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Sample records for development screening test

  1. Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FAQs Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests Patient Education FAQs Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests Patient Education Pamphlets - ...

  2. Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... two drinks (the T question) = 2 points. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) can detect alcohol problems experienced ...

  3. Early Education Screening Test Battery of Basic Skills Development: Criteria for Personalizing Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University City School District, MO.

    The development and content of the Early Education Screening Test Battery are described elsewhere (TM 000 184). This report provides norms for the Gross Motor Test (GMO), Visual-Motor Integration (VMI), four scales of the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA), Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), and the Behavior Rating Scale…

  4. Recommendations for Developing Alternative Test Methods for Screening and Prioritization of Chemicals for Developmental Neurotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) is perceived by many stakeholders to be an area in critical need of alternative methods to current animal testing protocols and gUidelines. An immediate goal is to develop test methods that are capable of screening large numbers of chemic...

  5. Capacity-to-Consent in Psychiatric Research: Development and Preliminary Testing of a Screening Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayas, Luis H.; Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Perez, M. Carmela

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Assuring research participants' capacity to provide informed consent has become increasingly important in health and mental health research, and each study faces unique capacity-assessment challenges, possibly requiring its own screening tool. This article describes the development and preliminary testing of a capacity-to-consent tool…

  6. Developmental neurotoxicity testing: recommendations for developing alternative methods for the screening and prioritization of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crofton, Kevin M; Mundy, William R; Lein, Pamela J; Bal-Price, Anna; Coecke, Sandra; Seiler, Andrea E M; Knaut, Holger; Buzanska, Leonora; Goldberg, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) is perceived by many stakeholders to be an area in critical need of alternative methods to current animal testing protocols and guidelines. An immediate goal is to develop test methods that are capable of screening large numbers of chemicals. This document provides recommendations for developing alternative DNT approaches that will generate the type of data required for evaluating and comparing predictive capacity and efficiency across test methods and laboratories. These recommendations were originally drafted to stimulate and focus discussions of alternative testing methods and models for DNT at the TestSmart DNT II meeting (http://caat.jhsph.edu/programs/workshops/dnt2.html) and this document reflects critical feedback from all stakeholders that participated in this meeting. The intent of this document is to serve as a catalyst for engaging the research community in the development of DNT alternatives and it is expected that these recommendations will continue to evolve with the science.

  7. Development of Taiwan Smell Identification Test: a quick office-based smell screening test for Taiwanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ning-I; Lai, Jen-Tsung; Shen, Ping-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Objective smell tests not only identify levels of smelling ability but also provide information on changes in olfaction after treatment. Odor identification is strongly socially and culturally dependent; therefore, the odorants used in a smell identification test should be familiar to the test population. We developed this smell test for Taiwanese populations with two aims: the test odors should be familiar to Taiwanese and the test should be easily and quickly administered in a busy clinic. Additives that are familiar to Taiwanese people were selected for this smell identification test. Subsequently, the test was validated with the traditional Chinese version of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (TC-UPSIT). Finally, this Taiwan Smell Identification Test (TWSIT) was implemented in daily clinical use, and cut-off points of "normosmia," "hyposmia," and "anosmia" were established. A total of 1000 subjects were included in the market survey to identify commonly recognized odors. Eight odorants with identification rate greater than 95% were selected. The TWSIT is an array of multiple-choice questions to select the odor. In addition, patient also reported the strength of the odor. The full score was 48. Thirty-seven patients simultaneously received both TWSIT and TC-UPSIT, and the correlation was high (r = 0.874). Based on the testing results of an additional 187 subjects, we concluded that scores of 47-48, 15-44, and 2-12 corresponded to normosmia, hyposmia, and anosmia, respectively. Patients with scores falling in the gaps require retesting at a later time. The TWSIT is a quick, office-based, and useful odor identification tool for Taiwanese. The experience of developing a culturally specific olfaction test like the TWSIT can be applied in different countries and cultures.

  8. Development of a Dysphagia Screening Test for Preterm Infants (DST-PI)

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyoung Moo; Seo, Young Tak

    2017-01-01

    Objective To explore both the early prediction and diagnosis of dysphagia in preterm infants as an important developmental aspect as well as the prevention of respiratory complications, we developed the simple and-easy-to-apply Dysphagia Screening Test for Preterm Infants (DST-PI) to predict supraglottic penetration and subglottic aspiration. Methods Fifty-two infants were enrolled in a videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) due to clinical suspicions of dysphagia. Thirteen items related t...

  9. Comparison of Psychomotor Development Screening Test and Clinical Assessment of Psychomotor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radmilović, Goranka; Matijević, Valentina; Zavoreo, Iris

    2016-12-01

    Numerous adverse factors are acting in the prenatal, perinatal and postnatal period of life and may be the cause of later mild or severe deviations from normal psychomotor development. Therefore, it is crucial to identify infants with neurological risk factors and infants that already have a delay from orderly development, in order to immediately initiate the rehabilitation process. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is difference in the assessment of psychomotor development in neurological risk children based on the psychomotor development test (Croatian, Razvoj psihomotorike, RPM test) and clinical evaluation of neuromotor development. RPM test is designed for rough estimate of psychomotor development in children in the first two years of life. The study included 15 full term children (8 male and 7 female) with clinical diagnosis of mild paraparesis and mild deviation from normal psychological and social development, and 15 full term children (8 male and 7 female) without neurological risk factors and deviations from normal psychomotor development, all at the age of 12-24 months. Of the 15 children diagnosed with mild paraparesis, none had delayed psychomotor development, 6.7% had suspect development and 93.3% had normal development on RPM test. All children in the control group had normal development on RPM test. According to the results, the RPM test is not sensitive enough to detect mild neurodevelopmental disorders.

  10. Newborn screening tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... screen. A provider will place a small soft sensor on the baby's skin and attach it to ... up testing confirms that the child has a disease, treatment can be started, before symptoms appear. Blood ...

  11. Short apraxia screening test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiguarda, Ramon; Clarens, Florencia; Amengual, Alejandra; Drucaroff, Lucas; Hallett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Limb apraxia comprises many different and common disorders, which are largely unrecognized essentially because there is no easy-to-use screening test sensitive enough to identify all types of limb praxis deficits. We evaluated 70 right-handed patients with limb apraxia due to a single focal lesion of the left hemisphere and 40 normal controls, using a new apraxia screening test. The test covered 12 items including: intransitive gestures, transitive gestures elicited under verbal, visual, and tactile modalities, imitation of meaningful and meaningless postures and movements, and a multiple object test. Interrater reliability was maximum for a cutoff of >2 positive items identifying apraxia on the short battery (Cohen's kappa .918, p 3 items (Cohen's kappa .768, p 2 was higher, indicating greater apraxia diagnosis agreement between raters at this cutoff value. The screening test proved to have high specificity and sensitivity to diagnose every type of upper limb praxis deficit, thus showing advantages over previously published tests.

  12. Screening Tests for Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Screening Tests for Birth Defects Home For Patients Search FAQs Screening Tests ... FAQ165, April 2014 PDF Format Screening Tests for Birth Defects Pregnancy What is a birth defect? What ...

  13. Development of cognitive screening test for the severely hearing impaired: Hearing-impaired MoCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Vincent Y W; Chung, Janet; Callahan, Brandy L; Smith, Leah; Gritters, Nils; Chen, Joseph M; Black, Sandra E; Masellis, Mario

    2017-05-01

    To develop a version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) to be administered to the severely hearing impaired (HI-MoCA), and to assess its performance in two groups of cognitively intact adults over the age of 60. Test development followed by prospective subject recruitment. The MoCA was converted into a timed PowerPoint (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA) presentation, and verbal instructions were converted into visual instructions. Two groups of subjects over the age of 60 were recruited. All subjects passed screening questionnaires to eliminate those with undiagnosed mild cognitive impairment. The first group had normal hearing (group 1). The second group was severely hearing impaired (group 2). Group 1 received either the MoCA or HI-MoCA test (T1). Six months later (T2), subjects were administered the test (MoCA or HI-MoCA) they had not received previously to determine equivalency. Group 2 received the HI-MoCA at T1 and again at T2 to determine test-retest reliability. One hundred and three subjects were recruited into group 1, with a score of 26.66 (HI-MoCA) versus 27.14 (MoCA). This was significant (P 0.05), with a test-retest coefficient of 0.66. The HI-MoCA is easy to administer and reliable for screening cognitive impairment in the severely hearing impaired. No conversion factor is required in our prospectively tested cohort of cognitively intact subjects. 1b. Laryngoscope, 127:S4-S11, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. Development of a simple screening test to detect and determine the microbiological quality of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.L.; MacPhee, S.M.; Turner, A.J.; Stuckey, T.; Betts, R.P.

    1995-07-01

    The direct epifluorescent filter technique/aerobic plate count (DEFT/APC) method is a recognised technique for the screening of irradiated foods. When the APC of an irradiated sample is compared with the DEFT count on the same sample, the APC is found to be considerably lower than that obtained by the DEFT, thus indicating that the sample could have been irradiated. Since the development of the DEFT/APC screening method, the technique has been tested with a limited range of food products. Previous work has indicated that the storage of irradiated foods can, in certain circumstances, allow microorganisms to grow, and thus compromise the ability of the DEFT/APC method to discriminate between irradiated and unirradiated samples. In some cases the method has been shown to give high DEFT count and low APC with food samples that have not been irradiated. Potentially, foods which have undergone a food processing treatment could give a high DEFT count compared to an APC and be erroneously identified as having been irradiated. The work reported here is aimed at analysing a range of irradiated samples (meat, poultry, fish, seafood, herbs and spices), stored under different conditions, to evaluate the applicability of the screening method for use with such products. The effects of other food processes on the DEFT/APC results were also investigated. (UK)

  15. Development of a fast agglutination screening test (FAST) for the detection of anti-Leishmania antibodies in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schallig, H. D. F. H.; Schoone, G. J.; Beijer, E. G. M.; Kroon, C. C. M.; Hommers, M.; Ozbel, Y.; Ozensoy, S.; da Silva, E. S.; Cardoso, L. M.; da Silva, E. D.

    2002-01-01

    A fast agglutination screening test (FAST) for the detection of anti-Leishinania antibodies in serum samples from dogs with visceral leishmamosis was developed. The test is based on the direct agglutination test (DAT), but combines a higher parasite concentration with a smaller test volume. In

  16. Neonatal cystic fibrosis screening test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cystic fibrosis screening - neonatal; Immunoreactive trypsinogen; IRT test; CF - screening ... Cystic fibrosis is a disease passed down through families. CF causes thick, sticky mucus to build up in ...

  17. Development of a Dysphagia Screening Test for Preterm Infants (DST-PI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung Moo; Seo, Young Tak

    2017-06-01

    To explore both the early prediction and diagnosis of dysphagia in preterm infants as an important developmental aspect as well as the prevention of respiratory complications, we developed the simple and-easy-to-apply Dysphagia Screening Test for Preterm Infants (DST-PI) to predict supraglottic penetration and subglottic aspiration. Fifty-two infants were enrolled in a videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) due to clinical suspicions of dysphagia. Thirteen items related to supraglottic penetration or subglottic aspiration were initially selected from previous studies for the DST-PI. Finally, 7 items were determined by linear logistic regression analysis. Cutoff values, sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of the DST-PI for predicting supraglottic penetration or subglottic aspiration were calculated using a ROC curve. For inter-rater reliability, the kappa coefficient was calculated. Seven items were selected: 'gestational age,' 'history of apnea,' 'history of cyanosis during feeding,' 'swallowing pattern,' 'coughs during or after feeding,' 'decreased oxygen saturation within 3 minutes of feeding,' and 'voice change after feeding.' The Spearman correlation coefficient between the DST-PI and the penetration-aspiration scale (PAS) was 0.807 (p<0.001). The sensitivity and specificity at different cutoff values for detecting supraglottic penetration and subglottic aspiration were 96.6% and 76.9% at 3.25, and 88.9% and 75.8% at 6.25, respectively. The DST-PI is a valid and reliable dysphagia screening test for supraglottic penetration or subglottic aspiration in preterm infants that is easy to apply in a clinical context.

  18. Glucose screening tests during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral glucose tolerance test - pregnancy; OGTT - pregnancy; Glucose challenge test - pregnancy; Gestational diabetes - glucose screening ... During the first step, you will have a glucose screening test: You DO NOT need to prepare ...

  19. The CAST (Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test): Preliminary Development of a UK Screen for Mainstream Primary-School-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Fiona J.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Bolton, Patrick; Brayne, Carol

    2002-01-01

    This article describes a pilot and follow-up study of the development of a screening test for Asperger Syndrome (AS) and relates social and communication conditions in children aged 4-11. Results suggest that the Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test may be useful for identifying children at risk for AS and related conditions, in a mainstream…

  20. Development of new non-invasive tests for colorectal cancer screening: the relevance of information on adenoma detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Ulrike; Knudsen, Amy B; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Kuntz, Karen M

    2015-06-15

    Researchers are actively pursuing the development of a new non-invasive test (NIT) for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening as an alternative to fecal occult blood tests (FOBTs). The majority of pilot studies focus on the detection of invasive CRC rather than precursor lesions (i.e., adenomas). We aimed to explore the relevance of adenoma detection for the viability of an NIT for CRC screening by considering a hypothetical test that does not detect adenomas beyond chance. We used the Simulation Model of Colorectal Cancer (SimCRC) to estimate the effectiveness of CRC screening and the lifetime costs (payers' perspective) for a cohort of US 50-years-old persons to whom CRC screening is offered from age 50-75. We compared annual screening with guaiac and immunochemical FOBTs (with sensitivities up to 70 and 24% for CRC and adenomas, respectively) to annual screening with a hypothetical NIT (sensitivity of 90% for CRC, no detection of adenomas beyond chance, specificity and cost similar to FOBTs). Screening with the NIT was not more effective, but was 29-44% more costly than screening with FOBTs. The findings were robust to varying the screening interval, the NIT's sensitivity for CRC, adherence rates favoring the NIT, and the NIT's unit cost. A comparative modelling approach using a model that assumes a shorter adenoma dwell time (MISCAN-COLON) confirmed the superiority of the immunochemical FOBT over an NIT with no ability to detect adenomas. Information on adenoma detection is crucial to determine whether a new NIT is a viable alternative to FOBTs for CRC screening. Current evidence thus lacks an important piece of information to identify marker candidates that hold real promise and deserve further (large-scale) evaluation. © 2014 UICC.

  1. Development and Usability Testing of a Computer-Tailored Decision Support Tool for Lung Cancer Screening: Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Harris, Lisa; Comer, Robert Skipworth; Goyal, Anurag; Vode, Emilee Christine; Hanna, Nasser; Ceppa, DuyKhanh; Rawl, Susan M

    2017-11-16

    Awareness of lung cancer screening remains low in the screening-eligible population, and when patients visit their clinician never having heard of lung cancer screening, engaging in shared decision making to arrive at an informed decision can be a challenge. Therefore, methods to effectively support both patients and clinicians to engage in these important discussions are essential. To facilitate shared decision making about lung cancer screening, effective methods to prepare patients to have these important discussions with their clinician are needed. Our objective is to develop a computer-tailored decision support tool that meets the certification criteria of the International Patient Decision Aid Standards instrument version 4.0 that will support shared decision making in lung cancer screening decisions. Using a 3-phase process, we will develop and test a prototype of a computer-tailored decision support tool in a sample of lung cancer screening-eligible individuals. In phase I, we assembled a community advisory board comprising 10 screening-eligible individuals to develop the prototype. In phase II, we recruited a sample of 13 screening-eligible individuals to test the prototype for usability, acceptability, and satisfaction. In phase III, we are conducting a pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) with 60 screening-eligible participants who have never been screened for lung cancer. Outcomes tested include lung cancer and screening knowledge, lung cancer screening health beliefs (perceived risk, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy), perception of being prepared to engage in a patient-clinician discussion about lung cancer screening, occurrence of a patient-clinician discussion about lung cancer screening, and stage of adoption for lung cancer screening. Phases I and II are complete. Phase III is underway. As of July 15, 2017, 60 participants have been enrolled into the study, and have completed the baseline survey, intervention, and first

  2. [Historical Development of the Wool and Colour Plate Tests for Screening for Colour Vision Deficiencies in German Speaking Countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchenbecker, J

    2017-07-01

    Colour vision is a complex visual function that can be affected by congenital and/or acquired disorders. The frequency of congenital colour vision deficiencies has been investigated in rail and navy staff since the 1870s. Various test methods have been developed. Wool tests, flor contrast tests and colour plate tests have been used. A published colour plate test, based on Stilling's pseudo-isochromatic plates in combination with a flor contrast test, has been a common screening method for colour vision testing in German-speaking countries. This test is intended to detect congenital and acquired colour vision deficiencies in a simple and safe manner. More modern options, such as Internet and tablet PC have technical limitations, but will increasingly be used for screening for colour vision deficiencies. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Newborn Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the brain and spinal cord). Newborn screening for sickle cell disease can alert doctors to begin antibiotic treatment before infections happen. Newborn screening also helps doctors monitor symptoms more closely and can detect other disorders affecting ...

  4. Psychosocial Aspects of Hereditary Cancer (PAHC) questionnaire: development and testing of a screening questionnaire for use in clinical cancer genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijzenga, W.; Bleiker, E.M.A.; Hahn, D.E.E.; Kluijt, I.; Sidharta, G.N.; Gundy, C.; Aaronson, N.K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Up to three-quarters of individuals who undergo cancer genetic counseling and testing report psychosocial problems specifically related to that setting. The objectives of this study were to develop and evaluate the screening properties of a questionnaire designed to assess specific

  5. Chemical compatibility screening test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1997-12-01

    A program for evaluating packaging components that may be used in transporting mixed-waste forms has been developed and the first phase has been completed. This effort involved the screening of ten plastic materials in four simulant mixed-waste types. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer rubber, cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), epichlorohydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene rubber (EPDM), fluorocarbon (Viton or Kel-F), polytetrafluoroethylene, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), isobutylene-isoprene copolymer rubber (butyl), polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. The testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to 286,000 rads of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste types at 60{degrees}C. The seal materials were tested using vapor transport rate (VTR) measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. For these tests, a screening criterion of 0.9 g/hr/m{sup 2} for VTR and a specific gravity change of 10% was used. Based on this work, it was concluded that while all seal materials passed exposure to the aqueous simulant mixed waste, EPDM and SBR had the lowest VTRs. In the chlorinated hydrocarbon simulant mixed waste, only Viton passed the screening tests. In both the simulant scintillation fluid mixed waste and the ketone mixture simulant mixed waste, none of the seal materials met the screening criteria. For specific gravity testing of liner materials, the data showed that while all materials with the exception of polypropylene passed the screening criteria, Kel-F, HDPE, and XLPE offered the greatest resistance to the combination of radiation and chemicals.

  6. Chemical compatibility screening test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1997-12-01

    A program for evaluating packaging components that may be used in transporting mixed-waste forms has been developed and the first phase has been completed. This effort involved the screening of ten plastic materials in four simulant mixed-waste types. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer rubber, cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), epichlorohydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene rubber (EPDM), fluorocarbon (Viton or Kel-F), polytetrafluoroethylene, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), isobutylene-isoprene copolymer rubber (butyl), polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. The testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to 286,000 rads of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste types at 60 degrees C. The seal materials were tested using vapor transport rate (VTR) measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. For these tests, a screening criterion of 0.9 g/hr/m 2 for VTR and a specific gravity change of 10% was used. Based on this work, it was concluded that while all seal materials passed exposure to the aqueous simulant mixed waste, EPDM and SBR had the lowest VTRs. In the chlorinated hydrocarbon simulant mixed waste, only Viton passed the screening tests. In both the simulant scintillation fluid mixed waste and the ketone mixture simulant mixed waste, none of the seal materials met the screening criteria. For specific gravity testing of liner materials, the data showed that while all materials with the exception of polypropylene passed the screening criteria, Kel-F, HDPE, and XLPE offered the greatest resistance to the combination of radiation and chemicals

  7. Limitations of widely used high-risk human papillomavirus laboratory-developed testing in cervical cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nance KV

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Keith V Nance Medical Directory of Cytology, Rex Hospital, Raleigh, and Department of Pathology, The University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USAI read with interest the recently published article by Naryshkin and Austin entitled "Limitations of widely used high-risk human papillomavirus laboratory-developed testing in cervical cancer screening".1 The article is a single case report of squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix diagnosed in a patient who had negative Hybrid Capture 2 (Qiagen NV, Hilden, Germany high-risk human papillomavirus testing from SurePath™ (Becton-Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ samples. The authors then discuss several valid points regarding the use of human papillomavirus testing and cervical cancer screening not approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA. Their conclusion is that such testing should not be done using the SurePath collection medium.View the original paper by Naryshkin and Austin.

  8. TB Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Autoantibodies Digoxin Direct Antiglobulin Test Direct LDL Cholesterol Drug Abuse Testing EGFR Mutation Testing Electrolytes Emergency and Overdose ... Signify Treatment Failure? American Family Physician [On-line journal]. Available online at http://www.aafp.org/afp/ ...

  9. Developing a Screening Inventory Reading Test (IRT for the Isfahanian Students of the First to Fifth Grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Shafiei

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Reading is one of the most essential skills in this century. Reading disorders can cause several problems for the person who has reading disorder. Early assessment and diagnosis play an important role in treatment of this disorder. The main purpose of this study was to develope a screening inventory reading test (IRT for first to fifth grade student in Isfahan in order to early diagnosis of reading disorder.Materials and Methods: The test, consisting of 100 words context and four comprehension questions, named Inventory Reading Test (IRT, was evaluated by several speech therapists. It was standardized by testing on one thousand boys and girls, 200 students in every grade, that were selected through a multi-stage random sampling method. Test was performed on two other groups, a normal and a reading-disordered.Results: Scores of reading accuracy and velocity were highly correlated with the test total score. Test reliability was calculated as 0.77 by Cronbach`s alpha measure. There was significant difference between two groups mean score (p=0.01.Conclusion: IRT seems to be an appropriate tool for screening reading disorder of first to fifth grade students.

  10. Limitations of widely used high-risk human papillomavirus laboratory-developed testing in cervical cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naryshkin S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Sonya Naryshkin,1 R Marshall Austin21Department of Pathology, Mercy Health System, Janesville, WI; 2Department of Pathology, Magee-Womens Hospital of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USAObjective: To increase awareness of the limitations of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV laboratory-developed testing (LDT widely used in US cervical cancer screening.Methods and results: A young woman in her 30s was diagnosed and treated for stage 1B1 cervical squamous cell carcinoma in which HPV 16 DNA was detected using polymerase chain reaction testing. Both 1 month before and 42 months before cervical cancer diagnosis, the patient had highly abnormal cytology findings; however, residual SurePath™ (Becton, Dickson and Company, Franklin Lakes, NJ vial fluid yielded negative Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2; Qiagen NV, Hilden, Germany hrHPV LDT results from each of the two specimens. This prompted questions to be asked concerning the performance characteristics of hrHPV LDT. A review of the available data indicates that (1 purification of DNA from SurePath specimens requires complex sample preparation due to formaldehyde crosslinking of proteins and nucleic acids, (2 HC2–SurePath hrHPV testing had not been Food and Drug Administration-approved after multiple premarket approval submissions, (3 detectible hrHPV DNA in the SurePath vial decreases over time, and (4 US laboratories performing HC2–SurePath hrHPV LDT testing are not using a standardized manufacturer-endorsed procedure.Conclusion: Recently updated cervical screening guidelines in the US recommend against the use of hrHPV LDT in cervical screening, including widely used HC2 testing from the SurePath vial. The manufacturer recently issued a technical bulletin specifically warning that use of SurePath samples with the HC2 hrHPV test may provide false negative results and potentially compromise patient safety. Co-collection using a Food and Drug Administration-approved hrHPV test

  11. Development and Testing of Screen-Based and Psychometric Instruments for Assessing Resident Performance in an Operating Room Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. McNeer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Medical simulators are used for assessing clinical skills and increasingly for testing hypotheses. We developed and tested an approach for assessing performance in anesthesia residents using screen-based simulation that ensures expert raters remain blinded to subject identity and experimental condition. Methods. Twenty anesthesia residents managed emergencies in an operating room simulator by logging actions through a custom graphical user interface. Two expert raters rated performance based on these entries using custom Global Rating Scale (GRS and Crisis Management Checklist (CMC instruments. Interrater reliability was measured by calculating intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC, and internal consistency of the instruments was assessed with Cronbach’s alpha. Agreement between GRS and CMC was measured using Spearman rank correlation (SRC. Results. Interrater agreement (GRS: ICC = 0.825, CMC: ICC = 0.878 and internal consistency (GRS: alpha = 0.838, CMC: alpha = 0.886 were good for both instruments. Subscale analysis indicated that several instrument items can be discarded. GRS and CMC scores were highly correlated (SRC = 0.948. Conclusions. In this pilot study, we demonstrated that screen-based simulation can allow blinded assessment of performance. GRS and CMC instruments demonstrated good rater agreement and internal consistency. We plan to further test construct validity of our instruments by measuring performance in our simulator as a function of training level.

  12. Development of a high throughput screening method to test flavour-forming capabilities of anaerobic micro-organisms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, B.A.; Engels, W.J.M.; Hylckama Vlieg, van J.E.T.; Wouters, J.T.M.; Smit, G.

    2004-01-01

    Aim: Development of a fast, automated and reliable screening method for screening of large collections of bacterial strains with minimal handling time. Methods and Results: The method is based on the injection of a small headspace sample (100 µl) from culture vials (2 ml) in 96-well format directly

  13. Developing of the Persian Version of Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddlers Development Screening Test and Determine its Validity and Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farin Soleimani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to develop a valid and reliable Persian version of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddlers Development Screening Test. Materials & Methods: Forward and backward translation, face and content validity determination, and cultural and linguistic adaptations of the questionnaires were performed, consecutively. Clarity of items of the translated version of the scale were examined by a study that carried out on 45 Persian 1- to 42-month-old children, recruited by sampling in Tehran, during the year 2012 . In order to determine the reliability internal consistency, inter-rater and test-retest, 34 tests carried out. For determining the psychometric properties of the tests, later a representative sample of 260, 1- to 42-months-old children recruited through consecutive sampling from health -care centers in five main districts in Tehran.  Results: Performing cultural and lingual adaptations, our expert team made some inevitable changes to the test items. Almost in all age groups, cultural or linguistic changes were made in items in communication domains. The Cronbach alpha in cognitive, communication (receptive and expressive, fine and gross motor subtests were 0.96, 0.95. 0.95 and 0.94 respectively. The construct validity of the tests by factor analysis and comparison of mean scores in age groups was confirmed. Conclusion: The Persian version of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddlers Development Screening test is a valid and reliable tool.

  14. The development of a new cardiac auscultation test: How do screening and diagnostic skills differ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tommy; Mølgaard, Henning; Ringsted, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Newly qualified doctors are expected to be able to conduct a cardiac auscultation unassisted, but studies show conflicting results regarding cardiac auscultation skills. METHODS: A two-part test instrument was designed containing innovative recordings of heart sounds from patients....... All groups showed a tendency to interpret healthy heart sounds as cardiac murmurs. CONCLUSIONS: Diagnostic ability was found to correlate positively with clinical experience, whereas the ability to distinguish cardiac murmurs from normal heart sounds seems independent of clinical experience....

  15. Psychosocial aspects of hereditary cancer (PAHC) questionnaire: development and testing of a screening questionnaire for use in clinical cancer genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eijzenga, W; Bleiker, E M A; Hahn, D E E; Kluijt, I; Sidharta, G N; Gundy, C; Aaronson, N K

    2014-08-01

    Up to three-quarters of individuals who undergo cancer genetic counseling and testing report psychosocial problems specifically related to that setting. The objectives of this study were to develop and evaluate the screening properties of a questionnaire designed to assess specific psychosocial problems related to cancer genetic counseling. We adopted the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Group guidelines to develop the Psychosocial Aspects of Hereditary Cancer (PAHC) questionnaire, a 26-item questionnaire organized into six problem domains: genetics, practical issues, family, living with cancer, emotions, and children. The Distress Thermometer and a question per domain on the perceived need for extra psychosocial services were included as well. We administered the questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale to 127 counselees at the time of genetic counseling and 3 weeks after DNA test disclosure. As a gold standard to evaluate the screening properties of the questionnaire, participants underwent a semi-structured interview with an experienced social worker who assessed the presence and severity of problems per domain. A cutoff score representing responses of 'quite a bit' or 'very much' to one or more items within a given problem domain yielded moderate to high sensitivity across domains. A cutoff of 4 on the Distress Thermometer yielded high sensitivity. The questions regarding the perceived need for extra psychosocial services yielded high specificity and negative predictive values. The Psychosocial Aspects of Hereditary Cancer questionnaire in combination with the Distress Thermometer can be used as a first-line screener for psychosocial problems within the cancer genetic counseling setting. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Development and initial testing of a computer-based patient decision aid to promote colorectal cancer screening for primary care practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fowler Beth

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although colorectal cancer screening is recommended by major policy-making organizations, rates of screening remain low. Our aim was to develop a patient-directed, computer-based decision aid about colorectal cancer screening and investigate whether it could increase patient interest in screening. Methods We used content from evidence-based literature reviews and our previous decision aid research to develop a prototype. We performed two rounds of usability testing with representative patients to revise the content and format. The final decision aid consisted of an introductory segment, four test-specific segments, and information to allow comparison of the tests across several key parameters. We then conducted a before-after uncontrolled trial of 80 patients 50–75 years old recruited from an academic internal medicine practice. Results Mean viewing time was 19 minutes. The decision aid improved patients' intent to ask providers for screening from a mean score of 2.8 (1 = not at all likely to ask, 4 = very likely to ask before viewing the decision aid to 3.2 afterwards (difference, 0.4; p Conclusion We conclude that a computer-based decision aid can increase patient intent to be screened and increase interest in screening. Practice Implications: This decision aid can be viewed by patients prior to provider appointments to increase motivation to be screened and to help them decide about which modality to use for screening. Further work is required to integrate the decision aid with other practice change strategies to raise screening rates to target levels.

  17. Development and content validity of a screening instrument for gaming addiction in adolescents: the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadlin, Sofia; Åslund, Cecilia; Nilsson, Kent W

    2015-08-01

    This study describes the development of a screening tool for gaming addiction in adolescents - the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT). Its development was based on the research literature on gaming and addiction. An expert panel comprising professional raters (n = 7), experiential adolescent raters (n = 10), and parent raters (n = 10) estimated the content validity of each item (I-CVI) as well as of the whole scale (S-CVI/Ave), and participated in a cognitive interview about the GAIT scale. The mean scores for both I-CVI and S-CVI/Ave ranged between 0.97 and 0.99 compared with the lowest recommended I-CVI value of 0.78 and the S-CVI/Ave value of 0.90. There were no sex differences and no differences between expert groups regarding ratings in content validity. No differences in the overall evaluation of the scale emerged in the cognitive interviews. Our conclusions were that GAIT showed good content validity in capturing gaming addiction. The GAIT needs further investigation into its psychometric properties of construct validity (convergent and divergent validity) and criterion-related validity, as well as its reliability in both clinical settings and in community settings with adolescents. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Can Alberta infant motor scale and milani comparetti motor development screening test be rapid alternatives to bayley scales of infant development-II at high-risk infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Hosbay Yildirim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main object of the present study is to assess neuromotor development of high-risk infants by using three tests, and to determine inter-test concordance and the feasibility of these tests. Materials and Methods: One-hundred and nine patients aged between 0 and 6 months and identified as "high-risk infant" according to the Kliegman′s criteria were enrolled to the study. Three different tests were used to assess neuromotor development of the patients: Bayley scales of infant development-II (BSID-II, Alberta infant motor scale (AIMS, and Milani Comparetti Motor Development Screening Test (MCMDST. Results: Correlation analysis was performed between pure scores of BSID-II motor scale and total scores of AIMS. These two tests were highly correlated (r:0.92. Moderate concordance was found between BSID-II and AIMS (k:0.35. Slight concordance was found between BSID-II and MCMDST; and the concordance was slight again for AIMS and MCMDST (k:0.11 and k:0.16, respectively too. Conclusion: AIMS has a high correlation and consistency with BSID-II and can be used with routine neurological examination as it is based on observations, has few items, and requires less time to complete.

  19. Can Alberta infant motor scale and milani comparetti motor development screening test be rapid alternatives to bayley scales of infant development-II at high-risk infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Zeynep Hoşbay; Aydınlı, Nur; Ekici, Barış; Tatlı, Burak; Calişkan, Mine

    2012-07-01

    The main object of the present study is to assess neuromotor development of high-risk infants by using three tests, and to determine inter-test concordance and the feasibility of these tests. One-hundred and nine patients aged between 0 and 6 months and identified as "high-risk infant" according to the Kliegman's criteria were enrolled to the study. Three different tests were used to assess neuromotor development of the patients: Bayley scales of infant development-II (BSID-II), Alberta infant motor scale (AIMS), and Milani Comparetti Motor Development Screening Test (MCMDST). Correlation analysis was performed between pure scores of BSID-II motor scale and total scores of AIMS. These two tests were highly correlated (r:0.92). Moderate concordance was found between BSID-II and AIMS (k:0.35). Slight concordance was found between BSID-II and MCMDST; and the concordance was slight again for AIMS and MCMDST (k:0.11 and k:0.16, respectively) too. AIMS has a high correlation and consistency with BSID-II and can be used with routine neurological examination as it is based on observations, has few items, and requires less time to complete.

  20. Thrombophilia screening: whom to test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Aisha; Massicotte, M Patricia

    2012-08-16

    In this issue of Blood, Holzhauer et al have determined a novel method of identifying patients with protein C, protein S, and antithrombin deficiency who are at increased risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE; see figure). Children with VTE and their relatives were screened for inherited thrombophilia including proteins C and S and antithrombin deficiency; and Factor (F)V G1691A and FII G20210A. Their study demonstrates that relatives with proteins C and S and antithrombin deficiency are at a significantly higher risk of developing VTE compared with those without inherited thrombophilia.

  1. Cancer screening tests for small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleis, Stephanie E

    2014-09-01

    Cancer is increasingly more common. Several tests for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer in companion animals have been developed. Screening tests discussed include those for lymphoid neoplasia, hemangiosarcoma, and transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. None of these tests should be used in isolation for diagnosis. Vincristine and doxorubicin are mainstays in the treatment of canine lymphoma. However, it is important and accepted practice to test individuals of predisposed breeds for this mutation before administering these drugs in a lymphoma protocol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Testing Precision Screening for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI research article about individualized approaches that could help identify those at risk of breast cancer who need to be screened and testing screening intervals that are appropriate for each person’s level of risk.

  3. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lesion? • What are the different types of abnormal Pap test results? • What testing is needed after an abnormal ... that could lead to cancer. Screening includes the Pap test and, for some women, testing for a virus ...

  4. Comprehensive development and testing of the ASIST-GBV, a screening tool for responding to gender-based violence among women in humanitarian settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, A L; Glass, N; Pham, K; Perrin, N; Rubenstein, L S; Singh, S; Vu, A

    2016-01-01

    Conflict affected refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) are at increased vulnerability to gender-based violence (GBV). Health, psychosocial, and protection services have been implemented in humanitarian settings, but GBV remains under-reported and available services under-utilized. To improve access to existing GBV services and facilitate reporting, the ASIST-GBV screening tool was developed and tested for use in humanitarian settings. This process was completed in four phases: 1) systematic literature review, 2) qualitative research that included individual interviews and focus groups with GBV survivors and service providers, respectively, 3) pilot testing of the developed screening tool, and 4) 3-month implementation testing of the screening tool. Research was conducted among female refugees, aged ≥15 years in Ethiopia, and female IDPs, aged ≥18 years in Colombia. The systematic review and meta-analysis identified a range of GBV experiences and estimated a 21.4 % prevalence of sexual violence (95 % CI:14.9-28.7) among conflict-affected populations. No existing screening tools for GBV in humanitarian settings were identified. Qualitative research with GBV survivors in Ethiopia and Colombia found multiple forms of GBV experienced by refugees and IDPs that occurred during conflict, in transit, and in displaced settings. Identified forms of violence were combined into seven key items on the screening tool: threats of violence, physical violence, forced sex, sexual exploitation, forced pregnancy, forced abortion, and early or forced marriage. Cognitive testing further refined the tool. Pilot testing in both sites demonstrated preliminary feasibility where 64.8 % of participants in Ethiopia and 44.9 % of participants in Colombia were identified with recent (last 12 months) cases of GBV. Implementation testing of the screening tool, conducted as a routine service in camp/district hospitals, allowed for identification of GBV cases and referrals to

  5. Reactor operator screening test experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, W.J.; Penkala, J.L.; Witzig, W.F.

    1976-01-01

    When it became apparent to Duquesne Light Company of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, that the throughput of their candidate selection-Phase I training-reactor operator certification sequence was something short of acceptable, the utility decided to ask consultants to make recommendations with respect to candidate selection procedures. The recommendation implemented was to create a Nuclear Training Test that would predict the success of a candidate in completing Phase I training and subsequently qualify for reactor operator certification. The mechanics involved in developing and calibrating the Nuclear Training Test are described. An arbitration decision that resulted when a number of International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers union employees filed a grievance alleging that the selection examination was unfair, invalid, not job related, inappropriate, and discriminatorily evaluated is also discussed. The arbitration decision favored the use of the Nuclear Training Test

  6. Cancer Screening: How Do Screening Tests Become Standard Tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colonoscopy for colorectal cancer . Mammograms for breast cancer . Pap tests (Pap smears) for cervical cancer . Different types of ... follow a group of women who have regular Pap tests, and divide them into those who test positive ...

  7. Development of a Novel Test System for Screening Antagonists of ErbB Receptors in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blau, Helen

    2004-01-01

    The focus of this project was to design a system for screening chemical compounds that would inhibit the dimerization of the EGFR family members ErbB2 and ErbB3 using beta-galactosidase complementation...

  8. Development of a Novel Test System for Screening for Antagonists of ErbB5 Receptors in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blau, Helen

    2003-01-01

    The focus of this project was to design a system for screening chemical compounds that would inhibit the dimerization of the EGFR family members ErbB2 and ErbB3 using beta-galactosidase complementation...

  9. Editor's Highlight: Development of Novel Neural Embryonic Stem CellTests for High-Throughput Screening of Embryotoxic Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kumiko; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Higashi, Kiyoshi; Muroi, Akane; Le Coz, Florian; Nagahori, Hirohisa; Saito, Koichi

    2017-09-01

    There is a great demand for appropriate alternative methods to rapidly evaluate the developmental and reproductive toxicity of a wide variety of chemicals. We used the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) into cardiomyocytes as a basis for establishing a rapid and highly reproducible invitro embryotoxicity test known as the Hand1-Luc Embryonic Stem Cell Test (Hand1-Luc EST). In this study, we developed novel neural-Luc ESTs using two marker genes for neural development, tubulin beta-3 (Tubb3) and Reelin (Reln), and evaluated the capacity of these tests to predict developmental toxicity. In addition, we tested whether an integrated approach (a combination of neural-Luc ESTs and the Hand1-Luc EST) improved developmental toxicant detection. To perform our neural-Luc ESTs, we needed to generate stable transgenic mESCs with individual promoters linked to the luciferase gene, and to establish that similar changes in promoter activities and mRNA expression levels occur during neural differentiation. Based on the concentration-response curves of 15 developmental toxicants and 17 non-developmental toxic chemicals, we derived a prediction formula and assessed the capacity of this formula to predict developmental toxicity. Although both were highly sensitive and specific for predicting developmental toxicity, neural-Luc ESTs had similar predictive capacities. In contrast, neural-Luc ESTs and Hand1-Luc EST had significantly different predictive powers. As expected, the combination of these ESTs increased the sensitivity of developmental toxicant detection. These results demonstrate the convenience and the usefulness of this combination of ESTs as an alternative assay system for future toxicological and mechanistic studies of developmental toxicity. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Screening and Invasive Testing in Twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Monni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal screening and testing for trisomy 21 in twin pregnancies poses a number of challenges: the exact estimate of the a priori risk of trisomy 21, the choice of prenatal screening test and/or invasive techniques to employ for the diagnosis and the impact of the result on the options of treatment in case of discordant results within a twin pair or among multiples. These different aspects are discussed below while recognizing that many issues remain unresolved.

  11. From High-Throughput Microarray-Based Screening to Clinical Application: The Development of a Second Generation Multigene Test for Breast Cancer Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Denkert

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Several multigene tests have been developed for breast cancer patients to predict the individual risk of recurrence. Most of the first generation tests rely on proliferation-associated genes and are commonly carried out in central reference laboratories. Here, we describe the development of a second generation multigene assay, the EndoPredict test, a prognostic multigene expression test for estrogen receptor (ER positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2 negative (ER+/HER2− breast cancer patients. The EndoPredict gene signature was initially established in a large high-throughput microarray-based screening study. The key steps for biomarker identification are discussed in detail, in comparison to the establishment of other multigene signatures. After biomarker selection, genes and algorithms were transferred to a diagnostic platform (reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR to allow for assaying formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE samples. A comprehensive analytical validation was performed and a prospective proficiency testing study with seven pathological laboratories finally proved that EndoPredict can be reliably used in the decentralized setting. Three independent large clinical validation studies (n = 2,257 demonstrated that EndoPredict offers independent prognostic information beyond current clinicopathological parameters and clinical guidelines. The review article summarizes several important steps that should be considered for the development process of a second generation multigene test and offers a means for transferring a microarray signature from the research laboratory to clinical practice.

  12. The substances and choices scale (SACS)--the development and testing of a new alcohol and other drug screening and outcome measurement instrument for young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Grant; Marsh, Reginald; Sheridan, Janie; Wheeler, Amanda; Suaalii-Sauni, Tamasailau; Black, Stella; Butler, Rachael

    2007-09-01

    To describe the development and evaluation of the Substances and Choices Scale (SACS), an adolescent alcohol and other drug (AOD) self-report instrument designed in a similar format to the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). A literature review, extensive consultation and discriminant analysis on a pilot sample (n = 61) of adolescents informed the development of the SACS. The psychometric properties of the SACS were then tested in a larger community and clinical sample. Three youth out-patient AOD treatment services and three secondary schools in Auckland, New Zealand. 13-18-year-old males and females attending the services (n = 120) or schools (n = 531). The SACS was administered with the CRAFFT, the Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Reliability of the SACS was sound, with coefficient alpha 0.91 and 3-week test-retest correlation 0.88. Congruent validity coefficients of the SACS versus the CRAFFT and the POSIT were 0.79 and 0.91, respectively. A ROC curve demonstrated the SACS as having a predictive value of 92%. Repeat SACS scores in a treatment sample indicated that the SACS had utility in measuring change. Feedback from participants indicated that the SACS was highly acceptable. The SACS is a simple AOD instrument that is reliable, valid and acceptable to young people. It has utility in screening and measuring outcome and should enhance the identification and treatment of AOD difficulties in adolescents across a range of health settings.

  13. Newborn Screening Tests for your Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... oxygen in your baby’s blood by using a sensor attached to his finger or foot. This test is used to screen babies for a group of heart conditions called critical congenital heart disease (CCHD). Your baby gets this test before he ...

  14. [Establishment of a short-form screening test for malnutrition in a newly developed comprehensive geriatric assessment initiative named 'Dr. SUPERMAN'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, Hiroko; Ohnuma, Takeshi; Satoh, Tomohiko; Sugiyama, Keiko; Harikae, Maki; Iwamoto, Toshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of the nutritional state is important in comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA). Several standardized screening tests for malnutrition are available such as the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and MNA-Short Form (MNA-SF). However, it takes more than 10 minutes to perform the MNA-SF alone. We have developed a CGA initiative named 'Dr. SUPERMAN', which is designed to accomplish CGA within 10 minutes. In this study, we evaluated a short-form screening test for malnutrition preceding the MNA. The MNA-SF, which consists of 6 items (A-F), was administered to 163 elderly outpatients (mean age: 83.4 years, 80 men) with various diseases. Using the results of the MNA-SF score (normal ≥ 12 and abnormal ≤ 11) as a gold standard, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values (PPVs) of each item were calculated and the best combination of 2 items for identifying malnutrition among the elderly outpatients was selected. According to the combination of 2 items (item B: weight loss during the last 3 months; item F: body mass index (BMI)/calf circumference (CC) in cm), they were divided into 2 groups: the normal control (NC) group (neither items B nor F) and the malnutrition/at risk (MN) group (either items B or D, or both). Findings of the clinical feature, anthropometric measurement, and nutritional biomarker between the 2 groups were examined to clarify the characteristics of each. The MNA-SF score was distributed as follows: 3-7 in 12 cases, 8-11 in 68 cases, and 12-14 in 83 cases. Based on the MNA-SF score, the combination of items B and F revealed the highest sensitivity (91.3%), specificity (63.9%), and PPV (70.9%), resulting in 103 cases in the MN group and 60 cases in the NC group. A high frequency of anorexia, living alone, hypoprealbuminemia, lymphocytopenia, and dehydration was observed in the MN group, whereas a high frequency of leg edema was observed in the NC group. Cases showing a positive wall-occiput test, which compelled the

  15. Development and Testing of an In Vitro Assay for Screening of Potential Therapeutic Agents against Na Channel Neurotoxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-03

    batrachotoxin serves as a sensitive indicator of test compound interactions at any of at least five different binding domains on the sodium channel. A...while in others their role appears to be strictly defensive ( batrachotoxin from the arrow poison frog, Phyllobates aurotaenia). In still other cases...qt’anidines tetrodotoxin (TTX) and saxitoxir, (STX), the "lipid- soluble" toxins batrachotoxin (’, fX), vý,•ratridine, aconitine and grayanotoxin, and the a

  16. Olfactory screening test in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibenstein, A; Fioretti, A B; Simaskou, M N; Sucapane, P; Mearelli, S; Mina, C; Amabile, G; Fusetti, M

    2005-07-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a transient status between physiologic ageing and dementia. Each year more than 12% of subjects with MCI develop Alzheimer's disease. This study evaluated the presence of an olfactory deficit in amnesic MCI (aMCI) patients. Twenty-nine patients diagnosed with aMCI and a homogeneous control group of 29 subjects were enrolled in the study. Olfactory function was assessed by the Sniffin' Sticks Screening Test (SSST) and the Mini Mental State Examination, the Clinical Dementia Rating, the Geriatric Depression Scale and the Mental Deterioration Battery were used to evaluate the neurocognitive status. aMCI patients showed a significant impairment of their olfactory identification compared to controls (SSST score: 8.3+/-2.1 vs. 10.8+/-0.9; p<0.001). These results suggest that olfactory tests should be part of the diagnostic armamentarium of pre-clinical dementia. A long-term follow up might confirm the olfactory identification function as an early and reliable marker in the diagnosis of pre-clinical dementia.

  17. Cognitive Screening Tests Versus Comprehensive Neuropsychological Test Batteries: A National Academy of Neuropsychology Education Paper†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebuck-Spencer, Tresa M; Glen, Tannahill; Puente, Antonio E; Denney, Robert L; Ruff, Ronald M; Hostetter, Gayle; Bianchini, Kevin J

    2017-06-01

    The American Medical Association Current Procedural Panel developed a new billing code making behavioral health screening a reimbursable healthcare service. The use of computerized testing as a means for cognitive screening and brief cognitive testing is increasing at a rapid rate. The purpose of this education paper is to provide information to clinicians, healthcare administrators, and policy developers about the purpose, strengths, and limitations of cognitive screening tests versus comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations. Screening tests are generally brief and narrow in scope, they can be administered during a routine clinical visit, and they can be helpful for identifying individuals in need of more comprehensive assessment. Some screening tests can also be helpful for monitoring treatment outcomes. Comprehensive neuropsychological assessments are multidimensional in nature and used for purposes such as identifying primary and secondary diagnoses, determining the nature  and severity of a person's cognitive difficulties, determining functional limitations, and planning treatment and rehabilitation. Cognitive screening tests are expected to play an increasingly important role in identifying individuals with cognitive impairment and in determining which individuals should be referred for further neuropsychological assessment. However, limitations of existing cognitive screening tests are present and cognitive screening tests should not be used as a replacement for comprehensive neuropsychological testing. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Screening for Specific Language Impairment in Preschool Children: Evaluating a Screening Procedure Including the Token Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willinger, Ulrike; Schmoeger, Michaela; Deckert, Matthias; Eisenwort, Brigitte; Loader, Benjamin; Hofmair, Annemarie; Auff, Eduard

    2017-01-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) comprises impairments in receptive and/or expressive language. Aim of this study was to evaluate a screening for SLI. 61 children with SLI (SLI-children, age-range 4-6 years) and 61 matched typically developing controls were tested for receptive language ability (Token Test-TT) and for intelligence (Wechsler…

  19. [Establishment of a short-form screening test for cognitive decline as part of a newly developed comprehensive geriatric assessment initiative named 'Dr. Superman'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuma, Takeshi; Kanetaka, Hidekazu; Iwamoto, Toshihiko

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of cognitive function is important in comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA), and several standardized screening tests for dementia such as the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) are available. However, it takes 5 to 20 minutes to perform the MMSE. We have developed a CGA initiative named 'Dr. Superman' which is designed to accomplish CGA within 10 minutes. In this study, we evaluated a short-form screening test for cognitive decline preceding the MMSE. The MMSE and a question on episodic memory, ("What kind of food did you have last night?") were administered to 90 elderly outpatients with various diseases. They were divided into 2 groups according to their MMSE scores: a normal group (MMSE score≥24) and an abnormal group (MMSE score≤23). Within these groups, each domain (D) (D1: time orientation, D2: place orientation, D3: immediate memory, D4: calculation, D5: recall, D6: language, and D7: spatial cognition) and episodic memory was separately scored and the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predicative value of each were calculated. Based on these data, the best combination of the domains was evaluated for practical use as an assessment tool. The MMSE scores ranged from 10 to 30, and 42 cases were classified into the normal group. High sensitivity, specificity, or positive predicative value was observed in D1, D2, D4, D5 and episodic memory categories. On the basis of the characteristics of each item in these domains in order to make a short-form assessment, a combination of "What is this year" in D1, "Serial 7's twice" in D4, and a question on episodic memory was found to be superior to other combinations (sensitivity: 93.8%; specificity: 71.4%; positive predicative value: 78.9%). Using this combination for 50 outpatients with 2 raters, it took 32 to 55 seconds to accomplish the assessment with good inter-rater reliability (κ=0.861). The combination of "What is this year?", "Serial 7's twice", and "What kind of food did you have

  20. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P

    1990-12-15

    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  1. Exploratory application of the Ages and Stages (ASQ) child development screening test in a low-income Peruvian shantytown population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyerematen, Victoria; Hamb, Averine; Oberhelman, Richard A; Cabrera, Lilia; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Berry, Susan J

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Public health research on child health is increasingly focusing on the long-term impacts of infectious diseases, malnutrition and social deprivation on child development. The objectives of this exploratory study were to (1) implement the Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) in children aged 3 months to 5 years in a low-income Peruvian population and (2) to correlate outcomes of the ASQ with risk factors such as nutritional status, diarrhoea incidence and wealth index. Setting Primary data collection was carried out in the Pampas de San Juan de Miraflores, a periurban low-income community in Lima, Peru. Participants The study population included 129 children selected through community census data, with a mean age of 22 months (SD 6.8) and with almost equal gender distribution (51% males). Intervention A Peruvian psychologist administered the age-appropriate (ASQ2 for participants enrolled in 2009, ASQ3 for participants enrolled in 2010). Results of the ASQ are reported separately for five scales, including Communication, Gross Motor, Fine Motor, Problem Solving and Personal-Social. Primary and secondary outcome measures For each scale, results are reported as normal or suspect, meaning that some milestone attainment was not evident and further evaluation is recommended. Results Overall, 50 of 129 children (38.7%) had suspect results for at least one of the five scales, with the highest rates of suspect results on the Communication (15.5%) and Problem Solving scales (13.9%). Higher rates of suspect outcomes were seen in older children, both overall (p=0.06) and on Problem Solving (p=0.009), and for some scales there were trends between suspect outcomes and wealth index or undernutrition. Conclusions The ASQ was successfully applied in a community-based study in a low-income Peruvian population, and with further validation, the ASQ may be an effective tool for identifying at-risk children in resource-poor areas of Latin America. PMID:24413354

  2. Double Screening Tests of the CMS ECAL Avalanche Photodiodes

    CERN Document Server

    Deiters, Konrad; Renker, Dieter; Sakhelashvili, Tariel; Britvitch, Ilia; Kuznetsov, Andrey; Musienko, Yuri; Singovsky, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Specially developed avalanche photo-diodes (APDs) will be used to measure the light from the 61,200 lead tungstate crystals in the barrel part of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter. To ensure the reliability over the lifetime of the detector, every APD is screened by irradiation and burn-in before it is accepted for CMS. As part of the establishment of the screening procedure and to determine its effectiveness, a large number of APDs were screened twice. The results of these tests suggest that the required reliability will be achieved.

  3. Double screening tests of the CMS ECAL avalanche photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deiters, K.; Ingram, Q.; Renker, D.; Sakhelashvili, T.; Britvitch, I.; Kuznetsov, A.; Musienko, Y.; Singovsky, A.

    2005-01-01

    Specially developed avalanche photodiodes (APDs) will be used to measure the light from the 61,200 lead tungstate crystals in the barrel part of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter. To ensure the reliability over the lifetime of the detector, every APD is screened by irradiation and burn-in before it is accepted for CMS. As part of the establishment of the screening procedure and to determine its effectiveness, a large number of APDs were screened twice. The results of these tests suggest that the required reliability will be achieved

  4. Fresnel Prism on Hess Screen Test

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, Kyung Min; Samuel Kim, Ungsoo

    2013-01-01

    A 65-year-old male patient complained of diplopia after a cataract surgery. He had esotropia of 18 prism diopters (PDs) at distant and near deviation, and therefore, we performed the Hess screen test to identify any abnormal eye movement. However, the indicator was found to be out of bounds, and therefore, the test could not be completed. Therefore, the test was subsequently performed with a 20 PD base-out Fresnel prism, and an abduction deficit was observed in the right eye, but not in the l...

  5. Women's knowledge and use of prenatal screening tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven, Memnun; Akyüz, Aygül; Eroglu, Kafiye; Daack-Hirsch, Sandra; Skirton, Heather

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the rate of use of prenatal screening tests and the factors affecting the decision to have a prenatal screening test in pregnant women in Turkey. Prenatal genetic screening as an optional service is commonly used to determine a level of risk for genetic conditions in the foetus. A quantitative cross-sectional survey. Pregnant women (n = 274) who sought prenatal care from one hospital in Turkey were recruited and asked to complete questionnaires that were developed by the researchers. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data. Almost half (44·2) % of the women were primiparas, and the majority (97·8%) were in the third trimester of pregnancy. Only 36·1% of the women reported that they had prenatal screening by either the double test or triple test. Women had a low level of knowledge regarding prenatal screening: the mean knowledge score was 3·43 ± 3·21 of a possible score of 10. Having consanguineous marriage, a history of spontaneous abortion, a child with genetic disorder, multiparity or a longer marriage duration were positively correlated with accepting a prenatal screening test. This study has provided baseline data on the uptake and reasons for accepting or declining a prenatal screening in a cohort of Turkish women. There is evidence to suggest that more education is needed to improve knowledge and provide comprehensive nursing care to promote informed consent in this context. Perinatal nurses are ideally situated to inform pregnant women about prenatal screening tests to improve access to healthcare services and to ensure informed decisions are made by pregnant women and their partners. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Language screening for preschool children: Individual or group testing?

    OpenAIRE

    Olujić, Marina; Kuvač Kraljević, Jelena; Hržica, Gordana; Srebačić, Ivana; Matić, Ana; Kologranić Belić, Lana; Padovan, Nevena; Peretić, Maja

    2014-01-01

    Early language development is a complex process that occurs alongside a number of other processes, including physical and cognitive development and socialization. The complexity of childhood as a developmental period can contribute to various deviations from the established norms in language development. The use of screening tests is a standard procedure in the early detection of clinical problems, including difficulties in language development. At present, there are no standardized instrumen...

  7. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SCREEN TRANSLATION

    OpenAIRE

    Sang Ayu Isnu Maharani

    2014-01-01

    Screen translations involve oral translation known as dubbing and revoicing. Re-voicing consists of lip-sync dubbing, free commentary, narration and voice over. The written version is called subtitle. Dubbing and subtitling are two preferred mode used in the screen translation even though various numbers of current options are available nowadays. Dubbing commenced to be used in larger countries in Europe meanwhile smaller countries apply subtitling because it is more...

  8. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SCREEN TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Ayu Isnu Maharani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Screen translations involve oral translation known as dubbing and revoicing. Re-voicing consists of lip-sync dubbing, free commentary, narration and voice over. The written version is called subtitle. Dubbing and subtitling are two preferred mode used in the screen translation even though various numbers of current options are available nowadays. Dubbing commenced to be used in larger countries in Europe meanwhile smaller countries apply subtitling because it is more economical than dubbing. In Indonesia, the use of dubbing as well as subtitle are found.

  9. Screening for Language Disorders in Stroke: German Validation of the Language Screening Test (LAST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig-Bruhin, M; Vanbellingen, T; Schumacher, R; Pflugshaupt, T; Annoni, J M; Müri, R M; Bohlhalter, S; Nyffeler, T

    2016-01-01

    Screening of aphasia in acute stroke is crucial for directing patients to early language therapy. The Language Screening Test (LAST), originally developed in French, is a validated language screening test that allows detection of a language deficit within a few minutes. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate two parallel German versions of the LAST. The LAST includes subtests for naming, repetition, automatic speech, and comprehension. For the translation into German, task constructs and psycholinguistic criteria for item selection were identical to the French LAST. A cohort of 101 stroke patients were tested, all of whom were native German speakers. Validation of the LAST was based on (1) analysis of equivalence of the German versions, which was established by administering both versions successively in a subset of patients, (2) internal validity by means of internal consistency analysis, and (3) external validity by comparison with the short version of the Token Test in another subset of patients. The two German versions were equivalent as demonstrated by a high intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.91. Furthermore, an acceptable internal structure of the LAST was found (Cronbach's α = 0.74). A highly significant correlation (r = 0.74, p German version of the LAST, available in two parallel versions, is a new and valid language screening test in stroke.

  10. Mammography and Other Screening Tests for Breast Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ178 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Mammography and Other Screening Tests for Breast Problems • What ... test? • Why is breast screening important? • What is mammography? • Why is mammography done? • How should I prepare ...

  11. Screening for Specific Language Impairment in Preschool Children: Evaluating a Screening Procedure Including the Token Test

    OpenAIRE

    Willinger, Ulrike; Schmoeger, Michaela; Deckert, Matthias; Eisenwort, Brigitte; Loader, Benjamin; Hofmair, Annemarie; Auff, Eduard

    2017-01-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) comprises impairments in receptive and/or expressive language. Aim of this study was to evaluate a screening for SLI. 61 children with SLI (SLI-children, age-range 4–6 years) and 61 matched typically developing controls were tested for receptive language ability (Token Test—TT) and for intelligence (Wechsler Preschool-and-Primary-Scale-of-Intelligence—WPPSI). Group differences were analyzed using t tests, as well as direct and stepwise discriminant analyses....

  12. Towards single screening tests for brucellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K.; Smith, P.; Yu, W.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) and a fluorescence polarisation assay (FPA), each capable of detecting antibody in several species of hosts to smooth and rough members of the genus Brucella. The I-ELISA uses a mixture of smooth lipopolysaccharide (SLPS...... than did I-ELISA procedures using each individual antigen separately. Similarly, the assay using combined antigens detected antibody in slightly fewer animals not exposed to Brucella sp. When a universal cutoff of 10% positivity was used (relative to strongly positive control sera of each species......-ELISA and the FPA with combined antigens were suitable as screening tests for all species of Brucella in the animal species tested....

  13. [Mokken scaling of the Cognitive Screening Test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesfeldt, H F A

    2009-10-01

    The Cognitive Screening Test (CST) is a twenty-item orientation questionnaire in Dutch, that is commonly used to evaluate cognitive impairment. This study applied Mokken Scale Analysis, a non-parametric set of techniques derived from item response theory (IRT), to CST-data of 466 consecutive participants in psychogeriatric day care. The full item set and the standard short version of fourteen items both met the assumptions of the monotone homogeneity model, with scalability coefficient H = 0.39, which is considered weak. In order to select items that would fulfil the assumption of invariant item ordering or the double monotonicity model, the subjects were randomly partitioned into a training set (50% of the sample) and a test set (the remaining half). By means of an automated item selection eleven items were found to measure one latent trait, with H = 0.67 and item H coefficients larger than 0.51. Cross-validation of the item analysis in the remaining half of the subjects gave comparable values (H = 0.66; item H coefficients larger than 0.56). The selected items involve year, place of residence, birth date, the monarch's and prime minister's names, and their predecessors. Applying optimal discriminant analysis (ODA) it was found that the full set of twenty CST items performed best in distinguishing two predefined groups of patients of lower or higher cognitive ability, as established by an independent criterion derived from the Amsterdam Dementia Screening Test. The chance corrected predictive value or prognostic utility was 47.5% for the full item set, 45.2% for the fourteen items of the standard short version of the CST, and 46.1% for the homogeneous, unidimensional set of selected eleven items. The results of the item analysis support the application of the CST in cognitive assessment, and revealed a more reliable 'short' version of the CST than the standard short version (CST14).

  14. Development of Electron-positron Screened Pseudopotential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the jellium model, for electron-positron annihilation to take place, the positron must overcome the screened potential of the valence electrons. In this paper, we develop electron-positron screened pseudopotential to explain positron annihilation rate in metals. The results obtained show that there is a trend in the variation ...

