.

  4. Ethnobotanical survey of usage of fresh medicinal plants in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siew, Yin-Yin; Zareisedehizadeh, Sogand; Seetoh, Wei-Guang; Neo, Soek-Ying; Tan, Chay-Hoon; Koh, Hwee-Ling

    2014-09-29

    The use of medicinal plants in human health has been documented since ancient times and they provide a useful source of new therapeutics. In Singapore, despite the accessibility to modern healthcare, there still exist pockets of the population who choose to use locally grown fresh medicinal plants for health promotion and even therapeutic purposes. However to date, there is no published report of first-hand account of their usage in Singapore. As land is scarce and rapidly used for re-development, such important knowledge may be lost if not properly documented in time. This work safeguards the local folk knowledge, and provides information on common and scarcely reported fresh medicinal plants. The objective of this study is to gather information regarding the usage of fresh medicinal plants in Singapore through face-to-face interviews. Information on demographic data and plant-use methods were collated via face-to-face interviews of 200 fresh medicinal plant users who have used fresh medicinal plants in the last five years. The survey protocol was approved by the National University of Singapore Institutional Review Board and informed consent was obtained from every participant. A total of 414 plants represented by 104 plant species from 44 families were reportedly used by the 200 participants. The five most commonly used plants were Clinacanthus nutans (34 users), Strobilanthes crispus (31 users), Pereskia bleo (25 users), Aloe vera (18 users) and Zingiber officinale (16 users). Leaves were the most commonly used plant part while preparing a decoction was the most common method of preparation. The majority of interviewees used plants for general health purposes and to treat diseases related to the respiratory system and cancer. Our survey has successfully documented the rich wealth of traditional usage and knowledge on 414 fresh medicinal plants grown in Singapore through face-to-face interviews with 200 users. This study will serve as a useful resource for

  5. Huge increases in bacterivores on freshly killed barley roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, S.; Griffiths, B.; Ekelund, Flemming

    1992-01-01

    Adding fresh roots to intact soil cores resulted in marked increases in microbial and microfaunal activity at the resource islands. Microbial activity increased in two phases following root addition. Respiratory activity and concentration of respiratory enzyme (dehydrogenase) in soil adhering...... to the roots was very high during the first three weeks resulting in anaerobic conditions in the soil. After a period of low respiratory activity and enzyme content, these quantities increased from 6 to 20 weeks, but not enough to maintain anaerobic conditions. Numbers of protozoa peaked earlier than...... the nematodes. Based on yield coefficients of microbes and bacterivores, the increase in bacterivores was in accordance with root-induced respiration activity. In soil adhering to roots, numbers of bacterial grazers (protozoa and nematodes) were up to 80 and 30 times higher, respectively, than...

  6. Yield enhancement with DFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Seung Weon; Kang, Jae Hyun; Ha, Naya; Kim, Byung-Moo; Jang, Dae-Hyun; Jeon, Junsu; Kim, DaeWook; Chung, Kun Young; Yu, Sung-eun; Park, Joo Hyun; Bae, SangMin; Song, DongSup; Noh, WooYoung; Kim, YoungDuck; Song, HyunSeok; Choi, HungBok; Kim, Kee Sup; Choi, Kyu-Myung; Choi, Woonhyuk; Jeon, JoongWon; Lee, JinWoo; Kim, Ki-Su; Park, SeongHo; Chung, No-Young; Lee, KangDuck; Hong, YoungKi; Kim, BongSeok

    2012-03-01

    A set of design for manufacturing (DFM) techniques have been developed and applied to 45nm, 32nm and 28nm logic process technologies. A noble technology combined a number of potential confliction of DFM techniques into a comprehensive solution. These techniques work in three phases for design optimization and one phase for silicon diagnostics. In the DFM prevention phase, foundation IP such as standard cells, IO, and memory and P&R tech file are optimized. In the DFM solution phase, which happens during ECO step, auto fixing of process weak patterns and advanced RC extraction are performed. In the DFM polishing phase, post-layout tuning is done to improve manufacturability. DFM analysis enables prioritization of random and systematic failures. The DFM technique presented in this paper has been silicon-proven with three successful tape-outs in Samsung 32nm processes; about 5% improvement in yield was achieved without any notable side effects. Visual inspection of silicon also confirmed the positive effect of the DFM techniques.

  7. 21 CFR 101.95 - “Fresh,” “freshly frozen,” “fresh frozen,” “frozen fresh.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... expressly or implicitly refers to the food on labels or labeling, including use in a brand name and use as a... in a manner that suggests or implies that the food is unprocessed, means that the food is in its raw... fresh,” when used on the label or in labeling of a food, mean that the food was quickly frozen while...

  8. Fresh Start: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorard, Stephen; Siddiqui, Nadia; See, Beng Huat

    2015-01-01

    Fresh Start (FS) is a catch-up literacy intervention for pupils at risk of falling behind their peers in early secondary schooling. It provides systematic and rigorous practice in phonics so that pupils are at an appropriate level to join the mainstream group after completion of the intervention. Pupils are assessed and then grouped according to…

  9. Influence of Fresh, Composted and Vermicomposted Parthenium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pot culture experiment was carried out to assess the influence of fresh, composted and vermicomposted Parthenium and poultry droppings on the quality parameters of radish like protein, carbohydrates, phenolics, reducing sugar, total soluble sugars and chlorophylls on 45 and 60 DAS (Days After Sowing). The maximum ...

  10. Influence of Fresh, Composted and Vermicomposted Parthenium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    ABSTRACT: A pot culture experiment was carried out to assess the influence of fresh, composted and vermicomposted Parthenium and poultry droppings on the quality parameters of radish like protein, carbohydrates, phenolics, reducing sugar, total soluble sugars and chlorophylls on 45 and 60 DAS (Days After Sowing).

  11. ESTABILIDADE E ADAPTABILIDADE DE LINHAGENS DE FEIJOEIRO COMUM DESENVOLVIDAS PELA EMBRAPA YIELD STABILITY AND ADAPTABILITY OF COMMON BEAN LINES DEVELOPED BY EMBRAPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Cunha Melo

    2008-06-01

    ="western" align="JUSTIFY"> 

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the common bean lines developed by the Embrapa Rice and Beans Research Center, concerning stability, adaptability, resistance to diseases and other desirable agronomic characteristics. The lines were divided in two experimental groups, one including 216 black grain lines, and the other with 56 color grain lines (Carioca and Mulatinho, both groups with four check varieties. The experimental design was the Federer's augmented blocks. The environmental indexes (Ij, the regression coefficients (bi, and their deviation variances (s2di were obtained using the Eberhart & Russell's (1966 method. Among the 56 color grain lines, 40 showed stable performance, and among the 216 black grain lines, 49 were considered stable. The mean grain yield for the CNFP10080 line, which belongs to the black grain group, was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than the Diamante Negro check. The CNFP10099 and CNFP10123 black grain lines showed specific adaptability to unfavorable environments, that is, they presented bi values significantly lower (p < 0.05 than the unit. Among the genotypes with stable behavior and good adaptability, the CNFC10276 (color grain group and CNFP10207 (black grain group lines showed good plant architecture; CNFM10258 and CNFC10283 (both from color grain group, and also CNFP10229 (black grain group showed suitable architecture and resistance to rust; CNFM10249, CNFM10251, and CNFM10253 (all with colored seed, and also CNFP10212 (black seed presented joint resistance to angular leaf spot and rust.


    KEY-WORDS: Phaseolus vulgaris; disease resistance; plant breeding; grain yield.

  1. A Study of Marketing Information and Communication for Fresh Vegetable in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Treewannakul, Panamas; Fukuda, Susumu

    2010-01-01

    This study is dealt with the marketing information in role and provision in marketing information service. Including, identify marketing information needs for fresh vegetable market which brings about development of fresh vegetable marketing information and communication in Thailand. The results were as follows. 1)The role of marketing information for vegetables in Thailand was designed to: ①provide local producers and traders information on wholesale and retail prices of vegetable on a re...

  2. Development of Amorphous/Microcrystalline Silicon Tandem Thin-Film Solar Modules with Low Output Voltage, High Energy Yield, Low Light-Induced Degradation, and High Damp-Heat Reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Chin-Yi Tsai; Chin-Yao Tsai

    2014-01-01

    In this work, tandem amorphous/microcrystalline silicon thin-film solar modules with low output voltage, high energy yield, low light-induced degradation, and high damp-heat reliability were successfully designed and developed. Several key technologies of passivation, transparent-conducting-oxide films, and cell and segment laser scribing were researched, developed, and introduced into the production line to enhance the performance of these low-voltage modules. A 900 kWp photovoltaic system w...

  3. Development of high-yield autofluorescent protein microarrays using hybrid cell-free expression with combined Escherichia coli S30 and wheat germ extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lake April D

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-based microarray platforms offer considerable promise as high-throughput technologies in proteomics. Particular advantages are provided by self-assembling protein microarrays and much interest centers around analysis of eukaryotic proteins and their molecular interactions. Efficient cell-free protein synthesis is paramount for the production of self-assembling protein microarrays, requiring optimal transcription, translation, and protein folding. The Escherichia coli S30 extract demonstrates high translation rates but lacks the protein-folding efficiency of its eukaryotic counterparts derived from rabbit reticulocyte and wheat germ extract. In comparison to E. coli, eukaryotic extracts, on the other hand, exhibit slower translation rates and poor overall protein yields. A cell-free expression system that synthesizes folded eukaryotic proteins in considerable yields would optimize in vitro translation for protein microarray assembly. Results Self-assembling autofluorescent protein microarrays were produced by in situ transcription and translation of chimeric proteins containing a C-terminal Green Fluorescent Protein tag. Proteins were immobilized as array elements using an anti-GFP monoclonal antibody. The amounts of correctly-folded chimeric proteins were quantified by measuring the fluorescence intensity from each array element. During cell-free expression, very little or no fluorescence was observed from GFP-tagged multidomain eukaryotic plant proteins when in vitro translation was performed with E. coli S30 extract. Improvement was seen using wheat germ extract, but fluorescence intensities were still low because of poor protein yields. A hybrid in vitro translation system, combining S30 and wheat germ extracts, produced high levels of correctly-folded proteins for most of the constructs that were tested. Conclusion The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the wheat germ extract enhances the protein

  4. Using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to estimate sugarcane yield and yield components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) yield and yield components are important traits for growers and scientists to evaluate and select cultivars. Collection of these yield data would be labor intensive and time consuming in the early selection stages of sugarcane breeding cultivar development programs with a ...

  5. Development of a New Binary Solvent System Using Ionic Liquids as Additives to Improve Rotenone Extraction Yield from Malaysia Derris sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zetty Shafiqa Othman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotenone is one of the prominent insecticidal isoflavonoid compounds which can be isolated from the extract of Derris sp. plant. Despite being an effective compound in exterminating pests in a minute concentration, procuring a significant amount of rotenone in the extracts for commercialized biopesticides purposes is a challenge to be attained. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the best ionic liquid (IL which gives the highest yield of rotenone. The normal soaking extraction (NSE method was carried out for 24 hrs using five different types of binary solvent systems comprising a combination of acetone and five respective ionic liquids (ILs of (1 [BMIM] Cl; (2 [BMIM] OAc; (3 [BMIM] NTf2; (4 [BMIM] OTf; and (5 [BMPy] Cl. Next, the yield of rotenone, % (w/w, and its concentration (mg/mL in dried roots were quantitatively determined by means of RP-HPLC and TLC. The results showed that a binary solvent system of [BMIM] OTf + acetone was the best solvent system combination as compared to other solvent systems (P<0.05. It contributed to the highest rotenone content of 2.69 ± 0.21% (w/w (4.04 ± 0.34 mg/mL at 14 hrs of exhaustive extraction time. In conclusion, a combination of the ILs with a selective organic solvent has been proven to increase a significant amount of bioactive constituents in the phytochemical extraction process.

  6. Discrimination methods of biological contamination on fresh-cut lettuce based on VNIR and NIR hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multispectral imaging algorithms were developed using visible-near-infrared (VNIR) and near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging (HSI) techniques to detect worms on fresh-cut lettuce. The optimal wavebands that detect worm on fresh-cut lettuce for each type of HSI were investigated using the one-way...

  7. Inactivation of human norovirus and Tulane virus in simple mediums and fresh whole strawberries by ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human norovirus (NoV) is a major cause of fresh produce associated outbreaks and human NoV in irrigation water can potentially lead to viral internalization in fresh produce. Therefore, there is a need to develop novel intervention strategies to target internalized viral pathogens while maintainin...

  8. Designing a Fresh Food Supply Chain Network: An Application of Nonlinear Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chung Tsao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s business environment, many fresh food companies have complex supply networks to distribute their products. For example, agricultural products are distributed through a multiechelon supply chain which includes agricultural association, agricultural produce marketing corporations (APMCs, markets, and so forth. In this paper a fresh produce supply network model is designed to determine the optimal service area for APMCs, the replenishment cycle time of APMCs, and the freshness-keeping effort, while maximizing the total profit. The objective is to address the integrated facility location, inventory allocation, and freshness-keeping effort problems. This paper develops an algorithm to solve the nonlinear problem, provides numerical analysis to illustrate the proposed solution procedure, and discusses the effects of various system parameters on the decisions and total profits. A real case of an agricultural product supply chain in Taiwan is used to verify the model. Results of this study can serve as a reference for business managers and administrators.

  9. Preservation of fresh avocados by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmelic, J.

    1985-01-01

    Avocado is the fifth most important fruit in Chile, which exports fruits to Europe. The production of avocado has increased from 14,000 metric tons in 1978 to a projected 70,000 metric tons in 1985. The main problem of shipping fresh Chilean avocado to Europe has been its short shelf life, being around 24 days with a maximum of 30 days. To market fresh Chilean avocados in Europe, adequate keeping quality must be assured for 40 or more days. A project on the preservation of fresh Chilean avocados supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) takes the approach of combining mild heat and low-dose gamma-radiation. Two varieties of avocados were studied (Hass and Fuerte) and two batches of each were treated: one at the beginning and the other at the end of the picking season. In each case a combination of heat treatment (46 0 C for 10 minutes) and irradiation was applied. Fruits were individually wrapped with flexible PVC and placed in cardboard boxes containing 20 each. Fruits treated with 25,50, and 100 Gy were compared with two controls: one with and another without individual wrapping

  10. Preservation of fresh noodles by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Jianming

    1998-01-01

    At the present paper, it is studied to preserve fresh noodles by irradiation. The noodles which were irradiated by 10 kGy of 60 Co-γ rays and stored at room temperature (18-24 deg. C). The appearance of the noodles was observed, the bacteria in the noodles were examined, and the acidity of the noodles was measured during 10 days after irradiation. The results showed that the number of bacteria and the extent of acidification of the noodles were in inverse proportion to radiation dose. When the absorbed dose was less than 8 kGy, the residual bacteria in the noodles could proliferate massively in several days and acidified the noodles. The pH of these noodles decreased from 6.2 to 5.0 or less and the noodles turned into sticky during storage. When the absorbed dose reached 8-10 kGy, most of bacteria were killed and the acidity of the noodles kept about pH 6.0. The appearance of the noodles looks fresh within 10 days after irradiation. They smelled as good as fresh ones

  11. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Hernández-Anguiano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n = 162 made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower (p < 0.05 in winter and spring, respectively. Citrobacter youngae was found in 20% of the samples, an unidentified species of Citrobacter in 10%, C. freundii and Proteus mirabilis in 3%, and Salmonella Javiana in 1%. The presence of these microorganisms, especially Salmonella, in the nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination.

  12. Pasteurization and radiation of fresh milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjarief, Sri Hariani

    1976-01-01

    In this investigation, treatments with pasteurization and irradiation with gamma rays on fresh milk were used. Pasteurization was done at temperatures of 62 deg C and 70 deg C. The irradiation doses used were 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 krad. The results of the investigation showed that the number of bacteria decreased after either pasteurization or irradiation. The higher the dose of irradiation the lower the total bacterial counts in milk became, but the latter increased during storage at 10 deg C. The number of bacteria in pasteurized milk did not show any significant difference from milk irradiated with the dose of 300-600 krad after 15 days of storage in the refrigerator. No enzymatic activity was detected in pasteurized milk, but after storage the coli bacteria acivity tested to become positive in the MPN test. On the countrary irradiation of fresh milk could stimulate the enzymatic activity, although the protein content was constant. Finally, heating as a pretreatment is better to be used before pasteurizing or sterilizing milk with ionizing radiation in order to preserve fresh milk for a longer period without any changes in the nutritional quality and taste. (author)

  13. Is the Morning Sputum Sample Superior to the Fresh Sputum Sample for the Detection of Malignant Cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uke, Maya S; Pathuthara, Saleem; Shaikh, Abida; Kumar, Rajiv; Kane, Shubhada

    2017-01-01

    Sputum cytology is a well-established technique for the detection of lung malignancies. Generally, random or morning samples are used. To evaluate the diagnostic yield of morning sputum and compare it with that of fresh samples. Patients were instructed to bring a morning sputum sample to the laboratory in a clean plastic container, without any fixative and within 2-3 h of collection. Fresh sputum was then collected in the laboratory from these same patients. Two smears were prepared from each sample by the "pick and smear" technique and then stained by the Papanicolaou method. One hundred samples from each method (total 200 samples; 400 slides) were evaluated by 3 investigators for their adequacy, preservation, and yield of diagnostic cells. The results were analyzed by using the Pearson χ2 test. Cytomorphological details were preserved in 82/84 satisfactory morning samples and in 80/81 satisfactory fresh samples, respectively. Malignancy was detected in 37 morning samples (44%) and 25 fresh samples (30.8%). In the malignant samples, there were more abundant tumor cells in the morning samples than in the fresh samples (65 and 40%, respectively) with a 2+ cellularity in the morning samples. The morning samples showed a better cell yield (25% more), with a 13% increase in the rate of detection of malignancy and an increased sensitivity of 19.68% compared to the fresh samples. Adequacy and preservation was similar in both sample types. While the morning samples showed a higher sensitivity and a larger number of tumor cells than the fresh samples, the difference was not statistically significant (p < 0.054). © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Enhancement of HHG yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrat, C.; Biegert, J.

    2011-01-01

    A static electric field periodically distributed in space controls and enhances the yield in high harmonic generation. The method is relatively simple to implement and allows tuning from the extreme-ultraviolet to soft X-ray. The radiation yield is selectively enhanced due to symmetry breaking induced by a static electric field on the interaction between the driving laser and the medium. The enhanced spectral region is tuned by varying the periodicity of the static electric field. Simulations predict an increase of more than two orders of magnitude for harmonics in the water window spectral range.

  15. Impact of mixtures of different fresh-cut fruits on respiration and ethylene production rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Pramod V; Luca, Alexandru; Edelenbos, Merete

    2014-07-01

    Packaging and storage of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables are a challenging task, since fresh produce continue to respire and senesce after harvest and processing accelerates the physiological processes. The response on respiration and ethylene production rates of fresh produce to changes in O2 and CO2 concentrations and temperature has been extensively studied for whole fruits but literature is limited on processed and mixed fresh-cut fruits. This study aimed to investigate the effects of mixing various proportions of fresh-cut fruits (melon chunks, apple slices, and pineapples cubes) on respiration and ethylene production rates and to develop predictive models for modified atmosphere packaging. The experiment was designed according to a simplex lattice method and respiration and ethylene production rates were measured at 10 °C. Results showed that single component pineapple cubes, apple slices, and melon chunks, in this order, had significant constant coefficients (P = 0.05) and the greatest impact on respiration rate while the interactive binary and tertiary coefficients were insignificant. For ethylene production rates, single component apple slices, melon chunks, and pineapple cubes, and their 3-component mixtures, in this order, had significant constant coefficients (P = 0.05) while binary coefficients were insignificant. Mathematical models were developed and validated; the cubical model was the best to describe the influence of proportion of fruit on respiration and ethylene production rates, however, considering simplicity the linear part of the model is recommended to quantify respiration and ethylene production rates of mixed fresh-cut fruits. This research helps to quantify the ethylene production and respiration rates of multicomponent mixed fresh-cut fruit, which then can be used for packaging design of fresh-cut produce. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. The traveller: a new look for PWR fresh fuel packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayley, B.; Stilwell, W.E.; Kent, N.A.

    2004-01-01

    The Traveller PWR fresh fuel shipping package represents a radical departure from conventional PWR fuel package designs. This paper follows the development effort from the establishment of goals and objectives, to intermediate testing and analysis, to final testing and licensing. The discussion starts with concept origination and covers the myriad iterations that followed until arriving at a design that would meet the demanding licensing requirements, last for 30 years, and would be easy to load and unload fuel, easy to handle, inexpensive to manufacture and transport, and simple and inexpensive to maintain

  17. Impact of ambient and elevated levels of ozone on growth, reproductive development and yield of two cultivars of rice ( Oryza sativa L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, S. B.; Abhijit, S.

    2009-07-01

    Tow locally grown high yielding varieties of rice (Oryza sativa L. var Malviya dhan 36 and var shivani), were transplanted within the open top chambers (OTCs) at the age of 20 days. five different experimental plots were designed as open plot (OP), non-filtered chamber (NFCs), NFCs with 10 ppb ozone (O{sub 3}), NFCs with 30 ppb O{sub 3} and filtered chamber (FCs) to assess the impact of ambient and elevated levels of O{sub 3} on rice. Twelve hourly monitoring of O{sub 3} and measurements of meteorological variables were done at experimental site during the growth period of rice plants. Morphological, reproductive, physico logical and biochemical parameters were assessed to evaluate the responses of rice cultivars to ambient and elevated levels of O{sub 3}. (Author)

  18. Recyclable transmission line (RTL) and linear transformer driver (LTD) development for Z-pinch inertial fusion energy (Z-IFE) and high yield.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpe, Robin Arthur; Kingsep, Alexander S. (Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia); Smith, David Lewis; Olson, Craig Lee; Ottinger, Paul F. (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC); Schumer, Joseph Wade (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC); Welch, Dale Robert (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Kim, Alexander (High Currents Institute, Tomsk, Russia); Kulcinski, Gerald L. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Kammer, Daniel C. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Rose, David Vincent (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Nedoseev, Sergei L. (Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia); Pointon, Timothy David; Smirnov, Valentin P. (Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia); Turgeon, Matthew C.; Kalinin, Yuri G. (Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia); Bruner, Nichelle " Nicki" (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Barkey, Mark E. (University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL); Guthrie, Michael (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Thoma, Carsten (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Genoni, Tom C. (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Langston, William L.; Fowler, William E.; Mazarakis, Michael Gerrassimos

    2007-01-01

    Z-Pinch Inertial Fusion Energy (Z-IFE) complements and extends the single-shot z-pinch fusion program on Z to a repetitive, high-yield, power plant scenario that can be used for the production of electricity, transmutation of nuclear waste, and hydrogen production, all with no CO{sub 2} production and no long-lived radioactive nuclear waste. The Z-IFE concept uses a Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) accelerator, and a Recyclable Transmission Line (RTL) to connect the LTD driver to a high-yield fusion target inside a thick-liquid-wall power plant chamber. Results of RTL and LTD research are reported here, that include: (1) The key physics issues for RTLs involve the power flow at the high linear current densities that occur near the target (up to 5 MA/cm). These issues include surface heating, melting, ablation, plasma formation, electron flow, magnetic insulation, conductivity changes, magnetic field diffusion changes, possible ion flow, and RTL mass motion. These issues are studied theoretically, computationally (with the ALEGRA and LSP codes), and will work at 5 MA/cm or higher, with anode-cathode gaps as small as 2 mm. (2) An RTL misalignment sensitivity study has been performed using a 3D circuit model. Results show very small load current variations for significant RTL misalignments. (3) The key structural issues for RTLs involve optimizing the RTL strength (varying shape, ribs, etc.) while minimizing the RTL mass. Optimization studies show RTL mass reductions by factors of three or more. (4) Fabrication and pressure testing of Z-PoP (Proof-of-Principle) size RTLs are successfully reported here. (5) Modeling of the effect of initial RTL imperfections on the buckling pressure has been performed. Results show that the curved RTL offers a much greater buckling pressure as well as less sensitivity to imperfections than three other RTL designs. (6) Repetitive operation of a 0.5 MA, 100 kV, 100 ns, LTD cavity with gas purging between shots and automated operation is

  19. Bundle Pricing Decisions for Fresh Products with Quality Deterioration

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Yan; Jiang, Yiping; Han, Xingxing

    2018-01-01

    How to sell fresh products quickly to decrease the storage cost and to meet customer quality requirement is of vital importance in the food supply chain. Bundling fresh products is an efficient strategy to promote sales and reduce storage pressure of retailers. In this paper, we consider the bundle pricing decisions for homogeneous fresh products with quality deterioration. The value of fresh products with quality deterioration is approximated as an exponential function based on which custome...

