WorldWideScience

Sample records for development eos the european

  1. EOS developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindrilaru, Elvin A.; Peters, Andreas J.; Adde, Geoffray M.; Duellmann, Dirk

    2017-10-01

    CERN has been developing and operating EOS as a disk storage solution successfully for over 6 years. The CERN deployment provides 135 PB and stores 1.2 billion replicas distributed over two computer centres. Deployment includes four LHC instances, a shared instance for smaller experiments and since last year an instance for individual user data as well. The user instance represents the backbone of the CERNBOX service for file sharing. New use cases like synchronisation and sharing, the planned migration to reduce AFS usage at CERN and the continuous growth has brought EOS to new challenges. Recent developments include the integration and evaluation of various technologies to do the transition from a single active in-memory namespace to a scale-out implementation distributed over many meta-data servers. The new architecture aims to separate the data from the application logic and user interface code, thus providing flexibility and scalability to the namespace component. Another important goal is to provide EOS as a CERN-wide mounted filesystem with strong authentication making it a single storage repository accessible via various services and front- ends (/eos initiative). This required new developments in the security infrastructure of the EOS FUSE implementation. Furthermore, there were a series of improvements targeting the end-user experience like tighter consistency and latency optimisations. In collaboration with Seagate as Openlab partner, EOS has a complete integration of OpenKinetic object drive cluster as a high-throughput, high-availability, low-cost storage solution. This contribution will discuss these three main development projects and present new performance metrics.

  2. A European Collaborative EO Summer School for the Education of Undergraduate and Masters Level Students- FORMAT-EO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Rosemarie; Remedios, John; Tramutoli, Valerio; Gil, Artur; Cuca, Branka

    2014-05-01

    An Erasmus intensive programme has been successfully funded to run a Europe-lead summer school in Earth Observation for the years 2013 and 2014. The summer school, FORMAT-EO (FORmation of Multi-disciplinary Approaches to Training in Earth Observation) has been proposed and implemented by a consortium of eight partner institutions from five European countries. The consortium was facilitated through the NEREUS network. In the summer of 2013, 21 students from seven European institutions took part in the two week intensive course which involved a total of 28 teachers from six institutions. Students were from a variety of backgrounds including aeronautical engineering MSc students and PhD students in the areas of marine biology, earthquake engineering and measurement of trace gases in the atmosphere. The aims of FORMAT-EO were: To give students exposure to the wider applications of Earth Observation To highlight the interdisciplinary, collaborative and international nature of Earth Observation To offer an intensive course to better equip students with specialist skills required for a career in this field To provide expert advice on the development of careers in the EO market Partners were invited not only to recruit students for the course but to also teach at the school based on their specific area of expertise. This approach to the teaching provided a timetable which was wide-ranging and covered topics from EU policies for Earth Observation to fire detection from space and an introduction to interaction between radiation and matter. An important aspect of the course was the interactive nature of much of the teaching. A topic was introduced to the students through a lecture followed by an interactive tutorial providing students with hands-on experience of working with EO data and specialist software. The final days of the summer school were spent on group project work which required students to use all of the skills that they acquired during the course to challenge a

  3. Scaling the EOS namespace

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Andreas J; Bitzes, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    EOS is the distributed storage system being developed at CERN with the aim of fulfilling a wide range of data storage needs, ranging from physics data to user home directories. Being in production since 2011, EOS currently manages around 224 petabytes of disk space and 1.4 billion files across several instances. Even though individual EOS instances routinely manage hundreds of disk servers, users access the contents through a single, unified namespace which is exposed by the head node (MGM), and contains the metadata of all files stored on that instance. The legacy implementation keeps the entire namespace in-memory. Modifications are appended to a persistent, on-disk changelog; this way, the in-memory contents can be reconstructed after every reboot by replaying the changelog. While this solution has proven reliable and effective, we are quickly approaching the limits of its scalability. In this paper, we present our new implementation which is currently in testing. We have designed and implemented QuarkD...

  4. In view of the Sixth Framework Programme. An analysis of the EoIs submitted by Dutch entities. Thematic Priority Area Sustainable development, global change and ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Mierlo, K.

    2002-01-01

    The FP6 (Sixth Framework Program of the European Union) team of PricewaterhouseCoopers has analysed the EoIs (Expression of Interest) submitted by Dutch parties, as published on the Internet (http://www.cordis.lu/). These 'Dutch EoIs' give a reliable indication of the focus of the Dutch research community, and its participation in pan-European research initiatives. Furthermore, it gives the Dutch submitters of EoIs the opportunity to see what other Dutch parties are involved in their relevant area of research (or in terms of FP6 - Thematic Priority Area (TPA)). The analysis of the Dutch EoIs has been carried out in the first week of October 2002. Considering the dynamics of the EoI database, results from this analysis can vary slightly with searches carried out later in this database

  5. Building EOS capability for Malaysia - the options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subari, M. D.; Hassan, A.

    2014-06-01

    Earth observation satellite (EOS) is currently a major tool to monitor earth dynamics and increase human understanding of earth surface process. Since the early 80s, Malaysia has been using EOS images for various applications, such as weather forecasting, land use mapping, agriculture, environment monitoring and others. Until now, all EOS images were obtained from foreign satellite systems. Realising on the strategic need of having its own capability, Malaysia embarked into EOS development programs in the early 90s. Starting with TiungSAT-1, a micro-satellite carrying small camera, then followed by RazakSAT, a small satellite carrying 2.5 m panchromatic (PAN) medium-aperture-camera, the current satellite program development, the RazakSAT-2, designed to carry a 1.0 m high resolution PAN and 4.0m multi-spectral camera, would become a strategic initiative of the government in developing and accelerating the nation's capability in the area of satellite technology and its application. Would this effort continue until all needs of the remote sensing community being fulfilled by its own EOS? This paper will analyze the intention of the Malaysian government through its National Space Policy and other related policy documents, and proposes some policy options on this. Key factors to be considered are specific data need of the EOS community, data availability and the more subjective political motivations such as national pride.

  6. Trend report Energy Research Subsidy programme (2005-2008). A report on the most important trends and effects since the start of the Energy Research Subsidy (EOS) programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimman, J.; Soeriowardojo, E.; Witte, F.; Nijdam, J.

    2009-07-01

    In 2005 the Energy Research Subsidy programme (EOS) was launched in the Netherlands. In four years' time about 500 projects were realized thanks to contributions from EOS. This report provides an overview of the main trends and effects of EOS in the period 2005-2008. One of the main conclusions is that a number of technologies have developed from invention level to market-ready level thanks to the EOS programme. The main trends since the start of EOS are: Increasing confidence of investors in EOS spearheads; increasing activity in EOS spearheads; Spearheads shifting to investment and exploitation schemes; EOS contributes to a solid patent position of Dutch parties; EOS contributes to European research. [nl

  7. Mission operations update for the restructured Earth Observing System (EOS) mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Angelita Castro; Chang, Edward S.

    1993-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Earth Observing System (EOS) will provide a comprehensive long term set of observations of the Earth to the Earth science research community. The data will aid in determining global changes caused both naturally and through human interaction. Understanding man's impact on the global environment will allow sound policy decisions to be made to protect our future. EOS is a major component of the Mission to Planet Earth program, which is NASA's contribution to the U.S. Global Change Research Program. EOS consists of numerous instruments on multiple spacecraft and a distributed ground system. The EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is the major ground system developed to support EOS. The EOSDIS will provide EOS spacecraft command and control, data processing, product generation, and data archival and distribution services for EOS spacecraft. Data from EOS instruments on other Earth science missions (e.g., Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)) will also be processed, distributed, and archived in EOSDIS. The U.S. and various International Partners (IP) (e.g., the European Space Agency (ESA), the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) of Japan, and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA)) participate in and contribute to the international EOS program. The EOSDIS will also archive processed data from other designated NASA Earth science missions (e.g., UARS) that are under the broad umbrella of Mission to Planet Earth.

  8. Development of a cryogenic EOS capability for the Z Pulsed Radiation Source: Goals and accomplishments of FY97 LDRD project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.L.; Johnston, R.R.; Asay, J.R.

    1998-03-01

    Experimental cryogenic capabilities are essential for the study of ICF high-gain target and weapons effects issues involving dynamic materials response at low temperatures. This report describes progress during the period 2/97-11/97 on the FY97 LDRD project ''Cryogenic EOS Capabilities on Pulsed Radiation Sources (Z Pinch)''. The goal of this project is the development of a general purpose cryogenic target system for precision EOS and shock physics measurements at liquid helium temperatures on the Z accelerator Z-pinch pulsed radiation source. Activity during the FY97 LDRD phase of this project has focused on development of a conceptual design for the cryogenic target system based on consideration of physics, operational, and safety issues, design and fabrication of principal system components, construction and instrumentation of a cryogenic test facility for off-line thermal and optical testing at liquid helium temperatures, initial thermal testing of a cryogenic target assembly, and the design of a cryogenic system interface to the Z pulsed radiation source facility. The authors discuss these accomplishments as well as elements of the project that require further work

  9. Towards the development of European networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanreich, G.

    2004-01-01

    The second AFG (French Gas Association) forum, held on June 17, addressed the issue of links between European networks with presentations by Guenther Hainreich, Director of Trans-European Networks for the European Commission Energy and Transport DG, and Loannis Galanis, Assistant Unit Director for the European Commission Energy and Transport DG. The choice for this topic has been influenced by the opening of gas markets in Europe which supposes that two conditions are fulfilled: first, the existence of gas availabilities, and second, the development of transportation, storage and LNG terminal infrastructures. In this context, the national policies are today the regional variations of a European policy at the service of the reinforcement of isolated areas and of the sustain of expanding areas. It is thus necessary to consider the European point-of-view about the existing infrastructures, their development and their financing means

  10. The European Network for Lifelong Competence Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgos, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Burgos, D. (2006). The European Network for Lifelong Competence Development. Presentation at the Professional Training Facts 2006 conference. November 15th, Stuttgart, Germany: TENCompetence. Retrieved November 20th, 2006, from http://dspace.learningnetworks.org

  11. The Development of Two Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS) for NASA's Earth Observation System (EOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmes, Curt

    2004-01-01

    In 2001, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics started the construction of a science Investigator-led Processing System (SIPS) for processing data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) which will launch on the Aura platform in mid 2004. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is a contribution of the Netherlands Agency for Aerospace Programs (NIVR) in collaboration with the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) to the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura mission. It will continue the Total Ozone Monitoring System (TOMS) record for total ozone and other atmospheric parameters related to ozone chemistry and climate. OMI measurements will be highly synergistic with the other instruments on the EOS Aura platform. The LTP previously developed the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) Data Processing System (MODAPS), which has been in full operations since the launches of the Terra and Aqua spacecrafts in December, 1999 and May, 2002 respectively. During that time, it has continually evolved to better support the needs of the MODIS team. We now run multiple instances of the system managing faster than real time reprocessings of the data as well as continuing forward processing. The new OMI Data Processing System (OMIDAPS) was adapted from the MODAPS. It will ingest raw data from the satellite ground station and process it to produce calibrated, geolocated higher level data products. These data products will be transmitted to the Goddard Distributed Active Archive Center (GDAAC) instance of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS) for long term archive and distribution to the public. The OMIDAPS will also provide data distribution to the OMI Science Team for quality assessment, algorithm improvement, calibration, etc. We have taken advantage of lessons learned from the MODIS experience and software already developed for MODIS. We made some changes in the hardware system organization, database and

  12. Building EOS capability for Malaysia – the options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subari, M D; Hassan, A

    2014-01-01

    Earth observation satellite (EOS) is currently a major tool to monitor earth dynamics and increase human understanding of earth surface process. Since the early 80s, Malaysia has been using EOS images for various applications, such as weather forecasting, land use mapping, agriculture, environment monitoring and others. Until now, all EOS images were obtained from foreign satellite systems. Realising on the strategic need of having its own capability, Malaysia embarked into EOS development programs in the early 90s. Starting with TiungSAT-1, a micro-satellite carrying small camera, then followed by RazakSAT, a small satellite carrying 2.5 m panchromatic (PAN) medium-aperture-camera, the current satellite program development, the RazakSAT-2, designed to carry a 1.0 m high resolution PAN and 4.0m multi-spectral camera, would become a strategic initiative of the government in developing and accelerating the nation's capability in the area of satellite technology and its application. Would this effort continue until all needs of the remote sensing community being fulfilled by its own EOS? This paper will analyze the intention of the Malaysian government through its National Space Policy and other related policy documents, and proposes some policy options on this. Key factors to be considered are specific data need of the EOS community, data availability and the more subjective political motivations such as national pride

  13. Recent migration developments in the European perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Palát

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to evaluate the development of international migration in relationship to the recent economic situation in member countries of the European Union using quantitative methods including cluster analysis. The number of immigration in Europe has declined since the start of the global recession. The main reason was the decrease of demand in many sectors of the national economy, for instance the demand for retail and construction workers. Despite the drop in new immigration, labour markets of the EU countries were hit very severely. Unemployment rates in the most of European countries increased much more in the category of migrants than among natives. Despite the general decline in immigration in Europe during the economic crisis, the number of immigrants employed in educational sector and health care has increased. Also the number of female immigrants has been growing. The cluster analysis uses a multidimensional variable that includes GDP, unemployment, inflation rate and also net migration. We can distinguish two main clusters in 2010. The majority of highly developed West European countries are a part of the first cluster; the second cluster includes the group of post-communist countries. The latter countries form two sub-groups. A relatively independent sub-cluster is formed by some of the EU15 countries that were hit by the financial crisis the most. In general, the main two clusters illustrate that the economic division of established and new member countries of the European Union is still present.

  14. EO system concepts in the littoral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwering, Piet B. W.; van den Broek, Sebastiaan P.; van Iersel, Miranda

    2007-04-01

    In recent years, operations executed by naval forces have taken place at many different locations. At present, operations against international terrorism and asymmetric warfare in coastal environments are of major concern. In these scenarios, the threat caused by pirates on-board of small surface targets, such as jetskis and fast inshore attack crafts, is increasing. In the littoral environment, the understanding of its complexity and the efficient use of the limited reaction time, are essential for successful operations. Present-day electro-optical sensor suites, also incorporating Infrared Search and Track systems, can be used for varying tasks as detection, classification and identification. By means of passive electro-optical systems, infrared and visible light sensors, improved situational awareness can be achieved. For long range capability, elevated sensor masts and flying platforms are ideally suited for the surveillance task and improve situational awareness. A primary issue is how to incorporate new electro-optical technology and signal processing into the new sensor concepts, to improve system performance. It is essential to derive accurate information from the high spatial-resolution imagery created by the EO sensors. As electro-optical sensors do not have all-weather capability, the performance degradation in adverse scenarios must be understood, in order to support the operational use of adaptive sensor management techniques. In this paper we discuss the approach taken at TNO in the design and assessment of system concepts for future IRST development. An overview of our maritime programme in future IRST and EO system concepts including signal processing is presented.

  15. Data links for the EOS TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieser, F.; Jones, R.; McParland, C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the design and performance of high speed data links and slower configuration control links used between the EOS TPC detector and the data processing electronics. Data rates of 5 MBytes/link are maintained over 30m with optical isolation. Pedestal subtraction, hit detection, and data reordering are performed online

  16. Data links for the EOS TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieser, F.; Jones, R.; McParland, C.

    1990-10-01

    We report on the design and performance of high speed data links and slower configuration control links used between the EOS TPC detector and the data processing electronics. Data rates of 5MBytes/s/link are maintained over 30m with optical isolation. Pedestal subtraction, hit detection, and data reordering are performed online. 3 refs., 1 fig

  17. Opacplot2: Enabling tabulated EoS and opacity compatibility for HEDLP simulations with the FLASH code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laune, Jordan; Tzeferacos, Petros; Feister, Scott; Fatenejad, Milad; Yurchak, Roman; Flocke, Norbert; Weide, Klaus; Lamb, Donald

    2017-10-01

    Thermodynamic and opacity properties of materials are necessary to accurately simulate laser-driven laboratory experiments. Such data are compiled in tabular format since the thermodynamic range that needs to be covered cannot be described with one single theoretical model. Moreover, tabulated data can be made available prior to runtime, reducing both compute cost and code complexity. This approach is employed by the FLASH code. Equation of state (EoS) and opacity data comes in various formats, matrix-layouts, and file-structures. We discuss recent developments on opacplot2, an open-source Python module that manipulates tabulated EoS and opacity data. We present software that builds upon opacplot2 and enables easy-to-use conversion of different table formats into the IONMIX format, the native tabular input used by FLASH. Our work enables FLASH users to take advantage of a wider range of accurate EoS and opacity tables in simulating HELP experiments at the National Laser User Facilities.

  18. Strange particle measurements from the EOS TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Justice, M.

    1995-02-01

    A high statistics sample of Λ's produced in 2 GeV/nucleon 5 8Ni + nat Cu collisions has been obtained with the EOS Time Projection Chamber at the Bevalac. The coverage of the EOS TPC is essentially 100% for y > y cm and extends down to P T = 0 where interesting effects such as collective radial expansion may be important. In addition, the detection of a majority of the charged particles in the TPC, along with the presence of directed flow for protons and heavier fragments at this beam energy, allows for the correlation of A production with respect to the event reaction plane. Our preliminary analysis indicates the first observation of a sidewards flow signature for A's. Comparisons with the cascade code ARC are made

  19. Report of the EOS oceans panel to the payload panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Mark R.; Freilich, Michael H.

    1992-11-01

    The atmosphere and the ocean are the two great fluids of the earth system. Changes in the coupling of these two fluids will have a profound impact on the Earth's climate and biogeochemical systems. Although changes in atmospheric composition and dynamics are the usual focus of global climate models, it is apparent that the ocean plays a critical role in modulating the magnitude and rate of these changes. The ocean is responsible for nearly half of the poleward heat flux as well as for a significant portion of the uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, the processes governing the flux of materials and energy between the ocean atmosphere are poorly understood. Such processes include not only physical and chemical dynamics, but also biological processes which act to modify the chemical composition of the ocean as well as the trapping of solar energy as heat in the upper water column. Thus it is essential that the ocean be studied as a complete system of physical, chemical, and biological processes. Overlapping measurements must be made for at least 10-15 years to resolve critical low frequency fluctuations. The present EOS plan relies heavily on non-EOS entities to provide critical data sets for ocean studies. Although such partnerships are usually beneficial, there are risks that must be considered in terms of data coverage, quality, resolution, and availability. A simple replacement of an EOS sensor with a non-EOS sensor based on the fact that they both measure the same quantities will not guarantee that critical measurements will be made to address IPCC priorities in the area of ocean processes. EOS must continue to pursue appropriate methods to ensure that such partner — provided measurements meet scientific requirements. Such methods are analogous to contigencies applied in the area of schedules, cost, and performance for instrument projects. EOS must foster strong ties between US scientists and their foreign counterparts, in order to develop

  20. Results from the MWA EoR Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Rachel L.; MWA EoR Collaboration

    2018-05-01

    The MWA EoR is one of a small handful of experiments designed to detect the statistical signal from the Epoch of Reionisation. Each of these experiments has reached a level of maturity, where the challenges, in particular of foreground removal, are being more fully understood. Over the past decade, the MWA EoR Collaboration has developed expertise and an understanding of the elements of the telescope array, the end-to-end pipelines, ionospheric conditions, and and the foreground emissions. Sufficient data has been collected to detect the theoretically predicted EoR signal. Limits have been published regularly, however we still several orders of magnitude from a possible detection. This paper outlines recent progress and indicates directions for future efforts.

  1. Applications of SSAFT EOS for determination of the solubilities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Applications of SSAFT EOS for determination of the solubilities of solid compounds in supercritical CO 2 . ... Using statistical thermodynamics such as Simplified SAFT equation of state (SSAFTEoS) for estimating phase equilibrium and fluid properties of different materials have been used widely. SSAFT EoS has been ...

  2. Development of the European activation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, Robin [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Kopecky, Jiri [JUKO Research (Netherlands); Sublet, Jean-Christophe [CEA, Service de Physique des Reacteurs et du Cycle, Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2002-08-01

    The ability to predict the effects of neutron irradiation on an arbitrary material is a fundamental need of fusion technology. The European Fusion Technology Programme has long recognised this fact, and has developed the European Activation System (EASY). This integrated package relies on research in several areas and can be described as an example of successful international co-operation. Modern software tools were used to produce a user-friendly application (SAFEPAQ-II) running under Windows-98 or NT in which all nuclear data are stored in relational databases. Cross section data from almost 50 sources are read and converted from standard formats to databases. By a series of manipulations these data are selected, modified and processed to yield SAFEPAQ-II databases. All reactions can be graphically displayed with experimental data and uncertainty estimates. Following internal validation and processing the data can then be written out in standard EAF (European Activation File) format (including a set of nine multi-group files) ready for use by the FISPACT inventory code. The various EAF data libraries have been extensively validated against integral measurements using fusion relevant materials and three complementary neutron spectra. Results from such studies have also been fed back to improve library development. New user tools allow the graphical viewing of all multi-group cross sections and decay data. User feedback on bugs and new options have been incorporated in EASY-2001 which is fully documented and provides a complete and reliable tool for prediction of activation in fusion and other applications. (J.P.N.)

  3. The ASY-EOS Experiment at GSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russotto P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The elliptic-flow ratio of neutrons with respect to protons or light complex particles in reactions of heavy ions at pre-relativistic energies has been proposed as an observable sensitive to the strength of the symmetry term of the nuclear equation of state at supra-saturation densities. In the ASY-EOS experiment at the GSI laboratory, flows of neutrons and light charged particles were measured for 197Au+197Au collisions at 400 MeV/nucleon. Flow results obtained for the Au+Au system, in comparison with predictions of the UrQMD transport model, confirm the moderately soft to linear density dependence of the symmetry energy deduced from the earlier FOPI-LAND data.

  4. Developments in the European methanol market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speed, J.

    1995-01-01

    In the late eighties/early nineties the World Methanol Market was basically divided into three regional markets--America, Asia Pacific and Europe. These markets were interrelated but each had its own specific characteristics and traditional suppliers. Now the situation has changed; in the mid nineties there is a Global Methanol Market with global players and effective global pricing and the European market is governed by events world-wide. Europe is however a specific market with specific characteristics which are different from those of other markets although it is also part of the Global Market. Hence before the author focuses on Europe he looks at the World Market. The paper discusses world methanol production and consumption by region, world methanol consumption by end use, world methanol supply demand balance, the west European market, western European methanol production, methanol imports to W. Europe, the Former Soviet Union supplies, W. European methanol consumption by end use, MTBE in Europe, duties on methanol imports into W. Europe, investment in Europe, the effect of the 1994/95 price spike, and key issues for the future of the industry

  5. Supporting the Establishment of Climate-Resilient Rural Livelihoods in Mongolia with EO Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Nuno; Patinha, Carla; Sainkhuu, Tserendash; Bataa, Mendbayar; Doljinsuren, Nyamdorj

    2016-08-01

    The work presented here shows the results from the project "Climate-Resilient Rural Livelihoods in Mongolia", included in the EOTAP (Earth Observation for a Transforming Asia Pacific) initiative, a collaboration between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Asian Development Bank (ADB), developed in cooperation with the Ministry of Food and Agriculture of Mongolia.The EO services developed within this EOTAP project primarily aimed at enriching the existing environmental database maintained by the National Remote Sensing Center (NRSC) in Mongolia and sustaining the collaborative pasture management practices introduced by the teams within the Ministry of Food and Agriculture of Mongolia. The geographic area covered by the EOTAP services is Bayankhongor province, in western Mongolia region, with two main services: drought monitoring at the provincial level for the year 2014 and Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) and changes mapping for three districts of this province (Buutsagaan, Dzag and Khureemaral) for the years 2013, 2014.

  6. The Earth Observing System (EOS) nickel-hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles W.

    1992-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on the Earth Observing System (EOS) nickel hydrogen battery. Information is given on the life evaluation test, cell characteristics, acceptance and characterization tests, and the battery system description.

  7. Regional Development and the European Consortium of Innovative Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Saskia Loer; Kokkeler, Ben; van der Sijde, P. C.

    2002-01-01

    The European Consortium of Innovative Universities is a network that shares information not just among universities but with affiliated incubators, research parks, and other regional entities. The learning network contributes to regional development.(JOW)

  8. Recent developments in the European nuclear insurance scene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, H.W.

    1978-01-01

    Despite the development of a strong anti-nuclear feeling in Europe, the nuclear programme in the main European countries has not been stopped. The European insurance market has evolved considerably and the liability limits have been raised in several countries. Insurers must face the twin problem of increased insurance capacity to cover material damage, as well as the higher liability amounts for operators of nuclear installations in certain countries. (NEA) [fr

  9. The development strategies of the european electric power companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heddebaud, D.

    2005-01-01

    This study takes stock on the european market of the electric power and of its development perspectives. It details the strategy and the place of the main operators and shows their forces and weaknesses. It provides a comparison of the financial performances of 28 companies (growth, margins, profitability, debt and war chest). (A.L.B.)

  10. Detector Development for the European XFEL: Requirements and Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Andreas; Kuster, Markus; Sztuk-Dambietz, Jolanta; Turcato, Monica

    2013-01-01

    The variety of applications and especially the unique European XFEL time structure will require adequate instrumentation to be developed to exploit the full potential of the light source. Two-dimensional integrating X-ray detectors with ultra-fast read out up to 4.5 MHz for 1024 × 1024 pixel images are under development for a variety of imaging applications. The actual status of the European XFEL detector development projects is presented. Furthermore, an outlook will be given with respect to detector research and development, performance optimization, integration, and commissioning.

  11. EOS Reference Handbook 1999: A Guide to NASA's Earth Science Enterprise and the Earth Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, M. D. (Editor); Greenstone, R. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The content of this handbook includes Earth Science Enterprise; The Earth Observing System; EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS); Data and Information Policy; Pathfinder Data Sets; Earth Science Information Partners and the Working Prototype-Federation; EOS Data Quality: Calibration and Validation; Education Programs; International Cooperation; Interagency Coordination; Mission Elements; EOS Instruments; EOS Interdisciplinary Science Investigations; and Points-of-Contact.

  12. Exponential 6 parameterization for the JCZ3-EOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGee, B.C.; Hobbs, M.L.; Baer, M.R.

    1998-07-01

    A database has been created for use with the Jacobs-Cowperthwaite-Zwisler-3 equation-of-state (JCZ3-EOS) to determine thermochemical equilibrium for detonation and expansion states of energetic materials. The JCZ3-EOS uses the exponential 6 intermolecular potential function to describe interactions between molecules. All product species are characterized by r*, the radius of the minimum pair potential energy, and {var_epsilon}/k, the well depth energy normalized by Boltzmann`s constant. These parameters constitute the JCZS (S for Sandia) EOS database describing 750 gases (including all the gases in the JANNAF tables), and have been obtained by using Lennard-Jones potential parameters, a corresponding states theory, pure liquid shock Hugoniot data, and fit values using an empirical EOS. This database can be used with the CHEETAH 1.40 or CHEETAH 2.0 interface to the TIGER computer program that predicts the equilibrium state of gas- and condensed-phase product species. The large JCZS-EOS database permits intermolecular potential based equilibrium calculations of energetic materials with complex elemental composition.

  13. Global EOS: exploring the 300-ms-latency region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascetti, L.; Jericho, D.; Hsu, C.-Y.

    2017-10-01

    EOS, the CERN open-source distributed disk storage system, provides the highperformance storage solution for HEP analysis and the back-end for various work-flows. Recently EOS became the back-end of CERNBox, the cloud synchronisation service for CERN users. EOS can be used to take advantage of wide-area distributed installations: for the last few years CERN EOS uses a common deployment across two computer centres (Geneva-Meyrin and Budapest-Wigner) about 1,000 km apart (∼20-ms latency) with about 200 PB of disk (JBOD). In late 2015, the CERN-IT Storage group and AARNET (Australia) set-up a challenging R&D project: a single EOS instance between CERN and AARNET with more than 300ms latency (16,500 km apart). This paper will report about the success in deploy and run a distributed storage system between Europe (Geneva, Budapest), Australia (Melbourne) and later in Asia (ASGC Taipei), allowing different type of data placement and data access across these four sites.

  14. DEVELOPMENT STAGE OF RETAIL TRADE IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catana Adina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available According to Karel De Gucht, Trade Commissioner from the European Commission, trade is working for Europe's economic recovery by ensuring growth and jobs. The European renewed trade strategy will open markets and connect Europe to the main sources and regis of global growth. The aim is to ensure that European business gets a fair deal and that countries’ rights are respected so that all can enjoy the benefits of trade. Thanks to the ease of modern transport and communications, it is now easier to produce, buy and sell goods around the world which gives European companies of every size the potential to trade outside Europe. This paper’s objective is to analyse the development stage of the European Union’s retail, and its member countries. The study is based on the research taken in the project of PhD research with the theme: The impacts of Economic Integration on Romanian Retail. For my research I used data from Eurostat, National Statistical Institute, European Union official website In the past 10 years, the volume of retail trade in EU member states has increased, but the extent of the changes varies substantially from one country to another.

  15. TOURISM RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE EUROPEAN CONTEXT: OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rajović

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The European territory is characterized by a strong presence of rural areas. Approximately 52% of the European territory is classified as predominantly rural. In this context, Rural Tourism is one of the key opportunities in terms of potential growth for rural areas, in the wider context of the Sustainable Management and Promotion of Territory activities (Fagioli et al, 2014. In the last two decades, in many European Union member countries, rural tourism is considered as a strategy for the future, which can contribute to economic and social development of local communities, of less favored regions alike, in order to create jobs and reduce migration. At the same time, rural tourism has the advantage that it acts for the purpose of opening new investment prospects. Thus, it must be regarded as an economic activity that contributes to regional development and, consequently, to the overall economic growth

  16. Maximizing the use of EO products: how to leverage the potential of open geospatial service architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usländer, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    The demand for the rapid provision of EO products with well-defined characteristics in terms of temporal, spatial, image-specific and thematic criteria is increasing. Examples are products to support near real-time damage assessment after a natural disaster event, e.g. an earthquake. However, beyond the organizational and economic questions, there are technological and systemic barriers to enable a comfortable search, order, delivery or even combination of EO products. Most portals of space agencies and EO product providers require sophisticated satellite and product knowledge and, even worse, are all different and not interoperable. This paper gives an overview about the use cases and the architectural solutions that aim at an open and flexible EO mission infrastructure with application-oriented user interfaces and well-defined service interfaces based upon open standards. It presents corresponding international initiatives such as INSPIRE (Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community), GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security), GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems) and HMA (Heterogeneous Missions Accessibility) and their associated infrastructure approaches. The paper presents a corresponding analysis and design methodology and two examples how such architectures are already successfully used in early warning systems for geo-hazards and toolsets for environmentallyinduced health risks. Finally, the paper concludes with an outlook how these ideas relate to the vision of the Future Internet.

  17. The European Dimension of the Global Urban Development Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bubenko Pavlo T.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the process of evolutionary formation of the EU Cities Development Program and analyzing the strategic instrumentarium for the urban development within the currently established EU urban policy at the present stage. The key features of the process of formation of the EU urban policy have been analyzed, the main stages of evolutionary formation of the integrated EU Cities Development Program have been defined and described. In the context of ensuring an integrated approach to the sustainable urban development and complementary positioning of urban development in the EU’s territorial development and cohesion strategies, the European Union’s normative and legal framework on urban development was researched. As a result of the conducted research, the strategic instrumentarium of implementation of the EU Cities Development Program has been systematized.

  18. Sustainable development and energy in the european union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, A.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable development represents a core objective of the European Union, being embodied through out its major polices. In the field of energy, the EU objectives, commonly known as ä20-20-20ö initiative, aim at ensuring a competitive, secure and sustainable energy for European households and industries by reducing the emissions of green house gases, an efficient use on energy and increasing the use of renewable energy. The present paper draws a review on the most important aspects of EU energy policy, its measures, results and costs from the perspective of security of supply, competitiveness of price and green house gases emissions. The aim is to highlight the trade offs which are involved in the orientation towards a sustainable path of the energetic sector of the European Union. (authors)

  19. Development of an anaesthesia resident curriculum at the European level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Helle Thy

    2013-01-01

    The European Section and Board of Anaesthesiology has recently published new guidelines for specialist education. These guidelines have undergone a major revision towards a competence-based approach. Basically, apart from having to take into account the development of the specialty, with enlarged...

  20. The Role of European Union Funds in Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian PĂUN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Union project initially started as a peaceful solution for war reconstruction in Europe. European countries decided to cooperate rather than compete in an aggressive way. At the beginning, this project supposed (involved market liberalization, trade barriers removals, market access improvement (initially for coal, steel, energy and, later, for all goods, services, workforce and capital. Unfortunately, in the last decades, all these Single Market facilities have been backed by redistributive schemes, protectionist mechanisms, social engineering, subsidies and facilities packed in so-called ”EU policies”. New ”European” institutions have been created, more and more funds have been involved to financially support this very complex redistributive intervention. The political dimension of the European Union project enhanced the economic dimension and constantly suffocated private markets and the economy. The “incomes” of the European Union that fuel its financial support are coming from taxes and/or inflation (better administered after the introduction of a Single Currency – the Euro. This paper will discuss the relevance of European Funds for economic development, especially for new members in this project.

  1. Recent disruption of an asteroid from the Eos family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaković, B.; Tsirvoulis, G.

    2014-07-01

    A key difficulty with searching for partially differentiated asteroids arises from the fact that a crust covers the exterior of the body, and, consequently, should hide the melted interior. This motivates an alternative approach of examining members of asteroid families, i.e., fragments of single large bodies, many of which were in the size regime capable of igneous differentiation, that have been disrupted by catastrophic collisions. Such families could provide a stratigraphic cross section across the interior of the parent asteroid [1]. With more than 10,000 known members, the Eos dynamical family is one of the most numerous and earliest recognized asteroid families [2]. Interestingly, the estimated ˜220-km-diameter parent body [3] is well within the size range capable of differentiation. Thus, existing family members should contain fragments of the deep interior. The Eos family has the highest diversity of taxonomic classes than any other known family [4]. Many members are of K spectral type, which is uncommon outside the family, and is similar to the spectra of CV, CK, CO, and CR carbonaceous chondrites [5]. This diversity leads to the suggestion that the Eos parent body was partially differentiated [4,6]. Thus, the Eos family may not only be a remnant of a partially differentiated parent body, but it could be the source of the CV-CK meteorite group. Here we report the discovery of a young subfamily of the Eos asteroid family. It may help understanding the mineralogical nature of the Eos asteroid family and of its parent body. By applying the hierarchical clustering method [7], we find an extremely compact 16-body cluster within the borders of the Eos family. We name the cluster (6733) 1992 EF, after its largest member. The statistical significance of this new cluster is estimated to be above 99%, indicating that its members share a common origin. All members of the cluster are found to be dynamically stable over long timescales. Backward numerical orbital

  2. Financial market development in the Central and Eastern European countries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berglund, T.; Hanousek, Jan; Mramor, D.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2006), s. 280-282 ISSN 1566-0141. [ Financial market development in the Central and Eastern European countries. Prague, 26.05.2006-27.05.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : financial markets * Central and Eastern Europe Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  3. SOCIAL ECONOMY AS THE MAINSTREAM OF THE EUROPEAN UNION DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana GAFAROVA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The global community is striving nowadays to find ways to stabilize social processes, as well as to solve the problem of involving socially vulnerable groups in the social and economic life and work out a strategy for reducing long-term unemployment. The development of the social economy has been chosen as the mainstream of the European Union development. A great deal of attention of European Commission is paid to studying and development of recommendations on the introduction of principles of social economy, both in the basic EU countries and in the countries that are becoming the new members of the EU. However the national approach to the legalization and support of social companies is used in each country. So, for example, in Slovakia it is supposed to create social enterprises for inclusion of disadvantaged people to the labour market first of all. Along with support of the traditional actors of the social economy, the EU is also actively developing new forms of social economy actors, social enterprises are primarily among which. The development of the principles of social economy and the activation of social enterprises is relevant for many post-Soviet countries, including Russia. However, so far in Eastern European scientific practice, many researchers do not see the difference between the concepts of social economy, social market economy, solidarity economy. The key characteristics of the social economy are considered in the article, the interrelation of social, social market and solidarity economies is observed, modern trends in the construction of the social economy of the EU are highlighted.

  4. Influence Factors of the Economic Development Level Across European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Ioana POPA

    2016-01-01

    The economic development level of a country refers to the measure of the progress in an economy that could be measured, especially through GDP or GDP per capita. The level of these indicators can be influenced by many factors as a large scale, from social and economical to environmental and government policies factors. The paper aims to investigate some of these influence factors of the economic development level, represented in this case by GDP per capita, across European countries in the...

  5. NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS): Delivering on the Dream, Today and Tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Johnson, Patricia; Case, Warren F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the successful operations of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites over the past 10 years and the plans for the future. Excellent operations performance has been a key factor in the overall success of EOS. The EOS Program was conceived in the 1980s and began to take shape in the early 1990s. EOS consists of a series of satellites that study the Earth as an interrelated system. It began with the launch of Terra in December 1999, followed by Aqua in May 2002, and Aura in July 2004. A key EOS goal is to provide a long-term continuous data set to enable the science community to develop a better understanding of land, ocean, and atmospheric processes and their interactions. EOS has produced unprecedented amounts of data which are used all over the world free of charge. Mission operations have resulted in data recovery for Terra, Aqua, and Aura that have consistently exceeded mission requirements. The paper describes the ground systems and organizations that control the EOS satellites, capture the raw data, and distribute the processed science data sets. The paper further describes how operations have evolved since 1999. Examples of this evolution include (a) the implementation of new mission safety requirements for orbital debris monitoring; (b) technology upgrades to keep facilities at the state of the art; (c) enhancements to meet changing security requirements; and (d) operations management of the 2 international Earth Observing Constellations of 11 satellites known as the "Morning Constellation" and the "A-Train". The paper concludes with a view into the future based on the latest spacecraft status, lifetime projections, and mission plans.

  6. The EOS studies on Luch facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel'kov, S.A.; Voronich, I.N.; Garanin, S.G.; Derkach, V.N.; Kochemasov, G.G.; Litvin, D.N.; Sukharev, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The results of the investigations in the shock compressibility of materials on the 'Luch' facility are presented. The experiments have been performed with impedance mismatch technique applying. The output non-uniformity of the shocks achieved < 10 ps and inaccuracy of their velocity measuring < 3%. The pressures to 30 Mbars were developed in lead and till 50 Mbars with applying of the special-constructed targets for hydrodynamic pressure increasing. Results on the materials shock compressibility have been obtained that accord well with the test results shown on hydrodynamic stands. The work was performed in part under the sponsorship of the RFFI (grants No. 09-02-12157-ofi-m and No. 09-02-97089-r povolzh'ye-a), and grant of the President of the RF to leading scientific schools No. 65192.2010.2.