  15. Tests Screening Reading Difficulty in Malayalam among Upper Primary School Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafoor, K. Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Design of a screening test for identifying reading difficult students in Malayalam and validation thereof among boys is made to help schools proactively intervene with such students. A battery of tests developed based on extant literature on screening tests, reviewed difficulties in reading Malayalam, and discrimination power of the draft tests is…

  16. [Utilization of the screening test for discharge support].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikedo, Hasue; Morimoto, Ritsuko; Matsumoto, Saeko; Nakajo, Ikuko; Nakagawa, Michiyo

    2005-12-01

    We hand out a list of screening tests for discharge support (the screening) to all patients upon admission, so that they can receive an early discharge. Implementing the screening as a balanced score card (BSC) evaluation index of the work performance by the nursing division, we were able to screen more than 40% of newly admitted patients immediately after the introduction of the screening. When more than two items of the screening questionnaire were checked, a discharge support intervention was introduced. Patients who checked items on the screening questionnaire have tended to request discharge support within a week of admission.

  17. Simple test guidelines for screening oilspill sorbents for toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blenkinsopp, S.A.; Sergy, G.; Doe, K.; Jackman, P.; Huybers, A.

    1998-01-01

    Environment Canada's Emergencies Science Division has established a program to develop a standard test method suitable for evaluating the toxicity of common sorbent materials. Sorbents are used to absorb or adsorb spilled oil and other hazardous materials. They vary widely in composition and packaging. They are often treated with oleophilic and hydrophobic compounds to improve performance and have been used in large quantities during oil spills. Until now, their potential toxicity has never been considered. Three tests have been evaluated to determine how appropriate they are in screening the toxicity of sorbents. Seven toxicity test recommendations for sorbents were presented. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  18. Serological Testing in Screening for Adult Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Rachel Gillett

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Assays for celiac-related antibodies are becoming widely available, and the present review aims to clarify the use of these investigations in the diagnosis of, management of and screening for adult celiac disease. The sensitivities and specificities of various antibody tests are discussed, along with their clinical use as an adjunct to small bowel biopsy, and as a first-line investigation for patients with atypical symptoms of celiac disease or patients at high risk of developing sprue.

  19. A novel test tube method of screening for hemoglobin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatu, T; Kasinrerk, W

    2012-02-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) E is a β-structural variant common worldwide. This Hb disorder can form a compound heterozygous state with the β-thalassemia gene, leading to life-threatening hereditary hemolytic anemia, HbE/β-thalassemia. Screening of HbE has proven to be a challenging practice in prevention and control of the HbE/β-thalassemia. A novel test tube method for HbE screening using diethyl aminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose resin was described. With the developed system, HbE/A(2) did not bind to the resin and remained dissolved in the supernatant, whereas other Hbs completely bound to the resin. The red color of the supernatant observed in the test tube indicated the presence of HbE. Colorless or markedly pale color of the supernatant indicates the absence of HbE. Accuracy and efficiency of the established method in detecting HbE was comparable with the standard cellulose acetate electrophoresis method. The developed method is cheap and simple with no requirement of sophisticated equipment. The reagent could be stored at 4 °C for up to 5 months. Hemolysate samples aged up to 5 months were still suitable for this test. The described novel test tube method could be an alternative method of mass population screening for HbE, particularly in small health care facilities. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. History, development and future of cancer screening in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian N Olver

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of screening an asymptomatic population for cancer is to achieve better health outcomes, particularly a population survival benefit. Australia has three population screening programs: the National Cervical Screening Program (NCSP, BreastScreen Australia and the National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP. Methods: We reviewed the history and development of the three programs. NCSP: Women have a Pap smear every 2 years from age 18–20, or 2 years after first becoming sexually active, until age 69. Since introduction of the NCSP, the cervical cancer incidence has halved, with an approximate 60% decrease in mortality. The screening participation rate approximates 57%, but is lower for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women, women in remote areas, and women with lower socio-economic status. The National HPV (human papillomavirus Vaccination Program, introduced in 2007, is expected to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer by a further 70% and has already reduced the incidence of high-grade lesions in girls. In 2017, testing for HPV every 5 years starting at age 25 will replace the Pap smear as the principal screening test. BreastScreen Australia: This program targets women aged 50–74. Over 20 years, mortality from breast cancer has decreased by 32% in response to screening and treatment advances. The participation rate is 56%. The major adverse impact of breast screening is overdiagnosis, estimated in Australia to be as low as 8% of detected cancers, but with estimates of up to 30% from some research. Women should be made aware of both the potential benefits and harms from screening. Genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in high-risk women leads to earlier screening. NBCSP: The NBCSP uses immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT kits on stool samples to detect bleeding from the bowel. When rollout is complete in 2020, test kits will be sent every 2 years to people aged 50–74. People who test positive

  1. The Role of Glutamate Dehydrogenase (GDH Testing Assay in the Diagnosis of Clostridium difficile Infections: A High Sensitive Screening Test and an Essential Step in the Proposed Laboratory Diagnosis Workflow for Developing Countries like China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Wei Cheng

    Full Text Available The incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI in North America and Europe has increased significantly since the 2000s. However, CDI is not widely recognized in China and other developing countries due to limited laboratory diagnostic capacity and low awareness. Most published studies on laboratory workflows for CDI diagnosis are from developed countries, and thus may not be suitable for most developing countries. Therefore, an alternative strategy for developing countries is needed. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the Glutamate Dehydrogenase (GDH test and its associated workflow on 416 fecal specimens from suspected CDI cases. The assay exhibited excellent sensitivity (100.0% and specificity (92.8%, compared to culture based method, and thus could be a good screening marker for C. difficile but not for indication of toxin production. The VIDAS CDAB assay, which can detect toxin A/B directly from fecal specimens, showed good specificity (99.7% and positive predictive value (97.2%, but low sensitivity (45.0% and negative predictive value (88.3%, compared with PCR-based toxin gene detection. Therefore, we propose a practical and efficient GDH test based workflow strategy for the laboratory diagnosis of CDI in developing countries like China. By applying this new workflow, the CDI laboratory diagnosis rate was notably improved in our center, yet the increasing cost was kept at a minimum level. Furthermore, to gain some insights into the genetic population structure of C. difficile isolates from our hospital, we performed MLST and PCR toxin gene typing.

  2. The Role of Glutamate Dehydrogenase (GDH) Testing Assay in the Diagnosis of Clostridium difficile Infections: A High Sensitive Screening Test and an Essential Step in the Proposed Laboratory Diagnosis Workflow for Developing Countries like China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jing-Wei; Xiao, Meng; Kudinha, Timothy; Xu, Zhi-Peng; Sun, Lin-Ying; Hou, Xin; Zhang, Li; Fan, Xin; Kong, Fanrong; Xu, Ying-Chun

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in North America and Europe has increased significantly since the 2000s. However, CDI is not widely recognized in China and other developing countries due to limited laboratory diagnostic capacity and low awareness. Most published studies on laboratory workflows for CDI diagnosis are from developed countries, and thus may not be suitable for most developing countries. Therefore, an alternative strategy for developing countries is needed. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the Glutamate Dehydrogenase (GDH) test and its associated workflow on 416 fecal specimens from suspected CDI cases. The assay exhibited excellent sensitivity (100.0%) and specificity (92.8%), compared to culture based method, and thus could be a good screening marker for C. difficile but not for indication of toxin production. The VIDAS CDAB assay, which can detect toxin A/B directly from fecal specimens, showed good specificity (99.7%) and positive predictive value (97.2%), but low sensitivity (45.0%) and negative predictive value (88.3%), compared with PCR-based toxin gene detection. Therefore, we propose a practical and efficient GDH test based workflow strategy for the laboratory diagnosis of CDI in developing countries like China. By applying this new workflow, the CDI laboratory diagnosis rate was notably improved in our center, yet the increasing cost was kept at a minimum level. Furthermore, to gain some insights into the genetic population structure of C. difficile isolates from our hospital, we performed MLST and PCR toxin gene typing.

  3. Nouws antibiotics test: Validation of a post-screening method for antibiotic residues in kidney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikkemaat, M.G.; Oostra-van Dijk, S.; Schouten, J.; Rapallini, M.; Kortenhoeven, L.; Egmond, van H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Anticipating the rise in ‘suspect’ samples caused by the introduction of a more sensitive screening test for the presence of antibiotic residues in slaughter animals, an additional microbial post-screening method was developed. The test comprises four antibiotic group specific test plates, optimized

  4. Prostate Cancer Screening: Should You Get a PSA Test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staff Cancer screening tests — including the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test to look for signs of prostate cancer — ... to the person undergoing the testing. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by both cancerous (malignant) ...

  5. Screening of antibiotics residues and development a new kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkhaoui, Faycel

    2009-01-01

    The first part of the work was to detect antibiotic residues in animal nutriment: chicken, fish, eggs and milk, by methods of screening: First Test and Delvotest. The second part covered the development of a new kit for the detection of antibiotics residues for honey and competitor kit First Test and saving time and money.

  6. Screening with Papanicolaou tests in Alberta: Are we Choosing Wisely?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Christopher J; Chen, Wenxin; Rose, Marianne Sarah; Cooke, Lara J

    2018-01-01

    To describe the prevalence and geographic distribution of cervical cancer screening, as well as the age groups of those undergoing screening, in Alberta, and to determine if screening practices conform to current guidelines and follow Choosing Wisely Canada recommendations. Descriptive study using data from the Alberta Ministry of Health Analytics and Performance Reporting Branch. Alberta. Women who had 1 or more Papanicolaou tests between 2011 and 2013. Number of women aged 15 to 20 and those aged 70 and older who had 1 or more Pap tests in a 3-year period; year-to-year trends in screening rates for women in these 2 age groups; trends in screening rates in various geographic regions (ie, cities and zones) in Alberta; and the discipline of clinicians who ordered the Pap tests. Between 2011 and 2013, 805 632 women in the province of Alberta had 1 or more Pap tests for cervical cancer screening. Overall, 25 511 (17.5%) women aged 15 to 20 and 16 818 (10.3%) aged 70 and older were screened contrary to most existing guidelines. Screening rates varied markedly in different geographic regions of the province. Most Pap tests were ordered by family physicians or general practitioners. Within the geographic regions of Alberta, provincial, national, and international guidelines for screening with Pap tests are inconsistently followed. This strongly echoes the need for clinicians and patients to consider the Choosing Wisely Canada recommendations and current guidelines for cervical cancer screening. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  7. A new microbial screening method for the detection of antimicrobial residues in slaughter animals: The Nouws antibiotic test (NAT-screening)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikkemaat, M.G.; Oostra-van Dijk, S.; Schouten, J.; Rapallini, M.; Egmond, van H.J.

    2008-01-01

    An improved microbial method for the screening of antimicrobial residues in slaughter animals has been developed. The Nouws antibiotic test (NAT-screening) is based on the analysis of renal pelvis fluid and comprises five test plates enabling group specific identification. The NAT-screening combines

  8. Iterative Cellular Screening System for Nanoparticle Safety Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Sambale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles have the potential to exhibit risks to human beings and to the environment; due to the wide applications of nanoproducts, extensive risk management must not be neglected. Therefore, we have constructed a cell-based, iterative screening system to examine a variety of nanoproducts concerning their toxicity during development. The sensitivity and application of various cell-based methods were discussed and proven by applying the screening to two different nanoparticles: zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles. They were used as benchmarks to set up our methods and to examine their effects on mammalian cell lines. Different biological processes such as cell viability, gene expression of interleukin-8 and heat shock protein 70, as well as morphology changes were investigated. Within our screening system, both nanoparticle suspensions and coatings can be tested. Electric cell impedance measurements revealed to be a good method for online monitoring of cellular behavior. The implementation of three-dimensional cell culture is essential to better mimic in vivo conditions. In conclusion, our screening system is highly efficient, cost minimizing, and reduces the need for animal studies.

  9. Screening for gestational diabetes: examining a breakfast meal test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was performed to analyse the carbohydrate quantity of the non-standardised breakfast meal test consumed as part of a screening test for gestational diabetes. Design: A prospective descriptive design was utilised. Setting: Screening for gestational diabetes was performed in the High-Risk Antenatal ...

  10. In vivo imaging of trypanosome-brain interactions and development of a rapid screening test for drugs against CNS stage trypanosomiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmarie Myburgh

    Full Text Available HUMAN AFRICAN TRYPANOSOMIASIS (HAT MANIFESTS IN TWO STAGES OF DISEASE: firstly, haemolymphatic, and secondly, an encephalitic phase involving the central nervous system (CNS. New drugs to treat the second-stage disease are urgently needed, yet testing of novel drug candidates is a slow process because the established animal model relies on detecting parasitemia in the blood as late as 180 days after treatment. To expedite compound screening, we have modified the GVR35 strain of Trypanosoma brucei brucei to express luciferase, and have monitored parasite distribution in infected mice following treatment with trypanocidal compounds using serial, non-invasive, bioluminescence imaging. Parasites were detected in the brains of infected mice following treatment with diminazene, a drug which cures stage 1 but not stage 2 disease. Intravital multi-photon microscopy revealed that trypanosomes enter the brain meninges as early as day 5 post-infection but can be killed by diminazene, whereas those that cross the blood-brain barrier and enter the parenchyma by day 21 survived treatment and later caused bloodstream recrudescence. In contrast, all bioluminescent parasites were permanently eliminated by treatment with melarsoprol and DB829, compounds known to cure stage 2 disease. We show that this use of imaging reduces by two thirds the time taken to assess drug efficacy and provides a dual-modal imaging platform for monitoring trypanosome infection in different areas of the brain.

  11. Screening for Specific Language Impairment in Preschool Children: Evaluating a Screening Procedure Including the Token Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willinger, Ulrike; Schmoeger, Michaela; Deckert, Matthias; Eisenwort, Brigitte; Loader, Benjamin; Hofmair, Annemarie; Auff, Eduard

    2017-10-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) comprises impairments in receptive and/or expressive language. Aim of this study was to evaluate a screening for SLI. 61 children with SLI (SLI-children, age-range 4-6 years) and 61 matched typically developing controls were tested for receptive language ability (Token Test-TT) and for intelligence (Wechsler Preschool-and-Primary-Scale-of-Intelligence-WPPSI). Group differences were analyzed using t tests, as well as direct and stepwise discriminant analyses. The predictive value of the WPPSI with respect to TT performance was analyzed using regression analyses. SLI-children performed significantly worse on both TT and WPPSI ([Formula: see text]). The TT alone yielded an overall classification rate of 79%, the TT and the WPPSI together yielded an overall classification rate of 80%. TT performance was significantly predicted by verbal intelligence in SLI-children and nonverbal intelligence in controls whilst WPPSI subtest arithmetic was predictive in both groups. Without further research, the Token Test cannot be seen as a valid and sufficient tool for the screening of SLI in preschool children but rather as a tool for the assessment of more general intellectual capacities. SLI-children at this age already show impairments typically associated with SLI which indicates the necessity of early developmental support or training. Token Test performance is possibly an indicator for a more general developmental factor rather than an exclusive indicator for language difficulties.

  12. Advances in prenatal screening for Down syndrome: II first trimester testing, integrated testing, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Peter A

    2002-10-01

    The acceptability of prenatal screening and diagnosis of Down syndrome is dependent, in part, on the gestational age at which the testing is offered. First trimester screening could be advantageous if it has sufficient efficacy and can be effectively delivered. Two first trimester maternal serum screening markers, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG), are useful for identifying women at increased risk for fetal Down syndrome. In addition, measurement of an enlarged thickness of the subcutaneous fluid-filled space at the back of the neck of the developing fetus (referred to as nuchal translucency or NT) has been demonstrated to be an indicator for these high-risk pregnancies. When these three parameters are combined, estimates for Down syndrome efficacy exceed those currently attainable in the second trimester. Women who are screen-positive in the first trimester can elect to receive cytogenetic testing of a chorionic villus biopsy. The first trimester tests could also, theoretically, be combined with the second trimester maternal serum screening tests (integrated screening) to obtain even higher levels of efficacy. There are, however, several practical limitations to first trimester and integrated screening. These include scheduling of testing within relatively narrow gestational age intervals, availability of appropriately trained ultrasonographers for NT measurement, risks associated with chorionic villus biopsy, and costs. There is also increasing evidence that an enlarged NT measurement is indicative of a high risk for spontaneous abortion and for fetal abnormalities that are not detectable by cytogenetic analysis. Women whose fetuses show enlarged NT, therefore, need first trimester counseling regarding their Down syndrome risks and the possibility of other adverse pregnancy outcomes. Follow-up ultrasound and fetal echocardiography in the second trimester are also indicated. First trimester

  13. Cervical Cancer Screening with HPV Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about cotesting with human papillomavirus (HPV) as part of a cervical cancer screening program.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  14. Endocrine Disruptor Screening and Testing Advisory Committee (EDSTAC) Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EDSTAC Report was developed through a deliberative process that encouraged the development of consensus solutions to complex problems and issues related to developing an Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program.

  15. Knowledge of prenatal screening and psychological management of test decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Hvidman, Lone; Jørgensen, Finn Stener

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study associations between pregnant women's knowledge of prenatal screening and decisional conflict in deciding whether to participate in first trimester screening for Down's syndrome in a setting of required informed consent and to study associations between knowledge and personal...... level of knowledge for the pregnant women making choices about participation in prenatal screening for Down's syndrome in order to improve psychological management of test decisions. Copyright © 2010 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  16. The Reliability of Inverse Screen Tests for Cluster Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Richard G.; Williams, Janice E.

    1987-01-01

    A Monte Carlo study, involving 6,000 "computer subjects" and three raters, explored the reliability of the inverse screen test for cluster analysis. Results indicate that the inverse screen may be a useful and reliable cluster analytic technique for determining the number of true groups. (TJH)

  17. False-positive Human Papillomavirus DNA tests in cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Pribac, Igor; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2011-01-01

    Based on data from randomised controlled trials (RCT) on primary cervical screening, it has been reported that the problem of more frequent false-positive tests in Human Papillomavirus (HPV) DNA screening compared to cytology could be overcome. However, these reports predominantly operated with a...

  18. Solubility tests and the peripheral blood film method for screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the cost benefit of screening for sicklecell disease among infants at district health centres in Uganda using sickling, solubility tests and the peripheral blood film method. Methods. Pilot screening services were established at district health centres. Cost benefit analysis (CBA) was performed in four ...

  19. Twin-twin transfusion syndrome: neurodevelopmental screening test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amabile Vessoni Arias

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To assess the neurodevelopmental functions (cognition, language and motor function of survivors of twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS. Method Observational cross-sectional study of a total of 67 monochorionic diamniotic twins who underwent fetoscopic laser coagulation (FLC for treatment of TTTS. The study was conducted at the Center for Investigation in Pediatrics (CIPED, Universidade Estadual de Campinas. Ages ranged from one month and four days to two years four months. Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development Screening Test-III, were used for evaluation. Results Most children reached the competent category and were classified as having appropriate performance. The preterm children scored worse than term infants for gross motor subtest (p = 0.036. Conclusion The majority of children reached the expected development according to their age. Despite the good neurodevelopment, children classified at risk should be monitored for development throughout childhood.

  20. Abnormal ovarian cancer screening test result: women's informational, psychological and practical needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Patricia Y; Graves, Kristi D; Pavlik, Edward J; Andrykowski, Michael A

    2007-01-01

    Considerable effort has been devoted to the identification of cost-effective approaches to screening for ovarian cancer (OC). Transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) is one such screening approach. Approximately 5-7% of routine TVS screening tests yield abnormal results. Some women experience significant distress after receipt of an abnormal TVS screening test. Four focus groups provided in-depth, qualitative data regarding the informational, psychological, and practical needs of women after the receipt of an abnormal TVS result. Through question and content analytic procedures, we identified four themes: anticipation, emotional response, role of the screening technician, and impact of prior cancer experiences. Results provide initial guidance toward development of interventions to promote adaptive responses after receipt of an abnormal cancer screening test result.

  1. A novel multitarget stool DNA test for colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Pramod

    2016-01-01

    Review of: Imperiale TF, Ransohoff DF, Itzkowitz SH, Levin TR, Lavin P, Lidgard GP, Ahlquist DA, Berger BM. Multitarget stool DNA testing for colorectal-cancer screening. N Engl J Med 2014;370(14):1287-97. This Practice Pearl reviews the results of a prospective, multicenter, cross-sectional clinical study that evaluated the performance of a new multitarget stool DNA (or mt-sDNA) screening test for colorectal cancer (CRC) and compared it with a fecal immunochemical test (FIT) in individuals at average risk for CRC. The potential impact of this test on the future of CRC screening is also discussed in a brief commentary. mt-sDNA testing is a noninvasive screening test designed to detect DNA biomarkers associated with colorectal neoplasia and occult hemoglobin in the stool. The sensitivity of mt-sDNA testing for detection of CRC was 92.3%, compared with 73.8% for FIT (p = 0.002). Sensitivity for detecting advanced precancerous lesions was 42.4% for mt-sDNA testing and 23.8% for FIT (p testing and FIT were 86.6% and 94.9%, respectively (p testing thus may be a first-line screening option for asymptomatic individuals at average risk for CRC who do not want to have a colonoscopy.

  2. 42 CFR 410.18 - Diabetes screening tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... screening tests. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section, the following definitions apply: Diabetes... receive the benefit: (1) Hypertension. (2) Dyslipidemia. (3) Obesity, defined as a body mass index greater...

  3. Recent advances in prenatal genetic screening and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Veyver, Ignatia B.

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of new technologies has dramatically changed the current practice of prenatal screening and testing for genetic abnormalities in the fetus. Expanded carrier screening panels and non-invasive cell-free fetal DNA-based screening for aneuploidy and single-gene disorders, and more recently for subchromosomal abnormalities, have been introduced into prenatal care. More recently introduced technologies such as chromosomal microarray analysis and whole-exome sequencing can diagnose more genetic conditions on samples obtained through amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling, including many disorders that cannot be screened for non-invasively. All of these options have benefits and limitations, and genetic counseling has become increasingly complex for providers who are responsible for guiding patients in their decisions about screening and testing before and during pregnancy. PMID:27853526

  4. Indicators for monitoring screening programs with primary HPV test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Manuel; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    following scientific evidence produced in numerous studies, as well as national and international guidelines, organized cervical cancer screening programs in Italy have gradually introduced the HPV test as primary screening test, replacing cytology. As public health interventions, screening programs must ensure equity, improvement in quality of life, and adequate information for the population involved with regards to benefits and possible risks; therefore, it is essential for quality to be constantly checked at every phase of the project.The Italian Cervical Screening Group (Gruppo Italiano per lo Screening Cervicale, GISCi) has written a handbook for the calculation and interpretation of cervical screening program monitoring indicators that take into account the new protocol based on primary HPV test with cytology triage. based on the European guidelines and Italian recommendations on primary HPVbased screening, the working group, which includes professionals from all the fields involved in cervical screening, identified the essential points needed to monitor the screening process, the accuracy of individual tests, and early outcomes, defining a specific indicator for each aspect. The indicators were grouped as follows: baseline indicators, indicators for test repeat after one year, cumulative indicators, and waiting times. For every indicator, the source of data, calculation formula, any standards or critical thresholds, and interpretation were defined. The standards are based on the results of NTCC trials or Italian pilot studies. the main indicators proposed for the organization are the following: number of invitations, compliance with first invitation, with one-year test repeat and with colposcopy; for test and process accuracy, a cohort approach was utilised, where indicators are based on women who must be followed for at least one year, so as to integrate the results obtained after the first HPV test with the outcome of the test's repetition after one year

  5. Unconfirmed reactive screening tests and their impact on donor management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.; Khan, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the percentage of false positive testing for transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs) using immunochromatographic test (ICT) as first line of screening tests and its effect on loss of volunteer blood donors. Over a period of three months, samples from blood bags of donors undergoing phlebotomy at teaching hospital blood banks in Lahore were screened for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) by immunochromatographic tests. Those found positive on initial screening were re-tested by ELISA method at the screening laboratory of the Institute of Haematology and Blood Transfusion Service, Punjab. Lahore. Out of a total of 62090 voluntary blood donors, 469 donors were found to be initially reactive for either HIV, HBV or HCV. Amongst these 96 (0.15%) blood donors were found to have tested falsely positive for HIV, HBV or HCV as compared to testing by ELISA. False positive testing rate of 0.15% or 96 out of a total of 62090 donors is rather small in terms of loss of voluntary donors and appropriate utilization of available resources. Although immunochromatographic testing is not the gold standard, however it serves an important purpose of initial donor screening. (author)

  6. Prenatal genetic carrier testing using triple disease screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, C M; Schechter, C; Robinowitz, J; Fulop, G; Burgert, T; Levy, B; Zinberg, R; Desnick, R J

    1997-10-15

    Rapid progress in gene discovery has dramatically increased diagnostic capabilities for carrier screening and prenatal testing for genetic diseases. However, simultaneous prenatal carrier screening for prevalent genetic disease has not been evaluated, and patient acceptance and attitudes toward this testing strategy remain undefined. To evaluate an educational, counseling, and carrier testing program for 3 genetic disorders: Tay-Sachs disease (TSD), type 1 Gaucher disease (GD), and cystic fibrosis (CF) that differ in detectability, severity, and availability of therapy. Potential participants received education and genetic counseling, gave informed consent, chose screening tests, and completed pre-education and posteducation questionnaires that assessed knowledge, attitudes toward genetic testing, and disease testing preferences. Medical genetics referral center. Volunteer sample of 2824 Ashkenazi Jewish individuals enrolled as couples who were referred for TSD testing. Genetic counseling, education, and if chosen, genetic testing for any or all 3 disorders. Acceptance of screening for each of the 3 disorders. Secondary outcomes include attitudes toward genetic testing and reproductive considerations. Of the 2824 individuals tested for TSD, 97% and 95% also chose testing for CF and GD, respectively. The frequency of detected carriers was 1:21 for TSD, 1 :25 for CF, and 1:18 for GD. Twenty-one carriercoupleswere identified, counseled, and all postconception couples opted for prenatal diagnosis. Pre-education and posteducation questionnaires revealed that patients initially knew little about the diseases, but acquired disease information and increased knowledge of genetic concepts. Education and genetic counseling increased understanding and retention of genetic concepts and disease-related information, and minimized test-related anxiety. Although individuals sought screening for all 3 diseases, reproductive attitudes and decisions varied directly with disease

  7. Prenatal screening: current practice, new developments, ethical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Antina; Maya, Idit; van Lith, Jan M M

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal screening pathways, as nowadays offered in most Western countries consist of similar tests. First, a risk-assessment test for major aneuploides is offered to pregnant women. In case of an increased risk, invasive diagnostic tests, entailing a miscarriage risk, are offered. For decades, only conventional karyotyping was used for final diagnosis. Moreover, several foetal ultrasound scans are offered to detect major congenital anomalies, but the same scans also provide relevant information for optimal support of the pregnancy and the delivery. Recent developments in prenatal screening include the application of microarrays that allow for identifying a much broader range of abnomalities than karyotyping, and non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) that enables reducing the number of invasive tests for aneuploidies considerably. In the future, broad NIPT may become possible and affordable. This article will briefly address the ethical issues raised by these technological developments. First, a safe NIPT may lead to routinisation and as such challenge the central issue of informed consent and the aim of prenatal screening: to offer opportunity for autonomous reproductive choice. Widening the scope of prenatal screening also raises the question to what extent 'reproductive autonomy' is meant to expand. Finally, if the same test is used for two different aims, namely detection of foetal anomalies and pregnancy-related problems, non-directive counselling can no longer be taken as a standard. Our broad outline of the ethical issues is meant as an introduction into the more detailed ethical discussions about prenatal screening in the other articles of this special issue. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Development of ceramics multifunctional screening materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senda, Tetsuya; Akiyama, Shigeru; Takahashi, Chiori; Matsuoka, Kazuyoshi; Uematsu, Susumu; Ueki, Kotaro; Ohashi, Atsuto; Naruyama, Nobuteru [Ship Research Inst., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    Neutron screening function of chromium carbide (Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}) was evaluated. 1/10 value layer (the screening material width decreases to 1/10 of dose equivalent) of chromium carbide was calculated by the continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCNP 4A. Neutron source was {sup 252}Cf and the average energy was 2.35 MeV. The result showed the same screening function was observed at titanium boride 23 cm and chromium carbide 24 cm width. The destructive critical laser power density of local stable zirconia was 0.275 W/mm{sup 2}, very small value, and the mechanical strength decreased radically at about 573 K. Zirconia seemed to be used on the position unless high heat flux. To determine the resistance to the surface damage of alumina at high temperature, the high temperature erosion test of alumina was carried out. The erosion wearing qualities of alumina were not changed until 400degC. (S.Y.)

  9. Digital Screen Media and Cognitive Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Daniel R; Subrahmanyam, Kaveri

    2017-11-01

    In this article, we examine the impact of digital screen devices, including television, on cognitive development. Although we know that young infants and toddlers are using touch screen devices, we know little about their comprehension of the content that they encounter on them. In contrast, research suggests that children begin to comprehend child-directed television starting at ∼2 years of age. The cognitive impact of these media depends on the age of the child, the kind of programming (educational programming versus programming produced for adults), the social context of viewing, as well the particular kind of interactive media (eg, computer games). For children games as well as educational computer programs can lead to gains in academically relevant content and other cognitive skills. This article concludes by identifying topics and goals for future research and provides recommendations based on current research-based knowledge. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Barriers to uptake of antenatal maternal screening tests in Senegal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, W.; Ondoa, P.; Sarr, A.M.; Sow, A.L.; Schultsz, C.; Sakande, J.; Diallo, S.; Pool, R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence exists that selective antenatal maternal screening tests contribute to the reduction of maternal morbidity and mortality. However, data are lacking on coverage with the complete set of recommended tests. The study aimed to identify barriers to uptake of the complete set of tests

  11. Developing an Assessment (Tool) for Touch Screen Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danial-Saad, Alexandra; Chiari, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    Touch screen devices have become prevalent in our lives. Assistive technology experts working with people with disabilities face difficulty in understanding and assessing the problems experienced by individuals with disabilities in operating touch screen devices. This paper presents the processes of collecting and creating the required knowledge needed for assessing the user's skills for operating various touch screen devices, in order to develop an application for assessing the user's abilities and limitations. A six step procedure was used to collect and validate the required knowledge for the assessment from a multidisciplinary team. To determine the agreement levels between the experts, content validity was calculated. To test correlation between the experts from the different disciplines, a comparison was made between the discipline groups and their choice of specific skills/measurements. The final number of domains and skills/measurements was 15 domains and 50 skills/measurements. The result of Cronbach's α test for the final assessment questionnaire (50 skills/measurements) was 0.94, which indicates a high degree of reliability. The results of Kruskal-Wallis test showed the lack of any significant difference between agreements of the clinicians and the technicians groups, but significant differences were found between the educators and the clinicians groups. Each of the skills appearing in the final questionnaire was illustrated in a flowchart in preparation for developing the assessment (tool) for using touch screen devices.

  12. Reiter haemagglutination test: a screening test for syphilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Qudah, A A; Mostratos, A

    1982-01-01

    Using an ultrasonicate of the Reiter treponeme as antigen the Reiter haemagglutination test (RHA) was evaluated as a serological test for syphilis. Comparison of the results of the cardiolipin Wassermann reaction, Reiter protein complement-fixation test, the fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorbed (FTA-ABS) test, the Treponema pallidum haemagglutination test (TPHA) (at dilutions of 1/16 and 1/80), and the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test with those of the RHA showed that the RHA was...

  13. The use of screening tests in spacecraft lubricant evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeras, Chris; Hilton, Mike; Carre, David; Didziulis, Stephen; Fleischauer, Paul

    1993-01-01

    A lubricant screening test fixture has been devised in order to satisfy the need to obtain lubricant performance data in a timely manner. This fixture has been used to perform short-term tests on potential lubricants for several spacecraft applications. The results of these tests have saved time by producing qualitative performance rankings of lubricant selections prior to life testing. To date, this test fixture has been used to test lubricants for 3 particular applications. The qualitative results from these tests have been verified by life test results and have provided insight into the function of various anti-wear additives.

  14. Socioeconomic disparities in diagnostic testing after positive aneuploidy screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Amy E; Dungan, Jeffrey; Feinglass, Joseph; Grobman, William A

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between type of health insurance (Medicaid vs. private) and uptake of diagnostic testing for fetal aneuploidy after a positive screening test result. We performed a retrospective cohort study of pregnant women who underwent aneuploidy screening in the first and/or second trimesters of pregnancy and received positive results. The characteristics of and outcomes for women with Medicaid were compared with those of women with private insurance in both univariable and multivariable analyses. In this study, 75 women with Medicaid and 75 with private insurance were analyzed. Those with Medicaid were younger (33.8 vs. 36.9 years, p aneuploidy screen (35 vs. 57%, p screening for aneuploidy. These results emphasize the potential importance of improved counseling for low-income women. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  15. Screening mammography interpretation test: more frequent mistakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozzi, Gino; Ganzetti, Alessandra; Martinoli, Carlo; Bacigalupo, Lorenzo; Bodini, Maria; Fiorentino, Carla; Marini, Ugo Paolo; Santini, Dolores

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To present the mammographic cases most commonly misinterpreted by the participants in the mammography self-test proposed by the Italian Society of Medical Radiology (SIRM) National Congress in Rimini, Italy, 2002, by analysing the findings responsible for errors, suggesting reasons for the errors, and assessing possible inadequacies in the format of the test. Materials and methods: The self-test was performed on the mammograms of 160 cases (32 positive and 128 negative for cancer as confirmed by histology). The mammograms had been taken in the four standard projections and placed on four multi-panel diaphanoscopes, each displaying a set of 40 cases comprising benign and malignant cases in equal proportions. The participants were given pre-printed forms on which to note down their diagnostic judgement. We evaluated a total of 134 fully-completed forms. Among these, we identified the 23 cases most frequently misread by over 15 participants in percentages varying between 40-90%. Of these cases, 10 were malignancies and 13 were negative mammograms. On review, we also assessed the diagnostic contribution of complementary investigations (not available the participants). The 134 fully-completed forms (all of the 40 cases) yielded a total of 5360 responses, 1180 of which (22.01%) were incorrect. Of these 823 out of the 4288 cases expected to be negative (19.2%) were false positive, and 357 out of the 1072 cases expected to be positive (33.3%) were false negative. As regards the 23 most frequently misread cases, these were 10/32 (31.25%) mammograms positive for malignancy and 13/128 (10.15%) negative mammograms or mammograms showing benign disease. The 10 malignancies included 7 infiltrating ductal carcinomas, 1 infiltrating cribriform carcinoma, 1 infiltrating tubular carcinoma, and 1 carcinoma in situ. The 13 cases of benign disease - as established by histology or long-term follow-up - mistaken for malignancies by the test participants were fibrocystic breast

  16. [Comparison of eight screening tests for ant-HCV antibody].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, Matsuo; Kagita, Masanori; Yamashita, Naoko; Nakano, Takasi; Tahara, Kazuko; Asari, Seishi; Iwatani, Yoshinori

    2002-09-01

    We compared eight HCV screening tests for detection of anti-HCV antibody; Ortho Quick Chaser HCV Ab (QC), Ortho HCV Ab ELISA III (ELISA), Ortho HVC Ab PA test III (PA), Lumipulse II Ortho HCV (LUMI), IMx HCV.DAINAPACKII (IMx), ARCHITECT HCV (ARCH), Immucheck.F-HCV C50 Ab (Immu), RANREAM HCV Ab Ex II (RAN). Sera from six hundred patients were examined by these eight screening tests. The positive rates of the eight screening tests were from 9.0% to 13.2%. Forty-five sera showed discrepant results between the eight screening tests, and about half of them showed weak positive reaction and/or false positive. Twenty-five of the forty-five sera were negative for ant-HCV antibody in the CHIRON RIBA III confirmatory test, and forty-four of them were negative for HCV-RNA in the PCR method. The agreement rates between the two reagents were from 95.5% to 99.2%, but were not always high between the two reagents that used similar antigen. The specificities and sensitivities evaluated by using the RIBA III confirmatory test were excellent in ELISA, LUMI, IMx, ARCH and Immu. Three BBI seroconversion panels were used to compare the positive readings in the initial stage of HCV infection by eight screening tests. ELISA and ARCH showed the earliest positive readings, and then IMx, LUMI = RAN, PA, QC and Immu in this order. These findings indicate that ELISA and ARCH were the most excellent in the sensitivity, specificity and early diagnosis of HCV infection. However, we must pay attention to the weak positive reaction in the screening tests, because there is a possibility of "false positive".

  17. A Mini-Nitrification Test for Toxicity Screening, Minntox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvin, Erik; Dyreborg, Søren; Menck, C.

    1994-01-01

    There is a high demand for a rapid, simple, and inexpensive test for screening of the toxicity of wastewater, polluted groundwater and chemicals in order to protect sewage treatment plants and aquatic and terrestrial recipients. The mini-nitrification test, MINNTOX, presented here, fulfils...

  18. Are antibiotic screening approaches sufficiently adequate? A proficiency test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, B.J.A.; Pikkemaat, M.G.; Stolker, A.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    A proficiency test including the screening analysis of antibiotics in beef using cryogenicly minced materials was organized by RIKILT in 2009. The test included blank beef samples and beef samples spiked with either flumequine or a combination of lincomycin and spectinomycin around the maximum

  19. Evidence of Validity for the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lease, Suzanne H.; Yanico, Barbara J.

    1995-01-01

    The convergent validity of an abbreviated version of the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST) was tested and supported. Extends a previous validity study by examining the CAST relationship to a measure that specifically addresses triangulation, individuation, intimacy, and personal authority between children of alcoholics and children of…

  20. Developing screening services for colorectal cancer on Android smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui-Ching; Chang, Chiao-Jung; Lin, Chun-Che; Tsai, Ming-Chang; Chang, Che-Chia; Tseng, Ming-Hseng

    2014-08-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an important health problem in Western countries and also in Asia. It is the third leading cause of cancer deaths in both men and women in Taiwan. According to the well-known adenoma-to-carcinoma sequence, the majority of CRC develops from colorectal adenomatous polyps. This concept provides the rationale for screening and prevention of CRC. Removal of colorectal adenoma could reduce the mortality and incidence of CRC. Mobile phones are now playing an ever more crucial role in people's daily lives. The latest generation of smartphones is increasingly viewed as hand-held computers rather than as phones, because of their powerful on-board computing capability, capacious memories, large screens, and open operating systems that encourage development of applications (apps). If we can detect the potential CRC patients early and offer them appropriate treatments and services, this would not only promote the quality of life, but also reduce the possible serious complications and medical costs. In this study, an intelligent CRC screening app on Android™ (Google™, Mountain View, CA) smartphones has been developed based on a data mining approach using decision tree algorithms. For comparison, the stepwise backward multivariate logistic regression model and the fecal occult blood test were also used. Compared with the stepwise backward multivariate logistic regression model and the fecal occult blood test, the proposed app system not only provides an easy and efficient way to quickly detect high-risk groups of potential CRC patients, but also brings more information about CRC to customer-oriented services. We developed and implemented an app system on Android platforms for ubiquitous healthcare services for CRC screening. It can assist people in achieving early screening, diagnosis, and treatment purposes, prevent the occurrence of complications, and thus reach the goal of preventive medicine.

  1. Results from the Dutch speech-in-noise screening test by telephone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, C.H.M.; Houtgast, T.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to implement a previously developed automatic speech-in-noise screening test by telephone (Smits, Kapteyn, & Houtgast, 2004), introduce it nationwide as a self-test, and analyze the results. Design: The test was implemented on an interactive voice response

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF A RISK SCREENING METHOD FOR CREDITED OPERATOR ACTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HIGGINS, J.C.; O'HARA, J.M.; LEWIS, P.M.; PERSENSKY, J.; BONGARRA, J.

    2002-01-01

    DEVELOPMENT OF A RISK SCREENING METHOD FOR CREDITED OPERATOR ACTIONS. THE U.S. NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (NRC) REVIEWS THE HUMAN FACTORS ASPECTS OF PROPOSED LICENSE AMENDMENTS THAT IMPACT HUMAN ACTIONS THAT ARE CREDITED IN A PLANTS SAFETY ANALYSIS. THE STAFF IS COMMITTED TO A GRADED APPROACH TO THESE REVIEWS THAT FOCUS RESOURCES ON THE MOST RISK IMPORTANT CHANGES. THEREFORE, A RISK INFORMED SCREENING METHOD WAS DEVELOPED BASED ON AN ADAPTATION OF EXISTING GUIDANCE FOR RISK INFORMED REGULATION AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE METHOD USES BOTH QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE INFORMATION TO DIVIDE THE AMENDMENT REQUESTS INTO DIFFERENT LEVELS OF REVIEW. THE METHOD WAS EVALUATED USING A VARIETY OF TESTS. THIS PAPER WILL SUMMARIZE THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE METHODOLOGY AND THE EVALUATIONS THAT WERE PERFORMED TO VERIFY ITS USEFULNESS

  3. Personalized prostate cancer screening: improving PSA tests with genomic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, John S

    2010-12-15

    The use of a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test to screen for prostate cancer is controversial because of its modest predictive value and the potential overdiagnosis and over-treatment of the disease. A research article in this issue of Science Translational Medicine describes single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near six genes that are independently associated with serum PSA concentrations and that help to explain interindividual PSA variation. Three of these SNPs are also associated with prostate biopsy outcomes. These findings are an important step toward incorporating genetic markers into PSA screening, with the ultimate goal of devising personalized PSA tests for use in the clinic.

  4. Human papillomavirus testing and genotyping in cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Lynge, Elsebeth; Bonde, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Mass vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes 16 and 18 will, in the long term, reduce the incidence of cervical cancer, but screening will remain an important cancer control measure in both vaccinated and unvaccinated women. Since the 1960s, cytology screening has helped to reduce...... the incidence of cervical cancer, but has a low sensitivity for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and requires frequent testing. Several HPV tests have become available commercially. They appear to be more sensitive for high-grade CIN, and may further reduce the incidence of cervical cancer...

  5. Revaluation of the film test as a screening test for' Eurytrema sp infection in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Pacífico Antonio Diniz Belém; Mauro Rodrigues de Oliveira; Carlos Roberto Padovani

    1992-01-01

    Film test was performed in fecal samples of Eurytrema sp infected and non infected cattle but both groups showed similar results. So, it was concluded that film test is an unreliable one for screening Eurytrema sp infection in cattle.

  6. Integrated Multianalyte Second-Tier Testing for Newborn Screening for MSUD, IVA, and GAMT Deficiencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham B. Sinclair PhD, FCCMG

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Advances in mass spectrometry have allowed for expansion of newborn screening test panels over the last decade but with increased numbers of disorders have come increased concerns with false-positive rates. The introduction of second-tier testing has improved the specificity of screening for a number of disorders without any corresponding sacrifice in sensitivity. Such testing does, however, put pressure on scarce laboratory resources including instrument and personnel time and even the bloodspot sample itself. The British Columbia Newborn Screening Program has developed an integrated second-tier screening approach to improve test performance without the requirement to resample and reprocess the original bloodspot specimen. By utilizing the residual extract from the first-tier assay and introducing a chromatography step as the second tier, we have been able to reduce false-positive rates due to interfering isobaric compounds for 3 different disorders (maple syrup urine disease, isovaleric aciduria, and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase in a single multianalyte assay.

  7. Interpretation of Errors Made by Mandarin-Speaking Children on the Preschool Language Scales--5th Edition Screening Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yonggang; Rattanasone, Nan Xu; Wyver, Shirley; Hinton, Amber; Demuth, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    We investigated typical errors made by Mandarin-speaking children when measured by the Preschool Language Scales-fifth edition, Screening Test (PLS-5 Screening Test). The intention was to provide preliminary data for the development of a guideline for early childhood educators and psychologists who use the test with Mandarin-speaking children.…

  8. Tuberculosis Screening and Targeted Testing of College and University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of American College Health, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Screening and targeted testing for tuberculosis (TB) is a key strategy for controlling and preventing infection on college and university campuses. Early detection provides an opportunity to promote the health of affected individuals through prompt diagnosis and treatment while preventing potential spread to others. Implementation of a screening…

  9. Embryotoxicity of Mirtazapine: a study using Chick Embryotoxicity Screening Test

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maňáková, E.; Hubičková, L.; Košťálová, J.; Zemanová, Zdeňka

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 31, Suppl.2 (2010), s. 8-10 ISSN 0172-780X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : embryo toxicity * screening test * mirtazapine Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.621, year: 2010

  10. Assessment of the Diagnostic Potential of Clinotech TB Screen Test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Clinotech TB Screen test, a 3rd generation multi-antigen rapid chromatographic immunoassay for detection of IgG antibodies in serum against recombinant protein antigens 38kDa, 16kDa and 6kDa, was assessed for its diagnostic potential for diagnosis of active pulmonary TB in routine TB control programme in Abia ...

  11. 21 CFR 866.2420 - Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxidase screening test for gonorrhea. 866.2420 Section 866.2420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2420 Oxidase...

  12. Screening for gestational diabetes: examining a breakfast meal test

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as part of a screening test for gestational diabetes. Design: A prospective descriptive design was utilised. ... using a calibrated (one gram) kitchen scale. Estimations of portion size were used for food brought .... twists (50 g) using a crossover design, first in non-pregnant and then pregnant subjects. They found the candy ...

  13. A population screening test for antibody to measles virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, M.G.

    1981-01-01

    In areas where sporadic cases of measles continue to occur in spite of vaccination programs, the availability of a simple screening test for determination of seropositivity to measles virus is desirable. A sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) screening test (ST) for the detection of IgG antibody to measles virus, based on a solid phase RIA, is described. The assays were performed on polyvinyl microtiter plates for which the RIAST requires only 5 μl of serum per subject. Antigen consisted of a sonicated extract of measles virus-infected Vero cells. Rabbit antihuman IgG specific for the Fc-segment of human IgG, labelled with 125 I, was used to detect human IgG bound to viral antigen. The basic RIA method was characterized by carrying out full titrations of sera of 53 healthy adults, 10 children, and 13 patients with measles-associated illness. These sera were also tested by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) technique; most of the measles sera were also tested by complement fixation (CF). RIAST results (expressed as binding ratios) obtained for 52 healthy adults are compared with their RIA serum titers. Of the 200 sera of patients of various ages tested by the RIAST, 63 borderline sera were also tested by HI. The RIAST, which does not require serum treatment other than inactivation, proved to be more sensitive as an indicator of seropositivity than HI. Implications of the results and practical applications of the screening test are discussed. (author)

  14. Introduction of cytogenetic tests in colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suceveanu, Andra Iulia; Suceveanu, Adrian; Voinea, Florea; Mazilu, Laura; Mixici, Francisc; Adam, Tatiana

    2009-03-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM. The existing tests practiced on a large scale in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening do not fully accomplish the goal of best specificity and sensitivity or either an optimal cost/efficiency ratio. We aimed to analyze genetic mutations diagnosed in the DNA of exfoliated cells in the stool of the patients diagnosed with CRC through screening. We also aimed to demonstrate the similarity between the detected mutations in tumor samples and in exfoliated cells in the stool in order to prove the reliability of these cytogenetic tests, so that they could be introduced in CRC screening program. METHODS. We studied 200 patients diagnosed with CRC from whom we prelevated biopsy and stool samples. Samples were submitted to genetic analysis through denaturing gradient polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis method, and through polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis method for the heteroduplex analysis. Analyzed genes were APC, COL11A1, MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6. The chromosomal study was carried out using the PRINS technique. RESULTS. We discovered mutations in the APC gene (exons 4, 9, 13, and 15c) and COL11A1 gene (exon 54). Our chromosomal study detected instability of chromosomes 1, 7, 9, 20, and in 10 achrocentric chromosomes. CONCLUSIONS. Our results plead for the implementation of proposed cytogenetic tests in CRC screening programs.

  15. Evaluation of the screening test results before marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Durmaz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C viruses and Treponema pallidum are parenterally and sexually transmitted infection agents. Screening test is made before marriage to pre-marital couples legally under the relevant legislation and legal procedures in our country; applicants are evaluated in terms of sexually transmitted diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate pre-marital test results for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV I/II and Treponema pallidum.Materials and methods: To make screening test before marriage, randomized 117 patients who were applied to Kızıltepe General Hospital of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, were included in this study between January 2011 and March 2011. Of these patients, 64 were women (average age 24.7±5.7, and 55 were males (mean age 24.7±4.7. HBsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HIV I/II tests of the patients were studied by macro-ELISA device (ECIQ Vitros, Ortho Clinical Diagnostics, USA, screening of anti-Treponema pallidum IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies were studied by immunochromatographic rapid test (syphilis syphilis 3.0, Standard Diagnostics, inc. Korea.Results: Of the 119 patients, five patients (4.2% were positive for HBsAg (3 male and 2 female. Anti-HCV, anti-HIV I/II and anti-Treponema pallidum antibodies were negative in all patients.Conclusion: HBsAg test result which was obtained in present study has been found consistent with HBsAg positivity rate in our region. As a result of screening test that was done before marriage will continue to believe that the increased importance of the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2 (3: 292-294.

  16. Validation of a telephone screening test for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camozzato, Ana Luiza; Kochhann, Renata; Godinho, Claudia; Costa, Amanda; Chaves, Marcia L

    2011-03-01

    Financial constraints, mobility issues, medical conditions, crime in local areas can make cognitive assessment difficult for elders and telephone interviews can be a good alternative. This study was carried out to evaluate the reliability, validity and clinical utility of a Brazilian telephone version of the Mini Mental State Examination (Braztel-MMSE) in a community sample of healthy elderly participants and AD patients. The MMSE and the Braztel-MMSE were applied to 66 AD patients and 67 healthy elderly participants. The test-retest reliability was strong and significant (r = .92, p = .01), and the correlation between the Braztel-MMSE and the MMSE were significant (p = .01) and strong (r = .92). The general screening ability of the Braztel-MMSE was high (AUC = 0.982; CI95% = 0.964-1.001). This telephone version can therefore be used as a screening measure for dementia in older adults that need neuropsychological screening and cannot present for an evaluation.

  17. Validity of Forced Eyelid Closure Test: A Novel Clinical Screening Test for Ocular Myasthenia Gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apinyawasisuk, Supanut; Zhou, Xinkai; Tian, Jack J; Garcia, Giancarlo A; Karanjia, Rustum; Sadun, Alfredo A

    2017-09-01

    Forced eyelid closure test (FECT) is a clinical screening test developed from the original Cogan lid twitch (CLT) sign to assist in the diagnosis of ocular myasthenia gravis (OMG), We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of FECT compared with CLT and benchmarked to standard diagnostic tests. This study was a retrospective chart review of 48 patients using electronic medical records of those that presented with ptosis and/or diplopia at Doheny Eye Institute, University of California, Los Angeles between February 2015 and April 2016. Patients without FECT testing were excluded. FECT and CLT results, and final diagnosis were recorded. To perform FECT, the patient was asked to squeeze his or her eyelids shut for 5-10 seconds then open quickly and fixate in primary position. The excessive upward overshoot of eyelids movement indicated a positive FECT. The test was performed by a neuro-ophthalmologist before establishing the diagnosis. Patients who had equivocal test results and/or inconclusive final diagnosis were excluded. Of the 48 patients studied, 18 patients (37.5%) had positive FECT; 15 of whom had a final diagnosis of OMG (83.3%). Of the 30 patients with negative FECT, 1 had OMG (3.3%). Of the 48 patients, 35 patients also had a documented CLT result (72.9%). CLT was positive in 11 of these 35 patients (31.4%), and 9 of these 11 had OMG (81.8%). Of the 24 patients with negative CLT, 2 of them had OMG (8.3%). Sensitivity and specificity of FECT were 94% and 91% (joint 95% confidence region: sensitivity × specificity = [0.70, 1] × [0.75, 1]). The relative true-positive fraction (rTPF) between FECT and CLT was 1.15; the relative false-positive fraction was 1.31. FECT is a simple clinical screening test with good sensitivity and specificity for OMG.

  18. Tandem walking as a quick screening test for vestibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Helen S; Stitz, Jasmine; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Williams, Susan P; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P; Peters, Brian T; Bloomberg, Jacob J

    2017-12-11

    Although many screening tests of balance are available, few of them have been well validated for clinical or research uses. The goal of this study was to test an updated version of an old test, Tandem Walking, to determine how useful it is for screening patients with vestibular disorders. Case-control study. Subjects were 90 adult patients with vestibular disorders and 292 healthy adult controls. They were tested on the number of correct tandem steps they could perform with arms crossed and eyes closed in a series of 10 steps. Correct steps could be nonconsecutive. Subjects were given one practice trial with eyes open and three experimental trials with eyes closed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC), and sensitivity and specificity were calculated. ROC values, sensitivity, and specificity were, at best, only moderate, no matter how the age range was cut. Even for subjects in the age group with the highest ROC value (i.e., age less than 50 years), ROC = 0.8, sensitivity = 0.77, and specificity = 0.72. These results indicate that 23% of patients will not be identified. Therefore, we recommend that if this test is used for screening patients in the clinic or healthy volunteers, the result should be interpreted with care. 3b Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. Development of nondestructive test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.P.; You, K.G.; Kwak, K.J.; Jeong, Y.M.

    1980-01-01

    Defect sizing experiment was carried out by using the satellite pulse technique with ultrasonic method. The mode-changed pulses which come from both ends of the artificial flaws in the fabricated sample have been measured on the screen of cathod ray tube with both video mode and radio-frequency mode. The measured values of the flows deviate from the real values less than 10%. (author)

  20. Improving newborn screening laboratory test ordering and result reporting using health information exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Stephen M; van Dyck, Peter C; Rinaldo, Piero; McDonald, Clement; Howell, R Rodrey; Zuckerman, Alan; Downing, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Capture, coding and communication of newborn screening (NBS) information represent a challenge for public health laboratories, health departments, hospitals, and ambulatory care practices. An increasing number of conditions targeted for screening and the complexity of interpretation contribute to a growing need for integrated information-management strategies. This makes NBS an important test of tools and architecture for electronic health information exchange (HIE) in this convergence of individual patient care and population health activities. For this reason, the American Health Information Community undertook three tasks described in this paper. First, a newborn screening use case was established to facilitate standards harmonization for common terminology and interoperability specifications guiding HIE. Second, newborn screening coding and terminology were developed for integration into electronic HIE activities. Finally, clarification of privacy, security, and clinical laboratory regulatory requirements governing information exchange was provided, serving as a framework to establish pathways for improving screening program timeliness, effectiveness, and efficiency of quality patient care services.

  1. Non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy and beyond: challenges of responsible innovation in prenatal screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido; Bombard, Yvonne; Bianchi, Diana W; Bergmann, Carsten; Borry, Pascal; Chitty, Lyn S; Fellmann, Florence; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Henneman, Lidewij; Howard, Heidi C; Lucassen, Anneke; Ormond, Kelly; Peterlin, Borut; Radojkovic, Dragica; Rogowski, Wolf; Soller, Maria; Tibben, Aad; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; van El, Carla G; Cornel, Martina C

    2015-01-01

    This paper contains a joint ESHG/ASHG position document with recommendations regarding responsible innovation in prenatal screening with non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). By virtue of its greater accuracy and safety with respect to prenatal screening for common autosomal aneuploidies, NIPT has the potential of helping the practice better achieve its aim of facilitating autonomous reproductive choices, provided that balanced pretest information and non-directive counseling are available as part of the screening offer. Depending on the health-care setting, different scenarios for NIPT-based screening for common autosomal aneuploidies are possible. The trade-offs involved in these scenarios should be assessed in light of the aim of screening, the balance of benefits and burdens for pregnant women and their partners and considerations of cost-effectiveness and justice. With improving screening technologies and decreasing costs of sequencing and analysis, it will become possible in the near future to significantly expand the scope of prenatal screening beyond common autosomal aneuploidies. Commercial providers have already begun expanding their tests to include sex-chromosomal abnormalities and microdeletions. However, multiple false positives may undermine the main achievement of NIPT in the context of prenatal screening: the significant reduction of the invasive testing rate. This document argues for a cautious expansion of the scope of prenatal screening to serious congenital and childhood disorders, only following sound validation studies and a comprehensive evaluation of all relevant aspects. A further core message of this document is that in countries where prenatal screening is offered as a public health programme, governments and public health authorities should adopt an active role to ensure the responsible innovation of prenatal screening on the basis of ethical principles. Crucial elements are the quality of the screening process as a whole (including non

  2. Non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy and beyond: challenges of responsible innovation in prenatal screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido; Bombard, Yvonne; Bianchi, Diana W; Bergmann, Carsten; Borry, Pascal; Chitty, Lyn S; Fellmann, Florence; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Henneman, Lidewij; Howard, Heidi C; Lucassen, Anneke; Ormond, Kelly; Peterlin, Borut; Radojkovic, Dragica; Rogowski, Wolf; Soller, Maria; Tibben, Aad; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; van El, Carla G; Cornel, Martina C

    2015-11-01

    This paper contains a joint ESHG/ASHG position document with recommendations regarding responsible innovation in prenatal screening with non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). By virtue of its greater accuracy and safety with respect to prenatal screening for common autosomal aneuploidies, NIPT has the potential of helping the practice better achieve its aim of facilitating autonomous reproductive choices, provided that balanced pretest information and non-directive counseling are available as part of the screening offer. Depending on the health-care setting, different scenarios for NIPT-based screening for common autosomal aneuploidies are possible. The trade-offs involved in these scenarios should be assessed in light of the aim of screening, the balance of benefits and burdens for pregnant women and their partners and considerations of cost-effectiveness and justice. With improving screening technologies and decreasing costs of sequencing and analysis, it will become possible in the near future to significantly expand the scope of prenatal screening beyond common autosomal aneuploidies. Commercial providers have already begun expanding their tests to include sex-chromosomal abnormalities and microdeletions. However, multiple false positives may undermine the main achievement of NIPT in the context of prenatal screening: the significant reduction of the invasive testing rate. This document argues for a cautious expansion of the scope of prenatal screening to serious congenital and childhood disorders, only following sound validation studies and a comprehensive evaluation of all relevant aspects. A further core message of this document is that in countries where prenatal screening is offered as a public health programme, governments and public health authorities should adopt an active role to ensure the responsible innovation of prenatal screening on the basis of ethical principles. Crucial elements are the quality of the screening process as a whole (including non

  3. Factors influencing women's acceptance of prenatal screening tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, De-Kun; Karlberg, Kristen; Wi, Soora; Norem, Carol

    2008-12-01

    To determine the factors influencing a woman's acceptance of the expanded alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) test. A population-based case-control study. All women (age < 35) who declined the expanded AFP test were identified as eligible cases. Controls were randomly selected from all women (age < 35) who accepted the test. We interviewed 199 cases and 229 controls before 30 weeks of gestation. While 47% of cases reported opposition to abortion as one of their reasons for declining the test (Group A), the remaining 53% of cases had a variety of other reasons for declining (Group B). After controlling for potential confounders, factors significantly associated with declining the test included: skepticism of the usefulness of the test results (odds ratio (OR) = 33.0), influence from family members (OR = 11.4), low educational level (OR = 7.1), willingness to keep a malformed fetus (OR = 6.2), failure to use providers as useful sources of information (OR = 5.0), and misunderstanding of the purpose of the test (OR = 2.0). Polytomous logistic regression revealed that Groups A and B had different determining factors as well as common factors. While many influential factors for participating in prenatal screening remain unmodifiable, some of them may be addressed to improve women's acceptance of prenatal screening tests. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Screening for Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis with MOCA Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Aksoy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Cognitive dysfunction is currently recognized as a significant cause of disability in multiple sclerosis (MS. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA is screening device used to evaluate executive functions, visuo-spatial abilities, language, attention, and concentration, abstract thinking, memory, and orientation domain. The aim of this study is to compare cognitive functions of MS patients with age-matched controls using MOCA test. METHODS: Thirty nine subjects with a diagnosis of relapsing-remitting MS according to the 2010 revised McDonald criteria and 20 healthy volunteer controls participated in this study. Patients and controls underwent Turkish version of MOCA test. Total and subgroup scores were compared. RESULTS: Total MOCA score in MS patients and controls were 21,74±4,48 and 26,9±2,53 respectively. Total MOCA score of MS patients was significantly lower than controls. Significant deterioration was also found in language, attention, memory and executive functions domain. Disease duration and expanded disability status scale (EDSS did not differ in patients with and without cognitive deficits. CONCLUSION: Patients with MS showed deterioration in language, attention, working and long term-memory and executive functions compared to controls. MOCA is a simple, stand-alone cognitive screening test with superior sensitivity. Our findings suggest that the MOCA test may be useful for screening cognitive impairment in MS patients early in the disease course

  5. Risk-benefit analysis for mass screening of breast cancer utilizing mammography as a screening test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iinuma, T.A.; Tateno, Yukio

    1989-01-01

    Incidence of breast cancers in Japanese women is increasing steadily. Mass screening of breast cancer was started in Japan under auspices of Adult Health Promotion Act of the Japanese Government from 1987. As the first screening method, the palpation of breasts is employed at present, but it is expected to be replaced by the mammography. In this report, the risk-benefit analysis is presented between risk of breast carcinogenesis due to radiation and benefit of mass screening of breast cancer. The benefit of mass screening is taken as the net elongation of average life expectancy of women due to survival from breast cancers. The risk of mammography is taken as the net loss of average life expectancy of women due to breast carcinogenesis. In the latter, the latency time and plateau period of radiation carcinogenesis were taken into consideration in the calculation. The results show that the ages at which the benefit and risk become equal are between 30 and 35 years old when dose equivalent of mammography is between 10 and 20 mSv, that are conventionally used. However, the critical age will be reduced to 20 years old if the dose equivalent becomes 1 mSv. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that a low dose mammographic system should be developed in order to achieve 1 mSv for the mass screening of breast cancer of Japanese women. In author's opinion, this is quite feasible by employing a new digital radiography with imaging plate. (author)

  6. Historical and Theoretical Study of the Use of the Montessori Cylinder Block as a Screening Test Instrument for Developmental Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    我妻, 則明; AZUMA, Noriaki

    1994-01-01

    Studies investigating mental development screening tests and the Montessori cylinderblock were described. The theoretical possibility was discussed for the use of theMontessori cylinder block B type as a mental development screening test instrument.It was a theoretically unique idea to use the Montessori cylinder block B type as ascreening test instrument in measuring the child's mental development. As a result ofresearching previous studies, not only in Japan but also in other countries, the...

