WorldWideScience

Sample records for development study phase

  1. Ripeness sensor development. Final report of a Phase 2 study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroshine, R.

    1995-08-01

    This is a final report for the Phase II study entitled ``Ripeness Sensor Development.`` The overall objective of the study was the development of a prototype device capable of testing whole fruits for sugar content. Although ripeness and sugar content are not synonymous, they are closely related. Furthermore, the consumer`s acceptance of or preference for fruits is strongly influenced by sugar content. Therefore, the device was called a ripeness sensor. The principle behind the measurement is proton magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H-MR). For several decades, chemists, pharmacists and other scientists have been using {sup 1}H-MR to investigate chemical structure and composition. More recently, the technique has been used in laboratories of the food industry for quality control. This effort represents one of the first attempts to adapt {sup 1}H-MR to use in a commercial facility. 28 refs., 36 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Michigan dioxin exposure study: planning phase and protocol development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriaens, P. [Univ. of Michigan, Coll. of Engineering, Ann Arbor (United States); Garabrant, D.; Franzblau, A. [Univ. of Michigan, School for Public Health, Ann Arbor (United States); Gillespie, B. [Univ. of Michigan, Center for Statistics, Ann Arbor (United States); Lepowski, J. [Univ. of Michigan, Inst. for Social Research, Ann Arbor (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The University of Michigan has been commissioned to conduct one of the largest environmental epidemiology studies (700 residents) of dioxin exposure among the population of Michigan to describe the pattern of serum dioxin levels among adults and to understand the factors that explain variation in serum dioxin levels. The study is being undertaken (2004-2006) in response to concerns among the population of Midland and Saginaw Counties that dioxins from the Dow Chemical Company facilities in Midland have resulted in contamination of areas of the City of Midland and have contaminated the sediments in the Tittabawassee River flood plain. There is concern that body burdens of dioxins are elevated because of environmental contamination. The appropriate way to respond to these concerns is to measure the serum dioxin levels in a probability sample of the population in the region and to estimate each individual's past exposure to various factors that are believed to contribute to the body burden of dioxins. By measuring factors that reflect potential exposure to dioxins through air, water, soil, food intake, occupations, and various recreational activities, we can identify the factors that correlate with (and explain variation in) serum dioxin levels. The central goal of the study is to determine which factors explain variation in serum dioxin levels, and to quantify how much variation each factor explains. This paper provides information on the planning phase, study scope and objectives.

  3. Development studies for a novel wet oxidation process. Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    DETOX SM is a catalyzed wet oxidation process which destroys organic materials in an acidic water solution of iron at 373 to 473 K. The solution can be used repeatedly to destroy great amounts of organic materials. Since the process is conducted in a contained vessel, air emissions from the process can be well controlled. The solution is also capable of dissolving and concentrating many heavy and radioactive metals for eventual stabilization and disposal. The Phase 2 effort for this project is site selection and engineering design for a DETOX demonstration unit. Site selection was made using a set of site selection criteria and evaluation factors. A survey of mixed wastes at DOE sites was conducted using the Interim Mixed Waste Inventory Report. Sites with likely suitable waste types were identified. Potential demonstration sites were ranked based on waste types, interest, regulatory needs, scheduling, ability to provide support, and available facilities. Engineering design for the demonstration unit is in progress and is being performed by Jacobs Applied Technology. The engineering design proceeded through preliminary process flow diagrams (PFDs), calculation of mass and energy balances for representative waste types, process and instrumentation diagrams (P and IDs), preparation of component specifications, and a firm cost estimate for fabrication of the demonstration unit

  4. Study on Stress Development in the Phase Transition Layer of Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijun Chai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stress development is one of the significant factors leading to the failure of thermal barrier coating (TBC systems. In this work, stress development in the two phase mixed zone named phase transition layer (PTL, which grows between the thermally grown oxide (TGO and the bond coat (BC, is investigated by using two different homogenization models. A constitutive equation of the PTL based on the Reuss model is proposed to study the stresses in the PTL. The stresses computed with the proposed constitutive equation are compared with those obtained with Voigt model-based equation in detail. The stresses based on the Voigt model are slightly higher than those based on the Reuss model. Finally, a further study is carried out to explore the influence of phase transition proportions on the stress difference caused by homogenization models. Results show that the stress difference becomes more evident with the increase of the PTL thickness ratio in the TGO.

  5. The development of portable equipment to study physical and chemical phases in natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breward, N.; Peachey, D.

    1988-08-01

    A direct and relatively non-invasive method of measuring the speciation of dissolved metals in groundwaters has been developed. The equipment relies on a series of columns containing DAEA cellulose, cation exchange resin and anion exchange resin to extract sequentially and respectively colloids, cationic and anionic species. Organic colloids are eluted from the DAEA cellulose with dilute caustic soda while the inorganic colloids (Fe/Al oxyhydroxide phase) are stripped with dilute mineral acid. A further advantage of this scheme is the ability to concentrate the phases by at least a factor of ten. Applications to the groundwaters of the natural analogue sites currently under study by BGS will offer a means of validating thermodynamic databases used in modelling speciation of radionuclides such as uranium and thorium. (author)

  6. A Case Study of Idea Work in the Early Phases of Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gish, Liv; Clausen, Christian; Hansen, Claus Thorp

    2009-01-01

    development. Based on our case we will point out four central findings: 1) Early idea work is a complex process and interlinked with many other activities both inside and outside the organization. 2) Ideas evolve,combine and change over time. 3) Idea work involves a wide range of actors. 4) Carrying ideas......Focus in this paper is on the early innovation activities, in particular idea work. Based on a case study from industrial practice on the development of a new circulator (the Alpha Pro circulator) we aim at getting a better understanding of the work with ideas in the early phases of product...... through demands continuous mobilization of support among a range of actors. We suggest that the actors involved in idea work and their interaction such as negotiating different understandings of what constitutes a qualified idea as well as the continuous mobilization of support to their ideas among...

  7. Study and development of an achromatic phase shifter for nulling interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachet, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The Darwin mission is a project of the European Space Agency that should allow around 2015 the search for extra-solar planets and a spectral analysis of their atmospheres to detect gases and particularly tracers of life. The basic concept of the instrument is a Bracewell nulling interferometer. It allows the high angular resolution and high dynamic range necessary to cancel the light coming from the star to keep the planetary one. The Darwin mission technological key-points require preliminary laboratory experiments to validate each element before any space application. Among these, the π achromatic phase shifter included in the interferometer to cancel the starlight has to be achromatic in the whole Darwin spectral band from 6 to 18 μm. There are many solutions to create this phase shift. This work presents the study and development of one of these techniques based on dispersive prisms and tested on the polychromatic test bench SYNAPSE. After an introduction of Darwin stakes, both from an exo-planetological and exobiological point of view, we introduce different achromatic phase shifter techniques. The concept based on prismatic dispersive plates is then detailed, along with the development of the SYNAPSE test bench working in near infrared. We finally show that this bench allowed to maintain rejection ratio better than 4 000 (corresponding to a 2,5.10 -4 stellar leaks level) in the whole K band (from 2 to 2,5 μm) during several minutes. These results also show that more than the absolute rejection ratio needed in the whole Darwin spectral band, their stability will be the real stake during observations. (author) [fr

  8. Development of a platinum resistance thermometer on the silicon substrate for phase change studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Qingjun; Chen, Ya-Chi; Tsai, Chialun; DeNatale, Jeffrey F

    2012-01-01

    Resistance temperature detectors are commonly used measurement sensors in heat transfer studies. In many resistance temperature detectors, the platinum resistance thermometer (PRT) is chemically stable, has a wide temperature measurement range and possesses high measurement accuracy. In phase change studies of carbon nanotubes, bi-porous structures for microelectronic thermal management, 100 nm thick PRTs are developed on silicon substrates with 10 nm titanium adhesive to achieve precise and interface-free temperature measurements. After an annealing at 375 °C, the PRT samples are calibrated at a temperature range from 20 to 180 °C. Measurement hysteresis of temperature appears in thermal cycles. Electrical resistance tends to become low during all heating periods, which establishes the maximum measurement deviation of 10 °C. Experimental results from two different thin-film PRTs indicate that accurate and repeatable temperature measurements can be achieved by either reducing heating speed or using data in the cooling period. (paper)

  9. Sexualised Music Media and Children's Gender Role and Self-Identity Development: A Four-Phase Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ey, Lesley-Anne

    2016-01-01

    There has been much concern about the perceived increase in sexualised media and its potential impact on children's well-being and development. This phenomenon was examined in a four-phase study focusing, specifically on music media. Phase 1 investigated the prevalence of sexualised music media broadcast on Australian free-to-air television in…

  10. Development of Membrane Contactors Using Phase Change Solvents for CO2 Capture: Material Compatibility Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ansaloni, Luca; Asad, Arif; Çiftja, Arlinda; Knuutila, Hanna K; Deng, Liyuan

    2016-01-01

    Phase change solvents represent a new class of CO2 absorbents with a promising potential to reduce the energy penalty associated with CO2 capture. However, their high volatility is a major concern for their use at the industrial scale. It is believed that membrane absorption offers a solution to overcome this issue, particularly if the membrane can prevent amine evaporation. In the present work a compatibility study is carried out in order to identify suitable membranes in a membrane contacto...

  11. Developing maintainability for tokamak fusion power systems. Phase I report. Volume I. Study results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahn, H.S.

    1977-10-01

    The overall purpose of the study is to identify design features of tokamak fusion power reactors which contribute to the achievement of high levels of maintainability. In this first phase, the principal emphasis is on scheduled maintenance whose frequency is determined by the life of the reactor first wall/blanket. Remote operations are baselined. Five conceptual reactor designs have been analyzed. Each concept is characterized by the size of the replaceable first wall/blanket module--large, intermediate, small--and whether access to the module was from the outside of the reactor, the inside of the reactor or a combination of both. The study results are expressed in terms of availability (scheduled maintenance downtime), the costs of maintenance (capital and recurring) and the percent effect of maintenance on the cost of electricity. During this first phase, the study benefitted significantly by the critical review of the feasibility of maintenance functions and the time-to-perform estimates by numerous persons involved in nuclear maintenance and remote operations

  12. Study of β-phase development in spin-coated PVDF thick films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-06-09

    Jun 9, 2017 ... C and increase in spin speed increases the β-phase ... extensively used in the field of sensors and actuators [1–8]. ... some methods to achieve these polar phases in PVDF such as ... ites with materials, such as, gold nanoparticles [14], carbon ..... change in degree of crystallinity of the films subject to the ...

  13. Options Study - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2010-09-01

    The Options Study has been conducted for the purpose of evaluating the potential of alternative integrated nuclear fuel cycle options to favorably address the issues associated with a continuing or expanding use of nuclear power in the United States. The study produced information that can be used to inform decisions identifying potential directions for research and development on such fuel cycle options. An integrated nuclear fuel cycle option is defined in this study as including all aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, from obtaining natural resources for fuel to the ultimate disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) or radioactive wastes. Issues such as nuclear waste management, especially the increasing inventory of used nuclear fuel, the current uncertainty about used fuel disposal, and the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation have contributed to the reluctance to expand the use of nuclear power, even though it is recognized that nuclear power is a safe and reliable method of producing electricity. In this Options Study, current, evolutionary, and revolutionary nuclear energy options were all considered, including the use of uranium and thorium, and both once-through and recycle approaches. Available information has been collected and reviewed in order to evaluate the ability of an option to clearly address the challenges associated with the current implementation and potential expansion of commercial nuclear power in the United States. This Options Study is a comprehensive consideration and review of fuel cycle and technology options, including those for disposal, and is not constrained by any limitations that may be imposed by economics, technical maturity, past policy, or speculated future conditions. This Phase II report is intended to be used in conjunction with the Phase I report, and much information in that report is not repeated here, although some information has been updated to reflect recent developments. The focus in this Options Study was to

  14. Numerical and experimental study of disturbance wave development in vertical two-phase annular flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Geoffrey; Yang, Junfeng; Zhao, Yujie; Markides, Christos; Matar, Omar

    2013-11-01

    The annular flow regime is characterized by the presence of a thin, wavy liquid film driven along the wall by the shear stress exerted by the gas phase. Under certain liquid film Reynolds numbers, large disturbance waves are observed to traverse the interface, whose length is typically on the order of 20 mm and whose height is typically on the order of 5 times the thickness of the thin (substrate) layer between the waves. Experimental wok has been conducted to study the disturbance wave onset by probing the local film thickness for different Reynolds numbers. It is observed the disturbance waves grow gradually from wavy initiation and form the ring-like structure. To predict the wavy flow field observed in the experiment, 3D CFD simulations are performed using different low Reynolds number turbulence models and Large Eddy Simulation. Modeling results confirm that there is recirculation within the waves, and that they as a packet of turbulence traveling over a laminar substrate film. We also predict the coalescence and the break-up of waves leading to liquid droplet entrainment into the gas core. Skolkovo Foundation, UNIHEAT project.

  15. Nanoindentation study of ferrite–martensite dual phase steels developed by a new thermomechanical processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazaheri, Yousef, E-mail: y.mazaheri@ma.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faculty of Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan 65178-38695 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kermanpur, Ahmad; Najafizadeh, Abbas [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Dual phase (DP) steels consisting different volume fractions of ferrite and martensite and different ferrite grain size were produced by a new route utilizing cold-rolling and subsequent intercritical annealing of ferrite/martensite duplex starting structure at 770 °C for different times. Scanning electron microscopy has been supplemented by nanoindentation and tensile test to follow microstructural changes and their correlations to the variation in phase's hardness and mechanical properties. The results showed that longer holding times resulted in coarser and softer ferrite grains in DP microstructures. Martensite nanohardness variation with holding time is related to change in its carbon content. Mechanical properties such as strength, elongation and toughness are well correlated with the martensite/ferrite hardness ratio.

  16. Developing maintainability for tokamak fusion power systems. Phase II report. Volume II: study results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, G.M.; Zahn, H.S.; Mantz, H.C.; Kaletta, G.R.; Waganer, L.M.; Carosella, L.A.; Conlee, J.L.

    1978-11-01

    In this second phase the impact of unscheduled maintenance, several vacuum wall arrangements, and maintenance of other reactor interfacing subsystems and maintenance equipment are added to the evaluation of the maintainability of the fusion power reactor concepts. Four concepts are normalized to common performance parameters and evaluated for their capability to achieve availability and cost of electricity goals considering both scheduled and unscheduled maintenance. The results of this evaluation are used to generate a series of maintainability design guidelines and to select the more desirable features and design options which are used to configure a preliminary reactor concept having improved maintainability

  17. Phase controlled rectifier study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronner, G.; Murray, J.G.

    1976-03-01

    This report introduces the results of an engineering study incorporating a computer program to determine the transient and steady-state voltage and current wave shapes for a 12-pulse rectifier system. Generally, rectifier engineering studies are completed by making simplified assumptions and neglecting many circuit parameters. The studies incorporate the 3-phase AC parameters including nonlinear source or generator, 3-winding transformer impedances, and shunt and series capacitors. It includes firing angle control, and DC filter circuits with inductive loads

  18. Open Scenario Study, Phase II Report: Assessment and Development of Approaches for Satisfying Unclassified Scenario Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Oracle) • Mysql (Open Source) • Other What application server software will be needed? • Application Server • CGI PHP /Perl (Open Source...CGI PHP /Perl (Other Open Source software) • ColdFusion (Adobe) • OAS Application Server (Oracle) • .ASP/.NET (Microsoft) • Inmagic DB/textworks I...developers around the world. 9 • Ms Windows® – Microsoft Windows operating system for personal computers • MySQL (Open Source) - the most reliable

  19. Study to develop educational products about the fear of new energy technologies. Phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuPont, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Fear of nuclear power was found in the study sample to be widespread and far more intense than fear of any other energy source. Fears were greatest of waste disposal and accidents, with fear of what is not known being especially common. Many fears appeared to be based on lack of information. Both general and specific fears of nuclear power were significantly reduced by reading an educational booklet. After reading this booklet study subjects reported less extreme views of nuclear power, seeing it to be more similar to other energy sources. This decline in fear of nuclear power did not produce a proportionate increase in support for nuclear power as a source of electricity

  20. Motor development of preterm and term infants in the fundamental movement phase: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Karla Machado da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Motor development is a continuous process of motor behavior changes throughout life, allowing for movement control. Premature birth can affect this process, with a greater risk of delays in acquiring these skills. Objective: Compare motor development during the fundamental movement phase of preterm infants submitted to early stimulation and full-term babies. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study with convenience sampling, performed with twenty 3-year-old children of both sexes, distributed into two groups: the preterm group (n = 10, which received physical therapy in the first months of life, and the term group (n = 10. Motor development stages were assessed between January and April 2013, using the Motor Development Scale (Escala de Desenvolvimento Motor - EDM developed by Francisco Rosa Neto, with an average execution time of thirty minutes. Statistical analysis was performed using BioEstat 5.0 software, and the Shapiro-Wilk test was applied to verify data normality. A significance level of p ≤ 0.05 was adopted, analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test. Results: The term group exhibited significant differences in relation to the preterm group for the variables Fine and Gross Motor Skills, and Spatial and Temporal Awareness, with no differences in Balance and Body Scheme. Conclusion: Only the premature infants submitted to early intervention achieved normal levels of Balance and Body Scheme on the EDM Scale.

  1. Cardiovascular safety of liraglutide assessed in a patient-level pooled analysis of phase 2: 3 liraglutide clinical development studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marso, Steven P; Lindsey, Jason B; Stolker, Joshua M; House, John A; Martinez Ravn, Gabriela; Kennedy, Kevin F; Jensen, Troels M; Buse, John B

    2011-07-01

    We assessed the cardiovascular safety of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, using existing clinical data. Patient-level results from all completed phase 2 and 3 studies from the liraglutide clinical development programme were pooled to determine rates of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE): cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke. MACE were identified by querying the study database using Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) terms combined with serious adverse events recorded by study investigators. Broad, narrow, and custom groups of MedDRA queries were used. Candidate events from each query were independently adjudicated post hoc. In 15 studies (6638 patients; 4257 liraglutide treated), there were 114 patients with MACE identified using the broad MedDRA query. Of these, 44 were classified as serious adverse events and 39 were adjudicated as MACE. The incidence ratio for adjudicated broad/serious MACE associated with liraglutide was 0.73 (95% CI 0.38-1.41) versus all comparator drugs (metformin, glimepiride, rosiglitazone, insulin glargine, placebo), within cardiovascular safety limits defined by the United States Food & Drug Administration for diabetes therapies under current investigation.

  2. The premixing and propagation phases of fuel-coolant interactions: a review of recent experimental studies and code developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antariksawan, A.R.; Moriyama, Kiyofumi; Park, Hyun-sun; Maruyama, Yu; Yang, Yanhua; Sugimoto, Jun

    1998-09-01

    A vapor explosion (or an energetic fuel-coolant interactions, FCIs) is a process in which hot liquid (fuel) transfers its internal energy to colder, more volatile liquid (coolant); thus the coolant vaporizes at high pressure and expands and does works on its surroundings. Traditionally, the energetic fuel-coolant interactions could be distinguished in subsequent stages: premixing (or coarse mixing), triggering, propagation and expansion. Realizing that better and realistic prediction of fuel-coolant interaction consequences will be available understanding the phenomenology in the premixing and propagation stages, many experimental and analytical studies have been performed during more than two decades. A lot of important achievements are obtained during the time. However, some fundamental aspects are still not clear enough; thus the works are directed to that direction. In conjunction, the model/code development is pursuit. This is aimed to provide a scaling tool to bridge the experimental results to the real geometries, e.g. reactor pressure vessel, reactor containment. The present review intends to collect the available information on the recent works performed to study the premixing and propagation phases. (author). 97 refs

  3. The premixing and propagation phases of fuel-coolant interactions: a review of recent experimental studies and code developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antariksawan, A.R. [Reactor Safety Technology Research Center of BATAN (Indonesia); Moriyama, Kiyofumi; Park, Hyun-sun; Maruyama, Yu; Yang, Yanhua; Sugimoto, Jun

    1998-09-01

    A vapor explosion (or an energetic fuel-coolant interactions, FCIs) is a process in which hot liquid (fuel) transfers its internal energy to colder, more volatile liquid (coolant); thus the coolant vaporizes at high pressure and expands and does works on its surroundings. Traditionally, the energetic fuel-coolant interactions could be distinguished in subsequent stages: premixing (or coarse mixing), triggering, propagation and expansion. Realizing that better and realistic prediction of fuel-coolant interaction consequences will be available understanding the phenomenology in the premixing and propagation stages, many experimental and analytical studies have been performed during more than two decades. A lot of important achievements are obtained during the time. However, some fundamental aspects are still not clear enough; thus the works are directed to that direction. In conjunction, the model/code development is pursuit. This is aimed to provide a scaling tool to bridge the experimental results to the real geometries, e.g. reactor pressure vessel, reactor containment. The present review intends to collect the available information on the recent works performed to study the premixing and propagation phases. (author). 97 refs.

  4. Centrifuge workers study. Phase II, completion report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooten, H.D.

    1994-09-01

    Phase II of the Centrifuge Workers Study was a follow-up to the Phase I efforts. The Phase I results had indicated a higher risk than expected among centrifuge workers for developing bladder cancer when compared with the risk in the general population for developing this same type of cancer. However, no specific agent could be identified as the causative agent for these bladder cancers. As the Phase II Report states, Phase I had been limited to workers who had the greatest potential for exposure to substances used in the centrifuge process. Phase II was designed to expand the survey to evaluate the health of all employees who had ever worked in Centrifuge Program Departments 1330-1339 but who had not been interviewed in Phase I. Employees in analytical laboratories and maintenance departments who provided support services for the Centrifuge Program were also included in Phase II. In December 1989, the Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), now known as Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), was contracted to conduct a follow-up study (Phase II). Phase H of the Centrifuge Workers Study expanded the survey to include all former centrifuge workers who were not included in Phase I. ORISE was chosen because they had performed the Phase I tasks and summarized the corresponding survey data therefrom.

  5. Centrifuge workers study. Phase II, completion report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wooten, H.D.

    1994-09-01

    Phase II of the Centrifuge Workers Study was a follow-up to the Phase I efforts. The Phase I results had indicated a higher risk than expected among centrifuge workers for developing bladder cancer when compared with the risk in the general population for developing this same type of cancer. However, no specific agent could be identified as the causative agent for these bladder cancers. As the Phase II Report states, Phase I had been limited to workers who had the greatest potential for exposure to substances used in the centrifuge process. Phase II was designed to expand the survey to evaluate the health of all employees who had ever worked in Centrifuge Program Departments 1330-1339 but who had not been interviewed in Phase I. Employees in analytical laboratories and maintenance departments who provided support services for the Centrifuge Program were also included in Phase II. In December 1989, the Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), now known as Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), was contracted to conduct a follow-up study (Phase II). Phase H of the Centrifuge Workers Study expanded the survey to include all former centrifuge workers who were not included in Phase I. ORISE was chosen because they had performed the Phase I tasks and summarized the corresponding survey data therefrom

  6. Promoting energy-saving and environmentally friendly generation dispatching model in China: Phase development and case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Yi; Yang, Hongliang

    2013-01-01

    Energy saving and environmental protection are important conditions for the sustainable development of Chinese economy. However current widely used generation scheduling model based on predefined production quota and tariff results in heavy energy consumption and severe environment pollution. From 2007, as concerns over energy shortage and environmental pollution, the Chinese authorities introduced the implementation of energy-saving generation dispatching model, which is an important approach to facilitating energy-saving and reduction of pollutant emission. The objective of implementing energy-saving generation dispatching model is to prioritize the use of renewable energy resources and new power plants with high efficiency without compromising power system security and reliability. This paper analyzes the necessity and feasibility of implementing energy-efficient and environmentally friendly generation scheduling models in China. The institutional and technical barriers impeding the implementation of energy-saving generation dispatching model are identified. The development of advanced energy-saving generation scheduling models towards competitive market models and phased planning programs are emphasized in this paper. The effectiveness and experience of provinces piloted energy-saving generation dispatching projects are also discussed. - Highlights: ► Introducing problems of current power generation scheduling model in China. ► Discussing necessity of implementing ESGD model and corresponding barriers. ► Proposing phased planning programs for developing ESGD models. ► Discussing the effectiveness and experience of provinces piloted ESGD projects

  7. An experimental and numerical study of developed single phase axial turbulent flow in a smooth rod bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    A combined experimental and numerical model of a turbulent single phase coolant, flowing axially along the fuel pins of a nuclear reactor, was developed. The experimental rig represented two interconnected subchannels of a square array at a pitch/diameter ratio of 1.193. Air was the working fluid, and measurements were made of the mean radial velocity profiles, wall shear stress variation, turbulence velocity spectra and intensities. The numerically predicted wall shear distribution and mean velocity profiles, obtained using an empirical two-dimensional mixing length and eddy diffusivity concept to represent fluid turbulence, showed good agreement with the experimental results. (Author)

  8. Phase II clinical development of new drugs

    CERN Document Server

    Ting, Naitee; Ho, Shuyen; Cappelleri, Joseph C

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on how to appropriately plan and develop a Phase II program, and how to design Phase II clinical trials and analyze their data. It provides a comprehensive overview of the entire drug development process and highlights key questions that need to be addressed for the successful execution of Phase II, so as to increase its success in Phase III and for drug approval. Lastly it warns project team members of the common potential pitfalls and offers tips on how to avoid them.

  9. Preliminary Phase Field Computational Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yulan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hu, Shenyang Y. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xu, Ke [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suter, Jonathan D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McCloy, John S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Bradley R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-15

    This interim report presents progress towards the development of meso-scale models of magnetic behavior that incorporate microstructural information. Modeling magnetic signatures in irradiated materials with complex microstructures (such as structural steels) is a significant challenge. The complexity is addressed incrementally, using the monocrystalline Fe (i.e., ferrite) film as model systems to develop and validate initial models, followed by polycrystalline Fe films, and by more complicated and representative alloys. In addition, the modeling incrementally addresses inclusion of other major phases (e.g., martensite, austenite), minor magnetic phases (e.g., carbides, FeCr precipitates), and minor nonmagnetic phases (e.g., Cu precipitates, voids). The focus of the magnetic modeling is on phase-field models. The models are based on the numerical solution to the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. From the computational standpoint, phase-field modeling allows the simulation of large enough systems that relevant defect structures and their effects on functional properties like magnetism can be simulated. To date, two phase-field models have been generated in support of this work. First, a bulk iron model with periodic boundary conditions was generated as a proof-of-concept to investigate major loop effects of single versus polycrystalline bulk iron and effects of single non-magnetic defects. More recently, to support the experimental program herein using iron thin films, a new model was generated that uses finite boundary conditions representing surfaces and edges. This model has provided key insights into the domain structures observed in magnetic force microscopy (MFM) measurements. Simulation results for single crystal thin-film iron indicate the feasibility of the model for determining magnetic domain wall thickness and mobility in an externally applied field. Because the phase-field model dimensions are limited relative to the size of most specimens used in

  10. Economic evaluation of medical tests at the early phases of development: a systematic review of empirical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frempong, Samuel N; Sutton, Andrew J; Davenport, Clare; Barton, Pelham

    2018-02-01

    There is little specific guidance on the implementation of cost-effectiveness modelling at the early stage of test development. The aim of this study was to review the literature in this field to examine the methodologies and tools that have been employed to date. Areas Covered: A systematic review to identify relevant studies in established literature databases. Five studies were identified and included for narrative synthesis. These studies revealed that there is no consistent approach in this growing field. The perspective of patients and the potential for value of information (VOI) to provide information on the value of future research is often overlooked. Test accuracy is an essential consideration, with most studies having described and included all possible test results in their analysis, and conducted extensive sensitivity analyses on important parameters. Headroom analysis was considered in some instances but at the early development stage (not the concept stage). Expert commentary: The techniques available to modellers that can demonstrate the value of conducting further research and product development (i.e. VOI analysis, headroom analysis) should be better utilized. There is the need for concerted efforts to develop rigorous methodology in this growing field to maximize the value and quality of such analysis.

  11. Phased Development of Accident Tolerant Fue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Carmack, W. Jon

    2016-09-01

    The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) has adopted a three-phase approach for the development and eventual commercialization of enhanced, accident tolerant fuel (ATF) for light water reactors (LWRs). Extending from 2012 to 2016, AFC is currently coming to the end of Phase 1 research that has entailed Feasibility Assessment and Prioritization for a large number of proposed fuel systems (fuel and cladding) that could provide improved performance under accident conditions. Phase 1 activities will culminate with a prioritization of concepts for both near-term and long-term development based on the available experimental data and modeling predictions. This process will provide guidance to DOE on what concepts should be prioritized for investment in Phase 2 Development/Qualification activities based on technical performance improvements and probability of meeting the aggressive schedule to insert a lead fuel rod (LFR) in a commercial power reactor by 2022. While Phase 1 activities include small-scale fabrication work, materials characterization, and limited irradiation of samples, Phase 2 will require development teams to expand to industrial fabrication methods, conduct irradiation tests under more prototypic reactor conditions (i.e. in contact with reactor primary coolant at LWR conditions and in-pile transient testing), conduct additional characterization and post-irradiation examination, and develop a fuel performance code for the candidate ATF. Phase 2 will culminate in the insertion of an LFR (or lead fuel assembly) in a commercial power reactor. The Phase 3 Commercialization work will extend past 2022. Following post-irradiation examination of LFRs, partial-core reloads will be demonstrated. The commercialization phase will further entail the establishment of commercial fabrication capabilities and the transition of LWR cores to the new fuel. The three development phases described roughly correspond to the technology

  12. Picosecond dynamics of reactions in the liquid phase: studies of iodine photodissociation and development of new laser techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, M.A.

    1985-09-01

    Iodine photodissociation and recombination was studied as a model for processes common to chemical reaction in the liquid phase. Picosecond transient absorption measurements from 1000 to 295 nm were used to monitor the dynamics in a variety of solvents. Most of the atoms which undergo geminate recombination were found to do so in less than or equal to 15 ps, in agreement with the results of existing molecular dynamics simulations. Vibrational relaxation times vary from approx.15 ps near the middle of the ground state well to approx.150 ps for complete relaxation to v = 0. The prediction of strong resonant vibrational energy transfer to chlorinated methane solvents was not supported, but some evidence for this mechanism was found for alkane solvents. Current theory is unable to explain the large variation (65 to 2700 ps) of the excited A'-state lifetime in various solvents. The 10-Hz amplified, synchronously-pumped dye laser which was used in these studies is described and characterized. SERS (Stimulated Electronic Raman Scattering) and difference frequency mixing were used in the generation of the infrared and far-infrared, respectively. 54 refs., 38 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Preliminary Development of Real Time Usage-Phase Monitoring System for CNC Machine Tools with a Case Study on CNC Machine VMC 250

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi Harja, Herman; Prakosa, Tri; Raharno, Sri; Yuwana Martawirya, Yatna; Nurhadi, Indra; Setyo Nogroho, Alamsyah

    2018-03-01

    The production characteristic of job-shop industry at which products have wide variety but small amounts causes every machine tool will be shared to conduct production process with dynamic load. Its dynamic condition operation directly affects machine tools component reliability. Hence, determination of maintenance schedule for every component should be calculated based on actual usage of machine tools component. This paper describes study on development of monitoring system to obtaining information about each CNC machine tool component usage in real time approached by component grouping based on its operation phase. A special device has been developed for monitoring machine tool component usage by utilizing usage phase activity data taken from certain electronics components within CNC machine. The components are adaptor, servo driver and spindle driver, as well as some additional components such as microcontroller and relays. The obtained data are utilized for detecting machine utilization phases such as power on state, machine ready state or spindle running state. Experimental result have shown that the developed CNC machine tool monitoring system is capable of obtaining phase information of machine tool usage as well as its duration and displays the information at the user interface application.

  14. Dynamic light scattering study on phase separation of a protein-water mixture: Application on cold cataract development in the ocular lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petta, V.; Pharmakakis, N.; Papatheodorou, G. N.; Yannopoulos, S. N.

    2008-06-01

    We present a detailed dynamic light scattering study of the phase separation in the ocular lens emerging during cold cataract development. Cold cataract is a phase separation effect that proceeds via spinodal decomposition of the lens cytoplasm with cooling. The intensity autocorrelation functions of the lens protein content are analyzed with the aid of two methods, providing information on the populations and dynamics of the scattering elements associated with cold cataract. It is found that the temperature dependence of many measurable parameters changes appreciably at the characteristic temperature ˜16±1°C which is associated with the onset of cold cataract. By extending the temperature range of this work to previously inaccessible regimes, i.e., well below the phase separation or coexistence curve at Tcc , we have been able to accurately determine the temperature dependence of the collective and self-diffusion coefficients of proteins near the spinodal. The analysis showed that the dynamics of proteins bears some resemblance to the dynamics of structural glasses, where the apparent activation energy for particle diffusion increases below Tcc , indicating a highly cooperative motion. Application of ideas developed for studying the critical dynamics of binary protein-solvent mixtures, as well as the use of a modified Arrhenius equation, enabled us to estimate the spinodal temperature Tsp of the lens nucleus. The applicability of dynamic light scattering as a noninvasive, early-diagnostic tool for ocular diseases is also demonstrated in light of the findings of the present paper.

  15. Using standardized methods for research on HIV and injecting drug use in developing/transitional countries: case study from the WHO Drug Injection Study Phase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stimson Gerry V

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful cross-national research requires methods that are both standardized across sites and adaptable to local conditions. We report on the development and implementation of the methodology underlying the survey component of the WHO Drug Injection Study Phase II – a multi-site study of risk behavior and HIV seroprevalence among Injecting Drug Users (IDUs. Methods Standardized operational guidelines were developed by the Survey Coordinating Center in collaboration with the WHO Project Officer and participating site Investigators. Throughout the duration of the study, survey implementation at the local level was monitored by the Coordinating Center. Surveys were conducted in 12 different cities. Prior rapid assessment conducted in 10 cities provided insight into local context and guided survey implementation. Where possible, subjects were recruited both from drug abuse treatment centers and via street outreach. While emphasis was on IDUs, non-injectors were also recruited in cities with substantial non-injecting use of injectable drugs. A structured interview and HIV counseling/testing were administered. Results Over 5,000 subjects were recruited. Subjects were recruited from both drug treatment and street outreach in 10 cities. Non-injectors were recruited in nine cities. Prior rapid assessment identified suitable recruitment areas, reduced drug users' distrust of survey staff, and revealed site-specific risk behaviors. Centralized survey coordination facilitated local questionnaire modification within a core structure, standardized data collection protocols, uniform database structure, and cross-site analyses. Major site-specific problems included: questionnaire translation difficulties; locating affordable HIV-testing facilities; recruitment from drug treatment due to limited/selective treatment infrastructure; access to specific sub-groups of drug users in the community, particularly females or higher income groups

  16. Radar Location Equipment Development Program: Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandness, G.A.; Davis, K.C.

    1985-06-01

    The work described in this report represents the first phase of a planned three-phase project designed to develop a radar system for monitoring waste canisters stored in a thick layer of bedded salt at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The canisters will be contained in holes drilled into the floor of the underground waste storage facility. It is hoped that these measurements can be made to accuracies of +-5 cm and +-2/sup 0/, respectively. The initial phase of this project was primarily a feasibility study. Its principal objective was to evaluate the potential effectiveness of the radar method in the planned canister monitoring application. Its scope included an investigation of the characteristics of radar signals backscattered from waste canisters, a test of preliminary data analysis methods, an assessment of the effects of salt and bentonite (a proposed backfill material) on the propagation of the radar signals, and a review of current ground-penetrating radar technology. A laboratory experiment was performed in which radar signals were backscattered from simulated waste canisters. The radar data were recorded by a digital data acquisition system and were subsequently analyzed by three different computer-based methods to extract estimates of canister location and tilt. Each of these methods yielded results that were accurate within a few centimeters in canister location and within 1/sup 0/ in canister tilt. Measurements were also made to determine the signal propagation velocities in salt and bentonite (actually a bentonite/sand mixture) and to estimate the signal attenuation rate in the bentonite. Finally, a product survey and a literature search were made to identify available ground-penetrating radar systems and alternative antenna designs that may be particularly suitable for this unique application. 10 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Radar Location Equipment Development Program: Phase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandness, G.A.; Davis, K.C.

    1985-06-01

    The work described in this report represents the first phase of a planned three-phase project designed to develop a radar system for monitoring waste canisters stored in a thick layer of bedded salt at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The canisters will be contained in holes drilled into the floor of the underground waste storage facility. It is hoped that these measurements can be made to accuracies of +-5 cm and +-2 0 , respectively. The initial phase of this project was primarily a feasibility study. Its principal objective was to evaluate the potential effectiveness of the radar method in the planned canister monitoring application. Its scope included an investigation of the characteristics of radar signals backscattered from waste canisters, a test of preliminary data analysis methods, an assessment of the effects of salt and bentonite (a proposed backfill material) on the propagation of the radar signals, and a review of current ground-penetrating radar technology. A laboratory experiment was performed in which radar signals were backscattered from simulated waste canisters. The radar data were recorded by a digital data acquisition system and were subsequently analyzed by three different computer-based methods to extract estimates of canister location and tilt. Each of these methods yielded results that were accurate within a few centimeters in canister location and within 1 0 in canister tilt. Measurements were also made to determine the signal propagation velocities in salt and bentonite (actually a bentonite/sand mixture) and to estimate the signal attenuation rate in the bentonite. Finally, a product survey and a literature search were made to identify available ground-penetrating radar systems and alternative antenna designs that may be particularly suitable for this unique application. 10 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Autonomous Aerobraking Development Software: Phase 2 Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciolo, Alicia D.; Maddock, Robert W.; Prince, Jill L.; Bowes, Angela; Powell, Richard W.; White, Joseph P.; Tolson, Robert; O'Shaughnessy, Daniel; Carrelli, David

    2013-01-01

    NASA has used aerobraking at Mars and Venus to reduce the fuel required to deliver a spacecraft into a desired orbit compared to an all-propulsive solution. Although aerobraking reduces the propellant, it does so at the expense of mission duration, large staff, and DSN coverage. These factors make aerobraking a significant cost element in the mission design. By moving on-board the current ground-based tasks of ephemeris determination, atmospheric density estimation, and maneuver sizing and execution, a flight project would realize significant cost savings. The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) sponsored Phase 1 and 2 of the Autonomous Aerobraking Development Software (AADS) study, which demonstrated the initial feasibility of moving these current ground-based functions to the spacecraft. This paper highlights key state-of-the-art advancements made in the Phase 2 effort to verify that the AADS algorithms are accurate, robust and ready to be considered for application on future missions that utilize aerobraking. The advancements discussed herein include both model updates and simulation and benchmark testing. Rigorous testing using observed flight atmospheres, operational environments and statistical analysis characterized the AADS operability in a perturbed environment.

  19. Lithuanian accounting development phases and tendencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Mackevičius

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of Lithuanian accounting has a long history and is rather complicated. It was influenced by different countries, especially by Tsarist Russia, Germany, France, Poland and the Soviet Union. Differ-ent factors had an impact and formed the Lithuanian accounting system, and they have defined develop-ment tendencies for it. The aim of this research is to investigate Lithuanian accounting development phases and tendencies. The research methods consist of analysing scientific papers of Lithuanian authors, a retrospective analy-sis, the historical approach, inductive and deductive methods, systematisation, comparison and a sum-mary of the information. From the chronological and historical perspectives, the following Lithuanian accounting development phases were distinguished: (1 accounting origin for the period of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (1251–1795; (2 Lithuania’s accounting status during the period of occupation by Tsarist Russia (1795–1914 and World War I (1914–1918; (3 the condition and regulation of account-ing during the inter-war period (1918–1940 and World War II in Lithuania; (4 accounting organization and regulation during the Soviet occupation period in Lithuania (1944–1990; (5 accounting status and problems in Independent Lithuania (1990–2015. The article investigates the key elements of regulation, and the achievements and problems of each Lithuanian accounting development phase.

  20. Dynamic density functional theory with hydrodynamic interactions: Theoretical development and application in the study of phase separation in gas-liquid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikkinides, E. S.; Monson, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Building on recent developments in dynamic density functional theory, we have developed a version of the theory that includes hydrodynamic interactions. This is achieved by combining the continuity and momentum equations eliminating velocity fields, so the resulting model equation contains only terms related to the fluid density and its time and spatial derivatives. The new model satisfies simultaneously continuity and momentum equations under the assumptions of constant dynamic or kinematic viscosity and small velocities and/or density gradients. We present applications of the theory to spinodal decomposition of subcritical temperatures for one-dimensional and three-dimensional density perturbations for both a van der Waals fluid and for a lattice gas model in mean field theory. In the latter case, the theory provides a hydrodynamic extension to the recently studied dynamic mean field theory. We find that the theory correctly describes the transition from diffusive phase separation at short times to hydrodynamic behaviour at long times

  1. Promoting energy-saving and environmentally friendly generation dispatching model in China: Phase development and case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Yang, Hongliang

    2013-01-01

    Energy saving and environmental protection are important conditions for the sustainable development of Chinese economy. However current widely used generation scheduling model based on predefined production quota and tariff results in heavy energy consumption and severe environment pollution. From...... 2007, as concerns over energy shortage and environmental pollution, the Chinese authorities introduced the implementation of energy-saving generation dispatching model, which is an important approach to facilitating energy-saving and reduction of pollutant emission. The objective of implementing energy......-saving generation dispatching model is to prioritize the use of renewable energy resources and new power plants with high efficiency without compromising power system security and reliability. This paper analyzes the necessity and feasibility of implementing energy-efficient and environmentally friendly generation...

  2. Contribution to the development of the MARS beamline to study oxide dispersion strengthened steels (ODS) irradiated with neutrons using synchrotron source: secondary phases evolution under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menut, Denis

    2016-01-01

    X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) coupled with X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) analyses at the MARS beamline of the synchrotron SOLEIL facility were used to study the microstructural evolution of oxides phases found in oxide dispersion strengthened steels (ODS) irradiated in Material Testing Reactors. Two hold generations of ODS steel grades (DY and MA957) irradiated up to high fluencies (∼75 dpa) were studied. These experiments have required specific developments, in particular a dedicated sample holder. An important milestone was overcome integrating the MARS beamline to the nuclearized facilities accessible for CEA. First, XRD analysis provide new results concerning intermediate sizes of precipitates (around 100 nm) essentially from crystallographic point of view, the nano-sized oxides (from 1 to 10 nm) being not detected, due to the material itself, sample preparation as thin foil and experimental set-up calibration. Secondly, XAFS analysis is not a discriminating technique as soon as the absorber atom is involved in the chemical composition of various precipitates found in ODS. Nevertheless, the stability of the Ti with a coordination number of 5 is evidenced whatever the irradiation conditions. As our experimental study was not able to detect the nano-sized oxides, an alternative way is to perform modeling approach of the behavior of massive oxides under irradiation, compared to experimental analyses under ion irradiations. We have shown that the defect fluorite is an intermediate phase of the crystal-to-amorphous phase transition of the pyrochlore oxide structure, whatever the irradiation conditions and the ratio of the cationic radii, the Ti coordination number remaining around 5 in the amorphous state. (author) [fr

  3. A Case Study on the Implementation of a Positive Youth Development Program (Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong: Learning from the Experimental Implementation Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tak Yan Lee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation of the implementation of a positive youth development program (Project P.A.T.H.S. was part of a large study undertaken comprehensively to explore how effective the Tier 1 Program was in practice and how the results can shed light on future developments. Utilizing a case study approach, individual and focus group interviews were conducted in 2007 to examine the factors that influence the process and quality of implementation of the Tier 1 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. The focus of this study was on how the implementers of a school made use of the experience gained in the Experimental Implementation Phase (EIP in 2005/06 to improve the program implementation quality in the Full Implementation Phase (FIP in 2006/07. Results showed that the program implementation in the FIP was generally high and the program was well received by the implementers. Factors that facilitated the implementation of the program were identified, including the adoption of an incremental change strategy, the incorporation of the program into both formal and informal curricula, positive perceptions of the program among staff and agency social workers, sufficient school administrative support, excellent cooperation between the school and the social work agency, presence of a dedicated school contact person and instructors who engaged themselves in continuous quality improvement of the implementation, and an emphasis on application of what had been learned. Difficulties encountered by the school in the process of implementation were also observed. Based on the present findings, key process variables that facilitate or impede the implementation of positive youth development programs are discussed. Implications for future program implementation are also discussed.

  4. Development of long-lived radionuclides partitioning technology - Experimental/theoretical study of phase equilibria for multicomponent multiphase systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chul Soo; Lee, Se Il; Sim, Yeon Sik; Park, Sung Bin; Yang, Sung Oh; Park, Ji Yong [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-01

    In various partitioning processes, rare earth elements and actinide elements are separated from other elements in the first stage. They are then separated into rare earth groups and actinde groups. The first stage is accomplished by solvent extraction using DEHPA, by precipitation using oxalic= acid, or by cation exchange. The second stage is carried out by selective back-extraction or by selective elution using DTPA. In these processes the equilibria is governed by the concentrations of nitric acid, of solvents, and of precipitants among others. In this study various distribution coefficients in partitioning processes were experimentally determined. And thermodynamic models were proposed to calculate distribution coefficients with experimentally determined equilibrium constants. 32 refs., 11 tabs., 23 figs. (author)

  5. A Study on the quantification of hydration and the strength development mechanism of cementitious materials including amorphous phases by using XRD/Rietveld method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Kazuo; Hoshino, Seiichi; Hirao, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Hiroki

    2008-01-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD)/Rietveld method was applied to measure the phase composition of cement. The quantative analysis concerning the progress of hydration was accomplished in an error of about the maximum 2-3% in spite of including amorphous materials such as blast furnace slag, fly ash, silica fume and C-S-H. The influence of the compressive strength on the lime stone fine powder mixture material was studied from the hydration analysis by Rietveld method. The two stages were observed in the strength development mechanism of cement; the hydration promotion of C 3 S in the early stage and the filling of cavities by carbonate hydrate for the longer term. It is useful to use various mixture materials for the formation of the resource recycling society and the durability improvement of concrete. (author)

  6. German risk study, phase (DRS-B)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, W.

    1992-01-01

    The first risk investigations were primarily intended to estimate the risk of accidents in nuclear power plants and to compare it with other natural risk and civilization risks. The American reactor safety study WASH 1400 and the German risk study phase A (DRS-A) gave a detailed analyses of the offsite consequences of accidents, especially the magnitude and frequency of health damage for the population. Risk investigations today are primarily used to examine the design of safety systems and to further develop the entire safety concept. Safety investigations have shown that nuclear power plants still possess safety reserves if safety systems do not operate as planned. These safety reserves can be exploited in the sense of a further development of safety by plant internal emergency measures. One purpose of risk analyses is to identify such measures and to evaluate their feasibility and effectiveness. The most important goals of the investigations in DRS-B were: Identification of vulnerabilities and possible safety improvements; determination of safety reserves during accident sequences exceeding the design limits; evaluation of plant internal emergency measures. Thus, goals in phase B compared with phase A have changed from investigations of the magnitude of damage to detailed analysis of the plant systems response under accident conditions. The magnitude of possible fission product releases is also determined in phase B. However, no new accident consequence calculations are performed. Figs and tabs

  7. Development of standardized laboratory methods and quality processes for a phase III study of the RTS, S/AS01 candidate malaria vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Terrell

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A pivotal phase III study of the RTS,S/AS01 malaria candidate vaccine is ongoing in several research centres across Africa. The development and establishment of quality systems was a requirement for trial conduct to meet international regulatory standards, as well as providing an important capacity strengthening opportunity for study centres. Methods Standardized laboratory methods and quality assurance processes were implemented at each of the study centres, facilitated by funding partners. Results A robust protocol for determination of parasite density based on actual blood cell counts was set up in accordance with World Health Organization recommendations. Automated equipment including haematology and biochemistry analyzers were put in place with standard methods for bedside testing of glycaemia, base excess and lactacidaemia. Facilities for X-rays and basic microbiology testing were also provided or upgraded alongside health care infrastructure in some centres. External quality assurance assessment of all major laboratory methods was established and method qualification by each laboratory demonstrated. The resulting capacity strengthening has ensured laboratory evaluations are conducted locally to the high standards required in clinical trials. Conclusion Major efforts by study centres, together with support from collaborating parties, have allowed standardized methods and robust quality assurance processes to be put in place for the phase III evaluation of the RTS, S/AS01 malaria candidate vaccine. Extensive training programmes, coupled with continuous commitment from research centre staff, have been the key elements behind the successful implementation of quality processes. It is expected these activities will culminate in healthcare benefits for the subjects and communities participating in these trials. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00866619

  8. The active phasing experiment: Part II. Design and developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonte, F.; Yaitskova, N.; Derie, F.; Araujo, C.; Brast, R.; Delabre, B.; Dierickx, P.; Dupuy, C.; Frank, C.; Guisard, S.; Karban, R.; Noethe, L.; Sedghi, B.; Surdej, I.; Wilhelm, R.; Reyes, M.; Esposito, S.; Langlois, M.

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of the Active Phasing Experiment, designed under the lead of ESO, is to validate wavefront control concepts for ELT class telescopes. This instrument includes an Active Segmented Mirror, located in a pupil image. It will be mounted at a Nasmyth focus of one of the Unit Telescopes of the ESO VLT. APE contains four different types of phasing sensors, which are developed by Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica in Arcetri, Instituto Astrofisica Canarias, Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille and ESO. These phasing sensors can be compared simultaneously under identical optical and environmental conditions. All sensors receive telecentric F/15 beams with identical optical quality and intensity. Each phasing sensor can measure segmentation errors of the active segmented mirror and correct them in closed loop. The phasing process is supervised by an Internal Metrology system developed by FOGALE Nanotech and capable of measuring piston steps with an accuracy of a few nanometers. The Active Phasing Experiment is equipped with a turbulence generator to simulate atmospheric seeing between 0.45 and 0.85 arcsec in the laboratory. In addition, the Active Phasing Experiment is designed to control simultaneously with the phasing corrections the guiding and the active optics of one of the VLT Unit Telescopes. This activity is supported by the European Community (Framework Programme 6, ELT Design Study, contract No 011863).

  9. How women are treated during facility-based childbirth: development and validation of measurement tools in four countries - phase 1 formative research study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Joshua P; Bohren, Meghan A; Tunçalp, Özge; Oladapo, Olufemi T; Adanu, Richard M; Baldé, Mamadou Diouldé; Maung, Thae Maung; Fawole, Bukola; Adu-Bonsaffoh, Kwame; Dako-Gyeke, Phyllis; Maya, Ernest Tei; Camara, Mohamed Campell; Diallo, Alfa Boubacar; Diallo, Safiatou; Wai, Khin Thet; Myint, Theingi; Olutayo, Lanre; Titiloye, Musibau; Alu, Frank; Idris, Hadiza; Gülmezoglu, Metin A

    2015-07-22

    Every woman has the right to dignified, respectful care during childbirth. Recent evidence has demonstrated that globally many women experience mistreatment during labour and childbirth in health facilities, which can pose a significant barrier to women attending facilities for delivery and can contribute to poor birth experiences and adverse outcomes for women and newborns. However there is no clear consensus on how mistreatment of women during childbirth in facilities is defined and measured. We propose using a two-phased, mixed-methods study design in four countries to address these research gaps. This protocol describes the Phase 1 qualitative research activities. We will employ qualitative research methodologies among women, healthcare providers and administrators in the facility catchment areas of two health facilities in each country: Ghana, Guinea, Myanmar and Nigeria. In-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs) will be conducted among women of reproductive age (15-49 years) to explore their perceptions and experiences of facility-based childbirth care, focused on how they were treated by healthcare workers and perceived factors affecting how they were treated. IDIs will also be conducted with healthcare providers of different cadres (e.g.: nurses, midwives, medical officers, specialist obstetricians) and facility administrators working in the selected facilities to explore healthcare providers' perceptions and experiences of facility-based childbirth care and how staff are treated, colleagues and supervisors. Audio recordings will be transcribed and translated to English. Textual data will be analysed using a thematic framework approach and will consist of two levels of analysis: (1) conduct of local analysis workshops with the research assistants in each country; and (2) line-by-line coding to develop a thematic framework and coding scheme. This study serves several roles. It will provide an in-depth understanding of how women are

  10. Usefulness of acute phase proteins for monitoring development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Serum levels of acute phase proteins (APP) have been used to diagnose and follow up treatment of liver diseases. This study was carried out to determine the usefulness of APP to predict development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among Hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers. Study design: In a prospective ...

  11. Phase development and kinetics of high temperature Bi-2223 phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, M.; Maeda, H.; Hua, K.L.; Shi, X.D.

    1998-01-01

    The two-dimensional nucleation (random)-growth mechanism were observed as a support for the related previous works, which is attributable to the growth of the Bi-2223 grain in the a-b plane direction of the Bi-2212 matrix is being much faster than in the c-direction, or that the early-formed plate-like 2212 phase confines the 2223 product. At the beginning of the reaction, the additional phases are partially melted. Because of the structure, composition and thermal fluctuation, the 2223 nucleates and grows in the phase boundary between the liquid phase and Bi-2212. It was shown here that the nucleation and the growth rate were relatively fast between 0 and 36 h. At the final stage, between 36 and 60 h, because of the impingement of the growth fronts of different nuclei, the high formation rate of 2223 is suppressed. The major reactant 2212 remains as a solid and its plate-like configuration determines the two dimensional nature of the reaction. The amount of liquid forms during reaction is small. (orig.)

  12. Development of phased-array ultrasonic testing probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawanami, Seiichi; Kurokawa, Masaaki; Taniguchi, Masaru; Tada, Yoshihisa

    2001-01-01

    Phased-array ultrasonic testing was developed for nondestructive evaluation of power plants. Phased-array UT scans and focuses an ultrasonic beam to inspect areas difficult to inspect by conventional UT. We developed a highly sensitive piezoelectric composite, and designed optimized phased-array UT probes. We are applying our phased-array UT to different areas of power plants. (author)

  13. Simulation studies of GST phase change alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyna, Glenn

    2008-03-01

    In order to help drive post-Moore's Law technology development, switching processes involving novel materials, in particular, GeSbTe (GST) alloys are being investigated for use in memory and eFuse applications. An anneal/quench thermal process crystallizes/amorphosizes a GST alloy which then has a low/high resistance and thereby forms a readable/writeable bit; for example, a ``one'' might be the low resistance, conducting crystalline state and a ``zero'' might be the high resistance, glassy state. There are many open questions about the precise nature of the structural transitions and the coupling to electronic structure changes. Computational and experimental studies of the effect of pressure on the GST materials were initiated in order to probe the physics behind the thermal switching process. A new pathway to reversible phase change involving pressure-induced structural metal insulator transitions was discovered. In a binary GS system, a room-temperature, direct, pressure-induced transformation from the high resistance amorphous phase to the low resistance crystalline phase was observed experimentally while the reverse process under tensile load was demonstrated via ab initio MD simulations performed on IBM's Blue Gene/L enabled by massively parallel software. Pressure induced transformations of the ternary material GST-225 (Ge2Sb2Te5) were, also, examined In the talk, the behavior of the two systems will be compared and insight into the nature of the phase change given.

  14. Study of phase development and thermal stability in as synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles by laser pyrolysis: ethylene uptake and oxygen enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, Alina Georgiana; Scarisoreanu, Monica; Dutu, Elena; Dumitrache, Florian; Banici, Ana-Maria; Fleaca, Claudiu Teodor; Vasile, Eugenia; Mihailescu, Ion

    2018-01-01

    Laser pyrolysis has proven a viable and trustworthy method of TiO2 nanoparticles fabrication, ensuring good quality and wide variety of nanoparticle morphologies and sizes. This work is aimed to phase control, experimentally studied, by parameter modulation, during one step laser pyrolysis synthesis or in combination with thermal annealing. High phase purity anatase and rutile TiO2 nanoparticles, oxygen abundant, are synthesized from TiCl4 and C2H4 gas mixtures, in the presence of air as oxygen donor, under CO2 laser radiation. The nano-titania samples are analyzed by X-ray Diffraction, EDAX, TEM and Raman spectroscopy and reveal good phase stability and distinct morphology. This study extends the method applicability onto rutile majoritarian TiO2 synthesis and generation of thermally stable anatase titania, a well-known catalyst.

  15. Advanced Aqueous Phase Catalyst Development using Combinatorial Methods, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Combinatorial methods are proposed to develop advanced Aqueous Oxidation Catalysts (AOCs) with the capability to mineralize organic contaminants present in effluents...