  7. The insurance industry and public-private collaborations as a vector to develop and spread EO technologies and techniques in the domain of Food Security: The Swiss Re case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutu, S.; Ragaz, M.; Mäder, D.; Hammer, P.; Andriesse, M.; Güttinger, U.; Feyen, H.

    2017-12-01

    The insurance industry has been contributing to the resilient development of agriculture in multiple regions of the globe since the beginning of the 19th Century. It also has from the very beginning of the development of EO Sciences, kept a very close eye on the development of technologies and techniques in this domain. Recent advances in this area such as increased satellite imagery resolution, faster computation time and Big Data management combined with the ground-based knowledge from the insurance industry have offered farmers not only tools permitting better crop management, but also reliable and live yield coverage. This study presents several of these applications at different scales (industrial farming and micro-farming) and in different climate regions, with an emphasis on the limit of current products. Some of these limits such as lack of access of to ground data, R&D efforts or understanding of ground needs could be quickly overcome through closer public-private or private-private collaborations. However, despite a clear benefit for the Food Security nexus and potential win-win situations, those collaborations are not always simple to develop. We present here successful but also disappointing collaboration cases based on the Swiss Re experience, as a global insurance leader. As a conclusion, we highlight how academia, NGOs, governmental organization, start-ups and the insurance industry can get together to foster the development of EO in the domain of Food Security, and bring cutting-edge science to game changing industrial applications.

  8. Product development in the European and overseas food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Balogh, Sandor

    2007-01-01

    In the present study various product development trends in the food industry are reviewed with the main focus on convenience, organic and functional foods. Also highlighted are differences between the U.S. and Europe in terms of consumer habits and food supply trends. Through exploring the reasons behind differences in the extent of product innovation, the author illustrates the different role convenience products have in the US and European markets. Also revealed is the relationship linking ...

  9. TWHY CCCTB DISADVANTAGES LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela PÎRVU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available From its appearance, the Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base generated numerous de-bates and controversies since its effects cannot be precisely measured. Two of the factors in the formula for allocating common consolidated corporate tax base are susceptible to disadvantage some Member States. This paper demonstrates, by a case study in Romania, that the tax sharing mechanism, through the payroll factor, disadvantages less developed countries of the European Union. These countries will record losses of corporate income tax revenues.

  10. The European Spatial Development Perspective Shaping the Agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faludi, A.K.F.

    2006-01-01

    The fact that they have created the European Union (EU) notwithstanding, Member States are suspicious of, and even hostile to it. This creates a dynamic that is often puzzling, and this is also true for spatial planning. The latter is not a competence of the European Community, but there is the

  11. Development of molecular imaging in the European radiological community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, Nicolas; Sardanelli, Francesco; Becker, Christoph D.; Walecki, Jerzy; Sebag, Guy; Lomas, David John; Krestin, Gabriel P.

    2009-01-01

    The recent and concomitant advances in molecular biology and imaging for diagnosis and therapy will place in vivo imaging techniques at the centre of their clinical transfer. Before that, a wide range of multidisciplinary preclinical research is already taking place. The involvement of radiologists in this new field of imaging sciences is therefore absolutely mandatory during these two phases of development. Achievement of such objectives requires the refinement of strategy within the European radiological community and the European Society of Radiology (ESR) will have to drive a number of actions to stimulate the younger generation of radiologists and to facilitate their access to knowledge. For that purpose, a molecular imaging (MI) subcommittee of the ESR Research Committee based on a group of involved radiologists will be constituted to develop contacts with other constitutive committees and associated societies to provide proposals to our community. (orig.)

  12. Rigorous theoretical constraint on constant negative EoS parameter [Formula: see text] and its effect for the late Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgazli, Alvina; Eingorn, Maxim; Zhuk, Alexander

    In this paper, we consider the Universe at the late stage of its evolution and deep inside the cell of uniformity. At these scales, the Universe is filled with inhomogeneously distributed discrete structures (galaxies, groups and clusters of galaxies). Supposing that the Universe contains also the cosmological constant and a perfect fluid with a negative constant equation of state (EoS) parameter [Formula: see text] (e.g., quintessence, phantom or frustrated network of topological defects), we investigate scalar perturbations of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metrics due to inhomogeneities. Our analysis shows that, to be compatible with the theory of scalar perturbations, this perfect fluid, first, should be clustered and, second, should have the EoS parameter [Formula: see text]. In particular, this value corresponds to the frustrated network of cosmic strings. Therefore, the frustrated network of domain walls with [Formula: see text] is ruled out. A perfect fluid with [Formula: see text] neither accelerates nor decelerates the Universe. We also obtain the equation for the nonrelativistic gravitational potential created by a system of inhomogeneities. Due to the perfect fluid with [Formula: see text], the physically reasonable solutions take place for flat, open and closed Universes. This perfect fluid is concentrated around the inhomogeneities and results in screening of the gravitational potential.

  13. Design of a nickel-hydrogen battery simulator for the NASA EOS testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Zvi; Mang, Xuesi; Patil, Ashok R.; Sable, Dan M.; Cho, Bo H.; Lee, Fred C.

    1992-01-01

    The hardware and software design of a nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) battery simulator (BS) with application to the NASA Earth Observation System (EOS) satellite is presented. The battery simulator is developed as a part of a complete testbed for the EOS satellite power system. The battery simulator involves both hardware and software components. The hardware component includes the capability of sourcing and sinking current at a constant programmable voltage. The software component includes the capability of monitoring the battery's ampere-hours (Ah) and programming the battery voltage according to an empirical model of the nickel-hydrogen battery stored in a computer.

  14. The use of EOS for studies of atmospheric physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gille, J G; Visconti, G [eds.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is paid to the atmosphere and how the understanding of its behavior could be facilitated by the observations and modeling of these interacting processes planned within the framework of the EOS (Earth Observing System) program. The Enrico Fermi School on which the book is based, was organized in such a way that general introductory lectures were followed by reviews of the planned EOS instruments and observational strategy to study specific components and processes in the earth atmosphere system. The contents are divided into four parts. Part 1 is an overview of the EOS concept and provides a general introduction to earth system science. Part 2 deals with the troposphere and includes a comprehensive introduction to the problems of tropospheric chemistry. The more traditional view of the troposphere as the stage for dynamics and meteorology is also dealt with. The climate system is discussed in detail in part 3, and includes the most important advances made in recent years in understanding some of these processes which have come from satellite observations. The final part deals with the middle atmosphere. The interest in ozone has made this region of the atmosphere the most closely studied in the last few years, in an attempt to establish how much of the changes in its composition may be attributable to natural variability and how much to anthropogenic influence

  15. Legal Developments and Problems of the Bologna Process within the European Higher Education Area and European Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cippitani, Roberto; Gatt, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    2010 sees the end of the process of establishing the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). Although not all countries may have achieved all the objectives, many are those countries and universities who have implemented many of the targets set. Within the Bologna Process, there have been many developments such as: European Credit Transfer and…

  16. The European ALARA network. Development, functioning and main activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt-Hannig, A.

    2009-01-01

    The new ICRP recommendations (ICRP 103), and in particular the detailed treatment of optimisation in the ICRP Publication 101, define optimisation of protection as a source-related process aimed at keeping the likelihood of incurred exposures, the number of people exposed and the magnitude of their individual doses as low as reasonably achievable, also below constraints, taking into account economic and societal factors. Practical implementation and further development of the ALARA principle has been achieved for many years now by the successful cooperation of experts from different European organisations; first as pioneers by establishing the European ALARA Network and then by enthusiastically supporting the activities of the network itself. This contribution presents the evolution, operation and key activities of the European ALARA Network (EAN) in the last years; the successful cooperation of experts from different professional backgrounds, advocating the ALARA principle in a range of radiation protection areas, and contributing to its further development by trading experience and networking. The interaction between the EAN and international organisations, which support the ALARA principle by including relevant activities in their work programmes, is described. (orig.)

  17. Spin states of asteroids in the Eos collisional family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanuš, J.; Delbo', M.; Alí-Lagoa, V.; Bolin, B.; Jedicke, R.; Ďurech, J.; Cibulková, H.; Pravec, P.; Kušnirák, P.; Behrend, R.; Marchis, F.; Antonini, P.; Arnold, L.; Audejean, M.; Bachschmidt, M.; Bernasconi, L.; Brunetto, L.; Casulli, S.; Dymock, R.; Esseiva, N.; Esteban, M.; Gerteis, O.; de Groot, H.; Gully, H.; Hamanowa, Hiroko; Hamanowa, Hiromi; Krafft, P.; Lehký, M.; Manzini, F.; Michelet, J.; Morelle, E.; Oey, J.; Pilcher, F.; Reignier, F.; Roy, R.; Salom, P. A.; Warner, B. D.

    2018-01-01

    Eos family was created during a catastrophic impact about 1.3 Gyr ago. Rotation states of individual family members contain information about the history of the whole population. We aim to increase the number of asteroid shape models and rotation states within the Eos collision family, as well as to revise previously published shape models from the literature. Such results can be used to constrain theoretical collisional and evolution models of the family, or to estimate other physical parameters by a thermophysical modeling of the thermal infrared data. We use all available disk-integrated optical data (i.e., classical dense-in-time photometry obtained from public databases and through a large collaboration network as well as sparse-in-time individual measurements from a few sky surveys) as input for the convex inversion method, and derive 3D shape models of asteroids together with their rotation periods and orientations of rotation axes. We present updated shape models for 15 asteroids and new shape model determinations for 16 asteroids. Together with the already published models from the publicly available DAMIT database, we compiled a sample of 56 Eos family members with known shape models that we used in our analysis of physical properties within the family. Rotation states of asteroids smaller than ∼ 20 km are heavily influenced by the YORP effect, whilst the large objects more or less retained their rotation state properties since the family creation. Moreover, we also present a shape model and bulk density of asteroid (423) Diotima, an interloper in the Eos family, based on the disk-resolved data obtained by the Near InfraRed Camera (Nirc2) mounted on the W.M. Keck II telescope.

  18. The EOS and neutrino interactions in dense matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, M; Reddy, S [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, SUNY at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The deleptonization and cooling times of a newly born neutron star depend on the equation of state (EOS) and neutrino opacities in dense matter. Through model calculations we show that effects of Pauli blocking and many-body correlations due to strong interactions reduce both the neutral and charged current neutrino cross sections by large factors compared to the case in which these effects are ignored. (orig.)

  19. A Reference Implementation of the OGC CSW EO Standard for the ESA HMA-T project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigagli, Lorenzo; Boldrini, Enrico; Papeschi, Fabrizio; Vitale, Fabrizio

    2010-05-01

    This work was developed in the context of the ESA Heterogeneous Missions Accessibility (HMA) project, whose main objective is to involve the stakeholders, namely National space agencies, satellite or mission owners and operators, in an harmonization and standardization process of their ground segment services and related interfaces. Among HMA objectives was the specification, conformance testing, and experimentation of two Extension Packages (EPs) of the ebRIM Application Profile (AP) of the OGC Catalog Service for the Web (CSW) specification: the Earth Observation Products (EO) EP (OGC 06-131) and the Cataloguing of ISO Metadata (CIM) EP (OGC 07-038). Our contributions have included the development and deployment of Reference Implementations (RIs) for both the above specifications, and their integration with the ESA Service Support Environment (SSE). The RIs are based on the GI-cat framework, an implementation of a distributed catalog service, able to query disparate Earth and Space Science data sources (e.g. OGC Web Services, Unidata THREDDS) and to expose several standard interfaces for data discovery (e.g. OGC CSW ISO AP). Following our initial planning, the GI-cat framework has been extended in order to expose the CSW.ebRIM-CIM and CSW.ebRIM-EO interfaces, and to distribute queries to CSW.ebRIM-CIM and CSW.ebRIM-EO data sources. We expected that a mapping strategy would suffice for accommodating CIM, but this proved to be unpractical during implementation. Hence, a model extension strategy was eventually implemented for both the CIM and EO EPs, and the GI-cat federal model was enhanced in order to support the underlying ebRIM AP. This work has provided us with new insights into the different data models for geospatial data, and the technologies for their implementation. The extension is used by suitable CIM and EO profilers (front-end mediator components) and accessors (back-end mediator components), that relate ISO 19115 concepts to EO and CIM ones. Moreover

  20. EoW criteria for waste-derived aggregates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hjelmar, O.; Sloot, van der H.A.; Comans, R.N.J.; Wahlstrom, H.

    2013-01-01

    Waste-derived aggregates are being considered as possible candidates for development of End-of-Waste (EoW) criteria at European Union (EU) level in accordance with Article 6 (1) of the EU Waste Framework Directive (2008/98/EC) as a means of increasing the recovery of resources from waste. If a

  1. MIRANDA: The EO-sensor Performance Tool Powered by EOSTAR-PRO - poster (Abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammel, S.H.; Tsintikidis, D.; Adonidis, M.; Degache, M.A.C.; Lange, D.J.J. de; Eijk, A.M.J. van

    2007-01-01

    Over the last decades, considerable efforts have been made to assess the impact of theenvironment on EM and EO propagation. While encouraging progress has been made in the EM domain, few, if any, operational tools are available for the EO domain. As a consequence, no EO operational software,

  2. EO System Concepts in the Littoral

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwering, P.B.W.; Broek, S.P. van den; Iersel, M. van

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, operations executed by naval forces have taken place at many different locations. At present, operations against international terrorism and asymmetric warfare in coastal environments are of major concern. In these scenarios, the threat caused by pirates on-board of small surface

  3. ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF DEVELOPING INTERMODAL TRANSPORT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crisan Radu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Transport plays a crucial role in economic and social development and its contribution goes beyond what is normally captured in traditional cost-benefit analyses. Transportation investments can have large long-term economic, social and environmental impacts. The European Commission when developing transport policy, focuses on the intermodal transport, which is seen as a sustainable mobility solution, environmentally friendly and efficient in terms of resources, especially in terms of freight. European transport policies promote co-modality - combining different modes for a single supply chain - as a solution to the adverse effects of transport: pollution, traffic congestion, energy consumption. Intermodal transport is found to be consistently cheaper than all-road solutions, and its external costs significantly lower, thereby confirming the high potential of intermodal transport in increasing the sustainability of the transport sector. So, freight intermodality is increasingly considered as major potential contributor to solving the sustainability problems of the European transport sector. This paper addresses the pricing issues specifically related to intermodal transport. The focus in on the main economical advantages of developing intermodal transport, but also on the usage limits brought by particularities of transport modes. Special attention is given to intermodal transfer terminals with solutions for activity efficiency increase, with major implications on the quality and cost of transportation. The theme discussed in this paper is of great importance, many authors and specialists developed it in their studies. Some names are needed to be mentioned: Todd Litman, Dr. Yuri V. Yevdokimov, John J. Coyle, Kenneth D. Boyer and few more. But, a special attention for this subject is paid by the European Commission and its subordinated institutions, that are interested in developing sustainable strategies and promoting concrete solutions for

  4. ROMANIA FEATURES OF REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE EUROPEAN CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUȘAN GABRIELA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Regional development is a new concept that aims to boost and diversify economic activities, stimulate private sector investment, contribute to reducing unemployment and lead to an improvement in living standards. Development and harmonious arrangement of the territory is an imperative of any civilized state for the welfare of all its citizens.Regionalization is a top-down process, which has as a starting point regional imbalances and regionalism is a bottom-up process of representing how the region perceives regional consciousness considered as a homogeneous territory by its residents and the community. European reality is that where there is regionalization regionalism was imposed because "the future of Europe must be built by a balance between Brussels, states and regions." Regionalization is in fact the result of trends in territorial organization in European countries today. However, we can speak of a "Europe of regions" where regions are public corporate body that answers the need for territoralisation certain policies. This paper aims to define the first part, the concepts of region and regionalization in order to subsequently provide procedural issues on regional development policy. At the same time, it will highlight the main aspects of economic development, taking into account the economic, social, cultural. The last part of the paper we summarize the effects of policies on regional development regions of our country, guiding us as socio-economic situation.

  5. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, ENERGY AND CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei ROTH

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Through sustainable development the needs of the current generation are fulfilled without jeopardizing the opportunities of future generations. The concept takes into account economic, social and environmental considerations. It has a wide range of applications from natural resources to population growth and biodiversity. One of its most important themes is energy. In this area, sustainable development relates with resource availability and green house gases emissions. Also it takes into account the needs of people without access to energy, and their legitimate quest for development. For the European Union, sustainable development represents an overarching objective. The present article analyzes the concept from a theoretical perspective, contrasting its strong points and weaknesses. It highlights the relation between sustainable development, energetic resources and climate change. The EU policies results in the field of energy are analyzed from the perspective of resources, energetic dependency and climate change efforts.

  6. The european programme on negative ion beam development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamela, J.; Hemsworth, R.; Jacquot, C.; Holmes, A.J.T.

    1991-01-01

    The European Programme on Negative Ion Beam development consists presently of three main tasks: (i) the DRAGON experiment starting at Culham, with the objective of accelerating 4 A of D - to 200 keV; (ii) the conceptual study of a 1 MV, 15 A power supply, conducted in european industry under the supervision of Cadarache; (iii) the design study of a 1MV, 4 A, deuterium test bed at Cadarache, conducted by the EURATOM-CEA Association (Cadarache) with support from the EURATOM-UKAEA association (Culham) and the FOM institute (Amsterdam). The conclusions of these three tasks are to be brought together during the first half of 1992, in order to prepare a proposal for a 1 MV, 4 A, deuterium test bed. Other experimental activities are being conducted in european laboratories, either directly related to the main programme (RF source and plasma neutralizer at Culham; discharge pulsing at Dublin and FOM-Amsterdam) or under separate contracts (energy recovery and cesium seeding at Cadarache)

  7. Education, employment, and sustainable development in the European union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaballah, I.; Dufourg, A.; Tondeur, D.

    2002-11-01

    This paper examines the current and prospective status of education, employment, and sustainable development in the European Union (EU). Due to the decrease of the birth rate and the increase of life expectation, the size of the labor force is decreasing and its average age is increasing. Moreover, rapid technological evolution will necessitate “long-life learning” for the old workers and young people. It will be a challenge to supply the EU’s labor market with an adequate number of workers with the appropriate skill ad tempus. This will change profoundly the classical education system that will become the largest economic sector in the next decade.

  8. HDF-EOS Dump Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, U.; Rahabi, A.

    2001-05-01

    The following utilities developed for HDF-EOS format data dump are of special use for Earth science data for NASA's Earth Observation System (EOS). This poster demonstrates their use and application. The first four tools take HDF-EOS data files as input. HDF-EOS Metadata Dumper - metadmp Metadata dumper extracts metadata from EOS data granules. It operates by simply copying blocks of metadata from the file to the standard output. It does not process the metadata in any way. Since all metadata in EOS granules is encoded in the Object Description Language (ODL), the output of metadmp will be in the form of complete ODL statements. EOS data granules may contain up to three different sets of metadata (Core, Archive, and Structural Metadata). HDF-EOS Contents Dumper - heosls Heosls dumper displays the contents of HDF-EOS files. This utility provides detailed information on the POINT, SWATH, and GRID data sets. in the files. For example: it will list, the Geo-location fields, Data fields and objects. HDF-EOS ASCII Dumper - asciidmp The ASCII dump utility extracts fields from EOS data granules into plain ASCII text. The output from asciidmp should be easily human readable. With minor editing, asciidmp's output can be made ingestible by any application with ASCII import capabilities. HDF-EOS Binary Dumper - bindmp The binary dumper utility dumps HDF-EOS objects in binary format. This is useful for feeding the output of it into existing program, which does not understand HDF, for example: custom software and COTS products. HDF-EOS User Friendly Metadata - UFM The UFM utility tool is useful for viewing ECS metadata. UFM takes an EOSDIS ODL metadata file and produces an HTML report of the metadata for display using a web browser. HDF-EOS METCHECK - METCHECK METCHECK can be invoked from either Unix or Dos environment with a set of command line options that a user might use to direct the tool inputs and output . METCHECK validates the inventory metadata in (.met file) using The

  9. The burden of COPD across the European Union: development of the European COPD Atlas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Boven, Job FM; Gaughan, Jules; Soriano, Joan B.; de Sousa, Jaime Correia; Baxter, Noel; Román Rodriguez, Miguel; Vilaro, Jordi; Williams, Siân; Fitch, Shane; Kishore, Kamal; Chaudhury, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Background Estimating current and future impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) within the European Union (EU) is essential for targeted and well-informed policy making, however, current global and regional estimates are contradictory, and comparable standardised data is lacking.

  10. Future Perspective and Long-Term Strategy of the Indian EO Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Mukund; Jayaraman, V.; Sridhara Murthi, K. R.; Kasturirangan, K.

    EO technology development will continue to have profound effects on spatial information activities, as we are seeing it today - the changing demand of GIS technology to understanding processes around us and its representation as maps. In the longer term, information needs will drive further RS and GIS technological developments - creating stringent demands for technology solutions for spatial data capture, integration and representation. The emergence of Spatial Business from the highly volatile and dynamic synergy of information, technology and access will see a truly Spatial Society. EO will have a major impact on day-to-day life of nations, communities and even an individual. It will become the One-stop source for information - spatial information at that - thus enabling not only development oriented activities but also Business GIS, quality research and Info-savvy communities. Internationally, there will be a mix of Government and Commercial satellites vying to provide information services to a wide variety of users. EO satellites are also becoming smaller, efficient and less costlier. Almost 5-6 commercial systems will orbit around the Earth in the foreseeable future to generate massive, seamless archives of high-resolution panchromatic and multispectral images - almost reducing the need for aerial surveys for photography and mapping. Reaching resolution of cm level and covering narrower and more spectral bands, the trend is to IMAGE the Earth in its entirety and organize Image Infrastructures. The race will be to imaginatively capture the market with the fullest archive of the globe and cater to any imaging demand of users. One will also see efficient satellite operations that will enable imaging any part of the globe with minimum turn-around time - reaching concepts of IMAGING ON DEMAND. The need of the hour is looking forward now towards how the EO technology can adapt itself to the changing scenario and the steps to be taken to sustain use of EO data it in

  11. EUROPEAN DEVELOPMENT OF ECO‐MANAGEMENT AND AUDIT SCHEME (EMAS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna SŁONIMIEC

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the implementation of the Environmental Management and Audit Scheme System (EMAS in Poland and the European Union. It analyzes the existing rules on the implementation and the process of its implementation. It also defines the benefits and costs arising from the registration of organizations in the system. The paper presents the current status of implementation of EMAS in the European Union.

  12. European innovation and technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    The promotion of technological innovation by European national governments and the EC in pursuit of both increased recovery and the anchoring of technology in supply, manufacturing and service sector companies has been a feature of the strategic involvement by European states in exploration and production research and development. This paper summaries past trends in this activity and reviews the targets for future industry innovation which will enable European (primarily the North Sea) production to be sustained for a further generation

  13. Development of the European Small Geostationary Satellite SGEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübberstedt, H.; Schneider, A.; Schuff, H.; Miesner, Th.; Winkler, A.

    2008-08-01

    The SGEO product portfolio, ranging from Satellite platform delivery up to in-orbit delivery of a turnkey system including satellite and ground control station, is designed for applications ranging from TV Broadcast to multimedia applications, Internet access, mobile or fixed services in a wide range of frequency bands. Furthermore, Data Relay missions such as the European Data Relay Satellite (EDRS) as well as other institutional missions are targeted. Key design features of the SGEO platform are high flexibility and modularity in order to accommodate a very wide range of future missions, a short development time below two years and the objective to build the system based on ITAR free subsystems and components. The system will provide a long lifetime of up to 15 years in orbit operations with high reliability. SGEO is the first European satellite to perform all orbit control tasks solely by electrical propulsion (EP). This design provides high mass efficiency and the capability for direct injection into geostationary orbit without chemical propulsion (CP). Optionally, an Apogee Engine Module based on CP will provide the perigee raising manoeuvres in case of a launch into geostationary transfer orbit (GTO). This approach allows an ideal choice out of a wide range of launcher candidates in dependence of the required payload capacity. SGEO will offer to the market a versatile and high performance satellite system with low investment risk for the customer and a short development time. This paper provides an overview of the SGEO system key features and the current status of the SGEO programme.

  14. Vapor-liquid, liquid-liquid and vapor-liquid-liquid equilibrium of binary and multicomponent systems with MEG modeling with the CPA EoS and an EoS/G(E) model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folas, Georgios; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2006-01-01

    The cubic-plus-association (CPA) EoS is applied to multicomponent multiphase equilibria of systems containing MEG as a hydrate inhibitor. It is shown that the model provides very satisfactory prediction of the phase behavior for the systems tested. A more conventional engineering model for handling...

  15. An Evaluation of Entrepreneurship Orientation within the LEADER+ program in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Duarte Canever

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the currently widely discussed entrepreneurialorientation (EO and investigates the roles this concept actually plays withinthe LEADER+ development program and its implementation in three Europeanterritories. The main question addressed in this analysis is whether or not theLEADER+ envisaged EO as a basic element for rural development. Can we reallyobserve both at the rhetoric and at the implementation levels impacts of the EO onthe LEADER+? To answer this question the official programmatic documents ofthe EU community initiative LEADER+ are analyzed against the background ofthe most important EO concepts and characteristics. Subsequently, a deeper lookin the implementation of LEADER+ in three European territories shows that theEO still has little impact in the actions implemented. Some major contradictoryrhetoric of the LEADER+ is identified regarding EO and its importance to the developmentprogram. As well as some important suggestions for improving futuredevelopment program can be derived from the analysis. These show that, despitethe lack of focus on EO by the LEADER+, the concept has the potential to make asignificant contribution to the successful development of regions.

  16. Legal developments and problems of the Bologna process within the European higher education area and European integration

    OpenAIRE

    Cippitani, Roberto; Gatt, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    2010 sees the end of the process of establishing the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). Although not all countries may have achieved all the objectives, many are those countries and universities who have implemented many of the targets set. Within the Bologna Process, there have been many developments such as: European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) for the transfer of period of study abroad; joint degrees; and quality assurance aspects among others. Guidelines for Quality...

  17. Nuclear research and development in the European community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Research programmes undertaken by the European Atomic Energy Community and the European Economic Community are discussed. These programmes are carried out both at the Communities own Joint Research Centres (at Ispra, Karlsruhe, Geel and Petten) and also, although centrally managed by the Commission, at research organizations in the Member States. Such research projects include radioactive waste management and storage, decommissioning of nuclear power stations and nuclear fusion. Culham Laboratory is not only the centre for the UKAEA's research into controlled thermonuclear fusion but is also host to the Joint European Torus Joint Undertaking. (U.K.)

  18. Integrating EO data for applying the Nexus of water, energy and agriculture to monitor SDG Indicators within transboundary river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalidis, G.; Kavvada, A.; Crisman, T.

    2016-12-01

    The NEXUS of water, energy and agriculture is widely recognized as an integrated approach for innovative management solutions and actions to protect natural resources. Soil Spectral Libraries (SSL) implement the NEXUS approach by combining Earth Observation (EO) and Geospatial Information (GI) data and tools to extract information on soil attributes rapidly, reliably and cost effectively. NEXUS approach for soil resources at large scales- across landscapes or regions- remains a challenge however, especially for stakeholders, and in regards to promoting the concept, disseminating the methodology, and discussing potential benefits at both local and transboundary river basin levels. The CEOS Data Cube is an excellent tool for collecting, processing and disseminating EO data, and providing `Analysis Ready Data' utilized both as a management tool for policy makers, and a tool boosting economic activity and supporting end-users. Thus, it helps supporting the tracking of, and reporting on, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and promoting targeted approaches to address specific SDG Indicators. Although several European projects in the Balkan transboundary river basin areas focus on existing/potential ties to specific SDG Indicators under the leadership of i-BEC, data are lacking for some regions, and there is an exigent need for country/region - specific case studies. A case study in Albania, the 3rd for CEOS and the 1st for Europe, will seek to build synergies between different sectors and activities (water, energy, food) and natural resources, while also accounting for ecosystem climate- regulating functions. This will contribute to the global expansion of the Data Cube initiative, while adding high quality datasets in GEOSS. Engagement of EO ecosystem stakeholders, together with National Statistical Offices, regionally and globally, should exploit the networking capacities of multipliers, maximizing the impact and reach of SSL. The H2020 project GEOCRADLE has

  19. The Bologna Process and the European Gain: Africa's Development Demise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawa, Lester Brian

    2008-01-01

    The Bologna process is a fundamental restructuring of higher education in Europe, of which the introduction of three cycles: bachelor's, master's and doctorate, in lieu of the traditional long program is the single most important feature. Its objectives are to increase the employability of European citizens and the competitiveness and…

  20. Projected developments in the US and European LWR fabrication market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, C.K.; Varley, G.

    1996-01-01

    There are several important factors influencing change in the fuel fabrication supply industry in Western Europe today. The most important is the changing supply relationships resulting from lower costs in the USA. With US fabrication prices substantially lower than in Western Europe, a situation which is sustainable based on production costs, a major force for change prevails which will have significant implications for the commercial development of both markets over the next decade. The extent to which supply from the USA will drive the Western Europe market will depend, to some extent, on three other factors: the new US-Euratom agreement on nuclear trade; electricity market deregulation in the European Union (EU); near term MOX fuel fabrication capacity. The main purpose of this paper is to discuss the current situation in the USA and Europe, and the manner in which this will lead to changing fuel fabrication supply dynamics in both markets. (author)

  1. The Seeds Left in Italy by the E&O Program of the Andrill Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattadori, M.

    2010-12-01

    One of the main purposes of the ARISE program, the educational initiative by the ANDRILL research, was to “integrate polar geoscience content into a range of learning environments”. In the range of this program, an Italian science teacher created and developed through 2006 and 2007 a specific project called progettosmilla.it (www.progettosmilla.it). With the services consequently created, this initiative managed to involve more then 2000 students and 100 teachers across the Italian territory. Though, what is left of that experience four years later? This contribution focuses on the description of the long-term effects of that event on the earth system science education in Italy. It offers the chance to analyze some of the most significant educational projects rooted in the network of (local and national) institutions which supported the progettosmilla.it-ANDRILL program. Among these: - the Ortles project: an E&O initiative developed in the range of an international paleoclimatic research on the biggest ice-cap of the Eastern Alps (by Italian and U.S. universities and centers of research); - the I-CLEEN (Inquiring on Climate & ENergy) project: an information gateway collecting educational resources, which promotes an enquiry-based approach and is managed by science teachers (by the Natural Science Museum of Trento- Italy); - the SPEs (Summer Polar School for Teachers): a summer class where research, researchers and teachers illustrate polar themes and lectures to be introduced in scholastic programs (by the National Museum of Antarctica- Italy); - the first European edition of IESO (International Earth Science Olympiad), initiative to be held in Italy in 2011 (by University of Modena and Reggio Emilia - Italy). Through the analysis of these projects it will be possible to gain useful clues and answer more complex questions, such as: Which are the key factors for the success of such a project, aimed to the cooperation between scientists and teachers? Why an

  2. Influence Factors of the Economic Development Level Across European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ioana POPA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic development level of a country refers to the measure of the progress in an economy that could be measured, especially through GDP or GDP per capita. The level of these indicators can be influenced by many factors as a large scale, from social and economical to environmental and government policies factors. The paper aims to investigate some of these influence factors of the economic development level, represented in this case by GDP per capita, across European countries in the context of the most recently crisis, named the Great Recession (2008 and after, when the economies are starting to recover (2013. Using linear regression in R (lm function, the goal is to explain the relationship between the interest variable (GDP per capita and certain independent variables. It is expected that even tough the estimators are to be different – as level – in both cases studied, the relationship type between them to be the same. The goodness of fit for the models used will be made based on ANOVA.

  3. European Trading Companies and Economic Development in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper focuses on the gradual planting of European colonial presence in the interior of the Basin through the agency of their trading companies and the activities of the African middlemen. With time, the result was the establishment of pioneer oil mills and a gradual but peaceful interaction with the rural dwellers of the ...

  4. The Chelyabinsk superbolide: a fragment of asteroid 2011 EO40?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente Marcos, C.; de la Fuente Marcos, R.

    2013-11-01

    Bright fireballs or bolides are caused by meteoroids entering the Earth's atmosphere at high speed. Some have a cometary origin, a few may have originated within the Venus-Earth-Mars region as a result of massive impacts in the remote past but a relevant fraction is likely the result of the break-up of asteroids. Disrupted asteroids produce clusters of fragments or asteroid families and meteoroid streams. Linking a bolide to a certain asteroid family may help to understand its origin and pre-impact dynamical evolution. On 2013 February 15, a superbolide was observed in the skies near Chelyabinsk, Russia. Such a meteor could be the result of the decay of an asteroid and here we explore this possibility applying a multistep approach. First, we use available data and Monte Carlo optimization (validated using 2008 TC3 as template) to obtain a robust solution for the pre-impact orbit of the Chelyabinsk impactor (a = 1.62 au, e = 0.53, i = 3.82°, Ω = 326.41° and ω = 109.44°). Then, we use this most probable orbit and numerical analysis to single out candidates for membership in, what we call, the Chelyabinsk asteroid family. Finally, we perform N-body simulations to either confirm or reject any dynamical connection between candidates and impactor. We find reliable statistical evidence on the existence of the Chelyabinsk cluster. It appears to include multiple small asteroids and two relatively large members: 2007 BD7 and 2011 EO40. The most probable parent body for the Chelyabinsk superbolide is 2011 EO40. The orbits of these objects are quite perturbed as they experience close encounters not only with the Earth-Moon system but also with Venus, Mars and Ceres. Under such conditions, the cluster cannot be older than about 20-40 kyr.

  5. SOLARGE - European programme for the development of collective thermal solar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimmig, Bodo; Chastanet, Aymeric; Gagnepain, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    The European programme SOLARGE aims at enlarging solar thermal systems in multi-family houses, hotels, public and social buildings in Europe. This publication first outlines that it is a way to struggle against climate change at a rather large scale. It indicates the members of this European consortium, and proposes sheets of presentation of operations (in La Rochelle, Paris, Venissieux, Ostwald, Strasbourg, Val Thorens, Echirolles, Asnieres, Saint-Raphael, Sophia Antipolis, Saignon, Beziers) which mainly concern solar production of domestic hot water in collective building (often social housing), and hotels

  6. Main Developments and Perspectives of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Constantin ANGHELACHE PhD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors have analyzed the main economic-financial evolutions of the European Union member countries. First, we have performed the study regarding the evolution of the Gross Domestic Product growth in the European Union, by total and by comparison with other countries that play an important role in the global evolution of the economy. There are emphasized comparative data regarding the economic growth of China, which is the highest in the world. The growth rate of China is net superior to the rates recorded by USA, Japan and European Union (28 members. There can be observed a significant decrease of economic growth during the period 2008-2010, with a negative peak in 2009 (-2%-6% in the case of the United States, EU-28 and Japan. Even if China itself has felt the effects of the economic-financial crisis, the growth rate has reduced from 14% in 2007 to 9% in 2008, the decrease continued in the subsequent period, reaching some 8.5% in 2014. Then, we have analyzed the financial evolution, the exchange rate of the main currencies, the evolution of the inflation and the balance of foreign payments and international commercial exchanges. Particular attention was granted to direct foreign investments in and out the EU member states. The study is focused on the comparison of the foreign investments’ evolution during 2009-2014 for the main 10 partners of the European Union. Through this study, the results achieved by the EU during the specified periods were outlined, at each specific item within the internal, but also external relationships with other states in Europe or on wider global plan. The authors have put additional emphasis on the analysis of the period after 2007, since Romania has become member of the European Union.

  7. Aspects of the technical development for NET (Next European Torus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toschi, Romano

    1987-01-01

    NET is envisaged to form, in the European fusion development program, the link between the present-day NET and the following Fusion Demonstration Reactor. The main performance objectives are: the ignition margin, the burn pulse duration and the testing capabilities. The most important design parameters are listed. The operation schedule compromises different stages, e.g. one to maximize the physics capability and another to test two design iterations of a blanket concept. At the end of the operation the machine will have accumulated 10 5 cycles and 400 days of integrated operating time corresponding to 0,8 MWy/m 2 of neutron fluence. Then selection of workable contenders for all DEMO components will be possible. Conceptually the machine is devided into 1) a relatively permanent structure, the support structure, the main vacuum containment and shielding and 2) removable and exchangeable parts such as divertor plates, blanket and first wall. The problems as seen from the present state of knowledge are outlined in connection with the particular parts. Finally, comments on the magnets, the blanket and the first wall/divertor are made. 3 figs. (qui)

  8. The Economic Development of the Visegrad Four in the Last 15 Years in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Benita Kiss

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Visegrad Four reflects the efforts of the countries of the Central European region to work together in a number of fields of common interest within the all-European integration. This paper focused on an examination of the economic development of the Visegrad Four as the Czech Republic, Hungary, the Republic of Poland and the Slovak Republic. With the most important economic indicators I presented the development of the four countries in the last 15 years in the European Union. I used secondary statistics for comparative analysis. I ranked the countries under examination based on the result.

  9. The Development of Green Care in Western European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haubenhofer, D.K.; Elings, M.; Hassink, J.; Hine, R.E.

    2010-01-01

    This article represents a review of green care across Western European countries. The following questions are addressed: What is green care, and what are its basic goals? What are the most commonly known types of green care interventions, and how are they connected to each other? There are different

  10. The Phenomenon of the Marina Development to Support the European Model of Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kizielewicz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of marinas on the seas, rivers, lakes and canals of Europe occurs in two different forms: (1 as a private investment project, and (2 as an urban municipal investment. Both forms of investment and development of marinas satisfy the criteria of entrepreneurship, which is important for each global and European economy. The purpose of this research is explanation of the possibilities for development of marinas and their immediate and distant destination which supports the development of the local economy. The scientific and research achievements were applied and, for the purpose of transparency, a case study showing several marinas and the examples of two basic models of development are presented. Structurally, this research consists of two parts, namely (1 a theoretical part, where a definition of nautical tourism and its classification are presented and (2 the development of specific indicators of marinas in Europe are explored.

  11. Understanding (Galactic) Foreground Emission: A Road To Success For The LOFAR-EoR Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jelic, Vibor; Lofar Eor Team, [Unknown

    The LOFAR-EoR experiment will use the innovative technology and capabilities of the radio telescope LOFAR to study the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). However, feeble cosmological radiation is swamped by the prominent foreground emission of our Galaxy and other extragalactic radio sources. This

  12. EOS as the present and future solution for data storage at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, AJ; Adde, G

    2015-01-01

    EOS is an open source distributed disk storage system in production since 2011 at CERN. Development focus has been on low-latency analysis use cases for LHC(1) and non- LHC experiments and life-cycle management using JBOD(2) hardware for multi PB storage installations. The EOS design implies a split of hot and cold storage and introduced a change of the traditional HSM(3) functionality based workflows at CERN.The 2015 deployment brings storage at CERN to a new scale and foresees to breach 100 PB of disk storage in a distributed environment using tens of thousands of (heterogeneous) hard drives. EOS has brought to CERN major improvements compared to past storage solutions by allowing quick changes in the quality of service of the storage pools. This allows the data centre to quickly meet the changing performance and reliability requirements of the LHC experiments with minimal data movements and dynamic reconfiguration. For example, the software stack has met the specific needs of the dual computing centre set-...