  7. Police corruption and psychological testing: a strategy for preemployment screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigo, Bruce A; Claussen, Natalie

    2003-06-01

    The prediction, control, and prevention of police corruption represent pervasive and enduring problems. Researchers have suggested that intervention at the preemployment screening stage may be the best solution. However, investigators have acknowledged that existing assessment practices are flawed. This article proposes a strategy for the preemployment screening of law enforcement personnel. In particular, it examines the utility of the Inwald Personality Inventory and the Revised-NEO Personality Inventory in relation to assessing antisocial behavioral tendencies and conscientious personality traits, respectively, and argues that their combined use, appropriately administered in a testing situation, represents a reliable and valid predictor of good job performance. The article speculatively comments on this strategy for purposes of psychological testing, future research in the field, and law enforcement administration practices.

  8. Optimisation and assessment of three modern touch screen tablet computers for clinical vision testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humza J Tahir

    Full Text Available Technological advances have led to the development of powerful yet portable tablet computers whose touch-screen resolutions now permit the presentation of targets small enough to test the limits of normal visual acuity. Such devices have become ubiquitous in daily life and are moving into the clinical space. However, in order to produce clinically valid tests, it is important to identify the limits imposed by the screen characteristics, such as resolution, brightness uniformity, contrast linearity and the effect of viewing angle. Previously we have conducted such tests on the iPad 3. Here we extend our investigations to 2 other devices and outline a protocol for calibrating such screens, using standardised methods to measure the gamma function, warm up time, screen uniformity and the effects of viewing angle and screen reflections. We demonstrate that all three devices manifest typical gamma functions for voltage and luminance with warm up times of approximately 15 minutes. However, there were differences in homogeneity and reflectance among the displays. We suggest practical means to optimise quality of display for vision testing including screen calibration.

  9. Optimisation and assessment of three modern touch screen tablet computers for clinical vision testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Humza J; Murray, Ian J; Parry, Neil R A; Aslam, Tariq M

    2014-01-01

    Technological advances have led to the development of powerful yet portable tablet computers whose touch-screen resolutions now permit the presentation of targets small enough to test the limits of normal visual acuity. Such devices have become ubiquitous in daily life and are moving into the clinical space. However, in order to produce clinically valid tests, it is important to identify the limits imposed by the screen characteristics, such as resolution, brightness uniformity, contrast linearity and the effect of viewing angle. Previously we have conducted such tests on the iPad 3. Here we extend our investigations to 2 other devices and outline a protocol for calibrating such screens, using standardised methods to measure the gamma function, warm up time, screen uniformity and the effects of viewing angle and screen reflections. We demonstrate that all three devices manifest typical gamma functions for voltage and luminance with warm up times of approximately 15 minutes. However, there were differences in homogeneity and reflectance among the displays. We suggest practical means to optimise quality of display for vision testing including screen calibration.

  10. The clinical utility of HPV DNA testing in cervical cancer screening strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatla, Neerja; Moda, Nidhi

    2009-09-01

    Cervical cancer continues to be the commonest cause of death among women in developing countries, largely due to the failure to the inability to sustain effective cytology-based screening programs. While this burden may come down following implementation of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, screening will still be required. HPV DNA testing is a promising new technology for cervical cancer prevention and is the most reproducible of all cervical cancer screening tests. Presently, the two assays most widely used for the detection of genital types are the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Hybrid Capture 2 assays (hc2). Rapid, affordable tests are expected to be available soon. HPV DNA testing can be used in a variety of clinical scenarios that include primary screening in women older than 30 yr; as an adjunctive test to cytology; in the triage of women with an equivocal cytologic report, e.g., ASC-US; or for follow-up post-treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). HPV DNA testing can also be performed on self-collected samples, which allows screening in remote areas and also in women who refuse gynecologic examination.

  11. 49 CFR 40.241 - What are the first steps in any alcohol screening test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Screening Tests § 40.241 What are the first steps in any alcohol screening test? As the BAT or STT you will take the following steps to begin all alcohol screening tests, regardless of the type of testing device you are using: (a) When a specific time...

  12. Screening for tuberculosis and testing for human immunodeficiency virus in Zambian prisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggard, Katie R; Hatwiinda, Sisa; Harris, Jennifer B; Phiri, Winifreda; Krüüner, Annika; Kaunda, Kaunda; Topp, Stephanie M; Kapata, Nathan; Ayles, Helen; Chileshe, Chisela; Henostroza, German

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To improve the Zambia Prisons Service’s implementation of tuberculosis screening and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing. Methods For both tuberculosis and HIV, we implemented mass screening of inmates and community-based screening of those residing in encampments adjacent to prisons. We also established routine systems – with inmates as peer educators – for the screening of newly entered or symptomatic inmates. We improved infection control measures, increased diagnostic capacity and promoted awareness of tuberculosis in Zambia’s prisons. Findings In a period of 9 months, we screened 7638 individuals and diagnosed 409 new patients with tuberculosis. We tested 4879 individuals for HIV and diagnosed 564 cases of infection. An additional 625 individuals had previously been found to be HIV-positive. Including those already on tuberculosis treatment at the time of screening, the prevalence of tuberculosis recorded in the prisons and adjacent encampments – 6.4% (6428/100 000) – is 18 times the national prevalence estimate of 0.35%. Overall, 22.9% of the inmates and 13.8% of the encampment residents were HIV-positive. Conclusion Both tuberculosis and HIV infection are common within Zambian prisons. We enhanced tuberculosis screening and improved the detection of tuberculosis and HIV in this setting. Our observations should be useful in the development of prison-based programmes for tuberculosis and HIV elsewhere. PMID:25883402

  13. A Method for Universal Screening of Elementary School Students: Development of the Social Challenges Screening Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher J.; Pollard, Elena; Stein, Alexander J.; Ober-Reynolds, Sharman; Kirwan, Janet; Malligo, Amanda; Matthews, Nicole L.; Openden, Daniel; Melmed, Raun D.

    2015-01-01

    Schools regularly screen students for hearing and vision impairments because they present impediments to academic progress. For the same reason, schools should consider adding a universal screening for social challenges, which may also impede the learning process. This study reports on the development of the Social Challenges Screening…

  14. Cervical Cancer Screening for the Reluctant - HPV Testing of Air-Dried Vaginal Discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Tommy R.; Yau, Rae Wai-nang; Chan, Olivia Wai-hing; Yu, Vivian; Lo, Joyce Wing-sze; Chow, Tat-chong; Chan, Billy Wai-hon; Lee, Kam-cheong

    2006-01-01

    Despite the availability of the PAP test, cervical cancer continues to cause considerable morbidity and mortality. Many women default cervical cytology for a variety of reasons. This demands the development of alternative screening strategies, such as HPV testing on self-procured cervical-vaginal specimens in order to capture this group of women. We investigated the self-procured air-dried vaginal discharge for HPV testing. We recruited 82 patients with HPV-associated cervical lesions and 36 ...

  15. [Fool's gold standards in language screening. Sensitivity and specificity of the Hessian child language screening test (Kindersprachscreening, KiSS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, K; Holler-Zittlau, I; van Minnen, S; Sick, U; Zaretsky, Y; Euler, H A

    2011-01-01

    The German Kindersprachscreening (KiSS) is a universal speech and language screening test for large-scale identification of Hessian kindergarten children requiring special educational language training or clinical speech/language therapy. To calculate the procedural screening validity, 257 children (aged 4.0 to 4.5 years) were tested using KiSS and four language tests (Reynell Development Language Scales III, Patholinguistische Diagnostik, PLAKSS, AWST-R). The majority or consensus judgements of three speech-language professionals, based on the language test results, served as a reference criterion. The base (fail) rates of the professionals were either self-determined or preset based on known prevalence rates. Screening validity was higher for preset than for self-determined base rates due to higher inter-judge agreement. The confusion matrices of the overall index classification of the KiSS (speech-language abnormalities with educational or clinical needs) with the fixed base rate expert judgement about language impairment, including fluency or voice disorders, yielded a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 78%, for just language impairment 84% and 75%, respectively. Specificities for disorders requiring clinical diagnostics in the KiSS (language impairment alone or combined with fluency/voice disorders) related to the test-based consensus expert judgment was about 93%. Sensitivities were unsatisfactory because the differentiation between educational and clinical needs requires improvement. Since the judgement concordances between the speech-language professionals was only moderate, the development of a comprehensive German reference test for speech and language disorders with evidence-based algorithmic decision rules rather than subjective clinical judgement is advocated.

  16. The validity of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, H; Nielsen, S D; Gluud, C

    1994-01-01

    This review examines the validity of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) as a screening instrument for alcohol problems. Studies that compare the MAST-questionnaire with other defined diagnostic criteria of alcohol problems were retrieved through MEDLINE and a cross-bibliographic check....... A total of 20 validity studies were included. The studies varied considerably regarding the prevalence of alcohol problems, the diagnostic criteria, and the examined patient categories. The MAST compared with other diagnostic criteria of alcohol problems gave validity measures with the following span...... and the specificities show substantial variations. The variables that seem to have the largest influence on the PVpos seem to be the prevalence of alcohol problems, the diagnostic method against which the MAST-questionnaire is validated, and the populations on which the MAST is applied. The MAST should in the future...

  17. Laboratory breeding and testing of Australorbis glabratus for molluscicidal screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopf, H. S.; Muller, R. L.

    1962-01-01

    The authors describe a technique for laboratory breeding of Australorbis glabratus, the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni in South America. This technique is suitable for obtaining large numbers of snails in a small space with the minimum of maintenance time and under carefully controlled conditions. Techniques are also outlined for testing molluscicides against eggs and young snails as well as against adults. It is considered that, in view of the saving in breeding time and space effected, testing against young snails has several advantages for primary screening. With no compounds tested have anomalous results been obtained. Finally, the authors report on the results obtained with a new class of molluscicidal compounds—the organo-tins—which cause snail mortality in concentrations as low as those of any of the other molluscicides tested. PMID:13961665

  18. Standing balance tests for screening people with vestibular impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Helen S; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P; Peters, Brian T; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Bloomberg, Jacob J

    2014-02-01

    To improve the test standards for a version of the Romberg test and to determine whether measuring kinematic variables improved its utility for screening. Healthy controls and patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, postoperative acoustic neuroma resection, and chronic peripheral unilateral weakness were compared. Subjects wore Bluetooth-enabled inertial motion units while standing on the floor or medium-density, compliant foam, with eyes open or closed, with head still or moving in pitch or yaw. Dependent measures were time to perform each test condition, number of head movements made, and kinematic variables. Patients and controls did not differ significantly with eyes open or with eyes closed while on the floor. With eyes closed, on foam, some significant differences were found between patients and controls, especially for subjects older than 59 years. Head movement conditions were more challenging than with the head still. Significantly fewer patients than controls could make enough head movements to obtain kinematic measures. Kinematics indicated that lateral balance control is significantly reduced in these patients compared to controls. Receiver operator characteristics and sensitivity/specificity analyses showed moderately good differences with older subjects. Tests on foam with eyes closed, with head still or moving, may be useful as part of a screening battery for vestibular impairments, especially for older people. 3b. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. Fetal monitor for non-stress-test screening at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horio, H; Murakami, M; Chiba, Y; Inada, H

    1998-01-01

    A fetal monitoring device developed for non-stress-test (NST) screening at home works on battery power, and is so small and lightweight (152 x 120 x 64 mm, 600 g) that a pregnant woman can monitor fetal Doppler ultra-sound and record fetal heart rate (FHR) and uterine contraction (UC) data on an attached memory IC card at any time and in any place away from a hospital. The physician can evaluate these data, transmitted via public telephone lines, using a built-in modem in the monitor. The combination of the memory IC card as a temporary storage device with the intermittent data transmission to the host provides endless data storage. The input-output relationship of the device was quantitatively evaluated using a Doppler ultrasound heart rate simulator. Forty pregnant women participated in an evaluation of this system. The total number of NST data transmissions was 648, and the total amount of data received was more than 6.7 Mbytes. Of the 648 transmissions, 475 were adequate for clinical interpretation. Of the 101 failed NST data transmissions, 85 resulted from patient handling errors. However, 82.4% of these errors resulted in reexamination and transfer of new data by the patients, who were aware of the insufficiency of the original data. The main cause of the noise in the data was zero-count data; this noise rate accounted for 4.1% of the data abnormalities. A questionnaire survey found that 96% of the participants wanted to use the monitor again in their next pregnancies, and 83% would recommend its use to pregnant friends. The system was easily used and accepted by pregnant women, and the NST data obtained were sufficient for clinical interpretation.

  20. Analyzing slug tests in wells screened across the watertable: A field assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, K.L.; McElwee, C.D.

    2000-01-01

    The slug test is the most widely used technique for the in situ estimation of hydraulic conductivity in confined and unconfined formations. Currently, there are no generally accepted methods in the groundwater literature for the analysis of response data from slug tests performed in wells screened across the watertable. A field study was undertaken in an attempt to develop a set of practical guidelines for tests conducted in such wells. Three wells, screened within unconsolidated material exhibiting a range of hydraulic conductivities (.05-30.0 m/day), were installed to depths of up to 9 m (30 ft) in Kansas River alluvium that ranges in thickness from 15 m to 21 m (50 ft to 70 ft) near Lawrence, Kansas. Intensive well-development efforts removed any drilling debris that could interfere with well-formation hydraulics. Once the wells were developed properly, a series of slug tests was performed at each well. The tests were designed to assess the role of the unsaturated zone and the appropriateness of assuming a fixed hydraulic head upper boundary. The results of this investigation can be summarized as follows: (1) the sufficiency of well development should be based on repeat slug tests and not the clarity of pumped water; (2) the effective screen radius for best model analysis should be based on a mass balance and not nominal screen dimensions; (3) the watertable can be represented as a constant head boundary and flow in the unsaturated zone can be ignored in most situations; (4) conventional techniques for the analysis of slug-test data seem to be reasonable for slug tests conducted in wells screened across the watertable, when used with the appropriate effective screen radius and normalized head range; and (5) fluctuations in the watertable elevation through time can be exploited to obtain some insight into the nature of vertical variation in hydraulic conductivity at a well. The results of this investigation indicate that multiple slug tests should be performed at

  1. Revaluation of the film test as a screening test for' Eurytrema sp infection in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacífico Antonio Diniz Belém

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Film test was performed in fecal samples of Eurytrema sp infected and non infected cattle but both groups showed similar results. So, it was concluded that film test is an unreliable one for screening Eurytrema sp infection in cattle.

  2. The triple test as a screening technique for Down syndrome: reliability and relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Reynolds

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Tim ReynoldsClinical Chemistry Department, Queen’s Hospital, Burton-on-Trent, Staffordshire, UKAbstract: The triple test is a second trimester screening test used to identify those pregnant women who should be offered a diagnostic test to identify whether their fetus has an aneuploidy. It was first described in 1988, but has largely been superseded by newer tests either conducted earlier in the first trimester (ie, the combined test, using ultrasound measurement of nuchal translucency,pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, and human chorionic gonadotrophin [hCG] or in the second trimester (ie, the quadruple test, using α-fetoprotein, hCG, uE3, and inhibin. These newer tests have been introduced because they offer greater detection and lower screen positive results thereby enhancing diagnosis rates, while decreasing the risk of iatrogenic harm caused by the invasive testing required when collecting suitable sample tissue. Noninvasive alternatives to the triple test have been identified, but these have not been adopted despite 13 years of development. It is likely, therefore, that the triple test (or variants thereof will continue to be used in routine antenatal care for the foreseeable future.Keywords: pregnancy, screening test, antenatal, Down syndrome

  3. Development and implementation of guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening: The European experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence von Karsa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, as in many other regions of the world, breast cancer is a major cause of suffering and death. Early detection of breast cancer by systematic mammography screening can find lesions for which treatment is more effective and generally more favourable for quality of life. Comprehensive quality assurance guidelines for breast cancer screening based on mammography have been developed in the Europe Against Cancer programme with the aim of maximising screening benefits while minimising adverse effects, such as unnecessary examination or treatment resulting from false-positive screening tests. The present report provides an overview of the European experience in developing and implementing quality assurance guidelines for breast cancer screening. It highlights implications relevant to those regions of the world in which the burden of breast cancer in the coming years will make population-based screening an option for cancer control.

  4. Sequential testing in a high stakes OSCE: Determining number of screening tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Graeme P; Sivasubramaniam, Selvaraj; Cleland, Jennifer

    2016-07-01

    The sequential objective structured clinical exam (OSCE) is a stand-alone variation of the traditional OSCE whereby all students sit a screening test. Those who pass this initial assessment undergo no further testing while weakly performing students sit an additional (sequential) test to determine their overall pass/fail status. Our aim was to determine outcomes of adopting a sequential OSCE approach using different numbers of screening stations and pass marks. We carried out a retrospective, observational study of anonymised databases of two cohorts of student outcomes from the final OSCE examination at the University of Aberdeen Medical School. Data were accessed for students (n = 388) who sat the exam in the years 2013-2014. We used Stata simulate program to compare outcomes - in terms of sensitivity and specificity - across 5000 random selections of 6-14 OSCE stations using random selections of groups of 100 students (with different screening test pass marks) versus those obtained across 15 stations. Across 6-14 stations, the sensitivity was ≥87% in 2013 and ≥84% in 2014 while the specificity ranged from 60% to 100% in both years. Specificity generally increased as the number of screening stations increased (with concomitant narrowing of the 95% confidence interval), while sensitivity varied between 84 and 98%. Similar sensitivities and specificities were found with screening pass marks of +1, +2 and +3 standard errors of measurement (SEM). Eight stations as a screening test appeared to be a reasonable compromise in terms of high sensitivity (88-89%) and specificity (83-86%). This research extends current sequential OSCE literature using a novel and robust approach to identify the "ideal" in terms of number of screening stations and pass mark. We discuss the educational and resource implications of our findings and make recommendations for the use of the sequential OSCE in medical education.

  5. Research on testing instrument and method for correction of the uniformity of image intensifier fluorescence screen brightness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, YaFeng; Chang, BenKang; Qian, YunSheng; Fu, RongGuo

    2011-09-01

    To test the parameters of image intensifier screen is the precondition for researching and developing the third generation image intensifier. The picture of brightness uniformity of tested fluorescence screen shows bright in middle and dark at edge. It is not so direct to evaluate the performance of fluorescence screen. We analyze the energy and density distribution of the electrons, After correction, the image in computer is very uniform. So the uniformity of fluorescence screen brightness can be judged directly. It also shows the correction method is reasonable and close to ideal image. When the uniformity of image intensifier fluorescence screen brightness is corrected, the testing instrument is developed. In a vacuum environment of better than 1×10-4Pa, area source electron gun emits electrons. Going through the electric field to be accelerated, the high speed electrons bombard the screen and the screen luminize. By using testing equipment such as imaging luminance meter, fast storage photometer, optical power meter, current meter and photosensitive detectors, the screen brightness, the uniformity, light-emitting efficiency and afterglow can be tested respectively. System performance are explained. Testing method is established; Test results are given.

  6. Large shaft development test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, A.D.

    1984-03-01

    This test plan proposes the conduct of shaft liner tests as part of the large shaft development test proposed for the Hanford Site in support of the repository development program. The objectives of these tests are to develop techniques for measuring liner alignment (straightness), both construction assembly alignment and downhole cumulative alignment, and to assess the alignment information as a real time feedback to aid the installation procedure. The test plan is based upon installing a 16 foot ID shaft liner into a 20 foot diameter shaft to a depth of 1000 feet. This test plan is considered to be preliminary in that it was prepared as input for the decision to determine if development testing is required in this area. Should the decision be made to proceed with development testing, this test plan shall be updated and revised. 6 refs., 2 figs

  7. Development of TUA-WELLNESS screening tool for screening risk of mild cognitive impairment among community-dwelling older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanoh D

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Divya Vanoh,1 Suzana Shahar,1 Razali Rosdinom,2 Normah Che Din,3 Hanis Mastura Yahya,4 Azahadi Omar5 1Dietetic Programme, Centre of Healthcare Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Department of Psychiatry, University Kebangsaan Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 3Health Psychology Programme, 4Nutrition Programme, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 5Institute of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Background and aim: Focus on screening for cognitive impairment has to be given particular importance because of the rising older adult population. Thus, this study aimed to develop and assess a brief screening tool consisting of ten items that can be self-administered by community dwelling older adults (TUA-WELLNESS. Methodology: A total of 1,993 noninstitutionalized respondents aged 60 years and above were selected for this study. The dependent variable was mild cognitive impairment (MCI assessed using neuropsychological test batteries. The items for the screening tool comprised a wide range of factors that were chosen mainly from the analysis of ordinal logistic regression (OLR and based on past literature. A suitable cut-off point was developed using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results: A total of ten items were included in the screening tool. From the ten items, eight were found to be significant by ordinal logistic regression and the remaining two items were part of the tool because they showed strong association with cognitive impairment in previous studies. The area under curve (AUC, sensitivity, and specificity for cut-off 11 were 0.84%, 83.3%, and 73.4%, respectively. Conclusion: TUA-WELLNESS screening tool has been used to screen for major risk factors of MCI among Malaysian older adults. This tool is only suitable for basic MCI risk screening purpose and should not be used for diagnostic

  8. Rapid screening test for porphyria diagnosis using fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, A.; Stepp, H.; Homann, C.; Hennig, G.; Brittenham, G. M.; Vogeser, M.

    2015-07-01

    Porphyrias are rare genetic metabolic disorders, which result from deficiencies of enzymes in the heme biosynthesis pathway. Depending on the enzyme defect, different types of porphyrins and heme precursors accumulate for the different porphyria diseases in erythrocytes, liver, blood plasma, urine and stool. Patients with acute hepatic porphyrias can suffer from acute neuropathic attacks, which can lead to death when undiagnosed, but show only unspecific clinical symptoms such as abdominal pain. Therefore, in addition to chromatographic methods, a rapid screening test is required to allow for immediate identification and treatment of these patients. In this study, fluorescence spectroscopic measurements were conducted on blood plasma and phantom material, mimicking the composition of blood plasma of porphyria patients. Hydrochloric acid was used to differentiate the occurring porphyrins (uroporphyrin-III and coproporphyrin-III) spectroscopically despite their initially overlapping excitation spectra. Plasma phantom mixtures were measured using dual wavelength excitation and the corresponding concentrations of uroporphyrin-III and coproporphyrin-III were determined. Additionally, three plasma samples of porphyria patients were examined and traces of coproporphyrin-III and uroporphyrin-III were identified. This study may therefore help to establish a rapid screening test method with spectroscopic differentiation of the occurring porphyrins, which consequently allows for the distinction of different porphyrias. This may be a valuable tool for clinical porphyria diagnosis and rapid or immediate treatment.

  9. Investigation of the antimicrobial activity of soy peptides by developing a high throughput drug screening assay

    OpenAIRE

    Dhayakaran, Rekha; Neethirajan, Suresh; Weng, Xuan

    2016-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial resistance is a great concern in the medical community, as well as food industry. Soy peptides were tested against bacterial biofilms for their antimicrobial activity. A high throughput drug screening assay was developed using microfluidic technology, RAMAN spectroscopy, and optical microscopy for rapid screening of antimicrobials and rapid identification of pathogens. Methods Synthesized PGTAVFK and IKAFKEATKVDKVVVLWTA soy peptides were tested against Pseudomonas aer...

  10. Screening criteria: the need to deal with new developments and ethical issues in newborn metabolic screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, John; Coyle, Fiona; Levy-Fisch, Jill; Roberts, Pat; Terry, Sharon; Legge, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Newborn metabolic screening is the most widespread application of screening technology and provides the most comprehensive application of genetics in health services, where the Guthrie blood spot cards allow screening for metabolic diseases in close to 100 % of all newborn babies. Despite over 40 years of use and significant benefits to well in excess of 100,000 children worldwide, there is remarkably little consensus in what conditions should be screened for and response to new advances in medicine relating to programme expansion. In this article, the international criteria for newborn metabolic screening are considered, and we propose that these criteria are poorly developed in relation to the baby, its family and society as a whole. Additionally, the ethical issues that should inform the application of screening criteria are often not developed to a level where a consensus might easily be achieved. We also consider that when family interests are factored in to the decision-making process, they have a significant influence in determining the list of diseases in the panel, with countries or states incorporating family and societal values being the most responsive. Based on our analysis, we propose that decision criteria for metabolic screening in the newborn period should be adapted to specifically include parent and family interests, community values, patients' rights, duties of government and healthcare providers, and ethical arguments for action in the face of uncertainty.

  11. PROSTATE CANCER SCREENING: PSA TEST AWARENESS AMONG ADULT MALES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obana, Michael; O'Lawrence, Henry

    2015-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to determine whether visits to the doctor in the last 12 months, education level, and annual household income for adult males increased the awareness of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests. The effect of these factors for the knowledge of PSA exams was performed using statistical analysis. A retrospective secondary database was utilized for this study using the questionnaire in the California Health Interview Survey from 2009. Based on this survey, annual visits to the doctor, higher educational levels attained, and greater take-home pay were statistically significant and the results of the study were equivalent to those hypothesized. This also reflects the consideration of marketing PSA blood test screenings to those adult males who are poor, uneducated, and do not see the doctor on a consistent basis.

  12. Risk of breast cancer after false-positive test results in screening mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My Catarina; Risør, Louise Madeleine; Thorsted, Brian Larsen

    2012-01-01

    Screening for disease in healthy people inevitably leads to some false-positive tests in disease-free individuals. Normally, women with false-positive screening tests for breast cancer are referred back to routine screening. However, the long-term outcome for women with false-positive tests...

  13. 78 FR 13069 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Recommendations for Screening, Testing, and, Management of Blood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... of Blood Donors and Blood and Blood Components Based on Screening Tests for Syphilis; Availability... Management of Blood Donors and Blood and Blood Components Based on Screening Tests for Syphilis,'' dated... for Screening, Testing, and Management of Blood Donors and Blood and Blood Components Based on...

  14. Do negative screening test results cause false reassurance? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Grace C; Harvie, Michelle N; French, David P

    2017-11-01

    What is already known on this subject? It has been argued that screening for disease may cause 'false reassurance' whereby those who receive a negative screening test result wrongly interpret their result as indicating they are less likely to develop the disease in future. There is some evidence for false reassurance, but the relevant studies consider a range of diseases and possible indicators of false reassurance (i.e., risk perceptions, lifestyle behaviours, emotional outcomes, and quality of life). For these reasons, it is currently unclear that the extent to receive negative screening test results is likely to impact on participants' lifestyle behaviours, or other possible indicators of false reassurance. What does this study add? Current available evidence shows that negative screening test results are unlikely to cause false reassurance and, in particular, are unlikely to have a negative impact on lifestyle behaviours. Given the limitations of the current evidence base in terms of number of studies and study quality, future research should continue to explore this issue, where this can be done at low cost. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Pain on Functional Movement Screen Tests and Injury Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushman, Timothy T; Grier, Tyson L; Canham-Chervak, Michelle C; Anderson, Morgan K; North, William J; Jones, Bruce H

    2015-11-01

    The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is a tool intended to evaluate limitations or asymmetries of movement to detect individuals at risk for exercise- and sports-related injury. The purpose was to determine the association and predictive value of specific FMS tests with injury risk in physically active men. Soldiers aged 18-57 years completed the FMS (n = 2,476). Demographic and fitness data were collected by survey. Medical record data for any, overuse, and traumatic injury 6 months after the assessment were obtained. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value were calculated along with receiver operator characteristics to determine area under the curve (AUC). Risks, risk ratios, odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to assess injury risks. Multivariate logistic regression identified that pain on 5 of the 7 tests was associated with greater risk for any injury (OR = 1.50-3.51): deep squat, hurdle step, in-line lunge, trunk stability push-up, and rotary stability. However, FMS registered low sensitivity, PPV, and AUC for all 7 tests for the 3 injury types (2-24% sensitivity, 16-74% PPV, and 50-58% AUC). Although the presence of pain was associated with a higher risk of injury on 5 tests, a low sensitivity, PPV, and AUC were displayed. Therefore, caution is advised when implementing the FMS as a screening tool in an Army or similarly active population as it could lead to prevention and treatment resources being directed toward individuals who are not at greater risk for injury.

  16. Duplicate Type and Screen Testing: Waste in the Clinical Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Margaret L; Szklarski, Penny C; Booth, Garrett S

    2018-03-01

    - In the United States, approximately $65 billion dollars is spent per year on clinical laboratory testing, of which 20% to 30% of all testing is deemed inappropriate. There have been multiple studies in the field of transfusion medicine regarding evidence-based transfusion practices, but limited data exist regarding inappropriate pretransfusion testing and its financial and clinical implications. - To assess duplicative testing practices in the transfusion medicine service. - A 24-month retrospective review was performed at a 1025-bed tertiary care center, identifying all duplicate type and screen (TS) tests performed within 72 hours of the previous TS. Duplicative testing was classified as appropriate or inappropriate by predetermined criteria. The level of underordering was analyzed through a query of the electronic event reporting system. A cost analysis was performed to determine the financial impact of inappropriate duplicative TS. - The mean rate of inappropriate, duplicative TS orders was 4.13% (standard deviation ± 4.09%). Rates of inappropriate ordering ranged from 0.01% to 15.5% depending on the clinical service and did not correlate with volume of tests ordered. There were 8 reported cases of delayed blood delivery due to lack of a valid TS during the study period, demonstrating that underordering is also a harmful practice. The laboratory cost of inappropriate testing for the study period was $80,434, and phlebotomy costs were $45,469. - Our study demonstrates that inappropriate TS ordering is costly, both financially and clinically. By evaluating the percentage of inappropriate TS tests by clinical services, we have identified services that may benefit from additional education and technologic intervention.

  17. 50 Grams Oral Glucose Challenge Test: Is It an Effective Screening Test for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Heija, Adel; Al-Bash, Majeda; Ishrat, Noreen; Al-Kharausi, Lamya

    2016-10-01

    To find out whether 50 g oral glucose challenge test (OGCT) is an effective screening test for all pregnant women between 24 and 28 weeks gestation. A 50 g OGCT test was administered to 307 unselected women at 24-28 weeks of gestation. When venous plasma glucose (VPG) concentration after 1 h was >7.8 mmol/l, OGCT was positive. Women with a positive OGCT underwent 2 h 75 grams oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) as a confirmatory diagnosis of GDM. When fasting and 2 h post 75 g OGTT values were >5.5 mmol/I and >8 mmol/l, respectively, women were considered diabetic. We screened 307 women for GDM by OGCT. Total number of women with positive OGCT was 83 (27.03 %). In the low-risk group, total number of women with GDM was 9/168 (5.35 %) while the total number of women with GDM in the high-risk group was 14/139 (10.07 %). There was no significant difference with respect to the total number of women with GDM in the groups. A 50 g OGCT seems to be an effective screening test for both groups. More cases of GDM can be discovered when universal rather than risk-related screening is applied.

  18. Screening for Autistic Spectrum in Children Aged 14 to 15 Months. I: The Development of the Early Screening of Autistic Traits Questionnaire (ESAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinkels, Sophie H. N.; Dietz, Claudine; van Daalen, Emma; Kerkhof, Ine H. G. M.; van Engeland, Herman; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the development of a screening instrument for young children. Screening items were tested first in a non-selected population of children aged 8-20 months (n = 478). Then, parents of children with clinically diagnosed ASD (n = 153, average age 87 months) or ADHD (n = 76, average age 112 months) were asked to score the items…

  19. Nursing swallow screens: why is testing water only not enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Allison Loftiss; Hannibal, Ruth Renee

    2013-10-01

    The speech-language pathologist (SLP) standardized a Nursing Bedside Swallowing Screen (NBSS) tool for all patients admitted to the hospital. The adults engaged in the NBSS before oral intake (i.e., medication included) as part of the Brain Attack Pathway for patients with neurological symptoms. If the patient failed the NBSS in the emergency department (ED), then the screen was repeated again after the patient had been admitted before the SLP dysphagia evaluation. Fifty-three male and female patients ranging from 34 to 96 years old with an initial diagnosis of stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) admitted during an 8-week time period from April 25, 2010, to June 19, 2010, were included in this study. There were 32 women and 17 men including 27 strokes and 22 TIAs tested. As a whole, the NBSS and SLP dysphagia evaluation results were consistent with each other for 40 of 46 patients (86.96% perfect agreement). The NBSS had 74% of sensitivity (34 of 46) with the nursing and the speech pathologist in agreement with the patients passing the swallow screen. Accurate identification of aspiration with the patients failing the NBSS was evident with the nursing and speech pathology assessment, which resulted in 83% of sensitivity (10 of 12). The positive predictive value with the corresponding identification of aspiration with the staff was 96% (44 of 46). The naturalistic observation of the patients exhibited internal consistency reliability between the two disciplines. Extraneous variables affecting the results included spontaneous resolution of stroke or TIA symptoms or the patient's decline in neurological status. For more insights from the authors, see Supplemental Digital Content 1, at http://links.lww.com/JNN/A9.

  20. Screening for chromosomal abnormalities by first trimester combined screening and noninvasive prenatal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, K O; Hoopmann, M; Hammer, R; Stressig, R; Kozlowski, P

    2015-02-01

    To examine combined first trimester screening (FTS), noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) and a two-step policy that combines FTS and NIPT in screening for aneuploidy. Retrospective study involving 21,052 pregnancies where FTS was performed at the Praxis Praenatal.de in Duesseldorf, Germany. In each case, the sum risk of trisomy 21, 18 and 13 was computed. We assumed that NIPT detects 99 %, 98 %, 90 % and 99 % of cases with trisomy 21, 18, 13 and sex chromosomal abnormalities and that the false-positive rate is 0.5 %. The following screening policies were examined: NIPT or FTS with sum risk cut-offs of 1 in 50 and 1 in 250 in all patients or a two-step-policy with FTS in all patients followed by NIPT in the intermediate sum risk group. For the intermediate risk group, sum risk cut-offs of 1 in 50 and 1 in 1000 and 1 in 150 and 1 in 500 were used. There were 127, 34, 13 and 15 pregnancies with trisomy 21, 18, 13 and sex chromosomal abnormalities. 23 fetuses had other chromosomal abnormalities with an increased risk for adverse outcome that are not detectable by NIPT. 20,840 pregnancies were classified as normal as ante- and postnatal examinations did not show any signs of clinically significant chromosomal abnormalities. FTS with a sum risk cut-off of 1 in 50 and 1 in 250 detects 81 % and 91 % for all aneuploidies. NIPT detects 88 % of the respective pregnancies. The 2-step approach with sum risk cut-offs of 1 in 50 and 1 in 1000 detects 94 % of all aneuploidies. With sum risk cut-offs of 1 in 150 and 1 in 500, the detection rate is 93 %. A 2-step policy with FTS for all patients and NIPT in the intermediate risk group results in the highest detection rate of all aneuploidies. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening Study: near and distance visual acuity testing increase the diagnostic accuracy of screening for amblyopia

    OpenAIRE

    Bu?i?, Mladen; Bjelo?, Mirjana; Petrove?ki, Mladen; Kuzmanovi? Elabjer, Biljana; Bosnar, Damir; Rami?, Senad; Mileti?, Daliborka; Andrija?evi?, Lidija; Kond?a Krstonijevi?, Edita; Jakovljevi?, Vid; Bi??an Tvrdi, Ana; Predovi?, Jurica; Kokot, Antonio; Bi??an, Filip; Kova?evi? Ljubi?, Mirna

    2016-01-01

    Aim To present and evaluate a new screening protocol for amblyopia in preschool children. Methods Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening (ZAPS) study protocol performed screening for amblyopia by near and distance visual acuity (VA) testing of 15 648 children aged 48-54 months attending kindergartens in the City of Zagreb County between September 2011 and June 2014 using Lea Symbols in lines test. If VA in either eye was >0.1 logMAR, the child was re-tested, if failed at...

  2. A simulation of the development and screening of Cancer Mammae

    OpenAIRE

    Riksheim, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    Based on the tumor growth model of Harald Weedon-Fekjær et al.'s paper "Breast cancer tumor growth estimated through mammography screening data", a simulation of breast cancer occurrence and tumor growth in a large population of women was made. The simulation was made realistic by starting tumor growth according to a Poisson process, including a distribution for clinical detection size and a screening test sensitivity function, and using an individual growth rate, based on estimates of Weedon...

  3. The Free-Running Asthma Screening Test: An Approach to Screening for Exercise-Induced Asthma in Rural Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaman, Doris J.; Estes, Jenny

    1997-01-01

    This study documented the prevalence of exercise-induced asthma (EIA) in rural elementary schools, examining the use of a free-running asthma screening test and peak expiratory flow-rate measurement for school screening. Results indicated that 5.7% of the students had EIA. Absenteeism and poverty were related to EIA. (SM)

  4. Predicting the risk of a false-positive test for women following a mammography screening programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Olsen, Anne Helene; Schwartz, Walter

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study was to provide a simple estimate of the cumulative risk of a false-positive test for women participating in mammography screening. To test the method, we used data from two well-established, organized mammography screening programmes offering biennial...... screening to women aged 50-69 years in Copenhagen and Fyn, Denmark. METHODS: We defined the outcome from a screen as being either a false-positive test or not a false-positive test. We then tested whether the outcomes from subsequent screens were independent, and afterwards estimated the risk over 10...

  5. Development and validation study of the Smartphone Overuse Screening Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han-Kyeong; Kim, Ji-Hae; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Park, Jae-Hyun; Shim, Eun-Jung; Lee, Eun-Ho; Lee, Ji Hyeon; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a screening questionnaire that could distinguish individuals at high risk of smartphone overuse from casual users. The reliability, validity, and diagnostic ability of the Smartphone Overuse Screening Questionnaire (SOS-Q) were evaluated. Preliminary items were assessed by 50 addiction experts on-line, and 28 questions were selected. A total of 158 subjects recruited from six community centers for internet addiction participated in this study. The SOS-Q, Young's internet addiction scale, Korean scale for internet addiction, and Smartphone Scale for Smartphone Addiction (S-Scale) were used to assess the concurrent validity. Construct validity was supported by a six-factor model using an exploratory factor analysis. The internal consistency and the item-total correlations were favorable (α = 0.95, r = 0.35-0.81). The test-retest reliability was moderate (r = 0.70). The SOS-Q showed superior concurrent validity with the highest correlation between the S-Scale (r = 0.76). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed an area under the curve of 0.877. A cut-off point of 49 effectively categorized addiction high-risk group with a sensitivity of 0.81 and specificity of 0.86. Overall, the current study supports the use of SOS-Q as both a primary and supplementary measurement tool in a variety of settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of lung cancer CT screening operating support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, Rikuta; Hanai, Kozou; Suzuki, Masahiro; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2009-02-01

    In Japan, lung cancer death ranks first among men and third among women. Lung cancer death is increasing yearly, thus early detection and treatment are needed. For this reason, CT screening for lung cancer has been introduced. The CT screening services are roughly divided into three sections: office, radiology and diagnosis sections. These operations have been performed through paper-based or a combination of paper-based and an existing electronic health recording system. This paper describes an operating support system for lung cancer CT screening in order to make the screening services efficient. This operating support system is developed on the basis of 1) analysis of operating processes, 2) digitalization of operating information, and 3) visualization of operating information. The utilization of the system is evaluated through an actual application and users' survey questionnaire obtained from CT screening centers.

  7. Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening Study: near and distance visual acuity testing increase the diagnostic accuracy of screening for amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bušić, Mladen; Bjeloš, Mirjana; Petrovečki, Mladen; Kuzmanović Elabjer, Biljana; Bosnar, Damir; Ramić, Senad; Miletić, Daliborka; Andrijašević, Lidija; Kondža Krstonijević, Edita; Jakovljević, Vid; Bišćan Tvrdi, Ana; Predović, Jurica; Kokot, Antonio; Bišćan, Filip; Kovačević Ljubić, Mirna; Motušić Aras, Ranka

    2016-02-01

    To present and evaluate a new screening protocol for amblyopia in preschool children. Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening (ZAPS) study protocol performed screening for amblyopia by near and distance visual acuity (VA) testing of 15 648 children aged 48-54 months attending kindergartens in the City of Zagreb County between September 2011 and June 2014 using Lea Symbols in lines test. If VA in either eye was >0.1 logMAR, the child was re-tested, if failed at re-test, the child was referred to comprehensive eye examination at the Eye Clinic. 78.04% of children passed the screening test. Estimated prevalence of amblyopia was 8.08%. Testability, sensitivity, and specificity of the ZAPS study protocol were 99.19%, 100.00%, and 96.68% respectively. The ZAPS study used the most discriminative VA test with optotypes in line as they do not underestimate amblyopia. The estimated prevalence of amblyopia was considerably higher than reported elsewhere. To the best of our knowledge, the ZAPS study protocol reached the highest sensitivity and specificity when evaluating diagnostic accuracy of VA tests for screening. The pass level defined at ≤0.1 logMAR for 4-year-old children, using Lea Symbols in lines missed no amblyopia cases, advocating that both near and distance VA testing should be performed when screening for amblyopia.

  8. Development of the Adolescent Preoccupation with Screens Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon C. Hunter

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although public health concerns have been raised regarding the detrimental health effects of increasing rates of electronic screen use among adolescents, such effects have been small. Instruments currently available tend to be lengthy, have a clinical research focus, and assess young people’s screen use on specific screen-based activities (e.g., TV, computer, or internet. None appear to address screen use across a broad range of screens, including mobile devices and screen-based activities. The objective was to develop a new and short self-report scale for investigating adolescents’ screen use across all screens and screen-based activities in non-clinical settings. Methods The Adolescent Preoccupation with Screens Scale (APSS was developed over a three stage process. First, a review of the current literature and existing instruments was undertaken and suitable items identified. Second, the draft APSS was piloted with adolescents and item affectivity and discrimination indices were calculated. Third, a cross sectional school based online survey of 1967 Australian adolescents in grades 5 (10 years old, 7 (13 years and 9 (15 years from 25 randomly selected schools was conducted. Results Factor Analysis on a sub-sample of the data (n = 782 and Confirmatory Factor Analysis on the remaining sub-sample (n = 1185, supported a two-factor model. The first factor reflects adolescents’ mood management with screen use, and the second reflects a behavioural preoccupation. The measure demonstrated strong invariance across sex and across Grades 5, 7, and 9. Both factors displayed good internal consistency (α = .91 and .87, respectively. Sex and grade differences on both scales were investigated and boys in Grade 5 reported higher levels of both mood management and behavioural preoccupation with screens. There were no sex differences on mood management in Grades 7 and 9, but girls reported higher behavioural preoccupation in

  9. Predicting the risk of a false-positive test for women following a mammography screening programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Olsen, Anne Helene; Schwartz, Walter

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study was to provide a simple estimate of the cumulative risk of a false-positive test for women participating in mammography screening. To test the method, we used data from two well-established, organized mammography screening programmes offering biennial...... be calculated in a simple way relatively early after the start of a mammography screening programme....

  10. Effectiveness of nursing interventions to increase pap smear test screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guvenc, Gulten; Akyuz, Aygul; Yenen, Mufit Cemal

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a three-stage nursing intervention to increase Turkish women's participation in Pap smear testing. Knowledge and beliefs about cervical cancer screening and barriers to Pap smears also were explored. In a quasi-experimental study in a target population of 2,500 women, 237 completed pre-test measures to inform the intervention, and an educational brochure was distributed to all 2,500. As a result, 510 women (20.4%) accepted free Pap smears. Of the remaining 1,990 women, 417 were randomly selected for telephone interviews, 302 participated, and 158 of these (52.3%) participated in free Pap smear testing. Of the 144 who did not have Pap smears after participating in telephone interviews, 54 were then interviewed face-to-face, and 20 (37.0%) decided to accept free Pap smears. A total of 668 women had accepted free Pap smears by the end of the intervention period. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Lot release testing of serological infectious disease assays used for donor and donation screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, A D; Newham, J A

    2010-05-01

    Monitoring of the ongoing performance of infectious disease screening assays is a critical part of any donation screening programme. Although assay sensitivity is formally evaluated prior to implementation, it is essential that this level of performance is maintained from lot-to-lot. In 2002, National Health Service Blood and Transplant developed and implemented a formal system for the lot release testing of serology infectious disease screening assays. Lot release panels were prepared for each of the serological screening markers. They each comprise 10-15 members and include both genuine low-titre and diluted high-titre materials. For each panel member, a minimum reactivity is expected, based upon the formal sensitivity evaluation of each assay. All new lots of the screening assays used are assessed prior to supply of the lot to the organization. Since 2002, a total of 887 different lots of the serology screening assays used have been supplied. Of these, 876 (98.8%) passed lot release and were authorized for supply to the organization. Eleven lots (1.2%) were failed because the lots did not meet the release criteria or were unsuitable for some other reason. The lot release system has proved to be effective in objectively assessing assay performance to ensure that there is no significant lot-to-lot variation such that the performance of the assay may fall below that originally determined at evaluation. The few assays that have failed lot release did have proven performance issues that were subsequently accepted by the manufacturers. CONTENTS SUMMARY: Description of the Lot Release Testing system for serology infectious disease screening assays in use within NHSBT with a critical analysis and review of the data generated in the 7 years that the system has been in use.

  12. The Coin-in-the-Hand Test and dementia: more evidence for a screening test for neurocognitive symptom exaggeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Ryan W; Peck, Caleb P; Buddin, William H; Heinrichs, Robin J; Baade, Lyle E

    2012-09-01

    The Coin-in-the-Hand Test was developed to help clinicians distinguish patients who are neurocognitively impaired from patients who are exaggerating or feigning memory complaints. Previous findings have shown that participants asked to feign memory problems and patients suspected of malingering performed worse on the test than patients with genuine neurocognitive dysfunction. We reviewed the literature on the Coin-in-the-Hand Test and evaluated test performance by 45 hospitalized patients who had dementia with moderately to severely impaired cognition. We analyzed Coin-in-the-Hand Test scores, neuropsychological findings, and other data to determine whether demographic or neurocognitive variables affected Coin-in-the-Hand Test scores. We also calculated base rates of these scores and provided cutoff ranges for clinical use. Coin-in-the-Hand Test scores were independent of neurocognitive functioning, age, education level, and type of dementia. Base rates of scores suggest that a low cutoff can help differentiate between patients with true neurocognitive impairments and those exaggerating or feigning memory complaints. Both the literature and our findings show the Coin-in-the-Hand Test to have potential as a quick and easy screening tool to detect neurocognitive symptom exaggeration. This test could effectively supplement commonly used neurocognitive screens such as the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Saint Louis University Mental Status Examination, and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment.

  13. Knowledge of parents regarding newborn screening test, after accessing the website “Babies’ Portal” - Heel prick test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Antonelli Mendes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: to assess the knowledge of mothers about the heel prick test, develop contents on this test to make it available on the "Babies’ Portal" website, evaluate and validate the informative material developed. Methods: this study was conducted in three stages, that is, the first stage which is about a descriptive study involving 105 mothers of newborn children before performing the neonatal screening "Heel Prick Test", the second one consisting in the development of the website "Babies’ Portal", and the third stage, the evaluation and validation of this material carried out by 20 parents of children between zero and 36 months old, who underwent the neonatal screening Heel Prick Test by accessing the website “Babies’ Portal”. Results: although the interviewed mothers knew that their children had the right to be tested, they showed no knowledge of the diseases that can be prevented, time of diagnosis, nor the consequences arising from the lack of early diagnosis and treatment. The website creation and validation gathered basic information about the Heel Prick Test, and the participants regarded the content from satisfactory to excellent. Conclusion: it is necessary that families know not only about the procedures their children will undergo, but also the reason they are performed and the consequences of failing in doing so.

  14. 77 FR 15101 - Results From Inert Ingredient Test Orders Issued Under EPA's Endocrine Disruptor Screening...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... . List of Subjects Environmental protection, Endocrine disruptors, Pesticides and pests. Dated: February... Test Orders Issued Under EPA's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program: New Data Compensation Claims... required recipients to submit specific screening data on hormonal effects under EPA's Endocrine Disruptor...

  15. Simulation Model Development for Mail Screening Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vargo, Trish; Marvin, Freeman; Kooistra, Scott

    2005-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: Provide decision analysis support to the Homeland Defense Business Unit, Special Projects Team, in developing a simulation model to help determine the most effective way to eliminate backlog...

  16. Large shaft development test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, A.D.

    1984-02-01

    This test plan proposes the conduct of tests of the grout implaced as part of the large shaft development test proposed for the Hanford Site in support of the repository development program. The objectives of these tests are to develop the methodology to determine the feasibility of successfully grouting the annulus of a large diameter shaft. The test plan is based upon grouting inplace a 16 foot ID liner in a 20 foot diameter in a 1000 foot shaft. Specific objectives are to: determine the material properties of the grout implaced in the shaft annulus; evaluate the ability of the grout to completely displace the drilling fluid during grout implacement; determine the ability of a grout to act as a barrier to hydraulic transport; and assess the suitability of using nondestructive testing methods for assessing the completeness of grouting, the presence of voids, and the effectiveness of bonding between the grout and shaft wall. This test plan is considered to be preliminary in that it was prepared as input for the decision to determine if development testing is required in this area. Should the decision be made to proceed with development testing, this test plan shall be updated and revised. 33 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  17. SCREENING FOR DEVELOPMENT OF HOST PLANT RESISTANCE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tangaza

    losses of cowpea yields and if not controlled, they limit the yields to less than 300kg/ha (Singh et al., 1990). A considerable progress has been made during the past decade in cowpea breeding and a range of varieties have been developed with resistance to several diseases, insect pests and parasitic weeds. Much time ...

  18. Subjective and objective screening tests for hydroxychloroquine toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukras, Catherine; Huynh, Nancy; Vitale, Susan; Wong, Wai T; Ferris, Fredrick L; Sieving, Paul A

    2015-02-01

    To compare subjective and objective clinical tests used in the screening for hydroxychloroquine retinal toxicity to multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) reference testing. Prospective, single-center, case control study. Fifty-seven patients with a previous or current history of hydroxychloroquine treatment of more than 5 years' duration. Participants were evaluated with a detailed medical history, dilated ophthalmologic examination, color fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence (FAF) imaging, spectral-domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT), automated visual field testing (10-2 visual field mean deviation [VFMD]), and mfERG testing. We used mfERG test parameters as a gold standard to divide participants into 2 groups: those affected by hydroxychloroquine-induced retinal toxicity and those unaffected. We assessed the association of various imaging and psychophysical variables in the affected versus the unaffected group. Fifty-seven study participants (91.2% female; mean age, 55.7±10.4 years; mean duration of hydroxychloroquine treatment, 15.0±7.5 years) were divided into affected (n = 19) and unaffected (n = 38) groups based on mfERG criteria. Mean age and duration of hydroxychloroquine treatment did not differ statistically between groups. Mean OCT retinal thickness measurements in all 9 macular subfields were significantly lower (<40 μm) in the affected group (P < 0.01 for all comparisons) compared with those in the unaffected group. Mean VFMD was 11 dB lower in the affected group (P < 0.0001). Clinical features indicative of retinal toxicity were scored for the 2 groups and were detected in 68.4% versus 0.0% using color fundus photographs, 73.3% versus 9.1% using FAF images, and 84.2% versus 0.0% on the scoring for the perifoveal loss of the photoreceptor ellipsoid zone on SD-OCT for affected and unaffected participants, respectively. Using a polynomial modeling approach, OCT inner ring retinal thickness measurements and Humphrey 10-2 VFMD were

  19. 40 CFR 795.70 - Indirect photolysis screening test: Sunlight photolysis in waters containing dissolved humic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... background information on this test guideline the following references should be consulted. (1) Cooper W.J... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Indirect photolysis screening test... TEST GUIDELINES Provisional Chemical Fate Guidelines § 795.70 Indirect photolysis screening test...

  20. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Alcohol Testing § 40.229 What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests? EBTs and ASDs on the... are allowed to use to conduct alcohol screening tests under this part. You may use an ASD that is on the NHTSA CPL for DOT alcohol tests only if there are instructions for its use in this part. An ASD...

  1. 10 CFR 26.131 - Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity... Testing Facilities § 26.131 Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity tests. (a) Each validity test result from the licensee testing facility must be based on performing either a validity...

  2. Cervical cancer: developments in screening and evaluation of the abnormal Pap smear.

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, J M

    1998-01-01

    Of the more than 50 million Pap smears performed annually in the United States, about 5% of them are abnormal. Although the need for treatment of high-grade lesions is clear, the appropriate management of low-grade lesions remains controversial. New methods of screening for cervical cancer have become available, including testing for the human papilloma virus and improved methods of administering and evaluating the Pap smear. This review addresses new developments in cervical cancer screening...

  3. Early Adoption of a Multitarget Stool DNA Test for Colorectal Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney Rutten, Lila J; Jacobson, Robert M; Wilson, Patrick M; Jacobson, Debra J; Fan, Chun; Kisiel, John B; Sweetser, Seth; Tulledge-Scheitel, Sidna M; St Sauver, Jennifer L

    2017-05-01

    To characterize early adoption of a novel multitarget stool DNA (MT-sDNA) screening test for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and to test the hypothesis that adoption differs by demographic characteristics and prior CRC screening behavior and proceeds predictably over time. We used the Rochester Epidemiology Project research infrastructure to assess the use of the MT-sDNA screening test in adults aged 50 to 75 years living in Olmsted County, Minnesota, in 2014 and identified 27,147 individuals eligible or due for screening colonoscopy from November 1, 2014, through November 30, 2015. We used electronic Current Procedure Terminology and Health Care Common Procedure codes to evaluate early adoption of the MT-sDNA screening test in this population and to test whether early adoption varies by age, sex, race, and prior CRC screening behavior. Overall, 2193 (8.1%) and 974 (3.6%) individuals were screened by colonoscopy and MT-sDNA, respectively. Age, sex, race, and prior CRC screening behavior were significantly and independently associated with MT-sDNA screening use compared with colonoscopy use after adjustment for all other variables (Padoption of MT-sDNA screening increased over time and were highest in those aged 50 to 54 years, women, whites, and those who had a history of screening. The use of the MT-sDNA screening test varied predictably by insurance coverage. The rates of colonoscopy decreased over time, whereas overall CRC screening rates remained steady. The results of the present study are generally consistent with predictions derived from prior research and the diffusion of innovation framework, pointing to increasing use of the new screening test over time and early adoption by younger patients, women, whites, and those with prior CRC screening. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The use of the osmole gap as a screening test for the presence of exogenous substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purssell, Roy A; Lynd, Larry D; Koga, Yoshikata

    2004-01-01

    The rapid and accurate diagnosis of toxic alcohol poisoning due to methanol (methyl alcohol) [MeOH] and ethylene glycol (EG), is paramount in preventing serious adverse outcomes. The quantitative measurement of specific serum levels of these substances using gas chromatography is expensive, time consuming and generally only available at major tertiary-care facilities. Therefore, because these toxic substances are osmotically active and the measurement of serum osmolality is easily performed and more readily available, the presence of an osmole gap (OG) has been adopted as an alternative screening test. By definition, the OG is the difference between the measured serum osmolality determined using the freezing point depression (Osm(m)) and the calculated serum molarity (Mc), which is estimated from the known and readily measurable osmotically active substances in the serum, in particular sodium, urea, glucose, and potassium and ethanol (alcohol). Thus, the OG=Osm(m)-Mc, and an OG above a specific threshold (the threshold of positivity) suggests the presence of unmeasured osmotically active substances, which could be indicative of a toxic exposure. The objectives of this study were to review the principles of evaluating screening tests, the theory behind the OG as a screening test and the literature upon which the adoption of the OG as a screening test has been based. This review revealed that there have been numerous equations derived and proposed for the estimation of the Mc, with the objective of developing empirical evidence of the best equation for the determination of the OG and ultimately the utility of OG as a screening test. However, the methods and statistical analysis employed have generally been inconsistent with recommended guidelines for screening test evaluation and although many equations have been derived, they have not been appropriately validated. Specific evidence of the clinical utility of the OG requires that a threshold of positivity be

  5. Perl Testing A Developer's Notebook

    CERN Document Server

    Langworth, Ian

    2005-01-01

    Is there any sexier topic in software development than software testing? That is, besides game programming, 3D graphics, audio, high-performance clustering, cool websites, et cetera? Okay, so software testing is low on the list. And that's unfortunate, because good software testing can increase your productivity, improve your designs, raise your quality, ease your maintenance burdens, and help to satisfy your customers, coworkers, and managers. Perl has a strong history of automated tests. A very early release of Perl 1.0 included a comprehensive test suite, and it's only improved from th

  6. The problem of false-positive human papillomavirus DNA tests in cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Pribac, Igor; Frederiksen, Maria Eiholm

    2013-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) testing has been extensively studied in randomized controlled trials of primary cervical screening. Based on encouraging results concerning its high detection rates and a high negative predictive value for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), HPV testing...... will probably replace cytology in future primary cervical screening. However, HPV testing is associated with more frequent false-positive tests compared to cytology. False-positive tests are defined as positive screening tests which are not subsequently confirmed with high-grade CIN. Several authors have...... testing leads to more screen-positive women being referred for colposcopy without having high-grade CIN, and to more women undergoing repeated testing. The only reasonable solution to the problem of false-positive tests appears to be a revised definition of a positive HPV screening test. However, further...

  7. The Relationship between Preeclampsia and Quadruple Screening Test in Nuliparous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Zand Vakili

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Early diagnosis and prediction of preeclampsia needs appropriate obstetric care. Preeclampsia predicting methods are important. This study was designed to determine the correlation between preeclampsia and quadruple screening test in the nulliparous. Materials and Methods:  This case - control study was conducted on 54 pregnant women with preeclampsia (case group and 108 healthy pregnant women (control group who referred to health centers in Sanandaj, Iran. Ultrasonography was performed to determine the gestational age by a radiologist. Maternal serum levels of alpha fetoprotein (AFP, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, unconjugated estriol (uE3, and inhibin-A were measured in the second trimester of pregnancy. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software and Chi-square test, T-test, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values. Results: The results showed that the sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of preeclampsia in pregnant women for hCG were 35.2% and 79.6 respectively. These findings for estriol were 20.4% and 88.9%, for inhibin-A were 38.8% and 88% and for alpha fetoprotein were 38.8% and 74.1%. The positive predictive value for hCG, estriol, inhibin-A and alpha fetoprotein were 46.3%, 47.8%, 61.8% and 42.9% respectively. The negative predictive value for hCG, estriol, inhibin-A and alpha fetoprotein were also 71%, 69.1%, 74.2% and 70.8% respectively. Conclusion: There was a relationship between preeclampsia and high levels of inhibin-A and hCG. Further studies on these markers and evaluating their usefulness in the diagnosis and management of preeclampsia are recommended.

  8. Best combination of multiple diagnostic tests for screening purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jing; Zhang, Biao

    2010-12-10

    In a medical diagnostic testing problem, multiple diagnostic tests are often available in distinguishing between diseased and nondiseased subjects. Different diagnostic tests are usually sensitive to different aspects of the disease. A desirable approach is to combine multiple diagnostic tests so as to obtain an optimal composite diagnostic test with higher sensitivity and specificity that detects the presence of the disease more accurately. To accomplish this, it has been observed via signal detection theory developed in the 1950s and 1960s, that the optimal combination of different diagnostic variables (i.e. the diagnostic test results) is determined by the likelihood ratio function for the diseased and nondiseased groups. The conventional approach is to fit parametric models for the diseased and nondiseased groups separately and then to use the fitted likelihood ratio function for the best combination of test results. However, this approach is not so robust if the underlying distribution functions are misspecified. Since the optimal combination depends only on the likelihood ratio function, it would be more appropriate to model this function directly. A two-sample semiparametric inference technique is applied to the model for the likelihood ratio function. We consider the best combination of multiple diagnostic tests, and study semiparametric likelihood estimation of the optimal receiver operating characteristic curve and the area under the curve. We present a bootstrap procedure along with some results on simulation and on analysis of two real data sets.

  9. Developing test materials for dyscalculia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindenskov, Lena; Bent, Lindhardt,

    Aims, requirements and context for the development of test materials for dyscalculia are analyzed. The test materials are to be used for Grade 4 pupils in Danish primary schools. Preliminary results are presented from focus group interview with adolescents and adults, who see themselves as being...

  10. Preliminary phytochemical screening and antibacterial testing of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts of Piliostigma thonningii (Schum) used traditionally for relieving toothache and cough were screened for their phytochemical constituents and in vitro antibacterial activity. Chemical and chromatographic methods were used for the phytochemical screening of the extracts. Inhibitory ...