  16. Predictors for the development of referral-warranted retinopathy of prematurity in the telemedicine approaches to evaluating acute-phase retinopathy of prematurity (e-ROP) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Gui-Shuang; Quinn, Graham E; Wade, Kelly C; Repka, Michael X; Baumritter, Agnieshka; Daniel, Ebenezer

    2015-03-01

    Detection of treatment-requiring retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) involves serial eye examinations. An ROP prediction model using predictive factors could identify high-risk infants and reduce required eye examinations. To determine predictive factors for the development of referral-warranted (RW) ROP. This multicenter observational cohort study included secondary analysis of data from the Telemedicine Approaches to Evaluating Acute-Phase Retinopathy of Prematurity Study. Infants included in the study had a birth weight (BW) of less than 1251 g. Serial ROP examinations of premature infants who had 2 or more ROP examinations. Incidence of RW-ROP (defined as the presence of plus disease, zone I ROP, or ROP stage 3 or greater in either eye) and associations with predictive factors. Among 979 infants without RW-ROP at first study-related eye examination (median postmenstrual age, 33 weeks; range, 29-40 weeks) who underwent at least 2 eye examinations, 149 (15.2%) developed RW-ROP. In a multivariate model, significant predictors for RW-ROP were male sex (odds ratio [OR], 1.80; 95% CI, 1.13-2.86 vs female), nonblack race (OR, 2.76; 95% CI, 1.50-5.08 for white vs black race and OR, 4.81; 95% CI, 2.19-10.6 for other vs black race), low BW (OR, 5.16; 95% CI, 1.12-7.20 for ≤500 g vs >1100 g), younger gestational age (OR, 9.79; 95% CI, 3.49-27.5 for ≤24 weeks vs ≥28 weeks), number of quadrants with preplus disease (OR, 7.12; 95% CI, 2.53-20.1 for 1-2 quadrants and OR, 18.4; 95% CI, 4.28-79.4 for 3-4 quadrants vs no preplus disease), stage 2 ROP (OR, 4.13; 95% CI, 2.13-8.00 vs no ROP), the presence of retinal hemorrhage (OR, 4.36; 95% CI, 1.57-12.1 vs absence), the need for respiratory support (OR, 4.99; 95% CI, 1.89-13.2 for the need for controlled mechanical ventilator; OR, 11.0; 95% CI, 2.26-53.8 for the need for high-frequency oscillatory ventilation vs no respiratory support), and slow weight gain (OR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.22-4.89 for weight gain ≤12 g/d vs >18 g

  17. Formalizing the concept phase of product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuts, M.; Hooman, J.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the use of formal techniques to improve the concept phase of product realisation. As an industrial application, a new concept of interventional X-ray systems has been formalized, using model checking techniques and the simulation of formal models. cop. Springer International Publishing

  18. MAQARIN natural analogue study: phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, W R; Mazurek, M; Waber, H N [Univ. of Berne (Switzerland). Institutes of Geology, Mineralogy and Petrology, Rock-Water Interaction Group (GGWW); Arlinger, J; Erlandson, A C; Hallbeck, L; Pedersen, K [Goeteborg University (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology; Boehlmann, W; Fritz, P; Geyer, S; Geyer, W; Hanschman, G; Kopinke, F D; Poerschmann, J [Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle (Germany); Chambers, A V; Haworth, A; Ilett, D; Linklater, C M; Tweed, C J [AEA Technology plc, Harwell (United Kingdom); Chenery, S R.N.; Kemp, S J; Milodowski, A E; Pearce, J M; Reeder, S; Rochelle, C A; Smith, B; Wetton, P D; Wragg, J [British Geological Survey, Keyworth (United Kingdom); Clark, I D [Univ. of Ottawa (Canada). Dept. of Geology; Hodginson, E; Hughes, C R [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Hyslop, E K [British Geological Survey, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Karlsson, F [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Khoury, H N; Salameh, E [Univ. of Jordan, Amman (Jordan); Lagerblad, B [Cement Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Longworth, G [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology; Pitty, A F [Private consultant, Norwich (United Kingdom); Savage, D [QuantiSci Ltd, Melton Mowbray (United Kingdom); Smellie, J A.T. [ed.; Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1998-12-01

    This report represents the conclusion to Phase III of the Maqarin Natural Analogue Study. The main thrust was to establish the origin and chemistry of the Western Springs hyper alkaline groundwaters (Na/K enriched Ca(OH){sub 2} type) and to study their interaction with rocks of different compositions, as natural analogues to key processes that might occur at an early stage within the `alkali disturbed zone` of cementitious repositories in different host rocks. Whilst earlier studies at Maqarin were very much site-specific and process-oriented, Phase III provided a regional perspective to the geological evolution of the Maqarin region. This was made possible by greater field access which allowed a more systematic structural and geomorphological study of the area. This has resulted in a greater understanding of the age and spatial relationships concerning formation of the cement zones through spontaneous combustion of the Bituminous Marls, and the subsequent formation of high pH groundwaters at the Eastern and Western Springs locations. At the Western Springs locality, hydrochemical and hydrogeological evaluation of new and published data (plus access to unpublished data), together with detailed mineralogical and geochemical studies, helped to clarify the very earliest stage of cement leachate/host rock interaction. The data were used also to test coupled flow/transport codes developed to assess the long-term evolution of a cementitious repository. Additional objectives addressed include: a) rock matrix diffusion, b) the occurrence and chemical controls on zeolite composition, e) the occurrence and chemical controls on clay stability, and d) the role of microbes, organics and colloids in trace element transport. The Maqarin site now provides a consistent picture explaining the origin of the hyperalkaline groundwaters, and is therefore a unique location for the examination of the mechanisms and processes associated with cementitious repositories. Application of these

  19. MAQARIN natural analogue study: phase III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, W.R.; Mazurek, M.; Waber, H.N.; Arlinger, J.; Erlandson, A.C.; Hallbeck, L.; Pedersen, K.; Chambers, A.V.; Haworth, A.; Ilett, D.; Linklater, C.M.; Tweed, C.J.; Chenery, S.R.N.; Kemp, S.J.; Milodowski, A.E.; Pearce, J.M.; Reeder, S.; Rochelle, C.A.; Smith, B.; Wetton, P.D.; Wragg, J.; Clark, I.D.; Karlsson, F.; Khoury, H.N.; Salameh, E.; Lagerblad, B.; Longworth, G.; Savage, D.; Smellie, J.A.T.

    1998-12-01

    This report represents the conclusion to Phase III of the Maqarin Natural Analogue Study. The main thrust was to establish the origin and chemistry of the Western Springs hyper alkaline groundwaters (Na/K enriched Ca(OH) 2 type) and to study their interaction with rocks of different compositions, as natural analogues to key processes that might occur at an early stage within the 'alkali disturbed zone' of cementitious repositories in different host rocks. Whilst earlier studies at Maqarin were very much site-specific and process-oriented, Phase III provided a regional perspective to the geological evolution of the Maqarin region. This was made possible by greater field access which allowed a more systematic structural and geomorphological study of the area. This has resulted in a greater understanding of the age and spatial relationships concerning formation of the cement zones through spontaneous combustion of the Bituminous Marls, and the subsequent formation of high pH groundwaters at the Eastern and Western Springs locations. At the Western Springs locality, hydrochemical and hydrogeological evaluation of new and published data (plus access to unpublished data), together with detailed mineralogical and geochemical studies, helped to clarify the very earliest stage of cement leachate/host rock interaction. The data were used also to test coupled flow/transport codes developed to assess the long-term evolution of a cementitious repository. Additional objectives addressed include: a) rock matrix diffusion, b) the occurrence and chemical controls on zeolite composition, e) the occurrence and chemical controls on clay stability, and d) the role of microbes, organics and colloids in trace element transport. The Maqarin site now provides a consistent picture explaining the origin of the hyperalkaline groundwaters, and is therefore a unique location for the examination of the mechanisms and processes associated with cementitious repositories. Application of these

  20. MAQARIN natural analogue study: phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, W R; Mazurek, M; Waber, H N [Univ. of Berne (Switzerland). Institutes of Geology, Mineralogy and Petrology, Rock-Water Interaction Group (GGWW); Arlinger, J; Erlandson, A C; Hallbeck, L; Pedersen, K [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology; Boehlmann, W; Fritz, P; Geyer, S; Geyer, W; Hanschman, G; Kopinke, F D; Poerschmann, J [Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle (Germany); Chambers, A V; Haworth, A; Ilett, D; Linklater, C M; Tweed, C J [AEA Technology plc, Harwell (United Kingdom); Chenery, S R.N.; Kemp, S J; Milodowski, A E; Pearce, J M; Reeder, S; Rochelle, C A; Smith, B; Wetton, P D; Wragg, J [British Geological Survey, Keyworth (United Kingdom); Clark, I D [Univ. of Ottawa (Canada). Dept. of Geology; Hodginson, E; Hughes, C R [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Hyslop, E K [British Geological Survey, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Karlsson, F [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Khoury, H N; Salameh, E [Univ. of Jordan, Amman (Jordan); Lagerblad, B [Cement Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Longworth, G [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology; Pitty, A F [Private consultant, Norwich (United Kingdom); Savage, D [QuantiSci Ltd, Melton Mowbray (United Kingdom); Smellie, J A.T. [ed.; Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1998-12-01

    This report represents the conclusion to Phase III of the Maqarin Natural Analogue Study. The main thrust was to establish the origin and chemistry of the Western Springs hyper alkaline groundwaters (Na/K enriched Ca(OH){sub 2} type) and to study their interaction with rocks of different compositions, as natural analogues to key processes that might occur at an early stage within the `alkali disturbed zone` of cementitious repositories in different host rocks. Whilst earlier studies at Maqarin were very much site-specific and process-oriented, Phase III provided a regional perspective to the geological evolution of the Maqarin region. This was made possible by greater field access which allowed a more systematic structural and geomorphological study of the area. This has resulted in a greater understanding of the age and spatial relationships concerning formation of the cement zones through spontaneous combustion of the Bituminous Marls, and the subsequent formation of high pH groundwaters at the Eastern and Western Springs locations. At the Western Springs locality, hydrochemical and hydrogeological evaluation of new and published data (plus access to unpublished data), together with detailed mineralogical and geochemical studies, helped to clarify the very earliest stage of cement leachate/host rock interaction. The data were used also to test coupled flow/transport codes developed to assess the long-term evolution of a cementitious repository. Additional objectives addressed include: a) rock matrix diffusion, b) the occurrence and chemical controls on zeolite composition, e) the occurrence and chemical controls on clay stability, and d) the role of microbes, organics and colloids in trace element transport. The Maqarin site now provides a consistent picture explaining the origin of the hyperalkaline groundwaters, and is therefore a unique location for the examination of the mechanisms and processes associated with cementitious repositories. Application of these

  1. Experimental studies of the quantum chromodynamics phase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-05-06

    BES) ... Experimental studies of the QCD phase diagram at the STAR experiment .... However, the observed difference between v2 of particles and antiparticles could .... The grey band at the right corresponds to systematic.

  2. Development of Latent Heat Storage Phase Change Material Containing Plaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana BAJARE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the development of latent heat storage Phase Change Material (PCM containing plaster as in passive application. Due to the phase change, these materials can store higher amounts of thermal energy than traditional building materials and can be used to add thermal inertia to lightweight constructions. It was shown that the use of PCMs have advantages stabilizing the room temperature variations during summer days, provided sufficient night ventilation is allowed. Another advantage of PCM usage is stabilized indoor temperature on the heating season. The goal of this study is to develop cement and lime based plaster containing microencapsulated PCM. The plaster is expected to be used for passive indoor applications and enhance the thermal properties of building envelope. The plaster was investigated under Scanning Electron Microscope and the mechanical, physical and thermal properties of created plaster samples were determined.

  3. Workflow Based Software Development Environment, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this proposed research is to investigate and develop a workflow based tool, the Software Developers Assistant, to facilitate the collaboration between...

  4. Workflow Based Software Development Environment, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this proposed research is to investigate and develop a workflow based tool, the Software Developers Assistant, to facilitate the collaboration between...

  5. Phase development in a U-7 wt.% Mo vs. Al-7 wt.% Ge diffusion couple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, E.; Keiser, D. D.; Sohn, Y. H.

    2013-10-01

    Fuel development for the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program has demonstrated that U-Mo alloys in contact with Al develop interaction regions with phases that have poor irradiation behavior. The addition of Si to the Al has been considered with positive results. In this study, compositional modification is considered by replacing Si with Ge to determine the effect on the phase development in the system. The microstructural and phase development of a diffusion couple of U-7 wt.% Mo in contact with Al-7 wt.% Ge was examined by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The interdiffusion zone developed a microstructure that included the cubic-UGe3 phase and amorphous phases. The UGe3 phase was observed with and without Mo and Al solid solution developing a (U,Mo)(Al,Ge)3 phase.

  6. Phase development in a U–7 wt.% Mo vs. Al–7 wt.% Ge diffusion couple

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, E., E-mail: Emmanuel.Perez@inl.gov [Nuclear Fuels and Materials Development, Idaho National Laboratory, Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Keiser, D.D. [Nuclear Fuels and Materials Development, Idaho National Laboratory, Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Sohn, Y.H. [Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Center, and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Blvd., Orlando, FL 32816 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Fuel development for the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program has demonstrated that U–Mo alloys in contact with Al develop interaction regions with phases that have poor irradiation behavior. The addition of Si to the Al has been considered with positive results. In this study, compositional modification is considered by replacing Si with Ge to determine the effect on the phase development in the system. The microstructural and phase development of a diffusion couple of U–7 wt.% Mo in contact with Al–7 wt.% Ge was examined by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The interdiffusion zone developed a microstructure that included the cubic-UGe{sub 3} phase and amorphous phases. The UGe{sub 3} phase was observed with and without Mo and Al solid solution developing a (U,Mo)(Al,Ge){sub 3} phase.

  7. Studies on phase kinetics of new superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisbrodt, A.; Penkalla, H.J.; Schubert, F.; Nickel, H.

    1990-08-01

    At the development of new ODS (Oxide-Dispersion-Strengthened) alloys for components being exposed to hot-gas temperatures nickel-base alloys and ODS alloys have been investigated. The experimental work mainly referred to phase investigations of thermally loaded samples. The addition of alloying elements will have a decisive influence on the γ'-phase fraction, γ'-lattice parameter, the morphology as well as the coarsening behaviour of the γ'-phase under temperature load. The main characteristics of ODS alloys are Y,Al-mixed oxides and microstructural inhomogenities. As for MA6000 a Time-Temperature-Precipitation diagram has been elaborated. By means of the improved computer programme PHASCALC for phase and N v (= average electron vacancy concentration) - value calculation many microstructural parameters such as the γ/γ'-misfit, the solution of the γ'-phase and melting temperatures can be determined. Tensile tests made at temperatures above 900deg C have shown that the strengthening parameters are dependent on alloy composition, temperature conditions, γ'-phase fraction and oxide dispersion content. (orig.) [de

  8. Two-phase anaerobic digestion of partially acidified sewage sludge: a pilot plant study for safe sludge disposal in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passio, Luca; Rizzoa, Luigi; Fuchs, Stephan

    2012-09-01

    The unsafe disposal of wastewater and sludge in different areas of developing countries results in significant environmental pollution, particularly for groundwater, thus increasing the risk of waterborne diseases spreading. In this work, a two-phase anaerobic digestion process for post-treatment of partially acidified sewage sludge was investigated to evaluate its feasibility as a safe sludge disposal system. Pilot tests showed that an effective sludge stabilization can be achieved (total volatile solids content <65%, organic acid concentration <200 mg/L at flow rate = 50 L/d and hydraulic residence time = 18 d) as well as a relative low faecal coliform density (<1000 most probable number per g total solids), showing that land application of the sludge without restrictions is possible according to US Environmental Protection Agency criteria for safe sludge disposal. A biogas production as high as 390 L/d with a 60% methane content by volume was achieved, showing that energy production from biogas may be achieved as well.

  9. Histological studies on the telencephalon of Hynobius leechii at the metamorphosis phase and the adult phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying-Ying; Shao, Ran; Liang, Chuan-Cheng; Wang, Yong; Wang, Li-Wen

    2009-08-01

    To investigate the telencephalon developmental characteristics of Hynobius leehii, and enrich the research data of comparable neurobiology and nervous system development of amphibian. HE staining and Nissl staining methods were used to study the telencephalon histological structure of Hynobius leechii at both the metamorphosis and the adult phases, and to explore the developmental phases of telencephalon. The olfactory bulb could be roughly divided into 6 layers from lateral to medial. The lateral cerebral ventricles at the metamorphosis phase were smaller than those at the adult phase, and there were no clear borderlines between the primordial pallium and the primordial hippocampus, or between the primordial pallium and the primordial piriform area. Moreover, the cells in the primordial piriform area were more closely distributed than those in the primordial hippocampus or the primordial pallium. Compared with those at the adult phase, cells in nucleuses at the metamorphosis phase were larger in number and more closely distributed. The telencephalon of Hynobius leehii at the metamorphosis phase has generally formed the adult structure. However, it is still at a transition state of differentiation to maturity during the development of Hynobius leehii.

  10. Development of Engine Loads Methodology, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR seeks to improve the definition of design loads for rocket engine components such that higher performing, lighter weight engines can be developed more...

  11. Studies of matrix diffusion in gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartikainen, K.; Timonen, J.; Vaeaetaeinen, K.; Pietarila, H.

    1994-03-01

    The diffusion of solutes from fractures into rock matrix is an important factor in the safety analysis of disposal of radioactive waste. Laboratory measurements are needed to complement field investigations for a reliable determination of the necessary transport parameters. Measurements of diffusion coefficients in tight rock samples are usually time consuming because the diffusion processes are slow. On the other hand it is well known that diffusion coefficients in the gas phase are roughly four orders of magnitude larger than those in the liquid phase. Therefore, for samples whose structures do not change much upon drying, it is possible to estimate the diffusion properties of the liquid phase when the properties of the gas phase are known. Advantages of the gas method are quick and easy measurements. In the measurements nitrogen was used as the carrier gas and helium as the tracer gas, and standard techniques have been used for helium detection. Techniques have been developed for both channel flow and through-diffusion measurements. The breakthrough curves have been measured in every experiment and all measurements have been modelled by using appropriate analytical models. As a result matrix porosities and effective diffusion coefficients in the gas phase have been determined. (12 refs., 21 figs., 6 tabs.)

  12. Ljubljana – phases of urban development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Jakoš

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the Second World War there were approximately 100.000 people living in the compact part of Ljubljana. A period of rapid population development ensued (urbanisation because of immigration from other parts of Slovenia and later from various regions of the former Yugoslav Republics. This period is marked by numerous new housing estates and early stagnation of the old city core. A period ob sub-urbanisation followed and city expansion along the main roads, interspersed with poor quality building and illegal development. Costly renewal of old buildings, diminished construction of housing estates and high prices of building land triggered the flight of city dwellers (de-urbanisation and caused non-urban development in neighbouring municipalities (secondary urbanisation. By rehabilitation of the old city centre and attempts at revitalisation Ljubljana is trying re-urbanise itself. The flight of the younger population, caused by limited offer of housing, still remains the main problem that furthermore causes increased volumes of daily commuting and congestion in the city centre caused by parked vehicles. The tally of increased population during the last decade to small neighbouring municipalities, caused by flight from Ljubljana, is 20.000, while the population of Ljubljana is decreasing. With its quarter of a million inhabitants, Ljubljana is the third smallest capital city of Europe (without the “pocket” states. The main issue in the neighbouring municipalities is expressively non-urban development, meaning that too much land is used and the utilities infrastructure threshold is not met. The present division of the Ljubljana metropolitan region truly calls for a Strategy of spatial development, at least on the level of the Ljubljana urban region.

  13. Development of halthane adhesives for phase 3 weapons: status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammon, H.G.; Althouse, L.P.

    1975-01-01

    Three new adhesives of the polyurethane type have been developed to meet the requirements for the current phase 3 nuclear weapons. They are designated Halthanes to avoid confusion with Adiprenes. Two of these adhesives are made from LLL-developed MDI-terminated prepolymers cured with a blend of polyols. The third is made from an LLL-developed prepolymer terminated with Hylene W and cured with aromatic diamines. All of the adhesives have low moduli over a wide temperature range, bond rapidly and well to most substrates, and are compatible with weapons components. This report updates information reported in Chemistry Department Technical Notes Nos. 75-23 and 75-24. Characterization and compatibility studied are continuing

  14. Phase Transitions, Diffraction Studies and Marginal Dimensionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1985-01-01

    Continuous phase transitions and the associated critical phenomena have been one of the most active areas of research in condensed matter physics for several decades. This short review is only one cut through this huge subject and the author has chosen to emphasize diffraction studies as a basic ...

  15. Development of Reverse-Phase HPLC Method for Simultaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Purpose: To develop a simple, sensitive and rapid reverse phase HPLC method for the simultaneous analysis of metoprolol succinate and hydrochlorothiazide in a solid dosage form. Methods: The .... Extraction was carried out three times with.

  16. Development of ultrasonic inspection equipment using phased array method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Osamu; Yamatoya, Naofumi; Umino, Tomohiro; Baba, Atsushi

    2008-01-01

    This study presents new phased array UT equipments, one is developed as portable type for field inspection and the other is developed for 2D-matrix array (3D Focus-UT). The pulser of square burst wave was adopted for these new equipments to enhance flaw echo amplitude. At over 3 cycles of square burst cycle, the authors confirmed over 10 dB enhancement of bottom echo amplitude. Moreover, a new flaw imaging method using S-SAFT was also adopted for equipments to improve SN ratio and flaw echo resolution in inspection image. The authors verified effects of S-SAFT using side drilled hole specimen, about 2 times of improvement of SN ratio and flaw echo resolution. (author)

  17. Study of nonequilibrium dispersed two phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, J.N. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Understanding the behavior of liquid droplets in a superheated steam environment is essential to the accurate prediction of nuclear fuel rod surface temperatures during the blowdown and reflood phase of a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA). In response to this need, this treatise presents several original and significant contributions to the field of thermofluid physics. The research contained herein presents a statistical derivation of the two-phase mass, momentum, and energy-conservation equations using a droplet continuity equation analogous to that used in the Kinetic Theory of Gases. Unlike the Eulerian volume and time-averaged conservation equations generally used to describe dispersed two-phase flow behavior, this statistical averaging approach results in an additional mass momentum or energy term in each of the respective conservation equations. Further, this study demonstrates that current definitions of the volumetric vapor generation rate used in the mass conservation equation are inappropriate results under certain circumstances. The mass conservation equation derived herein is used to obtain a new definition for the volumetric vapor-generation rate. Last, a simple two phase phenomenological model, based on the statistically averaged conservation equations, is presented and solved analytically. It is shown that the actual quality and vapor temperature, under these circumstances, depend on a single dimensionless group

  18. Studying Suspended Sediment Mechanism with Two-Phase PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matinpour, H.; Atkinson, J. F.; Bennett, S. J.; Guala, M.

    2017-12-01

    Suspended sediment transport affects soil erosion, agriculture and water resources quality. Turbulent diffusion is the most primary force to maintain sediments in suspension. Although extensive previous literature have been studying the interactions between turbulent motion and suspended sediment, mechanism of sediments in suspension is still poorly understood. In this study, we investigate suspension of sediments as two distinct phases: one phase of sediments and another phase of fluid with turbulent motions. We designed and deployed a state-of-the-art two-phase PIV measurement technique to discriminate these two phases and acquire velocities of each phase separately and simultaneously. The technique that we have developed is employing a computer-vision based method, which enables us to discriminate sediment particles from fluid tracer particles based on two thresholds, dissimilar particle sizes and different particle intensities. Results indicate that fluid turbulence decreases in the presence of suspended sediments. Obtaining only sediment phase consecutive images enable us to compute fluctuation sediment concentration. This result enlightens understanding of complex interaction between the fluctuation velocities and the fluctuation of associated mass and compares turbulent viscosity with turbulent eddy diffusivity experimentally.

  19. Integrated thermal treatment system study -- Phase 2 results. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

    1996-02-01

    This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 1 systems. The alternatives evaluated were: rotary kiln, slagging kiln, plasma furnace, plasma gasification, molten salt oxidation, molten metal waste destruction, steam gasification, Joule-heated vitrification, thermal desorption and mediated electrochemical oxidation, and thermal desorption and supercritical water oxidation. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in the Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr). 28 refs., 88 figs., 41 tabs.

  20. Integrated thermal treatment system study -- Phase 2 results. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

    1996-02-01

    This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 1 systems. The alternatives evaluated were: rotary kiln, slagging kiln, plasma furnace, plasma gasification, molten salt oxidation, molten metal waste destruction, steam gasification, Joule-heated vitrification, thermal desorption and mediated electrochemical oxidation, and thermal desorption and supercritical water oxidation. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in the Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr). 28 refs., 88 figs., 41 tabs

  1. Budgetary and Programmatic Fluctuations during the System Development and Demonstration Phase: A Case Study of the Marine Corps H-1 Upgrade Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    impact of economic change might include a closing factory, market manipulation, the signing of international trade 17 treaties, or the global...Refinement System Intergration System Demonstration Concept Decision BA C LRIP Full-Rate Production & Deployment System Development and Demonstration...BLOCK III Concept Exploration Component Advanced Development Concept and Technology Development System Intergration System Demonstration Decision Review

  2. Development of injection moulded, ultrasonically welded immiscible phase filtration devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kistrup, Kasper

    for ultrasonic welding, suitable for microfluidic systems. A methodology has been established where energy directors can be quickly added to existing mould inserts, using laser micromachining. The produced device was performance tested by isolating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from bovine whole....... The device appliesmagnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction for nucleic acid extraction from biological samples, using the immiscible phase filtration (IPF) approach. Device development has employed injection moulding for part fabrication and ultrasonic welding for bonding. Rapid prototyping...

  3. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Sustainable Development Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Sustainable Development Policy Institute. This funding will strengthen the Sustainable Development Policy Institute's (SDPI) role as a credible public policy institution in Pakistan by enhancing its ability to provide high-quality, influential, and policy-relevant research. About the Sustainable ...

  4. New developments for determination of uncertainty in phase evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sheng

    Phase evaluation exists mostly in, but not limited to, interferometric applications that utilize coherent multidimensional signals to modulate the physical quantity of interest into a nonlinear form, represented by repeating the phase modulo of 271 radians. In order to estimate the underlying physical quantity, the wrapped phase has to be unwrapped by an evaluation procedure which is usually called phase unwrapping. The procedure of phase unwrapping will obviously face the challenge of inconsistent phase, which could bring errors in phase evaluation. The main objectives of this research include addressing the problem of inconsistent phase in phase unwrapping and applications in modern optical techniques. In this research, a new phase unwrapping algorithm is developed. The creative idea of doing phase unwrapping between regions has an advantage over conventional pixel-to-pixel unwrapping methods because the unwrapping result is more consistent by using a voting mechanism based on all Zit-discontinuities hints. Furthermore, a systematic sequence of regional unwrapping is constructed in order to achieve a global consistent result. An implementation of the idea is illustrated in dct.il with step-by-step pseudo codes. The performance of the algorithm is demonstrated on real world applications. In order to solve a phase unwrapping problem which is caused by depth discontinuities in 3D shape measurement, a new absolute phase coding strategy is developed. The algorithm presented has two merits: effectively extends the coding range and preserves the measurement sensitivity. The performance of the proposed absolute coding strategy is proved by results of 3D shape measurement for objects with surface discontinuities. As a powerful tool for real world applications a universal software package, Optical Measurement and Evaluation Software (OMES), is designed for the purposes of automatic measurement and quantitative evaluation in 3D shape measurement and laser interferometry

  5. Development, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a new out-patient Breathlessness Support Service: study protocol of a phase III fast-track randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bausewein Claudia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breathlessness is a common and distressing symptom affecting many patients with advanced disease both from malignant and non-malignant origin. A combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological measures is necessary to treat this symptom successfully. Breathlessness services in various compositions aim to provide comprehensive care for patients and their carers by a multiprofessional team but their effectiveness and cost-effectiveness have not yet been proven. The Breathlessness Support Service (BSS is a newly created multiprofessional and interdisciplinary outpatient service at a large university hospital in South East London. The aim of this study is to develop and evaluate the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of this multidisciplinary out–patient BSS for the palliation of breathlessness, in advanced malignant and non-malignant disease. Methods The BSS was modelled based on the results of qualitative and quantitative studies, and systematic literature reviews. A randomised controlled fast track trial (RCT comprising two groups: 1 intervention (immediate access to BSS in addition to standard care; 2 control group (standard best practice and access to BSS after a waiting time of six weeks. Patients are included if suffering from breathlessness on exertion or at rest due to advanced disease such as cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, chronic heart failure (CHF, interstitial lung disease (ILD or motor neurone disease (MND that is refractory to maximal optimised medical management. Both quantitative and qualitative outcomes are assessed in face to-face interviews at baseline, after 6 and 12 weeks. The primary outcome is patients' improvement of mastery of breathlessness after six weeks assessed on the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRQ. Secondary outcomes for patients include breathlessness severity, symptom burden, palliative care needs, service use, and respiratory measures (spirometry

  6. Plutonium disposition study phase 1b final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report provides the results of the Westinghouse activities performed as part of the Plutonium Disposition Study Phase 1b. These activities, which took place from May 16, 1993 to September 15, 1993, build upon the work completed in Phase 1a, which concluded on May 15, 1993. In Phase 1a, three Plutonium Disposal Reactor (PDR) options were developed for the disposal of excess weapons grade plutonium from returned and dismantled nuclear weapons. This report documents the results of several tasks that were performed to further knowledge in specific areas leading up to Phase 2 of the PDR Study. The Westinghouse activities for Phase 1b are summarized as follows: (1) resolved technical issues concerning reactor physics including equilibrium cycle calculations, use of gadolinium, moderator temperature coefficient, and others as documented in Section 2.0; (2) analyzed large Westinghouse commercial plants for plutonium disposal; (3) reactor safety issues including the steam line break were resolved, and are included in Section 2.0; (4) several tasks related to the PDR Fuel Cycle were examined; (5) cost and deployment options were examined to determine optimal configuration for both plutonium disposal and tritium production; (6) response to questions from DOE and National Academy of Scientists (NAS) reviewers concerning the PDR Phase 1a report are included in Appendix A

  7. Aging of snubbers in nuclear service: Phase I study results and Phase II plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, R.L.; Bush, S.H.; Page, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Two major research areas were investigated in the Phase I snubber aging studies. The first area involved a preliminary evaluation of the effects of various aging mechanisms on snubber operation; failure modes of mechanisms were identified and their contributions to aging degradation were assessed relative to other failure modes. The second area involved estimating the efficacy of existing tests and examinations that are intended to determine the effects of aging and degradation. Available data on snubber behavior and operating experience were reviewed, using licensee event reports and other historical data for the 10-year period from 1973 through 1983. Value-impact was considered in terms of (1) exposure of workers to radioactive environments for examination/testing and (2) the cost for expansion of the snubber testing program due to failed snubbers. Results from the Phase I studies identified the need to modify or improve examination and testing procedures to enhance snubber reliability. Based on the results of the Phase I snubber studies, the seals and fluids were identified as the two principal elements affected by aging degradation in hydraulic snubbers. Phase II work, which was initiated in FY 1987, will develop cooperative activities between PNL and operating utilities through the Snubber Utility Group (SNUG), who will work to establish a strong data and experience base for both hydraulic and mechanical snubbers based on actual operating and maintenance history at nuclear power plants. Application guidelines for snubbers will be recommended based on the study results

  8. X-ray Phase Contrast analysis - Digital wavefront development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idir, Mourad; Potier, Jonathan; Fricker, Sebastien; Snigirev, Anatoly; Snigireva, Irina; Modi, M. H.

    2010-01-01

    Optical schemes that enable imaging of the phase shift produced by an object have become popular in the x-ray region, where phase can be the dominant contrast mechanism. The propagation-based technique consists of recording the interference pattern produced by choosing one or several sample-to-detector distances. Pioneering studies, carried out making use of synchrotron radiation, demonstrated that this technique results in a dramatic increase of image contrast and detail visibility, allowing the detection of structures invisible with conventional techniques. An experimental and theoretical study of in-line hard x-ray phase-contrast imaging had been performed. The theoretical description of the technique is based on Fresnel diffraction. As an illustration of the potential of this quantitative imaging technique, high-resolution x-ray phase contrast images of simple objects will be presented.

  9. Phase field model for the study of boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruyer, P.

    2006-07-01

    This study concerns both the modeling and the numerical simulation of boiling flows. First we propose a review concerning nucleate boiling at high wall heat flux and focus more particularly on the current understanding of the boiling crisis. From this analysis we deduce a motivation for the numerical simulation of bubble growth dynamics. The main and remaining part of this study is then devoted to the development and analyze of a phase field model for the liquid-vapor flows with phase change. We propose a thermodynamic quasi-compressible formulation whose properties match the one required for the numerical study envisaged. The system of governing equations is a thermodynamically consistent regularization of the sharp interface model, that is the advantage of the di use interface models. We show that the thickness of the interface transition layer can be defined independently from the thermodynamic description of the bulk phases, a property that is numerically attractive. We derive the kinetic relation that allows to analyze the consequences of the phase field formulation on the model of the dissipative mechanisms. Finally we study the numerical resolution of the model with the help of simulations of phase transition in simple configurations as well as of isothermal bubble dynamics. (author)

  10. Managing Corporate Venturing: Multi-level Studies on Project Autonomy, Integration, Knowledge Relatedness, and Phases in the New Business Development Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Burgers (Henri)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractDeveloping new businesses is a critical factor for strategically renewing firms in today’s dynamic environments. Although autonomy has frequently been addressed as a major factor in successfully managing corporate ventures, several critical contingencies remain unexplored. The results of

  11. Single-phase and two phase bubbly flow in a T connection: theoretical and experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hervieu, Eric

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this research thesis is to highlight the driving factors of the separation of phases of a bubbly flow in a T junction, and to develop a prediction model. In a first part, the author reports the rigorous formulation of equations averaged on the T volume. He shows that it's not possible to solve globally the problem with these equations. Then, he reports a bibliographical study on the modelling of a bubbly flow, and, based upon this study, highlights intrinsic characteristics of the flow, and explains its dynamic mechanisms. He reports the development of the theoretical model, and describes the experimental installation used to validate it. In the third part, he reports the study of the liquid-gas interaction, and presents the adopted approach: study of the behaviour of an isolated bubble within a single-phase flow. Experimentation is used to check theoretical predictions. Results are used to compute phase separation. The obtained results are again compared with experimental results to validate the global relevance of the model [fr

  12. Development and validation of a reversed phase High Performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple, rapid, accurate and economical isocratic Reversed Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RPHPLC) method was developed, validated and used for the evaluation of content of different brands of paracetamol tablets. The method was validated according to ICH guidelines and may be adopted for the ...

  13. Development of headspace solid-phase microextraction method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method was developed as a preliminary investigation using univariate approach for the analysis of 14 multiclass pesticide residues in fruits and vegetable samples. The gas chromatography mass spectrometry parameters (desorption temperature and time, column flow ...

  14. Developing two-phase flow modelling concepts for rock fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keto, V. (Fortum Nuclear Services Oy, Espoo (Finland))

    2010-01-15

    The Finnish nuclear waste disposal company, Posiva Oy, is planning an underground repository for spent nuclear fuel to be constructed on the island of Olkiluoto on the south-west coast of Finland. One element of the site investigations conducted at Olkiluoto is the excavation of the underground rock characterisation facility (ONKALO) that will be extended to the final disposal depth (approximately -400 m). The bedrock around the excavated tunnel volume is fully saturated with groundwater, which water commonly contains a mixture of dissolved gases. These gases remain dissolved due to the high hydrostatic pressure. During tunnel excavation work the natural hydrostatic pressure field is disturbed and the water pressure will decrease close to the atmospheric pressure in the immediate vicinity of the tunnel. During this pressure drop two-phase flow conditions (combined flow of both water and gas) may develop in the vicinity of the underground opening, as the dissolved gas is exsoluted under the low pressure (the term exsolution refers here to release of the dissolved gas molecules from the water phase into a separate gas phase). This report steers towards concept development for numerical two-phase flow modeling for fractured rock. The focus is on the description of gas phase formation process under disturbed hydraulic conditions by exsolution of dissolved gases from groundwater, and on understanding the effects of a possibly formed gas phase on groundwater flow conditions in rock fractures. A mathematical model of three mutually coupled nonlinear partial differential equations for two-phase flow is presented and corresponding constitutional relationships are introduced and discussed. Illustrative numerical simulations are performed in a simplified setting using COMSOL Multiphysics 3.5a - software package. Shortcomings and conceptual problems are discussed. (orig.)

  15. Developing two-phase flow modelling concepts for rock fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keto, V.

    2010-01-01

    The Finnish nuclear waste disposal company, Posiva Oy, is planning an underground repository for spent nuclear fuel to be constructed on the island of Olkiluoto on the south-west coast of Finland. One element of the site investigations conducted at Olkiluoto is the excavation of the underground rock characterisation facility (ONKALO) that will be extended to the final disposal depth (approximately -400 m). The bedrock around the excavated tunnel volume is fully saturated with groundwater, which water commonly contains a mixture of dissolved gases. These gases remain dissolved due to the high hydrostatic pressure. During tunnel excavation work the natural hydrostatic pressure field is disturbed and the water pressure will decrease close to the atmospheric pressure in the immediate vicinity of the tunnel. During this pressure drop two-phase flow conditions (combined flow of both water and gas) may develop in the vicinity of the underground opening, as the dissolved gas is exsoluted under the low pressure (the term exsolution refers here to release of the dissolved gas molecules from the water phase into a separate gas phase). This report steers towards concept development for numerical two-phase flow modeling for fractured rock. The focus is on the description of gas phase formation process under disturbed hydraulic conditions by exsolution of dissolved gases from groundwater, and on understanding the effects of a possibly formed gas phase on groundwater flow conditions in rock fractures. A mathematical model of three mutually coupled nonlinear partial differential equations for two-phase flow is presented and corresponding constitutional relationships are introduced and discussed. Illustrative numerical simulations are performed in a simplified setting using COMSOL Multiphysics 3.5a - software package. Shortcomings and conceptual problems are discussed. (orig.)

  16. Development of optical phase shifter based on piezoelectric ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fusheng; Shen, Xiaoqin; Yao, Chunjuan; Leng, Changlin

    2005-02-01

    The phase shifter is necessary in the optical phase-shifting measurement. At present the phase shifter commonly used is approximately divided into the penetrance-type and the reflection-type. In this paper, a reflection-type phase shifter made of piezoelectric ceramic stackup assemble is developed. The assemble are constituted of the flat piezoelectric ceramic with parallel connection circuit and inline structure. The communication between the computer and MCU is by RS232. The D/A converter controlled by the MCU outputs 0~10V voltage. Then the voltage is amplified to 0~400V DC voltage by the designed linear DC amplifier. When this voltage loads on the piezoelectric ceramic stackup assemble, the assemble will axially extend 0~5mm. In this paper, the connecting types for the mechanical construction and circuit of the piezoelectric ceramic stackup assemble, the driving power and the DC amplifier with high linearity are all introduced. The whole system developed is standardized by using phase-interfering Michelson. The standardization and the practical application indicates that this system has excellent linearity and precision repeatability.

  17. Building Enclosure Hygrothermal Performance Study, Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karagiozis, A.N.

    2002-08-08

    The moisture performance of three different classes of wall systems has been investigated in the context of the preliminary hygrothermal analysis of walls in Seattle. The results reported in this phase specifically address the moisture performance of walls designed with loads that have some unintentional water penetration. The results have been developed in a manner to present the relative performance of the walls in the same climate with similar water penetration effects. The analysis was performed with the best available input data. Several limitations should be recognized within the context of this study. Results showed that selection of wooden sheathing boards on interior vapor-tight assemblies does not significantly influence the performance of stucco-clad walls. A larger effect was observed when the interior vapor control is made vapor open. When continuous cavity ventilation is employed, the effect of the selection of the type of sheathing board on the hygrothermal performance of the wall was found to be negligible. When comparing oriented strand board sheathing performance against the performance of exterior grade gypsum, the differences are very significant in terms of the amount of moisture content present in the walls. Moisture content alone does not indicate their respective durability as durability is directly related to the combination of relative humidity and temperature, mechanical, chemical, and biological properties of the substrates. This study did not investigate the durability performance of either sheathing. In terms of interior vapor control, inhabitant behavior must be considered during the wall hygrothermal design stage. If interior relative humidity is maintained below 60%, then a latex primer and paint may perform better than the use of PVA or even a polyethylene sheet. When the interior environment is maintained at a higher relative humidity, then stricter vapor control is needed. Multilayered building paper was experimentally shown to

  18. Development of One Dimensional Hyperbolic Coupled Solver for Two-Phase Flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eoi Jin; Kim, Jong Tae; Jeong, Jae June

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study is a code development for one dimensional two-phase two-fluid flows. In this study, the computations of two-phase flow were performed by using the Roe scheme which is one of the upwind schemes. The upwind scheme is widely used in the computational fluid dynamics because it can capture discontinuities clearly such as a shock. And this scheme is applicable to multi-phase flows by the extension methods which were developed by Toumi, Stadtke, etc. In this study, the extended Roe upwind scheme by Toumi for two-phase flow was implemented in the one-dimensional code. The scheme was applied to a shock tube problem and a water faucet problem. This numerical method seems efficient for non oscillating solutions of two phase flow problems, and also capable for capturing discontinuities

  19. Development of One Dimensional Hyperbolic Coupled Solver for Two-Phase Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eoi Jin; Kim, Jong Tae; Jeong, Jae June

    2008-08-15

    The purpose of this study is a code development for one dimensional two-phase two-fluid flows. In this study, the computations of two-phase flow were performed by using the Roe scheme which is one of the upwind schemes. The upwind scheme is widely used in the computational fluid dynamics because it can capture discontinuities clearly such as a shock. And this scheme is applicable to multi-phase flows by the extension methods which were developed by Toumi, Stadtke, etc. In this study, the extended Roe upwind scheme by Toumi for two-phase flow was implemented in the one-dimensional code. The scheme was applied to a shock tube problem and a water faucet problem. This numerical method seems efficient for non oscillating solutions of two phase flow problems, and also capable for capturing discontinuities.

  20. STUDY OF TCP PHASE PRECIPITATING IN GH4199 SUPERALLOY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.Cui; Y.S.Zhang; S.W.Guo; L.Wang; H.C.Yang

    2004-01-01

    The precipitating regulation and mechanism of TCP phasephase and σ phase) are studied, using electron hole number (EHN) theory, phase analysis technology and TEM observation. The results indicate that the EHN in studied alloy is 2.311-2.348 which is higher than that of critical EHN of μ phase precipitate (2.30), so μ phase could precipitate if there is enough thermo-exposition. In contrast, the calculated EHN is less than that of critical EHN of σ phase precipitate (2.52). However the σ phase is also observed by TEM.Enrich of Cr and Mo around γ phase after γ' phase precipitated leads to σ phase precipitated.

  1. Developing an energy design tool: Phase 1 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidell, J.A.; Deringer, J.D.

    1987-02-01

    This report documents the planning phase of a proposed four-phase project for creating computer software to provide energy expertise in a manageable form to architects and engineers - thereby decreasing energy use in new buildings. The government sponsored software would be integrated with commercially developed software for use in the design of buildings. The result would be an integrated software package to aid the designer in the building design process and to provide expert insight into the energy related implications of a proposed design.

  2. Enhanced deterministic phase retrieval using a partially developed speckle field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almoro, Percival F.; Waller, Laura; Agour, Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    A technique for enhanced deterministic phase retrieval using a partially developed speckle field (PDSF) and a spatial light modulator (SLM) is demonstrated experimentally. A smooth test wavefront impinges on a phase diffuser, forming a PDSF that is directed to a 4f setup. Two defocused speckle...... intensity measurements are recorded at the output plane corresponding to axially-propagated representations of the PDSF in the input plane. The speckle intensity measurements are then used in a conventional transport of intensity equation (TIE) to reconstruct directly the test wavefront. The PDSF in our...

  3. Phase distribution studies in metallic alloy SIMFUEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolay, S.; Basu, M.; Kaity, S.; Das, D.

    2014-01-01

    Utilization of U-Pu based alloy fuel in the three stage nuclear power generation program in India is one of the important mandate due to shorter doubling time for breeding of the fissile isotopes ( 239 Pu and 233 U) to be used in Th based driver fuel in the 3rd stage. Reported information shows successful performance of fuel with porous alloy matrix in achieving 10-15 atom % burn-up. The porosity and microstructure of this alloy are strongly dependent on the composition and phases of the fission products incorporated in the matrix. The porosity influences the extent of fuel swelling and fission gas release, which affects the performance and integrity of the fuel. This study addresses to these issues taking the base alloy U-10wt% Zr

  4. Overview of adaptive phased management repository design development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization is implementing Adaptive Phased Management, Canada's plan for long-term management of used nuclear fuel. The organization is proceeding with the process for selecting a site in partnership with an informed and willing host community to safely and securely container and isolate used nuclear fuel in a deep geological repository in a suitable rock formation. Adaptive Phased Management is the culmination of more than 30 years of research, development and demonstration of repository concepts in Canada. Adaptive Phased Management uses a phased and adaptive step-wise approach to the multi-barrier system which is consistent with the long-term waste management approaches being developed in many other countries with nuclear power programs such as Sweden, Finland, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and France. The Nuclear Waste Management Organization is examining and developing conceptual designs for a deep geological repository and associated facilities for the placement of used nuclear fuel in long-lived containers. This paper will examine two of these generic conceptual designs which have recently been refined and updated. These conceptual designs will be used to support a pre-project review of repository design and safety by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission. (author)

  5. An expert system as applied to bridges : software development phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the results of the third of a four-part study dealing with the use of a computerized expert system to assist bridge engineers in their structures management program. In this phase of the study, software (called DOBES) was writte...

  6. Laser-induced microstructural development and phase evolution in magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Y.C.; Zhou, W.; Li, Z.L.; Zheng, H.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Secondary phase evolution caused by laser processing was firstly reported. • Microstructure development was controlled by heat flow thermodynamics and kinetics. • Solid-state transformation resulted in submicron and nano-scale precipitates. • Cluster-shaped particles in overlapped region were due to precipitation coarsening. • Properties of materials can be tailored selectively by laser processing. -- Abstract: Secondary phase plays an important role in determining microstructures and properties of magnesium alloys. This paper focuses on laser-induced microstructure development and secondary phase evolution in AZ91D Mg alloy studied by SEM, TEM and EDS analyses. Compared to bulk shape and lamellar structure of the secondary phase in as-received cast material, rapid-solidified microstructures with various morphologies including nano-precipitates were observed in laser melt zone. Formation mechanisms of microstructural evolution and effect of phase development on surface properties were further discussed

  7. Study of incommensurable phases in quantum chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollmer, J.

    1990-12-01

    The phases of quantum chains with spin-1/2 and spin-1-respresentations of the SU(2) algebra and the phases of a mixed spin-1/2 / spin-1 chain are reported and investigated. These chains are models with an XX-interaction in a magnetic field. In a certain range of the magnetic field the groundstate magnetisation depends continuously on the magnetic field and the energy gaps vanish, this is a so called 'floating phase'. Within this phase the energy spectrum is a conformal spectrum, comparable to the spectrum of the Gauss-model, but the momenta have a macroscopic part. These macroscopic momenta are connected to oscillating correlation functions, whose periods are determined by the magnetic field. The transition from the floating phase to an existing phase with constant groundstate magnetisation is a Pokrovsky-Talapov-transition, it is a universal transition in all three models. (orig.) [de

  8. Recent development of ionic liquid stationary phases for liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xianzhe; Qiao, Lizhen; Xu, Guowang

    2015-11-13

    Based on their particular physicochemical characteristics, ionic liquids have been widely applied in many fields of analytical chemistry. Many types of ionic liquids were immobilized on a support like silica or monolith as stationary phases for liquid chromatography. Moreover, different approaches were developed to bond covalently ionic liquids onto the supporting materials. The obtained ionic liquid stationary phases show multi-mode mechanism including hydrophobic, hydrophilic, hydrogen bond, anion exchange, π-π, and dipole-dipole interactions. Therefore, they could be used in different chromatographic modes including ion-exchange, RPLC, NPLC and HILIC to separate various classes of compounds. This review mainly summarizes the immobilized patterns and types of ionic liquid stationary phases, their retention mechanisms and applications in the recent five years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Study on thermal-hydraulics during a PWR reflood phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguchi, Tadashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-10-01

    In-core thermal-hydraulics during a PWR reflood phase following a large-break LOCA are quite unique in comparison with two-phase flow which has been studied widely in previous researches, because the geometry of the flow path is complicated (bundle geometry) and water is at extremely low superficial velocity and almost under stagnant condition. Hence, some phenomena realized during a PWR reflood phase are not understood enough and appropriate analytical models have not been developed, although they are important in a viewpoint of reactor safety evaluation. Therefore, author investigated some phenomena specified as important issues for quantitative prediction, i.e. (1) void fraction in a bundle during a PWR reflood phase, (2) effect of radial core power profile on reflood behavior, (3) effect of combined emergency core coolant injection on reflood behavior, and (4) the core separation into two thermal-hydraulically different regions and the in-core flow circulation behavior observed during a combined injection PWR reflood phase. Further, author made analytical models for these specified issues, and succeeded to predict reflood behaviors at representative types of PWRs, i.e.cold leg injection PWRs and Combined injection PWRs, in good accuracy. Above results were incorporated into REFLA code which is developed at JAERI, and they improved accuracy in prediction and enlarged applicability of the code. In the present study, models were intended to be utilized in a practical use, and hence these models are simplified ones. However, physical understanding on the specified issues in the present study is basic and principal for reflood behavior, and then it is considered to be used in a future advanced code development and improvement. (author). 110 refs.

  10. GREECE FACES A YIN-YANG DEVELOPMENT PHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Andra SIMIONESCU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept Yin-Yang represents the unity of opposites and complementarity. In this respect, from the economical point of view a positive Yin phase represents the cash flow, brings nutrition, gentleness and protection, while a negative Yin phase means capital loss, sloth and passive obedience, a positive Yang phase is translated as an action based on funds, emphasising the creation, the construction and the development of infrastructure thanks to an economical action plan, while a negative Yang phase leads to conflicts, to excessive product stocks and to a stock market collapse, causing, in this line, crisis and inflation by increasing prices and decreasing purchasing power. In the European Union, Greece faces a Yang negative phase. When having too much positive Yin monetary stimulus from the EU, the Yin-Yang balance turns in favour of a negative Yang bankrupcy and unemployment. Thus, I explore not only the Greece’s economical dimension, but also its geographic role, the synergy between culture and DNA and the last, but not the least, the human’s ability in creating a new positive Yin-Yang flourishing future.

  11. Development of nuclear thermal hydraulic verification test and evaluation technology; study on 3-dimension measurement of two-phase flow parameters in subcooled boiling flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Goon Cherl; Kim, Moon Oh; Cho, Hyung Kyoo; Kim, Seong Jin [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    In this study, the experiments were conducted at different levels of inlet subcooling, flow rate and heat flux in a vertical concentric annulus channel located heater at the center with subcooled boiling conditions of atmosphere pressure and superficial velocity under 1.5m/s. The profiles of void fraction, vapor size, vapor frequency, vapor velocity and IAC were measured by 2 sensor conductivity probe in axially 3 points (L/D{sub h}=90.5,80.1,71.4) and those of liquid velocity by pitot tube. Based on the experiment data subcooled boiling models in MARS and multidimensional code, CFX-4.2 were evaluated was verified for analysis ability of these codes in subcooled boiling. 61 refs., 41 figs., 11 tabs. (Author)

  12. Study supporting the phasing out of environmentally harmful subsidies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withana, S.; Ten Brink, P.; Franckx, L.; Hirschnitz-Garbers, M.; Mayeres, I.; Oosterhuis, F.; Porsch, L.

    2012-10-15

    The need to reform ineffective or harmful public subsidies has long been recognised and has been a contentious point of discussion for several years. The EU has a long-standing commitment to removing or phasing out environmentally harmful subsidies (EHS). Most recently, the need to phase out EHS is reiterated in the 'Roadmap for a resource efficient Europe' which includes a milestone that 'by 2020 EHS will be phased out, with due regard to the impact on people in need'. Despite several commitments, progress has been slow and subsidies remain an issue in most EU countries. This study focuses specifically on EHS at the level of EU Member States; it identifies key types of EHS and examines cases of existing EHS across a range of environmental sectors and issues, including subsidies from non-action. The study also analyses examples of good practices in the reform of EHS in EU Member States and the lessons that can be learnt from these cases. Finally, based on this analysis, it develops practical recommendations on phasing out and reforming EHS to support the objectives of the Europe 2020 Strategy and the resource efficiency agenda. The study was carried out between January and October 2012 and is based on an analysis of literature and consultation with experts and policy makers. The sectoral cases studied are listed and discussed in the annexes report: agriculture, climate and energy, fisheries, food, forestry, materials, transport, waste, and water.

  13. Design and Development of a compact and ruggest phase and flouresence microscope for space utilization, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR Phase 1 we propose to develop a novel microscope by integrating Fourier phase contrast microscopy (FPCM) and epi-fluorescence microscopy. In FPCM, the...

  14. Two-phase LMMHD mixer-development experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabris, G.; Dunn, P.F.; Chow, J.C.F.

    1978-01-01

    The results of a series of experiments conducted to evaluate the fluid mechanical performance of various two-phase LMMHD mixer designs are presented. The results from both flow visualization studies of the local two-phase flows downstream from various mixer-element configurations and local measurements performed to characterize these flows are presented. A conceptual LMMHD mixer design is described that insures the generation of small bubbles, prevents the formation of gas slugs and separated regions, and favors the stabilization of a homogeneous foam flow

  15. Municipal solid waste development phases: Evidence from EU27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujić, Goran; Gonzalez-Roof, Alvaro; Stanisavljević, Nemanja; Ragossnig, Arne M

    2015-12-01

    Many countries in the European Union (EU) have very developed waste management systems. Some of its members have managed to reduce their landfilled waste to values close to zero during the last decade. Thus, European Union legislation is very stringent regarding waste management for their members and candidate countries, too. This raises the following questions: Is it possible for developing and developed countries to comply with the European Union waste legislation, and under what conditions? How did waste management develop in relation to the economic development in the countries of the European Union? The correlation between waste management practices and economic development was analysed for 27 of the European Union Member States for the time period between 1995 and 2007. In addition, a regression analysis was performed to estimate landfilling of waste in relation to gross domestic product for every country. The results showed a strong correlation between the waste management variables and the gross domestic product of the EU27 members. The definition of the municipal solid waste management development phases followed a closer analysis of the relation between gross domestic product and landfilled waste. The municipal solid waste management phases are characterised by high landfilling rates at low gross domestic product levels, and landfilling rates near zero at high gross domestic product levels. Hence the results emphasize the importance of wider understanding of what is required for developing countries to comply with the European Union initiatives, and highlight the importance of allowing developing countries to make their own paths of waste management development. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. An Overview of 2014 SBIR Phase 1 and Phase 2 Communications Technology and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.; Morris, Jessica R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program focuses on technological innovation by investing in development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA mission directorates address critical research needs for Agency programs. This report highlights eight of the innovative SBIR 2014 Phase I and Phase II projects that emphasize one of NASA Glenn Research Center's six core competencies-Communication Technology and Development. The technologies cover a wide spectrum of applications such as X-ray navigation, microsensor instrument for unmanned aerial vehicle airborne atmospheric measurements, 16-element graphene-based phased array antenna system, interferometric star tracker, ultralow power fast-response sensor, and integrated spacecraft navigation and communication. Each featured technology describes an innovation, technical objective, and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report provides an opportunity for NASA engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn how NASA SBIR technologies could help their programs and projects, and lead to collaborations and partnerships between the small SBIR companies and NASA that would benefit both.

  17. Fuel development studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, F.

    1986-12-01

    This paper describes the main lines of the studies carried out to develop the Fast Neutron Fuel Element, from the ''SPX1-first load'' version, to progress to high performance which will be required for the project 1500 and for the fast neutron series [fr

  18. Study of SmS properties in the low pressure phase (black phase)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordier, G.

    1986-01-01

    SmS was studied for the transition from low pressure phase (black phase) to high pressure phase with an intermediate valence. But the study of the black phase is very rich. The variations of electron transport properties with pressure at low temperature show a semi-metal phase located, in the pressure-temperature diagram in the black phase for pressure over 4 kbars, corresponding to the phase B'of the doping-temperature diagram. Electron spin resonance shows a lack of sulfur and nearby this defect a samarium ion, magnetically coupled with the matrix, presents a divalent trivalent transition. Resonance lines are broadened with temperature. Conductivity relaxations occur at low pressure and low temperature by trapping a conduction electron, by magnetic exchange giving a bounded magnetic polaron. The relaxation time at null magnetic field is activated. An approximation of trapping barrier and critical field corresponding the maximum magnetoresistance is given by a model [fr

  19. Visualization in cryogenic environment: Application to two-phase studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousset, Bernard; Chatain, Denis; Puech, Laurent; Thibault, Pierre; Viargues, François; Wolf, Pierre-Etienne

    2009-10-01

    This paper reviews recent technical developments devoted to the study of cryogenic two-phase fluids. These techniques span from simple flow visualization to quantitative measurements of light scattering. It is shown that simple flow pattern configurations are obtained using classical optical tools (CCD cameras, endoscopes), even in most severe environments (high vacuum, high magnetic field). Quantitative measurements include laser velocimetry, particle sizing, and light scattering analysis. In the case of magnetically compensated gravity boiling oxygen, optical access is used to control the poistioning of a bubble subject to buoyancy forces in an experimental cell. Flow visualization on a two-phase superfluid helium pipe-flow, performed as a support of LHC cooldown studies, leads to flow pattern characterization. Visualization includes stratified and atomized flows. Thanks to the low refractive index contrast between the liquid and its vapor, quantitative results on droplet densities can be obtained even in a multiple scattering regime.

  20. Subscale Water Based Phase Change Material Heat Exchanger Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Rubik; Hansen, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Supplemental heat rejection devices are required in many spacecraft as the radiators are not sized to meet the full heat rejection demand. One means of obtaining additional heat rejection is through the use of phase change material heat exchangers (PCM HX's). PCM HX's utilize phase change to store energy in unfavorable thermal environments (melting) and reject the energy in favorable environments (freezing). Traditionally, wax has been used as a PCM on spacecraft. However, water is an attractive alternative because it is capable of storing about 40% more energy per unit mass due to its higher latent heat of fusion. The significant problem in using water as a PCM is its expansion while freezing, leading to structural integrity concerns when housed in an enclosed heat exchanger volume. Significant investigation and development has taken place over the past five years to understand and overcome the problems associated with water PCM HX's. This paper reports on the final efforts by Johnson Space Center's Thermal Systems Branch to develop a water based PCM HX. The test article developed and reported on is a subscale version of the full-scale water-based PCM HX's constructed by Mezzo Technologies. The subscale unit was designed by applying prior research on freeze front propagation and previous full-scale water PCM HX development. Design modifications to the subscale unit included use of urethane bladder, decreased aspect ratio, perforated protection sheet, and use of additional mid-plates. Testing of the subscale unit was successful and 150 cycles were completed without fail.

  1. Microgrid Design, Development and Demonstration - Final Report for Phase I and Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, Sumit [GE Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Krok, Michael [GE Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    2011-02-08

    This document constitutes GE’s final report for the Microgrid Design, Development and Demonstration program for DOE’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Award DE-FC02-05CH11349. It contains the final report for Phase I in Appendix I, and the results the work performed in Phase II. The program goal was to develop and demonstrate a Microgrid Energy Management (MEM) framework for a broad set of Microgrid applications that provides unified controls, protection, and energy management. This project contributed to the achievement of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Renewable and Distributed Systems Integration Program goals by developing a fully automated power delivery microgrid network that: - Reduces carbon emissions and emissions of other air pollutants through increased use of optimally dispatched renewable energy, - Increases asset use through integration of distributed systems, - Enhances reliability, security, and resiliency from microgrid applications in critical infrastructure protection, constrained areas of the electric grid, etc. - Improves system efficiency with on-site, distributed generation and improved economic efficiency through demand-side management.