  20. Derived Demand for Fresh Cheese Products Imported into Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Christou, Andreas P.; Kilmer, Richard L.; Stearns, James A.; Feleke, Shiferaw T.; Ge, Jiaoju

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this article is to estimate the derived demand for imported fresh cheese products into Japan when fresh cheese import data are disaggregated by source country of production. We provide empirical measures of the sensitivity of demand to changes in total imports, own-price, and cross-prices among exporting countries for fresh cheese. Japan's derived demand for U.S. fresh cheese products is perfectly inelastic. Thus, the import demand competition among importing countries should...

  1. Comparative timber-yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    I. T. Haig

    1932-01-01

    During the last decade the U. S. Forest Service and several of the forest schools have completed rather comprehensive studies of the growth and yield of a number of commercially important native conifers. As the majority of these studies show the volumes obtainable in fully-stocked stands to very similar standards of utilization, they furnish an excellent opportunity...

  2. 6 Grain Yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    have stable, not too short crop duration with ... Ndiaye is located in the. Costal Delta region of Senegal. The climate of the Delta is characterized by a wet season from July to October with approximately. 200 mm of ..... Analysis of variance of the effect of site and season on maturity, grain yield and plant height of 16 rice.

  3. Fission rates measured using high-energy gamma-rays from short half-life fission products in fresh and spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroehnert, H.

    2011-02-01

    In recent years, higher discharge burn-ups and initial fuel enrichments have led to more and more heterogeneous core configurations in light water reactors (LWRs), especially at the beginning of cycle when fresh fuel assemblies are loaded next to highly burnt ones. As this trend is expected to continue in the future, the Paul Scherrer Institute has, in collaboration with the Swiss Association of Nuclear Utilities, swissnuclear, launched the experimental programme LIFE(at)PROTEUS. The LIFE(at)PROTEUS programme aims to better characterise interfaces between burnt and fresh UO 2 fuel assemblies in modern LWRs. Thereby, a novel experimental database is to be made available for enabling the validation of neutronics calculations of strongly heterogeneous LWR core configurations. During the programme, mixed fresh and highly burnt UO 2 fuel lattices will be investigated in the zero-power research reactor PROTEUS. One of the main types of investigations will be to irradiate the fuel in PROTEUS and measure the resulting fission rate distributions across the interface between fresh and burnt fuel zones. The measurement of fission rates in burnt fuel re-irradiated in a zero-power reactor requires, however, the development of new experimental techniques which are able to discriminate against the high intrinsic activity of the fuel. The principal goal of the present research work has been to develop such a new measurement technique. The selected approach is based on the detection of high-energy gamma-ray lines above the intrinsic background (i.e. above 2200 keV), which are emitted by short-lived fission products freshly created in the fuel. The fission products 88 Kr, 142 La, 138 Cs, 84 Br, 89 Rb, 95 Y, 90m Rb and 90 Rb, with half-lives between 2.6 min and 2.8 h, have been identified as potential candidates. During the present research work, the gamma-ray activity of short-lived fission products has, for the first time, been measured and quantitatively evaluated for re

  4. [The Advances in the Contamination and Detection of Foodborne Pathogen Noroviruses in Fresh Produce].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yajing; Liu, Xianjin

    2015-11-01

    This article reviewed the researches proceeding on the contamination and detection of the foodborne pathogen noroviruses (NoVs) in fresh produce, which involved the NoVs contaminations in fresh produce, the special attachment of NoVs in fresh produce, the NoVs outbreaks associated with fresh produce and the NoVs detection in fresh produce. There had been an increase in reported infectious disease risks associated with the consumptions of fresh produce for recent 30 years. Because the NoVs, as a primary cause of viral gastroenteritis thoughout the world, were highly contagious, had a low infectious dose, and were persistent in the environment. And also the methods for NoVs detection in food had significantly developed over the last 15 years. Currently NoVs were the most common pathogen accounting for 40% of outbreaks associated with fresh produce (i. e., fruits and vegetables). Data from outbreaks investigations verified fresh produce as the high risk food products for NoVs. The fresh produce were typically eaten raw with no thermal processing, can be contaminated at any step during production and processing from faecally polluted water and fertilizers, the poor hygiene practices by food handlers and the cross-contamination. The attachment of NoVs to the fresh produce was due to the physio-chemical factors of virus protein coat, the special attachment to different fresh produce, and the possibility for internalization of NoVs. It might provide answers to why those high risk foods were more frequently implicated (i. e., lettuce and raspberries). According to the data of foodborne NoVs outbreaks which were associated with fresh produce from EU countries and the USA, the outbreaks in EU countries were mainly associated with NoVs contaminated raspberries and lettuce, while in USA which were associated with NoVs contaminated lettuce. Unfortunately, there were no NoVs detection methods for fresh produce or the data of foodborne NoVs outbreaks which were associated with

  5. Honey bees preferentially consume freshly-stored pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Mark J; Brown, Nicholas; Goodall, Craig; Downs, Alexandra M; Sheenan, Timothy H; Anderson, Kirk E

    2017-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) collect and store both honey and pollen in preserved forms. Pollen storage involves the addition of honey or nectar and oral secretions to pollen granules. It is controversial whether the duration of pollen storage alters the palatability or nutritive value of the pollen storage medium. We examined how bees utilize different-aged stored pollen during an extended pollen flow. The deposition of pollen into wax cells and subsequent consumption were monitored daily on 18 brood frames from 6 colonies over an 8d observation period. Despite a greater abundance of older stored pollen cells on brood frames, bees showed a marked preference for the consumption of freshly-stored pollen. Two to four day-old pollen cell contents were significantly more likely to be consumed, while pollen cell contents more than seven days old were eaten at much lower rates. Similar experiments that controlled for cell abundance and spatial effects using cage assays yielded the same result. One day-old stored pollen was consumed approximately three times more often than 10d-old stored pollen, and two times more often than 5d-old stored pollen. These consumption preferences for freshly-stored pollen occurred despite a lack of clear developmental advantages. Young adult workers reared for 7 days on 1d-, 5d-, or 10d-old stored pollen showed no difference in body mass, stored pollen consumption, hindgut fecal material accumulation, or hypopharyngeal gland (HPG) protein titers, suggesting that different-aged pollen stores did not vary in their nutritional value to adult bees. These findings are inconsistent with the hypothesis promoting a period of microbially-mediated, "beebread maturation" that results in greater palatability or nutritive value for aged pollen stores. Rather, stored pollen that is not eaten in the first few days accumulates as excess stores preserved in a less preferred, but nutritionally-similar state.

  6. The properties and acceptability of fresh cheese produced using the mixture probiotic culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajka Božanić

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigation and production of dairy food with probiotic cultures isincreasing due to its health and nutritive benefits. In this paper the probiotic fresh cheese was produced from skim milk samples with 0,1% fat (A and 1,0% fat (B. Fermentation of skim milk samples was conducted at 40°C by 2% addition of DVS-ABT4 mixture probiotic cultures inoculum with selected bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium ssp. and Streptococcus thermophilus and without rennet addition. After milk coagulation (about 7-9 hours, the curd was gently cut and drained overnight. Produced of skim milk cheese samples (A had approximately 23.4% total solids, 1.8% fat in total solids and yield about 24.5% (w/v, while the low fat cheese samples (B had 26.2% total solids, 16.2% fat in total solids and yield about 27.3% (w/v. The skim milk cheeses (A had higher protein and mineral matter content compared to low fat cheeses (B. All samples of probiotic fresh cheese were a like to traditional fresh cheese according to general appearance and consistency. However, they had slightly lower aroma and acidity, expecially skim milk cheese samples (A. Better sensory properties had low fat cheesesamples (B during total time of storage (14 days. Acceptability of probiotic fresh cheese was evalueted by hedonic scale from 63 consumers. Statistic shows that all samples were 100% desirable, but average score for skim milk cheese (A was some lower (x = 7.33 than average score (x = 8.11 for low fat cheese (B. Variance analysis also shows that there is significantly important difference (p= 0,05 between analysed fresh cheese samples

  7. A Liquid Desiccant Cycle for Dehumidification and Fresh Water Supply in Controlled Environment Agriculture

    KAUST Repository

    Lefers, Ryan

    2017-12-01

    Controlled environment agriculture allows the production of fresh food indoors from global locations and contexts where it would not otherwise be possible. Growers in extreme climates and urban areas produce food locally indoors, saving thousands of food import miles and capitalizing upon the demand for fresh, tasty, and nutritious food. However, the growing of food, both indoors and outdoors, consumes huge quantities of water - as much as 70-80% of global fresh water supplies. The utilization of liquid desiccants in a closed indoor agriculture cycle provides the possibility of capturing plant-transpired water vapor. The regeneration/desalination of these liquid desiccants offers the potential to recover fresh water for irrigation and also to re-concentrate the desiccants for continued dehumidification. Through the utilization of solar thermal energy, the process can be completed with a very small to zero grid-energy footprint. The primary research in this dissertation focused on two areas: the dehumidification of indoor environments utilizing liquid desiccants inside membrane contactors and the regeneration of these desiccants using membrane distillation. Triple-bore PVDF hollow fiber membranes yielded dehumidification permeance rates around 0.25-0.31 g m-2 h-1 Pa-1 in lab-scale trials. A vacuum membrane distillation unit utilizing PVDF fibers yielded a flux of 2.8-7.0 kg m-2 hr-1. When the membrane contactor dehumidification system was applied in a bench scale controlled environment agriculture setup, the relative humidity levels responded dynamically to both plant transpiration and dehumidification rates, reaching dynamic equilibrium levels during day and night cycles. In addition, recovered fresh water from distillation was successfully applied for irrigation of crops and concentrated desiccants were successfully reused for dehumidification. If applied in practice, the liquid desiccant system for controlled environment agriculture offers the potential to reduce

  8. Extraction of RNA from fresh, frozen, and lyophilized tuber and root tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G N Mohan; Iyer, Suresh; Knowles, N Richard

    2007-03-07

    A method for isolating transcriptionally competent RNA from fresh, frozen, and lyophilized plant storage tissues containing high levels of starch and phenolics is described. The protocol avoids the use of guanidium salts, which often lead to the formation of a viscous gel during extraction of high starch-containing tissues, and instead uses a borate-Tris buffer in combination with high concentrations of NaCl, Na2SO3, and sodium dodecyl sulfate in the extraction medium. RNA was extracted from fresh, frozen, and lyophilized tissues of potato tubers, storage roots of sweet potato, radish, and turnip, and rhizomes of ginger. The yield of RNA from potato tubers averaged 281 microg g fresh weight(-1) and 1584 microg g dry weight(-1) from frozen and lyophilized samples, respectively. A260/A230 ratios of potato RNA extracts were 2.2 or greater, indicating minimal contamination by polyphenols and carbohydrates. Similarly, A260/A280 ratios exceeded 1.9, demonstrating minimal contamination of the RNA by tuber protein. While A260/A280 ratios of extracts from the other plant species were somewhat lower than those for potato (average = 1.56 and 1.80 for fresh and lyophilized samples, respectively), A260/A230 ratios averaged more than 2.0, and the RNA extracted from fresh and lyophilized samples of all species was intact, as demonstrated by denaturing agarose-formaldehyde gel electrophoresis. The protocol yielded RNA suitable for downstream molecular applications involving reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from all five species. Transcriptionally competent RNA was also recovered from lyophilized potato tuber tissue stored for 6 years (ambient temperature) by a simple modification to the protocol involving extraction in cold acetone. Lyophilization can thus be used to preserve RNA in high starch- and phenolic-containing plant tissues for studies on gene expression.

  9. 7 CFR 927.125 - Fresh pear reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to the Fresh Pear Committee, upon request, the “Pear Size and Grade Storage Report” containing the quantity of specific grades and sizes of fresh pears in regular and C.A. storage by variety or subvariety... Committee, a “Handler's Statement of Fresh Pear Shipments” containing the following information: (1) The...

  10. 77 FR 26579 - Fresh Garlic From China; Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-683 (Third Review)] Fresh Garlic From... Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1675(c)), that revocation of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic... contained in USITC Publication 4316 (April 2012), entitled Fresh Garlic from China: Investigation No. 731-TA...

  11. Evaluation of Pathogenic Bacteria Associated with Fresh Produce ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred forty (240) samples of fresh vegetables were examined for aerobic plate counts, coliform counts, and presence of Escherichia coli, toxigenic ... This study shows that the outer parts/ leaves of fresh produce are heavily contaminated with pathogenic bacteria and the fresh produce should be pre- treated ...

  12. 78 FR 32184 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    .... APHIS-2011-0132] RIN 0579-AD62 Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and... United States of fresh apricots from continental Spain. This action will allow interested persons... importation of fruits and vegetables to allow the importation of fresh apricots from continental Spain into...

  13. What is a Fresh Scent in Perfumery? Perceptual Freshness is Correlated with Substantivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Zarzo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Perfumes are manufactured by mixing odorous materials with different volatilities. The parameter that measures the lasting property of a material when applied on the skin is called substantivity or tenacity. It is well known by perfumers that citrus and green notes are perceived as fresh and they tend to evaporate quickly, while odors most dissimilar to ‘fresh’ (e.g., oriental, powdery, erogenic and animalic scents are tenacious. However, studies aimed at quantifying the relationship between fresh odor quality and substantivity have not received much attention. In this work, perceptual olfactory ratings on a fresh scale, estimated in a previous study, were compared with substantivity parameters and antierogenic ratings from the literature. It was found that the correlation between fresh odor character and odorant substantivity is quite strong (r = −0.85. ‘Fresh’ is sometimes interpreted in perfumery as ‘cool’ and the opposite of ‘warm’. This association suggests that odor freshness might be somehow related to temperature. Assuming that odor perception space was shaped throughout evolution in temperate climates, results reported here are consistent with the hypothesis that ‘fresh’ evokes scents typically encountered in the cool season, while ‘warm’ would be evoked by odors found in nature during summer. This hypothesis is rather simplistic but it may provide a new insight to better understand the perceptual space of scents.

  14. The effect of storage temperature of steckling bulbs on seed stalk development and seed yield of shallot (Allium cepa L. var. ascalonicum Backer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tendaj

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study, conducted in the years 2010–2012, was to evaluate bolting and seed production of shallot depending on storage temperature of steckling bulbs with different diameters. The present study included 4 cultivars (‘Toto’, ‘Ambition F1’, ‘Bonilla F1’, and ‘Matador F1’ and one local population (‘U’. Bulbs with the following diameters: 20–30 mm, 31–40 mm, 41–50 mm, and 51–60 mm, were stored from the first 10-day period of November (2010 and 2011 until the end of March (2011 and 2012 at a temperature of 0–1 oC, 4–6 oC, and 8–10 oC. After they were planted in the field (the second 10-day period of April, observations of bolting were carried out, while the weight of seed umbels and seed yield were determined only for the cultivar ‘Toto’ and the population ‘U’. The storage temperature of steckling bulbs in the range of 4–6 oC and 8–10 oC was most conducive to bolting, in particular in plants grown from large bulbs with a diameter above 40 mm. In the cultivar ‘Toto’, plants from bulbs with a diameter above 40 mm and stored at a temperature of 4–6 oC were characterized by the highest weight of seed umbels. This had an effect on obtaining the highest seed yield (on average 1604.16-2300.7 g per 100 m2 of area. Shallot plants from the population ‘U’ grown from bulbs with a diameter of 20–30 mm were characterized by a distinctly lower percentage of bolting plants compared to the cultivars studied. For this reason, this population does not promise positive effects in shallot production for seed.

  15. Growth and yield in Eucalyptus globulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Rinehart; Richard B. Standiford

    1983-01-01

    A study of the major Eucalyptus globulus stands throughout California conducted by Woodbridge Metcalf in 1924 provides a complete and accurate data set for generating variable site-density yield models. Two models were developed using linear regression techniques. Model I depicts a linear relationship between age and yield best used for stands between five and fifteen...

  16. The impact of an extreme climatic disturbance and different fertilization treatments on plant development, phenology, and yield of two cultivar groups of Solanum betaceum Cav.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandazo-Yunga, Joffre V; Ruiz-González, Mario X; Rojas, Jacqueline R; Capa-Mora, Edwin D; Prohens, Jaime; Alejandro, José D; Acosta-Quezada, Pablo G

    2017-01-01

    Changing climatic conditions impose a challenge both to biodiversity and food security. The effects of climate change affect different aspects of the plant or crop, such as morphological and phenological aspects, as well as yield. The effects of greenhouse conditions might be comparable in some cases to a permanent extreme disturbance in climate and weather, thus, contributing to our knowledge on climate change impacts on plant species. We have investigated the differences for 23 traits in two cultivar groups of an Andean traditional crop, Solanum betaceum, under two different environmental conditions that correspond to the traditional practices in the open field and three cultural managements under greenhouse conditions (no fertilization or control, organic, and mineral). We found that traditional practices in the open field are the less productive. Moreover, in warmer and drier conditions the treatment with organic fertilization was the most productive. Greenhouse conditions, however, delay production. We further identified traits that differentiate both cultivar groups and traits that are linked to either the new climate conditions or the fertilization treatments. Fruit characteristics were quite homogeneous between the two cultivar groups. Overall, our results provide insight on the consequences that climate change effects might exert on crops such as tree tomato, reveal that greenhouses can be a robust alternative for tree tomato production, and highlight the need to understand how different managements are linked to different solutions to fulfil the farmers' demands.

  17. The impact of an extreme climatic disturbance and different fertilization treatments on plant development, phenology, and yield of two cultivar groups of Solanum betaceum Cav.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joffre V Tandazo-Yunga

    Full Text Available Changing climatic conditions impose a challenge both to biodiversity and food security. The effects of climate change affect different aspects of the plant or crop, such as morphological and phenological aspects, as well as yield. The effects of greenhouse conditions might be comparable in some cases to a permanent extreme disturbance in climate and weather, thus, contributing to our knowledge on climate change impacts on plant species. We have investigated the differences for 23 traits in two cultivar groups of an Andean traditional crop, Solanum betaceum, under two different environmental conditions that correspond to the traditional practices in the open field and three cultural managements under greenhouse conditions (no fertilization or control, organic, and mineral. We found that traditional practices in the open field are the less productive. Moreover, in warmer and drier conditions the treatment with organic fertilization was the most productive. Greenhouse conditions, however, delay production. We further identified traits that differentiate both cultivar groups and traits that are linked to either the new climate conditions or the fertilization treatments. Fruit characteristics were quite homogeneous between the two cultivar groups. Overall, our results provide insight on the consequences that climate change effects might exert on crops such as tree tomato, reveal that greenhouses can be a robust alternative for tree tomato production, and highlight the need to understand how different managements are linked to different solutions to fulfil the farmers' demands.

  18. Yields of historical exploration programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huslende, T.

    1995-01-01

    The paper relates to an method of evaluation developed for analysing the yield of historical exploration programs by computerized simulation. The most important elements show in coarse features how the results can be used in the different analyses. The evaluation is to be executed annually for the comparison and sorting of data from different offshore sites. Topics are exploration evaluation study, evaluation process, handling of exploration costs, discovered reserves, development projects, cash flow analysis, analysis of results, finding cost, international comparison. 1 ref., 11 figs

  19. Slope Controls Grain Yield and Climatic Yield in Mountainous Yunnan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, X.; Rong, L.; Gu, Z.; Feng, D.

    2017-12-01

    Mountainous regions are increasingly vulnerable to food insecurity because of limited arable land, growing population pressure, and climate change. Development of sustainable mountain agriculture will require an increased understanding of the effects of environmental factors on grain and climatic yields. The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between actual grain yield, climatic yield, and environmental factors in a mountainous region in China. We collected data on the average grain yield per unit area in 119 counties in Yunnan province from 1985 to 2012, and chose 17 environmental factors for the same period. Our results showed that actual grain yield ranged from 1.43 to 6.92 t·ha-1, and the climatic yield ranged from -0.15 to -0.01 t·ha-1. Lower climatic yield but higher grain yield was generally found in central areas and at lower slopes and elevations in the western and southwestern counties of Yunnan province. Higher climatic yield but lower grain yield were found in northwestern parts of Yunnan province on steep slopes. Annual precipation and temperature had a weak influence on the climatic yield. Slope explained 44.62 and 26.29% of the variation in grain yield and climatic yield. The effects of topography on grain and climatic yields were greater than climatic factors. Slope was the most important environmental variable for the variability in climatic and grain yields in the mountainous Yunnan province due to the highly heterogeneous topographic conditions. Conversion of slopes to terraces in areas with higher climatic yields is an effective way to maintain grain production in response to climate variability. Additionally, soil amendments and soil and water conservation measures should be considered to maintain soil fertility and aid in sustainable development in central areas, and in counties at lower slopes and elevations in western and southwestern Yunnan province.

  20. Methods to evaluate fish freshness in research and industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olafsdottir, G.; Martinsdóttir, E.; Oehlenschläger, J.

    1997-01-01

    Current work in a European concerted action project 'Evaluation of Fish Freshness' (AIR3 CT94-2283) focuses on harmonizing research activities in the area of fish freshness evaluation in leading fish laboratories in Europe (see Box 1). The overall aim of the concerted action project is to validat...... measurements with respect to fish freshness evaluation. In this article, the different subgroups have summarized changes that occur in fish and methods to evaluate fish freshness as a first step towards the definition of criteria for fish freshness...

  1. Revascularisation of fresh compared with demineralised bone grafts in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solheim, E; Pinholt, E M; Talsnes, O

    2001-01-01

    Revascularisation of bone grafts is influenced by both the anatomical origin and the pre-implantation processing of the graft. We investigated the revascularisation by entrapment of 141Ce (cerium)-labelled microspheres in large, fresh and demineralised syngeneic grafts of predominantly cancellous...... iliac bone grafts, p = 0.8. The results suggest that whereas fresh cancellous grafts are revascularised more completely than fresh cortical grafts, there is no difference in the revascularisation of demineralised cancellous and cortical grafts. In addition, fresh cancellous bone is revascularised more...... completely than demineralised cancellous bone, whereas there is no difference between fresh and demineralised cortical bone....

  2. Contamination of fresh and ensiled maize by multiple penicillium mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, M A; Jones, A D; Kuldau, G A

    2008-03-01

    Toxins produced by Penicillium species are reported in maize silage and have been associated with health problems in cattle. Our objectives were to evaluate the prevalence and dynamics of patulin (PAT), mycophenolic acid (MPA), cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), and roquefortine C (ROC) in fresh and ensiled maize. To achieve these objectives we developed a high-performance liquid chromatography method coupled with mass spectrometry to detect all four toxins simultaneously in silage. In addition we collected weather data, information on agronomic practices, and silage fermentation characteristics for each study site. Silage was collected at harvest and after ensiling in 2001 and 2002 from 30 Pennsylvania dairies. The average concentration of toxins (range in parentheses) was: PAT 0.08 microg/g (0.01 to 1.21), MPA 0.16 microg/g (0.02 to 1.30), CPA 0.12 microg/g (0.02 to 1.43), and ROC 0.38 microg/g (0.01 to 5.71). ROC was the most frequently detected toxin (60%), followed by MPA (42%), CPA (37%), and PAT (23%). Of 120 samples tested, 15% contained no detectible levels of toxin, 25% were contaminated with one toxin, 32% with two, 18% with three, and 10% with all four toxins. All four mycotoxins were found in freshly harvested material, contradicting the belief that Penicillium toxin formation occurs exclusively during storage. We observed that weather conditions during specific growth stages of the crop affected the final concentration of toxins in freshly harvested maize. In ensiled material, PAT levels were affected by concentrations of propionic and isobutyric acids. Based on our data, Penicillium mycotoxins can form while the crop is in the field and after ensiling, suggesting that preventative measures should begin prior to ensiling.