  11. Development of a customized radiation monitor for livestock screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erchinger, J; Marianno, C; Herring, A

    2015-05-01

    The monitoring and decontamination of livestock has been an emerging topic in emergency response planning in recent years. Under the National Response Framework, the U.S. Department of Agriculture is tasked with providing support to the states during a radiological incident for the "assessment, control, and decontamination of contaminated animals, including companion animals, livestock, poultry, and wildlife." While there are currently no protocols in place on a national level for coordinated animal response, working groups have been developing a command structure and task force procedures, and some states have issued their own guidelines. A customized Bovine Screening Portal was manufactured and tested at Texas A&M University to investigate the operational capabilities in detecting, identifying, and localizing external contamination on livestock. An array of six sodium iodide detectors attached to power-over-Ethernet Multi-Channel Analyzers was used to collect time-stamped count rates, and spectral data were collected as a heifer was led past the detector panel. A 1.85 × 10(5) Bq 137Cs source was placed in four locations on a heifer, which was led through a cattle chute adjacent to the detector panel. The trials were repeated walking the heifer through a walkway with detectors hung on cattle pens lining a walkway. The Bovine Screening Portal observed increased count rates (>10σ) from the 1.85 × 10(5) Bq 137Cs source in live time. The identification capabilities with the intuitive software interface of the BSP are consistent with the requirements of a detection system for radiological emergency management of livestock.

  12. Screening of newborns for congenital hypothyroidism. Guidance for developing programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-12-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism is a condition that, if left untreated, can cause lifelong human suffering as a result of severe mental retardation and deficiency of growth. With the involvement of the IAEA, screening programmes to detect congenital hypothyroidism in newborn infants have been introduced successfully in a large number of countries. The cornerstone of these programmes is accurate and reliable screening methods involving isotope techniques and simple medical treatment. The suffering - and heavy social and economic burden - caused by congenital hypothyroidism prompted many countries to institute a formalized screening programme directed at newborns, just as a vaccination programme has become an integral part of child health care. In many other countries however, this type of formalized service has not yet been established. For these countries, the implementation of a neonatal screening programme will bring about a considerable improvement in child health care. It is hoped that the guidance in this publication will be especially useful to the signatories of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. Several factors that prevail in a country - the climate, political environment, economic development, level of health care and the transportation system - have an influence on the overall operational systems, design and implementation of a screening programme. As such, the design of such a programme will differ greatly from country to country. Nevertheless, neonatal screening programmes have many elements in common. This book draws on the IAEA's experience in this area over more than a decade, and on the results of a regional technical cooperation programme on neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism in East Asia (IAEA Project RAS6032). This publication provides guidance aimed specifically at implementing and sustaining programmes for the screening of newborn infants

  13. Does offering prenatal screening influence pregnant women's attitudes regarding prenatal testing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinveld, J.H.; van den Berg, M.; van Eijk, J.T.; van Vugt, J.M.G.; van der Wal, G.; Timmermans, D.R.M.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This study aims to find out whether offering prenatal screening for Down syndrome and neural tube defects influences pregnant women's attitudes toward having a screening test. Methods: Women were randomised into a group that was offered prenatal screening and a group that was not offered

  14. Overview of DOE's field screening technology development activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, C.W.; Anderson, T.D.; Cooley, C.R.; Hain, K.E.; Lien, S.C.T.; Erickson, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has recently created the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, into which it consolidated those activities. Within this new organization, the Office of Technology Development (OTD) is responsible for research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation (RDDT ampersand E) activities aimed at meeting DOE cleanup goals, while minimizing cost and risk. Site characterization using traditional drilling, sampling, and analytical methods comprises a significant part of the environmental restoration efforts in terms of both cost and time to accomplish. It can also be invasive and create additional pathways for spread of contaminants. Consequently, DOE is focusing on site characterization as one of the areas in which significant technological advances are possible which will decrease cost, reduce risk, and shorten schedules for achieving restoration goals. DOE is investing considerably in R ampersand D and demonstration activities which will improve the abilities to screen chemical, radiological, and physical parameters in the field. This paper presents an overview of the program objectives and status and reviews some of the projects which are currently underway in the area. 1 ref

  15. Does population screening for Chlamydia trachomatis raise anxiety among those tested? Findings from a population based chlamydia screening study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Low Nicola

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advent of urine testing for Chlamydia trachomatis has raised the possibility of large-scale screening for this sexually transmitted infection, which is now the most common in the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an invitation to be screened for chlamydia and of receiving a negative result on levels of anxiety, depression and self-esteem. Methods 19,773 men and women aged 16 to 39 years, selected at random from 27 general practices in two large city areas (Bristol and Birmingham were invited by post to send home-collected urine samples or vulvo-vaginal swabs for chlamydia testing. Questionnaires enquiring about anxiety, depression and self-esteem were sent to random samples of those offered screening: one month before the dispatch of invitations; when participants returned samples; and after receiving a negative result. Results Home screening was associated with an overall reduction in anxiety scores. An invitation to participate did not increase anxiety levels. Anxiety scores in men were lower after receiving the invitation than at baseline. Amongst women anxiety was reduced after receipt of negative test results. Neither depression nor self-esteem scores were affected by screening. Conclusion Postal screening for chlamydia does not appear to have a negative impact on overall psychological well-being and can lead to a decrease in anxiety levels among respondents. There is, however, a clear difference between men and women in when this reduction occurs.

  16. Does population screening for Chlamydia trachomatis raise anxiety among those tested? Findings from a population based chlamydia screening study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Rona; Mills, Nicola; Sanford, Emma; Graham, Anna; Low, Nicola; Peters, Tim J

    2006-04-25

    The advent of urine testing for Chlamydia trachomatis has raised the possibility of large-scale screening for this sexually transmitted infection, which is now the most common in the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an invitation to be screened for chlamydia and of receiving a negative result on levels of anxiety, depression and self-esteem. 19,773 men and women aged 16 to 39 years, selected at random from 27 general practices in two large city areas (Bristol and Birmingham) were invited by post to send home-collected urine samples or vulvo-vaginal swabs for chlamydia testing. Questionnaires enquiring about anxiety, depression and self-esteem were sent to random samples of those offered screening: one month before the dispatch of invitations; when participants returned samples; and after receiving a negative result. Home screening was associated with an overall reduction in anxiety scores. An invitation to participate did not increase anxiety levels. Anxiety scores in men were lower after receiving the invitation than at baseline. Amongst women anxiety was reduced after receipt of negative test results. Neither depression nor self-esteem scores were affected by screening. Postal screening for chlamydia does not appear to have a negative impact on overall psychological well-being and can lead to a decrease in anxiety levels among respondents. There is, however, a clear difference between men and women in when this reduction occurs.

  17. Prenatal reflex DNA screening for Down syndrome: enhancing the screening performance of the initial first trimester test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Nicholas J; Bestwick, Jonathan P

    2016-04-01

    To estimate the effect of adding three biochemical markers (alphafetoprotein, inhibin-A, and placental growth factor) and two ultrasound markers (ductus venosus pulsatility index and nasal bone examination) to enhance the initial Combined test in prenatal reflex DNA screening for Down syndrome. Published data were used to estimate screening performance [detection rates (DRs) and false-positive rates (FPRs)] of reflex DNA screening according to the additional markers used, the proportion of women with the highest initial test risks reflexed to DNA testing and the gestational age at the time of blood collection. If 10% of women are reflexed, the addition of the three biochemical markers to the Combined test increases the DR from 90.8% to 92.3% (FPR 0.025% to 0.027%) with markers measured at 11 completed weeks' gestation. With markers measured at 13 completed weeks' gestation the DR increases from 87.7% to 95.2% (FPRs both 0.027%). The further addition of the two ultrasound markers increases the DR to 96.8% and 97.5% at 11 and 13 weeks' respectively (FPR to 0.024% and 0.022% respectively). Adding the specified markers to the Combined test can maintain or improve screening performance with a lower proportion of women reflexed. Our results can be used to determine the most cost-effective reflex DNA screening policy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Colon cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...

  19. Development of Visual Field Screening Procedures: A Case Study of the Octopus Perimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, Andrew; Myers, Jonathan S; McKendrick, Allison M

    2016-05-01

    We develop a methodology for designing perimetric screening procedures, using Octopus perimeters as a case study. The process has three stages: analytically determining specificity and number of presentations required for different multisampling suprathreshold schemes at a single location of the visual field, ranking visual field locations by their positive predictive value (PPV) for glaucoma, and determining a pass/fail criteria for the test. For the case study the Octopus G-program visual field test pattern is used, and a dataset of 385 glaucoma and 86 normal patients. Using a 1-of-3 sampling strategy at a level equal to the 95 percentile of normal observers gave the most robust specificity under the influences of false-negative responses using an average of 1.5 presentations per location. The PPV analysis gave 19 locations that completely classified our glaucomatous data. A further 9 points were added to screen for nonglaucomatous loss. The final stage found that insisting that 3 locations are missed for the screening to fail gave a simulated specificity and sensitivity of approximately 95% for unreliable responders. Our method gives a principled approach to choosing between the many parameters of a visual field screening procedure. We have developed a procedure for the Octopus that should terminate in less than 1 minute for normal observers with high specificity and sensitivity to glaucoma. Visual field screening is used in community settings and eye care practice. This study provides a principled approach to the development of such screening procedures and details a new procedure.

  20. Validation of a new language screening tool for patients with acute stroke: the Language Screening Test (LAST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamand-Roze, Constance; Falissard, Bruno; Roze, Emmanuel; Maintigneux, Lisa; Beziz, Jonathan; Chacon, Audrey; Join-Lambert, Claire; Adams, David; Denier, Christian

    2011-05-01

    Standard aphasia scales such as the Boston Diagnosis Aphasia Evaluation are inappropriate for use in acute stroke. Likewise, global stroke scales do not reliably detect aphasia, and existing brief aphasia screening scales suitable for patients with stroke have several limitations. The objective of this study was to generate and validate a bedside language screening tool, the Language Screening Test, suitable for use in the emergency setting. The Language Screening Test comprises 5 subtests and a total of 15 items. To avoid retest bias, we created 2 parallel versions of the scale. We report the equivalence of the 2 versions, their internal and external validity, and their interrater reliability. We validated the scale by administering it to 300 consecutive patients within 24 hours after admission to our stroke unit and to 104 stabilized patients with and without aphasia using the Boston Diagnosis Aphasia Evaluation as a reference. The 2 versions of the Language Screening Test were equivalent with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.96. Internal validity was good; none of the items showed a floor or ceiling effect with no redundancy and good internal consistency (Cronbach α 0.88). External validation against the Boston Diagnosis Aphasia Evaluation showed a sensitivity of 0.98 and a specificity of 1. Interrater agreement was near perfect (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.998). The median time to complete the Language Screening Test was approximately 2 minutes. Importantly, the Language Screening Test does not need to be administered by a speech and language therapist. This comprehensively validated language rating scale is simple and rapid, making it a useful tool for bedside evaluation of patients with acute stroke in routine clinical practice.

  1. Comparison of the automated vision screening test to the Snellen test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gofin, R; Falk, M

    1991-03-01

    The comparison of an automatic vision screening machine using the Landolt rings and the usual Snellen Chart was carried out among 123 second grade and 149 fifth grade students in an elementary school in Jerusalem. The sensitivity of the test for a cut-off point of greater than or equal to 6/12 according to the Snellen test was 41.7% (CI = 16.5-71.4) and the specificity was 86.5% (CI 78.1-92.2) for second graders. For fifth graders the values were 50.0% (CI = 20.1-79.9) and 90.6% (CI 83.7-94.8) respectively. Diagnosis by a specialist decreased the number of 'false negatives' and confirmed the pathological cases. The automatic test was well accepted by the children. Though more time is needed for assessment using the automatic test, its advantage is that no professional staff are required.

  2. New Advances of Preimplantation and Prenatal Genetic Screening and Noninvasive Testing as a Potential Predictor of Health Status of Babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Milachich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current morphologically based selection of human embryos for transfer cannot detect chromosome aneuploidies. So far, only biopsy techniques have been able to screen for chromosomal aneuploidies in the in vitro fertilization (IVF embryos. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD or screening (PGS involves the biopsy of oocyte polar bodies or embryonic cells and has become a routine clinical procedure in many IVF clinics worldwide, including recent development of comprehensive chromosome screening of all 23 pairs of chromosomes by microarrays for aneuploidy screening. The routine preimplantation and prenatal genetic diagnosis (PND require testing in an aggressive manner. These procedures may be invasive to the growing embryo and fetus and potentially could compromise the clinical outcome. Therefore the aim of this review is to summarize not only the new knowledge on preimplantation and prenatal genetic diagnosis in humans, but also on the development of potential noninvasive embryo and fetal testing that might play an important role in the future.

  3. Self-Sampling for Human Papillomavirus Testing: Increased Cervical Cancer Screening Participation and Incorporation in International Screening Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sarah; Palmer, Christina; Bik, Elisabeth M.; Cardenas, Juan P.; Nuñez, Harold; Kraal, Laurens; Bird, Sara W.; Bowers, Jennie; Smith, Alison; Walton, Nathaniel A.; Goddard, Audrey D.; Almonacid, Daniel E.; Zneimer, Susan; Richman, Jessica; Apte, Zachary S.

    2018-01-01

    In most industrialized countries, screening programs for cervical cancer have shifted from cytology (Pap smear or ThinPrep) alone on clinician-obtained samples to the addition of screening for human papillomavirus (HPV), its main causative agent. For HPV testing, self-sampling instead of clinician-sampling has proven to be equally accurate, in particular for assays that use nucleic acid amplification techniques. In addition, HPV testing of self-collected samples in combination with a follow-up Pap smear in case of a positive result is more effective in detecting precancerous lesions than a Pap smear alone. Self-sampling for HPV testing has already been adopted by some countries, while others have started trials to evaluate its incorporation into national cervical cancer screening programs. Self-sampling may result in more individuals willing to participate in cervical cancer screening, because it removes many of the barriers that prevent women, especially those in low socioeconomic and minority populations, from participating in regular screening programs. Several studies have shown that the majority of women who have been underscreened but who tested HPV-positive in a self-obtained sample will visit a clinic for follow-up diagnosis and management. In addition, a self-collected sample can also be used for vaginal microbiome analysis, which can provide additional information about HPV infection persistence as well as vaginal health in general. PMID:29686981

  4. Self-Sampling for Human Papillomavirus Testing: Increased Cervical Cancer Screening Participation and Incorporation in International Screening Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Gupta

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In most industrialized countries, screening programs for cervical cancer have shifted from cytology (Pap smear or ThinPrep alone on clinician-obtained samples to the addition of screening for human papillomavirus (HPV, its main causative agent. For HPV testing, self-sampling instead of clinician-sampling has proven to be equally accurate, in particular for assays that use nucleic acid amplification techniques. In addition, HPV testing of self-collected samples in combination with a follow-up Pap smear in case of a positive result is more effective in detecting precancerous lesions than a Pap smear alone. Self-sampling for HPV testing has already been adopted by some countries, while others have started trials to evaluate its incorporation into national cervical cancer screening programs. Self-sampling may result in more individuals willing to participate in cervical cancer screening, because it removes many of the barriers that prevent women, especially those in low socioeconomic and minority populations, from participating in regular screening programs. Several studies have shown that the majority of women who have been underscreened but who tested HPV-positive in a self-obtained sample will visit a clinic for follow-up diagnosis and management. In addition, a self-collected sample can also be used for vaginal microbiome analysis, which can provide additional information about HPV infection persistence as well as vaginal health in general.

  5. Live-Cell High Content Screening in Drug Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esner, Milan; Meyenhofer, Felix; Bickle, Marc

    2018-01-01

    In the past decade, automated microscopy has become an important tool for the drug discovery and development process. The establishment of imaging modalities as screening tools depended on technological breakthroughs in the domain of automated microscopy and automated image analysis. These types of assays are often referred to as high content screening or high content analysis (HCS/HCA). The driving force to adopt imaging for drug development is the quantity and quality of cellular information that can be collected and the enhanced physiological relevance of cellular screening compared to biochemical screening. Most imaging in drug development is performed on fixed cells as this allows uncoupling the preparation of the cells from the acquisition of the images. Live-cell imaging is technically challenging, but is very useful for many aspects of the drug development pipeline such as kinetic studies of compound mode of action or to analyze the motion of cellular components. Most vendors of HCS microscopy systems offer the option of environmental chambers and onboard pipetting on their platforms. This reflects the wish and desire of many customers to have the ability to perform live-cell assays on their HCS automated microscopes. This book chapter summarizes the challenges and advantages of live-cell imaging in drug discovery. Examples of applications are presented and the motivation to perform these assays in kinetic mode is discussed.

  6. Screening of Geomechanical Risks for Malaysian Development Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Najmuddin Syed Muhammad Syafiq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Deeper drilling and exploitation of difficult reservoir is the new trend in oil and gas industry. Geomechanics study has, therefore, become a new requirement particularly for oil and gas field development. However, a complete geomechanics study is limited with the number of experts, time consuming and not a straightforward task. Therefore, there is an urgent need of a quick geomechanics screening criterion to be used as a standard guideline to evaluate the high level geomechanical risks and suitable analysis can be recommended for the identified development fields. The aim of this paper is to propose a screening criterion for geomechanical risks study based on four key parameters, drilling, depletion, injection and storage and sand production. The screening approach is designed based on Risk Assessment Matrix (RAM risk screening where the likelihood is based on a set of scores developed to specific questions. The consequence for each failure scenarios is assessed based on educated estimation of the impact towards people, asset, environment and reputation. Recommendations for geomechanical study are made based on the severity of each failure category on the RAM risk matrix. Fourteen development fields in offshore Peninsular Malaysia, offshore Sarawak and offshore Sabah are selected for the assessment. Based on results, fields in offshore Sarawak and Sabah have higher potential for geomechacnical issues mainly because of their geological settings and formation characteristics. A set of geomechanical study is proposed for each individual field for prudent management of potential geomechanics risk associated with the depletion and EOR injection scheme planned for the fields.

  7. Development and preliminary validation of a screen for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development and preliminary validation of a screen for interpersonal childhood trauma experiences among school-going youth in Durban, South Africa. ... validity in the sense that all scales were significantly correlated with scores on clinical measures of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or complex PTSD.

  8. Distributed Idea Screening in Stage–gate Development Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onarheim, Balder; Christensen, Bo T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the gate screening of ideas in engineering design, by examination of the validity of employee voting schemes and biases associated with such voting. After conducting an employee-driven innovation project at a major producer of disposable medical equipment, 99 ideas had...... to be screened for further development. Inspired by the concept of ‘wisdom of the crowd’, all ideas were individually rated by a broad selection of employees, and the ratings were used to investigate two biases in employee voting: visual complexity and endowment effect/ownership of ideas. The visual complexity...

  9. Test Driven Development: Performing Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bache, Emily

    The art of Test Driven Development (TDD) is a skill that needs to be learnt, and which needs time and practice to master. In this workshop a select number of conference participants with considerable skill and experience are invited to perform code katas [1]. The aim is for them to demonstrate excellence and the use of Test Driven Development, and result in some high quality code. This would be for the benefit of the many programmers attending the conference, who could come along and witness high quality code being written using TDD, and get a chance to ask questions and provide feedback.

  10. Cask development, testing, and licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, G.J.; Haelsig, R.T.; Warrant, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    The NuPac 125-B Rail Cask was developed to provide a safe means of transporting the damaged core of Three Mile Island Unit 2 from the TMI site at Middletown, PA, to the Idaho National Engineering laboratory (INEL) at Idaho Falls, ID. The development of the NuPac 125-B Rail Cask posed two engineering and technical management challenges; Licensing Strategy - The NuPac 125-B Rail Cask represented the first irradiated fuel rail cask developed within the United States in the past decade, a decade characterized by changing nuclear regulations, and Accelerated Schedule - The TMI-2 defueling schedule demanded a cask development schedule one-third as long as normally required. These challenges governed the overall development and licensing process for the cask. First, a high degree of conservation was incorporated into the design to allow quick, simplified demonstrations of adequacy to regulatory staff. Second, redundant design techniques were employed in all areas of uncertainty. The testing program eliminated performance uncertainties and validated predictions and predictive models. Drop tests of a quarter-scale model of the cask were conducted, and results were correlated with analytic predictions to verify structural and mechanical performance of the cask. Full-scale tests of the canisters were conducted to verify structural behavior of canister internals which provide criticality control. This paper describes the testing program for the NuPac 125-B Rail Cask, presents results therefrom, and correlates findings with Regulation 10 CFR 71 of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  11. Development of FOODSEYE, a high-speed screening system for radioactivity in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuta, Tetsuro; Tachibana, Kazushige; Kobayashi, Susumu

    2012-01-01

    We employed the radiation measurement technology utilized for positron emission tomography in nuclear medicine to develop FOODSEYE, a high-speed screening system for radioactivity in food. FOODSEYE enables high-speed screening designed to measure the concentration of radioactive cesium (Bq/kg) in food and determine with a certainty of at least 99% whether a given test article conforms to safety standards established by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. The system is comprised of BGO detectors that detect gamma rays with high sensitivity, a shielded construction to reduce noise components from outside sources of radiation (background radiation), a conveyor belt for efficient conveyance of test articles, and a touch screen panel for easy operation and display of results. This design allows the FOODSEYE system to measure trace amounts of radioactivity with high precision. The precision of the system was verified using 30-kg bags of rice tested in Nihonmatsu City in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. The measurements results obtained with FOODSEYE correlated with, and were within the range of measurement error of, measurement results obtained using a germanium semiconductor detector. The system was also capable of screening one test article per 5 seconds at a standard value of 100 Bq/kg. This article details the system structure, performance and results of verification tests performed using the FOODSEYE high-speed screening system. (author)

  12. Implementation of broad screening with Ebola rapid diagnostic tests in Forécariah, Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantz Jean Louis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laboratory-enhanced surveillance is critical for rapidly detecting the potential re-emergence of Ebola virus disease. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT for Ebola antigens could expand diagnostic capacity for Ebola virus disease. Objectives: The Guinean National Coordination for Ebola Response conducted a pilot implementation to determine the feasibility of broad screening of patients and corpses with the OraQuick® Ebola RDT. Methods: The implementation team developed protocols and trained healthcare workers to screen patients and corpses in Forécariah prefecture, Guinea, from 15 October to 30 November 2015. Data collected included number of consultations, number of fevers reported or measured, number of tests performed for patients or corpses and results of confirmatory RT-PCR testing. Data on malaria RDT results were collected for comparison. Feedback from Ebola RDT users was collected informally during supervision visits and forums. Results: There were 3738 consultations at the 15 selected healthcare facilities; 74.6% of consultations were for febrile illness. Among 2787 eligible febrile patients, 2633 were tested for malaria and 1628 OraQuick® Ebola RDTs were performed. A total of 322 OraQuick® Ebola RDTs were conducted on corpses. All Ebola tests on eligible patients were negative. Conclusions: Access to Ebola testing was expanded by the implementation of RDTs in an emergency situation. Feedback from Ebola RDT users and lessons learned will contribute to improving quality for RDT expansion.

  13. Development and Diagnostic Accuracy of the Screening of the Dimensional Clinical Personality Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas de Francisco Carvalho

    Full Text Available Abstract: The assessment of personality disorders assumes unquestioned clinical relevance when considering the prevalence rates in the general population. Tests assessing the typical pathological traits of these disorders has been adapted to and developed in Brazil. However, there is a gap in the country of screening tools for personality disorders. Screening tools are designed to allow a fast and informative application on the likelihood of a positive diagnosis, where the consequence should be conveyed to a diagnostic assessment. Using as a base the Dimensional Clinical Personality Inventory (IDCP, developed at the national level, the objective of this research was to develop a screening tool for personality disorders, as well as investigate its diagnostic accuracy. The study included 1,196 people, aging between 18 and 73 years (M = 26.32, SD = 8.69, and 64.1% female. The sample was divided into clinical and non-clinical group. We used an empirical approach based on criteria for selection of items similar to those adopted in the development of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory was used (MMPI. The logistic regression analysis and also the calculation of Cohen's d indicated the items that best discriminate against people with personality disorders and those without this diagnosis. We achieved a final set of 15 items with satisfactory sensitivity and specificity for screening test. We discusses the strengths and limitations of screening version of the IDCP and guidelines for further study.

  14. Knowledge of prenatal screening and psychological management of test decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Hvidman, Lone; Jørgensen, Finn Stener

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study associations between pregnant women's knowledge of prenatal screening and decisional conflict in deciding whether to participate in first trimester screening for Down's syndrome in a setting of required informed consent and to study associations between knowledge and personal....... The results presented are based on 4,111 pregnant women (64%). Knowledge was measured by 15 knowledge questions. The primary outcomes were measured by use of pre-existing validated scales i.e. The Decisional Conflict Scale, the WHO well-being index, and the Cambridge Worry Scale. Associations were analysed...... by multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses. RESULTS: A higher level of knowledge was associated with less decisional conflict when deciding whether to participate in first trimester Down's syndrome screening (adjusted odds ratio 1.31 (1.26 to 1.37)). An increased level of knowledge was also...

  15. Triagem de desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor em instituições de educação infantil segundo o Teste de Denver II Selección de desarrollo neuropsicomotriz en instituciones de educación infantil según el Test de Denver II Neuropsychological development screening in child's educational institutions according to Denver II Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Andrade Rezende

    2005-12-01

    lenguaje y personal-social fueron perjudicados por las condiciones de los jardines infantiles (escolaridad de las educadoras y el tamaño de los grupos infantiles, y tal vez por la situación familiar. En cuanto al área motriz, se ve a los niños, mismo siendo pequeños, jugando en las calles. Estas hipótesis precisan ser comprobadas por nuevas pesquisas.To develop is an important right that any child has and occurs according the relationship between genetic background and environment. Following this statement, a screening of development was done in 66 children (37 boys and 29 girls between 2 and 3 years' old who attended 4 public day-care centers in the city of Sao Paulo. The Denver II Development Selection Test was used. The better part of the sample (62.74% earns up to 0.5 MS (minimum salary per capita per month. The adequacies for each development area were: personal-social(N=54; 81.8%, fine engine (N=53; 80.3%, rough engine (N=53; 8.3% and language (N=49; 72.4%. In the language and personal-social areas the children attained the worst results, and in the rough engine the best. It is hypothesized: the language and personal-social language were prejudiced by the day-care centers' conditions (educators' schooling and the children's groups' sizes and maybe by the familiar situation. As to the motor area, one can see children, even though small, playing in streets. The hypotheses must be proven with new researches.

  16. Experiences with a self-test for Dutch breast screening radiologists: lessons learnt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, J. M. H.; Verbeek, A. L. M.; Pijnappel, R. M.; Broeders, M. J. M.; den Heeten, G. J.

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate a self-test for Dutch breast screening radiologists introduced as part of the national quality assurance programme. A total of 144 radiologists were invited to complete a test-set of 60 screening mammograms (20 malignancies). Participants assigned findings such as location, lesion type

  17. Experiences with a self-test for Dutch breast screening radiologists: lessons learnt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, J.M.H.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Pijnappel, R.M.; Broeders, M.J.M.; Heeten, GJ. den

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate a self-test for Dutch breast screening radiologists introduced as part of the national quality assurance programme. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 144 radiologists were invited to complete a test-set of 60 screening mammograms (20 malignancies). Participants assigned findings

  18. Medical and lay attitudes towards genetic screening and testing in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toiviainen, Hanna; Jallinoja, Piia; Aro, Arja R

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare physicians', midwives' and lay people's attitudes towards genetic screening and testing to find out whether medical education and experience influence attitudes of genetic screening and testing. The study was based on comparison of answers to joint questio...

  19. Accepting or declining the offer of prenatal screening for congenital defects: test uptake and women's reasons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, M.; Timmermans-van der Pligt, D.R.M.; Kleinveld, J.H.; Garcia, E; van Vugt, J.M.G.; van der Wal, G.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Prenatal screening for Down syndrome has become standard practice in many western countries. In the Netherlands, however, prenatal screening tests for congenital defects are not offered routinely. The present study aims to assess test uptake in a large, unselected population of pregnant

  20. Willingness to take a screening test for colorectal cancer: a community-based survey in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Cho; Jun, Yip Kar; Yee, Wai Mun; Waqiyuddin, Syazana J D B T; Lui, Lau Chiew; Shaung, Ooi Yin; Haw, Fong Jenn

    2014-03-01

    The aims of the study were (i) to determine the knowledge and perceptions of colorectal cancer (CRC), (ii) to explore the willingness of the study population to take a screening test for CRC, and (iii) to identify factors affecting the willingness to take a screening test for CRC. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in a semiurban town in Malaysia using a pretested structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were determined for all important variables. A binary logistic regression model was introduced to identify independent predictors of the willingness to take a screening test. Factors influencing willingness were explored according to the constructs of the health belief model. Of the 256 respondents who had heard about CRC, the majority were aware of altered bowel habits (67.3%) or the presence of blood in stool or rectal bleeding (63.4%) as the warning symptoms. Although 38% of the respondents knew of colonoscopy as the screening test, 22% were not aware of any screening test for CRC. A majority (77.4%) showed willingness to take a screening test for CRC. In the multivariate analysis, 'having family or friends with history of CRC' and 'self-perceived risk' were the two significant variables for predicting the acceptance of CRC screening among the study population. Findings suggested that the respondents' knowledge of the CRC screening test was inadequate, albeit a high proportion expressed their intention to take screening tests. Health education on the CRC addressing available screening tests and the benefits of early screening for CRC should be scaled up.

  1. Individual Stochastic Screening for the Development of Computer Graphics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Turčić¹*

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of new tools and media, art and design have developed into digital computer-generated works. This article presents a sequence of creating art graphics because their original authors have not published the procedures. The goal is to discover the mathematics of an image and the programming libretto with the purpose of organizing a structural base of computer graphics. We will elaborate the procedures used to produce graphics known throughout the history of art, but that are nowadays also found in design and security graphics. The results are closely related graphics obtained by changing parameters that initiate them. The aim is to control the graphics, i.e. to use controlled stochastic to achieve desired solutions. Since the artists from the past have never published the procedures of screening methods, their ideas have remained “only” the works of art. In this article we will present the development of the algorithm that, more or less successfully, simulates those screening solutions. It has been proven that mathematically defined graphical elements serve as screening elements. New technological and mathematical solutions are introduced in the reproduction with individual screening elements to be used in printing.

  2. Simulant Development for LAWPS Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Renee L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schonewill, Philip P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burns, Carolyn A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-05-23

    This report describes simulant development work that was conducted to support the technology maturation of the LAWPS facility. Desired simulant physical properties (density, viscosity, solids concentration, solid particle size), sodium concentrations, and general anion identifications were provided by WRPS. The simulant recipes, particularly a “nominal” 5.6M Na simulant, are intended to be tested at several scales, ranging from bench-scale (500 mL) to full-scale. Each simulant formulation was selected to be chemically representative of the waste streams anticipated to be fed to the LAWPS system, and used the current version of the LAWPS waste specification as a formulation basis. After simulant development iterations, four simulants of varying sodium concentration (5.6M, 6.0M, 4.0M, and 8.0M) were prepared and characterized. The formulation basis, development testing, and final simulant recipes and characterization data for these four simulants are presented in this report.

  3. The King–Devick test for sideline concussion screening in collegiate football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle F. Leong

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: The data show worsening of K–D test scores following concussion further supporting utility of the K–D test as an objective, reliable and effective sideline visual screening tool to help identify athletes with concussion.

  4. Evaluation of the concomitant use of two different EIA tests for HIV screening in blood banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Marcia M; Salles, Nanci A; Barreto, Angela M E; Barreto, Claudia C; Chamone, Dalton F; Sabino, Ester C

    2003-01-01

    In 1998, the Brazilian Ministry of Health made it mandatory for all blood banks in the country to screen donated blood for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) concomitantly using two different enzyme immunoassay (EIA) tests. Concerned with the best use of available resources, our objective with this study was to evaluate the usefulness of conducting two EIA screening tests instead of just one. We analyzed data from 1999 through 2001 obtained by testing 698 191 units of donated blood using two EIA HIV screening tests concomitantly at the Pro-Blood Foundation/Blood Center of São Paulo (Fundação Pró-Sangue/Hemocentro de São Paulo), which is a major blood center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. All samples reactive in at least one of the two EIA tests were submitted for confirmation by a Western blot (WB) test, and the persons who had donated those samples were also asked to return and provide a follow-up sample. Out of the 698 191 blood units that were donated, 2 718 of them (0.4%) had to be discarded because they were reactive to at least one of the EIA tests. There were two WB-positive donation samples that were reactive in only one HIV EIA screening test. On their follow-up samples, both donors tested WB-negative. These cases were considered false positive results at screening. Of the 2 718 donors who were asked to return and provide a follow-up sample, 1 576 of them (58%) did so. From these 1 576 persons, we found that there were two individuals who had been reactive to only one of the two EIA screening tests and who had also been negative on the WB at screening but who were fully seroconverted on the follow-up sample. We thus estimated that, in comparison to the use of a single EIA screening test, the use of two EIA screening tests would detect only one extra sample out of 410 700 units of blood. Our data do not support the use of two different, concomitant EIA screening tests for HIV. The great majority of HIV-positive donors have already seroconverted and

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of a two-item Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiet, Quyen Q; Leyva, Yani E; Moos, Rudolf H; Smith, Brandy

    2017-11-01

    Drug use is prevalent and costly to society, but individuals with drug use disorders (DUDs) are under-diagnosed and under-treated, particularly in primary care (PC) settings. Drug screening instruments have been developed to identify patients with DUDs and facilitate treatment. The Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST) is one of the most well-known drug screening instruments. However, similar to many such instruments, it is too long for routine use in busy PC settings. This study developed and validated a briefer and more practical DAST for busy PC settings. We recruited 1300 PC patients in two Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) clinics. Participants responded to a structured diagnostic interview. We randomly selected half of the sample to develop and the other half to validate the new instrument. We employed signal detection techniques to select the best DAST items to identify DUDs (based on the MINI) and negative consequences of drug use (measured by the Inventory of Drug Use Consequences). Performance indicators were calculated. The two-item DAST (DAST-2) was 97% sensitive and 91% specific for DUDs in the development sample and 95% sensitive and 89% specific in the validation sample. It was highly sensitive and specific for DUD and negative consequences of drug use in subgroups of patients, including gender, age, race/ethnicity, marital status, educational level, and posttraumatic stress disorder status. The DAST-2 is an appropriate drug screening instrument for routine use in PC settings in the VA and may be applicable in broader range of PC clinics. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Alternative multi-user interaction screen: initial ergonomic test results

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Andrew C

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigate a potentially low-cost multi-user computer pointing interface. Given a choice of four targets arranged on the screen, the authors looked at what the user’s preference is in visiting the targets with a hand-held light source...

  7. Screening test for assessment of ultimate biodegradability: linear alkylbenzene sulfonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gledhill, W E

    1975-01-01

    A relatively simple shake-flask system for determining CO2 evolution was developed to assess the ultimate biodegradability by soil and sewage micro-organisms of chemicals which enter the environment. Linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) were used as model compounds to evaluate the method and were found to undergo substantial biodegradation in this dilute system. At the 30 mg/liter test concentration, higher-molecular-weight LAS compounds were biodegraded at a slower rate and to a lesser extent than lower-molecular-weight LAS, an effect which was eliminated or greatly reduced upon incremental addition of the LAS to the test medium during the first week of incubation. LA35S was used to demonstrate rapid LAS desulfonation, and 14CO2 evolution studies with (14C) benzene ring-labeled LAS indicated concomitant biodegradation of the entire LAS molecule as well as the LAS aromatic component. The test can be employed to examine numerous compounds at the same time and is readily adapted to studies of the effect of variation in temperature and oxygen concentration on biodegradation. PMID:1211937

  8. National assessment of HPV and Pap tests: Changes in cervical cancer screening, National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Meg; Benard, Vicki; King, Jessica; Crawford, Anatasha; Saraiya, Mona

    2017-07-01

    Major organizations recommend cytology screening (Pap test) every 3years for women aged 21-65; women aged 30 to 65 have the option of adding the HPV test (co-test) every 5years. We examined national percentages of cervical cancer screening, and we examined use of co-testing as an option for screening. We used 2015 U.S. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data to examine recent cervical cancer screening (Pap test within 3years among women aged 21-65 without a hysterectomy; N=10,596) and co-testing (N=9,125). We also conducted a multivariable analysis to determine odds of having had a Pap test or co-test by demographic variables. To evaluate changes in screening over time, we examined Pap testing during the years 2000, 2005, 2008, 2010, 2013 and 2015. Analysis completed in Atlanta, GA during 2016. Overall, 81.1% of eligible women reported having a Pap test within 3years; percentages declined over time among all age groups. An estimated 14 million women aged 21-65 had not been screened within the past 3years. Recent immigrants to the United States, women without insurance, and women without a usual source of healthcare had lower odds of being up to date with screening. About 1/3 of women up to date on Pap testing reported having a co-test with their most recent Pap test. Declines in screening among women aged 21-65 are cause for concern. More research is needed on co-testing practices. Provider and patient education efforts may be needed to clarify recommended use of HPV tests. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Optical testing of a parabolic trough solar collector by a null screen with stitching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Oliva, V., I.; Campos-Garcia, M.; Granados-Agustin, F.; Arjona-Pérez, M. J.; Díaz-Uribe, R.; Avendaño-Alejo, M.

    2009-06-01

    In this work we report a method for testing a parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC) based on the null screen principles. For surfaces with symmetry of revolution a cylindrical null screen is used, now, for testing the PTSC we use a flat null screen. The design of the null screen with ellipsoidal spots is described; its image, which is formed by reflection on the test surface, becomes an exact square array of circular spots if the surface is perfect. Any departure from this geometry is indicative of defects on the surface. The flat null screen design and the surface evaluation algorithm are presented. Here the surface is tested in sections and the evaluation of the shape of the surface is performed with stitching method. Results of the evaluation for a square PTSC with 1000 mm by side (F/0.49) are shown.

  10. Development of a screening tool for children prior to school entrance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaidis, Loretta; Mantoudis, Stelios; Kyprianou, Miltiades; Janikian, Mari; Konstantopoulos, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The present study describes the development, application and validation of the Α' TEST, a screening tool administered individually to kindergarten children to determine their school preparedness. The A' TEST evaluates six cognitive domains (abstract thinking, critical reasoning, language skills, visual perception, visual motor skills and organizational skills). It was administered to 2002 preschool children, and validated through comparison with well-established classification systems. Also, in order to examine the predictive value of the A' TEST, 201 of the examined children were reevaluated by their teachers two years after initial assessment. Analysis provided evidence of structure, convergent, concurrent and discriminant validity and reliability, as well as predictive validity. Overall, the Α' TEST predicted that 9.1% of the children were not school-ready, giving a 98.5% correct prediction when compared with the teachers' evaluations two years later. In conclusion, the Α' TEST is a valid and appropriate screening tool for school readiness.

  11. Exploring general practitioners' experience of informing women about prenatal screening tests for foetal abnormalities: A qualitative focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiser Bettina

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent developments have made screening tests for foetal abnormalities available earlier in pregnancy and women have a range of testing options accessible to them. It is now recommended that all women, regardless of their age, are provided with information on prenatal screening tests. General Practitioners (GPs are often the first health professionals a woman consults in pregnancy. As such, GPs are well positioned to inform women of the increasing range of prenatal screening tests available. The aim of this study was to explore GPs experience of informing women of prenatal genetic screening tests for foetal abnormality. Methods A qualitative study consisting of four focus groups was conducted in metropolitan and rural Victoria, Australia. A discussion guide was used and the audio-taped transcripts were independently coded by two researchers using thematic analysis. Multiple coders and analysts and informant feedback were employed to reduce the potential for researcher bias and increase the validity of the findings. Results Six themes were identified and classified as 'intrinsic' if they occurred within the context of the consultation or 'extrinsic' if they consisted of elements that impacted on the GP beyond the scope of the consultation. The three intrinsic themes were the way GPs explained the limitations of screening, the extent to which GPs provided information selectively and the time pressures at play. The three extrinsic factors were GPs' attitudes and values towards screening, the conflict they experienced in offering screening information and the sense of powerlessness within the screening test process and the health care system generally. Extrinsic themes reveal GPs' attitudes and values to screening and to disability, as well as raising questions about the fundamental premise of testing. Conclusion The increasing availability and utilisation of screening tests, in particular first trimester tests, has expanded GPs

  12. Development of a potential screening measure for adolescent depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taouk, Mona; Meiser, Bettina; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Dudley, Michael; Mitchell, Philip B

    2017-06-01

    Few adolescent-specific depression screening instruments have been developed in recent years using multi-method approaches (qualitative and quantitative), and some of those available have limitations with an adolescent audience. We describe the development of a potential measure - the Taouk Scale for Adolescent Depression. Draft items were informed by findings from focus groups and reviews by adolescents and healthcare professionals, resulting in a provisional 97-item scale. This was administered to a nation-wide sample of 3087 secondary students. Exploratory factor analysis was used in a development subset to examine dimensionality of items and reduce their number, with the final item set evaluated in a validation subset. Four reliable factors - negative outlook, emotional distress, behavioural changes and cognitive and somatic disturbances - were obtained from the exploratory factor analysis, resulting in a 28-item instrument, which was corroborated by confirmatory factor analysis. The final scale includes a number of novel items not included in current measures, i.e., whether respondents wear more black clothing than usual, deliberately damage property, take more risks, 'space out' at school and are engaged in substance abuse and/or increased sexual activity. The Taouk Scale for Adolescent Depression demonstrated sound psychometric properties and may have utility for future screening and future epidemiological purposes. It appears to be a valid and reliable screening instrument for adolescent depression that includes a number of novel items. Further research is necessary to confirm its criterion validity in clinically depressed samples.

  13. Development of a language screening instrument for Swedish 4-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavesson, Ann; Lövdén, Martin; Hansson, Kristina

    2018-02-07

    The Swedish Program for health surveillance of preschool children includes screening of language and communication abilities. One important language screening is carried out at age 4 years as part of a general screening conducted by health nurses at child health centres. The instruments presently in use for this screening mainly focus on expressive phonology. This may result in both over-referral of children with phonological difficulties and under-referral of children with language disorders (LDs), involving difficulties with vocabulary, grammar and/or language comprehension. Previous research has proposed non-word repetition as a clinical marker for LD. It has also been found that higher predictive power is achieved when non-word repetition is combined with the assessment of lexical/semantic skills. Taking these findings into account, the construction of a language screening instrument may yield more adequate referrals to speech-language therapists (SLTs). To construct a new standardized language screening instrument for 4-year-olds and to test its properties. An instrument was developed and revised after piloting. A population of 352 children was screened at the regular 4-year check-up by 11 health nurses. The final sample consisted of 328 children aged 46-53 months (23% multilingual). Children performing below a preliminary cut-off were referred to an SLT (n = 52). Five SLTs carried out an assessment on average within 5 weeks using a gold standard language test battery. Children who screened negatively were followed up with a parent questionnaire at age 5;6. Thirty-one true-positives and 11 false-positives were identified after SLT assessment. A further six children were identified as false-negatives (two through referral to an SLT and four through parent questionnaire at age 5;6). A receiver-operating characteristics curve with a C statistic of .94 was calculated. Based on optimal cut-off, the sensitivity of the screening instrument was found to be .84, and

  14. Participation in prenatal screening tests and intentions concerning selective termination in Finnish maternity care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santalahti, P; Hemminki, E; Aro, A R

    1999-01-01

    AIMS: The study examined how prenatal screening tests are presented to women, factors associated with women's participation in screening, their experience of decision-making and intentions concerning pregnancy termination, and hospital data on rates of selective terminations. METHODS...... as a routine procedure. Most women (92%) underwent serum screening and most (86%) found the decision to participate or not easy. In almost every aspect of presentation and participation studied, serum and ultrasound screening differed from each other. 85% of respondents to ultrasound screening answered...... asking about selective terminations following detected fetal disorders were sent in 1993 to all public hospitals with obstetrics or gynaecology departments (response rate 100%). RESULTS: The serum screening test had usually been offered to women as a free choice, but for 22% of them it was presented...

  15. Validity and Reliability of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiburcio Sainz, Marcela; Rosete-Mohedano, Ma Guadalupe; Natera Rey, Guillermina; Martínez Vélez, Nora Angélica; Carreño García, Silvia; Pérez Cisneros, Daniel

    2016-03-02

    The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), has been used successfully in many countries, but there are few studies of its validity and reliability for the Mexican population. The objective of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the self-administered ASSIST test in university students in Mexico. This was an ex post facto non-experimental study with 1,176 undergraduate students, the majority women (70.1%) aged 18-23 years (89.5%) and single (87.5%). To estimate concurrent validity, factor analysis and tests of reliability and correlation were carried out between the subscale for alcohol and AUDIT, those for tobacco and the Fagerström Test, and those for marijuana and DAST-20. Adequate reliability coefficients were obtained for ASSIST subscales for tobacco (alpha = 0.83), alcohol (alpha = 0.76), and marijuana (alpha = 0.73). Significant correlations were found only with the AUDIT (r = 0.71) and the alcohol subscale. The best balance of sensitivity and specificity of the alcohol subscale (83.8% and 80%, respectively) and the largest area under the ROC curve (81.9%) was found with a cutoff score of 8. The self-administered version of ASSIST is a valid screening instrument to identify at-risk cases due to substance use in this population.

  16. Development and application of screening tools for biodegradation in water-sediment systems and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, Thomas; Coors, Anja; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2016-02-15

    Two new screening-test systems for biodegradation in water-sediment systems (WSST; Water-Sediment Screening Tool) and soil (SST; Soil Screening Tool) were developed in analogy with the water-only test system OECD 301C (MITI-test). The test systems could be applied successfully to determine reproducible experimental mineralization rates and kinetics on the screening-test level for fifteen organic chemicals in water (MITI), water-sediment (WSST) and soil (SST). Substance-specific differences were observed for mineralization compared among the three test systems. Based on mineralization rate and mineralization half-life, the fifteen compounds could be grouped into four biodegradation categories: substances with high mineralization and a half-life compounds do not reflect their (reversible) sorption into organic matter in terms of experimental K(oc) values and log D values for the relevant pH range. Regarding mineralization kinetics we recommend to determine the lag-phase, mineralization half-life and mineralization rate using a 5-parameter logistic regression for degradation curves with and without lag-phase. Experimental data obtained with the WSST and the SST could be verified by showing good agreement with biodegradation data from databases and literature for the majority of compounds tested. Thus, these new screening-tools for water-sediment and soil are considered suitable to determine sound and reliable quantitative mineralization data including mineralization kinetics in addition to the water-only ready biodegradability tests according to OECD 301. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Changes in cervical cancer screening behavior for women attending Pap Test Week clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliquin, V; Decker, K; Altman, Ad; Lotocki, R

    2013-01-01

    This retrospective study of all women who accessed the 2006 Manitoba Pap Test Week clinics was designed to determine factors associated with inadequate cervical cancer screening and changes in cervical cancer screening behavior. Data were acquired using the CervixCheck Manitoba registry and an ancillary database of demographic information collected from clinic attendees. The study included 1124 women. Of these, 53% (n = 598) were under-screened (no Pap test in the previous 2 years) prior to accessing the clinics. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that older age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.03), no doctor (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.05-1.54), and living in Canada Pap Test Week clinics. Thirty-seven percent (n = 223) of under-screened women demonstrated improved screening status subsequent to the 2006 Pap Test Week (had a subsequent Papanicolaou [Pap] test performed within 2 years) and these women were more likely to live in an urban setting (P = 0.003), be younger (P Pap test result in 2006 (P Pap test performed at a Pap Test Week clinic compared to having a Pap test performed elsewhere (37% versus 60%, P Pap Test Week clinics whose screening status might be most modifiable.

  18. Expanded newborn screening and confirmatory follow-up testing for inborn errors of metabolism detected by tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozben, Tomris

    2013-01-01

    Newborn screening (NBS) of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) is a coordinated comprehensive system consisting of education, screening, follow-up of abnormal test results, confirmatory testing, diagnosis, treatment, and evaluation of periodic outcome and efficiency. The ultimate goal of NBS and follow-up programs is to reduce morbidity and mortality from the disorders. Over the past decade, tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has become a key technology in the field of NBS. It has replaced classic screening techniques of one-analysis, one-metabolite, one-disease with one analysis, many-metabolites, and many-diseases. The development of electrospray ionization (ESI), automation of sample handling and data manipulation have allowed the introduction of expanded NBS for the identification of numerous conditions on a single sample and new conditions to be added to the list of disorders being screened for using MS/MS. In the case of a screened positive result, a follow-up analytical test should be performed for confirmation of the primary result. The most common confirmatory follow-up tests are amino acids and acylcarnitine analysis in plasma and organic acid analysis in urine. NBS should be integrated with follow-up and clinical management. Recent improvements in therapy have caused some disorders to be considered as potential candidates for NBS. This review covers some of the basic theory of expanded MS/MS and follow-up confirmatory tests applied for NBS of IEM.

  19. Development of phytoxpro TLC videodensitometer for phytochemical screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Jalil Abd Hamid; Shafii Khamis

    2004-01-01

    A simple low-cost PhytoXPro TLC Video densitometer was developed to facilitate phytochemical screening in medicinal plants. It was based on a digital video camera system interface to a PC Image capturing of TLC chromatograin through the USB digital video camera is performed according to the selected resolution. Region of interest (ROI) of TLC chromatogram image are selected and transformed to color histogram, based on the HSI color space components. The possibility of phytochemical fingerprint identification from the created color histogram was examined The performance characteristics of the system provide sufficient sensitivity for use in semi quantitative analysis. This type of low-cost system can be installed on conventional PCs with easy to use, and quick documentation system for screening of phytochemical constituents in medicinal plants. (Author)

  20. Detector development and test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeder, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    Following the ideas presented in the proposal to the DoE, we have begun to acquire the equipment needed to design, develop construct and test the electronic and mechanical features of detectors used in High Energy Physics Experiments. A guiding principle for the effort is to achieve integrated electronic and mechanical designs which meet the demanding specifications of the modern hadron collider environment yet minimize costs. This requires state of the art simulation of signal processing as well as detailed calculations of heat transfer and finite element analysis of structural integrity

  1. Screening for prostate cancer with the prostate-specific antigen test: are patients making informed decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, K J; Volk, R J; Cass, A R; Spann, S J

    1999-09-01

    The benefits of early detection of prostate cancer are uncertain, and the American College of Physicians and the American Academy of Family Physicians recommend individual decision making in prostate cancer screening. This study reports the knowledge of male primary care patients about prostate cancer and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing and examines how that knowledge is related to PSA testing, preferences for testing in the future, and desire for involvement in physician-patient decision making. The sample included 160 men aged 45 to 70 years with no history of prostate cancer who presented for care at a university-based family medicine clinic. Before scheduled office visits, patients completed a questionnaire developed for this study that included a 10-question measure of prostate cancer knowledge, the Deber-Kraestchmer Problem-Solving Decision-Making Scale, sociodemographic indicators, and questions on PSA testing. In general, patients who were college graduates were more knowledgeable about prostate cancer and early detection than those with a high school education or less. Aside from college graduates, most patients could not identify the principle advantages and disadvantages of PSA testing. Patients indicating previous or future plans for PSA testing demonstrated greater knowledge than other patients. Desire for involvement in decision making varied by patient education but was not related to past PSA testing. Patients lack knowledge about prostate cancer and early detection. This knowledge deficit may impede the early detection of prostate cancer and is a barrier to making an informed decision about undergoing PSA testing.

  2. Development of the Fogg Intent-to-Screen for HIV (ITS HIV) questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogg, Catherine J; Mawn, Barbara Ellen; Porell, Frank

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, we describe the development and psychometric properties of the Fogg Intent-to-Screen for HIV questionnaire (ITS HIV), which measures peoples' beliefs and intentions toward HIV screening. The ITS HIV was developed using the Theory of Planned Behavior as the framework for a developmental process that included qualitative interviews, a validation phase, two pilot tests, and a field test of the final 55-item questionnaire. The field test involved 312 homeless persons from five New England states. Cronbach alphas of the direct measures scales ranged from .72 to .90. Findings from a path analysis verified the construct validity. The psychometric estimates from these analyses suggest the ITS HIV questionnaire is appropriate for use in clinical practice or to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Recommendations for cervical cancer screening programs in developing countries: the need for equity and technological development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazcano-Ponce Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The cervical cancer screening programs (CCSP have not been very efficient in the developing countries. This explains the need to foster changes on policies, standards, quality control mechanisms, evaluation and integration of new screening alternatives considered as low and high cost, as well as to regulate colposcopy practices and the foundation of HPV laboratories. Cervical cancer (CC is a disease most frequently found in poverty-stricken communities and reflecting a problem of equity at both levels gender and regional, and this, is not only due to social and economic development inequalities, but to the infrastructure and human resources necessary for primary care. For this reason, the CCSP program must be restructured, a to primarily address unprivileged rural and urban areas; b to foster actions aimed at ensuring extensive coverage as well as a similar quality of that coverage in every region; c to use screening strategies in keeping with the availability of health care services. In countries with a great regional heterogeneity, a variety of screening procedures must be regulated and standardized, including a combination of assisted visual inspection, cervical cytology and HPV detection; d regional community intervention must be set up to assess the effectiveness of using HPV detection as an strategy in addition to cervical cytology (pap smear; e the practice of colposcopy must be regulated to prevent the use of it in healthy women at a population level, thus preventing unnecessary diagnosis and treatment which not only are expensive but also causes unnecessary anxiety to women at risk; f the operation of those clinical laboratories using HPV as a detection strategy must likewise be accredited and regulated and g the CCSP program for assuring health care quality should meet the expectations of its beneficiaries, and increase the knowledge in cervical cancer related matters. Finally, though a variety of clinical tests on prophylactic and

  4. Cost-effectiveness of one versus two sample faecal immunochemical testing for colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goede, S Lucas; van Roon, Aafke H C; Reijerink, Jacqueline C I Y; van Vuuren, Anneke J; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Habbema, J Dik F; Kuipers, Ernst J; van Leerdam, Monique E; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein

    2013-05-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of a single faecal immunochemical test (FIT) are limited. The performance of FIT screening can be improved by increasing the screening frequency or by providing more than one sample in each screening round. This study aimed to evaluate if two-sample FIT screening is cost-effective compared with one-sample FIT. The MISCAN-colon microsimulation model was used to estimate costs and benefits of strategies with either one or two-sample FIT screening. The FIT cut-off level varied between 50 and 200 ng haemoglobin/ml, and the screening schedule was varied with respect to age range and interval. In addition, different definitions for positivity of the two-sample FIT were considered: at least one positive sample, two positive samples, or the mean of both samples being positive. Within an exemplary screening strategy, biennial FIT from the age of 55-75 years, one-sample FIT provided 76.0-97.0 life-years gained (LYG) per 1000 individuals, at a cost of € 259,000-264,000 (range reflects different FIT cut-off levels). Two-sample FIT screening with at least one sample being positive provided 7.3-12.4 additional LYG compared with one-sample FIT at an extra cost of € 50,000-59,000. However, when all screening intervals and age ranges were considered, intensifying screening with one-sample FIT provided equal or more LYG at lower costs compared with two-sample FIT. If attendance to screening does not differ between strategies it is recommended to increase the number of screening rounds with one-sample FIT screening, before considering increasing the number of FIT samples provided per screening round.

  5. Evaluation of a Screening Test for Detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium Parasites ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Youn, Sojin; Kabir, Mamun; Haque, Rashidul; Petri, William A.

    2008-01-01

    The Giardia/Cryptosporidium Chek test (TechLab, Inc.), a screening test for Giardia and Cryptosporidium, was evaluated with 136 fecal samples. Using the results of the Giardia II test and Cryptosporidium II test as gold standards, it was 98.4% sensitive and 100% specific and had positive and negative predictive values of 98.7% and 99.3%.

  6. Development of a Climate Resilience Screening Index (CRSI) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Climate Resilience Screening Index is being developed that is applicable at multiple scales for the United States. Those scales include national, state, county and community. The index will be applied at the first three scales and at selected communities. The index was developed in order to explicitly include domains, indicators and metrics addressing environmental, economic and societal aspects of climate resilience. In addition, the index uses indicators and metrics that assess ecosystem, economic, governance and social services at these scales. Finally, we are developing forecasting approaches that can relate intended changes in services and governance to likely levels of changes in the resiliency of communities to climate change impacts. The present challenge is the incorporation of the index, its relationships to governance and the developing forecasting tools into Federal decision-making across US government and into state/county/community decision-making across the US. This is a slower and more tedious process than the slow process of technical acceptance of the index and its relation to climate change Development of a Climate Resilience Screening Index and its potential for application. Will permit comparison of the resilience of varying communities to climate impacts and through its use permit improvement of resilience of environmental, economic, social and governance attributes of resilience. OAR, OW, OSC, and Regions.

  7. Alternative Water Processor Test Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Karen D.; Mitchell, Julie L.; Adam, Niklas M.; Barta, Daniel; Meyer, Caitlin E.; Pensinger, Stuart; Vega, Leticia M.; Callahan, Michael R.; Flynn, Michael; Wheeler, Ray; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Next Generation Life Support Project is developing an Alternative Water Processor (AWP) as a candidate water recovery system for long duration exploration missions. The AWP consists of biological water processor (BWP) integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). The basis of the BWP is a membrane aerated biological reactor (MABR), developed in concert with Texas Tech University. Bacteria located within the MABR metabolize organic material in wastewater, converting approximately 90% of the total organic carbon to carbon dioxide. In addition, bacteria convert a portion of the ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrification and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system is expected to produce water with a total organic carbon less than 50 mg/l and dissolved solids that meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. This paper describes the test definition, the design of the BWP and FOST subsystems, and plans for integrated testing.

  8. Alternative Water Processor Test Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Karen D.; Mitchell, Julie; Vega, Leticia; Adam, Niklas; Flynn, Michael; Wjee (er. Rau); Lunn, Griffin; Jackson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The Next Generation Life Support Project is developing an Alternative Water Processor (AWP) as a candidate water recovery system for long duration exploration missions. The AWP consists of biological water processor (BWP) integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). The basis of the BWP is a membrane aerated biological reactor (MABR), developed in concert with Texas Tech University. Bacteria located within the MABR metabolize organic material in wastewater, converting approximately 90% of the total organic carbon to carbon dioxide. In addition, bacteria convert a portion of the ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrogen and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system is expected to produce water with a total organic carbon less than 50 mg/l and dissolved solids that meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. This paper describes the test definition, the design of the BWP and FOST subsystems, and plans for integrated testing.

  9. Development and applicability of a ready-to-use PCR system for GMO screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Sabrina F; Gatto, Francesco; Angers-Loustau, Alexandre; Petrillo, Mauro; Kreysa, Joachim; Querci, Maddalena

    2016-06-15

    With the growing number of GMOs introduced to the market, testing laboratories have seen their workload increase significantly. Ready-to-use multi-target PCR-based detection systems, such as pre-spotted plates (PSP), reduce analysis time while increasing capacity. This paper describes the development and applicability to GMO testing of a screening strategy involving a PSP and its associated web-based Decision Support System. The screening PSP was developed to detect all GMOs authorized in the EU in one single PCR experiment, through the combination of 16 validated assays. The screening strategy was successfully challenged in a wide inter-laboratory study on real-life food/feed samples. The positive outcome of this study could result in the adoption of a PSP screening strategy across the EU; a step that would increase harmonization and quality of GMO testing in the EU. Furthermore, this system could represent a model for other official control areas where high-throughput DNA-based detection systems are needed. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Six years of vision screening tests in pre-school children in kindergartens of Wroclaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmigiel, Marta; Geniusz, Malwina; Szmigiel, Ireneusz

    2017-09-01

    Detection of vision defects of a child without professional knowledge is not easy. Very often, the parents of a small child does not know that their child sees incorrect. Also the youngster, not knowing any other way of seeing, does not know that it is not the best. While the vision of a small child is not yet fully formed, it is worth checking them very early. Defects detected early gives opportunity for the correction of anomalies, which might give the effect of the normal development of vision. According to the indications, the American Optometric Association (AOA) control eye examination should be performed between the ages of 6 months to 3 years, before going to school and then every two years. Members of SPIE Student Chapter, in cooperation with the Visual Optics Group working on the Department of Optics and Photonics (Faculty of Fundamental Problems, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology) for 6 years offer selected kindergartens of Wroclaw participation in project "Screening vision tests in pre-school children". Depending on the number of involved members of the student chapter and willing to cooperate students of Ophthalmology and Optometry, vision screening test was carried out in up to eight kindergartens every year. The basic purpose of screening vision test is to detect visual defects to start the correction so early in life as possible, while increasing the efficiency of the child's visual potential. The surrounding community is in fact more than enough examples of late diagnose vision problems, which resulted in lack of opportunity or treatment failure

  11. Old and New Ideas for Data Screening and Assumption Testing for Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flora, David B.; LaBrish, Cathy; Chalmers, R. Philip

    2011-01-01

    We provide a basic review of the data screening and assumption testing issues relevant to exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis along with practical advice for conducting analyses that are sensitive to these concerns. Historically, factor analysis was developed for explaining the relationships among many continuous test scores, which led to the expression of the common factor model as a multivariate linear regression model with observed, continuous variables serving as dependent variables, and unobserved factors as the independent, explanatory variables. Thus, we begin our paper with a review of the assumptions for the common factor model and data screening issues as they pertain to the factor analysis of continuous observed variables. In particular, we describe how principles from regression diagnostics also apply to factor analysis. Next, because modern applications of factor analysis frequently involve the analysis of the individual items from a single test or questionnaire, an important focus of this paper is the factor analysis of items. Although the traditional linear factor model is well-suited to the analysis of continuously distributed variables, commonly used item types, including Likert-type items, almost always produce dichotomous or ordered categorical variables. We describe how relationships among such items are often not well described by product-moment correlations, which has clear ramifications for the traditional linear factor analysis. An alternative, non-linear factor analysis using polychoric correlations has become more readily available to applied researchers and thus more popular. Consequently, we also review the assumptions and data-screening issues involved in this method. Throughout the paper, we demonstrate these procedures using an historic data set of nine cognitive ability variables. PMID:22403561

  12. PEDS and ASQ developmental screening tests may not identify the same children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sices, Laura; Stancin, Terry; Kirchner, Lester; Bauchner, Howard

    2009-10-01

    In analyzing data from a larger study, we noticed significant disagreement between results of 2 commonly used developmental screening tools (Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status [PEDS; parent concern questionnaire] and Ages & Stages Questionnaires [ASQ; parent report of developmental skills]) delivered to children at the same visit in primary care. The screens have favorable reported psychometric properties and can be efficient to use in practice; however, there is little comparative information about the relative performance of these tools in primary care. We sought to describe the agreement between the 2 screens in this setting. Parents of 60 children aged 9 to 31 months completed PEDS and ASQ screens at the same visit. Concordance (PEDS and ASQ results agree) and discordance (results differ) for the 2 screens were determined. The mean age of children was 17.6 months, 77% received Medicaid, and 50% of parents had a high school education or less. Overall, 37% failed the PEDS and 27% failed the ASQ. Thirty-one children passed (52%) both screens; 9 (15%) failed both; and 20 (33%) failed 1 but not the other (13 PEDS and 7 ASQ). Agreement between the 2 screening tests was only fair, statistically no different from agreement by chance. There was substantial discordance between PEDS and ASQ developmental screens. Although these are preliminary data, clinicians need to be aware that in implementing revised American Academy of Pediatrics screening guidelines, the choice of screening instrument may affect which children are likely to be identified for additional evaluation.