  2. FreedomCAR Advanced Traction Drive Motor Development Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ley, Josh (UQM Technologies, Inc.); Lutz, Jon (UQM Technologies, Inc.)

    2006-09-01

    The overall objective of this program is to design and develop an advanced traction motor that will meet the FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) 2010 goals and the traction motor technical targets. The motor specifications are given in Section 1.3. Other goals of the program include providing a cost study to ensure the motor can be developed within the cost targets needed for the automotive industry. The program has focused on using materials that are both high performance and low costs such that the performance can be met and cost targets are achieved. In addition, the motor technologies and machine design features must be compatible with high volume manufacturing and able to provide high reliability, efficiency, and ruggedness while simultaneously reducing weight and volume. Weight and volume reduction will become a major factor in reducing cost, material cost being the most significant part of manufacturing cost at high volume. Many motor technology categories have been considered in the past and present for traction drive applications, including: brushed direct current (DC), PM (PM) brushless dc (BLDC), alternating current (AC) induction, switched reluctance and synchronous reluctance machines. Of these machine technologies, PM BLDC has consistently demonstrated an advantage in terms of power density and efficiency. As rare earth magnet cost has declined, total cost may also be reduced over the other technologies. Of the many different configurations of PM BLDC machines, those which incorporate power production utilizing both magnetic torque as well as reluctance torque appear to have the most promise for traction applications. There are many different PM BLDC machine configurations which employ both of these torque producing mechanisms; however, most would fall into one of two categories--some use weaker magnets and rely more heavily on reluctance torque (reluctance-dominant PM machines), others use strong PMs and supplement with reluctance torque

  3. Housing decision making methods for initiation development phase process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal, Rozlin; Kasim, Narimah; Sarpin, Norliana; Wee, Seow Ta; Shamsudin, Zarina

    2017-10-01

    Late delivery and sick housing project problems were attributed to poor decision making. These problems are the string of housing developer that prefers to create their own approach based on their experiences and expertise with the simplest approach by just applying the obtainable standards and rules in decision making. This paper seeks to identify the decision making methods for housing development at the initiation phase in Malaysia. The research involved Delphi method by using questionnaire survey which involved 50 numbers of developers as samples for the primary stage of collect data. However, only 34 developers contributed to the second stage of the information gathering process. At the last stage, only 12 developers were left for the final data collection process. Finding affirms that Malaysian developers prefer to make their investment decisions based on simple interpolation of historical data and using simple statistical or mathematical techniques in producing the required reports. It was suggested that they seemed to skip several important decision-making functions at the primary development stage. These shortcomings were mainly due to time and financial constraints and the lack of statistical or mathematical expertise among the professional and management groups in the developer organisations.

  4. Experimental studies of interaction mechanisms and phase transport processes in two-phase flow (NOVA program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauter, H.; Meyder, R.; Philipp, P.; Samstag, M.

    1995-01-01

    The NOVA program was continued with turbulent, vertical, upward two-phase flow experiments. The development of a local gas distribution along the test section was visualized by X-ray tomography. (orig.)

  5. Development of microstructure of niobium-microalloyed steels after deformation in two-phase region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majta, J.; Bator, A.

    1999-01-01

    The inhomogeneity of microstructure development of hot deformed niobium-microalloyed steels in the austenite and two phase region is effectively described using an integrated computer modeling process. In particular, the effect of varying the finish deformation temperature, strain and strain rate on the inhomogeneity of austenite and ferrite structures are studied. Presented here investigations take into account kinetics of recrystallization, phase transformation, and the resulting mechanical properties. (author)

  6. An Overview of SBIR Phase 2 Communications Technology and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2015-01-01

    Technological innovation is the overall focus of NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The program invests in the development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA's mission directorates address critical research and development needs for agency projects. This report highlights innovative SBIR Phase II projects from 2007-2012 specifically addressing areas in Communications Technology and Development which is one of six core competencies at NASA Glenn Research Center. There are eighteen technologies featured with emphasis on a wide spectrum of applications such as with a security-enhanced autonomous network management, secure communications using on-demand single photons, cognitive software-defined radio, spacesuit audio systems, multiband photonic phased-array antenna, and much more. Each article in this booklet describes an innovation, technical objective, and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report serves as an opportunity for NASA personnel including engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn of NASA SBIR's capabilities that might be crosscutting into this technology area. As the result, it would cause collaborations and partnerships between the small companies and NASA Programs and Projects resulting in benefit to both SBIR companies and NASA.

  7. Improved nuclear gage development - phase i and ii. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, E.L.; Champion, F.C.; Castanon, D.R.; Chang, J.C.; Hannon, J.B.

    1976-09-01

    This report contains Phase I and II of an investigation covering the design and construction of a prototype nuclear-moisture-density backscatter gage. Gage development was based upon the analysis of several factors which affect gage performance. This research indicated that the prototype gage measurements are approximately equivalent to measurements obtained by a commercial transmission gage. The implication of this research finding concerns the qualification of the backscatter test method as a valid, reliable, and expedient procedure for determining in-situ soil conditions

  8. PROSPECTS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF PHASED ANTENNA ARRAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Dzuba

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the main achievements in the development of phased antenna arrays (par in the past decade. Provides an overview of the most famous systems based on the PAR and PAR based on MMIC technology - PAR in radar stations, PAR to control the laser and optical beams. The existing options for the design of the PAR:ferroelectric antenna array; plasma antenna with electronic scanning; reflective grating on 100-mm semiconductor wafers; wideband antenna arrays with aperture; antenna arrays with digital beam forming.

  9. Design Technology Aspects of the Millimeter Waveband Phase Shifter Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Komissarova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop a technique, which takes into consideration the design technology aspects to create a waveguide ferrite Faradays’ phase shifter (WFFPS of the shortwave part of the millimeter wave range. Only using the calculation and analysis techniques based on the electro-dynamic high-level models for designed devices enables us to solve this task successfully.In assembling the WFFPS, its individual parts are connected by dint of glue (rod, yokes, dielectric transition transformers. Thus the layers of glue, possible air gaps, and misalignment of individual parts, obviously have effect on the WFFPS characteristics and should be taken into account at the stage of device calculation and design. Therefore, the aim is to analyze the impact of these technology features on the characteristics of WFFPS.The calculation algorithm of the waveguide transition, which matches WFFPS with the waveguide transmission line or integrated phased array antenna (PAA element radiator in view of possible air or adhesive gaps apparition is based on the solving problem of diffraction of electromagnetic waves. Eigenvalue problem solution by Galerkin method must be preceded to the electromagnetic waves diffraction on the stepped waveguide transition by method of partial areas (Trefftz method solution. As a result, a system of linear inhomogeneous equations is determined. Its solution is the basis for the algorithm to define the numerical values of complex amplitudes of waves excited in all longitudinally uniform areas with a laterally nonuniform ferritedielectric filling, into which splits the waveguide ferrite phase shifter.To take into account the effect of air or glue gap arising when assembling the phase shifter, a designed calculation model is added by the transition step from a material having the same dielectric constant as that of the material filling the gap. The paper presents numerical investigation findings concerning the influence of

  10. Development of a Lunar-Phase Observation System Based on Augmented Reality and Mobile Learning Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Tarng, Wernhuar; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Lin, Chiu-Pin; Ou, Kuo-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Observing the lunar phase requires long-term involvement, and it is often obstructed by bad weather or tall buildings. In this study, a lunar-phase observation system is developed using the augmented reality (AR) technology and the sensor functions of GPS, electronic compass, and 3-axis accelerometer on mobile devices to help students observe and record lunar phases easily. By holding the mobile device towards the moon in the sky, the screen will show the virtual moon at the position of the r...

  11. Solar central receiver hybrid power system. Phase I study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-11-01

    A management plan is presented for implementation during the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System - Phase I study project. The project plan and the management controls that will be used to assure technically adequate, timely and cost effective performance of the work required to prepare the designated end products are described. Bechtel in-house controls and those to be used in directing the subcontractors are described. Phase I of the project consists of tradeoff studies, parametric analyses, and engineering studies leading to conceptual definition and evaluation of a commercial hybrid power system that has the potential for supplying economically competitive electric power to a utility grid in the 1985-1990 time frame. The scope also includes the preparation of a development plan for the resolution of technical uncertainties and the preparation of plans and a proposal for Phase II of the program. The technical approach will be based on a central receiver solar energy collection scheme which supplies thermal energy to a combined cycle, generating system, consisting of a gas turbine cycle combined with a steam bottoming cycle by means of a heat recovery steam generator.

  12. Portable Computer Technology (PCT) Research and Development Program Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Michael; McGuire, Kenyon; Sorgi, Alan

    1995-01-01

    The subject of this project report, focused on: (1) Design and development of two Advanced Portable Workstation 2 (APW 2) units. These units incorporate advanced technology features such as a low power Pentium processor, a high resolution color display, National Television Standards Committee (NTSC) video handling capabilities, a Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA) interface, and Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) and ethernet interfaces. (2) Use these units to integrate and demonstrate advanced wireless network and portable video capabilities. (3) Qualification of the APW 2 systems for use in specific experiments aboard the Mir Space Station. A major objective of the PCT Phase 2 program was to help guide future choices in computing platforms and techniques for meeting National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission objectives. The focus being on the development of optimal configurations of computing hardware, software applications, and network technologies for use on NASA missions.

  13. STS Case Study Development Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa de Jesus, Dan A.; Johnson, Grace K.

    2013-01-01

    The Shuttle Case Study Collection (SCSC) has been developed using lessons learned documented by NASA engineers, analysts, and contractors. The SCSC provides educators with a new tool to teach real-world engineering processes with the goal of providing unique educational materials that enhance critical thinking, decision-making and problem-solving skills. During this third phase of the project, responsibilities included: the revision of the Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) source code to ensure all pages follow World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standards, and the addition and edition of website content, including text, documents, and images. Basic HTML knowledge was required, as was basic knowledge of photo editing software, and training to learn how to use NASA's Content Management System for website design. The outcome of this project was its release to the public.

  14. Dynamic Studies of Lung Fluid Clearance with Phase Contrast Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchen, Marcus J.; Williams, Ivan; Irvine, Sarah C.; Morgan, Michael J.; Paganin, David M.; Lewis, Rob A.; Pavlov, Konstantin; Hooper, Stuart B.; Wallace, Megan J.; Siu, Karen K. W.; Yagi, Naoto; Uesugi, Kentaro

    2007-01-01

    Clearance of liquid from the airways at birth is a poorly understood process, partly due to the difficulties of observing and measuring the distribution of air within the lung. Imaging dynamic processes within the lung in vivo with high contrast and spatial resolution is therefore a major challenge. However, phase contrast X-ray imaging is able to exploit inhaled air as a contrast agent, rendering the lungs of small animals visible due to the large changes in the refractive index at air/tissue interfaces. In concert with the high spatial resolution afforded by X-ray imaging systems (<100 μm), propagation-based phase contrast imaging is ideal for studying lung development. To this end we have utilized intense, monochromatic synchrotron radiation, together with a fast readout CCD camera, to study fluid clearance from the lungs of rabbit pups at birth. Local rates of fluid clearance have been measured from the dynamic sequences using a single image phase retrieval algorithm

  15. Direction of Technology Development for Nuclear Power Plants at the O and M Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Insu; Park, Hwanpyo; Kim, Younghyun [Korea Institute of Construction Technology, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Recently, Korea has attempted to advance overseas markets by securing competitive power in nuclear power technology. In order to develop and operate overall construction management systems with Korea's own brand equipped with sufficient applicability and competitive power in the market abroad and to ensure equal competitive power with other foreign advanced companies of nuclear power plants, Korea has launched a project called 'Data Centric Integration/Automation Technology for NP Project Management System' since July 2011. This project is divided into two phases: the first phase from 2012 to 2016 realizes EPCS stage, and the second phase from 2017 to 2020 extends to O and M stage. Appropriate technology development planning must be established if 'Data Centric Integration/Automation Technology for NP Project Management System' conducted at the first phase would extend to O and M stage at the second phase. Therefore, this study aimed at drawing out the direction of technology development based on present analysis of process at the operational phase of nuclear power plants in Korea conducted as previous study. This study analyzed current operation and maintenance systems first, analyzing the results of differences between the operation process of nuclear plants in Korea which was suggested at the previous study and the process of the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (hereafter referred to as 'KHNP') and drawing out the direction of technology development for nuclear power plants at the operational phase from the viewpoint of life cycle.

  16. Direction of Technology Development for Nuclear Power Plants at the O and M Phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Insu; Park, Hwanpyo; Kim, Younghyun

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Korea has attempted to advance overseas markets by securing competitive power in nuclear power technology. In order to develop and operate overall construction management systems with Korea's own brand equipped with sufficient applicability and competitive power in the market abroad and to ensure equal competitive power with other foreign advanced companies of nuclear power plants, Korea has launched a project called 'Data Centric Integration/Automation Technology for NP Project Management System' since July 2011. This project is divided into two phases: the first phase from 2012 to 2016 realizes EPCS stage, and the second phase from 2017 to 2020 extends to O and M stage. Appropriate technology development planning must be established if 'Data Centric Integration/Automation Technology for NP Project Management System' conducted at the first phase would extend to O and M stage at the second phase. Therefore, this study aimed at drawing out the direction of technology development based on present analysis of process at the operational phase of nuclear power plants in Korea conducted as previous study. This study analyzed current operation and maintenance systems first, analyzing the results of differences between the operation process of nuclear plants in Korea which was suggested at the previous study and the process of the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (hereafter referred to as 'KHNP') and drawing out the direction of technology development for nuclear power plants at the operational phase from the viewpoint of life cycle

  17. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS OF THE NEPHELINE PHASE III STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

    2009-11-09

    This study is the third phase in a series of experiments designed to reduce conservatism in the model that predicts the formation of nepheline, a crystalline phase that can reduce the durability of high level waste glass. A Phase I study developed a series of glass compositions that were very durable while their nepheline discriminator values were well below the current nepheline discriminator limit of 0.62, where nepheline is predicted to crystallize upon slow cooling. A Phase II study selected glass compositions to identify any linear effects of composition on nepheline crystallization and that were restricted to regions that fell within the validation ranges of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Product Composition Control System (PCCS) models. However, it was not possible to identify any linear effects of composition on chemical durability performance for this set of study glasses. The results of the Phase II study alone were not sufficient to recommend modification of the current nepheline discriminator. It was recommended that the next series of experiments continue to focus not only on compositional regions where the PCCS models are considered applicable (i.e., the model validation ranges), but also be restricted to compositional regions where the only constraint limiting processing is the current nepheline discriminator. Two methods were used in selecting glasses for this Phase III nepheline study. The first was based on the relationship of the current nepheline discriminator model to the other DWPF PCCS models, and the second was based on theory of crystallization in mineral and glass melts. A series of 29 test glass compositions was selected for this study using a combination of the two approaches. The glasses were fabricated and characterized in the laboratory. After reviewing the data, the study glasses generally met the target compositions with little issue. Product Consistency Test results correlated well with the crystallization analyses in

  18. Angra-1 probabilistic safety study-phase B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes Filho, T.L.; Gibelli, S.M.O.

    1988-05-01

    This study represents the Phase B of the Angra-1 Probabilistic Safety Study and is the the final report prepared for the IAEA under Research Contract No. 3423/R2/RB. The three main items covered in this report are the establishment of interim safety goals, analysis of Angra-1 operational experience and development of emergency procedures to address severe accidents. For establishment of interim safety goals a methodology for calculating consequences and risks associated to the Angra-1 operation was developed based on the available data and codes. The proposed safety goals refer to the individual risk of early fatality for people living in the vicinity of the plant, colective risk of cancer fatalities for people living near the plant, the propobability of core melt occurrence and the probability of dominant accident sequences. (author) [pt

  19. Numerical study of glare spot phase Doppler anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespel, C.; Ren, K. F.; Gréhan, G.; Onofri, F.

    2008-03-01

    The phase Doppler anemometry has (PDA) been developed to measure simultaneously the velocity and the size of droplets. When the concentration of particles is high, tightly focused beams must be used, as in the dual burst PDA. The latter permits an access to the refractive index of the particle, but the effect of wave front curvature of the incident beams becomes evident. In this paper, we introduce a glare spot phase Doppler anemometry which uses two large beams. The images of the particle formed by the reflected and refracted light, known as glare spots, are separated in space. When a particle passes through the probe volume, the two parts in a signal obtained by a detector in forward direction are then separated in time. If two detectors are used the phase differences and the intensity ratios between two signals, the distance between the reflected and refracted spots can be obtained. These measured values provide information about the particle diameter and its refractive index, as well as its two velocity components. This paper is devoted to the numerical study of such a configuration with two theoretical models: geometrical optics and rigorous electromagnetism solution.

  20. Study of a new static mixer for two-phase and single-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foucrier, Michel

    1996-01-01

    The subject of this work is the study of OptimiX, a new static mixer, which is fully designed using an inverse method taking the final product features as input and based on the physical properties of the fluid to mix. The work began with the construction of an experimental loop which allowed us to qualify the mixer in two-phase and single-phase flow conditions. Next, a chemical method using a new test reaction and a micro-mixing model have been used to further characterise the mixer. This test reaction and the micro-mixing model have been developed by the 'Laboratoire des Sciences du Genie Chimique' of Nancy. The mixer OptimiX has proved to be an excellent device for both macro- and micro-mixing. The capability of this mixer to foster rapid reactions was also demonstrated. The well organised flow pattern of OptimiX, which results from its design, provides it with the unusual feature of being fully calculable. This work emphasizes the internal hydrodynamics of this mixer, justifies the universality of the design procedures, which validation is supported by the completed qualification work. (author) [fr

  1. Development of phase lock loop system for synchronisation of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phase locked loop (PLL) is an important part of the control unit of the grid connected power converter. The method of zero crossing detection (ZCD) does not produce accurate phase information when grid is non-ideal. In this work, a synchronous reference frame (SRF) PLL method to obtain accurate phase information when ...

  2. Radioimmuoassay study of antidigitoxin antibodies in liquid phase and after coupling on a solid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collignon, A.; German, A.; Scherrmann, J.M.; Bourdon, R.

    1983-01-01

    Antidigitoxin antibodies prepared by immunizing rabbits with a digitoxin-bovine serum albumin conjugate have been studied by radioimmunoassay in the native serum (homogeneous phase antibodies) and after coupling on glass beads (heterogeneous phase antibodies). Homogeneous phase antibodies present a satisfactory titer and affinity constant and react very specifically with digitoxin. Fixation of antibodies on a solid phase induce a loss of their immunoreactivity as it is showed by modification of the inhibition curves, by a greater sensitivity to the chemical structure of the tracer and by a decrease of the affinity constant. Reactionnal kinetic and sensitivity to the incubation temperature are not modified. Heterogeneous phase antibodies present a greater stability. Both antibodies types can be used for a digitoxin radioimmunoassay [fr

  3. Geologic repository work breakdown structure and dictionary---Development and evaluation phase (PE-02)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    Revision 2 of the OGR Work Breakdown Structure and Dictionary -- Development and Evaluation Phase (PE-02) supersedes Revision 1, August 1989, in its entirety. The revision is to delete the ''Exploratory Shaft Facility'' work scape and replace it with ''Exploratory Studies Facility'' work scape

  4. Korea advanced liquid metal reactor development - Development of measuring techniques of the sodium two-phase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Moo Hwan; Cha, Jae Eun [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    The technology which models and measures the behavior of bubble in liquid sodium is very important to insure the safety of the liquid metal reactor. In this research, we designed/ manufactured each part and loop of experimental facility for sodium two phase flow, and applied a few possible methods, measured characteristic of two phase flow such as bubbly flow. A air-water loop similar to sodium loop on each measuring condition was designed/manufactured. This air-water loop was utilized to acquire many informations which were necessary in designing the two phase flow of sodium and manufacturing experimental facility. Before the manufacture of a electromagnetic flow meter for sodium, the experiment using each electromagnetic flow mete was developed and the air-water loop was performed to understand flow characteristics. Experiments for observing the signal characteristics of flow were performed by flowing two phase mixture into the electromagnetic flow mete. From these experiments, the electromagnetic flow meter was designed and constructed by virtual electrode, its signal processing circuit and micro electro magnet. It was developed to be applicable to low conductivity fluid very successfully. By this experiment with the electromagnetic flow meter, we observed that the flow signal was very different according to void fraction in two phase flow and that probability density function which was made by statistical signal treatment is also different according to flow patterns. From this result, we confirmed that the electromagnetic flow meter could be used to understand the parameters of two phase flow of sodium. By this study, the experimental facility for two phase flow of sodium was constricted. Also the new electromagnetic flow meter was designed/manufactured, and experimental apparatus for two phase flow of air-water. Finally, this study will be a basic tool for measurement of two phase flow of sodium. As the fundamental technique for the applications of sodium at

  5. Nuclear standardization development study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Jianjun

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear industry is the important part of national security and national economic development is key area of national new energy supported by government. nuclear standardization is the important force for nuclear industry development, is the fundamental guarantee of nuclear safe production, is the valuable means of China's nuclear industry technology to the world market. Now nuclear standardization faces to the new development opportunity, nuclear standardization should implement strategy in standard system building, foreign standard research, company standard building, and talented people building to meet the requirement of nuclear industry development. (author)

  6. Phase 1 and 2 feasibility study report for the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The 300-FF-1 Operable Unit (OU) feasibility study (FS) presented in this document completes the FS process only through the first two study phases: Phase I, Remedial Alternatives Development, and Phase II, Remedial Alternatives Screening in accordance with CERCIA guidance for performing Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies (RI/FS) (EPA 1988a). This Phase I/II study provides a generalized view of workable remedial technologies as applied to the site contamination problems as a whole. Phase III, Detailed Analysis of Alternatives, will be performed at a later date to further evaluate screened alternatives based on the nine criteria in the CERCLA RI/FS guidance. The purpose of this Phase I/II FS is to develop and screen a range of alternatives for remediation of contamination present in the vadose zone of the 300-FF-1 OU. The scope of work for this Phase I/II FS includes five primary tasks: 1. Review existing documents and their associated data from relevant investigations and studies; 2. Establish remedial action objectives (RAO) and general response actions (GRA); 3. Identify applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARS) pertinent to all general response actions (including waste disposal); 4. Develop remedial alternatives (Phase I) applicable to the 300-FF-1 OU including identification and screening of technologies and process options, and assembly of remedial alternatives from representative technology types; 5. Screen alternatives (Phase II) developed in Phase I for implementability, effectiveness, and cost to identify those alternatives which warrant advancement to the detailed analysis phase (Phase III) of the FS.

  7. Radioactive and industrial waste water collection system study, Phase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Phase I of the Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) Collection System Study has been completed, and the deliverables for this portion of the study are enclosed. The deliverables include: The Work Break-down Structure (WBS) for Phase II; The Annotated Outline for the Collection Study Report; The Process Flow Diagrams (PFD) of the RLW collection system based on current literature and knowledge; The Configuration database; The Reference Index, listing all currently held documents of the RLW collection system; The Reference Drawing Index listing all currently held, potentially applicable, drawings reviewed during the PFD development; The Regulation Identification Document for RCRA and CWA; The Regulation Database for RCRA and CWA; The Regulation Review Log, including statements justifying the non-applicability of certain regulations; Regulation Library, including the photocopied regulations with highlighted text for RCRA and CWA; The summary of RTG's waste water treatment plant design experience and associated regulations on which RTG based the design of these treatment facilities; TA-50 Influent Database; Radioactive Liquid Waste Stream Characterization Database

  8. Coal-fired MHD combustor development project: Phase 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    This fourth quarterly technical progress report of the Coal-Fired MHD Combustor Development Project (Phase 3D) presents the accomplishments during the period February 1 to April 30, 1985. The scope of work covered by this quarterly report encompasses development work on the 50 MW/sub t/ combustor related to test support at the CDIF, assembly and checkout of first and second stage hardware, second stage design verification testing, designs for a continuous slag rejector and low preheat inlet section, and planning for power train testing. Progress includes the following: assembly and checkout of the second first stage, two second stages, and PEM was completed and the hardware was shipped to CDIF and FETS; integration of first and second stage hardware on the FETS Cell No. 2 test stand was completed, cold flow functional tests were performed, and hot fire checkout testing was initiated; assembly of the continuous slag rejector test set-up was 70% completed; the low preheat air inlet section Preliminary Design Review was held (work on the detail design was initiated and is 85% complete); and the Users' Manual was updated to include material for the second stage and final revisions to the power train test plan were made.

  9. Developing a framework for assessing the impact of geothermal development phases on ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semedi, Jarot M.; Willemen, Louise; Nurlambang, Triarko; van der Meer, Freek; Koestoer, Raldi H.

    2017-12-01

    The 2014 Indonesian National Energy Policy has set a target to provide national primary energy usage reached 2.500 kWh per capita in the year 2025 and reached 7.000 kWh in the year 2050. The National Energy Policy state that the development of energy should consider the balance of energy economic values, energy supply security, and the conservation of the environment. This has led to the prioritization of renewable energy sources. Geothermal energy a renewable energy source that produces low carbon emissions and is widely available in Indonesia due to the country’s location in the “volcanic arc”. The development of geothermal energy faces several problems related to its potential locations in Indonesia. The potential sites for geothermal energy are mostly located in the volcanic landscapes that have a high hazard risk and are often designated protected areas. Local community low knowledge of geothermal use also a challenge for geothermal development where sometimes strong local culture stand in the way. Each phase of geothermal energy development (exploration, construction, operation and maintenance, and decommissioning) will have an impact on the landscape and everyone living in it. Meanwhile, natural and other human-induced drivers will keep landscapes and environments changing. This conference paper addresses the development of an integrated assessment to spatially measure the impact of geothermal energy development phases on ecosystem services. Listing the effects on the ecosystem services induced by each geothermal development phases and estimating the spatial impact using Geographic Information System (GIS) will result in an overview on where and how much each geothermal development phase affects the ecosystem and how this information could be included to improve national spatial planning.

  10. Development and testing of a new apparatus for the measurement of high-pressure low-temperature phase equilibria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, José M.S.; von Solms, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    A new apparatus for the study of high-pressure phase equilibria at low temperatures using an analytical method was designed, assembled and tested. The apparatus was specially developed for the study of multi-phase equilibria in systems containing hydrocarbons, water and hydrate inhibitors, at tem...

  11. Long-Term Management Strategy for Dredged Material Disposal for Naval Facilities at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Phase III - Analysis of Alternatives and Development of an LTMS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Palermo, Michael

    2000-01-01

    This report documents Phase III of a three-phase study to develop a Long-Term Management Study for disposal of dredged material unsuitable for ocean disposal from Pearl Harbor Naval Complex for the next 30 years...

  12. Development of background reduced Fresnel phase zone plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamari, Yohei; Azechi, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    In study of hot and dense plasma, a high spatial resolution (a few microns) x-ray imaging is very important to observe these plasmas. The Fresnel phase zone plate (FPZP) consists of alternately material and transparent circular annuli placed concentrically, which image x rays using diffraction x rays from all annuli. FPZP have imaged 4.7-4.77 keV x rays with 2.2 μm spatial resolution. However FPZP has a problem that background level is comparable to signal level. In subtraction of background, the error of 10% is caused. For the accurate background subtraction, we designed new FPZP, which consist of three β layers of a transparent zone and two material zones. The new design FPZP parameters (thickness of material zones, each zone width) have been optimized, and in that optimum design signal-to-background ratio is 4 times better than conventional two layers FPZP

  13. Effect of isochronal annealing on phase transformation studies of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The mixed phase sample shows higher value of magnetization because of the presence of ferromagnetic γ-Fe2O3 ... 1. Introduction. The study of particle size, phase transformation and micros- ..... The results are in qualitative agreement with ...

  14. Study of Strange Quark Mass in CFL Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin; L(U) Xiao-Fu

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we introduce bilocal fields in the global color symmetry model and consider color and electrical neutrality conditions simultaneously to study the effect of strange quark mass Ms for the momentum-dependent condensate of color-flavor locked phase. Consequently we find that there will be a quantum phase transition occurring.

  15. Small modular biopower initiative Phase 1 feasibility studies executive summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bain, R.

    2000-03-06

    The Phase 1 objective is a feasibility study that includes a market assessment, resource assessment, preliminary system design, and assessment of relevant environmental and safety considerations, and evaluation of financial and cost issues, and a preliminary business plan and commercialization strategy. Each participating company will share at least 20% of the cost of the first phase.

  16. European developments in single phase turbulence for innovative reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofs, F., E-mail: roelofs@nrg.eu [NRG, Petten (Netherlands); Rohde, M. [DUT, Delft (Netherlands); and others

    2011-07-01

    Thermal-hydraulics is recognized as a key scientific subject in the development of different innovative nuclear reactor systems. From the thermal-hydraulic point of view, different innovative reactors are mainly characterized by their coolants (gas, water, liquid metals and molten salt). They result in specific behavior of flow and heat transfer, which requires specific models and advanced analysis tools. However, many common thermal-hydraulic issues are identified among various innovative nuclear systems. In Europe, such cross-cutting thermal-hydraulics topics are the motivation for the THINS (Thermal-Hydraulics of Innovative Nuclear Systems) project which is sponsored by the European Commission from 2010 to 2014. This paper describes the ongoing developments in an important part of this project devoted to single phase turbulence issues. To this respect, the two main issues have been identified: Non-unity Prandtl number turbulence. In case of liquid metals, molten salts or supercritical fluids, the commonly applied constant turbulent Prandtl number concept is not applicable and robust engineering turbulence models are needed. This paper will report on the progress achieved with respect to the development and validation of turbulence models available in commonly used engineering tools. The paper also reports about the supporting experiments and direct numerical simulations; and, Temperature fluctuations possibly leading to thermal fatigue in innovative reactors. The status is described of a fundamental experiment dealing with the mixing of different density gases in a rectangular channel, an experiment in a more complex geometry of a small mixing plenum using a supercritical fluid, and direct numerical simulations of conjugate heat transfer on temperature fluctuations in liquid metal. (author)

  17. European developments in single phase turbulence for innovative reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelofs, F.; Rohde, M.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal-hydraulics is recognized as a key scientific subject in the development of different innovative nuclear reactor systems. From the thermal-hydraulic point of view, different innovative reactors are mainly characterized by their coolants (gas, water, liquid metals and molten salt). They result in specific behavior of flow and heat transfer, which requires specific models and advanced analysis tools. However, many common thermal-hydraulic issues are identified among various innovative nuclear systems. In Europe, such cross-cutting thermal-hydraulics topics are the motivation for the THINS (Thermal-Hydraulics of Innovative Nuclear Systems) project which is sponsored by the European Commission from 2010 to 2014. This paper describes the ongoing developments in an important part of this project devoted to single phase turbulence issues. To this respect, the two main issues have been identified: Non-unity Prandtl number turbulence. In case of liquid metals, molten salts or supercritical fluids, the commonly applied constant turbulent Prandtl number concept is not applicable and robust engineering turbulence models are needed. This paper will report on the progress achieved with respect to the development and validation of turbulence models available in commonly used engineering tools. The paper also reports about the supporting experiments and direct numerical simulations; and, Temperature fluctuations possibly leading to thermal fatigue in innovative reactors. The status is described of a fundamental experiment dealing with the mixing of different density gases in a rectangular channel, an experiment in a more complex geometry of a small mixing plenum using a supercritical fluid, and direct numerical simulations of conjugate heat transfer on temperature fluctuations in liquid metal. (author)

  18. Oak Ridge Health Studies phase 1 report, Volume 1: Oak Ridge Phase 1 overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarbrough, M.I.; Van Cleave, M.L.; Turri, P.; Daniel, J.

    1993-09-01

    In July 1991, the State of Tennessee initiated the Health Studies Agreement with the United States Department of Energy to carry out independent studies of possible adverse health effects in people living in the vicinity of the Oak Ridge Reservation. The health studies focus on those effects that could have resulted or could result from exposures to chemicals and radioactivity released at the Reservation since 1942. The major focus of the first phase was to complete a Dose Reconstruction Feasibility Study. This study was designed to find out if enough data exist about chemical and radionuclide releases from the Oak Ridge Reservation to conduct a second phase. The second phase will lead to estimates of the actual amounts or the ``doses`` of various contaminants received by people as a result of off-site releases. Once the doses of various contaminants have been estimated, scientists and physicians will be better able to evaluate whether adverse health effects could have resulted from the releases.

  19. Oak Ridge Health Studies phase 1 report, Volume 1: Oak Ridge Phase 1 overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarbrough, M.I.; Van Cleave, M.L.; Turri, P.; Daniel, J.

    1993-09-01

    In July 1991, the State of Tennessee initiated the Health Studies Agreement with the United States Department of Energy to carry out independent studies of possible adverse health effects in people living in the vicinity of the Oak Ridge Reservation. The health studies focus on those effects that could have resulted or could result from exposures to chemicals and radioactivity released at the Reservation since 1942. The major focus of the first phase was to complete a Dose Reconstruction Feasibility Study. This study was designed to find out if enough data exist about chemical and radionuclide releases from the Oak Ridge Reservation to conduct a second phase. The second phase will lead to estimates of the actual amounts or the ''doses'' of various contaminants received by people as a result of off-site releases. Once the doses of various contaminants have been estimated, scientists and physicians will be better able to evaluate whether adverse health effects could have resulted from the releases

  20. Crime Self-Reporting Study: Phase 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buck, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    The PERSEREC Crime Self-Reporting Study covers criminal record checks conducted in CY00 on 14,470 subjects of DoD security clearance investigations, including uniformed military, civilian, and contractor personnel...

  1. Development of synchrotron DSC/WAXD/SAXS simultaneous measurement system for polymeric materials at the BL40B2 in SPring-8 and its application to the study of crystal phase transitions of fluorine polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masunaga, Hiroyasu; Sasaki, Sono; Takata, Masaki; Inoue, Katsuaki; Ohta, Noboru; Yagi, Naoto; Tashiro, Kohji; Hanesaka, Makoto

    2007-01-01

    A new system of rapidly-scanning DSC/WAXD/SAXS simultaneous measurements has been successfully developed at the BL40B2 in SPring-8, Japan. The combination of the ultra-bright and highly-directional X-ray beams with the highly-sensitive two-dimensional (2D) detectors such as an imaging plate (IP), a CCD detector and a flat panel (FP) detector has made it possible to perform the rapidly-scanning time-resolved measurements of WAXD and SAXS for the polymeric materials subjected to the various kinds of external field like temperature, tensile force, magnetic field, hydrostatic pressure, and so on. The experimental data about the phase transitions of vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene copolymer with VDF 82 mol% content and poly(vinylidene fluoride) form I have been presented as actual examples, where the phase transitions of the polar crystal consisting of planar-zigzag chains to the gauche-type high-temperature phase have been confirmed definitely and the remarkable change in lamellar stacking structure could be detected in the temperature region immediately below the melting point. (author)

  2. Environmental Assessment for Enhanced Use Leasing West Side Development, Phase I South, Hill AFB, Utah

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Winn, Kay

    2006-01-01

    This document presents potential environmental and socioeconomic consequences associated with the proposed project called the West Side Development, Phase 1 South, developing approximately 44 acres...

  3. German risk study on nuclear power stations. Phase B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    The German Risk Study on Nuclear Power Stations is concerned with investigations of accidents in nuclear facilities and their associated risks. These investigations are undertaken on behalf of the federal Minister of Research and Technology. They have been broken down into two phases (Phase A and Phase B). The results of Phase A were published in 1979 (GRS 79). This report contains a summary of the investigations relating to Phase B. After an introduction setting out the basic principles and aim of the study, a general review will be given of the most important results. The course of the investigations and the results have already been published in a Technical Report (GRS 89). (author)

  4. Continued Water-Based Phase Change Material Heat Exchanger Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott W.; Sheth, Rubik B.; Poynot, Joe; Giglio, Tony; Ungar, Gene K.

    2015-01-01

    In a cyclical heat load environment such as low Lunar orbit, a spacecraft's radiators are not sized to meet the full heat rejection demands. Traditionally, a supplemental heat rejection device (SHReD) such as an evaporator or sublimator is used to act as a "topper" to meet the additional heat rejection demands. Utilizing a Phase Change Material (PCM) heat exchanger (HX) as a SHReD provides an attractive alternative to evaporators and sublimators as PCM HX's do not use a consumable, thereby leading to reduced launch mass and volume requirements. In continued pursuit of water PCM HX development two full-scale, Orion sized water-based PCM HX's were constructed by Mezzo Technologies. These HX's were designed by applying prior research on freeze front propagation to a full-scale design. Design options considered included bladder restraint and clamping mechanisms, bladder manufacturing, tube patterns, fill/drain methods, manifold dimensions, weight optimization, and midplate designs. Two units, Units A and B, were constructed and differed only in their midplate design. Both units failed multiple times during testing. This report highlights learning outcomes from these tests and are applied to a final sub-scale PCM HX which is slated to be tested on the ISS in early 2017.

  5. CMS Phase 1 heavy flavour identification performance and developments

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    At the Large Hadron Collider, the identification of jets originating from heavy flavour quarks (b or c tagging) is important for searches for new physics and for measurements of standard model processes. A variety of b tagging algorithms has been developed at CMS to select b-quark jets based on variables such as the impact parameters of the charged-particle tracks, the properties of reconstructed decay vertices, and the presence or absence of a lepton, or combinations thereof. The CMS Phase 1 upgrade includes a new pixel detector with an addition layer. In consequence, the resolution of the track reconstruction is expected to improve, in particular close to the beam spot, leading to a more precise determination of the variables important for b tagging. The expected effect on the b tagging performance is presented for a selected set of existing algorithms: CSVv2, cMVAv2, and DeepCSV. The latter deep neural network based multi-classification algorithm is re-trained based on the new detector geometry, while the ...

  6. Continued Water-Based Phase Change Material Heat Exchanger Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott; Poynot, Joe

    2014-01-01

    In a cyclical heat load environment such as low Lunar orbit, a spacecraft's radiators are not sized to reject the full heat load requirement. Traditionally, a supplemental heat rejection device (SHReD) such as an evaporator or sublimator is used to act as a "topper" to meet the additional heat rejection demands. Utilizing a Phase Change Material (PCM) heat exchanger (HX) as a SHReD provides an attractive alternative to evaporators and sublimators as PCM HXs do not use a consumable, thereby leading to reduced launch mass and volume requirements. In continued pursuit of water PCM HX development two full-scale, Orion sized water-based PCM HX's were constructed by Mezzo Technologies. These HX's were designed by applying prior research and experimentation to the full scale design. Design options considered included bladder restraint and clamping mechanisms, bladder manufacturing, tube patterns, fill/drain methods, manifold dimensions, weight optimization, and midplate designs. Design and construction of these HX's led to successful testing of both PCM HX's.

  7. Segregation effects and phase developments during solidification of alloy 625

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højerslev, Christian; Tiedje, Niels Skat; Hald, John

    2006-01-01

    contained gamma-phase, Laves phase and, if carbon was dissolved in the liquid, niobium rich carbides formed. Molybdenum and niobium showed strong tendencies to segregate. Their segregation was balanced by inverse segregation of nickel and iron. The chromium concentration remained almost constant in gamma...

  8. Phase I clinical studies with WR-2721

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kligerman, M.M.; Shaw, M.T.; Slavik, M.; Yuhas, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    Toxicity studies of S-2-(3 aminopropylamino)-ethylphosphorothioic acid (WR-2721) access patients in remission following radiation therapy. The dose has been escalated from 25 to 250 mg/m2 without significant symptoms. Inconsistent variation in the systolic blood pressure in some patients has been observed over an 8-10-point range without producing any symptoms. Combining WR-2721 with conventional radiotherapy is contemplated by intravenous injection the drug 20 to 30 minutes before irradiation. This will start as weekly injections, and the number of weekly injections will be increased progessively. Animal studies suggest that the level already safely reached could give significant protection to the normal tissues without protecting tumor

  9. Study of two-phase foam flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurbanov, R S; Guliev, B B; Mekhtiev, K G; Kerimov, R G

    1970-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine characteristics of aqueous foam flow through porous media and to estimate the depth of foam penetration into a formation. Foam was generated by mixing air and 1% solution of surfactant PO-1. Foam density was maintained at 0.14 g/cc in all experiments. The foam was passed through sand columns (800 mm long x 30 mm diam) of permeabilities 26, 39, 80, 111, and 133 darcys. Flow rates were measured at various pressure drops and the relationship between system parameters was expressed analytically and graphically. From the data, distance of foam penetration into a formation as a function of pressure drop and permeability was calculated. The data indicate that under most conditions, foam will penetrate the formation to a negligible distance. This study indicates that when foam is used to remove sand from a well, a negligible loss of foam to the formation occurs.

  10. Operations planning and analysis handbook for NASA/MSFC phase B development projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batson, Robert C.

    1986-01-01

    Current operations planning and analysis practices on NASA/MSFC Phase B projects were investigated with the objectives of (1) formalizing these practices into a handbook and (2) suggesting improvements. The study focused on how Science and Engineering (S&E) Operational Personnel support Program Development (PD) Task Teams. The intimate relationship between systems engineering and operations analysis was examined. Methods identified for use by operations analysts during Phase B include functional analysis, interface analysis methods to calculate/allocate such criteria as reliability, Maintainability, and operations and support cost.

  11. Decontamination solution development studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.P.; Fetrow, L.K.; Kjarmo, H.E.; Pool, K.H.

    1993-09-01

    This study was conducted for the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of the Hanford Grout Technology Program (HGTP). The objective of this study was to identify decontamination solutions capable of removing radioactive contaminants and grout from the Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) process equipment and to determine the impact of these solutions on equipment components and disposal options. The reference grout used in this study was prepared with simulated double-shell slurry feed (DSSF) and a dry blend consisting of 40 wt % limestone flour, 28 wt % blast furnace slag, 28 wt % fly ash, and 4 wt % type I/II Portland cement

  12. Water Based Phase Change Material Heat Exchanger Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott W.; Sheth, Ribik B.; Atwell, Matt; Cheek, Ann; Agarwal, Muskan; Hong, Steven; Patel, Aashini,; Nguyen, Lisa; Posada, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    In a cyclical heat load environment such as low Lunar orbit, a spacecraft’s radiators are not sized to reject the full heat load requirement. Traditionally, a supplemental heat rejection device (SHReD) such as an evaporator or sublimator is used to act as a “topper” to meet the additional heat rejection demands. Utilizing a Phase Change Material (PCM) heat exchanger (HX) as a SHReD provides an attractive alternative to evaporators and sublimators as PCM HXs do not use a consumable, thereby leading to reduced launch mass and volume requirements. Studies conducted in this paper investigate utilizing water’s high latent heat of formation as a PCM, as opposed to traditional waxes, and corresponding complications surrounding freezing water in an enclosed volume. Work highlighted in this study is primarily visual and includes understanding ice formation, freeze front propagation, and the solidification process of water/ice. Various test coupons were constructed of copper to emulate the interstitial pin configuration (to aid in conduction) of the proposed water PCM HX design. Construction of a prototypic HX was also completed in which a flexible bladder material and interstitial pin configurations were tested. Additionally, a microgravity flight was conducted where three copper test articles were frozen continuously during microgravity and 2-g periods and individual water droplets were frozen during microgravity.

  13. Advanced supersonic propulsion study, phase 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    Installation characteristics for a Variable Stream Control Engine (VSCE) were studied for three advanced supersonic airplane designs. Sensitivity of the VSCE concept to change in technology projections was evaluated in terms of impact on overall installed performance. Based on these sensitivity results, critical technology requirements were reviewed, resulting in the reaffirmation of the following requirements: low-noise nozzle system; a high performance, low emissions duct burner and main burner; hot section technology; variable geometry components; and propulsion integration features, including an integrated electronic control system.

  14. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Phase 2 (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Lefton, S.; Kumar, N.; Venkataraman, S.; Jordan, G.

    2013-09-01

    This presentation summarizes the scope and results of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2, which examined operational impacts of high penetrations of variable renewable generation in the West.

  15. HYSSOP COMPOSITION DEPENDING ON AGE AND PLANTS DEVELOPMENT PHASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Kotyuk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to research biochemical composition of Hyssopus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae in relation to plant age and phenological growth stage under conditions of Ukrainian Polissya, bin order to determine the optimal harvest dates of the herbal material and its application spheres. The raw material samples under analysis were cut at various growth stages: the vegetative, budding, blooming, ripening stages. To study the hyssop oil composition, areal parts of H. officinalis were used. The composition analysis was aimed at determining absolute dry matter (by drying samples at 105 °C up to the constant mass, “crude” cellulose, amounts of protein, fats, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, ascorbic acid, carotene, discernible sugars and tannins and essential oil. The present study has proved that in the plant ontogenesis the amount of essential oil, obtained from H. officinalis areal parts, does not markedly decrease: volatile oil yield in plants of the first, second and third years of life amounted to 1.007%, 0.75% and 0.71% respectively. The composition of volatile oil in the plants of the first year of life reveals 46 components, of which pinocampone (53.73%, isopinocampone (4.66% myrtenol (9.35% and camphor (3.86% prevailed. In H. officinalis volatile oil of the third year 30 components were identified, the prevailing of which were isopinocampone (44.43%, pinocampone (35.49%, myrtenol (5.26%, germacrene D (3.15%, pulegone (2.93% and bicyclogermacrene (1.35%. We could observe the change in the quantitative and qualitative composition of H. officinalis volatile oil throughout the entire vegetation period. Thus, in the phase of vegetative growth one can identify 25 compounds, the most predominant being elemol (33.25%, germacren D (21.59% and bicyclogermacrene (15.78%. In the phase of blossoming 30 components can be identified, a high amount of isopinocampone and pinocampone (44.43% and 35.49% and somewhat lover amount of myrtenol (5

  16. Assessment of ALWR passive safety system reliability. Phase 1: Methodology development and component failure quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hake, T.M.; Heger, A.S.

    1995-04-01

    Many advanced light water reactor (ALWR) concepts proposed for the next generation of nuclear power plants rely on passive systems to perform safety functions, rather than active systems as in current reactor designs. These passive systems depend to a great extent on physical processes such as natural circulation for their driving force, and not on active components, such as pumps. An NRC-sponsored study was begun at Sandia National Laboratories to develop and implement a methodology for evaluating ALWR passive system reliability in the context of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This report documents the first of three phases of this study, including methodology development, system-level qualitative analysis, and sequence-level component failure quantification. The methodology developed addresses both the component (e.g. valve) failure aspect of passive system failure, and uncertainties in system success criteria arising from uncertainties in the system's underlying physical processes. Traditional PRA methods, such as fault and event tree modeling, are applied to the component failure aspect. Thermal-hydraulic calculations are incorporated into a formal expert judgment process to address uncertainties in selected natural processes and success criteria. The first phase of the program has emphasized the component failure element of passive system reliability, rather than the natural process uncertainties. Although cursory evaluation of the natural processes has been performed as part of Phase 1, detailed assessment of these processes will take place during Phases 2 and 3 of the program

  17. External fuel vaporization study, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szetela, E. J.; Chiappetta, L.

    1981-01-01

    An analytical study was conducted to evaluate the effect of variations in fuel properties on the design of an external fuel vaporizaton system. The fuel properties that were considered included thermal stability, critical temperature, enthalpy a critical conditions, volatility, and viscosity. The design parameters that were evaluated included vaporizer weight and the impact on engine requirement such as maintenance, transient response, performance, and altitude relight. The baseline fuel properties were those of Jet A. The variation in thermal stability was taken as the thermal stability variation for Experimental Referee Broad Specification (ERBS) fuel. The results of the analysis indicate that a change in thermal stability equivalent to that of ERBS would increase the vaporization system weight by 20 percent, decrease oprating time between cleaning by 40 percent and make altitude relight more difficult. An increase in fuel critical temperature of 39 K would require a 40 percent increase in vaporization system weight. The assumed increase in enthalpy and volatility would also increase vaporizer weight by 40 percent and make altitude relight extremely difficult. The variation in fuel viscosity would have a negligible effect on the design parameters.

  18. Analytical and experimental study of high phase order induction motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingshirn, Eugene A.

    1989-01-01

    Induction motors having more than three phases were investigated to determine their suitability for electric vehicle applications. The objective was to have a motor with a current rating lower than that of a three-phase motor. The name chosen for these is high phase order (HPO) motors. Motors having six phases and nine phases were given the most attention. It was found that HPO motors are quite suitable for electric vehicles, and for many other applications as well. They have characteristics which are as good as or better than three-phase motors for practically all applications where polyphase induction motors are appropriate. Some of the analysis methods are presented, and several of the equivalent circuits which facilitate the determination of harmonic currents and losses, or currents with unbalanced sources, are included. The sometimes large stator currents due to harmonics in the source voltages are pointed out. Filters which can limit these currents were developed. An analysis and description of these filters is included. Experimental results which confirm and illustrate much of the theory are also included. These include locked rotor test results and full-load performance with an open phase. Also shown are oscillograms which display the reduction in harmonic currents when a filter is used with the experimental motor supplied by a non-sinusoidal source.

  19. Study Design and Rationale for the Phase 3 Clinical Development Program of Enobosarm, a Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator, for the Prevention and Treatment of Muscle Wasting in Cancer Patients (POWER Trials).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jeffrey; Prado, Carla M M; Johnston, Mary Ann; Gralla, Richard J; Taylor, Ryan P; Hancock, Michael L; Dalton, James T

    2016-06-01

    Muscle wasting in cancer is a common and often occult condition that can occur prior to overt signs of weight loss and before a clinical diagnosis of cachexia can be made. Muscle wasting in cancer is an important and independent predictor of progressive functional impairment, decreased quality of life, and increased mortality. Although several therapeutic agents are currently in development for the treatment of muscle wasting or cachexia in cancer, the majority of these agents do not directly inhibit muscle loss. Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) have the potential to increase lean body mass (LBM) and hence muscle mass, without the untoward side effects seen with traditional anabolic agents. Enobosarm, a nonsteroidal SARM, is an agent in clinical development for prevention and treatment of muscle wasting in patients with cancer (POWER 1 and 2 trials). The POWER trials are two identically designed randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, and multinational phase 3 trials to assess the efficacy of enobosarm for the prevention and treatment of muscle wasting in subjects initiating first-line chemotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). To assess enobosarm's effect on both prevention and treatment of muscle wasting, no minimum weight loss is required. These pivotal trials have pioneered the methodological and regulatory fields exploring a therapeutic agent for cancer-associated muscle wasting, a process hereby described. In each POWER trial, subjects will receive placebo (n = 150) or enobosarm 3 mg (n = 150) orally once daily for 147 days. Physical function, assessed as stair climb power (SCP), and LBM, assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), are the co-primary efficacy endpoints in both trials assessed at day 84. Based on extensive feedback from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the co-primary endpoints will be analyzed as a responder analysis. To be considered a physical function responder, a

  20. Ku Band Phased Array Feed Development for Surface Water Ocean Topography Mission

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to design components essential to the development of phased arrays and phased array feeds for use in remote sensing. Specifically the...

  1. Remote connector development study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1995-05-01

    Plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) connectors, the most common connectors used at the Hanford site, offer a certain level of flexibility in pipe routing, process system configuration, and remote equipment/instrument replacement. However, these desirable features have inherent shortcomings like leakage, high pressure drop through the right angle bends, and a limited range of available pipe diameters that can be connect by them. Costs for construction, maintenance, and operation of PUREX connectors seem to be very high. The PUREX connector designs include a 90 degree bend in each connector. This increases the pressure drop and erosion effects. Thus, each jumper requires at least two 90 degree bends. PUREX connectors have not been practically used beyond 100 (4 in.) inner diameter. This study represents the results of a survey on the use of remote pipe-connection systems in US and foreign plants. This study also describes the interdependence between connectors, remote handling equipment, and the necessary skills of the operators

  2. Development and Application of Solid Phase Extraction Method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    for the addition of organic modifier, sample load volume, conditioning solvent, washing solvent and ... Solid phase extraction, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, water samples, ... such as polymeric, activated carbon or silica modified with.

  3. Development of Phase Lock Loop System for Synchronisation of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    KEYWORDS: Phase locked loop (PLL), grid synchronisation, simulations, PI regulator, hybrid system. .... system. AC. - D. C co nv erter. DC-DC converter. DC. - AC co nverter. Load ... The box named Discrete Transfer Fcn is the PI-regulator.

  4. A study of water hammer phenomena in a one-component two-phase bubbly flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Terushige; Akagawa, Koji

    2000-01-01

    Water hammer phenomena caused by a rapid valve closure, that is, shock phenomena in two-phase flows, are an important problem for the safety assessment of a hypothetical LOCA. This paper presents the results of experimental and analytical studies of the water hammer phenomena in a one-component tow-phase bubbly flow. In order to clarify the characteristics of water hammer phenomena, experiments for a one-component two-phase flow of Freon R-113 were conducted and a numerical simulation of pressure transients was developed. An overall picture of the water hammer phenomena in a one-component two-phase flow is presented an discussed. (author)

  5. CIM5 Phase III base process development results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, D.C.

    2000-01-01

    Integrated Demonstration Runs for the Am/Cm vitrification process were initiated in the Coupled 5-inch Cylindrical Induction Melter (CIM5) on 11/30/98 and completed on 12/9/98. Four successful runs at 60 wt% lanthanide loading were completed which met or exceeded all established criteria. The operating parameters used in these runs established the base conditions for the 5-inch Cylindrical Induction Melter (CIM5) process and were summarized in the 5-inch CIM design basis, SRT-AMC-99-OO01. (1) In subsequent tests, a total of fourteen CIM5 runs were performed using various power inputs, ramp rates and target temperatures to define the preferred processing conditions (2) Process stability and process flexibility were the key criteria used in assessing the results for each run. A preferred set of operating parameters was defined for the CIM5 batch process and these conditions were used to generate a pre-programmed, automatic processing cycle that was used for the last six CIM.5 runs (3) These operational tests were successfully completed in the January-February time frame and were summarized in SRT-AMC-99-00584. The recommended set of operating conditions defined in Runs No.1 through No.14 was used as the starting point for further pilot system runs to determine the robustness of the process, evaluate a bubbler, and investigate off-normal conditions. CIM5 Phase III Runs No.15 through No.60 were conducted utilizing the pre-programmed, automatic processing cycle to investigate system performance. This report summarizes the results of these tests and provides a recommendation for the base process as well as a processing modification for minimizing volume expansions if americium and/or curium are subject to a thermal reduction reaction like cerium. This document summarizes the results of the base process development tests conducted in the Am/Cm Pilot Facility located in Building 672-T

  6. Development of two-phase Flow Model, 'SOBOIL', for Sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Do Hee; Chang, Won Pyo; Kim, In Chul; Kwon, Young Min; Lee, Yong Bum

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a sodium two-phase flow analysis model, 'SOBOIL', for the assessment of the initial stage of the KALIMER HCDA (Hypotherical Core Disruptive Accident). The 'SOBOIL' is basically similar to the multi-bubble slug ejection model used in SAS2A[1]. When a bubble is formed within the liquid slug, the bubble fills the whole cross section of the coolant channel except for a film left on the cladding or on the structure. Up to nine bubbles, separated by the liquid slugs, are allowed in the channel at any time. Each liquid slug flow rate in the model is performed in 2 steps. In the first step, the preliminary flow rate in the liquid slug is calculated neglecting the effect of changes in the vapor bubble pressures over the time step. The temperature and pressure distributions, and interface velocity at the interface between the liquid slug and vapor bubble are also calculated during this process. The new vapor temperature and pressure are then determined from the balance between the net energy transferred into the vapor and the change of the vapor energy. The liquid flow is finally calculated considering the change of the vapor pressure over a time step and the calculation is repeated until specified elapsed time is met. Continuous effort, therefore, must be made on the examination and improvement for the model to become reliable. To this end, much interest must be concentrated in the relevant international collaborations for access to a reference model or test data for the verification

  7. Clinical Development of a Cytomegalovirus DNA Vaccine: From Product Concept to Pivotal Phase 3 Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Gerber

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available 2013 marks a milestone year for plasmid DNA vaccine development as a first-in-class cytomegalovirus (CMV DNA vaccine enters pivotal phase 3 testing. This vaccine consists of two plasmids expressing CMV antigens glycoprotein B (gB and phosphoprotein 65 (pp65 formulated with a CRL1005 poloxamer and benzalkonium chloride (BAK delivery system designed to enhance plasmid expression. The vaccine’s planned initial indication under investigation is for prevention of CMV reactivation in CMV-seropositive (CMV+ recipients of an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT. A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled phase 2 proof-of-concept study provided initial evidence of the safety of this product in CMV+ HCT recipients who underwent immune ablation conditioning regimens. This study revealed a significant reduction in viral load endpoints and increased frequencies of pp65-specific interferon-γ-producing T cells in vaccine recipients compared to placebo recipients. The results of this endpoint-defining trial provided the basis for defining the primary and secondary endpoints of a global phase 3 trial in HCT recipients. A case study is presented here describing the development history of this vaccine from product concept to initiation of the phase 3 trial.

  8. Clinical Development of a Cytomegalovirus DNA Vaccine: From Product Concept to Pivotal Phase 3 Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Larry R; Wloch, Mary K; Chaplin, Jennifer A; Gerber, Michele; Rolland, Alain P

    2013-09-25

    2013 marks a milestone year for plasmid DNA vaccine development as a first-in-class cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA vaccine enters pivotal phase 3 testing. This vaccine consists of two plasmids expressing CMV antigens glycoprotein B (gB) and phosphoprotein 65 (pp65) formulated with a CRL1005 poloxamer and benzalkonium chloride (BAK) delivery system designed to enhance plasmid expression. The vaccine's planned initial indication under investigation is for prevention of CMV reactivation in CMV-seropositive (CMV⁺) recipients of an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT). A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled phase 2 proof-of-concept study provided initial evidence of the safety of this product in CMV⁺ HCT recipients who underwent immune ablation conditioning regimens. This study revealed a significant reduction in viral load endpoints and increased frequencies of pp65-specific interferon-γ-producing T cells in vaccine recipients compared to placebo recipients. The results of this endpoint-defining trial provided the basis for defining the primary and secondary endpoints of a global phase 3 trial in HCT recipients. A case study is presented here describing the development history of this vaccine from product concept to initiation of the phase 3 trial.