  3. This is “Fresh Cream”

    OpenAIRE

    Troncy, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Fresh Cream, which is conceived as “an exhibition in a book”, and presented as playing “the role of a contemporary art Biennale”, is a sequel to Cream, which was also published by Phaidon in 1998. Based on the same principle, the book brings together 100 artists chosen by nobody in particular, but more exactly by 10 curators in general. The whole, per force, produces an impersonal result, and makes it possible, once again, to confirm the old adage that “a dromedary is a horse designed by a te...

  4. Bacterial communities of fresh goat meat packaged in modified atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizosa, Elia; Benito, María José; Ruiz-Moyano, Santiago; Hernández, Alejandro; Villalobos, Maria Del Carmen; Martín, Alberto; Córdoba, María de Guía

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this work was to study the growth and development of fortuitous flora and food pathogens in fresh goat meat packaged under modified atmospheres containing two different concentrations of CO 2 . Meat samples were stored at 10 °C under two different modified-atmosphere packing (MAP) conditions: treatment A had 45% CO 2  + 20% O 2  + 35% N 2 and treatment B had 20% CO 2  + 55% O 2  + 25% N 2 . During 14 days of storage, counts of each bacterial group and dominant species identification by 16S rRNA gene sequencing were performed to determine the microbial diversity present. The MAP condition used for treatment A was a more effective gas mixture for increasing the shelf life of fresh goat meat, significantly reducing the total number of viable bacteria and enterobacteria counts. Members of the Enterobacteriaceae family were the most common contaminants, although Hafnia alvei was dominant in treatment A and Serratia proteamaculans in treatment B. Identification studies at the species level showed that different microorganisms develop under different storage conditions, reflecting the importance of gas composition in the modified atmosphere on the bacterial community. This work provides new insights into the microbial changes of goat meat storage under different MAP conditions, which will be beneficial for the meat industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Comparison between Characterization and Biological Properties of Brazilian Fresh and Aged Propolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Eduardo Morgado; Stock, Daniele; Chada, Fabio José Garcia; Finger, Daiane; Christine Helena Frankland Sawaya, Alexandra; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Felsner, Maria Lurdes; Quináia, Sueli Pércio; Torres, Yohandra Reyes

    2014-01-01

    Objective. As propolis is a highly valued bee product, we aimed to verify the quality of aged propolis, investigating their phenolic and flavonoid composition, levels of toxic metals, radical scavenging and antimicrobial activities. Material and Methods. Samples of fresh and aged propolis of six different beekeepers, from the same geographical location, were investigated in terms of their phenolic and flavonoid composition and levels of Pb, Cd, and Cr, as well as radical scavenging and antimicrobial activities. Results. The two groups of propolis had similar qualitative composition by HPLC-PDA and ESI(-)-MS. Fresh propolis and aged propolis show no differences when average values of extraction yield, flavonoids, EC50, or MIC were compared and both types of propolis showed good antimicrobial activity at low concentrations. Only levels of phenolic compounds were higher in fresh propolis. Conclusion. The propolis samples considered in this study, aged or fresh, had similar qualitative composition, although they were collected in different periods. Samples only differed in their levels of total phenolic content. Moreover, aged propolis conserves significant radical scavenging and antimicrobial properties. We suggest that aged propolis should not be discarded but explored for alternative applications. PMID:25530958

  6. [Sodium and potassium content of some fresh, frozen and canned vegetables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccarelli, M T; Faraj, L

    1986-09-01

    Sodium and potassium content was determined in fresh, frozen and canned green peas, corn and green beans, as well as in fresh and canned tomatoes. Flame photometry was the method used for this analysis, as the AOAC recommends. Among the fresh products tested, green beans yielded the lowest sodium and potassium contents, with 2.2 and 150.2 mg/100 g, respectively. The highest sodium content was found in green peas, with 31.8 mg/100 g, and the highest potassium values were determined in tomatoes and green peas, with 271.7 and 271.3 mg/100 g, values which are not statistically different. In regard to frozen products, green beans also presented the lowest values of these cations, with 3.0 mg/100 g sodium, and 111.0 mg/100 g potassium. The highest averages were detected in green peas, with a sodium content of 149.4 mg/100 g, and 145.1 mg/100 g potassium. In general, all canned products tested showed higher sodium and lower potassium values than those found in fresh or frozen products. The highest sodium content (317.3 mg/100 g) was found in canned green peas, and the lowest (127.4 mg/100 g), in canned tomatoes. With respect to potassium, the highest values corresponded to canned tomatoes, with 168.8 mg/100 g, and the lowest to corn, with 7.6 mg/100 g.

  7. A Comparison between Characterization and Biological Properties of Brazilian Fresh and Aged Propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Morgado Schmidt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. As propolis is a highly valued bee product, we aimed to verify the quality of aged propolis, investigating their phenolic and flavonoid composition, levels of toxic metals, radical scavenging and antimicrobial activities. Material and Methods. Samples of fresh and aged propolis of six different beekeepers, from the same geographical location, were investigated in terms of their phenolic and flavonoid composition and levels of Pb, Cd, and Cr, as well as radical scavenging and antimicrobial activities. Results. The two groups of propolis had similar qualitative composition by HPLC-PDA and ESI(--MS. Fresh propolis and aged propolis show no differences when average values of extraction yield, flavonoids, EC50, or MIC were compared and both types of propolis showed good antimicrobial activity at low concentrations. Only levels of phenolic compounds were higher in fresh propolis. Conclusion. The propolis samples considered in this study, aged or fresh, had similar qualitative composition, although they were collected in different periods. Samples only differed in their levels of total phenolic content. Moreover, aged propolis conserves significant radical scavenging and antimicrobial properties. We suggest that aged propolis should not be discarded but explored for alternative applications.

  8. Effects of Incubation Temperature and Transportation Stress on Yolk Utilization, Small Intestine Development, and Post-Hatch Performance of High-Yield Broiler Chicks

    OpenAIRE

    Barri, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Growth and performance parameters of broiler chicks depend on adequate development of the small intestine. Stressors such as elevated or decreased temperatures during incubation and post-hatch transportation may have an effect on the gastrointestinal development of the broiler chick. The objective of the first study was to investigate the effects of elevated embryonic incubation temperature (IT) on post-hatch relative nutrient transporter gene expression, integrity of the intestinal epithel...

  9. Development, implementation and validation of a practice-orientated method for the determination of yields of biogas or methane, respectively; Entwicklung, Implementierung und Validierung eines praxisnahen Verfahrens zur Bestimmung von Biogas- bzw. Methanertraegen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Thomas

    2008-12-15

    The increasing number of the world population results in a pronounced ascent of the world-wide energy consumption. This problem additionally is strengthened by the release of carbon dioxide. In the contribution under consideration, the author develops a method with which the yields of fermentation gas or methane, respectively, reliably as well as practice-orientated can be determined. Different influences on the determination of these yields are described. Thus, the investigations in this area are to be standardised further. The comparability under laboratories is to be increased. (orig.) [German] Die steigende Zahl der Weltbevoelkerung fuehrt zu einem Ausgepraegten Anstieg des weltweiten Energieverbrauchs. Diese Problematik wird durch die Freisetzung von Kohlendioxid zusaetzlich verstaerkt. Im vorliegenden Beitrag entwickelt der Autor eine Methode, mit der die Ertraege von Biogas beziehungsweise Methan zuverlaesslich und praxisnah bestimmt werden koennen. Es werden verschiedene Einfluesse auf die Bestimmung dieser Ertraege dargestellt. Damit sollen die Untersuchungen auf diesem Gebiet weiter standardisiert und die Vergleichbarkeit unter Laboren erhoeht werden.

  10. Nitrogen rate and plant population effects on yield and yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... and yield components in soybean under Bursa, Mustafakemalpaşa ecological conditions. Trials were conducted ... that increase in plant density and nitrogen rate increased plant height, lowest pod height, harvest index and seed yield. .... nitrogen doses, plant density and their interaction on yield and yield ...

  11. Origin of apparent viscosity in yield stress fluids below yielding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Møller, P.C.F.; Fall, A.; Bonn, D.

    2009-01-01

    For more than 20 years it has been debated if yield stress fluids are solid below the yield stress or actually flow; whether true yield stress fluids exist or not. Advocates of the true yield stress picture have demonstrated that the effective viscosity increases very rapidly as the stress is

  12. Fluorescence hyper-spectral imaging to detecting faecal contamination on fresh tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Romaniello

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Faecal contamination of fresh fruits represents a severe danger for human health. Thus some techniques based on microbiological testing were developed to individuate faecal contaminants but those tests do not results efficient because their non-applicability on overall vegetable unity. In this work a methodology based on hyper-spectral fluorescence imaging was developed and tested to detecting faecal contamination on fresh tomatoes. Two image-processing methods were performed to maximise the contrast between the faecal contaminant and tomatoes skin: principal component analysis and band image ratio (BRI. The BRI method allows classifying correctly 70% of contaminated area, with no false-positives in all examined cases. Thus, the developed methodology can be employed for a fast and effective detection of faecal contamination on fresh tomatoes.

  13. Enhancing Environmental Protection and Socio-Economic Development in Africa: A Fresh Look at the Right to a General Satisfactory Environment under the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeka Polycarp Amechi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The African Charter to Human and Peoples' Rights is an innovative document as it is the first human rights albeit regional instrument to provide for a substantive right to environment. However, the right as provided under the Charter is encumbered as it is linked to the promotion of development. Such linkage has led to the argument that the right can only be invoked where it will not infringe the requirements of socio-economic development. While this issue appears to have engaged the attention of most commentators, there has not been much enquiry into what the right aims to achieve and the implication for the achievement of sustainable development objectives including environmental protection and poverty reduction in Africa. This article therefore seeks to evaluate the utility of the right to the pursuit of sustainable development objectives in Africa.

  14. Effect of planting methods on growth, phenology and yield of maize varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakht, J.; Rehman, H.; Shafi, M.; Uddin, R.

    2011-01-01

    Field experiment was conducted at KPK Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan to find out the effect of planting methods on the yield and yield components of maize varieties. Analysis of the data revealed that planting methods had a significant effect on days to tasseling, days to silking, plant height, number of plants ha/sup -1/ at harvest, thousand grain weight, grain yield, biological yield, fresh weed biomass m/sup -2/ and non-significant effect on days to emergence, emergence m-2, number of cobs plant/sup -1/, grains ear/sup -1/, harvest index and dry weed biomass m/sup -2/. Similarly, the effect of varieties was also significant on all parameters except fresh and dry weed biomass m/sup -2/. Maximum emergence m/sup -2/, days to tasseling, days to silking, plant height, number of plants ha/sup -1/at harvest, grains ear/sup -1/, thousand grain weight, grain yield and biological yield were recorded in ridge planting method. Similarly, Jalal sown on ridges took maximum days to emergence, emergence m/sup -2/, plant height, number of cobs plant /sup -1/, grains ear/sup -1/, thousand grain weight, grain yield, biological yield, fresh weed biomass and dry weed biomass. (author)

  15. Food Preference of Fresh-Water Invertebrates - Comparing Fresh and Decomposed Angiosperm and a Filamentous Alga

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornijow, R.; Gulati, R.D.; Ozimek, T.

    1995-01-01

    1. Fresh and decomposed Mougeotia sp. (a filamentous green alga) and Elodea nuttallii (a vascular plant) were offered as food to three species of aquatic macroinvertebrates (Lymnnea peregra, Asellus meridianus and Endochironomus albipennis) to test: (i) if filamentous algae are preferred to aquatic

  16. Triaxial testing beyond yielding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2017-01-01

    This paper is continuation of work published at ISOPE 2015, where capabilities of undrained triaxial testing were presented. Now, drained loading is emphasized, recovery of disturbed sand properties is observed. After liquefying or yielding, sand becomes disturbed: stiffness and resistance...... to liquefaction become compromised. However, sand can "heal" itself. It can recover during drained deformation cycles. The recovery mechanism can be observed using a triaxial apparatus. Such tests are relevant for offshore, seismic, and other fields of engineering, where disturbed soil states are encountered....

  17. Keeping education fresh-not just in microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahnert, Beatrix

    2017-11-15

    Innovative practice from around the globe, addressing a range of recent educational themes and trends, was published in the FEMS Microbiology Letters virtual Thematic Issue 'Keeping Education Fresh' in October 2017. Its thought-provoking content is reviewed here to more directly facilitate reflections and discussions in the professional community. The focus is on best practice approaches when enhancing student engagement, how to adjust those to the diversity of learners, learning situations and infrastructures, and to a broad range of subjects. The need for authentic learning and to move away from didactic teaching is emphasized. The 'students as researchers' theme is featured e.g. in context of service learning. Creative approaches are presented such as using performing arts, popular culture and gamification. The development of interdisciplinary and intercultural competences, and the exploration of socioscientific themes and philosophical issues are considered. Revisions of curricula and programmes, reflective of educational advancements and sector drivers, are discussed from undergraduate to postgraduate and professional specialist level also in light of problem-based learning, interactive distance and on-campus learning, and even the legacy of Massive Open Online Courses. Such changes always require resources and skills, and carry risks. Yet, innovation is a risk worth taking to keep education fresh. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Influence of Plant Growth Regulators (PGRs and Planting Method on Growth and Yield in Oil Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo var. styriaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirzad SURE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of plant growth regulators IBA (indole butyric acid, GA3 (gibberellin and ethylene (as ethephon in two methods of planting was investigated (each method was considered as a separate experiment on morphological characters and yield of medicinal pumpkin. The experiments were carried out in a factorial trial based on completely randomized block design, with four replicates. The treatments were combined with priming and spraying with the above PGRs. The first seed priming with control (water, IBA 100 ppm, GA3 25 ppm and ethephon 200 ppm, and when seedling developed to 4 leaf stage sprayed there with control (water, IBA 100 ppm, GA3 25 ppm and ethephon 200 ppm for three times. In both planting methods, there were all of these treatments. The result showed that PGRs and planting method had significant effects on vegetative, flowering and yield characteristics including: leaf area %DM plant, number of male and female flowers per plant, number of fruit/plant, fruits fresh weight, seeds length and width, number of seed per fruit, seed yield, % seeds oil and oil yield. Hence spraying with GA3 25 ppm in four leaf stage at trellis method could be a suitable treatment for enhancing growth and yield of medicinal pumpkin.

  19. Development of a radiation track structure clustering algorithm for the prediction of DNA DSB yields and radiation induced cell death in Eukaryotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Michael; Bezak, Eva; Penfold, Scott

    2015-04-21

    The preliminary framework of a combined radiobiological model is developed and calibrated in the current work. The model simulates the production of individual cells forming a tumour, the spatial distribution of individual ionization events (using Geant4-DNA) and the stochastic biochemical repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) leading to the prediction of survival or death of individual cells. In the current work, we expand upon a previously developed tumour generation and irradiation model to include a stochastic ionization damage clustering and DNA lesion repair model. The Geant4 code enabled the positions of each ionization event in the cells to be simulated and recorded for analysis. An algorithm was developed to cluster the ionization events in each cell into simple and complex double strand breaks. The two lesion kinetic (TLK) model was then adapted to predict DSB repair kinetics and the resultant cell survival curve. The parameters in the cell survival model were then calibrated using experimental cell survival data of V79 cells after low energy proton irradiation. A monolayer of V79 cells was simulated using the tumour generation code developed previously. The cells were then irradiated by protons with mean energies of 0.76 MeV and 1.9 MeV using a customized version of Geant4. By replicating the experimental parameters of a low energy proton irradiation experiment and calibrating the model with two sets of data, the model is now capable of predicting V79 cell survival after low energy (cell survival probability, the cell survival probability is calculated for each cell in the geometric tumour model developed in the current work. This model uses fundamental measurable microscopic quantities such as genome length rather than macroscopic radiobiological quantities such as alpha/beta ratios. This means that the model can be theoretically used under a wide range of conditions with a single set of input parameters once calibrated for a given cell line.

  20. An Examination of Participants Who Develop an Eating Disorder Despite Completing an Eating Disorder Prevention Program: Implications for Improving the Yield of Prevention Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Numerous trials provide support for the Body Project, an eating disorder prevention program wherein young women with body image concerns critique the thin ideal. Despite medium to large effects, some participants subsequently develop an eating disorder, suggesting that intervention or recruitment procedures could be improved. This study investigated baseline and acute intervention predictors of DSM-5 eating disorder development during a 3-year follow-up among Body Project participants. Combined data from two trials compare participants who experienced eating disorder onset during follow-up (n=20) to those who did not (n=216). Participants who did versus did not develop an eating disorder started the intervention with higher eating disorder symptoms (η2=0.08), negative affect (η2=0.06), thin-ideal internalization (η2=0.02), and body dissatisfaction (η2=0.02); the same baseline predictors of eating disorder onset emerged in controls. Attenuated pre–post reductions in eating disorder symptoms (η2=0.01) predicted eating disorder onset but not after controlling for baseline levels. Given that Body Project and control participants who later developed an eating disorder started with initial elevations in risk factors and eating disorder symptoms, it might be useful to develop a more intensive variant of this program for those exhibiting greater risk at baseline and to deliver the prevention program earlier to prevent initial escalation of risk. The fact that nonresponders also showed greater negative affect and eating disorder symptoms suggests that it might be useful to add activities to improve affect and increase dissonance about disordered eating. PMID:25342026

  1. An examination of participants who develop an eating disorder despite completing an eating disorder prevention program: implications for improving the yield of prevention efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horney, Audra C; Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul

    2015-05-01

    Numerous trials provide support for the Body Project, an eating disorder prevention program wherein young women with body image concerns critique the thin ideal. Despite medium to large effects, some participants subsequently develop an eating disorder, suggesting that intervention or recruitment procedures could be improved. This study investigated baseline and acute intervention predictors of DSM-5 eating disorder development during a 3-year follow-up among Body Project participants. Combined data from two trials compare participants who experienced eating disorder onset during follow-up (n = 20) to those who did not (n = 216). Participants who did versus did not develop an eating disorder started the intervention with higher eating disorder symptoms (η (2) = 0.08), negative affect (η (2) = 0.06), thin-ideal internalization (η (2) = 0.02), and body dissatisfaction (η (2) = 0.02); the same baseline predictors of eating disorder onset emerged in controls. Attenuated pre-post reductions in eating disorder symptoms (η (2) = 0.01) predicted eating disorder onset but not after controlling for baseline levels. Given that Body Project and control participants who later developed an eating disorder started with initial elevations in risk factors and eating disorder symptoms, it might be useful to develop a more intensive variant of this program for those exhibiting greater risk at baseline and to deliver the prevention program earlier to prevent initial escalation of risk. The fact that nonresponders also showed greater negative affect and eating disorder symptoms suggests that it might be useful to add activities to improve affect and increase dissonance about disordered eating.

  2. I-131 Extraction from Fresh water and Sewage plant effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souti, Maria-Evangelia; Hormann, Volker; Toma, Edda; Fischer, Helmut W. [University of Bremen, Institute of Environmental Physics, Otto-Hahn-Alle 1, D-28359 Bremen (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The amount of maximum I-131 body activity of a patient released from a hospital in Germany (250 MBq) is comparable to the yearly reported total release of I-131 from all commercial nuclear power plants to ambient air and water. A large fraction of the body activity will be excreted and find its way to surface waters, through the sewage system. Thus medical iodine is the major contributor to the environmental I-131 in surface waters. Due to the path it follows (patient-sewage-sewage plant-fresh water) it can form organic complexes and as a result its concentration of organic iodine is relatively high. Existing methods, focusing on the removal of mainly iodide (I{sup -}) and iodate (IO{sub 3}{sup -}), were found to be insufficient to successfully extract the iodine from environmental samples, leading to highly variable results depending on the contribution of organic iodine. The reported work is based on testing and modifying existing methods. In order to accomplish the highest iodine yield, the inorganic iodine extraction is followed by a supplementary procedure for additionally separating the iodine bound to dissolved organic matter. The results show only slight variations of the I-131 extraction yield which is close to 90%, constituting this method as appropriate for successfully extracting I-131 from environmental samples (WWTP effluent, river water, lake water). Another advantage of our method is its applicability to high volume samples (20 L, 50 L), making it possible for a gamma spectrometer to detect activities as low as 0.5 mBq/l. (authors)

  3. Update on Fresh Fuel Characterization of U-Mo Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Burkes; D. M. Wachs; D. D. Keiser; M. A. Okuniewski; J. F. Jue; F. J. Rice; R. Prabhakaran

    2009-03-01

    The need to provide more accurate property information on U-Mo fuel alloys to operators, modellers, researchers, fabricators, and government increases as success of the GTRI Reactor Convert program continues. This presentation provides an update on fresh fuel characterization activities that have occurred at the INL since the RERTR 2008 conference in Washington, D.C. The update is particularly focused on properties recently obtained and on the development progress of new measurement techniques. Furthermore, areas where useful and necessary information is still lacking is discussed. The update deals with mechanical, physical, and microstructural properties for both integrated and separate effects. Appropriate discussion of fabrication characteristics, impurities, thermodynamic response, and effects on the topic areas are provided, along with a background on the characterization techniques used and developed to obtain the information. Efforts to measure similar characteristics on irradiated fuel plates are discussed.

  4. Interaction Between Phosphorus and Zinc on the Biomass Yield and Yield Attributes of the Medicinal Plant Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuntal Das

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse experiment was conducted at the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR, Bangalore to study the interaction effect between phosphorus (P and zinc (Zn on the yield and yield attributes of the medicinal plant stevia. The results show that the yield and yield attributes have been found to be significantly affected by different treatments. The total yield in terms of biomass production has been increased significantly with the application of Zn and P in different combinations and methods, being highest (23.34 g fresh biomass in the treatment where Zn was applied as both soil (10 kg ZnSO4/ha and foliar spray (0.2% ZnSO4. The results also envisaged that the different yield attributes viz. height, total number of branches, and number of leaves per plant have been found to be varied with treatments, being highest in the treatment where Zn was applied as both soil and foliar spray without the application of P. The results further indicated that the yield and yield attributes of stevia have been found to be decreased in the treatment where Zn was applied as both soil and foliar spray along with P suggesting an antagonistic effect between Zn and P.

  5. [Study on identification the crack feature of fresh jujube using hyperspectral imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ke-Qiang; Zhao, Yan-Ru; Li, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Shu-Juan; He, Yong

    2014-02-01

    Crack is one of the most important indicators to evaluate the quality of fresh jujube. Crack not only accelerates the decay of fresh jujube, but also diminishes the shelf life and reduces the economic value severely. In this study, the potential of hyperspectral imaging covered the range of 380 - 1030 nm was evaluated for discrimination crack feature (location and area) of fresh jujube. Regression coefficients of partial least squares regression (PLSR), successive projection analysis (SPA) and principal component analysis (PCA) based full-bands image were adopted to extract sensitive bands of crack of fresh jujube. Then least-squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) discriminant models using the selected sensitive bands for calibration set (132 samples)" were established for identification the prediction set (44 samples). ROC curve was used to judge the discriminant models of PLSR-LS-SVM, SPA-LS-SVM and PCA-LS-SVM which are established by sensitive bands of crack of fresh jujube. The results demonstrated that PLSR-LS-SVM model had an optimal effect (area=1, std=0) to discriminate crack feature of fresh jujube. Next, images corresponding to five sensitive bands (467, 544, 639, 673 and 682 nm) selected by PLSR were executed to PCA. Finally, the image of PC4 was employed to identify the location and area of crack feature through imaging processing. The results revealed that hyperspectral imaging technique combined with image processing could achieve the qualitative discrimination and quantitative identification of crack feature of fresh jujube, which provided a theoretical reference and basis for develop instrument of discrimination of crack of jujube in further work.