  13. A field test of substance use screening devices as part of routine drunk-driving spot detection operating procedures in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzopoulos, Richard; Lasarow, Avi; Bowman, Brett

    2013-10-01

    This pilot study aimed to test four substance use screening devices developed in Germany under local South African conditions and assess their utility for detecting driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) as part of the standard roadblock operations of local law enforcement agencies. The devices were used to screen a sample of motorists in the Gauteng and Western Cape provinces. The motorists were diverted for screening at roadblocks at the discretion of the law enforcement agencies involved, as per their standard operating procedures. Fieldworkers also administered a questionnaire that described the screening procedure, as well as information about vehicles, demographic information about the motorists and their attitudes to the screening process during testing. Motorists tested positive for breath alcohol in 28% of the 261 cases tested. Oral fluid was screened for drugs as per the standard calibrated cut-offs of all four devices. There were 14 cases where the under-influence drivers tested positive for alcohol and drugs simultaneously, but 14% of the 269 drivers drug-screened tested positive for drugs only. After alcohol, amphetamine, methamphetamine and cocaine were the most common drugs of impairment detected. The results suggest that under normal enforcement procedures only 76% of drivers impaired by alcohol and other drugs would have been detected. In more than 70% of cases the tests were administered within 5 min and this is likely to improve with more regular use. It was clear that the pilot screening process meets global testing standards. Although use of the screening devices alone would not serve as a basis for prosecution and provisions would need to be made for the confirmation of results through laboratory testing, rollout of this screening process would improve operational efficiency in at least two ways. Firstly, the accuracy of the tests will substantially decrease confirmatory test loads. Secondly, laboratory drug testing can be restricted to

  14. Evaluating the evidence: direct-to-consumer screening tests advertised online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, Kimberly M; Mackey, Timothy K; Liang, Bryan A

    2012-09-01

    Unsupervised online direct-to-consumer (DTC) access to medical services has rapidly expanded to medical screening tests, which have not been critically evaluated for their evidence basis. The objective of this study is to identify the scope of online-advertised DTC screening tests, outline the evidence for use of available DTC testing and suggest regulatory reform to address the relevant issues. An observational study of website advertisements, testing services and counselling/follow-up services for DTC testing was conducted. Data were collected from websites between 4 April and 1 June 2011. Each website was assessed for tests offered, advertised indications and availability of counselling/follow-up services. Advertised testing indications were compared with US Preventive Services Task Force recommendations and/or specialty guidelines and categorized as Supported, Against, Insufficient Evidence or No Guidance. Of 20 companies identified as offering DTC screening tests, 95% (19/20) do not clearly offer pretest counselling, post-test counselling and/or test follow-up. One hundred and twenty-seven different tests were identified. Only 19/127 (15%) could be Supported for screening in a target group selected for testing; 38/127 (30%) were given recommendations to avoid use in specific target group(s) selected for testing ('Against recommendations'); 29/127 (23%) had Insufficient Evidence of value, and for 64/127 (50%) No Guidance could be given. Only 4/127 (3%) tests were Supported for general screening use. Virtually all identified medical tests advertised and offered DTC are not recommended for use in screening by evidence-based guidelines. Limited oversight may lead to inaccurate self-diagnosis, treatment and wasted health resources.

  15. 42 CFR 410.17 - Cardiovascular disease screening tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services... total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglyceride. The test is performed after a 12-hour fasting...

  16. Prenatal screening tests may be a warning for the partial molar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Placental pathologies in early pregnancy may be overlooked, especially in partial molar pregnancy. We are reporting an incorrect preliminary diagnosed case with an increased risk of Down syndrome in her first-trimester screening test due to ...

  17. [Problems related to screening tests for drug addiction at the workplace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persechino, B; Martini, A; Iavicoli, S

    2003-01-01

    The authors review the issues related to implementation of screening procedures and testing for alcohol and drug addiction in occupational safety and health perspectives also in view of international organization regulations and directives.

  18. The impact of screening-test negative samples not enumerated by MPN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corbellini, Luis Gustavo; Ribeiro Duarte, Ana Sofia; de Knegt, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    In microbiological surveys, false negative results in detection tests precluding the enumeration by MPN may occur. The objective of this study was to illustrate the impact of screening test failure on the probability distribution of Salmonella concentrations in pork using a Bayesian method. A total...... a Bayesian model that uses the number of positive tubes at each dilution in an MPN analysis to estimate the parameters of the concentration distribution. With Salmonella paired data, three data sets were used for each slaughter step: one that includes the positives in the screening test only, a second one...... that includes false negative results from the screening, and a third that considers the entire data set. The relative sensitivity of the screening test was also calculated assuming as gold standard samples with confirmed Salmonella. Salmonella was confirmed by a reference laboratory in 29 samples either...

  19. A study of characteristics of a reliable and practical breath alcohol screening test. Part A

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate several commercially available breath-alcohol screening test devices of the length-of-stain type, under standardized laboratory conditions, with respect to their ability satisfactorily to detect an...

  20. MR angiography as a screening tool for intracranial aneurysms: feasibility, test characteristics, and interobserver agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaymakers, T. W.; Buys, P. C.; Verbeeten, B.; Ramos, L. M.; Witkamp, T. D.; Hulsmans, F. J.; Mali, W. P.; Algra, A.; Bonsel, G. J.; Bossuyt, P. M.; Vonk, C. M.; Buskens, E.; Limburg, M.; van Gijn, J.; Gorissen, A.; Greebe, P.; Albrecht, K. W.; Tulleken, C. A.; Rinkel, G. J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: MR angiography may be an appropriate tool to screen for unruptured intracranial aneurysms. Feasibility, test characteristics, and interobserver agreement in evaluation of MR angiograms were assessed by members of the MARS (Magnetic resonance Angiography in Relatives of patients with

  1. Recent advances in prenatal genetic screening and testing [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatia B. Van den Veyver

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of new technologies has dramatically changed the current practice of prenatal screening and testing for genetic abnormalities in the fetus. Expanded carrier screening panels and non-invasive cell-free fetal DNA-based screening for aneuploidy and single-gene disorders, and more recently for subchromosomal abnormalities, have been introduced into prenatal care. More recently introduced technologies such as chromosomal microarray analysis and whole-exome sequencing can diagnose more genetic conditions on samples obtained through amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling, including many disorders that cannot be screened for non-invasively. All of these options have benefits and limitations, and genetic counseling has become increasingly complex for providers who are responsible for guiding patients in their decisions about screening and testing before and during pregnancy.

  2. Participation in prenatal screening tests and intentions concerning selective termination in Finnish maternity care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santalahti, P; Hemminki, E; Aro, A R

    1999-01-01

    AIMS: The study examined how prenatal screening tests are presented to women, factors associated with women's participation in screening, their experience of decision-making and intentions concerning pregnancy termination, and hospital data on rates of selective terminations. METHODS...... asking about selective terminations following detected fetal disorders were sent in 1993 to all public hospitals with obstetrics or gynaecology departments (response rate 100%). RESULTS: The serum screening test had usually been offered to women as a free choice, but for 22% of them it was presented...... that it was offered as a routine procedure. Close acquaintance with a person with congenital disability was negatively associated with participation in serum screening and with the intention to terminate pregnancy in case of a detected disability. 27% of women in the serum screening survey and 22% in the ultrasound...

  3. Protein crystallization screens developed at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrec, Fabrice

    2016-05-01

    In order to solve increasingly challenging protein structures with crystallography, crystallization reagents and screen formulations are regularly investigated. Here, we briefly describe 96-condition screens developed at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology: the LMB sparse matrix screen, Pi incomplete factorial screens, the MORPHEUS grid screens and the ANGSTROM optimization screen. In this short review, we also discuss the difficulties and advantages associated with the development of protein crystallization screens. Copyright © 2016 MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Healthcare professionals' and parents' experiences of the confirmatory testing period: a qualitative study of the UK expanded newborn screening pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Louise; Atkinson, Lou; Kehal, Isher; Bonham, James R

    2017-05-08

    With further expansion of the number of conditions for which newborn screening can be undertaken, it is timely to consider the impact of positive screening results and the confirmatory testing period on the families involved. This study was undertaken as part of a larger programme of work to evaluate the Expanded Newborn Screening (ENBS) programme in the United Kingdom (UK). It was aimed to determine the views and experiences of healthcare professionals (HCPs) and parents on communication and interaction during the period of confirmatory testing following a positive screening result. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with parents of children who had received a positive ENBS result and HCPs who had been involved with the diagnosis and support of parents. Ten parents and 11 healthcare professionals took part in the in-depth interviews. Questions considered the journey from the positive screening result through confirmatory testing to a confirmed diagnosis and the communication and interaction between the parents and HCPs that they had been experienced. Key themes were identified through thematic analysis. The results point to a number of elements within the path through confirmatory testing that are difficult for parents and could be further developed to improve the experience. These include the way in which the results are communicated to parents, rapid turnaround of results, offering a consistent approach, exploring interventions to support family relationships and reviewing the workload and scheduling implications for healthcare professionals. As technology enables newborn screening of a larger number of conditions, there is an increasing need to consider and mediate the potentially negative effects on families. The findings from this study point to a number of elements within the path through confirmatory testing that are difficult for parents and could be further developed to benefit the family experience.

  5. Li-Ion Cell Lot Testing and Flight Screening Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    This document reports the lot characterization and sample testing required for certification of a new lot of Moli-Energy Li-lon ICR-18650H 2200-mAh...cells that constitute this new lot are also presented. All testing began upon receipt of the new cell lot in March 2(K)9 and was performed with the

  6. Review of short-term screening tests for mutagens, toxigens, and carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carney, H.J.; Hass, B.S.

    1979-07-01

    In order to test the thousands of man-made chemicals in the environment for carcinogenic and genetic hazards, a multitude of short-term screening tests has been developed to complement long-term mammalian bioassays and epidemiological studies. These tests cover a broad spectrum of organisms, and include the use of naked and viral nucleic acids, bacteria, fungi, higher plants, insects in vitro mammalian cell cultures (cell transformation, cell-mediated mutagenesis, DNA repair, and chromosome aberration tests) and live mammals. Assay end points include effects on nucleic acids, DNA repair synthesis, point or gene mutation, structural and numerical chromosome aberrations, cytological alterations, and in vitro cell transformation. The present review describes and compares these assays. In addition, it discusses their historical development, the problems and limitations associated with their use, and their implementation in comprehensive testing programs. It is intended to provide overview and specific information to the laboratory that is in the process of establishing genetic toxicological systems. (The literature is reviewed to January 1978.)

  7. Consequences of screening in lung cancer: development and dimensionality of a questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, John; Thorsen, Hanne; Kreiner, Svend

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to extend the Consequences of Screening (COS) Questionnaire for use in a lung cancer screening by testing for comprehension, content coverage, dimensionality, and reliability....

  8. Astrophysical tests of gravity: a screening map of the nearby universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabré, Anna; Vikram, Vinu; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Koyama, Kazuya

    2012-01-01

    Astrophysical tests of modified gravity theories in the nearby universe have been emphasized recently by Hui 2009 and Jain 2011. A key element of such tests is the screening mechanism whereby general relativity is restored in massive halos or high density environments like the Milky Way. In chameleon theories of gravity, including all f(R) models, field dwarf galaxies may be unscreened and therefore feel an extra force, as opposed to screened galaxies. The first step to study differences between screened and unscreened galaxies is to create a 3D screening map. We use N-body simulations to test and calibrate simple approximations to determine the level of screening in galaxy catalogs. Sources of systematic errors in the screening map due to observational inaccuracies are modeled and their contamination is estimated. We then apply our methods to create a map out to 200 Mpc in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey footprint using data from the Sloan survey and other sources. In two companion papers this map will be used to carry out new tests of gravity using distance indicators and the disks of dwarf galaxies. We also make our screening map publicly available

  9. Perceived effectiveness of HPV test as a primary screening modality among US providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Saraiya, Mona

    2015-09-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) test, administered alone without the Papanicolaou (Pap) test, was recently recognized as a cervical cancer screening option in the United States by the Society of Gynecologic Oncology and the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and the Food and Drug Administration has approved an HPV test for primary screening. Surveys of US internists, family practitioners, nurse practitioners, and obstetrician-gynecologists were conducted in 2009 and 2012 to investigate providers' perceptions of the effectiveness of the HPV test administered alone as a population-based screening modality (2009: N=1040, 141-494 per provider group; 2012: N=1039, 155-435 per provider group). The majority in each provider group agreed that the HPV test administered alone is an effective screening modality in 2009 (75.3%-86.1%) and 2012 (79.5%-91.8%), and agreement rose significantly during this time period among family practitioners (χ(2)=15.26, df=1, ptest administered alone is an effective cervical cancer screening modality was widespread among providers in both 2009 and 2012, however implementation of guidelines for screening with the HPV test may be influenced by many other factors including reimbursement and patient preferences. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Cross-cultural validity of standardized motor development screening and assessment tools: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Bianca; Sargent, Barbara; Fetters, Linda

    2016-12-01

    To investigate whether standardized motor development screening and assessment tools that are used to evaluate motor abilities of children aged 0 to 2 years are valid in cultures other than those in which the normative sample was established. This was a systematic review in which six databases were searched. Studies were selected based on inclusion/exclusion criteria and appraised for evidence level and quality. Study variables were extracted. Twenty-three studies representing six motor development screening and assessment tools in 16 cultural contexts met the inclusion criteria: Alberta Infant Motor Scale (n=7), Ages and Stages Questionnaire, 3rd edition (n=2), Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd edition (n=8), Denver Developmental Screening Test, 2nd edition (n=4), Harris Infant Neuromotor Test (n=1), and Peabody Developmental Motor Scales, 2nd edition (n=1). Thirteen studies found significant differences between the cultural context and normative sample. Two studies established reliability and/or validity of standardized motor development assessments in high-risk infants from different cultural contexts. Five studies established new population norms. Eight studies described the cross-cultural adaptation of a standardized motor development assessment. Standardized motor development assessments have limited validity in cultures other than that in which the normative sample was established. Their use can result in under- or over-referral for services. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  11. Newborn screening for citrin deficiency and carnitine uptake defect using second-tier molecular tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Li-Yun

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS analysis is a powerful tool for newborn screening, and many rare inborn errors of metabolism are currently screened using MS/MS. However, the sensitivity of MS/MS screening for several inborn errors, including citrin deficiency (screened by citrulline level and carnitine uptake defect (CUD, screened by free carnitine level, is not satisfactory. This study was conducted to determine whether a second-tier molecular test could improve the sensitivity of citrin deficiency and CUD detection without increasing the false-positive rate. Methods Three mutations in the SLC25A13 gene (for citrin deficiency and one mutation in the SLC22A5 gene (for CUD were analyzed in newborns who demonstrated an inconclusive primary screening result (with levels between the screening and diagnostic cutoffs. Results The results revealed that 314 of 46 699 newborns received a second-tier test for citrin deficiency, and two patients were identified; 206 of 30 237 newborns received a second-tier testing for CUD, and one patient was identified. No patients were identified using the diagnostic cutoffs. Although the incidences for citrin deficiency (1:23 350 and CUD (1:30 000 detected by screening are still lower than the incidences calculated from the mutation carrier rates, the second-tier molecular test increases the sensitivity of newborn screening for citrin deficiency and CUD without increasing the false-positive rate. Conclusions Utilizing a molecular second-tier test for citrin deficiency and carnitine transporter deficiency is feasible.

  12. NC-TEST: noncontact thermal emissions screening technique for drug and alcohol detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokoski, Francine J.

    1997-01-01

    Drug abuse is highly correlated with criminal behavior. The typical drug-using criminal commits hundreds of crimes per year. The crime rate cannot be significantly reduced without a reduction in the percentage of the population abusing drugs and alcohol. Accurate and timely estimation of that percentage is important for policy decisions concerning crime control, public health measures, allocation of intervention resources for prevention and treatment, projections of criminal justice needs, and the evaluation of policy effectiveness. Such estimation is particularly difficult because self reporting is unreliable; and physical testing has to date required blood or urine analysis which is expensive and invasive, with the result that too few people are tested. MIKOS Ltd. has developed a non-contact, passive technique with the potential for automatic, real- time screening for drug and alcohol use. The system utilizes thermal radiation which is spontaneously and continuously emitted by the human body. Facial thermal patterns and changes in patterns are correlated with standardized effects of specific drugs and alcohol. A portable system incorporating the collection and analysis technique can be used episodically to collect data for estimating drug and alcohol use by general unknown populations such as crowds at airports, or it can be used for repetitive routine screening of specific known groups such as airline pilots, military personnel, school children, or persons on probation or parole.

  13. Health Screening: What Tests You Need and When

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you are considering having a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test or digital rectal examination (DRE). Sexually Transmitted ... for cancer of the colon, serum prostatic-specific antigen (PSA) for prostate cancer, mammography for breast cancer, and ...

  14. Extended duration of the detectable stage by adding HPV test in cervical cancer screening.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marie, ME van den Akker-v; Ballegooijen, van M.; Rozendaal, L.; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Habbema, J.D.

    2003-01-01

    The human papillomavirus test (HPV) test could improve the (cost-) effectiveness of cervical screening by selecting women with a very low risk for cervical cancer during a long period. An analysis of a longitudinal study suggests that women with a negative Pap smear and a negative HPV test have a

  15. Comparison of accuracy measures of two screening tests for gestational diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Marsha; Zweers, Egbert J. K.; Opmeer, Brent C.; van Ballegooie, Evert; ter Brugge, Henk G.; de Valk, Harold W.; Mol, Ben W. J.; Visser, Gerard H. A.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the accuracy measures of the random glucose test and the 50-g glucose challenge test as screening tests for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, pregnant women without preexisting diabetes in two perinatal centers

  16. Development of a screening approach for exploring cell factory potential through metabolic flux analysis and physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Peter Boldsen; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Thykær, Jette

    2012-01-01

    of the recombinant strains in order to evaluate their potential as fungal cell factories and for guiding further metabolic engineering strategies. To meet the demand for a fast and reliable method for physiological characterisation of fungal strains, a screening approach using a micro titer format was developed...... of the validation, already well described fungal strains were selected and tested using the described method and the developed method was subsequently used to test recombinant fungal strains producing the model polyketide 6-methylsalicylic acid. Diligent application of this strategy significantly reduces the cost...

  17. The performance of blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors as screening tests for ischaemic heart disease and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, M R; Wald, N J; Morris, J K

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarises the main evidence and conclusions relating to using blood pressure measurement as a screening test to identify people who will develop ischaemic heart disease (IHD) or stroke, as recently published in a Health Technology Assessment report. While blood pressure is recognised as an important cause of stroke and IHD, and lowering blood pressure can substantially lower the risk of these diseases, the measurement of blood pressure is a poor screening test. It is not good in distinguishing those who will and will not develop these diseases. The poor screening performance is illustrated by the findings that in the largest cohort study, persons in the top 10% of the distribution of systolic blood pressure experienced only 21% of all IHD events and 28% of all strokes at a given age. Using several cardiovascular risk factors in combination does not add materially to the poor screening performance of blood pressure alone. Among persons in a specified age group, the 5% at highest risk experience 17% of all heart disease deaths with risk computation based on blood pressure alone, 22% when based on blood pressure and apolipoprotein B (or LDL cholesterol) in combination, and only 28% using these two, smoking and three other cardiovascular risk factors all in combination. Identifying patients at the time of hospital discharge following myocardial infarction or stroke is the most effective screening test to identify those who will die of cardiovascular disease. In patients with a history of myocardial infarction or stroke the cardiovascular death rate in the absence of treatment is about 5% per year, a risk that persists for at least 15 years. In the absence of treatment, about half of all deaths from heart disease in a population occur after hospital discharge following the first infarct. Among persons with no history of cardiovascular disease, age is a better screening test than the reversible risk factors, and the best policy is to offer treatment to all

  18. Development of Visual Field Screening Procedures: A Case Study of the Octopus Perimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Turpin, Andrew; Myers, Jonathan S.; McKendrick, Allison M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We develop a methodology for designing perimetric screening procedures, using Octopus perimeters as a case study. Methods The process has three stages: analytically determining specificity and number of presentations required for different multisampling suprathreshold schemes at a single location of the visual field, ranking visual field locations by their positive predictive value (PPV) for glaucoma, and determining a pass/fail criteria for the test. For the case study the Octopus G-...

  19. Discrimination indices as screening tests for beta-thalassemic trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntaios, George; Chatzinikolaou, Anastasia; Saouli, Zoi; Girtovitis, Fotios; Tsapanidou, Maria; Kaiafa, Georgia; Kontoninas, Zisis; Nikolaidou, Androula; Savopoulos, Christos; Pidonia, Ifigenia; Alexiou-Daniel, Stiliani

    2007-07-01

    The two most frequent microcytic anemias are beta-thalassemic trait (beta-TT) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Several discrimination indices have been proposed to distinguish between these two conditions. These indices are derived from several simple red blood cell indices, like red blood cell (RBC) count, mean cell volume, and RBC distribution width (RDW), as these are provided by electronic cell counters. The purpose of the study is to examine the diagnostic accuracy of six discrimination indices in the differentiation between IDA and beta-TT. The six discrimination indices that were examined were as follows: Mentzer Index (MI), Green & King Index (G&K), RDW Index (RDWI), England & Fraser Index (E&F), RDW, and RBC count. We calculated these indices on 373 patients (205 men, 168 women) with beta-TT and 120 patients (50 men, 70 women) with IDA, as well as their sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative prognostic value, efficiency, and Youden's index (YI). G&K shows the highest reliability, followed by E&F, RBC count, MI, and RDWI. On the contrary, RDW completely failed to differentiate between IDA and beta-TT. G&K proved to be the most reliable index as it had the highest sensitivity (75.06%), efficiency (80.12%), and YI (70.86%) for the detection of beta-TT. These six discrimination indices cannot be relied on for a safe differential diagnosis between beta-TT and IDA. They do have high specificity, but their sensitivity for the detection of beta-TT is not satisfactory. Consequently, they cannot be used neither as a screening tool for beta-TT because they could result in a significant number of false negative results.

  20. Cost-effectiveness analysis for Pap smear screening and human papillomavirus DNA testing and vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng-Kan; Hung, Hui-Fang; Duffy, Stephen; Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi

    2011-12-01

    As the effectiveness of cytology-based screening programme for cervical cancer in mortality reduction has reached a plateau, various preventive strategies have been considered, including intensive Pap smear screening and the supplemental use of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test or HPV vaccination. Cost and effectiveness of these various preventive strategies are therefore of great concern for health policy makers. We intended to assess whether the combination of HPV DNA testing or HPV vaccination with Pap smear screening programme or the sole annual Pap smear screening is more effective and cost-effective in prevention of cervical cancer than the existing triennial Pap smear screening programme. A Markov decision model was constructed to compare total costs and effectiveness between different preventive strategies (including annual Pap smear, HPV DNA testing or HPV vaccination together with Pap smear screening programme) as opposed to the triennial Pap smear screening alone (the comparator). Probabilistic cost-effectiveness (C-E) analysis was adopted to plot a series of simulated incremental C-E ratios scattered over C-E plane and also to yield the acceptability curve for different comparisons of strategies. The threshold of vaccine cost and the influence of attendance rate were also investigated. Compared with triennial Pap smear screening programme, most of preventive strategies cost more but gain additional life years (quadrant I of C-E plane) except HPV DNA testing with Pap smear every 5 years dominated by triennial Pap smear screening programme. The most cost-effective strategy was annual Pap smear (incremental C-E ratio = $31 698), followed by HPV DNA testing with Pap smear every 3 years ($36 627), and vaccination programme with triennial Pap smear screening ($44 688) with the corresponding cost-effective probabilities by the acceptability curve being 65.52%, 52.08% and 35.84% given the threshold of $40 000 of willingness to pay. Vaccination combined with

  1. The development of a web- and a print-based decision aid for prostate cancer screening

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    Schwartz Marc D

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether early detection and treatment of prostate cancer (PCa will reduce disease-related mortality remains uncertain. As a result, tools are needed to facilitate informed decision making. While there have been several decision aids (DAs developed and tested, very few have included an exercise to help men clarify their values and preferences about PCa screening. Further, only one DA has utilized an interactive web-based format, which allows for an expansion and customization of the material. We describe the development of two DAs, a booklet and an interactive website, each with a values clarification component and designed for use in diverse settings. Methods We conducted two feasibility studies to assess men's (45-70 years Internet access and their willingness to use a web- vs. a print-based tool. The booklet was adapted from two previous versions evaluated in randomized controlled trials (RCTs and the website was created to closely match the content of the revised booklet. Usability testing was conducted to obtain feedback regarding draft versions of the materials. The tools were also reviewed by a plain language expert and the interdisciplinary research team. Feedback on the content and presentation led to iterative modifications of the tools. Results The feasibility studies confirmed that the Internet was a viable medium, as the majority of men used a computer, had access to the Internet, and Internet use increased over time. Feedback from the usability testing on the length, presentation, and content of the materials was incorporated into the final versions of the booklet and website. Both the feasibility studies and the usability testing highlighted the need to address men's informed decision making regarding screening. Conclusions Informed decision making for PCa screening is crucial at present and may be important for some time, particularly if a definitive recommendation either for or against screening does not

  2. A highly accurate inclusive cancer screening test using Caenorhabditis elegans scent detection.

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    Takaaki Hirotsu

    Full Text Available Early detection and treatment are of vital importance to the successful eradication of various cancers, and development of economical and non-invasive novel cancer screening systems is critical. Previous reports using canine scent detection demonstrated the existence of cancer-specific odours. However, it is difficult to introduce canine scent recognition into clinical practice because of the need to maintain accuracy. In this study, we developed a Nematode Scent Detection Test (NSDT using Caenorhabditis elegans to provide a novel highly accurate cancer detection system that is economical, painless, rapid and convenient. We demonstrated wild-type C. elegans displayed attractive chemotaxis towards human cancer cell secretions, cancer tissues and urine from cancer patients but avoided control urine; in parallel, the response of the olfactory neurons of C. elegans to the urine from cancer patients was significantly stronger than to control urine. In contrast, G protein α mutants and olfactory neurons-ablated animals were not attracted to cancer patient urine, suggesting that C. elegans senses odours in urine. We tested 242 samples to measure the performance of the NSDT, and found the sensitivity was 95.8%; this is markedly higher than that of other existing tumour markers. Furthermore, the specificity was 95.0%. Importantly, this test was able to diagnose various cancer types tested at the early stage (stage 0 or 1. To conclude, C. elegans scent-based analyses might provide a new strategy to detect and study disease-associated scents.

  3. A highly accurate inclusive cancer screening test using Caenorhabditis elegans scent detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirotsu, Takaaki; Sonoda, Hideto; Uozumi, Takayuki; Shinden, Yoshiaki; Mimori, Koshi; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Ueda, Naoko; Hamakawa, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Early detection and treatment are of vital importance to the successful eradication of various cancers, and development of economical and non-invasive novel cancer screening systems is critical. Previous reports using canine scent detection demonstrated the existence of cancer-specific odours. However, it is difficult to introduce canine scent recognition into clinical practice because of the need to maintain accuracy. In this study, we developed a Nematode Scent Detection Test (NSDT) using Caenorhabditis elegans to provide a novel highly accurate cancer detection system that is economical, painless, rapid and convenient. We demonstrated wild-type C. elegans displayed attractive chemotaxis towards human cancer cell secretions, cancer tissues and urine from cancer patients but avoided control urine; in parallel, the response of the olfactory neurons of C. elegans to the urine from cancer patients was significantly stronger than to control urine. In contrast, G protein α mutants and olfactory neurons-ablated animals were not attracted to cancer patient urine, suggesting that C. elegans senses odours in urine. We tested 242 samples to measure the performance of the NSDT, and found the sensitivity was 95.8%; this is markedly higher than that of other existing tumour markers. Furthermore, the specificity was 95.0%. Importantly, this test was able to diagnose various cancer types tested at the early stage (stage 0 or 1). To conclude, C. elegans scent-based analyses might provide a new strategy to detect and study disease-associated scents.

  4. Quantiferon test for tuberculosis screening in sarcoidosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, Nils; Søborg, Bolette; Svendsen, Claus Bo

    2011-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors have been introduced in the treatment of refractory sarcoidosis. These biologics may reactivate latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Despite its known limitations, the tuberculin skin test (TST) is currently used for the diagnosis of LTBI in Danish...

  5. Evaluation of microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests in screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by the protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. Infection of individual is through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. This study evaluated the performance of microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in diagnosing malaria. A total of 400 clinically suspected malaria ...

  6. The effects of isolated single umbilical artery on first and second trimester aneuploidy screening test parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulek, Firat; Kahraman, Alper; Taskin, Salih; Ozkavukcu, Esra; Soylemez, Feride

    2015-04-01

    Reliability of first and second trimester screening tests largely depends on accurate estimation of maternal serum marker values. Reduced reliability could lead redundant invasive tests or misdiagnosis. Adjustments of serum marker values for confounding factors like insulin-dependent diabetes, maternal weight or maternal rhesus status are essential. We aimed to investigate whether isolated single umbilical artery alters first and second trimester test parameters or not. Routine detailed obstetric ultrasonographies performed were retrospectively screened for this study. Among spontaneously conceived singleton pregnancies, women who were found to have single umbilical artery without any additional structural anomalies or aneuploidies were selected. First and second trimester screening test results were accessible for 98 and 102 of the cases with isolated single umbilical artery, respectively. Among first trimester screening test parameters, PAPP-A (pregnancy-associated plasma protein A) MoMs were found significantly higher in isolated single umbilical artery group. AFP MoMs were found significantly elevated in isolated single umbilical artery group in second trimester quadruple tests. Existence of single umbilical artery could alter the estimation of MoM values of maternal serum markers. Reliability of prenatal screening tests could be improved by adjusting these parameters in accordance with isolated single umbilical artery.

  7. Screening test for neutralizing antibodies against yellow fever virus, based on a flavivirus pseudotype.

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    Séverine Mercier-Delarue

    Full Text Available Given the possibility of yellow fever virus reintroduction in epidemiologically receptive geographic areas, the risk of vaccine supply disruption is a serious issue. New strategies to reduce the doses of injected vaccines should be evaluated very carefully in terms of immunogenicity. The plaque reduction test for the determination of neutralizing antibodies (PRNT is particularly time-consuming and requires the use of a confinement laboratory. We have developed a new test based on the use of a non-infectious pseudovirus (WN/YF17D. The presence of a reporter gene allows sensitive determination of neutralizing antibodies by flow cytometry. This WN/YF17D test was as sensitive as PRNT for the follow-up of yellow fever vaccinees. Both tests lacked specificity with sera from patients hospitalized for acute Dengue virus infection. Conversely, both assays were strictly negative in adults never exposed to flavivirus infection or vaccination, and in patients sampled some time after acute Dengue infection. This WN/YF17D test will be particularly useful for large epidemiological studies and for screening for neutralizing antibodies against yellow fever virus.

  8. Assessment of the Medmont C100 test for colour vision screening of male Saudi Arabians

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    Abdullah Z. Alotaibi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the Medmont C100 test as a colour vision screening tool. Methods: One hundred and seventeen young male adults were screened with the Medmont C100, Ishihara plates, and the screening mode of the Oculus Anomaloscope tests. All subjects were tested under constant room illumination, namely that of a day light fluorescent lamp at 200 lux. Inclusion criteria were visual acuities (VA of 20/20 or better with or without correction and absence of known ocular pathologies.Aided and unaided visual acuities were measured with the Snellen VA chart. Results: Five out of the117 subjects, were found to have red-green colour vision deficiency (CVD with Ishihara and anomaloscope tests indicating a 4.7% CVD prevalence, while the Medmont C100 test yielded 33 cases of red-green deficiency indicating CVD prevalence of 28%.  With the Ishihara test, all five subjects were identified as deutans, while the anomaloscope revealed three as deutans and two as protans, and the Medmont C100 test identified all 33 cases as protans. Conclusion:  The Medmont C100 test yielded significantly higher prevalence of protan CVD compared with the Ishihara platesand Anomaloscope tests. These findings suggest that caution should be taken when using Medmont C100 test for colour vision screening as it tends togive more false positive results with bias for protans.  (S Afr Optom 2011 70(1 14-20

  9. Impact on colorectal cancer mortality of screening programmes based on the faecal immunochemical test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Manuel; Fedeli, Ugo; Schievano, Elena; Bovo, Emanuela; Guzzinati, Stefano; Baracco, Susanna; Fedato, Chiara; Saugo, Mario; Dei Tos, Angelo Paolo

    2015-05-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programmes based on the guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) reduce CRC-specific mortality. Several studies have shown higher sensitivity with the faecal immunochemical test (FIT) compared with gFOBT. We carried out an ecological study to evaluate the impact of FIT-based screening programmes on CRC mortality. In the Veneto Region (Italy), biennial FIT-based screening programmes that invited 50-69-year-old residents were introduced in different areas between 2002 and 2009. We compared CRC mortality rates from 1995 to 2011 between the areas where screening started in 2002-2004 (early screening areas (ESA)) and areas that introduced the screening in 2008-2009 (late screening areas (LSA)) using Poisson regression models. We also compared available data on CRC incidence rates (1995-2007) and surgical resection rates (2001-2012). Before the introduction of screening, CRC mortality and incidence rates in the two areas were similar. Compared with 1995-2000, 2006-2011 mortality rates were 22% lower in the ESA than in the LSA (rate ratio (RR)=0.78; 95% CI 0.68 to 0.89). The reduction was larger in women (RR=0.64; CI 0.51 to 0.80) than in men (RR=0.87; CI 0.73 to 1.04). In the ESA, incidence and surgery rates peaked during the introduction of the screening programme and then returned to the baseline (2006-2007 incidence) or dropped below initial values (surgery after 2007). FIT-based screening programmes were associated with a significant reduction in CRC mortality. This effect took place much earlier than reported by gFOBT-based trials and observational studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Evaluation of the concomitant use of two different EIA tests for HIV screening in blood banks

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    Otani Marcia M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In 1998, the Brazilian Ministry of Health made it mandatory for all blood banks in the country to screen donated blood for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV concomitantly using two different enzyme immunoassay (EIA tests. Concerned with the best use of available resources, our objective with this study was to evaluate the usefulness of conducting two EIA screening tests instead of just one. METHODS: We analyzed data from 1999 through 2001 obtained by testing 698 191 units of donated blood using two EIA HIV screening tests concomitantly at the Pro-Blood Foundation/Blood Center of São Paulo (Fundação Pró-Sangue/Hemocentro de São Paulo, which is a major blood center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. All samples reactive in at least one of the two EIA tests were submitted for confirmation by a Western blot (WB test, and the persons who had donated those samples were also asked to return and provide a follow-up sample. RESULTS: Out of the 698 191 blood units that were donated, 2 718 of them (0.4% had to be discarded because they were reactive to at least one of the EIA tests. There were two WB-positive donation samples that were reactive in only one HIV EIA screening test. On their follow-up samples, both donors tested WB-negative. These cases were considered false positive results at screening. Of the 2 718 donors who were asked to return and provide a follow-up sample, 1 576 of them (58% did so. From these 1 576 persons, we found that there were two individuals who had been reactive to only one of the two EIA screening tests and who had also been negative on the WB at screening but who were fully seroconverted on the follow-up sample. We thus estimated that, in comparison to the use of a single EIA screening test, the use of two EIA screening tests would detect only one extra sample out of 410 700 units of blood. CONCLUSIONS: Our data do not support the use of two different, concomitant EIA screening tests for HIV. The great

  11. TORCH Screening Test in Pregnant Women of Kirkuk City

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    Hiro M. Obaid

    2017-07-01

    Cytomegalovirus, Rubella and Toxoplasma are prevalent among pregnant women in Kirkuk city and probably they are the causative agents of abortion and infertility found among them, therefore it's better for pregnant woman or those planning to become pregnant to be tested for TORCH infections, and vaccinated against Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes simplex virus and Toxoplasma to grantee her health  as well as her baby.

  12. Design and Development of an Electrostatic Screen Battery for Emission Control (ESBEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Taewon; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2017-05-01

    Current diesel particulate filters (DPFs) can effectively capture the exhaust particles, but they add to engine backpressure and accumulate particles during their operation, which results in the need to regenerate the DPFs by burning off the collected particles periodically. This regeneration results in aerosol emissions, especially in the 10-30 nanometer size range and contributes to ultrafine particle pollution. In this research, we designed and developed a prototype of a novel diesel exhaust control device: the Electrostatic Screen Battery for Emissions Control (ESBEC). The device features high particle collection efficiency without adding to the exhaust backpressure and without the need for thermal regeneration of the collected particles. The ESBEC consists of a series of metal mesh screens coated with a superhydrophobic substance and an integrated carbon fiber ionizer to charge the incoming particles. Multiple pairs of screens (e.g., 5 pairs) are arranged in a battery, in which one screen of each pair is supplied with high voltage, and the other is grounded, producing electrostatic field produced across the screens. The application of a superhydrophobic coating onto the screens allows easy removal of the collected particles using liquid without the need for thermal regeneration. The current prototypes of the device were tested with fluorescent polystyrene latex (PSL) particles of 0.2 and 1.2 μm in size and at 25 and 105 L/min sampling flow rates. The average collection efficiency was ~87% for 0.2 μm and ~95% for 1.2 μm PSL particles. In addition, the ESBEC was tested with actual diesel exhaust particles; here its performance was verified by visually inspecting deposition of particles on an after-filter with the device ON and OFF. In the next stages of this work, the ESBEC will be challenged with diesel exhaust at different mass concentrations and for different collection time periods.

  13. Por La Vida model intervention enhances use of cancer screening tests among Latinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, A M; Senn, K L; McNicholas, L J; Kaplan, R M; Roppé, B; Campo, M C

    1998-07-01

    To describe the short-term impact of the intervention known as Por La Vida (PLV) on cancer screening for Latinas in San Diego, California. Thirty-six lay community workers (consejeras) were recruited and trained to conduct educational group sessions. Each consejera recruited approximately 14 peers from the community to participate in the program. The consejeras were randomly assigned to either a twelve-week cancer screening intervention group or a control group in which they participated in an equally engaging program entitled "Community Living Skills." Pre- and post-intervention self-report information was obtained from project participants on the use of cancer screening examinations. Outcome measures were changes in the percentages of women who had breast and cervical cancer screening test within the past year before and after the intervention occurred. Experimental and control groups were compared using t-tests. Analyses were conducted using both consejeras and participants as the unit of analysis. The increase in the use of the cancer screening test was higher in the PLV cancer intervention group in comparison to women in the community living skills control group. Key to the PLV intervention model is the identification of natural helpers in the Latino community and their subsequent training in intervention based on social learning theory using culturally appropriate educational materials. The model is an effective and viable approach for increasing the use of cancer screening tests in Latinas of low socioeconomic level and low level of acculturation.

  14. Screening Indicators for the Sustainable Child Development Index (SCDI

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    Ya-Ju Chang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Since children are the key stakeholders supporting and being affected by sustainable development, the framework for the Sustainable Child Development Index (SCDI was proposed. It addresses social, economic and environmental dimensions of sustainable development by considering seven relevant themes of child development, i.e., health, education, safety, economic status, relationship, environmental aspects and participation. However, an indicator set for initiating the SCDI is still missing. In this study, indicators for the themes, subthemes and criteria of SCDI are identified from literature and then analyzed regarding data availability. Sixty-six indicators with statistical data covering at least 100 countries are selected as the indicator set for the SCDI. The results indicate that data availability is best for indicators describing the themes of health and education, and worst for indicators addressing the themes of relationship and participation. Furthermore, 21 subthemes and 50 criteria described by indicators with limited data availability are identified for future indicator and data development. By providing an initial indicator set and screening the indicators with regard to data availability, the practicality of the SCDI framework is expected. Furthermore, the indicator set can serve as a potential indicator pool for other child and sustainable development related studies.

  15. Incidence of interval cancers in faecal immunochemical test colorectal screening programmes in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Carretta, Elisa; Mangone, Lucia; Baracco, Susanna; Serraino, Diego; Zorzi, Manuel

    2018-03-01

    Objective In Italy, colorectal screening programmes using the faecal immunochemical test from ages 50 to 69 every two years have been in place since 2005. We aimed to measure the incidence of interval cancers in the two years after a negative faecal immunochemical test, and compare this with the pre-screening incidence of colorectal cancer. Methods Using data on colorectal cancers diagnosed in Italy from 2000 to 2008 collected by cancer registries in areas with active screening programmes, we identified cases that occurred within 24 months of negative screening tests. We used the number of tests with a negative result as a denominator, grouped by age and sex. Proportional incidence was calculated for the first and second year after screening. Results Among 579,176 and 226,738 persons with negative test results followed up at 12 and 24 months, respectively, we identified 100 interval cancers in the first year and 70 in the second year. The proportional incidence was 13% (95% confidence interval 10-15) and 23% (95% confidence interval 18-25), respectively. The estimate for the two-year incidence is 18%, which was slightly higher in females (22%; 95% confidence interval 17-26), and for proximal colon (22%; 95% confidence interval 16-28). Conclusion The incidence of interval cancers in the two years after a negative faecal immunochemical test in routine population-based colorectal cancer screening was less than one-fifth of the expected incidence. This is direct evidence that the faecal immunochemical test-based screening programme protocol has high sensitivity for cancers that will become symptomatic.

  16. Development of a cognitive screening instrument for tribal elderly population of Himalayan region in northern India

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    Sunil Kumar Raina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cognitive impairment, characteristic of dementia, is measured objectively by standard neuropsychological (cognitive tests. Given the diversity of culture and language in India, it is difficult to use a single modified version of MMSE uniformly to Indian population. In this article, we report methods on the development of a cognitive screening instrument suitable for the tribal (Bharmour elderly (60 years and above population of Himachal Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: We used a systematic, item-by-item, process for development of a modified version of MMSE suitable for elderly tribal population. Results: The modifications made in the English version of MMSE and the pretesting and pilot testing thereof resulted in the development of Bharmouri version of cognitive scale. Discussion: The study shows that effective modifications can be made to existing tests that require reading and writing; and that culturally sensitive modifications can be made to render the test meaningful and relevant, while still tapping the appropriate cognitive domains.

  17. Detection of complex hemoglobinopathies: recommendations on screening and DNA testing

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    E. Baysal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The following recommendations should be taken into account during the evaluation and elucidation of the complex hemoglobinopathies: a in complex hemoglobinopathies performing DNA studies on all family members might be essential; b complex gene-gene interactions offer major diagnostic challenges both at the technical and clinical level; c hematological & DNA analyses must be run in parallel. Some cases may be straight forward but others may require indepth DNA work-up; d co-inheritance of a-thalassemia offers added challenge as it may affect phenotype significantly; e sickle cell anemia (SS, co-inherited with a-thal, can be a phenocopy of Sβ0-thal. The HbA2 increase can be mistaken for Sβ-thal. DNA Sequencing is imperative; f only a selected number of normal MCV, MCH, borderline HbA2 cases must be referred for DNA analysis. However, in certain cases, following hematological and family evaluation, the β and d genes may need to be sequenced; g DNA Sequencing will increasingly become the method of choice for screening and DNA mutation analysis. However, new methods like MLPA-which analyzes gene dosage- must be used more commonly to rule out deletion mutants to avoid false negative sequencing results; h these recommendations should be reviewed every 2-3 years reflecting new methods, new findings and new findings from ethnic groups. 诊断和说明复杂血红蛋白病时,建议考虑以下几点: a)针对复杂的血红蛋白病,有必要对所有家庭成员开展DNA研究;b 复杂的基因-基因交互作用可能使诊断在技术和临床层面上颇受挑战;c 血液和DNA分析须同时进行。 有些病例简单,但另外一些病例可能需要开展深层次的DNA检查;d 由于α型地中海贫血可能严重影响表型,α型地中海贫血的共同继承特征更具挑战;e 共同继承α型地中海贫血的镰状细胞贫血(SS),可以作为Sβ0型地中海贫血的显型。 HbA2增

  18. "Chair Stand Test" as Simple Tool for Sarcopenia Screening in Elderly Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, P A; Carneiro, J A O; Coqueiro, R S; Pereira, R; Fernandes, M H

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the association between sarcopenia and "chair stand test" performance, and evaluate this test as a screening tool for sarcopenia in community-dwelling elderly women. Cross-sectional Survey. 173 female individuals, aged ≥ 60 years and living in the urban area of the municipality of Lafaiete Coutinho, Bahia's inland, Brazil. The association between sarcopenia (defined by muscle mass, strength and/or performance loss) and performance in the "chair stand test" was tested by binary logistic regression technique. The ROC curve parameters were used to evaluate the diagnostic power of the test in sarcopenia screening. The significance level was set at 5 %. The model showed that the time spent for the "chair stand test" was positively associated (OR = 1.08; 95% CI = 1.01 - 1.16, p = 0.024) to sarcopenia, indicating that, for each 1 second increment in the test performance, the sarcopenia's probability increased by 8% in elderly women. The cut-off point that showed the best balance between sensitivity and specificity was 13 seconds. The performance of "chair stand test" showed predictive ability for sarcopenia, being an effective and simple screening tool for sarcopenia in elderly women. This test could be used for screening sarcopenic elderly women, allowing early interventions.

  19. Developing Family Healthware, a family history screening tool to prevent common chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Paula W; Scheuner, Maren T; Jorgensen, Cynthia; Khoury, Muin J

    2009-01-01

    Family health history reflects the effects of genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors and is an important risk factor for a variety of disorders including coronary heart disease, cancer, and diabetes. In 2004, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed Family Healthware, a new interactive, Web-based tool that assesses familial risk for 6 diseases (coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and colorectal, breast, and ovarian cancer) and provides a "prevention plan" with personalized recommendations for lifestyle changes and screening. The tool collects data on health behaviors, screening tests, and disease history of a person's first- and second-degree relatives. Algorithms in the software analyze the family history data and assess familial risk based on the number of relatives affected, their age at disease onset, their sex, how closely related the relatives are to each other and to the user, and the combinations of diseases in the family. A second set of algorithms uses the data on familial risk level, health behaviors, and screening to generate personalized prevention messages. Qualitative and quantitative formative research on lay understanding of family history and genetics helped shape the tool's content, labels, and messages. Lab-based usability testing helped refine messages and tool navigation. The tool is being evaluated by 3 academic centers by using a network of primary care practices to determine whether personalized prevention messages tailored to familial risk will motivate people at risk to change their lifestyles or screening behaviors.

  20. Risk factor assessment to anticipate performance in the National Developmental Screening Test in children from a disadvantaged area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Alejandro; Pazos, Gustavo

    2016-02-01

    Identifying children at risk of failing the National Developmental Screening Test by combining prevalences of children suspected of having inapparent developmental disorders (IDDs) and associated risk factors (RFs) would allow to save resources. 1. To estimate the prevalence of children suspected of having IDDs. 2. To identify associated RFs. 3. To assess three methods developed based on observed RFs and propose a pre-screening procedure. The National Developmental Screening Test was administered to 60 randomly selected children aged between 2 and 4 years old from a socioeconomically disadvantaged area from Puerto Madryn. Twenty-four biological and socioenvironmental outcome measures were assessed in order to identify potential RFs using bivariate and multivariate analyses. The likelihood of failing the screening test was estimated as follows: 1. a multivariate logistic regression model was developed; 2. a relationship was established between the number of RFs present in each child and the percentage of children who failed the test; 3. these two methods were combined. The prevalence of children suspected of having IDDs was 55.0% (95% confidence interval: 42.4%-67.6%). Six RFs were initially identified using the bivariate approach. Three of them (maternal education, number of health checkups and Z scores for height-for-age, and maternal age) were included in the logistic regression model, which has a greater explanatory power. The third method included in the assessment showed greater sensitivity and specificity (85% and 79%, respectively). The estimated prevalence of children suspected of having IDDs was four times higher than the national standards. Seven RFs were identified. Combining the analysis of risk factor accumulation and a multivariate model provides a firm basis for developing a sensitive, specific and practical pre-screening procedure for socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  1. Cervical human papilloma virus (HPV) DNA primary screening test: Results of a population-based screening programme in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passamonti, Basilio; Gustinucci, Daniela; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Cesarini, Elena; Bulletti, Simonetta; Carlani, Angela; Martinelli, Nadia; Broccolini, Massimo; D'Angelo, Valentina; D'Amico, Maria Rosaria; Di Dato, Eugenio; Galeazzi, Paola; Malaspina, Morena; Spita, Nicoletta; Tintori, Beatrice; Giaimo, Maria Donata

    2017-09-01

    Objective To present the results of the first and second round human papilloma virus (HPV)-based screening programme in the Umbria region after three years. Methods From August 2010 to November 2011, the entire female population aged 35-64 in a local health district was invited for HPV testing (HPV-DNA cobas4800 on a liquid-based cytology sample). HPV-negative women were re-invited after three years. For HPV-positive women, a slide was prepared and interpreted. Positive cytologies were referred to colposcopy; negatives were referred to repeat HPV after one year. If HPV was persistently positive, women were referred to colposcopy; if negative, to normal screening. Indicators of the first and second round are compared with those of cytology screening in the same area in the preceding three years. Results Participation was 56.5%, the same as cytology (56.6%). HPV-positivity was 6.4% (396/6272), cytology triage positivity was 35.6%; 251 cytology negative women were referred to one-year HPV retesting, 84.1% complied, and 55.5% were positive. Total colposcopy referral was 4.1%, and for cytology 1%. The detection rate for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or more severe was 10‰, compared with 3.7‰ using cytology. After three years, HPV-positivity was 3.4% (129/3831), overall colposcopy referral was 2.3% (most at one-year follow-up), and detection rate was 0.5/1000. Conclusions The first round detection rate was more than twice that of cytology screening, while colposcopy referral increased fourfold. At the second round, the detection rate decreased dramatically, showing that longer interval and more conservative protocols are needed.

  2. Participation behaviour following a false positive test in the Copenhagen mammography screening programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sune Bangsbøll; Vejborg, Ilse; von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is an ongoing debate concerning possible disadvantages of mammography screening, one being the consequence of receiving a false positive test-result. It is argued that receiving a false positive answer may have short- and/or long-term adverse psychological effects on women......, but results from different studies are conflicting. We tested if there was a difference in continued participation behaviour between the group of women who have been subject to a false positive result and those who have not. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study used the registers from the first six invitation...... rounds of the mammography screening programme in Copenhagen (1991-2003). We estimated the relative risk of not participating in the subsequent screening round for women with a false positive test using women with a negative test as baseline. As outcome measure odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence...

  3. [LAST-Q: Adaptation and normalisation in Quebec of the Language Screening Test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois-Marcotte, J; Flamand-Roze, C; Denier, C; Monetta, L

    2015-05-01

    The goal of the present study was to adapt and to establish normative data for the recently developed Language Screening Test (LAST; Flamand-Roze et al., 2011) in the French-Canadian population according to age and level of education. After an adaptation process, 100 French-Canadian speakers were evaluated with the LAST-Q. As expected, a perfect score of 15/15 was obtained for all high level education participants, and a score of 14/15 was obtained for all participants with a lowest level of education or aged 80 years or more. Thanks to this adaptation, LAST-Q can be used in acute patients in stroke unit in Quebec. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Hemozoin detection may provide an inexpensive, sensitive, 1-minute malaria test that could revolutionize malaria screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimberg, Brian T; Grimberg, Kerry O

    2016-10-01

    Malaria remains widespread throughout the tropics and is a burden to the estimated 3.5 billion people who are exposed annually. The lack of a fast and accurate diagnostic method contributes to preventable malaria deaths and its continued transmission. In many areas diagnosis is made solely based on clinical presentation. Current methods for malaria diagnosis take more than 20 minutes from the time blood is drawn and are frequently inaccurate. The introduction of an accurate malaria diagnostic that can provide a result in less than 1 minute would allow for widespread screening and treatment of endemic populations, and enable regions that have gained a foothold against malaria to prevent its return. Using malaria parasites' waste product, hemozoin, as a biomarker for the presence of malaria could be the tool needed to develop this rapid test.

  5. Psychophysical Calibration of Mobile Touch-Screens for Vision Testing in the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2015-01-01

    The now ubiquitous nature of touch-screen displays in cell phones and tablet computers makes them an attractive option for vision testing outside of the laboratory or clinic. Accurate measurement of parameters such as contrast sensitivity, however, requires precise control of absolute and relative screen luminances. The nonlinearity of the display response (gamma) can be measured or checked using a minimum motion technique similar to that developed by Anstis and Cavanagh (1983) for the determination of isoluminance. While the relative luminances of the color primaries vary between subjects (due to factors such as individual differences in pre-retinal pigment densities), the gamma nonlinearity can be checked in the lab using a photometer. Here we compare results obtained using the psychophysical method with physical measurements for a number of different devices. In addition, we present a novel physical method using the device's built-in front-facing camera in conjunction with a mirror to jointly calibrate the camera and display. A high degree of consistency between devices is found, but some departures from ideal performance are observed. In spite of this, the effects of calibration errors and display artifacts on estimates of contrast sensitivity are found to be small.

  6. SECURE personnel screening system: field trials and new developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Steven W.

    1997-01-01

    Many different techniques have been investigated for detecting weapons, explosives, and contraband concealed under a person's clothing. Most of these are based on imaging the concealed object by using some sort of penetrating radiation, such as microwaves, ultrasound or electromagnetic fields.In spite of this effort by dozens of research groups, the only technique that has resulted in a commercially viable product is back-scatter x-ray imaging, as embodied in the SECURE 1000 personnel screening systems. The SECURE technology uses radiation levels that are insignificant compared to natural background values, being viewed as 'trivial' and 'completely insignificant' under established radiation safety standards. In the five years since the SECURE 1000 was developed, more than a dozen field trials and initial placements have been completed. This paper describes both the capabilities and limitations of the technology in these real-world applications.

  7. Chemical screening and development of novel gibberellin mimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kai; Shimotakahara, Hiroaki; Luo, Ming; Otani, Masato; Nakamura, Hidemitsu; Moselhy, Said Salama; Abualnaja, Khalid Omer; Al-Malki, Abdulrahman Labeed; Kumosani, Taha Abduallah; Kitahata, Nobutaka; Nakano, Takeshi; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Asami, Tadao

    2017-08-15

    Gibberellin (GA) plays versatile roles in the regulation of plant growth and development and therefore is widely used as a regulator in agriculture. We performed a chemical library screening and identified a chemical, named 67D, as a stimulator of seed germination that was suppressed by paclobutrazol (PAC), a GA biosynthesis inhibitor. In vitro binding assays indicated that 67D binds to the GID1 receptor. Further studies on the structure-activity relationship identified a chemical, named chemical 6, that strongly promoted seed germination suppressed by PAC. Chemical 6 was further confirmed to promote the degradation of RGA (for repressor of ga1-3), a DELLA protein, and suppress the expression levels of GA3ox1 in the same manner as GA does. 67D and its analogs are supposed to be agonists of GID1 and are expected to be utilized in agriculture and basic research as an alternative to GA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Screening and analyzing genes associated with Amur tiger placental development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q; Lu, T F; Liu, D; Hu, P F; Sun, B; Ma, J Z; Wang, W J; Wang, K F; Zhang, W X; Chen, J; Guan, W J; Ma, Y H; Zhang, M H

    2014-09-26

    The Amur tiger is a unique endangered species in the world, and thus, protection of its genetic resources is extremely important. In this study, an Amur tiger placenta cDNA library was constructed using the SMART cDNA Library Construction kit. A total of 508 colonies were sequenced, in which 205 (76%) genes were annotated and mapped to 74 KEGG pathways, including 29 metabolism, 29 genetic information processing, 4 environmental information processing, 7 cell motility, and 5 organismal system pathways. Additionally, PLAC8, PEG10 and IGF-II were identified after screening genes from the expressed sequence tags, and they were associated with placental development. These findings could lay the foundation for future functional genomic studies of the Amur tiger.

  9. Development of a New Stretchable and Screen Printable Conductive Ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Anwar A.

    Stretchable conductive ink is a key enabler for stretchable electronics. This thesis research focuses on the development of a new stretchable and screen printable conductive ink. After print and cure, this ink would be capable of being stretched by at least 500 cycles at 20% strain without increasing its resistance by more than 30 times the original resistance, while maintaining electrical and mechanical integrity. For a stretchable and screen-printable conductive ink, the correct morphology of the metal powder selected and the ability of the binder to be stretched after the sintering process, are both indispensable. This research has shown that a bi-modal mixture of fine and large-diameter silver flakes will improve stretchability. While the smaller flakes increase the conductivity and lower the sintering temperature, the larger flake particles promote ohmic connectivity during stretching. The bi-modal flake distribution increases connection points while enhancing packing density and lowering the thermal activation barrier. The polymer binder phase plays a crucial role in offering stretchability to the stretchable conductive inks. The silver flakes by themselves are not stretchable but they are contained within a stretchable binder system. The research demonstrates that commonly used printable ink binder when combined with large-chain polymers through a process known as 'elastomeric chain polymerization' will enable the conductive ink to become more stretchable. This research has shown that the new stretchable and screen printable silver conductive ink developed based upon the two insights mentioned above; (1) bi modal flakes to improve ohmic connectivity during stretching and (2) elastomeric chain polymerized binder system which could stretch even after the ink is sintered to the substrate, can exhibit an ink stretchability of at least 500 cycles at 20% strain while increasing the resistance by less than 30 times the original resistance. Wavy print patterns can

  10. New screen on the block: non-invasive prenatal testing for fetal chromosomal abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filoche, Sara; Lawton, Beverley; Beard, Angela; Dowell, Anthony; Stone, Peter

    2017-12-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) is a new screen for fetal chromosomal abnormalities. It is a screening test based on technology that involves the analysis of feto-placental DNA that is present in maternal blood. This DNA is then analysed for abnormalities of specific chromosomes (eg 13, 18, 21, X, Y). NIPT has a much higher screening capability for chromosomal abnormalities than current combined first trimester screening, with ~99% sensitivity for trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) and at least a 10-fold higher positive predictive value. The low false-positive rate (1-3%) is one of the most advertised advantages of NIPT. In practice, this could lead to a significant reduction in the number of false-positive tests and the need for invasive diagnostic procedures. NIPT is now suitable for singleton and twin pregnancies and can be performed from ~10 weeks in a pregnancy. NIPT is not currently publicly funded in most countries. However, the increasing availability of NIPT commercially will likely lead to an increase in demand for this as a screening option. Given the high numbers of women who visit a general practitioner (GP) in their first trimester, GPs are well-placed to also offer NIPT as a screening option. A GP's role in facilitating access to this service will likely be crucial in ensuring equity in access to this technology, and it is important to ensure that they are well supported to do so.

  11. Simple Screening Test for Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm in the Middle School Athlete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Tyler J.; Baker, Rachel H.; Weiss, Jason B.; Weiss, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    This article recommends and provides results from a simple screening test that could be incorporated into a standardized school evaluation for all children participating in sports and physical education classes. The test can be employed by physical educators utilizing their own gym to identify children who demonstrate signs of exercise-induced…

  12. Memory-Context Effects of Screen Color in Multiple-Choice and Fill-In Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestera, Gustavo E.; Clariana, Roy; Peck, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    In this experimental study, 44 undergraduates completed five computer-based instructional lessons and either two multiplechoice tests or two fill-in-the-blank tests. Color-coded borders were displayed during the lesson, adjacent to the screen text and illustrations. In the experimental condition, corresponding border colors were shown at posttest.…

  13. Extended duration of the detectable stage by adding HPV test in cervical cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Van Den Akker-van Marie (M.); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein); L. Rozendaal (Lawrence); C.J.L.M. Meijer (Chris); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe human papillomavirus test (HPV) test could improve the (cost-) effectiveness of cervical screening by selecting women with a very low risk for cervical cancer during a long period. An analysis of a longitudinal study suggests that women with a negative Pap smear and a negative HPV

  14. Cross-sectional evaluation of an internet-based hearing screening test in an occupational setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheikh Rashid, Marya; Leensen, Monique Cj; de Laat, Jan Apm; Dreschler, Wouter A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The Occupational Earcheck (OEC) is an online internet test to detect high-frequency hearing loss for the purposes of occupational hearing screening. In this study, we evaluated the OEC in an occupational setting in order to assess test sensitivity, specificity, and validity. Methods A

  15. The Micral-Test as a screening tool to detect micro- albuminuria in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods. Eighty children aged 5 -15 years with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) (HbSS) in a steady state attending the Lagos State University ... The sensitivity and specificity of the Micral-Test make it a good screening tool to detect MA in children with SCA. The Micral- .... The average cost of performing the Micral-Test was USD5.