  9. Near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Missions for hybrid vehicles that promise to yield high petroleum impact were identified and a preliminary design, was developed that satisfies the mission requirements and performance specifications. Technologies that are critical to successful vehicle design, development and fabrication were determined. Trade-off studies to maximize fuel savings were used to develop initial design specifications of the near term hybrid vehicle. Various designs were "driven" through detailed computer simulations which calculate the petroleum consumption in standard driving cycles, the petroleum and electricity consumptions over the specified missions, and the vehicle's life cycle costs over a 10 year vehicle lifetime. Particular attention was given to the selection of the electric motor, heat engine, drivetrain, battery pack and control system. The preliminary design reflects a modified current compact car powered by a currently available turbocharged diesel engine and a 24 kW (peak) compound dc electric motor.

  10. Phase 1 study of metallic cask systems for spent fuel management from reactor to repository. Volume I. Phase 1 study summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    It was proposed to perform a systems evaluation of metallic cask systems in order to define and examine the use of various metallic cask concepts or combination of concepts for the overall inventory management of spent fuel starting with its discharge from reactors to its emplacement in geologic repositories. This systems evaluation occurs in three phases. This three phase systems evaluation leads to a definition and recommendation of a sound and practical metallic cask system to accomplish efficient and effective management of spent fuel in the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Phase 1 Study objectives: establish system-wide functional criteria and assumptions; perform the systems engineering needed to define the metallic cask concepts and their feasibility; perform a screening evaluation of the technical and economic merits of the concepts; and recommend those to be included for a more detailed systems evaluation in Phase 2. Phase 2 Study objectives: refine the system-wide functional criteria and assumptions; perform the design engineering needed to enhance the validity and workability of those concepts recommended in Phase 1; and perform a more detailed systems evaluation. Phase 3 Study objectives: conclude the systems evaluation and develop an implementation plan. Volume I presents an overview of the detailed systems evaluation presented in Volume II

  11. Wave Tank Studies of Phase Velocities of Short Wind Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, S.; Sergievskaya, I.; Shchegolkov, Yu.

    Wave tank studies of phase velocities of short wind waves have been carried out using Ka-band radar and an Optical Spectrum Analyser. The phase velocities were retrieved from measured radar and optical Doppler shifts, taking into account measurements of surface drift velocities. The dispersion relationship was studied in centimetre (cm)- and millimetre(mm)-scale wavelength ranges at different fetches and wind speeds, both for a clean water surface and for water covered with surfactant films. It is ob- tained that the phase velocities do not follow the dispersion relation of linear capillary- gravity waves, increasing with fetch and, therefore, depending on phase velocities of dominant decimetre (dm)-centimetre-scale wind waves. One thus can conclude that nonlinear cm-mm-scale harmonics bound to the dominant wind waves and propagat- ing with the phase velocities of the decimetric waves are present in the wind wave spectrum. The resulting phase velocities of short wind waves are determined by re- lation between free and bound waves. The relative intensity of the bound waves in the spectrum of short wind waves is estimated. It is shown that this relation depends strongly on the surfactant concentration, because the damping effect due to films is different for free and bound waves; this results to changes of phase velocities of wind waves in the presence of surfactant films. This work was supported by MOD, UK via DERA Winfrith (Project ISTC 1774P) and by RFBR (Project 02-05-65102).

  12. A development of multi-Species mass transport model considering thermodynamic phase equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosokawa, Yoshifumi; Yamada, Kazuo; Johannesson, Björn

    2008-01-01

    ) variation in solid-phase composition when using different types of cement, (ii) physicochemical evaluation of steel corrosion initiation behaviour by calculating the molar ratio of chloride ion to hydroxide ion [Cl]/[OH] in pore solution, (iii) complicated changes of solid-phase composition caused......In this paper, a multi-species mass transport model, which can predict time dependent variation of pore solution and solid-phase composition due to the mass transport into the hardened cement paste, has been developed. Since most of the multi-species models established previously, based...... on the Poisson-Nernst-Planck theory, did not involve the modeling of chemical process, it has been coupled to thermodynamic equilibrium model in this study. By the coupling of thermodynamic equilibrium model, the multi-species model could simulate many different behaviours in hardened cement paste such as: (i...

  13. Structural and phase studies of stainless wire after electroplastic drawing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troitskij, O.A.; Baldokhin, Yu.V.; Kir'yanchev, N.E.; Ryzhkov, V.G.; Kalugin, V.D.; Sokolov, N.V.; Klekovkin, A.A.; Klevtsur, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    Structural and phase properties of the 12Kh18N10T steel wire are studied after usual and electroplastic drawing from 0.40 up to 0.11 mm with 18-22% reduction per pass with passing 250 A/mm 2 electric current. The earlier made observation on a sharp decrease in content of deformation-induced martensite of α-phase takes place in the wire from stainless metastable austenitic steel as a result of electroplastic drawing. Distribution of the remained α-phase by the wire cross section is established

  14. Neutron scattering studies of pretransitional phenomena in structural phase transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, S.M.

    1979-03-01

    Materials exhibiting structural phase transformations are well known to possess pretransitional phenomena. Below the transition temperature, T/sub c/, an order parameter appears and the pretransitional effects are associated with the fluctuations of the order parameter. Neutron scattering techniques have proved invaluable in studying the temporal and spatial dependence of these fluctuations. SrTiO 3 is the prototypical example of a structural phase transformation exhibiting features observable in other transformations such as martensitic and order-disorder. The experimental evolution of the understanding of the phase transformation in SrTiO 3 will be reviewed and the features observed will be shown to typify other systems

  15. Development and application of a biorelevant dissolution method using USP apparatus 4 in early phase formulation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jiang B; Robertson, Vivian K; Rawat, Archana; Flick, Tawnya; Tang, Zhe J; Cauchon, Nina S; McElvain, James S

    2010-10-04

    Dissolution testing is frequently used to determine the rate and extent at which a drug is released from a dosage form, and it plays many important roles throughout drug product development. However, the traditional dissolution approach often emphasizes its application in quality control testing and usually strives to obtain 100% drug release. As a result, dissolution methods are not necessarily biorelevant and meaningful application of traditional dissolution methods in the early phases of drug product development can be very limited. This article will describe the development of a biorelevant in vitro dissolution method using USP apparatus 4, biorelevant media, and real-time online UV analysis. Several case studies in the areas of formulation selection, lot-to-lot variability, and food effect will be presented to demonstrate the application of this method in early phase formulation development. This biorelevant dissolution method using USP apparatus 4 provides a valuable tool to predict certain aspects of the in vivo drug release. It can be used to facilitate the formulation development/selection for pharmacokinetic (PK) and clinical studies. It may also potentially be used to minimize the number of PK studies, and to aid in the design of more efficient PK and clinical studies.

  16. Theoretical study of titanium phases; Etude theorique des phases du titane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinite, V

    2006-10-15

    The aim of this work is to obtain a good understanding of the phase diagram of titanium within density functional theory. This diagram is composed of the alpha phase, the high pressure omega phase and the high temperature beta phase. This requires the differences in total energy to be predicted with a great precision, because these differences are around 50 meV. I find the omega phase to be the most stable one by ab initio calculation at zero temperature and pressure, in contradiction to the experimental results. I find this inversion of the stability also appears in titanium dioxide and zirconium. I have analyzed all the approximations brought into play in the ab initio approach. I have estimated the zero point energy and studied the impact of including the semi-core states as well as the effect of the exchange-correlation functionals. The conclusion is that the usual approximations for the exchange-correlation generate the biggest part of the error. A possible correction is to take into account the electronic self-interaction. I have apply this correction to the semi-core states and find a systematic improvement of the cell parameters, but no improvement on the phase stability. So I can conclude that a better description of the exchange interaction on the localized 3d states is needed. Although the standard functionals of exchange-correlation are not accurate enough to predict the phase diagrams of titanium, they perform well in describing physical properties less demanding in terms of precision, like elastic constants. However, I find important that the predicted equilibrium volume must be precise, as these properties are found strongly dependent on the volume. (author)

  17. Development of Phase Change Materials for RF Switch Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Matthew Russell

    For decades chalcogenide-based phase change materials (PCMs) have been reliably implemented in optical storage and digital memory platforms. Owing to the substantial differences in optical and electronic properties between crystalline and amorphous states, device architectures requiring a "1" and "0" or "ON" and "OFF" states are attainable with PCMs if a method for amorphizing and crystallizing the PCM is demonstrated. Taking advantage of more than just the binary nature of PCM electronic properties, recent reports have shown that the near-metallic resistivity of some PCMs allow one to manufacture high performance RF switches and related circuit technologies. One of the more promising RF switch technologies is the Inline Phase Change Switch (IPCS) which utilizes GeTe as the active material. Initial reports show that an electrically isolated, thermally coupled thin film heater can successfully convert GeTe between crystalline and amorphous states, and with proper design an RF figure of merit cutoff frequency (FCO) of 12.5 THz can be achieved. In order to realize such world class performance a significant development effort was undertaken to understand the relationship between fundamental GeTe properties, thin film deposition method and resultant device properties. Deposition pressure was found to be the most important deposition process parameter, as it was found to control Ge:Te ratio, oxygen content, Ar content, film density and surface roughness. Ultimately a first generation deposition process produced GeTe films with a crystalline resistivity of 3 ohm-mum. Upon implementing these films into IPCS devices, post-cycling morphological analysis was undertaken using STEM and related analyses. It was revealed that massive structural changes occur in the GeTe during switching, most notably the formation of an assembly of voids along the device centerline and large GeTe grains on either side of the so-called active region. Restructuring of this variety was tied to

  18. Phase I study of intravenous iododeoxyuridine as a clinical radiosensitizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinsella, T.J.; Russo, A.; Mitchell, J.B.; Collins, J.M.; Rowland, J.; Wright, D.; Glatstein, E.

    1985-11-01

    Twenty-four patients with locally advanced (19 patients) or metastatic (5 patients) tumors were treated in a Phase I study combining constant intravenous infusions of iododeoxyuridine (IUdR) and hyperfractionated radiation therapy. IUdR was given as a constant infusion for 12 hours/day for two separate 14-day infusion periods in most patients. The dose of IUdR was escalated from 250 to 1200 mg/m2/12-hour infusion in this study. The initial tumor volume was treated to 45 Gy/1.5 Gy BID/3 weeks followed by a cone-down boost to 20-25 Gy/1.25 Gy BID/2 weeks after a planned 2-week break. THe IUdR infusion preceded the initial and cone-down irradiation by 1 week. Local acute toxicity (within the radiation volume) was uncommon and few patients required an alteration of the planned treatment schedule. Two patients developed late local toxicity with one patient showing clinical signs of radiation hepatitis and another patient developing a large bowel obstruction that required surgical bypass. Dose-limiting systemic toxicity was confined to the bone marrow with moderate to severe thrombocytopenia developing on Day 10-14 of infusions at 1200 mg/m2/12 hours. Mild stomatitis and partial alopecia occurred in some patients at this dose level. No systemic skin toxicity was seen. Pharmacology studies revealed steady-state arterial plasma levels of IUdR of 1 to 8 X 10(-6) M over the dose range used. In vivo IUdR incorporation into tumors was studied in three patients with high-grade sarcomas using an anti-IUdR monoclonal antibody and immunohistochemistry and demonstrated incorporation in up to 50-70% of tumor cells. The preliminary treatment results, particularly in patients with unresectable sarcomas, are encouraging.

  19. Classified study and clinical value of the phase imaging features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Yaping; Ma Aiqun; Zheng Xiaopu; Yang Aimin; Xiao Jiang; Gao Xinyao

    2000-01-01

    445 patients with various heart diseases were examined by the gated cardiac blood pool imaging, and the phase was classified. The relationship between the seven types with left ventricular function index, clinical heart function, different heart diseases as well as electrocardiograph was studied. The results showed that the phase image classification could match with the clinical heart function. It can visually, directly and accurately indicate clinical heart function and can be used to identify diagnosis of heart disease

  20. Considerations of stationary-phase interactions in groundwater pollution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.S.

    1980-01-01

    Studies of groundwater pollution are complicated by retention of both pollutant and tracers as static phases associated with the rock matrix. Three types of static phase are considered: (1) immobile pore water, (2) equilibrium adsorbed layers and (3) bulk precipitates, including biological systems. A brief discussion of the systems is given with examples from the work of the Water Research Centre on the problems encountered in quantifying groundwater pollution where static contamination may occur. (author)

  1. Phase equilibrium study on system uranium-plutonium-tungsten-carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugajin, Mitsuhiro

    1976-11-01

    Metallurgical properties of the U-Pu-W-C system have been studied with emphasis on phases and reactions. Free energy of compound formation, carbon activity and U/Pu segregation in the W-doped carbide fuel are estimated using phase diagram data. The results indicate that tungsten metal is useful as a thermochemical stabilizer of the carbide fuel. Tungsten has high temperature stability in contact with uranium carbide and mixed uranium-plutonium carbide. (auth.)

  2. Assessment of global phase uncertainty in case-control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Houwelingen Hans C

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In haplotype-based candidate gene studies a problem is that the genotype data are unphased, which results in haplotype ambiguity. The measure 1 quantifies haplotype predictability from genotype data. It is computed for each individual haplotype, and for a measure of global relative efficiency a minimum value is suggested. Alternatively, we developed methods directly based on the information content of haplotype frequency estimates to obtain global relative efficiency measures: and based on A- and D-optimality, respectively. All three methods are designed for single populations; they can be applied in cases only, controls only or the whole data. Therefore they are not necessarily optimal for haplotype testing in case-control studies. Results A new global relative efficiency measure was derived to maximize power of a simple test statistic that compares haplotype frequencies in cases and controls. Application to real data showed that our proposed method gave a clear and summarizing measure for the case-control study conducted. Additionally this measure might be used for selection of individuals, who have the highest potential for improving power by resolving phase ambiguity. Conclusion Instead of using relative efficiency measure for cases only, controls only or their combined data, we link uncertainty measure to case-control studies directly. Hence, our global efficiency measure might be useful to assess whether data are informative or have enough power for estimation of a specific haplotype risk.

  3. “Maternal Health and Family Planning Distance Education” experience among physicians: a three-phase study to determine the educational needs, develop education program, and evaluate efficacy of the education administered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftci, Bestami; Uzel, Nesibe; Ozel, M Onur; Zergeroglu, Sema; Deger, Cetin; Turasan, S Sare; Karakoc, Ayse Gul; Ozbalci, Semra

    2016-01-01

    Aim This study aims to assess the educational needs of family practitioners and evaluate the efficacy of the ongoing “Maternal Health and Family Planning Distance Education” program conducted by the General Directorate of Health Research (SAGEM) of the Turkish Ministry of Health. Methods This study consisted of three phases. In the first phase, an online survey on maternal health and family planning educational needs was sent to 20,611 physicians via e-mail. Of the 20,611 physicians, 4,729 completed the survey. In the second phase, of the 1,061 physicians registered to the education program, 632 physicians with active participation were included. In the third phase, the preeducation expectations of 287 physicians and posteducation satisfaction of 54 physicians were analyzed with a questionnaire. Results The majority of the physicians were employed in a family health center (97.4%) and practicing for 16–20 years (23.2%) without any prior in-service training (60.9%). High-to-very high educational need was expressed by 56.4% of physicians for pregnancy, delivery, and puerperality. Topics that the physicians, including both those with ≥16 years in practice and without prior in-service training, expressed need for more detailed content were pregnancy, delivery, and puerperality (37.5%); emergency obstetric approach in the primary care setting (33.1%); and gynecological infectious diseases and treatment approach (32.4%). Following the education program, the participants’ expectations were fulfilled in terms of refreshing their knowledge, particularly in the field of Maternal Health and Family Planning (87.1% and 75.9%) and the percentage of participants who expressed that they had sufficient high level knowledge increased from 55% to 68.5%. Conclusion The education on Maternal Health and Family Planning refreshed the knowledge of participants and highly met the preeducation expectations. Determining the educational needs and expectations of the target

  4. Developing technology pushed breakthroughs: an empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Sarja

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Developing a technology push product that brings real novelty to the market is difficult, risky and costly. This case study analyzes success factors defined by the literature. True industrial cases, representing Finnish ICT firms in their early phase after a successful market entry, were researched for the success factor analysis. The whole set of the previously introduced success factors were variably supported, and three new factors arose. Because the technology pushed development processes are risky with high failure rates, the validated success factors are valuable knowledge for the developments intensive firm’s management.

  5. Imatinib Intolerance Is Associated With Blastic Phase Development in Philadelphia Chromosome-Positive Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángeles-Velázquez, Jorge Luis; Hurtado-Monroy, Rafael; Vargas-Viveros, Pablo; Carrillo-Muñoz, Silvia; Candelaria-Hernández, Myrna

    2016-08-01

    Over the past years, the survival of patients with Philadelphia-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML Ph(+)) has increased as a result of therapy with tyrosin kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Intolerance to TKIs has been described in approximately 20% of patients receiving treatment. We studied the incidence of imatinib intolerance in patients with CML Ph(+) and their outcome in our CML reference site, as there is no information about the evolution of patients intolerant to TKIs. A group of 86 patients with CML Ph(+) receiving imatinib monotherapy who abandoned treatment were the basis for this study. We present the trends of their disease evolution. The median of age at diagnosis was 42 years. Within a year, 19 (22%) of 86 patients developed imatinib intolerance, all of them with grade III or IV disease that required imatinib dose reduction or discontinuation. Of these patients, 16 (84%) of 19 developed transformation to blastic phase. The cumulative incidences of blastic phase development were 47% in the nonintolerant group and 84% in the intolerant group. There was a relative risk for those with imatinib intolerance to develop blastic phase of 1.78 (95% confidence interval, 1.28 to 2.42) (P treatment is available. Future research should to determine whether the origin of this evolution is really due to the intolerance itself or whether it is due to a more aggressive form of the disease, perhaps related to genetic transformation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of a Lunar-Phase Observation System Based on Augmented Reality and Mobile Learning Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wernhuar Tarng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Observing the lunar phase requires long-term involvement, and it is often obstructed by bad weather or tall buildings. In this study, a lunar-phase observation system is developed using the augmented reality (AR technology and the sensor functions of GPS, electronic compass, and 3-axis accelerometer on mobile devices to help students observe and record lunar phases easily. By holding the mobile device towards the moon in the sky, the screen will show the virtual moon at the position of the real moon. The system allows the user to record the lunar phase, including its azimuth/elevation angles and the observation date and time. In addition, the system can shorten the learning process by setting different dates and times for observation, so it can solve the problem of being unable to observe and record lunar phases due to a bad weather or the moon appearing late in the night. Therefore, it is an effective tool for astronomy education in elementary and high schools. A teaching experiment has been conducted to analyze the learning effectiveness of the system and the results show that it is effective in learning the lunar concepts. The questionnaire results reveal that students considered the system easy to operate and it is useful in locating the moon and recording the lunar data.

  7. Study on a phase space representation of quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranaivoson, R.T.R; Raoelina Andriambololona; Hanitriarivo, R.; Raboanary, R.

    2013-01-01

    A study on a method for the establishment of a phase space representation of quantum theory is presented. The approach utilizes the properties of Gaussian distribution, the properties of Hermite polynomials, Fourier analysis and the current formulation of quantum mechanics which is based on the use of Hilbert space and linear operators theory. Phase space representation of quantum states and wave functions in phase space are introduced using properties of a set of functions called harmonic Gaussian functions. Then, new operators called dispersion operators are defined and identified as the operators which admit as eigenstates the basis states of the phase space representation. Generalization of the approach for multidimensional cases is shown. Examples of applications are given.

  8. Preliminary Studies Of A Phase Modulation Technique For Measuring Chromaticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, C.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    The classical method for measuring chromaticity is to slowly modulate the RF frequency and then measure the betatron tune excursion. The technique that is discussed in this paper instead modulates the phase of the RF and then the chromaticity is obtained by phase demodulating the betatron tune. This technique requires knowledge of the betatron frequency in real time in order for the phase to be demodulated. Fortunately, the Tevatron has a tune tracker based on the phase locked loop principle which fits this requirement. A preliminary study with this technique has showed that it is a promising method for doing continuous chromaticity measurement and raises the possibility of doing successful chromaticity feedback with it

  9. Development of Michelson interferometer based spatial phase-shift digital shearography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xin

    Digital shearography is a non-contact, full field, optical measurement method, which has the capability of directly measuring the gradient of deformation. For high measurement sensitivity, phase evaluation method has to be introduced into digital shearography by phase-shift technique. Catalog by phase-shift method, digital phase-shift shearography can be divided into Temporal Phase-Shift Digital Shearography (TPS-DS) and Spatial Phase-Shift Digital Shearography (SPS-DS). TPS-DS is the most widely used phase-shift shearography system, due to its simple algorithm, easy operation and good phase-map quality. However, the application of TPS-DS is only limited in static/step-by-step loading measurement situation, due to its multi-step shifting process. In order to measure the strain under dynamic/continuous loading situation, a SPS-DS system has to be developed. This dissertation aims to develop a series of Michelson Interferometer based SPS-DS measurement methods to achieve the strain measurement by using only a single pair of speckle pattern images. The Michelson Interferometer based SPS-DS systems utilize special designed optical setup to introduce extra carrier frequency into the laser wavefront. The phase information corresponds to the strain field can be separated on the Fourier domain using a Fourier Transform and can further be evaluated with a Windowed Inverse Fourier Transform. With different optical setups and carrier frequency arrangements, the Michelson Interferometer based SPS-DS method is capable to achieve a variety of measurement tasks using only single pair of speckle pattern images. Catalog by the aimed measurand, these capable measurement tasks can be divided into five categories: 1) measurement of out-of-plane strain field with small shearing amount; 2) measurement of relative out-of-plane deformation field with big shearing amount; 3) simultaneous measurement of relative out-of-plane deformation field and deformation gradient field by using multiple

  10. Research ICT Africa - Phase III | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    During this phase, RIA will construct an African index of ICT policy and regulations; establish a network structure suitable for growth and the integration of North Africa; refine its policy influence and dissemination strategy; integrate its supply- and demand-side data and triangulate it with the telecommunication regulatory ...

  11. Space nuclear power plant technology development philosophy for a ground engineering phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Trapp, T.J.; Los Alamos National Lab., NM)

    1985-01-01

    The development of a space qualified nuclear power plant is proceeding from the technical assessment and advancement phase to the ground engineering phase. In this new phase, the selected concept will be matured by the completion of activities needed before protoflight units can be assembled and qualified for first flight applications. This paper addresses a possible philosophy to arrive at the activities to be performed during the ground engineering phase. The philosophy is derived from what we believe a potential user of nuclear power would like to see completed before commitment to a flight development phase. 5 references

  12. Space nuclear power plant technology development philosophy for a ground engineering phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Trapp, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    The development of a space qualified nuclear power plant is proceeding from the Technical Assessment and Advancement Phase to the Ground Engineering Phase. In this new phase, the selected concept will be matured by the completion of activities needed before protoflight units can be assembled and qualified for first flight applications. This paper addresses a possible philosophy to arrive at the activities to be performed during the Ground Engineering Phase. The philosophy is derived from what we believe a potential user of nuclear power would like to see completed before commitment to a flight development phase

  13. Integrating Pharmacoproteomics into Early-Phase Clinical Development: State-of-the-Art, Challenges, and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita Nandal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacoproteomics is the study of disease-modifying and toxicity parameters associated with therapeutic drug administration, using analysis of quantitative and temporal changes to specific, predetermined, and select proteins, or to the proteome as a whole. Pharmacoproteomics is a rapidly evolving field, with progress in analytic technologies enabling processing of complex interactions of large number of unique proteins and effective use in clinical trials. Nevertheless, our analysis of clinicaltrials.gov and PubMed shows that the application of proteomics in early-phase clinical development is minimal and limited to few therapeutic areas, with oncology predominating. We review the history, technologies, current usage, challenges, and potential for future use, and conclude with recommendations for integration of pharmacoproteomic in early-phase drug development.

  14. EDS Coal Liquefaction Process Development. Phase V. Laboratory evaluation of the characteristics of EDS Illinois bottoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lao, T C; Levasseur, A A

    1984-02-01

    This interim report documents work carried out by Combustion Engineering, Inc. under a contract to Exxon Research and Engineering Company to develop a conceptual Hybrid Boiler design fueled by the vacuum distillation residue (vacuum bottoms) derived from Illinois No. 6 coal in the EDS Coal Liquefaction Process. This report was prepared by Combustion Engineering, Inc., and is the first of two reports on the predevelopment phase of the Hybrid Boiler program. This report covers the results of a laboratory investigation to assess the fuel and ash properties of EDS vacuum bottoms. The results of the laboratory testing reported here were used in conjunction with Combustion Engineering's design experience to predict fuel performance and to develop appropriate boiler design parameters. These boiler design parameters were used to prepare the engineering design study reported in EDS Interim Report FE-2893-113, the second of the two reports on the predevelopment phase of the Hybrid Boiler Program. 46 figures, 29 tables.

  15. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2 (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Kumar, N.; Lefton, S.; Jordan, G.; Venkataraman, S.; King, J.

    2013-06-01

    This presentation accompanies Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study, a follow-on to Phase 1, which examined the operational impacts of high penetrations of variable renewable generation on the electric power system in the West and was one of the largest variable generation studies to date. High penetrations of variable generation can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions. Phase 2 calculated these costs and emissions, and simulated grid operations for a year to investigate the detailed impact of variable generation on the fossil-fueled fleet. The presentation highlights the scope of the study and results.

  16. Native Fish Sanctuary Project - Sanctuary Development Phase, 2007 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Gordon A.

    2007-01-01

    Notable progress was made in 2007 toward the development of native fish facilities in the Lower Colorado River Basin. More than a dozen facilities are, or soon will be, online to benefit native fish. When this study began in 2005 no self-supporting communities of either bonytail or razorback sucker existed. Razorback suckers were removed from Rock Tank in 1997 and the communities at High Levee Pond had been compromised by largemouth bass in 2004. This project reversed that trend with the establishment of the Davis Cove native fish community in 2005. Bonytail and razorback sucker successfully produced young in Davis Cove in 2006. Bonytail successfully produced young in Parker Dam Pond in 2007, representing the first successful sanctuary established solely for bonytail. This past year, Three Fingers Lake received 135 large razorback suckers, and Federal and State agencies have agreed to develop a cooperative management approach dedicating a portion of that lake toward grow-out and (or) the establishment of another sanctuary. Two ponds at River's Edge Golf Course in Needles, California, were renovated in June and soon will be stocked with bonytail. Similar activities are taking place at Mohave Community College, Cerbat Cliffs Golf Course, Cibola High Levee Pond, Office Cove, Emerald Canyon Golf Course, and Bulkhead Cove. Recruitment can be expected as fish become sexually mature at these facilities. Flood-plain facilities have the potential to support 6,000 adult razorback suckers and nearly 20,000 bonytail if native fish management is aggressively pursued. This sanctuary project has assisted agencies in developing 15 native fish communities by identifying specific resource objectives for those sites, listing and prioritizing research opportunities and needs, and strategizing on management approaches through the use of resource-management plans. Such documents have been developed for Davis Cove, Cibola High Levee Pond, Parker Dam Pond, and Three Fingers Lake. We

  17. De novo analysis of transcriptome dynamics in the migratory locust during the development of phase traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Chen

    Full Text Available Locusts exhibit remarkable density-dependent phenotype (phase changes from the solitary to the gregarious, making them one of the most destructive agricultural pests. This phenotype polyphenism arises from a single genome and diverse transcriptomes in different conditions. Here we report a de novo transcriptome for the migratory locust and a comprehensive, representative core gene set. We carried out assembly of 21.5 Gb Illumina reads, generated 72,977 transcripts with N50 2,275 bp and identified 11,490 locust protein-coding genes. Comparative genomics analysis with eight other sequenced insects was carried out to identify the genomic divergence between hemimetabolous and holometabolous insects for the first time and 18 genes relevant to development was found. We further utilized the quantitative feature of RNA-seq to measure and compare gene expression among libraries. We first discovered how divergence in gene expression between two phases progresses as locusts develop and identified 242 transcripts as candidates for phase marker genes. Together with the detailed analysis of deep sequencing data of the 4(th instar, we discovered a phase-dependent divergence of biological investment in the molecular level. Solitary locusts have higher activity in biosynthetic pathways while gregarious locusts show higher activity in environmental interaction, in which genes and pathways associated with regulation of neurotransmitter activities, such as neurotransmitter receptors, synthetase, transporters, and GPCR signaling pathways, are strongly involved. Our study, as the largest de novo transcriptome to date, with optimization of sequencing and assembly strategy, can further facilitate the application of de novo transcriptome. The locust transcriptome enriches genetic resources for hemimetabolous insects and our understanding of the origin of insect metamorphosis. Most importantly, we identified genes and pathways that might be involved in locust development

  18. Effects of plasticization and shear stress on phase structure development and properties of soy protein blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Zhang, Jinwen

    2010-11-01

    In this study, soy protein concentrate (SPC) was used as a plastic component to blend with poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT). Effects of SPC plasticization and blend composition on its deformation during mixing were studied in detail. Influence of using water as the major plasticizer and glycerol as the co-plasticizer on the deformation of the SPC phase during mixing was explored. The effect of shear stress, as affected by SPC loading level, on the phase structure of SPC in the blends was also investigated. Quantitative analysis of the aspect ratio of SPC particles was conducted by using ImageJ software, and an empirical model predicting the formation of percolated structure was applied. The experimental results and the model prediction showed a fairly good agreement. The experimental results and statistic analysis suggest that both SPC loading level and its water content prior to compounding had significant influences on development of the SPC phase structure and were correlated in determining the morphological structures of the resulting blends. Consequently, physical and mechanical properties of the blends greatly depended on the phase morphology and PBAT/SPC ratio of the blends.

  19. Engineering Work Plan for the Development of Phased Startup Initiative (PSI) Phases 3 and 4 Test Equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PITNER, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    A number of tools and equipment pieces are required to facilitate planned test operations during Phases 3 and 4 of the Phased Startup Initiative (PSI). These items will be used in assessing residual canister sludge quantities on cleaned fuel assemblies, sorting coarse and fine scrap fuel pieces, assessing the size distribution of scrap pieces, loading scrap into a canister, and measuring the depth of the accumulated scrap in a canister. This work plan supercedes those previously issued for development of several of these test items. These items will be considered prototype equipment until testing has confirmed their suitability for use in K West Basin. The process described in AP-EN-6-032 will be used to qualify the equipment for facility use. These items are considered non-OCRWM for PSI Phase 3 applications. The safety classification of this equipment is General Service, with Quality Level 0 (for PSI Phase 3). Quality Control inspections shall be performed to verify basic dimensions and overall configurations of fabricated components, and any special quality control verifications specified in this work plan (Section 3.1.5). These inspections shall serve to approve the test equipment for use in K West Basin (Acceptance Tag). This equipment is for information gathering only during PSI Phases 3 and 4 activities, and will be discarded at the completion of PSI. For equipment needed to support actual production throughput, development/fabrication/testing activities would be more rigorously controlled

  20. Developing maintainability for tokamak fusion power systems. Phase II report. Volume I: executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, G.M.; Zahn, H.S.; Mantz, H.C.; Kaletta, G.R.; Waganer, L.M.; Carosella, L.A.; Conlee, J.L.

    1978-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify design features of fusion power reactors which contribute to the achievement of high levels of maintainability. Volume 1, the Executive Summary, presents the progress achieved toward this objective in this phase and includes a comparison with the results of the first phase study efforts. A series of maintainability design guidelines and an improved maintenance system are defined as initial steps in developing the requirements for a maintainable tokamak fusion power system. The principle comparative studies that are summarized include the determination of the benefits of various vacuum wall arrangements, the effect of unscheduled and scheduled maintenance of the first wall/blanket, some initial investigation of maintenance required for subsystems other than the first wall/blanket, and the impact of maintenance equipment failures

  1. Seismic risk analysis in the German risk study phase B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasser, D.; Liemersdorf, J.

    1989-01-01

    The paper discusses some aspects of the seismic risk part of the German risk study for nuclear power plants, phase B. First simplified analyses in phase A of the study allowed a rough classification of structures and systems of the PWR reference plant according to their seismic risk contribution. These studies were extended in phase B using improved models for the dynamic analyses of buildings, structures and components as well as for the probabilistic analyses of seismic loading, failure probabilities and event trees. The methodology of deriving probabilistic seismic load descriptions is explained and compared with the methods in phase A of the study and in other studies. Some details of the linear and nonlinear dynamic analyses of structures are reported, in order to demonstrate the influence of different assumptions for material behavior and failure criteria. The probabilistic structural and event tree analyses are discussed with respect to the distribution assumptions, acceptable simplifications, special results for the PWR reference plant and, finally, the influence of model uncertainties

  2. Seismic risk analyses in the German Risk Study, phase B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosser, D.; Liemersdorf, H.

    1991-01-01

    The paper discusses some aspects of the seismic risk part of the German Risk Study for Nuclear Power Plants, Phase B. First simplified analyses in Phase A of the study allowed only a rough classification of structures and systems of the PWR reference plant according to their seismic risk contribution. These studies were extended in Phase B using improved models for the dynamic analyses of buildings, structures and components as well as for the probabilistic analyses of seismic loading, failure probabilities and event trees. The methodology of deriving probabilistic seismic load descriptions is explained and compared with the methods in Phase A of the study and in other studies. Some details of the linear and nonlinear dynamic analyses of structures are reported in order to demonstrate the influence of different assumptions for material behaviour and failure criteria. The probabilistic structural and event tree analyses are discussed with respect to distribution assumptions, acceptable simplifications and model uncertainties. Some results for the PWR reference plant are given. (orig.)

  3. IDC Re-Engineering Phase 3 Development Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, James M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Burns, John F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pollock, David L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has prepared a project development plan that proposes how the parties interested in the IDC Re-Engineering system will coordinate its development, testing and transition to operations.

  4. IDC Re-Engineering Phase 3 Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, James M.; Burns, John F.; Pollock, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has prepared a project development plan that proposes how the parties interested in the IDC Re-Engineering system will coordinate its development, testing and transition to operations.

  5. Analytical electron microscope study of the omega phase transformation in a zirconium-niobium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaluzec, N.J.

    1979-01-01

    The study of the as-quenched omega phase morphology shows that the domain size of Zr-15% Nb is on the order of 30 A. No alignment of omega domains along β directions was observed and samples having undergone thermal cycling in thin foil form, did not develop a long-period structure of alternating β and ω phases below the omega transformation temperature

  6. Critical point of gas-liquid type phase transition and phase equilibrium functions in developed two-component plasma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butlitsky, M A; Zelener, B B; Zelener, B V

    2014-07-14

    A two-component plasma model, which we called a "shelf Coulomb" model has been developed in this work. A Monte Carlo study has been undertaken to calculate equations of state, pair distribution functions, internal energies, and other thermodynamics properties. A canonical NVT ensemble with periodic boundary conditions was used. The motivation behind the model is also discussed in this work. The "shelf Coulomb" model can be compared to classical two-component (electron-proton) model where charges with zero size interact via a classical Coulomb law. With important difference for interaction of opposite charges: electrons and protons interact via the Coulomb law for large distances between particles, while interaction potential is cut off on small distances. The cut off distance is defined by an arbitrary ɛ parameter, which depends on system temperature. All the thermodynamics properties of the model depend on dimensionless parameters ɛ and γ = βe(2)n(1/3) (where β = 1/kBT, n is the particle's density, kB is the Boltzmann constant, and T is the temperature) only. In addition, it has been shown that the virial theorem works in this model. All the calculations were carried over a wide range of dimensionless ɛ and γ parameters in order to find the phase transition region, critical point, spinodal, and binodal lines of a model system. The system is observed to undergo a first order gas-liquid type phase transition with the critical point being in the vicinity of ɛ(crit) ≈ 13(T(*)(crit) ≈ 0.076), γ(crit) ≈ 1.8(v(*)(crit) ≈ 0.17), P(*)(crit) ≈ 0.39, where specific volume v* = 1/γ(3) and reduced temperature T(*) = ɛ(-1).

  7. Pulse shape discrimination studies of Phase I Ge-detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirsch, Andrea [MPI fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The GERmanium Detector Array experiment aims to search for the neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) of {sup 76}Ge by using isotopically enriched germanium crystals as source and detector simultaneously. The bare semiconductor diodes are operated in liquid argon at cryogenic temperatures in an ultra-low background environment. In addition, Gerda applies different active background reduction techniques, one of which is pulse shape discrimination studies of the current Phase I germanium detectors. The analysis of the signal time structure provides an important tool to distinguish single site events (SSE) of the ββ-decay from multi site events (MSE) of common gamma-ray background or surface events. To investigate the correlation between the signal shape and the interaction position, a new, also to the predominantly deployed closed-ended coaxial HPGe detectors applicable analysis technique has been developed. A summary of the used electronic/detector assembly is given and followed by a discussion of the performed classification procedure by means of accurate pulse shape simulations of 0νββ-like signals. Finally, the obtained results are presented along with an evaluation of the relevance for the Gerda experiment.

  8. Phase conjugation of gap solitons: A numerical study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study the effect of a nearby phase-conjugate mirror (PCM) on the gap soliton of a. Kerr non-linear ... They are characterized by a sech field distribution corresponding to the ... It is a generalization of the earlier model proposed by Jose et.

  9. Study of effect of chromium on titanium dioxide phase transformation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Study of effect of chromium on titanium dioxide phase transformation by A Bellifa (pp 669–677). Figure S1. Structural ... 4 × 1⋅9486; 2 × 1⋅9799. Octahedral packing. 2 × 2 shared edges. 8 free edges. 3 shared edges. 4 corners. 5 free edges. 2 parallel shared edges. 2 corners. 10 free edges. O. O. Coordination scheme.

  10. Crystal growth, structure and phase studies on gold halides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Eugenius Maria Wilhelmus Janssen

    1977-01-01

    Only very corrosive substances attack gold, the most noble metal. In this study the reactivity and the phase diagrams of gold with the halogens chlorine, bromine and iodine have been investigated. owing to the noble behaviour of gold, its halides are sensitive to heat; on heating they decompose into

  11. Caelyx (TM) in malignant mesothelioma : A phase II EORTC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, P; van Meerbeeck, J; Groen, H; Schouwink, H; Burgers, S; Daamen, S; Giaccone, G

    Background: The use of doxorubicin has shown some activity in malignant mesothelioma but prolonged administration is hampered by cardiotoxicity. Caelyx(TM), a new liposomal and pegylated form of doxorubicin has shown a better pharmacokinetic and toxic profile then doxorubicin. In a phase II study,

  12. NMR studies of phase behaviour in polyacrylonitrile solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golightly, J.A.

    1998-10-01

    The aim of the thesis was to study the phase behaviour of aqueous polyacrylonitrile/NaSCN solutions using a variety of nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) is the basis of the acrylic fibre industry, as such fibres contain at least 85% PAN. Despite this industrial importance, the available literature describing the phase behaviour of PAN in solution is far from comprehensive. Bulk 1 H NMR relaxation measurements were carried out over a wide range of concentrations and temperatures to probe the molecular dynamics of the PAN and water molecules. The relaxation data was found to be biexponential decay for all samples, the relative amplitudes of which were shown to be equal to the ratio of PAN protons to water protons. Both species were found to be in the regime of rapid molecular motion. Bulk 1 H NMR self diffusion measurements, using the PFGSTE technique, exhibited a bi-exponential decay of the echo amplitudes. By careful selection of the observation time, Δ, it was possible to independently probe the water and PAN translational diffusion. A background gradient, resulting from inhomogeneities of the magnetic field, complicated the analysis of the data and a novel polynomial least squares fitting procedure was devised to overcome this effect. The measured attenuation of the water diffusion coefficients (D∼10 -6 -10 -5 cm 2 s -1 ) with increasing PAN volume fraction was modelled according to various theories, including free volume and scaling laws. The study of the PAN diffusion coefficient (D∼10 -7 -10 -6 cm 2 s -1 ) was limited by the experimental constraints of the NMR spectrometer. A 1 H NMR one-dimensional imaging technique was used to study the non-solvent induced phase separation (coagulation) of a PAN solution. The time dependence of the measured profiles allowed observation of the coagulation process. A diffusion model was developed to fit the experimental data using a semi-infinite diffusion framework. The fitting parameters

  13. AGARICUS BLAZEI MURRILL MUSHROOM COMPOST STUDY ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC PHASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sándor Rózsa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Compost for the production of Agaricus blazei Murrill mushrooms, is produced from wheat straw, straw-bedded horse manure, chicken manure and gypsum. The substrate is made in two processes called Phase I (anaerobic and Phase II (aerobic. Phase I includes mixing and moistening of the ingredients and a period of uncontrolled self-heating where temperatures will rise to 80ºC. Phase II starts with a pasteurization period of 8h at 56-60ºC and continues with a conditioning period at 45ºC for up to 7 days until volatile NH3 has been cleared from the process by air. Quality parameters for compost cannot be established directly. Moisture and nitrogen contents and pH can be adjusted at the start of Phase I, but the values will be affected during processing. In this paperwork, we studied the physical properties (water content, electrical conductivity and chemical composition (pH, organic matter, nitrogen, calcium, magnesium, ammonia of four recipes of compost: classical, synthetic, mixt and original. During the experience, we recorded every hour the compost and the air temperature and the air relative humidity. The highest yield was obtained on synthetic compost with 42 kg mushrooms on 100 kg of compost.

  14. Development of high resolution Michelson interferometer for stable phase-locked ultrashort pulse pair generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takumi; Komori, Kazuhiro; Goshima, Keishiro; Yamauchi, Shohgo; Morohashi, Isao; Sugaya, Takeyoshi; Ogura, Mutsuo; Tsurumachi, Noriaki

    2008-10-01

    We developed a high resolution Michelson interferometer with a two-frequency He-Ne laser positioning system in order to stabilize the relative phase of a pulse pair. The control resolution corresponded to a 12 as time resolution or a phase of 1.5 degrees at 900 nm. This high resolution Michelson interferometer can generate a phase-locked pulse pair either with a specific relative phase such as 0 or pi radians or with an arbitrary phase. Coherent control of an InAs self-assembled quantum dot was demonstrated using the high resolution Michelson interferometer with a microspectroscopy system.

  15. Development and evaluation of a workpiece temperature analyzer (WPTA) for industrial furances (Phase 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This project is directed toward the research, development, and evaluation of a viable commercial product-a workpiece temperature measurement analyzer (WPTA) for fired furnaces based on unique radiation properties of surfaces. This WPTA will provide for more uniform, higher quality products and reduce product rejects as well as permit the optimum use of energy. The WPTA may also be utilized in control system applications including metal heat treating, forging furnaces, and ceramic firing furnaces. A large market also exists in the chemical process and refining industry. WPTA applications include the verification of product temperature/time cycles, and use as a front-end sensor for automatic feedback control systems. This report summarizes the work performed in Phase 1 of this three-phase project. The work Phase 1 included the application evaluation; the evaluation of present technologies and limitations; and the development of a preliminary conceptual WPTA design, including identification of technical and economic benefits. Recommendations based on the findings of this report include near-term enhancement of the capabilities of the Pyrolaser, and long-term development of an instrument based on Raman Spectroscopy. Development of the Pyrofiber, fiberoptics version of the Pyrolaser, will be a key to solving present problems involving specularity, measurement angle, and costs of multipoint measurement. Extending the instrument's measurement range to include temperatures below 600{degrees}C will make the product useful for a wider range of applications. The development of Raman Spectroscopy would result in an instrument that could easily be adapted to incorporate a wealth of additional nondestructive analytical capabilities, including stress/stain indication, crystallography, species concentrations, corrosion studies, and catalysis studies, in addition to temperature measurement. 9 refs., 20 figs., 16 tabs.

  16. Main results of the german risk study, phase B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuser, F.W.

    1988-01-01

    Work on the German Risk Study is under contract of the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology. The reference plant for the analysis is the Biblis nuclear power plant, Unit B, a KWU pressurized water reactor of the 1300 MWel class. The plant is in operation since 1976. First results on Phase A of the study have been published in 1979. Investigations on Phase B have been foreseen to endeepen the analysis. The principal purpose of these investigations is to improve and to optimize the plant's safety features on a more realistic basis. Main objectives of Phase B are: - Completeness of accident event tree analysis taking into account further accident initiating events. - Identification and analyses of accident management measures which are adequate to minimize accidental risk. - improvement of the analysis on an as far as possible realistic basis, thereby taking into account recent results of safety research. The paper deals with the most important results of the plant analyses (level 1 and level 2) which have been performed within the scope of Phases B of the study

  17. Core Support to Global Development Network (GND) - Phase II ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Global Development Network (GDN) was launched by the World Bank in 1999 on the premise that good policy research, properly applied, can accelerate development and improve people's lives. Working mainly through regional networks, GDN supports economic and, increasingly, social science research in and on ...

  18. Development of the Two Phase Flow Separator Experiment for a Reduced Gravity Aircraft Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golliher, Eric; Gotti, Daniel; Owens, Jay; Gilkey, Kelly; Pham, Nang; Stehno, Philip

    2016-01-01

    The recent hardware development and testing of a reduced gravity aircraft flight experiment has provided valuable insights for the future design of the Two Phase Flow Separator Experiment (TPFSE). The TPFSE is scheduled to fly within the Fluids Integration Rack (FIR) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) in 2020. The TPFSE studies the operational limits of gas and liquid separation of passive cyclonic separators. A passive cyclonic separator utilizes only the inertia of the incoming flow to accomplish the liquid-gas separation. Efficient phase separation is critical for environmental control and life support systems, such as recovery of clean water from bioreactors, for long duration human spaceflight missions. The final low gravity aircraft flight took place in December 2015 aboard NASA's C9 airplane.

  19. Label-free imaging of developing vasculature in zebrafish with phase variance optical coherence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Fingler, Jeff; Trinh, Le A.; Fraser, Scott E.

    2016-03-01

    A phase variance optical coherence microscope (pvOCM) has been created to visualize blood flow in the vasculature of zebrafish embryos, without using exogenous labels. The pvOCM imaging system has axial and lateral resolutions of 2 μm in tissue, and imaging depth of more than 100 μm. Imaging of 2-5 days post-fertilization zebrafish embryos identified the detailed structures of somites, spinal cord, gut and notochord based on intensity contrast. Visualization of the blood flow in the aorta, veins and intersegmental vessels was achieved with phase variance contrast. The pvOCM vasculature images were confirmed with corresponding fluorescence microscopy of a zebrafish transgene that labels the vasculature with green fluorescent protein. The pvOCM images also revealed functional information of the blood flow activities that is crucial for the study of vascular development.

  20. Interstitial-phase precipitation in iron-base alloys: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelton, A.R.

    1982-06-01

    Recent developments have elucidated the atomistic mechanisms of precipitation of interstitial elements in simple alloy systems. However, in the more technologically important iron base alloys, interstitial phase precipitation is generally not well understood. The present experimental study was therefore designed to test the applicability of these concepts to more complex ferrous alloys. Hence, a comparative study was made of interstitial phase precipitation in ferritic Fe-Si-C and in austenitic phosphorus-containing Fe-Cr-Ni steels. These systems were subjected to a variety of quench-age thermal treatments, and the microstructural development was subsequently characterized by transmission electron microscopy

  1. 1 Gb Radiation Hardened Nonvolatile Memory Development, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this effort is to identify, characterize and develop advanced semiconductor materials and fabrication process techniques, and design and produce a...

  2. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Social Policy and Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This funding will enhance the Social Policy and Development Centre's (SPDC) role ... SPDC's main areas of research are poverty, inequality, governance, provincial ... and visibility at the national level, particularly in the capital city, Islamabad

  3. Compact Telescoping Array Design and Development, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has significant interest in developing solar electric propulsion technology (SEP) and has identified SEP as enabling for many of NASA's near-term and long-term...

  4. Low Mass, Aluminum NOFBX Combustion Chamber Development, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our team proposes to define a diffusion bonding process for aluminum as an enabling step to ultimately develop an innovative, lightweight, long life, aluminum...

  5. Development of the Multi-Phase/Multi-Dimensional Code BUBBLEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Yong; Kim, Shin Whan; Kim, Eun Kee

    2005-01-01

    A test version of the two-fluid program has been developed by extending the PISO algorithm. Unlike the conventional industry two-fluid codes, such as, RELAP5 and TRAC, this scheme does not need to develop a pressure matrix. Instead, it adopts the iterative procedure to implement the implicitness of the pressure. In this paper, a brief introduction to the numerical scheme will be presented. Then, its application to bubble column simulation will be described. Some concluding remarks will be followed

  6. Biomass power for rural development: Phase 2. Technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, E.

    1998-11-01

    The project undertaken by the Salix Consortium is a multi-phased, multi-partner endeavor. Phase-1 focused on initial development and testing of the technology and agreements necessary to demonstrate commercial willow production in Phase-2. The Phase-1 objectives have been successfully completed: preparing final design plans for two utility pulverized coal boilers, developing fuel supply plans for the project, obtaining power production commitments from the power companies for Phase-2, obtaining construction and environmental permits, and developing an experimental strategy for crop production and power generation improvements needed to assure commercial success. The R and D effort also addresses environmental issues pertaining to introduction of the willow energy system. Beyond those Phase-1 requirements the Consortium has already successfully demonstrated cofiring at Greenidge Station and developed the required nursery capacity for acreage scale-up. This past summer 105 acres were prepared in advance for the spring planting in 1998. Having completed the above tasks, the Consortium is well positioned to begin Phase-2. In phase-2 every aspect of willow production and power generation from willow will be demonstrated. The ultimate objective of Phase-2 is to transition the work performed under the Rural Energy for the Future project into a thriving, self-supported energy crop enterprise.

  7. New developments in simulating X-ray phase contrast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterzol, A.; Berthier, J.; Duvauchelle, P.; Babot, D.; Ferrero, C.

    2007-01-01

    A deterministic algorithm simulating phase contrast (PC) x-ray images for complex 3- dimensional (3D) objects is presented. This algorithm has been implemented in a simulation code named VXI (Virtual X-ray Imaging). The physical model chosen to account for PC technique is based on the Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction theory. The algorithm consists mainly of two parts. The first one exploits the VXI ray-tracing approach to compute the object transmission function. The second part simulates the PC image due to the wave front distortion introduced by the sample. In the first part, the use of computer-aided drawing (CAD) models enables simulations to be carried out with complex 3D objects. Differently from the VXI original version, which makes use of an object description via triangular facets, the new code requires a more 'sophisticated' object representation based on Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS). As a first step we produce a spatial high resolution image by using a point and monochromatic source and an ideal detector. To simulate the polychromatic case, the intensity image is integrated over the considered x-ray energy spectrum. Then, in order to account for the system spatial resolution properties, the high spatial resolution image (mono or polychromatic) is convolved with the total point spread function of the imaging system under consideration. The results supplied by the presented algorithm are examined with the help of some relevant examples. (authors)

  8. Design and development of a digital phase ratio meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majee, B C [Reactor Control Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Roy, S B; Meghal, A M [Uranium Extraction Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    Uranium purification at Uranium Metal Plant is being carried out using solvent extraction process. The feed is aqueous uranyl nitrate solution with 2-4% insoluble silica particles. The solvent is tri-butyl phosphate diluted with commercial grade kerosene. Extraction is conducted in a slurry extractor equipment using compressed air as mixing and solution-interstage transferring medium. To ensure the organic continuous mode in the mixer and to avoid stable emulsion formation, organic to aqueous ratio maintained in each mixer is 10 to 12 whereas optimum extraction process requires an overall organic to aqueous ratio of 2. Therefore, a high volume of internal recirculation of organic is being arranged by the air-lift in mixers. For a smooth, continuous efficient extraction, mixer organic to aqueous ratio is a very critical parameter and it is required to be monitored periodically to take corrective actions during the operation by controlling the compressed air flow rate. Trials were conducted to select a suitable method of autocontrol of this phase ratio and a system has been designed for this purpose. (author). 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Modeling and numerical study of two phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champmartin, A.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes the modelization and the simulation of two-phase systems composed of droplets moving in a gas. The two phases interact with each other and the type of model to consider directly depends on the type of simulations targeted. In the first part, the two phases are considered as fluid and are described using a mixture model with a drift relation (to be able to follow the relative velocity between the two phases and take into account two velocities), the two-phase flows are assumed at the equilibrium in temperature and pressure. This part of the manuscript consists of the derivation of the equations, writing a numerical scheme associated with this set of equations, a study of this scheme and simulations. A mathematical study of this model (hyperbolicity in a simplified framework, linear stability analysis of the system around a steady state) was conducted in a frame where the gas is assumed baro-tropic. The second part is devoted to the modelization of the effect of inelastic collisions on the particles when the time of the simulation is shorter and the droplets can no longer be seen as a fluid. We introduce a model of inelastic collisions for droplets in a spray, leading to a specific Boltzmann kernel. Then, we build caricatures of this kernel of BGK type, in which the behavior of the first moments of the solution of the Boltzmann equation (that is mass, momentum, directional temperatures, variance of the internal energy) are mimicked. The quality of these caricatures is tested numerically at the end. (author) [fr

  10. Experimental study of the Ag-Sn-In phase diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassilev, Gueorgui P.; Dobrev, Evgueni S.; Tedenac, Jean-Claude

    2005-01-01

    Combined metallographic, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray and scanning electron microscopy studies have been performed using 27 ternary alloys. The microhardness of the α(Ag), ε(Ag 3 Sn) and ζ(Ag 4 Sn,Ag 3 In) phases has been measured. The ternary extension of the phase φ(Ag x In y Sn z , where x ∼ 0.36, y ∼ 0.61, z ∼ 0.03) has been revealed in some specimens, although the binary compound (AgIn 2 ) melts at 166 deg. C. This finding is attributed to the limited cooling rate. The solubility ranges of the solid solution and the intermetallic phases have been determined. The tin and the indium show approximately equal mutual solubility (around 2 at.%) in the ternary extensions of their Ag-Sn or Ag-In phases. The experimental data have been compared with a calculated isothermal section at 280 deg. C and with a vertical section at 2.5 at.% Ag. The thermal analyses have confirmed, in general, the temperatures of the invariant reactions in the Ag-Sn-In system as calculated by literature data

  11. Microwave monolithic integrated circuit development for future spaceborne phased array antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzic, G.; Kascak, T. J.; Downey, A. N.; Liu, D. C.; Connolly, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    The development of fully monolithic gallium arsenide (GaAs) receive and transmit modules suitable for phased array antenna applications in the 30/20 gigahertz bands is presented. Specifications and various design approaches to achieve the design goals are described. Initial design and performance of submodules and associated active and passive components are presented. A tradeoff study summary is presented, highlighting the advantages of a distributed amplifier approach compared to the conventional single power source designs. Previously announced in STAR as N84-13399

  12. Microwave monolithic integrated circuit development for future spaceborne phased array antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzic, G.; Kascak, T. J.; Downey, A. N.; Liu, D. C.; Connolly, D. J.

    The development of fully monolithic gallium arsenide (GaAs) receive and transmit modules suitable for phased array antenna applications in the 30/20 gigahertz bands is presented. Specifications and various design approaches to achieve the design goals are described. Initial design and performance of submodules and associated active and passive components are presented. A tradeoff study summary is presented, highlighting the advantages of a distributed amplifier approach compared to the conventional single power source designs. Previously announced in STAR as N84-13399

  13. THE FRAME NETWORK OF INTERDISCIPLINARY STAKEHOLDER COMPOSITIONS IN THE EARLY PHASES OF NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Alexander Kjær; Nafei, Nadiim Mohamed Adel Abd El Fatta; Larsen, Michael Planck

    2017-01-01

    New Product Development (NPD) projects have continually become more complex over the years and now involve a diverse range of stakeholders, who have different disciplinary backgrounds, values, objectives, and experience. This makes them create different ‘frames’, which may represent conflicting p...... also identifies core activities and events of the framing process and propose a model describing an iterative cycle of six phases that stakeholders in New Product Development go through, which we in this article call ‘The Interdisciplinary Framing Loop’.......New Product Development (NPD) projects have continually become more complex over the years and now involve a diverse range of stakeholders, who have different disciplinary backgrounds, values, objectives, and experience. This makes them create different ‘frames’, which may represent conflicting...... in the early phases of NPD projects involving interdisciplinary stakeholders in organisational settings. The study indicates that stakeholders create isolated aspired values and working principles and from these form a ‘network’ of ‘partial frames’ before connecting them into ‘fully defined frames’. The study...

  14. Development of a new dual phase steel with laminated microstructural morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeidi, N., E-mail: navidsae@gmail.com [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 4156–83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimi, M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, 3619995161 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Toroghinejad, M.R. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 4156–83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-05-01

    The development of dual phase steels to meet the current world demands, for the purpose of decreasing the fuel consumption with increasing the strength to weight ratio, requires certain microstructural modifications. In the present research, a new morphology of DP steel, known as Laminated–DP steel, as well as its unique production method has been introduced. The new process developed involved properly selecting low carbon steels, stacking them in a laminated manner and performing a roll bonding process followed by short austenitization treatment. The martensite volume fraction was designed and obtained to be 24%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed for microstructural examination. Moreover, deformation and tensile behavior of the newly developed steel were studied and compared with those of some ordinary DP steel (ODP). Room temperature uniaxial tensile tests also revealed mechanical properties comparable with those of the commercial DP600 steel, a kind of structural automotive steel. - Highlights: • A new method for producing dual phase steels was introduced. • Employing a new thermo-mechanical process a laminated microstructure was obtained. • Mechanical properties of the new laminated DP steel were studied. • Tensile properties of the new DP steel were comparable with those of the commercial DP600 steel.

  15. Development of a gas-phase field ionization ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, G.L.; Legge, G.J.F.

    1983-01-01

    A field ionization ion source has been developed to investigate the suitability of using such a source with the Melbourne Proton Microprobe. Operating parameters have been measured, and the source has been found to be brighter than the radiofrequency ion source presently used in the Melbourne 5U Pelletron Accelerator. Improvements to the source geometry to increase the current output are planned

  16. Phased project planning and development in anticipation of operational programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, W. G.