  13. Mechanism of growth retardation of the adenocarcinoma EO 771

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassukas, I.D.; Maurer-Schultze, B.

    1987-01-01

    Growth retardation of tumors has been predominantly described by an increase of the ''cell loss factor'' Φ. However, this cell loss factor alone merely reflects the growth deceleration without giving information on the mechanism that causes growth retardation. In the present study a quantitative analysis of the mechanism causing growth retardation of the adenocarcinoma EO 771 has been carried out by determining separately the components of the cell loss factor Φ, namely the cell production rate and the cell loss rate of the tumor cell population. For this purpose the alteration of the histology of the tumor (proportion of necrotic tumor tissue, tumor cell density) and the proliferative capacity of the tumor cell population as a function of the tumor size was studied by applying morphometric and cell kinetic methods. The results show that growth deceleration is due to a decrease of the cell production rate k p and a simultaneous increase of the cell rate k l . Both processes contribute to about the same extent to the growth deceleration of the tumor cell population. In early tumor growth deceleration is mainly due to a prolongation of the cycle time of the tumor cells, in later phases of tumor growth to an increasing probability of the tumor cells to decycle leading to a decrease of the growth fraction GF and an increase of the cell loss rate k l . (orig.)

  14. Key Competences for the Development of Lifelong Learning in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozjan, Dejan

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses certain developments in education policy in the European Union since the implementation of the Lisbon strategy. Greater focus on lifelong learning as a means of increasing the competitiveness of the European Union, and establishment of several new, efficient policy tools (above all the "open method of coordination")…

  15. The Activities of the European Consortium on Nuclear Data Development and Analysis for Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, U.; Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V.; Cabellos, O.; Kodeli, I.; Koning, A.; Konobeyev, A.Yu.; Leeb, H.; Rochman, D.; Pereslavtsev, P.; Sauvan, P.; Sublet, J.-C.; Trkov, A.; Dupont, E.; Leichtle, D.; Izquierdo, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the activities of the European Consortium on Nuclear Data Development and Analysis for Fusion. The Consortium combines available European expertise to provide services for the generation, maintenance, and validation of nuclear data evaluations and data files relevant for ITER, IFMIF and DEMO, as well as codes and software tools required for related nuclear calculations

  16. The Activities of the European Consortium on Nuclear Data Development and Analysis for Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, U., E-mail: ulrich.fischer@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physic and Reactor Technology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), RO-077125 Magurele (Romania); Cabellos, O. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Kodeli, I. [Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI), Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Koning, A. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Westerduinweg 3, 1755 LE Petten (Netherlands); Konobeyev, A.Yu. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physic and Reactor Technology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Leeb, H. [Technische Universitaet Wien, Atominstitut, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8–10, 1040 Wien (Austria); Rochman, D. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Westerduinweg 3, 1755 LE Petten (Netherlands); Pereslavtsev, P. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physic and Reactor Technology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Sauvan, P. [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, C. Juan del Rosal, 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sublet, J.-C. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Trkov, A. [Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI), Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Dupont, E. [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, Paris (France); Leichtle, D.; Izquierdo, J. [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-06-15

    This paper presents an overview of the activities of the European Consortium on Nuclear Data Development and Analysis for Fusion. The Consortium combines available European expertise to provide services for the generation, maintenance, and validation of nuclear data evaluations and data files relevant for ITER, IFMIF and DEMO, as well as codes and software tools required for related nuclear calculations.

  17. Developing Policy Instruments for Education in the EU: The European Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elken, Mari

    2015-01-01

    The European Qualifications Framework (EQF) for lifelong learning has been characterized as a policy instrument with a number of contested ideas, raising questions about the process through which such instruments are developed at European level. The introduction of the EQF is in this article examined through variations of neo-institutional theory:…

  18. Electrical overstress (EOS) devices, circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Voldman, Steven H

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Overstress (EOS) continues to impact semiconductor manufacturing, semiconductor components and systems as technologies scale from micro- to nano-electronics.  This bookteaches the fundamentals of electrical overstress  and how to minimize and mitigate EOS failures. The text provides a clear picture of EOS phenomena, EOS origins, EOS sources, EOS physics, EOS failure mechanisms, and EOS on-chip and system design.  It provides an illuminating insight into the sources of EOS in manufacturing, integration of on-chip, and system level EOS protection networks, followed by examples in spe

  19. Governance beyond the European Consensus on Development: What Drives EU Aid Selectivity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Hout (Wil)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on the ‘governance turn’ in the development policies of the European Union, represented in particular by the adoption of theEuropean Consensus on Development’ in 2005. The main assumption inherent in the EU approach to development is that the quality of governance in

  20. The development of the European public service: from modernisation to post-modernisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Onufriienko

    2016-08-01

    2. Further convergence with the civil society seems to be the major perspective of the public service development in the European Union countries (it is also typical for relatively new East-European Member States but with established restrictions. It is not a contingency that not only the variety of social studies (first of all, political and social ones develop the idea of the very necessity to bring private and public sectors together, mainly, independently of each other, but it also involve the state-building practice and public service reformation in the developed European countries, particularly in the United Kingdom, Germany and France.

  1. Developing the European Center of Competence on VVER-Type Nuclear Power Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraskin, Nikolay; Pironkov, Lyubomir; Kulikov, Evgeny; Glebov, Vasily

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the European educational projects CORONA and CORONA-II which are dedicated to preserving and further developing nuclear knowledge and competencies in the area of VVER-type nuclear power reactors technologies (Water-Water Energetic Reactor, WWER or VVER). The development of the European Center of Competence for…

  2. The development of European gas markets. Environmental, economic and political perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, J.; Moe, A.; Martinsen, K.D.

    1996-01-01

    By reviewing past history and developments in the European gas markets and European energy policy, this book identifies the driving forces for future market development. Topics covered include future gas demand and potential supplies, inter-fuel competition and the likely structure of gas markets in Europe in the future. (UK)

  3. Tobacco control policy development in the European Union: do political factors matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosdriesz, Jizzo R.; Willemsen, Marc C.; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E.

    2015-01-01

    There has been much variation between European countries in the development of tobacco control policy. Not much is known about the factors that shape this variation. This study aimed to assess the role of political factors in tobacco control policy development. We used data from 11 European

  4. LOBBYING IN THE UNITED STATES AND THE EUROPEAN UNION: NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN LOBBYING REGULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Mihuţ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper compares lobbying in the United States and in the European Union taking into account the specific environments in the two areas. It is focused on recent developments (2006 – 2008 in lobbying regulation in the US, at the federal level, and in the EU, at the level of the European institutions. The compulsory system typical of the American approach is compared to the lower regulated system specific to the European Parliament, as well as to the self-regulatory approach that is still proper to the European Commission, even though its recent decisions indicate a departure from it. The main conclusions highlight the increasing similarities between the American and European approaches, as well as the differences that still exist, mainly in the framework of the pluralist – corporatist dichotomy. Having in view this background, the concluding remarks also stress the need to intensify the debates on lobbying regulation in Romania.

  5. Enhanced Formation Flying for the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) New Millennium Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folta, David; Quinn, David

    1997-01-01

    With scientific objectives for Earth observation programs becoming more ambitious and spacecraft becoming more autonomous, the need for new technical approaches on the feasibility of achieving and maintaining formations of spacecraft has come to the forefront. The trend to develop small low cost spacecraft has led many scientists to recognize the advantage of flying several spacecraft in formation, an example of which is shown in the figure below, to achieve the correlated instrument measurements formerly possible only by flying many instruments on a single large platform. Yet, formation flying imposes additional complications on orbit maintenance, especially when each spacecraft has its own orbit requirements. However, advances in automation proposed by GSFC Codes 550 and 712 allow more of the burden in maneuver planning and execution to be placed onboard the spacecraft, mitigating some of the associated operational concerns. The purpose of this analysis is to develop the fundamentals of formation flying mechanics, concepts for understanding the relative motion of free flying spacecraft, and an operational control theory for formation maintenance of the Earth Observing-1 (EO-l) spacecraft that is part of the New Millennium. Results of this development can be used to determine the appropriateness of formation flying for a particular case as well as the operational impacts. Applications to the Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) Earth Observing System (EOS) and New Millennium (NM) were highly considered in analysis and applications. This paper presents the proposed methods for the guidance and control of the EO-1 spacecraft to formation fly with the Landsat-7 spacecraft using an autonomous closed loop three axis navigation control, GPS, and Cross link navigation support. Simulation results using various fidelity levels of modeling, algorithms developed and implemented in MATLAB, and autonomous 'fuzzy logic' control using AutoCon will be presented. The results of these

  6. Electrostatic Discharge (ESD and Electrical Overstress (EOS: The state of the art in components to systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven H. Voldman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrostatic Discharge (ESD, Electrical Overstress (EOS and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC continue to impact semiconductor manufacturing, semiconductor components and systems as technologies scale from micro- to nano-electronics. The range of concern for components include semiconductor components, magnetic recording industry, MEMs, and for products from disk drives, cell phones, notebooks, tablets, laptops, and desktop computers. The objective of this lecture is to address the state of the art of electrostatic discharge (ESD and electrical overstress (EOS in today’s electronic components and systems. The tutorial provides a clear picture of ESD, EOS and EMC phenomena, sources, physics, failure mechanisms, testing and qualification of components and systems. The conclusion of this talk is that ESD and EOS continue to be a concern in technologies from micro-electronics to nano-structures, and will remain a reliability and quality issue in the future.

  7. European Union funded project on the development of a whole complement deficiency screening ELISA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würzner, Reinhard; Tedesco, Francesco; Garred, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A whole complement ELISA-based assay kit, primarily designed to screen for deficiencies in components of the complement system was developed during a European Union grant involving more than a dozen European scientists and a small-medium enterprise company (Wieslab, which later merged into Eurodi......A whole complement ELISA-based assay kit, primarily designed to screen for deficiencies in components of the complement system was developed during a European Union grant involving more than a dozen European scientists and a small-medium enterprise company (Wieslab, which later merged...

  8. The European Union radiological data exchange platform (EURDEP). Recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Cort, M.; De Vries, G.

    1998-01-01

    The technical feasibility for exchanging radiological data was decided within the EU. The JRC-Ispra provides the data exchange platform EURDEP (data capture and transmission) and co-ordinate the communication test exercises. In a first phase a common data format, based on the existing national data formats, is established by which radiological data (gamma dose rate and continuous aerosol measurements) will be exchanged. The 'European network' that will provide the information consists of existing automatic monitoring stations on a 100 x 100 km grid. Various contact points have been successively contacted to exchange radiological data with the JRC. Besides an introduction to the background and objectives of EURDEP, also the experience gained so far in using different communication procedures is discussed. (author)

  9. Industry Perspective of Pediatric Drug Development in the United States: Involvement of the European Union Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Taku; Tsukamoto, Katsura; Matsumaru, Naoki; Waki, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    Efforts to promote the development of pediatric pharmacotherapy include regulatory frameworks and close collaboration between the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency. We characterized the current status of pediatric clinical trials conducted in the United States by the pharmaceutical industry, focusing on the involvement of the European Union member countries, to clarify the industry perspective. Data on US pediatric clinical trials were obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov . Binary regression analysis was performed to identify what factors influence the likelihood of involvement of European Union countries. A total of 633 US pediatric clinical trials that met inclusion criteria were extracted and surveyed. Of these, 206 (32.5%) involved a European Union country site(s). The results of binary regression analysis indicated that attribution of industry, phase, disease area, and age of pediatric participants influenced the likelihood of the involvement of European Union countries in US pediatric clinical trials. Relatively complicated or large pediatric clinical trials, such as phase II and III trials and those that included a broad age range of participants, had a significantly greater likelihood of the involvement of European Union countries ( P European Union countries, and (3) feasibility of clinical trials is mainly concerned by pharmaceutical industry for pediatric drug development. Additional incentives for high marketability may further motivate pharmaceutical industry to develop pediatric drugs.

  10. PVT modeling of reservoir fluids using PC-SAFT EoS and Soave-BWR EoS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Varzandeh, Farhad; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2015-01-01

    non-cubic EoS models, such as the Perturbed Chain Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (PC-SAFT) EoS and the Soave modified Benedict-Webb-Rubin (Soave-BWR) EoS, may partly replace the roles of these classical cubic models in the upstream oil industry. Here, we attempt to make a comparative study...... for the four models. For PVT prediction, the non-cubic models show advantages in some high pressure high temperature (HPHT) fluids but no clear advantages in general, indicating the necessity for further improvement of the characterization procedure....

  11. EOS simulation and GRNN modeling of the constant volume depletion behavior of gas condensate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsharkawy, A.M.; Foda, S.G. [Kuwait University, Safat (Kuwait). Petroleum Engineering Dept.

    1998-03-01

    Currently, two approaches are being used to predict the changes in retrograde gas condensate composition and estimate the pressure depletion behavior of gas condensate reservoirs. The first approach uses the equation of states whereas the second uses empirical correlations. Equations of states (EOS) are poor predictive tools for complex hydrocarbon systems. The EOS needs adjustment against phase behavior data of reservoir fluid of known composition. The empirical correlation does not involve numerous numerical computations but their accuracy is limited. This study presents two general regression neural network (GRNN) models. The first model, GRNNM1, is developed to predict dew point pressure and gas compressibility at dew point using initial composition of numerous samples while the second model, GRNNM2, is developed to predict the changes in well stream effluent composition at any stages of pressure depletion. GRNNM2 can also be used to determine the initial reservoir fluid composition using dew point pressure, gas compressibility at dew point, and reservoir temperature. These models are based on analysis of 142 sample of laboratory studies of constant volume depletion (CVD) for gas condensate systems forming a total of 1082 depletion stages. The database represents a wide range of gas condensate systems obtained worldwide. The performance of the GRNN models has been compared to simulation results of the equation of state. The study shows that the proposed general regression neural network models are accurate, valid, and reliable. These models can be used to forecast CVD data needed for many reservoir engineering calculations in case laboratory data is unavailable. The GRNN models save computer time involved in EOS calculations. The study also show that once these models are properly trained they can be used to cut expenses of frequent sampling and laborious experimental CVD tests required for gas condensate reservoirs. 55 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. The European reliability data system - ERDS: a state of the art and future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancini, G.; Amesz, J.; Bastianini, P.; Capobianchi, S.

    1982-01-01

    In the frame of the Multiannual Nuclear Safety Programme of the Joint Research Centre of the Commisson of the European Communities, a project is being carried out aiming at the creation of a centralized data system collecting and organizing, at European level, information related to the operation of LWRs. The European Reliability Data System ERDS will exploit information already collected in national data systems and information deriving from single reactor sources. The paper describes the development of the four data systems constituting the ERDS: Component Event Data Bank; Abnormal Occurrences Reporting System; Operating Unit Status Report; Generic Reliability Parameter Data Bank

  13. Evolution of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.; Behnke, Jeanne; Sofinowski, Edwin; Lowe, Dawn; Esfandiari, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    One of the strategic goals of the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is to "Develop a balanced overall program of science, exploration, and aeronautics consistent with the redirection of the human spaceflight program to focus on exploration". An important sub-goal of this goal is to "Study Earth from space to advance scientific understanding and meet societal needs." NASA meets this subgoal in partnership with other U.S. agencies and international organizations through its Earth science program. A major component of NASA s Earth science program is the Earth Observing System (EOS). The EOS program was started in 1990 with the primary purpose of modeling global climate change. This program consists of a set of space-borne instruments, science teams, and a data system. The instruments are designed to obtain highly accurate, frequent and global measurements of geophysical properties of land, oceans and atmosphere. The science teams are responsible for designing the instruments as well as scientific algorithms to derive information from the instrument measurements. The data system, called the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS), produces data products using those algorithms as well as archives and distributes such products. The first of the EOS instruments were launched in November 1997 on the Japanese satellite called the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and the last, on the U.S. satellite Aura, were launched in July 2004. The instrument science teams have been active since the inception of the program in 1990 and have participation from Brazil, Canada, France, Japan, Netherlands, United Kingdom and U.S. The development of EOSDIS was initiated in 1990, and this data system has been serving the user community since 1994. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the history and evolution of EOSDIS since its beginnings to the present and indicate how it continues to evolve into the future. this chapter is organized as follows. Sect

  14. EOS suspension test for the assessment of spinal flexibility in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Caroline; Ilharreborde, Brice; Mazda, Keyvan

    2015-07-01

    The assessment of spinal flexibility is essential for the planning of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) surgery. Various radiographic methods have been used but none of them has shown any superiority. The new low-dose stereography system EOS (EOS imaging, Paris, France) captures whole body images in a single scan without vertical distortion. EOS is now used in routine clinical use for AIS follow-up. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the feasibility and the reproducibility of a new suspension test during the EOS imaging for the assessment of spinal flexibility in AIS. Fifty AIS patients scheduled for surgery were prospectively included. For each patient, a standard EOS radiograph was obtained, then a suspension test in the EOS and a classic traction test on the cotrel frame were performed. The examinations were compared in terms of radiation exposure, tolerance, mean traction force, and Cobb angle reduction for each curve. Axial and sagittal reductions during suspension were analyzed on three-dimensional EOS reconstructions. The tolerance of the suspension test was lower than the traction test but it was less operator dependent. Radiation exposure was 7 times lower during the suspension test. Cobb angle reductions achieved in the proximal and main curves by the two tests were similar. The traction test achieved greater reduction of the distal curve. Flexibility in the axial plane and in the sagittal plane was analyzed with the suspension test. The reduction in apical rotation was not correlated with the reduction in Cobb angle. The EOS suspension test can be used for the assessment of spinal flexibility in AIS. It gives a global vision of the deformity with new flexibility indices in the axial and sagittal planes.

  15. Flexibility analysis in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis on side-bending images using the EOS imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, C; Ilharreborde, B; Mazda, K

    2016-06-01

    Analysis of preoperative flexibility in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is essential to classify the curves, determine their structurality, and select the fusion levels during preoperative planning. Side-bending x-rays are the gold standard for the analysis of preoperative flexibility. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility and performance of side-bending images taken in the standing position using the EOS imaging system. All patients who underwent preoperative assessment between April 2012 and January 2013 for AIS were prospectively included in the study. The work-up included standing AP and lateral EOS x-rays of the spine, standard side-bending x-rays in the supine position, and standing bending x-rays in the EOS booth. The irradiation dose was measured for each of the tests. Two-dimensional reducibility of the Cobb angle was measured on both types of bending x-rays. The results were based on the 50 patients in the study. No significant difference was demonstrated for reducibility of the Cobb angle between the standing side-bending images with the EOS imaging system and those in the supine position for all types of Lenke deformation. The irradiation dose was five times lower during the EOS bending imaging. The standing side-bending images in the EOS device contributed the same results as the supine images, with five times less irradiation. They should therefore be used in clinical routine. 2. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Major developments in the 2016 european guidelines for heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trullàs, J C; González-Franco, Á

    2017-10-01

    The European Society of Cardiology has recently published new guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure (HF). This article aims to review these recommendations and their level of scientific evidence and to present the most innovative aspects. The most significant deviations from the 2012 edition are: 1) the introduction of the concept of HF with midrange LVEF (40-49%); 2) a new diagnostic algorithm for chronic HF, initially considering the clinical probability; 3) recommendations on preventing or delaying the apparition of HF; 4) indications for the use of the new sacubitril-valsartan compound, the first angiotensin receptor blocker and neprilysin inhibitor; 5) modification of indications for cardiac resynchronisation therapy; and 6) a new algorithm for a combined diagnostic and treatment strategy for acute HF based on the presence or absence of congestion and hypoperfusion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  17. Recent developments in the European Union radiation protection policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courades, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    All activities in the field of radiation protection are based on the Euratom Treaty. Both the Single European Act and the Maastricht Treaty leave the Euratom Treaty practically unchanged. So far the Commission has considered that the provisions of the Euratom Treaty, in particular its Chapter III - health and safety, give enough competence to the Community, and an acceptable level of safety is reached through the carrying out of a number of duties incumbent on the Community institutions and the Member States. It is to be noted that the task of the Euratom Treaty, as set out in its Article 1, is to c reate the conditions necessary for the speedy establishment and growth of nuclear industries . However, for several years, the Commission has recognised that the major contribution it could make to achieve the task of the Treaty is by ensuring a high level of protection and safety in all activities concerned with radioactivity and nuclear energy. The following is a list of the major provisions of the Treaty on which activities in the field of radiation protection are based.Article 2b) Euratom Treaty requires the Community to establish uniform safety standards to protect the health of workers and of the general public and ensure that they are applied. The meaning and the procedure for such standards is given in Articles 30-32 of the Treaty. Article 33) of the Euratom Treaty sets out that draft national regulations on radiation protection are communicated to the Commission which may wish to issue recommendations within three months. Article 35 imposes on Member States the establishment of facilities to carry out the environmental monitoring of radioactivity and to ensure compliance with the basic safety standards. It also gives the Commission the right of access to such facilities. Article 37 requires Member States to provide the Commission with such general data on any plan for the disposal of radioactive waste as will make it possible to evaluate its possible impact on

  18. Enhancing the European Union’s Development Strategy in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    REE Rare Earth Element SCA Swedish Committee for Afghanistan SIDA Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency SIGAR Special Inspector...member states such as Ireland’s Development Cooperation Ireland (DCI), Sweden’s Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency ( SIDA ), and the...Command and General Staff College, June 2008.) 71. 142 Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, “Afghanistan Sida Country Report 2005

  19. Eos and the Youth: A Case of Inverted Roles in Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipla, Anthi

    This article examines scenes of Eos pursuing/abducting youths on 5th-century Athenian vases. Eos, the personification of Dawn, is the only woman assuming the role of a pursuer in rape. The theme strangely becomes very popular with vase painters to a degree comparable to ephebes pursuing a woman. The iconography of the scenes is systematically analysed and evaluated. All theories explaining the popularity of the theme from its presumable use as a parable for death are considered. Eos is moreover compared to other winged figures in pursuit that are popular in the same period, especially Sphinx and Eros. Conversely, it is illustrated how Eos' pursuits of youths are thoroughly coined on the same model as ephebe rape scenes. These may have been so popular because they expressed prevalent social notions about how women, like animals,would need subduing/taming by the ephebe, future citizen hunters, before they could assume their appropriate place in society. With Eos the hunter becomes the prey of a wild woman, who has transgressed the control limits set by the social system. Eos is promoted as the ultimate model of what a woman should not be.

  20. Mechanism for the differentiation of EoL-1 cells into eosinophils by histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Motoko; Ishihara, Kenji; Takahashi, Aki; Hong, Jangja; Hirasawa, Noriyasu; Zee, Okpyo; Ohuchi, Kazuo

    2007-01-01

    EoL-1 cells have a FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion gene which causes the transformation of eosinophilic precursor cells into leukemia cells. Recently, we suggested that the induction of differentiation of EoL-1 cells into eosinophils by the HDAC inhibitors apicidin and n-butyrate is due to the continuous inhibition of HDACs. However, neither apicidin nor n-butyrate inhibited the expression of FIP1L1-PDGFRA mRNA, although both these inhibitors suppressed cell proliferation. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed whether the levels of FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha protein and phosphorylated-Stat5 involved in the signaling for the proliferation of EoL-1 cells are attenuated by HDAC inhibitors. EoL-1 cells were incubated in the presence of apicidin, TSA or n-butyrate. FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha and phosphorylated-Stat5 were detected by Western blotting. Treatment of EoL-1 cells with apicidin at 100 nM or n-butyrate at 500 microM decreased the levels of FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha protein and phosphorylated-Stat5, while that with trichostatin A at 30 nM did not. The decrease in the level of FIP1L1-PDGFRalpha protein caused by apicidin and n-butyrate might be one of the mechanisms by which EoL-1 cells are induced to differentiate into eosinophils by these HDAC inhibitors.

  1. The characteristic of marketing macro environment of European developing countries and Ukraine for company's marketing activity

    OpenAIRE

    Peresadko, Galina; Bakastov, Ihor

    2013-01-01

    Іn the report the comparative analysis of different European macro-marketing in developing countries and Ukraine. The analysis of the demographic, economic, natural, technological, political and cultural factors. Also the perspectives for Ukraine's marketing macro environment.

  2. Distribution of MEG and methanol in well-defined hydrocarbon and water systems: Experimental measurement and modeling using the CPA EoS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riaz, Muhammad; Yussuf, Mustafe A.; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    + water. These data are satisfactorily correlated (binaries) and predicted (ternaries) using Cubic Plus Association (CPA) equation of state (EoS). CPA is also applied to binary LLE of aromatic hydrocarbon + water and VLE of methane + methanol. Finally the distribution of water and inhibitors (methanol...... and MEG) in various phases is modeled using CPA. The hydrocarbon phase consists of mixture-1 (methane, ethane, n-butane) or mixture-2 (methane, ethane, propane, n-butane, n-heptane, toluene and n-decane). CPA can satisfactorily predict the water content in the gas phase of the multicomponent systems...

  3. Data package for the Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration Program environmental impact statement: Volume 2, Appendices E-O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketelle, R.H.

    1988-09-01

    This volume contains 11 appendices to the main document in Volume 1. Topics in Volume 2 include hydrologic data for a proposed solid waste storage area, soil characterizations, well logs, surface water discharge data, water quality data, atmospheric precipitation and stream flow, a small mammal survey, and general ecological information. (TEM)

  4. HDF-EOS Web Server

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Richard; Bane, Bob; Yang, Jingli

    2008-01-01

    A shell script has been written as a means of automatically making HDF-EOS-formatted data sets available via the World Wide Web. ("HDF-EOS" and variants thereof are defined in the first of the two immediately preceding articles.) The shell script chains together some software tools developed by the Data Usability Group at Goddard Space Flight Center to perform the following actions: Extract metadata in Object Definition Language (ODL) from an HDF-EOS file, Convert the metadata from ODL to Extensible Markup Language (XML), Reformat the XML metadata into human-readable Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), Publish the HTML metadata and the original HDF-EOS file to a Web server and an Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol (OPeN-DAP) server computer, and Reformat the XML metadata and submit the resulting file to the EOS Clearinghouse, which is a Web-based metadata clearinghouse that facilitates searching for, and exchange of, Earth-Science data.

  5. The European Fusion Research and Development Programme and the ITER Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B J

    2006-01-01

    The EURATOM fusion research and development programme is a well integrated and coordinated programme. It has the objective of ''developing the technology for a safe, sustainable, environmentally responsible and economically viable energy source.'' The programme is focussed on the magnetic confinement approach and supports 23 Associations which involve research entities (many with experimental and technology facilities) each having a bilateral contractual relationship with the European Commission. The paper will describe fusion reactions and present their potential advantages as an energy source. Further, it will describe the EURATOM programme and how it is organised and implemented. The success of the European programme and that of other national programmes, have provided the basis for the international ITER Project, which is the next logical step in the development of fusion energy. The paper will describe ITER, its aims, its design, and the supporting manufacture of prototype components. The European contribution to ITER, the exploitation of the Joint European Torus (JET), and the long-term reactor technology R and D are carried out under the multilateral European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA)

  6. Cross calibration of the Landsat-7 ETM+ and EO-1 ALI sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, G.; Meyer, D.J.; Helder, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    As part of the Earth Observer 1 (EO-1) Mission, the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) demonstrates a potential technological direction for Landsat Data Continuity Missions. To evaluate ALI's capabilities in this role, a cross-calibration methodology has been developed using image pairs from the Landsat-7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and EO-1 (ALI) to verify the radiometric calibration of ALI with respect to the well-calibrated L7 ETM+ sensor. Results have been obtained using two different approaches. The first approach involves calibration of nearly simultaneous surface observations based on image statistics from areas observed simultaneously by the two sensors. The second approach uses vicarious calibration techniques to compare the predicted top-of-atmosphere radiance derived from ground reference data collected during the overpass to the measured radiance obtained from the sensor. The results indicate that the relative sensor chip assemblies gains agree with the ETM+ visible and near-infrared bands to within 2% and the shortwave infrared bands to within 4%.

  7. Developing a framework for sustainability governance in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meadowcroft, J. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa (Canada). School of Public Policy and Adminstration; Farrell, K.N. [Belfast Univ., Northern Ireland (United Kingdom). Inst. of Governance, Public Policy and Social Research; Spangenberg, J. [Sustainable Europe Research Inst., Bad Oeynhausen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Sustainable development represents a major governance challenge of the 21st century. If societal development trajectories are to be realigned on to more sustainable pathways major changes will be required to existing processes and practices of governance. This essay considers the nature of these changes and discusses implications for social science research. (author)

  8. On-orbit test results from the EO-1 Advanced Land Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jenifer B.; Digenis, Constantine J.; Gibbs, Margaret D.; Hearn, David R.; Lencioni, Donald E.; Mendenhall, Jeffrey A.; Welsh, Ralph D.

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) is the primary instrument flown on the first Earth Observing mission (EO-1), launched on November 21, 2000. It was developed under NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP). The NMP mission objective is to flight-validate advanced technologies that will enable dramatic improvements in performance, cost, mass, and schedule for future, Landsat-like, Earth Science Enterprise instruments. ALI contains a number of innovative features designed to achieve this objective. These include the basic instrument architecture which employs a push-broom data collection mode, a wide field of view optical design, compact multi-spectral detector arrays, non-cryogenic HgCdTe for the short wave infrared bands, silicon carbide optics, and a multi-level solar calibration technique. During the first ninety days on orbit, the instrument performance was evaluated by collecting several Earth scenes and comparing them to identical scenes obtained by Landsat7. In addition, various on-orbit calibration techniques were exercised. This paper will present an overview of the EO-1 mission activities during the first ninety days on-orbit, details of the ALI instrument performance and a comparison with the ground calibration measurements.

  9. The EOS 2D/3D X-ray imaging system: A cost-effectiveness analysis quantifying the health benefits from reduced radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, Rita; McKenna, Claire; Wade, Ros; Yang, Huiqin; Woolacott, Nerys; Sculpher, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the EOS ® 2D/3D X-ray imaging system compared with standard X-ray for the diagnosis and monitoring of orthopaedic conditions. Materials and methods: A decision analytic model was developed to quantify the long-term costs and health outcomes, expressed as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) from the UK health service perspective. Input parameters were obtained from medical literature, previously developed cancer models and expert advice. Threshold analysis was used to quantify the additional health benefits required, over and above those associated with radiation-induced cancers, for EOS ® to be considered cost-effective. Results: Standard X-ray is associated with a maximum health loss of 0.001 QALYs, approximately 0.4 of a day in full health, while the loss with EOS ® is a maximum of 0.00015 QALYs, or 0.05 of a day in full health. On a per patient basis, EOS ® is more expensive than standard X-ray by between £10.66 and £224.74 depending on the assumptions employed. The results suggest that EOS ® is not cost-effective for any indication. Health benefits over and above those obtained from lower radiation would need to double for EOS to be considered cost-effective. Conclusion: No evidence currently exists on whether there are health benefits associated with imaging improvements from the use of EOS ® . The health benefits from radiation dose reductions are very small. Unless EOS ® can generate additional health benefits as a consequence of the nature and quality of the image, comparative patient throughput with X-ray will be the major determinant of cost-effectiveness

  10. The EOS 2D/3D X-ray imaging system: A cost-effectiveness analysis quantifying the health benefits from reduced radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Rita, E-mail: rita.nevesdefaria@york.ac.uk [Centre for Health Economics, University of York, York (United Kingdom); McKenna, Claire [Centre for Health Economics, University of York, York (United Kingdom); Wade, Ros; Yang, Huiqin; Woolacott, Nerys [Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, University of York, York (United Kingdom); Sculpher, Mark [Centre for Health Economics, University of York, York (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-15

    Objectives: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the EOS{sup ®} 2D/3D X-ray imaging system compared with standard X-ray for the diagnosis and monitoring of orthopaedic conditions. Materials and methods: A decision analytic model was developed to quantify the long-term costs and health outcomes, expressed as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) from the UK health service perspective. Input parameters were obtained from medical literature, previously developed cancer models and expert advice. Threshold analysis was used to quantify the additional health benefits required, over and above those associated with radiation-induced cancers, for EOS{sup ®} to be considered cost-effective. Results: Standard X-ray is associated with a maximum health loss of 0.001 QALYs, approximately 0.4 of a day in full health, while the loss with EOS{sup ®} is a maximum of 0.00015 QALYs, or 0.05 of a day in full health. On a per patient basis, EOS{sup ®} is more expensive than standard X-ray by between £10.66 and £224.74 depending on the assumptions employed. The results suggest that EOS{sup ®} is not cost-effective for any indication. Health benefits over and above those obtained from lower radiation would need to double for EOS to be considered cost-effective. Conclusion: No evidence currently exists on whether there are health benefits associated with imaging improvements from the use of EOS{sup ®}. The health benefits from radiation dose reductions are very small. Unless EOS{sup ®} can generate additional health benefits as a consequence of the nature and quality of the image, comparative patient throughput with X-ray will be the major determinant of cost-effectiveness.

  11. Rural development in the European Union: the concept and the policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Gallardo-Cobos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Rural areas are key elements that underpin the social and economic European territory and shape its landscape. The rural setting is a dynamic concept, able to distinguish three stages on how the European Union (EU understands “rural”: rural as image, rural as local, and rural as a social construction. The evolution of the concept is reflected in the need to adapt the approach used to address rural issues, and consequently the political design for rural development. Thus, under the term Rural Development, the EU has included and mixed very different issues, supporting measures and equally heterogeneous financial instruments. For the purpose of supporting the European rural world the two main EU policies have come together: the agricultural and the regional policies. So, Rural Development in the EU has been navigating between the sectorial policy and the territorial policy. At a time of redefinition of European priorities and policies for 2013, territorial cohesion, rural/urban articulation, social partnership, institutional cooperation, environmental sustainability, and governance (flexible and multilevel are the fundamental elements upon which a policy should rest that is addressed to ensure the existence of a living countryside, inhabitable and friendly environment.

  12. The European Nb3Sn advanced strand development programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vostner, A.; Salpietro, E.

    2005-01-01

    Strands relevant for fusion with high critical current densities and moderate hysteresis losses were developed and already produced on industrial scale. Based on these achievements EFDA-CSU Garching has launched a Nb 3 Sn strand development and procurement action inside Europe in order to assess the current status of the Nb 3 Sn strand production capability. All six addressed companies have replied positively to the strand R and D programme which includes the three major Nb 3 Sn production techniques namely the bronze, internal-tin and powder-in-tube (PIT) route. According to the strand requirements for the ITER TF conductor a critical current density of 800 A/mm 2 (at 12 T, 4.2 K and 10 μV/m) and overall strand hysteresis losses below 500 kJ/m 3 have been specified as the minimum guaranteed strand performance. The second major objective of this programme is to motivate the strand manufacturers to develop and design high performance Nb 3 Sn strands optimised for the ITER conductor. For this purpose, a target critical current density of 1100 A/mm 2 has been added to the specification. This paper describes the strategy behind the strand development programme, the actual status of the strand production as well as first preliminary results obtained from the strand suppliers

  13. Development of the ETOC: a European test of olfactory capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas-Danguin, T.; Rouby, C.; Sicard, G.; Vigouroux, M.; Farget, V.; Johanson, A.; Bengtzon, A.; Hall, G.; Ormel, W.; Graaf, de C.; Rousseau, F.; Dumont, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    A number of smell tests designed to evaluate human olfactory capabilities have been published, but none have been validated cross-culturally. The aim of this study was therefore to develop a reliable and quick olfactory test that could be used to evaluate efficiently the olfactory abilities of a

  14. Breaking the EOS-gravity degeneracy with masses and pulsating frequencies of neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Weikang; Li, Bao-An; Chen, Lie-Wen; Wen, De-Hua; Xu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    A thorough understanding of many astrophysical phenomena associated with compact objects requires reliable knowledge about both the equation of state (EOS) of super-dense nuclear matter and the theory of strong-field gravity simultaneously because of the EOS-gravity degeneracy. Currently, variations of the neutron star (NS) mass–radius correlation from using alternative gravity theories are much larger than those from changing the NS matter EOS within known constraints. At least two independent observables are required to break the EOS-gravity degeneracy. Using model EOSs for hybrid stars and a Yukawa-type non-Newtonian gravity, we investigate both the mass–radius correlation and pulsating frequencies of NSs. While the maximum mass of NSs increases, the frequencies of the f, p 1 , p 2 , and w I pulsating modes are found to decrease with the increasing strength of the Yukawa-type non-Newtonian gravity, providing a useful reference for future determination simultaneously of both the strong-field gravity and the supranuclear EOS by combining data of x-ray and gravitational wave emissions of NSs. (paper)

  15. Trans-European transport networks influence on the regional development and urban systems: Serbian experience

    OpenAIRE

    Maksin-Mićić Marija

    2004-01-01

    The trans-European transport network has different effects at macro-regional, mezzo-regional and micro-regional level, and on urban systems development, and its effectiveness rises at the lower regional levels. Possible approaches to the trans-European transport network impact and effect survey and policy options have been pointed out. The importance of increased accessibility and mobility for regional expansion and for more balanced and polycentric system of city networks has been underlined...

  16. European Communication Monitor: Current developments, issues and tendencies of the professional practice of public relations in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno, A.; Zerfass, A.; Tench, R.; Verčič, D.; Verhoeven, P.

    2009-01-01

    The European Communication Monitor (ECM) research explores the current developments for communications disciplines, practices and instruments. It is an extensive research project to monitor trends in communication management, analyse the changing framework for the profession driven by European

  17. THE ROLE OF EUROPEAN BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT IN PROMOTING ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANTIN BRĂGARU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important development banks which finances private initiatives in the Central and Eastern Europe countries is the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD. EBRD as international financial institution plays a very important role in the development of many sectors such as agribusiness, energy efficiency, financial institutions, manufacturing, municipal and environmental infrastructure, natural resources, power and energy, property and tourism, telecommunications, information technology and media, transport. Its objectives aim to promote transition to market economies by investing mainly in the private sector, to mobilize significant foreign direct investment, to support privatization, restructuring and better municipal services to improve people’s lives and to encourage environmentally sound and sustainable development. The present scientific article focuses on the last objective respectively the bank commitment to promote environmentally sound and sustainable development and shortly presents EBRD environmental policy because EBRD, unlike other development banks, has strong and imperative regulations regarding this issue. This is why all the EBRD potential beneficiaries must prove that their projects are environmentally sound.

  18. Determinants of European air traffic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav MIHETEC

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper elaborates main determinants of the strategic development as well as the key factors, which influence European air traffic dynamics. The problem of European airspace fragmentation should be solved by the comprehensive dynamic harmonization programmes, which can contribute to effective increase of airspace capacity and increase of air transport efficiency. The main objective of development strategy refers to the implementation of reformation processes of the European air traffic management system through functional ATM regionalization and adoption of Single European Sky legislation.