  16. Uricult trio as a screening test for bacteriurla in pregnancy | Greeff ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To establish the effectiveness in an indigent urban population of Uricult Trio as a screening test for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy and in diagnosing urinary tract infections (UTI) in symptomatic pregnant women. likelihood ratios were established for positive and negative Uricult Trio test results. Subjects.

  17. Noninvasiv prænatal test er et gennembrud inden for prænatal screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornstrup, Louise Stig; Ambye, Louise; Sørensen, Steen

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing is a breakthrough in prenatal screening Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) using cell-free fetal DNA from the peripheral blood of the pregnant woman has become a possibility within recent years, but is not yet implemented in Denmark. NIPT has proven to be very...

  18. Development and weighting of a life cycle assessment screening model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Wayne E.; O'Shaughnessy, James; Johnson, Sharon A.; Sisson, Richard

    2004-02-01

    Nearly all life cycle assessment tools available today are high priced, comprehensive and quantitative models requiring a significant amount of data collection and data input. In addition, most of the available software packages require a great deal of training time to learn how to operate the model software. Even after this time investment, results are not guaranteed because of the number of estimations and assumptions often necessary to run the model. As a result, product development, design teams and environmental specialists need a simplified tool that will allow for the qualitative evaluation and "screening" of various design options. This paper presents the development and design of a generic, qualitative life cycle screening model and demonstrates its applicability and ease of use. The model uses qualitative environmental, health and safety factors, based on site or product-specific issues, to sensitize the overall results for a given set of conditions. The paper also evaluates the impact of different population input ranking values on model output. The final analysis is based on site or product-specific variables. The user can then evaluate various design changes and the apparent impact or improvement on the environment, health and safety, compliance cost and overall corporate liability. Major input parameters can be varied, and factors such as materials use, pollution prevention, waste minimization, worker safety, product life, environmental impacts, return of investment, and recycle are evaluated. The flexibility of the model format will be discussed in order to demonstrate the applicability and usefulness within nearly any industry sector. Finally, an example using audience input value scores will be compared to other population input results.

  19. Development of a Climate Resilience Screening Index (CRSI) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Climate Resilience Screening Index is being developed that is applicable at multiple scales for the United States. Those scales include national, state, county and community. The index will be applied at the first three scales and at selected communities. The index was developed in order to explicitly include domains, indicators and metrics addressing environmental, economic and societal aspects of climate resilience. In addition, the index uses indicators and metrics that assess ecosystem, economic, governance and social services at these scales. Finally, we are developing forecasting approaches that can relate intended changes in services and governance to likely levels of changes in the resiliency of communities to climate change impacts. The present challenge is the incorporation of the index, its relationships to governance and the developing forecasting tools into Federal decision-making across US government and into state/county/community decision-making across the US. Governmental acceptance of changes to policies often can be just as challenging as the initial technical acceptance of the index and its relation to climate change. Climate Resilience Index is a requested product by ORD AA and EPA Administrator through SHC Program. Index needed to assess states', counties', and communities' abilities of recovery from climate events. Audience: Internal EPA (Administrator, IO, OLEM, OW and OAR) and external (states, counties and communities). Product

  20. Risk-Reducing Salpingo-oophorectomy and Ovarian Cancer Screening in 1077 Women After BRCA Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannis, Gabriel N.; Fehniger, Julia E.; Creasman, Jennifer S.; Jacoby, Vanessa L.; Beattie, Mary S.

    2016-01-01

    Background For women at potentially increased risk for ovarian cancer, data regarding screening and risk reduction are limited. Previous studies have reported on the behaviors of BRCA mutation carriers, but less is known about the behaviors of non-BRCA carriers. We surveyed a large cohort of women after BRCA testing to identify the prevalence and posttest predictors of risk-reducing and screening interventions. Methods A median of 3.7 years after BRCA testing, 1447 women who received genetic counseling and BRCA testing at 2 hospital sites were surveyed, with a 77.6% response rate. We analyzed data from 1077 survey respondents. We performed univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to identify predictors of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO), screening transvaginal ultrasonography (TVUS), and screening serum cancer antigen 125 (CA-125). Results Among the respondents, 201 women (18.7%) received positive test results for a deleterious mutation, 103 women (9.6%) received true-negative results, and 773 women (71.8%) received uninformative results. Overall, 19.1% of eligible women underwent RRSO and 39.6% used screening procedures. A positive BRCA result predicted RRSO (odds ratio [OR], 28.1; 95% CI, 16.2-48.6), TVUS (9.5 [4.3-21.0]), and serum CA-125 (13.0 [5.5-29.0]). Similarly, a true-negative BRCA result reduced the OR for RRSO (0.1 [0.0-0.6]), TVUS (0.2 [0.1-0.5]), and serum CA-125 (0.3 [0.1-0.7]). Of the 71.8% of women who received uninformative results after BRCA testing, 12.3% subsequently underwent RRSO, 33.8% reported ever having undergone screening serum CA-125 since BRCA testing, and 37.3% reported ever having undergone screening TVUS since BRCA testing. Conclusions Results of BRCA testing strongly predict RRSO and ovarian cancer screening. Use of RRSO and ovarian screening was reported in a sizable percentage of non-BRCA carriers despite insufficient data to determine the effectiveness of these interventions. PMID:23247828

  1. Weldon Spring, Missouri, Raffinate Pits 1, 2, 3, and 4: Preliminary grout development screening studies for in situ waste immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, E.W.; Gilliam, T.M.; Dole, L.R.; West, G.A.

    1987-04-01

    Results of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's initial support program to develop a preliminary grout formula to solidify in situ the Weldon Spring waste are presented. The screening study developed preliminary formulas based on a simulated composite waste and then tested the formulas on actual waste samples. Future data needs are also discussed. 1 ref., 6 figs., 9 tabs

  2. Test-driven development with Django

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This book is for Django developers with little or no knowledge of test-driven development or testing in general. Familiarity with the command line, setting up a Python virtual environment, and starting a Django project are assumed.

  3. Speech-in-noise screening tests by internet, part 3: test sensitivity for uncontrolled parameters in domestic usage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leensen, Monique C. J.; Dreschler, Wouter A.

    2013-01-01

    The online speech-in-noise test 'Earcheck' is sensitive for noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). This study investigates effects of uncontrollable parameters in domestic self-screening, such as presentation level and transducer type, on speech reception thresholds (SRTs) obtained with Earcheck.

  4. The feasibility of FOBT tests in colorectal cancer screening in Dobrogea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suceveanu, Andra Iulia; Suceveanu, Adrian; Dumitru, Eugen; Alexandrescu, Luana; Voinea, Florea

    2005-09-01

    The high incidence of colorectal cancer in Eastern Europe and the declining mortality due to this pathology in the Western World, where screening programs for cancer are available, prove the necessity of implementing colorectal cancer screening in Romania, too. The aim of our study was to detect colorectal cancer in asymptomatic stages, where surgical treatment could be curative. The study was conducted in the Gastroenterology Department of Emergency Hospital, Constanta County, over a period of 18 months. We recruited apparently healthy people following all criteria recommended by the guidelines. From the total of 1098 patients included in the study, 162 patients with FOBT test positive followed the screening program undergoing colonoscopy or barium enema investigation. The rate of acceptance regarding the screening procedures was 70.3%. Advanced colon lesions were found in 14 patients (1.27%) and cancers in 7 cases (0.63%). According to TNM classification 5 cancers (71.4%) were surgically curative (TNM I/II/III) and 2 (28.5%) were advanced (TNM IV). The positive predictive value (PPVs) of FOBT for cancer was 4.7%. Even if the effect of screening on mortality was not demonstrated, our study results confirm the necessity of colorectal cancer screening in our country, as it is worldwide, detecting cancers in curative stages. The detection rate of FOBT positive tests for neoplasia was similar to other studies.

  5. Impact of opportunistic testing in a systematic cervical cancer screening program: a nationwide registry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranberg, Mette; Larsen, Mette Bach; Mikkelsen, Ellen M; Svanholm, Hans; Andersen, Berit

    2015-07-21

    Systematic screening for precancerous cervical lesions has resulted in decreased incidence and mortality of cervical cancer. However, even in systematic screening programs, many women are still tested opportunistically. This study aimed to determine the spread of opportunistic testing in a systematic cervical cancer screening program, the impact of opportunistic testing in terms of detecting cytological abnormalities and examine the associations between sociodemography and opportunistic testing. A nationwide registry study was undertaken including women aged 23-49 years (n = 807,624) with a cervical cytology between 2010 and 2013. The women were categorised into: 1) screening after invitation; 2) routine opportunistic testing, if they were either tested more than 9 months after the latest invitation or between 2.5 years and 3 years after the latest cervical cytology and 3) sporadic opportunistic testing, if they were tested less than 2.5 years after the latest cervical cytology. Cytological diagnoses of women in each of the categories were identified and prevalence proportion differences (PPD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to explore group differences. Associations between sociodemography and undergoing opportunistic testing were established by multinomial logistic regression. In total, 28.8% of the cervical cytologies were due to either routine (20.7%) or sporadic (8.1%) opportunistic testing. Among women undergoing routine opportunistic testing, a larger proportion had high-grade squamous intraepithelial abnormalities than invited women (PPD: 0.6%, 95 % CI: 0.03-1.17%). A similar proportion of cytological abnormalities among women undergoing sporadic opportunistic testing and invited women was found. In multivariate analyses, younger age, being single or a social welfare recipient and residence region (North Denmark) were especially associated with opportunistic testing (routine or sporadic). One fourth of cervical cytologies in this study were

  6. Noninvasive Screening for Pulmonary Hypertension by Exercise Testing in Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jan; Heck, Pinar Bambul; Ewert, Peter; Hager, Alfred

    2017-05-01

    Patients with congenital heart disease and native or palliated conditions are at risk to develop pulmonary hypertension (PH) in later life. Screening for PH is currently performed by regular echocardiographic follow-up, which appears to be difficult in several congenital conditions. This study evaluated the screening for PH in congenital heart disease by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). We analyzed our database including all patients with congenital heart disease referred for CPET in our institution from June 2001 to September 2013 and identified 683 patients who had an accompanied heart catheterization less than 6 month after CPET. Those 130 patients with proven PH were compared with the other 563 patients with congenital heart disease but without PH. Peak oxygen uptake was the most discriminative variable, showing two thresholds at 16.3 mL/min per kg and 25.2 mL/min per kg. The highest specificity of 95% for PH was found in patients with a peak oxygen uptake of 16.3 mL/min per kg or less and a breathing reserve of 37.4% or less. In patients with a peak oxygen uptake exceeding 16.3 mL/min per kg, there was a high specificity of 86.3% but a low sensitivity of 53.1%. With 25.2 mL/min per kg as the threshold, the sensitivity for PH was only 10.0%. Detection of PH in patients with congenital heart disease by CPET is difficult because of many falsely positive tests. However, a peak oxygen uptake higher than 25.2 mL/min per kg makes the diagnosis of PH unlikely. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The development of a high-content screening binding assay for the smoothened receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, Weilin Tiger; Xie, Wensheng; Truong, Maggie; Will, Matthew; Turunen, Brandon; Zuercher, William J; McMillan, Lynette; Li, Hu; Hornberger, Keith R; Davenport, Elizabeth A; Ames, Robert S; Kallal, Lorena A

    2012-08-01

    In this study, the development of an image-based high-content screening (HCS) binding assay for the seven-transmembrane (7TM) receptor Smoothened (Smo) is described. Using BacMam-based gene delivery of Smo, BODIPY-cyclopamine as a fluorescent probe, and a confocal imaging system, a robust 384-well assay that could be used for high-throughput compound profiling activities was developed. The statistically robust HCS binding assay was developed through optimization of multiple parameters, including cell transduction conditions, Smo expression levels, the image analysis algorithm, and staining procedures. Evaluation of structurally diverse compounds, including functional Smo activators, inhibitors, and related analogs, demonstrated good compound potency correlations between high-content imaging binding, membrane fluorescence polarization binding, and gene reporter assays. Statistical analysis of data from a screening test set of compounds at a single 10-µM concentration suggested that the high-content imaging Smo binding assay is amenable for use in hit identification. The 384-well HCS assay was rapidly developed and met statistical assay performance targets, thus demonstrating its utility as a fluorescent whole-cell binding assay suitable for compound screening and profiling.

  8. Software development of CBM well test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z.; Li, B. [China Coal Research Institute, Xian (China)

    2002-10-01

    In response to the technology development of CBM exploration, and to meet the needs of analysing CBM test wells, an open style analytical software is developed. The paper presents the design concept, technical requirement and the framework of software development. The aim of integrating test well design, data preparation, test well analysis and auto-edit report is realized. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Impact of pap test compliance and cervical cancer screening intervals on human papillomavirus vaccine acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Daron G; Waller, Jennifer; Dickinson, Ashley; McCracken, Courtney; Goebel, Angela

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact of Pap test compliance and cervical cancer screening intervals on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination acceptance. A convenience sample of 499 women 21 to 65 years old completed a 37-question survey in Augusta and Savannah, GA. The survey assessed their knowledge about HPV, cervical cancer, and the HPV vaccine. The questionnaire also determined their Pap test compliance and how longer Pap test intervals would influence their willingness to receive the HPV vaccine. Differences between categorical variables and knowledge scores were examined using χ test and unequal-variance t tests, respectively. Pap test-noncompliant women were more likely to get the HPV vaccine if they only needed a Pap test every 10 years compared with Pap test-compliant women (27.6% vs 14.6%, p = .02). A greater number (83.5%) of Pap test-noncompliant women preferred the HPV vaccine plus every 10-year Pap test option compared with Pap test-compliant women (31.3%, p Pap testing. Women are receptive to getting the HPV vaccine in exchange for longer cervical cancer screening intervals. Moreover, Pap test-noncompliant women are more likely to get the HPV vaccine if Pap testing was needed less frequently. Increasing the Pap testing interval may be an excellent method to improving HPV vaccine acceptance in women at highest risk for cervical cancer.

  10. Determinants of participation in colorectal cancer screening with faecal occult blood testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My; Brasso, Klaus; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in men and women. Participation rates in faecal occult blood testing (FOBT) screening activities are, however, relatively low. In terms of lowering the colorectal cancer mortality, high participation rates are essential, and therefore......, but determinants varied across countries and test settings. There was no systematic variation in participation across age groups. CONCLUSION: The participation pattern depends in part on local circumstances, which makes it difficult to point to a general strategy for increasing the uptake in FOBT screening...

  11. Reliability Assessment of a Single-Shot System by Use of Screen Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    unlimited. NUWC Keyport #17-002. Reliability Assessment of a Single-Shot System by Use of Screen Test Results Abstract: Field reliability prediction...approach described here assumes that the defect density during testing takes the form of an exponential decay, although other mathematical functions can...be substituted for the exponential. In order to apply the decay rate function to a discrete pass/fail test scheme, the approach provides for

  12. Multi-laboratory testing of a screening method for world trade center (WTC) collapse dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Jacky A; Bern, Amy M; Willis, Robert D; Blanchard, Fredrick T; Conner, Teri L; Kahn, Henry D; Friedman, David

    2008-02-15

    The September 11, 2001 attack on the World Trade Center (WTC) covered a large area of downtown New York City with dust and debris. This paper describes the testing of an analytical method designed to evaluate whether sampled dust contains dust that may have originated from the collapse of the WTC. Using dust samples collected from locations affected and not affected (referred to as 'background' locations) by the collapse, a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis method was developed to screen for three materials that are believed to be present in large quantities in WTC dusts: slag wool, concrete, and gypsum. An inter-laboratory evaluation of the method was implemented by having eight laboratories analyze a number of 'blind' dust samples, consisting of confirmed background dust and confirmed background dust spiked with varying amounts of dust affected by the WTC collapse. The levels of gypsum and concrete in the spiked samples were indistinguishable from the levels in the background samples. Measurements of slag wool in dust demonstrated potential for distinguishing between spiked and background samples in spite of considerable within and between laboratory variability. Slag wool measurements appear to be sufficiently sensitive to distinguish dust spiked with 5% WTC-affected dust from 22 out of 25 background dust samples. Additional development work and inter-laboratory testing of the slag wool component will be necessary to improve the precision and accuracy of the method and reduce inter- and intra-laboratory variability from levels observed in the inter-laboratory evaluation.

  13. Multi-laboratory testing of a screening method for world trade center (WTC) collapse dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosati, Jacky A.; Bern, Amy M.; Willis, Robert D.; Blanchard, Fredrick T.; Conner, Teri L.; Kahn, Henry D.; Friedman, David

    2008-01-01

    The September 11, 2001 attack on the World Trade Center (WTC) covered a large area of downtown New York City with dust and debris. This paper describes the testing of an analytical method designed to evaluate whether sampled dust contains dust that may have originated from the collapse of the WTC. Using dust samples collected from locations affected and not affected (referred to as 'background' locations) by the collapse, a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis method was developed to screen for three materials that are believed to be present in large quantities in WTC dusts: slag wool, concrete, and gypsum. An inter-laboratory evaluation of the method was implemented by having eight laboratories analyze a number of 'blind' dust samples, consisting of confirmed background dust and confirmed background dust spiked with varying amounts of dust affected by the WTC collapse. The levels of gypsum and concrete in the spiked samples were indistinguishable from the levels in the background samples. Measurements of slag wool in dust demonstrated potential for distinguishing between spiked and background samples in spite of considerable within and between laboratory variability. Slag wool measurements appear to be sufficiently sensitive to distinguish dust spiked with 5% WTC-affected dust from 22 out of 25 background dust samples. Additional development work and inter-laboratory testing of the slag wool component will be necessary to improve the precision and accuracy of the method and reduce inter- and intra-laboratory variability from levels observed in the inter-laboratory evaluation

  14. Developing Indonesian Language Tests for College Graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djiwandono, M. Soenardi

    In Indonesia, Bahasa Indonesian (BI) is the designated national and official language. However, deficiencies in Indonesian proficiency are found in a wide range of individuals. A test battery to measure proficiency level was developed, consisting of a writing test, a grammar test, and a cloze test. The writing test was an essay, in which five…

  15. Health technology assessment of computer-assisted pap test screening in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Palma, Paolo; Moresco, Luca; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    To assess the introduction of computer-assisted Pap test screening in cervical cancer screening. Various scenarios are considered: conventional and liquid-based cytology (LBC) slides, fully automatic instrumentation (Becton Dickinson FocalPoint™ Slide Profiler and Hologic ThinPrep® Imaging System), and semiautomatic scanner (Hologic Integrated Imager I-Squared). A working group was formed that included researchers from the largest centers already using instrumentation. A questionnaire on laboratory management and on social/ethical issues and annual workload was proposed. Prices for the technology were obtained directly from the producers; costs were calculated from observed and literature data. The scope of the report and final draft were submitted to a consulting committee of stakeholders. The break-even point was found to be 49,000 cases/year, if conventional slides were used, while it was near the theoretical maximum capacity, 70,000 cases/year, with LBC slides. Efficiency increased with the volume of slides. Screening time decreased by two thirds for conventional slides and by less than half for LBC slides. Acceptance of the instrumentation by the users was good. Computer-assisted screening may increase productivity even if in most situations it will mean additional costs. Furthermore, primary screening with human papillomavirus tests will drastically reduce the need for Pap test reading. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. The performance of a screening test for urgent dental treatment need in a prison population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, K M; Milsom, K M; Zoitopoulos, L; Pau, A; Tickle, M

    2008-11-22

    To compare the performance of a questionnaire-based assessment of dental pain delivered by non-dental prison nursing staff against a clinical examination performed by an experienced prison dentist (gold standard). The research fieldwork took place in the healthcare department at HMP Brixton located in South London. The cohort were those who had complained of dental/facial pain to the prison authorities and were therefore placed on the waiting list for emergency dental care. Subjects were asked to complete the screening test and were then clinically examined by trained and calibrated dentists. The screening test was in the form of a 12-item questionnaire designed to categorise a population reporting dental pain into one of three groups. The screening test results were compared with the diagnosis of a clinical examination. Ninety-six subjects were recruited during the 16-week study period. Of the 96 prisoners recruited, 27 of those failed to complete the screening test and/or the diagnostic examination even though they had reported pain previously. When sensitivity and specificity values were calculated for the 96 prisoners recruited, the sensitivity was fairly high (81%) and the specificity was poor (33%). However, when these values were calculated for the sub-population, those that completed both the screening test and diagnostic examination (n = 69), the sensitivity did not improve particularly (83%) but the specificity value fell substantially to 13%. This study highlighted the problems of conducting research in the prison environment, for example increased security preventing researchers from gaining access into the prison and general pressures on prison staff. Additionally, the study demonstrated that screening is not effective in local prisons with a high turnover of prisoners.

  17. The impact of severe hyperemesis gravidarum on the triple test screening results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peled, Yoav; Melamed, Nir; Krissi, Haim; Eitan, Ram; Yogev, Yariv; Pardo, Joseph

    2012-06-01

    we aimed to determine the influence of severe hyperemesis gravidarum on the interpretation of the triple test screen results. A retrospective, case control study. The study group included 73 women who were hospitalized due to severe hyperemesis gravidarum and data regarding triple screening test was available. Data was compared with a control group consisting of low-risk patients without hyperemesis gravidarum, who underwent the triple screening test in the same laboratory and matched to the study group by maternal age and gestational age at the time of screening in a 2:1 ratio. Overall, 219 gravid patients were included in the study, of whom 73 were diagnosed with severe hyperemesis gravidarum. Patients in the control group were characterized by higher weight at the time of triple test screen (53.7 ± 10.9 vs. 59.7 ± 14.3 years, p = 0.043). No difference was found in the level of Alpha-fetoprotein or unconjugated estriol (uE3) between the groups; however the level of hCG was significantly increased in women with severe hyperemesis gravidarum (1.2977 ± 0.82 vs. 1.0662 ± 0.53 MoM, p = 0.013). Increase in the level of hCG in women with severe hyperemesis gravidarum alter the results of triple test screen. This data should be incorporated when counseling patients regarding overall risk for chromosomal abnormalities.

  18. Primary cervical cancer screening with an HPV mRNA test: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørbye, Sveinung Wergeland; Fismen, Silje; Gutteberg, Tore Jarl; Mortensen, Elin Synnøve; Skjeldestad, Finn Egil

    2016-08-11

    To assess the performance of a 5-type human papillomavirus (HPV) messenger RNA (mRNA) test in primary screening within the framework of the Norwegian population-based screening programme. Nationwide register-based cohort study. In 2003-2004, general practitioners and gynaecologists recruited 18 852 women for participation in a primary screening study with a 5-type HPV mRNA test. After excluding women with a history of abnormal smears and with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2+) before or until 3 months after screening, 11 220 women aged 25-69 years were eligible for study participation. The Norwegian Cancer Registry completed follow-up of CIN2+ through 31 December 2009. Follow-up according to the algorithm for cytology outcomes in the population-based Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme. We estimated cumulative incidence of CIN grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) 72 months after the 5-type HPV mRNA test. 3.6% of the women were HPV mRNA-positive at baseline. The overall cumulative rate of CIN3+ was 1.3% (95% CI 1.1% to 1.5%) through 72 months of follow-up, 2.3% for women aged 25-33 years (n=3277) and 0.9% for women aged 34-69 years (n=7943). Cumulative CIN3+ rates by baseline status for HPV mRNA-positive and mRNA-negative women aged 25-33 years were 22.2% (95% CI 14.5% to 29.8%) and 0.9% (95% CI 0.4% to 1.4%), respectively, and 16.6% (95% CI 10.7% to 22.5%) and 0.5% (95% CI 0.4% to 0.7%), respectively, in women aged 34-69 years. The present cumulative incidence of CIN3+ is similar to rates reported in screening studies via HPV DNA tests. Owing to differences in biological rationale and test characteristics, there is a trade-off between sensitivity and specificity that must be balanced when decisions on HPV tests in primary screening are taken. HPV mRNA testing may be used as primary screening for women aged 25-33 years and 34-69 years. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already

  19. Firmware development for VMM testing

    CERN Document Server

    Amayuelas Fernandez, Alfonso

    2017-01-01

    The collaboration has been carried out within the ATLAS Detector Systems area, in the Electronics Department for the muon spectrometer. This includes the team from the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The project involves the firmware development of the FPGAs for the configuration of the readout chip used in the detector (known as VMM). Some changes in the firmware were needed in order to check the configuration was correctly sent and the chip configured. The aim of this report is to describe the project in detail, how it has been developed and which problems have been encountered during the process.

  20. [Screening for dementia: validity of the Cognitive Screening Test (CST) and the Mini-Mental State Examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponds, R W; Verhey, F R; Rozendaal, N; Jolles, J; Deelman, B G

    1992-06-01

    The Cognitive Screening Test (CST--short version), a Dutch orientation questionnaire, and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were compared with respect to their ability to discriminate between mildly demented, moderately demented and non-demented patients. The difference between mildly and moderately demented patients was based on the Global Deterioration Scale score. The CST and the MMSE were administered to patients who had been referred to the Memory Clinic of the University Hospital of Maastricht. Both instruments were successful in discriminating moderately and severely demented from non-demented patients. The CST and the MMSE were also successful with respect to the classification of depressive, non-demented elderly patients. The CST did not succeed in the correct classification of mildly demented patients (50% false-negative). The results of the MMSE in this group of mildly demented patients were moderate (25% false-negative). It is concluded that the value of both screening instruments, and especially the short version of the CST is limited for clinical practice.

  1. GPs views and understanding of PSA testing, screening and early detection; survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, J; Melia, J; Kirby, M; Graffy, J; Moss, S

    2016-05-01

    There is currently no national prostate cancer screening programme in the UK. However, patients 50 years and older are entitled to a prostate specific antigen (PSA) test, if informed on the advantages and disadvantages of testing and their risk of cancer. The Prostate Cancer Risk Management Programme (PCRMP) provides this guidance. The aim of this study was to access GPs' views and understanding of PSA testing, prostate cancer screening and early detection. A total of 708 questionnaires were returned by GPs across two English regions in 2013 and the GP questionnaire responses were quantitatively analysed. In the 699 completed questionnaires, the majority of GPs were well informed about PSA testing, screening and early detection. Only 32% used guidelines for referral, 14% knew all age-specific PSA referral levels, 71% that Black men have a higher prostate cancer risk than White men (22% correctly answered threefold increase) and 82% that family history is a risk factor. A further 78% thought electronic prompts during consultation would encourage PCRMP guideline usage and 75% had never been offered a PSA test and prostate cancer educational course, of which 73% would like to attend a course. Only 23% were aware of the latest PSA screening evidence and 94% would like an update. Participating GPs seem to be well informed but need more information and tools to help follow recommended guidance. In particular, increased awareness of PCRMP guidelines especially by automated methods, further educational courses and evidence updates would be beneficial. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Mollusc reproductive toxicity tests - Development and validation of test guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ducrot, Virginie; Holbech, Henrik; Kinnberg, Karin Lund

    The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development is promoting the development and validation of mollusc toxicity tests within its test guidelines programme, eventually aiming for the standardization of mollusc apical toxicity tests. Through collaborative work between academia, industry...... and stakeholders, this study aims to develop innovative partial life-cycle tests on the reproduction of the freshwater gastropods Potamopyrgus antipodarum and Lymnaea stagnalis, which are relevant candidate species for the standardization of mollusc apical toxicity tests assessing reprotoxic effects of chemicals....... Draft standard operating procedures (SOPs) have been designed based upon literature and expert knowledge from project partners. Pre-validation studies have been implemented to validate the proposed test conditions and identify issues in performing the SOPs and analyzing test results. Pre-validation work...

  3. Cokéfaction et microcokage : outils d'évaluation et de développement d'additifs pour lubrifiants Coking and Microcoking Tests: Bench Screening Tools for the Development and Evaluation of Additives and Lubricants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cazin J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans le cadre des travaux du groupe Essais laboratoire de présélectiondépendant du Groupement Français de Coordination (GFC, deux tests d'évaluation, de la tendance d'un lubrifiant pour moteur à former des dépôts à haute température, sont présentés : - Un nouveau test, le microcokage (fig. 1 qui est un essai statique de cokéfaction soumettant l'huile déposée sur une plaque en alliage d'aluminium à des gradients de température élevés et proches des conditions thermiques rencontrées dans la zone de segmentation d'un piston moteur. En fin d'essai, on détermine la température limite de stabilité de l'huile, exprimée par la température d'apparition de dépôts (fig. 2 et l'on évalue l'aspect et la quantité de dépôts existants sous forme de vernis, en attribuant une note, au mérite, à l'aide du système de cotation décrit dans la méthode d'évaluation de la propreté d'un moteur CEC M-02-A-78 (tableau 5 et fig. 5 et 10. L'association des deux méthodes d'appréciation permet de bien discriminer des huiles de différents niveaux. Des résultats d'essais inter-laboratoires concernant des huiles de référence européennes, pour 2 moteurs à essence et Diesel, sont présentés (tableau 7 et figs. 3 et 4. - Une amélioration d'un test de cokéfaction sur plaque inclinée (figs. 6 et 7 dans lequel un volume donné d'huile s'écoule en film mince sur une plaque en acier inoxydable portée à très haute température. Les dépôts formés en fin d'essai sont évalués, selon leur nature (carbone ou vernis et leur importance, également suivant les principes de la méthode de cotation CEC (fig. 8 et 9. Par ailleurs, un système de cotation vidéo des plaques de microcokage par reconnaissance de couleur est présenté (fig. 11 et 12. Ce système, appelé Vidéo-Cotateur ,, permet de reproduire fidèlement la cotation visuelle (fig. 13, tout en éliminant les facteurs subjectifs de cette cotation. Les résultats obtenus avec ce

  4. Rapid screening test for gestational diabetes: public health need, market requirement, initial product design, and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigl, Bernhard H.; Zwisler, Greg; Peck, Roger; Abu-Haydar, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Gestational diabetes is a global epidemic where many urban areas in Southeast Asia have found prevalence rates as high as 20%, exceeding the highest prevalence rates in the developed world. It can have serious and life-threatening consequences for mothers and babies. We are developing two variants of a new, simple, low-cost rapid test for screening for gestational diabetes mellitus for use primarily in low-resource settings. The pair of assays, both semiquantitative rapid diagnostic strip tests for glycated albumin, require neither fasting nor an oral glucose challenge test. One variant is an extremely simple strip test to estimate the level of total glycated albumin in blood. The other, which is slightly more complex and expensive, is a test that determines the ratio of glycated albumin to total albumin. The screening results can be used to refer women to receive additional care during delivery to avoid birth complications as well as counseling on diet and exercise during and after pregnancy. Results with the latter test may also be used to start treatment with glucose-lowering drugs. Both assays will be read visually. We present initial results of a preliminary cost-performance comparison model evaluating the proposed test versus existing alternatives. We also evaluated user needs and schematic paper microfluidics-based designs aimed at overcoming the challenge of visualizing relatively narrow differences between normal and elevated levels of glycated albumin in blood.

  5. The Internet Process Addiction Test: Screening for Addictions to Processes Facilitated by the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason C. Northrup

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT was created to screen for potential addictive behaviors that could be facilitated by the internet. The IPAT was created with the mindset that the term “Internet addiction” is structurally problematic, as the Internet is simply the medium that one uses to access various addictive processes. The role of the internet in facilitating addictions, however, cannot be minimized. A new screening tool that effectively directed researchers and clinicians to the specific processes facilitated by the internet would therefore be useful. This study shows that the Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT demonstrates good validity and reliability. Four addictive processes were effectively screened for with the IPAT: Online video game playing, online social networking, online sexual activity, and web surfing. Implications for further research and limitations of the study are discussed.

  6. Performance of Parabolic and Diffusive OTR Screens at the CLIC Test Facility 3

    CERN Document Server

    Olvegaard, M; Bravin, E; Burger, S; Dabrowski, A; Lefevre, T; Welsch, C P

    2011-01-01

    At the CLIC Test Facility 3, OTR screens are commonly used in beam imaging systems for energy and energy spread characterization in dedicated spectrometer lines. In these lines the horizontal beam size is typically of the order of one centimeter. Already in 2005 a limitation was observed resulting from a strong dependence of the intensity of the light captured by the camera, on the position on the screen (vignetting). The severity of this effect increases with the electron energy, as the aperture of the optical system is finite and the OTR photons are emitted in a small cone of 1/γ angle. To mitigate this effect, different shapes and surface polishing of the screens were investigated. Parabolic and diffusive OTR radiators were tested in several spectrometer lines all along the CTF3 complex. The results are presented in this paper.

  7. Management of cases testing positive for gonococcal infection in a community-based chlamydia screening programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Jennifer; Cook, Penny A; Madden, Hannah C E; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A; Higgins, Stephen P; Bellis, Mark A

    2010-11-01

    The National Chlamydia Screening Programme in Greater Manchester (NCSP-GM) commissioned an evaluation of the management of gonorrhoea cases identified using the Gen-Probe APTIMA Combo 2 assay (AC2). NCSP-GM provided data on gonorrhoea cases from a 6-month period (September 2007-February 2008). Data were collected from patient referral pathways to genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics, including confirmatory testing, antibiotic resistance patterns and contact tracing. The AC2 positive predictive value (PPV) was calculated. 111 individuals tested positive for gonococcal infection using AC2 (0.7% of 16,028 individuals tested). Of these, 96 (0.6% of all tested) known index cases were seen at Greater Manchester GUM clinics. 78/96 (14 men, 64 women) underwent confirmatory microscopy and gonococcal culture. Confirmatory tests were positive in 14 men (100%) but only 40 women (63%). Thus the PPV of AC2 was 69% (54/78). Sensitivity in women may have been reduced by limited partner information and sample-taking (only 28% had a full gonorrhoea screen). Gonorrhoea screening in an NCSP-targeted population identified gonorrhoea in a low-risk population. Subsequent management in GUM clinics was variable and limited sample-taking may have decreased the sensitivity of confirmatory testing in women. Appropriate antibiotic sensitivity tests or, in their absence, a test of cure may be needed to ensure effective treatment.

  8. Development of a comprehensive list of criteria for evaluating consumer education materials on colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreier, Maren; Borutta, Birgit; Seidel, Gabriele; Kreusel, Inga; Töppich, Jürgen; Bitzer, Eva M; Dierks, Marie-Luise; Walter, Ulla

    2013-09-13

    Appropriate patient information materials may support the consumer's decision to attend or not to attend colorectal cancer (CRC) screening tests (fecal occult blood test and screening colonoscopy). The aim of this study was to develop a list of criteria to assess whether written health information materials on CRC screening provide balanced, unbiased, quantified, understandable, and evidence-based health information (EBHI) about CRC and CRC screening. The list of criteria was developed based on recommendations and assessment tools for health information in the following steps: (1) Systematic literature search in 13 electronic databases (search period: 2000-2010) and completed by an Internet search (2) Extraction of identified criteria (3) Grouping of criteria into categories and domains (4) Compilation of a manual of adequate answers derived from systematic reviews and S3 guidelines (5) Review by external experts (6) Modification (7) Final discussion with external experts. Thirty-one publications on health information tools and recommendations were identified. The final list of criteria includes a total of 230 single criteria in three generic domains (formal issues, presentation and understandability, and neutrality and balance) and one CRC-specific domain. A multi-dimensional rating approach was used whenever appropriate (e.g., rating for the presence, correctness, presentation and level of evidence of information). Free text input was allowed to ensure the transparency of assessment. The answer manual proved to be essential to the rating process. Quantitative analyses can be made depending on the level and dimensions of criteria. This comprehensive list of criteria clearly has a wider range of evaluation than previous assessment tools. It is not intended as a final quality assessment tool, but as a first step toward thorough evaluation of specific information materials for their adherence to EBHI requirements. This criteria list may also be used to revise

  9. Waste form development/test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

    1983-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate new solidification agents relative to their potential application to wastes generated by advanced high volume reduction technologies, e.g., incinerator ash, dry solids, and ion exchange resins. Candidate materials selected for the solidification of these wastes include a modified sulfur cement and low-density polyethylene, neither of which are currently employed commerically for the solidification of low-level waste (LLW). As both the modified sulfur cement and the polyethylene are thermoplastic materials, a heated screw type extruder is utilized in the production of waste form samples for testing and evaluation. In this regard, work is being conducted to determine the range of conditions under which these solidification agents can be satisfactorily applied to the specific LLW streams and to provide information relevant to operating parameters and process control

  10. Test-driven development with Mockito

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Sujoy

    2013-01-01

    This book is a hands-on guide, full of practical examples to illustrate the concepts of Test Driven Development.If you are a developer who wants to develop software following Test Driven Development using Mockito and leveraging various Mockito features, this book is ideal for you. You don't need prior knowledge of TDD, Mockito, or JUnit.It is ideal for developers, who have some experience in Java application development as well as a basic knowledge of unit testing, but it covers the basic fundamentals of TDD and JUnit testing to get you acquainted with these concepts before delving into them.

  11. Brief Memory and Executive Test: evaluation of a new screening test for cognitive impairment due to small vessel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Rebecca L; Hannesdottir, Kristin; Lawrence, Robert; Morris, Robin G; Markus, Hugh S

    2012-03-01

    cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is the most common cause of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). Despite this, there is a paucity of rapid simple screening tools to identify cognitive impairment in SVD and differentiate it from other common dementia types. to validate a new screening test for cognitive impairment in SVD, the Brief Memory and Executive Test (BMET) battery, and examine its ability to detect SVD and differentiate it from Alzheimer's disease (AD). 45 patients with SVD, 27 patients with AD and 80 normal controls. the BMET includes brief tests of executive functioning and processing speed, with comparative tests of memory and orientation. Group discrimination was calculated using discriminant function analysis. the BMET took an average of 10 min to administer. It showed high sensitivity (91%) and specificity (85%) in differentiating SVD patients with cognitive impairment from AD patients. As a comparison the mini-mental state examination had lower sensitivity (63%) and specificity (62%). the BMET is a simple and quick to administer clinical tool for the detection of VCI in SVD and its differentiation from AD impairment. Further multicentre studies are required to evaluate and compare it with other existing screening tests.

  12. Estimating the cost of cervical cancer screening in five developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldie Sue J

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs can provide useful information to policymakers concerned with the broad allocation of resources as well as to local decision makers choosing between different options for reducing the burden from a single disease. For the latter, it is important to use country-specific data when possible and to represent cost differences between countries that might make one strategy more or less attractive than another strategy locally. As part of a CEA of cervical cancer screening in five developing countries, we supplemented limited primary cost data by developing other estimation techniques for direct medical and non-medical costs associated with alternative screening approaches using one of three initial screening tests: simple visual screening, HPV DNA testing, and cervical cytology. Here, we report estimation methods and results for three cost areas in which data were lacking. Methods To supplement direct medical costs, including staff, supplies, and equipment depreciation using country-specific data, we used alternative techniques to quantify cervical cytology and HPV DNA laboratory sample processing costs. We used a detailed quantity and price approach whose face validity was compared to an adaptation of a US laboratory estimation methodology. This methodology was also used to project annual sample processing capacities for each laboratory type. The cost of sample transport from the clinic to the laboratory was estimated using spatial models. A plausible range of the cost of patient time spent seeking and receiving screening was estimated using only formal sector employment and wages as well as using both formal and informal sector participation and country-specific minimum wages. Data sources included primary data from country-specific studies, international databases, international prices, and expert opinion. Costs were standardized to year 2000 international dollars using inflation adjustment and

  13. Yield and cost of performing screening tests for constipation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chogle, Ashish; Saps, Miguel

    2013-12-01

    Chronic constipation is one of the most common reasons for pediatric outpatient visits. Clinical guidelines recommend that the work-up for chronic refractory constipation include thyroid function tests, celiac serology, and measurement of calcium and lead levels. Data to justify routine screening of constipated children using these laboratory tests are lacking. To study the prevalence of celiac disease, hypothyroidism, hypercalcemia and lead poisoning in children with chronic constipation; and to estimate the health care costs of applying the guideline recommendations. Charts of constipated children from 2007 to 2011 were reviewed for the present retrospective cohort study. Results and costs of thyroid function tests, celiac panel, total immunoglobulin (Ig) A, and determination of lead and calcium levels were analyzed. A total of 7472 children (mean age 7.9 years; 3908 female) were evaluated: 1731 patients were screened for celiac antibodies; 55 had elevated tissue transglutaminase IgA levels and 29 had biopsy-positive celiac disease. Only three celiac patients had constipation as the sole presenting symptom; 1703 patients were screened for total IgA levels; 55 had IgA deficiency and two had biopsy-positive celiac disease; 2332 had free T4 and⁄or thyroid-stimulating hormone levels; and 14 had hypothyroidism. Only two patients had constipation as the sole presenting symptom; 4651 patients had calcium levels measured, 10 of whom had high levels but normal repeat values. Three patients had normal lead levels. The mean cost per patient was USD$1,014. Total screening cost for all patients was USD$4.7 million. Constipation alone did not increase the likelihood of celiac disease or hypothyroidism above the population prevalence. No benefit of screening for hypercalcemia was found. High health care costs were associated with the use of screening tests for organic constipation.

  14. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ka Yee Allison; Cheung, Siu Yin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the underlying structure of the second edition of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (Ulrich, 2000) as applied to Chinese children. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2 was administered to 626 Hong Kong Chinese children. The outlier test with standard scoring was utilized. After data screening, a total…

  15. Screening test recommendations for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus surveillance practices: A cost-minimization analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Melanie D; Curtis, Donna J; Atherly, Adam J; Bradley, Cathy J; Lindrooth, Richard C; Campbell, Jonathan D

    2017-07-01

    To mitigate methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections, intensive care units (ICUs) conduct surveillance through screening patients upon admission followed by adhering to isolation precautions. Two surveillance approaches commonly implemented are universal preemptive isolation and targeted isolation of only MRSA-positive patients. Decision analysis was used to calculate the total cost of universal preemptive isolation and targeted isolation. The screening test used as part of the surveillance practice was varied to identify which screening test minimized inappropriate and total costs. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the range of total costs resulting from variation in inputs. The total cost of the universal preemptive isolation surveillance practice was minimized when a polymerase chain reaction screening test was used ($82.51 per patient). Costs were $207.60 more per patient when a conventional culture was used due to the longer turnaround time and thus higher isolation costs. The total cost of the targeted isolation surveillance practice was minimized when chromogenic agar 24-hour testing was used ($8.54 per patient). Costs were $22.41 more per patient when polymerase chain reaction was used. For ICUs that preemptively isolate all patients, the use of a polymerase chain reaction screening test is recommended because it can minimize total costs by reducing inappropriate isolation costs. For ICUs that only isolate MRSA-positive patients, the use of chromogenic agar 24-hour testing is recommended to minimize total costs. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Longitudinal Changes in Performance on Cognitive Screening Tests in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangzhou Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neuropsychological tests that can track changes in cognitive functions after diagnosis of Alzheimer disease (AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI, including episodic memory, should be further developed. Methods: The participants of our study consisted of 22 mild AD patients and 11 MCI patients. They were followed up for 2 years. Brief cognitive screening tests were administered to the participants. Longitudinal changes in test performance were evaluated and analyzed. Results: In this longitudinal study, the Scenery Picture Memory Test (SPMT showed significant changes over 2 years in both MCI and AD participants. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and Word Fluency Test-vegetable showed significant changes only in AD participants. Other tests all showed little or no decline in results. Conclusions: The SPMT can be a useful tool for effectively observing changes during follow-up of MCI and AD patients.

  17. Screening of Plant Extracts for Antioxidant Activity: a Comparative Study on Three Testing Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, I.; Beek, van T.A.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Groot, de Æ.; Evstatieva, L.N.

    2002-01-01

    Three methods widely employed in the evaluation of antioxidant activity, namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method, static headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC) and -carotene bleaching test (BCBT), have been compared with regard to their application in the screening of

  18. Concordant testing results between various Human Papillomavirus assays in primary cervical cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Thurah, Lena; Bonde, Jesper; Hoa Lam, Janni Uyen

    2018-01-01

    (HC2) and other assays. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase and Scopus for studies of primary screening with HC2 and ≥one more assay, with cross-tabulated testing results for the assays. Two authors applied inclusion criteria and three authors extracted data from included studies. For each inter...

  19. Contribution to the study for an optimum choice of filter and screens in radiographic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caillieret, V.; Peix, G.; Babot, D.; Lormand, G.

    1985-01-01

    In order to optimize the choices of screens and filter in steel specimens radiographic testing with iridium 192 and cobalt 60, we started a theoretical and experimental study of their actions on radiative and latent images formation. Theoretical modelisation of photons interactions in steel and experimental apparatus for spectral analysis are described

  20. The whispered voice: The best test for screening for hearing impairment in general practice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekhof, J.A.H.; Bock, G.H. de; Laat, J.A.P.M. de; Dap, R.; Schaapveld, K.; Springer, M.P.

    1996-01-01

    Hearling loss is an important health problem in the elderly which sometimes leads to social isolation. In a study with 62 patients, the diagnostic value of four simple tests for screening for hearing loss in general practice was examined. When paying attention to the loudness of the whispering, the

  1. Screening for congenital toxoplasmosis: accuracy of immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin A tests after birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, Ruth E; Thalib, Lukman; Tan, Hooi Kuan

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the accuracy of postnatal screening for toxoplasma-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgA. SETTING: Ten centres in three European countries. METHODS: We compared results of the first postnatal IgM or IgA test in infants with infected mothers identified by prenatal screeni...

  2. The effect of inherited thrombophilia on second trimester combined aneuploidy screening test markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cıkman, Muzaffer Seyhan; Seckin, Kerem Doga; Karslı, Mehmet Fatih; Baser, Eralp; Cıkman, Duygu Ilke; Cicek, Mahmut Nedim

    2015-04-01

    To determine whether inherited thrombophilia affects components of second trimester combined aneuploidy screening test. A case-control study was performed between 1 December 2010 and 1 February 2012, at a tertiary referral hospital. Singleton pregnancies with inherited thrombophilia that underwent second trimester (16-19(+6) week) combined aneuploidy screening test were included in the study. Maternal serum alfa fetoprotein, unconjugated estriol, human chorionic gonadotropin levels and multiple of median (MoM) levels were compared between the study group and controls. Within the study period, 18,943 women with singleton pregnancies had a combined second trimester aneuploidy screening test at our institution. Among these, 26 women met the criteria of thrombophilia. A control group that comprised 275 women with similar gestational age was generated, using a 1:1 ratio. Unconjugated estriol MoM levels were significantly lower in women with inherited thrombophilia (p = 0.02). But there was no statistically significant difference for unconjugated estriol levels, human chorionic gonadotropin, alfa fetoprotein and their MoM levels. Our study suggest that in patients with hereditary thrombophilia a new correction factor should be used, when calculating unconjugated estriol MoM value, which is one of the markers of second trimester aneuploidy screening test.

  3. Batch test screening of industrial product/byproduct filter materials for agricultural drainage water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filter treatment may be a viable means for removing the nitrate, phosphate, and pesticides discharged with agricultural drainage waters that cause adverse environmental impacts within the U.S. on local, regional, and national scales. Laboratory batch test screening for agricultural drainage water ...

  4. Noninvasiv prænatal test er et gennembrud inden for prænatal screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornstrup, Louise Stig; Ambye, Louise; Sørensen, Steen

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) using cell-free fetal DNA from the peripheral blood of the pregnant woman has become a possibility within recent years, but is not yet implemented in Denmark. NIPT has proven to be very efficient in the screening for especially trisomi 21. This article...

  5. Spectrum of patients with hypermethioninemia based on neonatal screening tests over 14 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Jung Oh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The neonatal screening test for homocystinuria primarily measures methionine by using a dried blood specimen. We investigated the incidence and clinical manifestations of homocystinuria, isolated hypermethioninemia, and transient hypermethioninemia among patients with hypermethioninemia on a neonatal screening test. Methods : We performed a retrospective study of 58 patients transferred to Shoonchunhyang Hospital because of hypermethioninemia on a neonatal screening test between January 1996 and August 2009. We analyzed the level of amino acid from plasma and urine, as well as blood homocysteine. Results : Almost half of the 58 patients were identified as normal. Whereas only 3 (5.1% patients were identified as having homocystinuria, about 20.7% (12 cases of the patients had isolated hypermethioninemia. The ages of these two groups at initial detection of hypermethioninemia on plasma amino acid analysis were 50.0¡?#?2.5; days and 34.9¡?#?3.5; days, respectively. Both groups were put on diets, and they showed a normal developmental course as a result of early diagnosis and treatment. Conclusion : Hypermethioninemia without homocystinuria, referred to as isolated hypermethioninemia, was also detected. Thus, the impact of hypermethioninemia on a neonatal screening test should be carefully evaluated through analysis of amino acid levels from blood and urine, and we need to detect and treat an early stage of isolated hypermethioninemia as well as homocystinuria.

  6. Development of a Screening Tool to Improve Management of the Welfare Caseload in Kentucky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Donovan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of the evaluation of the welfare program in Kentucky, descriptive and multivariate techniques were used to develop and test a brief screening tool. The purpose of this tool is to identify clients at risk of using 80% or more of the lifetime limit for cash assistance provided through the Kentucky’s Transitional Assistance Program (KTAP. The variables for the screening tool were identified through discriminant analysis and logistic regression using data from the KTAP administrative records and from two surveys: a panel study conducted with a representative group of KTAP recipients, and a point-in-time survey conducted with a representative sample of clients who reached their lifetime limit of cash assistance in 2001. Descriptive analyses using panel data show the stability of measures over time and their ability to set apart the segment of population at risk for high utilization of their available time on KTAP. The predictive value of the screening tool was tested with regression models using the KTAP utilization information available from the administrative records.

  7. The cost-effectiveness of immunochemical tests for colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, Catherine; Le Gleut, Karelle; Cottet, Vanessa; Galimard, Christine; Durand, Gerard; Dancourt, Vincent; Faivre, Jean

    2014-01-01

    The optimal immunochemical test to use for generalised mass screening is still under debate in France. To compare the cost and effectiveness in biennial screening for colorectal cancer of fifteen strategies consisting of the three-stool sample un-rehydrated guaiac faecal occult blood test and three immunochemical tests: Magstream, FOB-Gold and OC-Sensor, at different positivity cut-off levels and stool-sample collection. A Markov model was used to compare these strategies in a general population of 100,000 individuals aged 50-74 over a 20-year period. Immunochemical tests were efficient strategies compared with guaiac faecal occult blood test. When all 15 strategies were compared with each other, only five of them remained efficient: the one- and two-stool sample Magstream, the one- and two-stool sample FOB-Gold with the 176 ng/mL cut-off, and the two-stool sample OC-Sensor with the 150 ng/mL cut-off. Sensitivity analyses showed that, at an identical price, the one-stool sample OC-Sensor was the most efficient strategy, and outperformed FOB-Gold. One-stool immunochemical testing can be considered a promising alternative to the guaiac faecal occult blood test for colorectal cancer mass screening in the general population. Competition between manufacturers should now be introduced to reduce purchase price differences. Copyright © 2013 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Diagnosis reliability of combined flexible sigmoidoscopy and fecal-immunochemical test in colorectal neoplasia screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iovanescu D

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dana Iovanescu,1 Mirela Frandes,2 Diana Lungeanu,2 Amelia Burlea,3 Bogdan P Miutescu,4 Eftimie Miutescu1 1Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, Pharmacy and Dental Medicine, “Vasile Goldis” West University of Arad, 2Department of Functional Sciences, “Victor Babes” University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Timisoara, 3Department of Pathology, County Hospital of Arad, 4Department of Gastroenterology, “Victor Babes” University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Timisoara, Romania Background: Employing colonoscopy, the gold standard in colorectal cancer (CRC diagnosis testing, for CRC screening presents a significant risk of complications. Alternative methods with a lower invasive-level and fewer risks are proposed in combination, though each with lower diagnosis performance when applied separately. The main objective of this cross-sectional pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility of a CRC screening program using combined flexible sigmoidoscopy and fecal-immunochemical test (FIT.Methods: The patient population consisted of 2,201 consecutive-case symptomatic patients attending the gastroenterology outpatient clinic with mild complaints between 2012 and 2014. They were referred for FIT. A sample of 252 individuals underwent a subsequent colonoscopy, blind to FIT results, and theoretical sigmoidoscopy was simulated. On a subsample of 57 patients, real sigmoidoscopy was additionally performed. Prior probabilities in terms of patients’ compliance and CRC prevalence were estimated, together with predictive ability of FIT and sigmoidoscopy in screening population. We assessed the merit of a screening strategy employing two-stage serial multiple testing: a first stage by combining two parallel tests, that is, flexible sigmoidoscopy and FIT and b colonoscopy as the second diagnosis test. The scheme was validated using the actual predictive values derived from the study population.Results: Colonoscopy found 75 (29.76% individuals with

  9. Evaluation of Calypte AWARE HIV-1/2 OMT antibody test as a screening test in an Indian setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingole N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Integrated counselling and testing centres (ICTC provide counselling and blood testing facilities for HIV diagnosis. Oral fluid tests provide an alternative for people whodo not want blood to be drawn. Also, it avoids the risk of occupational exposure. The goal of this study was to evaluate the utility of Calypte AWARE HIV-1/2 OMT antibody test as a screening test in an Indian setting. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out after ethics committee approval in 250 adult ICTC clients. Blood was collected and tested from these clients for HIV diagnosis as per routine policy and the results were considered as the gold standard. Also, after another written informed consent, oral fluid was collected from the clients and tested for the presence of HIV antibodies. Twenty five clients who had and 25 clients who had not completed their secondary school education (Group A and Group B, respectively were also asked to perform and interpret the test on their own and their findings and experiences were noted. Result: The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the oral fluid antibody test were 100%, 98.51%, 94.11% and 100%, respectively. Seventy six percent of clients preferred oral fluid testing. Group B found it difficult to perform the test as compared to Group A and this difference was statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: Oral fluid testing can be used as a screening test for HIV diagnosis; however, confirmation of reactive results by blood-based tests is a must.

  10. Testing for direct genetic effects using a screening step in family-based association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon M Lutz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In genome wide association studies (GWAS, families based studies tend to have less power to detect genetic associations than population based studies, such as case-control studies. This can be an issue when testing if genes in a family based GWAS have a direct effect on the phenotype of interest or if the genes act indirectly through a secondary phenotype. When multiple SNPs are tested for a direct effect in the family based study, a screening step can be used to minimize the burden of multiple comparisons in the causal analysis. We propose a 2-stage screening step that can be incorporated into the family based association test (FBAT approach similar to the conditional mean model approach in the VanSteen-algorithm [1]. Simulations demonstrate that the type 1 error is preserved and this method is advantageous when multiple markers are tested. This method is illustrated by an application to the Framingham Heart Study.

  11. Adaptation to Swedish and further development of the “Consequences of Screening – Breast Cancer” questionnaire: a multi-method study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolejko, Anetta; Wann-Hansson, Christine; Zackrisson, Sophia

    2013-01-01

    Experiencing a false-positive screening mammography can cause considerable psychosocial distress. The Consequences of Screening - Breast Cancer questionnaire (COS-BC parts 1 and 2), recently developed in Denmark, is the only condition-specific questionnaire for measuring short- and long-term psyc......Experiencing a false-positive screening mammography can cause considerable psychosocial distress. The Consequences of Screening - Breast Cancer questionnaire (COS-BC parts 1 and 2), recently developed in Denmark, is the only condition-specific questionnaire for measuring short- and long......-term psychosocial consequences of false-positive mammographic screening. Additional studies are needed to further test the COS-BC before use across cultures. Furthermore, studies have suggested that the consequences of false-positive screening results are partly common across cancer screening settings, although...

  12. Application of direct agglutination test (DAT) and fast agglutination screening test (FAST) for sero-diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in endemic area of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Eduardo S.; Schoone, Gerard J.; Gontijo, Celia M. F.; Brazil, Reginaldo P.; Pacheco, Raquel S.; Schallig, Henk D. F. H.

    2005-01-01

    The direct agglutination test (DAT) has proved to be a very important sero-diagnostic tool combining high levels of intrinsic validity and ease of performance. Otherwise, fast agglutination screening test (FAST) utilises only one serum dilution making the test very suitable for the screening of

  13. Evaluation of the HISCL Anti-Treponema pallidum Assay as a Screening Test for Syphilis

    OpenAIRE

    An, Jingna; Chen, Qixia; Liu, Qianqian; Rao, Chenli; Li, Dongdong; Wang, Tingting; Tao, Chuanmin; Wang, Lanlan

    2015-01-01

    The resurgence of syphilis in recent years has become a serious threat to public health worldwide, and the serological detection of specific antibodies against Treponema pallidum remains the most reliable method for laboratory diagnosis of syphilis. This study examined the performance of the recently launched HISCL anti-Treponema pallidum (anti-TP) assay as a screening test for syphilis in a high-volume laboratory. The HISCL anti-TP assay was tested in 300 preselected syphilis-positive sample...

  14. Correlation Between Screening Mammography Interpretive Performance on a Test Set and Performance in Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglioretti, Diana L; Ichikawa, Laura; Smith, Robert A; Buist, Diana S M; Carney, Patricia A; Geller, Berta; Monsees, Barbara; Onega, Tracy; Rosenberg, Robert; Sickles, Edward A; Yankaskas, Bonnie C; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2017-10-01

    Evidence is inconsistent about whether radiologists' interpretive performance on a screening mammography test set reflects their performance in clinical practice. This study aimed to estimate the correlation between test set and clinical performance and determine if the correlation is influenced by cancer prevalence or lesion difficulty in the test set. This institutional review board-approved study randomized 83 radiologists from six Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium registries to assess one of four test sets of 109 screening mammograms each; 48 radiologists completed a fifth test set of 110 mammograms 2 years later. Test sets differed in number of cancer cases and difficulty of lesion detection. Test set sensitivity and specificity were estimated using woman-level and breast-level recall with cancer status and expert opinion as gold standards. Clinical performance was estimated using women-level recall with cancer status as the gold standard. Spearman rank correlations between test set and clinical performance with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. For test sets with fewer cancers (N = 15) that were more difficult to detect, correlations were weak to moderate for sensitivity (woman level = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.16, 0.69; breast level = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.03, 0.61) and weak for specificity (0.24, 95% CI = 0.01, 0.45) relative to expert recall. Correlations for test sets with more cancers (N = 30) were close to 0 and not statistically significant. Correlations between screening performance on a test set and performance in clinical practice are not strong. Test set performance more accurately reflects performance in clinical practice if cancer prevalence is low and lesions are challenging to detect. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Uptake of a colorectal cancer screening blood test in people with elevated risk for cancer who cannot or will not complete a faecal occult blood test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Erin L; Cock, Charles; Meng, Rosie; Cole, Stephen R; Fraser, Robert J L; Young, Graeme P

    2017-03-31

    Participation rates in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programmes using faecal occult blood tests (FOBTs) are low. Nonparticipation is commonly attributed to psychosocial factors, but some medical conditions also prevent screening. These barriers might be partially overcome if a blood test for CRC screening was available. This study determined whether people who had always declined screening by FOBT would participate if offered a blood test. An audit of registrants within a personalized CRC screening programme was undertaken to determine the reasons for regular nonparticipation in FOBT. Consistent nonparticipants (n=240) were randomly selected and invited for CRC screening with a blood test. Demographic characteristics and the reasons for prior FOBT nonparticipation were collected by means of a questionnaire. Nonparticipation in the screening programme could be classified as either behavioural (8.6%), with consistent noncompliance, or due to medical contraindications (8.5%), which included chronic rectal bleeding, being deemed unsuitable by a health professional, and needing personal assistance. Blood test uptake was 25%, with participation in the medical contraindications group greater than that in the behavioural group (43 vs. 12%, Pprocrastination and dislike of the test, but these were not associated with blood test uptake (P>0.05). There is a subgroup of the community who have medical reasons for nonparticipation in CRC screening with FOBT but will participate if offered a blood test. The option of a blood test does not, however, improve uptake in those who admit to behavioural reasons for noncompliance with screening.

  16. Test Marketing in New Product Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klompmaker, Jay E.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the role of test marketing in new product development, based on interviews with marketing executives. Attempts to clarify when a test market should be done, what its aims should be, and how it should be used. (JG)

  17. Performance of the CareStart™ G6PD deficiency screening test, a point-of-care diagnostic for primaquine therapy screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Saorin; Nguon, Chea; Guillard, Bertrand; Duong, Socheat; Chy, Sophy; Sum, Sarorn; Nhem, Sina; Bouchier, Christiane; Tichit, Magali; Christophel, Eva; Taylor, Walter R J; Baird, John Kevin; Menard, Didier

    2011-01-01

    Development of reliable, easy-to-use, rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) to detect glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency at point of care is essential to deploying primaquine therapies as part of malaria elimination strategies. We assessed a kit under research and development called CareStart™ G6PD deficiency screening test (Access Bio, New Jersey, USA) by comparing its performance to quantitative G6PD enzyme activity using a standardized spectrophotometric method ('gold standard'). Blood samples (n = 903) were collected from Cambodian adults living in Pailin province, western Cambodia. G6PD enzyme activities ranged from 0 to 20.5 U/g Hb (median 12.0 U/g Hg). Based on a normal haemoglobin concentration and wild-type G6PD gene, the normal values of G6PD enzymatic activity for this population was 3.6 to 20.5 U/g Hg (95(th) percentiles from 5.5 to 17.2 U/g Hg). Ninety-seven subjects (10.7%) had G6PD deficiency screening test was 0.68 and 1.0, respectively. Its detection threshold was <2.7 U/g Hg, well within the range of moderate and severe enzyme deficiencies. Thirteen subjects (1.4%, 12 males and 1 female) with G6PD enzyme activities <2 U/g Hg were falsely classified as "normal" by RDT. This experimental RDT test here evaluated outside of the laboratory for the first time shows real promise, but safe application of it will require lower rates of falsely "normal" results.