    1973-01-01

    The impact of future operational status on the planning and execution of the research and development activities for major space flight projects is assessed. These projects, within NASA, are part of the Applications Program involving communications and meteorology. The NASA management approach to these projects is determined by national policies governing the responsibilities and relationships among the various government agencies and private industries.

  17. Development phase of corrosion program in aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    Providences adopted to implantation of corrosion program in aquatic ecosystems, developed by CDTN, NUCLEN and FURNAS are presented. The area, the atmospheric exposition station of Angra dos Reis, the marine floating, the material to test specimen and its preparation are described. (C.M.) [pt

  18. RIMISP: Core Support for Rural Development Research Phase 2 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Journal articles. Large-scale mapping of territorial development dynamics in Latin America. Download PDF. Journal articles. Cities, territories, and inclusive growth : unraveling urban-rural linkages in Chile, Colombia, and Mexico. Download PDF. Journal articles. Importance of inequality for natural resource governance ...

  19. Phases to face in national medical leadership development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijser, Wouter Alexander; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.; Poorthuis, Max Bastiaan; Tweedie, Judith; Lees, Peter; Dickson, Graham

    2017-01-01

    Increasing economic and organizational challenges call physicians in action to engage in medical leadership (ML) roles. Yet, in only six of the 195 countries the content of ML development has recently been articulated in the form of comprehensive national schemes or programs. Despite increasing

  20. A Proposed Framework of Institutional Research Development Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Anita; Taylor, John

    2011-01-01

    Globally, research has become a key driver for the achievement of status and the procurement of funding for higher education institutions. Although there is mounting pressure on institutions to become research active, many institutions are rooted in a strong tradition of teaching. These institutions find it challenging to develop research capacity…

  1. Studies in Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis: A Personal Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, A R

    2007-06-01

    By the early 1970s it had became apparent that the solid phase synthesis of ribonuclease A could not be generalized. Consequently, virtually every aspect of solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) was reexamined and improved during the decade of the 1970s. The sensitive detection and elimination of possible side reactions (amino acid insertion, N{sup {alpha}}-trifluoroacetylation, N{sup {alpha}{var_epsilon}}-alkylation) was examined. The quantitation of coupling efficiency in SPPS as a function of chain length was studied. A new and improved support for SPPS, the 'PAM-resin', was prepared and evaluated. These and many other studies from the Merrifield laboratory and elsewhere increased the general acceptance of SPPS leading to the 1984 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for Bruce Merrifield.

  2. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Greg [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibanez, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Florita, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heaney, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hodge, B. -M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hummon, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stark, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, J. [RePPAE; Lefton, S. A. [Intertek-APTECH, Houston, TX (United States); Kumar, N. [Intertek-APTECH, Houston, TX (United States); Agan, D. [Intertek-APTECH, Houston, TX (United States); Jordan, G. [GE Energy, Fairfield, CT (United States); Venkataraman, S. [GE Energy, Fairfield, CT (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The electric grid is a highly complex, interconnected machine, and changing one part of the grid can have consequences elsewhere. Adding wind and solar affects the operation of the other power plants and adding high penetrations can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions. Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) evaluated these costs and emissions and simulated grid operations for a year to investigate the detailed impact of wind and solar on the fossil-fueled fleet. This built on Phase 1, one of the largest wind and solar integration studies ever conducted, which examined operational impacts of high wind and solar penetrations in the West(GE Energy 2010).

  3. The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Hodge, B. M.; Hummon, M.; Florita, A.; Heaney, M.

    2013-09-01

    The electric grid is a highly complex, interconnected machine, and changing one part of the grid can have consequences elsewhere. Adding wind and solar affects the operation of the other power plants and adding high penetrations can induce cycling of fossil-fueled generators. Cycling leads to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions. Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) evaluated these costs and emissions and simulated grid operations for a year to investigate the detailed impact of wind and solar on the fossil-fueled fleet. This built on Phase 1, one of the largest wind and solar integration studies ever conducted, which examined operational impacts of high wind and solar penetrations in the West.

  4. Fortescue reservoir development and reservoir studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzell, S.T.; Hicks, G.J.; Horden, M.J.; Irrgang, H.R.; Janssen, E.J.; Kable, C.W.; Mitchell, R.A.H.; Morrell, N.W.; Palmer, I.D.; Seage, N.W.

    1985-03-01

    The Fortescue field in the Gippsland Basin, offshore southeastern Australia is being developed from two platforms (Fortescue A and Cobia A) by Esso Australia Ltd. (operator) and BHP Petroleum. The Fortescue reservoir is a stratigraphic trap at the top of the Latrobe Group of sediments. It overlies the western flank of the Halibut and Cobia fields and is separated from them by a non-net sequence of shales and coals which form a hydraulic barrier between the two systems. Development drilling into the Fortescue reservoir commenced in April 1983 with production coming onstream in May 1983. Fortescue, with booked reserves of 44 stock tank gigalitres (280 million stock tank barrels) of 43/sup 0/ API oil, is the seventh major oil reservoir to be developed in the offshore Gippsland Basin by Esso/BHP. In mid-1984, after drilling a total of 20 exploration and development wells, and after approximately one year of production, a detailed three-dimensional, two-phase reservoir simulation study was performed to examine the recovery efficiency, drainage patterns, pressure performance and production rate potential of the reservoir. The model was validated by history matching an extensive suite of Repeat Formation Test (RFT) pressure data. The results confirmed the reserves basis, and demonstrated that the ultimate oil recovery from the reservoir is not sensitive to production rate. This result is consistent with studies on other high quality Latrobe Group reservoirs in the Gippsland Basin which contain undersaturated crudes and receive very strong water drive from the Basin-wide aquifer system. With the development of the simulation model during the development phase, it has been possible to more accurately define the optimal well pattern for the remainder of the development.

  5. Study of large nonlinear change phase in Hibiscus Sabdariffa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo-Durán, M.; Alvarado-Méndez, E.; Andrade-Lucio, J. A.; Rojas-Laguna, R.; Vázquez-Guevara, M. A.

    2015-09-01

    High intensities electromagnetic energy interacting with organic media gives rise to nonlinear optical effects. Hibiscus Sabdariffa is a flower whose concentrated solution presents interesting nonlinear optical properties. This organic material shows an important self-phase modulation with changes bigger than 2π. We present a diffraction ring patterns study of the Hibiscus Sabdariffa solution. Numerical results of transmittance, with refraction and simultaneous absorption, are shown.

  6. The Four-Phase Model of Interest Development applied to learning to teach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Francisco Santiago Martin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a research about the development of interest in teaching. The subjects of study were students of a public University of Paraná, Brazil, who integrated the a project in initial training called PIBID in scientific areas (Biological Sciences, Physics and Chemistry. The methodological procedures were based on the discursive textual analysis, from which it was possible to organize the data according to the Four-Phases Model of Interest Development (MDI of Hidi and Renninger (2006. After analysis, it was possible to characterize the interest of these students in teaching, suggesting that this interest can be developed in students during initial training. Our data showed, moreover, that interest in teaching has two main characteristics: the desire to be a teacher and the curiosity of the students to know how is to be a teacher. In addition, it was found that the school teachers can directly influence the maintenance of student interest in following a teaching career.

  7. Study of the low pressure (Black Phase) SmS properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordier, G.

    1987-03-01

    SmS has been studied for its transition from the low pressure black phase to the high pressure intermediate valence phase; but the black phase properties seem to be very rich. The variations which pressure of the low-temperature electronic transport properties show the existence of a semi-metallic phase within the black phase domain in a pressure-temperature diagram, for a pressure above 4 kbar, which corresponds to the so-called B'phase. We study the insulating low pressure phase with a model involving acceptor like states. Using electronic paramagnetic resonance experiments we observe a square symmetry trivalent samarium ion neighbour of a sulfure defect, and magnetically coupled with the lattice. This defect exists in two nearly symmetric configurations and the resonance line broadens with temperature in an actived way. It gives rise to metastable effects yielding conductivity relaxations, analysed with stretched exponential laws, because the defect traps magnetically conduction electrons forming a bound magnetic polaron. The relaxation time at zero field is temperature actived. We develop a phenomenological model that gives the good orders of magnitude for the trapping barrier and for the critical field corresponding to the maximum of the low temperature magnetoresistance [fr

  8. Thermodynamic study of phase transitions of imidazoles and 1-methylimidazoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Ana R.R.P.; Monte, Manuel J.S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → Sublimation vapor pressures of imidazole, N-methylimidazole and four derivatives were measured. → Liquid vapor pressures were also measured for four of the compounds studied. → Vapor pressure results enabled determination of sublimation, vaporization, and fusion enthalpy. → From enthalpies of sublimation, enthalpies of intermolecular N-H...N bonds were estimated. - Abstract: The vapor pressures of imidazole, N-methylimidazole and of their dichloro and dicyano substituted compounds were measured at different temperatures, in the crystalline phase for two of them, and in crystalline and liquid phases for the other four. From these measurements, enthalpies and standard entropies of sublimation and vaporization were derived. The results allowed the determination of the triple points (p, T) coordinates of the four compounds studied in both condensed phases as well as the calculation of their enthalpy of fusion. Enthalpies and temperatures of fusion were also determined using d.s.c. The experimental results enabled the estimation of the enthalpy of the intermolecular N-H...N bonds in the imidazoles studied.

  9. Thermodynamic study of phase transitions of imidazoles and 1-methylimidazoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Ana R.R.P., E-mail: ana.figueira@fc.up.pt [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Monte, Manuel J.S., E-mail: mjmonte@fc.up.pt [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: > Sublimation vapor pressures of imidazole, N-methylimidazole and four derivatives were measured. > Liquid vapor pressures were also measured for four of the compounds studied. > Vapor pressure results enabled determination of sublimation, vaporization, and fusion enthalpy. > From enthalpies of sublimation, enthalpies of intermolecular N-H...N bonds were estimated. - Abstract: The vapor pressures of imidazole, N-methylimidazole and of their dichloro and dicyano substituted compounds were measured at different temperatures, in the crystalline phase for two of them, and in crystalline and liquid phases for the other four. From these measurements, enthalpies and standard entropies of sublimation and vaporization were derived. The results allowed the determination of the triple points (p, T) coordinates of the four compounds studied in both condensed phases as well as the calculation of their enthalpy of fusion. Enthalpies and temperatures of fusion were also determined using d.s.c. The experimental results enabled the estimation of the enthalpy of the intermolecular N-H...N bonds in the imidazoles studied.

  10. Development and implementation of UT procedures for nuclear and other applications using TRL phased array probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chardome, V.; Delaide, M.; Cermak, J.; Cruysweegs, E.; Plateau, M.

    2006-01-01

    In the past, Vincotte developed, qualified and applied various UT procedures for the automated in-service inspection of austenitic and dissimilar metal welds, using conventional ultrasonic probes. In a process of continuous improvement, Vincotte is upgrading these existing procedures by applying low frequency TRL phased array probes. This presentation situates this recent innovation within the phased array history of Vincotte. Particular attention will be paid to these newest phased array developments, in terms of probe development, angled beam generation and scanning patterns. (orig.)

  11. General-purpose heat source development. Phase I: design requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, E.C.; Zocher, R.W.

    1978-09-01

    Studies have been performed to determine the necessary design requirements for a 238 PuO 2 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS). Systems and missions applications, as well as accident conditions, were considered. The results of these studies, along with the recommended GPHS design requirements, are given in this report

  12. Uptake of novel statistical methods for early-phase clinical studies in the UK public sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaki, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, the success rate of confirmatory studies has been poor resulting in more emphasis on the conduct of exploratory studies. As one possibility to improve decision-making during the early stages of development, adaptive and Bayesian methods have been recommended. To investigate the current practice in designing early-phase studies in UK public sector research institutions and the use of adaptive and Bayesian methods in particular and to determine factors that hinder the penetration of methodological advances into practice. A questionnaire was sent to all UK clinical trials units (CTUs) to gauge their involvement in early-phase studies and to learn about the designs used in these studies. Follow-up visits to units conducting early-phase studies with round-table discussions around the methods used and the obstacles faced when using adaptive methods were undertaken. More than half of the CTUs are involved in early-phase studies, but conservatism in the methods used in these studies is present. Reasons for novel methodology not being used include a lack of expertise, incompatible funding and unit structure, and a lack of software. Information is collected from UK CTUs, which undertake a large portion (but not all) publicly funded trials. The use of adaptive and Bayesian methods for early-phase clinical studies in the UK public sector is at present limited. Various different initiatives aim to support and facilitate the use of these methods, however, so that an increased use of these methods can be anticipated in the future.

  13. Development of a Fibre-Phased Array Laser-EMAT Ultrasonic System for Defect Inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, C; Demachi, K; Koyama, K; Uesaka, M; Fukuchi, T; Chen, Z

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a phased array laser ultrasound system with using fibre optic delivery and a custom-designed focusing objective lens has been developed for enhancing the ultrasound generation. The fibre-phased array method is applied to improve the sensitivity and detecting ability of the laser-EMAT system for defect inspection

  14. Gas phase spectroscopic study of unstable molecules using FTIR technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allaf, A.W.; Alibrahim, M.; Kassem, M.

    1998-01-01

    A new route has been developed, leading to the production of phosphorus (III) oxycyanide, OPCN and phosphorus (III) oxycyanate, OPOCN by an on-line process using phosphoryl chloride, POCL 3 as a starting material passed over heated silver at 870 Centigrade and then reacted with AgCN and KOCN heated at 270 Centigrade and 590 Centigrade to produce OPCN and OPOCN respectively. The gas phase fourier transform infrared spectra reported for the first time show the two characterized bonds of OPCN and OPOCN at 2165 cm -1 and 2130 cm -1 , assigned to the C≡N stretching fundamentals of OPCN and OPOCN respectively. (Author)

  15. The Study of Birefringent Homogenous Medium with Geometric Phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Dipti

    2010-12-01

    The property of linear and circular birefringence at each point of the optical medium has been evaluated here from differential matrix N using the Jones calculus. This matrix lies on the OAM sphere for l = 1 orbital angular momentum. The geometric phase is developed by twisting the medium uniformly about the direction of propagation of the light ray. The circular birefringence of the medium, is visualized through the solid angle and the angular twist per unit thickness of the medium, k, that is equivalent to the topological charge of the optical element. (author)

  16. Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics: Theoretical Studies In Spectroscopy and Chemical Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu H. G.; Muckerman, J.T.

    2012-05-29

    The main goal of this program is the development and application of computational methods for studying chemical reaction dynamics and molecular spectroscopy in the gas phase. We are interested in developing rigorous quantum dynamics algorithms for small polyatomic systems and in implementing approximate approaches for complex ones. Particular focus is on the dynamics and kinetics of chemical reactions and on the rovibrational spectra of species involved in combustion processes. This research also explores the potential energy surfaces of these systems of interest using state-of-the-art quantum chemistry methods, and extends them to understand some important properties of materials in condensed phases and interstellar medium as well as in combustion environments.

  17. Phase 1 space fission propulsion system testing and development progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dyke, Melissa; Houts, Mike; Godfroy, Tom; Dickens, Ricky; Poston, David; Kapernick, Rick; Reid, Bob; Salvail, Pat; Ring, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Successful development of space fission systems requires an extensive program of affordable and realistic testing. In addition to tests related to design/development of the fission system, realistic testing of the actual flight unit must also be performed. If the system is designed to operate within established radiation damage and fuel burn up limits while simultaneously being designed to allow close simulation of heat from fission using resistance heaters, high confidence in fission system performance and lifetime can be attained through a series of non-nuclear tests. The Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) test series, whose ultimate goal is the demonstration of a 300 kW flight configuration system, has demonstrated that realistic testing can be performed using non-nuclear methods. This test series, carried out in collaboration with other NASA centers, other government agencies, industry, and universities, successfully completed a testing program with a 30 kWt core. Stirling engine, and ion engine configuration. Additionally, a 100 kWt core is in fabrication and appropriate test facilities are being reconfigured. This paper describes the current SAFE non-nuclear tests, which includes test article descriptions, test results and conclusions, and future test plans

  18. Computerized Operator Support System – Phase II Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrich, Thomas A.; Boring, Ronald L.; Lew, Roger T.; Thomas, Kenneth D.

    2015-02-01

    A computerized operator support system (COSS) prototype for nuclear control room process control is proposed and discussed. The COSS aids operators in addressing rapid plant upsets that would otherwise result in the shutdown of the power plant and interrupt electrical power generation, representing significant costs to the owning utility. In its current stage of development the prototype demonstrates four advanced functions operators can use to more efficiently monitor and control the plant. These advanced functions consist of: (1) a synthesized and intuitive high level overview display of system components and interrelations, (2) an enthalpy-based mathematical chemical and volume control system (CVCS) model to detect and diagnose component failures, (3) recommended strategies to mitigate component failure effects and return the plant back to pre-fault status, and (4) computer-based procedures to walk the operator through the recommended mitigation actions. The COSS was demonstrated to a group of operators and their feedback was collected. The operators responded positively to the COSS capabilities and features and indicated the system would be an effective operator aid. The operators also suggested several additional features and capabilities for the next iteration of development. Future versions of the COSS prototype will include additional plant systems, flexible computer-based procedure presentation formats, and support for simultaneous component fault diagnosis and dual fault synergistic mitigation action strategies to more efficiently arrest any plant upsets.

  19. Phase 1 Development Report for the SESSA Toolkit.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knowlton, Robert G.; Melton, Brad J; Anderson, Robert J.

    2014-09-01

    The Site Exploitation System for Situational Awareness ( SESSA ) tool kit , developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) , is a comprehensive de cision support system for crime scene data acquisition and Sensitive Site Exploitation (SSE). SESSA is an outgrowth of another SNL developed decision support system , the Building R estoration Operations Optimization Model (BROOM), a hardware/software solution for data acquisition, data management, and data analysis. SESSA was designed to meet forensic crime scene needs as defined by the DoD's Military Criminal Investigation Organiza tion (MCIO) . SESSA is a very comprehensive toolki t with a considerable amount of database information managed through a Microsoft SQL (Structured Query Language) database engine, a Geographical Information System (GIS) engine that provides comprehensive m apping capabilities, as well as a an intuitive Graphical User Interface (GUI) . An electronic sketch pad module is included. The system also has the ability to efficiently generate necessary forms for forensic crime scene investigations (e.g., evidence submittal, laboratory requests, and scene notes). SESSA allows the user to capture photos on site, and can read and generate ba rcode labels that limit transcription errors. SESSA runs on PC computers running Windows 7, but is optimized for touch - screen tablet computers running Windows for ease of use at crime scenes and on SSE deployments. A prototype system for 3 - dimensional (3 D) mapping and measur e ments was also developed to complement the SESSA software. The mapping system employs a visual/ depth sensor that captures data to create 3D visualizations of an interior space and to make distance measurements with centimeter - level a ccuracy. Output of this 3D Model Builder module provides a virtual 3D %22walk - through%22 of a crime scene. The 3D mapping system is much less expensive and easier to use than competitive systems. This document covers the basic installation and

  20. Study of 18-Pulse Rectifier Utilizing Hexagon Connected 3-Phase to 9-Phase Transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Saudi Samosir

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The 18-pulse converter, using Y or -connected differential autotransformer, is very interesting since it allows natural high power factor correction. The lowest input current harmonic components are the 17th and 19th. The Transformer is designed to feed three six-pulse bridge rectifiers displaced in phase by 200. This paper present a high power factor three-phase rectifier bases on 3-phase to 9-phase transformer and 18-pulse rectifier. The 9-phase polygon-connected transformer followed by 18-pulse diode rectifiers ensures the fundamental concept of natural power factor correction. Simulation results to verify the proposed concept are shown in this paper.

  1. Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Passenger-Vehicle Development Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    Under contract to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology, Minicars conducted Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle (NTHV) Development Program. This program led to the preliminary design of a hybrid (electric and internal combustion engine powered) vehicle and fulfilled the objectives set by JPL. JPL requested that the report address certain specific topics. A brief summary of all Phase I activities is given initially; the hybrid vehicle preliminary design is described in Sections 4, 5, and 6. Table 2 of the Summary lists performance projections for the overall vehicle and some of its subsystems. Section 4.5 gives references to the more-detailed design information found in the Preliminary Design Data Package (Appendix C). Alternative hybrid-vehicle design options are discussed in Sections 3 through 6. A listing of the tradeoff study alternatives is included in Section 3. Computer simulations are discussed in Section 9. Section 8 describes the supporting economic analyses. Reliability and safety considerations are discussed specifically in Section 7 and are mentioned in Sections 4, 5, and 6. Section 10 lists conclusions and recommendations arrived at during the performance of Phase I. A complete bibliography follows the list of references.

  2. Study of the GERDA Phase II background spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; Di Marco, N.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gooch, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hakenmüller, J.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Kish, A.; Klimenko, A.; Kneißl, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Medinaceli, E.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Palioselitis, D.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salamida, F.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Selivanenko, O.; Shevzik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2017-09-01

    The Gerda experiment, located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) of INFN in Italy, searches for the neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of 76Ge. Gerda Phase II is aiming to reach a sensitivity for the 0νββ half life of 1026 yr in ˜ 3 years of physics data taking with 100 kg·yr of exposure and a background index of ˜ 10-3 cts/(keV·kg·yr). After 6 months of acquisition a first data release with 10.8 kg·yr of exposure is performed, showing that the design background is achieved. In this work a study of the Phase II background spectrum, the main spectral structures and the background sources will be presented and discussed.

  3. General-purpose heat source development. Phase II: conceptual designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, E.C.; Zocher, R.W.; Grinberg, I.M.; Hulbert, L.E.

    1978-11-01

    Basic geometric module shapes and fuel arrays were studied to determine how well they could be expected to meet the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) design requirements. Seven conceptual designs were selected, detailed drawings produced, and these seven concepts analyzed. Three of these design concepts were selected as GPHS Trial Designs to be reanalyzed in more detail and tested. The geometric studies leading to the selection of the seven conceptual designs, the analyses of these designs, and the selection of the three trial designs are discussed

  4. Turbine blade and vane heat flux sensor development, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, W. H.; Cyr, M. A.; Strange, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    The development of heat flux sensors for gas turbine blades and vanes and the demonstration of heat transfer measurement methods are reported. The performance of the heat flux sensors was evaluated in a cylinder in cross flow experiment and compared with two other heat flux measurement methods, the slug calorimeter and a dynamic method based on fluctuating gas and surface temperature. Two cylinders, each instrumented with an embedded thermocouple sensor, a Gardon gauge, and a slug calorimeter, were fabricated. Each sensor type was calibrated using a quartz lamp bank facility. The instrumented cylinders were then tested in an atmospheric pressure combustor rig at conditions up to gas stream temperatures of 1700K and velocities to Mach 0.74. The test data are compared to other measurements and analytical prediction.

  5. Phase 1 Development Testing of the Advanced Manufacturing Demonstrator Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Nicholas L.; Eddleman, David E.; Calvert, Marty R.; Bullard, David B.; Martin, Michael A.; Wall, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    The Additive Manufacturing Development Breadboard Engine (BBE) is a pressure-fed liquid oxygen/pump-fed liquid hydrogen (LOX/LH2) expander cycle engine that was built and operated by NASA at Marshall Space Flight Center's East Test Area. The breadboard engine was conceived as a technology demonstrator for the additive manufacturing technologies for an advanced upper stage prototype engine. The components tested on the breadboard engine included an ablative chamber, injector, main fuel valve, turbine bypass valve, a main oxidizer valve, a mixer and the fuel turbopump. All parts minus the ablative chamber were additively manufactured. The BBE was successfully hot fire tested seven times. Data collected from the test series will be used for follow on demonstration tests with a liquid oxygen turbopump and a regeneratively cooled chamber and nozzle.

  6. Insulating Coating Development for Vanadium Alloys. Phase I Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunda, N.; Sastri, S.; Jayaraman, M.; Karandikar, P.

    2000-01-01

    Self-cooled liquid-lithium/vanadium blanket offers many advantages for fusion power systems. Liquid metals moving through a magnetic field are subjected to magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects that can increase the pressure drop and affect the flow profiles and heat transfer. Insulating coatings are required to eliminate this effect. Based on the thermodynamic stability data five different coatings were selected PVD and CVD processes were developed to deposit these coatings. All coatings have resistivities much higher than the minimum required. Liquid lithium testing at Argonne National Laboratory indicates that one of the coatings showed only partial spalling. Thus, further refinement of this coating has significant potential to satisfy the requirements for Li/V blanket technology

  7. Biomass power for rural development. Technical progress report, Phase 2, July 1--September 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, E.

    1999-01-01

    The project undertaken by the Salix Consortium is a multi-phased, multi-partner endeavor. Phase 1 focused on initial development and testing of the technology and forging the necessary agreements to demonstrate commercial willow production. The Phase 1 objectives have been successfully completed: preparing final design plans for two utility pulverized coal boiler for 20 MW of biopower capacity; developing fuel supply plans for the project with a goal of establishing 365 ha (900 ac) of willow; obtaining power production commitments from the power companies for Phase 2; obtaining construction and environmental permits; and developing an experimental strategy for crop production and power generation improvements needed to assure commercial success. The R and D effort also addresses environmental issues pertaining to introduction of the willow energy system. Beyond those Phase 1 requirements, the Consortium has already successfully demonstrated cofiring at Greenidge Station and has initiated development of the required nursery capacity for acreage scale-up. In Phase 2 every aspect of willow production and power generation from willow biomass will be demonstrated. The ultimate objective of Phase 2 is to transition the work performed under the Biomass Power for Rural Development project into a thriving, self-supported energy crop enterprise.

  8. New numerical method to study phase transitions and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jooyoung; Kosterlitz, J.M.

    1991-11-01

    We present a powerful method of identifying the nature of transitions by numerical simulation of finite systems. By studying the finite size scaling properties of free energy barrier between competing states, we can identify unambiguously a weak first order transition even when accessible system sizes are L/ξ < 0.05 as in the five state Potts model in two dimensions. When studying a continuous phase transition we obtain quite accurate estimates of critical exponents by treating it as a field driven first order transition. The method has been successfully applied to various systems

  9. Main results of the German risk study - phase B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuser, F.W.

    1987-01-01

    To start the author introduces briefly some comments on main tasks and objectives of risk analysises which at least after the Chernobyl accident should be emphasized more explicitly. Following on some main results of the system - and accident event tree analysis of the German Risk Study, Phase B, are summarized. The second part of this paper deals with the analysis of core melt accidents performed in context of the study. Hetero investigations on the hydrogen problem and investigations on containment venting after a core melt accident will be discussed in more detail

  10. Development of Zinc/Bromine Batteries for Load-Leveling Applications: Phase 2 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CLARK,NANCY H.; EIDLER,PHILLIP

    1999-10-01

    This report documents Phase 2 of a project to design, develop, and test a zinc/bromine battery technology for use in utility energy storage applications. The project was co-funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Power Technologies through Sandia National Laboratories. The viability of the zinc/bromine technology was demonstrated in Phase 1. In Phase 2, the technology developed during Phase 1 was scaled up to a size appropriate for the application. Batteries were increased in size from 8-cell, 1170-cm{sup 2} cell stacks (Phase 1) to 8- and then 60-cell, 2500-cm{sup 2} cell stacks in this phase. The 2500-cm{sup 2} series battery stacks were developed as the building block for large utility battery systems. Core technology research on electrolyte and separator materials and on manufacturing techniques, which began in Phase 1, continued to be investigated during Phase 2. Finally, the end product of this project was a 100-kWh prototype battery system to be installed and tested at an electric utility.

  11. Development of an Enhanced Two-Phase Production System at the Geysers Geothermal Field; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steven Enedy

    2001-01-01

    A method was developed to enhance geothermal steam production from two-phase wells at THE Geysers Geothermal Field. The beneficial result was increased geothermal production that was easily and economically delivered to the power plant

  12. Development of Diamond Vacuum Differential Amplifier for Harsh Environment Power Electronics, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this proposed Phase II, Scientic and Vanderbilt University will develop a novel vacuum field emission differential amplifier (VFEDA) using low electron affinity...

  13. Development of portable phased array UT system for real-time flaw imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, M.

    1995-01-01

    Many functions and features of phased array UT technology must be useful for NDE in the industrial field. Some phased array UT systems have been developed for the inspection of nuclear pressure vessel and turbine components. However, phased array UT is still a special NDE technique and it has not been used widely in the past. The reasons of that are system size, cost, operator performance, equipment design and others. TOSHIBA has newly developed PC controlled portable phased array system to solve those problems. The portable phased array UT system is very compact and light but it is able to drive up to 32-channel linear array probe, to display real-time linear/sector B-scan, to display accumulated B-scan with an encoder and to display profile overlaid B-scan. The first applications were turbine component inspections for precise flaw investigation and flaw image data recording

  14. Correlation between auroral activity and rate of development of a storm in its main phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boroyev R.N.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between the rate of storm development in its main phase (|ΔDst|/ΔT and the average value (ΣAE/ΔT of AE index for the main phase where |ΔDst| is the Dst-index variation, ΣAE is the total value of AE index for the main phase of magnetic storm, ΔT is the main phase duration. We considered storms initiated by corotating interaction region (CIR and interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME (magnetic cloud and ejecta. For CIR events, the value of ΣAE/ΔT is shown to correlate with the rate of storm development in its main phase in contrast to the storms initiated by the ICME. As found, there is a weak correlation between ΣAE/ΔT and the minimum value of Dst index for CIR and ICME events.

  15. Phase equilibrium engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brignole, Esteban Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, the teaching of phase equilibria emphasizes the relationships between the thermodynamic variables of each phase in equilibrium rather than its engineering applications. This book changes the focus from the use of thermodynamics relationships to compute phase equilibria to the design and control of the phase conditions that a process needs. Phase Equilibrium Engineering presents a systematic study and application of phase equilibrium tools to the development of chemical processes. The thermodynamic modeling of mixtures for process development, synthesis, simulation, design and

  16. Development of a two-phase SPH model for sediment laden flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huabin; Yu, Xiping; Dalrymple, Robert A.

    2017-12-01

    A SPH model based on a general formulation for solid-fluid two-phase flows is proposed for suspended sediment motion in free surface flows. The water and the sediment are treated as two miscible fluids, and the multi-fluid system is discretized by a single set of SPH particles, which move with the water velocity and carry properties of the two phases. Large eddy simulation (LES) is introduced to deal with the turbulence effect, and the widely used Smagorinsky model is modified to take into account the influence of sediment particles on the turbulence. The drag force is accurately formulated by including the hindered settling effect. In the model, the water is assumed to be weakly compressible while the sediment is incompressible, and a new equation of state is proposed for the pressure in the sediment-water mixture. Dynamic boundary condition is employed to treat wall boundaries, and a new strategy of Shepard filtering is adopted to damp the pressure oscillation. The developed two-phase SPH model is validated by comparing the numerical results with analytical solutions for idealized cases of still water containing both neutrally buoyant and naturally settling sand and for plane Poiseuille flows carrying neutrally buoyant particles, and is then applied to sand dumping from a line source into a water tank, where the sand cloud settles with a response of the free water surface. It is shown that the numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental data as well as the empirical formulas. The characteristics of the settling sand cloud, the pressure field, and the flow vortices are studied. The motion of the free water surface is also discussed. The proposed two-phase SPH model is proven to be effective for numerical simulation of sand dumping into waters.

  17. TWRS privatization phase 1 monitoring wells engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, B.A.; Newcomer, D.R.

    1998-04-01

    This engineering study provides an evaluation of existing wells and boreholes (wells) within the proposed location for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Privatization Phase 1 demonstration site. Phase 1 is part of the TWRS program that was established to manage, retrieve, treat, immobilize, and dispose of high-level waste stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site. This evaluation is to determine which wells will remain active within the demonstration site based on regulatory, programmatic, or other beneficial use requirements. An initial evaluation of wells within the demonstration site was conducted in 1996. However, changes in construction plans and expansion of the demonstration site necessitated a reevaluation and reclassification of the wells that are within the expanded site. Impacted wells include many of those previously evaluated as well as additional wells identified in or near the expansion areas. Thirty-three wells exist within and immediately adjacent to the identified boundary of the proposed demonstration site. The wells identified for decommissioning will be abandoned according to the well decommissioning plan. Future well requirements within the site include replacement wells for those wells impacted by construction activities, replacements for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) wells going dry, and a new characterization well installed to support a TWRS Phase 2 site assessment

  18. Analytical study of solids-gas two phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosaka, Minoru

    1977-01-01

    Fundamental studies were made on the hydrodynamics of solids-gas two-phase suspension flow, in which very small solid particles are mixed in a gas flow to enhance the heat transfer characteristics of gas cooled high temperature reactors. Especially, the pressure drop due to friction and the density distribution of solid particles are theoretically analyzed. The friction pressure drop of two-phase flow was analyzed based on the analytical result of the single-phase friction pressure drop. The calculated values of solid/gas friction factor as a function of solid/gas mass loading are compared with experimental results. Comparisons are made for Various combinations of Reynolds number and particle size. As for the particle density distribution, some factors affecting the non-uniformity of distribution were considered. The minimum of energy dispersion was obtained with the variational principle. The suspension density of particles was obtained as a function of relative distance from wall and was compared with experimental results. It is concluded that the distribution is much affected by the particle size and that the smaller particles are apt to gather near the wall. (Aoki, K.)

  19. Study of Sigma Phase in Duplex SAF 2507

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellicia, D. M.; Sutarsis; Kurniawan, B. A.; Wulanari, D.; Purniawan, A.; Wibisono, A. T.

    2017-05-01

    Super duplex stainless steel is one of the stainless steel which has a combination between high strength properties and excellent corrosion resistance. However, the resistance can decrease by precipitation of sigma phase which is formed at high temperature, for example after welding processes. A series of experiments has been performed to study the effect of solution annealing to existence of sigma phase on super duplex SAF 2507. Variations of solution-annealing temperatures were 1000 °C, 1065 °C and 1125 °C with holding time of 15 and 30 minutes for each temperature. Effect of solution annealing process was characterized by using XRD, SEM, and Optical Microscopy. The result showed precipitation of sigma phase completely dissolved at 1065 °C and 1125 °C because it reformed to austenite. After it was heated at 1065 °C, chromium carbide appeared in ferrite site and grain boundary. The amount of chromium carbide increased with the increasing of solution annealing temperature.

  20. Ghana Journal of Development Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana Journal of Development Studies (GJDS) is a multi-, trans- and an ... The Political Economy of Decentralisation and the Challenge of Improved Service Delivery ... Tax Collection in Northern Ghana during British Colonail Rule (1898 – 1950) ... District of South Africa · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  1. Research and development on next generation reactor (phase I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Kyoon; Chang, Moon Heuy; Hwang, Yung Dong

    1994-10-01

    The objective of the study is to improve the volume of nuclear power plant which adopts passive safety system concept. The passive safety system reactor is characterized by excellent safety and reliability. But the volume of NSSS (Nuclear Steam Supply System) of the passive safety system reactor is so small that it should be upgraded for commercial operation. For volume upgrade, detailed analyses are performed as follows; core design, hydraulics, design and mechnical structures, and safety analysis. In addition to above analysis, some investigations must be supplied as follows: power density vs. DNB margin decrease, outlet temperature vs. EPRI-URD, additional tests for upgraded reactor, dynamic analysis of mechanical vibration according to expanded reactor vessel and expanded in-core structures, and Merit loss of passive safety system reactor according to design margin decrease. (Author)

  2. Research and development on next generation reactor (phase I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Kyoon; Chang, Moon Heuy; Hwang, Yung Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); and others

    1994-10-01

    The objective of the study is to improve the volume of nuclear power plant which adopts passive safety system concept. The passive safety system reactor is characterized by excellent safety and reliability. But the volume of NSSS (Nuclear Steam Supply System) of the passive safety system reactor is so small that it should be upgraded for commercial operation. For volume upgrade, detailed analyses are performed as follows; core design, hydraulics, design and mechnical structures, and safety analysis. In addition to above analysis, some investigations must be supplied as follows: power density vs. DNB margin decrease, outlet temperature vs. EPRI-URD, additional tests for upgraded reactor, dynamic analysis of mechanical vibration according to expanded reactor vessel and expanded in-core structures, and Merit loss of passive safety system reactor according to design margin decrease. (Author).

  3. Phase equilibria and molecular interaction studies on (naphthols + vanillin) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Preeti; Agrawal, Tanvi; Das, Shiva Saran; Singh, Nakshatra Bahadur

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Phase equilibria of (naphthol + vanillin) systems have been studied for the first time. ► Eutectic type phase diagrams are obtained. ► Eutectic mixtures show nonideal behaviour. ► There is a weak molecular interaction between the components in the eutectic mixtures. ► α-Naphthol–vanillin eutectic is more stable as compared to β-naphthol–vanillin. - Abstract: Phase equilibria between (α-naphthol + vanillin) and (β-naphthol + vanillin) systems have been studied by thaw-melt method and the results show the formation of simple eutectic mixtures. Crystallization velocities of components and eutectic mixtures were determined at different stages under cooling. With the help of differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), the enthalpy of fusion of components and eutectic mixtures was determined and from the values excess thermodynamic functions viz., excess Gibbs free energy (G E ), excess entropy (S E ), excess enthalpy (H E ) of hypo-, hyper- and eutectic mixtures were calculated. Flexural strength measurements were made in order to understand the non-ideal nature of eutectics. FT-IR spectral studies indicate the formation of hydrogen bond in the eutectic mixture. Anisotropic and isotropic microstructural studies of components, hypo-, hyper- and eutectic mixtures were made. Jackson’s roughness parameter was calculated and found to be greater than 2 suggesting the faceted morphology with irregular structures. The overall results have shown that there is a weak molecular interaction between the components in the eutectic mixtures and the (α-naphthol + vanillin) eutectic is more stable as compared to the (β-naphthol + vanillin) eutectic system.

  4. Development of Sodium Two Phase Flow Model for Kalimer Core Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, W.P.; Hahn, Dohee

    2002-01-01

    An algorithm for sodium boiling is developed in order to extend the applicability of SSC-K, which is a main system analysis code for the KALIMER (Korea Advanced LIquid Metal Reactor) conceptual design. As the capability of the current SSC-K version is limited to simulation of only a single-phase sodium flow, its applicable range should not be enough to assess the fuel integrity under some of HCDA (Hypothetical Core Disruptive Accident) initiating events where sodium boiling is anticipated. The two-phase flow model similar to that used for the light water system is known to be no more effective directly to liquid metal reactors, because the phenomena observed between two reactor coolant systems are definitely different. The developing algorithm is based on a multiple-bubble slug ejection model, which allows a finite number of bubbles in a channel at any time. The present work is a continuous effort following the former study to confirm a qualitative acceptance on the model. Since the model has been applied only to the active fuel region in the former study, a part of its qualification seems to have already been demonstrated. For its application to the whole KALIMER core channel, however, the model needs to be examined the applicability to the fuel regions other than the active fuel. The present study primarily focuses on that point. In a result, although the model may be improved in a sense through the present study over the previous modeling, a clear limitation is also confirmed with the validity of the model. The further development, therefore, is required for this model to achieve its goal by resolving such limitations. (authors)

  5. New methodology developed for the differential scanning calorimetry analysis of polymeric matrixes incorporating phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreneche, Camila; Solé, Aran; Miró, Laia; Martorell, Ingrid; Cabeza, Luisa F; Fernández, A Inés

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, thermal comfort needs in buildings have led to an increase in energy consumption of the residential and service sectors. For this reason, thermal energy storage is shown as an alternative to achieve reduction of this high consumption. Phase change materials (PCM) have been studied to store energy due to their high storage capacity. A polymeric material capable of macroencapsulating PCM was developed by the authors of this paper. However, difficulties were found while measuring the thermal properties of these materials by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The polymeric matrix interferes in the detection of PCM properties by DSC. To remove this interfering effect, a new methodology which replaces the conventional empty crucible used as a reference in the DSC analysis by crucibles composed of the polymeric matrix was developed. Thus, a clear signal from the PCM is obtained by subtracting the new full crucible signal from the sample signal. (paper)

  6. Understanding the Conceptual Development Phase of Applied Theory-Building Research: A Grounded Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storberg-Walker, Julia

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a provisional grounded theory of conceptual development for applied theory-building research. The theory described here extends the understanding of the components of conceptual development and provides generalized relations among the components. The conceptual development phase of theory-building research has been widely…

  7. Front Range Forest Health Partnership Phase 1 feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkin, P

    1998-09-01

    The Front Range Forest Health Partnership is an alliance of individuals, citizen groups, federal, state, private, and nonprofit organizations that formed to promote forest health restoration and reduce fire risks on Colorado's Front Range. The partnership promotes selective thinning to restore forest health and supports economically feasible end uses for wood waste materials. The Phase I study was initiated to determine the environmental and economic feasibility of using wood wastes from forested and urban areas for the production of fuel-grade ethanol.

  8. ATCA - thermal management study for the ATLAS phase II upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Bortolin, Claudio; Kalinowski, Michal; Koziol, Piotr; Mendez, Julian; Walerianczyk, Jan; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2017-01-01

    The AdvancedTCA (ATCA) telecom industry standard has been selected as the hardware platform for the “Phase-II Upgrade” of ATLAS at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. In November 2014 a project dedicated to the study of the impact of the ATCA integration in the actual counting rooms was launched analysing the impact on the cooling infrastructures. A spare rack equipped with two ATCA shelves, high power dissipating load blades, temperature and air velocity sensors were installed in a lab. Vertical and horizontal cooling performance were checked and some crtitical aspects identified.

  9. A study of critical two-phase flow models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siikonen, T.

    1982-01-01

    The existing computer codes use different boundary conditions in the calculation of critical two-phase flow. In the present study these boundary conditions are compared. It is shown that the boundary condition should be determined from the hydraulic model used in the computer code. The use of a correlation, which is not based on the hydraulic model used, leads often to bad results. Usually a good agreement with data is obtained in the calculation as far as the critical mass flux is concerned, but the agreement is not so good in the pressure profiles. The reason is suggested to be mainly in inadequate modeling of non-equilibrium effects. (orig.)

  10. ATCA - thermal management study for the ATLAS phase II upgrades

    OpenAIRE

    Bortolin, Claudio; Dyngosz, Damian; Kalinowski, Michal; Koziol, Piotr; Mendez, Julian; Walerianczyk, Jan; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2017-01-01

    The AdvancedTCA (ATCA) telecom industry standard has been selected as the hardware platform for the “Phase-II Upgrade” of ATLAS at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. In November 2014 a project dedicated to the study of the impact of the ATCA integration in the actual counting rooms was launched analysing the impact on the cooling infrastructures. A spare rack equipped with two ATCA shelves, high power dissipating load blades, temperature and air velocity sensors were installed in a lab....

  11. Impact of improved technology on industrial greenhouse-gas emissions in developing countries. Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    In response to a formal request by the Group of 77 and China, the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) initiated a study to identify opportunities to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases from energy-intensive industries in developing countries. These sectors currently include iron and steel, petroleum refining, cement, paper and pulp and nitrogen fertilizers. The aim of this first phase was to describe: how energy is used in the energy-intensive industries in developing countries today; what current trends indicate for the future; the potential contribution of improved technologies and practices to moving toward more sustainable industrial production in developing countries, and to provide developing countries with an analytical tool for evaluating opportunities to limit industrial greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions in their industrial sectors through the transfer of improved technologies and processes. The immediate objectives of Phase 1 were twofold: to provide information to developing countries in the form of an inventory of energy-efficient, best-available technologies and processes that can be used to abate greenhouse-gas emissions in the most energy-intensive industrial sub-sectors as well as cross-cutting measures applicable in a range of sub-sectors, and; to provide an analytical methodology in the form of a software tool that enables the user to evaluate and compare the costs, energy requirements, and greenhouse-gas emissions associated with scenarios of specific technology and process options. To meet these objectives, the first phase of the study comprised: a Report entitled Industrial Greenhouse-gas Emissions from Developing Countries; a Software Package containing, an Industrial Technology Inventory, and an Analysis Tool, and; Industry/country-specific Case Studies. The Report describes current energy use and greenhouse-gas emissions in energy-intensive industries in developing countries, and similar industries exemplifying good

  12. Centralised, decentralised or hybrid sanitation systems? Economic evaluation under urban development uncertainty and phased expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roefs, Ivar; Meulman, Brendo; Vreeburg, Jan H G; Spiller, Marc

    2017-02-01

    Sanitation systems are built to be robust, that is, they are dimensioned to cope with population growth and other variability that occurs throughout their lifetime. It was recently shown that building sanitation systems in phases is more cost effective than one robust design. This phasing can take place by building small autonomous decentralised units that operate closer to the actual demand. Research has shown that variability and uncertainty in urban development does affect the cost effectiveness of this approach. Previous studies do not, however, consider the entire sanitation system from collection to treatment. The aim of this study is to assess the economic performance of three sanitation systems with different scales and systems characteristics under a variety of urban development pathways. Three systems are studied: (I) a centralised conventional activated sludge treatment, (II) a community on site source separation grey water and black water treatment and (III) a hybrid with grey water treatment at neighbourhood scale and black water treatment off site. A modelling approach is taken that combines a simulation of greenfield urban growth, a model of the wastewater collection and treatment infrastructure design properties and a model that translates design parameters into discounted asset lifetime costs. Monte Carlo simulations are used to evaluate the economic performance under uncertain development trends. Results show that the conventional system outperforms both of the other systems when total discounted lifetime costs are assessed, because it benefits from economies of scale. However, when population growth is lower than expected, the source-separated system is more cost effective, because of reduced idle capacity. The hybrid system is not competitive under any circumstance due to the costly double piping and treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of an Efficient Meso- scale Multi-phase Flow Solver in Nuclear Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Taehun [City Univ. (CUNY), NY (United States)

    2015-10-20

    The proposed research aims at formulating a predictive high-order Lattice Boltzmann Equation for multi-phase flows relevant to nuclear energy related application - namely, saturated and sub-cooled boiling in reactors, and liquid- liquid mixing and extraction for fuel cycle separation. An efficient flow solver will be developed based on the Finite Element based Lattice Boltzmann Method (FE- LBM), accounting for phase-change heat transfer and capable of treating multiple phases over length scales from the submicron to the meter. A thermal LBM will be developed in order to handle adjustable Prandtl number, arbitrary specific heat ratio, a wide range of temperature variations, better numerical stability during liquid-vapor phase change, and full thermo-hydrodynamic consistency. Two-phase FE-LBM will be extended to liquid–liquid–gas multi-phase flows for application to high-fidelity simulations building up from the meso-scale up to the equipment sub-component scale. While several relevant applications exist, the initial applications for demonstration of the efficient methods to be developed as part of this project include numerical investigations of Critical Heat Flux (CHF) phenomena in nuclear reactor fuel bundles, and liquid-liquid mixing and interfacial area generation for liquid-liquid separations. In addition, targeted experiments will be conducted for validation of this advanced multi-phase model.

  14. Principal Experiences with Crisis Management Professional Development, Collaboration, and Implementation of the National Incident Management System Phases of Emergency Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naradko, Anthony M.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative single-subject case study was to identify the elements critical to crisis management professional development for school principals; the factors influencing the implementation of the National Incident Management System Phases of Emergency Management (2010) for principals; and the necessary elements for fostering…

  15. Collaborative development of the EPICS Qt framework Phase I Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayssat, Robert E. [Lyncean Technologies, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2015-01-15

    At Lyncean, a private company spun-off from technology developed at the SLAC National Lab, we have been using EPICS for over a decade. EPICS is ubiquitous on our flagship product – the Compact Light Source. EPICS is not only used to control our laser and accelerator systems, but also to control our x-ray beamlines. The goal of this SBIR is for Lyncean Technologies to spearhead a worldwide collaborative effort for the development of control system tools for EPICS using the Qt framework, a C++-based coding environment that could serve as a competitive alternative to the Java-based Control System Studio (CSS). This grant's Phase I, not unlike a feasibility study, is designed for planning and scoping the preparatory work needed for Phase II or other funding opportunities. The three main objectives of this Phase I are (1) to become better acquainted with the existing EPICS Qt software and Qt framework in order to evaluate the best options for ongoing development, (2) to demonstrate that our engineers can lead the EPICS community and jump-start the Qt collaboration, and (3) to identify a scope for our future work with solicited feedback from the EPICS community. This Phase I report includes key technical findings. It clarifies the differences between the two apparently-competing EPICS Qt implementations, caQtDM and the QE Framework; it explains how to create python-bindings, and compares Qt graphical libraries. But this report is also a personal story that narrates the birth of a collaboration. Starting a collaboration is not the work of a single individual, but the work of many. Therefore this report is also an attempt to publicly give credit to many who supported the effort. The main take-away from this grant is the successful birth of an EPICS Qt collaboration, seeded with existing software from the PSI and the Australian Synchrotron. But a lot more needs to be done for the collaboration founders' vision to be realized, and for the collaboration to reach

  16. Development of titanium based biocomposite by powder metallurgy processing with in situ forming of Ca-P phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karanjai, Malobika [International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials, Balapur P.O., Hyderabad 500005, Andhra Pradesh (India)]. E-mail: malobika@arci.res.in; Sundaresan, Ranganathan [International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials, Balapur P.O., Hyderabad 500005, Andhra Pradesh (India); Rao, Gummididala Venkata Narasimha [International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials, Balapur P.O., Hyderabad 500005, Andhra Pradesh (India); Mohan, Tallapragada Raja Rama [Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Powai, Mumbai 400076, Maharashtra (India); Kashyap, Bhagwati Prasad [Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Powai, Mumbai 400076, Maharashtra (India)

    2007-02-25

    Composites of titanium and calcium-phosphorus phases were developed by powder metallurgy processing and evaluated for bioactivity. Titanium hydride powder and precursors of calcium and phosphorus in the form of calcium carbonate and di-ammonium hydrogen orthophosphate were mixed in different proportions, compacted and calcined in different atmospheres. The calcined compacts were subsequently crushed, recompacted and sintered in vacuum. In situ formation of bioactive phases like hydroxylapatite, tricalcium phosphate and calcium titanate during the calcination and sintering steps was studied using X-ray diffraction. The effect of calcination atmosphere on density, interconnected porosity, phase composition and modulus of rupture of sintered composites was examined. The sintered composites were immersed in simulated body fluid for 7 days to observe their in vitro behaviour with XRD and FTIR spectroscopic identification of deposits. Composites with 10 wt% precursors sintered from vacuum calcined powder gave the best results in terms of bioactive phases, density and strength.

  17. Application of dual-anneal diffusion multiples to the effective study of phase diagrams and phase transformations in the Fe–Cr–Ni system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Siwei; Zhao, Ji-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    A dual-anneal diffusion multiple (DADM) approach is developed for effective determination of intermediate-temperature phase diagrams that are critical to the establishment of reliable thermodynamic databases. A large amount of phase equilibrium data was obtained from DADMs to construct the Fe–Cr–Ni isothermal sections at 1200, 900, 800 and 700 °C. The DADM approach is also a systematic and effective way to study phase precipitation from wide ranges of compositions, thus generating rich atlases of microstructures induced by various transformations. The results from this study indicate that the body-centered cubic to sigma phase transformation in the Fe–Cr–Ni system took place initially through a massive transformation mechanism

  18. Mercury Phase II Study - Mercury Behavior in Salt Processing Flowsheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, V.; Shah, H.; Wilmarth, W. R.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) in the Savannah River Site Liquid Waste System (LWS) originated from decades of canyon processing where it was used as a catalyst for dissolving the aluminum cladding of reactor fuel. Approximately 60 metric tons of mercury is currently present throughout the LWS. Mercury has long been a consideration in the LWS, from both hazard and processing perspectives. In February 2015, a Mercury Program Team was established at the request of the Department of Energy to develop a comprehensive action plan for long-term management and removal of mercury. Evaluation was focused in two Phases. Phase I activities assessed the Liquid Waste inventory and chemical processing behavior using a system-by-system review methodology, and determined the speciation of the different mercury forms (Hg+, Hg++, elemental Hg, organomercury, and soluble versus insoluble mercury) within the LWS. Phase II activities are building on the Phase I activities, and results of the LWS flowsheet evaluations will be summarized in three reports: Mercury Behavior in the Salt Processing Flowsheet (i.e. this report); Mercury Behavior in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Flowsheet; and Mercury behavior in the Tank Farm Flowsheet (Evaporator Operations). The evaluation of the mercury behavior in the salt processing flowsheet indicates, inter alia, the following: (1) In the assembled Salt Batches 7, 8 and 9 in Tank 21, the total mercury is mostly soluble with methylmercury (MHg) contributing over 50% of the total mercury. Based on the analyses of samples from 2H Evaporator feed and drop tanks (Tanks 38/43), the source of MHg in Salt Batches 7, 8 and 9 can be attributed to the 2H evaporator concentrate used in assembling the salt batches. The 2H Evaporator is used to evaporate DWPF recycle water. (2) Comparison of data between Tank 21/49, Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), and Tank 50 samples suggests that the total mercury as well as speciated

  19. Study on an innovative fast reactor utilizing hydride neutron absorber - Final report of phase I study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konashi, K.; Iwasaki, T.; Itoh, K.; Hirai, M.; Sato, J.; Kurosaki, K.; Suzuki, A.; Matsumura, Y.; Abe, S.

    2010-01-01

    These days, the demand to use nuclear resources efficiently is growing for long-term energy supply and also for solving the green house problem. It is indispensable to develop technologies to reduce environmental load with the nuclear energy supply for sustainable development of human beings. In this regard, the development of the fast breeder reactor (FBR) is preferable to utilize nuclear resources effectively and also to burn minor actinides which possess very long toxicity for more than thousands years if they are not extinguished. As one of the FBR developing works in Japan this phase I study started in 2006 to introduce hafnium (Hf) hydride and Gadolinium-Zirconium (Gd-Zr) hydride as new control materials in FBR. By adopting them, the FBR core control technology is improved by two ways. One is extension of control rod life time by using long life Hf hydride which leads to reduce the fabrication and disposal cost and the other is reduction of the excess reactivity by adopting Gd-Zr hydride which leads to reduce the number of control rods and simplifies the core upper structure. This three year study was successfully completed and the following results were obtained. The core design was performed to examine the applicability of the Hf hydride absorber to Japanese Sodium Fast Reactor (JSFR) and it is clarified that the control rod life time can be prolonged to 6 years by adopting Hf hydride and the excess reactivity of the beginning of the core cycle can be reduced to half and the number of the control rods is also reduced to half by using the Gd-Zr hydride burnable poison. The safety analyses also certified that the core safety can be maintained with the same reliability of JSFR Hf hydride and Gd-Zr hydride pellets were fabricated in good manner and their basic features for design use were measured by using the latest devices such as SEM-EDX. In order to reduce the hydrogen transfer through the stainless steel cladding a new technique which shares calorizing

  20. Mission Analysis for the Don Quijote Phase-A Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Juan L.; Sanchez, Mariano; Cornara, Stefania; Carnelli, Ian

    2007-01-01

    The Don Quijote Phase-A study is a definition study funded by ESA and devoted to the analysis of the possibilities to deflect a Near Earth Object (NEO) in the range of 300-800 m diameter. DEIMOS Space S.L. and EADS Astrium have teamed up within this study to form one of the three consortia that have analyzed these aspects for ESA. Target asteroids for the mission are 1989 ML, 2002 AT4 and Apophis. This paper presents the mission analysis activities within the consortium providing: low-thrust interplanetary rendezvous Orbiter trajectories to the target asteroids, ballistic interplanetary trajectories for the Impactor, Orbiter arrival description at the asteroids, Orbiter stable orbits characterization at the asteroid, deflection determination by means of a Radio Science Experiment (RSE) as well as the mission timelines and overall mission scenarios.

  1. A Phase 1 biodistribution study of p-boronophenylalanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coderre, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of the Phase I BPA biodistribution study are as follows: Objective 1: To establish the safety of orally administered boronophenylalanine (BPA) as determined by monitoring of patient's vital signs and by clinical analysis of blood before and after BPA administration. Objective 2: To establish BPA pharmacokinetics by monitoring the rates of boron absorption into and clearance from the blood and the rate of urinary excretion of boron. Objective 3: To measure the amount of boron incorporated into human tumors (melanoma, glioma, and breast carcinoma) using samples obtained at surgery or biopsy. This report presents the results obtained from the first thirteen patients entered into the study. Three additional glioblastoma patients have been studied recently at Stony Brook, the tissues are still being analyzed

  2. Development of Phase Lock Loop System for Synchronisation of a Hybrid System with the Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Abubakar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phase locked loop (PLL is an important part of the control unit of the grid connected power converter. The method of zero crossing detection (ZCD does not produce accurate phase information when grid is non-ideal. In this work, a synchronous reference frame (SRF PLL method to obtain accurate phase information when the grid voltages are unbalanced is proposed. The performances of the PLL have been verified for ideal and abnormal grid conditions such as unbalance, voltage sag, faults condition etc. Based on the results obtained, the developed PLL gives better fault ride when unbalances in the three phase input signals are overall handled well by the PLL system as it locks the two signal back within the first cycle. It also overcomes a phase jump after 5 milli-seconds from the time the fault was introduced and performs better tracking of the grid voltage and that of the renewable energy source.

  3. Development of Phase Lock Loop System for Synchronisation of a Hybrid System with the Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Abubakar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Phase locked loop (PLL is an important part of the control unit of the grid connected power converter. The method of zero crossing detection (ZCD does not produce accurate phase information when grid is non-ideal. In this work, a synchronous reference frame (SRF PLL method to obtain accurate phase information when the grid voltages are unbalanced is proposed. The performances of the PLL have been verified for ideal and abnormal grid conditions such as unbalance, voltage sag, faults condition etc. Based on the results obtained, the developed PLL gives better fault ride when unbalances in the three phase input signals are overall handled well by the PLL system as it locks the two signal back within the first cycle. It also overcomes a phase jump after 5 milli-seconds from the time the fault was introduced and performs better tracking of the grid voltage and that of the renewable energy source.

  4. X-ray diffraction study of elastic strains for modelling γ/γ' two-phase behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, L.; Massaoudi, M.; Lavelle, B.