  19. Involvement of the European Confederation of the Soil Science Societies in soil protection policy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Pascal

    2017-04-01

    The European Confederation of the Soil Science Societies (ECSSS) was founded not only to organize the Eurosoil congress, but also to continuously support and promote the soil causes in the European area. A work is in progress to define the best way to achieve this goal, with integrating voices of the European structures and networks, and the national societies. One of the major objectives is to develop a modern approach of soil protection, including leading experimentations shared with all the members, and active lobbying. Such an approach requires the buildup of an efficient interface with policy makers, stake holders, engineering and science, which should be concretized in a new the dimension of the Eurosoil congress. This communication will sketch the on-going work, with reviewing the perspectives, conditions, strengths, questions and difficulties identified.

  20. Trans-European transport networks influence on the regional development and urban systems: Serbian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksin-Mićić Marija

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The trans-European transport network has different effects at macro-regional, mezzo-regional and micro-regional level, and on urban systems development, and its effectiveness rises at the lower regional levels. Possible approaches to the trans-European transport network impact and effect survey and policy options have been pointed out. The importance of increased accessibility and mobility for regional expansion and for more balanced and polycentric system of city networks has been underlined. The question is how the new major transport infrastructure affects the development of functional complementarity between cities and regions. Changes of the spatial organization, utilization and structure of cities, as well as of social benefits and losses subsequent to impacts of trans-European transport corridor "X" on urban system Ćuprija-Jagodina-Paraćin at section Belgrade-Nis have been analysed. The new trans-European or major transport infrastructure does not per se create regional and urban system network development, although it can affect the conditions for the processes that create growth and development. The effects can be increased by co-ordination of measures of regional and urban policy, land use, transport and other policies. The guidances and options of urban systems and urban centres development policies in trans-European transport corridor, as well as possibilities to improve our planning system have been given. The necessary measure is the introduction of spatial impact assessment as sectorial policy instrument for the large transport infrastructure projects.

  1. Administrative History of the European Office of Aerospace Research and Development from 1952 through 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    than would an equal expenditure in the domestic market contributed to the expansion of the European Office program by the end of 1956. The fact that...ore1gn researc • On 22 March 1968, the DCS/Research and Development’s (USAF) Assistant for Foreign Development inserted himself into the discussions

  2. The EOS imaging system: Workflow and radiation dose in scoliosis examinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussmann, Bo; Torfing, Trine; Jespersen, Stig

    Introduction The EOS imaging system is a biplane slot beam scanner capable of full body scans at low radiation dose and without geometrical distortion. It was implemented in our department primo 2012 and all scoliosis examinations are now performed in EOS. The system offers improved possibility...... to measure rotation of individual vertebrae and vertebral curves can be assessed in 3D. Leg length Discrepancy measurements are performed in one exposure without geometrical distortion and no stitching. Full body scans for sagittal balance are also performed with the equipment after spine surgery. Purpose...... The purpose of the study was to evaluate workflow defined as scheduled time pr. examination and radiation dose in scoliosis examinations in EOS compared to conventional x-ray evaluation. Materials and Methods: The Dose Area Product (DAP) was measured with a dosimeter and a comparison between conventional X...

  3. [E-health developments in the system of health services in Hungary and the European Union].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Váradi, Ágnes

    2014-05-25

    The question of electronic solutions in public health care has become a contemporary issue at the European Union level since the action plan of the Commission on the e-health developments of the period between 2012 and 2020 has been published. In Hungary this issue has been placed into the centre of attention after a draft on modifications of regulations in health-care has been released for public discourse, which - if accepted - would lay down the basics of an electronic heath-service system. The aim of this paper is to review the basic features of e-health solutions in Hungary and the European Union with the help of the most important pieces of legislation, documents of the European Union institutions and sources from secondary literature. When examining the definition of the basic goals and instruments of the development, differences between the European Union and national approaches can be detected. Examination of recent developmental programs and existing models seem to reveal difficulties in creating interoperability and financing such projects. Finally, the review is completed by the aspects of jurisdiction and fundamental rights. It is concluded that these issues are mandatory to delineate the legislative, economic and technological framework for the development of the e-health systems.

  4. Multilateral Development Banks and Their Role in Supporting European SMEs during the Current Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Gabriel Anton

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the ongoing financial crisis on the availability of finance to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs represents an important topic nowadays. The access to finance for SMEs is a major barrier for their growth, especially during severe conditions such as the global financial crisis. Financing the SMEs represents a priority for the most of the multilateral development banks. The aim of the paper is to analyze the activity of European multilateral development banks - European Investment Bank Group and European Bank for Reconstruction and Development - in the support of SMEs. We found that SMEs financing increased during the period 2008-2011 and the international financial institutions took several measures in order to improve the SMEs access to finance.

  5. EOS microdose protocol for the radiological follow-up of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilharreborde, Brice; Ferrero, Emmanuelle; Alison, Marianne; Mazda, Keyvan

    2016-02-01

    Imaging plays a key role in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) to determine the prognosis and accordingly define the best therapeutic strategy to follow. Conventional radiographs with ionizing radiation have been associated with 1-2 % increased lifetime risk of developing cancer in children, and physicians, therefore, need a sensitive but harmless way to explore patients at risk, according to the "as low as reasonably achievable" concept. The EOS system (EOS imaging, Paris, France) is available in routine clinical use since 2007, and allows 3D reconstructions of the trunk in standing position with significant radiation reduction. With recent technical advances, further dose reduction can be obtained, but at the cost of image quality that might alter the reliability of 3D reconstructions. The aim of the present study was to analyze the reproducibility of a "microdose" protocol, and evaluate its use in clinical practice. 32 consecutive patients followed for AIS were prospectively included. Biplanar radiographs were obtained with the EOS system according to the new microdose protocol. From the microdose images obtained, three experienced operators performed 3D reconstructions, two times for each subject in a random order (total, 192 reconstructions). The intraoperator repeatability and interoperator reproducibility were evaluated, as recommended by the International Organization for Standardization, for the most clinically relevant 3D radiological parameters. The identification of the required anatomical landmarks for the "fast spine" reconstruction process was possible in all cases. None of the patients required a second acquisition for 3D analysis. Mean time for reconstruction was 5 ± 2 min. The intraoperator repeatability was better than interoperator reproducibility for all parameters, with values ranging between 3° and 8° for frontal and sagittal spinal parameters, and between 1° and 8° for pelvic measurements. The agreement was very good for all clinical

  6. Guidance, navigation, and control subsystem for the EOS-AM spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, David M.; Tolek, Joseph T.; Lombardo, John

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary design of the Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) subsystem for the EOS-AM spacecraft and specifically focuses on the GN&C Normal Mode design. First, a brief description of the EOS-AM science mission, instruments, and system-level spacecraft design is provided. Next, an overview of the GN&C subsystem functional and performance requirements, hardware, and operating modes is presented. Then, the GN&C Normal Mode attitude determination, attitude control, and navigation systems are detailed. Finally, descriptions of the spacecraft's overall jitter performance and Safe Mode are provided.

  7. The European Programme Manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Anne; Bergman, E.; Ehlers, S.

    The publication is a result of a cooperation between organisations in six European countries with the aim to develop a common European education for programme managers. It contains of a description of the different elements of the education together with a number of case-studies from the counties...

  8. Application of the PFV EoS correlation to excess molar volumes of (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate + alkanols) at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deenadayalu, N.; Sen, S.; Sibiya, P.N.

    2009-01-01

    The experimental densities for the binary systems of an ionic liquid and an alkanol {1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate [EMIM] + [EtSO 4 ] - + methanol or 1-propanol or 2-propanol} were determined at T = (298.15, 303.15, and 313.15) K. The excess molar volumes for the above systems were then calculated from the experimental density values for each temperature. The Redlich-Kister smoothing polynomial was used to fit the experimental results and the partial molar volumes were determined from the Redlich-Kister coefficients. For all the systems studied, the excess molar volume results were negative over the entire composition range for all the temperatures. The excess molar volumes were correlated with the pentic four parameter virial (PFV) equation of state (EoS) model

  9. Gap analysis of the European Earth Observation Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closa, Guillem; Serral, Ivette; Maso, Joan

    2016-04-01

    Earth Observations (EO) are fundamental to enhance the scientific understanding of the current status of the Earth. Nowadays, there are a lot of EO services that provide large volume of data, and the number of datasets available for different geosciences areas is increasing by the day. Despite this coverage, a glance of the European EO networks reveals that there are still some issues that are not being met; some gaps in specific themes or some thematic overlaps between different networks. This situation requires a clarification process of the actual status of the EO European networks in order to set priorities and propose future actions that will improve the European EO networks. The aim of this work is to detect the existing gaps and overlapping problems among the European EO networks. The analytical process has been done by studying the availability and the completeness of the Essential Variables (EV) data captured by the European EO networks. The concept of EVs considers that there are a number of parameters that are essential to characterize the state and trends of a system without losing significant information. This work generated a database of the existing gaps in the European EO network based on the initial GAIA-CLIM project data structure. For each theme the missing or incomplete data about each EV was indentified. Then, if incomplete, the gap was described by adding its type (geographical extent, vertical extent, temporal extent, spatial resolution, etc), the cost, the remedy, the feasibility, the impact and the priority, among others. Gaps in EO are identified following the ConnectinGEO methodology structured in 5 threads; identification of observation requirements, incorporation of international research programs material, consultation process within the current EO actors, GEOSS Discovery and Access Broker analysis, and industry-driven challenges implementation. Concretely, the presented work focuses on the second thread, which is based on

  10. Imbalances in the development of European currency integration: key issues and recent trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Sahling

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent financial and sovereign debt crises affected the Eurozone countries in different ways. The centre-periphery divide of the national economies exacerbated existing problems in the euro area. In this article an empirical analysis of the development of intra-European imbalances is provided. The analysis shows that the problem of internal imbalances remains unsolved. High unemployment and high public debt in Eurozone’s periphery reflects the internal imbalances. In some Northern countries the public debt ratios are becoming higher, too. Significant current account imbalances provide an important indicator of external imbalances. The co-existence of large current account surpluses in Germany and the Netherlands and deficits in Greece challenges the possibilities of deeper European integration. The provided analysis shows a reduction in external imbalances because of better performance of periphery current accounts. A real solution of European problems needs deeper macroeconomic policy cooperation between national authorities and European institutions. The article highlights the limits of European institutions in promoting common economic policy. It is necessary to boost competitiveness by coordinated structural reforms in the euro area; fiscal austerity policies are not enough to restore pre-crisis internal balance. For sustainable economic growth European investment projects should be implemented in the euro area. The recovery of national economies should be used to reduce the high public debt levels in both centre and periphery countries. In the absence of economic adjustment through the exchange rate in the euro area further improvement in European current accounts convergence is important for European economic integration.

  11. MIGRATION INTEGRATION AS A FACTOR OF ECONOMIC AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronela Daniela FERARU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available International migration, together with economic and financial crisis or the different socio-economic development of Member States, is a serious threat to security in Europe. Population migration as a threatening factor, places the European Union in the face of a decision to establish clear policies for the establishment of a climate of external security, both for the migrant population and for the rest of the population. All in all, this study will centre on the following hypothesis: the better we know the challenges of international migration in the European Union and its Member States the more the European policies to mitigate negative effects of the world will be diminished. The aim is to highlight aspects pertaining to migration integration as a factor of economic, social and regional development in the European Union, and less as a factor of destabilization and insecurity. In other words, a good knowledge of the phenomenon leads to drawing up effective policies to reduce hazards, risks, threats and negative effects that happen today due to the increasing number of immigrants. Finally, the study will present a series of conclusions, including on the work hypothesis verification and some proposals related to migration integration efficiency as a factor of regional and economic development in the European Union.

  12. Cancer drug development and the evolving regulatory framework for companion diagnostics in the European union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatti, Francesco; Ehmann, Falk; Hemmings, Robert; Jonsson, Bertil; Nuebling, Micha; Papaluca-Amati, Marisa; Posch, Martin; Rasi, Guido

    2014-03-15

    The European Union (EU) legal framework for medical device regulation is currently under revision. The European Commission has proposed a new framework to ensure that medical devices serve the needs and ensure the safety of European citizens, aiming for a framework that is fit for purpose, more transparent, and better adapted to scientific and technological progress. The proposed new framework is described as an evolution of the current regime keeping the same legal approach. An important proposed change is that companion diagnostics will no longer be considered as low risk and subject to self-certification by the manufacturer. According to the new proposal, companion diagnostics will be classified as high individual risk or moderate public health risk (category C) and require conformity assessment by a notified body. It has also been proposed that evidence of the clinical utility of the device for the intended purpose should be required for companion diagnostics. In this article, we review the EU legal framework relevant for companion diagnostics, describe the proposed changes, and summarize the available scientific guidance from the European Medicines Agency and its regulatory experience with cancer drug development including companion diagnostics. See all articles in this CCR Focus section, "The Precision Medicine Conundrum: Approaches to Companion Diagnostic Co-development." ©2014 AACR.

  13. Citizenship Education Development: European Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Suslov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the European experience of the citizenship education developmentan important aspect of internal policy in the most countries. The education in question is considered to be the democratic citizenship training aimed at developing the loyal attitude to different value priorities in society, social responsibility, active citizenship position, awareness of democratic rights, capability of using and protecting them.The author looks at the transformation of citizenship education concept in the last three decades from the civics education (i.e. history, political science, law, etc. to the democratic citizen education. The paper analyzes differ- ent approaches to citizenship education in several European countries including the post-soviet ones. It is emphasized that both in western and eastern Europe a lot of effort is made for spreading and supporting the education in question. The author recommends considering the foreign experience of integrating the democratic citizenship education into the state academic curricula at the primary, secondary and higher school levels. 

  14. Is Territorial Cohesion Necessary for the Sustainable Development of the European Regions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU C. BARNA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Regional policy of the EU is pursuing the harmonious development of the European territory; this is a necessary condition for the creation of an environment that is favourable to the convergence of the Union’s policies. But, for these policies to converge, it is necessary that there are common objectives and these can arise only from the existence of common needs. It is obvious that a very different level of development leads to different needs for people and territories and therefore, to the pursuit of different objectives. The introduction of the territorial cohesion as an objective of the European Union through the Treaty of Lisbon has concluded many years of debate over the essence and future of the EU. But is this a prerequisite for the sustainable development of the EU regions? To answer this question, in this paper we will try to show the importance of the territorial cohesion in the EU. In order to do this, we will place the evolution of this concept in parallel with that of development and also with the process of enlargement and of deepening of the EU. We will thus try to determine the influence that territorial cohesion has on regions and on the European construction so that in the end we should be able to explain the effects that it has on their sustainable development.

  15. The practice of career development in the international human resource management of the European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berber Nemanja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The function very close to the training in the management of human resources is certainly the human resource development. Specifically, the employees acquire new knowledge, abilities and skills during the training process, but also gain new experiences through various business tasks during their working life, developing themselves both, in private life and in the professional sense. Human resource development is seen as the development of the expertise of people through organizational development and training of employees in order of improvement of the performances. In this paper authors explored the practice of carrier development in European countries. Research was based on data from international project, CRANET, in the period from 2008 to 2010. The authors presented data about the usage of techniques for evaluation of career development and investigated obtained results.

  16. Reaching the Objectives of Sustainable Development on the Basis of the Creative Industries – A South and Eastern European Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Costică

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of the development gap of South and East European economy compared with the rest of the developed countries represent an important condition to achieve the goal of „healthy development“ of European Union. High level of competitiveness in West European industries as well as new policy of sustainable development causes a rethinking of strategy of individual countries. Creative industries may contribute to the efficient utilization of local resources and individual characteristics. Using the culture like an “engine” of regional development, in South and Eastern Europe, countries can generate many positive and lasting effects on these economies. This article presents the role and evolution of creative goods and industries in South and Eastern European countries, and aims to prefigure their impact on sustainable development of these regions. The involvement of these goods in international trade may improve or rehabilitate the position of different economies at European level.

  17. Language Attitudes of Asturian Students in the Area of Navia-Eo (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Riaño, Xosé; Hevia-Artime, Isabel; Fernández-Costales, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a synthesis of a pioneering study that approaches the sociolinguistic and educational reality of the area of Navia-Eo, a region in the western part of Asturias (Spain). This research aims to provide an insight into the language attitudes and the sociolinguistic awareness of students in the final year of primary education. Using…

  18. SECTORIAL DYNAMICS AND THE CONVERGENCE OF REGIONS OF INTERMEDIATE AND ADVANCED DEVELOPMENT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Torrejo˜n-Velardiez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article uses the Valencian Community (Spain as a case study to analyse, in terms of GDP per person, the convergence of regions of intermediate development with the most advanced ones within the European Union. The obstacles hindering this convergence and the paths the convergence takes are shown not only in the context of a growing interdependence in the world economy but also of European integration. The study clearly demonstrates how convergence only comes about as a result of the creation of employment, while the gap in productivity is getting ever wider. The explanation fundamentally stems from the lack of convergence of the production structure with the more advanced activities which predominate in the most developed regions. With the arrival of the economic crisis from 2007, a reversal has occurred of the process of convergence that had taken place during the previous phase of expansion.

  19. Assimilated ozone from EOS-Aura: Evaluation of the tropopause region and tropospheric columns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stajner, I.; Wargan, K.; Pawson, S.; Hayashi, H.; Chang, L.-P.; Hudman, R.C.; Froidevaux, L.; Livesey, N.J.; Levelt, P.F.; Thompson, A.M.; Tarasick, D.W.; Stübi, R.; Andersen, S.B.; Yela, M.; König-Langlo, G.; Schmidlin, F.J.; Witte, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Retrievals from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on EOS-Aura were included in the Goddard Earth Observing System version 4 (GEOS-4) ozone data assimilation system. The distribution and daily to seasonal evolution of ozone in the stratosphere and troposphere

  20. An evaluation of the EOS X-ray imaging system in pelvimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigmann, M.H.; Runge, M.; Peyron, C.; Delabrousse, E.; Riethmuller, D.; Aubry, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To demonstrate the reliability of the EOS imaging system in measuring the internal diameters of the bony pelvis. Materials and methods: A prospective study comparing the results of the pelvimetry of 18 dry pelvises carried out on the EOS imaging system to measurements taken manually and using the two current gold standard CT methods. Pelvi-metric measurements of each pelvic bone were obtained using four methods and compared: direct manual measurements, spiral and sequential CT pelvimetry, and 2D-3D low-dose bi-planar X-rays. The various obstetric diameters were measured to the millimetre and compared. Results: There was no significant difference in the different diameters assessed, with the exception of the inter-spinous diameter. There was a highly significant correlation (P < 0.001) between the values measured manually and by EOS for the Magnin index (Pearson = 0.98), the obstetric conjugate diameter (Pearson = 0.99), and the median transverse diameter (Pearson = 0.87). Conclusion: The EOS imaging system allows for an ex vivo determination of the obstetrical diameters that is reliable enough to estimate obstetric prognosis, producing comparable measurements to CT. In view of concerns about protection from radiation, this low-dose imaging technique could become, after in vivo prospective validation, the new gold standard for pelvimetry and therefore a good alternative to CT. (authors)

  1. SensorWeb Evolution Using the Earth Observing One (EO-1) Satellite as a Test Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandl, Daniel; Frye, Stuart; Cappelaere, Pat; Ly, Vuong; Handy, Matthew; Chien, Steve; Grossman, Robert; Tran, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite was launched in November 2000 as a one year technology demonstration mission for a variety of space technologies. After the first year, in addition to collecting science data from its instruments, the EO-1 mission has been used as a testbed for a variety of technologies which provide various automation capabilities and which have been used as a pathfinder for the creation of SensorWebs. A SensorWeb is the integration of variety of space, airborne and ground sensors into a loosely coupled collaborative sensor system that automatically provides useful data products. Typically, a SensorWeb is comprised of heterogeneous sensors tied together with a messaging architecture and web services. This paper provides an overview of the various technologies that were tested and eventually folded into normal operations. As these technologies were folded in, the nature of operations transformed. The SensorWeb software enables easy connectivity for collaboration with sensors, but the side benefit is that it improved the EO-1 operational efficiency. This paper presents the various phases of EO-1 operation over the past 12 years and also presents operational efficiency gains demonstrated by some metrics.

  2. Heavy ion reaction measurements with the EOS TPC (looking for central collisions with missing energy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieman, H.H.

    1994-05-01

    The EOS TPC was constructed for complete event measurement of heavy ion collisions at the Bevalac. We report here on the TPC design and some preliminary measurements of conserved event quantities such as total invariant mass, total momentum, total A and Z

  3. LABOR MARKET DEVELOPMENT UNDER ROMANIA'S INTEGRATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NĂSTASIE MIHAELA – ANDREEA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In all conditions of time and space, economic activity involving work objectively factor designed to exploit natural resources and monetary system in its interest. According to Adam Smith, the work is a primary factor, the original production was considered by him as the sole source of national wealth. This factor of production can be achieved through labor market that is in a competitive market economy. Transactions in this market have as their object or labor work. Employment policy work focus on boosting production and the flexibility of labor market through an easy tax for economic entities to make hiring, increasing the occupancy of the active population. In Romania, the pressures exerted on the labor market increasingly higher while the economy is subject to extensive qualitative transformations concerning privatization, restructuring and upgrading.

  4. Development of European urban tourist systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerković Senta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Relationship between urban development and tourism is a significant process in Europe today. Development of tourism has caused many organizational changes in urban environment. In the middle of the 20th century cultural and historical heritage in the cities was impetus of development of tourism in European cities. Nowadays, in many European cities tourism is recognized as a mean of further economic development. Strategy of polycentricity, outlined in European spatial development perspective is supporting that process, too. Many tourist centres and metropolitan tourist areas have been developed. In the period from 1996. to 2007. number of visitors in European cultural capitals was growing continuously by rate of 25,6%. In the same period, the number of international tourist arrivals increased by rate of only 7%.

  5. The European fusion research and development programme and the ITER Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    The EURATOM fusion R and D programme is a well integrated and co-ordinated programme a good example of a European Research Area. Its goal is 'the joint creation of prototype reactors for power stations to meet the needs of society: operational safety, environmental compatibility, economic viability'. The programme is focussed on the magnetic confinement approach to fusion energy and supports 21 associated laboratories and a range of experimental and fusion technology facilities. The paper will briefly describe this programme and how it is organised and implemented. Its success and that of other national programmes has defined the international ITER Project, which is the next logical step in fusion R and D. The paper will describe ITER, its aims, its design, and the supporting manufacture of prototype components. The European contribution to ITER, as well as the exploitation of the Joint European Torus (JET) and long-term fusion reactor technology R and D are carried out under the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA). Finally, the potential advantages of fusion as an energy source will be presented. (author)

  6. CURRENT TRENDS OF THE REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT POLICY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION. THE DEVELOPMENT OF COMPETITIVE ECONOMIC AGGLOMERATIONS OF CLUSTER TYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAURA CISMAŞ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of economic agents’ behaviour, whose nowadays tendency is togroup themselves in space as clusters, has an important place in the field of localizing industrialactivities. This is due to domestic scale economies, known as agglomerations economies.According to Edgar M. Hoover (Hoover, 1948, domestic scale economies are specific tocompanies; the economies of localizing - to a certain branch, whose companies form clusters incertain geographical arias, and the urbanization economies are specific to cities, where thereare clusters of companies from different branches. The specialty literature regarding localeconomic development, based on the idea of cluster starts from well-known economic theories,such as: agglomeration theory (Alfred Marshall, the theory of spatial localizing of industrialunits (Alfred Weber, the theory of interdependence of locations (Harold Hotelling, the diamondtheory (Michael Porter, the theory of entrepreneurship (Joseph Schumpeter, the theory ofgeographical concentration. Basically, the common point which links them are the conceptswhich occur in these theories, such as: industrial district, industrial agglomeration, spatialinterdependence, concepts which lie at the basis of the cluster idea. Clusters represent animportant instrument for promoting industrial development, innovation, competitiveness andeconomic growth. If, at the beginning, the effort to develop clusters belonged to private personsand companies, nowadays, the actors involved in their development are the governments andpublic institutions of national or regional level.The objective established within the Lisbon Strategy (2000, to make the EuropeanUnion “the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy”, is tightly linked to thenew approaches of the European economic policy, to competitiveness. One of the policies isfocused on developing at the European Union level clusters in the high competitiveness fields. with an innovative character

  7. Core continuing professional development (CPD) topics for the European dentist.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bailey, S

    2013-02-01

    In the context of free movement, EU-citizens need assurance that dental practitioners providing their care have a degree\\/license to practice that meets EU-standards and that they maintain their knowledge and skills through ongoing education.

  8. Information management challenges of the EOS Data and Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, Kenneth R.; Blake, Deborah J.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the current information management concepts that are embodied in the plans for the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is presented, and some of the technology development and application areas that are envisioned to be particularly challenging are introduced. The Information Management System (IMS) is the EOSDIS element that provides the primary interface between the science users and the data products and services of EOSDIS. The goals of IMS are to define a clear and complete set of functional requirements and to apply innovative methods and technologies to satisfy them. The information management functions are described in detail, and some applicable technolgies are discussed. Some of the general issues affecting the successful development and operation of the information management element are addressed.

  9. Engineers' Spatial Orientation Ability Development at the European Space for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, C. Carbonell; Perez, J. L. Saorin; Cantero, J. de la Torre; Gonzalez, A. M. Marrero

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine whether the new geographic information technologies, included as teaching objectives in the new European Space for Higher Education Engineering degrees, develop spatial abilities. Bearing this in mind, a first year seminar using the INSPIRE Geoportal (Infrastructure for Spatial Information in Europe) was…

  10. On Application of Non-cubic EoS to Compositional Reservoir Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    Compositional reservoir simulation uses almost exclusively cubic equations of state (EoS) such as the SRK EoS and the PR EoS. This is in contrast with process simulation in the downstream industry where more recent and advanced thermodynamic models are quickly adopted. Many of these models are non-cubic...... EoS, such as the PC-SAFT EoS. A major reason for the use of the conventional cubic EoS in reservoir simulation is the concern over computation time. Flash computation is the most time consuming part in compositional reservoir simulation, and the extra complexity of the non-cubic EoS may significantly...... increase the time consumption. In addition to this, the non-cubic EoS also needs a C7+ characterization. The main advantage of the non-cubic EoS is that it provides for a more accurate descrition of fluid properties, and it is therefore of interest to investigate the computational aspects of using...

  11. Impact of the development of shale gases in the USA on the European petrochemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2013-10-01

    As the massive development of shale gases and oils in the USA is often only considered in its energetic dimension, the author discusses the influence these raw materials have, not only on energy production, but as raw materials for the industry and more particularly for the petrochemical industry which is a high energy consumer and also transforms these products into products used by all types of manufacturing industries. In a first part, the author recalls this strong development of shale gas production in the USA, its main impacts on the US gas industry, notably its impact on energy prices on the American market. In a second part, the author reports the analysis of the contrasted evolutions of energy prices (gas, electricity, ethane, naphtha) in the USA and in Europe, and highlights the significant competitive advantage the USA took from the development of shale gas. A third part describes the revival of the American petrochemical industry through numerous investment projects of new ethylene and polyethylene production capacities which have been announced since the decrease of energy prices. The impact of this development on the European petrochemical industry is analysed in the next part which also describes adaptation strategies adopted by European petrochemical industries

  12. Goals? What goals? Europeans to hear more about the world's millennium development goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, S.

    2005-01-01

    The European Union (EU) is quickly becoming the front-runner of development aid to regions in Africa and other developing countries. However, over three-quarters of EU citizens are unaware of development efforts being made on the part of the Union to Third World countries, according to a public opinion poll released by Eurobarometer. In light of the low awareness of the EU's development agenda and the United Nations's Millennium Development Goals, the EU Humanitarian Aid and Development Commission has employed a campaign to raise the level of awareness among the EU's 460 million citizens

  13. Check-Up of Planet Earth at the Turn of the Millennium: Contribution of EOS-Terra to a New Phase in Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Yoram

    1999-01-01

    Langley's remarkable solar and lunar spectra collected from Mt. Whitney inspired Arrhenius to develop the first quantitative climate model in 1896. In 1999, NASA's Earth Observing AM Satellite (EOS-Terra) will repeat Langley's experiment, but for the entire planet, thus pioneering a wide array of calibrated spectral observations from space of the Earth System. Conceived in response to real environmental problems, EOS-Terra, in conjunction with other international satellite efforts, will fill a major gap in current efforts by providing quantitative global data sets with a resolution of few kilometers on the physical, chemical and biological elements of the earth system. Thus, like Langley's data, EOS-Terra can revolutionize climate research by inspiring a new generation of climate system models and enable us to assess the human impact on the environment. In the talk I shall review the historical developments that brought to the Terra mission, its objectives and example of application to biomass burning.

  14. TRANSVAC research infrastructure - Results and lessons learned from the European network of vaccine research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geels, Mark J; Thøgersen, Regitze L; Guzman, Carlos A; Ho, Mei Mei; Verreck, Frank; Collin, Nicolas; Robertson, James S; McConkey, Samuel J; Kaufmann, Stefan H E; Leroy, Odile

    2015-10-05

    TRANSVAC was a collaborative infrastructure project aimed at enhancing European translational vaccine research and training. The objective of this four year project (2009-2013), funded under the European Commission's (EC) seventh framework programme (FP7), was to support European collaboration in the vaccine field, principally through the provision of transnational access (TNA) to critical vaccine research and development (R&D) infrastructures, as well as by improving and harmonising the services provided by these infrastructures through joint research activities (JRA). The project successfully provided all available services to advance 29 projects and, through engaging all vaccine stakeholders, successfully laid down the blueprint for the implementation of a permanent research infrastructure for early vaccine R&D in Europe. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Digital Economy: Development Prospects in the European Union and the Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru LEAHOVCENCO

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on issues related to digital economy. The European Union adopted and implements „Digital Agenda for Europe” constantly adjusting its priorities to the new circumstances. The government of the Republic of Moldova approved the National Strategy for Information Society Development “Digital Moldova 2020” which aim is to create conditions through minimum state intervention but with maximum effect for information society development. National Strategy for Information Society Development will lead to the following measurable results: ranking the Republic of Moldova among top 50 countries in the international rankings in digital technologies.

  16. Cultural Influences on the Professions in European Union Countries and Their Implications for Continuing Professional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Anna; Thomas, Edward

    1996-01-01

    Although the European Union encourages professional mobility, the practice of continuing professional development (CPD) in pharmacy and law in various countries shows that cultural differences may hinder cross-border mobility. It is also surprising that universities are relatively little involved in CPD. (SK)

  17. International development and the ecuation of power within the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Simona SCUTARU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the European Union, we can talk about a high degree of power and this means that states have different capacities to reach prosperity, but they also have the capacity to help other states reach a similar degree of welfare. Development Assistance plays a very important role in the world, being offered to states which can not surpass economic, social or political difficulties. In order to reach a certain balance at the international level, between levels of development that states possess, a fundamental need occurs: states that are economically, socially and politically left behind must receive development assistance. The present work aims to analyse the degree to which the European Union contributes to international development. Both EU institutions and EU and OECD member states play fundamental roles on the world stage by granting funds to fragile and less developed states.Rethinking the third world might mean a restructuring of the political systems of states and of their economic systems, so that these countries become more developed and less dependent on other states. European institutions and assistance policies also need to change their way of regarding the matter of international development and of approaching the problem of poverty so that the needs of the third world states could be satisfied in an appropriate manner. Europe has the role of transformative power because it helps the third world states develop their economies and political systems so that they could satisfy the needs of their citizens. As a consequence, these economies are transforming. They are not autarchic systems, so when we are talking about transformation, we are talking about development.

  18. The development of GRTgaz - A vital part of the European energy mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier, J.Ph.

    2011-01-01

    The energy future has become one of the major stakes of the next presidential election in France. After the Fukushima disaster, the debates on our own energy future mainly cover the closing down, or not, in full or in part, of nuclear power stations. Natural gas is, most of the time, absent from the debate. Yet it has many advantages and should be viewed as a solution that favours renewable energy development, while being essential to achieving a more diversified and more environment-friendly energy mix. In addition, our country is at the crossroads of different European as networks. Given this situation, GRTGaz is doing its utmost to develop an attractive and dynamic wholesale market. With the prospect of increased European market integration and in spite of an uncertain economic environment, investments must be made to develop infrastructure. In 2011, with the financial backing of the European Union, GRTGaz has launched two major gas transport grid reinforcement projects in the South and North of France. These will allow us to strengthen our position as one the major gas hubs in Europe. This is good news for our industry and for employment too. (author)

  19. FEASIBILITY STUDY ON SETTING UP AND RUNNING A POULTRY MICRO-FARM RESPECTING THE EUROPEAN STRATEGY OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Madalin MUNTEANU; Ioana TEODORESCU

    2013-01-01

    Today European Union provides member countries funds for many types of business and in particular for the development of rural environment. In this sense, this paper draws the main steps of a feasibility study for accessing European funds to develop and run a microfarm respecting sustainable development principles imposed by European Union. The work theme is based on establishment poultry farms in order to achieve and to exploit the production of eggs, of meat consumption and poultry compost ...

  20. Development and Pilot Evaluation of a Novel Dignity-Conserving End-of-Life (EoL) Care Model for Nursing Homes in Chinese Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Andy H Y; Dai, Annie A N; Lam, Shu-Hang; Wong, Sandy W P; Tsui, Amy L M; Tang, Jervis C S; Lou, Vivian W Q

    2016-06-01

    The provision of end-of-life (EoL) care in long-term-care settings remains largely underdeveloped in most Chinese societies, and nursing home residents often fail to obtain good care as they approach death. This paper systematically describes the development and implementation mechanisms of a novel Dignity-Conserving EoL Care model that has been successfully adopted by three nursing homes in Hong Kong and presents preliminary evidence of its effectiveness on enhancing dignity and quality of life (QoL) of terminally ill residents. Nine terminally ill nursing home residents completed the McGill Quality of Life Questionnaire and the Nursing Facilities Quality of Life Questionnaire at baseline and 6 months post-EoL program enrollment. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to detect significance changes in each QoL domains across time. Although significant deterioration was recorded for physical QoL, significant improvement was observed for social QoL. Moreover, a clear trend toward significant improvements was identified for the QoL domains of individuality and relationships. A holistic and compassionate caring environment, together with the core principles of family-centered care, interagency and interdisciplinary teamwork, as well as cultural-specific psycho-socio-spiritual support, are all essential elements for optimizing QoL and promoting death with dignity for nursing home residents facing morality. This study provides a useful framework to facilitate the future development of EoL care in long-term-care settings in the Chinese context. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Development of the European bachelor physical activity and lifestyle counseling programme (PALC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Johan; Bruining, Carin; Dikkeboer, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Lifestyle related health problems are a tremendous burden for European societies that demands a shift towards prevention and a professional to guide this process. Therefore a new bachelor program PALC was developed. A consortium of seven universities from the Netherlands, Denmark, Portugal, Italy,

  2. EFTTRA, a European collaboration for the development of fuels and targets for the transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babelot, J.F.; Muehling, G.; Prunier, C.; Rome, M.

    1994-12-01

    In the frame of the research programmes on the transmutation of long lived nuclides, many experimental or theoretical investigations have to be carried out within European collaborations, owing mainly to the costs of such studies. Therefore, a group named 'Experimental Feasibility of Targets for Transmutation' (EFTTRA), has been formed, with participants from CEA (France). ECN (The Netherlands), EDF (France), KFK (Germany) and ITU (European Commission), to organise joint experiments for the study of materials for the transmutation. So far, it was decided to focus the work on the transmutation of 99 Tc (metal), of 129 I (compound), and of Am (in an inert matrix). Irradiations will take place in parallel in the Phenix fast reactor in France, and in the high flux thermal reactor HFR in the Netherlands. These experiments, together with the related post-irradiation examinations, constitute the first phase of the EFTTRA collaboration. In subsequent phases, EFTTRA will contribute to the development of fuels and targets. (orig.)

  3. How does the European market of manufacturing plants develop?; Wie wird sich der europaeische Anlagenmarkt entwickeln?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mederle, A. [Thoeni Industriebetriebe GmbH, Telfs (Austria)

    2007-07-01

    Within the scope of the 3rd symposium ''Processes and materials for energy technologies'', held between 20th and 21st June, 2007, at the ATZ Entwicklungszentrum in Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Federal Republic of Germany), the author reports on the development of the European market of manufacturing plants. The industrial plant constructors supply production plants in more than twenty industrial sectors such as chemical and pharmaceutical industry, textile industry or food processing industry. The industrial plant constructors have special qualities in project management, risk management, design of international contracts, management of supplier, logistics, After Sales Service, guarantee management as well as warranty management. The mechanical engineering and power plant engineering is one of the greatest industrial sector in the European Union. Nearly one tenth of the added value in the European Union is due to the mechanical engineering and power plant engineering. Nearly 24.500 companies are active in the mechanical engineering sector in the European Union. 2.6 million employees have an employment in this sector. They have produced machines and plants with an order value of 420 billion Euro in the year 2005. Two thirds of the production volume remain in the European Union. Only one third of the produced machines and plants are exported in countries outside of the European Union. The export volume amounts 146 billion Euro in the year 2005 and is greater than the export volume of the United States of America (70 billion Euro) and Japan (69 billion Euro). The Federal Republic of Germany is the leading country with respect to the local content of production (39 %) within the European Union followed by Italy (16 %), France (11 %), and Great Britain (9 %). Since the beginning of the nineties in the twentieth century, the conveying technology has developed to the greatest sector in the mechanical engineering. In this sector, the production volume amounts

  4. The first observation of EO transitions from negative parity states in even-even nucleus 160Dy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriev, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    In even-even deformed nuclei up to now EO-transitions were found only between the states of the same spin belonging to Κ π = O + rotational bands. There is no forbidenness for EO-transitions between states belonging to bands with any other quantum number Κ provided both initial and final states have the same J π Κ values. EO-transitions may depopulate odd-parity states. In odd nuclei β-vibrational states are identified by transition with EO-components. Here transitions also proceed between states with the same J π K numbers. Even-even nuclide 160 Dy is the first nucleus where the EO-transitions between odd-parity states have been found

  5. PREMISES AND OPPORTUNITIES OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN EUROPEAN CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigore BELOSTECINIC

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Applying the principles of sustainable development and ensuring sustainable economic development are of primordial actuality for the Republic of Moldova. Promoting sustainable development presupposes correlating economic growth with improving the quality of life and health, education, social development and environmental protection. The issue of sustainable development as a complex phenomenon is approached under the conditions of the influence exerted by some constraints and restrictions, of the existence of some serious economic, social and technological gaps in regional and European context. The analysis of the external commercial flows of goods highlights the predominance in exports of products from the traditional economic sectors. Improving competitiveness of export is regarded as the decisive factor of sustainable economic growth. For the chapter regarding the reform of the investment climate, modest successes are recorded which did not give the necessary impetus to massive foreign capital entries under the form of foreign direct investments as compared with other Central and Eastern European countries. The low attractiveness for foreign direct investments is attenuated by the small size of the local market and the low purchasing power of the population. Ensuring economic sustainable development is approached within the context of creating the necessary premises and valuing the opportunities provided by the protects for European integration of the Republic of Moldova.