  18. Development of a self-administered questionnaire to screen patients for cervical myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekiguchi Yasufumi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In primary care, it is often difficult to diagnose cervical myelopathy. However, a delay in treatment could cause irreversible aftereffects. With a brief and effective self-administered questionnaire for cervical myelopathy, cervical myelopathy may be screened more easily and oversight may be avoided. As there is presently no screening tool for cervical myelopathy, the aim of this study was to develop a self-administered questionnaire for the screening of cervical myelopathy. Methods A case-control study was performed with the following two groups at our university hospital from February 2006 to September 2008. Sixty-two patients (48 men, 14 women with cervical myelopathy who underwent operative treatment were included in the myelopathy group. In the control group, 49 patients (20 men, 29 women with symptoms that could be distinguished from those of cervical myelopathy, such as numbness, pain in the upper extremities, and manual clumsiness, were included. The underlying conditions were diagnosed as carpal tunnel syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, thoracic outlet syndrome, tarsal tunnel syndrome, diabetes mellitus neuropathy, cervical radiculopathy, and neuralgic amyotrophy. Twenty items for a questionnaire in this study were chosen from the Japanese Orthopaedic Association Cervical Myelopathy Evaluation Questionnaire, which is a new self-administered questionnaire, as an outcome measure for patients with cervical myelopathy. Data were analyzed by univariate analysis using the chi-square test and by multiple logistic regression analysis. According to the resulting odds ratio, β-coefficients, and p value, items were chosen and assigned a score. Results Eight items were chosen by univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses and assigned a score. The Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic showed p = 0.805. The area under the receiver operation characteristic curve was 0.86. The developed questionnaire had a sensitivity of 93.5% and a

  19. Design of a single flat null-screen for testing a parabolic trough solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Oliva, Víctor Iván; Campos-García, Manuel; Román-Hernández, Edwin; Santiago-Alvarado, Agustín

    2014-11-01

    We present a null-screen design for testing the shape quality of the reflecting surface of a parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC). This technique is inexpensive, the whole surface is tested at once, and it is easy to implement. For this, we propose the design of a flat null-screen perpendicular to the optical axis of the PTSC in such a way that it allows testing of the full aperture; we compute the caustic associated with the reflected light rays on the desired surface and analyze the parameters that determine the null-screen dimensions. Additionally, we perform a numerical simulation to analyze the accuracy of the method by introducing random displacement errors into the measured data. Accuracies >0.35 mrad were found to evaluate the quality of surfaces with this method. The errors in the determination of the coordinates of the centroids of the reflected images must be measured with an accuracy >0.5 pixels, and the errors in the coordinates of the spots of the null-screen must be <0.5 mm.

  20. Does knowledge influence pap test screening among young African-American women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynum, Shalanda A; Guillaume, Daphnee A; Brandt, Heather M; Fletcher, Faith E

    2014-09-01

    Pap test screening among African-American women has substantially increased. However, African-American women continue to bear the burden of cervical cancer as compared to White women. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of Pap test knowledge on cervical screening history among young African-American women. Between January and April 2009, 320 women from historically black colleges and universities located in the southeastern United States who met study inclusion criteria completed an anonymous self-report questionnaire to assess their awareness, knowledge, and behaviors related to human papillomavirus and cervical cancer prevention and control. Seventy-six percent of women reported ever having a Pap test, 54 % reported having a Pap test less than 1 year ago, and 25 % reported ever having an abnormal Pap test result. The overall mean score on the six-point Pap test knowledge scale was 4.46 ± 1.02. Women who reported having an abnormal Pap test (4.96 ± 0.82) had significantly higher Pap test knowledge compared to those never having an abnormal result (4.49 ± 1.04), p Pap test knowledge among all women, including those with no prior abnormal Pap test history, are critical to cervical cancer prevention and control over the life course. Such efforts should include creating information that is relevant to the population and enables informed decision making about cervical health.

  1. A score based on screening tests to differentiate mild cognitive impairment from subjective memory complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Henrique de Gobbi Porto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is not easy to differentiate patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI from subjective memory complainers (SMC. Assessments with screening cognitive tools are essential, particularly in primary care where most patients are seen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of screening cognitive tests and to propose a score derived from screening tests. Elderly subjects with memory complaints were evaluated using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and the Brief Cognitive Battery (BCB. We added two delayed recalls in the MMSE (a delayed recall and a late-delayed recall, LDR, and also a phonemic fluency test of letter P fluency (LPF. A score was created based on these tests. The diagnoses were made on the basis of clinical consensus and neuropsychological testing. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to determine area under the curve (AUC, the sensitivity and specificity for each test separately and for the final proposed score. MMSE, LDR, LPF and delayed recall of BCB scores reach statistically significant differences between groups (P=0.000, 0.03, 0.001 and 0.01, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity and AUC were MMSE: 64%, 79% and 0.75 (cut off <29; LDR: 56%, 62% and 0.62 (cut off <3; LPF: 71%, 71% and 0.71 (cut off <14; delayed recall of BCB: 56%, 82% and 0.68 (cut off <9. The proposed score reached a sensitivity of 88% and 76% and specificity of 62% and 75% for cut off over 1 and over 2, respectively. AUC were 0.81. In conclusion, a score created from screening tests is capable of discriminating MCI from SMC with moderate to good accurancy.

  2. Laboratory evaluation of an optimised internet-based speech-in-noise test for occupational high-frequency hearing loss screening: Occupational Earcheck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheikh Rashid, Marya; Leensen, Monique C. J.; de Laat, Jan A. P. M.; Dreschler, Wouter A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The "Occupational Earcheck'' (OEC) is a Dutch onlineself-screening speech-in-noise test developed for the detection of occupational high-frequency hearing loss (HFHL). This study evaluates an optimised version of the test and determines the most appropriate masking noise. Design: The

  3. Follow-up of abnormal or inadequate test results in the Danish Cervical Cancer Screening Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Bettina Kjær

    2014-01-01

    Denmark has a higher incidence of cervical cancer than other Nordic countries, although all Danish women (aged 23–65) are screened regularly to identify possible cervical dysplasia or asymptomatic invasive cancer. Annually 40 000 women receives an abnormal or inadequate test result and a follow......-up recommendation. However problems with delayed follow-up may threaten the effectiveness of the Danish Cervical Cancer Screening Program, as 20% of women are delayed and dysplasia potentially can progress into cancer. Delayed follow-up is found in situations where women either consciously or unconsciously postpone...... will be of great importance to the future organisation of cervical and colorectal cancer screening programmes in Denmark, but will also have international interest because of their similar challenges....

  4. Method for screening the Nevada Test Site and contiguous areas for nuclear waste repository locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinnock, S.; Fernandez, J.A.; Neal, J.T.; Stephens, H.P.; Hartway, B.L.; Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., NM)

    1982-01-01

    This paper outlines the general concepts of a technical method for systematic screening of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada, for potentially suitable nuclear waste repository locations. After a general discussion of the organization and the purpose of the current screening activity, the paper addresses the steps of the screening method. These steps include: hierarchically organizing technical objectives for repository performance (an objectives tree); identifying and mapping pertinent physical characteristics of a site and its setting (physical attributes); relating the physical conditions to the objectives (favorability curves); identifying alternative locations and numerically evaluating their relative merits; investigating the effects of subjective judgments on the evaluations (sensitivity analyses); documenting the assumptions, logic, and results of the method. 19 references, 10 figures

  5. [Health technology assessment report: Computer-assisted Pap test for cervical cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Palma, Paolo; Moresco, Luca; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    HEALTH PROBLEM: Cervical cancer is a disease which is highly preventable by means of Pap test screening for the precancerous lesions, which can be easily treated. Furthermore, in the near future, control of the disease will be enhanced by the vaccination which prevents the infection of those human papillomavirus types that cause the vast majority of cervical cancers. The effectiveness of screening in drastically reducing cervical cancer incidence has been clearly demonstrated. The epidemiology of cervical cancer in industrialised countries is now determined mostly by the Pap test coverage of the female population and by the ability of health systems to assure appropriate follow up after an abnormal Pap test. Today there are two fully automated systems for computer-assisted Pap test: the BD FocalPoint and the Hologic Imager. Recently, the Hologic Integrated Imager, a semi-automated system, was launched. The two fully automated systems are composed of a central scanner, where the machine examines the cytologic slide, and of one or more review stations, where the cytologists analyze the slides previously centrally scanned. The softwares used by the two systems identify the fields of interest so that the cytologists can look only at those points, automatically pointed out by the review station. Furthermore, the FocalPoint system classifies the slides according to their level of risk of containing signs of relevant lesions. Those in the upper classes--about one fifth of the slides--are labelled as « further review », while those in the lower level of risk, i.e. slides that have such a low level of risk that they can be considered as negative with no human review, are labelled as « no further review ». The aim of computer-assisted Pap test is to reduce the time of slide examination and to increase productivity. Furthermore, the number of errors due to lack of attention may decrease. Both the systems can be applied to liquidbased cytology, while only the BD Focal

  6. [Screening Test of Fabry Disease in Patients with Renal Replacement Therapy in the City of Modena].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, Gaetano; Ganda, Nicola; Cerami, Caterina; Mori, Giacomo; Fontana, Francesco; Cappelli, Gianni

    2018-03-01

    Fabry disease is a rare genetic lysosomal storage disease, inherited in an X-linked manner, characterized by lysosomal deposition of globotriaosylceramide due to deficient activity of the enzyme α-galactosidase A. Because the prevalence of this genetic disorder is unknown in the Emilia Romagna region, we conducted a screening study to assess the prevalence of Fabry disease in the city of Modena, Italy. A screening study has been conducted in patients on renal replacement therapy at University Hospital of Modena. Screening tests have been performed using dried blood spot method. Alpha-galactosidase A activity and Lyso-Gb3 levels were evaluated in peripheral blood of all men. In women test based on genetic analysis; Lyso-Gb3 was measured only in patients with mutation of gene GLA. Screening tests have been performed on 388 subjects: 181 maintenance hemodialysis patients, 166 kidney transplant recipients and 41 peritoneal dialysis patients. About 40% of the patients did not had etiological diagnosis of renal disease. Lyso-Gb3 was more specific test than α- galactosidase A (100% vs. 82.5%) to diagnose Fabry disease. We found two different mutations: c.13 A >G p.(Asn5Asp), a variant likely benign and c.937 G >T p.(Asp313Tyr) a variant of uncertain significance. Both the patients carrying these genetic mutations had no symptoms or medical history compatible with Fabry disease. Identification of variant of uncertain significance such as c.937G >Tp.(Asp313Tyr) showed the limits of genetic analysis to diagnose an inherit disease. Further studies are need to assess the diagnostic value of Lyso-Gb3 for screening for Fabry disease. Copyright by Società Italiana di Nefrologia SIN, Rome, Italy.

  7. Smartphone-based audiometric test for screening hearing loss in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Ghanem, Sara; Handzel, Ophir; Ness, Lior; Ben-Artzi-Blima, Miri; Fait-Ghelbendorf, Karin; Himmelfarb, Mordechai

    2016-02-01

    Hearing loss is widespread among the elderly. One of the main obstacles to rehabilitation is identifying individuals with potentially correctable hearing loss. Smartphone-based hearing tests can be administered at home, thus greatly facilitating access to screening. This study evaluates the use of a smartphone application as a screening tool for hearing loss in individuals aged ≥ 65 years. Twenty-six subjects aged 84.4 ± 6.73 years (mean ± SD) were recruited. Pure-tone audiometry was administered by both a smartphone application (uHear for iPhone, v1.0 Unitron, Canada) and a standard portable audiometer by trained personnel. Participants also completed a questionnaire on their hearing. Pure-tone thresholds were compared between the two testing modalities and correlated with the questionnaire results. The cutoff point for failing screening tests was a pure tone average of 40 dB for the frequencies 250-6,000 Hz. The smartphone application's pure tone thresholds were higher (poorer hearing) than the audiometric thresholds, with a significant difference in all frequencies but 2,000 Hz. The application and the audiometric values were in agreement for 24 subjects (92 %). The application had a sensitivity of 100 % and specificity of 60 % for screening compared with the audiometer. The questionnaire was significantly less accurate, having assigned a passing score to three participants who failed both the application and audiometric tests. While a smartphone application may not be able to accurately determine the level of hearing impairment, it is useful as a highly accessible portable audiometer substitute for screening for hearing loss in elderly populations.

  8. RBC Antibody Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Gene Mutations Testing Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Tests D-dimer Dengue Fever Testing Des-gamma- ... Index of Screening Recommendations Not Listed? Not Listed? Newborn Screening Screening Tests for Infants Screening Tests for ...

  9. Geochemical Testing And Model Development - Residual Tank Waste Test Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantrell, K.J.; Connelly, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    This Test Plan describes the testing and chemical analyses release rate studies on tank residual samples collected following the retrieval of waste from the tank. This work will provide the data required to develop a contaminant release model for the tank residuals from both sludge and salt cake single-shell tanks. The data are intended for use in the long-term performance assessment and conceptual model development.

  10. GEOCHEMICAL TESTING AND MODEL DEVELOPMENT - RESIDUAL TANK WASTE TEST PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CANTRELL KJ; CONNELLY MP

    2010-03-09

    This Test Plan describes the testing and chemical analyses release rate studies on tank residual samples collected following the retrieval of waste from the tank. This work will provide the data required to develop a contaminant release model for the tank residuals from both sludge and salt cake single-shell tanks. The data are intended for use in the long-term performance assessment and conceptual model development.

  11. Testing Infrastructure for Operating System Kernel Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Maxwell; Karlsson, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Testing is an important part of system development, and to test effectively we require knowledge of the internal state of the system under test. Testing an operating system kernel is a challenge as it is the operating system that typically provides access to this internal state information. Multi......-core kernels pose an even greater challenge due to concurrency and their shared kernel state. In this paper, we present a testing framework that addresses these challenges by running the operating system in a virtual machine, and using virtual machine introspection to both communicate with the kernel...... and obtain information about the system. We have also developed an in-kernel testing API that we can use to develop a suite of unit tests in the kernel. We are using our framework for for the development of our own multi-core research kernel....

  12. Recommendations for a step‐wise comparative approach to the evaluation of new screening tests for colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senore, Carlo; Mandel, Jack S.; Allison, James E.; Atkin, Wendy S.; Benamouzig, Robert; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Silva, Mahinda De; Guittet, Lydia; Halloran, Stephen P.; Haug, Ulrike; Hoff, Geir; Itzkowitz, Steven H.; Leja, Marcis; Levin, Bernard; Meijer, Gerrit A.; O'Morain, Colm A.; Parry, Susan; Rabeneck, Linda; Rozen, Paul; Saito, Hiroshi; Schoen, Robert E.; Seaman, Helen E.; Steele, Robert J. C.; Sung, Joseph J. Y.; Winawer, Sidney J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND New screening tests for colorectal cancer continue to emerge, but the evidence needed to justify their adoption in screening programs remains uncertain. METHODS A review of the literature and a consensus approach by experts was undertaken to provide practical guidance on how to compare new screening tests with proven screening tests. RESULTS Findings and recommendations from the review included the following: Adoption of a new screening test requires evidence of effectiveness relative to a proven comparator test. Clinical accuracy supported by programmatic population evaluation in the screening context on an intention‐to‐screen basis, including acceptability, is essential. Cancer‐specific mortality is not essential as an endpoint provided that the mortality benefit of the comparator has been demonstrated and that the biologic basis of detection is similar. Effectiveness of the guaiac‐based fecal occult blood test provides the minimum standard to be achieved by a new test. A 4‐phase evaluation is recommended. An initial retrospective evaluation in cancer cases and controls (Phase 1) is followed by a prospective evaluation of performance across the continuum of neoplastic lesions (Phase 2). Phase 3 follows the demonstration of adequate accuracy in these 2 prescreening phases and addresses programmatic outcomes at 1 screening round on an intention‐to‐screen basis. Phase 4 involves more comprehensive evaluation of ongoing screening over multiple rounds. Key information is provided from the following parameters: the test positivity rate in a screening population, the true‐positive and false‐positive rates, and the number needed to colonoscope to detect a target lesion. CONCLUSIONS New screening tests can be evaluated efficiently by this stepwise comparative approach. Cancer 2016;122:826–39. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society. PMID:26828588

  13. Testing the reliability of the Fall Risk Screening Tool in an elderly ambulatory population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Susan J; McKay, Michael; Hyrkas, Kristiina

    2013-11-01

    To identify and test the reliability of a fall risk screening tool in an ambulatory outpatient clinic. The Fall Risk Screening Tool (Albert Lea Medical Center, MN, USA) was scripted for an interview format. Two interviewers separately screened a convenience sample of 111 patients (age ≥ 65 years) in an ambulatory outpatient clinic in a northeastern US city. The interviewers' scoring of fall risk categories was similar. There was good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.834-0.889) and inter-rater reliability [intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) = 0.824-0.881] for total, Risk Factor and Client's Health Status subscales. The Physical Environment scores indicated acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.742) and adequate reliability (ICC = 0.688). Two Physical Environment items (furniture and medical equipment condition) had low reliabilities [Kappa (K) = 0.323, P = 0.08; K = -0.078, P = 0.648), respectively. The scripted Fall Risk Screening Tool demonstrated good reliability in this sample. Rewording two Physical Environment items will be considered. A reliable instrument such as the scripted Fall Risk Screening Tool provides a standardised assessment for identifying high fall risk patients. This tool is especially useful because it assesses personal, behavioural and environmental factors specific to community-dwelling patients; the interview format also facilitates patient-provider interaction. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Forward Genetic Screening Using Behavioral Tests in Zebrafish: A Proof of Concept Analysis of Mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlai, Robert; Poshusta, Tanya L; Rampersad, Mindy; Fernandes, Yohaan; Greenwood, Tammy M; Cousin, Margot A; Klee, Eric W; Clark, Karl J

    2017-01-01

    The zebrafish enjoys several advantages over other model organisms. It is small, easy to maintain, prolific, and numerous genetic tools are available for it. For example, forward genetic screens have allowed investigators to identify important genes potentially involved in a variety of functions from embryogenesis to cancer. However, despite its sophisticated behavioral repertoire, behavioral methods have rarely been utilized in forward genetic screens. Here, we employ a two-tiered strategy, a proof of concept study, to explore the feasibility of behavioral screens. We generated mutant lines using transposon-based insertional mutagenesis, allowing us to bias mutant selection with target genes expressed within the brain. Furthermore, we employed an efficient and fast behavioral pre-selection in which we investigated the locomotory response of 5-day post-fertilization old larval fish to hyperosmotic shock. Based on this assay, we selected five lines for our lower throughput secondary adult behavioral screen. The latter screen utilized tests in which computer animated image presentation and video-tracking-based automated quantification of behavior allowed us to compare heterozygous zebrafish with their wild-type siblings on their responses to a variety of stimuli. We found significant mutation induced adult behavioral alterations in 4 out of the 5 lines analyzed, including changes in response to social or fear inducing stimuli, to handling and novelty, or in habituation to novelty. We discuss the pros and cons of behavioral phenotyping and of the use of different forward genetic methods in biomedical research with zebrafish.

  15. Test-Retest Reliability of a Serious Game for Delirium Screening in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany Tong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cognitive screening in settings such as emergency departments (ED is frequently carried out using paper-and-pencil tests that require administration by trained staff. These assessments often compete with other clinical duties and thus may not be routinely administered in these busy settings. Literature has shown that the presence of cognitive impairments such as dementia and delirium are often missed in older ED patients. Failure to recognize delirium can have devastating consequences including increased mortality (Kakuma et al., 2003. Given the demands on emergency staff, an automated cognitive test to screen for delirium onset could be a valuable tool to support delirium prevention and management.In earlier research we examined the concurrent validity of a serious game, and carried out an initial assessment of its potential as a delirium screening tool (Tong et al., 2016. In this paper, we examine the test-retest reliability of the game, as it is an important criterion in a cognitive test for detecting risk of delirium onset.Objective: To demonstrate the test-retest reliability of the screening tool over time in a clinical sample of older emergency patients. A secondary objective is to assess whether there are practice effects that might make game performance unstable over repeated presentations.Materials and methods: Adults over the age of 70 were recruited from a hospital ED. Each patient played our serious game in an initial session soon after they arrived in the ED, and in follow up sessions conducted at eight-hour intervals (for each participant there were up to five follow up sessions, depending on how long the person stayed in the ED.Results: A total of 114 adults (61 females, 53 males between the ages of 70 and 104 years (M=81 years, SD=7 participated in our study after screening out delirious patients. We observed a test-retest reliability of the serious game (as assessed by correlation r-values between 0.5 and 0

  16. Evaluating the reliability of an injury prevention screening tool: Test-retest study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelman, Michael A; Kincaid, Madeline; Denny, Sarah; Wervey Arnold, Melissa; FitzGerald, Michael; Carle, Adam C; Mara, Constance A

    2016-10-01

    A standardized injury prevention (IP) screening tool can identify family risks and allow pediatricians to address behaviors. To assess behavior changes on later screens, the tool must be reliable for an individual and ideally between household members. Little research has examined the reliability of safety screening tool questions. This study utilized test-retest reliability of parent responses on an existing IP questionnaire and also compared responses between household parents. Investigators recruited parents of children 0 to 1 year of age during admission to a tertiary care children's hospital. When both parents were present, one was chosen as the "primary" respondent. Primary respondents completed the 30-question IP screening tool after consent, and they were re-screened approximately 4 hours later to test individual reliability. The "second" parent, when present, only completed the tool once. All participants received a 10-dollar gift card. Cohen's Kappa was used to estimate test-retest reliability and inter-rater agreement. Standard test-retest criteria consider Kappa values: 0.0 to 0.40 poor to fair, 0.41 to 0.60 moderate, 0.61 to 0.80 substantial, and 0.81 to 1.00 as almost perfect reliability. One hundred five families participated, with five lost to follow-up. Thirty-two (30.5%) parent dyads completed the tool. Primary respondents were generally mothers (88%) and Caucasian (72%). Test-retest of the primary respondents showed their responses to be almost perfect; average 0.82 (SD = 0.13, range 0.49-1.00). Seventeen questions had almost perfect test-retest reliability and 11 had substantial reliability. However, inter-rater agreement between household members for 12 objective questions showed little agreement between responses; inter-rater agreement averaged 0.35 (SD = 0.34, range -0.19-1.00). One question had almost perfect inter-rater agreement and two had substantial inter-rater agreement. The IP screening tool used by a single individual had excellent

  17. Test-Retest Reliability of a Serious Game for Delirium Screening in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Tiffany; Chignell, Mark; Tierney, Mary C; Lee, Jacques S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cognitive screening in settings such as emergency departments (ED) is frequently carried out using paper-and-pencil tests that require administration by trained staff. These assessments often compete with other clinical duties and thus may not be routinely administered in these busy settings. Literature has shown that the presence of cognitive impairments such as dementia and delirium are often missed in older ED patients. Failure to recognize delirium can have devastating consequences including increased mortality (Kakuma et al., 2003). Given the demands on emergency staff, an automated cognitive test to screen for delirium onset could be a valuable tool to support delirium prevention and management. In earlier research we examined the concurrent validity of a serious game, and carried out an initial assessment of its potential as a delirium screening tool (Tong et al., 2016). In this paper, we examine the test-retest reliability of the game, as it is an important criterion in a cognitive test for detecting risk of delirium onset. Objective: To demonstrate the test-retest reliability of the screening tool over time in a clinical sample of older emergency patients. A secondary objective is to assess whether there are practice effects that might make game performance unstable over repeated presentations. Materials and Methods: Adults over the age of 70 were recruited from a hospital ED. Each patient played our serious game in an initial session soon after they arrived in the ED, and in follow up sessions conducted at 8-h intervals (for each participant there were up to five follow up sessions, depending on how long the person stayed in the ED). Results: A total of 114 adults (61 females, 53 males) between the ages of 70 and 104 years ( M = 81 years, SD = 7) participated in our study after screening out delirious patients. We observed a test-retest reliability of the serious game (as assessed by correlation r -values) between 0.5 and 0.8 across adjacent

  18. Utility of quick oculomotor tests for screening the vestibular system in the subacute and chronic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Helen S; Stitz, Jasmine; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Williams, Susan P; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P; Peters, Brian T; Bloomberg, Jacob J

    2018-04-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of some widely used, easily administered clinical tests. Simple tests of oculomotor function have become widely used for clinical screening of patients suspected of having vestibular disorders despite a paucity of evidence showing good statistical support for their use in this highly variable population. Healthy controls with no history of otologic or neurologic disorders (n = 291) were compared to patients with known vestibular disorders (n = 62). All subjects performed passive and active head shaking, un-instrumented head impulse tests (HT), and video head impulse tests (vHIT) recorded with infrared video-oculography. For both passive and active head shaking, using presence/absence of vertigo and of nystagmus, sensitivity was low (<0.40). Sensitivity of presence/absence of saccades on HT was even lower (<0.15). On vHIT, gains were all approximately = 1.0, so sensitivity was very low (approximately 0.15-0.35). Sensitivity and specificity for presence/absence of saccades were moderately poor (less than 0.70). None of these tests are adequate for screening patients in the out-patient clinic for vestibular disorders or for screening people in epidemiologic studies to determine the prevalence of vestibular disorders.

  19. Negative Aging Stereotypes Impair Performance on Brief Cognitive Tests Used to Screen for Predementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Marie; Régner, Isabelle; Barber, Sarah J; Paccalin, Marc; Miazola, Aimé-Chris; Huguet, Pascal; Rigalleau, François

    2017-10-01

    There is today ample evidence that negative aging stereotypes impair healthy older adults' performance on cognitive tasks. Here, we tested whether these stereotypes also decrease performance during the screening for predementia on short cognitive tests widely used in primary care. An experiment was conducted on 80 healthy older adults taking the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) under Threat or Reduced-threat condition. Stereotype threat significantly impaired older adults' performance on both tests, resulting in 40% of older adults meeting the screening criteria for predementia, compared with 10% in Reduced-threat condition (MMSE and MoCA averaged). Our research highlights the influence of aging stereotypes on short cognitive tests used to screen for predementia. It is of critical importance that physicians provide a threat-free testing environment. Further research should clarify whether this socially induced bias may also operate in secondary care by generating false positives. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. The Clock Drawing Test A review of its accuracy in screening for dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Aprahamian

    Full Text Available Abstract The Clock Drawing Test (CDT is a simple neuropsychometric instrument that can be easily applied to assess several cognitive functions. Over the past 20 years, the CDT has aroused considerable interest in its role for the early screening of cognitive impairment, especially in dementia. Although the CDT is considered an accurate test for dementia screening, recent studies including comparisons with structured batteries such as the CAMCOG have shown mixed results. Objectives: To investigate the importance of the CDT compared to other commonly used tests, in the diagnosis of dementia in the elderly; (2 to evaluate the reliability and correlation between available CDT scoring scales from recent studies. Methods: A systematic search in the literature was conducted in September 2008 for studies comparing CDT scoring systems and comparing the CDT with neuropsychiatric batteries. Results: Twelve studies were selected for analyses. Seven of these studies compared CDT scoring scales while five compared the CDT against the CAMCOG and the MMSE. Eight studies found good correlation and reliability between the scales and the other tests. Conclusion: Despite the mixed results in these studies, the CDT appears to be a good screening test for dementia.

  1. [Drug using risks screening in primary care patients using the ASSIST test: Cross sectional study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rodríguez, Juan A; Rigabert, Alina; Gómez Llano, M Nieves; Rubio, Gabriel

    2018-03-15

    The aim of this study is to estimate risky-drug use patterns of consumption of primary care patients. Multicentric descriptive cross-sectional study. five primary health care centers of the South of Madrid. all patients between 16-100 year-old consulting with their family physician. Spanish-validated World Health Organization ASSIST test was use to screen risky drug use in primary care. Total points scored at the test were obtained. A sum of 441 screening test were collected. Mean age was 51,3 years and 51.6% of patients presented a moderate-severe risky drug use out of the nine drugs tested. The more frequent drug use screened were tobacco (41.7%) followed by alcohol (15.4%), hypnotics (13.7%) and cannabis (5.7%). Differences were found between genders in the patterns: men had higher risky drug uses compared to women regarding alcohol and cannabis. Women had higher sedatives/hypnotics consumption prevalence. A 16% of patients presented with polyconsumption drug use patterns. There is risk derived from drug misuse in primary care for tobacco, alcohol, hypnotics and cannabis as detected by the ASSIST test. There is a higher rate of hypnotics than expected. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. DEPIVIH 2: Use of three HIV testing methods in French primary care settings - ELISA laboratory screening versus two rapid point-of-care HIV tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadima, D; Gauthier, R; Prévoteau du Clary, F; Bouée, S; Conort, G; Livrozet, J-M; Taulera, O; Wajsbrot, A; Majerholc, C; Peter, J-M; Aubert, J-P

    2018-03-01

    The primary endpoint was to evaluate the use of HIV testing methods by French primary care providers: Elisa laboratory screening, instant result HIV diagnostic test and rapid result HIV diagnostic test. The secondary endpoints were the population screening rate of unknown HIV status consulting during the study period, reasons for screening and for choosing the specific screening method, the investigators' satisfaction with the rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and problems encountered. National prospective interventional study with French family physicians (FP) from December 2013 to December 2014. FPs enrolled all consenting adults consulting for an HIV screening test during a 6-month period: the choice was an Elisa laboratory test or one of the two RDTs. During the study period, 43 FPs included 981 patients. HIV screening was performed for the first time for 31.6% of patients; 767 (78.2%) Elisa laboratory test prescriptions and 214 (21.8%) RDTs were performed, leading to a screening rate of 1.3%. For 120 (15.7%) of the Elisa laboratory tests, the result was not reported and six RDTs were not valid. Nine patients were diagnosed as HIV-infected (0.9%): five with Elisa laboratory test and four with RDT. Almost 90% of FPs were willing to keep on using RDTs in their daily practice. In general practice, RDTs may be an important additional tool to traditional HIV screening. They could account for one in five tests prescribed in this context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Development and validation of a mental health screening tool for asylum-seekers and refugees: the STAR-MH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Debbie C; Mancuso, Serafino G; Sundram, Suresh

    2018-03-16

    There is no screening tool for major depressive disorder (MDD) or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in asylum-seekers or refugees (ASR) that can be readily administered by non-mental health workers. Hence, we aimed to develop a brief, sensitive and rapidly administrable tool for non-mental health workers to screen for MDD and PTSD in ASR. The screening tool was developed from an extant dataset (n = 121) of multiply screened ASR and tested prospectively (N = 192) against the M.I.N.I. (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview) structured psychiatric interview. Rasch, Differential Item Functioning and ROC analyses evaluated the psychometric properties and tool utility. A 9-item tool with a median administration time of six minutes was generated, comprising two 'immediate screen-in' items, and a 7-item scale. The prevalence of PTSD &/or MDD using the M.I.N.I. was 32%, whilst 99% of other diagnosed mental disorders were comorbid with one or both of these. Using a cut-score of ≥2, the tool provided a sensitivity of 0.93, specificity of 0.75 and predictive accuracy of 80.7%. A brief sensitive screening tool with robust psychometric properties that was easy to administer at the agency of first presentation was developed to facilitate mental health referrals for asylum-seekers and new refugees.

  4. Negative HPV screening test predicts low cervical cancer risk better than negative Pap test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on a study that included more than 1 million women, investigators at NCI have determined that a negative test for HPV infection compared to a negative Pap test provides greater safety, or assurance, against future risk of cervical cancer.

  5. Jk(a-b-) phenotype screening by the urea lysis test in Thai blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deelert, Suparat; Thippayaboon, Pattrawan; Sriwai, Wimolpak; Sriwanitchrak, Pramote; Tubrod, Jintana; Kupatawintu, Pawinee; Nathalang, Oytip

    2010-01-01

    The Jk(a-b-) phenotype is rare in most populations and often detected after transfusion or pregnancy. After immunisation, anti-Jk3 forms and it can be difficult to find compatible Jk(a-b-) donors. Using anti-Jk(a) and anti-Jk(b) in a conventional tube method is unsuitable for identifying Jk(a-b-) in mass screening of blood donors. Jk(a-b-) phenotypes are associated with the absence of urea transporters on erythrocytes, making red blood cells (RBC) resistant to lysis by 2M urea, while Jk(a+b-), Jk(a-b+) and Jk(a+b+) phenotypes are susceptible to lysis. We screened for Jk(a-b-) phenotypes in blood donors by the urea lysis test using a 96-well microplate. The Jk(a-b-) phenotypes were confirmed by the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT). Altogether, 20,163 blood samples from Thai blood donors were tested and only RBC from five samples were resistant to lysis by 2M urea, while 20,158 samples were completely lysed within 5 min. In an IAT, both anti-Jk(a) and anti-Jk(b) failed to agglutinate RBC from all five samples. Using a micro-titre plate, the direct urea lysis test, costs * 0.01, about 480 times less than IAT. Moreover, the test time for each plate (94 samples) is about 18 times less than that for IAT. Jk(a-b-) phenotype screening by the direct urea lysis test on samples in a micro-titre plate is simple, cost-effective and practical for mass screening of blood donors.

  6. Jk(a−b−) phenotype screening by the urea lysis test in Thai blood donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deelert, Suparat; Thippayaboon, Pattrawan; Sriwai, Wimolpak; Sriwanitchrak, Pramote; Tubrod, Jintana; Kupatawintu, Pawinee; Nathalang, Oytip

    2010-01-01

    Background The Jk(a−b−) phenotype is rare in most populations and often detected after transfusion or pregnancy. After immunisation, anti-Jk3 forms and it can be difficult to find compatible Jk(a−b−) donors. Using anti-Jka and anti-Jkb in a conventional tube method is unsuitable for identifying Jk(a−b−) in mass screening of blood donors. Jk(a−b−) phenotypes are associated with the absence of urea transporters on erythrocytes, making red blood cells (RBC) resistant to lysis by 2M urea, while Jk(a+b−), Jk(a−b+) and Jk(a+b+) phenotypes are susceptible to lysis. Materials and methods. We screened for Jk(a−b−) phenotypes in blood donors by the urea lysis test using a 96-well microplate. The Jk(a−b−) phenotypes were confirmed by the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT). Results Altogether, 20,163 blood samples from Thai blood donors were tested and only RBC from five samples were resistant to lysis by 2M urea, while 20,158 samples were completely lysed within 5 min. In an IAT, both anti-Jka and anti-Jkb failed to agglutinate RBC from all five samples. Using a micro-titre plate, the direct urea lysis test, costs • 0.01, about 480 times less than IAT. Moreover, the test time for each plate (94 samples) is about 18 times less than that for IAT. Conclusion Jk(a−b−) phenotype screening by the direct urea lysis test on samples in a micro-titre plate is simple, cost-effective and practical for mass screening of blood donors. PMID:20104274

  7. POPULATION BASED COLORECTAL CANCER SCREENING: COMPARISON OF TWO FAECAL OCCULT BLOOD TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miren Begoña eZubero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of screening for colorectal cancer is to improve prognosis by the detection of cancer at its early stages. In order to inform the decision on the specific test to be used in the population-based programme in the Basque Autonomous Region (Spain, we compared two immunochemical faecal occult blood quantitative tests (I-FOBT. Methods: Residents of selected study areas, aged 50-69 years, were invited to participate in the screening. Two tests based on latex agglutination (OC-Sensor and FOB Gold were randomly assigned to different study areas. A colonoscopy was offered to patients with a positive test result. The cut-off point used to classify a result as positive, according to manufacturer’s recommendations, was 100 ng/ml for both tests. Results: The invited population included 37,999 individuals. Participation rates were 61.8% (n=11,162 for OC-Sensor and 59.1% (n=11,786 for FOB Gold, (p=0.008. Positive rate for OC-Sensor was 6.6% (n=737 and 8.5% (n=1,002 for FOB Gold, (pConclusions: OC-Sensor test appears to be superior for I-FOBT based CRC screening, given its acceptance, ease of use, associated small number of errors and its screening accuracy. FOB-Gold on the other hand, has higher rate of positive values, with more colonoscopies performed, it shows higher detection incidence rates, but involves more false positives.

  8. An analysis of the duplicate testing strategy of an Irish immunochemical FOBT colorectal cancer screening programme.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelley, Leanne

    2013-06-10

    AIM: This study examined the relevance of using a two sample quantitative immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT or FIT) at a high cut off stringency by the first population-based colorectal cancer (CRC) pilot screening programme in Ireland. METHOD: Approximately ten thousand individuals between the ages of 50-74 years were invited to perform two consecutive FITs. These were analysed in tandem using the OC-Sensor and participants with at least one positive result with a haemoglobin cut off for positivity at 100 ng\\/ml were offered colonoscopy. RESULTS: A total of 5023 (52%) (2177 (43%) male; 2846 (57%) female) individuals with a median age of 64 years participated. At least one positive FIT test was detected from 514 (10%) individuals. From the 419 (82%) patients who proceeded to colonoscopy 17 (4%) had CRC and 132(33%) had an advanced adenoma. The detection rate for these screen relevant lesions was 3% (95% CIs = 2.5% - 3.5%) and the FIT positive + colonoscopy detection rate was 36% (95% CI = 31% - 40%). The numbers needed to colonoscope to find an advanced lesion was 2.8. The two test system detected four (23.5%) additional patients with CRC and 37 (28%) with an advanced adenoma compared with a single test. CONCLUSION: The CRC miss rate estimated for a single test (23.5%) was unacceptably high when the goal was to maximize the discovery of advanced lesions in the initial screening round. We conclude that the two test protocol at a high cut off threshold is suitable to optimize FIT screening in Ireland. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Development and application of a general plasmid reference material for GMO screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuhua; Li, Jun; Wang, Yulei; Li, Xiaofei; Li, Yunjing; Zhu, Li; Li, Jun; Wu, Gang

    The use of analytical controls is essential when performing GMO detection through screening tests. Additionally, the presence of taxon-specific sequences is analyzed mostly for quality control during GMO detection. In this study, 11 commonly used genetic elements involving three promoters (P-35S, P-FMV35S and P-NOS), four marker genes (Bar, NPTII, HPT and Pmi), and four terminators (T-NOS, T-35S, T-g7 and T-e9), together with the reference gene fragments from six major crops of maize, soybean, rapeseed, rice, cotton and wheat, were co-integrated into the same single plasmid to construct a general reference plasmid pBI121-Screening. The suitability test of pBI121-Screening plasmid as reference material indicated that the non-target sequence on the pBI121-Screening plasmid did not affect the PCR amplification efficiencies of screening methods and taxon-specific methods. The sensitivity of screening and taxon-specific assays ranged from 5 to 10 copies of pBI121-Screening plasmid, meeting the sensitivity requirement of GMO detection. The construction of pBI121-Screening solves the lack of a general positive control for screening tests, thereby reducing the workload and cost of preparing a plurality of the positive control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Development and testing of responder : phase III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-28

    This report documents the research project Development and Testing of Responder Phase III. Under previous research, a Responder system has been developed to provide relevant and timely information to first responders, allow responders to provid...

  11. AngularJS test-driven development

    CERN Document Server

    Chaplin, Tim

    2015-01-01

    This book is for developers who want to learn about AngularJS development by applying testing techniques. You are assumed to have a basic knowledge and understanding of HTML, JavaScript, and AngularJS.

  12. The development and standardization of Self-assessment for Hearing Screening of the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gibbeum; Na, Wondo; Kim, Gungu; Han, Woojae; Kim, Jinsook

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to develop and standardize a screening tool for elderly people who wish to check for themselves their level of hearing loss. The Self-assessment for Hearing Screening of the Elderly (SHSE) consisted of 20 questions based on the characteristics of presbycusis using a five-point scale: seven questions covered general issues related to sensorineural hearing loss, seven covered hearing difficulty under distracting listening conditions, two covered hearing difficulty with fast-rated speech, and four covered the working memory function during communication. To standardize SHSE, 83 elderly participants took part in the study: 25 with normal hearing, and 22, 23, and 13 with mild, moderate, and moderate-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss, respectively, according to their hearing sensitivity. All were retested 3 weeks later using the same questionnaire to confirm its reliability. In addition, validity was assessed using various hearing tests such as a sentence test with background noise, a time-compressed speech test, and a digit span test. SHSE and its subcategories showed good internal consistency. SHSE and its subcategories demonstrated high test-retest reliability. A high correlation was observed between the total scores and pure-tone thresholds, which indicated gradually increased SHSE scores of 42.24%, 55.27%, 66.61%, and 78.15% for normal hearing, mild, moderate, and moderate-to-severe groups, respectively. With regard to construct validity, SHSE showed a high negative correlation with speech perception scores in noise and a moderate negative correlation with scores of time-compressed speech perception. However, there was no statistical correlation between digit span results and either the SHSE total or its subcategories. A confirmatory factor analysis supported three factors in SHSE. We found that the developed SHSE had valuable internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent and construct validity. These results suggest that

  13. Clinical experience from Thailand: noninvasive prenatal testing as screening tests for trisomies 21, 18 and 13 in 4736 pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manotaya, S; Xu, H; Uerpairojkit, B; Chen, F; Charoenvidhya, D; Liu, H; Petcharaburanin, N; Liu, Y; Tang, S; Wang, X; Dansakul, S; Thomsopa, T; Gao, Y; Zhang, H; Xu, H; Jiang, Hui

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to report the clinical experience and performance of massively parallel sequencing-based noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) as a screening method in detecting trisomy 21, 18, and 13 (T21/T18/T13) in a mixed-risk population in Thailand. In a 30-month period, 121 medical centers in Thailand offered NIPT as clinical screening tests for fetal T21, T18, and T13 in the mixed-risk population. All NIPT-positive cases were recommended to undergo invasive prenatal diagnosis. A total of 4736 participants received the NIPT test, including 2840 high-risk pregnancies, either with advanced maternal age or positive serum biochemical tests, and 1889 low-risk pregnancies without conventional indications; 99.9% (4732/4736) of the participants with a median maternal age of 35 years old received reports, and 1.3% (63/4732) were classified as test positive, including 36 T21, 19 T18, and 8 T13; 82.5% (52/63) took prenatal diagnosis, and 11.5% (6/52) false-positive cases were observed. The positive predictive values for the detection of T21, T18, and T13 were 94.4%, 79.0%, and 87.5%, respectively. With stringent protocol, our prospective large-scale multicenter nationwide study demonstrated that NIPT showed excellent performance as screening tests for the detection of fetal T21, T18, and T13 in mixed-risk pregnancies in Thailand. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Test Driven Development of Scientific Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clune, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    Test-Driven Development (TDD), a software development process that promises many advantages for developer productivity and software reliability, has become widely accepted among professional software engineers. As the name suggests, TDD practitioners alternate between writing short automated tests and producing code that passes those tests. Although this overly simplified description will undoubtedly sound prohibitively burdensome to many uninitiated developers, the advent of powerful unit-testing frameworks greatly reduces the effort required to produce and routinely execute suites of tests. By testimony, many developers find TDD to be addicting after only a few days of exposure, and find it unthinkable to return to previous practices.After a brief overview of the TDD process and my experience in applying the methodology for development activities at Goddard, I will delve more deeply into some of the challenges that are posed by numerical and scientific software as well as tools and implementation approaches that should address those challenges.

  15. Stroop Test Validation to Screen for Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy in Pediatric Extrahepatic Portal Venous Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Meera Vyshni; Jagadisan, Barath; Kandasamy, Preeti; Senthilkumar, Gandhipuram Periyasamy

    2018-01-25

    Minimal Hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) has been reported in children with extra hepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO). MHE assessment is restricted to research situations as neuropsychiatric tests are time-intensive. Computerised Stroop Test (CST) has been used in cirrhotic adults for MHE screening. The study aims to assess MHE frequency in young Indian children with EHPVO and validate CST for MHE screening in pediatric EHPVO METHODS:: 37 children with EHPVO between 7-12 years of age and 37 age and gender matched controls were enrolled. Fasting plasma ammonia was measured. MHE was diagnosed by Revised Amsterdamse Kinder Intelligentie Test (RAKIT). The performance of a Tamil language version of CST in MHE screening was assessed. MHE was diagnosed in 18.9% (7/37) of EHPVO (EHPVO-MHE). Plasma ammonia levels were higher in EHPVO-MHE compared to EHPVO without MHE (EHPVO-No-MHE) but abnormal plasma ammonia levels are unsuitable for MHE screening. CST was administered in 35 EHPVO and 37 controls. EHPVO-MHE, compared to EHPVO-No-MHE, had longer "on time", "off time", "(on+off) time" and "(on-off) time". For MHE diagnosis, specificity and sensitivity of '(on+off) time' were 100% and 89.6% for a cut-off of >180.4 s (AUROC=0.97). In the absence of other risk factors for neurological insult or patent surgical shunts, MHE frequency in young Indian children with EHPVO, determined by RAKIT, was lesser than in earlier studies. CST is suitable for MHE screening in clinical practice to select patients for neuropsychiatric evaluation.

  16. Analytical Performance of Multiplexed Screening Test for 10 Antibiotic Resistance Genes from Perianal Swab Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, G Terrance; Rockweiler, Tony J; Kersey, Rossio K; Frye, Kelly L; Mitchner, Susan R; Toal, Douglas R; Quan, Julia

    2016-02-01

    Multiantibiotic-resistant bacteria pose a threat to patients and place an economic burden on health care systems. Carbapenem-resistant bacilli and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers drive the need to screen infected and colonized patients for patient management and infection control. We describe a multiplex microfluidic PCR test for perianal swab samples (Acuitas(®) MDRO Gene Test, OpGen) that detects the vancomycin-resistance gene vanA plus hundreds of gene subtypes from the carbapenemase and ESBL families Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM), Verona integron-mediated metallo-β-lactamase (VIM), imipenemase metallo-β-lactamase (IMP), OXA-23, OXA-48, OXA-51, CTX-M-1, and CTX-M-2, regardless of the bacterial species harboring the antibiotic resistance. Analytical test sensitivity per perianal swab is 11-250 CFU of bacteria harboring the antibiotic resistance genes. Test throughput is 182 samples per test run (1820 antibiotic resistance gene family results). We demonstrate reproducible test performance and 100% gene specificity for 265 clinical bacterial organisms harboring a variety of antibiotic resistance genes. The Acuitas MDRO Gene Test is a sensitive, specific, and high-throughput test to screen colonized patients and diagnose infections for several antibiotic resistance genes directly from perianal swab samples, regardless of the bacterial species harboring the resistance genes. © 2015 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  17. Field-based evaluations of horizontal flat-plate fish screens, II: Testing of a unique off-stream channel device - The Farmers Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Rose, Brien P.; Copeland, Elizabeth S.

    2012-01-01

    Screens are installed at water diversion sites to reduce entrainment of fish. Recently, the Farmers Irrigation District (Oregon) developed a unique flat-plate screen (the “Farmers Screen”) that operates passively and may offer reduced installation and operating costs. To evaluate the effectiveness of this screen on fish, we conducted two separate field experiments. First, juvenile coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch were released over a working version of this screen under a range of inflows (0.02–0.42 m3/s) and diversion flows (0.02–0.34 m3/s) at different water depths. Mean approach velocities ranged from 0 to 5 cm/s and sweeping velocities ranged from 36 to 178 cm/s. Water depths over the screen surface ranged from 1 to 25 cm and were directly related to inflow. Passage of fish over the screen under these conditions did not severely injure them or cause delayed mortality, and no fish were observed becoming impinged on the screen surface. Second, juvenile coho salmon and steelhead O. mykiss were released at the upstream end of a 34-m flume and allowed to volitionally move downstream and pass over a 3.5-m section of the Farmers Screen to determine whether fish would refuse to pass over the screen after encountering its leading edge. For coho salmon, 75–95% of the fish passed over the screen within 5 min and 82–98% passed within 20 min, depending on hydraulic conditions. For steelhead, 47–90% of the fish passed over the screen within 5 min and 79–95% passed within 20 min. Our results indicate that when operated within its design criteria, the Farmers Screen provides safe and efficient downstream passage of juvenile salmonids under a variety of hydraulic conditions.

  18. Development of a Social Skills Assessment Screening Scale for Psychiatric Rehabilitation Settings: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhola, Poornima; Basavarajappa, Chethan; Guruprasad, Deepti; Hegde, Gayatri; Khanam, Fatema; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Chaturvedi, Santosh K

    2016-01-01

    Deficits in social skills may present in a range of psychiatric disorders, particularly in the more serious and persistent conditions, and have an influence on functioning across various domains. This pilot study aimed at developing a brief measure, for structured evaluation and screening for social skills deficits, which can be easily integrated into routine clinical practice. The sample consisted of 380 inpatients and their accompanying caregivers, referred to Psychiatric Rehabilitation Services at a tertiary care government psychiatric hospital. The evaluation included an Inpatient intake Proforma and the 20-item Social Skills Assessment Screening Scale (SSASS). Disability was assessed using the Indian Disability Evaluation and Assessment Scale (IDEAS) for a subset of 94 inpatients. The analysis included means and standard deviations, frequency and percentages, Cronbach's alpha to assess internal consistency, t -tests to assess differences in social skills deficits between select subgroups, and correlation between SSASS and IDEAS scores. The results indicated the profile of social skills deficits assessed among the inpatients with varied psychiatric diagnoses. The "psychosis" group exhibited significantly higher deficits than the "mood disorder" group. Results indicated high internal consistency of the SSASS and adequate criterion validity demonstrated by correlations with select IDEAS domains. Modifications were made to the SSASS following the pilot study. The SSASS has potential value as a measure for screening and individualised intervention plans for social skills training in mental health and rehabilitation settings. The implications for future work on the psychometric properties and clinical applications are discussed.

  19. Diagnostic Accuracy of the Neck Tornado Test as a New Screening Test in Cervical Radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Juyeon; Park, Woo Young; Hong, Seungbae; An, Jiwon; Koh, Jae Chul; Lee, Youn-Woo; Kim, Yong Chan; Choi, Jong Bum

    2017-01-01

    The Spurling test, although a highly specific provocative test of the cervical spine in cervical radiculopathy (CR), has low to moderate sensitivity. Thus, we introduced the neck tornado test (NTT) to examine the neck and the cervical spine in CR. The aim of this study was to introduce a new provocative test, the NTT, and compare the diagnostic accuracy with a widely accepted provocative test, the Spurling test. Retrospective study. Medical records of 135 subjects with neck pain (CR, n = 67; without CR, n = 68) who had undergone cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging and been referred to the pain clinic between September 2014 and August 2015 were reviewed. Both the Spurling test and NTT were performed in all patients by expert examiners. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were compared for both the Spurling test and the NTT. The sensitivity of the Spurling test and the NTT was 55.22% and 85.07% ( P < 0.0001); specificity, 98.53% and 86.76% ( P = 0.0026); accuracy, 77.04% and 85.93% ( P = 0.0423), respectively. The NTT is more sensitive with superior diagnostic accuracy for CR diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging than the Spurling test.

  20. Screening for Development of Host Plant Resistance to Infestation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out at International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) Kano station during 2009 and 2010 growing season, to screen fifty two (52) cowpea varieties for resistance to aphids (Aphis craccivora) attack. It was found that only seven (7) varieties were highly resistant, nine (9) were highly susceptible and the ...

  1. Development of an Inhibitor Screening Assay for Mono-ADP-Ribosyl Hydrolyzing Macrodomains Using AlphaScreen Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haikarainen, Teemu; Maksimainen, Mirko M; Obaji, Ezeogo; Lehtiö, Lari

    2018-03-01

    Protein mono-ADP-ribosylation is a posttranslational modification involved in the regulation of several cellular signaling pathways. Cellular ADP-ribosylation is regulated by ADP-ribose hydrolases via a hydrolysis of the protein-linked ADP-ribose. Most of the ADP-ribose hydrolases share a macrodomain fold. Macrodomains have been linked to several diseases, such as cancer, but their cellular roles are mostly unknown. Currently, there are no inhibitors available targeting the mono-ADP-ribose hydrolyzing macrodomains. We have developed a robust AlphaScreen assay for the screening of inhibitors against macrodomains having mono-ADP-ribose hydrolysis activity. We utilized this assay for validatory screening against human MacroD1 and identified five compounds inhibiting the macrodomain. Dose-response measurements and an orthogonal assay further validated four of these compounds as MacroD1 inhibitors. The developed assay is homogenous, easy to execute, and suitable for the screening of large compound libraries. The assay principle can also be adapted for other ADP-ribose hydrolyzing macrodomains, which can utilize a biotin-mono-ADP-ribosylated protein as a substrate.

  2. The role of Pap test screening against cervical cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meggiolaro, A; Unim, B; Semyonov, L; Miccoli, S; Maffongelli, E; La Torre, G

    2016-01-01

    The first aim of this article is to quantify the role of Pap test in cervical cancer prevention, updating the pool of available studies included in a previous meta-analysis. Potential sources of meta-analysis heterogeneity were investigated as second aim. Further evidence of cost-effectiveness has been provided about age and best time interval to perform Pap test screening. The articles' search was conducted using four medical electronic databases: PubMed, Google Scholar, ISI Web, and Scopus. Papers published until the 30th November 2013 were included. The research on Google Scholar was limited to the first 10 pages of web for each study design. A systematic review/meta-analysis was performed according to PRISMA Statement. New-Castle-Ottawa Scale and Jadad have been adopted for articles quality assessment. From 4143 screened articles, 34 met eligibility criteria and 30 case-control studies were included in meta-analysis. Meta-analysis was carried out using StatsDirect2.8.0. Heterogeneity was investigated with qualitative and quantitative approaches in sensitivity-analysis. Despite a great heterogeneity (Cochran Q=504.466, df=29, pPap test has been identified (OR=0.33; 95%CI=0.268-0.408, P Pap test against cervical cancer has been confirmed especially among women <40 years. Annual screening still remains the most cost-effective preventive strategy.

  3. Newborn screening for medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in England: prevalence, predictive value and test validity based on 1.5 million screened babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerton, Juliet; Khalid, Javaria M; Besley, Guy; Dalton, R Neil; Downing, Melanie; Green, Anne; Henderson, Mick; Krywawych, Steve; Leonard, James; Andresen, Brage S; Dezateux, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) is a rare, life-threatening condition. Early diagnosis by screening asymptomatic newborns may improve outcome, but the benefit to newborns identified with variants not encountered clinically is uncertain. To estimate, overall and by ethnic group: screen-positive prevalence and predictive value (PPV); MCADD prevalence; proportion MCADD variants detected of predicted definite or uncertain clinical importance. All births in areas of high ethnic minority prevalence in England. Prospective multicentre pilot screening service; testing at age five to eight days; standardized screening, diagnostic and management protocols; independent expert review of screen-positive cases to assign MCADD diagnosis and predicted clinical importance (definite or uncertain). Approximately 1.5 million babies (79% white; 10% Asian) were screened. MCADD was confirmed in 147 of 190 babies with a positive screening result (screen-positive prevalence: 1.20 per 10,000; MCADD prevalence: 0.94 per 10,000; PPV 77% [95% CI 71-83]), comprising 103 (70%) with MCADD variants of definite clinical importance (95 white [95%]; 2 Asian [2%]) and 44 (30%) with variants of uncertain clinical importance (29 white [67%]; 12 Asian [28%]). One baby in every 10,000 born in England is diagnosed with MCADD by newborn screening; around 60 babies each year. While the majority of MCADD variants detected are predicted to be of definite clinical importance, this varies according to ethnic group, with variants of uncertain importance most commonly found in Asian babies. These findings provide support for MCADD screening but highlight the need to take account of the ethnic diversity of the population tested at implementation.

  4. Rapid screening test for detection of oxytetracycline residues in milk using lateral flow assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Laxmana; Sharma, Rajan; Mann, Bimlesh; Lata, Kiran; Rajput, Y S; Surendra Nath, B

    2017-03-15

    A rapid, semi-quantitative lateral flow assay (LFA) was developed to screen the oxytetracycline (OTC) antibiotics residues in milk samples. In this study a competitive immuno-assay format was established. Colloidal gold nano-particles (GNP) were prepared and used as labelling material in LFA. Polyclonal antibodies were generated against OTC molecule (anti-OTC), purified and the quality was assessed by enzyme linked immuno sorbet assay. For the first time membrane components required for LFA in milk system was optimized. GNP and anti-OTC stable conjugate preparation method was standardized, and then these components were placed over the conjugate pad. OTC coupled with carrier protein was placed on test line; species specific secondary antibodies were placed on the control line of the membrane matrix. Assay was validated by spiking OTC to antibiotic free milk samples and results could be accomplished within 5min. without need of any equipment. The visual detection limit was 30ppb. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical experience from Thailand noninvasive prenatal testing as screening tests for trisomies 21, 18 and 13 in 4736 pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manotaya, S.; Xu, H.; Uerpairojkit, B.

    2016-01-01

    PurposeThe purpose of this article is to report the clinical experience and performance of massively parallel sequencing-based noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) as a screening method in detecting trisomy 21, 18, and 13 (T21/T18/T13) in a mixed-risk population in Thailand. MethodsIn a 30-month...... period, 121 medical centers in Thailand offered NIPT as clinical screening tests for fetal T21, T18, and T13 in the mixed-risk population. All NIPT-positive cases were recommended to undergo invasive prenatal diagnosis. ResultsA total of 4736 participants received the NIPT test, including 2840 high......-risk pregnancies, either with advanced maternal age or positive serum biochemical tests, and 1889 low-risk pregnancies without conventional indications; 99.9% (4732/4736) of the participants with a median maternal age of 35years old received reports, and 1.3% (63/4732) were classified as test positive, including...

  6. Comparison among single-phase test, automated screening method and GC/MS for the traceability of ketamine in urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Visione

    2016-12-01

    CONCLUSION Following the law indications, ketamine is not searched: this limit does not make the authorities able to apply the penalties expected for road laws violations. The automation is essential to guarantee the reliability of toxicological screening tests, especially to medico-legal significance. This results highlight the absolutely necessity of the execution of the confirmation test, successively to screening analysis.

  7. De item-reeks van de cognitieve screening test vergeleken met die van de mini-mental state examination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmand, B.; Deelman, B. G.; Hooijer, C.; Jonker, C.; Lindeboom, J.

    1996-01-01

    The items of the ¿mini-mental state examination' (MMSE) and a Dutch dementia screening instrument, the ¿cognitive screening test' (CST), as well as the ¿geriatric mental status schedule' (GMS) and the ¿Dutch adult reading test' (DART), were administered to 4051 elderly people aged 65 to 84 years.