  6. Characteristics of the tensile mechanical properties of fresh and dry forewings of beetles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuo, Wanyong [School of Civil Engineering & International Institute for Urban Systems Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); School of Civil & Architectural Engineering, Anyang Institute of Technology, Anyang 455000 (China); Chen, Jinxiang, E-mail: chenjpaper@yahoo.co.jp [School of Civil Engineering & International Institute for Urban Systems Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Wu, Zhishen; Xie, Juan [School of Civil Engineering & International Institute for Urban Systems Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Wang, Yong [Nantong Vocational University, Nantong, Jiangsu 226007 (China)

    2016-08-01

    Based on a tensile experiment and observations by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), this study demonstrated the characteristics of the tensile mechanical properties of the fresh and dry forewings of two types of beetles. The results revealed obvious differences in the tensile fracture morphologies and characteristics of the tensile mechanical properties of fresh and dry forewings of Cybister tripunctatus Olivier and Allomyrina dichotoma. For fresh forewings of these two types of beetles, a viscous, flow-like, polymer matrix plastic deformation was observed on the fracture surfaces, with soft morphologies and many fibers being pulled out, whereas on the dry forewings, the tensile fracture surfaces were straightforward, and there were no features resembling those found on the fresh forewings. The fresh forewings exhibited a greater fracture strain than the dry forewings, which was caused by the relative slippage of hydroxyl inter-chain bonds due to the presence of water in the fibers and proteins in the fresh forewings. Our study is the first to demonstrate the phenomenon of sudden stress drops caused by the fracturing of the lower skin because the lower skin fractured before the forewings of A. dichotoma reached their ultimate tensile strength. We also investigated the reasons underlying this phenomenon. This research provides a much better understanding of the mechanical properties of beetle forewings and facilitates the correct selection of study objects for biomimetic materials and development of the corresponding applications. - Highlights: • There is a phenomenon of sudden stress drop on the tensile stress-train curve of forewing. • The causes of the differences of mechanical properties of fresh and dry forewings are explained. • The hypothesis raised in a previous review paper is verified. • This study brings better ideas into correct understanding of the mechanical properties that the biomimetic object exhibits.

  7. Fresh perspectives for a better world

    CERN Multimedia

    Danielle Amy Venton

    While it’s no surprise that technology has the ability to change the world, it sometimes changes it in surprising ways. The Citizen Cyberscience Centre project is promoting change for humanitarian causes through distributed volunteer initiatives, such as volunteer computing and ‘volunteer thinking’. The inaugural lecture of a planned series was held at CERN in late October. The United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR), the University of Geneva (UNIGE), and CERN have recently set up a new partnership and launched a lecture series, which will invite experts in the humanities and technologies to share fresh perspectives on ways to work for a better world. The inaugural lecture at CERN was given by two speakers, Mo Ibrahim and Alpheus Bingham, each of them behind initiatives using technology to address difficult problems. Mo Ibrahim founded Celtel International, one of Africa’s most successful mobile network operators. Ibrahim’s company has ...

  8. Distribution of water in fresh cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Charlotte Møller; Rinnan, A.

    2002-01-01

    Low-field (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) transverse relaxation was used to measure water mobility and distribution of water in fresh cod fillets. The NMR relaxations were analysed with the so-called SLICING method giving uni-exponential profiles from which the transverse relaxation time (T(2......)-values) and the relative sizes of the water populations were calculated. Two water populations with the T(2)-values of 50 and 94 ms were obtained. The shortest relaxation time was primarily found near the head, and water with the longest relaxation time was primarily found near the tail. This variation...... can he explained by the smaller muscle cells and muscle fibers in the tail, which may influence the distributions of water into the different pools. The amount of one of the water populations was correlated to the overall water content with a correlation coefficient of -0.94. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science...

  9. Reproduction of fresh water desalination installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slesarenko, V.N. [Maritime State Univ., Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2005-07-01

    This paper discussed ways to desalinate sea water for use at power plants. The advantages of different modes of installation in terms of hydrodynamics and heat exchange were presented along with the parameters that determine their perfection and profitability. In particular, the author used a thermodynamic and thermophysical approach to analyze thermal heat desalination schemes. The analysis estimated the efficiency of reproducing fresh water from the sea at thermal power stations located 10 to 30 km from bodies of salt water. It was shown that heat exchange constitutes the greatest expense of exergy in the desalination process. Three thermal schemes of desalination were compared for their exergy losses. The effect of thin-film on energy efficiency was discussed. An exergy efficiency of up to 90 per cent was found in thin-film evaporation equipment. 6 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  10. Desenvolvimento de gemas florais, florada, fotossíntese e produtividade de cafeeiros em condições de sombreamento Floral buds development, flowering, photosynthesis and yield of coffee plants under shading conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heverly Morais

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do sombreamento, durante o período de desenvolvimento floral, sobre as gemas florais, florada, fotossíntese e produtividade de cafeeiros. Cafeeiros adultos IAPAR 59 cultivados em Londrina, PR, foram sombreados em diferentes épocas, com malhas de sombrite com 50% de porosidade, e comparados com cafeeiros cultivados a pleno sol. As coberturas foram colocadas sobre as plantas em intervalos mensais, de abril a agosto, e retiradas no início de outubro. A densidade e o período de sombreamento não tiveram influência sobre a quantidade de nós, em cada estádio de desenvolvimento da gema floral, época e intensidade da florada, fotossíntese e produtividade dos cafeeiros, o que indica que a interceptação de até 50% da radiação, incidente no período de abril a agosto, época de desenvolvimento floral, não afeta o potencial produtivo desta cultura.The objective of this paper was to evaluate the influence of shading, during the period of floral development, on floral bud, flowering, photosynthesis and grain yield of coffee plants. Adult plants IAPAR 59, grown in Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil, were shaded in different periods, with shading screens with 50% porosity, and compared to open-grown plants. The shading screens were placed in monthly intervals, from April to August, and were all removed in the beginning of October. Shading density and period did not influence the amount of nodes in each event of development on floral bud, period and intensity of flowering, photosynthesis and grain yield of the coffee plants, which indicates that the interception of until 50% incident radiation, during the period of floral development, does not affect the yield potential of this crop.

  11. Aldehyde oxidase activity in fresh human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manevski, Nenad; Balavenkatraman, Kamal Kumar; Bertschi, Barbara; Swart, Piet; Walles, Markus; Camenisch, Gian; Schiller, Hilmar; Kretz, Olivier; Ling, Barbara; Wettstein, Reto; Schaefer, Dirk J; Pognan, Francois; Wolf, Armin; Litherland, Karine

    2014-12-01

    Human aldehyde oxidase (AO) is a molybdoflavoenzyme that commonly oxidizes azaheterocycles in therapeutic drugs. Although high metabolic clearance by AO resulted in several drug failures, existing in vitro-in vivo correlations are often poor and the extrahepatic role of AO practically unknown. This study investigated enzymatic activity of AO in fresh human skin, the largest organ of the body, frequently exposed to therapeutic drugs and xenobiotics. Fresh, full-thickness human skin was obtained from 13 individual donors and assayed with two specific AO substrates: carbazeran and zoniporide. Human skin explants from all donors metabolized carbazeran to 4-hydroxycarbazeran and zoniporide to 2-oxo-zoniporide. Average rates of carbazeran and zoniporide hydroxylations were 1.301 and 0.164 pmol⋅mg skin(-1)⋅h(-1), resulting in 13 and 2% substrate turnover, respectively, after 24 hours of incubation with 10 μM substrate. Hydroxylation activities for the two substrates were significantly correlated (r(2) = 0.769), with interindividual variability ranging from 3-fold (zoniporide) to 6-fold (carbazeran). Inclusion of hydralazine, an irreversible inhibitor of AO, resulted in concentration-dependent decrease of hydroxylation activities, exceeding 90% inhibition of carbazeran 4-hydroxylation at 100 μM inhibitor. Reaction rates were linear up to 4 hours and well described by Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics. Comparison of carbazeran and zoniporide hydroxylation with rates of triclosan glucuronidation and sulfation and p-toluidine N-acetylation showed that cutaneous AO activity is comparable to tested phase II metabolic reactions, indicating a significant role of AO in cutaneous drug metabolism. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of AO enzymatic activity in human skin. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  12. Novel single-round PCR and cloning of full-length envelope genes of HIV-1 may yield new insight into biomolecular antibacterial drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Richard; Burnett, Virginia

    2005-06-01

    Nested or semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with a 'hot start' is the preferred amplification method for full-length, in-frame envelope genes (gp160) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). This generally follows an extensive screening process. This paper describes an effective single-round PCR method and cloning process for HIV-1 gp160 from clinical samples, and cell and tissue cultures developed during the early stages of construction of a molecular HIV-1 vaccine. The amplification method and cloning process are adaptable to full-length HIV-1, HIV-2, and other viral production processes. Also described within, is one solution to the most-often extensive screening process for inserts containing full-length, in-frame gp160. Of note, was a perceived toxicity of gp160 to bacteria during the culturing and the scaling-up process that created the extensive screening process. The toxicity association was not found with the individual gp160 genes, the gp120 or the gp41 gene, with other viral regions similar or larger in molecular weight to gp160, or with other non-gp160 full-length genes of HIV-1 such as pol and gag genes. The HIV-1 gp160 toxicity issue may provide insight towards the development of the next generation of novel biomolecular drugs against bacterial infections.

  13. Effect of Harvest Time and Nitrogen Doses on Cassava Root Yield and Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Trajano de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nitrogen is considered the most limiting nutrient for cassava, and N availability can influence the crop cycle, including earlier harvest. The aim of this study was to study the effect of harvest time on the production components of cassava, “Aciolina” cultivar, at different rates of N fertiliser. The experiment was carried out in an area newly incorporated into the productive system in a savannah ecosystem in the northern Amazon. A randomised block experimental design was used in a split plot arrangement with four replications. The N rates (0, 30, 60, 150, and 330 kg ha-1 were allocated to the main plots, and the harvest times (90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 300, and 360 days after emergence of the stalks - DAE were allocated to the subplots. Plant height, shoot fresh matter yield, number of roots per plant, average root diameter, and root fresh matter yield display an increasing linear response up to 360 DAE in cassava cv. “Aciolina”. For all harvest times, the N rates promote an increase in root fresh matter yield. At 300 and 360 DAE, the root fresh matter and starch yield and the harvest index show a quadratic response as a function of the N level. The greatest efficiency of N topdressing on the production of root fresh matter occurs at 300 DAE, promoting an earlier harvest. At that time, the dose of maximum technical efficiency, 226 kg ha-1 N, results in a yield of 62 Mg ha-1 of root fresh matter, 13 Mg ha-1 of starch, and a harvest index of 81 %.

  14. Electron beam processing of fresh produce - A critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Suresh D.; Shayanfar, Shima

    2018-02-01

    To meet the increasing global demand for fresh produce, robust processing methods that ensures both the safety and quality of fresh produce are needed. Since fresh produce cannot withstand thermal processing conditions, most of common safety interventions used in other foods are ineffective. Electron beam (eBeam) is a non-thermal technology that can be used to extend the shelf life and ensure the microbiological safety of fresh produce. There have been studies documenting the application of eBeam to ensure both safety and quality in fresh produce, however, there are still unexplored areas that still need further research. This is a critical review on the current literature on the application of eBeam technology for fresh produce.

  15. Bundle Pricing Decisions for Fresh Products with Quality Deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Fang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available How to sell fresh products quickly to decrease the storage cost and to meet customer quality requirement is of vital importance in the food supply chain. Bundling fresh products is an efficient strategy to promote sales and reduce storage pressure of retailers. In this paper, we consider the bundle pricing decisions for homogeneous fresh products with quality deterioration. The value of fresh products with quality deterioration is approximated as an exponential function based on which customer’s reservation prices are calculated. A nonlinear mixed integer programming model is used to formulate the bundle pricing problem for fresh products. By adding auxiliary decision variables, this model is converted into a mixed integer linear program. Numerical experiments and sensitive analysis are conducted to provide managerial insights for bundling fresh products with quality deterioration.

  16. Metabolic engineering of biomass for high energy density: oilseed-like triacylglycerol yields from plant leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhercke, Thomas; El Tahchy, Anna; Liu, Qing; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Shrestha, Pushkar; Divi, Uday K; Ral, Jean-Philippe; Mansour, Maged P; Nichols, Peter D; James, Christopher N; Horn, Patrick J; Chapman, Kent D; Beaudoin, Frederic; Ruiz-López, Noemi; Larkin, Philip J; de Feyter, Robert C; Singh, Surinder P; Petrie, James R

    2014-02-01

    High biomass crops have recently attracted significant attention as an alternative platform for the renewable production of high energy storage lipids such as triacylglycerol (TAG). While TAG typically accumulates in seeds as storage compounds fuelling subsequent germination, levels in vegetative tissues are generally low. Here, we report the accumulation of more than 15% TAG (17.7% total lipids) by dry weight in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) leaves by the co-expression of three genes involved in different aspects of TAG production without severely impacting plant development. These yields far exceed the levels found in wild-type leaf tissue as well as previously reported engineered TAG yields in vegetative tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana and N. tabacum. When translated to a high biomass crop, the current levels would translate to an oil yield per hectare that exceeds those of most cultivated oilseed crops. Confocal fluorescence microscopy and mass spectrometry imaging confirmed the accumulation of TAG within leaf mesophyll cells. In addition, we explored the applicability of several existing oil-processing methods using fresh leaf tissue. Our results demonstrate the technical feasibility of a vegetative plant oil production platform and provide for a step change in the bioenergy landscape, opening new prospects for sustainable food, high energy forage, biofuel and biomaterial applications. © 2013 CSIRO. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Supplemental upward lighting from underneath to obtain higher marketable lettuce (Lactuca sativa leaf fresh weight by retarding senescence of outer leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geng eZhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the so-called plant factory with artificial lighting (PFAL approach has been developed to provide safe and steady food production. Although PFALs can produce high-yielding and high-quality plants, the high plant density in these systems accelerates leaf senescence in the bottom (or outer leaves owing to shading by the upper (or inner leaves and by neighboring plants. This decreases yield and increases labor costs for trimming. Thus, the establishment of cultivation methods to retard senescence of outer leaves is an important research goal to improve PFAL yield and profitability. In the present study, we developed an LED lighting apparatus that would optimize light conditions for PFAL cultivation of a leafy vegetable. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. was hydroponically grown under white, red, or blue LEDs, with light provided from above (downward, with or without supplemental upward lighting from underneath the plant. White LEDs proved more appropriate for lettuce growth than red or blue LEDs, and the supplemental lighting retarded the senescence of outer leaves and decreased waste (i.e., dead or low-quality senescent leaves, leading to an improvement of the marketable leaf fresh weight.

  18. Supplemental Upward Lighting from Underneath to Obtain Higher Marketable Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) Leaf Fresh Weight by Retarding Senescence of Outer Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Geng; Shen, Shanqi; Takagaki, Michiko; Kozai, Toyoki; Yamori, Wataru

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the so-called "plant factory with artificial lighting" (PFAL) approach has been developed to provide safe and steady food production. Although PFALs can produce high-yielding and high-quality plants, the high plant density in these systems accelerates leaf senescence in the bottom (or outer) leaves owing to shading by the upper (or inner) leaves and by neighboring plants. This decreases yield and increases labor costs for trimming. Thus, the establishment of cultivation methods to retard senescence of outer leaves is an important research goal to improve PFAL yield and profitability. In the present study, we developed an LED lighting apparatus that would optimize light conditions for PFAL cultivation of a leafy vegetable. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) was hydroponically grown under white, red, or blue LEDs, with light provided from above (downward), with or without supplemental upward lighting from underneath the plant. White LEDs proved more appropriate for lettuce growth than red or blue LEDs, and the supplemental lighting retarded the senescence of outer leaves and decreased waste (i.e., dead or low-quality senescent leaves), leading to an improvement of the marketable leaf fresh weight.

  19. Treating heparin resistance with antithrombin or fresh frozen plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiess, Bruce D

    2008-06-01

    Heparin resistance occurs in up to 22% of patients undergoing cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass and it is associated with decreased levels of antithrombin. Treatment options for heparin resistance include administration of antithrombin or fresh frozen plasma. A systematic review revealed no clinical trials directly comparing antithrombin with fresh frozen plasma as heparin resistance treatment during cardiopulmonary bypass. Thus, the aim of this review is to discuss the limited number of published reports assessing antithrombin or fresh frozen plasma in managing heparin resistance and to present emerging data regarding fresh frozen plasma safety issues and practical considerations for antithrombin treatment in patients with heparin resistance undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass.

  20. Factors affecting quality and safety of fresh-cut produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, G A; Gallone, A; Nychas, G J; Sofos, J N; Colelli, G; Amodio, M L; Spano, G

    2012-01-01

    The quality of fresh-cut fruit and vegetable products includes a combination of attributes, such as appearance, texture, and flavor, as well as nutritional and safety aspects that determine their value to the consumer. Nutritionally, fruit and vegetables represent a good source of vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber, and fresh-cut produce satisfies consumer demand for freshly prepared, convenient, healthy food. However, fresh-cut produce deteriorates faster than corresponding intact produce, as a result of damage caused by minimal processing, which accelerates many physiological changes that lead to a reduction in produce quality and shelf-life. The symptoms of produce deterioration include discoloration, increased oxidative browning at cut surfaces, flaccidity as a result of loss of water, and decreased nutritional value. Damaged plant tissues also represent a better substrate for growth of microorganisms, including spoilage microorganisms and foodborne pathogens. The risk of pathogen contamination and growth is one of the main safety concerns associated with fresh-cut produce, as highlighted by the increasing number of produce-linked foodborne outbreaks in recent years. The pathogens of major concern in fresh-cut produce are Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic Escherichia coli mainly O157:H7, and Salmonella spp. This article describes the quality of fresh-cut produce, factors affecting quality, and various techniques for evaluating quality. In addition, the microbiological safety of fresh-cut produce and factors affecting pathogen survival and growth on fresh-cut produce are discussed in detail.

  1. Development of salt and pH-induced solidified floating organic droplets homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction for extraction of ten pyrethroid insecticides in fresh fruits and fruit juices followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbati, Mohammadali; Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Torbati, Mostafa; Nabil, Ali Akbar Alizadeh; Mohebbi, Ali; Afshar Mogaddam, Mohammad Reza

    2018-01-01

    A new microextraction method named salt and pH-induced homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction has been developed in a home-made extraction device for the extraction and preconcentration of some pyrethroid insecticides from different fruit juice samples prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In the present work, an extraction device made from two parallel glass tubes with different lengths and diameters was used in the microextraction procedure. In this method, a homogeneous solution of a sample solution and an extraction solvent (pivalic acid) was broken by performing an acid-base reaction and the extraction solvent was produced in whole of the solution. The produced droplets of the extraction solvent went up through the solution and solidified using an ice-bath. They were collected without centrifugation step. Under the optimum conditions, limits of detection and quantification were obtained in the ranges of 0.006-0.038, and 0.023-0.134ngmL -1 , respectively. The enrichment factors and extraction recoveries of the selected analytes ranged from 365-460 to 73-92%, respectively. The relative standard deviations were lower than 9% for intra- (n = 6) and inter-day (n = 4) precisions at a concentration of 1ngmL -1 of each analyte. Finally, some fruit juice samples were effectively analyzed by the proposed method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Desenvolvimento floral e produção de pessegueiros 'granada' sob distintas condições climáticas Floral development and yield of 'granada' peach tree under different weather conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Antônio Nava

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A cultivar de pessegueiro 'Granada' vem apresentando baixa frutificação e irregularidade de produção nas principais regiões produtoras de pêssego no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Este trabalho teve como objetivo comparar o desenvolvimento floral e a produção de pessegueiros 'Granada' em duas regiões com distintas condições climáticas. Os pomares estudados, nas safras de 2004 e 2005, localizam-se nos municípios de Charqueadas e Canguçu, nas regiões Depressão Central e Sul do RS, respectivamente. Conclui-se que o pessegueiro 'Granada' mostra-se muito instável em termos de produção. A baixa produção e a viabilidade do pólen, aliada ao atraso no desenvolvimento dos óvulos, influenciadas sobretudo pela ocorrência de altas temperaturas na pré-floração e floração, foram as principais causas do baixo desempenho reprodutivo e produtivo do pessegueiro 'Granada' em Charqueadas, em 2004, e em Canguçu, em 2005.The peach cultivar Granada is showing low fruit set and irregularity of yield in major producing regions of peach fruit in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. This work aimed to compare the floral development and yield of 'Granada' peach tree in two regions with different climatic conditions. The orchards studied, in 2004 and 2005, are located in Charqueadas, in the Central Depression, and Canguçu, in the Southern State. The low yield and viability of pollen, associated to delay in the ovules development, mainly influenced by high temperatures during the pré-flowering and flowering, were the causes of low reproductive and productive performance of 'Granada' peach tree at Charqueadas in 2004 and at Canguçu in 2005.

  3. Consumers’ attitude and opinion towards different types of fresh cheese: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Pereira de BARROS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fresh cheese stands out for its tradition and widespread consumption in Brazil. However, there is a lack of information on motivation towards the consumption of available fresh cheeses in the Brazilian market. Focus group sessions were used to explore consumers’ attitude and opinion about fresh cheese. Products with different characteristics were used to stimulate discussion among participants including cheese with “no added salt”, the claim “contains probiotic microorganisms” and products processed with goat milk. The salt content played an important role on the consumer intention to purchase of fresh cheese. Participants stated that they would consume cheese without salt only by following a medical prescription. However, the subjects declared that they would buy reduced salt cheese if such reduction would not compromise the flavor. The meaning of the claim “contains probiotic microorganisms” was often declared as unknown during the discussion. However, they would buy a probiotic product. In addition, it was mentioned that a premium price would be paid for such functional cheese. Participants declared that would buy goat cheese. Nevertheless, to pay a higher price over the conventional one was a controversial and debatable issue among consumers. Results revealed important implications for the development of marketing strategies for fresh cheese.

  4. High yield expression in a recombinant E. coli of a codon optimized chicken anemia virus capsid protein VP1 useful for vaccine development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Bang-Jau

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chicken anemia virus (CAV, the causative agent chicken anemia, is the only member of the genus Gyrovirus of the Circoviridae family. CAV is an immune suppressive virus and causes anemia, lymph organ atrophy and immunodeficiency. The production and biochemical characterization of VP1 protein and its use in a subunit vaccine or as part of a diagnostic kit would be useful to CAV infection prevention. Results Significantly increased expression of the recombinant full-length VP1 capsid protein from chicken anemia virus was demonstrated using an E. coli expression system. The VP1 gene was cloned into various different expression vectors and then these were expressed in a number of different E. coli strains. The expression of CAV VP1 in E. coli was significantly increased when VP1 was fused with GST protein rather than a His-tag. By optimizing the various rare amino acid codons within the N-terminus of the VP1 protein, the expression level of the VP1 protein in E. coli BL21(DE3-pLysS was further increased significantly. The highest protein expression level obtained was 17.5 g/L per liter of bacterial culture after induction with 0.1 mM IPTG for 2 h. After purification by GST affinity chromatography, the purified full-length VP1 protein produced in this way was demonstrated to have good antigenicity and was able to be recognized by CAV-positive chicken serum in an ELISA assay. Conclusions Purified recombinant VP1 protein with the gene's codons optimized in the N-terminal region has potential as chimeric protein that, when expressed in E. coli, may be useful in the future for the development of subunit vaccines and diagnostic tests.

  5. Relationships between yield and some yield components in Pea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-03

    Dec 3, 2008 ... end of the study, positive and significant relationship were found among seed yield and pods per plant and biological yield in both years. The strongest and direct positive effects were the biological yield (p = 0.6500), numbers of ... Pea is an important plant in human and animal nutrition because of its high ...

  6. yield and yield component association of some capsicum genotypes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-24

    Jul 24, 2015 ... The experiment was conducted in humid agro ecological zone of Calabar, Nigeria, to evaluate the yield performance and the association between yield and yield related components of some capsicum genotypes which include; Bird pepper(Capsicum annuumvar. aviculare), Habanero pepper(Capsicum ...