  6. EoR imaging with the SKA: the challenge of foreground removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaldi, Anna

    2018-05-01

    21-cm observations of the Cosmic dawn (CD) and Epoch of Reionization (EoR) are one of the high priority science objectives for SKA Low. One of the most difficult aspects of the 21-cm measurement is the presence of foreground emission, due to our Galaxy and extragalactic sources, which is about four orders of magnitude brighter than the cosmological signal. While end-to-end simulations are being produced to investigate in details the foreground subtraction strategy, it is useful to complement this thorough but time-consuming approach with simpler, quicker ways to evaluate performance and identify possible critical steps. In this work, I present a forecast method, based on Bonaldi et al. (2015), Bonaldi & Ricciardi (2011), to understand the level of residual contamination after a component separation step, and its impact on our ability to investigate CD and EoR.

  7. Membrane receptor-mediated apoptosis and caspase activation in the differentiated EoL-1 eosinophilic cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rabia, Mohammed W; Blaylock, Morgan G; Sexton, Darren W; Walsh, Garry M

    2004-06-01

    Caspases are key molecules in the control of apoptosis, but relatively little is known about their contribution to eosinophil apoptosis. We examined caspase-3, -8, and -9 activities in receptor ligation-dependent apoptosis induction in the differentiated human eosinophilic cell line EoL-1. Differentiated EoL-1 exhibited bi-lobed nuclei, eosinophil-associated membrane receptors, and basic granule proteins. Annexin-V fluorescein isothiocyanate binding to EoL-1 revealed significant (PEoL-1 but had no effect on constitutive (baseline) apoptosis at 16 and 20 h. Caspase activity was analyzed using the novel CaspaTag trade mark technique and flow cytometry. EoL-1 treated with pan-CD45, CD45RA, CD45RB, and CD95 mAb exhibited caspase-3 and -9 activation at 12 h post-treatment, which increased at 16 and 20 h. Activated caspase-8 was detected 12 and 16 h after ligation with CD45, CD45RA, CD45RB, and CD95 mAb followed by a trend toward basal levels at 20 h. CD69 ligation resulted in caspase-3 activation, a modest but significant activation of caspase-8, and a loss in mitochondrial transmembrane potential but had no significant effect on activation of caspase-9. Thus, the intrinsic and extrinsic caspase pathways are involved in controlling receptor ligation-mediated apoptosis induction in human eosinophils, findings that may aid the development of a more targeted, anti-inflammatory therapy for asthma.

  8. Development of a user-friendly system for image processing of electron microscopy by integrating a web browser and PIONE with Eos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Takafumi; Yasunaga, Takuo

    2014-11-01

    Eos (Extensible object-oriented system) is one of the powerful applications for image processing of electron micrographs. In usual cases, Eos works with only character user interfaces (CUI) under the operating systems (OS) such as OS-X or Linux, not user-friendly. Thus, users of Eos need to be expert at image processing of electron micrographs, and have a little knowledge of computer science, as well. However, all the persons who require Eos does not an expert for CUI. Thus we extended Eos to a web system independent of OS with graphical user interfaces (GUI) by integrating web browser.Advantage to use web browser is not only to extend Eos with GUI, but also extend Eos to work under distributed computational environment. Using Ajax (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) technology, we implemented more comfortable user-interface on web browser. Eos has more than 400 commands related to image processing for electron microscopy, and the usage of each command is different from each other. Since the beginning of development, Eos has managed their user-interface by using the interface definition file of "OptionControlFile" written in CSV (Comma-Separated Value) format, i.e., Each command has "OptionControlFile", which notes information for interface and its usage generation. Developed GUI system called "Zephyr" (Zone for Easy Processing of HYpermedia Resources) also accessed "OptionControlFIle" and produced a web user-interface automatically, because its mechanism is mature and convenient,The basic actions of client side system was implemented properly and can supply auto-generation of web-form, which has functions of execution, image preview, file-uploading to a web server. Thus the system can execute Eos commands with unique options for each commands, and process image analysis. There remain problems of image file format for visualization and workspace for analysis: The image file format information is useful to check whether the input/output file is correct and we also

  9. Developing European conservation and mitigation tools for pollination services: approaches of the STEP (Status and Trends of European Pollinators) project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potts, S.G.; Biesmeijer, J.C.; Bommarco, R.; Felicioli, A.; Fischer, M.; Jokinen, P.; Kleijn, D.; Klein, A.M.; Kunin, W.E.; Neumann, P.; Penev, L.D.; Petanidou, T.; Rasmont, P.; Roberts, S.P.M.; Smith, H.G.; Sorensen, P.B.; Steffan-Dewenter, I.; Vaissiere, B.E.; Vila, M.; Vujic, A.; Woyciechowski, M.; Zobel, M.; Settele, J.; Schweiger, O.

    2011-01-01

    Pollinating insects form a key component of European biodiversity, and provide a vital ecosystem service to crops and wild plants. There is growing evidence of declines in both wild and domesticated pollinators, and parallel declines in plants relying upon them. The STEP project (Status and Trends

  10. Trans-European transport networks influence on the regional development and urban systems: Serbian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksin-Mićić Marija

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The trans-European transport network has different effects at macro regional mezzo-regional and micro-regional level, and its effectiveness rises with the lower regional levels. Possible approaches to the trans-European transport network impact and effect survey and policy options have been pointed out. The importance of increased accessibility and mobility for regional expansion and for a more balanced and polycentric system of city networks has been underlined. Changes in the spatial organization utilization and structure of cities, as well as in social benefits and losses subsequent to impacts of trans-European transport corridor "X" section Belgrade-Niš have been analyzed. The new trans-European or major transport infrastructure does not per se create regional and urban system network development, although it can affect the conditions for the processes that create growth and development. The effects can be increased by co-ordination of measures of regional, spatial and urban policy, land use transport, environmental and other policies. The necessary measure is the introduction of spatial impact assessment as sartorial policy instrument for the large transport infrastructure plans and projects.

  11. The Development of the Future European Knowledge Workers. An Academic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Leon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The research purpose was to determine whether the economics and business administration higher education institutions from the European Union members states are facilitating the development of the future knowledge workers or not. In order to achieve this goal, we employed an exploratory research and we combined a qualitative approach with a quantitative one. We focused on the common courses that are taught in the best European Union higher education institutions, according to the QS World University Rankings. We applied a content analysis to 267 syllabuses that belonged to 21 economics and business administration faculties. Then we employed a logistic regression in order to determine if the teaching methods, used during the bachelor studies, can predict the development of the future knowledge workers. The results have showed that the economics and business administration higher education institutions from the European Union member states tend to respond positively to companies’ necessity by developing almost 50% of the “ideal” knowledge worker profile. These findings have implications on both educational and managerial level. At the educational level, it reflects the vulnerable area of the educational process namely, skills development. It seems to be forgotten that education is more than just sharing explicit knowledge; it is about developing the current and the future citizens, building characters and stimulating the need for lifelong learning. At the managerial level, it brings forefront the deficiencies of the future human resources and it indicates the need for adapting the organizational culture and practices. What had been overlooked by the educational system may be complemented by an open organizational culture, an inspirational leadership and an effective coaching process.

  12. Cultural Dimensions of Digital Library Development, Part II: The Cultures of Innovation in Five European National Libraries (Narratives of Development)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbello, Marija

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the narrative accounts of the beginnings of digital library programs in five European national libraries: Biblioteca nacional de Portugal, Bibliotheque nationale de France, Die Deutsche Bibliothek, the National Library of Scotland, and the British Library. Based on interviews with policy makers and developers of digital…

  13. Event and Community Development: Planning Legacy for the 2008 European Capital of Culture, Liverpool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-De Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Event legacy has become a major topic of discussion in recent years. Especially, European Capital of Culture is emerging as a means of facilitating community development in Europe. Based on a case study of the 2008 European Capital of Culture Liverpool, this article aims to conceptualise the relationship between an event and its sustained effects on community development. Methodologically, adopting case study as approach, both primary and secondary were collected and analysed, including four times neighborhood surveys, official evaluation reports and academic publications. The study period is from 2007 to 2015 to monitor changes in an event’s impacts. The results reveal four dimensions of effects, including: cultural access and engagement, volunteering, governance and infrastructure, and sense of place. Overall, the study stresses the importance of integrating the event into a long-term development strategy of the city, through synergies between culture and urban regeneration and community renewal.

  14. Normative Power vs. Political Interest: EU Aid Selectivity beyond the European Consensus on Development, 2008-13

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Hout (Wil)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper focuses on the ‘governance turn’ in the development policies of the European Union, represented in particular by the adoption of theEuropean Consensus on Development’ in 2005. The main assumption inherent in the EU approach to development is that the

  15. European bank for reconstruction and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastratović Radovan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available European Bank for Reconstruction and Development - EBRD was established in the year 1991 and commenced operations in 1991. The objective of the Bank was to instigate market oriented approach to business in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. This comprises support offered to structural reforms, privatisation, and development of entrepreneurship and legal system through financing of project conducive to the achievement of the aimed targets. The Bank approves loans both to the nation states and to the private sector. European Bank for Reconstruction and Development often appears in the role of investor. In addition, the Bank has also its consultative function. Owners of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development are the developed countries and those that participate in the distribution of the Bank's profit. The Bank invests in the countries of Central, Eastern and South-East Europe, but also in those of Central Asia and Southern Mediterranean. The importance that the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development has for our country is best illustrated by the fact that this Bank is our largest institutional investor, with investments exceeding 3.5 billion EUR. This work begins with presentation of general information on the work of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, its objectives, activities, background history, ownership and organisational structure. It proceeds by giving relevant data on the Bank's business operations - the manner of project financing, the Bank's funds distribution per geographic criteria and activities, and the operative and financial results of the Bank's business activities. Brief description is also offered of the cooperation that the European Bank has with other international financial institutions. Finally, data is given bearing witness on the importance that the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development has for Serbia.

  16. Towards Improving our Understanding on the Retrievals of Key Parameters Characterising Land Surface Interactions from Space: Introduction & First Results from the PREMIER-EO Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Gareth; North, Matthew R.; Petropoulos, George P.; Srivastava, Prashant K.; Hodges, Crona

    2015-04-01

    Acquiring accurate information on the spatio-temporal variability of soil moisture content (SM) and evapotranspiration (ET) is of key importance to extend our understanding of the Earth system's physical processes, and is also required in a wide range of multi-disciplinary research studies and applications. The utility and applicability of Earth Observation (EO) technology provides an economically feasible solution to derive continuous spatio-temporal estimates of key parameters characterising land surface interactions, including ET as well as SM. Such information is of key value to practitioners, decision makers and scientists alike. The PREMIER-EO project recently funded by High Performance Computing Wales (HPCW) is a research initiative directed towards the development of a better understanding of EO technology's present ability to derive operational estimations of surface fluxes and SM. Moreover, the project aims at addressing knowledge gaps related to the operational estimation of such parameters, and thus contribute towards current ongoing global efforts towards enhancing the accuracy of those products. In this presentation we introduce the PREMIER-EO project, providing a detailed overview of the research aims and objectives for the 1 year duration of the project's implementation. Subsequently, we make available the initial results of the work carried out herein, in particular, related to an all-inclusive and robust evaluation of the accuracy of existing operational products of ET and SM from different ecosystems globally. The research outcomes of this project, once completed, will provide an important contribution towards addressing the knowledge gaps related to the operational estimation of ET and SM. This project results will also support efforts ongoing globally towards the operational development of related products using technologically advanced EO instruments which were launched recently or planned be launched in the next 1-2 years. Key Words: PREMIER-EO

  17. TRENDS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDIRECT TAXES IN THE MEMBER STATES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA FELICIA CHIRCULESCU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is showed the trends in the evolution of indirect taxes of the Member States of the European Union, using for this purpose, statistical series, because this category of taxes can be successfully used by the economic situation. As these taxes are placed on transactions, the yield of these taxes is influenced by developments in the tax bases of economic transactions volume, price and level of rates. The importance of the work is based on the fact that there are countries in the single market with different degrees of development and different living standards and fiscal policy through the transition from direct to indirect taxes. This creates a tax base budget by shifting the tax burden from operators for the whole population, consumption being heavily taxed. The consumer society is the company of the tax payer of the consumer society.

  18. CNOSSOS-EU: Development of a common environmental noise assessment method in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspuru Soloaga, I.; Segues Echazarreta Segues, F.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the main aspects of the work undertaken in the development of the common european method of environmental noise assessment CNOSSOS-EU. It summarizes the design, structure and content, and the methodological basis on which it is based. Taking into account the experience gained in the first round of strategic noise mapping, some conclusions are settled about its applications for the third round, and tits implications for the Spanish case. (Author) 9 refs.

  19. FINANCING REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT THROUGH EUROPEAN FUNDS. A REVIEW OF THE EFFECTS IN ROMANIA (2007-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina DORNEAN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at creating an area of understanding regional development in Romania in the broader context of community regional development, given the impact that the implementation of this policy has on the reduction of economic and social disparities between regions in the case of Romania. The paper is structured on three chapters: firstly it tackles the need for a regional development policy in Romania taking into account the EU adherence goal (after 1990 and the disparities existing between regions across Romania. Secondly, we present the European funding instruments and mechanisms of regional development in Romania, mainly the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF within the Regional Operational Program (ROP. Thirdly, we analyze the impact of financing regional development policy in terms of reducing economic disparities between the Romanian regions for the period 2007-2013 and highlighting the importance and effects of regional development financing. To this aim, we analyzed the evolution of the following indicators with an impact on regional development: the GDP per capita evolution, the evolution of foreign investments, the unemployment rate and evolution of the number of small and medium enterprises. The end is reserved for the conclusions of the research. When conducting this paper, the main research instruments used were the study and analysis of documents, analysis of official reports and the literature on regional development as well as the interpretation and analysis of statistical data provided by the National Institute of Statistics of Romania.

  20. The European Community's research and development programme on the decommissioning of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skupinski, E.

    1988-01-01

    The Commission of the European Communities (CEC) continued with a second research programme on the decommissioning of nuclear installations (1984-88), after having completed a first programme on the decommissioning of nuclear power plants (1979-83). The programme, which has about 70 research contracts with organisations or private firms in the member states, includes the development and testing of advanced techniques, such as decontamination and dismantling, and the consideration of the radioactive waste arising therefrom. Work is done at laboratory scale or in the context of large-scale decommissioning operations. The paper will give an overview on the technical content and on some selected results. (author)

  1. Development of a model for integrated simulation of the European transmission networks and electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathke, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The liberalisation of electricity markets and the increase of renewable energy generation actually causes dramatic changes for the whole European power industry. The transmission system operators in particular have to meet the challenge to ensure a stable and reliable system operation in the future. Significant changes in power generation will require a substantial extension to current inadequate original transmission grids to handle increased wide area power flows. This is the only way to avoid overloading the grid and to reduce the herefrom resulting limitations for the Pan-European cross-border trade of electricity. This work describes in detail the development of a Pan-European integrated grid and an electricity market simulation tool. For this purpose an overview about the today's structure of the European electricity industry is given initially. Afterwards the configuration of the transmission grid, the used equipment and different methods for the load flow and short circuit calculation are explained. Furthermore models for the calculation of local loads and the power plant dispatch are presented in the following chapters. Following on from this a detailed model of the European electricity industry is developed and the main functions are described by means of some exemplary simulations. The simulation tool developed in this work enables the user to calculate realistic power plant schedules and the consequent resulting physical effects on the European transmission grid. It combines a time series based simulation of the electricity market with a detailed model of the transmission grid. The highly detailing of the model offers the feasibility to execute a complete AC load flow calculation using the Newton Raphson algorithm.Therefore it is possible to identify the active as well as the reactive power flows in the grid. The results of the power flow calculation are the basis for further investigations (e. g. the short circuit calculation) and to decide on

  2. What does the Development of the European Core Curriculum for Cardiovascular Nurses Mean for Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubeck, Lis; Lin, Stella Hsi-Man; Ferry, Cate; Gallagher, Robyn

    2016-04-01

    A core curriculum for the continuing professional development of nurses has recently been published by the Council on Cardiovascular Nursing and Allied Professions of the European Society of Cardiology. This core curriculum was envisaged to bridge the educational gap between qualification as a nurse and an advance practice role. In addition, the shared elements and international consensus on core themes creates a strong pathway for nursing career development that is directly relevant to Australia. Education programs for nurses in Australia must meet the mandatory standards of the Australian Nursing and Midwifery Accreditation Council (ANMAC), but without a national core curriculum, there can be considerable variation in the content of such courses. The core curriculum is developed to be adapted locally, allowing the addition of nationally relevant competencies, for example, culturally appropriate care of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander individuals. Two existing specialist resources could be utilised to deliver a tailored cardiovascular core curriculum; the Heart Education Assessment and Rehabilitation Toolkit (HEART) online (www.heartonline.org.au) and HeartOne (www.heartone.com.au). Both resources could be further enhanced by incorporating the core curriculum. The release of the European core curriculum should be viewed as a call to action for Australia to develop a core curriculum for cardiovascular nurses. Copyright © 2015 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Protecting Socio-Economic Rights Through the European Convention on Human Rights : Trends and Developments in the European Court of Human Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Palmer (Ellie)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis article is concerned with jurisprudential trends and developments in the protection of socio-economic rights through the interpretation of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). It focuses on the potential to gain access to health care and welfare services, and the

  4. ROMANIA ON THE PATH TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS WITHIN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kardos Mihaela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the issues of sustainable development are of great interest and importance, as countries, organisations, institutions worldwide are still searching for the right solutions leading to human well-being and life quality in a society socially acceptable, economically viable and environmentally sustainable, in an integrated vision between states and generations. Due to the difficulties of measuring such a complex, multi-dimensioned concept, one of the main questions refers to necessity and the possibility of determining countries’ progress towards sustainable development. In this respect, there are a very large number of initiatives and efforts to develop the appropri¬ate indicators; yet, there is no one agreed method. In this generous context of analysis, the paper aims to offer some answers regarding Romania’s progress towards sustainable development, based on a comparative analysis within the European Union, using data provided by three of the most widely used indicators for measuring sustainable development: Human Development Index, Environmental Performance Index and Ecological Footprint. The research methodology uses the comparative analysis and synthesis of data, followed by a dissemination of the results in order to express a personal opinion on the topic. The research results are far from being optimistic, highlighting a serious gap between Romania and the other member states in terms of progress towards sustainable development. Therefore, they call for immediate action and increased efforts, so that European Union’s objectives of real cohesion and of becoming one of the global leaders in supporting sustainable development can be reached. The merit of this study is its contribution with an original research to the efforts of assessing Romania’s progress on the path to sustainable development, which may be particularly important for both researchers and policy makers. Due to some limitations induced by

  5. An interpretation of the behavior of EoS/GE models for asymmetric systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Panayiotis, Vlamos

    2000-01-01

    or zero pressure or at other conditions (system's pressure, constant volume packing fraction). In a number of publications over the last years, the achievements and the shortcomings of the various EoS/G(E) models have been presented via phase equilibrium calculations. This short communication provides...... an explanation of several literature EoSIGE models, especially those based on zero-reference pressure (PSRK, MHV1, MHV2), in the prediction of phase equilibria for asymmetric systems as well as an interpretation of the LCVM and kappa-MHV1 models which provide an empirical - yet as shown here theoretically...... justified - solution to these problems. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  6. Current Status of the LOFAR EoR Key Science Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, L. V. E.; LOFAR EoR KSP Team

    2018-05-01

    A short status update on the LOFAR Epoch of Reionization (EoR) Key Science Project (KSP) is given, regarding data acquisition, data processing and analysis, and current power-spectrum limits on the redshifted 21-cm signal of neutral hydrogen at redshifts z = 8 - 10. With caution, we present a preliminary astrophysical analysis of ~60 hr of processed LOFAR data and their resulting power spectrum, showing that potentially already interesting limits on X-ray heating during the Cosmic Dawn can already be gained. This is by no means the final analysis of this sub-set of data, but illustrates the future potential when all nearly 3000 hr of data in hand on two EoR windows will have been processed.

  7. Organ dose and effective dose with the EOS scanner in spine deformity surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide Pedersen, Peter; Petersen, Asger Greval; Eiskjær, Søren Peter

    2016-01-01

    Organ dose and effective dose with the EOS scanner in spine deformity surgery. A study on anthropomorphic phantoms describing patient radiation exposure in full spine examinations. Authors: Peter Heide Pedersen, Asger Greval Petersen, Søren Peter Eiskjær. Background: Ionizing radiation potentially...... quality images while at the same time reducing radiation dose. At our institution we use the EOS for pre- and postoperative full spine examinations. Purpose: The purpose of the study is to make first time organ dose and effective dose evaluations with micro-dose settings in full spine examinations. Our...... hypothesis is that organ dose and effective doses can be reduced 5-10 times compared to standard settings, without too high image-quality trade off, resulting in a theoretical reduction of radiation induced cancer. Methods: Patient dosimetry is performed on anthropomorphic child phantoms, representing a 5...

  8. Evaluation of software based redundancy algorithms for the EOS storage system at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Andreas-Joachim; Sindrilaru, Elvin Alin; Zigann, Philipp

    2012-01-01

    EOS is a new disk based storage system used in production at CERN since autumn 2011. It is implemented using the plug-in architecture of the XRootD software framework and allows remote file access via XRootD protocol or POSIX-like file access via FUSE mounting. EOS was designed to fulfill specific requirements of disk storage scalability and IO scheduling performance for LHC analysis use cases. This is achieved by following a strategy of decoupling disk and tape storage as individual storage systems. A key point of the EOS design is to provide high availability and redundancy of files via a software implementation which uses disk-only storage systems without hardware RAID arrays. All this is aimed at reducing the overall cost of the system and also simplifying the operational procedures. This paper presents the advantages and disadvantages of redundancy by hardware (most classical storage installations) in comparison to redundancy by software. The latter is implemented in the EOS system and achieves its goal by spawning data and parity stripes via remote file access over nodes. The gain in redundancy and reliability comes with a trade-off in the following areas: • Increased complexity of the network connectivity • CPU intensive parity computations during file creation and recovery • Performance loss through remote disk coupling An evaluation and performance figures of several redundancy algorithms are presented for dual parity RAID and Reed-Solomon codecs. Moreover, the characteristics and applicability of these algorithms are discussed in the context of reliable data storage systems.

  9. Ranking of Palliative Care Development in the Countries of the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woitha, Kathrin; Garralda, Eduardo; Martin-Moreno, Jose María; Clark, David; Centeno, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    There is growing interest in monitoring palliative care (PC) development internationally. One aspect of this is the ranking of such development for comparative purposes. To generate a ranking classification and to compare scores for PC development in the countries of the European Union, 2007 and 2013. PC "development" in this study is understood as a combination of the existence of relevant services in a country ("resources") plus the capacity to develop further resources in the future ("vitality"). "Resources" comprise indicators of three types of PC services per population (inpatient palliative care units and inpatient hospices, hospital support teams, and home care teams). "Vitality" of PC is estimated by numerical scores for the existence of a national association, a directory of services, physician accreditation, attendances at a key European conference and volume of publications on PC development. The leading country (by raw score) is then considered as the reference point against which all other countries are measured. Different weightings are applied to resources (75%) and vitality (25%). From this, an overall ranking is constructed. The U.K. achieved the highest level of development (86% of the maximum possible score), followed by Belgium and overall The Netherlands (81%), and Sweden (80%). In the resources domain, Luxembourg, the U.K., and Belgium were leading. The top countries in vitality were Germany and the U.K. In comparison to 2007, The Netherlands, Malta, and Portugal showed the biggest improvements, whereas the positions of Spain, France, and Greece deteriorated. The ranking method permitted a comparison of palliative care development between countries and shows changes over time. Recommendations for improving the ranking include improvements to the methodology and greater explanation of the levels and changes it reveals. Copyright © 2016 Universidad Navarra. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. European Tips on Tourism development in the Caucasus in Early ХХ Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Tamarashvili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents tips, recommendations, advice by the Europeans. Their consideration was important for further development of tourism in the Caucasus. Namely, for the development of the organization, established in early 20th century “Caucasus Tourism Promotion Committee" and its relation with the countries with well-developed tourism, such as: Austria, Hungary, Germany, France, Bosnia and Herzegovina and etc. Using archive sources, we can consider the issues, concerning foreign tourism experience, types of advertisement in XX century, means of information, transport, tourist accommodation, tourism infrastructure, etc

  11. Economic development in the European super-periphery: Evidence from the Western Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartlett Will

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the conflicts that afflicted the Western Balkan region in the 1990s pushed the countries into the European 'super-periphery', characterized by deindustrialization and high unemployment, ethnic and regional fragmentation, political turmoil, and instability. Integration into international trade has been disrupted, leading to chronic balance of payments deficits. Low inflows of international capital, due to high country risk, have hindered technological catch-up and weakened international competitiveness. An unattractive environment for productive entrepreneurship has created barriers to the entry of SMEs, and at the same time large informal economies. Several countries have become labour-export economies, with significant outflows of skilled labour. Economic development follows a low-skill growth path. The current global economic crisis is having a further deleterious effect as export revenues, foreign direct investment, and labour remittances all diminish. Furthermore, as transition has proceeded, disparities between capital cities and rural areas have increased, while weak administrative capacities have hindered the implementation of effective local development policies to counteract these effects. Endogenous local development cannot provide an alternative to greater engagement with the global economy. The conclusion is that the countries of the region have been left out of the most beneficial elements of the globalisation process, while simultaneously suffering from its main defects. Without a faster process of accession to the EU, local disparities are likely to widen, and the region may remain within the European super-periphery for the foreseeable future.

  12. Support of an Active Science Project by a Large Information System: Lessons for the EOS Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelici, Gary L.; Skiles, J. W.; Popovici, Lidia Z.

    1993-01-01

    The ability of large information systems to support the changing data requirements of active science projects is being tested in a NASA collaborative study. This paper briefly profiles both the active science project and the large information system involved in this effort and offers some observations about the effectiveness of the project support. This is followed by lessons that are important for those participating in large information systems that need to support active science projects or that make available the valuable data produced by these projects. We learned in this work that it is difficult for a large information system focused on long term data management to satisfy the requirements of an on-going science project. For example, in order to provide the best service, it is important for all information system staff to keep focused on the needs and constraints of the scientists in the development of appropriate services. If the lessons learned in this and other science support experiences are not applied by those involved with large information systems of the EOS (Earth Observing System) era, then the final data products produced by future science projects may not be robust or of high quality, thereby making the conduct of the project science less efficacious and reducing the value of these unique suites of data for future research.

  13. A VidEo-Based Intelligent Recognition and Decision System for the Phacoemulsification Cataract Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Tian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The phacoemulsification surgery is one of the most advanced surgeries to treat cataract. However, the conventional surgeries are always with low automatic level of operation and over reliance on the ability of surgeons. Alternatively, one imaginative scene is to use video processing and pattern recognition technologies to automatically detect the cataract grade and intelligently control the release of the ultrasonic energy while operating. Unlike cataract grading in the diagnosis system with static images, complicated background, unexpected noise, and varied information are always introduced in dynamic videos of the surgery. Here we develop a VidEo-Based Intelligent Recognitionand Decision (VEBIRD system, which breaks new ground by providing a generic framework for automatically tracking the operation process and classifying the cataract grade in microscope videos of the phacoemulsification cataract surgery. VEBIRD comprises a robust eye (iris detector with randomized Hough transform to precisely locate the eye in the noise background, an effective probe tracker with Tracking-Learning-Detection to thereafter track the operation probe in the dynamic process, and an intelligent decider with discriminative learning to finally recognize the cataract grade in the complicated video. Experiments with a variety of real microscope videos of phacoemulsification verify VEBIRD’s effectiveness.

  14. EoC Study Update to Examine the Cost, Schedule and Technical Changes to NASA Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitten, Bob; Emmons, Debra; Shinn, Stephen; Scolese, Chris

    2018-01-01

    The original National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Explanation of Change (EoC) study was conducted in 2010 to understand the underlying causes of cost and schedule growth. The first study consisted of 25 missions launched from 2000 to 2010 and looked at the events that led to growth. These events were categorized into different bins that were rolled up to quantify whether the growth was due to internal planning, or internal execution, or from external forces and found that the growth was evenly distributed among those three categories. The result of the study presented nine considerations focused at reducing growth due to project external events and internal planning events. Although no one 'magic bullet' consideration was discovered in the previous work, the nine considerations taken as a whole were postulated to help reduce cost and schedule change in future NASA missions. A recent update was conducted that included investigating 8 missions developed since the previous study to determine if the results were different. Cost, schedule, and mass increases were analyzed from the start of Phase B through Preliminary Design Review and Critical Design Review to Launch. As shown in this paper, the results are better with overall cost and schedule growth being reduced. The paper will show a comparison of the previous results to the updated results to show specific reductions and provide an explanation of which recommendations were followed.

  15. A Clustered Extragalactic Foreground Model for the EoR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, S. G.; Trott, C. M.; Jordan, C. H.

    2018-05-01

    We review an improved statistical model of extra-galactic point-source foregrounds first introduced in Murray et al. (2017), in the context of the Epoch of Reionization. This model extends the instrumentally-convolved foreground covariance used in inverse-covariance foreground mitigation schemes, by considering the cosmological clustering of the sources. In this short work, we show that over scales of k ~ (0.6, 40.)hMpc-1, ignoring source clustering is a valid approximation. This is in contrast to Murray et al. (2017), who found a possibility of false detection if the clustering was ignored. The dominant cause for this change is the introduction of a Galactic synchrotron component which shadows the clustering of sources.

  16. EoR Foregrounds: the Faint Extragalactic Radio Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandoni, Isabella

    2018-05-01

    A wealth of new data from upgraded and new radio interferometers are rapidly improving and transforming our understanding of the faint extra-galactic radio sky. Indeed the mounting statistics at sub-mJy and μJy flux levels is finally allowing us to get stringent observational constraints on the faint radio population and on the modeling of its various components. In this paper I will provide a brief overview of the latest results in areas that are potentially important for an accurate treatment of extra-galactic foregrounds in experiments designed to probe the Epoch of Reionization.

  17. Mesoscopic Simulations of the Phase Behavior of Aqueous EO 19 PO 29 EO 19 Solutions Confined and Sheared by Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Hongyi; Li, Yan; Krause, Wendy E.; Pasquinelli, Melissa A.; Rojas, Orlando J.

    2012-01-01

    The MesoDyn method is used to investigate associative structures in aqueous solution of a nonionic triblock copolymer consisting of poly(propylene oxide) capped on both ends with poly(ethylene oxide) chains. The effect of adsorbing (hydrophobic) and nonadsorbing (hydrophilic) solid surfaces in contact with aqueous solutions of the polymer is elucidated. The macromolecules form self-assembled structures in solution. Confinement under shear forces is investigated in terms of interfacial behavior and association. The formation of micelles under confinement between hydrophilic surfaces occurs faster than in bulk aqueous solution while layered structures assemble when the polymers are confined between hydrophobic surfaces. Micelles are deformed under shear rates of 1 μs -1 and eventually break to form persistent, adsorbed layered structures. As a result, surface damage under frictional forces is prevented. Overall, this study indicates that aqueous triblock copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) (Pluronics, EO mPO nEO m) act as a boundary lubricant for hydrophobic surfaces but not for hydrophilic ones. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  18. Mesoscopic Simulations of the Phase Behavior of Aqueous EO 19 PO 29 EO 19 Solutions Confined and Sheared by Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Hongyi

    2012-01-25

    The MesoDyn method is used to investigate associative structures in aqueous solution of a nonionic triblock copolymer consisting of poly(propylene oxide) capped on both ends with poly(ethylene oxide) chains. The effect of adsorbing (hydrophobic) and nonadsorbing (hydrophilic) solid surfaces in contact with aqueous solutions of the polymer is elucidated. The macromolecules form self-assembled structures in solution. Confinement under shear forces is investigated in terms of interfacial behavior and association. The formation of micelles under confinement between hydrophilic surfaces occurs faster than in bulk aqueous solution while layered structures assemble when the polymers are confined between hydrophobic surfaces. Micelles are deformed under shear rates of 1 μs -1 and eventually break to form persistent, adsorbed layered structures. As a result, surface damage under frictional forces is prevented. Overall, this study indicates that aqueous triblock copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) (Pluronics, EO mPO nEO m) act as a boundary lubricant for hydrophobic surfaces but not for hydrophilic ones. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  19. Properties and development of the middle European Lithospere: Reality and Ideas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Suk

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the middle European lithosphere is extra-ordinary complicated by a combination of the shield type (Baltica the organic type (European Cadomiles, Hercyniles and Alpides and the basin types (Po and Pannonian basins lithosphere. The geological and geophysical data on its structure, age distribution of temperature and pressures and on the plate movements in its geological development inspire some loubts about the correctness of the theories exploining the relations of the parts by subduction processes only. For example, the long distance autonomous movements deduced from paleomagnetic data can be explained by an expansion of the continental crust and the anomalous properties or tne basins are explainable by the beginning of the origin of a new intracontinental rift zone.

  20. The effect of tributyltin on human eosinophilic [correction of eosinophylic] leukemia EoL-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroka, Jolanta; Włosiak, Przemysław; Wilk, Anna; Antonik, Justyna; Czyz, Jarosław; Madeja, Zbigniew

    2008-01-01

    Organotin compounds are chemicals that are widely used in industry and agriculture as plastic stabilizers, catalysts and biocides. Many of them, including tributyltin (TBT), have been detected in human food and, as a consequence, detectable levels have been found in human blood. As organotin compounds were shown to possess immunotoxic activity, we focused our attention on the effect of TBT on the basic determinants of the function of eosinophils, i.e. cell adhesiveness and motility. We used human eosinophylic leukemia EoL-1 cells, a common in vitro cellular model of human eosinophils. Here, we demonstrate that TBT causes a dose-dependent decrease in the viability of EoL-1 cells. When administered at sub-lethal concentrations, TBT significantly decreases the adhesion of EoL-1 cells to human fibroblasts (HSFs) and inhibits their migration on fibroblast surfaces. Since the basic function of eosinophils is to invade inflamed tissues, our results indicate that TBT, and possibly other organotin compounds, may affect major cellular properties involved in the determination of in vivo eosinophil function.

  1. Increasing transparency in the European Union: developments of Country-by-Country Reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Brodzka

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing transparency in the European Union: developments of Country-by-Country Reporting The aim of the paper is to bring closer Country-by-Country Reporting and outline possible future amendments of the introduced anti-tax avoidance measures. The article presents the motives of implementing the international CbC initiative, aimed at increasing transparency of the biggest multinational enterprises, with particular emphasis on the specificity of the European Union. Part 2 of the paper analyses the Euro-pean legal bases for companies’ financial reporting. It also gives an overview of the main findings of Directive 2016/881, which implements Country-by-Country Reporting and allows for the exchange of information between tax authorities. Part 3 deals with the national perspective, presenting the CbC solu-tions implemented to the Polish legal system; the paper also attempts to assess the potential impact of tax information disclosures, both from the perspective of taxpayers and the tax administration. The final part presents conclusions and tries to draft future developments of the Country-by-Country Reporting system. In the paper, the following research methods have been used: critical analysis and deduction, with partic-ular reference to the source materials and legal acts, as well as the reports of the European Commission, consulting companies, and NGOs. Although the article deals with tax matters, CbC Reporting is an im-portant and relevant issue from the point of view of researchers and accounting specialists. Reporting this phenomenon is part of the accounting science as a universal tool for recording economic phenomena. The author examined all relevant sources and took into account all important factors in order to obtain a com-prehensive picture of CbC Reporting and to prepare a paper that may serve as a reference for future research.

  2. Renewable electricity market developments in the European Union. Final Report of the ADMIRE REBUS project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyterlinde, M.A.; Daniels, B.W.; De Noord, M.; De Vries, H.J.; De Zoeten - Dartenset, C.; Skytte, K.; Meibom, P.; Lescot, D.; Hoffmann, T.; Stronzik, M.; Gual, M.; Del Rio, P.; Hernandez, F.

    2003-10-01

    Which countries offer the best markets for renewables? Are present support policies sufficient to meet the EU (European Union) renewables target for 2010? Which renewable technologies will have the largest growth in the present decade? The ADMIRE REBUS project has addressed these questions by giving an outlook on the future of electricity from renewable energy sources. The ADMIRE REBUS project team has analysed the market barriers, support policies and potentials for renewable electricity production in Europe. For these analyses a new tool was developed that simulates the development of the European renewable electricity market under different policy scenarios. The report starts with describing the approach and key assumptions used in the analysis. Next, an overview is provided of EU legislation and different support policies for renewable energy. After a brief overview of the different challenges that an investor faces when investing in renewable energy technologies with respect to lead times, risks and transaction costs, several policy scenarios for the future are discussed. Next, the report presents ADMIRE REBUS model analyses of different policy strategies for meeting the targets stated in the EU Renewables Directive. The report continues the analysis of model results with presenting prospects for individual technologies and market prices under different scenarios. Next, case studies are presented for four different EU Member States. The analysis results are put into perspective by a sensitivity analysis. Finally, conclusions are drawn and recommendations are formulated based on the above

  3. The Future of Sustainable Development: Welcome to the European Journal of Sustainable Development Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is an objective for humanity of crucial importance to how we develop and evolve. It is also a rapidly growing discipline that is becoming increasingly applied in numerous areas, reflecting humanity's desire to ensure its activities can be sustained into the future and do not adversely affect the ecology or environment. Sustainable development is often defined based on the 1987 statement of the World Commission on Environment and Development (i.e., the Brundtland Commission. In that milestone document, sustainable development was defined as "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." But new definitions are being developed as the discipline expands and becomes more multidisciplinary and complex.

  4. European blanket development for a demo reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giancarli, L.; Proust, E.; Anzidei, L.

    1994-01-01

    There are four breeding blanket concepts for a fusion DEMO reactor under development within the framework of the fusion technology programme of the European Union (EU). This paper describes the design of these concepts, the accompanying R + D programme and the status of the development. (authors). 8 figs., 1 tab

  5. The development of the European electricity market in a juridical no man’s land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pront-van Bommel, S.; Dorsman, A.; Westerman, W.; Karan, M.B.; Arslan, Ö.

    2011-01-01

    Energy trade, including trade in energy derivatives, may entail various potential risks. Conceivably, these risks could jeopardize European Union objectives, such as consumer protection. Under the European Third Energy Package, which recently entered into force, Member States are required to confer

  6. Status of the Multi-Angle SpectroRadiometer Instrument for EOS- AM1 and Its Application to Remote Sensing of Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diner, D. J.; Abdou, W. A.; Bruegge, C. J.; Conel, J. E.; Kahn, R. A.; Martonchik, J. V.; Paradise, S. R.; West, R. A.