  8. Rapid detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates by the MRSA-screen latex agglutination test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.B. van Leeuwen (Willem); C. van Pelt (Cindy); A. Luijendijk (Ad); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); W.H.F. Goessens (Wil)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe slide agglutination test MRSA-Screen (Denka Seiken Co., Niigata, Japan) was compared with the mecA PCR ("gold standard") for the detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. The MRSA-Screen test detected the penicillin-binding protein 2a

  9. Acute HIV Discovered During Routine HIV Screening With HIV Antigen-Antibody Combination Tests in 9 US Emergency Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Douglas A E; Giordano, Thomas P; Pasalar, Siavash; Jacobson, Kathleen R; Glick, Nancy R; Sha, Beverly E; Mammen, Priya E; Hunt, Bijou R; Todorovic, Tamara; Moreno-Walton, Lisa; Adomolga, Vincent; Feaster, Daniel J; Branson, Bernard M

    2018-01-05

    Newer combination HIV antigen-antibody tests allow detection of HIV sooner after infection than previous antibody-only immunoassays because, in addition to HIV-1 and -2 antibodies, they detect the HIV-1 p24 antigen, which appears before antibodies develop. We determine the yield of screening with HIV antigen-antibody tests and clinical presentations for new diagnoses of acute and established HIV infection across US emergency departments (EDs). This was a retrospective study of 9 EDs in 6 cities with HIV screening programs that integrated laboratory-based antigen-antibody tests between November 1, 2012, and December 31, 2015. Unique patients with newly diagnosed HIV infection were identified and classified as having either acute HIV infection or established HIV infection. Acute HIV infection was defined as a repeatedly reactive antigen-antibody test result, a negative HIV-1/HIV-2 antibody differentiation assay, or Western blot result, but detectable HIV ribonucleic acid (RNA); established HIV infection was defined as a repeatedly reactive antigen-antibody test result and a positive HIV-1/HIV-2 antibody differentiation assay or Western blot result. The primary outcomes were the number of new HIV diagnoses and proportion of patients with laboratory-defined acute HIV infection. Secondary outcomes compared reason for visit and the clinical presentation of acute HIV infection. In total, 214,524 patients were screened for HIV and 839 (0.4%) received a new diagnosis, of which 122 (14.5%) were acute HIV infection and 717 (85.5%) were established HIV infection. Compared with patients with established HIV infection, those with acute HIV infection were younger, had higher RNA and CD4 counts, and were more likely to have viral syndrome (41.8% versus 6.5%) or fever (14.3% versus 3.4%) as their reason for visit. Most patients with acute HIV infection displayed symptoms attributable to acute infection (median symptom count 5 [interquartile range 3 to 6]), with fever often

  10. Primary HPV testing versus cytology-based cervical screening in women in Australia vaccinated for HPV and unvaccinated: effectiveness and economic assessment for the National Cervical Screening Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Jie-Bin; Simms, Kate T; Smith, Megan A; Hall, Michaela; Kang, Yoon-Jung; Xu, Xiang Ming; Caruana, Michael; Velentzis, Louiza Sofia; Bessell, Tracey; Saville, Marion; Hammond, Ian; Canfell, Karen

    2017-02-01

    Australia's National Cervical Screening Program currently recommends cytological screening every 2 years for women aged 18-69 years. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination was implemented in 2007 with high population coverage, and falls in high-grade lesions in young women have been reported extensively. This decline prompted a major review of the National Cervical Screening Program and new clinical management guidelines, for which we undertook this analysis. We did effectiveness modelling and an economic assessment of potential new screening strategies, using a model of HPV transmission, vaccination, natural history, and cervical screening. First, we evaluated 132 screening strategies, including those based on cytology and primary HPV testing. Second, after a recommendation was made to adopt primary HPV screening with partial genotyping and direct referral to colposcopy of women positive for HPV16/18, we evaluated the final effect of HPV screening after incorporating new clinical guidelines for women positive for HPV. Both evaluations considered both unvaccinated and vaccinated cohorts. Strategies entailing HPV testing every 5 years and either partial genotyping for HPV16/18 or cytological co-testing were the most effective. One of the most effective and cost-effective strategies comprised primary HPV screening with referral of women positive for oncogenic HPV16/18 direct to colposcopy, with reflex cytological triage for women with other oncogenic types and direct referral for those in this group with high-grade cytological findings. After incorporating detailed clinical guidelines recommendations, this strategy is predicted to reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality by 31% and 36%, respectively, in unvaccinated cohorts, and by 24% and 29%, respectively, in cohorts offered vaccination. Furthermore, this strategy is predicted to reduce costs by up to 19% for unvaccinated cohorts and 26% for cohorts offered vaccination, compared with the current programme

  11. Decision-analytic modeling to evaluate the long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HPV-DNA testing in primary cervical cancer screening in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krämer, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Persistent infections with high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV are associated with the development of cervical neoplasia. Compared to cytology HPV testing is more sensitive in detecting high-grade cervical cancer precursors, but with lower specificity. HPV based primary screening for cervical cancer is currently discussed in Germany. Decisions should be based on a systematic evaluation of the long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HPV based primary screening. Research questions: What is the long-term clinical effectiveness (reduction in lifetime risk of cervical cancer and death due to cervical cancer, life years gained of HPV testing and what is the cost-effectiveness in Euro per life year gained (LYG of including HPV testing in primary cervical cancer screening in the German health care context? How can the screening program be improved with respect to test combination, age at start and end of screening and screening interval and which recommendations should be made for the German health care context? Methods: A previously published and validated decision-analytic model for the German health care context was extended and adapted to the natural history of HPV infection and cervical cancer in order to evaluate different screening strategies that differ by screening interval, and tests, including cytology alone, HPV testing alone or in combination with cytology, and HPV testing with cytology triage for HPV-positive women. German clinical, epidemiological and economic data were used. In the absence of individual data, screening adherence was modelled independently from screening history. Test accuracy data were retrieved from international meta-analyses. Predicted outcomes included reduction in lifetime-risk for cervical cancer cases and deaths, life expectancy, lifetime costs, and discounted incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER. The perspective of the third party payer and 3% annual discount rate were

  12. Restriction of human papillomavirus DNA testing in primary cervical screening to women above age 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Njor, Sisse H; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2012-01-01

    Cervical screening with human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is less specific for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (=CIN3) than cytology. The aim of this systematic review was to determine whether a restriction of HPV testing to women aged at least 30 years would eliminate the problem....... On the basis of the data from randomized controlled trials, we calculated the relative detection of CIN1 and CIN2, and the relative risks of false-positive tests (positive tests without subsequent =CIN3) per age group and trial for HPV testing versus cytology. For women aged at least 30 years in trials...... with a low cytology abnormality rate, detection of CIN1 increased significantly by 50-90% in the two trials with reported data; detection of CIN2 was doubled in three trials; the risks of false-positive HPV tests were also doubled. In trials with a high cytology abnormality rate, these risks were similar...

  13. Diagnostic performance and costs of contingent screening models for trisomy 21 incorporating non-invasive prenatal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Susannah; O'Leary, Peter; Dickinson, Jan E; Suthers, Graeme K

    2017-08-01

    Contingent screening for trisomy 21 using non-invasive prenatal testing has the potential to reduce invasive diagnostic testing and increase the detection of trisomy 21. To describe the diagnostic and economic performance of prenatal screening models for trisomy 21 that use non-invasive prenatal testing as a contingent screen across a range of combined first trimester screening risk cut-offs from a public health system perspective. Using a hypothetical cohort of 300 000 pregnancies, we modelled the outcomes of 25 contingent non-invasive prenatal testing screening models and compared these to conventional screening, offering women with a high-risk (1 > 300) combined first trimester screening result an invasive test. The 25 models used a range of risk cut-offs. High-risk women were offered invasive testing. Intermediate-risk women were offered non-invasive prenatal testing. We report the cost of each model, detection rate, costs per diagnosis, invasive tests per diagnosis and the number of fetal losses per diagnosis. The cost per prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 21 using the conventional model was $51 876 compared to the contingent models which varied from $49 309-66 686. The number of diagnoses and cost per diagnosis increased as the intermediate-risk threshold was lowered. Results were sensitive to trisomy 21 incidence, uptake of testing and cost of non-invasive prenatal testing. Contingent non-invasive prenatal testing models using more sensitive combined first trimester screening risk cut-offs than conventional screening improved the detection rate of trisomy 21, reduced procedure-related fetal loss and could potentially be provided at a lower cost per diagnosis than conventional screening. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  14. Development and validation of a new screening questionnaire for dysphagia in early stages of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Janine A; Fietzek, Urban M; Waldmann, Annika; Warnecke, Tobias; Schuster, Tibor; Ceballos-Baumann, Andrés O

    2014-09-01

    Dysphagia in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) significantly reduces quality of life and predicted lifetime. Current screening procedures are insufficiently evaluated. We aimed to develop and validate a patient-reported outcome questionnaire for early diagnosis of dysphagia in patients with PD. The two-phased project comprised the questionnaire, diagnostic scales construction (N = 105), and a validation study (N = 82). Data for the project were gathered from PD patients at a German Movement Disorder Center. For validation purposes, a clinical evaluation focusing on swallowing tests, tests of sensory reflexes, and fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) was performed that yielded a criteria sum score against which the results of the questionnaire were compared. Specificity and sensitivity were evaluated for the detection of noticeable dysphagia and for the risk of aspiration. The Munich Dysphagia Test - Parkinson's disease (MDT-PD) consists of 26 items that show high internal consistency (α = 0.91). For the validation study, 82 patients, aged 70.9 ± 8.7 (mean ± SD), with a median Hoehn & Yahr stage of 3, were assessed. 73% of patients had dysphagia with noticeable oropharyngeal symptoms (44%) or with penetration/aspiration (29%). The criteria sum score correlated positively with the screening result (r = 0.70, p dysphagia vs. risk of aspiration (noticeable dysphagia) with a sensitivity of 90% (82%) and a specificity of 86% (71%), and yielded similar results in cross-validation, respectively. MDT-PD is a valid screening tool for early diagnosis of swallowing problems and aspiration risk, as well as initial graduation of dysphagia severity in PD patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Kinematics during lower extremity functional screening tests--are they reliable and related to jogging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatman, Chris; Hing, Wayne; Hume, Patria

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the within-day and between-day reliability of 3D lower extremity kinematics during five lower extremity functional screening tests and to assess the association between these kinematics and those recorded during jogging. Peak three-dimensional lower extremity kinematics were quantified in 25 uninjured participants during five lower extremity functional tests and jogging. A nine camera motion analysis system (Qualysis Medical AB, Sweden) was used to capture three trials of all tests. All functional tests were repeated by 10 participants one to two days later. Visual 3D (C-Motion Inc, USA) and Labview were used to process all data. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and typical errors (TE) were used to assess within- and between-day reliability of all variables. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the association between peak joint kinematics during the functional tests and jogging. For the majority of kinematic variables the within-day reliability was excellent (ICC ≥ 0.92) and the between-day reliability was excellent to good (ICC ≥ 0.80). The correlation between kinematics of the functional tests and jogging was generally large to very large (r = 0.53 to 0.93). These results suggest these lower extremity functional screening tests should prove a useful clinical tool when assessing dynamic lower extremity alignment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Terrestrial Eco-Toxicological Tests as Screening Tool to Assess Soil Contamination in Krompachy Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ol'ga, Šestinová; Findoráková, Lenka; Hančuľák, Jozef; Fedorová, Erika; Tomislav, Špaldon

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we present screening tool of heavy metal inputs to agricultural and permanent grass vegetation of the soils in Krompachy. This study is devoted to Ecotoxicity tests, Terrestrial Plant Test (modification of OECD 208, Phytotoxkit microbiotest on Sinapis Alba) and chronic tests of Earthworm (Dendrobaena veneta, modification of OECD Guidelines for the testing of chemicals 317, Bioaccumulation in Terrestrial Oligochaetes) as practical and sensitive screening method for assessing the effects of heavy metals in Krompachy soils. The total Cu, Zn, As, Pb and Hg concentrations and eco-toxicological tests of soils from the Krompachy area were determined of 4 sampling sites in 2015. An influence of the sampling sites distance from the copper smeltery on the absolutely concentrations of metals were recorded for copper, lead, zinc, arsenic and mercury. The highest concentrations of these metals were detected on the sampling sites up to 3 km from the copper smeltery. The samples of soil were used to assess of phytotoxic effect. Total mortality was established at earthworms using chronic toxicity test after 7 exposure days. The results of our study confirmed that no mortality was observed in any of the study soils. Based on the phytotoxicity testing, phytotoxic effects of the metals contaminated soils from the samples 3KR (7-9) S.alba seeds was observed.

  17. A comparison of hamstring muscle activity during different screening tests for non-contact ACL injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Rasmus S; Bencke, Jesper; Andersen, Lars Louis

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reduced ability to activate the medial hamstring muscles during a sports-specific sidecutting movement has been found to be a potential risk factor for non-contact ACL injury. However, whether a reduced ability to activate the medial hamstring muscle is a general neuromuscular...... phenomenon and thereby observable independently of the type of clinical screening tests used is not known. This cross sectional study investigated the rank correlation of knee joint neuromuscular activity between three different ACL injury risk screening tests. METHODS: Sixty-two adolescent female elite...... football and handball players (16.7±1.3years) participated in the study. Using surface electromyography (EMG) assessment, the neuromuscular activity of medial hamstring muscle (semitendinosus, ST), lateral hamstring muscle (biceps femoris, BF) and quadriceps muscle (vastus lateralis, VL) were monitored...

  18. The stroop effect in Greek healthy population: normative data for the Stroop Neuropsychological Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalonis, Ioannis; Christidi, Fotini; Bonakis, Anastasios; Kararizou, Evangelia; Triantafyllou, Nikolaos I; Paraskevas, Georgios; Kapaki, Elissavet; Vasilopoulos, Dimitrios

    2009-02-01

    The Stroop Test is a quick and frequently used measure in screening for brain damage, dysfunction of selective attention, and cognitive flexibility. The purpose of the present study is to provide normative data for Trenerry's Stroop Neuropsychological Screening Test (SNST) in a sample of 605 healthy Greek participants (age range: 18-84 years, education range: 6-18 years). Results revealed that age and education significantly contributed to SNST scores, accounting for a significant proportion of variance in time needed to complete the color task and in the interference Color-Word score. Performance on most of the measures decreases with increasing age and lower levels of education. Normative data stratified by age and education for the Greek adult population are provided as a useful set of norms for clinical practice.

  19. Primary care visit use after positive fecal immunochemical test for colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyer, Grace Clarke; Jensen, Christopher D; Zhao, Wei K; Neugut, Alfred I; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Tiro, Jasmin A; Kushi, Lawrence H; Corley, Douglas A

    2017-10-01

    For some patients, positive cancer screening test results can be a stressful experience that can affect future screening compliance and increase the use of health care services unrelated to medically indicated follow-up. Among 483,216 individuals aged 50 to 75 years who completed a fecal immunochemical test to screen for colorectal cancer at a large integrated health care setting between 2007 and 2011, the authors evaluated whether a positive test was associated with a net change in outpatient primary care visit use within the year after screening. Multivariable regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between test result group and net changes in primary care visits after fecal immunochemical testing. In the year after the fecal immunochemical test, use increased by 0.60 clinic visits for patients with true-positive results. The absolute change in visits was largest (3.00) among individuals with positive test results who were diagnosed with colorectal cancer, but significant small increases also were found for patients treated with polypectomy and who had no neoplasia (0.36) and those with a normal examination and no polypectomy performed (0.17). Groups of patients who demonstrated an increase in net visit use compared with the true-negative group included patients with true-positive results (odds ratio [OR], 1.60; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.54-1.66), and positive groups with a colorectal cancer diagnosis (OR, 7.19; 95% CI, 6.12-8.44), polypectomy/no neoplasia (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.27-1.48), and normal examination/no polypectomy (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.18-1.30). Given the large size of outreach programs, these small changes can cumulatively generate thousands of excess visits and have a substantial impact on total health care use. Therefore, these changes should be included in colorectal cancer screening cost models and their causes investigated further. Cancer 2017;123:3744-3753. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  20. Rapid Serological Tests Ineffectively Screen for HIV Exposure in HIV-Positive Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urick, Brittany; Fong, Youyi; Okiira, Christopher; Nabukeera-Barungi, Nicolette; Nansera, Denis; Ochola, Emmanuel; Nteziyaremye, Julius; Bigira, Victor; Ssewanyana, Isaac; Olupot-Olupot, Peter; Peter, Trevor; Ghadrshenas, Anisa; Vojnov, Lara; Kiyaga, Charles

    2018-03-01

    Data on the performance and utility of rapid serological tests in infants to determine HIV exposure are unclear and in some instances contradictory. This study sought to understand the performance of rapid serological tests in high HIV burden, high Option B+ coverage settings to be used as an HIV exposure screening tool. A total of 3600 infants up to 24 months of age at 4 regional hospitals in Uganda were systematically enrolled and tested simultaneously using both HIV rapid serological and nucleic acid-based tests. Only 58 of the 94 HIV-positive infants who received both rapid serological and nucleic acid-based tests were positive with the rapid serological test (sensitivity: 61.7%; 95% confidence interval: 51.1 to 71.5). Using rapid serological tests to screen infants for exposure to HIV and follow-up nucleic acid-based testing would have missed 38.3% (36 of 94) of HIV-positive infants. Finally, several HIV-positive infants who were negative by rapid serological test presented to well-child entry points and were considered healthy. All 3 HIV-positive infants presenting to outreach and immunization were negative by rapid serological testing and 73% (8 of 11) presenting to outpatient. These data suggest that the use of rapid serological tests may have inadequate performance as an indicator of exposure and potential HIV infection among infants presenting at both well-child (immunization and community outreach) and sick-infant (nutrition and inpatient) entry points. To improve the identification of HIV-positive infants, nucleic acid-based testing should instead be considered in infants aged younger than 18 months.

  1. Aneuploidy screening by non?invasive prenatal testing in twin pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Fosler, L.; Winters, P.; Jones, K. W.; Curnow, K. J.; Sehnert, A. J.; Bhatt, S.; Platt, L. D.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To describe our experience with non?invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) in twin pregnancy. Methods Two sets of maternal blood samples from twin pregnancies were analyzed at our laboratory using NIPT: 115 stored samples from pregnancies with known outcome (Clinical Study A) and 487 prospectively collected samples for which outcomes were requested from providers (Clinical Study B). NIPT was used to screen for the presence of fetal aneuploidy on chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y i...

  2. Inclusion Fluorescent-Antibody Test as a Screening Assay for Detection of Antibodies to Chlamydia pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Tapia, Olga; Slepenkin, Anatoly; Sevrioukov, Evgueni; Hamor, Kathi; de la Maza, Luis M.; Peterson, Ellena M.

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the ability of the inclusion immunofluorescence assay (inclusion IFA) to act as a screening test to detect samples with antibodies to Chlamydia pneumoniae; microimmunofluorescence (MIF) was used as the “gold standard.” In addition, the inclusion IFA was compared using HEp-2 cells infected with either C. pneumoniae CM-1 or Chlamydia trachomatis serovar E. A total of 331 serum samples representing a range of MIF titers were evaluated. The sensitivities of the ...

  3. Preferences and satisfaction towards a screening program with self-administered human papilloma virus detection tests

    OpenAIRE

    Morán, Flavia; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú. Estudiante de Medicina; Cárcamo, César; Facultad de Salud Pública y Administración, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. médico, doctor en Epidemiología; Valderrama, María; Facultad de Salud Pública y Administración, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. obstetra, magister en Obstetricia; García, Patricia J.; Facultad de Salud Pública y Administración, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. médico, doctora en Medicina

    2017-01-01

    Cross-sectional study describing preferences and satisfaction towards a cervical cancer screening program with selfadministered rapid tests for the detection of human papillomavirus (HPV). Of 2 090 users picked by the program in Ventanilla Callao - Peru, 97 were randomly selected to be surveyed. In addition, interviews were conducted with women leaders of the community, in charge of providing the evidence. 74.2% of the users felt, at least, satisfied with the program. 68% of women prefer to t...

  4. Tracer Test Monitoring Using Wells with Long Screened Intervals : Benefits and Disadvantages

    OpenAIRE

    Schnegg, Pierre-André; Flynn, Raymond Matthew; Mallèn, German; Perrochet, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Analytical and economic limitations often make fully-penetrating wells an attractive alternative for monitoring tracer test responses in aquifers. Modelling of breakthrough curves generated using long-screened (LS) wells in an unconfined gravel aquifer demonstrated that prolonged tailing could be reproduced with a series of partial breakthrough curves. The results suggested tracer arrived at multiple horizons. Subsequent measurements using a mobile downhole fluorometer demonstrated over 95% o...

  5. Transabdominal ultrasonography as a screening test for second-trimester placenta previa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quant, Hayley S; Friedman, Alexander M; Wang, Eileen; Parry, Samuel; Schwartz, Nadav

    2014-03-01

    To determine the test characteristics of transabdominal ultrasonography as a screening test for second-trimester placenta previa. This secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study evaluated the distance from the placental edge to the internal os (placenta-cervix distance) through both transabdominal and transvaginal ultrasonography during the anatomic survey. Patients were recruited in the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Ultrasound Unit at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, an urban tertiary care center. Transabdominal placenta-cervix distance cutoffs with high sensitivity for detection of previa and low-lying placenta were identified, and test characteristics were calculated. Follow-up ultrasound data, pregnancy, and delivery outcomes for those with second-trimester previa or low-lying placenta were obtained. One thousand two hundred fourteen women were included in the analysis. A transabdominal placenta-cervix distance cutoff of 4.2 cm was 93.3% sensitive and 76.7% specific for detection of previa with a 99.8% negative predictive value at a screen-positive rate of 25.0%. A cutoff of 2.8 cm was 86.7% sensitive and 90.5% specific with a 99.6% negative predictive value at a screen-positive rate of 11.4%. Only 9.8% (four of 41) of previas and low-lying placentas persisted through delivery. Transabdominal ultrasonography is an effective screening test for second-trimester placenta previa. At centers not performing universal transvaginal ultrasonography at the time of the anatomic survey, evidence-based transabdominal placenta-cervix distance cutoffs can optimize the identification of patients who require further surveillance for previa.

  6. Basal Serum Cortisol Concentration as a Screening Test for Hypoadrenocorticism in Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Bovens, C.; Tennant, K.; Reeve, J.; Murphy, K.F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Measurement of basal serum or plasma cortisol concentration is used as a screening test for hypoadrenocorticism in dogs, but is not well characterized. Objectives To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of basal serum cortisol to detect hypoadrenocorticism in a population of dogs with a clinical suspicion of hypoadrenocorticism. Animals Four hundred and fifty dogs with nonadrenal gland illness and 14 dogs with naturally occurring hypoadrenocorticism were included. Methods Retro...

  7. Investigating uptake in faecal immunochemical test (FIT) based colorectal cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major public health issue, being one of the most diagnosed cancers and one of the leading causes of cancer related mortality. Almost 2500 people are diagnosed with colorectal cancer each year in Ireland and over 1000 die from the disease with males at greater risk. Colorectal cancer is a highly treatable disease if detected at earlier stages. Ireland introduced a National Colorectal Cancer Screening Programme in 2013, using the new faecal immunochemical test (FIT) techn...

  8. Liquid-Crystal Display (LCD) Screen Thermal Testing to Simulate Solar Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    ARL-TN-0723 ● DEC 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Liquid - Crystal Display (LCD) Screen Thermal Testing to Simulate Solar Gain...longer needed. Do not return it to the originator. ARL-TN-0723 ● DEC 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Liquid - Crystal Display (LCD...1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) December 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 09/2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Liquid - Crystal

  9. Negative screening tests in classical galactosaemia caused by S135L homozygosity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Crushell, E

    2009-06-01

    Classical galactosaemia is relatively common in Ireland due to a high carrier rate of the Q188R GALT mutation. It is screened for using a bacterial inhibition assay (BIA) for free galactose. A Beutler assay on day one of life is performed only in high risk cases (infants of the Traveller community and relatives of known cases). A 16-month-old Irish-born boy of Nigerian origin was referred for investigation of developmental delay, and failure to thrive. He had oral aversion to solids and his diet consisted of cow\\'s milk and milk-based cereal mixes. He was found to have microcephaly, weight <2nd percentile, hepatomegaly and bilateral cataracts. Coagulation screen was normal and transaminases were slightly elevated. His original newborn screen was reviewed and confirmed to have been negative; urinary reducing substances on three separate occasions were negative. Beutler assay demonstrated "absent" red cell galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) activity. GALT enzyme activity was <0.5 gsubs\\/h per gHb confirming classical galactosaemia. Gal-1-P was elevated at 1.88 micromol\\/gHb. Mutation analysis of the GALT gene revealed S135L homozygosity. S135L\\/S135L galactosaemia is associated with absent red cell GALT activity but with approximately 10% activity in other tissues such as the liver and intestines, probably explaining the negative screening tests and the somewhat milder phenotype associated with this genotype. The patient was commenced on galactose-restricted diet; on follow-up at 2 years of age, growth had normalized but there was global developmental delay. In conclusion, galactosaemia must be considered in children who present with poor growth, hepatomegaly, developmental delay and cataracts and GALT enzyme analysis should be a first line test in such cases. Non-enzymatic screening methods such as urinary reducing substances and BIA for free galactose are not reliable in S135L homozygous galactosaemia.

  10. CITRUS, cervical cancer screening trial by randomization of HPV testing intervention for upcoming screening: Design, methods and baseline data of 18,471 women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisada, Tohru; Teramoto, Katsuhiro; Takano, Hirokuni; Sakamoto, Ikuko; Nishio, Hiroshi; Iwata, Takashi; Hashi, Akihiko; Katoh, Ryohei; Okamoto, Aikou; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Eiji; Teramukai, Satoshi; Aoki, Daisuke

    2017-10-01

    To assess the efficacy of screening with concurrent liquid-based cytology and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing for primary cervical cancer screening, we initiated a randomized trial entitled CervIcal cancer screening Trial by Randomization of HPV testing intervention for Upcoming Screening (CITRUS). Between June 2013 and March 2015, women aged 30-64 years of age who participated in a regular cervical cancer screening program (every 2 years) were invited to enrollment of our study. After giving their informed consent, 18,402 women were randomly assigned to liquid-based cytology as the control group (n=9145) or to HPV DNA testing with liquid-based cytology as the intervention group (n=9257). We subsequently compared the incidence rate of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), the rate of false positive tests and the rate of overdiagnosis, as well as assessing the risks and benefits of receiving screening for women in both groups. The primary outcome of our study was the incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) during the study period of around 6 years. In the control group, 97.9% of women were NILM, and 2.06% ASC-US or worse (ASC-US+). In the intervention group, 87.13% of women were NILM/HPV negative, 0.72% ASC-US/HPV negative, 10.34% NILM/HPV positive, 0.69% ASC-US/HPV positive, 0.90% worse than ASC-US/either HPV. Positive HPV testing was not linearly related to age in our study. Insights from CITRUS will provide future prospects for cervical cancer screening focused on the use of HPV testing in Japan. NCT01895517, UMIN000010843, TRIUC1312. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A comparison of hamstring muscle activity during different screening tests for non-contact ACL injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husted, Rasmus S; Bencke, Jesper; Andersen, Lars L; Myklebust, Grethe; Kallemose, Thomas; Lauridsen, Hanne B; Hölmich, Per; Aagaard, Per; Zebis, Mette K

    2016-06-01

    Reduced ability to activate the medial hamstring muscles during a sports-specific sidecutting movement has been found to be a potential risk factor for non-contact ACL injury. However, whether a reduced ability to activate the medial hamstring muscle is a general neuromuscular phenomenon and thereby observable independently of the type of clinical screening tests used is not known. This cross sectional study investigated the rank correlation of knee joint neuromuscular activity between three different ACL injury risk screening tests. Sixty-two adolescent female elite football and handball players (16.7±1.3years) participated in the study. Using surface electromyography (EMG) assessment, the neuromuscular activity of medial hamstring muscle (semitendinosus, ST), lateral hamstring muscle (biceps femoris, BF) and quadriceps muscle (vastus lateralis, VL) were monitored during three standardized screening tests - i.e. one-legged horizontal hop (OLH), drop vertical jump (DJ) and sidecutting (SC). Neuromuscular pre-activity was measured in the time interval 10ms prior to initial contact on a force plate. For neuromuscular hamstring muscle pre-activity, correlation analysis (Spearman correlation coefficient) showed low-to-moderate correlations between SC and 1) DJ (rs=0.34-0.36, Phamstring pre-activity share some common variance during the examined tests. However, a lack of strong correlation suggests that we cannot generalize one risk factor during one test to another test. The present data demonstrate that one-legged horizontal hop and drop vertical jump testing that are commonly used in the clinical setting does not resemble the specific neuromuscular activity patterns known to exist during sidecutting, a well known high risk movement for non-contact ACL injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of three marine screening tests and four Oslo and Paris Commission procedures to evaluate toxicity of offshore chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weideborg, M.; Vik, E.A.; Oefjord, G.D.; Kjoennoe, O. [Aquateam-Norwegian Water Technology Centre A/S, Oslo (Norway)

    1997-02-01

    The results from the screening toxicity tests Artemia salina, Microtox{reg_sign}, and Mitochondria RET test were compared with those obtained from OSPAR (Oslo and Paris Commissions)-authorized procedures for testing of offshore chemicals (Skeletonema costatum, Acartia tonsa, Abra alba, and Corophium volutator). In this study 82 test substances (26 non-water soluble) were included. The Microtox test was found to be the most sensitive of the three screening tests. Microtox and Mitochondria RET test results showed good correlation with results from Acartia and Skeletonema testing, and it was concluded that the Microtox test was a suitable screening test as a base for assessment of further testing, especially regarding water-soluble chemicals. Sensitivity of Artemia salina to the tested chemicals was too low for it to be an appropriate bioassay organism for screening testing. A very good correlation was found between the results obtained with the Skeletonema and Acartia tests. The results indicated no need for more than one of the Skeletonema or Acartia tests if the Skeletonema median effective concentration or Acartia median lethal concentration was greater than 200 mg/L. The sediment-reworker tests (A. Alba or C. volutator) for chemicals that are likely to end up in the sediments (non-water soluble or surfactants) should be performed, independent of results from screening tests and other OSPAR species.

  13. Development and implementation of guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening: The European experience

    OpenAIRE

    von Karsa, Lawrence; Arrossi, Silvina

    2016-01-01

    In Europe, as in many other regions of the world, breast cancer is a major cause of suffering and death. Early detection of breast cancer by systematic mammography screening can find lesions for which treatment is more effective and generally more favourable for quality of life. Comprehensive quality assurance guidelines for breast cancer screening based on mammography have been developed in the Europe Against Cancer programme with the aim of maximising screening benefits while minimising adv...

  14. Development of colorimetric field screening methods for munitions compounds in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Thomas F.; Walsh, Marianne E.; Schumacher, Patricia W.; Thorne, Philip G.

    1995-10-01

    Simple colorimetric tests have been developed to screen for the presence of TNT, TNB, DNT, DNB, tetryl, RDX, HMX, nitroglycerine (NG), PETN, nitrocellulose (NC), nitroguanidine (NQ), picric acid and ammonium picrate in soil. Soils are extracted by manual shaking with acetone. For the nitroaromatics, the extracts are reacted with potassium hydroxide and sodium sulfite to form their colored Janowsky complexes. For RDX, HMX, NG, PETN, NC and NQ, extracts are passed through an anion exchange resin to remove nitrate, and then acidified with acetic acid; the nitramines and nitrate esters are reduced with zinc to form nitrous acid. The nitrous acid is detected by the Griess reaction using a Hach Nitriver 3 powder pillow, which produces a highly colored azo dye. Detection of these analytes can be obtained visually and concentrations estimated from absorbance measurements at 540 nm for TNT, TNB and tetryl, 570 nm for DNTs and DNB, and at 510 nm for RDX, HMX, NG, PETN, NC and NQ. For picric acid/ammonium picrate, the acetone extract is passed through a basic ion-exchange column that retains picrate ion. The column is rinsed with methanol to elute interferences, and the picrate is desorbed with acetone containing several drops of sulfuric acid. The extract is diluted with deionized water, and the concentration of picrate is obtained from the absorbance at 400 nm. Detection limits are about 1 (mu) g/g for all analytes except NG, NC and NQ, which are slightly higher. Results from field screening at a number of sites have been correlated with laboratory analyses for TNT and RDX. The results indicate that the field screening methods do not suffer from false negatives and the rate of false positives is low. Concentration estimates from field screening compared favorably with results from the standard laboratory methods.

  15. Do Men and Women Need to Be Screened Differently with Fecal Immunochemical Testing? A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulen, Miriam P van der; Kapidzic, Atija; Leerdam, Monique E van; van der Steen, Alex; Kuipers, Ernst J; Spaander, Manon C W; de Koning, Harry J; Hol, Lieke; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris

    2017-08-01

    Background: Several studies suggest that test characteristics for the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) differ by gender, triggering a debate on whether men and women should be screened differently. We used the microsimulation model MISCAN-Colon to evaluate whether screening stratified by gender is cost-effective. Methods: We estimated gender-specific FIT characteristics based on first-round positivity and detection rates observed in a FIT screening pilot (CORERO-1). Subsequently, we used the model to estimate harms, benefits, and costs of 480 gender-specific FIT screening strategies and compared them with uniform screening. Results: Biennial FIT screening from ages 50 to 75 was less effective in women than men [35.7 vs. 49.0 quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained, respectively] at higher costs (€42,161 vs. -€5,471, respectively). However, the incremental QALYs gained and costs of annual screening compared with biennial screening were more similar for both genders (8.7 QALYs gained and €26,394 for women vs. 6.7 QALYs gained and €20,863 for men). Considering all evaluated screening strategies, optimal gender-based screening yielded at most 7% more QALYs gained than optimal uniform screening and even resulted in equal costs and QALYs gained from a willingness-to-pay threshold of €1,300. Conclusions: FIT screening is less effective in women, but the incremental cost-effectiveness is similar in men and women. Consequently, screening stratified by gender is not more cost-effective than uniform FIT screening. Impact: Our conclusions support the current policy of uniform FIT screening. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(8); 1328-36. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. The King-Devick test for sideline concussion screening in collegiate football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Danielle F; Balcer, Laura J; Galetta, Steven L; Evans, Greg; Gimre, Matthew; Watt, David

    2015-01-01

    Sports-related concussion has received increasing attention as a result of neurologic sequelae seen among athletes, highlighting the need for a validated, rapid screening tool. The King-Devick (K-D) test requires vision, eye movements, language function and attention in order to perform and has been proposed as a promising tool for assessment of concussion. We investigated the K-D test as a sideline screening tool in a collegiate cohort to determine the effect of concussion. Athletes (n=127, mean age 19.6±1.2 years) from the Wheaton College football and men's and women's basketball teams underwent baseline K-D testing at pre-season physicals for the 2012-2013 season. K-D testing was administered immediately on the sidelines for football players with suspected head injury during regular games and changes compared to baseline were determined. Post-season testing was also performed to compare non-concussed athletes' test performance. Concussed athletes (n=11) displayed sideline K-D scores that were significantly higher (worse) than baseline (36.5±5.6s vs. 31.3±4.5s, p<0.005, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Post-season testing demonstrated improvement of scores and was consistent with known learning effects (35.1±5.2s vs. 34.4±5.0s, p<0.05, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Test-retest reliability was analyzed between baseline and post-season administrations of the K-D test resulting in high levels of test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)=0.95 [95% Confidence Interval 0.85-1.05]). The data show worsening of K-D test scores following concussion further supporting utility of the K-D test as an objective, reliable and effective sideline visual screening tool to help identify athletes with concussion. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Terrestrial avoidance behaviour tests as screening tool to assess soil contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, Susana [Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)]. E-mail: sloureiro@bio.ua.pt; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M. [Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Nogueira, Antonio J.A. [Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2005-11-15

    To assess soil quality and risk assessment, bioassays can be useful tools to gauge the potential toxicity of contaminants focusing on their bioavailable fraction. A rapid and sublethal avoidance behaviour test was used as a screening tool with the earthworm Eisenia andrei and the isopod Porcellionides pruinosus, where organisms were exposed during 48 h to several chemicals (lindane, dimethoate and copper sulphate, for isopods and carbendazim, benomyl, dimethoate and copper sulphate for earthworms). Both species were also exposed to soils from an abandoned mine. For all bioassays a statistical approach was used to derive EC{sub 50} values. Isopods and earthworms were able to perceive the presence of toxic compounds and escaping from contaminated to clean soil. Furthermore the behaviour parameter was equally or more sensitive then other sublethal parameters (e.g. reproduction or growth), expressing the advantages of Avoidance Behaviour Tests as screening tools in ERA. - Avoidance Behaviour Tests with earthworms and isopods can be used as screening tools in the evaluation of soil contamination.

  18. The impact of inherited thrombophilia on first trimester combined aneuploidy screening test parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsli, Mehmet Fatih; Baser, Eralp; Seckin, Kerem Doga; Yeral, Mahmut İlkin; Togrul, Cihan; Ugur, Mustafa

    2014-03-01

    To determine whether inherited thrombophilia affects components of first trimester combined aneuploidy screening test. A case-control study was performed between January 1st and December 31st 2011, at a tertiary referral hospital. Singleton pregnancies with inherited thrombophilia that underwent first trimester (11-13(+6) week) combined aneuploidy screening test were included in the study. Pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (fbHCG) and fetal nuchal translucency (NT) were compared between the study group and controls. Within the study period, 15,881 women with singleton pregnancies had a combined first trimester aneuploidy screening test at our institution. Among these, 207 women met the inclusion criteria. A control group that comprised 625 women with similar gestational age was generated, using a 1:3 ratio. PAPP-A levels were significantly higher, whereas fbHCG levels and fetal NT measurements were lower in women with inherited thrombophilia (p < 0.001). Our study suggested that PAPP-A, free b-HCG and NT MoM levels display alterations in women with inherited thrombophilia. Future trials are needed to assess the need for readjustment of risk in these patients.

  19. Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus From Organ Donors Despite Nucleic Acid Test Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryaprasad, A; Basavaraju, S V; Hocevar, S N; Theodoropoulos, N; Zuckerman, R A; Hayden, T; Forbi, J C; Pegues, D; Levine, M; Martin, S I; Kuehnert, M J; Blumberg, E A

    2015-07-01

    Nucleic acid testing (NAT) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) is recommended for screening of organ donors, yet not all donor infections may be detected. We describe three US clusters of HCV transmission from donors at increased risk for HCV infection. Donor's and recipients' medical records were reviewed. Newly infected recipients were interviewed. Donor-derived HCV infection was considered when infection was newly detected after transplantation in recipients of organs from increased risk donors. Stored donor sera and tissue samples were tested for HCV RNA with high-sensitivity quantitative PCR. Posttransplant and pretransplant recipient sera were tested for HCV RNA. Quasispecies analysis of hypervariable region-1 was used to establish genetic relatedness of recipient HCV variants. Each donor had evidence of injection drug use preceding death. Of 12 recipients, 8 were HCV-infected-6 were newly diagnosed posttransplant. HCV RNA was retrospectively detected in stored samples from donor immunologic tissue collected at organ procurement. Phylogenetic analysis showed two clusters of closely related HCV variants from recipients. These investigations identified the first known HCV transmissions from increased risk organ donors with negative NAT screening, indicating very recent donor infection. Recipient informed consent and posttransplant screening for blood-borne pathogens are essential when considering increased risk donors. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  20. Child Development in Okinawa Compared with Tokyo and Denver, and the Implications for Developmental Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Reiko

    1978-01-01

    Developmental differences in the Denver Developmental Screening Test items were demonstrated between samples of children from Okinawa (n=615) and Tokyo (n=1171), who were 16 days to 6 years old. Journal availability: see EC 112 661. (Author)

  1. Complex Approach to Thyroid Screening In Regions Adjacent to the Semipalatinsk Test Site Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhumadilov, Zh.Sh.; Musinov, D.R.; Vasikovsky, G.G.; Bobokhidze, D.A.; Zhigitaev, T.K.; Abisheva, G.N.

    1998-01-01

    It has been well documented that the thyroid gland is one of the most radiosensitive of organs, especially when exposure occurs during childhood. It is known as well that childhood exposure to radioactive iodine increases thyroid cancer risk. Conducting thyroid screening in regions adjacent to the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) area is very important for medical examination, data management and thyroid dose reconstruction. Our experience of thyroid screening based on our screening projects in Kurchatov and several regions adjacent to STS (more than 4,000 screened patients) allowed to work out the most appropriate screening protocol. A retrospective analysis of the results of surgical treatment of the 7,271 patients with thyroid abnormalities in the Semipalatinsk, Pavlodar and Ust-Kamenogorsk regions of Kazakstan and study the histological staging of 7,271 surgically removed thyroid glands was preceded by our thyroid screening projects. Ours is the first study in the Semipalatinsk region that covers the period 1966-1998.Taking into account the onset of population effective doses during 1962, it was decided to distinguish 6 periods of observation. It is known that basic effective equivalent doses for the majority of the region's population were established by radioactive events in the period 1949-1962. This explains our focus on the year 1962, but thyroid dose reconstruction matter as well as other radiation related problems are still in the progress. We need to get the accurate dosimetry data. Selection of study subjects based on the appropriate criteria needed to be adjusted and clarified in accordance with the main goal of the project and radiation related information. All specialists involved in the thyroid screening project, data management, data analyses and interpretation of the results must be trained and must be highly qualified specialists in this field of science and practice. The experiences in Nagasaki, Hiroshima and Chernobyl, and discussions with

  2. Screening for cognitive dysfunction in Huntington's disease with the clock drawing test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwindt, Paul W; Hubers, Anna A M; Giltay, Erik J; van der Mast, Rose C; van Duijn, Erik

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the performance of the clock drawing test as a screening tool for cognitive impairment in Huntington's disease (HD) mutation carriers. The performance of the clock drawing test was assessed in 65 mutation carriers using the Shulman and the Freund scoring systems. The mini-mental state examination, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, the Verbal Fluency Test, and the Stroop tests were used as comparisons for the evaluation of cognitive functioning. Correlations of the clock drawing test with various cognitive tests (convergent validity), neuropsychiatric characteristics (divergent validity) and clinical characteristics were analysed using the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Receiver-operator characteristic analyses were performed for the clock drawing test against both the mini-mental state examination and against a composite variable for executive cognitive functioning to assess optimal cut-off scores. Inter-rater reliability was high for both the Shulman and Freund scoring systems (ICC = 0.95 and ICC = 0.90 respectively). The clock drawing tests showed moderate to high correlations with the composite variable for executive cognitive functioning (mean ρ = 0.75) and weaker correlations with the mini-mental state examination (mean ρ = 0.62). Mean sensitivity of the clock drawing tests was 0.82 and mean specificity was 0.79, whereas the mean positive predictive value was 0.66 and the mean negative predictive value was 0.87. The clock drawing test is a suitable screening instrument for cognitive dysfunction in HD, because it was shown to be accurate, particularly so with respect to executive cognitive functioning, and is easy and quick to use. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Test and Behaviour Driven Development with Python

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Experience has taught us that bugs are impossible to avoid when programming. Specially on continuous delivery processes where there are new versions that refactor or incorporate new modules to the project. Although, there are different tools which help us to ensure code quality by enabling developers to catch bugs while still in the development stage. In this talk, I will talk about Test-driven development(TDD) and Behaviour-Driven development (BDD) methodologies focused on web development. Also, I will present an overview of unit testing tools as Selenium or Behave, which help us to produce working software, with fewer bugs, quickly and consistently.

  4. Quality Metrics of a Fecal Immunochemical Test-Based Colorectal Cancer Screening Program in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Ho; Cha, Jae Myung; Kwak, Min Seob; Yoon, Jin Young; Cho, Young-Hak; Jeon, Jung Won; Shin, Hyun Phil; Joo, Kwang Ro; Lee, Joung Il

    2018-03-15

    Knowledge regarding the quality metrics of fecal immunochemical test (FIT)-based colorectal cancer screening programs is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance and quality metrics of a FIT-based screening program. In our screening program, asymptomatic subjects aged ≥50 years underwent an annual FIT, and subjects with positive FIT results underwent a subsequent colonoscopy. The performance of the FIT and colonoscopy was analyzed in individuals with a positive FIT who completed the program between 2009 and 2015 at a university hospital. Among the 51,439 screened participants, 75.1% completed the FIT. The positive rate was 1.1%, and the colonoscopy completion rate in these patients was 68.6%. The positive predictive values of cancer and advanced neoplasia were 5.5% and 19.1%, respectively. The adenoma detection rate in the patients who underwent colonoscopy after a positive FIT was 48.2% (60.0% for men and 33.6% for women). The group with the highest tertile quantitative FIT level showed a significantly higher detection rate of advanced neoplasia than the group with the lowest tertile (odds ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.4 to 5.1; p<0.001). The quality metrics used in the United States and Europe may be directly introduced to other countries, including Korea. However, the optimal quality metrics should be established in each country.

  5. Phenotypic screening approaches to develop Aurora kinase inhibitors: Drug Discovery perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos eMarugán

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeting mitotic regulators as a strategy to fight cancer implies the development of drugs against key proteins such as Aurora A and B. Current drugs which target mitosis through a general mechanism of action (stabilization/destabilization of microtubules, have several side effects (neutropenia, alopecia, emesis. Pharmaceutical companies aim at avoiding these unwanted effects by generating improved and selective drugs that increase the quality of life of the patients. However, the development of these drugs is an ambitious task that involves testing thousands of compounds through biochemical and cell-based assays. In addition, molecules usually target complex biological processes, involving several proteins and different molecular pathways, further emphasizing the need for high-throughput screening techniques and multiplexing technologies in order to identify drugs with the desired phenotype.We will briefly describe two multiplexing technologies (high-content imaging, microarrays and flow cytometry and two key processes for drug discovery research (assay development and validation following our own published industry quality standards. We will further focus on high-content imaging as a useful tool for phenotypic screening and will provide a concrete example of high-content imaging assay to detect Aurora A or B selective inhibitors discriminating the off-target effects related to inhibition of other cell cycle or non-cell cycle key regulators. Finally, we will describe other assays that can help to characterize the in vitro pharmacology of the inhibitors.

  6. Evaluation of the Lumipulse G TP-N Chemiluminescent Immunoassay as a Syphilis Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Daniel A; Loeffelholz, Michael J

    2017-11-01

    A syphilis diagnosis is often aided by the detection of treponemal and nontreponemal antibodies. Automated treponemal antibody detection systems enable high-volume clinical laboratories to perform syphilis screening at a faster pace with lower labor costs. The Lumipulse G TP-N chemiluminescent immunoassay is an automated system that qualitatively detects IgG and IgM antibodies against Treponema pallidum antigens in human serum and plasma. To assess performance characteristics and workflow efficiency, the Lumipulse G TP-N assay was compared to the Bioplex 2200 Syphilis IgG multiplex flow immunoassay. Among the 4,134 routine and HIV samples tested by the two automated assays, the percentage of agreement was excellent at 99.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 98.6% to 99.2%; κ, 0.89), with the Lumipulse G TP-N having a shorter time to first and subsequent results. All specimens with reactive syphilis screening results were further tested by rapid plasma reagin (RPR) and Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TP·PA) testing ( n = 231). The results from the RPR-reactive samples ( n = 82) showed complete concordance with the two automated assays, while the TP·PA assay displayed some discrepancies. The positive percent agreement (PPA) and negative percent agreement (NPA) between the TP·PA test and the Lumipulse G TP-N test were 98.9% and 77.3%, respectively. The Bioplex 2200 Syphilis IgG immunoassay displayed a similar PPA (100%) but a substantially lower NPA (15.9%). Patient chart reviews of discrepant results suggested that the Lumipulse G TP-N assay produced 27 fewer falsely reactive results and can reduce the amount of additional confirmatory RPR and TP·PA testing needed. The analogous performance characteristics of the two automated systems indicate that the Lumipulse G TP-N assay is suitable for high-throughput syphilis screening. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. Basal serum cortisol concentration as a screening test for hypoadrenocorticism in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovens, C; Tennant, K; Reeve, J; Murphy, K F

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of basal serum or plasma cortisol concentration is used as a screening test for hypoadrenocorticism in dogs, but is not well characterized. To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of basal serum cortisol to detect hypoadrenocorticism in a population of dogs with a clinical suspicion of hypoadrenocorticism. Four hundred and fifty dogs with nonadrenal gland illness and 14 dogs with naturally occurring hypoadrenocorticism were included. Retrospective case-control study. The records of all dogs having had an ACTH stimulation test performed between January 2005 and September 2011 at the University of Bristol were reviewed. Dogs were included if the test was performed as a screening for hypoadrenocorticism. The sensitivity and specificity of basal serum cortisol concentration to detect dogs with hypoadrenocorticism were calculated using 2 cut-offs and compared to the gold standard ACTH stimulation test. Using a cut-off of ≤2 μg/dL (≤55 nmol/L), the sensitivity and specificity of basal cortisol to detect hypoadrenocorticism were 100% and 63.3%, respectively, whereas for a cut-off of ≤1 μg/dL (≤28 nmol/L), the sensitivity and specificity were 85.7% and 91.8%, respectively. Measurement of basal serum cortisol is useful as a screening test for hypoadrenocorticism in dogs using a cut-off of ≤2 μg/dL (≤55 nmol/L), and the disease is unlikely with a basal serum cortisol >2 μg/dL (>55 nmol/L). A basal serum cortisol ≤2 μg/dL (≤55 nmol/L) cannot be used to diagnose hypoadrenocorticism, and an ACTH stimulation test should be performed in these cases. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  8. Applicability of Screening Tests for Oxytetracycline in the Milk of Three Breeds of Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attaie, Rahmat; Bsharat, Mohammed; Mora-Gutierrez, Adela

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotics are widely used in animal husbandry, and the presence of antibiotic residues in milk is a health hazard. The objectives of this study were to determine residual amounts of oxytetracycline in the milk of three breeds of goats using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis and screening tests. It was also essential to explore the safe withdrawal period of oxytetracycline in lactating goats and examine the applicability of Charm ROSA and SNAP screening tests. The qualitative results of these tests were compared with the quantitative results of the HPLC method. Fifteen milking does, five each from the Alpine, LaMancha, and Nubian breeds, were selected from the herd at Prairie View A&M University. Milk samples containing antibiotic residues were deproteinized by HCl and acetonitrile, and then oxytetracycline was extracted from the supernatant. The residues of oxytetracycline in goat's milk up to 110 h after injection were qualitatively detected using the Charm ROSA test. Similarly, the SNAP test detected the antibiotic residues in milk up to 110 h after treatment. The HPLC results indicated that oxytetracycline residues in milk from Alpine goats were below the tolerance level (300 ng/ml) 82 h after drug treatment (72 h for LaManchas, 58 h for Nubians); however, the results of the screening tests would indicate longer withdrawal periods for milk from the breeds of goats studied, which would result in economic losses to goat's milk producers. The results of this study also indicated that oxytetracycline was not stable in raw goat's milk at refrigeration temperature or during pasteurization and that the concentrations decreased significantly. Commercial goat's milk is usually exposed to several hours of refrigeration and then to pasteurization. The results of this study indicated that, if oxytetracycline was present in raw goat's milk, the concentration would decrease significantly before it was marketed.

  9. Use of external metabolizing systems when testing for endocrine disruption in the T-screen assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Nellemann, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Although, it is well-established that information on the metabolism of a substance is important in the evaluation of its toxic potential, there is limited experience with incorporating metabolic aspects into in vitro tests for endocrine disrupters. The aim of the current study was a) to study different in vitro systems for biotransformation of ten known endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDs): five azole fungicides, three parabens and 2 phthalates, b) to determine possible changes in the ability of the EDs to bind and activate the thyroid receptor (TR) in the in vitro T-screen assay after biotransformation and c) to investigate the endogenous metabolic capacity of the GH3 cells, the cell line used in the T-screen assay, which is a proliferation assay used for the in vitro detection of agonistic and antagonistic properties of compounds at the level of the TR. The two in vitro metabolizing systems tested the human liver S9 mix and the PCB-induced rat microsomes gave an almost complete metabolic transformation of the tested parabens and phthalates. No marked difference the effects in the T-screen assay was observed between the parent compounds and the effects of the tested metabolic extracts. The GH3 cells themselves significantly metabolized the two tested phthalates dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP). Overall the results and qualitative data from the current study show that an in vitro metabolizing system using liver S9 or microsomes could be a convenient method for the incorporation of metabolic and toxicokinetic aspects into in vitro testing for endocrine disrupting effects.

  10. Development history of the Hybrid Test Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trummel, M. C.; Burke, A. F.

    1983-01-01

    Phase I of a joint Department of Energy/Jet Propulsion Laboratory Program undertook the development of the Hybrid Test Vehicle (HTV), which has subsequently progressed through design, fabrication, and testing and evaluation phases. Attention is presently given to the design and test experience gained during the HTV development program, and a discussion is presented of the design features and performance capabilities of the various 'mule' vehicles, devoted to the separate development of engine microprocessor control, vehicle structure, and mechanical components, whose elements were incorporated into the final HTV design. Computer projections of the HTV's performance are given.

  11. Development of a flight software testing methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccluskey, E. J.; Andrews, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    The research to develop a testing methodology for flight software is described. An experiment was conducted in using assertions to dynamically test digital flight control software. The experiment showed that 87% of typical errors introduced into the program would be detected by assertions. Detailed analysis of the test data showed that the number of assertions needed to detect those errors could be reduced to a minimal set. The analysis also revealed that the most effective assertions tested program parameters that provided greater indirect (collateral) testing of other parameters. In addition, a prototype watchdog task system was built to evaluate the effectiveness of executing assertions in parallel by using the multitasking features of Ada.

  12. Harmonizing Screening for Gambling Problems in Epidemiological Surveys - Development of the Rapid Screener for Problem Gambling (RSPG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Perrot, Bastien; Romo, Lucia; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Fatséas, Mélina; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Luquiens, Amandine; Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims The aim of this study was to test the screening properties of several combinations of items from gambling scales, in order to harmonize screening of gambling problems in epidemiological surveys. The objective was to propose two brief screening tools (three items or less) for a use in interviews and self-administered questionnaires. Methods We tested the screening properties of combinations of items from several gambling scales, in a sample of 425 gamblers (301 non-problem gamblers and 124 disordered gamblers). Items tested included interview-based items (Pathological Gambling section of the DSM-IV, lifetime history of problem gambling, monthly expenses in gambling, and abstinence of 1 month or more) and self-report items (South Oaks Gambling Screen, Gambling Attitudes, and Beliefs Survey). The gold standard used was the diagnosis of a gambling disorder according to the DSM-5. Results Two versions of the Rapid Screener for Problem Gambling (RSPG) were developed: the RSPG-Interview (RSPG-I), being composed of two interview items (increasing bets and loss of control), and the RSPG-Self-Assessment (RSPG-SA), being composed of three self-report items (chasing, guiltiness, and perceived inability to stop). Discussion and conclusions We recommend using the RSPG-SA/I for screening problem gambling in epidemiological surveys, with the version adapted for each purpose (RSPG-I for interview-based surveys and RSPG-SA for self-administered surveys). This first triage of potential problem gamblers must be supplemented by further assessment, as it may overestimate the proportion of problem gamblers. However, a first triage has the great advantage of saving time and energy in large-scale screening for problem gambling.

  13. Screening of Toxic Effects of Bisphenol A and Products of Its Degradation: Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryo Test and Molecular Docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Katerina; Siudem, Pawel; Zawada, Katarzyna; Kurkowiak, Justyna

    2016-10-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) acts as an endocrine-disrupting compound even at a low concentration. Degradation of BPA could lead to the formation of toxic products. In this study, we compare the toxicity of BPA and seven intermediate products of its degradation. The accuracy of three molecular docking programs (Surflex, Autodock, and Autodock Vina) in predicting the binding affinities of selected compounds to human (ERα, ERβ, and ERRγ) and zebrafish (ERα, ERRγA, and ERRγB) estrogen and estrogen-related receptors was evaluated. The docking experiments showed that 4-isopropylphenol could have similar toxicity to that of BPA due to its high affinity to ERRγ and ERRγB and high octanol-water partitioning coefficient. The least toxic compounds were hydroquinone and phenol. Those compounds as well as BPA were screened in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo test. 4-isopropylphenol had the strongest toxic effect on zebrafish embryos and caused 100% lethality shortly after exposure. BPA caused the delay in development, multiple deformations, and low heartbeats (30 bps), whereas hydroquinone had no impact on the development of the zebrafish embryo. Thus, the results of zebrafish screening are in good agreement with our docking experiment. The molecular docking could be used to screen the toxicity of other xenoestrogens and their products of degradation.

  14. Testing the woman abuse screening tool to identify intimate partner violence in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, Livia; Braun, Kathryn L; Katz, Alan R

    2015-04-01

    Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a global public health problem. IPV prevalence in Indonesia has been estimated to be less than 1%, based on reported cases. It is likely that IPV prevalence is underreported in Indonesia, as it is in many other countries. Screening for IPV has been found to increase IPV identification, but no screening tools are in use in Indonesia. The aim of this study was to test the translated Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) for detecting IPV in Indonesia. The WAST was tested against a diagnostic interview by a trained psychologist on 240 women attending two Primary Health Centers in Jakarta. IPV prevalence and the reliability, sensitivity, and specificity of the WAST were estimated. Prevalence of IPV by diagnostic interview was 36.3%, much higher than published estimates. The most common forms of IPV identified were psychological (85%) and physical abuse (24%). Internal reliability of the WAST was high (α = .801). A WAST score of 13 (out of 24) is the recommended cutoff for identifying IPV, but only 17% of the Indonesian sample scored 13 or higher. Test sensitivity of the WAST with a cutoff score of 13 was only 41.9%, with a specificity of 96.8%. With a cutoff score of 10, the sensitivity improved to 84.9%, while the specificity decreased to 61.0%. Use of the WAST with a cutoff score of 10 provides good sensitivity and reasonable specificity and would provide a much-needed screening tool for use in Indonesia. Although a lower cutoff would yield a greater proportion of false positives, most of the true cases would be identified, increasing the possibility that women experiencing abuse would receive needed assistance. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Stool Investigations for Colorectal Cancer Screening: From Occult Blood Test to DNA Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannone, Andrea; Losurdo, Giuseppe; Pricci, Maria; Girardi, Bruna; Massaro, Antonio; Principi, Mariabeatrice; Barone, Michele; Ierardi, Enzo; Di Leo, Alfredo

    2016-06-01

    We report an update of current methods for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening based on fecal sample analysis. A systematic review of the literature was performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Direct electronic databases. Blood in the stools is the first and most used strategy. Fecal occult blood test (FOBT) and fecal immunochemical test (FIT) are the main methods. Both are economic, easy to perform with high specificity, and low sensitivity. Based on CRC multi-step process with genetic and epigenetic alterations in large bowel cell DNA, single mutations or panels of alterations have been detected. These tests have the advantage of a marked improvement of the sensitivity when compared to fecal blood. However, high costs, poor availability, and correct choice of marker panel represent the major limits. A specific sDNA panel including aberrantly methylated BMP3 and NDRG4 promoter regions, mutant k-ras and β-actin (a reference gene for human DNA quantity), and an immunochemical assay for human hemoglobin has been recently approved by Food and Drug Administration. Novel promising biomarkers for CRC screening are represented by microRNAs (miRNAs), a group of 18-25 nucleotide non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression. Reports on these fecal biomarkers are case-control studies, and each of them evaluates single miRNAs or multi-target panels. On the other hand, some fecal proteins have been studied as possible CRC screening markers, even though they demonstrated poor results. Finally, alterations of estrogen receptor-beta (i.e., dramatic reduction in the early stage of CRC) have been demonstrated in tissue samples. Specific investigations are warranted in order to add further noninvasive markers to the panel of CRC screening tools.

  16. The minimum test battery to screen for binocular vision anomalies: report 3 of the BAND study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussaindeen, Jameel Rizwana; Rakshit, Archayeeta; Singh, Neeraj Kumar; Swaminathan, Meenakshi; George, Ronnie; Kapur, Suman; Scheiman, Mitchell; Ramani, Krishna Kumar

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to report the minimum test battery needed to screen non-strabismic binocular vision anomalies (NSBVAs) in a community set-up. When large numbers are to be screened we aim to identify the most useful test battery when there is no opportunity for a more comprehensive and time-consuming clinical examination. The prevalence estimates and normative data for binocular vision parameters were estimated from the Binocular Vision Anomalies and Normative Data (BAND) study, following which cut-off estimates and receiver operating characteristic curves to identify the minimum test battery have been plotted. In the receiver operating characteristic phase of the study, children between nine and 17 years of age were screened in two schools in the rural arm using the minimum test battery, and the prevalence estimates with the minimum test battery were found. Receiver operating characteristic analyses revealed that near point of convergence with penlight and red filter (> 7.5 cm), monocular accommodative facility ( 1.25 prism dioptres) were significant factors with cut-off values for best sensitivity and specificity. This minimum test battery was applied to a cohort of 305 children. The mean (standard deviation) age of the subjects was 12.7 (two) years with 121 males and 184 females. Using the minimum battery of tests obtained through the receiver operating characteristic analyses, the prevalence of NSBVAs was found to be 26 per cent. Near point of convergence with penlight and red filter > 10 cm was found to have the highest sensitivity (80 per cent) and specificity (73 per cent) for the diagnosis of convergence insufficiency. For the diagnosis of accommodative infacility, monocular accommodative facility with a cut-off of less than seven cycles per minute was the best predictor for screening (92 per cent sensitivity and 90 per cent specificity). The minimum test battery of near point of convergence with penlight and red filter, difference between distance and near

  17. Outcomes of the Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP) in England after the first 1 million tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnick, Julietta; Nickerson, Claire; Coleman, Lynn; Rutter, Matt D; von Wagner, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The Bowel Cancer Screening Programme in England began operating in 2006 with the aim of full roll out across England by December 2009. Subjects aged 60–69 are being invited to complete three guaiac faecal occult blood tests (6 windows) every 2 years. The programme aims to reduce mortality from colorectal cancer by 16% in those invited for screening. Methods All subjects eligible for screening in the National Health Service in England are included on one database, which is populated from National Health Service registration data covering about 98% of the population of England. This analysis is only of subjects invited to participate in the first (prevalent) round of screening. Results By October 2008 almost 2.1 million had been invited to participate, with tests being returned by 49.6% of men and 54.4% of women invited. Uptake ranged between 55–60% across the four provincial hubs which administer the programme but was lower in the London hub (40%). Of the 1.08 million returning tests 2.5% of men and 1.5% of women had an abnormal test. 17 518 (10 608 M, 6910 F) underwent investigation, with 98% having a colonoscopy as their first investigation. Cancer (n=1772) and higher risk adenomas (n=6543) were found in 11.6% and 43% of men and 7.8% and 29% of women investigated, respectively. 71% of cancers were ‘early’ (10% polyp cancer, 32% Dukes A, 30% Dukes B) and 77% were left-sided (29% rectal, 45% sigmoid) with only 14% being right-sided compared with expected figures of 67% and 24% for left and right side from UK cancer registration. Conclusion In this first round of screening in England uptake and fecal occult blood test positivity was in line with that from the pilot and the original European trials. Although there was the expected improvement in cancer stage at diagnosis, the proportion with left-sided cancers was higher than expected. PMID:22156981

  18. Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Implementation Strategies of Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing in Down Syndrome Screening Programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersy, Elke; de Die-Smulders, Christine E M; Coumans, Audrey B C; Smits, Luc J M; de Wert, Guido M W R; Frints, Suzanna G M; Veltman, Joris A

    2015-01-01

    Implementation of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) in Down syndrome screening programmes requires health policy decisions about its combination with other tests and its timing in pregnancy. Our aim was to aid health policy decision makers by conducting a quantitative analysis of different NIPT implementation strategies. Decision trees were created to illustrate all plausible alternatives in a theoretical cohort of 100,000 pregnant women in five screening programmes: classical screening by the first-trimester combined test (FCT), pre-selection of high-risk women prior to NIPT by the FCT, NIPT as the first screening test at 10 weeks and at 13 weeks, and the simultaneous conductance of NIPT and the FCT. Pre-selection by FCT prior to NIPT reduces the number of amniocenteses to a minimum because of a reduction of false-positive NIPT results. If NIPT is the first screening test, it detects almost all fetal Down syndrome cases. NIPT at 10 weeks reassures women early in pregnancy, while NIPT at 13 weeks prevents unnecessary tests due to spontaneous miscarriages and allows for immediate confirmation by amniocentesis. Every implementation strategy has its advantages and disadvantages. The most favourable implementation strategy may be NIPT as the first screening test at 13 weeks, offering the most accurate screening test for Down syndrome, when the risk for spontaneous miscarriage has d