  7. Yield and yield components of six canola ( Brassica napus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiments were conducted in randomized complete block design arrangement in split factorial with four replications The results demonstrated that late planting date and interrupting of irrigation at flowering stage significantly decreased growth, yield and yield components the of canola cultivars. In addition, oil yield ...

  8. Relationships between yield and some yield components in Pea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was designed randomized complete blocks design with four replications. At the end of the study, positive and significant relationship were found among seed yield and pods per plant and biological yield in both years. The strongest and direct positive effects were the biological yield (p = 0.6500), numbers of ...

  9. Dispersant effectiveness in the field on fresh oils and emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunel, T.; Davies, L.

    1996-01-01

    A detailed data set on the effectiveness of dispersants on fresh oils and emulsions, was presented. The data set could be used to calibrate laboratory dispersant tests and dispersion models so that oil spill response teams would have accurate information to make decisions regarding remediation processes. AEA Technology developed steady state continuous release experiments to provide a data set with quantitative measures of dispersant effectiveness in the field. The Sea Empress incident was closely monitored in order to compare the quantification obtained through field trials. It was noted that the prediction of the percentage of oil dispersed chemically is not the only indication of whether or not to use a dispersant. The important determinant to consider should be the extent to which the natural dispersion process would be enhanced by dispersant application. 17 refs., 5 tabs., 18 figs

  10. Fresh Fuel Characterization of U-Mo Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Burkes; D. M. Wachs; D. D. Keiser; J. Gan; F. J. Rice; R. Prabhakaran; B. D. Miller; M. A. Okuniewski

    2008-10-01

    The need to provide more accurate property information on U-Mo fuel alloys to reactor operators, modelers, researchers, fabricators, and regulators increases as success of the RERTR program continues. This presentation will provide an overview of fresh fuel U-Mo characterization activities on monolithic fuel occurring at the Idaho National Laboratory. The overview will particularly be focused on properties available through current and previous research, and also on the type of information still needed. The presentation will deal with mechanical, physical, and microstructural properties in terms of both integrated and separate effects. Appropriate discussion in terms of fabrication characteristics, impurities, thermodynamic response, and the effects on the topic areas will be provided, along with a brief background on the characterization techniques being used or being developed to obtain the information. Furthermore, efforts to measure similar characteristics as a function of irradiation conditions and determine end-of-life observations with beginning-of-life behavior will be discussed.

  11. Drop testing of the Westinghouse fresh nuclear fuel package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shappert, L.B.; Sanders, C.F.

    1993-01-01

    The Westinghouse Columbia Fuel Fabrication Facility has decided to develop and certify a new fresh fuel package design (type A, fissile) that has the capability to transport more highly enriched fuel than was previously possible. A prototype package was tested in support of the Safety Analysis Report of the Packaging (SARP). This paper provides detailed information on the tests and test results. A first prototype test was carried out at the STF, and the design did not give the safety margin that Westinghouse wanted for their containers. The data from the test were used to redesign the connection between the clamping frame and the pressure pad, and the tests were reinitiated. Three packages were then tested at the STF. All packages met the acceptance criteria and acceleration information was obtained that provided an indication of the behavior of the cradle and strongback which holds the fuel assemblies and nuclear poison in place. (J.P.N.)

  12. Collaborative Project: Understanding the Chemical Processes tat Affect Growth rates of Freshly Nucleated Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMurry, Peter [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Smuth, James [University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2015-11-12

    This final technical report describes our research activities that have, as the ultimate goal, the development of a model that explains growth rates of freshly nucleated particles. The research activities, which combine field observations with laboratory experiments, explore the relationship between concentrations of gas-phase species that contribute to growth and the rates at which those species are taken up. We also describe measurements of the chemical composition of freshly nucleated particles in a variety of locales, as well as properties (especially hygroscopicity) that influence their effects on climate.

  13. Effect of different intercropping patterns on yield and yield components of dill and fenugreek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Shokati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted based on randomized complete blocks design (RCBD in three replications during 2011 at the research farm of university of Tabriz, Iran. In this study two medicinal plants, dill (Anethum graveolens L. and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum intercropped at different additive (1:20, 1:40 and 1:60 and different replacement (1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 series. Results showed that dill plant at additive treatment especially in 1:20 and 1:60 series had maximum plant fresh and dry weights, umbels per plant, 1000 seed weight, seeds per plant, biological yield and harvest index. However, fenugreek plant at replacement treatment especially in 1:3 and 1:2 series had maximum biological yield, pod in main stem, pod in branches, seeds per pod, seed weights and grain yield. Fenugreek as a medicinal, forage and legume crop promote dill grows characters and could be an effective plant in intercropping systems.

  14. Effects of electromagnetic radiation on yields and yield components in winter wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milošev, D.; Pekarić-Nadj, N.; Molnar, I.; Rončević, P.

    1999-01-01

    Just before sowing, the seed of winter wheat was subjected to a single exposure to the pulsating electromagnetic field (PEMF) at different frequencies: 8, 15, 30 and 72 Hz. The duration of exposure was variable: 30, 60 and 90 minutes. Observations made during the growing season, analyses of yield and yield components and comparison with the untreated (control) revealed significant, mostly positive differences with regard to plant height, spike length and yield level. The highest yield was recorded in the treatment with 30 Hz for 30 minutes. The study findings indicate that different frequencies and exposure times of PEMF have different effects on plant growth development and hence, biochemical processes in plants

  15. The CSAICLAWPS project: a multi-scalar, multi-data source approach to providing climate services for both modelling of climate change impacts on crop yields and development of community-level adaptive capacity for sustainable food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, N. D.; Fowler, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    The "Climate-smart agriculture implementation through community-focused pursuit of land and water productivity in South Asia" (CSAICLAWPS) project is a research initiative funded by the (UK) Royal Society through its Challenge Grants programme which is part of the broader UK Global Challenges Research Fund (GCRF). CSAICLAWPS has three objectives: a) development of "added-value" - bias assessed, statistically down-scaled - climate projections for selected case study sites across South Asia; b) investigation of crop failure modes under both present (observed) and future (projected) conditions; and c) facilitation of developing local adaptive capacity and resilience through stakeholder engagement. At AGU we will be presenting both next steps and progress to date toward these three objectives: [A] We have carried out bias assessments of a substantial multi-model RCM ensemble (MME) from the CORDEX South Asia (CORDEXdomain for case studies in three countries - Pakistan, India and Sri Lanka - and (stochastically) produced synthetic time-series for these sites from local observations using a Python-based implementation of the principles underlying the Climate Research Unit Weather Generator (CRU-WG) in order to enable probabilistic simulation of current crop yields. [B] We have characterised present response of local crop yields to climate variability in key case study sites using AquaCrop simulations parameterised based on input (agronomic practices, soil conditions, etc) from smallholder farmers. [C] We have implemented community-based hydro-climatological monitoring in several case study "revenue villages" (panchayats) in the Nainital District of Uttarakhand. The purpose of this is not only to increase availability of meteorological data, but also has the aspiration of, over time, leading to enhanced quantitative awareness of present climate variability and potential future conditions (as projected by RCMs). Next steps in our work will include: 1) future crop yield

  16. Crescimento, desenvolvimento e produtividade do tomateiro cultivado em substrato com três concentrações de nitrogênio na solução nutritiva Growth, development and yield of tomato plants grown in substrate under three nitrogen concentrations of the nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerônimo Luiz Andriolo

    2004-10-01

    e T3, com produtividade máxima estimada de 7,8kg m-2 na dose de 9,3mmolN L-1. Concluiu-se que a concentração de N na solução nutritiva afetou o crescimento e a produtividade da cultura do tomateiro em substrato, porém não foi observada resposta similar nos dois ciclos de cultivo.The effect of three N concentrations of the nutrient solution on growth and yield of tomato plants grown in substrate was determined in autumn and spring growing periods. Two experiments were conducted inside a polyethylene tunnel, at Departamento de Fitotecnia - UFSM, using the hybrid Monte Carlo. Sowing was made on February 8 and on July 5, 2002, and planting inside the tunnel 36 and 40 days later, in autumn and spring, respectively. Plants were grown in plastic bags filled with 5.5dm³ of commercial substrate (Plantmax®, with one plant per bag and a plant density of 3.3 plants m-2. Nutrients were supplied to plants by a complete nutrient solution, with the following composition, in mmol L-1: 5.5 of KNO3; 1.3 of KH2PO4; 2.75 of Ca(NO32; 0.75 of MgSO4, with iron chelate and micronutrients. The treatment T2 was the nutrient solution described above, with 11.0mmolN L-1. For treatment T1, the N concentration of the nutrient solution was reduced to 5.5mmolN L-1, whereas for T3 it was increased to 15.16mmolN L-1. A randomised experimental design was used, with four replications and 15 plants per plot. Plants were harvested at 33, 48, 55, 62, 69, 76 and 83 days after planting (DAP in autumn, and at 55, 62, 69, 78, 85 and 92 DAP in spring, to measure plant growth and development. Crop yield was determined by fresh weight of fruits. The number of leaves was lower on T3 plants in autumn and spring, whereas the number of fruits was higher on T1 plants in spring. The dynamics of fruit dry mass accumulation did not show significant differences among treatments in autumn. In spring, the lowest value of this variable was recorded on T3 plants. Mean values of fresh fruit weight reached 5.4; 5

  17. Benefits of seasonal forecasts of crop yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, G.; Okada, M.; Nishimori, M.; Yokozawa, M.

    2017-12-01

    Major factors behind recent fluctuations in food prices include increased biofuel production and oil price fluctuations. In addition, several extreme climate events that reduced worldwide food production coincided with upward spikes in food prices. The stabilization of crop yields is one of the most important tasks to stabilize food prices and thereby enhance food security. Recent development of technologies related to crop modeling and seasonal weather forecasting has made it possible to forecast future crop yields for maize and soybean. However, the effective use of these technologies remains limited. Here we present the potential benefits of seasonal crop-yield forecasts on a global scale for choice of planting day. For this purpose, we used a model (PRYSBI-2) that can well replicate past crop yields both for maize and soybean. This model system uses a Bayesian statistical approach to estimate the parameters of a basic process-based model of crop growth. The spatial variability of model parameters was considered by estimating the posterior distribution of the parameters from historical yield data by using the Markov-chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method with a resolution of 1.125° × 1.125°. The posterior distributions of model parameters were estimated for each spatial grid with 30 000 MCMC steps of 10 chains each. By using this model and the estimated parameter distributions, we were able to estimate not only crop yield but also levels of associated uncertainty. We found that the global average crop yield increased about 30% as the result of the optimal selection of planting day and that the seasonal forecast of crop yield had a large benefit in and near the eastern part of Brazil and India for maize and the northern area of China for soybean. In these countries, the effects of El Niño and Indian Ocean dipole are large. The results highlight the importance of developing a system to forecast global crop yields.

  18. Pork loin quality is not indicative of fresh belly or fresh and cured ham quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkfeld, E K; Wilson, K B; Overholt, M F; Harsh, B N; Lowell, J E; Hogan, E K; Klehm, B J; Bohrer, B M; Mohrhauser, D A; King, D A; Wheeler, T L; Dilger, A C; Shackelford, S D; Boler, D D

    2016-12-01

    The objective was to characterize the relationship between fresh loin quality with fresh belly or fresh and cured ham quality. Pigs raised in 8 barns representing 2 seasons [cold ( = 4,290) and hot ( = 3,394)] and 2 production focuses [lean ( = 3,627) and quality ( = 4,057)] were used. Carcass characteristics and other meat quality data were collected on 7,684 carcasses. All of the carcasses were evaluated for HCW, LM depth, tenth rib fat depth, leg (ham primal) weight, instrumental color on the gluteus medius and gluteus profundus of the ham face, and subjective loin quality. Instrumental loin color and ultimate pH (≥ 22 h postmortem) were collected on the ventral side of loins along with dimensions and firmness scores of fresh bellies from 50% of the carcasses. Ten percent of the boneless loins and fresh hams were evaluated for slice shear force (SSF) or cured ham characteristics. Correlation coefficients between traits were computed using the CORR procedure of SAS and considered significantly different from 0 at ≤ 0.05. Temperature decline, beginning at 31 min postmortem and concluding at 22 h postmortem, for the longissimus dorsi and semimembranosus muscles were evaluated on 10% of the carcasses. Ultimate loin pH was correlated with dimensional belly characteristics ( ≥ |0.07|; ham instrumental color ( ≥ |0.03|; ≤ 0.05), and semimembranosus ultimate pH ( = 0.33; hams. Instrumental L*on the ventral surface of the loin was related to L* on both muscles of the ham face ( ≤ 0.0001). Even though significant relationships between the loin, belly, and ham were detected, the variability in belly and ham quality explained by variability in loin quality was poor (≤ 22.09%). Compositional differences between the loin and belly may have contributed to those poor relationships. Additionally, differences in temperature declines during chilling between the loin and ham likely contributed to the weak nature of relationships. Equilibration of longissimus dorsi

  19. A comparative study of vascular injection fluids in fresh-frozen and embalmed human cadaver forearms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doomernik, D.E.; Kruse, R.R.; Reijnen, M.M.; Kozicz, T.; Kooloos, J.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Over the years, various vascular injection products have been developed to facilitate anatomical dissections. This study aimed to compare the most commonly used vascular injection products in fresh-frozen and formalin-embalmed cadaver specimens. An overview of the properties, advantages and

  20. Modelling the autoxidation of myoglobin in fresh meat under modified atmosphere packing conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tofteskov, Jon; Hansen, Jesper Schmidt; Bailey, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Modified atmosphere packing (MAP) is a technique to increase the shelf life of fresh meat. Continuing development of MAP requires better understanding of the physical and chemical processes taking place, in particular the diffusion of oxygen and its reaction with myoglobin. We model these processes...

  1. Factors affecting the status of food safety management systems in the global fresh produce chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirezieva, K.K.; Luning, P.A.; Jacxsens, L.; Allende, A.; Johannessen, G.S.; Tondo, E.C.; Rajkovicb, A.; Uyttendaele, M.; Boekel, van T.

    2015-01-01

    Increase in global trade raised questions regarding status of food safety management systems in fresh produce companies, especially from developing and emerging countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the status of food safety management systems (FSMSs) implemented at primary production

  2. Properties of Concrete Exposed to Running Fresh Water for 24 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

    2008-01-01

    A total of nine concretes, comprising three cement types, incorporation of fly ash, superplasticized high strength concrete and high performance concrete with microsilica, have been monitored during 24 years of exposure to running fresh water under Danish outdoor climatic conditions....... The compressive strength development has been measured, and durability aspects have been assessed after 6 and 21 years of exposure, with very positive results....

  3. Simulations on the prediction of cod (Gadus morhua) freshness from an intelligent packaging sensor concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heising, J.K.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Dekker, M.

    2015-01-01

    A non-destructive method that monitors changes in the freshness status of packed cod fillets has potential for the development of an intelligent packaging concept. The method is based on monitoring volatile compounds that dissolve and dissociate in the sensing aqueous phase. A mathematical model was

  4. The positive and negative influences of VMA's on the robustness of fresh self-compacting concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vurst, F.; Grunewald, S.; De Schutter, G.

    2015-01-01

    Over time, several mix design metliods liave been developed to obtain a selfcompacting concrete (SCC) with suitable fresh and hardened concrete properties. The very fluid concrete with no need for external compaction is achieved by using a higher powder content and the use of chemical admixtures.

  5. Development of Amorphous/Microcrystalline Silicon Tandem Thin-Film Solar Modules with Low Output Voltage, High Energy Yield, Low Light-Induced Degradation, and High Damp-Heat Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Yi Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, tandem amorphous/microcrystalline silicon thin-film solar modules with low output voltage, high energy yield, low light-induced degradation, and high damp-heat reliability were successfully designed and developed. Several key technologies of passivation, transparent-conducting-oxide films, and cell and segment laser scribing were researched, developed, and introduced into the production line to enhance the performance of these low-voltage modules. A 900 kWp photovoltaic system with these low-voltage panels was installed and its performance ratio has been simulated and projected to be 92.1%, which is 20% more than the crystalline silicon and CdTe counterparts.

  6. Crop diversity for yield increase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengyun Li

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional farming practices suggest that cultivation of a mixture of crop species in the same field through temporal and spatial management may be advantageous in boosting yields and preventing disease, but evidence from large-scale field testing is limited. Increasing crop diversity through intercropping addresses the problem of increasing land utilization and crop productivity. In collaboration with farmers and extension personnel, we tested intercropping of tobacco, maize, sugarcane, potato, wheat and broad bean--either by relay cropping or by mixing crop species based on differences in their heights, and practiced these patterns on 15,302 hectares in ten counties in Yunnan Province, China. The results of observation plots within these areas showed that some combinations increased crop yields for the same season between 33.2 and 84.7% and reached a land equivalent ratio (LER of between 1.31 and 1.84. This approach can be easily applied in developing countries, which is crucial in face of dwindling arable land and increasing food demand.

  7. Yield gains in leafy vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yield of all crops have increased during the past century through improved cultural practices and plant breeding. We reviewed gains in yield of lettuce and spinach in the U.S., principally California and Arizona. We proposed several genetic models for yield of lettuce based on the market type: whole...

  8. Innovative Fresh Water Production Process for Fossil Fuel Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight

    2006-09-29

    This project concerns a diffusion driven desalination (DDD) process where warm water is evaporated into a low humidity air stream, and the vapor is condensed out to produce distilled water. Although the process has a low fresh water to feed water conversion efficiency, it has been demonstrated that this process can potentially produce low cost distilled water when driven by low grade waste heat. This report summarizes the progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze the diffusion tower using a heated water input are described. The analyses agree quite well with the current data and the information available in the literature. The direct contact condenser has also been thoroughly analyzed and the system performance at optimal operating conditions has been considered using a heated water/ambient air input to the diffusion tower. The diffusion tower has also been analyzed using a heated air input. The DDD laboratory facility has successfully been modified to include an air heating section. Experiments have been conducted over a range of parameters for two different cases: heated air/heated water and heated air/ambient water. A theoretical heat and mass transfer model has been examined for both of these cases and agreement between the experimental and theoretical data is good. A parametric study reveals that for every liquid mass flux there is an air mass flux value where the diffusion tower energy consumption is minimal and an air mass flux where the fresh water production flux is maximized. A study was also performed to compare the DDD process with different inlet operating conditions as well as different packing. It is shown that the heated air/heated water case is more capable of greater fresh water production with the same energy consumption than the ambient air/heated water process at high liquid mass flux. It is also shown that there can be

  9. Prediction of egg freshness during storage using electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimenu, Samuel M; Kim, J Y; Kim, B S

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of a fast gas chromatography (GC) e-nose for freshness discrimination and for prediction of storage time as well as sensory and internal quality changes during storage of hen eggs. All samples were obtained from the same egg production farm and stored at 20 °C for 20 d. Egg sampling was conducted every 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 16, and 20 d. During each sampling time, 4 egg cartons (each containing 10 eggs) were randomly selected: one carton for Haugh units, one carton for sensory evaluation and 2 cartons for the e-nose experiment. The e-nose study included 2 independent test sets; calibration (35 samples) and validation (28 samples). Every sampling time, 5 replicates were prepared from one egg carton for calibration samples and 4 replicates were prepared from the remaining egg carton for validation samples. Sensors (peaks) were selected prior to multivariate chemometric analysis; qualitative sensors for principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant factor analysis (DFA) and quantitative sensors for partial least square (PLS) modeling. PCA and DFA confirmed the difference in volatile profiles of egg samples from 7 different storage times accounting for a total variance of 95.7% and 93.71%, respectively. Models for predicting storage time, Haugh units, odor score, and overall acceptability score from e-nose data were developed using calibration samples by PLS regression. The results showed that these quality indices were well predicted from the e- nose signals, with correlation coefficients of R2 = 0.9441, R2 = 0.9511, R2 = 0.9725, and R2 = 0.9530 and with training errors of 0.887, 1.24, 0.626, and 0.629, respectively. As a result of ANOVA, most of the PLS model results were not significantly (P > 0.05) different from the corresponding reference values. These results proved that the fast GC electronic nose has the potential to assess egg freshness and feasibility to predict multiple egg freshness indices

  10. Analysis of yield-attributing traits for high-yielding wheat lines in southwestern Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midori Okami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Development of wheat cultivars that achieve high yields despite the short growing season is essential for increasing wheat production in southwestern Japan. The objectives of this study were to assess the genetic progress in grain yield and to clarify yield-attributing traits of high-yielding wheat lines in southwestern Japan. We conducted field experiments for two growing seasons (2012–2013 and 2013–2014 using three commercial wheat cultivars (Shiroganekomugi, Chikugoizumi, and Iwainodaichi and four high-yielding wheat lines including Hakei W1380 developed in southwestern Japan. In an ancillary field experiment, we compared a commercial cultivar, Shiroganekomugi, and a high-yielding line, Hakei W1380, in the 2014–2015 season. Across the two seasons, grain yield of high-yielding lines was generally higher than commercial cultivars. Hakei W1380 achieved the highest grain yield across the two seasons, and successfully produced more than 900 g m−2 in the 2013–2014 season. Correlation analysis showed that recent yield progress of wheat lines in southwestern Japan was derived from enhanced biomass production and grain number m−2. Larger numbers of grains m−2 in high-yielding lines than in commercial cultivars were associated with higher crop growth rate at the pre-anthesis stage, and therefore higher spike dry weight m−2 at anthesis. Genotypic differences in crop growth rate from jointing to anthesis resulted mainly from differences in leaf area index. These results indicate that further improvements in grain yield in southwestern Japan could be achieved by increasing the amount of radiation intercepted at the pre-anthesis stage and grain number m−2.

  11. Np Analysis of Freshly Separated Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HODGE, CHRISTOPHERA.

    2004-06-28

    Np analysis has historically relied upon the Pa/Np secular equilibrium for quantitative results. The Savannah River Site has recently undertaken a mission concerning Np. In this application, Np is separated from Pa, packaged, possibly mixed with other batches, and assayed. The fresh separation and mixing of batches prevents the use of the Pa133 prodigy peaks for assay. This effort was a developmental project novel in the DOE complex. This paper discusses the challenges encountered in the design of instrumentation to assay Np directly. The most abundant Np peak that is unfettered by Pa prodigy, Am, or other SNM materials is the 29.6keV. Quantitative measurement of such a low energy peak presents significant problems with attenuation, Compton effects, and other such issues that arise while trying to maximize the effects of low energy peaks. The solutions rely on exploiting the ''tried and true'' methods with regard to shielding, detector technology, and calibration techniques, but wit h a very low energy perspective. The results are intriguing and, with some assumptions regarding sample homogeneity, quantitative within normal MC and A statistics.

  12. Np Analysis of Freshly Separated Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, Christopher A.

    2004-01-01

    Np analysis has historically relied upon the Pa/Np secular equilibrium for quantitative results. The Savannah River Site has recently undertaken a mission concerning Np. In this application, Np is separated from Pa, packaged, possibly mixed with other batches, and assayed. The fresh separation and mixing of batches prevents the use of the Pa133 prodigy peaks for assay. This effort was a developmental project novel in the DOE complex. This paper discusses the challenges encountered in the design of instrumentation to assay Np directly. The most abundant Np peak that is unfettered by Pa prodigy, Am, or other SNM materials is the 29.6keV. Quantitative measurement of such a low energy peak presents significant problems with attenuation, Compton effects, and other such issues that arise while trying to maximize the effects of low energy peaks. The solutions rely on exploiting the ''tried and true'' methods with regard to shielding, detector technology, and calibration techniques, but wit h a very low energy perspective. The results are intriguing and, with some assumptions regarding sample homogeneity, quantitative within normal MC and A statistics

  13. Perioperative coagulation management--fresh frozen plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kor, Daryl J; Stubbs, James R; Gajic, Ognjen

    2010-03-01

    Clinical studies support the use of perioperative fresh frozen plasma (FFP) in patients who are actively bleeding with multiple coagulation factor deficiencies and for the prevention of dilutional coagulopathy in patients with major trauma and/or massive haemorrhage. In these settings, current FFP dosing recommendations may be inadequate. However, a substantial proportion of FFP is transfused in non-bleeding patients with mild elevations in coagulation screening tests. This practice is not supported by the literature, is unlikely to be of benefit and unnecessarily exposes patients to the risks of FFP. The role of FFP in reversing the effects of warfarin anticoagulation is dependent on the clinical context and availability of alternative agents. Although FFP is commonly transfused in patients with liver disease, this practice needs broad reconsideration. Adverse effects of FFP include febrile and allergic reactions, transfusion-associated circulatory overload and transfusion-related acute lung injury. The latter is the most serious complication, being less common with the preferential use of non-alloimmunised, male-donor predominant plasma. FP24 and thawed plasma are alternatives to FFP with similar indications for administration. Both provide an opportunity for increasing the safe plasma donor pool. Although prothrombin complex concentrates and factor VIIa may be used as alternatives to FFP in a variety of specific clinical contexts, additional study is needed.