    1995-01-01

    The Multi-Angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) is being developed at JPL for the AM1 spacecraft in the Earth Observing System (EOS) series. This paper reports on the progress of instrument fabrication and testing, and it discusses the strategy to use the instrument for studying tropospheric aerosols.

  7. The symmetry energy at suprasaturation density and the ASY-EOS experiment at GSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Filippo E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ASY-EOS experiment at GSI laboratory measured the direct and elliptic flow of neutrons and light charged particles in the reaction 197Au+197 Au at 400 A MeV incident energy. The ratio of elliptic flow of neutrons with respect to that of the light charged particles was used as main experimental observable to probe the density dependence of the symmetry energy term of the nuclear equation of state. Results, obtained by comparison of the experimental data with the UrQMD model predictions, strongly support a moderately soft to linear density dependence of the symmetry energy at suprasaturation densities below 2ρ0.

  8. Development of the Visegrad Group in the Context of Efforts to Accelerate the Convergence Processes by Joining the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudec Martin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The European integration efforts have been underway on the European continent for several centuries. Therefore, it is important for a better clarity and transparency of selected processes to understand the term European integration, meaning the integration endeavour into the European Union, which in the case of the Visegrad countries took a notable place since the early nineties of the 20th century. This research paper focuses on analysis and comparison of selected development processes in Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, and Hungary since the fall of the communist regime in 1989, resulting into the Visegrad Group formation, until joining the European Union in 2004. This research is based on the hypothesis that during this period, the V4 countries had a similar initial economic situation, converging together towards developed structures and corresponding mainly to questions such as what they were their starting situation and how have those countries developed further. It will be further addressed what was the cause of this development and how it continued, showing which countries have led the way, and what factors did influence them the most.

  9. The European contribution to the development and validation activities for the design of IFMIF lithium facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miccichè, Gioacchino, E-mail: gioacchino.micciche@enea.it [EURATOM-ENEA, CR Brasimone I-40035 Camugnano, BO (Italy); Aiello, Antonio; Bernardi, Davide; Favuzza, Paolo; Agostini, Pietro [EURATOM-ENEA, CR Brasimone I-40035 Camugnano, BO (Italy); Frisoni, Manuela [EURATOM-ENEA, CR Bologna I-40129, BO Italy (Italy); Pinna, Tonio; Porfiri, MariaTeresa [EURATOM-ENEA, CR Frascati I-0044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Tincani, Amelia [EURATOM-ENEA, CR Brasimone I-40035 Camugnano, BO (Italy); Di Maio, PieroAlessandro [University of Palermo, I-90128 Palermo (Italy); Knaepen, Bernard [Université libre de Bruxelles, I-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Engineering design of the target assembly. • Erosion, corrosion phenomena promoted by the lithium are studied. • Purification system implemented in the LiFus6 loop. • Study of the remote handling maintenance for the IFMIF TA. -- Abstract: The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is an accelerator-driven intense neutron source where candidate materials for fusion reactors will be tested and validated. The high energy neutron flux is produced by means of two deuteron beams (total current of 250 mA, energy of 40 MeV) that strikes a liquid lithium target circulating in a lithium loop of IFMIF plant. The European (EU) contribution to the development of the lithium facility comprises five procurement packages, as follow: (1) participation to the experimental activities of the EVEDA lithium test loop in Oarai (Japan); (2) study aimed at evaluating the corrosion and erosion phenomena, promoted by lithium, for structural fusion reference materials like AISI 316L and Eurofer; (3) design and validation of the lithium purification method with the aim to provide input data for the design of the purification system of IFIMF lithium loop; (4) design and validation of the remote handling (RH) procedures for the refurbishment/replacement of the EU concept of IFMIF target assembly including the design of the remote handling tools; (5) the engineering design of the European target assembly for IFMIF and the safety and RAMI analyses for the entire IFMIF lithium facility. The paper gives an overview of the status of the activities and of the main outcomes achieved so far.

  10. The European contribution to the development and validation activities for the design of IFMIF lithium facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miccichè, Gioacchino; Aiello, Antonio; Bernardi, Davide; Favuzza, Paolo; Agostini, Pietro; Frisoni, Manuela; Pinna, Tonio; Porfiri, MariaTeresa; Tincani, Amelia; Di Maio, PieroAlessandro; Knaepen, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Engineering design of the target assembly. • Erosion, corrosion phenomena promoted by the lithium are studied. • Purification system implemented in the LiFus6 loop. • Study of the remote handling maintenance for the IFMIF TA. -- Abstract: The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is an accelerator-driven intense neutron source where candidate materials for fusion reactors will be tested and validated. The high energy neutron flux is produced by means of two deuteron beams (total current of 250 mA, energy of 40 MeV) that strikes a liquid lithium target circulating in a lithium loop of IFMIF plant. The European (EU) contribution to the development of the lithium facility comprises five procurement packages, as follow: (1) participation to the experimental activities of the EVEDA lithium test loop in Oarai (Japan); (2) study aimed at evaluating the corrosion and erosion phenomena, promoted by lithium, for structural fusion reference materials like AISI 316L and Eurofer; (3) design and validation of the lithium purification method with the aim to provide input data for the design of the purification system of IFIMF lithium loop; (4) design and validation of the remote handling (RH) procedures for the refurbishment/replacement of the EU concept of IFMIF target assembly including the design of the remote handling tools; (5) the engineering design of the European target assembly for IFMIF and the safety and RAMI analyses for the entire IFMIF lithium facility. The paper gives an overview of the status of the activities and of the main outcomes achieved so far

  11. Recommendations for the development of e-modules for the continuing professional development of European dentists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavadella, A.; Kossioni, A.E.; Tsiklakis, K.; Cowpe, J.; Bullock, A.; Barnes, E.; Bailey, S.; Thomas, H.; Thomas, R.; Karaharju-Suvanto, T.; Suomalainen, K.; Kersten, H.; Povel, E.; Giles, M.; Walmsley, D.; Soboleva, U.; Liepa, A.; Akota, I.

    2013-01-01

    Aims To provide evidence-based and peer-reviewed recommendations for the development of dental continuing professional development (CPD) learning e-modules. Methods The present recommendations are consensus recommendations of the DentCPD project team and were informed by a literature research,

  12. Relativistic nuclear collisions from the EOS experiment at the Bevalac: collective observables and multifragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insolia, A.

    1996-01-01

    The EOS Collaborations has completed an exclusive study of relativistic heavy ion collisions at the Bevalac using a variety of projectile, target and beam energy combinations. We report here results on directed sidewards flow in Au+Au between 0.25 AGeV and 1.2 AGeV, using a standard in-plane transverse momentum analysis. We also report on projectile fragmentation of Au in C at 1 AGeV. An analysis of fluctuations and critical exponents for small systems seems to support the idea that the multifragmentation regime is associated with a liquid gas phase transition in nuclear matter. (authors)

  13. European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP): the path towards a true partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matee, Mecky I; Manyando, Christine; Ndumbe, Peter M; Corrah, Tumani; Jaoko, Walter G; Kitua, Andrew Y; Ambene, Herman Pa; Ndounga, Mathieu; Zijenah, Lynn; Ofori-Adjei, David; Agwale, Simon; Shongwe, Steven; Nyirenda, Thomas; Makanga, Michael

    2009-07-20

    European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP) was founded in 2003 by the European Parliament and Council. It is a partnership of 14 European Union (EU) member states, Norway, Switzerland, and Developing Countries, formed to fund acceleration of new clinical trial interventions to fight the human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), malaria and tuberculosis (TB) in the sub-Saharan African region. EDCTP seeks to be synergistic with other funding bodies supporting research on these diseases. EDCTP promotes collaborative research supported by multiple funding agencies and harnesses networking expertise across different African and European countries. EDCTP is different from other similar initiatives. The organisation of EDCTP blends important aspects of partnership that includes ownership, sustainability and responds to demand-driven research. The Developing Countries Coordinating Committee (DCCC); a team of independent scientists and representatives of regional health bodies from sub-Saharan Africa provides advice to the partnership. Thus EDCTP reflects a true partnership and the active involvement and contribution of these African scientists ensures joint ownership of the EDCTP programme with European counterparts. The following have been the major achievements of the EDCTP initiative since its formation in 2003; i) increase in the number of participating African countries from two to 26 in 2008 ii) the cumulative amount of funds spent on EDCTP projects has reached 150 m euros, iii) the cumulative number of clinical trials approved has reached 40 and iv) there has been a significant increase number and diversity in capacity building activities. While we recognise that EDCTP faced enormous challenges in its first few years of existence, the strong involvement of African scientists and its new initiatives such as unconditional funding to regional networks of excellence in sub-Saharan Africa is envisaged to

  14. The European ITER Test Blanket Modules: Current status of fabrication technologies development and a way forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zmitko, Milan, E-mail: milan.zmitko@f4e.europa.eu [Fusion for Energy (F4E), Josep Pla 2, Barcelona (Spain); Galabert, Jose [Fusion for Energy (F4E), Josep Pla 2, Barcelona (Spain); Thomas, Noël [ATMOSTAT, F-94815 Villejuif (France); Forest, Laurent [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, SEMT, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bucci, Philippe; Cogneau, Laurence [CEA-DRT, 38000 Grenoble (France); Rey, Jörg; Neuberger, Heiko [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Postfach 3640, Karlsruhe (Germany); Poitevin, Yves [Fusion for Energy (F4E), Josep Pla 2, Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Significant progress on development of welding procedures for European TBM achieved. • Fabrication processes feasibility based on diffusion and fusion welding demonstrated. • TBM box assembly welding scenarios investigated and welding scenarios identified. • Future qualification of pF/WPS proposed through realization of a number of QMUs. - Abstract: The paper reviews fabrication technologies and procedures applied for manufacturing of the TBM sub-components, like, HCLL and HCPB cooling plates, HCLL/HCPB stiffening plates, and HCLL/HCPB first wall and side caps. The used technologies are based on fusion and diffusion welding techniques taking into account specificities of the EUROFER-97 steel. Development of a standardized procedure complying with professional codes and standards (RCC-MRx), a preliminary fabrication/welding procedure specification (pF/WPS), is described as well as a fabrication and characterization of feasibility mock-ups (FMU) aimed at assessing the suitability of a fabrication process for fulfilling the design and fabrication specifications. Also, fabrication procedures for the TBM box assembly are presently under development through collaboration between European Fusion Laboratories and Industry for the establishment of an optimized assembly sequence/scenario and development of standardized welding procedure specifications. Selection of optimized assembly scenario takes into accounts not only the design requirements and fabrication possibilities/constraints but also maximum accessibility to the welds for sound non-destructive examination in compliance with welds classification. A future approach towards qualification of the developed fabrication technologies and procedures, through a number of medium to full-size qualification mock-ups according to European standards, is outlined before construction of the first TBMs.

  15. The Absorption of European Funds Premise of Romanian Business Environment Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Marchis

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this paper is to emphasize the important role played by Structural andCohesion Funds for business environment development, especially in times of economic downturn when thefinancial resources are difficult to access. Prior work regarding the promotion of good administration ofstructural funds in new member states was carried out by NGOs. The main methods employed for capturingthe research evidence consists in comparative analysis of the related work, and also in studying the capacityof absorption of European funds in the case Romania, especially from the SMEs perspective. The mainresults show that European Funds absorption is delayed and negatively influenced by a series of factors. Theimportance of European financial assistance through Structural and Cohesion Funds is undeniable, especiallyin times of financial crisis, so implications of this study are important to entrepreneurs, especially for SMEsbut also to policy-makers, because they can design the procedures of accessing this funds in order to easy thisprocess. The value of this paper ensues from the original approach of contradictory role played by Europeanfunds for Romanian business environment, because it represents the mirage of overcoming economic crisis.

  16. ASTEC code development, validation and applications for severe accident management within the CESAM European project - 15392

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dorsselaere, J.P.; Chatelard, P.; Chevalier-Jabet, K.; Nowack, H.; Herranz, L.E.; Pascal, G.; Sanchez-Espinoza, V.H.

    2015-01-01

    ASTEC, jointly developed by IRSN and GRS, is considered as the European reference code since it capitalizes knowledge from the European research on the domain. The CESAM project aims at its enhancement and extension for use in severe accident management (SAM) analysis of the nuclear power plants (NPP) of Generation II-III presently under operation or foreseen in near future in Europe, spent fuel pools included. Within the CESAM project 3 main types of research activities are performed: -) further validation of ASTEC models important for SAM, in particular for the phenomena being of importance in the Fukushima-Daichi accidents, such as reflooding of degraded cores, pool scrubbing, hydrogen combustion, or spent fuel pools behaviour; -) modelling improvements, especially for BWR or based on the feedback of validation tasks; and -) ASTEC applications to severe accident scenarios in European NPPs in order to assess prevention and mitigation measures. An important step will be reached with the next major ASTEC V2.1 version planned to be delivered in the first part of 2015. Its main improvements will concern the possibility to simulate in details the core degradation of BWR and PHWR and a model of reflooding of severely degraded cores. A new user-friendly Graphic User Interface will be available for plant analyses

  17. The European programme to develop the Wells air turbine for applications in wave energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, P.R.S.

    1996-01-01

    The European Wave Energy Pilot Plants currently under construction are utilising Wells air turbines to convert oscillating pneumatic energy within the converters to unidirectional energy of rotation for direct coupling to electrical generators. The Wells turbine has also been proposed for future off shore wave energy converters (eg SEA CLAM). The European research programme was to produce Recommendations for selecting the most appropriate air turbine for a given wave power application. The work concentrated on collating existing work on the Wells turbine, and extending it to examine rotor aerodynamics, the effect and practicality of variable pitch rotor blades, the effect on performance of interaction with the converter, and the preparation of design guide lines. A comparison between the output of a Wells turbine and a conventional air turbine with rectifying valves when subjected to the same random reversing air flow was also conducted. This paper gives a brief outline of the programme of work, and concludes that at this stage of development the Wells turbine is the preferred choice of prime mover for pneumatic wave energy converters. (Author)

  18. Opportunities and Prospects of Trade Development between Romania and the Russian Federation in the European Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Câmpeanu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper has as main objective the analysis of the opportunities and development perspectives of the trade relationship between Romania and the Russian Federation, linked to the latest evolutions of the European and global economic context. Keeping in mind this objective, our paper is structured around three main sections, as follows. The first part, “Economic Context of Romania-Russian Federation Trade Development” is centered upon the global crisis and its effects on the EU, Romania and Russia as well as the EU-Russia increasing bilateral merchandise trade flows. We examine how the global economic crisis interrupted increasing merchandise trade between EU-27 and the Russian Federation and present the main exporter countries from the EU-27 to Russia and the major EU importers from Russia and analyze in a comparative manner the very concentrated trade pattern between EU-27 and Russia. In the next section, “Romania-Russia Trade Development”, we underline that the Russian Federation is the second extra-EU trading partner of our country. We explore Romania’s trade relationship with Russia during pre and post accession to the European Union and also the actual trends of the bilateral trade, which pattern is extremely concentrated. In the last section, “Opportunities and Prospects for the Trade Development between Romania and Russian Federation”, we conclude, on the basis of the comparative and prospective analysis, that: Romania could be well positioned on Russian markets; there are many similarities in competitiveness characteristics of our countries; Romania and Russia have some problematic factors in doing business; strong points of the Romanian manufacturing industry could lead to the diversification of trade pattern and, finally, Romania has the possibility to develop a strong economic partnership with the Russian Federation under the framework of the EU-Russia relationship.

  19. Classification of the European Union member states according to the relative level of sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna, Bluszcz

    Nowadays methods of measurement and assessment of the level of sustained development at the international, national and regional level are a current research problem, which requires multi-dimensional analysis. The relative assessment of the sustainability level of the European Union member states and the comparative analysis of the position of Poland relative to other countries was the aim of the conducted studies in the article. EU member states were treated as objects in the multi-dimensional space. Dimensions of space were specified by ten diagnostic variables describing the sustainability level of UE countries in three dimensions, i.e., social, economic and environmental. Because the compiled statistical data were expressed in different units of measure, taxonomic methods were used for building an aggregated measure to assess the level of sustainable development of EU member states, which through normalisation of variables enabled the comparative analysis between countries. Methodology of studies consisted of eight stages, which included, among others: defining data matrices, calculating the variability coefficient for all variables, which variability coefficient was under 10 %, division of variables into stimulants and destimulants, selection of the method of variable normalisation, developing matrices of normalised data, selection of the formula and calculating the aggregated indicator of the relative level of sustainable development of the EU countries, calculating partial development indicators for three studies dimensions: social, economic and environmental and the classification of the EU countries according to the relative level of sustainable development. Statistical date were collected based on the Polish Central Statistical Office publication.

  20. LOCAL BRAND DEVELOPMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF REGIONALIZATION AND EUROPEAN INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Alexandru LUCA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently Romania is in the process of regionalization whose foundations were laid in the "Green Paper regional development in Romania", elaborated under the aegis of the EU Delegation in our country. Regional development is a defining concept of EU construction and at the same time it constitutes a monitoring parameter of any country that wishes to join this structure. Not incidentally, one of the most important directions of the European Commission is called "Regional development and social cohesion”. Against the background of regional development trends, the brand of the region is the one that will make the difference. The concept of branding applied to countries, cities and regions began to be used in the mid-90s in order to support these geographical areas in their fierce competition in the competitive environment. In this era of "super-brands" is nothing unusual to consider a city, a country or a region as being a successful brand.

  1. The European Fusion Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palumbo, D.

    1983-01-01

    The European Fusion Programme is coordinated by Euratom and represents a long term cooperative project of Member States of the European Communities in the field of fusion, designed to lead to the joint construction of prototypes. The main lines of the programme proposed for 1982 to 1986 are: (1) the continuation of a strong effort on tokamaks with emphasis on JET construction, operation and upgrading, (2) conceptual design of NET and development of the related technology, and (3) further work on two alternative magnetic confinement systems. The current status and future plans for this programme are discussed in the paper. (author)

  2. AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regulations governing the production and use of genetically modified organisms have been developed in the United Kingdom since 1976. Regulations covering the release of transgenic organisms into the environment were initially voluntary. Since 1990, the European Economic Commission (EEC) Directive. 90/219 and ...

  3. THE NEED FOR PUBLIC DEBT MANAGEMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghisan Madalina Georgeta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Public debt is created when the necessary resources for the socio-economic development of a state are greater than the opportunities that exist at that time. The destination of the necessary resources acquired from foreign markets can be either consumption by raising the standard of living (on short term or investments in order to reduce the discrepancies in relation to the European Union through investments in infrastructure, jobs, human and technical capital development. The scientific research aims to clarify several key objectives, namely: the theoretical concept and its belonging in the governance politics; the dynamics of public debt in Romania and the identification of specific features of the indebtedness decision, the influence of the current global economic crisis on the Romanian economy, the analysis of Romania's public debt sustainability integrated in the European structures, and proposals for action in order to return as soon as possible to a positive economic dynamics with direct impact on people's standard of living. The theme of this research is contemporary in the context of the financial and economical global crisis and the difficulties in overcoming this period. The need to coordination the fiscal and budgetary policies in Romania, the awareness that the accumulation of a large public debt presents a threat to future generations, the increase of the tax pressure over a market that trends towards globalization and the impact that the aging of the population will have on the public finances sparked public controversy, both in the academic environment and in the media. To continuously borrow resources and maintain a stable level for them requires a sustainable public debt, an important objective of any state's tax policy. A sustainable public debt is the result of the market and of the fiscal and budgetary policy decisions. Although the sustainability of public finances and implicitly of public debt has been an issue extensively

  4. Is Gender Mainstreamed? : A study of the European Commission's use of gender mainstreaming in development policies

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    The EU has long expressed a will to be a normative power and to externally promote the values it views as important. Seeing as the EU collectively is the largest donor of foreign aid in the world, development policies are a perfect platform for doing this. One value that has gained ground in recent years is the notion of gender equality. Bearing this in mind, this thesis explores how the EU’s largest institutional donor of foreign aid, the European Commission, has chosen to promote the value ...

  5. ALTER-GLOBALISM AND DEVELOPMENT IN MIGRATION CONDITIONS. THE CASE OF AN EAST EUROPEAN COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina HALLER

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation is a process that brings advantages and disadvantages to all states, regardless of their stage of development. The relative deprivation, especially the financial one, of the developing countries is a reason of frustration, which motivates the emigration decision; hence our orientation to alter-globalism. In this paper, I intend to highlight by means of analysis, synthesis, deduction, induction, and statistic data, the causes and types of migration in Romania’s case, one of the main European countries where the immigrants originate from. We will see how globalisation manifests itself in a twofold manner in the economy and the society of a developing country, just like migration. We will show why a poor country is avoided by immigrants and deserted, as a result of immigration, by its own population, while, just like the developed states, it is likely to face the same demographic, economic and social problems, considering that the process of demographic transition is already manifested.

  6. THE IMPACT OF THE EUROPEAN REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT FUND ON SMES – EVIDENCE FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciocoiu Cristina-Elena

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As the first programming period for Romania is reaching its end, more information becomes available regarding the effects of the European Union funds on the Romanian economy. Going beyond the mathematical absorption rate, it is important to analyse these effects, especially with regard to the small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs, in order to improve the future implementation documents for 2014-2020. The purpose of this article is to measure the impact of the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF, granted within one of the 2007-2013 operational programmes, on the net turnover, number of staff and gross profit of the small and medium-sized enterprises from one Romanian county – Iasi. Overcoming the difficulties of gathering reliable data, the empirical research presented in this article tests three hypotheses. The first one is that the EU funding provided to an SME leads to an increase in its net turnover, number of staff and gross profit. The second hypothesis is that there is a direct relationship between the amount of the grant given to an SME and the evolution of the three previously mentioned parameters. The third and last tested hypothesis is that the SMEs that implemented more than one EU-funded project have a better evolution than the ones that implemented only one. The conclusions of our study include recommendations for the implementation guides that are currently being drafted by the responsible national authorities. They also include suggestions with regard to the availability of data concerning the EU-funded projects, especially in the context of the new requirements of the European Union regarding e-cohesion and information and communication. In this context, we also explore the potential benefits of implementing projects that complement each other instead of independent projects. As such, the research presented in this article aims to contribute to a better understanding of the impact of the EU regional development policy

  7. Empowering the rural poor through EO products and services—An impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwakar, P. G.; Ranganath, B. K.; Gowrisankar, D.; Jayaraman, V.

    2008-07-01

    With the advent of technology in the form of space-based imaging, network-based computation and information technology, the focus has shifted to how these technologies could change the livelihoods of rural community and put them on the path of developmental processes. Many rural villages in India do not have right kind of infrastructure and connectivity, which makes it difficult for any developmental program to perform successfully. This makes them more vulnerable and further cut off from the mainstream developmental programs in the country. There are large tracts of arid and semi-arid lands in many parts of the country, which requires scientific inputs and improved farming practices for sustenance of poor communities under tough conditions. Unless some simple and cost-effective methods are evolved and taken to the field level, it is difficult to see positive developments in such areas and stop people from migrating to different areas for livelihood options. Integrated watershed development program with innovative practices and holistic approach could bring about positive changes in such poverty stricken areas that host vulnerable groups who experience the hardship due to poor local natural resources conditions and living standards. An optimal combination of space technology and information technology has been successfully used, through participatory methods, to empower the rural poor in realizing better livelihood possibilities. An attempt is made in this paper to find solutions for such problematic areas with some innovative tools and techniques that involve user-friendly delivery of EO products and services for the benefit of the rural community and help them in decision making at local level.

  8. Environmental policy in the European Union. Fostering the development of pollution havens?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cave, Lisa A. [Institute for Regional Analysis and Public Policy Morehead State University, Morehead, KY 40351 (United States); Blomquist, Glenn C. [Department of Economics, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0034 (United States)

    2008-04-01

    A pollution haven occurs when dirty industries from developed nations relocate to developing nations in order to avoid strict environmental standards or developed nations imports of dirty industries expand replacing domestic production. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the European Union (EU) has increased its imports of 'dirty' goods from poorer, less democratic countries during a period of more stringent environmental standards. Previous empirical studies find evidence that United States imports are responsive to changes in environmental stringency, but the effects of EU policy have not been examined as thoroughly. Our study follows Kahn [Kahn, M.E., 2003. The Geography of USA Pollution Intensive Trade: Evidence from 1958 to 1994. Regional Science and Urban Economics., 33: 383-400.] and examines the impact of industry energy intensity and toxicity, measured by an energy index and a Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) index, on imports into the EU, at the 2-digit industry level from 1970 to 1999. We use the signing of the Maastricht Treaty to signify a period of more uniform and stringent community wide environmental standards (1993-1999), and identify the level of per capita GDP within an EU trading partner. We find an increased amount of EU energy intensive trade with poorer countries during the period with more stringent EU environmental standards. This result is not robust, however, when poorer countries are defined by OECD membership and geographic region. We do not find an increased amount of EU toxic intensive trade with poorer countries although there is some evidence of increased EU imports of toxic goods from poorer OECD and non-EU European countries. For our full sample of trading partners in all regions, the evidence supports the PHH for EU energy intensive trade, but not for toxic intensive trade. Results for regional trade analysis are less clear. (author)

  9. Environmental policy in the European Union. Fostering the development of pollution havens?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cave, Lisa A.; Blomquist, Glenn C.

    2008-01-01

    A pollution haven occurs when dirty industries from developed nations relocate to developing nations in order to avoid strict environmental standards or developed nations imports of dirty industries expand replacing domestic production. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the European Union (EU) has increased its imports of 'dirty' goods from poorer, less democratic countries during a period of more stringent environmental standards. Previous empirical studies find evidence that United States imports are responsive to changes in environmental stringency, but the effects of EU policy have not been examined as thoroughly. Our study follows Kahn [Kahn, M.E., 2003. The Geography of USA Pollution Intensive Trade: Evidence from 1958 to 1994. Regional Science and Urban Economics., 33: 383-400.] and examines the impact of industry energy intensity and toxicity, measured by an energy index and a Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) index, on imports into the EU, at the 2-digit industry level from 1970 to 1999. We use the signing of the Maastricht Treaty to signify a period of more uniform and stringent community wide environmental standards (1993-1999), and identify the level of per capita GDP within an EU trading partner. We find an increased amount of EU energy intensive trade with poorer countries during the period with more stringent EU environmental standards. This result is not robust, however, when poorer countries are defined by OECD membership and geographic region. We do not find an increased amount of EU toxic intensive trade with poorer countries although there is some evidence of increased EU imports of toxic goods from poorer OECD and non-EU European countries. For our full sample of trading partners in all regions, the evidence supports the PHH for EU energy intensive trade, but not for toxic intensive trade. Results for regional trade analysis are less clear. (author)

  10. Agroparks - The European Landscape Convention and a European way to regional sustainable landscape development through land use integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Svennningsen, Stig R.; Brandt, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    areas of Europe, in which environmental management increasingly conforms to the principles of liberal economy. Based on a national study of privately owned largeholder manorial estates in Denmark including a detailed case study conducted in one of the survey areas, we conclude that transition...... to landscape sustainability is held back by two main inhibitors, which currently makes it a necessity for rural agency to act unsustainably: (1) The global liberalized legal system which supports individual private ownership to land and thus restrains large scale decision making at a spatial scale to match...... of production activities. These landscapes integrate nature protection, agriculture, settlement and recreation in complex structures of management. They could serve as an example for future sustainable landscape planning at a larger scale, supported by regional regulation. The European Landscape Convention (ELC...

  11. Gas Cooled Fast Reactor Research and Development in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Stainsby

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR research is directed towards fulfilling the ambitious goals of Generation IV (Gen IV, that is, to develop a safe, sustainable, reliable, proliferation-resistant and economic nuclear energy system. The research is directed towards developing the GFR as an economic electricity generator, with good safety and sustainability characteristics. Fast reactors maximise the usefulness of uranium resources by breeding plutonium and can contribute to minimising both the quantity and radiotoxicity nuclear waste by actinide transmutation in a closed fuel cycle. Transmutation is particularly effective in the GFR core owing to its inherently hard neutron spectrum. Further, GFR is suitable for hydrogen production and process heat applications through its high core outlet temperature. As such GFR can inherit the non-electricity applications that will be developed for thermal high temperature reactors in a sustainable manner. The Euratom organisation provides a route by which researchers in all European states, and other non-European affiliates, can contribute to the Gen IV GFR system. This paper summarises the achievements of Euratom's research into the GFR system, starting with the 5th Framework programme (FP5 GCFR project in 2000, through FP6 (2005 to 2009 and looking ahead to the proposed activities within the 7th Framework Programme (FP7.

  12. How have the Eastern European countries of the former Warsaw Pact developed since 1990? A bibliometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Marcin; Bornmann, Lutz; Leydesdorff, Loet

    Did the demise of the Soviet Union in 1991 influence the scientific performance of the researchers in Eastern European countries? Did this historical event affect international collaboration by researchers from the Eastern European countries with those of Western countries? Did it also change international collaboration among researchers from the Eastern European countries? Trying to answer these questions, this study aims to shed light on international collaboration by researchers from the Eastern European countries (Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia). The number of publications and normalized citation impact values are compared for these countries based on InCites (Thomson Reuters), from 1981 up to 2011. The international collaboration by researchers affiliated to institutions in Eastern European countries at the time points of 1990, 2000 and 2011 was studied with the help of Pajek and VOSviewer software, based on data from the Science Citation Index (Thomson Reuters). Our results show that the breakdown of the communist regime did not lead, on average, to a huge improvement in the publication performance of the Eastern European countries and that the increase in international co-authorship relations by the researchers affiliated to institutions in these countries was smaller than expected. Most of the Eastern European countries are still subject to changes and are still awaiting their boost in scientific development.

  13. European gas market developments. Opportunities and threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Oostvoorn, F.

    1998-09-01

    The paper is based on two studies conducted by ECN, namely a study entitled 'An analysis of the West-European gas market: a company approach' and another entitled 'Developments of gas markets across Europe' to be published in November 1998. The paper addresses the past driving factors responsible for the increasing share of gas in the EU energy demand. Furthermore it very briefly discusses the rising dependency of the European Union (EU) on gas imports from non-EU sources such as Russia and the expected gas-to-gas competition in a large number of EU countries in the next decades. 25 refs

  14. Sustainable development outlooks of the Estonian energy sector for convergence with the European Union countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laur, Anton; Tenno, Koidu; Soosaar, Sulev

    2002-01-01

    The article presents an overview of a research conducted in the Estonian Inst. of Economics and the Estonian Energy Research Inst. with the objectives to: analyse the dynamics of the main Estonian energy use indicators over the last 8-10 years with the background of general macroeconomics developments; compare these indicators with the respective energy indicators in the European Union Member States and Candidate Countries; evaluate Estonia's potential to catch up by the energy use efficiency (GDP energy intensity) of the average level of EU countries, modelling our possible development scenarios of GDP and TPES. The research results indicates several positive development tendencies (e.g. reduction of TPES and CO 2 emissions with the background of economic growth) in the Estonian energy sector, as well as convergence with the EU countries in terms of GDP energy intensity. Unfortunately, the model analysis results demonstrate that it takes a lot of time for Estonia to reach the current EU level - even under the most favourable GDP and TPES development conditions, 25-30 years. The primary reason is the very low level of our GDP per capita compared to the EU countries. (author)

  15. The European contribution to the development of the ITER NB injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masiello, A., E-mail: antonio.masiello@f4e.europa.eu [Fusion for Energy, C/Josep Pla 2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Agarici, G.; Bonicelli, T.; Simon, M. [Fusion for Energy, C/Josep Pla 2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Alonso, J. [Associacion EURATOM-CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Bigi, M. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, C.so Stati Uniti 4,I-35126, Padova (Italy); Boilson, D. [ITER, ITER Joint Work Site, CEA Cadarache, 13108 St. Paul Lez Durance (France); Chitarin, G. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, C.so Stati Uniti 4,I-35126, Padova (Italy); Day, C. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology P.O. Box 3640, 76021, Karlsruhe (Germany); Franzen, P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik - D-85740 Garching (Germany); Hanke, S. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology P.O. Box 3640, 76021, Karlsruhe (Germany); Heinemann, B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik - D-85740 Garching (Germany); Hemsworth, R. [ITER, ITER Joint Work Site, CEA Cadarache, 13108 St. Paul Lez Durance (France); Luchetta, A.; Marcuzzi, D. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, C.so Stati Uniti 4,I-35126, Padova (Italy); Milnes, J. [CCFE - Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Minea, T. [CNRS, Delegation Ile-de-France Sud - Avenue de la Terrasse, 91190 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Pasqualotto, R.; Pomaro, N.; Serianni, G. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, C.so Stati Uniti 4,I-35126, Padova (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    This paper reviews the on-going design, R and D and procurement activities, mostly conducted within the ITER framework, on-going in Europe under the co-ordination of Fusion for Energy (F4E), in co-operation with the European Fusion Associations and aimed at the establishment of the ITER Heating Neutral Beam (HNB) system.

  16. Recommendations for the development of e-modules for the continuing professional development of European dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavadella, A; Kossioni, A E; Tsiklakis, K; Cowpe, J; Bullock, A; Barnes, E; Bailey, S; Thomas, H; Thomas, R; Karaharju-Suvanto, T; Suomalainen, K; Kersten, H; Povel, E; Giles, M; Walmsley, D; Soboleva, U; Liepa, A; Akota, I

    2013-05-01

    To provide evidence-based and peer-reviewed recommendations for the development of dental continuing professional development (CPD) learning e-modules. The present recommendations are consensus recommendations of the DentCPD project team and were informed by a literature research, consultations from e-learning and IT expert, discussions amongst the participants attending a special interest group during the 2012 ADEE meeting, and feedback from the evaluation procedures of the exemplar e-module (as described in a companion paper within this Supplement). The main focus of these recommendations is on the courses and modules organised and offered by dental schools. E-modules for dental CPD, as well as for other health professionals' continuing education, have been implemented and evaluated for a number of years. Research shows that the development of e-modules is a team process, undertaken by academics, subject experts, pedagogists, IT and web designers, learning technologists and librarians. The e-module must have clear learning objectives (outcomes), addressing the learners' individual needs, and must be visually attractive, relevant, interactive, promoting critical thinking and providing feedback. The text, graphics and animations must support the objectives and enable the learning process by creating an attractive, easy to navigate and interactive electronic environment. Technology is usually a concern for learners and tutors; therefore, it must be kept simple and interoperable within different systems and software. The pedagogical and technological proficiency of educators is of paramount importance, yet remains a challenge in many instances. The development of e-courses and modules for dental CPD is an endeavour undertaken by a group of professionals. It must be underpinned by sound pedagogical and e-learning principles and must incorporate elements for effective visual learning and visual design and a simple, consistent technology. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. The Analysis of Strategic Priorities for the Development of European Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroshenko Igor V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Countries of the European Union have gained rich experience in developing and implementing a balanced socio-economic and regional policy. The development of regions and individual territories and cities in these countries is given special attention, since this direction provides one of the greatest opportunities to create a synergetic effect by reducing the unevenness of regional (territorial development and the effective use of existing potential and, as a result, ensures the welfare of citizens of the territories, decrease of socio-political tension in the society, creation of new jobs and increase of competitiveness of the national economy as a whole. The integration of Ukraine into the modern world community envisages development and implementation of an effective regional policy in view of integrated and rational use of all multipurpose resources and depends on a comprehensive evaluation of the existing social and economic potential of the country as a whole and its regions. Also it involves identification of sources and scales of development, definition and assessment of long-term options for socio-economic development of the country and individual territories based on the rational allocation of productive forces with consideration to specialization and individual characteristics. In the context of introducing the reform of power decentralization in Ukraine, the responsibility of local authorities for ensuring effective management in many areas of life is becoming ever greater. Sustainable and efficient economic development of territories is a guarantee of a high level of the population life quality in all its aspects. At the same time, it is necessary to fully understand the main problems of communities, cities and ways to solve them in the context of global trends in the development of territories, in particular cities.

  18. The Regional and Local Distribution of Funds Allocated by the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA-MIRELA MARCU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to present and analyze the regional and local distribution of the funds allocated by the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD, European fund that finances rural development in Romania, in the post-accession period. This financing instrument was created by the European Union with the order to continue the main directions of investment of Special Pre-Accession Programme for Agriculture and Rural Development (SAPARD. As a member state of the European Union, Romania observes the principles of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP while the development of the Romanian rural area for the programming period 2007-2013 is supported by the European Community through the National Rural Development Programme (RDP. This approach pays special attention to improving the quality of life in rural areas and the diversification of the rural economy because local communities in Romania have experienced some changes in this period, while accessing EAFRD funds contributed to increased regional disparities between developed and poor areas.

  19. DEVELOPMENT TRENDS OF THE CONCERTO FOR VIOLIN AND ORCHESTRA IN THE EUROPEAN MUSIC AND ITS EVOLUTION IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAPTEVA ANNA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the evolution of the solo concerto for violin and orchestra genre in the European music since its origination till the present time. Tracing the genre development trends in almost all European countries, the author comes to the conclusion of the existence of certain regularities in the violin concerto development that are common for various national musical cultures. It enables us to reveal both individual genre peculiarities of the violin concerto and the specific features of the national cultures. Particular attention is paid to the development of the violin concerto in Ukraine.

  20. The role of serial casting in early-onset scoliosis (EOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baulesh, David M; Huh, Jeannie; Judkins, Timothy; Garg, Sumeet; Miller, Nancy H; Erickson, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Serial casting has demonstrated efficacy for idiopathic early-onset scoliosis (EOS). Results of casting in nonidiopathic (syndromic and congenital) EOS patients have not previously been well described. A total of 53 patients underwent serial casting for EOS from 2005 to 2010 at a single institution. Deformity was classified as idiopathic or nonidiopathic. Diagnosis, time in cast, number of casts, use of bracing, complications, and outcomes were recorded. Radiographic measures included Cobb angle and thoracic height (T1-T12). Thoracic height velocity was calculated and compared with established norms. A total of 36 patients, 19 idiopathic and 17 nonidiopathic (14 syndromic, 3 congenital), completed cast treatment and had >6-month follow-up and were therefore included. Of those, 17% (6/36) experienced resolution of their deformity, 53% (19/26) are currently in braces, and 31% (11/36) had undergone surgery. Surgery occurred on average at age 5.6 years and was delayed by an average of 2.1 years from time of first cast. A 19% complication was observed. There was no statistical difference in the rate of resolution of deformity between idiopathic (5/19) and nonidiopathic (1/17) patients (P=0.182), although there exists a trend toward greater curve correction in idiopathic patients. Surgery occurred in fewer patients (2/19) in the idiopathic group compared with the nonidiopathic group (9/17) (P=0.006). Significant improvements in Cobb angle was observed in the idiopathic group (12.2 degrees) during casting (P=0.003). Nonidiopathic patients did not maintain the correction gained during casting at the time of final follow-up. T1-T12 height increased across all study patients regardless of etiology during the period of casting at similar velocity to established norms of 1.4 cm/y for this age group. Serial casting offers modest deformity correction in idiopathic deformities compared with nonidiopathic deformities. Thoracic height growth continued throughout the casting period

  1. The implications of economic development, climate change and European Water Policy on surface water quality threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Dąbrowska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents historical background, up-to-date situation and future perspectives for the development of nutrient pollution threats to European surface water quality, as well as the evolution of the approach to water pollution. Utilized agricultural area in European countries is slightly diminishing, however the consumption of mineral fertilisers is steadily increasing. The consumption in Europe in the years 2015–2030 is projected to increase by 10%, and in the world by 20%. Both climate changes leading to the increase of temperature even of ca. 6°C (in comparison to the pre-industrial period and accelerated soil erosion due to high intensity rainfall cause increased productivity of water ecosystems. Those aspects have to be taken into consideration in water management. Due to legal regulations introduced in the last twenty years, wastewater treatment has been made more effective and population connected to wastewater treatment systems has increased. The improvement has been seen mainly in eastern and southern parts of Europe. After the implementation of Water Framework Directive theories regarding modern water management have been developed, with the aim to increase the ecosystem’s capacity and its resilience to climate changes and anthropopressure.