    2005-01-01

    To describe the two-phase monocrystals behavior, we used has X-rays diffraction method. Our study is based on the mechanics of the continuous media framework in elasticity. We extend to the quadratic structure the study by X-rays developed at the laboratory on cubic materials with coarse grains. We show that the two phases γ and γ' undergo a tetragonal distortion and that the strains are not constant in each phase. Our results are in agreement with a study by the finite element method developed in addition

  5. Development and evaluation of a magnetic solid-phase radioimmunoassay for total human thyroxine (T4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, S. H.; Hassan, A. M. E.; Abdalla, O. M.; Zahran, A. B.; Shabbo, N. M.; Ali, N. I.; Gubara, A.

    2009-02-01

    In this study a simple and rapid magnetic solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) for human thyroxine (T4) was developed using locally raised sheep thyroxine antibody and radioiodinated thyroxine (T4) tracer by chloramine-T method. The assay involves two hours incubation at ambient temperature rang (30 to 35 o C ) associated with the antibody covalently linked by the easily performed carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) method to magnetic particles obtained from SIPAC. 0.1% triton with sodium azide used as a wash buffer. L-Thyroxine Na-salt peta hydrate from sigma was used for the preparation of standards and quality control sera. The coupled magnetic anti-T4 solid phase titrated in order to find out the suitable antibody concentration (titre) to be used in the assay. Optimizations followed by validation procedures were done. When correlated with kits imported from NETRIA and AMERSHAM, results were found to be highly comparable r=0.965 and p<0.05. Shelf life was also studied, so that the local prepared T4 RIA magnetic reagents can be used for the measurement of total human thyroxine with a very low cost compared to imported kits. (Author)

  6. Production of ethanol from refinery waste gases. Phase 2, technology development, annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, D.; Basu, R.; Phillips, J.R.; Wikstrom, C.V.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1995-07-01

    Oil refineries discharge large volumes of H{sub 2}, CO, and CO{sub 2} from cracking, coking, and hydrotreating operations. This program seeks to develop a biological process for converting these waste gases into ethanol, which can be blended with gasoline to reduce emissions. Production of ethanol from all 194 US refineries would save 450 billion BTU annually, would reduce crude oil imports by 110 million barrels/year and emissions by 19 million tons/year. Phase II efforts has yielded at least 3 cultures (Clostridium ljungdahlii, Isolate O-52, Isolate C-01) which are able to produce commercially viable concentrations of ethanol from CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2} in petroleum waste gas. Single continuous stirred tank reactor studies have shown that 15-20 g/L of ethanol can be produced, with less than 5 g/L acetic acid byproduct. Culture and reactor optimization in Phase III should yield even higher ethanol concentrations and minimal acetic acid. Product recovery studies showed that ethanol is best recovered in a multi-step process involving solvent extraction/distillation to azeotrope/azeotropic distillation or pervaporation, or direct distillation to the azeotrope/azeotropic distillation or pervaporation. Projections show that the ethanol facility for a typical refinery would require an investment of about $30 million, which would be returned in less than 2 years.

  7. Study of dynamic strain aging in dual phase steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz, R.R.U.; Cunha, F.G.G.; Gonzalez, B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Characterization of the high temperature mechanical behavior of a dual phase steel. ► Determination of the effect of dynamic strain aging on the strain hardening rate. ► Identification of the mechanism associated with dynamic strain aging. ► The value of the interaction energy carbon–dislocation in ferrite was confirmed. - Abstract: The susceptibility to dynamic strain aging of a dual phase steel was evaluated by the variation of mechanical properties in tension with the temperature and the strain rate. The tensile tests were performed at temperatures varying between 25 °C and 600 °C and at strain rates ranging from 10 −2 to 5 × 10 −4 s −1 . The studied steel presented typical manifestations related to dynamic strain aging: serrated flow (the Portevin–Le Chatelier effect) for certain combinations of temperature and strain rates; the presence of a plateau in the variation of yield stress with temperature; a maximum in the curves of tensile strength, flow stress, and work hardening exponent as a function of temperature; and a minimum in the variation of total elongation with temperature. The determined apparent activation energy values, associated with the beginning of the Portevin–Le Chatelier effect and the maximum in the variation of flow stress with temperature, were 83 kJ/mol and 156 kJ/mol, respectively. These values suggest that the mechanism responsible for dynamic strain aging in the dual phase steel is the locking of dislocations by carbon atoms in ferrite and that the formation of clusters and/or transition carbides and carbide precipitation in martensite do not interfere with the dynamic strain aging process.

  8. Development of a KSC test and flight engineering oriented computer language, Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, C. W.; Kinney, E. L.; Gyure, J.

    1970-01-01

    Ten, primarily test oriented, computer languages reviewed during the phase 1 study effort are described. Fifty characteristics of ATOLL, ATLAS, and CLASP are compared. Unique characteristics of the other languages, including deficiencies, problems, safeguards, and checking provisions are identified. Programming aids related to these languages are reported, and the conclusions resulting from this phase of the study are discussed. A glossary and bibliography are included. For the reports on phase 2 of the study, see N71-35027 and N71-35029.

  9. Theoretical study of heat transfer with moving phase-change interface in thawing of frozen food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, M; Ching, W H; Leung, D Y C; Lam, G C K

    2005-01-01

    A theoretical solution was obtained for a transient phase-change heat transfer problem in thawing of frozen food. In the physical model, a sphere originally at a uniform temperature below the phase-change temperature is suddenly immersed in a fluid at a temperature above the phase-change temperature. As the body temperature increases, the phase-change interface will be first formed on the surface. Subsequently, the interface will absorb the latent heat and move towards the centre until the whole body undergoes complete phase change. In the mathematical formulation, the nonhomogeneous problem arises from the moving phase-change interface. The solution in terms of the time-dependent temperature field was obtained by use of Green's function. A one-step Newton-Raphson method was specially designed to solve for the position of the moving interface to satisfy the interface condition. The theoretical results were compared with numerical results generated by a finite difference model and experimental measurements collected from a cold water thawing process. As a good agreement was found, the theoretical solution developed in this study was verified numerically and experimentally. Besides thawing of frozen food, there are many other practical applications of the theoretical solution, such as food freezing, soil freezing/thawing, metal casting and bath quenching heat treatment, among others

  10. Theoretical study of heat transfer with moving phase-change interface in thawing of frozen food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, M.; Ching, W. H.; Leung, D. Y. C.; Lam, G. C. K.

    2005-02-01

    A theoretical solution was obtained for a transient phase-change heat transfer problem in thawing of frozen food. In the physical model, a sphere originally at a uniform temperature below the phase-change temperature is suddenly immersed in a fluid at a temperature above the phase-change temperature. As the body temperature increases, the phase-change interface will be first formed on the surface. Subsequently, the interface will absorb the latent heat and move towards the centre until the whole body undergoes complete phase change. In the mathematical formulation, the nonhomogeneous problem arises from the moving phase-change interface. The solution in terms of the time-dependent temperature field was obtained by use of Green's function. A one-step Newton-Raphson method was specially designed to solve for the position of the moving interface to satisfy the interface condition. The theoretical results were compared with numerical results generated by a finite difference model and experimental measurements collected from a cold water thawing process. As a good agreement was found, the theoretical solution developed in this study was verified numerically and experimentally. Besides thawing of frozen food, there are many other practical applications of the theoretical solution, such as food freezing, soil freezing/thawing, metal casting and bath quenching heat treatment, among others.

  11. Study of the hard-disk system at high densities: the fluid-hexatic phase transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mier-Y-Terán, Luis; Machorro-Martínez, Brian Ignacio; Chapela, Gustavo A; Del Río, Fernando

    2018-06-21

    Integral equations of uniform fluids have been considered unable to predict any characteristic feature of the fluid-solid phase transition, including the shoulder that arises in the second peak of the fluid-phase radial distribution function, RDF, of hard-core systems obtained by computer simulations, at fluid densities very close to the structural two-step phase transition. This reasoning is based on the results of traditional integral approximations, like Percus-Yevick, PY, which does not show such a shoulder in hard-core systems, neither in two nor three dimensions. In this work, we present results of three Ansätze, based on the PY theory, that were proposed to remedy the lack of PY analytical solutions in two dimensions. This comparative study shows that one of those Ansätze does develop a shoulder in the second peak of the RDF at densities very close to the phase transition, qualitatively describing this feature. Since the shoulder grows into a peak at still higher densities, this integral equation approach predicts the appearance of an orientational order characteristic of the hexatic phase in a continuous fluid-hexatic phase transition.

  12. Phased Array Antenna Testbed Development at the NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Kevin M.; Kubat, Gregory; Johnson, Sandra K.; Anzic, Godfrey

    2003-01-01

    Ideal phased array antennas offer advantages for communication systems, such as wide-angle scanning and multibeam operation, which can be utilized in certain NASA applications. However, physically realizable, electronically steered, phased array antennas introduce additional system performance parameters, which must be included in the evaluation of the system. The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is currently conducting research to identify these parameters and to develop the tools necessary to measure them. One of these tools is a testbed where phased array antennas may be operated in an environment that simulates their use. This paper describes the development of the testbed and its use in characterizing a particular K-Band, phased array antenna.

  13. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 6, Field study conducted in fulfillment of Phase 3 titled. Use of FGD by-product gypsum enriched with magnesium hydroxide as a soil amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigham, J. M. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Ohio Agricultural Research Development Center; Soto, U. I. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Ohio Agricultural Research Development Center; Stehouwer, R. C. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Ohio Agricultural Research Development Center; Yibirin, H. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Ohio Agricultural Research Development Center

    1999-04-30

    A variety of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies have been developed to meet environmental restrictions imposed by the federal Clean Air Act and its amendments. These technologies include wet scrubber systems that dramatically reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions. Although such systems are effective, they also produce large volumes of sludge that must be dewatered, stabilized, and disposed of in landfills. Disposal is an expensive and environmentally questionable process for which suitable alternatives are needed. Wet scrubbing of flue gases with magnesium (Mg)-enhanced lime has the potential to become a leading FGD technology. When combined with aforced oxidation system, the wet sludges resulting from this process can be modified and refined to produce gypsum (CaS04∙2H2O) and magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] of sufficient purity for beneficial re-use in the construction (wallboard) and pharmaceutical industries. The pilot plant at the CINERGY Zimmer Station near Cincinnati can also produce gypsum by-products formulated to contain varying amounts of Mg(OH)2- Such materials may have value to the agriculture, forestry, and lawn-care industries as soil "conditioners", liming agents, and nutritional supplements capable of supplying calcium (Ca), Mg, and sulfur (S) for plant growth. This report describes three field studies designed to evaluate by-product gypsum and Mg-gypsum from the Zimmer Station power plant as amendments for improving the quality of mine spoils and agricultural soils that were unproductive because of phytotoxic levels of dissolved aluminum (Al) and low pH. The technical literature suggests that gypsum may be more effective than agricultural limestone for ameliorating Al toxicity below the immediate zone of application. Such considerations are important for deep-rooted plant species that attempt to utilize water and nutrients occurring at depth in the spoil/soil.

  14. Reflections on the development of a pre-service language curriculum for the BEd (Foundation Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubeida Desai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The initiative of the Department of Higher Education and Training (DHET in South Africa to strengthen foundation phase teaching has resulted in the development of new foundation phase (Grades R–3 programmes at institutions that did not previously offer them. In this article we reflect on the conceptualisation and development of a pre-service language curriculum for one such programme. We base our discussion on principles that underpin teacher education programme development for early childhood education and on issues and insights about appropriate language curriculum content for a foundation phase teacher. Whilst awaiting the outcome of our accreditation, the authors, as two of the persons who assisted in the design of the language curriculum, thought it appropriate to subject the curriculum to an internal scrutiny whilst we prepare to offer the programme. This internal dialogue is informed by the literature on early language development, particularly in multilingual contexts such as in South Africa.

  15. Personal view of educating two-phase flow and human resource development as a nuclear engineer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotta, Akitoshi

    2010-01-01

    As an engineer who has devoted himself in the nuclear industry for almost three decades, the author gave a personal view on educating two-phase flow and developing human resources. An expected role of universities in on-going discussions of collaboration among industry-government-academia is introduced. Reformation of two-phase flow education is discussed from two extreme viewpoints, the basic structure of physics and the practical system analysis. (author)

  16. Study of Iodine Behavior in the Gas Phase during a Severe Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hanchul; Cho, Yeonghun; Ryu, Myunghyun

    2014-01-01

    Among the iodine species, the organic iodides produced from the reaction between iodine and organics such as paint, are not easily trapped by the filters during the containment venting following a severe accident. Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) has been studying this issue, joining international research programs such as ISTP-EPICUR, OECDBIP and OECD-STEM. In the course of this study, a simple iodine model, RAIM (Radio-Active Iodine chemistry Model) has been developed (Oh et al., 2011), based on the IMOD methodology, and other previous studies. This paper deals with our recent activities on this study, including the development of the model for the iodine reactions in gas phase. Iodine reactions in gas phase were modeled and added to the RAIM code, taking into account several relevant reactions such as formation of ARP, iodine oxide, and organic iodides in gas phase. RAIM was then applied to analyze the S2-6-5-2 test for which iodine-loaded coupons were tested in gas phase. The analysis results show a reasonable estimation of volatile iodine concentration with the desorption rate constant of about 10 -6 s -1 , while those of the other iodine species overestimated for the whole period of the test. It reveals the need to determine appropriate values for the rate constants for formation of iodine oxides and organic iodides

  17. Active traffic management case study: phase 1 : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This study developed a systematic approach for using data from multiple sources to provide active traffic management : solutions. The feasibility of two active traffic management solutions is analyzed in this report: ramp-metering and real-time : cra...

  18. Cell cycle phase dependent emergence of thymidylate synthase studied by monoclonal antibody (M-TS-4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibui, S; Hoshino, T; Iwasaki, K; Nomura, K; Jastreboff, M M

    1989-05-01

    A method of identifying thymidylate synthase (TS) at the cellular level was developed using anti-TS monoclonal antibody (M-TS-4), a monoclonal antibody created against purified TS from a HeLa cell line. In HeLa cells and four human glioma cell lines (U-251, U-87, 343-MGA, and SF-188), TS was identified primarily in the cytoplasm. Autoradiographic and flow cytometric studies showed that TS appeared mainly in the G1 phase and subsided early in the S phase; thus, the G1 phase can be divided into TS-positive and -negative fractions. Nuclear TS was not demonstrated unequivocally with M-TS-4, and the relationship between nuclear TS and DNA synthesis could not be determined. Although the percentage of TS-positive cells was larger than the S-phase fraction measured by autoradiography after a pulse of tritiated thymidine or by the immunoperoxidase method using BUdR, the ratios were within a similar range (1.2-1.4) in all cell lines studied. Therefore, the S-phase fraction can be estimated indirectly from the percentage of TS-positive cells measured by M-TS-4. Because the emergence of TS detected by our method is cell cycle dependent, M-TS-4 may be useful for biochemical studies of TS and for cytokinetic analysis.

  19. Study on partial overheat of the isolated phase busbar outlet box in Qinshan NPP phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Fangxuan; Zhang Jian; Zeng Limin; Bao Yanxing; Zhang Lie; Yang Yuemin

    2013-01-01

    This paper recommended the structure of the isolated phase busbar outlet box installed in Qinshan II. The study on partial overheat of the outlet box shows that the ultimate causes are the loss of concentrated eddy current and short of cooling. So the improvement principles of 'distributing eddy current, cutting off inductive circle current and strengthening of ventilation' were determined. A new structure test outlet box was designed and manufactured, and the temperature rising experiment was carried out. Some alterations were made in the new structure outlet box, e.g. isolating materials were added between side plates of the upper outlet box, and also between the upper and lower outlet box. Two cooling blowers were added to the upper outlet box. After putting into operation, the hot-spot temperature of the new outlet box was greatly lowered down. Thus the operation environment was improved, and the operation safety ensured. It can be useful references for analyzing and dealing with similar problems. (authors)

  20. Gas phase absorption studies of photoactive yellow protein chromophore derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Rinza, Toms; Christiansen, Ove; Rajput, Jyoti; Gopalan, Aravind; Rahbek, Dennis B; Andersen, Lars H; Bochenkova, Anastasia V; Granovsky, Alexander A; Bravaya, Ksenia B; Nemukhin, Alexander V; Christiansen, Kasper Lincke; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted

    2009-08-27

    Photoabsorption spectra of deprotonated trans p-coumaric acid and two of its methyl substituted derivatives have been studied in gas phase both experimentally and theoretically. We have focused on the spectroscopic effect of the location of the two possible deprotonation sites on the trans p-coumaric acid which originate to either a phenoxide or a carboxylate. Surprisingly, the three chromophores were found to have the same absorption maximum at 430 nm, in spite of having different deprotonation positions. However, the absorption of the chromophore in polar solution is substantially different for the distinct deprotonation locations. We also report on the time scales and pathways of relaxation after photoexcitation for the three photoactive yellow protein chromophore derivatives. As a result of these experiments, we could detect the phenoxide isomer within the deprotonated trans p-coumaric acid in gas phase; however, the occurrence of the carboxylate is uncertain. Several computational methods were used simultaneously to provide insights and assistance in the interpretation of our experimental results. The calculated excitation energies S(0)-S(1) are in good agreement with experiment for those systems having a negative charge on a phenoxide moiety. Although our augmented multiconfigurational quasidegenerate perturbation theory calculations agree with experiment in the description of the absorption spectrum of anions with a carboxylate functional group, there are some puzzling disagreements between experiment and some calculational methods in the description of these systems.

  1. Experimental study of two-phase natural circulation circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos, Wanderley Freitas; Su, Jian, E-mail: wlemos@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br, E-mail: sujian@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Faccini, Jose Luiz Horacio, E-mail: faccini@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), RIo de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Termo-Hidraulica Experimental

    2012-07-01

    This paper reports an experimental study on the behavior of fluid flow in natural circulation under single-and two-phase flow conditions. The natural circulation circuit was designed based on concepts of similarity and scale in proportion to the actual operating conditions of a nuclear reactor. This test equipment has similar performance to the passive system for removal of residual heat presents in Advanced Pressurized Water Reactors (A PWR). The experiment was carried out by supplying water to primary and secondary circuits, as well as electrical power resistors installed inside the heater. Power controller has available to adjust the values for supply of electrical power resistors, in order to simulate conditions of decay of power from the nuclear reactor in steady state. Data acquisition system allows the measurement and control of the temperature at different points by means of thermocouples installed at several points along the circuit. The behavior of the phenomenon of natural circulation was monitored by a software with graphical interface, showing the evolution of temperature measurement points and the results stored in digital format spreadsheets. Besides, the natural circulation flow rate was measured by a flowmeter installed on the hot leg. A flow visualization technique was used the for identifying vertical flow regimes of two-phase natural circulation. Finally, the Reynolds Number was calculated for the establishment of a friction factor correlation dependent on the scale geometrical length, height and diameter of the pipe. (author)

  2. Experimental study of two-phase natural circulation circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, Wanderley Freitas; Su, Jian; Faccini, Jose Luiz Horacio

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports an experimental study on the behavior of fluid flow in natural circulation under single-and two-phase flow conditions. The natural circulation circuit was designed based on concepts of similarity and scale in proportion to the actual operating conditions of a nuclear reactor. This test equipment has similar performance to the passive system for removal of residual heat presents in Advanced Pressurized Water Reactors (A PWR). The experiment was carried out by supplying water to primary and secondary circuits, as well as electrical power resistors installed inside the heater. Power controller has available to adjust the values for supply of electrical power resistors, in order to simulate conditions of decay of power from the nuclear reactor in steady state. Data acquisition system allows the measurement and control of the temperature at different points by means of thermocouples installed at several points along the circuit. The behavior of the phenomenon of natural circulation was monitored by a software with graphical interface, showing the evolution of temperature measurement points and the results stored in digital format spreadsheets. Besides, the natural circulation flow rate was measured by a flowmeter installed on the hot leg. A flow visualization technique was used the for identifying vertical flow regimes of two-phase natural circulation. Finally, the Reynolds Number was calculated for the establishment of a friction factor correlation dependent on the scale geometrical length, height and diameter of the pipe. (author)

  3. VTAE Equity Staff Development Workshops and Services--Phase II. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldus, Lorayne; Nelson, Orville

    The Phase II Equity Staff Development project was revised in response to a need to develop an equity strategic planning model with a vision statement, goals, and objectives. The Equity Strategic Planning Model was presented to administrators of Wisconsin Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education (VTAE) colleges for their use in district strategic…

  4. Biomarkers in early phase development of central nervous system drugs : a conceptual framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Jeroen-Paul van der

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to provide a conceptual framework for the use of Central Nervous System (CNS) biomarkers in early phase clinical drug development. In the Introduction the current use of biomarkers in early CNS drug development is discussed. A conceptual framework for the

  5. Moessbauer study of phase transitions under high hydrostatic pressures. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapitanov, E.V.; Yakovlev, E.N.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental results of the hydrostatic pressure influence on Moessbauer spectrum parameters are obtained over the pressure range including the area of structural phase transition. A linear increase of the Moessbauer effect probability (recoilless fraction) is accompanied by a linear decrease of the electron density at tin nuclei within the pressure range foregoing the phase transition. The electric resistance and the recoilless fraction of the new phase of Mg 2 Sn are lower, but the electron density at tin nuclei is greater than the initial phase ones. Hydrostatic conditions allow to fix clearly the diphasic transition area and to determine the influence of the pressure on the Moessbauer line position and on the recoilless fraction of the high pressure phase. The phase transition heat Q = 415 cal mol -1 is calculated using recoilless fractions of the high and low pressure phases at 25 kbar. The present results are qualitatively and quantitatively different from the results, obtained at nonhydrostatic conditions. (author)

  6. Effect of mode of rolling on development of texture and microstructure in two-phase (α + β) brass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Rohini; Ranganathan, S.; Suwas, Satyam

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of microstructure and texture during deformation of two-phase (α + β) brass was studied for different initial microstructure and texture. The deformation processing involved unidirectional and multi-step cross-rolling. The bulk textures were determined by measuring the pole figures and calculating the orientation distribution function ODF for both α (fcc) and β (bcc) phases, while the microstructure and other microstructural parameters were measured through optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with electron back scatter diffraction (SEM-EBSD). Results indicate that textures developed after unidirectional rolling and multi-step cross-rolling are significantly different. The variation in initial texture had a pronounced effect on the development of texture in the α phase during subsequent deformation.

  7. Effect of mode of rolling on development of texture and microstructure in two-phase ({alpha} + {beta}) brass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, Rohini; Ranganathan, S. [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Suwas, Satyam, E-mail: satyamsuwas@met.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2010-07-15

    The evolution of microstructure and texture during deformation of two-phase ({alpha} + {beta}) brass was studied for different initial microstructure and texture. The deformation processing involved unidirectional and multi-step cross-rolling. The bulk textures were determined by measuring the pole figures and calculating the orientation distribution function ODF for both {alpha} (fcc) and {beta} (bcc) phases, while the microstructure and other microstructural parameters were measured through optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with electron back scatter diffraction (SEM-EBSD). Results indicate that textures developed after unidirectional rolling and multi-step cross-rolling are significantly different. The variation in initial texture had a pronounced effect on the development of texture in the {alpha} phase during subsequent deformation.

  8. Procedure Development and Qualification of the Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing for the Nuclear Power Plant Piping Weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Byung Sik; Yang, Seung Han; Kim, Yong Sik; Lee, Hee Jong

    2010-01-01

    The manual ultrasonic examination for the nuclear power plant piping welds has been demonstrated by using KPD(Korean Performance Demonstration) generic procedure. For automated ultrasonic examination, there is no generic procedure and it should be qualified by using applicable automated equipment. Until now, most of qualified procedures used pulse-echo technique and there is no qualified procedure using phased array technique. In this study, data acquisition and analysis software were developed and phased-array transducer and wedge were designed to implement phased array technique for nuclear power plant in-service inspection. The developed procedure are qualified for performance demonstration for the flaw detection, length sizing and depth sizing. The qualified procedure will be applied for the field examination in the nuclear power plant piping weld inspection

  9. Stable Low Cloud Phase II: Nocturnal Event Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William H., III; Barrett, Joe, III

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the work done by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) in developing a database of nights that experienced rapid (formation in a stable atmosphere, resulting in ceilings at the Shuttle Landing Facility (TTS) that violated Space Shuttle Flight Rules (FR). This work is the second phase of a similar AMU task that examined the same phenomena during the day. In the first phase of this work, the meteorological conditions favoring the rapid formation of low ceilings include the presence of any inversion below 8000 ft, high relative humidity (RH) beneath the inversion and a clockwise turning of the winds from the surface to the middle troposphere (-15000 ft). The AMU compared and contrasted the atmospheric and thermodynamic conditions between nights with rapid low ceiling formation and nights with low ceilings resulting from other mechanisms. The AMU found that there was little to discern between the rapidly-forming ceiling nights and other low ceiling nights at TTS. When a rapid development occurred, the average RH below the inversions was 87% while non-events had an average RH of 79%. One key parameter appeared to be the vertical wind profile in the Cape Canaveral, FL radiosonde (XMR) sounding. Eighty-three percent of the rapid development events had veering winds with height from the surface to the middle troposphere (-15,000 ft) while 61% of the non-events had veering winds with height. Veering winds indicate a warm-advection regime, which supports large-scale rising motion and ultimately cloud formation in a moist environment. However, only six of the nights (out of 86 events examined) with low cloud ceilings had an occurrence of rapidly developing ceilings. Since only 7% rapid development events were observed in this dataset, it is likely that rapid low cloud development is not a common occurrence during the night, or at least not as common as during the day. In the AMU work on the daytime rapid low cloud development (Case and Wheeler 2005), nearly

  10. Results of FY 2002 of feasibility study on commercialized fast reactor cycle systems. Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC, that is the representative of the electric utilities in Japan) established a new organization to develop a commercialized fast reactor (FR) cycle system on July 1, 1999 and feasibility study (F/S) was undertaken in order to determine the promising concepts and to define the necessary R and D tasks. During Phase 1 (JFY 1999 and 2000), a number of candidate concepts were screened from various options, featuring innovative technologies. In the F/S, the options were evaluated and conceptual designs were examined considering the attainable perspectives for following: 1) ensuring safety, 2) economic competitiveness to future LWRs, 3) efficient utilization of resources, 4) reduction of environmental burden and 5) enhancement of nuclear non-proliferation. The F/S should also guide the necessary R and D to commercialize FR cycle system. To begin with the study of feasible candidate concepts screened in Phase I, Phase 2 started in the plan for five years in 2001. This aims at clarifying several feasible candidate concepts and deciding the research plan after Phase 3 as taking into consideration the innovative technology. As for this plan, an interim report will be carried out in 2003 as one pause and the prospect to clarify the feasible candidates will be expected. Furthermore, after the completion of this research and investigation program, research and development activities will be carried out under a rolling plan in which reviews will be carried out approximately every five years. The objective of these R and D activities is to make a proposal regarding highly attractive and competitive FR cycle system technology that assures safety by 2015. This report summarizes the results of F/S of Phase 2 in 2002. In 2002, the second year of Phase 2, the study was advanced along with the plan which was evaluated by the committee for the Evaluation. Then, in the study of FR system and fuel cycle

  11. Bottlenecks in the development of topical analgesics: molecule, formulation, dose-finding, and phase III design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keppel Hesselink JM

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Jan M Keppel Hesselink,1 David J Kopsky,2 Stephen M Stahl3 1Institute Neuropathic Pain, Bosch en Duin, the Netherlands; 2Institute Neuropathic Pain, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 3University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA Abstract: Topical analgesics can be defined as topical formulations containing analgesics or co-analgesics. Since 2000, interest in such formulations has been on the rise. There are, however, four critical issues in the research and development phases of topical analgesics: 1 The selection of the active pharmaceutical ingredient. Analgesics and co-analgesics differ greatly in their mechanism of action, and it is required to find the most optimal fit between such mechanisms of action and the pathogenesis of the targeted (neuropathic pain. 2 Issues concerning the optimized formulation. For relevant clinical efficacy, specific characteristics for the selected vehicle (eg, cream base or gel base are required, depending on the physicochemical characteristics of the active pharmaceutical ingredient(s to be delivered. 3 Well-designed phase II dose-finding studies are required, and, unfortunately, such trials are missing. In fact, we will demonstrate that underdosing is one of the major hurdles to detect meaningful and statistically relevant clinical effects of topical analgesics. 4 Selection of clinical end points and innovatively designed phase III trials. End point selection can make or break a trial. For instance, to include numbness together with tingling as a composite end point for neuropathic pain seems stretching the therapeutic impact of an analgesic too far. Given the fast onset of action of topical analgesics (usually within 30 minutes, enrichment designs might enhance the chances for success, as the placebo response might decrease. Topical analgesics may become promising inroads for the treatment of neuropathic pain, once sufficient attention is given to these four key aspects. Keywords: topical, analgesics

  12. Internal structure and interfacial velocity development for bubbly two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocamustafaogullari, G.; Huang, W.D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental study of the internal structure of air-water flowing horizontally. The double-sensor resistivity probe technique was applied for measurements of local interfacial parameters, including void fraction, interfacial area concentration, bubble size distributions, bubble passing frequency and bubble interface velocity. Bubbly flow patterns at several flow conditions were examined at three axial locations, L/D=25, 148 and 253, in which the first measurement represents the entrance region where the flow develops, and the second and third may represent near fully developed bubbly flow patterns. The experimental results are presented in three-dimensional perspective plots of the interfacial parameters over the cross-section. These multi-dimensional presentations showed that the local values of the void fraction, interfacial area concentration and bubble passing frequency were nearly constant over the cross-section at L/D=25, with slight local peaking close to the channel wall. Although similar local peakings were observed at the second and third locations, the internal flow structure segregation due to buoyancy appeared to be very strong in the axial direction. A simple comparison of profiles of the interfacial parameters at the three locations indicated that the flow pattern development was a continuous process. Finally, it was shown that the so-called ''fully developed'' bubbly two-phase flow pattern cannot be established in a horizontal pipe and that there was no strong correspondence between void fraction and interface velocity profiles. ((orig.))

  13. Development Of Radioimmunoassay For Prolactin HORMONE Using Solid Phase Magnetic Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHAFIK, H.M.; MEHANY, N.L.

    2009-01-01

    The preparation and development of primary reagents of prolactin (PRL) radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique using solid phase magnetic particles with low cost is considered to be the main objective of the present study. The production of polyclonal antibodies was undertaken by immunizing four female New-Zealand rabbits through primary injection and four booster doses subcutaneously. The preparation of 125 I-prolactin radiotracer was carried out using chloramine-T. The preparation of standard prolactin was undertaken by preparing stock standard solution of prolactin and diluted with assay buffer. Activation and coupling of low magnetizable particles with the purified anti-PRL was carried out. Optimization and validation of the assay were carried out. The results obtained provide a highly sensitive, specific and accurate RIA system of PRL. In conclusion, this assay could be used in diagnosis of galactorrhea, prolactinoma, visual impairment and diagnosis of infertility in males and females.

  14. Development of a test and flight engineering oriented language. Phase 3: Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamsler, W. F.; Case, C. W.; Kinney, E. L.; Gyure, J.

    1970-01-01

    The format material used in an oral presentation of the phase 3 study effort is given. The material includes a description of the language ALOFT and a terminology comparison with other test languages.

  15. The early phase of /see symbol/ production development in adult Japanese learners of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuya; Munro, Murray J

    2014-12-01

    Although previous research indicates that Japanese speakers' second language (L2) perception and production of English /see symbol/ may improve with increased L2 experience, relatively little is known about the fine phonetic details of their /see symbol/ productions, especially during the early phase of L2 speech learning. This cross-sectional study examined acoustic properties of word-initial /see symbol/ from 60 Japanese learners with a length of residence of between one month and one year in Canada. Their performance was compared to that of 15 native speakers of English and 15 low-proficiency Japanese learners of English. Formant frequencies (F2 and F3) and F1 transition durations were evaluated under three task conditions--word reading, sentence reading, and timed picture description. Learners with as little as two to three months of residence demonstrated target-like F2 frequencies. In addition, increased LOR was predictive of more target-like transition durations. Although the learners showed some improvement in F3 as a function of LOR, they did so mainly at a controlled level of speech production. The findings suggest that during the early phase of L2 segmental development, production accuracy is task-dependent and is influenced by the availability of L1 phonetic cues for redeployment in L2.

  16. Final waste forms project: Performance criteria for phase I treatability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilliam, T.M.; Hutchins, D.A.; Chodak, P. III

    1994-06-01

    This document defines the product performance criteria to be used in Phase I of the Final Waste Forms Project. In Phase I, treatability studies will be performed to provide open-quotes proof-of-principleclose quotes data to establish the viability of stabilization/solidification (S/S) technologies. This information is required by March 1995. In Phase II, further treatability studies, some at the pilot scale, will be performed to provide sufficient data to allow treatment alternatives identified in Phase I to be more fully developed and evaluated, as well as to reduce performance uncertainties for those methods chosen to treat a specific waste. Three main factors influence the development and selection of an optimum waste form formulation and hence affect selection of performance criteria. These factors are regulatory, process-specific, and site-specific waste form standards or requirements. Clearly, the optimum waste form formulation will require consideration of performance criteria constraints from each of the three categories. Phase I will focus only on the regulatory criteria. These criteria may be considered the minimum criteria for an acceptable waste form. In other words, a S/S technology is considered viable only if it meet applicable regulatory criteria. The criteria to be utilized in the Phase I treatability studies were primarily taken from Environmental Protection Agency regulations addressed in 40 CFR 260 through 265 and 268; and Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations addressed in 10 CFR 61. Thus the majority of the identified criteria are independent of waste form matrix composition (i.e., applicable to cement, glass, organic binders etc.)

  17. Final waste forms project: Performance criteria for phase I treatability studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliam, T.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hutchins, D.A. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chodak, P. III [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This document defines the product performance criteria to be used in Phase I of the Final Waste Forms Project. In Phase I, treatability studies will be performed to provide {open_quotes}proof-of-principle{close_quotes} data to establish the viability of stabilization/solidification (S/S) technologies. This information is required by March 1995. In Phase II, further treatability studies, some at the pilot scale, will be performed to provide sufficient data to allow treatment alternatives identified in Phase I to be more fully developed and evaluated, as well as to reduce performance uncertainties for those methods chosen to treat a specific waste. Three main factors influence the development and selection of an optimum waste form formulation and hence affect selection of performance criteria. These factors are regulatory, process-specific, and site-specific waste form standards or requirements. Clearly, the optimum waste form formulation will require consideration of performance criteria constraints from each of the three categories. Phase I will focus only on the regulatory criteria. These criteria may be considered the minimum criteria for an acceptable waste form. In other words, a S/S technology is considered viable only if it meet applicable regulatory criteria. The criteria to be utilized in the Phase I treatability studies were primarily taken from Environmental Protection Agency regulations addressed in 40 CFR 260 through 265 and 268; and Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations addressed in 10 CFR 61. Thus the majority of the identified criteria are independent of waste form matrix composition (i.e., applicable to cement, glass, organic binders etc.).

  18. [Study on phase correction method of spatial heterodyne spectrometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Qiang; Ye, Song; Zhang, Li-Juan; Xiong, Wei

    2013-05-01

    Phase distortion exists in collected interferogram because of a variety of measure reasons when spatial heterodyne spectrometers are used in practice. So an improved phase correction method is presented. The phase curve of interferogram was obtained through Fourier inverse transform to extract single side transform spectrum, based on which, the phase distortions were attained by fitting phase slope, so were the phase correction functions, and the convolution was processed between transform spectrum and phase correction function to implement spectrum phase correction. The method was applied to phase correction of actually measured monochromatic spectrum and emulational water vapor spectrum. Experimental results show that the low-frequency false signals in monochromatic spectrum fringe would be eliminated effectively to increase the periodicity and the symmetry of interferogram, in addition when the continuous spectrum imposed phase error was corrected, the standard deviation between it and the original spectrum would be reduced form 0.47 to 0.20, and thus the accuracy of spectrum could be improved.

  19. Thermodynamic and experimental study on phase stability in nanocrystalline alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Wenwu; Song Xiaoyan; Lu Nianduan; Huang Chuan

    2010-01-01

    Nanocrystalline alloys exhibit apparently different phase transformation characteristics in comparison to the conventional polycrystalline alloys. The special phase stability and phase transformation behavior, as well as the essential mechanisms of the nanocrystalline alloys, were described quantitatively in a nanothermodynamic point of view. By introducing the relationship between the excess volume at the grain boundary and the nanograin size, the Gibbs free energy was determined distinctly as a function of temperature and the nanograin size. Accordingly, the grain-size-dependence of the phase stability and phase transformation characteristics of the nanocrystalline alloy were calculated systematically, and the correlations between the phase constitution, the phase transformation temperature and the critical nanograin size were predicted. A series of experiments was performed to investigate the phase transformations at room temperature and high temperatures using the nanocrystalline Sm 2 Co 17 alloy as an example. The phase constitution and phase transformation sequence found in nanocrystalline Sm 2 Co 17 alloys with various grain-size levels agree well with the calculations by the nanothermodynamic model.

  20. A phase-field and electron microscopy study of phase separation in Fe-Cr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedstroem, Peter, E-mail: pheds@kth.se [Materials Science and Engineering, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology), SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Baghsheikhi, Saeed [Materials Science and Engineering, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology), SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Liu, Ping [Sandvik Materials Technology, R and D Centre, SE-81181 Sandviken (Sweden); Odqvist, Joakim [Materials Science and Engineering, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology), SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Sandvik Materials Technology, R and D Centre, SE-81181 Sandviken (Sweden)

    2012-02-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental characterization and Phase-field modeling of phase separation in Fe-Cr. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transition from particle-like to spinodal-like structure observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural evolution generates increased hardness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results in agreement with recent thermodynamic description. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantitative kinetic modeling must include thermal noise and improved kinetic data. - Abstract: Phase separation in the binary Fe-Cr system, the basis for the entire stainless steel family, is considered responsible for the low temperature embrittlement in ferritic, martensitic and duplex stainless steels. These steels are often used in load-bearing applications with considerable service time at elevated temperature. Thus, understanding the effect of microstructure on mechanical properties and predicting dynamics of phase separation are key issues. In the present work, experimental evaluation of structure and mechanical properties in binary Fe-Cr alloys as well as phase-field modeling, using a new thermodynamic description of Fe-Cr, is conducted. A significant hardening evolution with time is found for alloys aged between 400 and 550 Degree-Sign C, and it can be attributed to phase separation. The decomposed structure changed with increasing Cr content at 500 Degree-Sign C, with a more particle-like structure at 25 wt% Cr and a more spinodal-like structure at 30 wt% Cr. The observed transition of structure agrees with the thermodynamically predicted spinodal, although the transition is expected to be gradual. The phase-field simulations qualitatively agree with experiments. However, to enable accurate quantitative predictions, the diffusional mobilities must be evaluated further and thermal fluctuations as well as 3D diffusion fields must be properly accounted for.

  1. CMS FPix sensor study for phase I upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, Kai

    2015-01-01

    The next incarnation of the CMS forward pixel detector, to be installed at the extended year end technical stop 2016-17, will need to survive an integrated luminosity of 300\\,fb$^{-1}$, with the inner radius of the active region of the disks decreasing from 6 to 4.5\\,cm. The number of disks on each side will increase from two to three. Based on the Run I experience and irradiation studies, the Phase I forward pixel detector sensors will again be n$^+$-in-n diffusion oxygenated float zone, with parameters similar to those in the present run. Results from the quality assurance probing of the first batches of sensor wafers are described. The leakage current (IV) measurements are particularly impressive with current densities in the range of 6-7\\,nA/cm$^2$ at about twice the full depletion voltage.

  2. Model system studies with a phase separated membrane bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, G. R.; Seshan, P. K.; Dunlop, Eric H.

    1989-01-01

    The operation and evaluation of a bioreactor designed for high intensity oxygen transfer in a microgravity environment is described. The reactor itself consists of a zero headspace liquid phase separated from the air supply by a long length of silicone rubber tubing through which the oxygen diffuses in and the carbon dioxide diffuses out. Mass transfer studies show that the oxygen is film diffusion controlled both externally and internally to the tubing and not by diffusion across the tube walls. Methods of upgrading the design to eliminate these resistances are proposed. Cell growth was obtained in the fermenter using Saccharomyces cerevisiae showing that this concept is capable of sustaining cell growth in the terrestial simulation.

  3. Phase separated membrane bioreactor - Results from model system studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, G. R.; Seshan, P. K.; Dunlop, E. H.

    1989-01-01

    The operation and evaluation of a bioreactor designed for high intensity oxygen transfer in a microgravity environment is described. The reactor itself consists of a zero headspace liquid phase separated from the air supply by a long length of silicone rubber tubing through which the oxygen diffuses in and the carbon dioxide diffuses out. Mass transfer studies show that the oxygen is film diffusion controlled both externally and internally to the tubing and not by diffusion across the tube walls. Methods of upgrading the design to eliminate these resistances are proposed. Cell growth was obtained in the fermenter using Saccharomyces cerevisiae showing that this concept is capable of sustaining cell growth in the terrestrial simulation.

  4. A phase 2 study of vatalanib in metastatic melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Natalie; Basu, Bristi; Biswas, Swethajit; Kareclas, Paula; Mann, Colette; Palmer, Cheryl; Thomas, Anne; Nicholson, Steve; Morgan, Bruno; Lomas, David; Sirohi, Bhawna; Mander, Adrian P; Middleton, Mark; Corrie, Pippa G

    2010-10-01

    A phase 2 study of vatalanib (PTK787/ZK222584) an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor of VEGFR 1, 2 and 3 was undertaken in patients with metastatic melanoma. Adults with pathologically confirmed metastatic melanoma, WHO Performance status 0-2, and adequate haematological, hepatic and renal function, were treated with vatalanib until disease progression. The trial used Fleming's single stage design. Tumour control rate (CR+PR+SD) was 35% at 16 weeks, with objective response seen in only 1 patient. Median progression-free survival was 1.8 months (95% CI 1.8-3.7 months) and median overall survival was 6.5 months (95% CI 3.9-10.2 months). Vatalanib stabilised disease in a proportion of patients, although overall survival was disappointing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. German risk study 'nuclear power plants, phase B'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuser, F.W.

    1989-01-01

    The results of the German risk study 'Nuclear power plants, phase B' indicate that an accident in a nuclear power plant which cannot be managed by the safety systems according to design, is extremely improbable: Its probability is at about 3 to 100,000 per year and plant. Even if the safety systems fail, emergency measures can be effected in a nuclear power plant to prevent an accident. These in-plant emergency measures diminish the probability of a core meltdown to about 4 to 1,000,000 per year and plant. Hence, the accident risk is greatly reduced. The information given by the author are to smooth the emotional edge in the discussion about the safety of nuclear power plants. (orig.) [de

  6. Phase separated membrane bioreactor: Results from model system studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, G. R.; Seshan, P. K.; Dunlop, E. H.

    The operation and evaluation of a bioreactor designed for high intensity oxygen transfer in a microgravity environment is described. The reactor itself consists of a zero headspace liquid phase separated from the air supply by a long length of silicone rubber tubing through which the oxygen diffuses in and the carbon dioxide diffuses out. Mass transfer studies show that the oxygen is film diffusion controlled both externally and internally to the tubing and not by diffusion across the tube walls. Methods of upgrading the design to eliminate these resistances are proposed. Cell growth was obtained in the fermenter using Saccharomyces cerevisiae showing that this concept is capable of sustaining cell growth in the terrestial simulation.

  7. Study on hydrodynamic crisis of two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigmatulin, B.I.; Ivandaev, A.I.

    1977-01-01

    The phenomenon of hydrodynamic crisis (locking) of a two-phase flow is investigated. A model of a disperseannular flow with an effective monodisperse nucleus is used for describing the motion of a mixture under near-critical conditions. Main differential equations of a flow in a channel are given; in particular, the differential laws of variation of the effective diameters of drops in the nucleus as a result of mass exchange between the mixture components are singled out. Questions of concretization of the model are discussed. The conditions for the attainment of the maximum rate of flow of the gas through the channel are studied, as well as the effect of the flow prehistory on the formation of critical conditions in the outlet cross-section

  8. Study on hydrodynamic crisis of two-phase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigmatulin, B I; Ivandaev, A I [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Mekhaniki

    1977-01-01

    The phenomenon of hydrodynamic crisis (locking) of a two-phase flow is investigated. A model of a disperse annular flow with an effective monodisperse nucleus is used for describing the motion of a mixture under near-critical conditions. Main differential equations of a flow in a channel are given; in particular, the differential laws of variation of the effective diameters of drops in the nucleus as a result of mass exchange between the mixture components are singled out. Questions of concretization of the model are discussed. The conditions for the attainment of the maximum rate of flow of the gas through the channel are studied, as well as the effect of the flow prehistory on the formation of critical conditions in the outlet cross-section.

  9. Some neutron scattering studies on magnetic and molecular phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevaart, L.

    1978-01-01

    In this thesis neutron-scattering investigations on two different systems are described. The first study is concerned with the magnetic ordering phenomena in pseudo two-dimensional (d = 2), two-component antiferromagnets K 2 Mnsub(1-x)Msub(x)F 4 (M = Fe, Co), as a function of the composition x and temperature T. For one of the samples in this series, K 2 Musub(0.978)Fesub(0.022)F 4 , the influence of an external magnetic field on the ordering characteristics was studied in addition. The second study deals with the rotational motions of the NH 4 + groups in NH 4 ZnF 3 in relation with the structural phase transition at Tsub(c) = 115.1 K. The experimental techniques were chosen according to the requirements of each of these two subjects. The former study was carried out by observing the elastic magnetic neutron scattering with a double-axis diffractometer, whereas for the latter study time-of-flight (TOF) techniques were applied to observe the inelastic and quasi-elastic incoherent neutron scattering by the protons of the rotating NH 4 + groups. (Auth.)

  10. Development of a generalized correlation for phase-velocity measurements obtained from impedance-probe pairs in two-phase flow systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, C.T.; Keshock, E.G.; McGill, R.N.

    1983-01-01

    A flag type electrical impedance probe has been developed at the Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) to measure liquid- and vapor-phase velocities in steam-water mixtures flowing through rod bundles. Measurements are made by utilizing the probes in pairs, installed in line, parallel to the flow direction, and extending out into the flow channel. The present study addresses performance difficulties by examining from a fundamental point of view the two-phase flow system which the impedance probes typically operate in. Specifically, the governing equations (continuity, momentum, energy) were formulated for both air-water and steam-water systems, and then subjected to a scaling analysis. The scaling analysis yielded the appropriate dimensionless parameters of significance in both kinds of systems. Additionally, with the aid of experimental data obtained at ORNL, those parameters of significant magnitude were established. As a result, a generalized correlation was developed for liquid and vapor phase velocities that makes it possible to employ the impedance probe velocity measurement technique in a wide variety of test configurations and fluid combinations

  11. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Indian Institute of Dalit Studies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This funding will enhance the Indian Institute of Dalit Studies' (IIDS) role as a credible public policy institution in India by strengthening its ability to provide high-quality, influential, and policy-relevant research. About the Indian Institute of Dalit Studies IIDS is a social sciences research centre with a focus on development ...

  12. Modelling study of magnetic and concentration phase transition in ultrathin antiferromagnetic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonid, Afremov; Aleksandr, Petrov

    2014-01-01

    Using the method of the ''average spin'' a modelling study of magnetic and concentration phase transition in ultrathin antiferromagnetic of different crystalline structure has been carried out. It has been shown, that relative change of Neel temperature is subject to the power law with negative index which doesn't depend on the film's crystal kind. The calculation of the dependence of phase transition critical concentration in diluted magnetic material on the film thickness has been made out. The legitimacy of the use of the method developed for modelling of magnetic and concentration phase transition in different nanostructures is certified by accordance between the results of calculations and the experimental data

  13. Study of two-phase flow redistribution between two passes of a heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes de Moura, L.F.

    1989-04-01

    The object of the present thesis deals with the study of two-phase flow redistribution between two passes of a heat exchanger. Mass flow rate measurements of each component performed at each channel outlet of the second pass allowed us to determine the influence of mass flow, gas quality, flow direction (upward or downward) and common header geometry upon flow redistribution. Local void fraction inside common header was measured with an optical probe. A two-dimensional two-phase flow computational code was developed from a two-fluid model. Modelling of interfacial momentum transfer was used in order to take into account twp-phase flow patterns in common headers. Numerical simulation results show qualitative agreement with experimental results. Present theoretical model limitations are analysed and future improvements are proposed [fr

  14. Studies of cluster-assembled materials: From gas phase to condensed phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lin

    . After being mass gated in a reflectron equipped time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) and deposited onto TEM grids, the resultant specimens can be loaded onto high-resolution TEM investigation via electron diffraction. In conclusion, soft-landing of mass selected clusters has been shown to be a successful approach to obtain structural information on Zr-Met-Car cluster-assembled materials collected from the gas phase. TEM images indicate the richness of the morphologies associated with these cluster crystals. However, passivation methods are expected to be examined further to overcome the limited stabilities of these novel clusters. From this initial study, it's shown the promising opportunity to study other Met-Cars species and more cluster-based materials. Experimental results of reactions run with a solvothermal synthesis method obtained while searching for new Zr-C cluster assembled materials, are reported. One unexpected product in single crystal form was isolated and tentatively identified by X-ray diffraction to be [Zr6i O(OH)O12·2(Bu)4], with space group P2 1/n and lattice parameters of a = 12.44 A, b = 22.06 A, c = 18.40 A, alpha = 90°, beta = 105°, gamma = 90°, V = 4875 A3 and R 1 = 3.15% for the total observed data (I ≥ 2 sigma I) and oR2 = 2.82%. This novel hexanuclear Zr(IV)-oxo-hydroxide cluster anion may be the first member in polyoxometalates class with metal atoms from the IVB group and having Oh symmetry. Alternatively, it may be the first member in {[(Zr6Z)X 12]X6}m- class with halides replaced by oxo- and hydroxyl groups and with an increased oxidation state of Zr. It is predicted to bear application potentials directed by both families. This work could suggest a direction in which the preparation of Zr-C cluster-assembled materials in a liquid environment may be eventually fulfilled. 1,3-Bis(diethylphosphino)propane (depp) protected small gold clusters are studied via multiple techniques, including Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

  15. 400-MWe Consolidated Nuclear Steam System (CNSS). 1200-MWt Phase 2A interim studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    The Phase 2A interim studies of the Consolidated Nuclear Steam System (CNSS) consisted of a number of separate task studies addressing the design concepts developed during the Phase 1 study reported in BAW--1445. The purpose of the interim studies was to better establish overall concept feasibility from both a hardware and economic standpoint, to make modification and additions to the design where appropriate, and to understand and reduce the technical risks in critical areas of the design. The work on these task studies included input from Barberton, Mt. Vernon, and the Alliance Research Center as well as United Engineers and Constructors (UE and C). The UE and C work was carried out under a separate DOE contract

  16. 400-MWe Consolidated Nuclear Steam System (CNSS). 1200-MWt Phase 2A interim studies. [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    The Phase 2A interim studies of the Consolidated Nuclear Steam System (CNSS) consisted of a number of separate task studies addressing the design concepts developed during the Phase 1 study reported in BAW--1445. The purpose of the interim studies was to better establish overall concept feasibility from both a hardware and economic standpoint, to make modification and additions to the design where appropriate, and to understand and reduce the technical risks in critical areas of the design. The work on these task studies included input from Barberton, Mt. Vernon, and the Alliance Research Center as well as United Engineers and Constructors (UE and C). The UE and C work was carried out under a separate DOE contract.

  17. Development of a Microphone Phased Array Capability for the Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, William M.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Bahr, Christopher J.; Spalt, Taylor B.; Bartram, Scott M.; Culliton, William G.; Becker, Lawrence E.

    2014-01-01

    A new aeroacoustic measurement capability has been developed for use in open-jet testing in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel (14x22 tunnel). A suite of instruments has been developed to characterize noise source strengths, locations, and directivity for both semi-span and full-span test articles in the facility. The primary instrument of the suite is a fully traversable microphone phased array for identification of noise source locations and strengths on models. The array can be mounted in the ceiling or on either side of the facility test section to accommodate various test article configurations. Complementing the phased array is an ensemble of streamwise traversing microphones that can be placed around the test section at defined locations to conduct noise source directivity studies along both flyover and sideline axes. A customized data acquisition system has been developed for the instrumentation suite that allows for command and control of all aspects of the array and microphone hardware, and is coupled with a comprehensive data reduction system to generate information in near real time. This information includes such items as time histories and spectral data for individual microphones and groups of microphones, contour presentations of noise source locations and strengths, and hemispherical directivity data. The data acquisition system integrates with the 14x22 tunnel data system to allow real time capture of facility parameters during acquisition of microphone data. The design of the phased array system has been vetted via a theoretical performance analysis based on conventional monopole beamforming and DAMAS deconvolution. The performance analysis provides the ability to compute figures of merit for the array as well as characterize factors such as beamwidths, sidelobe levels, and source discrimination for the types of noise sources anticipated in the 14x22 tunnel. The full paper will summarize in detail the design of the instrumentation

  18. Stories of change: The case of a foundation phase teacher professional development programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Brown

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study reported in this article responds to the need for empirical studies that provide evidence of positive change in education at the micro-level of the classroom – an important component of the complex education environment in South Africa. This article describes teachers’ and principals’ reports of micro-level changes that occurred during a professional development programme for foundation phase teachers at a South African university. An overview of the principles underpinning the programme design and implementation is given, followed by a description of the qualitative research design and grounded theory methodology used to research changes in the practices of teachers participating in the programme. The study provides evidence of changes in the classroom and professional practice of the teachers, aligned with changes in academic practice and children’s learning in the classroom. We argue that the programme’s strong orientation to practice, its focus on teachers’ understanding of children, and the model of teacher professional development that is located in reflexive practice together may have facilitated positive changes in the teachers’ practices.

  19. Transverse emittance and phase space program developed for use at the Fermilab A0 Photoinjector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurman-Keup, R.; Johnson, A.S.; Lumpkin, A.H.; Ruan, J.

    2011-01-01

    The Fermilab A0 Photoinjector is a 16 MeV high intensity, high brightness electron linac developed for advanced accelerator R and D. One of the key parameters for the electron beam is the transverse beam emittance. Here we report on a newly developed MATLAB based GUI program used for transverse emittance measurements using the multi-slit technique. This program combines the image acquisition and post-processing tools for determining the transverse phase space parameters with uncertainties. An integral part of accelerator research is a measurement of the beam phase space. Measurements of the transverse phase space can be accomplished by a variety of methods including multiple screens separated by drift spaces, or by sampling phase space via pepper pots or slits. In any case, the measurement of the phase space parameters, in particular the emittance, can be drastically simplified and sped up by automating the measurement in an intuitive fashion utilizing a graphical interface. At the A0 Photoinjector (A0PI), the control system is DOOCS, which originated at DESY. In addition, there is a library for interfacing to MATLAB, a graphically capable numerical analysis package sold by The Mathworks. It is this graphical package which was chosen as the basis for a graphical phase space measurement system due to its combination of analysis and display capabilities.

  20. Relationship between Acute Phase of Chronic Periodontitis and Meteorological Factors in the Maintenance Phase of Periodontal Treatment: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Noriko; Ekuni, Daisuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Morita, Manabu

    2015-08-05

    The acute phase of chronic periodontitis may occur even in patients during supportive periodontal therapy. However, the details are not fully understood. Since the natural environment, including meteorology affects human health, we hypothesized that weather conditions may affect occurrence of acute phase of chronic periodontitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between weather conditions and acute phase of chronic periodontitis in patients under supportive periodontal therapy. Patients who were diagnosed with acute phase of chronic periodontitis under supportive periodontal therapy during 2011-2013 were selected for this study. We performed oral examinations and collected questionnaires and meteorological data. Of 369 patients who experienced acute phase of chronic periodontitis, 153 had acute phase of chronic periodontitis without direct-triggered episodes. When using the autoregressive integrated moving average model of time-series analysis, the independent covariant of maximum hourly range of barometric pressure, maximum hourly range of temperature, and maximum daily wind speed were significantly associated with occurrence of acute phase of chronic periodontitis (p chronic periodontitis.

  1. Phase 2 study of sodium phenylbutyrate in ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudkowicz, Merit E; Andres, Patricia L; Macdonald, Sally A; Bedlack, Richard S; Choudry, Rabia; Brown, Robert H; Zhang, Hui; Schoenfeld, David A; Shefner, Jeremy; Matson, Samantha; Matson, Wayne R; Ferrante, Robert J

    2009-04-01

    The objective of the study was to establish the safety and pharmacodynamics of escalating dosages of sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB) in participants with ALS. Transcription dysregulation may play a role in the pathogenesis of ALS. Sodium phenylbutyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, improves transcription and post-transcriptional pathways, promoting cell survival in a mouse model of motor neuron disease. Forty research participants at eight sites enrolled in an open-label study. Study medication was increased from 9 to 21 g/day. The primary outcome measure was tolerability. Secondary outcome measures included adverse events, blood histone acetylation levels, and NaPB blood levels at each dosage. Twenty-six participants completed the 20-week treatment phase. NaPB was safe and tolerable. No study deaths or clinically relevant laboratory changes occurred with NaPB treatment. Histone acetylation was decreased by approximately 50% in blood buffy-coat specimens at screening and was significantly increased after NaPB administration. Blood levels of NaPB and the primary metabolite, phenylacetate, increased with dosage. While the majority of subjects tolerated higher dosages of NaPB, the lowest dose (9 g/day), was therapeutically efficient in improving histone acetylation levels.