  14. 9 CFR 319.141 - Fresh pork sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh pork sausage. 319.141 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Sausage Generally: Fresh...

  15. Modified atmosphere packaging for fresh fruits and vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) for fresh fruits and vegetables has been successfully used in practices for decades. However, based on the review of published studies in this area, the research on MAP for fresh fruits and vegetables was still very active in the last few years. These suggest th...

  16. Online exploration for detecting shifts in fresh intent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefortier, D.; Serdyukov, P.; de Rijke, M.; Li, J.; Wang, X.S.

    2014-01-01

    In web search, recency ranking refers to the task of ranking documents while taking into account freshness as one of the criteria of their relevance. There are two approaches to recency ranking. One focuses on extending existing learning to rank algorithms to optimize for both freshness and

  17. Biodegradability of unused lubricating brake fluids in fresh and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Proteus, Escherichia, Micrococcus, Arthrobacter, Enterobacter and Citrobacter was implicated in the biodegradation process in fresh water, while Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Enterobacter and Citrobacter was implicated in the marine water source. Similarly, the moulds encountered from the fresh water were, ...

  18. Rheological Characteristics of Fresh and Dried Okra Dispersions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rheological properties of fresh and dried okra dispersions were investigated at different temperatures using power-law model. Sun-dried and oven-dried okra dispersions were more viscous than the fresh okra dispersion. All samples exhibited pseudoplastic behaviour with flow indices of 0.220 ≤ n ≤ 0.319, 0.182 ≤ n ...

  19. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Fresh and Dried Moringa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The preliminary phytochemical screening of the crude aqueous extract of fresh and dried Moringa oleifera leaves, of the organic solvent and residual fractions of the extract was carried out according to the standard methods. Chemical constituents of the crude aqueous extract of the fresh leaves were found to be tannins, ...

  20. 78 FR 6227 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    .... Mitigations for C. funebrana Under proposed Sec. 319.56-58(f), APHIS would require the NPPO of Spain to use.... APHIS-2011-0132] RIN 0579-AD62 Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and... continental Spain. As a condition of entry, fresh apricots from continental Spain would have to be produced in...

  1. Rumen dry matter degradability of fresh and ensiled sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition and in situ ruminal degradability of fresh (FSC) and ensiled (ESC) sugarcane. In situ dry matter degradability (DMD) was determined using the nylon bag technique with four cows equipped ruminal fistulas. Cows were fed with fresh or ensiled sugarcane and ...

  2. Phytosanitary irradiation and fresh fruit quality: Cultivar and maturity effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irradiation is an effective quarantine treatment for global trade of fresh produce. Variation in cultivars and maturity stages can impact the tolerance of fresh fruits to irradiation for the purposes of quarantine security. Tolerance thresholds for irradiated fruit are lacking for a large number of ...

  3. Robust model of fresh jujube soluble solids content with near ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A robust partial least square (PLS) calibration model with high accuracy and stability was established for the measurement of soluble solids content (SSC) of fresh jujube using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technique. Fresh jujube samples were collected in different areas of Taigu and Taiyuan cities, central China in ...

  4. Improving the safety of fresh fruit and vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongen, W.M.F.

    2005-01-01

    Fresh fruit and vegetables have been identified as a significant source of pathogens and chemical contaminants. As a result, there has been a wealth of research on identifying and controlling hazards at all stages in the supply chain. Improving the safety of fresh fruit and vegetables reviews this

  5. Quality Attributes of Fresh Palm Oils Produced from Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the physical and chemical qualities of fresh red palm oils produced from four selected communities around Anyigba town. Materials and Methods: Freshly prepared red palm oils were collected from four selected palm oil processing communities (Agbeji, Dekina, Agala-ate and Egume) around ...

  6. Cultivation, isolation and characterization of bacteriocin from fresh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focus on cultivation, isolation and characterization of Bacteriocin from fresh cow milk (FCM) and fresh cow meat (FMS) samples obtained from Lapai Market in Niger State, Nigeria. Potential bacteriocinogenic bacteria were screened with agar diffusion method on culture plates seeded with Staphylococcus and ...

  7. Incidence of staphylococcus aureus in locally produced fresh milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the incidence of the bacterial organism Staphylococcus, aureus in locally produced fresh milk (nono). The fresh milk was obtained from the Damaturu main market, Yobe state of Nigeria. Petri dishes were washed and allowed to dry. They were then sterilized in hot air oven at 130°C for two hours and ...

  8. Investigation on the antifungal properties of freshly pressed garlic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background : Modern science is tending to confirm many of the beliefs of ancient cultures regarding efficacy of garlic. In this paper we report the antifungal effects of freshly pressed juice of garlic on the major pathogenic fungi. Methods: Freshly pressed juice of varying concentrations of garlic were assessed for their ...

  9. DEVELOPMENT AND YIELD OF WHITE YAM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ar1:|neat of Crop Science, Mainezere University,. P.O. Box 7062 .... staking treatment, plants were staked 42 and 56 days after transplanting (DAT) in 1985 and 1986, respectively. Experimental measurements. Crop growth was ... Weekly mean soil temperature (°C) in yam minisetts grown underdifierent mulching materials.

  10. Declining water yield from forested mountain watersheds in response to climate change and forest mesophication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter V. Caldwell; Chelcy F. Miniat; Katherine J. Elliott; Wayne. T. Swank; Steven T. Brantley; Stephanie H. Laseter

    2016-01-01

    Climate change and forest disturbances are threatening the ability of forested mountain watersheds to provide the clean, reliable, and abundant fresh water necessary to support aquatic ecosystems and a growing human population. Here we used 76 years of water yield, climate, and field plot vegetation measurements in six unmanaged, reference watersheds in the southern...

  11. Effect of size grading on the essential oil yield and composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essential oil of freshly harvested 12 months mature ginger rhizomes graded based on their thickness, according to three commonly occuring sizes (big, medium and small) were extracted and subjected to GC-MS evaluation, in order to establish likely variation in yield and identify possible compositional differences ...

  12. udder and teat traits as possible selection markers for milk yield in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Butswat

    udder and teat traits with their relationships with partial daily milk yield (PDM) in goats. The goat breeds studied were Red Sokoto, .... animals as a result of intense suckling of kids or milking. Table 1: Udder and teat traits (cm) in goats .... quality of fresh cow milk offered for sale in parts of. Plateau State of Nigeria. Nigerian ...

  13. Increasing plant density in eastern United States broccoli production systems to maximize marketable head yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased demand for fresh market broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has led to increased production along the eastern seaboard of the United States. Maximizing broccoli yields is a primary concern for quickly expanding eastern commercial markets. Thus, a plant density study was carried ...

  14. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  15. Development of methods to measure virus inactivation in fresh waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, R L; Winston, P E

    1985-11-01

    This study concerns the identification and correction of deficiencies in methods used to measure inactivation rates of enteric viruses seeded into environmental waters. It was found that viable microorganisms in an environmental water sample increased greatly after addition of small amounts of nutrients normally present in the unpurified seed virus preparation. This burst of microbial growth was not observed after seeding the water with purified virus. The use of radioactively labeled poliovirus revealed that high percentages of virus particles, sometimes greater than 99%, were lost through adherence to containers, especially in less turbid waters. This effect was partially overcome by the use of polypropylene containers and by the absence of movement during incubation. Adherence to containers clearly demonstrated the need for labeled viruses to monitor losses in this type of study. Loss of viral infectivity in samples found to occur during freezing was avoided by addition of broth. Finally, microbial contamination of the cell cultures during infectivity assays was overcome by the use of gentamicin and increased concentrations of penicillin, streptomycin, and amphotericin B.

  16. Development of methods to measure virus inactivation in fresh waters.

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, R L; Winston, P E

    1985-01-01

    This study concerns the identification and correction of deficiencies in methods used to measure inactivation rates of enteric viruses seeded into environmental waters. It was found that viable microorganisms in an environmental water sample increased greatly after addition of small amounts of nutrients normally present in the unpurified seed virus preparation. This burst of microbial growth was not observed after seeding the water with purified virus. The use of radioactively labeled poliovi...

  17. The History of Variable Stars: A Fresh Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, R. A.

    2012-06-01

    (Abstract only) For historians of astronomy, variable stars are important for a simple reason - stars change. But good evidence suggests this is a very modern idea. Over the millennia, our species has viewed stars as eternal and unchanging, forever fixed in time and space - indeed, the Celestial Dance was a celebration of order, reason, and stability. But everything changed in the period between Copernicus and Newton. According to tradition, two New Stars announced the birth of the New Science. Blazing across the celestial stage, Tycho's Star (1572) and Kepler's Star (1604) appeared dramatically - and just as unexpectedly - disappeared forever. But variable stars were different. Mira Ceti, the oldest, brightest, and most controversial variable star, was important because it appeared and disappeared again and again. Mira was important because it did not go away. The purpose of this essay is to take a fresh look at the history of variable stars. In re-thinking the traditional narrative, I begin with the first sightings of David Fabricius (1596) and his contemporaries - particularly Hevelius (1662) and Boulliau (1667) - to new traditions that unfolded from Newton and Maupertuis to Herschel (1780) and Pigott (1805). The essay concludes with important 19th-century developments, particularly by Argelander (1838), Pickering (1888), and Lockyer (1890). Across three centuries, variable stars prompted astronomers to re-think all the ways that stars were no longer "fixed." New strategies were needed. Astronomers needed to organize, to make continuous observations, to track changing magnitudes, and to explain stellar phases. Importantly - as Mira suggested from the outset - these challenges called for an army of observers with the discipline of Spartans. But recruiting that army required a strategy, a set of theories with shared expectations. Observation and theory worked hand-in-hand. In presenting new historical evidence from neglected printed sources and unpublished

  18. Pathogen detection, testing, and control in fresh broccoli sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahey Jed W

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent increased interest in consuming green vegetable sprouts has been tempered by the fact that fresh sprouts can in some cases be vehicles for food-borne illnesses. They must be grown according to proper conditions of sanitation and handled as a food product rather than as an agricultural commodity. When sprouts are grown in accordance with the criteria proposed from within the sprout industry, developed by regulatory agencies, and adhered to by many sprouters, green sprouts can be produced with very low risk. Contamination may occur when these guidelines are not followed. Methods A one year program of microbial hold-and-release testing, conducted in concert with strict seed and facility cleaning procedures by 13 U.S. broccoli sprout growers was evaluated. Microbial contamination tests were performed on 6839 drums of sprouts, equivalent to about 5 million consumer packages of fresh green sprouts. Results Only 24 (0.75% of the 3191 sprout samples gave an initial positive test for Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella spp., and when re-tested, 3 drums again tested positive. Composite testing (e.g., pooling up to 7 drums for pathogen testing was equally sensitive to single drum testing. Conclusion By using a "test-and-re-test" protocol, growers were able to minimize crop destruction. By pooling drums for testing, they were also able to reduce testing costs which now represent a substantial portion of the costs associated with sprout growing. The test-and-hold scheme described herein allowed those few batches of contaminated sprouts to be found prior to packaging and shipping. These events were isolated, and only safe sprouts entered the food supply.

  19. Wettability contrasts between fresh and weathered diesel fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Stephanie S; O'Carroll, Denis M; Gerhard, Jason I

    2013-01-01

    The remediation of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contaminated sites is impeded due to subsurface complexities, including wettability. Wettability quantifies which of two immiscible fluids preferentially coats a solid. At most contaminated sites water-wetting conditions are typically assumed despite mounting evidence that this is not always the case. In this study, wettability was examined for two NAPL samples of contrasting origin: a fresh and a field sample. Wettability was assessed through (i) cyclical, 'cumulative elapsed contact time' intrinsic contact angle measurements, (ii) interface jar tests, and (iii) cyclical, pseudo-static capillary pressure-saturation curves. The work as a whole demonstrated that while the fresh diesel sample was consistently water-wet, the field diesel sample exhibited repeatable cycles of wettability reversal between water drainage and imbibition. And while wettability hysteresis increased with contact time for the field diesel, the occurrence of wettability reversal at each change of saturation direction was independent of contact time. Such behavior is not easily assessed by standard wettability indices. Moreover, it contrasts with the permanent wettability alteration observed for complex organics (e.g., coal tar) observed in most studies. It is hypothesized that the cyclical wettability reversal is related to cyclical changes in intermediate pore wettability due to sorption of surface active compounds (causing NAPL-wetting imbibition) and rupturing of the soil grain water film (causing water-wet drainage). The wettability differences between the two NAPLs may be due to additives (i.e., a surfactant) in the original formulation and/or byproducts from subsurface weathering. These results support better characterization of site-specific wettability, improved model development and more realistic site conceptual models for improved remediation efforts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Iron bioavailability from fresh cheese fortified with iron-enriched yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatier, Magalie; Egli, Ines; Hurrell, Richard; Hoppler, Mathias; Gysler, Christof; Georgeon, Sandrine; Mukherje, Rajat; Richon, Pierre-Alain; Vigo, Mario; Foman, Jasmin Tajeri; Zeder, Christophe; Schaffer-Lequart, Christelle

    2017-06-01

    An iron-enriched yeast able to lyse at body temperature was developed for iron fortification of chilled dairy products. The aim was to evaluate iron (Fe) absorption from iron-enriched yeast or ferrous sulfate added to fresh cheese. Two stable isotope studies with a crossover design were conducted in 32 young women. Fe absorption from fresh cheese fortified with iron-enriched yeast (2.5 mg 58 Fe) was compared to that from ferrous sulfate (2.5 mg 57 Fe) when ingested with fresh cheese alone or with fresh cheese consumed with bread and butter. Iron absorption was determined based on erythrocyte incorporation of isotopic labels 14 days after consumption of the last test meal. Geometric mean fractional iron absorption from fresh cheese fortified with iron-enriched yeast consumed alone was significantly lower than from the cheese fortified with FeSO 4 (20.5 vs. 28.7 %; p = 0.0007). When the fresh cheese was consumed with bread and butter, iron absorption from both fortificants decreased to 6.9 % from the iron-enriched yeast compared to 8.4 % from ferrous sulfate. The relative bioavailability of the iron-enriched yeast compared to ferrous sulfate was 0.72 for the cheese consumed alone and 0.82 for cheese consumed with bread and butter (p = 0.157). Iron from iron-enriched yeast was 72-82 % as well absorbed as ferrous sulfate indicating that the yeast lysed during digestion and released its iron.

  1. Hot topic: Antilisterial activity by endolysin PlyP100 in fresh cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tassell, Maxwell L; Ibarra-Sánchez, Luis A; Hoepker, Garrett P; Miller, Michael J

    2017-04-01

    Our objective was to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of a Listeria bacteriophage endolysin that may address limitations of current antilisterial processes for fresh cheeses. Listeria monocytogenes is highly problematic in the manufacture and processing of ready-to-eat foods due to its environmental persistence and its ability to grow under refrigerated storage. Special care must be taken to prevent listerial contamination during the production of fresh cheeses, as their delicate flavor and texture are incompatible with many of the antimicrobial processes and additives commonly used for other foods. Bacteriophage-derived cell wall hydrolytic enzymes, known as endolysins, comprise one possible intervention that may not suffer from the high strain specificity of their parent bacteriophages or the development of resistant strains. We recombinantly expressed endolysin PlyP100 and compared its lytic activity in vitro across several environmental parameters and target organisms, then incorporated it into a fresh cheese model challenged with a cocktail of L. monocytogenes. We show that PlyP100 demonstrates optimal activity under pH and salt concentrations consistent with a low-acid food matrix such as fresh cheese. Furthermore, we show that PlyP100 exhibits target specificity for gram-positive organisms with directly crosslinked peptidoglycan and displays considerable inhibitory activity against L. monocytogenes in fresh cheese for at least 4 wk under refrigerated storage. As PlyP100 demonstrates considerable promise for preventing the propagation of L. monocytogenes in fresh cheeses, this novel preservation method could help safeguard consumer health and the market expansion of an otherwise high-risk food with few other viable preservatives. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Highly crystalline carbon dots from fresh tomato: UV emission and quantum confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weijian; Li, Chun; Sun, Xiaobo; Pan, Wei; Yu, Guifeng; Wang, Jinping

    2017-12-01

    In this article, fresh tomatoes are explored as a low-cost source to prepare high-performance carbon dots by using microwave-assisted pyrolysis. Given that amino groups might act as nucleophiles for cleaving covalent bridging ester or ether in the crosslinked macromolecules in the biomass bulk, ethylenediamine (EDA) and urea with amino groups were applied as nucleophiles to modulate the chemical composites of the carbon nanoparticles in order to tune their fluorescence emission and enhance their quantum yields. Very interestingly, the carbon dots synthesized in the presence of urea had a highly crystalline nature, a low-degree amorphous surface and were smaller than 5 nm. Moreover, the doped N contributed to the formation of a cyclic form of core that resulted in a strong electron-withdrawing ability within the conjugated C plane. Therefore, this type of carbon dot exhibited marked quantum confinement, with the maximum fluorescence peak located in the UV region. Carbon nanoparticles greater than 20 nm in size, prepared using pristine fresh tomato and in the presence of EDA, emitted surface state controlled fluorescence. Additionally, carbon nanoparticles synthesized using fresh tomato pulp in the presence of EDA and urea were explored for bioimaging of plant pathogenic fungi and the detection of vanillin.

  3. Purification of papain from fresh latex of Carica papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Monti

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we wish to report a method of crystallizing papain from fresh papaya latex which gave higher yields than previously reported. This method does not involve the use of sulphydryl reagents. The papain thus obtained is practically pure and shows a single band when submitted to electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel, and is identical to the papain obtained by other methods. In routine enzymatic assays, specific activity was measured using Z-gly-pNP and BAEE as substrates. Papain crystallized by this method, without the use of high concentrations of salts or thiol-containing substances such as cysteine and dithiothreitol, is obtained in the form of a complex with natural inhibitors existent in latex which can be removed by dialysis.No presente trabalho apresenta-se um método de cristalização da papaína oriunda do látex fresco de mamão, o qual apresenta uma alta produtividade em relação aos métodos previamente descritos. A metodologia aqui descrita não envolve o uso de reagentes sulfidrílicos, a papaína foi obtida de forma praticamente pura, apresentando uma simples banda quando submetida a eletroforese, e com propriedades idênticas àquelas obtidas por outros métodos. A atividade específica foi determinada utilizando Z-gly-pNP e BAEE como substrato. A papaína obtida por essa metodologia, sem uso de substâncias tais como cisteína e ditiotreitol, apresenta-se na forma de um complexo com inibidores naturais, os quais podem ser removidos por diálise.

  4. Yield and gas exchange ability of sweetpotato plants cultured in a hydroponic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaya, Y.; Hirai, H.; Saiful Islam, A. F. M.; Yamamoto, M.

    Life support of crews in space is greatly dependent on the amounts of food atmospheric O 2 and clean water produced by plants Therefore the space farming systems with scheduling of crop production obtaining high yields with a rapid turnover rate converting atmospheric CO 2 to O 2 and purifying water should be established with employing suitable plant species and varieties and precisely controlling environmental variables around plants grown at a high density in a limited space In this study three sweetpotato varieties were cultured in a newly developed hydroponic system and the yield the photosynthetic rate and the transpiration rate were compared on the earth as a fundamental study for establishing the space farming systems The varieties were Elegant summer Koukei 14 and Beniazuma The hydroponic system mainly consisted of water channels and rockwool boards A growing space for roots was made between the rockwool board and nutrient solution in the water channel Storage roots were developed on the lower surface of the rockwool plates Fresh weights of the storage roots were 1 6 1 2 and 0 6 kg plant for Koukei 14 Elegant summer and Beniazuma respectively grown for five months from June to October under the sun light in Osaka Japan Koukei 14 and Elegant summer produced greater total phytomass than Beniazuma There were positive correlations among the total phytomass the net photosynthetic rate and the transpiration rate Young stems and leaves as well as storage roots of Elegant summer are edible Therefore Elegant-summer

  5. Effect Of Conjunctive Use Of Water On Yield Components And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Availability of irrigation water at reasonable cost is one of the most important factors for agricultural development. Conjunctive use of fresh and sewage water can successfully be adopted for cultivation. An experiment was laid out at the research plot of Allahabad Agricultural Institute-Deemed University, Allahabad, India in a ...

  6. Evolution Projects Yield Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2010-01-01

    When a federal court in 2005 rejected an attempt by the Dover, Pennsylvania, school board to introduce intelligent design as an alternative to evolution to explain the development of life on Earth, it sparked a renaissance in involvement among scientists in K-12 science instruction. Now, some of those teaching programs, studies, and research…

  7. Bipolar fresh osteochondral allograft of the ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, Sandro; Buda, Roberto; Grigolo, Brunella; Bevoni, Roberto; Di Caprio, Francesco; Ruffilli, Alberto; Cavallo, Marco; Desando, Giovanna; Vannini, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    Severe post-traumatic ankle arthritis poses a reconstructive challenge in the young and active patient. Bipolar fresh osteochondral allograft (BFOA) may represent an intriguing alternative to arthrodesis and prosthetic replacement. The aim of this study was to describe a lateral trans-malleolar technique for BFOA, and to evaluate the results in a case series. From 2004 to 2006, 32 patients, mean age of 36.8 +/- 8.4 years, affected by ankle arthritis underwent BFOA with a mean followup of 31.2 months. The graft was prepared by specifically designed jigs, including the talus and the tibia with the medial malleolus. The host surfaces were prepared by the same jigs through a lateral approach. The graft was placed and fixed with twist-off screws. Patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically at 2, 4, and 6 month after operation, and at a minimum 24 months followup. A biopsy of the grafted areas was obtained from 7 patients at 1-year followup for histological and immunohistochemical examination. Preoperative AOFAS score was 33.1 +/- 10.9 and postoperatively 69.5 +/- 19.4 (p < 0.0005). Six failures occurred. Cartilage harvests showed hyaline-like histology with a normal collagen component but low proteoglycan presence and a disorganized structure. Samples were positive for MMP-1, MMP-13 and Capsase-3. The use of BFOA represents an intriguing alternative to arthrodesis or arthroplasty. We believe precise allograft sizing, stable fitting and fixation and delayed weightbearing were key factors for a successful outcome. Further research regarding the immunological behavior of transplanted cartilage is needed.