  2. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF ROMANIAN AGRICULTURE WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF EUROPEAN UNION’S REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen\tValentina\tRADULESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The rich natural potential for agriculture in Romania is contrasting with the low level of economic performance. Progress toward sustainable development in rural areas depends on processes that lead to increased valuation of the natural resources by cropping and livestock breeding, capturing more value by growing the number of processing stages performed at national level for food production, improvements in the distribution of benefits with special focus on rural population, harnessing the benefits of stewarding natural ecosystems that play a key role for the overall wellbeing of the population, diversifying the structure of economic activities, and encouraging entrepreneurial involvement. European policies of rural development are supporting most of these processes, but within the national context there encountered specific challenges born by the low level of maturation for property relationships, fragmentation of land ownership and cropping plots, cultural patterns that create strong resistance to change, and lack of financial resources. The paper highlights several aspects in order to assess at what extent the Romanian agriculture is making progress toward European requirements.

  3. The European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Quality Improvement Initiative: developing performance measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Matthew D; Senore, Carlo; Bisschops, Raf; Domagk, Dirk; Valori, Roland; Kaminski, Michal F; Spada, Cristiano; Bretthauer, Michael; Bennett, Cathy; Bellisario, Cristina; Minozzi, Silvia; Hassan, Cesare; Rees, Colin; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário; Hucl, Tomas; Ponchon, Thierry; Aabakken, Lars; Fockens, Paul

    2016-02-01

    The European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) and United European Gastroenterology (UEG) have a vision to create a thriving community of endoscopy services across Europe, collaborating with each other to provide high quality, safe, accurate, patient-centered and accessible endoscopic care. Whilst the boundaries of what can be achieved by advanced endoscopy are continually expanding, we believe that one of the most fundamental steps to achieving our goal is to raise the quality of everyday endoscopy. The development of robust, consensus- and evidence-based key performance measures is the first step in this vision. ESGE and UEG have identified quality of endoscopy as a major priority. This paper explains the rationale behind the ESGE Quality Improvement Initiative and describes the processes that were followed. We recommend that all units develop mechanisms for audit and feedback of endoscopist and service performance using the ESGE performance measures that will be published in future issues of this journal over the next year. We urge all endoscopists and endoscopy services to prioritize quality and to ensure that these performance measures are implemented and monitored at a local level, so that we can provide the highest possible care for our patients.

  4. EOS Inoovation Photo's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    What did four years of energy innovation bring the Netherlands? Which are the main lessons learned and what are the best opportunities for the market? The Energy Research Strategy programme (EOS) gave the answers to these questions for various topics in the form of images by means of so-called I nnovation Photos' on Biomass, Built Environment, Industrial Energy Efficiency, Smart Grids, Heat, Offshore Wind, and Solar PV. [nl

  5. Exploring the development of a cultural care framework for European caring science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarran, John; Rosser, Elizabeth; Bach, Shirley; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Lundberg, Pranee; Law, Kate

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the development of a cultural care framework that seeks to inform and embrace the philosophical ideals of caring science. Following a review of the literature that identified a lack of evidence of an explicit relationship between caring science and cultural care, a number of well-established transcultural care frameworks were reviewed. Our purpose was to select one that would resonate with underpinning philosophical values of caring science and that drew on criteria generated by the European Academy of Caring Science members. A modified framework based on the work of Giger and Davidhizar was developed as it embraced many of the values such as humanism that are core to caring science practice. The proposed caring science framework integrates determinants of cultural lifeworld-led care and seeks to provide clear directions for humanizing the care of individuals. The framework is offered to open up debate and act as a platform for further academic enquiry.

  6. The Analysis and Evaluation of Trends in the Socio-Economic Development of European Union Countries and their Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroshenko Igor V.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The modern development of Ukraine and its regions on the background of the ongoing European integration process requires a detailed study of the experience of forming the European regional policy, positive examples and trends that have contributed to economic growth of the territories and improvement of population welfare of EU countries with a view to their use in forming the own national policy in the country. The EU regional policy, which is called the “unification” policy, as part of the European structural policy is aimed at solving development problems of the territories, primarily, depressive, old industrial, underdeveloped ones reducing the existing imbalances in social and economic development of the regions and preventing the emergence of inter-regional imbalances in the European Union. Studies of the uneven development of a country’s territories are an important part of its government policy. Identification of the main features of the asymmetry makes it possible not only to reveal the current situation with imbalances in the regional potential for sustainable development but also to assess the government’s actions aimed at their elimination. For Ukraine, which sets a goal to integrate into the European community, a detailed study of the experience and analysis of the priority principles of EU countries’ regional policy are very feasible in the formation and implementation of its own regional policy with regard to the best European principles of organization of managing the regional and local development and local government reform. Using the best practices of the regional policy of EU countries in Central and Eastern Europe, which show stable positive change in the socio-economic development, can appear to be of a special value

  7. Development of welding technologies for the manufacturing of European Tritium Breeder blanket modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poitevin, Y., E-mail: yves.poitevin@f4e.europa.eu [Fusion for Energy (F4E), Barcelona (Spain); Aubert, Ph. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DM2S and DEN/DMN, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Diegele, E. [Fusion for Energy (F4E), Barcelona (Spain); Dinechin, G. de [CEA Saclay, DEN/DM2S and DEN/DMN, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Rey, J. [Institut fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik, FZK, Karlsruhe (Germany); Rieth, M. [Institut fuer Materialforschung I, FZK, Karlsruhe (Germany); Rigal, E. [CEA Grenoble, DRT/DTH, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Weth, A. von der [Institut fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik, FZK, Karlsruhe (Germany); Boutard, J.-L. [European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA), Garching (Germany); Tavassoli, F. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DM2S and DEN/DMN, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2011-10-01

    Europe has developed two reference Tritium Breeder Blankets concepts for a DEMO fusion reactor: the Helium-Cooled Lithium-Lead and the Helium-Cooled Pebble-Bed. Both are using the reduced-activation ferritic-martensitic EUROFER-97 steel as structural material and will be tested in ITER under the form of test blanket modules. The fabrication of their EUROFER structures requires developing welding processes like laser, TIG, EB and diffusion welding often beyond the state-of-the-art. The status of European achievements in this area is reviewed, illustrating the variety of processes and key issues behind retained options, in particular with respect to metallurgical aspects and mechanical properties. Fabrication of mock-ups is highlighted and their characterization and performances with respect to design requirements are reviewed.

  8. Overview of the European Medicines Agency's Development of Product-Specific Bioequivalence Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Jane O'; Blake, Kevin; Berntgen, Michael; Salmonson, Tomas; Welink, Jan

    2017-12-05

    The European Medicines Agency's (EMA) product-specific bioequivalence guidelines outline harmonized regulatory requirements for studies to demonstrate bioequivalence for products that may have particular needs due to their pharmacokinetics, in addition to those outlined in general guidance. As such they are potentially very useful to the pharmaceutical industry in the development of generic medicinal products and to regulatory authorities for harmonized decision-making. Since their introduction in 2013, EMA product-specific bioequivalence guidelines continue to increase in number, and as of June 2017, encompass a number of different pharmacotherapeutic groups and pharmaceutical forms. This article further elucidates the processes involved for stakeholders and reviews the Agency's experience with the development of these guidelines, including the scientific issues witnessed with their advancement. A comparison with the United States Food and Drug Administration approach to similar guidelines is also provided. © 2017 The Authors Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  9. Development and implementation of guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening: The European experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence von Karsa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, as in many other regions of the world, breast cancer is a major cause of suffering and death. Early detection of breast cancer by systematic mammography screening can find lesions for which treatment is more effective and generally more favourable for quality of life. Comprehensive quality assurance guidelines for breast cancer screening based on mammography have been developed in the Europe Against Cancer programme with the aim of maximising screening benefits while minimising adverse effects, such as unnecessary examination or treatment resulting from false-positive screening tests. The present report provides an overview of the European experience in developing and implementing quality assurance guidelines for breast cancer screening. It highlights implications relevant to those regions of the world in which the burden of breast cancer in the coming years will make population-based screening an option for cancer control.

  10. THE ROLE OF SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY STRATEGIES EMPLOYED BY EUROPEAN AUTOMOTIVE CORPORATIONS IN DEVELOPING SUSTAINABLE BUSINESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Gănescu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility strategies are a topic of great interest for both researchers and practitioners, and require the development of interdisciplinary approaches: economic, ethical and social. The paper analyses the social responsibility strategies employed by European automotive businesses and highlights their impact on business sustainability. From a theoretical perspective, applying the content analysis method on sustainability or social responsibility reports revealed a variety of social responsibility strategies. The utility of the research is supported by formulating a typology of social responsibility strategies, based on objectives of sustainable development and by establishing arguments concerning the impact of these strategies on automotive businesses’ sustainability in the following areas: social and societal, ecological and environmental, distribution chains and suppliers, corporate image, position in relation to competitors and financial performance.

  11. The European space of research: what fundamental role for the development of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaluzny, Y.; Chaix, P.

    2010-01-01

    The SET (Strategic Energy Technology) plan draws the priority axis for the development of no-carbon energies on the whole and of nuclear energy in particular. The double aim of SET for 2020 is to maintain the competitiveness of fission reactors and to find a valid solution for the management of radioactive wastes. The SET plan also includes a system (SETIS) for assessing the progress made and an organization (ESFRI) whose role is to earmark the projects that are most relevant for research infrastructure projects. The SNETPR (Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform) gathers the actors of a given sector with the objective to develop the public-private collaboration around strategic topics. The purpose of the European sustainable Nuclear Industrial Initiative (ESNII) is to assure a sustainable nuclear energy by the management of radioactive wastes and by a better use of natural resources. ESNII has led to the selection of fast reactor with a closed cycle. ESNII includes the design of a sodium prototype (ASTRID), of a gas cooled demonstrator (ALLEGRO) and of lead cooled pilot plant (MYRRHA). The achievement of all these projects is very dependent on the financial perspectives of the E.U. (A.C.)

  12. The long periodicity phase (LPP) controversy part I: The influence of a natural-like ratio of the CER[EOS] analogue [EOS]-br in a CER[NP]/[AP] based stratum corneum modelling system: A neutron diffraction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Thomas; Lange, Stefan; Sonnenberger, Stefan; Dobner, Bodo; Demé, Bruno; Langner, Andreas; Neubert, Reinhard H H

    2018-06-18

    This study used neutron diffraction to investigate a ceramide-[NP] C24/[AP] C24 /[EOS]-br C30/cholesterol/lignoceric acid (0.6: 0.3: 0.1: 0.7: 1) based stratum corneum modelling system. By adding specifically deuterated ceramides-[NP]-D 3 , [AP]-D 3 , and [EOS]-br-D 3 , detailed information on the lamellar and the nanostructure of the system was obtained. For the short periodicity phase a natural-like lamellar repeat distance of 5.47 ± 0.02 nm was observed, similar to the [NP]/[AP] base system without the [EOS]-br. Unlike in this system the ceramides here were slightly tilted, hinting towards a slightly less natural arrangement. Due to the deuteration it was possible to observe that the long ceramide chains were overlapping in the lamellar mid-plane. This is considered to be an important feature for the natural stratum corneum. Despite the presence of a ceramide [EOS] analogue - able to form a long phase arrangement - no distinct long periodicity phase was formed, despite a slightly higher than natural ω-acyl ceramide ratio of 10 mol%. The deuterated variant of this ceramide determined that the very long ceramide was integrated into the short periodicity phase, spanning multiple layers instead. The - compared to the base system - unchanged repeat distance highlights the stability of this structure. Furthermore, the localisation of the very long ceramide in the short periodicity phase indicates the possibility of a crosslinking effect and thus a multilayer stabilizing role for the ceramide [EOS]. It can be concluded, that additionally to the mere presence of ceramide-[EOS] more complex conditions have to be met in order to form this long phase. This has to be further investigated in the future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The actual development of European aviation safety requirements in aviation medicine: prospects of future EASA requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedenburg, J

    2009-04-01

    Common Rules for Aviation Safety had been developed under the aegis of the Joint Aviation Authorities in the 1990s. In 2002 the Basic Regulation 1592/2002 was the founding document of a new entity, the European Aviation Safety Agency. Areas of activity were Certification and Maintenance of aircraft. On 18 March the new Basic Regulation 216/2008, repealing the original Basic Regulation was published and applicable from 08 April on. The included Essential Requirements extended the competencies of EASA inter alia to Pilot Licensing and Flight Operations. The future aeromedical requirements will be included as Annex II in another Implementing Regulation on Personnel Licensing. The detailed provisions will be published as guidance material. The proposals for these provisions have been published on 05 June 2008 as NPA 2008- 17c. After public consultation, processing of comments and final adoption the new proposals may be applicable form the second half of 2009 on. A transition period of four year will apply. Whereas the provisions are based on Joint Aviation Requirement-Flight Crew Licensing (JAR-FCL) 3, a new Light Aircraft Pilot Licence (LAPL) project and the details of the associated medical certification regarding general practitioners will be something new in aviation medicine. This paper consists of 6 sections. The introduction outlines the idea of international aviation safety. The second section describes the development of the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA), the first step to common rules for aviation safety in Europe. The third section encompasses a major change as next step: the foundation of the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) and the development of its rules. In the following section provides an outline of the new medical requirements. Section five emphasizes the new concept of a Leisure Pilot Licence. The last section gives an outlook on ongoing rulemaking activities and the opportunities of the public to participate in them.

  14. Pharmaceutical development of investigational anticancer agents: focus on EO-9, AP5346, and GMP implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoot, Sabina Cornelia van der

    2006-01-01

    The development of new anticancer drugs can be divided into six phases: characterization of the API (structural and analytical), solubility- and stability studies, design of the formulation, manufacturing, quality control analysis, and (bio)compatibility studies. Structural and analytical

  15. The ASY-EOS experiment at GSI: Constraining the symmetry energy at supra-saturation densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russotto P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The elliptic-flow ratio of neutrons with respect to protons or light complex particles in reactions of heavy ions at pre-relativistic energies has been proposed as an observable sensitive to the strength of the symmetry term of the nuclear equation of state at supra-saturation densities. In the ASY-EOS experiment at the GSI laboratory, flows of neutrons and light charged particles were measured for 197Au+197Au, 96Zr+96Zr and 96Ru+96Ru collisions at 400 MeV/nucleon with the Large Area Neutron Detector LAND as part of a setup with several additional detection systems used for the event characterization. Flow results obtained for the Au+Au system, in comparison with predictions of the UrQMD transport model, confirm the moderately soft to linear density dependence of the symmetry energy deduced from the earlier FOPI-LAND data.

  16. The European efforts in development of new high temperature rotor materials - COST536

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, T.U. [Siemens Energy, Muehlheim (Germany); Mayer, K.H. [Alstom Power, Nuernberg (Germany); Donth, B. [Saarschmiede, Voelklingen (Germany); Zeiler, G. [Boehler Schmiedetechnik, Kapfenberg (Austria); Di Gianfrancesco, A. [CSM, Roma (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    Despite the ongoing efforts to increase the amount of available alternative energy sources, fossil fuels such as lignite and hard coal will remain important for the energy mix and sustainability of energy supply. Fossil-fuelled Steam Power Plants (SSP's) or Combined Cycle power plants (CCPP's) will also continue to supply a significant portion of our energy needs. Within the frame of European COST536, a new project was installed with the aim of Alloy development for Critical Components of Environmentally friendly Power planTs (ACCEPT) aiming for material solutions for steam conditions up to 650 C. Martensitic materials should be used for thick-walled components to maintain high operational flexibility of such large plants. Rotors, casings, bolts, tubes, pipes, and water walls, are the critical components under current investigation. The class of the 9-12%Cr steels offers the highest potential to meet the required property levels for critical components such as rotor forgings. Therefore a significant effort to increase the application temperature of these steels was and is the focus of studies within Europe. Although there are 600 C materials already being successfully utilised in a number of advanced European power plants, further improvement in creep strength is being achieved by the addition of Boron and a well balanced Co content. Full-size prototype components are now being tested. New ideas to improve the behaviour and increase the application temperatures are under investigation. Results are reported here. (orig.)

  17. Development/Testing of a Monitoring System Assisting MCI Patients: The European Project INLIFE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaimakamis, Evangelos; Karavidopoulou, Vaia; Kilintzis, Vassilios; Stefanopoulos, Leandros; Papageorgiou, Valentini

    2017-01-01

    INLIFE is a project cofounded from the European Union aiming in prolonging independent living of elderly people with cognitive impairment based on open, seamless ICT services supporting communication, daily activities, providing health services and professional care to the elderly. The main innovation stems from ICT solutions offering 19 different services adapted on specific characteristics elderly people with mild cognitive impairment, early and later stages of Dementia, cognitive impairment and co-morbid condition, as well as their formal and informal caregivers. All services have different focus areas and are incorporated into a unified system based on cloud architecture implemented in patients of 6 European countries, including Greece. More than 1200 patients, caregivers and healthcare providers participate in the pilot testing of the project. Primary parameter for assessing the effectiveness of the interventions is their impact on the quality of life of the elderly patients and their caregivers, contributing to prolonging independent living of the affected. A special digital platform has been developed in the Greek pilot site aiming to adapt and monitor all the implemented applications. This includes a medical decision support system that receives biosignals from patients and interaction interfaces in which all participants are involved. Recruitment and patients' participation has already started in the pilot site of Thessaloniki for the services that are to be tested in Greece.

  18. The European Community's research and development activities on the management of radioactive waste from decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, B.

    1984-01-01

    The Commission of the European Communities is conducting an R and D programme on the decommissioning of nuclear power plants. The activities carried out within this framework that concern, in particular, management of the radioactive waste arising from the decommissioning are outlined. Characterization of the radioactivity inventory of nuclear power plants at the end of their useful life is of fundamental importance in this context. Research in this field comprises analyses of the trace elements in reactor materials which are relevant for the formation of long-lived radionuclides by neutron activation, as well as examinations of samples taken from activated and contaminated plant components. Most of the radioactive plant components are only surface contaminated. Highly efficient decontamination techniques are being developed with the objective of achieving conditions permitting unrestricted release of the material treated. Other activities concern the conditioning of steel and concrete waste for disposal, and the management of graphite waste from gas-cooled reactors. Large containers are being developed for transport and disposal of radioactive components. Finally, the methods of radiological evaluation and measurement are being studied which are required to decide whether material from the dismantling of nuclear power plants has to be disposed of as radioactive waste or not. (author)

  19. XML DTD and Schemas for HDF-EOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Richard; Yang, Jingli

    2008-01-01

    An Extensible Markup Language (XML) document type definition (DTD) standard for the structure and contents of HDF-EOS files and their contents, and an equivalent standard in the form of schemas, have been developed.

  20. THE ROLE OF SMALL BUSINESS IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF EUROPEAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Stan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Small businesses provide catalytic benefits to the economy. They contribute to national output, and to the society as a whole, beyond the spending and profit they generate. The role of SMEs is crucial for the European economic recovery – their number, employment capacity and value added constitute a large share of the European economy. Providing the right conditions in which SMEs can flourish is paramount for ensuring a sustained recovery and achieving prosperity for all EU citizens. There is no single agreed definition of an SME. Early definitions of ‘small’ businesses were largely qualitative. SMEs are generally considered to be non - subsidiary, independent firms which employ fewer than a given number of employees. For many small businesses, going global is no longer just an interesting to do – it is essential to the long – term health and performance of the company. Across the EU policies are being developed at regional, national and transnational government level that see SMEs as the only positive way of creating employment and generating increased local growth for the community.

  1. Quantifying the non-Gaussianity in the EoR 21-cm signal through bispectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Suman; Pritchard, Jonathan R.; Mondal, Rajesh; Watkinson, Catherine A.; Bharadwaj, Somnath; Mellema, Garrelt

    2018-05-01

    The epoch of reionization (EoR) 21-cm signal is expected to be highly non-Gaussian in nature and this non-Gaussianity is also expected to evolve with the progressing state of reionization. Therefore the signal will be correlated between different Fourier modes (k). The power spectrum will not be able capture this correlation in the signal. We use a higher order estimator - the bispectrum - to quantify this evolving non-Gaussianity. We study the bispectrum using an ensemble of simulated 21-cm signal and with a large variety of k triangles. We observe two competing sources driving the non-Gaussianity in the signal: fluctuations in the neutral fraction (x_{H I}) field and fluctuations in the matter density field. We find that the non-Gaussian contribution from these two sources varies, depending on the stage of reionization and on which k modes are being studied. We show that the sign of the bispectrum works as a unique marker to identify which among these two components is driving the non-Gaussianity. We propose that the sign change in the bispectrum, when plotted as a function of triangle configuration cos θ and at a certain stage of the EoR can be used as a confirmative test for the detection of the 21-cm signal. We also propose a new consolidated way to visualize the signal evolution (with evolving \\bar{x}_{H I} or redshift), through the trajectories of the signal in a power spectrum and equilateral bispectrum i.e. P(k) - B(k, k, k) space.

  2. The European Union's Role in the Development of Global Environmental Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Ellen Margrethe

    2017-01-01

    This article is focused on the role that the European Union (EU) is playing as a global actor when it is using its 'internal' regulatory power as well as its parallel market power 'externally' to strengthen and to fill out gaps in the global environmental law.......This article is focused on the role that the European Union (EU) is playing as a global actor when it is using its 'internal' regulatory power as well as its parallel market power 'externally' to strengthen and to fill out gaps in the global environmental law....

  3. Development of the European Health Interview Survey - Physical Activity Questionnaire (EHIS-PAQ) to monitor physical activity in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Jonas D; Tafforeau, Jean; Gisle, Lydia; Oja, Leila; Ziese, Thomas; Thelen, Juergen; Mensink, Gert B M; Lange, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    A domain-specific physical activity questionnaire (EHIS-PAQ) was developed in the framework of the second wave of the European Health Interview Survey (EHIS). This article presents the EHIS-PAQ and describes its development and evaluation processes. Research institutes from Belgium, Estonia and Germany participated in the Improvement of the EHIS (ImpEHIS) Grant project issued by Eurostat. The instrument development process comprised a non-systematic literature review and a systematic HIS/HES database search for physical activity survey questions. The developed EHIS-PAQ proposal was reviewed by survey experts. Cognitive testing of the EHIS-PAQ was conducted in Estonia and Germany. The EHIS-PAQ was further tested in a pilot survey in Belgium, Estonia and Germany in different modes of data collection, face-to-face paper and pencil interview (PAPI) and computer assisted telephone interview (CATI). The EHIS-PAQ is a rather pragmatic tool aiming to evaluate how far the population is physically active in specific public health relevant settings. It assesses work-related, transport-related and leisure-time physical activity in a typical week. Cognitive testing revealed that the EHIS-PAQ worked as intended. The pilot testing showed the feasibility of using the EHIS-PAQ in an international health interview survey setting in Europe. It will be implemented in all 28 European Union Member States via European Union implementing regulation in the period between 2013 and 2015. This will be a first opportunity to get comparable data on domain-specific physical activity in all 28 EU MS and to publish indicators at the EU level. The EHIS-PAQ is a short, domain-specific PA questionnaire based on PA questions which have been used in large-scale health interview surveys before. It was designed by considering the respondents' perspective in answering PA questions.

  4. THE STAGES OF HETEROTIC HYBRIDS F1 DEVELOPMENT IN EUROPEAN RADISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kosenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The scheme  of  development  of  two-line  of  hybrids  F1  in European radish based on self-incompatibility includes five stages, as follows: 1 – selection of self-incompatible lines, common and specified combining ability estimation; 2 – inbreeding and selection to make the lines homozygous for morphological traits, common and specified combining ability estimation; maintenance and reproduction of self-incompatible lines; 4 – production of hybrid seeds. The research work on assessment of hybrid F1 that were obtained from cross of eight self-incompatible lines of European winter radish by the Griffing’s method was carried out in 2016. The assessment of length, diameter and yield of radish root was performed. According to the root shape the heterotic hybrids F1 were divided into three groups: rounded-flat,  48.2%; round, 50.0%; and flatten-round,  1.8%. The level of root marketability of hybrids F1 reached 100%. As a result of the work the promising hybrid combination distinguished by high uniformity, marketability and high yield were selected out.

  5. Play the European card

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majewski, O.

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Otto Majewski, Chief Executive Officer of the Bayernwerk AG utility, in his capacity as Chairman of the European Nuclear Council pointed out at ENC 98 in Nice that national energy policies constituted a major danger to the use of nuclear power. At the same time, he indicated ways and means by which to evade that danger. The decisions taken in Sweden and in the Federal Republic of Germany to opt out of the use of nuclear power show that national energy policies can seriously jeopardize the use of nuclear power. Bayernwerk CEO Dr. Majewski urged nuclear power plant operators to counteract these tendencies by playing the European card. Nuclear power anyway was a classical topic of European cooperation which, in the past, had resulted in higher safety standards and in the development of the EPR. It should also be attempted, by working on European institutions, to strengthen the use of nuclear power, even on a national level. He invoked economic arguments against nuclear opponents, especially the preservation of competitiveness by means of lower electricity prices, and arguments of climate protection. (orig.) [de

  6. Historical notes about the development of cement normalization In European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calleja, J.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Standard EN 197-1:2000 for Cement, prepared by CEN/TC 51, is from now (2002-04-01 onwards, compulsory in all the countries of the European Union. It has been considered suitable to expose some details on the historical development of the steps and difficulties during the elaboration of the standard ENV 197-1:92 first, and of the present and final standard EN 197-1:2000 already in force, and now in Spain as Spanish Standard AENOR/UNE-EN 197-1:2000 (1.

    Al hacerse de obligado cumplimiento en todos los países de la VE a partir del 1 de abril de 2002 la Norma Europea EN 197-1:2000 para cementos, elaborada por el CEN/TC 51, se ha considerado oportuno dar una información general, muy resumida, acerca del desarrollo histórico de las etapas, vicisitudes y dificultades por las que ha pasado la culminación de la misma, hasta alcanzar, primero, la Norma Experimental ENV 197-1:92 y, finalmente, la actual y definitiva EN 197-1:2000, ya en vigor como Norma Española UNE-EN 197-1:2000, de AENOR (1.

  7. Does the development of new medicinal products in the European Union address global and regional health concerns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez-Martín Elena

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1995, approval for many new medicinal products has been obtained through a centralized procedure in the European Union. In recent years, the use of summary measures of population health has become widespread. We investigated whether efforts to develop innovative medicines are focusing on the most relevant conditions from a global public health perspective. Methods We reviewed the information on new medicinal products approved by centralized procedure from 1995 to 2009, information that is available to the public in the European Commission Register of medicinal products and the European Public Assessment Reports from the European Medicines Agency. Morbidity and mortality data were included for each disease group, according to the Global Burden of Disease project. We evaluated the association between authorized medicinal products and burden of disease measures based on disability-adjusted life years (DALYs in the European Union and worldwide. Results We considered 520 marketing authorizations for medicinal products and 338 active ingredients. New authorizations were seen to increase over the period analyzed. There was a positive, high correlation between DALYs and new medicinal product development (ρ = 0.619, p = 0.005 in the European Union, and a moderate correlation for middle-low-income countries (ρ = 0.497, p = 0.030 and worldwide (ρ = 0.490, p = 0.033. The most neglected conditions at the European level (based on their attributable health losses were neuropsychiatric diseases, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, sense organ conditions, and digestive diseases, while globally, they were perinatal conditions, respiratory infections, sense organ conditions, respiratory diseases, and digestive diseases. Conclusions We find that the development of new medicinal products is higher for some diseases than others. Pharmaceutical industry leaders and policymakers are invited to consider the implications of this

  8. THE ROLE OF SMALL BUSINESS IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF EUROPEAN ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Anca Stan

    2014-01-01

    Small businesses provide catalytic benefits to the economy. They contribute to national output, and to the society as a whole, beyond the spending and profit they generate. The role of SMEs is crucial for the European economic recovery – their number, employment capacity and value added constitute a large share of the European economy. Providing the right conditions in which SMEs can flourish is paramount for ensuring a sustained recovery and achieving prosperity for all EU citizens. There is...

  9. The need for (further) development of water treatment processes against the background of the European water outline regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, S.; Boerke, P.; Abo-Rady, M.; Engelmann, U.; Felix, M.

    2005-01-01

    In the German state of Sachsen, large areas have been contaminated by coal, lignite and uranium mining. Pollutants like sulfate, chloride, heavy metals and radionuclides are emitted into groundwater and surface water. Regeneration of the water according to the European Water Directive (EG-WRRL) can be achieved only by (further) development of passive water treatment methods. This means that pollutants, seepage mechanisms and experience so far must be revisited. Exemplary technologies are presented which are low-cost, sustainable and appropriate for the conditions prevailing in Sachsen. Areas that require further investigation are defined, and it is shown how the European water standards may be achieved. (orig.)

  10. Complementarity of EO and radar systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwering, P.B.W.

    2001-01-01

    Electro-optics (EO), including infrared, systems have matured in the last decades, allowing for a wider variation of applications. In particular, developments in detector capability and signal processing have resulted in autonomous detection systems as well as surveillance systems for situational

  11. Nuclear energy: the European way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The dossier published in this issue deals with the present and future situation of nuclear energy in Europe. What could be the trends of the nuclear development in the Europe of tomorrows. That global question is answered by pointing out the different data related to the present state of european nuclear programmes. Such an overview is followed by a serie of articles dealing with definite items: the actions implemented by the European Communities Commission: the electricity market and EDF policy in the field of european electric grids; the trends of nuclear cycle industry and the perfecting of the future european nuclear reactor

  12. The price of policy risk — Empirical insights from choice experiments with European photovoltaic project developers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lüthi, Sonja; Wüstenhagen, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Managing the transition to a renewable energy future is an important policy priority in many countries. Solar photovoltaic (PV) technology is expected to make an essential contribution, but due to relatively high cost, its growth to date has been largely driven by public policy, notably feed-in tariffs. Feed-in tariffs have been implemented in various countries, but with widely differing outcomes in terms of installed PV capacity. Previous research indicates that the level of policy risk may be an important driver for differences in renewable energy policy effectiveness. This paper suggests that project developers who make a decision between PV investment opportunities in different countries carefully weigh feed-in tariff-induced returns against a set of policy risks, and choose the country with the most favorable risk-return profile. This model is empirically tested by a stated preference survey among European PV project developers, consisting of 1575 choice decisions by 63 investors. The findings demonstrate that risk matters in PV policy design, and that a “price tag” can be attached to specific policy risks, such as the duration of administrative processes or uncertainty induced by an approaching capacity cap. Governments can build on these empirical results to design policies that will be effective in attracting private PV investment, while at the same time maintaining efficiency by providing an adequate compensation for policy risk. - Highlights: ► This study is based on 1575 choice and rating decisions made by 63 European PV project developers. ► This study confirms importance of “non-economic” barriers to deployment of renewable energy. ► This study measures “price of policy risk”, i.e. investors' willingness-to-accept certain policy risks.

  13. The Europeanization of National Judiciaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaremba, Urszula; Mayoral, Juan A.

    2018-01-01

    judiciaries is still somewhat scattered and fragmented. The central ambition of this article is to provide a theoretical framework that would contribute to the understanding of Europeanization of judiciaries by: 1) offering a definition and theoretical developments useful for the study Europeanization and its......The article is underpinned by the idea that the national courts/judges are expected to act as decentralized European Union judges. However, the general knowledge concerning the impact of EU law on the functioning of national courts as EU judges and the process of Europeanization of national...

  14. Sustainable urban development, the Dutch method: best practice for the European integrated approach?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeve, M.N.; van Middelkoop, L.

    2010-01-01

    An important European environmental policy aim is to create "sustainable cities". The aim of this article is to explore the possible tensions between environmental measures and urban spatial planning law that can arise in creating such sustainable cities and examine opportunities for integrated

  15. [The development of European Union common research and development policy and programs with special regard to life sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pörzse, Gábor

    2009-08-09

    Research and development (R&D) has been playing a leading role in the European Community's history since the very beginning of European integration. Its importance has grown in recent years, after the launch of the Lisbon strategy. Framework programs have always played a considerable part in community research. The aim of their introduction was to fine tune national R&D activities, and to successfully divide research tasks between the Community and the member states. The Community, from the very outset, has acknowledged the importance of life sciences. It is no coincidence that life sciences have become the second biggest priority in the last two framework programs. This study provides a historical, and at the same time analytical and evaluative review of community R&D policy and activity from the starting point of its development until the present day. It examines in detail how the changes in structure, conditional system, regulations and priorities of the framework programs have followed the formation of social and economic needs. The paper puts special emphasis on the analysis of the development of life science research, presenting how they have met the challenges of the age, and how they have been built into the framework programs. Another research area of the present study is to elaborate how successfully Hungarian researchers have been joining the community research, especially the framework programs in the field of life sciences. To answer these questions, it was essential to survey, process and analyze the data available in the national and European public and closed databases. Contrary to the previous documents, this analysis doesn't concentrate on the political and scientific background. It outlines which role community research has played in sustainable social and economic development and competitiveness, how it has supported common policies and how the processes of integration have been deepening. Besides, the present paper offers a complete review of

  16. The test beamline of the European Spallation Source – Instrumentation development and wavelength frame multiplication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woracek, R.; Hofmann, T.; Bulat, M.; Sales, M.; Habicht, K.; Andersen, K.; Strobl, M.

    2016-01-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS), scheduled to start operation in 2020, is aiming to deliver the most intense neutron beams for experimental research of any facility worldwide. Its long pulse time structure implies significant differences for instrumentation compared to other spallation sources which, in contrast, are all providing short neutron pulses. In order to enable the development of methods and technology adapted to this novel type of source well in advance of the first instruments being constructed at ESS, a test beamline (TBL) was designed and built at the BER II research reactor at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB). Operating the TBL shall provide valuable experience in order to allow for a smooth start of operations at ESS. The beamline is capable of mimicking the ESS pulse structure by a double chopper system and provides variable wavelength resolution as low as 0.5% over a wide wavelength band between 1.6 Å and 10 Å by a dedicated wavelength frame multiplication (WFM) chopper system. WFM is proposed for several ESS instruments to allow for flexible time-of-flight resolution. Hence, ESS will benefit from the TBL which offers unique possibilities for testing methods and components. This article describes the main capabilities of the instrument, its performance as experimentally verified during the commissioning, and its relevance to currently starting ESS instrumentation projects.

  17. The test beamline of the European Spallation Source – Instrumentation development and wavelength frame multiplication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woracek, R., E-mail: robin.woracek@esss.se [European Spallation Source ESS ERIC, P.O. Box 176, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Hofmann, T.; Bulat, M. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Sales, M. [Technical University of Denmark, Fysikvej, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Habicht, K. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Andersen, K. [European Spallation Source ESS ERIC, P.O. Box 176, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Strobl, M. [European Spallation Source ESS ERIC, P.O. Box 176, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Technical University of Denmark, Fysikvej, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2016-12-11

    The European Spallation Source (ESS), scheduled to start operation in 2020, is aiming to deliver the most intense neutron beams for experimental research of any facility worldwide. Its long pulse time structure implies significant differences for instrumentation compared to other spallation sources which, in contrast, are all providing short neutron pulses. In order to enable the development of methods and technology adapted to this novel type of source well in advance of the first instruments being constructed at ESS, a test beamline (TBL) was designed and built at the BER II research reactor at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB). Operating the TBL shall provide valuable experience in order to allow for a smooth start of operations at ESS. The beamline is capable of mimicking the ESS pulse structure by a double chopper system and provides variable wavelength resolution as low as 0.5% over a wide wavelength band between 1.6 Å and 10 Å by a dedicated wavelength frame multiplication (WFM) chopper system. WFM is proposed for several ESS instruments to allow for flexible time-of-flight resolution. Hence, ESS will benefit from the TBL which offers unique possibilities for testing methods and components. This article describes the main capabilities of the instrument, its performance as experimentally verified during the commissioning, and its relevance to currently starting ESS instrumentation projects.

  18. Vocabulary Development in European Portuguese: A Replication Study Using the Language Development Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescorla, Leslie; Nyame, Josephine; Dias, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Our objective was to replicate previous cross­linguistic findings by comparing Portuguese and U.S. children with respect to (a) effects of language, gender, and age on vocabulary size; (b) lexical composition; and (c) late talking. Method: We used the Language Development Survey (LDS; Rescorla, 1989) with children (18-35 months) learning…

  19. Tourism development in Serbia: On the way to sustainability and European integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlović-Lovren Violeta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to contribute to improvement of tourism policy and practice in Serbia towards defining and implementing sustainability principles and meeting European integration requirements. It encompasses short review of international implications on Serbian tourism policy and legislation. Current policy and its sustainability are analyzed using two indicators: application of integrated (cross sector and local community approach, with particular focus on tourism, environmental and planning documents. There is general orientation towards sustainability and involvement of local community into the planning and implementation of projects in the field. Precisely defined mechanisms for public participation and integrated approach, first of all mainstreaming of environmental issues into tourism strategic document, are preconditions for reaching country’s sustainability goals and EU integration orientation. Points that should be improved are suggested and the need for mutual cooperation and capacity development of stakeholders at all levels, including further international support, strongly advocated.