  2. Mechanical properties examined by nanoindentation for selected phases relevant to the development of monolithic uranium-molybdenum metallic fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, Ryan; Park, Youngjoo; Mehta, Abhishek [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, 32826 (United States); Keiser, Dennis [Nuclear Fuels and Materials Division, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID, 83402 (United States); Sohn, Yongho, E-mail: Yongho.Sohn@ucf.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, 32826 (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Nanomechanical properties, specifically the reduced modulus and hardness of several intermetallic and solid solution phases are reported to assist the development of the U-10 wt% Mo (U-10Mo) monolithic fuel system for research and test reactors. Findings from this study and reported values of mechanical properties provide data critical for understanding and predicting the structural behavior of the fuel system during fabrication and irradiation. The phases examined are products of interdiffusion and reaction between (1) the AA6061 cladding and the Zr diffusion barrier, namely (Al,Si){sub 3}Zr and Al{sub 3}Zr, (2) the U-10Mo fuel and the Zr diffusion barrier, namely UZr{sub 2}, Mo{sub 2}Zr, and α-U, and (3) the U (or U-10Mo) and Mo, namely a mixture gradient of α- and γ-phases. The UC inclusions observed within the fuel alloy were also examined. Only phases present in thick or continuous microstructure on cross-sectioned fuel plates and diffusion couples were investigated for reduced modulus and hardness. Concentration-dependence of room-temperature reduced modulus in U solid solution with 0–10 wt% Mo was semi-quantitatively modeled based on mixture of α- and γ-phases and solid solutioning within the γ-phase.

  3. Development of New Correlation and Assessment of Correlations for Two-Phase Pressure Drop in Rectangular Microchannels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chi Woong; Yu, Dong In; Kim, Moo Hwan

    2010-01-01

    There are two kinds of models in two-phase pressured drop; homogeneous flow model and separated flow model. Many previous researchers have developed correlations for two-phase pressure drop in a microchannel. Most correlations were modified Lockhart and Martinelli's correlation, which was based on the separated flow model. In this study, experiments for adiabatic liquid water and nitrogen gas flow in rectangular microchannels were conducted to investigate two-phase pressure drop in the rectangular microchannels. Two-phase frictional pressure drop in the rectangular microchannels is highly related with flow regime. Homogeneous model with six two-phase viscosity models: Owen(21)'s, MacAdams(22)'s, Cicchitti et al.(23)'s, Dukler et al.(24)'s, Beattie and Whalley(25)'s, Lin et al.(26)'s models and six separated flow models: Lockhart and Martinelli(27)'s, Chisholm(31)'s, Zhang et al.(15)'s, Lee and Lee(5)'s, Moriyama and Inue(4)'s, Qu and Mudawar(8)'s models were assessed with our experimental data. The best two-phase viscosity model is Beattie and Whalley's model. The best separated flow model is Qu and Mudawar's correlation. Flow regime dependency in both homogeneous and separated flow models was observed. Therefore, new flow pattern based correlations for both homogeneous and separated flow models were individually proposed

  4. Mechanical properties examined by nanoindentation for selected phases relevant to the development of monolithic uranium-molybdenum metallic fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Ryan; Park, Youngjoo; Mehta, Abhishek; Keiser, Dennis; Sohn, Yongho

    2017-04-01

    Nanomechanical properties, specifically the reduced modulus and hardness of several intermetallic and solid solution phases are reported to assist the development of the U-10 wt% Mo (U-10Mo) monolithic fuel system for research and test reactors. Findings from this study and reported values of mechanical properties provide data critical for understanding and predicting the structural behavior of the fuel system during fabrication and irradiation. The phases examined are products of interdiffusion and reaction between (1) the AA6061 cladding and the Zr diffusion barrier, namely (Al,Si)3Zr and Al3Zr, (2) the U-10Mo fuel and the Zr diffusion barrier, namely UZr2, Mo2Zr, and α-U, and (3) the U (or U-10Mo) and Mo, namely a mixture gradient of α- and γ-phases. The UC inclusions observed within the fuel alloy were also examined. Only phases present in thick or continuous microstructure on cross-sectioned fuel plates and diffusion couples were investigated for reduced modulus and hardness. Concentration-dependence of room-temperature reduced modulus in U solid solution with 0-10 wt% Mo was semi-quantitatively modeled based on mixture of α- and γ-phases and solid solutioning within the γ-phase.

  5. Review of Development Survey of Phase Change Material Models in Building Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein J. Akeiber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of phase change materials (PCMs in green buildings has been increasing rapidly. PCM applications in green buildings include several development models. This paper briefly surveys the recent research and development activities of PCM technology in building applications. Firstly, a basic description of phase change and their principles is provided; the classification and applications of PCMs are also included. Secondly, PCM models in buildings are reviewed and discussed according to the wall, roof, floor, and cooling systems. Finally, conclusions are presented based on the collected data.

  6. Feasibility study of an Integrated Program for Aerospace-vehicle Design (IPAD) system. Volume 6: Implementation schedule, development costs, operational costs, benefit assessment, impact on company organization, spin-off assessment, phase 1, tasks 3 to 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrocq, C. A.; Hurley, M. J.; Dublin, M.

    1973-01-01

    A baseline implementation plan, including alternative implementation approaches for critical software elements and variants to the plan, was developed. The basic philosophy was aimed at: (1) a progressive release of capability for three major computing systems, (2) an end product that was a working tool, (3) giving participation to industry, government agencies, and universities, and (4) emphasizing the development of critical elements of the IPAD framework software. The results of these tasks indicate an IPAD first release capability 45 months after go-ahead, a five year total implementation schedule, and a total developmental cost of 2027 man-months and 1074 computer hours. Several areas of operational cost increases were identified mainly due to the impact of additional equipment needed and additional computer overhead. The benefits of an IPAD system were related mainly to potential savings in engineering man-hours, reduction of design-cycle calendar time, and indirect upgrading of product quality and performance.

  7. Phases of polymer systems in solution studied via molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Joshua Allen [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Polymers are amazingly versatile molecules with a tremendous range of applications. Our lives would be very different without them. There would be no multitudes of plastic encased electronic gizmos, no latex paint on the walls and no rubber tires, just to name a few of the many commonplace polymer materials. In fact, life as we know it wouldn’t exist without polymers as two of the most essential types of molecules central to cellular life, Proteins and DNA, are both polymers! [1] With their wide range of application to a variety of uses, polymers are still a very active field in basic research. Of particular current interest is the idea of combining polymers with inorganic particles to form novel composite materials. [2] As computers are becoming faster, they are becoming all the more powerful tools for modeling and simulating real systems. With recent advances in computing on graphics processing units (GPUs) [3–7], questions can now be answered via simulation that could not even be asked before. This thesis focuses on the use of computer simulations to model novel polymerinorganic composite systems in order to predict what possible phases can form and under what conditions. The goal is to provide some direction for future experiments and to gain a deeper understanding of the fundamental physics involved. Along the way, there are some interesting and essential side-tracks in the areas of equilibrating complicated phases and accelerating the available computer power with GPU computing, both of which are necessary steps to enable the study of polymer nanocomposites.

  8. Investigation of the resistive phase in high power gas switching. Research and development report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Rourke, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical study was made of the resistive phase in high pressure gas switching with the regime of interest being (10 to 50) kV from (1J, 10ns, 100KHz) to (100J, 10μs, 1KHz). The resistive phase was examined as a function of applied field, gap spacing, inductance, gas type and pressure, and electrode material. The initiating and quenching phases as regards system performance (e.g., the jitter problem) were examined. The cooling and electrode debris removal effects of the vortex gas flow on the operating characteristics of the system were considered

  9. Enginnering development of coal-fired high performance power systems phase II and III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report presents work carried out under contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 ''Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High Performance Systems Phase II and III.'' The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) >47%; NOx, SOx, and particulates 65% of heat input; all solid wastes benign; cost of electricity <90% of present plants. Phase I, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase I also included preliminary R ampersand D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This phase, Phase II, involves the development and testing of plant subsystems, refinement and updating of the HIPPS commercial plant design, and the site selection and engineering design of a HIPPS prototype plant. Work reported herein is from: Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; Task 6 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design Update

  10. Calorimetric Study of Phase Transitions Involving Twist-Grain-Boundary TGB{A} and TGB{C} Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navailles, L.; Garland, C. W.; Nguyen, H. T.

    1996-09-01

    High-resolution calorimetry has been used to determine the heat capacity and latent heat associated with phase transitions in the homologous series of chiral liquid crystals nF_2BTFO_1M_7 [ 3-fluoro-4(1-methylheptyloxy)4'-(4''-alkoxy-2'', 3''-difluorobenzoyloxy)tolane] . These compounds exhibit smectic-C^* (SmC^*), twist-grain-boundary (TGBA for n=10, TGBC for n=11, 12) and cholesteric (N^*) phases. All the phase transitions are first order with small to moderate latent heats. There is a large rounded excess heat capacity peak in the N^* phase that is consistent with the predicted appearance of short-range TGB order (chiral line liquid character). This is analogous to the development of an Abrikosov flux vortex liquid in type-II superconductors. Both the n=11 and 12 homologs exhibit two closely spaced transitions in the region where a single TGBC - N^* transition was expected. This suggests the existence of two thermodynamically distinct TGBC phases. Des exprériences de calorimétrie haute résolution ont été réalisées pour déterminer les chaleurs spécifiques et les chaleurs latentes associées aux transitions de phase des homologues de la série crystal liquide nF_2BTFO_1M_7: 3-fluoro-4[1-methyl-heptyloxy]4'-(4''-alcoxy-2'', 3''-difluorobenzoyloxy)tolanes. Ces produits présentent la phase smectique C^* (SmC^*), les phases à torsion par joint de grain (TGBA pour n=10 et TGBC pour n=11, 12) et la phase cholestérique (N^*). Toutes les transitions de phase sont du premier ordre. La chaleur latente associée à ces transitions est faibles ou modérée. Nous observons, dans la phase N^*, un grand pic arrondi qui est en accord avec les prédictions de l'apparition d'un ordre TGB à courte distance (liquide de ligne de dislocation). Ce phénomène est l'analogue du liquide de vortex dans les supraconducteurs de type II. Les composés n=11 et 12 présentent, dans la région où nous attendions une transition TGBC - N^* unique, deux transitions sur un très faible

  11. Study supporting the phasing out of environmentally harmful subsidies. Annexes to Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withana, S.; Ten Brink, P.; Franckx, L.; Hirschnitz-Garbers, M.; Mayeres, I.; Oosterhuis, F.; Porsch, L.

    2012-10-15

    The need to reform ineffective or harmful public subsidies has long been recognised and has been a contentious point of discussion for several years. The EU has a long-standing commitment to removing or phasing out environmentally harmful subsidies (EHS). Most recently, the need to phase out EHS is reiterated in the 'Roadmap for a resource efficient Europe' which includes a milestone that 'by 2020 EHS will be phased out, with due regard to the impact on people in need'. Despite several commitments, progress has been slow and subsidies remain an issue in most EU countries. This study focuses specifically on EHS at the level of EU Member States; it identifies key types of EHS and examines cases of existing EHS across a range of environmental sectors and issues, including subsidies from non-action. The study also analyses examples of good practices in the reform of EHS in EU Member States and the lessons that can be learnt from these cases. Finally, based on this analysis, it develops practical recommendations on phasing out and reforming EHS to support the objectives of the Europe 2020 Strategy and the resource efficiency agenda. The study was carried out between January and October 2012 and is based on an analysis of literature and consultation with experts and policy makers. The sectoral cases studied are listed and discussed in this annex report: agriculture, climate and energy, fisheries, food, forestry, materials, transport, waste, and water.

  12. Early phase in e-money development: from Edvard Bellamy to Frank Macknamary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.S. Vysochan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the phases of e-money development from the first mentioning of «a credit card» in literary sources to the appearance of Diners Club which preceded modern credit cards. The author has used the historical and geographic method for the decomposition of the early phase in the e-money development concerning the basic motives that induced emitters to develop and implement particular credit-payment systems. The article singles out three stages within the early phase of the e-money development, namely, the beginning of the ХХ-th century (supplying with short-term credits to obtain consumer’s goods, from 1920 to 1940 (guarantee of consumer’s loyalty to a brand, increasing the safety of clearing transactions by payer’s authorization, and 1950-ies (the use of the same credit for payment to various enterprises. It establishes the main features of the early phase in the e-money development; they are such as the absence of the necessary technical supply; emission, sale, guaranty on credits, on the cards issued take place outside the banking system; the lack of corporation credit card segment; the limitation of the application area; the low level of safety of the transactions accomplished.

  13. Study of effect of chromium on titanium dioxide phase transformation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    the other hand, the effect of solution pH in phase stability .... pore size of anatase phase decreases with increase of ... range of 0–200 °C, corresponding to desorption of water .... The correlation revealed a straight line with a slope equal to 1 for ...

  14. Phase I and II feasibility study report for the 300-FF-5 operable unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of this Phase I/II feasibility study is to assemble and screen a list of alternatives for remediation of the 300-FF-5 operable site on the Hanford Reservation. This screening is based on information gathered in the Phase I Remedial Investigation (RI) and on currently available information on remediation technologies. The alternatives remaining after screening provide a range of response actions for remediation. In addition, key data needs are identified for collection during a Phase II RI (if necessary). This Phase I/II FS represents a primary document as defined by the Tri-Party Agreement, but will be followed by a Phase III FS that will further develop the alternatives and provide a detailed evaluation of them. The following remedial action objectives were identified for the 300-FF-5 operable unit: Limit current human exposure to contaminated groundwater in the unit; Limit discharge of contaminated groundwater to the Columbia River; Reduce contaminant concentrations in groundwater below acceptable levels by the year 2018.

  15. Phase I and II feasibility study report for the 300-FF-5 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this Phase I/II feasibility study is to assemble and screen a list of alternatives for remediation of the 300-FF-5 operable site on the Hanford Reservation. This screening is based on information gathered in the Phase I Remedial Investigation (RI) and on currently available information on remediation technologies. The alternatives remaining after screening provide a range of response actions for remediation. In addition, key data needs are identified for collection during a Phase II RI (if necessary). This Phase I/II FS represents a primary document as defined by the Tri-Party Agreement, but will be followed by a Phase III FS that will further develop the alternatives and provide a detailed evaluation of them. The following remedial action objectives were identified for the 300-FF-5 operable unit: Limit current human exposure to contaminated groundwater in the unit; Limit discharge of contaminated groundwater to the Columbia River; Reduce contaminant concentrations in groundwater below acceptable levels by the year 2018

  16. NASA Research Announcement Phase 1 Report and Phase 2 Proposal for the Development of a Power Assisted Space Suit Glove Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadogan, Dave; Lingo, Bob

    1996-01-01

    In July of 1996, ILC Dover was awarded Phase 1 of a contract for NASA to develop a prototype Power Assisted Space Suit glove to enhance the performance of astronauts during Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). This report summarizes the work performed to date on Phase 1, and details the work to be conducted on Phase 2 of the program. Phase 1 of the program consisted of research and review of related technical sources, concept brainstorming, baseline design development, modeling and analysis, component mock-up testing, and test data analysis. ILC worked in conjunction with the University of Maryland's Space Systems Laboratory (SSL) to develop the power assisted glove. Phase 2 activities will focus on the design maturation and the manufacture of a working prototype system. The prototype will be tested and evaluated in conjunction with existing space suit glove technology to determine the performance enhancement anticipated with the implementation of the power assisted joint technology in space suit gloves.

  17. Thermodynamic study of the mixed phase in YBa_2Cu_3O_7_-_δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouquet, Frederic

    1998-01-01

    The mixed phase of type II superconductors is characterised by the existence of vortices of supercurrent that each enclose a magnetic flux quantum. Whereas the vortices order themselves in a lattice for most fields and temperatures in the mixed phase of conventional superconductors, the phase diagram for the high critical temperature superconductors is much more complex. We present here a thermodynamic study of the system of vortices for YBa_2Cu_30_7_-_δ, mainly based on specific heat experiments, but also on magnetisation measurements. To carry out the experimental work a modulated temperature calorimeter was developed, allowing us to achieve a very good resolution over a wide range of magnetic field. Our results confirm the existence of a first order thermodynamic transition in the mixed phase. We also present an original way to test the presence of a possible hysteresis associated with this transition by exploiting the oscillatory principle of our technique. The question of the existence of a low temperature high field vortex phase is discussed. Above a characteristic field B_c_r, which can reach very high values depending on the sample (up to 26 T), we find the latent heat associated with the first order transition disappears and the transition becomes continuous. By performing both magnetisation and specific heat experiments we show that Ber is related to pinning of the vortices. The existence of a third thermodynamically stable vortex phase at high field, different from the two phases at low field separated by the first order transition, does not seem to be compatible with our data. (author) [fr

  18. Study on the Microstructure and Liquid Phase Formation in a Semisolid Gray Cast Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benati, Davi Munhoz; Ito, Kazuhiro; Kohama, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Hajime; Zoqui, Eugenio José

    2017-10-01

    The development of high-quality semisolid raw materials requires an understanding of the phase transformations that occur as the material is heated up to the semisolid state, i.e., its melting behavior. The microstructure of the material plays a very important role during semisolid processing as it determines the flow behavior of the material when it is formed, making a thorough understanding of the microstructural evolution essential. In this study, the phase transformations and microstructural evolution in Fe2.5C1.5Si gray cast iron specially designed for thixoforming processes as it was heated to the semisolid state were observed using in situ high-temperature confocal laser scanning microscopy. At room temperature, the alloy has a matrix of pearlite and ferrite with fine interdendritic type D flake graphite. During heating, the main transformations observed were graphite precipitation inside the grains and at the austenite grain boundaries; graphite flakes and graphite precipitates growing and becoming coarser with the increasing temperature; and the beginning of melting at around 1413 K to 1423 K (1140 °C to 1150 °C). Melting begins with the eutectic phase ( i.e., the carbon-rich phase) and continues with the primary phase (primary austenite), which is consumed as the temperature increases. Melting of the eutectic phase composed by coarsened interdendritic graphite flakes produced a semi-continuous liquid network homogeneously surrounding and wetting the dendrites of the solid phase, causing grains to detach from each other and producing the intended solid globules immersed in liquid.

  19. Growth Phase, Oxygen, Temperature and Starvation Affect the Development of Viable but Non-Culturable State of Vibrio cholerae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin eWu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractVibrio cholerae can enter into a viable but non-culturable (VBNC state in order to survive in unfavourable environments. In this study, we studied the roles of five physicochemical and microbiological factors or states, namely, different strains, growth phases, oxygen, temperature, and starvation, on the development of VBNC of V. cholerae in artificial sea water (ASW. Different strains of the organism, the growth phase, and oxygen levels affected the progress of VBNC development. It was found that the VBNC state was induced faster in V. cholerae serogroup O1 classical biotype strain O395 than in O1 El Tor biotype strains C6706 and N16961. When cells in different growth phases were used for VBNC induction, stationary-phase cells lost their culturability more quickly than exponential-phase cells, while induction of a totally non-culturable state took longer to achieve for stationary-phase cells in all three strains, suggesting that heterogeneity of cells should be considered. Aeration strongly accelerated the loss of culturability. During the development of the VBNC state, the culturable cell count under aeration conditions was almost 106-fold lower than under oxygen-limited conditions for all three strains. The other two factors, temperature and nutrients-rich environment, may prevent the induction of VBNC cells. At 22°C or 37°C in ASW, most of the cells rapidly died and the culturable cell count reduced from about 108 CFU/mL to 106–105 CFU/mL. The total cell counts showed that cells that lost viability were decomposed, and the viable cell counts were the same as culturable cell counts, indicating that the cells did not reach the VBNC state. VBNC state development was blocked when ASW was supplied with Luria-Bertani broth (LB, but it was not affected in ASW with M9, suggesting that specific nutrients in LB may prevent the development of VBNC state. These results revealed that the five factors evaluated in this study had different

  20. Development of a EIT Measurement System for Image Reconstruction of Two-Phase Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, Jong Kwan

    2000-02-01

    In the thermal-hydraulic system of a nuclear power plant as well as in many engineering areas, it is common to encounter the two-phase flow phenomenon. It is essential to understand the mechanism of the two-phase flow for the analysis and design of the relevant systems. To obtain the detail information on air bubbles moving in the two-phase flow many various experiments have been attempted. One of them is the EIT (Electrical Impedance Tomography) method, which is getting popular in recent days. The EIT is less expensive than other methods because the system is relatively simple and easy to construct compared to other methods. Nowadays it becomes one of the reliable and efficient methods for estimating the inner structure of the given object and has a wide spectrum of applications in various fields. Especially, even though the spatial resolution of EIT is inferior to those of X-ray and MRI, its temporal resolution is excellent. And its small size and easiness to operate provides itself with the portability. For these reasons, the EIT is properly used in the medical field as an complementary equipment and its use will be expanded in the future. The EIT technology in the area of nuclear energy is suitable for studying the two-phase flow which is necessary for designing the thermal hydraulic system because it can reduce the uncertainty of information. The EIT is also so fast to get the result data during the experiment that it is possible to apply it to the thermal hydraulic system in which the physical process is usually fast. Although the EIT is apply to the complicated structure of rod bundle, its basic principles are the same as of the simple geometrical structure. The adaptation of EIT to the two-phase flow of complicated geometrical structure gives the superior results to those of other methods and it is possible to use it in the reactor thermal hydraulic system as a monitoring equipment. However, even the application fields of the EIT are very wide and its

  1. Local Cloudiness Development Forecast Based on Simulation of Solid Phase Formation Processes in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barodka, Siarhei; Kliutko, Yauhenia; Krasouski, Alexander; Papko, Iryna; Svetashev, Alexander; Turishev, Leonid

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays numerical simulation of thundercloud formation processes is of great interest as an actual problem from the practical point of view. Thunderclouds significantly affect airplane flights, and mesoscale weather forecast has much to contribute to facilitate the aviation forecast procedures. An accurate forecast can certainly help to avoid aviation accidents due to weather conditions. The present study focuses on modelling of the convective clouds development and thunder clouds detection on the basis of mesoscale atmospheric processes simulation, aiming at significantly improving the aeronautical forecast. In the analysis, the primary weather radar information has been used to be further adapted for mesoscale forecast systems. Two types of domains have been selected for modelling: an internal one (with radius of 8 km), and an external one (with radius of 300 km). The internal domain has been directly applied to study the local clouds development, and the external domain data has been treated as initial and final conditions for cloud cover formation. The domain height has been chosen according to the civil aviation forecast data (i.e. not exceeding 14 km). Simulations of weather conditions and local clouds development have been made within selected domains with the WRF modelling system. In several cases, thunderclouds are detected within the convective clouds. To specify the given category of clouds, we employ a simulation technique of solid phase formation processes in the atmosphere. Based on modelling results, we construct vertical profiles indicating the amount of solid phase in the atmosphere. Furthermore, we obtain profiles demonstrating the amount of ice particles and large particles (hailstones). While simulating the processes of solid phase formation, we investigate vertical and horizontal air flows. Consequently, we attempt to separate the total amount of solid phase into categories of small ice particles, large ice particles and hailstones. Also, we

  2. The development of a model to study the thermal behaviour of the coolant in the blind elements of a fast sodium-cooled breeder in the case of a severe hypothetical accident during the initial phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genter, G.

    1981-03-01

    The enthalpy level of the coolant is studied in the interior of gaps and special elements of a fast sodium coded breeder reactor during the initial and the final stages of a hypothetical accident. For this purpose numerical models are presented to calculate the heat transport in the special element on the basis of heat conduction and axial convection. (orig./RW) [de

  3. Metal hydride/chemical heat-pump development project. Phase I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argabright, T.A.

    1982-02-01

    The metal hydride/chemical heat pump (MHHP) is a chemical heat pump containing two hydrides for the storage and/or recovery of thermal energy. It utilizes the heat of reaction of hydrogen with specific metal alloys. The MHHP design can be tailored to provide heating and/or cooling or temperature upgrading over a wide range of input and ambient temperatures. The system can thus be used with a variety of heat sources including waste heat, solar energy or a fossil fuel. The conceptual design of the MHHP was developed. A national market survey including a study of applications and market sectors was conducted. The technical tasks including conceptual development, thermal and mechanical design, laboratory verification of design and material performance, cost analysis and the detailed design of the Engineering Development Test Unit (EDTU) were performed. As a result of the market study, the temperature upgrade cycle of the MHHP was chosen for development. Operating temperature ranges for the upgrader were selected to be from 70 to 110/sup 0/C (160 to 230/sup 0/F) for the source heat and 140 to 190/sup 0/C (280 to 375/sup 0/F) for the product heat. These ranges are applicable to many processes in industries such as food, textile, paper and pulp, and chemical. The hydride pair well suited for these temperatures is LaNi/sub 5//LaNi/sub 4/ /sub 5/Al/sub 0/ /sub 5/. The EDTU was designed for the upgrade cycle. It is a compact finned tube arrangement enclosed in a pressure vessel. This design incorporates high heat transfer and low thermal mass in a system which maximizes the coefficient of performance (COP). It will be constructed in Phase II. Continuation of this effort is recommended.

  4. Study of Phase Change Materials Applied to CPV Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zun-Hao Shih

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are lots of factors which can directly affect output efficiency of photovoltaic device. One of them is high temperature which would cause adverse effect to solar cell. When solar cell is operated in high temperature, the cell’s output efficiency will become low. Therefore, improving thermal spreading of solar cell is an important issue. In this study, we focused on finding new materials to enhance the thermal dispreading and keep the temperature of solar cell as low as possible. The new materials are different from conventional metal ones; they are called “phase change materials (PCMs” which are mainly applied to green buildings. We chose two kinds of PSMs to study their thermal dispreading ability and to compare them with traditional aluminum material. These two kinds of PCMs are wax and lauric acid. We made three aluminum-based cuboids as heat sinking units and two of them were designed with hollow space to fill in the PCMs. We applied electric forward bias on solar cells to simulate the heat contributed from the concentrated sunlight. Then we observed the thermal distribution of these three kinds of thermal spreading materials. Two levels of forward biases were chosen to test the samples and analyze the experiment results.

  5. Phase field model for the study of boiling; Modele de champ de phase pour l'etude de l'ebullition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruyer, P

    2006-07-15

    This study concerns both the modeling and the numerical simulation of boiling flows. First we propose a review concerning nucleate boiling at high wall heat flux and focus more particularly on the current understanding of the boiling crisis. From this analysis we deduce a motivation for the numerical simulation of bubble growth dynamics. The main and remaining part of this study is then devoted to the development and analyze of a phase field model for the liquid-vapor flows with phase change. We propose a thermodynamic quasi-compressible formulation whose properties match the one required for the numerical study envisaged. The system of governing equations is a thermodynamically consistent regularization of the sharp interface model, that is the advantage of the di use interface models. We show that the thickness of the interface transition layer can be defined independently from the thermodynamic description of the bulk phases, a property that is numerically attractive. We derive the kinetic relation that allows to analyze the consequences of the phase field formulation on the model of the dissipative mechanisms. Finally we study the numerical resolution of the model with the help of simulations of phase transition in simple configurations as well as of isothermal bubble dynamics. (author)

  6. Pilot experimental study on continual spectrum thermal neutron in-line phase contrast radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Bin; Huo Heyong; Wu Yang

    2009-01-01

    The in-line phase contrast radiography is one of phase contrast imaging methods. The neutron in-line phase contrast is developed with X-rays phase contrast radiography. In the paper, the principle of in-line phase contrast is introduced briefly and the experimental result of thermal neutron in-line contrast at SPRR-300 is analysed. It shows that thermal neutron can be used as in-line phase contrast radiography and enhances the edge of some sample in radiography and complements the disadvantage of conventional neutron radiography. (authors)

  7. A mathematical model for maximizing the value of phase 3 drug development portfolios incorporating budget constraints and risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nitin R; Ankolekar, Suresh; Antonijevic, Zoran; Rajicic, Natasa

    2013-05-10

    We describe a value-driven approach to optimizing pharmaceutical portfolios. Our approach incorporates inputs from research and development and commercial functions by simultaneously addressing internal and external factors. This approach differentiates itself from current practices in that it recognizes the impact of study design parameters, sample size in particular, on the portfolio value. We develop an integer programming (IP) model as the basis for Bayesian decision analysis to optimize phase 3 development portfolios using expected net present value as the criterion. We show how this framework can be used to determine optimal sample sizes and trial schedules to maximize the value of a portfolio under budget constraints. We then illustrate the remarkable flexibility of the IP model to answer a variety of 'what-if' questions that reflect situations that arise in practice. We extend the IP model to a stochastic IP model to incorporate uncertainty in the availability of drugs from earlier development phases for phase 3 development in the future. We show how to use stochastic IP to re-optimize the portfolio development strategy over time as new information accumulates and budget changes occur. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Phase field study of interfacial diffusion-driven spheroidization in a composite comprized of two mutually insoluble phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Liang [Ames Laboratory; Russell, Alan [Ames Laboratory

    2014-03-27

    The phase field approach is a powerful computational technique to simulate morphological and microstructural evolution at the mesoscale. Spheroidization is a frequently observed morphological change of mesoscale heterogeneous structures during annealing. In this study, we used the diffuse interface phase field method to investigate the interfacial diffusion-driven spheroidization of cylindrical rod structures in a composite comprised of two mutually insoluble phases in a two-dimensional case. Perturbation of rod radius along a cylinder's axis has long been known to cause the necessary chemical potential gradient that drives spheroidization of the rod by Lord Rayleigh's instability theory. This theory indicates that a radius perturbation wavelength larger than the initial rod circumference would lead to cylindrical spheroidization. We investigated the effect of perturbation wavelength, interfacial energy, volume diffusion, phase composition, and interfacial percentage on the kinetics of spheroidization. The results match well with both the Rayleigh's instability criterion and experimental observations.

  9. The on-line graph processing study on phase separation of two-phase flow in T-tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Yong; Xu Jijun; Yang Zhilin; Chen Yifen

    1997-01-01

    The on-line graph processing measure system is equipped with and experimental study of phase separation of air-water bubbly flow in the horizontal T-junction is carried out. For the first time, the author have found and defined the new type of complete phase separation, by the visual experiment, which shows that under certain conditions, the air flow entering the T junction will flow into the run outlet completely, which had never been reported in the literature Also, the pressure wave feed back effect and the branch bubble flow reorganization effect were found and analyzed. The complexity of this phase separation phenomenon in the T junction has been further revealed via the on-line graph processing technology. Meanwhile the influences of the inlet mass flow rate W1, the inlet mass quality X1, and the mass extraction rate G3/G1 on phase separation were analyzed

  10. Study of phase transformations in Fe-Mn-Cr Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schule, W.; Panzarasa, A.; Lang, E.

    1988-01-01

    Nickel free alloys for fusion reactor applications are examined. Phase changes in fifteen, mainly austenitic iron-manganese-chromium-alloys of different compositions were investigated in the temperature range between -196 0 C and 1000 0 C after different thermo-mechanical treatments. A range of different physical measuring techniques was employed to investigate the structural changes occurring during heating and cooling and after cold-work: electrical resistivity techniques, differential thermal analysis, magnetic response, Vickers hardness and XRD measurement. The phase boundary between the α Fe-phase and the γ-phase of the iron manganese alloy is approximately maintained if chromium is added to the two component materials. Consequently all the alloy materials for contents of manganese smaller than about 30% Mn are not stable below 500 0 C. This concerns also the AMCR alloys. However the α Fe-phase is not formed during slow cooling from 1000 0 C to ambient temperature and is only obtained if nucleation sites are provided and after very long anneals. A cubic α Mn-type-phase is found for alloys with 18% Cr and 15% Mn, with 13% Cr and 25% Mn, with 10% Cr and 30% Mn, and with 10% Cr and 40% Mn. For these reasons the γ-phase field of the iron-chromium-manganese alloys is very small below 600 0 C and much narrower than reported in the literature. 95 figs. 22 refs

  11. The development of two-phase flow instrumentation at PNC O-arai Engineering Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obata, T.; Kobori, T.; Hayamizu, Y.

    1975-10-01

    This paper reviews development works on the two-phase flow instrumentation carried out at PNC Oarai Engineering Center for FUGEN safety test. The paper describes heater surface temperature measurement, four types of void meters and two steam quality meters. (auth.)

  12. Modelling of phase diagrams and thermodynamic properties using Calphad method – Development of thermodynamic databases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kroupa, Aleš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 66, JAN (2013), s. 3-13 ISSN 0927-0256 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC08053 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Calphad method * phase diagram modelling * thermodynamic database development Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.879, year: 2013

  13. Development of a coal fired pulse combustor for residential space heating. Phase I, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the results of the first phase of a program for the development of a coal-fired residential combustion system. This phase consisted of the design, fabrication, testing, and evaluation of an advanced pulse combustor sized for residential space heating requirements. The objective was to develop an advanced pulse coal combustor at the {approximately} 100,000 Btu/hr scale that can be integrated into a packaged space heating system for small residential applications. The strategy for the development effort included the scale down of the feasibility unit from 1-2 MMBtu/hr to 100,000 Btu/hr to establish a baseline for isolating the effect of scale-down and new chamber configurations separately. Initial focus at the residential scale was concentrated on methods of fuel injection and atomization in a bare metal unit. This was followed by incorporating changes to the advanced chamber designs and testing of refractory-lined units. Multi-fuel capability for firing oil or gas as a secondary fuel was also established. Upon completion of the configuration and component testing, an optimum configuration would be selected for integrated testing of the pulse combustor unit. The strategy also defined the use of Dry Ultrafine Coal (DUC) for Phases 1 and 2 of the development program with CWM firing to be a product improvement activity for a later phase of the program.

  14. Four Methods for Completing the Conceptual Development Phase of Applied Theory Building Research in HRD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storberg-Walker, Julia; Chermack, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe four methods for completing the conceptual development phase of theory building research for single or multiparadigm research. The four methods selected for this review are (1) Weick's method of "theorizing as disciplined imagination" (1989); (2) Whetten's method of "modeling as theorizing" (2002); (3)…

  15. SPSP Phase III Recruiting, Selecting, and Developing Secure Power Systems Professionals. Job Profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neil, Lori Ross [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Conway, T. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tobey, D. H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Greitzer, Frank L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dalton, Angela C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pusey, Portia K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The Secure Power Systems Professional Phase III final report was released last year which an appendix of Job Profiles. This new report is that appendix broken out as a standalone document to assist utilities in recruiting and developing Secure Power Systems Professionals at their site.

  16. Photonic integration and components development for a Ku-band phased array antenna system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marpaung, D.A.I.; Zhuang, L.; Burla, M.; Roeloffzen, C.G.H.; Noharet, Bertrand; Wang, Qin; Beeker, W.P.; Beeker, Willem; Leinse, Arne; Heideman, Rene

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the development of a phased array antenna system using a photonic beamformer is reported. The paper emphasizes on the photonic integration between two main components of the beamformer, namely the photonic beamformer chip and the electroabsorption modulator array. System level

  17. SPSP Phase III Recruiting, Selecting, and Developing Secure Power Systems Professionals. Individual and Team Performance Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neil, Lori Ross [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Conway, T. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tobey, D. H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Greitzer, Frank L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dalton, Angela C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pusey, Portia K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The Secure Power Systems Professional Phase III final report was released last year which an appendix of Individual and Team Performance Guidelines. This new report is that appendix broken out as a standalone document to assist utilities in recruiting and developing Secure Power Systems Professionals at their site.

  18. Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing, Phase 3 -- Design Development and Prototyping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kessler, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mullens, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rath, P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Envelope Research effort will provide factory homebuilders with high performance, cost-effective alternative envelope designs. In the near term, these technologies will play a central role in meeting stringent energy code requirements. For manufactured homes, the thermal requirements, last updated by statute in 1994, will move up to the more rigorous IECC 2012 levels in 2013, the requirements of which are consistent with site built and modular housing. This places added urgency on identifying envelope technologies that the industry can implement in the short timeframe. The primary goal of this research is to develop wall designs that meet the thermal requirements based on 2012 IECC standards. Given the affordable nature of manufactured homes, impact on first cost is a major consideration in developing the new envelope technologies. This work is part of a four-phase, multi-year effort. Phase 1 identified seven envelope technologies and provided a preliminary assessment of three selected methods for building high performance wall systems. Phase 2 focused on the development of viable product designs, manufacturing strategies, addressing code and structural issues, and cost analysis of the three selected options. An industry advisory committee helped critique and select the most viable solution to move further in the research -- stud walls with continuous exterior insulation. Phase 3, the subject of the current report, focused on the design development of the selected wall concept and explored variations on the use of exterior foam insulation. The scope also included material selection, manufacturing and cost analysis, and prototyping and testing.

  19. Advanced Envelope Research for Factory Built Housing, Phase 3. Design Development and Prototyping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E. [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Kessler, B. [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Mullens, M. [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Rath, P. [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Envelope Research effort will provide factory homebuilders with high performance, cost-effective alternative envelope designs. In the near term, these technologies will play a central role in meeting stringent energy code requirements. For manufactured homes, the thermal requirements, last updated by statute in 1994, will move up to the more rigorous IECC 2012 levels in 2013, the requirements of which are consistent with site built and modular housing. This places added urgency on identifying envelope technologies that the industry can implement in the short timeframe. The primary goal of this research is to develop wall designs that meet the thermal requirements based on 2012 IECC standards. Given the affordable nature of manufactured homes, impact on first cost is a major consideration in developing the new envelope technologies. This work is part of a four-phase, multi-year effort. Phase 1 identified seven envelope technologies and provided a preliminary assessment of three selected methods for building high performance wall systems. Phase 2 focused on the development of viable product designs, manufacturing strategies, addressing code and structural issues, and cost analysis of the three selected options. An industry advisory committee helped critique and select the most viable solution to move further in the research -- stud walls with continuous exterior insulation. Phase 3, the subject of the current report, focused on the design development of the selected wall concept and explored variations on the use of exterior foam insulation. The scope also included material selection, manufacturing and cost analysis, and prototyping and testing.

  20. Development of a Hydrologic Characterization Technology for Fault Zones Phase II 2nd Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasaki, Kenzi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Doughty, Christine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gasperikova, Erika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Peterson, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Conrad, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cook, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tiemi, Onishi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-03-31

    This is the 2nd report on the three-year program of the 2nd phase of the NUMO-LBNL collaborative project: Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology for Fault Zones under NUMO-DOE/LBNL collaboration agreement. As such, this report is a compendium of the results by Kiho et al. (2011) and those by LBNL.

  1. Development of two-phase flow along a large vertical pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirk Lucas; Prasser, H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: To qualify CFD codes for two-phase flow simulations, closure laws describing the interaction between the phases are needed. Vertical pipe flow is a suitable object for studying the corresponding phenomena in case of dispersed bubbly flow. Here, the bubbles move under clear boundary conditions, resulting in a shear field of nearly constant structure where the bubbles rise for a comparatively long time. This allows to study the lateral motion of the bubbles in a shear flow as well as bubble coalescence and break-up by comparing gas volume fraction distributions and bubble size distributions at different heights. Very detailed data were obtained at the TOPFLOW facility of the Forschungszentrum Rossendorf using an advanced wire-mesh sensor. This sensor measures the instantaneous conductivity distribution over the pipe cross section. The high frequency of the measurement (2500 frames/s) allows the detection of single bubbles by a special evaluation procedure. Bubble size distributions, gas volume fraction distributions and also gas fraction distributions decomposed according to the bubble size are delivered as result of the evaluation procedure. The use of two sensors allows to measure the profile of the gas velocity. In previous works similar data for pipe of 51.2 mm inner diameter were used for the validation of non-drag bubble forces [1] and the evaluation of the influence of radial profiles on the development of the flow pattern [2]. First investigations on scaling effects were done using data obtained at a pipe with an inner diameter of 194 mm [3]. A constant distance between gas injection and measuring plane of L/D ∼ 40 was used. From a new test series now measurements are available for varying distances between the injection device and the wire-mesh sensor. This allows the evaluation of the development of the flow along the pipe. The data are used for the development and validation of mesoscale models for the forces acting on

  2. Theoretical study of ferroelectric nanoparticles using phase reconstructed electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phatak, C.; Petford-Long, A. K.; Beleggia, M.; De Graef, M.

    2014-06-01

    Ferroelectric nanostructures are important for a variety of applications in electronic and electro-optical devices, including nonvolatile memories and thin-film capacitors. These applications involve stability and switching of polarization using external stimuli, such as electric fields. We present a theoretical model describing how the shape of a nanoparticle affects its polarization in the absence of screening charges, and quantify the electron-optical phase shift for detecting ferroelectric signals with phase-sensitive techniques in a transmission electron microscope. We provide an example phase shift computation for a uniformly polarized prolate ellipsoid with varying aspect ratio in the absence of screening charges.

  3. Phase diagram of a symmetric electron–hole bilayer system: a variational Monte Carlo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajesh O.; Saini, L. K.; Prasad Bahuguna, Bhagwati

    2018-05-01

    We study the phase diagram of a symmetric electron–hole bilayer system at absolute zero temperature and in zero magnetic field within the quantum Monte Carlo approach. In particular, we conduct variational Monte Carlo simulations for various phases, i.e. the paramagnetic fluid phase, the ferromagnetic fluid phase, the anti-ferromagnetic Wigner crystal phase, the ferromagnetic Wigner crystal phase and the excitonic phase, to estimate the ground-state energy at different values of in-layer density and inter-layer spacing. Slater–Jastrow style trial wave functions, with single-particle orbitals appropriate for different phases, are used to construct the phase diagram in the (r s , d) plane by finding the relative stability of trial wave functions. At very small layer separations, we find that the fluid phases are stable, with the paramagnetic fluid phase being particularly stable at and the ferromagnetic fluid phase being particularly stable at . As the layer spacing increases, we first find that there is a phase transition from the ferromagnetic fluid phase to the ferromagnetic Wigner crystal phase when d reaches 0.4 a.u. at r s   =  20, and before there is a return to the ferromagnetic fluid phase when d approaches 1 a.u. However, for r s   Wigner crystal is stable over the considered range of r s and d. We also find that as r s increases, the critical layer separations for Wigner crystallization increase.

  4. Study of two-phase critical flows through small breaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalant, Jean Marc; Willocx, Marc

    1981-06-01

    The first part of this academic document reports experimental works performed for the design and realisation of an installation (DALIDA) aimed at the study of critical flow rates through a hole. As this experimental study had to be given up for practical reasons, the authors focused on the theoretical study of this phenomenon. Based on a model proposed by Lackme for critical flows in long tubes, the authors developed a model which could be applied to the case of a tube ended by a hole. Numerical results have been obtained which are still to be experimentally confirmed [fr

  5. Los Angeles International Airport Runway Incursion Studies: Phase III--Center-Taxiway Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madson, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    Phase III of the Los Angeles International Airport Runway Incursion Studies was conducted, under an agreement with HNTB Corporation, at the NASA Ames FutureFlight Central (FFC) facility in June 2003. The objective of the study was the evaluation of a new center-taxiway concept at LAX. This study is an extension of the Phase I and Phase II studies previously conducted at FFC. This report presents results from Phase III of the study, in which a center-taxiway concept between runways 25L and 25R was simulated and evaluated. Phase III data were compared objectively against the Baseline data. Subjective evaluations by participating LAX controllers were obtained with regard to workload, efficiency, and safety criteria. To facilitate a valid comparison between Baseline and Phase III data, the same scenarios were used for Phase III that were tested during Phases I and II. This required briefing participating controllers on differences in airport and airline operations between 2001 and today.

  6. Phased mission analysis of maintained systems: a study in reliability risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terpstra, K.

    1984-01-01

    The present study develops a general theory that treats the probability of occurrence of each branch of an event tree and that takes correctly into account the dependencies between systems; incorporates within the general theory the solution of the problem of phased mission analysis. It also includes the general model components, that may or may not be repairable, with general lifetime and repairtime distribution, i.e. in the model repairable systems should be taken into account. Finally a computer program is developed that is based on this general theory, i.e. a computer program that is able to perform fully the probabilistic calculations of a risk analysis and that can handle in a correct way phased mission analysis of repairable systems. The theory is applied to a boiling water reactor accident. (Auth.)

  7. The business environment and phases of development of small and medium-sized enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Wach, Krzysztof

    2006-01-01

    The subject literature distinguishes several factors that determine the establishment, survival , operations and development of micro, small, and medium-sized enterprises in particular regions. In this article, the author presents a classification of these factors in terms of whether they are barriers or stimulators. On this basis, the author explains the influence of regional environment (meso-environment) factors on the development of small and medium-sized enterprises in various phases of ...

  8. SP-100 coated-particle fuel development. Phase I. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    This document is the final report of Phase I of the SP-100 Coated-Particle Fuel Development Program conducted by GA Technologies Inc. for the US Department of Energy under contract DE-AT03-82SF11690. The general objective of the study conducted between September and December 1982 was to evaluate coated-particle type fuel as an alternate or backup fuel to the UO 2 tile-and-fin arrangement currently incorporated into the reference design of the SP-100 reactor core. This report presents and discusses the following topics in the order listed: the need for an alternative fuel for the SP-100 nuclear reactor; an abbreviated description of the reference and coated-particle fuel module concepts; the bases and results of the study and analysis leading to the preliminary design of a coated particle suitable for the SP-100 space power reactor; incorporation of the fuel particles into compacts and heat-pipe-cooled modules; initial efforts and plans to fabricate coated-particle fuel and fuel compacts; the design and performance of the proposed alternative core relative that of the reference fuel; and a summary of critical issues and conclusions consistent with the level of effort and duration of the study

  9. Chiral chromatography studies of chemical behavior of cinacalcet on polysaccharide chiral reversed-phase HPLC stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dousa, Michal; Brichác, Jirí

    2012-01-01

    A rapid HPLC method for the analytical resolution of cinacalcet enantiomers was developed. Four chiral columns (two amylose and two cellulose type) were evaluated in RP systems. Excellent enantioseparation with a resolution of more than 6 was achieved on Chiralpak AY (amylose 5-chloro-2-methylphenylcarbamate chiral stationary phase) using 10 mM triethylamine (pH 8.0)-acetonitrile (40 + 60, v/v) mobile phase. Validation of the HPLC method, including linearity, LOD, LOQ, precision, accuracy, and selectivity, was performed according to the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The method was successfully applied for the determination of (S)-cinacalcet in enantiopure active pharmaceutical ingredient (R)-cinacalcet.

  10. Phase change material thermal storage for biofuel preheating in micro trigeneration application: A numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Dawei; Chen, Junlong; Roskilly, Anthony P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Engine exhaust heat driven phase change material thermal storage. • Fuel preheating for direct use of straight plant oil on diesel engine. • CFD aided design of the phase change material thermal storage. • Melting and solidification model considering natural convection. - Abstract: A biofuel micro trigeneration prototype has been developed to utilise local energy crop oils as fuel in rural areas and developing countries. Straight plant oils (SPOs) only leave behind very little carbon footprint during its simply production process compared to commercial biodiesels in refineries, but the high viscosity of SPOs causes difficulties at engine cold starts, which further results in poor fuel atomisation, compromised engine performance and fast engine deterioration. In this study, a phase change material (PCM) thermal storage is designed to recover and store engine exhaust heat to preheat SPOs at cold starts. High temperature commercial paraffin is selected as the PCM to meet the optimal preheating temperature range of 70–90 °C, in terms of the SPO property study. A numerical model of the PCM thermal storage is developed and validated by references. The PCM melting and solidification processes with the consideration of natural convection in liquid zone are simulated in ANSYS-FLUENT to verify the feasibility of the PCM thermal storage as a part of the self-contained biofuel micro trigeneration prototype

  11. Phase transition in lead titanate thin films: a Brillouin study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzel, P; Dugautier, C; Moch, P; Marrec, F Le; Karkut, M G

    2002-01-01

    The elastic properties of both polycrystalline and epitaxial PbTiO 3 (PTO) thin films are studied using Brillouin scattering spectroscopy. The epitaxial PTO films were prepared by pulsed laser ablation on (1) a [0 0 1] single crystal of SrTiO 3 (STO) doped with Nb and (2) a [0 0 1] STO buffered with a layer of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 . The polycrystalline PTO films were prepared by sol-gel on a Si substrate buffered with TiO 2 and Pt layers. The data analysis takes into account the ripple and the elasto-optic contributions. The latter significantly affects the measured spectra since it gives rise to a Love mode in the p-s scattering geometry. At room temperature, the spectra of the epitaxially grown samples are interpreted using previously published elastic constants of PTO single crystals. Sol-gel samples exhibit appreciable softening of the effective elastic properties compared to PTO single crystals: this result is explained by taking into account the random orientation of the microscopic PTO grains. For both the polycrystalline and the epitaxial films we have determined that the piezoelectric terms do not contribute to the spectra. The temperature dependence of the spectra shows strong anomalies of the elastic properties near the ferroelectric phase transition. Compared to the bulk, T C is higher in the sol-gel films, while in the epitaxial films the sign of the T C shift depends on the underlying material

  12. Ultrasound cylindrical phased array for transoesophageal thermal therapy: initial studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melodelima, David; Lafon, Cyril; Prat, Frederic; Birer, Alain; Cathignol, Dominique

    2002-01-01

    This work was undertaken to investigate the feasibility of constructing a cylindrical phased array composed of 64 elements spread around the periphery (OD 10.6 mm) for transoesophageal ultrasound thermotherapy. The underlying operating principle of this applicator is to rotate a plane ultrasound beam electronically. For this purpose, eight adjacent transducers were successively excited with appropriate delay times so as to generate a plane wave. The exposure direction was changed by exciting a different set of eight elements. For these feasibility studies, we used a cylindrical prototype (OD 10.6 mm) composed of 16 elementary transducers distributed over a quarter of the cylinder, all operating at 4.55 MHz. The active part was mechanically reinforced by a rigid damper structure behind the transducers. It was shown that an ultrasound field similar to that emitted by a plane transducer could be generated. Ex vivo experiments on pig's liver demonstrated that the ultrasound beam could be accurately rotated to generate sector-based lesions to a suitable depth (up to 19 mm). Throughout these experiments, exposures lasting 20 s were delivered at an acoustic intensity of 17 W cm -2 . By varying the power from exposure to exposure, the depth of the lesion at different angles could be controlled

  13. Depressurisation studies. Phase 2: results of Tests 127 and 128

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, A.R.; Borgartz, B.O.; Goodman, R.M.E.; O'Brien, T.P.; Rawlingson, M.

    1978-06-01

    A basic experimental programme involving the sudden depressurisation of a simple pipe system containing water at 3.45 to 17.24MPa pressure and temperature in the range of 200 to 250 0 C has been concluded. Measurements were made of the transient density, pressure, and temperature variations in a two phase fluid in the system during discharge. Phase 1 tests investigated blowdown from straight pipes 4m long with constant internal diameters of 73 and 32 mm. Phase 2 tests incorporated a reservoir added to the 32mm pipe. In this, the second of three reports on Phase 2 tests, the test assembly, instrumentation and experimental procedure are briefly described. The conditions and results are reported for two of the tests in which the liquid in the long discharge pipe was initially subcooled by 10 0 C and 15 0 C while the reservoir was at saturation conditions with a steam dome present. (UK)

  14. Different impacts of mega-ENSO and conventional ENSO on the Indian summer rainfall: developing phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Wu, Zhiwei; Zhou, Yefan

    2016-04-01

    Mega-El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), a boarder version of conventional ENSO, is found to be a main driving force of Northern Hemisphere summer monsoon rainfall including the Indian summer rainfall (ISR). The simultaneous impacts of "pure" mega-ENSO and "pure" conventional ENSO events on the ISR in its developing summer remains unclear. This study examines the different linkages between mega-ENSO-ISR and conventional ENSO-ISR. During the developing summer of mega-El Niño, negative rainfall anomalies are seen over the northeastern Indian subcontinent, while the anomalous rainfall pattern is almost the opposite for mega-La Niña; as for the conventional ENSO, the approximate "linear opposite" phenomenon vanishes. Furthermore, the global zonal wave trains anomalous are found at mid-latitude zones, with a local triple circulation pattern over the central-east Eurasia during mega-ENSO events, which might be an explanation of corresponding rainfall response over the Indian Peninsula. Among 106-year historical run (1900-2005) of 9 state-of-the-art models from the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), HadGEM2-ES performs a promising skill in simulating the anomalous circulation pattern over mid-latitude and central-east Eurasia while CanESM2 cannot. Probably, it is the models' ability of capturing the mega-ENSO-ISR linkage and the characteristic of mega-ENSO that make the difference.

  15. Demographic-Based Perceptions of Adequacy of Software Security's Presence within Individual Phases of the Software Development Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Aleksey

    2013-01-01

    The topic of software security has become paramount in information technology (IT) related scholarly research. Researchers have addressed numerous software security topics touching on all phases of the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC): requirements gathering phase, design phase, development phase, testing phase, and maintenance phase.…

  16. Strategic alliance development : a study on alliances between competing firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahyuni, S.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to reveal the development of lSAs (International Strategic Alliances) and the important factors for every phase of an alliance relationship. Since there are a great number of variables that can be assessed throughout the whole process of an alliance life, we decided

  17. A phenomenological model of two-phase (air/fuel droplet developing and breakup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Radomir R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effervescent atomization namely the air-filled liquid atomization comprehends certain complex two-phase phenomenon that are difficult to be modeled. Just a few researchers have found the mathematical expressions for description of the complex atomization model of the two-phase mixture air/diesel fuel. In the following review, developing model of twophase (air/fuel droplet of Cummins spray pump-injector is shown. The assumption of the same diameters of the droplet and the opening of the atomizer is made, while the air/fuel mass ratio inside the droplet varies.

  18. Development of a large-scale general purpose two-phase flow analysis code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terasaka, Haruo; Shimizu, Sensuke

    2001-01-01

    A general purpose three-dimensional two-phase flow analysis code has been developed for solving large-scale problems in industrial fields. The code uses a two-fluid model to describe the conservation equations for two-phase flow in order to be applicable to various phenomena. Complicated geometrical conditions are modeled by FAVOR method in structured grid systems, and the discretization equations are solved by a modified SIMPLEST scheme. To reduce computing time a matrix solver for the pressure correction equation is parallelized with OpenMP. Results of numerical examples show that the accurate solutions can be obtained efficiently and stably. (author)

  19. Student Development and Developmental Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champaigne, John

    1982-01-01

    Reviews the nine-stage Perry Scheme of Intellectual and Ethical Development, detailing three major student orientations--dualism, multiplicity, and commitments in relativism. Suggests techniques developmental educators can use to communicate with, support, and challenge students to promote intellectual development. Underscores the importance of…

  20. Package performance study: developments since PATRAM 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegeler, B.; Snyder, A.; Lewis, R.; Sorenson, K.

    2004-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated a research program in 1999 to study the response of spent nuclear fuel transportation casks to extreme accident conditions. This confirmatory research program is called the Package Performance Study (PPS) and is founded on an enhanced public participatory process that is used to obtain public comments throughout all project phases. The study objectives are to: 1) assess the analysis tools and methods used to predict spent nuclear fuel transportation cask response to extreme mechanical and thermal environments, and 2) demonstrate the inherent safety in spent fuel cask design. Public outreach is a significant element in both of these objectives. The NRC Commission recently approved the full-scale testing of a single NRC certified spent nuclear fuel rail transportation cask. To satisfy Commission direction, NRC staff has developed, for Commission approval, detailed test plans for conducting a full-scale demonstration test on a spent fuel rail transportation cask. The staff proposes to perform a demonstration test involving the collision of a locomotive with a rail cask attached to a conveyance (i.e., railcar) and a subsequent fire test. Further, the staff plans to conduct detailed pre and post -test analysis to compare numerical calculations with data obtained from the test. This paper discusses the process for selection of this scenario and the uncertainties associated with demonstration testing and analysis predictions. The staff's proposal is currently under review by the Commission

  1. Package performance study: developments since PATRAM 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegeler, B.; Snyder, A.; Lewis, R. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Sorenson, K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated a research program in 1999 to study the response of spent nuclear fuel transportation casks to extreme accident conditions. This confirmatory research program is called the Package Performance Study (PPS) and is founded on an enhanced public participatory process that is used to obtain public comments throughout all project phases. The study objectives are to: 1) assess the analysis tools and methods used to predict spent nuclear fuel transportation cask response to extreme mechanical and thermal environments, and 2) demonstrate the inherent safety in spent fuel cask design. Public outreach is a significant element in both of these objectives. The NRC Commission recently approved the full-scale testing of a single NRC certified spent nuclear fuel rail transportation cask. To satisfy Commission direction, NRC staff has developed, for Commission approval, detailed test plans for conducting a full-scale demonstration test on a spent fuel rail transportation cask. The staff proposes to perform a demonstration test involving the collision of a locomotive with a rail cask attached to a conveyance (i.e., railcar) and a subsequent fire test. Further, the staff plans to conduct detailed pre and post -test analysis to compare numerical calculations with data obtained from the test. This paper discusses the process for selection of this scenario and the uncertainties associated with demonstration testing and analysis predictions. The staff's proposal is currently under review by the Commission.

  2. Neutron and x-ray scattering studies of ferroelectric phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolling, G.

    1982-08-01

    The subject of ferroelectric type phase transitions is introduced by means of examples of two main classes (a) displacive transitions, e.g. KNbO 3 , and (b) order-disorder transitions, e.g. NaNO 2 . The significance of crystal structure and crystal dynamics (i.e. the phonon dispersion relations) for ferroelectric behaviour is emphasized. The chief methods for structure determination are x-ray and neutron diffraction, while the most powerful of all techniques for studying phonon properties is that of coherent inelastic neutron scattering. The most useful type of neutron spectrometer for phase transition studies, the triple axis crystal spectrometer, is discussed in detail. The history of the soft mode theory of displacive phase transitions, and its application to the antiferroelectric and 'almost ferroelectric' transitions in SrTiO 3 , provides an introduction to more recent developments in this area, including over-damped soft modes, central peaks and critical scattering, incommensurate phase transitions (e.g. K 2 SeO 4 ), amplitudons, phasons and finally solitions. The treatment throughout is descriptive and introductory, designed for graduate students

  3. Contribution to the theoretical study of transient two-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achard, J.L.

    1978-12-01

    The work presented in this paper has been given rise from the existence of violent boiling phenomena of the coolant that have been revealed by reactor safety studies with water and sodium. The aim as to describe in a basic mammer, one of these phenomena called ''chugging'' or ''choucage''. The experimental part of this work concerns two original works concerning the temperature measurement at the wall; a device is proposed to evaluate the contact resistance and the thermal inertia of the thermocouple; from the measurements that have been obtained, the flux the wall transfers to the flow and the temperature of the internal wall surface are deduced. A statistical method is developed for dispersed two-phase flow study, to establish: 1) a mass transfer law, 2) a law of change of the flow configuration. The proposed model contains: 1) for the dispersed phase (vapor bubbles), the basic momentum transport equations; 2) for the continuous phase (liquid), the transport equations of the classical formulation. The statistical formulation introduces the interaction phenomenon between the phases before applying the operation of the average (homogenization method); it allows to introduce the coalescence phenomena of bubbles. Finally, structures of exchange laws for transient laminar flows are proposed: transient linear momentum exchange law; possible structures of heat exchange laws [fr

  4. Integrated thermal treatment system study: Phase 1 results. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.; Hempill, H.G.; Groffie, F.J.