  8. Growth characteristics and biofilm formation of various spoilage bacteria isolated from fresh produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Young-Min; Zheng, Ling; Hyun, Jeong-Eun; Jung, Kyu-Seok; Heu, Sunggi; Lee, Sun-Young

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the characteristics of spoilage bacteria isolated from fresh produce including growth at various temperatures, biofilm formation, cell hydrophobicity, and colony spreading. The number of spoilage bacteria present when stored at 35 °C was significantly greater than when stored at lower temperatures, and maximum population size was achieved after 10 h. However, Bacillus pumilus, Dickeya zeae, Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. Carotovorum Pcc21, and Bacillus pumilus (RDA-R) did not grow at the storage temperature of 5 °C. The biofilm formation by Clavibacter michiganensis, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, and A. calcoaceticus (RDA-R) are higher than other spoilage bacteria. Biofilm formation showed low correlation between hydrophobicity, and no significant correlation with colony spreading. These results might be used for developing safe storage guidelines for fresh produce at various storage temperatures, and could be basic information on the growth characteristics and biofilm formation properties of spoilage bacteria from fresh produce. Growth of spoilage bacteria was different depending on the bacteria strains and storage temperature. Between biofilm formation and cell hydrophobicity was low correlation on spoilage bacteria. Therefore, growth characteristics and biofilm formation of spoilage bacteria might be used for developing safe storage guidelines for fresh produce at various storage temperatures. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Effect of density and planting pattern on yield and yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    alireza yadavi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate competition ability of Grain maize (Zea mays L. against redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L. a field experiment was conducted at Esfahan on 2003. In this research the effect of corn spatial arrangement on yield and yield components of corn (647 Three Way Cross hybrids under different levels of redroot pigweed infestation was investigated. Treatments were arranged in a factorial split experiment based on RCBD with three replications. Factorial arrangement of corn densities (74000 and 111000 plant ha-1 and planting patterns (single row, rectangular twin row and zigzag twin row formed the main plots. Split-plots referred to pigweed densities (0, 4, 8 and 12 plant m-1. Results showed that both grain and biological yield of corn increased as corn density rates increased but rows number per cob, number of grains per row of cob and 1000 grains weight decreased. The effects of planting arrangement on yield and yield components despite rows grain in cob, 1000 seeds weight and harvest index were statistically significant. Corn grain yield and yield components decreased significantly by increasing pigweed density. The effect of redroot pigweed density on corn grain and biological yield loss was predicted using Cousence hyperbolic yield equation. It showed that maximum grain yield loss and biological yield loss happened in single row arrangement and low corn density. Rows number per cob and grain numbers per row in higher corn density treatment showed lower reduction slopes under pigweed competition. In addition, grain rows numbers per cob and corn harvest index in twin arrangement treatments decreased lower than single row treatment under pigweed competition. The results of this research indicated that corn competition ability against redroot pigweed could be increased using dense population (1/5 fold of general density and zigzag twin row arrangement.

  10. Listeria monocytogenes in Fresh Produce: Outbreaks, Prevalence and Contamination Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes, a member of the genus Listeria, is widely distributed in agricultural environments, such as soil, manure and water. This organism is a recognized foodborne pathogenic bacterium that causes many diseases, from mild gastroenteritis to severe blood and/or central nervous system infections, as well as abortion in pregnant women. Generally, processed ready-to-eat and cold-stored meat and dairy products are considered high-risk foods for L. monocytogenes infections that cause human illness (listeriosis. However, recently, several listeriosis outbreaks have been linked to fresh produce contamination around the world. Additionally, many studies have detected L. monocytogenes in fresh produce samples and even in some minimally processed vegetables. Thus L. monocytogenes may contaminate fresh produce if present in the growing environment (soil and water. Prevention of biofilm formation is an important control measure to reduce the prevalence and survival of L. monocytogenes in growing environments and on fresh produce. This article specifically focuses on fresh produce–associated listeriosis outbreaks, prevalence in growing environments, contamination levels of fresh produce, and associated fresh produce safety challenges.

  11. Does the number of oocytes retrieved influence pregnancy after fresh embryo transfer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianfang Cai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The nature of the association between the number of oocytes retrieved and in vitro fertilization (IVF outcomes after fresh embryo transfer remains unclear because of conflicting results reported in the studies on this subject. In addition, the influence of the quality of the embryos transferred is usually neglected. The objective of this study is to assess the relationships of the number of oocytes retrieved, the number and quality of embryos transferred, and the prospects of pregnancy after fresh embryo transfer. METHODS: The data on 3131 infertile women undergoing their first IVF treatment cycle between January 2009 and December 2010 were collected retrospectively. Restricted cubic splines and stratified analyses were used to explore the relationships between the number of oocytes retrieved, the number and quality of embryos transferred, and the IVF outcomes. RESULTS: When stratified by the number and quality of transferred embryos, no significant differences in the chances for clinical pregnancy and live birth were found in three groups of oocytes yielded (≤6, 7-14, or ≥15. The relationship between the number of oocytes retrieved and pregnancy is nearly a reflection of the pattern of the relationship between the number of oocytes retrieved and the probability of having two good-quality embryos transferred. The patients with the "optimal" number of oocytes were not only younger but also had the highest probability of having two good-quality embryos replaced. CONCLUSIONS: Similarly aged patients have similar pregnancy prospects after fresh embryo transfer when the same number and quality of embryos are replaced, irrespective of their number of oocytes. Selecting the desired number of good-quality embryos for transfer is the key to IVF success. Thus, aiming at retrieving an optimal number of oocytes to maximize IVF outcomes in a fresh cycle could place undue stress on the patients and may not be the best medical decision.

  12. Leaching of heavy metals and alkylphenolic compounds from fresh and dried sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinovic, Jelena; Vidal, Miquel; Lacorte, Silvia; Rigol, Anna

    2014-02-01

    Reusing sewage sludge as a soil fertiliser has become a common alternative to disposal. Although this practice has a few benefits, it may contribute to the medium- and long-term contamination of the trophic chain because sewage sludge may contain heavy metals and organic contaminants. As the leaching of contaminants may depend on the sludge pre-treatment, the leaching of heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Cr) and alkylphenolic compounds (APCs) (octylphenol (OP), nonylphenol (NP), nonylphenol-mono-ethoxylate (NP1EO)) was investigated in five fresh and 40 °C dried sewage sludge samples from north-eastern Spain. FT-IR analyses and full-scan GC-MS chromatograms showed that sludge drying changed the nature of organic compounds leading to changes in their solubility. Moreover, sludge drying led to a higher relative contribution of dissolved organic carbon than the particulate organic carbon in the leachates. Leaching of Pb, Zn and Cr was below 5 % in both fresh and dried sludge samples, whereas Cu and Ni leached at rates up to 12 and 43 %, respectively, in some of the dried sludge samples. The leaching yields of OP, NP and NP1EO ranged from 1.3 to 35 % for fresh samples, but they decreased from 0.8 to 3.4 % in dried samples. The decrease in the leachability of APCs observed in dried sludge samples might be attributed to the fact that these compounds are associated with particulate organic matter, with significantly lower concentration or even absent in dried sludge than in fresh sludge samples. Therefore, it is recommended to dry the sludge before its disposal.

  13. Systematics in delayed neutron yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohsawa, Takaaki [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Inst.

    1998-03-01

    An attempt was made to reproduce the systematic trend observed in the delayed neutron yields for actinides on the basis of the five-Gaussian representation of the fission yield together with available data sets for delayed neutron emission probability. It was found that systematic decrease in DNY for heavier actinides is mainly due to decrease of fission yields of precursors in the lighter side of the light fragment region. (author)

  14. VARIABILITY OF YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN “EGUSI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    journal

    In a study carried out to estimate the components of variation in 'egusi' melon populations indicated high proportion of genetic variation in the yield attributes ... of the improvement made in yield of watermelon may be attributed to its genetic ..... variability and correlation studies in “egusi” melon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb) ...

  15. 7755 EFFECT OF NPK FERTILIZER ON FRUIT YIELD AND YIELD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Win7Ent

    2013-06-03

    Jun 3, 2013 ... who reported maximum fruit yield in watermelon with an application of maleic hydrazide at 100 ppm. The yield increased from 7.22 tons/ha in the control to 13.1 tons/ha in the treatment with 100 ppm maleic hydrazide and 100 ppm ethephon, resulting in an additional return which increased the income from ...

  16. Studies on yield and yield component responses of Mucuna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mucuna flagellipes was subjected to field scale culture over 1999 and 2000 growth seasons. Yield and yield component responses were evaluated using 4 x 3 factorial treatment combinations of phosphorus at 0, 20, 40, and 60kg P ha-1 and lime at 0, 1 and 2 t CaCO3 ha-1. The experiment was laid out in a randomized ...

  17. Relationship between yield and some yield components in cowpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bean common mosaic virus–blackeye cowpea strain (BCMV-BlC) and cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) belonging to the genus potyvirus are cosmopolitan and economically important pathogens of cowpea. This study analysed the linear relationship between yield and some yield related characters (numbers of ...

  18. Nitrogen rate and plant population effects on yield and yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was carried out to determine the effect of plant population and nitrogen rates on yield and yield components in soybean under Bursa, Mustafakemalpaa ecological conditions. Trials were conducted during 2000 and 2001 at the experimental fields of the Mustafakemalpaa Vocational High School, University of ...

  19. Response of Yield and Yield Components of Tef [Eragrostis Tef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tef (Eragrostis tef) is one of most important food crops grown in Benishangul Gumuz region of Ethiopia and is ... Nitrogen by P interaction effect was significant on plant height, straw and grain yield. Grain yield increased .... indicating the possibility of Al toxicity and deficiency of certain plant nutrients. The exchangeable K of ...

  20. Evaluation of preservation methods for improving biogas production and enzymatic conversion yields of annual crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakarinen, Annukka; Maijala, Pekka; Jaakkola, Seija; Stoddard, Frederick L; Kymäläinen, Maritta; Viikari, Liisa

    2011-07-19

    The use of energy crops and agricultural residues is expected to increase to fulfil the legislative demands of bio-based components in transport fuels. Ensiling methods, adapted from the feed sector, are suitable storage methods to preserve fresh crops throughout the year for, for example, biogas production. Various preservation methods, namely ensiling with and without acid addition for whole crop maize, fibre hemp and faba bean were investigated. For the drier fibre hemp, alkaline urea treatment was studied as well. These treatments were also explored as mild pretreatment methods to improve the disassembly and hydrolysis of these lignocellulosic substrates. The investigated storage treatments increased the availability of the substrates for biogas production from hemp and in most cases from whole maize but not from faba bean. Ensiling of hemp, without or with addition of formic acid, increased methane production by more than 50% compared to fresh hemp. Ensiling resulted in substantially increased methane yields also from maize, and the use of formic acid in ensiling of maize further enhanced methane yields by 16%, as compared with fresh maize. Ensiled faba bean, in contrast, yielded somewhat less methane than the fresh material. Acidic additives preserved and even increased the amount of the valuable water-soluble carbohydrates during storage, which affected most significantly the enzymatic hydrolysis yield of maize. However, preservation without additives decreased the enzymatic hydrolysis yield especially in maize, due to its high content of soluble sugars that were already converted to acids during storage. Urea-based preservation significantly increased the enzymatic hydrolysability of hemp. Hemp, preserved with urea, produced the highest carbohydrate increase of 46% in enzymatic hydrolysis as compared to the fresh material. Alkaline pretreatment conditions of hemp improved also the methane yields. The results of the present work show that ensiling and

  1. Evaluation of preservation methods for improving biogas production and enzymatic conversion yields of annual crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoddard Frederick L

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of energy crops and agricultural residues is expected to increase to fulfil the legislative demands of bio-based components in transport fuels. Ensiling methods, adapted from the feed sector, are suitable storage methods to preserve fresh crops throughout the year for, for example, biogas production. Various preservation methods, namely ensiling with and without acid addition for whole crop maize, fibre hemp and faba bean were investigated. For the drier fibre hemp, alkaline urea treatment was studied as well. These treatments were also explored as mild pretreatment methods to improve the disassembly and hydrolysis of these lignocellulosic substrates. Results The investigated storage treatments increased the availability of the substrates for biogas production from hemp and in most cases from whole maize but not from faba bean. Ensiling of hemp, without or with addition of formic acid, increased methane production by more than 50% compared to fresh hemp. Ensiling resulted in substantially increased methane yields also from maize, and the use of formic acid in ensiling of maize further enhanced methane yields by 16%, as compared with fresh maize. Ensiled faba bean, in contrast, yielded somewhat less methane than the fresh material. Acidic additives preserved and even increased the amount of the valuable water-soluble carbohydrates during storage, which affected most significantly the enzymatic hydrolysis yield of maize. However, preservation without additives decreased the enzymatic hydrolysis yield especially in maize, due to its high content of soluble sugars that were already converted to acids during storage. Urea-based preservation significantly increased the enzymatic hydrolysability of hemp. Hemp, preserved with urea, produced the highest carbohydrate increase of 46% in enzymatic hydrolysis as compared to the fresh material. Alkaline pretreatment conditions of hemp improved also the methane yields. Conclusions

  2. Evaluation of preservation methods for improving biogas production and enzymatic conversion yields of annual crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The use of energy crops and agricultural residues is expected to increase to fulfil the legislative demands of bio-based components in transport fuels. Ensiling methods, adapted from the feed sector, are suitable storage methods to preserve fresh crops throughout the year for, for example, biogas production. Various preservation methods, namely ensiling with and without acid addition for whole crop maize, fibre hemp and faba bean were investigated. For the drier fibre hemp, alkaline urea treatment was studied as well. These treatments were also explored as mild pretreatment methods to improve the disassembly and hydrolysis of these lignocellulosic substrates. Results The investigated storage treatments increased the availability of the substrates for biogas production from hemp and in most cases from whole maize but not from faba bean. Ensiling of hemp, without or with addition of formic acid, increased methane production by more than 50% compared to fresh hemp. Ensiling resulted in substantially increased methane yields also from maize, and the use of formic acid in ensiling of maize further enhanced methane yields by 16%, as compared with fresh maize. Ensiled faba bean, in contrast, yielded somewhat less methane than the fresh material. Acidic additives preserved and even increased the amount of the valuable water-soluble carbohydrates during storage, which affected most significantly the enzymatic hydrolysis yield of maize. However, preservation without additives decreased the enzymatic hydrolysis yield especially in maize, due to its high content of soluble sugars that were already converted to acids during storage. Urea-based preservation significantly increased the enzymatic hydrolysability of hemp. Hemp, preserved with urea, produced the highest carbohydrate increase of 46% in enzymatic hydrolysis as compared to the fresh material. Alkaline pretreatment conditions of hemp improved also the methane yields. Conclusions The results of the present

  3. An ESR study of radicals induced in irradiated fresh mango

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Hussain, Mohammed S.; Morishita, Norio; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Ukai, Mitsuko; Shimoyama, Yuhei

    2009-01-01

    An electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopic study was performed on the radicals induced irradiated fresh mangoes. Fresh Philippine mangoes were irradiated by the γ-rays, lyophilized and powdered. The ESR spectrum of the dry specimen showed a strong main peak at g=2.004 and a pair of peaks at both magnetic fields of the main peak. The main peak detected from flesh and skin specimens faded away in a few days after the irradiation. On the other hand, the side peaks showed a well-defined dose response even 9 days after the irradiation. The side-peak is a useful mean to define the irradiation on fresh mangoes. (author)

  4. Optimization of fermentative biohydrogen production by response surface methodology using fresh leachate as nutrient supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaolei; Zhou, Yinmei; Zhao, Aihua; Chen, Shanping; Qian, Guangren; Xu, Zhi Ping

    2011-09-01

    Fresh compost leachate was used as a nutrients source to facilitate anaerobic fermentative hydrogen production from glucose inoculated with mixed culture. The optimum condition for hydrogen production was predicted by response surface methodology (RSM). The model showed the maximum cumulative hydrogen volume (469.74 mL) and molar hydrogen yield (1.60 mol H2/mol glucose) could be achieved at 6174.93 mg/L glucose and 3383.20 mg COD/L leachate. According to the predicted optimal condition, four tests were carried out to validate the predicted values and evaluate the leachate's effect on co-fermentation with juice wastewater. A maximum cumulative hydrogen volume of 587.05 ± 15.08 mL was obtained in co-fermentation test, and the molar hydrogen yield reached 2.06 ± 0.06 mol H2/mol glucose. The co-fermentation of fresh leachate and glucose/juice wastewater was a combination of acetic acid and butyric acid type-fermentation. The results demonstrated that leachate can serve as a nutrients source for biohydrogen production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Principal component regression for crop yield estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Suryanarayana, T M V

    2016-01-01

    This book highlights the estimation of crop yield in Central Gujarat, especially with regard to the development of Multiple Regression Models and Principal Component Regression (PCR) models using climatological parameters as independent variables and crop yield as a dependent variable. It subsequently compares the multiple linear regression (MLR) and PCR results, and discusses the significance of PCR for crop yield estimation. In this context, the book also covers Principal Component Analysis (PCA), a statistical procedure used to reduce a number of correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components (PC). This book will be helpful to the students and researchers, starting their works on climate and agriculture, mainly focussing on estimation models. The flow of chapters takes the readers in a smooth path, in understanding climate and weather and impact of climate change, and gradually proceeds towards downscaling techniques and then finally towards development of ...

  6. Efeito do número de ramos produtivos sobre o desenvolvimento da área foliar e produtividade da figueira Effect of the number of productive branches on the leaf area development and fig tree yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Santos Caetano

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito do número de ramos produtivos sobre o desenvolvimento da área foliar e produtividade de figos verdes do cultivar Roxo de Valinhos. O experimento utilizando plantas de seis anos de idade, foi conduzido de novembro de 2002 a abril de 2003 na Pesagro-RJ, em Campos dos Goytacazes-RJ (21º19'23" de latitude sul, 41º19'40" de longitude oeste, altitude de 20 a 30 m e clima tipo Aw Köppen. Os tratamentos consistiram de plantas conduzidas com 16; 20; 24; 28 e 32 ramos. Utilizou-se do delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso e cinco repetições. O IAF aumentou linearmente em função do número de ramos produtivos, enquanto a produtividade mostrou um modelo de resposta quadrática aos tratamentos, provavelmente, limitada pelo sombreamento no interior do dossel que reduz a formação de gemas frutíferas. A maior produtividade observada de figos verdes foi obtida quando as plantas foram conduzidas com 24 ramos, sendo que, neste tratamento, a área foliar média de cada planta foi de 6,2 m².The objective of the present work was to study the effect of number of productive branches on the leaf area development and green fig tree yield of Roxo de Valinhos cultivar. The experiment using six year-old plants was carried out between November/2002 and April/2003 at Pesagro-RJ, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (21º19'23" South latitude, 41º19'40", West longitude, altitude of 20 a 30 m and Aw Koppen climate. The treatments consisted of plants conducted with 16, 20, 24, 28 and 32 productive branches in a randomized block design with five replicates. The LAI incresead linearly in function of productive branches, whereas the yield showed a quadratic response pattern to the treatments, probably, limited by shading in canopy that decrease the fruit bud formation. The highest green fig yield was observed in the treatment which had plants conducted with twenty four branches, where the mean leaf area was 6,2 m².

  7. Genotype-environment interaction and analysis of yield stability in trial with tomato crop in drought condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Boicet Fabre

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work was developed in the UBPC “The Coast”, belonging to the Miscellaneous Crops Enterprise of Campechuela municipality, Granma province, during the period from November to March of the year 2010 – 2011. It was carried out in a reddish brown fersialitic soil, according with the new genetic classification of the soils of Cuba MINAGRI, (2000, with the objective of studying and evaluating the influence of different organic fertilizers in the growth, development and yield in the cultivation of onion, variety Texas Early Grain. For this reason it was necessary to work on blocks with 4 treatments and 4 replies. The treatments applied were: treatment 1 (vermicompost, treatment 2 (cow dung, treatment 3 (cachaça and treatment 4 (control, those were applied in a solid way. The growth variables that were evaluated were number of leaves, height of the plant, equatorial diameter, polar diameter and fresh weight of the bulb. The yield was also evaluated in t.ha -1 per treatment. High yields are achieved with the application of organic fertilizer, among 27 and 30 t.ha -1, this is an alternative for the sustainable production of this product which is highly demanded by the population.

  8. Requirement analysis for the one-stop logistics management of fresh agricultural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Gao, Hongmei; Liu, Yuchuan

    2017-08-01

    Issues and concerns for food safety, agro-processing, and the environmental and ecological impact of food production have been attracted many research interests. Traceability and logistics management of fresh agricultural products is faced with the technological challenges including food product label and identification, activity/process characterization, information systems for the supply chain, i.e., from farm to table. Application of one-stop logistics service focuses on the whole supply chain process integration for fresh agricultural products is studied. A collaborative research project for the supply and logistics of fresh agricultural products in Tianjin was performed. Requirement analysis for the one-stop logistics management information system is studied. The model-driven business transformation, an approach uses formal models to explicitly define the structure and behavior of a business, is applied for the review and analysis process. Specific requirements for the logistic management solutions are proposed. Development of this research is crucial for the solution of one-stop logistics management information system integration platform for fresh agricultural products.

  9. Guidelines To Validate Control of Cross-Contamination during Washing of Fresh-Cut Leafy Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombas, D; Luo, Y; Brennan, J; Shergill, G; Petran, R; Walsh, R; Hau, H; Khurana, K; Zomorodi, B; Rosen, J; Varley, R; Deng, K

    2017-02-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration requires food processors to implement and validate processes that will result in significantly minimizing or preventing the occurrence of hazards that are reasonably foreseeable in food production. During production of fresh-cut leafy vegetables, microbial contamination that may be present on the product can spread throughout the production batch when the product is washed, thus increasing the risk of illnesses. The use of antimicrobials in the wash water is a critical step in preventing such water-mediated cross-contamination; however, many factors can affect antimicrobial efficacy in the production of fresh-cut leafy vegetables, and the procedures for validating this key preventive control have not been articulated. Producers may consider three options for validating antimicrobial washing as a preventive control for cross-contamination. Option 1 involves the use of a surrogate for the microbial hazard and the demonstration that cross-contamination is prevented by the antimicrobial wash. Option 2 involves the use of antimicrobial sensors and the demonstration that a critical antimicrobial level is maintained during worst-case operating conditions. Option 3 validates the placement of the sensors in the processing equipment with the demonstration that a critical antimicrobial level is maintained at all locations, regardless of operating conditions. These validation options developed for fresh-cut leafy vegetables may serve as examples for validating processes that prevent cross-contamination during washing of other fresh produce commodities.

  10. Comparison of in-vitro outcomes from cryopreserved oocytes and sibling fresh oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamayou, S; Alecci, C; Ragolia, C; Storaci, G; Maglia, E; Russo, E; Guglielmino, A

    2006-06-01

    In Italy, the restrictive IVF law generalizes the indication for oocyte freezing for surplus oocytes in 78.5% of in-vitro assisted reproductive cycles. With a view to understanding better what the prospects for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) on frozen-thawed oocytes might be, the consequences of freeze-thaw procedures on fertilization, cleavage rates and embryo quality obtained from frozen-thawed oocytes were studied and compared with the results obtained from sibling fresh oocytes. Eleven IVF and 29 ICSI on 76 and 169 fresh oocytes were performed and the corresponding 40 ICSI on 221 sibling frozen-thawed oocytes. There was no difference in terms of fertilization rate between fresh and sibling frozen-thawed oocytes. The cleavage rate (98.0 and 94.4% with fresh oocytes in IVF and ICSI; 77.3% with frozen-thawed oocytes in ICSI; P cryoconservation induces irreversible damage to microtubule repolymerization. The consequences of oocyte cryopreservation procedures on embryo development are reviewed.

  11. Characterization of a processed cheese spread produced from fresh cheese (quesito antioqueño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edinson Eliecer Bejarano Toro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Processed products are made from mixes of fresh and ripened cheeses; the use of cheeses with a short shelf-life in the development of processed cheeses is an alternative for the dairy industry. A processed cheese spread was made using only a soft and fatty fresh cheese that had been stored for 25 days. The primary materials were the fresh cheese, water, and emulsifying salts (sodium citrate (E-331 and sodium phosphate (E-450, using a STEPHAN® Universal Machine (UMSK 24E with indirect vapor injection and equipped with rasping and cutting blades. The resulting cheese (A was compared with a commercial cheese (B for compositional, physicochemical, and sensorial characteristics. The cheeses were similar except for the fat in dry matter (FDM, with values of 54.50% and 47.21%, respectively. Sensorially, there were significant differences (P0.05. Cheese A provided, in mg per 100 g of product, 935.823 for phenylalanine, 1003.070 for isoleucine, 2041.420 for leucine, 475.337 for methionine, 119.300 for tryptophan, and 758.347 for valine. Producing processed cheeses with only fresh cheese is possible, resulting in a product that is similar to others that are currently on the market with typical characteristics that are accepted by consumers.

  12. Growth and yield of strawberry plants fertilized with nitrogen and phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo F. Medeiros

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTStrawberry (Fragaria x ananassa is a crop that has rapid growth and is highly influenced by fertilization. Due to its development speed, the plant needs to absorb sufficient macronutrients in order to meet its demand. The objective of this research was to evaluate growth and yield of strawberry under different doses of nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K fertilization. The treatments, using Box's central composite design, were distributed in randomized blocks with four replicates and consisted of five N doses (0.16, 0.37, 0.88, 1.4 and 1.6 g plant-1 and five P doses (0.3, 0.58, 1.2, 1.8 and 2.1 g plant-1, in the presence (1.67 g plant-1 and absence of K. Seedlings of the cultivar 'Oso Grande' were cultivated in 10-L pots. The analysed variables were: plant height, fresh fruit mass, number of leaves, number of fruits, total soluble solids and titratable acidity. The fertilization with N and P increased the values for most of the studied variables. At the highest doses of N and P, K stimulated plant yield.

  13. Yield gaps in oil palm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woittiez, Lotte S.; Wijk, van Mark T.; Slingerland, Maja; Noordwijk, van Meine; Giller, Ken E.

    2017-01-01

    Oil palm, currently the world's main vegetable oil crop, is characterised by a large productivity and a long life span (≥25 years). Peak oil yields of 12 t ha−1 yr−1 have been achieved in small plantations, and maximum theoretical yields as calculated with simulation models are 18.5 t oil ha−1 yr−1,

  14. Creating Sustainable Fresh Food Supply Chains through Waste Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaipia, Riikka; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Loikkanen, Lauri

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this empirical paper is to study information sharing in fresh food supply chains, with a specific goal of reducing waste and facilitating sustainable performance. The study focuses on material and information flow issues, specifically on sharing demand and shelf-life data....... Design/methodology/approach – This work has been designed as an exploratory case study in three fresh food supply chains, milk, fresh fish, and fresh poultry, in the Nordic countries. The cases are based on interviews and data from the databases of the companies involved. Each case focuses on analyzing...... information flow, particularly the current order patterns and forecasting and planning process, and material flow, focusing on the supply chain structure. In two cases significant changes have been made to forecasting processes and material flow, while the third case intends to identify the most beneficial...

  15. ISOLATION OF PROTEOLYTIC PSYCHROTROPHIC YEASTS FROM FRESH RAW SEAFOODS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOBATAKE, M; KREGERVANRIJ, NJW; PLACIDO, MTLC; VANUDEN, N

    A total of 103 cultures of yeasts were isolated from seven kinds of fresh raw seafoods. The isolates comprised six genera, Candida, Cryptococcus, Debaryomyces. Rhodotorula, Sterigmatomyces and Trichosporon, and included 21 different species. All the isolates were psychrotrophic yeasts. Proteolytic

  16. Green and technical efficient growth in Danish fresh water aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    growth can be achieved by introducing new environmentally friendly water purification systems in Danish fresh water aquaculture. Data Envelopment Analysis is used to investigate whether different water purification systems and farm size influence technical efficiency. The empirical results indicate...

  17. Effect of fresh air ventilation on indoor radon concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Hao; Wu Jianhua; Fu Shi

    2012-01-01

    The radon concentration of laboratory for radon simulation (LRS) was measured by the RAD7 radon monitor, and the effect of the different fresh air ventilations on indoor radon concentration was studied and analyzed. The indoor radon concentration of LRS can be accumulated up to 2000 Bq/m 3 and the average radon exhalation rate of the LRS is 14.5 Bq · m -2 . h -1 . Furthermore, when the fresh air enters into the LRS continuously, the indoor radon concentration decreases exponentially with the increase of time. The equilibrium radon concentration and equilibrium time of LRS decrease exponentially with the increase of the rate of fresh air ventilation. In addition, the indoor radon concentration increases by accumulation with the decrease of the rate of fresh air ventilation. (authors)

  18. Physicochemical changes in minimal ozone-treated fresh shrimp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treated fresh shrimp were evaluated tandem with microbiological efficacy of treatment during iced storage of up to 10 days. Safely discharged from commercially available domestic-type ozone facility, a previously defined minimal ozone treatment ...

  19. In Vivo Digestibility of Molasses-Treated Fresh Banana Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treated fresh banana leaves in West African Dwarf sheep was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm and Animal Nutrition Laboratory of the University of Dschang between August and September 2009. For this, six sheep were used and ...

  20. Rumen dry matter degradability of fresh and ensiled sugarcane

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    my mord

    2013-05-08

    , México. 4Faculty of Agriculture (El-Shatby), Alexandria University, Egypt. Accepted 22 April, 2013. This study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition and in situ ruminal degradability of fresh (FSC) and ensiled (ESC) ...

  1. Low oocyte yield during IVF treatment and the risk of a trisomic pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honorato, Talita; Hoek, Annemieke; Henningsen, Anna-Karina

    2017-01-01

    are at an increased risk of a trisomic pregnancy. Data were obtained from Danish and Dutch medical registries between 1983 and 2011. Analyses were carried out in 105 cases and 442 controls matched by age and year of IVF treatment. Cases were women with a trisomic pregnancy (trisomies 13, 18 or 21) resulting from...... fresh IVF treatment and confirmed by karyotyping. Cases were included regardless of pregnancy outcome. Controls were women with a live born child without a trisomy, resulting from fresh IVF treatment. Low oocyte yield was observed in 6.6% (29/440) of the women, of which 8.4% (7/83) were cases and 6...

  2. Timescales of AMOC decline in response to fresh water forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Laura C.; Wood, Richard A.

    2017-12-01

    The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is predicted to weaken over the coming century due to warming from greenhouse gases and increased input of fresh water into the North Atlantic, however there is considerable uncertainty as to the amount and rate of AMOC weakening. Understanding what controls the rate and timescale of AMOC weakening may help to reduce this uncertainty and hence reduce the uncertainty surrounding associated impacts. As a first step towards this we consider the timescales associated with weakening in response to idealized freshening scenarios. Here we explore timescales of AMOC weakening in response to a freshening of the North Atlantic in a suite of experiments with an eddy-permitting global climate model (GCM). When the rate of fresh water added to the North Atlantic is small (0.1 Sv; 1 Sv =1× 10^6 m^3 /s), the timescale of AMOC weakening depends mainly on the rate of fresh water input itself and can be longer than a century. When the rate of fresh water added is large (≥ 0.3 Sv) however, the timescale is a few decades and is insensitive to the actual rate of fresh water input. This insensitivity is because with a greater rate of fresh water input the advective feedbacks become more important at exporting fresh anomalies, so the rate of freshening is similar. We find advective feedbacks from: an export of fresh anomalies by the mean flow; less volume import through the Bering Strait; a weakening AMOC transporting less subtropical water northwards; and anomalous subtropical circulations which amplify export of the fresh anomalies. This latter circulation change is driven itself by the presence of fresh anomalies exported from the subpolar gyre through geostrophy. This feedback has not been identified in previous model studies and when the rate of freshening is strong it is found to dominate the total export of fresh anomalies, and hence the timescale of AMOC decline. Although results may be model dependent, qualitatively

  3. Morphometry and Morphology of Fresh Craters on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, R. L.; Wood, C. A.; Neish, C.; Lucas, A.; Hayes, A. G.; Cassini Radar Team

    2011-12-01

    Cassini RADAR imagery obtained on Titan flyby T77 revealed a 40-km diameter fresh impact crater at 11.6° N 44.6° W. This is only the 8th crater identified with high confidence (Wood et al., 2010, Icarus 206, 334), and the 3rd (after Sinlap D=79 km and Ksa D=30 km) for which the depth can be estimated by comparing the foreshortening of the near and far walls. This "autostereo" technique yields an estimated depth of 680 m. The T77 image forms a stereo pair with the T17 discovery image of Ksa from which we estimate the depth of Ksa at 750-800 m, in close agreement with SARTopo data. The depth of Sinlap is 760 m based on SARTopo. Depth-diameter ratios for these craters thus range from 0.01 to 0.025 and the depths are comparable to but 200-400 m shallower than fresh craters of the same size on Ganymede (Bray et al., 2008, Met. Planet Sci. 43, 1979). The depth differences could be explained by initial crater morphometry, by relaxation in a different thermal environment, or (perhaps most plausibly given the bland floors of even the freshest Titan craters) to sedimentary infill. In contrast, the 18x36 km elliptical depression at Sotra Facula is much deeper than Ganymede craters of similar size (d=1500 m from stereo), supporting the conclusion that it is not an impact crater. All three craters exhibit a relatively radar-bright annulus around the outer edge of the floor, possibly as the result of mass wasting of blocky materials from the crater walls. The central part of each crater is darker. The central darker floor of the new crater is symmetrical and featureless, whereas Ksa has a bright central ring 7 km in diameter. Stereo spot heights indicate the ring is 350±100 m above the outer floor. This height is in close agreement with the scaling for Ganymede crater central peaks from Bray et al. (2008). The darker floor area of Sinlap is substantially asymmetrical with a small bright central spot whose elevation is unknown. The new crater has continuous, radar

  4. Wrinkle Ridges and Young Fresh Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 10 May 2002) The Science Wrinkle ridges are a very common landform on Mars, Mercury, Venus, and the Moon. These ridges are linear to arcuate asymmetric topographic highs commonly found on smooth plains. The origin of wrinkle ridges is not certain and two leading hypotheses have been put forth by scientists over the past 40 years. The volcanic model calls for the extrusion of high viscosity lavas along linear conduits. This thick lava accumulated over these conduits and formed the ridges. The other model is tectonic and advocates that the ridges are formed by compressional faulting and folding. Today's THEMIS image is of the ridged plains of Lunae Planum located between Kasei Valles and Valles Marineris in the northern hemisphere of the planet. Wrinkle ridges are found mostly along the eastern side of the image. The broadest wrinkle ridges in this image are up to 2 km wide. A 3 km diameter young fresh crater is located near the bottom of the image. The crater's ejecta blanket is also clearly seen surrounding the sharp well-defined crater rim. These features are indicative of a very young crater that has not been subjected to erosional processes. The Story The great thing about the solar system is that planets are both alike and different. They're all foreign enough to be mysterious and intriguing, and yet familiar enough to be seen as planetary 'cousins.' By comparing them, we can learn a lot about how planets form and then evolve geologically over time. Crinkled over smooth plains, the long, wavy raised landforms seen here are called 'wrinkle ridges,' and they've been found on Mars, Mercury, Venus, and the Moon - that is, on rocky bodies that are a part of our inner solar system. We know from this observation that planets (and large-enough moons) follow similar processes. What we don't know for sure is HOW these processes work. Scientists have been trying to understand how wrinkle ridges form for 40 years, and they still haven't reached a conclusion. That

  5. Oxylipin Pathway in the Biosynthesis of Fresh Tomato Volatiles

    OpenAIRE

    YILMAZ, Emin

    2001-01-01

    Fresh tomato volatiles are formed in intact fruit during ripening and upon tissue disruption. There are different pathways involved in the biosynthesis of these volatiles. The oxylipin pathway uses free unsaturated fatty acids with the sequential action of lipoxygenase, hydroperoxide lyase and alcohol dehydrogenase to produce volatile aldehyde and alcohol compounds. Oxylipin volatiles are the most important components in fresh tomato aroma. In order to genetically improve the quality of tomat...

  6. Post-thaw bovine spermatozoal quality estimated from fresh samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, C A; Garner, D L

    1994-01-01

    Comparisons were made among flow cytometrically quantified populations of fresh and cryopreserved bovine spermatozoa, tri-stained with fluorophores rhodamine 123 (R123), 5- (and 6-) carboxy-4',5'-dimethylfluorescein diacetate (CMFDA), and propidium iodide (PI), and analyzed by dual parameter flow cytometry. The purpose was to find parameters in fresh semen samples that were potentially predictive of frozen sample parameters so that bulls with marginal cryopreservation capacity could be identified. Fresh and cryopreserved aliquots of semen from two sets of six bulls were semen processed in either milk (bulls 1-6) or egg yolk citrate (bulls 11-16). Membrane-damaged red (PI) and intact green (CMFDA + R123) populations were evaluated as percentages of 10,000-cell samples or numbers per straw. In milk, gated central subsets of membrane-damaged sperm cells in fresh samples and moribund cells in post-thaw samples were significantly correlated for sample percentages (r = 0.90, P = 0.014) and cell numbers per straw (r = 0.94, P = 0.006). In egg yolk citrate, fresh and frozen membrane-damaged populations were correlated (percentages: r = 0.81, P = 0.048; numbers: r = 0.88, P = 0.019). Additionally, post-thaw motility estimated by a photographic method was correlated with the number of sperm cells per straw in the intact central green subset (r = 0.98, P = 0.0006). These findings suggest that partitioning red and gree populations into smaller, central subset populations reveals significant relationships between fresh and cryopreserved bull ejaculates. The proportion of membrane-damaged spermatozoa in fresh semen seems to be predictive of the proportion of post-thaw membrane-damaged or moribund spermatozoa. The data consistently showed ejaculates of bulls 1 and 12 as having the greatest cryopreservation potentials, and bulls 4 and 16 the least. Thus, flow cytometric evaluation of fresh semen may be useful for identifying young sires with relatively poor fertilizing potential.

  7. Meat and Fish Freshness Inspection System Based on Odor Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Najam ul; Ejaz, Naveed; Ejaz, Waleed; Kim, Hyung Seok

    2012-01-01

    We propose a method for building a simple electronic nose based on commercially available sensors used to sniff in the market and identify spoiled/contaminated meat stocked for sale in butcher shops. Using a metal oxide semiconductor-based electronic nose, we measured the smell signature from two of the most common meat foods (beef and fish) stored at room temperature. Food samples were divided into two groups: fresh beef with decayed fish and fresh fish with decayed beef. The prime objective...

  8. Examining College Students' Daily Consumption of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    McLean-Meyinsse, Patricia E.; Harris, Edith G.; Taylor, Shervia S.; Gager, Janet V.

    2013-01-01

    Results from a random sample of 305 college students suggest that consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables is independent of gender, academic ranks, and places of residence, but depends on perceptions of health status. Despite the statistically significant associations between perceptions of health and consumption of fruits and vegetables, 82 percent of the respondents who perceived their health status as poor or fair ate no fresh fruits or vegetables.

  9. Volatile organic components from fresh non-edible Basidiomycetes fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovano, Marisa; Garbarino, Juan A; Sánchez, Elizabeth; Young, Manuel E

    2009-12-01

    The compounds responsible for the characteristic odor of eight fresh non-edible Basidiomycetes fungi were evaluated. The volatile organic compounds from the fresh samples present in the headspace of a sealed vial were determined by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, using a PDMS/DVB fiber. A total of twenty-eight components were identified, the most frequent being 1-octen-3-ol and 3-octanone.

  10. Auger yield calculations for medical radioisotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Boon Q.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Auger yields from the decays of 71Ge, 99mTc, 111In and 123–125I have been calculated using a Monte Carlo model of the Auger cascade that has been developed at the ANU. In addition, progress to improve the input data of the model has been made with the Multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock method.

  11. Fresh mouse peritoneal macrophages have low scavenger receptor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J G; Keshava, C; Murphy, A A; Pitas, R E; Parthasarathy, S

    1997-11-01

    Peritoneal macrophages are easily isolated by lavage, suggesting that they are either nonadherent or weakly adherent in situ. Cultured macrophages express class A scavenger receptors (SCR), which mediate Ca2+-independent adhesion in vitro. We examined fresh peritoneal macrophages from mice and from women with endometriosis to determine whether the adherence of these cells was associated with increased expression of class A SCR. Fresh human macrophages were not immunoreactive to SCR antibodies; however, SCR immunoreactivity increased with time in culture. Fresh mouse and human macrophages took up minimal amounts of 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine (DiI)-acetyl-low density lipoproteins (Ac-LDL), a class A SCR ligand. Murine macrophages in culture for 24-72 h internalized four times more Ac-LDL than fresh cells. Cells cultured for 2 days incorporated 3.2 times more [14C] oleate than freshly isolated cells (55.7 +/- 7.9 versus 17.6 +/- 3.0 nmol/mg cell protein). In contrast to SCR activity, mouse macrophage SCR mRNA expression was similar in freshly isolated macrophages and those cultured for 3 days. These results suggest that peritoneal macrophages express only low levels of SCR activity in situ and that posttranscriptional regulation after isolation leads to an increase in SCR activity that correlates with adherence of the macrophages in vitro.

  12. Determination of Properties of Selected Fresh and Processed Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley G. Cabrera

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the chemical properties, bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity and toxicity level of fresh and processed medicinal plants such as corn (Zea mays silk, pancitpancitan (Peperomiapellucida leaves, pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves, and commercially available tea. The toxicity level of the samples was measured using the Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay (BSLA. Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS. Results showed that in terms of chemical properties there is significant difference between fresh and processed corn silk except in crude fiber content was noted. Based on proximate analyses of fresh and processed medicinal plants specifically in terms of % moisture, %crude protein and % total carbohydrates were also observed. In addition, there is also significant difference on bioactive compound contents such as total flavonoids and total phenolics between fresh and processed corn silk except in total vitamin E (TVE content. Pandan and pancit-pancitan showed significant difference in all bioactive compounds except in total antioxidant content (TAC. Fresh pancit-pancitan has the highest total phenolics content (TPC and TAC, while the fresh and processed corn silk has the lowest TAC and TVE content, respectively. Furthermore, results of BSLA for the three medicinal plants and commercially available tea extract showed after 24 hours exposure significant difference in toxicity level was observed. The percentage mortality increased with an increase in exposure time of the three medicinal plants and tea extract. The results of the study can served as baseline data for further processing and commercialization of these medicinal plants.

  13. Identifying risk event in Indonesian fresh meat supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuni, H. C.; Vanany, I.; Ciptomulyono, U.

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify risk issues in Indonesian fresh meat supply chain from the farm until to the “plate”. The critical points for food safety in physical fresh meat product flow are also identified. The paper employed one case study in the Indonesian fresh meat company by conducting observations and in-depth three stages of interviews. At the first interview, the players, process, and activities in the fresh meat industry were identified. In the second interview, critical points for food safety were recognized. The risk events in each player and process were identified in the last interview. The research will be conducted in three stages, but this article focuses on risk identification process (first stage) only. The second stage is measuring risk and the third stage focuses on determining the value of risk priority. The results showed that there were four players in the fresh meat supply chain: livestock (source), slaughter (make), distributor and retail (deliver). Each player has different activities and identified 16 risk events in the fresh meat supply chain. Some of the strategies that can be used to reduce the occurrence of such risks include improving the ability of laborers on food safety systems, improving cutting equipment and distribution processes

  14. Production and characterization of biodiesel using palm kernel oil; fresh and recovered from spent bleaching earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun Aladetuyi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm kernel oil (PKO was recovered from spent bleaching earth with a yield of 16 %, using n-hexane while the fresh oil was extracted from palm kernel with n-hexane and a yield of 40.23% was obtained. These oils were trans-esterified with methanol under the same reaction conditions: 100 oC, 2 h reaction time, and oil-methanol ratio of 5:1 (w/v. The cocoa pod ash (CPA was compared with potassium hydroxide (KOH as catalyst. The percentage yields of biodiesel obtained from PKO catalysed by CPA and KOH were 94 and 90%, respectively. While the yields achieved using the recovered oil catalysed by CPA and KOH were measured at 86 and 81.20 %. The physico-chemical properties of the biodiesel produced showed that the flash point, viscosity, density, ash content, percentage carbon content, specific gravity and the acid value fell within American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM specifications for biodiesel. The findings of this study suggest that agricultural residues such as CPA used in this study could be explored as alternatives for KOH catalyst for biodiesel production.

  15. VCO Production from Fresh Old Coconut Bunch by Circulating and Pumping Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Maulana Azimatun Nur

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available VCO (Virgin Coconut Oil is one of coco-diesel source, made without high heating and chemicals. Commercial processes production, such fermentation and centrifugation usually need more time and expensive in cost and investment. Circulating by pumping through a nozzle is a new process method invented to produce VCO. The process followed by coalescence method, breaking emulsion by hitting particles through pipe and nozzle. The problem of this method was that the product gave lower yield than another method and not yet qualified. This research was purposed to discover correlation between pressure and time of circulation variables against yield and content (FFA, Peroxide, water content represented by SNI (national Indonesian standard. Producing VCO initiated by producing coconut milk from fresh old coconut, then each 1 litre milk were pumped through the pipe and nozzle with variation of circulations pressures and time. The results were decanted for 10 hours so the oil and water would be separated. The oil at upper layer was taken as final product. Then the last step was analysed the oils and oil cake (blondo. The results showed that pressure and time of circulating variables gave impact to the yield. On optimum variables, 2 atm pressure and 15 minutes of circulating gave better results with 97% yield. This operating variables also affecting oil quality. The minimum water content is 0.1%, free fatty acid is 0.18% and peroxide value is 2 mg/kg eq. The results showed that all of parameters meet the SNI standard.

  16. VCO Production from Fresh Old Coconut Bunch by Circulating and Pumping Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Maulana Azimatun Nur

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available VCO (Virgin Coconut Oil is one of coco-diesel source, made without high heating and chemicals. Commercial processes production, such fermentation and centrifugation usually need more time and expensive in cost and investment. Circulating by pumping through a nozzle is a new process method invented to produce VCO. The process followed by coalescence method, breaking emulsion by hitting particles through pipe and nozzle. The problem of this method was that the product gave lower yield than another method and not yet qualified. This research was purposed to discover correlation between pressure and time of circulation variables against yield and content (FFA, Peroxide, water content represented by SNI (national Indonesian standard. Producing VCO initiated by producing coconut milk from fresh old coconut, then each 1 litre milk were pumped through the pipe and nozzle with variation of circulations pressures and time. The results were decanted for 10 hours so the oil and water would be separated. The oil at upper layer was taken as final product. Then the last step was analysed the oils and oil cake (blondo. The results showed that pressure and time of circulating variables gave impact to the yield. On optimum variables, 2 atm pressure and 15 minutes of circulating gave better results with 97% yield. This operating variables also affecting oil quality. The minimum water content is 0.1%, free fatty acid is 0.18% and peroxide value is 2 mg/kg eq. The results showed that all of parameters meet the SNI standard.

  17. Experimental assessment of bacterial storage yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karahan-Gül, Ö.; Artan, N.; Orhon, D.

    2002-01-01

    to the amount of oxygen associated with substrate storage. Model simulation was used to evaluate the procedure for different initial experimental conditions. The procedure was tested on acetate. The same storage yield value of 0.76 gCOD/gCOD was calculated for two experiments, starting with different F/M ratios......An experimental procedure was developed for the respirometric determination of bacterial storage yield as defined in the Activated Sludge Model No. 3. The proposed approach is based on the oxygen utilization rate (OUR) profile obtained from a batch test and correlates the area under the OUR curve...

  18. Effects of application boron on yields, yield component and oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... The study was conducted to investigate the effects of five boron (B) doses; 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 kg B ha-1 in B-deficient calcareous soils on yield and some yield components of four sunflower genotypes. Genotypes have shown variations with respect to their responses to B applications. AS-615 and ...

  19. Effects of application boron on yields, yield component and oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to investigate the effects of five boron (B) doses; 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 kg B ha-1 in B-deficient calcareous soils on yield and some yield components of four sunflower genotypes. Genotypes have shown variations with respect to their responses to B applications. AS-615 and Coban had the ...

  20. Estabilidade aeróbia, pH e dinâmica de desenvolvimento de microrganismos da cana-de-açúcar in natura hidrolisada com cal virgem Aerobic stability, pH and development dynamic of microorganisms on fresh sugarcane hydrolyzed with whitewash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.N. Domingues

    2011-04-01

    stability at the shortest time interval. The pH values increased gradually according to the dose of whitewash applied and they decreased over time. There was a numerical increase on the counting of yeast until 72 hours after application of whitewash, regardless to the dose, and the values tended to stabilize in 96 hours after treatment. There was no significant effect of whitewash doses on fungi development. The use of whitewash is effective in yeast growth control and it also promotes aerobic stability in fresh sugar cane.