    1994-07-01

    An integrated systems engineering approach is used for uniform comparison of widely varying thermal treatment technologies proposed for management of contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. Ten different systems encompassing several incineration design options are studied. All subsystems, including facilities, equipment, and methods needed for integration of each of the ten systems are identified. Typical subsystems needed for complete treatment of MLLW are incoming waste receiving and preparation (characterization, sorting, sizing, and separation), thermal treatment, air pollution control, primary and secondary stabilization, metal decontamination, metal melting, mercury recovery, lead recovery, and special waste and aqueous waste treatment. The evaluation is performed by developing a preconceptual design package and planning life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for each system. As part of the preconceptual design process, functional and operational requirements, flow sheets and mass balances, and conceptual equipment layouts are developed for each system. The PLCC components estimated are technology development, production facility construction, pre-operation, operation and maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning. Preconceptual design data and other technology information gathered during the study are examined and areas requiring further development, testing, and evaluation are identified and recommended. Using a qualitative method, each of the ten systems are ranked

  5. Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics: Theoretical Studies in Spectroscopy and Chemical Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, H.G.; Muckerman, J.T.

    2010-06-01

    The goal of this program is the development and application of computational methods for studying chemical reaction dynamics and molecular spectroscopy in the gas phase. We are interested in developing rigorous quantum dynamics algorithms for small polyatomic systems and in implementing approximate approaches for complex ones. Particular focus is on the dynamics and kinetics of chemical reactions and on the rovibrational spectra of species involved in combustion processes. This research also explores the potential energy surfaces of these systems of interest using state-of-the-art quantum chemistry methods.

  6. Efficacy, Safety, and Dose of Pafuramidine, a New Oral Drug for Treatment of First Stage Sleeping Sickness, in a Phase 2a Clinical Study and Phase 2b Randomized Clinical Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Burri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sleeping sickness (human African trypanosomiasis [HAT] is caused by protozoan parasites and characterized by a chronic progressive course, which may last up to several years before death. We conducted two Phase 2 studies to determine the efficacy and safety of oral pafuramidine in African patients with first stage HAT.The Phase 2a study was an open-label, non-controlled, proof-of-concept study where 32 patients were treated with 100 mg of pafuramidine orally twice a day (BID for 5 days at two trypanosomiasis reference centers (Angola and the Democratic Republic of the Congo [DRC] between August 2001 and November 2004. The Phase 2b study compared pafuramidine in 41 patients versus standard pentamidine therapy in 40 patients. The Phase 2b study was open-label, parallel-group, controlled, randomized, and conducted at two sites in the DRC between April 2003 and February 2007. The Phase 2b study was then amended to add an open-label sequence (Phase 2b-2, where 30 patients received pafuramidine for 10 days. The primary efficacy endpoint was parasitologic cure at 24 hours (Phase 2a or 3 months (Phase 2b after treatment completion. The primary safety outcome was the rate of occurrence of World Health Organization Toxicity Scale Grade 3 or higher adverse events. All subjects provided written informed consent.Pafuramidine for the treatment of first stage HAT was comparable in efficacy to pentamidine after 10 days of dosing. The cure rates 3 months post-treatment were 79% in the 5-day pafuramidine, 100% in the 7-day pentamidine, and 93% in the 10-day pafuramidine groups. In Phase 2b, the percentage of patients with at least 1 treatment-emergent adverse event was notably higher after pentamidine treatment (93% than pafuramidine treatment for 5 days (25% and 10 days (57%. These results support continuation of the development program for pafuramidine into Phase 3.

  7. Efficacy, Safety, and Dose of Pafuramidine, a New Oral Drug for Treatment of First Stage Sleeping Sickness, in a Phase 2a Clinical Study and Phase 2b Randomized Clinical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burri, Christian; Yeramian, Patrick D; Allen, James L; Merolle, Ada; Serge, Kazadi Kyanza; Mpanya, Alain; Lutumba, Pascal; Mesu, Victor Kande Betu Ku; Bilenge, Constantin Miaka Mia; Lubaki, Jean-Pierre Fina; Mpoto, Alfred Mpoo; Thompson, Mark; Munungu, Blaise Fungula; Manuel, Francisco; Josenando, Théophilo; Bernhard, Sonja C; Olson, Carol A; Blum, Johannes; Tidwell, Richard R; Pohlig, Gabriele

    2016-02-01

    Sleeping sickness (human African trypanosomiasis [HAT]) is caused by protozoan parasites and characterized by a chronic progressive course, which may last up to several years before death. We conducted two Phase 2 studies to determine the efficacy and safety of oral pafuramidine in African patients with first stage HAT. The Phase 2a study was an open-label, non-controlled, proof-of-concept study where 32 patients were treated with 100 mg of pafuramidine orally twice a day (BID) for 5 days at two trypanosomiasis reference centers (Angola and the Democratic Republic of the Congo [DRC]) between August 2001 and November 2004. The Phase 2b study compared pafuramidine in 41 patients versus standard pentamidine therapy in 40 patients. The Phase 2b study was open-label, parallel-group, controlled, randomized, and conducted at two sites in the DRC between April 2003 and February 2007. The Phase 2b study was then amended to add an open-label sequence (Phase 2b-2), where 30 patients received pafuramidine for 10 days. The primary efficacy endpoint was parasitologic cure at 24 hours (Phase 2a) or 3 months (Phase 2b) after treatment completion. The primary safety outcome was the rate of occurrence of World Health Organization Toxicity Scale Grade 3 or higher adverse events. All subjects provided written informed consent. Pafuramidine for the treatment of first stage HAT was comparable in efficacy to pentamidine after 10 days of dosing. The cure rates 3 months post-treatment were 79% in the 5-day pafuramidine, 100% in the 7-day pentamidine, and 93% in the 10-day pafuramidine groups. In Phase 2b, the percentage of patients with at least 1 treatment-emergent adverse event was notably higher after pentamidine treatment (93%) than pafuramidine treatment for 5 days (25%) and 10 days (57%). These results support continuation of the development program for pafuramidine into Phase 3.

  8. Implementation of a phased medical educational approach in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Holm

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Healthcare provider education can serve as one method for improving healthcare in developing countries. Working with providers at St Luke Hospital in Haiti, we developed a phased educational approach through partnership development, face-to-face teaching, and virtual educational tools. Design: Our novel approach included three phases: direct patient care, targeted education, and utilization of the train-the-trainer model. Our end goal was an educational system that could be utilized by the local medical staff to continually improve their medical knowledge, even after our educational project was completed. We implemented pre- and post-lecture evaluations during our teaching phase to determine whether the education provided was effective and beneficial. Additionally, we provided medical lectures on a shared file internet platform, Box.com, during the train-the-trainer phase to allow healthcare providers in Haiti to access the educational content electronically. Results: In total, 47 lectures were given to 150 medical providers, including nurses, physicians, and pharmacists. Pre- and post-lecture evaluations were administered. The mean was 30.63 (14.40 for pre-lecture evaluations and 93.36 (9.80 for post-lecture evaluations indicating improvement out of a total of 100 possible points. Our collaborative Box.com account contains 214 medical education lectures available for viewing as a constant resource to St Luke Hospital staff. Thus far, 20 of the 43 (47% Haitian medical providers have viewed lectures, with an average of 5.6 lectures viewed per person. Qualitative data suggest that these methods improved communication between healthcare staff, promoted better ways of triaging patients, and improved job satisfaction. Conclusions: A phased educational approach can improve healthcare workers’ knowledge through partnership in a developing country. Educating local providers is one way of ensuring that in-country healthcare staff will

  9. Development of Infrared Phase Closure Capability in the Infrared-Optical Telescope Array (IOTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, Wesley A.

    2002-01-01

    We completed all major fabrication and testing for the third telescope and phase-closure operation at the Infrared-Optical Telescope Array (IOTA) during this period. In particular we successfully tested the phase-closure operation, using a laboratory light source illuminating the full delay-line optical paths, and using an integrated-optic beam combiner coupled to our Picnic-detector camera. This demonstration is an important and near-final milestone achievement. As of this writing, however, several tasks yet remain, owing to development snags and weather, so the final proof of success, phase-closure observation of a star, is now expected to occur in early 2002, soon after this report has been submitted.

  10. Development of phased array UT technique for inspection of turbine wheel rim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komura, I.; Nagal, S.; Goto, M.; Ohmatsu, K.

    1986-01-01

    A phased array UT technique has been developed for the improvement of defect detection under the keyway region of shrunk-on type turbine wheel. The sector scanning mode operation with plexiglas wedge of phased array capability was applied to construct the B-scope image of turbine wheel rim region. Preceding to the inspection test of the model specimen having real shape of rim region, the distribution of sound field intensity along the steering angle of the scanning line was measured on the test block. Then, the minimum depth of detectable defect by the B-scope imaging was evaluated on the dovetail shape specimens which had different depth EDM notches at the each hook fillet. As the results, it has been realized that the B-scope imaging of the sector scanning mode phased array technique has a capability for distinguishing the defect echoes from the many reflection echoes caused by the complexed shape of wheel rim region

  11. Study on premixing phase of steam explosion at JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamano, Norihiro; Moriyama, Kiyofumi; Maruyama, Yu; Park, H.; Yang, Y.; Sugimoto, Jun [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-01-01

    Melt jet breakup (MJB) and fragmentation has been studied in the frame of ALPHA program. In the first two experiments of MJB series, jet of molten lead-bismuth eutectic alloy was released into a deep pool of saturated water. Steam generation rate was measured and correlated with the jet behavior observed by a high-speed camera. The jet breakup length and debris size distribution were also evaluated. In parallel with the experimental study, JASMINE code has been developed for the simulation of steam explosion. The melt jet breakup model and the particle breakup model in the code were tested by analyzing FARO-L14 and ALPHA MJB experiments. (author)

  12. Artificial heart development program. Volume I. System development. Phase III summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The report documents efforts and results in the development of the power system portions of a calf implantable model of nuclear-powered artificial heart. The primary objective in developing the implantable model was to solve the packaging problems for total system implantation. The power systems portion is physically that portion of the implantable model between the Pu-238 heat sources and the blood pump ventricles. The work performed had two parallel themes. The first of these was the development of an integrated implantable model for bench and animal experiments plus design effort on a more advanced model. The second was research and development on components of the system done in conjunction with the development of the implantable model and to provide technology for incorporation into advanced models plus support to implantations, at the University of Utah, of the systems blood pumping elements when driven by electric motor. The efforts and results of implantable model development are covered, mainly, in the text of the report. The research and development efforts and results are reported, primarily, in the appendices (Vol. 2).

  13. Artificial heart development program. Volume I. System development. Phase III summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The report documents efforts and results in the development of the power system portions of a calf implantable model of nuclear-powered artificial heart. The primary objective in developing the implantable model was to solve the packaging problems for total system implantation. The power systems portion is physically that portion of the implantable model between the Pu-238 heat sources and the blood pump ventricles. The work performed had two parallel themes. The first of these was the development of an integrated implantable model for bench and animal experiments plus design effort on a more advanced model. The second was research and development on components of the system done in conjunction with the development of the implantable model and to provide technology for incorporation into advanced models plus support to implantations, at the University of Utah, of the systems blood pumping elements when driven by electric motor. The efforts and results of implantable model development are covered, mainly, in the text of the report. The research and development efforts and results are reported, primarily, in the appendices

  14. Theoretical and computational studies of non-equilibrium and non-statistical dynamics in the gas phase, in the condensed phase and at interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spezia, Riccardo; Martínez-Nuñez, Emilio; Vazquez, Saulo; Hase, William L

    2017-04-28

    In this Introduction, we show the basic problems of non-statistical and non-equilibrium phenomena related to the papers collected in this themed issue. Over the past few years, significant advances in both computing power and development of theories have allowed the study of larger systems, increasing the time length of simulations and improving the quality of potential energy surfaces. In particular, the possibility of using quantum chemistry to calculate energies and forces 'on the fly' has paved the way to directly study chemical reactions. This has provided a valuable tool to explore molecular mechanisms at given temperatures and energies and to see whether these reactive trajectories follow statistical laws and/or minimum energy pathways. This themed issue collects different aspects of the problem and gives an overview of recent works and developments in different contexts, from the gas phase to the condensed phase to excited states.This article is part of the themed issue 'Theoretical and computational studies of non-equilibrium and non-statistical dynamics in the gas phase, in the condensed phase and at interfaces'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. Prdm8 regulates the morphological transition at multipolar phase during neocortical development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayuko Inoue

    Full Text Available Here, we found that the PR domain protein Prdm8 serves as a key regulator of the length of the multipolar phase by controlling the timing of morphological transition. We used a mouse line with expression of Prdm8-mVenus reporter and found that Prdm8 is predominantly expressed in the middle and upper intermediate zone during both the late and terminal multipolar phases. Prdm8 expression was almost coincident with Unc5D expression, a marker for the late multipolar phase, although the expression of Unc5D was found to be gradually down-regulated to the point at which mVenus expression was gradually up-regulated. This expression pattern suggests the possible involvement of Prdm8 in the control of the late and terminal multipolar phases, which controls the timing for morphological transition. To test this hypothesis, we performed gain- and loss-of-function analysis of neocortical development by using in utero electroporation. We found that the knockdown of Prdm8 results in premature change from multipolar to bipolar morphology, whereas the overexpression of Prdm8 maintained the multipolar morphology. Additionally, the postnatal analysis showed that the Prdm8 knockdown stimulated the number of early born neurons, and differentiated neurons located more deeply in the neocortex, however, majority of those cells could not acquire molecular features consistent with laminar location. Furthermore, we found the candidate genes that were predominantly utilized in both the late and terminal multipolar phases, and these candidate genes included those encoding for guidance molecules. In addition, we also found that the expression level of these guidance molecules was inhibited by the introduction of the Prdm8 expression vector. These results indicate that the Prdm8-mediated regulation of morphological changes that normally occur during the late and terminal multipolar phases plays an important role in neocortical development.

  16. Recent developments and future trends in solid phase microextraction techniques towards green analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spietelun, Agata; Marcinkowski, Łukasz; de la Guardia, Miguel; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2013-12-20

    Solid phase microextraction find increasing applications in the sample preparation step before chromatographic determination of analytes in samples with a complex composition. These techniques allow for integrating several operations, such as sample collection, extraction, analyte enrichment above the detection limit of a given measuring instrument and the isolation of analytes from sample matrix. In this work the information about novel methodological and instrumental solutions in relation to different variants of solid phase extraction techniques, solid-phase microextraction (SPME), stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) is presented, including practical applications of these techniques and a critical discussion about their advantages and disadvantages. The proposed solutions fulfill the requirements resulting from the concept of sustainable development, and specifically from the implementation of green chemistry principles in analytical laboratories. Therefore, particular attention was paid to the description of possible uses of novel, selective stationary phases in extraction techniques, inter alia, polymeric ionic liquids, carbon nanotubes, and silica- and carbon-based sorbents. The methodological solutions, together with properly matched sampling devices for collecting analytes from samples with varying matrix composition, enable us to reduce the number of errors during the sample preparation prior to chromatographic analysis as well as to limit the negative impact of this analytical step on the natural environment and the health of laboratory employees. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Annular pulse column development studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedict, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    The capacity of critically safe cylindrical pulse columns limits the size of nuclear fuel solvent extraction plants because of the limited cross-sectional area of plutonium, U-235, or U-233 processing columns. Thus, there is a need to increase the cross-sectional area of these columns. This can be accomplished through the use of a column having an annular cross section. The preliminary testing of a pilot-plant-scale annular column has been completed and is reported herein. The column is made from 152.4-mm (6-in.) glass pipe sections with an 89-mm (3.5-in.) o.d. internal tube, giving an annular width of 32-mm (1.25-in.). Louver plates are used to swirl the column contents to prevent channeling of the phases. The data from this testing indicate that this approach can successfully provide larger-cross-section critically safe pulse columns. While the capacity is only 70% of that of a cylindrical column of similar cross section, the efficiency is almost identical to that of a cylindrical column. No evidence was seen of any non-uniform pulsing action from one side of the column to the other

  18. Ghana Journal of Development Studies: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University for Development Studies P. O. Box 520 ... A Book by a Corporate Author University for Development Studies (2003). Strategic plan (2003-2008). Tamale, Ghana: ... Accra, Ghana: National Development Planning Commission.

  19. Development and Integration of a Data Acquisition System for SST-1 Phase-1 Plasma Diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Amit K; Sharma, Manika; Mansuri, Imran; Sharma, Atish; Raval, Tushar; Pradhan, Subrata

    2012-01-01

    Long pulse (of the order of 1000 s or more) SST-1 tokamak experiments demand a data acquisition system that is capable of acquiring data from various diagnostics channels without losing useful data (and hence physics information) while avoiding unnecessary generation of a large volume data. SST-1 Phase-1 tokamak operation has been envisaged with data acquisition of several essential diagnostics channels. These channels demand data acquisition at a sampling rate ranging from 1 kilo samples per second (KSPS) to 1 mega samples per second (MSPS). Considering the technical characteristics and requirements of the diagnostics, a data acquisition system based on PXI and CAMAC has been developed for SST-1 plasma diagnostics. Both these data acquisition systems are scalable. Present data acquisition needs involving slow plasma diagnostics are catered by the PXI based data acquisition system. On the other hand, CAMAC data acquisition hardware meets all requirements of the SST-1 Phase-1 fast plasma diagnostics channels. A graphical user interface for both data acquisition systems (PXI and CAMAC) has been developed using LabVIEW application development software. The collected data on the local hard disk are directly streaming to the central server through a dedicated network for post-shot data analysis. This paper describes the development and integration of the data acquisition system for SST-1 Phase-1 plasma diagnostics. The integrated testing of the developed data acquisition system has been performed using SST-1 central control and diagnostics signal conditioning units. In the absence of plasma shots, the integrated testing of the data acquisition system for the initial diagnostics of SST-1 Phase-1 operation has been performed with simulated physical signals. The primary engineering objective of this integrated testing is to validate the performance of the developed data acquisition system under simulated conditions close to that of actual tokamak operation. The data

  20. Phase Change Material Trade Study: A Comparison Between Wax and Water for Manned Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Gregory; Hodgson, Ed; Stephan, Ryan A,

    2011-01-01

    Phase change material heat sinks have been recognized as an important tool in optimizing thermal control systems for space exploration vehicles and habitats that must deal with widely varying thermal loads and environments. In order to better focus technology investment in this arena, NASA has supported a trade study with the objective of identifying where the best potential pay-off can be found among identified aqueous and paraffin wax phase change materials and phase change material heat sink design approaches. The study used a representative exploration mission with well understood parameters to support the trade. Additional sensitivity studies were performed to ensure the applicability of study results across varying systems and destinations. Results from the study indicate that replacing a wax PCM heat sink with a water ice PCM heat sink has the potential to decrease the equivalent system mass of the mission s vehicle through a combination of a smaller heat sink and a slight 5% increase in radiator size or the addition of a lightweight heat pump. An evaluation of existing and emerging PCM heat sink technologies indicates that further mass savings should be achievable through continued development of those technologies. The largest mass savings may be realized by eliminating the melting and freezing pressure of wax and water, respectively.

  1. Theories in Social Policy and Development Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    Theories in Social Policy and Development Studies Presentation for the PhD Seminar - Theories, Concepts and Methods in Development Studies and Sociology......Theories in Social Policy and Development Studies Presentation for the PhD Seminar - Theories, Concepts and Methods in Development Studies and Sociology...

  2. A study on Z-phase nucleation in martensitic chromium steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golpayegani, Ardeshir; Andrén, Hans-Olof; Danielsen, Hilmar Kjartansson

    2008-01-01

    , initial stages of precipitation of Z-phase have been studied and characterized using energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM). Vanadium nitrides were found to provide the most suitable nucleation site for Z-phase, since the misfit between the (0 0 1) planes of VN and Z-phase is very small....... Furthermore, such a nucleation site would provide vanadium and nitrogen for the growth of Z-phase. The presence of niobium carbide has also been observed close to Z-phase nucleation sites, indicating niobium to be important for the nucleation and growth of Z-phase....

  3. MONOAMINE OXIDASE: RADIOTRACER DEVELOPMENT AND HUMAN STUDIES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOWLER,J.S.; LOGAN,J.; VOLKOW,N.D.; WANG,G.J.; MACGREGOR,R.R.; DING,Y.S.

    2000-09-28

    PET is uniquely capable of providing information on biochemical transformations in the living human body. Although most of the studies of monoamine oxidase (MAO) have focused on measurements in the brain, the role of peripheral MAO as a phase 1 enzyme for the metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics is gaining attention (Strolin Benedetti and Tipton, 1998; Castagnoli et al., 1997.). MAO is well suited for this role because its concentration in organs such as kidneys, liver and digestive organs is high sometimes exceeding that in the brain. Knowledge of the distribution of the MAO subtypes within different organs and different cells is important in determining which substrates (and which drugs and xenobiotics) have access to which MAO subtypes. The highly variable subtype distribution with different species makes human studies even more important. In addition, the deleterious side effects of combining MAO inhibitors with other drugs and with foodstuffs makes it important to know the MAO inhibitory potency of different drugs both in the brain and in peripheral organs (Ulus et al., 2000). Clearly PET can play a role in answering these questions, in drug research and development and in discovering some of the factors which contribute to the highly variable MAO levels in different individuals.

  4. Thermodynamic study of CVD-ZrO2 phase diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Huerta, A.M.; Vargas-Garcia, J.R.; Dominguez-Crespo, M.A.; Romero-Serrano, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of zirconium oxide (ZrO 2 ) from zirconium acetylacetonate Zr(acac) 4 has been thermodynamically investigated using the Gibbs' free energy minimization method and the FACTSAGE program. Thermodynamic data Cp o , ΔH o and S o for Zr(acac) 4 have been estimated using the Meghreblian-Crawford-Parr and Benson methods because they are not available in the literature. The effect of deposition parameters, such as temperature and pressure, on the extension of the region where pure ZrO 2 can be deposited was analyzed. The results are presented as calculated CVD stability diagrams. The phase diagrams showed two zones, one of them corresponds to pure monoclinic phase of ZrO 2 and the other one corresponds to a mix of monoclinic phase of ZrO 2 and graphite carbon.

  5. Carolina Offshore Wind Integration Case Study: Phases I and II Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallon, Christopher [Duke Energy Business Services, LLC, Charlotte, NC (United States); Piper, Orvane [Duke Energy Business Services, LLC, Charlotte, NC (United States); Hazelip, William [Duke Energy Business Services, LLC, Charlotte, NC (United States); Zhao, Yishan [Duke Energy Business Services, LLC, Charlotte, NC (United States); Salvador, Lisa [Duke Energy Business Services, LLC, Charlotte, NC (United States); Pruitt, Tom [Duke Energy Business Services, LLC, Charlotte, NC (United States); Peterson, Jeffrey [Duke Energy Business Services, LLC, Charlotte, NC (United States); Ashby, Rebecca [Duke Energy Business Services, LLC, Charlotte, NC (United States); Pierce, Bob [Duke Energy Business Services, LLC, Charlotte, NC (United States); Burner, Bob [Duke Energy Business Services, LLC, Charlotte, NC (United States); Daniel, John [ABB, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Zhu, Jinxiang [ABB, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Moore, Maria [ABB, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Liu, Shu [ABB, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Pennock, Ken [AWS Truepower, LLC, Albany, NY (United States); Frank, Jaclyn [AWS Truepower, LLC, Albany, NY (United States); Ibanez, Eduardo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heaney, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bloom, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Yingchen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Elliott, Dennis [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Seim, Harvey E. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2015-04-30

    Duke Energy performed a phase 1 study to assess the impact of offshore wind development in the waters off the coasts of North Carolina and South Carolina. The study analyzed the impacts to the Duke Energy Carolinas electric power system of multiple wind deployment scenarios. Focusing on an integrated utility system in the Carolinas provided a unique opportunity to assess the impacts of offshore wind development in a region that has received less attention regarding renewables than others in the US. North Carolina is the only state in the Southeastern United States that currently has a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) which requires that 12.5% of the state’s total energy requirements be met with renewable resources by 2021. 12.5% of the state’s total energy requirements in 2021 equates to approximately 17,000 GWH of energy needed from renewable resources. Wind resources represent one of the ways to potentially meet this requirement. The study builds upon and augments ongoing work, including a study by UNC to identify potential wind development sites and the analysis of impacts to the regional transmission system performed by the NCTPC, an Order 890 planning entity of which DEC is a member. Furthermore, because the region does not have an independent system operator (ISO) or regional transmission organization (RTO), the study will provide additional information unique to non-RTO/ISO systems. The Phase 2 study builds on the results of Phase 1 and investigates the dynamic stability of the electrical network in Task 4, the operating characteristics of the wind turbines as they impact operating reserve requirements of the DEC utility in Task 5, and the production cost of integrating the offshore wind resources into the DEC generation fleet making comparisons to future planned operation without the addition of the wind resources in Task 6.

  6. Development of cryogenic free-piston reciprocating expander utilizing phase controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Jeong Min; Park, Ji Ho; Kim, Kyung Joong; Jeong, Sang Kwon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    A free-piston reciprocating expander is a device which operates without any mechanical linkage to a stationary part. Since the motion of the floating piston is only controlled by the pressure difference at two ends of the piston, this kind of expander may indispensably require a sophisticated active control system equipped with multiple valves and reservoirs. In this paper, we have suggested a novel design that can further reduce complexity of the previously developed cryogenic free-piston expander configuration. It is a simple replacement of both multiple valves and reservoirs by a combination of an orifice valve and a reservoir. The functional characteristic of the integrated orifice-reservoir configuration is similar to that of a phase controller applied in a pulse tube refrigerator so that we designate the one as a phase controller. Depending on the orifice valve size in the phase controller, the different PV work which affects the expander performance is generated. The numerical model of this unique free-piston reciprocating expander utilizing a phase controller is established to understand and analyze quantitatively the performance variation of the expander under different valve timing and orifice valve size. The room temperature experiments are carried out to examine the performance of this newly developed cryogenic expander.

  7. Development of cryogenic free-piston reciprocating expander utilizing phase controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Jeong Min; Park, Ji Ho; Kim, Kyung Joong; Jeong, Sang Kwon

    2016-01-01

    A free-piston reciprocating expander is a device which operates without any mechanical linkage to a stationary part. Since the motion of the floating piston is only controlled by the pressure difference at two ends of the piston, this kind of expander may indispensably require a sophisticated active control system equipped with multiple valves and reservoirs. In this paper, we have suggested a novel design that can further reduce complexity of the previously developed cryogenic free-piston expander configuration. It is a simple replacement of both multiple valves and reservoirs by a combination of an orifice valve and a reservoir. The functional characteristic of the integrated orifice-reservoir configuration is similar to that of a phase controller applied in a pulse tube refrigerator so that we designate the one as a phase controller. Depending on the orifice valve size in the phase controller, the different PV work which affects the expander performance is generated. The numerical model of this unique free-piston reciprocating expander utilizing a phase controller is established to understand and analyze quantitatively the performance variation of the expander under different valve timing and orifice valve size. The room temperature experiments are carried out to examine the performance of this newly developed cryogenic expander

  8. Development of linear free energy relationships for aqueous phase radical-involved chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakata, Daisuke; Mezyk, Stephen P; Jones, Jace W; Daws, Brittany R; Crittenden, John C

    2014-12-02

    Aqueous phase advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) produce hydroxyl radicals (HO•) which can completely oxidize electron rich organic compounds. The proper design and operation of AOPs require that we predict the formation and fate of the byproducts and their associated toxicity. Accordingly, there is a need to develop a first-principles kinetic model that can predict the dominant reaction pathways that potentially produce toxic byproducts. We have published some of our efforts on predicting the elementary reaction pathways and the HO• rate constants. Here we develop linear free energy relationships (LFERs) that predict the rate constants for aqueous phase radical reactions. The LFERs relate experimentally obtained kinetic rate constants to quantum mechanically calculated aqueous phase free energies of activation. The LFERs have been applied to 101 reactions, including (1) HO• addition to 15 aromatic compounds; (2) addition of molecular oxygen to 65 carbon-centered aliphatic and cyclohexadienyl radicals; (3) disproportionation of 10 peroxyl radicals, and (4) unimolecular decay of nine peroxyl radicals. The LFERs correlations predict the rate constants within a factor of 2 from the experimental values for HO• reactions and molecular oxygen addition, and a factor of 5 for peroxyl radical reactions. The LFERs and the elementary reaction pathways will enable us to predict the formation and initial fate of the byproducts in AOPs. Furthermore, our methodology can be applied to other environmental processes in which aqueous phase radical-involved reactions occur.

  9. Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems, Phase II and III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-04-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47%, NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input, all solid wastes benign, and cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants. Phase 1, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase 1 also included preliminary R and D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This phase, Phase 2, involves the development and testing of plant subsystems, refinement and updating of the HIPPS commercial plant design, and the site selection and engineering design of a HIPPS prototype plant. Work reported herein is from: Task 2.1 HITAC Combustors; Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; Task 6 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design Update.

  10. Relationship between phase development and swelling of AISI 316 during temperature changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.J.S.; Garner, F.A.

    1982-04-01

    The effect of temperature changes on radiation-induced swelling and phase development of AISI 316 has been examined for specimens irradiated in two different experiments. The formation of radiation-stable phases at low temperature appears to precede swelling but these phases tend to dissolve when subsequently subjected to higher temperature. Phases which develop at high temperature persist when the temperature is subsequently lowered. Once nucleated at low temperatures, voids tend to persist without reduction in density at higher temperatures. However, a new round of void nucleation occurs when the temperature is decreased during irradiation. If the swelling has entered the steady-state swelling regime prior to the temperature change, there is no effect on the subsequent swelling rate. For temperature changes that occur before the end of the transient swelling regime, substantial changes can occur in the swelling behavior, particularly if the changes occur in the range around 500 0 . The isothermal swelling behavior of AISI 316 is much less sensitive to irradiation temperature than previously envisioned

  11. A 2MW 6-phase BLDC Generator Developed from a PM Synchronous Generator for Wind Energy Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhuihui; Chen, Zhe; Liu, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    rectifier is adopted. The cases the with different loads are studied. The finite element simulation shows the developed BLDC generator is better than the PMSM generator in terms of DC voltage ripple and torque ripple. Furthermore, the volume of the BLDC generator is smaller, despite of more permanent magnet......In the direct drive wind turbine application, a PMSM generator often works together with a diode rectifier, which connects to a boost converter. In this paper, a six-phase BLDC generator is developed from the prototype design of three-phase permanent magnet synchronous generator. The diode...... is required. The efficiencies and the costs are also compared. As the result shows, BLDC generators connected with the diode rectifiers are good candidates for direct drive wind turbines....

  12. Micro versus macro solid phase extraction for monitoring water contaminants: a preliminary study using trihalomethanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrou, Lydon D; Spencer, Michelle J S; Morrison, Paul D; Meehan, Barry J; Jones, Oliver A H

    2015-04-15

    Solid phase extraction is one of the most commonly used pre-concentration and cleanup steps in environmental science. However, traditional methods need electrically powered pumps, can use large volumes of solvent (if multiple samples are run), and require several hours to filter a sample. Additionally, if the cartridge is open to the air volatile compounds may be lost and sample integrity compromised. In contrast, micro cartridge based solid phase extraction can be completed in less than 2 min by hand, uses only microlitres of solvent and provides comparable concentration factors to established methods. It is also an enclosed system so volatile components are not lost. The sample can also be eluted directly into a detector (e.g. a mass spectrometer) if required. However, the technology is new and has not been much used for environmental analysis. In this study we compare traditional (macro) and the new micro solid phase extraction for the analysis of four common volatile trihalomethanes (trichloromethane, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and tribromomethane). The results demonstrate that micro solid phase extraction is faster and cheaper than traditional methods with similar recovery rates for the target compounds. This method shows potential for further development in a range of applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Studies of simulations of two-phase water-air flows using ANSYS CFX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrido Filho, Anizio M.; Moreira, Maria de Lourdes; Faccini, José L.H., E-mail: anizio@ien.gov.br, E-mail: malu@ien.gov.br, E-mail: faccini@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Normally in all simulations of flows in computational fluid dynamics, CFD, it is common to use characteristic planes to visualize the profiles of the parameters of interest, mainly in 3D simulations. The present work proposes a standard form of visualization that shows, mainly in two-phase flows, in a more realistic way, the dynamics of the development of the phase flow. This visualization is present within the CFX program in the post-processing module, in the option of representing volumes using sub option, isovolumes. Through this representation, the program highlights the volumes of the finite element mesh corresponding to the selected values of the parameter to be analyzed such as pressure, velocity, volumetric fraction, etc. By means of the volume-isovolume representation, a well representative effect of the current flow pattern is obtained, especially when the volumetric fraction of the air or the gas phase of the flow is emphasized. This form of visualization is being applied to the study of inclined two-phase flows, which will be tested in a new experiment currently under construction at the Laboratory of Experimental Thermal-Hydraulics - LTE of the Institute of Nuclear Engineering - IEN in Rio de Janeiro. (author)

  14. New bern biomass to energy project Phase I: Feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parson, F.; Bain, R.

    1995-10-01

    Weyerhaeuser, together with Amoco and Carolina Power & Light, performed a detailed evaluation of biomass gasification and enzymatic processing of biomass to ethanol. This evaluation assesses the potential of these technologies for commercial application to determine which technology offers the best opportunity at this time to increase economic productivity of forest resources in an environmentally sustainable manner. The work performed included preparation of site-specific plant designs that integrate with the Weyerhaeuser New Bern, North Carolina pulp mill to meet overall plant energy requirements, cost estimates, resource and product market assessments, and technology evaluations. The Weyerhaeuser team was assisted by Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation and technology vendors in developing the necessary data, designs, and cost information used in this comparative study. Based on the information developed in this study and parallel evaluations performed by Weyerhaeuser and others, biomass gasification for use in power production appears to be technically and economically viable. Options exist at the New Bern mill which would allow commercial scale demonstration of the technology in a manner that would serve the practical energy requirements of the mill. A staged project development plan has been prepared for review. The plan would provide for a low-risk and cost demonstration of a biomass gasifier as an element of a boiler modification program and then allow for timely expansion of power production by the addition of a combined cycle cogeneration plant. Although ethanol technology is at an earlier stage of development, there appears to be a set of realizable site and market conditions which could provide for an economically attractive woody-biomass-based ethanol facility. The market price of ethanol and the cost of both feedstock and enzyme have a dramatic impact on the projected profitability of such a plant.

  15. Small and medium power reactors: project initiation study, Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    In conformity with the Agency's promotional role in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, IAEA has provided, over the past 20 years, assistance to Member States, particularly developing countries, in planning for the introduction of nuclear power plants in the Small and Medium range (SMPR). However these efforts did not produce any significant results in the market introduction of these reactors, due to various factors. In 1983 the Agency launched a new SMPR Project Initiation Study with the objective of surveying the available designs, examining the major factors influencing the decision-making processes in Developing Countries and thereby arriving at an estimate of the potential market. Two questionnaires were used to obtain information from possible suppliers and prospective buyers. The Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD assisted in making a study of the potential market in industrialized countries. The information gained during the study and discussed during a Technical Committee Meeting on SMPRs held in Vienna in March 1985, along with the contribution by OECD-NEA is embodied in the present report

  16. Phase behaviour of macromolecular liquid crystalline materials. Computational studies at the molecular level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stimson, Lorna M.

    2003-01-01

    Molecular simulations provide an increasingly useful insight into the static and dynamic characteristics of materials. In this thesis molecular simulations of macro-molecular liquid crystalline materials are reported. The first liquid crystalline material that has been investigated is a side chain liquid crystal polymer (SCLCP). In this study semi-atomistic molecular dynamics simulations have been conducted at a range of temperatures and an aligning potential has been applied to mimic the effect of a magnetic field. In cooling the SCLCP from an isotropic melt, microphase separation was observed yielding a domain structure. The application of a magnetic field to this structure aligns the domains producing a stable smectic mesophase. This is the first study in which mesophases have been observed using an off-lattice model of a SCLCP. The second material that has been investigated is a dendrimer with terminal mesogenic functionalization. Here, a multi-scale approach has been taken with Monte Carlo studies of a single dendrimer molecule in the gas phase at the atomistic level, semi-atomistic molecular dynamics of a single molecule in liquid crystalline solvents and a coarse-grained molecular dynamics study of the dendrimer in the bulk. The coarse-grained model has been developed and parameterized using the results of the atomistic and semi-atomistic work. The single molecule studies showed that the liquid crystalline dendrimer was able to change its structure by conformational changes in the flexible chains that link the mesogenic groups to the core. Structural change was seen under the application of a mean field ordering potential in the gas phase, and in the presence of liquid crystalline solvents. No liquid crystalline phases were observed for the bulk phase studies of the coarse-grained model. However, when the length of the mesogenic units was increased there was some evidence for microphase separation in these systems. (author)

  17. Developing a framework for assessing the impact of geothermal development phases on ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semedi, Jarot M.; Willemen, L.; Nurlambang, Triarko; Van Der Meer, F.D.; Koestoer, Raldi H.

    2018-01-01

    The 2014 Indonesian National Energy Policy has set a target to provide national primary energy usage reached 2.500 kWh per capita in the year 2025 and reached 7.000 kWh in the year 2050. The National Energy Policy state that the development of energy should consider the balance of energy economic

  18. Studies on Single-phase and Multi-phase Heat Pipe for LED Panel for Efficient Heat Dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyshnave, K. C.; Rohit, G.; Maithreya, D. V. N. S.; Rakesh, S. G.

    2017-08-01

    The popularity of LED panel as a source of illumination has soared recently due to its high efficiency. However, the removal of heat that is produced in the chip is still a major challenge in its design since this has an adverse effect on its reliability. If high junction temperature develops, the colour of the emitted light may diminish over prolonged usage or even a colour shift may occur. In this paper, a solution has been developed to address this problem by using a combination of heat pipe and heat fin technology. A single-phase and a two-phase heat pipes have been designed theoretically and computational simulations carried out using ANSYS FLUENT. The results of the theoretical calculations and those obtained from the simulations are found to be in agreement with each other.

  19. Rotation-Enabled 7-Degree of Freedom Seismometer for Geothermal Resource Development. Phase 1 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, Bob [Applied Technology Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Laughlin, Darren [Applied Technology Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-10-29

    , and confidence, thus removing some current blocks to feasibility and significantly increasing access to potential geothermal sites. During the Phase 1 effort summarized in this final report, the ATA Team modeled and built two TRL 3 proof-of-concept test units for two competing rotational sensor technologies. The two competing technologies were based on ATA's angular rate and angular displacement measurement technologies; Angular rate: ATA's Magnetohydrodynamic Angular Rate Sensor (Seismic MHD); and Angular displacement: ATA's Low Frequency Improved Torsional Seismometer (LFITS). In order to down-select between these two technologies and formulate a go / no go decision, the ATA Team analyzed and traded scientific performance requirements and market constraints against sensor characteristics and components, acquiring field data where possible to validate the approach and publishing results from these studies of rotational technology capability. Based on the results of Phase 1, the ATA Team finds that the Seismic MHD (SMHD) technology is the best choice for enabling rotational seismometry and significant technical potential exists for micro-seismic monitoring using a downhole 7-DOF device based on the SMHD. Recent technical papers and field data confirm the potential of rotational sensing for seismic mapping, increasing confidence that cost-reduction benefits are achievable for EGS. However, the market for geothermal rotational sensing is small and undeveloped. As a result, this report recommends modifying the Phase 2 plan to focus on prototype development aimed at partnering with early adopters within the geothermal industry and the scientific research community. The highest public benefit will come from development and deployment of a science-grade SMHD rotational seismometer engineered for geothermal downhole conditions and an integrated test tool for downhole measurements at active geothermal test sites.

  20. A Study of Phase Composition and Structure of Alloys of the Al - Mg - Si - Fe System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailybaeva, A. D.; Zolotorevskii, V. S.; Smagulov, D. U.; Islamkulov, K. M.

    2017-03-01

    The Thermo-Calc software is used to compute the phase transformations occurring during cooling of alloys. Polythermal and isothermal sections of the phase diagram of the Al - Mg - Si - Fe system are plotted. The phase composition and the structure of aluminum alloys in cast condition and after a heat treatment are studied experimentally.

  1. Space station contamination control study: Internal combustion, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Robert T.

    1987-01-01

    Contamination inside Space Station modules was studied to determine the best methods of controlling contamination. The work was conducted in five tasks that identified existing contamination control requirements, analyzed contamination levels, developed outgassing specification for materials, wrote a contamination control plan, and evaluated current materials of offgassing tests used by NASA. It is concluded that current contamination control methods can be made to function on the Space Station for up to 1000 days, but that current methods are deficient for periods longer than about 1000 days.

  2. Thermodynamic Study for Conformal Phase in Large Nf Gauge Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miura, Kohtaroh; Lombardo, Maria Paola; Pallante, Elisabetta

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the chiral phase transition at finite temperature (T) in colour SU(3) Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) with six species of fermions (Nf = 6) in the fundamental representation. The simulations have been performed by using lattice QCD with improved staggered fermions. The critical couplings

  3. Ab initio study of phase equilibria in TiCx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzhavyi, P.A.; Pourovskii, L.V.; Hugosson, H.W.

    2002-01-01

    The phase diagram for the vacancy-ordered structures in the substoichiometric TiCx (x = 0.5-1.0) has been established from Monte Carlo simulations with the long-range pair and multisite effective interactions obtained from ab initio calculations. Three ordered superstructures of vacancies (Ti2C, Ti...

  4. Development of a Laser Dopper Anemometer technique for the measurement of two phase dispersed flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, J.

    1978-05-01

    A new optical technique using Laser-Doppler Anemometry is presented for the measurement of the local number densities and two-dimensional velocity probability densities of a turbulent dilute two-phase dispersion which has a distribution of particle size and a predominant direction of flow. This technique establishes that by a suitable scheme of discrimination on the signal amplitude, residence time and frequency of the Doppler signals caused by the scattered light from individual particles in the probing volume, the size distribution of moderately large particles in a dilute dispersed flow can be determined. The newly developed Laser-Doppler Anemometer (LDA) technique was applied to a solid particle-water two-phase flow and a water droplet-air two-phase flow. Particular emphasis was placed on turbulent two-phase water droplet-air flow inside a vertical rectangular channel. At each of nine different measuring locations along the transverse axis (starting at 250μ from the channel wall), over 20,000 Doppler signals were individually examined. The particle size and number density distributions, and the axial and lateral velocity distributions of both phases are reported. The analysis reveals some interesting features of two-phase dispersed flow. A film of water on the channel wall was formed due to the deposition of droplets from the flow. The water droplet entrainment from the wall film and the subsequent breakup of some of these into the flow are discussed. A discussion of the relationship between the particle distributions and turbulent flow characteristics is presented

  5. New developments in two-phase flow heat transfer with emphasis on nuclear safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayinger, F.

    1987-01-01

    The literature on two-phase flow - with and without heat transfer - shows an explosive-like growth of published papers within the last ten years. Many of these papers were published as a result of nuclear safety research. It is impossible to deal with all new developments reported in this extensive literature. So one has to ask: Are there trends of special interest, where this report could be concentrated on? Looking over the situation, there seem to be three very promising fields of research having high actuality, especially for nuclear safety, namely: fluiddynamic and thermodynamic nonequilibrium in steady state, transient conditions, and scaling. The discussion on new developments in two-phase flow heat transfer, therefore, is limited on these subjects

  6. Development of high-performance phased-array UT system 'DYNARAY' and its application examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehara, Eiji

    2011-01-01

    This article outlined the history leading to develop high-performance phased-array (PA) UT system called DYNARAY, with up to 256 phased-array active channels and maximum 4096 focal laws, lowering the inspection time. As examples it was applied to in-service inspection of reactor pressure vessel welded joints using module of PA-UT probe or eddy-current probe, inspection of seal welds of dry storage containers using scanner of PA-UT, crack detection of end ring of generators using PA-UT probe and UT inspection of cast austenitic stainless steel using 500 kHz probe. Advanced data acquisition and analysis functions for PA-UT system had been developed. (T. Tanaka)

  7. Development of a mesh-type computer tomography for the two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Young; Lee, In Wook

    1998-01-01

    This paper is to describe the development of a mesh-type computer tomography for the two-phase flow. The sensor is made of many parallel wires in the orthogonal orientation. A demultiplexer circuits is developed for electrodes to supply driving voltage and for data acquisition system to get the output voltage form the electrode unit. For the reconstruction of image a direct inversion algorithm is adopted. Full automation is provided from the data sensing to the image construction. Through the careful calibariation and field tests in the horizontal and vertical two-phase loop, the present sensor detect images for the solitary wave and the slug realistically. This sensor could be a useful tool in the laboratory experiments

  8. STTR Phase 1 Final Technical Report for Project Entitled "Developing a Mobile Torrefaction Machine"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Joseph J. [President, ATP

    2014-03-11

    The goal of this project, sponsored by Agri-Tech Producers, LLC (ATP), the small business grantee, was to determine if the torrefaction technology, developed by North Carolina State University (NCSU), which ATP has licensed, could be feasibly deployed in a mobile unit. The study adds to the area investigated, by having ATP’s STTR Phase I team give thoughtful consideration to how to use NCSU’s technology in a mobile unit. The findings by ATP’s team were that NCSU’s technology would best perform in units 30’ by 80’ (See Spec Sheet for the Torre-Tech 5.0 Unit in the Appendix) and the technical effectiveness and economic feasibility investigation suggested that such units were not easily, efficiently or safely utilized in a forest or farm setting. (Note rendering of possible mobile system in the Appendix) Therefore, the findings by ATP’s team were that NCSU’s technology could not feasibly be deployed as a mobile unit.

  9. The potential of SGLT2 inhibitors in phase II clinical development for treating type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pafili, K; Maltezos, E; Papanas, N

    2016-10-01

    There is now an abundance of anti-diabetic agents. However, only few patients achieve glycemic targets. Moreover, current glucose-lowering agents mainly depend upon insulin secretion or function. Sodium glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors present a novel glucose-lowering therapy, inducing glycosuria in an insulin-independent fashion. In this review, the authors discuss the key efficacy and safety data from phase II clinical trials in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) of the main SGLT2 inhibitors approved or currently in development, and provide a rationale for their use in T2DM. Despite the very promising characteristics of this new therapeutic class, a number of issues await consideration. One important question is what to expect from head-to-head comparison data. We also need to know if dual inhibition of SGLT1/SGLT2 is more efficacious in reducing HbA1c and how this therapy affects metabolic and cardiovascular parameters. Additionally, several SGLT2 agents that have not yet come to market have hitherto been evaluated in Asian populations, whereas approved SGLT2 inhibitors have been frequently studied in other populations, including Caucasian subjects. Thus, we need more information on the potential role of ethnicity on their efficacy and safety.

  10. Design And Development Of An Automatic Single Phase Protective Device Using Ssr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of energy safety has been a paramount subject matter. This we can see in todays electrical systems where protective devices such as fuse and circuit breakers are used to prevent fire hazards resulting from overload overvoltage and short circuits. However with all the revolution in technology these options may be considered less smart since the fuse made with wire strands calculated for specific current capacity faults permanently when the specified current rating is exceeded. While the circuit breaker which is made up of mechanical switch fails as a result of carbon forming and the wearing away of the contacts because of arcing. As a means of improvement this paper presents the design and development of an automatic single phase protective device using solid state relay SSR. This study is to ensure automatic cut off from power supply in cases of overvoltage above 240 V AC or when overload and short circuit current above 8amps is detected without permanent damage of a fuse placed along current path. Also the design will ensure that there is an automatic close circuit whenever the trigger switch is momentary switch is closed. The system is achieved via the use of PIC micro-controller current sensor and other discrete components. The system is tested and works well inhibiting the frequent faulting of fuses. It also helps to prevent hazard as a result of overvoltage overload and short circuit and ensures a close circuit when the trigger switch is closed.

  11. Development of phase-contrast imaging technique for material science and medical science applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashyap, Y.S.; Roy, Tushar; Sarkar, P.S; Shukla, Mayank; Yadav, P.S; Sinha, Amar; Verma, Vishnu; Ghosh, A.K.

    2007-07-01

    In-line phase contrast imaging technique is an emerging method for study of materials such as carbon fibres, carbon composite materials, polymers etc. These represent the class of materials for which x-ray attenuation cross-section is very small. Similarly, this technique is also well suited for imaging of soft materials such as tissues, distinguishing between tumour and normal tissue. Thus this method promises a far better contrast for low x-ray absorbing substances than the conventional radiography method for material and medical science applications. Though the conventional radiography technique has been carried out for decades, the phase-imaging technique is being demonstrated for the first time within, the country. We have set up an experimental facility for phase contrast imaging using a combination of x-ray CCD detector and a microfocus x-ray source. This facility is dedicated for micro-imaging experiments such as micro-tomography and high resolution phase contrast experiments. In this report, the results of phase contrast imaging using microfocus source and ELETTRA, synchrotron source are discussed. We have also discussed the basic design and heat load calculation for upcoming imaging beamline at Indus-II, RRCAT, Indore. (author)

  12. Status of JSFR development in phase I FaCT project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoto, Kazumi; Chikazawa, Yoshitaka; Kotake, Shoji; Ito, Takaya

    2011-01-01

    The Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development (FaCT) project is pursuing commercialization of fast reactor cycle system around 2050 under cooperation of MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology), METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry), utilities, venders and JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency). As results of the FaCT Phase I, the key technologies for Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR) has been evaluated. (author)

  13. Radical Reactions in the Gas Phase: Recent Development and Application in Biomolecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes recent literature describing the use of gas phase radical reactions for structural characterization of complex biomolecules other than peptides. Specifically, chemical derivatization, in-source chemical reaction, and gas phase ion/ion reactions have been demonstrated as effective ways to generate radical precursor ions that yield structural informative fragments complementary to those from conventional collision-induced dissociation (CID. Radical driven dissociation has been applied to a variety of biomolecules including peptides, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and phospholipids. The majority of the molecules discussed in this review see limited fragmentation from conventional CID, and the gas phase radical reactions open up completely new dissociation channels for these molecules and therefore yield high fidelity confirmation of the structures of the target molecules. Due to the extensively studied peptide fragmentation, this review focuses only on nonpeptide biomolecules such as nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and phospholipids.

  14. Development of a single-phase thermosiphon for cold collection and storage of radiative cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Dongliang; Martini, Christine Elizabeth; Jiang, Siyu; Ma, Yaoguang; Zhai, Yao; Tan, Gang; Yin, Xiaobo; Yang, Ronggui

    2017-11-01

    A single-phase thermosiphon is developed for cold collection and storage of radiative cooling. Compared to the conventional nocturnal radiative cooling systems that use an electric pump to drive the heat transfer fluid, the proposed single-phase thermosiphon uses the buoyancy force to drive heat transfer fluid. This solution does not require electricity, therefore improving the net gain of the radiative cooling system. A single-phase thermosiphon was built, which consists of a flat panel, a cold collection tank, a water return tube, and a water distribution tank. Considering that outdoor radiative cooling flux is constantly changing (i.e. uncontrollable), an indoor testing facility was developed to provide a controllable cooling flux (comparable to a radiative cooling flux of 100 W/m2) for the evaluation of thermosiphon performance. The testing apparatus is a chilled aluminum flat plate that has a controlled air gap separation relative to the flat panel surface of the thermosiphon to emulate radiative cooling. With an average of 105 W/m2 cooling flux, the 18 liters of water in the thermosiphon was cooled to an average temperature of 12.5 degrees C from an initial temperature of 22.2 degrees C in 2 h, with a cold collection efficiency of 96.8%. The results obtained have demonstrated the feasibility of using a single-phase thermosiphon for cold collection and storage of radiative cooling. Additionally, the effects of the thermosiphon operation conditions, such as tilt angle of the flat panel, initial water temperature, and cooling energy flux, on the performance have been experimentally investigated. Modular design of the single-phase thermosiphon gives flexibility for its scalability. A radiative cooling system with multiple thermosiphon modules is expected to play an important role in cooling buildings and power plant condensers.

  15. A Study on a Crack Evaluation Technique for Turbine Blade Root Using Phased Array Ultrasonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yong Sang; Jung, Gye Jo; Park, Sang Ki; Kim, Jae Hoon

    2004-01-01

    Ultrasonic testing is a kind of nondestructive test to detect a crack or discontinuity in materials or on material surfaces by sending ultrasound to it. This conventional ultrasonic technique has some limitations in reliably detecting crack or accurately assessing materials in the case of complex-shaped power plant components such as a turbine blade root. An alternative method for such a difficult inspection is highly needed. In this study, application of a phased array ultrasonic testing (UT) system to a turbine blade, one of the critical power plant components, has been considered, and the particular incident angle has been determined so that the greatest track detectability and the most accurate crack length evaluation nay be achieved. The response of ultrasonic phased array was also analyzed to establish a special method to determine the track length without moving the transducer. The result showed that the developed method for crack length assessment is a more accurate and effective method, compared with the conventional method

  16. On the development of a grid-enhanced single-phase convective heat transfer correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.J.; Cheung, F.B.; Bajorek, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    A new single-phase convective heat transfer augmentation correlation has been developed using single phase steam cooling experimental data obtained from the Penn State/NRC Rod Bundle Heat Transfer (RBHT) facility. Experimental data obtained from the RBHT single phase steam cooling tests have been evaluated and new findings identified. Previous rod bundle tests showed the importance of spacer grid on the local heat transfer, and that the augmentation in heat transfer downstream of a grid decays exponentially. The RBHT data also shows that the Reynolds number affects the rate at which this augmentation decays. The new correlation includes the strong dependence of heat transfer on both the Reynolds number and the grid blockage ratio. While the effects of both parameters were clearly evident in the RBHT experimental data, existing correlations do not account for the Reynolds number effect. The developed correlation incorporates Reynolds number in the decay curve of heat transfer. The newly developed correlation adequately accounts for the dependence of the heat transfer augmentation decay rate on the local flow Reynolds number. (author)

  17. Binary phase masks on self-developing photopolymers: the technique for formation and testing in an optical correlator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yezhov, P V; Il'in, O A; Smirnova, T N; Tikhonov, E A

    2003-01-01

    Binary phase masks (PMs) of size 256x256 cells with a random distribution of elements, formed on the self-developing FPK-488 photopolymer, are studied. The masks were prepared by the projection method using amplitude transparencies. The phase shift between the mask elements corresponding to the regions of the amplitude transparency with the optical density D = 0 and 2 was (0.85±0.05)π at the wavelength of 0.633 μm. Holographic matched filters were recorded for PMs obtained. The diffraction efficiency of holographic matched PM filters was 40 %. The signal-to-noise ratio for recognition signals for PMs in the Vander Lugt correlator was 20 dB. The normalised power density of the recognition signal is studied as a function of the rotation angle of a PM in the input plane of the Vander Lugt correlator. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  18. VALIDATION REPORT (PHASE 2) FOR THE FISH SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT TEST FOR THE DETECTION OF ENDOCRINE ACTIVE SUBSTANCES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik; Kinnberg, Karin Lund; Petersen, Gitte

    This document presents the validation report (phase 2) of the Fish Sexual Development Test (FSDT). The Fish Sexual Development Test (FSDT) covers a life-stage where sexual development is particularly sensitive to perturbation caused by endocrine active chemicals. The chemical exposure lasts...... Guideline on the fish sexual development test to the Working Group of the National Coordinators of the Test Guidelines Programme (WNT). The project was included on the Test Guidelines workplan in 2003, and extensive validation of the test method was carried out until 2009. Two validation studies were...... for about 60 days, at the end of which endpoints of ecological relevance like the sex ratio of the exposed fish is calculated and the biomarker endpoint vitellogenin is measured in individual animals. In 2003, Denmark, on behalf of the European Nordic countries, proposed a new project o develop a Test...

  19. Human resource development in the beginning phase of nuclear technology development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Kiyonobu

    2015-01-01

    Japan Research Reactor No.1 (JRR-1) was constructed as the first nuclear reactor in Japan and reached the first criticality in 1957. The construction of both the first BWR and the first PWR were started in the same year 1967 and they started power operation in the same year 1970. Engineers of electrical utilities and vendors gave efforts to have knowledge for reactor engineering mainly on the job training with high self-motivation to contribute for nuclear technology development. A part of them participated in the reactor engineering training course of the JAERI. (author)

  20. Improvement of hydrogen sorption properties of compounds based on Vanadium “bcc” alloys by mean of intergranular phase development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planté, D.; Raufast, C.; Miraglia, S.; Rango, P. de; Fruchart, D.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Decrease of “bcc” pseudo cell with the increase of amount of additive. •Additive phase improve activation kinetics. •Chromium in the “bcc” matrix decreases the lattice parameter and destabilizes hydride formation/dissociation. •Lower working temperatures could be obtain. -- Abstract: Body centered cubic structure (“bcc”) type alloys based on Vanadium [1] reveal promising characteristics for mobile applications. These disordered solid solutions have particular metal/hydride equilibrium and some regulation aspects have leaded us to pay special attention to this type of material [2]. Compounds based on Vanadium-rich solid solution have been elaborated in order to destabilize γ hydride phase (corresponding to the face centered cubic (“fcc”) structure of VH 2 ). Addition of Ni and Zr-rich Laves phase as a secondary phase results in the development of a particular microstructure composed of a principal “bcc” matrix rounded by intergranular activating phase. This results in a facilitated and faster activation of these compounds. The present study shows that some constituting species of the secondary phase have diffused in the main matrix and therefore have modified the thermodynamic of hydride. In fact, chromium diffusion into the “bcc” matrix destabilizes hydride. It is correlated to the lower stability of chromium hydride compared to Vanadium hydride. The enthalpic terms of each sample have been measured (assuming standard entropy of 130 J mol −1 K −1 ). The equilibrium metal/hydride can be easily switched in order to adapt it to a mobile hydride tank and obtain low working temperature in regard to the potential use