  20. The European Safeguards Research and Development Association Addresses Safeguards and Nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Kusumi, R.; Daures, Pascal A.; Janssens, Willem; Dickman, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    The renaissance of efforts to expand the use of nuclear energy requires the parallel development of a renewed and more sophisticated work force. Growth in the nuclear sector with high standard of safety, safeguards and security requires skilled staff for design, operations, inspections etc. High-quality nuclear technology educational programs are diminished from past years, and the ability of universities to attract students and to meet future staffing requirements of the nuclear industry is becoming seriously compromised. Thus, education and training in nuclear engineering and sciences is one of the cornerstones for the nuclear sector. Teaching in the nuclear field still seems strongly influenced by national history but it is time to strengthen resources and collaborate. Moreover with the current nuclear security threats it becomes critical that nuclear technology experts master the basic principles not only of safety, but also of nuclear safeguards, nonproliferation and nuclear security. In Europe the European Nuclear Education Network (ENEN) Association has established the certificate 'European Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering (EMSNE)' as the classic nuclear engineering program covering reactor operation and nuclear safety. However, it does not include courses on nonproliferation, safeguards, or dual-use technologies. The lack of education in nuclear safeguards was tackled by the European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA), through development and implementation of safeguards course modules. Since 2005 the ESARDA Working Group, called the Training and Knowledge Management Working Group, (TKMWG) has worked with the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra, Italy to organize a Nuclear Safeguards and Nonproliferation course. This five-day course is held each spring at the JRC, and continues to show increasing interest as evidenced by the positive responses of international lecturers and students. The standard set of lectures covers a broad

  1. Transitioning NPOESS Data to Weather Offices: The SPoRT Paradigm with EOS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Real-time satellite information provides one of many data sources used by NWS weather forecast offices (WFOs) to diagnose current weather conditions and to assist in short-term forecast preparation. While GOES satellite data provides relatively coarse spatial resolution coverage of the continental U.S. on a 10-15 minute repeat cycle, polar orbiting imagery has the potential to provide snapshots of weather conditions at high-resolution in many spectral channels. Additionally, polar orbiting sounding data can provide additional information on the thermodynamic structure of the atmosphere in data sparse regions of at asynoptic observation times. The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) project has demonstrated the utility of polar orbiting MODIS and AIRS data on the Terra and Aqua satellites to improve weather diagnostics and short-term forecasting on the regional and local scales. SPoRT scientists work directly forecasters at selected WFOS in the Southern Region (SR) to help them ingest these unique data streams into their AWIPS system, understand how to use the data (through on-site and distance learn techniques), and demonstrate the utility of these products to address significant forecast problems. This process also prepares forecasters for the use of similar observational capabilities from NPOESS operational sensors. NPOESS environmental data records (EDRs) from the Visible 1 Infrared Imager I Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrlS) and Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) instruments and additional value-added products produced by NESDIS will be available in near real-time and made available to WFOs to extend their use of NASA EOS data into the NPOESS era. These new data streams will be integrated into the NWs's new AWIPS II decision support tools. The AWIPS I1 system to be unveiled in WFOs in 2009 will be a JAVA-based decision support system which preserves the functionality of the existing systems and

  2. Challenges to Science and Technology Development Policy in the European Integration Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Novytsky

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on presentday aspects of Ukraine’s science and technology development policy in light of international phenomena and integration reali ties observed across the European continent. The author examines unique traits and practical challenges charac terizing an expansion of Ukraine — EU scientific and technological cooperation with the aim of improving the efficiency of Ukraine’s national economy and optimizing its international dimension. Special attention is paid to problems of adapting Ukraine’s technological policy to European standards, and relevant specific proposals are formulated. The article maintains that today’s advances in informa tion technology and the openness of national economies as a systemdeterminant factor of models of international cooperation broaden the scope of information technolo gies. Since telecommunications and other hitech sectors are vibrantly evolving not only in highly industrialized states but also in East European and other emerging mar ket economies, a key challenge for Ukraine appears to be lending better efficiency and productivity to its na tional policy of introducing information technologies into its socioeconomic sphere. The article provides insight into the international ex perience of the creation of technoparks and demonstrates the necessity of applying such innovation techniques of economic development to Ukraine.

  3. Neutronic analyses and tools development efforts in the European DEMO programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, U., E-mail: ulrich.fischer@kit.edu [Association KIT-Euratom, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Bachmann, C. [European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA), Garching (Germany); Bienkowska, B. [Association IPPLM-Euratom, IPPLM Warsaw/INP Krakow (Poland); Catalan, J.P. [Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), Madrid (Spain); Drozdowicz, K.; Dworak, D. [Association IPPLM-Euratom, IPPLM Warsaw/INP Krakow (Poland); Leichtle, D. [Association KIT-Euratom, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Fusion for Energy (F4E), Barcelona (Spain); Lengar, I. [MESCS-JSI, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jaboulay, J.-C. [CEA, DEN, Saclay, DM2S, SERMA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lu, L. [Association KIT-Euratom, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Moro, F. [Associazione ENEA-Euratom, ENEA Fusion Division, Frascati (Italy); Mota, F. [Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Sanz, J. [Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), Madrid (Spain); Szieberth, M. [Budapest University of Technology and Economics (BME), Budapest (Hungary); Palermo, I. [Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Pampin, R. [Fusion for Energy (F4E), Barcelona (Spain); Porton, M. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre for Fusion Energy (CCFE), Culham (United Kingdom); Pereslavtsev, P. [Association KIT-Euratom, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Ogando, F. [Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), Madrid (Spain); Rovni, I. [Budapest University of Technology and Economics (BME), Budapest (Hungary); and others

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •Evaluation of neutronic tools for application to DEMO nuclear analyses. •Generation of a DEMO model for nuclear analyses based on MC calculations. •Nuclear analyses of the DEMO reactor equipped with a HCLL-type blanket. -- Abstract: The European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) recently launched a programme on Power Plant Physics and Technology (PPPT) with the aim to develop a conceptual design of a fusion demonstration reactor (DEMO) addressing key technology and physics issues. A dedicated part of the PPPT programme is devoted to the neutronics which, among others, has to define and verify requirements and boundary conditions for the DEMO systems. The quality of the provided data depends on the capabilities and the reliability of the computational tools. Accordingly, the PPPT activities in the area of neutronics include both DEMO nuclear analyses and development efforts on neutronic tools including their verification and validation. This paper reports on first neutronics studies performed for DEMO, and on the evaluation and further development of neutronic tools.

  4. Neutronic analyses and tools development efforts in the European DEMO programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, U.; Bachmann, C.; Bienkowska, B.; Catalan, J.P.; Drozdowicz, K.; Dworak, D.; Leichtle, D.; Lengar, I.; Jaboulay, J.-C.; Lu, L.; Moro, F.; Mota, F.; Sanz, J.; Szieberth, M.; Palermo, I.; Pampin, R.; Porton, M.; Pereslavtsev, P.; Ogando, F.; Rovni, I.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Evaluation of neutronic tools for application to DEMO nuclear analyses. •Generation of a DEMO model for nuclear analyses based on MC calculations. •Nuclear analyses of the DEMO reactor equipped with a HCLL-type blanket. -- Abstract: The European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) recently launched a programme on Power Plant Physics and Technology (PPPT) with the aim to develop a conceptual design of a fusion demonstration reactor (DEMO) addressing key technology and physics issues. A dedicated part of the PPPT programme is devoted to the neutronics which, among others, has to define and verify requirements and boundary conditions for the DEMO systems. The quality of the provided data depends on the capabilities and the reliability of the computational tools. Accordingly, the PPPT activities in the area of neutronics include both DEMO nuclear analyses and development efforts on neutronic tools including their verification and validation. This paper reports on first neutronics studies performed for DEMO, and on the evaluation and further development of neutronic tools

  5. Conflicts when liberalising network industries: towards a sustainable development of the European power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlgemuth, N.; Madlener, R.

    2002-01-01

    The impacts of the changes in the industrial organisation of the (European) electricity supply industry pull in different directions. Pairs of largely antithetic issues in the transition towards a more liberalised electricity supply industry include: competition vs monopoly; efficiency vs equity and/or public service considerations; short-term vs long-term policy goals; slow vs rapid transition to a more competition-oriented industry structure; permanent vs temporary regulation; light-handed vs heavy-handed regulation; centralised vs decentralised regulation; and public vs private ownership. Because of the increasing recognition of the importance of sustainability, this paper aims to shed some light on the various impacts of electricity sector reform on sustainable development and, in turn, on how sustainable development policies tend to affect the electricity sector. We find that for a transition towards a more sustainable development in the electricity sector it is crucial that increased energy production and use does not outweigh the (efficiency, equity, social, environmental, etc.) gains that are, or have been, achieved towards sustainable development. In this respect an internalisation of external costs, which includes the abolition of subsidies for non-sustainable energy carriers ('first-best solution'), or an explicit accounting of the benefits offered by renewable and efficiency technologies ('second-best solution'), plus rigorous energy saving and energy efficiency promotion measures, are paramount on the path towards sustainability. (author)

  6. NEMO-SN1 observatory developments in view of the European Research Infrastructures EMSO and KM3NET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favali, Paolo, E-mail: emsopp@ingv.i [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Sect. Roma 2, Via di Vigna Murata 605, 00143 Roma (Italy); Beranzoli, Laura [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Sect. Roma 2, Via di Vigna Murata 605, 00143 Roma (Italy); Italiano, Francesco [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Sect. Palermo, Via Ugo La Malfa 153, 90146 Palermo (Italy); Migneco, Emilio; Musumeci, Mario; Papaleo, Riccardo [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via di S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy)

    2011-01-21

    NEMO-SN1 (Western Ionian Sea off Eastern Sicily), the first real-time multiparameter observatory operating in Europe since 2005, is one of the nodes of the upcoming European ESFRI large-scale research infrastructure EMSO (European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory), a network of seafloor observatories placed at marine sites on the European Continental Margin. NEMO-SN1 constitutes also an important test-site for the study of prototypes of Kilometre Cube Neutrino Telescope (KM3NeT), another European ESFRI large-scale research infrastructure. Italian resources have been devoted to the development of NEMO-SN1 facilities and logistics, as with the PEGASO project, while the EC project ESONET-NoE is funding a demonstration mission and a technological test. EMSO and KM3NeT are presently in the Preparatory Phase as projects funded under the EC-FP7.

  7. The ASY-EOS experiment at GSI: investigating symmetry energy at supra-saturation densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russotto P.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The elliptic-flow ratio of neutrons with respect to protons or light complex particles in reactions of heavy-ions at pre-relativistic energies has been proposed as an observable sensitive to the strength of the symmetry term of the nuclear equation of state at supra-saturation densities. The results obtained from the existing FOPI/LAND data for 197Au+197Au collisions at 400 MeV/nucleon in comparison with the UrQMD model simulations favoured a moderately soft symmetry term, but suffer from a considerable statistical uncertainty. These results have been confirmed by an independent analysis based on the Tübingen QMD simulations. In order to obtain an improved data set for Au+Au collisions and to extend the study to other systems, a new experiment was carried out at the GSI laboratory by the ASY-EOS collaboration. The present status of the data analysis is reported

  8. The European Photovoltaic Technology Platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, S.; Aulich, H.; Bal, J.L.; Dimmler, B.; Garnier, A.; Jongerden, G.; Luther, J.; Luque, A.; Milner, A.; Nelson, D.; Pataki, I.; Pearsall, N.; Perezagua, E.; Pietruszko, S.; Rehak, J.; Schellekens, E.; Shanker, A.; Silvestrini, G.; Sinke, W.; Willemsen, H.

    2006-05-01

    The European Photovoltaic Technology Platform is one of the European Technology Platforms, a new instrument proposed by the European Commission. European Technology Platforms (ETPs) are a mechanism to bring together all interested stakeholders to develop a long-term vision to address a specific challenge, create a coherent, dynamic strategy to achieve that vision and steer the implementation of an action plan to deliver agreed programmes of activities and optimise the benefits for all parties. The European Photovoltaic Technology Platform has recently been established to define, support and accompany the implementation of a coherent and comprehensive strategic plan for photovoltaics. The platform will mobilise all stakeholders sharing a long-term European vision for PV, helping to ensure that Europe maintains and improves its industrial position. The platform will realise a European Strategic Research Agenda for PV for the next decade(s). Guided by a Steering Committee of 20 high level decision-makers representing all relevant European PV Stakeholders, the European PV Technology Platform comprises 4 Working Groups dealing with the subjects policy and instruments; market deployment; science, technology and applications as well as developing countries and is supported by a secretariat

  9. EOS Terra Validation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, David

    2000-01-01

    The EOS Terra mission will be launched in July 1999. This mission has great relevance to the atmospheric radiation community and global change issues. Terra instruments include Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), Multi-Angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT). In addition to the fundamental radiance data sets, numerous global science data products will be generated, including various Earth radiation budget, cloud and aerosol parameters, as well as land surface, terrestrial ecology, ocean color, and atmospheric chemistry parameters. Significant investments have been made in on-board calibration to ensure the quality of the radiance observations. A key component of the Terra mission is the validation of the science data products. This is essential for a mission focused on global change issues and the underlying processes. The Terra algorithms have been subject to extensive pre-launch testing with field data whenever possible. Intensive efforts will be made to validate the Terra data products after launch. These include validation of instrument calibration (vicarious calibration) experiments, instrument and cross-platform comparisons, routine collection of high quality correlative data from ground-based networks, such as AERONET, and intensive sites, such as the SGP ARM site, as well as a variety field experiments, cruises, etc. Airborne simulator instruments have been developed for the field experiment and underflight activities including the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) AirMISR, MASTER (MODIS-ASTER), and MOPITT-A. All are integrated on the NASA ER-2 though low altitude platforms are more typically used for MASTER. MATR is an additional sensor used for MOPITT algorithm development and validation. The intensive validation activities planned for the first year of the Terra

  10. Modeling gas solubilities in imidazolium based ionic liquids with the [Tf2N] anion using the GC-EoS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereda, Selva; Raeissi, Sonia; Andreatta, A.E. (Alfonsina); Bottini, Susana B.; Kroon, Maaike; Peters, Cor

    2016-01-01

    The group contribution equation of state (GC-EoS) is extended to model gas solubilities in the homologous 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethyl-sulfonyl) imide family. The gases considered in this work are CO2, CO, H2, CH4, and C2H6. The model parameters were estimated on the basis of 1400

  11. European gas markets and Russian LNG. Prospects for the development of European gas markets and model simulations of possible new LNG supplies from year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldegard, Tom [Foundation for Research in Economics and Business Administration, Bergen (Norway)

    1996-07-01

    The study aims at clarifying the framework for possible LNG exports from Northern Russia and focuses on the European natural gas markets. The first stage provides general background information on the market structure and related topics. In the second stage this information is used to develop a formal market model and subject it to simulations with various assumptions of the future gas supply. The model is described and results from simulations are given. In the first stage facts from the history of the European natural gas market are outlined. Underlying conditions for the development of natural gas markets in Europe are addressed. The EU has been promoting trade liberalisation in the energy sector but most counties resist freer gas trade across the boarders. New infrastructure development for natural gas are either underway or planned. Some important projects are mentioned. Gas in a global perspective is discussed. The cost structure of the LNG chain is mentioned and an overview of existing LNG export capacities world-wide and major reception terminals in Europe and the USA is given. The second stage employs a scenario analysis to evaluate the economic effects of hypothetical LNG deliveries from Northern Russia. The model is developed for the analysis of West European natural gas markets and designed to allow users to create a structural system of interconnected producers and market regions. Basic assumptions for the evolution of natural gas markets till 2005 is developed and base case scenarios calculated for the years 2000 and 2005 and used as a point of reference for the alternative scenarios considered. According to the analysis the introduction of a new LNG supplier in the European gas market will inflict a substantial loss upon all the existing producers. The primary keys to this result are the assumptions made for gas demand and supply capacity. The LNG alternative will hardly be approved for purely economic reasons as long as the Russians maintain

  12. European gas markets and Russian LNG. Prospects for the development of European gas markets and model simulations of possible new LNG supplies from year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldegard, Tom

    1996-01-01

    The study aims at clarifying the framework for possible LNG exports from Northern Russia and focuses on the European natural gas markets. The first stage provides general background information on the market structure and related topics. In the second stage this information is used to develop a formal market model and subject it to simulations with various assumptions of the future gas supply. The model is described and results from simulations are given. In the first stage facts from the history of the European natural gas market are outlined. Underlying conditions for the development of natural gas markets in Europe are addressed. The EU has been promoting trade liberalisation in the energy sector but most counties resist freer gas trade across the boarders. New infrastructure development for natural gas are either underway or planned. Some important projects are mentioned. Gas in a global perspective is discussed. The cost structure of the LNG chain is mentioned and an overview of existing LNG export capacities world-wide and major reception terminals in Europe and the USA is given. The second stage employs a scenario analysis to evaluate the economic effects of hypothetical LNG deliveries from Northern Russia. The model is developed for the analysis of West European natural gas markets and designed to allow users to create a structural system of interconnected producers and market regions. Basic assumptions for the evolution of natural gas markets till 2005 is developed and base case scenarios calculated for the years 2000 and 2005 and used as a point of reference for the alternative scenarios considered. According to the analysis the introduction of a new LNG supplier in the European gas market will inflict a substantial loss upon all the existing producers. The primary keys to this result are the assumptions made for gas demand and supply capacity. The LNG alternative will hardly be approved for purely economic reasons as long as the Russians maintain

  13. Mutual Transformation and the Development of European Policy Spaces : the Case of Medicine Licensing

    OpenAIRE

    Boris Hauray, Philippe Urfalino

    2006-01-01

    This article pleads for a systemic approach to European policy spaces formation. The termmutual transformation is used to underline three observations concerning how Europeanpolicy spaces are formed: 1) influence among the levels composing the Union runssimultaneously from Brussels to the lower levels, from the lower levels to the EUauthorities, and from country to country; 2) sources of change are both exogenous andendogenous; 3) the nature of the policies under study and the issues and inte...

  14. European methodology for qualification of NDT as developed by ENIQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champigny, F.; Sandberg, U.; Engl, G.; Crutzen, S.; Lemaitre, P.

    1997-01-01

    The European Network for Inspection Qualification (ENIQ) groups the major part of the nuclear power plant operators in the European Union (and Switzerland). The main objective of ENIQ is to co-ordinate and manage at European level expertise and resources for the qualification of NDE inspection systems, primarily for nuclear components. In the framework of ENIQ the European methodology for qualification of NDT has been developed. In this paper the main principles of the European methodology are given besides the main activities and organisation of ENIQ. (orig.)

  15. Report from the 2012 European Gender Summit

    CERN Document Server

    European Gender Summit, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Report from the 2012 European Gender Summit to the European Parliament and the Council, the European Commission, the Council of Europe, EU Member and Associate States, Science Institutions. Developing Systematic Implementation Strategy to Advance EU Policy on Gender Equality in Science, as part of HORIZON 2020, European Research Area and Innovation Union.

  16. Earth Observation for Biodiversity Assessment (EO-BA)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cho, Moses A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available in the Dukuduku coastal forest Earth Observation for Biodiversity Assessment (EO-BA) MA CHO, P DEBBA, R MATHIEU, A RAMOELO, L NAIDOO, H VAN DEVENTER, O MALAHLELA AND R MAIN CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment, Pretoria, South Africa PO Box 395... Observation for Biodiversity Assessment (EO-BA) programme is designed to enhance biodiversity assessment and conservation through the application of earth observation data, with particular focus on the African continent. MISSION To initiate and develop...

  17. Economic development in the European super-periphery: Evidence from the Western Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett Will

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that the conflicts that afflicted the Western Balkan region in the 1990s pushed the countries into the European 'super-periphery', characterized by deindustrialization and high unemployment, ethnic and regional fragmentation, political turmoil, and instability. Integration into international trade has been disrupted, leading to chronic balance of payments deficits. Low inflows of international capital, due to high country risk, have hindered technological catch-up and weaken...

  18. Comparative Analysis of Dibutyric cAMP and Butyric Acid on the Differentiation of Human Eosinophilic Leukemia EoL-1 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, YunJae

    2015-12-01

    Purification of enough numbers of circulating eosinophils is difficult because eosinophils account for less than 5% peripheral blood leukocytes. Human eosinophilic leukemia EoL-1 cells have been considered an in vitro source of eosinophils as they can differentiate into mature eosinophil-like cells when incubated with dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP) or butyric acid. In this study, the viability and phenotypic maturation of EoL-1 cells stimulated by either dbcAMP or butyric acid were comparatively analyzed. After treatment with 100 µM dbcAMP or 0.5 µM butyric acid, EoL-1 cells showed morphological signs of differentiation, although the number of nonviable EoL-1 cells was significantly increased following butyric acid treatment. Stimulation of EoL-1 cells with 0.5 µM butyric acid more effectively induced the expression of mature eosinophil markers than stimulation with dbcAMP. These results suggest that treatment of EoL-1 cells with 0.5 µM butyric acid for limited duration could be an effective strategy for inducing their differentiation. Considering that expression of CCR3 was not sufficient in EoL-1 cells stimulated with 0.5 µM butyric acid, treatment of the chemically stimulated EoL-1 cells with cytokines, which primarily support eosinophil maturation, would help to obtain differentiated EoL-1 cells with greater functional maturity.

  19. Eos Chaos Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    11 January 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned, layered rock outcrops in Eos Chaos, located near the east end of the Valles Marineris trough system. The outcrops occur in the form of a distinct, circular butte (upper half of image) and a high slope (lower half of image). The rocks might be sedimentary rocks, similar to those found elsewhere exposed in the Valles Marineris system and the chaotic terrain to the east of the region. Location near: 12.9oS, 49.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  20. [Recent developments on the European ban on animal experiments for cosmetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhdel, I W

    2001-01-01

    For the second time the European Commission has postponed the sales ban on cosmetics products that have been developed and tested in animal experiments now until 2002. In the meantime the Commission wants to adopt the Seventh Amendment of the EU Cosmetics Directive. In its draft the Commission proposes to scrap the sales ban and replace it with an animal testing ban. This change would avoid possible conflicts with the WTO, however, from the animal welfare point of view would result in animal testing moving into third countries instead of avoiding them. This is because cosmetics products tested on animals outside the EU could be sold in the EU without any restrictions. As a consequence this measure would take the pressure from authorities and industry to further develop and adopt alternative methods. Other proposed measures are not acceptable from the animal welfare point of view, e.g. because they contradict Directive 86/609 and would result in a delay of the application of validated alternative methods. The Deutscher Tierschutzbund therefore still demands an immediate and complete sales ban in connection with an animal testing ban within the EU.

  1. Overview of decommissioning research and development activities in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, B.

    1982-01-01

    The European Community's research program on the decommissioning of nuclear power plants is managed by the Commission of the European Communities and carried out by national laboratories and private firms under cost-sharing contracts. Starting in 1980, about fifty research contracts covering a large variety of topics have been let so far. The paper outlines the content, progress and selected results of the seven projects composing the program. These projects concern the following subjects: maintaining disused plants in a safe condition; decontamination for decommissioning purposes; dismantling techniques; treatment of waste materials; large waste containers; estimation of waste arisings; and plant design features facilitating decommissioning. 4 references

  2. TELEMAN - an European community research and development programme on robotics in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolley, B.; Robertson, B.

    1991-01-01

    The TELEMAN Programme is a five year cost-shared research programme covering remote handling in hazardous and disordered nuclear environments. It is supported within the current research and development of the European Communities. TELEMAN's strategic objective is to develop advanced teleoperators that respond to the needs of the nuclear industry. Its technical objective is to strengthen the scientific and engineering bases upon which the design of teleoperators for use throughout the nuclear industry rests. This will be done by providing new solutions to problems of manipulation, material transport and mobile surveillance in nuclear environments and by demonstrating their feasibility. Motivation for such a programme lies in the potential teleoperators have to improve the separation of workers from radioactive equipment. This technology will also enable plant operators and public authorities to deal more effectively with nuclear abnormal incidents and increase gains in productivity, mainly in the repair and maintenance area. Community support is justified by the cost of the reliability and autonomy required for the nuclear teleoperator, the need to rationalise R and D investment in an area of increasing industrial potential and a common interest in coherent responses to emergencies. (author)

  3. Mobility, return for development and sense of Europe: narratives of Moldavian immigrants returning from the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Marcu

    Full Text Available The article links migration, cross-border mobility and return for development embedded in terms of identity and approach to sense of Europe. Taking into account the global changes in Moldova, the paper examines the perceptions of mobility, return and identity of the Moldovans engaged in emigration in the countries of the European Union (EU. Utilising a multi-discipline approach and an in-depth qualitative interview technique, this article seeks to analyze how mobility and return can support social change and development of the country, and argues that people, who cross EU borders, living through the experience of emigration, acquire a pro-European mentality.

  4. European Community's program in marine resources development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenoble, J.P.; Jarmache, E.

    1995-01-01

    The European Community launched already several research program in the different fields of social and industrial activities. The Fourth Framework Programme is divided into 4 main activities comporting a total of 18 programs. These programs are dealing with general topics as information and communication, industrial technologies, environment, life sciences and technologies, energy, transport and socioeconomic research. One line is devoted to marine sciences and technology, but offshore activities could also be included in the other topics as offshore oil and gas in energy, ship building and harbor in transport, aquaculture and fisheries in life sciences and technology, etc. In order to maintain a coherent approach toward offshore activities, the European maritime industries met intensively front 1991 to 1994 and recommended a series of proposal for Research and Development of marine resources. The methodology and content of these proposals is exposed

  5. ANALYSIS ABSORPTION CAPACITY OF EUROPEAN FUNDS UNDER THE OPERATIONAL PROGRAMME HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA FLORESCU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the main goals of the European Union is the economic progress. In the last 50 years, and especially beginning with the ‘80s, remarkable efforts have been made for removing the borders between the EU national economies and for creating a unique market where goods, persons, capital and services could move freely. Commercial interchanges between UE states have significantly grown and at the same time EU has become a global commercial force. EU’s goal is to become the most dynamic economy based on global recognition. This implies a significant investment in research, education and forming, which allows the population to have access to this new information. This research work displays diverse aspects concerning the Romania’s ability draw of irredeemable funds in period 2007 – 2013, focusing on human capital development activity. Today, the problem absorptions are no longer able to develop projects, that knowing a significant improvement but the stage of implementation and funding.

  6. The European ITER test blanket modules: Progress in development of fabrication technologies towards standardization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zmitko, Milan, E-mail: milan.zmitko@f4e.europa.eu [Fusion for Energy (F4E), Josep Pla 2, Barcelona (Spain); Thomas, Noël [ATMOSTAT, F-94815 Villejuif (France); LiPuma, Antonella; Forest, Laurent [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, SEMT, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Cogneau, Laurence [CEA-DRT, 38000 Grenoble (France); Rey, Jörg; Neuberger, Heiko [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Postfach 3640, Karlsruhe (Germany); Poitevin, Yves [Fusion for Energy (F4E), Josep Pla 2, Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Significant progress on the development of welding procedures for European TBM achieved. • Fabrication processes feasibility based on diffusion and fusion welding demonstrated. • An optimized welding scenario/sequence for TBM box assembly identified. • Future qualification of pF/WPS proposed through realization of a number of QMUs. - Abstract: The paper reviews progress achieved in development of fabrication technologies and procedures applied for manufacturing of the TBM sub-components, like, HCLL and HCPB cooling plates, HCLL/HCPB stiffening plates, and HCLL/HCPB first wall and side caps. The used technologies are based on fusion and diffusion welding techniques taking into account specificities of the EUROFER97 steel. Development of a standardized procedure complying with professional codes and standards (RCC-MRx), a preliminary fabrication/welding procedure specification (pF/WPS), is described based on fabrication and non-destructive and destructive characterization of feasibility mock-ups (FMU) aimed at assessing the suitability of a fabrication process for fulfilling the design and fabrication specifications. The main FMUs characterization results are reported (e.g. pressure resistance and helium leak tightness tests, mechanical properties and microstructure at the weld joints, geometrical characteristics of the sub-components and internal cooling channels) and the key pF/WPS steps and parameters are outlined. Also, fabrication procedures for the TBM box assembly are presently under development for the establishment of an optimized assembly sequence/scenario and development of standardized welding procedure specifications. In conclusions, further steps towards the pF/WPS qualification are briefly discussed.

  7. Thermodynamic Database for the Terrestrial and Planetary Mantle Studies: Where we stand, and some future directions involving experimental studies, numerical protocol for EoS and atomistic calculations (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, J.; Tirone, M.; Sorcar, N.

    2013-12-01

    Reliable thermodynamic databases for rock forming minerals are essential for petrological and geodynamic studies. While the available databases (1-3) represent laudable efforts, none seems to be completely satisfactory. We show inter-comparison of phase diagrams computed from different databases and also their comparisons with experimental phase diagrams in complex systems. The results show good agreement and also significant disagreements in some P-T-X regimes; resolution of these disagreements via new experimental and thermodynamic data is needed to sort out the problems and make further progress. Two of the main challenges in the development of databases (4) seem to be (a) appropriate formulation of an EoS for solids that is suitable for studies of Earth and planetary interiors and (b) relatively simple formulations of thermodynamic mixing properties of mantle minerals that perform well within the compositional space of interest. While work on EoS formulation continues, we present a semi-empirical numerical approach that creates a consistent set of material properties (α, K, Cp, Cv) up to very high P-T conditions by satisfying certain physical constraints. Adequate experimental data are not available to constrain the mixing properties of several minerals that would be valid over the compositional range of interest in the natural environments. We have, thus, pursued an alternative approach on the basis of physical and crystal-chemical data. It is found that combination of elastic mixing energy, incorporating the effect of multi-atom interactions (5, 6), and crystal-field (CF) energy of mixing provide enthalpy of mixing in binary solid solutions that are in good agreement with experimental and calorimetric data. The CF-splitting vs. composition in a solid solution involving transition metal ion may be approximated by a semi-empirical relation using mean metal-oxygen bond-distance when such data are not available from spectroscopic studies. We also discuss the

  8. The development of water services and their interaction with water resources in European and Brazilian cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraqué, B.; Formiga Johnsson, R. M.; Nogueira de Paiva Britto, A. L.

    2008-08-01

    The extension and complexity of large cities creates "urban water" and a related issue: public water services, including public water supply, sewage collection and treatment, and storm water control, had previously become a policy sector separate from water resource allocation issues thanks to water transport and treatment technologies. Large metropolitan areas today cannot take nature for granted anymore, and they need to protect water resources, if only to reduce the long term cost of transporting and treating water. In this paper, we compare the historical development of water services in European and Brazilian metropolitan areas, placing the technological developments in their geographic, socio-economic and political contexts. Our frame is to follow the successive contributions of civil engineering, sanitary engineering, and environmental engineering: the "quantity of water" and civil engineering paradigm allowed to mobilise water in and out of the city, and up the hills or the floors; in the "water quality" and chemical/sanitary engineering paradigm, water treatment gave more freedom to cities to take water from rivers closer to them, but also to reduce sewer discharge impacts; lastly, the environmental engineering paradigm proposes to overcome the supply side perspective, by introducing demand side management, water conservation, water allocation flexibilisation, and an integrated approach to water services, water resources management, and land use policies.

  9. The development of water services and their interaction with water resources in European and Brazilian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Barraqué

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The extension and complexity of large cities creates "urban water" and a related issue: public water services, including public water supply, sewage collection and treatment, and storm water control, had previously become a policy sector separate from water resource allocation issues thanks to water transport and treatment technologies. Large metropolitan areas today cannot take nature for granted anymore, and they need to protect water resources, if only to reduce the long term cost of transporting and treating water. In this paper, we compare the historical development of water services in European and Brazilian metropolitan areas, placing the technological developments in their geographic, socio-economic and political contexts. Our frame is to follow the successive contributions of civil engineering, sanitary engineering, and environmental engineering: the "quantity of water" and civil engineering paradigm allowed to mobilise water in and out of the city, and up the hills or the floors; in the "water quality" and chemical/sanitary engineering paradigm, water treatment gave more freedom to cities to take water from rivers closer to them, but also to reduce sewer discharge impacts; lastly, the environmental engineering paradigm proposes to overcome the supply side perspective, by introducing demand side management, water conservation, water allocation flexibilisation, and an integrated approach to water services, water resources management, and land use policies.

  10. It Security and EO Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, M.

    2010-12-01

    One topic that is beginning to influence the systems that support these goals is that of Information Technology (IT) Security. Unsecure systems are vulnerable to increasing attacks and other negative consequences; sponsoring agencies are correspondingly responding with more refined policies and more stringent security requirements. These affect how EO systems can meet the goals of data and service interoperability and harmonization through open access, transformation and visualization services. Contemporary systems, including the vision of a system-of-systems (such as GEOSS, the Global Earth Observation System of Systems), utilize technologies that support a distributed, global, net-centric environment. These types of systems have a high reliance on the open systems, web services, shared infrastructure and data standards. The broader IT industry has developed and used these technologies in their business and mission critical systems for many years. Unfortunately, the IT industry, and their customers have learned the importance of protecting their assets and resources (computing and information) as they have been forced to respond to an ever increasing number and more complex illegitimate “attackers”. This presentation will offer an overview of work done by the CEOS WGISS organization in summarizing security threats, the challenges to responding to them and capturing the current state of the practice within the EO community.

  11. A snapshot of the European energy service market in 2010 and policy recommendations to foster a further market development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, Angelica; Bertoldi, Paolo; Rezessy, Silvia; Boza-Kiss, Benigna

    2011-01-01

    As of 2010, the energy service market in Europe is still far from utilising its full potential. Wide-scale peer-reviewed studies investigating the development and up-to-date status of the European ESCo market are scarce. This article presents a comprehensive insight of the European ESCo industry based on the results from a large-scale survey carried out 2009-2010 in 39 European countries. The observed market development during the period 2007-2010, trends in business practices, and factors influencing the ESCo industry evolution are described. Finally, having considered the remaining barriers and the supporting factors as well as the successful experiences in Europe, policy measures that could further promote ESCo activities are proposed. - Highlights: → ESCo markets in Europe continue to show diverse stages of development. → Between 2007 and 2010 the European ESCo market underwent a slow growth. → European states have introduced favourable legislative framework for energy conservation. → Loan guarantees recognising the ESCo contractual model increase the access to finance. → Establishment of quality standards and certification schemes for ESCos are essential.

  12. Strategies of development of European power producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heddebaut, D.

    2007-12-01

    This economical study answers the following questions: what is the dynamics of European power markets? What is the relative competitiveness of the different power production means? What are the determining factors of electricity wholesale prices? Who are the operators the most threatened by the rise of wholesale prices? To what extend power producers are impacted by the CO 2 constrain? Who are the most efficient producers? The analysis is based on 18 of the most representative groups of the European electric utilities. The first volume of the study presents the strategic perspectives of European power producers: dynamics and basic characteristics of European power markets, strategic options of European operators, typology and financial results of European power producers, scenarios of market reorganization according to Eurostaf (possible mega-mergers in the future, competition). Volume 2 makes a detailed analysis of the positioning and perspectives of the 18 selected groups: key figures, sourcing strategies, production means management, Eurostaf's diagnosis. (J.S.)

  13. Developing geophysical monitoring at Mayon volcano, a collaborative project EOS-PHIVOLCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, D.; Laguerta, E.; Baloloy, A.; Valerio, R.; Marcial, S. S.

    2011-12-01

    Mayon is an openly-degassed volcano, producing mostly small, frequent eruptions, most recently in Aug-Sept 2006 and Dec 2009. Mayon volcano status is level 1 with low seismicity dominated mostly local and regional tectonic earthquakes with continuous emission of SO2 from its crater. A research collaboration between Earth Observatory of Singapore-NTU and Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) have been initiated in 2010 with effort to develop a multi-disciplinary monitoring system around Mayon includes geophysical monitoring, gas geochemical monitoring, and petrologic studies. Currently there are 4 broadband seismographs, 3 short period instruments, and 4 tiltmeters. These instruments will be telemetered to the Lignon Hill Volcano Observatory through radio and 3G broadband internet. We also make use of our self-made low-cost datalogger which has been operating since Jan 2011, performing continuous data acquisition with sampling rate of 20 minute/sample and transmitted through gsm network. First target of this monitoring system is to obtain continuous multi parameter data transmitted in real time to the observatory from different instruments. Tectonically, Mayon is located in the Oas Graben, a northwest-trending structural depression. Previous study using InSAR data, showing evidence of a left-lateral oblique slip movement of the fault North of Mayon. Understanding on what structures active deformation is occurring and how deformation signal is currently partitioned between tectonic and volcanic origin is a key for characterizing magma movement in the time of unrest. Preliminary analysis of the tangential components of tiltmeters (particularly the stations 5 and 7.5 NE from the volcano) shows gradual inflation movement over a few months period. The tangential components for tiltmeters are roughly perpendicular to the fault north of Mayon. This may suggest downward tilting of the graben in the northern side of Mayon. Another possibility is that

  14. Managing our Nuclear Waste: Choosing Safety and Sustainable Development. Proceedings of the European Forum 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Claude; SCHNEITER, Jean-Louis; Lamoureux, Francois; ); Haug, Peter; Flueler, Thomas; Bouzon, Jean-Luc; Carlsson, Torsten; DEMET, Michel; Marsily, Ghislain de; Gadbois, Serge; Gatignol, Claude; Hooft, Evelyn; Jordan Cizelj, Romana; Rollinger, Francois; Bataille, Christian; Shaver, Kathryn; Linkohr, Rolf; Castellan, Angelo; Collard, Daniel; Devezeaux, Jean-Guy; Dose, Francois; Dupraz, Bernard; Gonnot, Francois-Michel; Leclere, Robert; Pradel, Philippe; Webster, Simon; ); Herzog, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    , professor of geology, member of CNE, Academy of Sciences and Academy of Technologies, Serge Gadbois, sociologist, member of Mutadis and COWAM, Claude Gatignol, Manche representative at the French Parliament, member of OPECST, Evelyn Hooft, ONDRAF, Belgium; Romana Jordan Cizelj, Member of the European Parliament, Slovenia, Francois Rollinger, CFDT - CSSIN. 4 - Audition: Christian Bataille, Nord representative at the French Parliament, member of OPECST, Kathryn Shaver, Head of NWMO, Canada. 5 - 2. round table 'Research laboratories and disposal sites: opportunities for dynamics based on sustainable development' (Chairman: Rolf Linkohr, nuclear physicist, Head of C.E.R.E.S. (DE)). The idea is to increase awareness of the fact that our system of production is tending towards eco-production. The nuclear industry has been a pioneer in this respect, by developing new technologies. In fact, the management and storage of waste is a very high-tech industry which can create a range of businesses with added value e.g. storage, safety etc. Moreover, the producers of waste 'have other expertise' which can be called upon by 'departements' that have agreed to the siting of such disposal sites, using the expertise in a way that takes account of the 'departement's' specific advantages (biomass from farming and forestry, control of energy requirements for small businesses etc.). This presupposes that all local and industrial stakeholders will shoulder their responsibilities and make a commitment, along with the local people, to create new training and businesses in the area concerned. A number of questions will be looked at in detail: - the social and environmental responsibility of waste producers: the technologies and expertise that should be used to further sustainable development (nuclear safety and security, bio-fuels, control of energy demands etc.) - partnerships in contracts of agreed objectives; the involvement of all players; the issue of public/private sector partnerships to fund

  15. The European Community context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charrault, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    The chapter discusses the following: energy resources and energy policy within the European Community; political aspects in the Member States; Community involvement in the transport of radioactive materials; responsibility for safety in relation to transport lies with the governments of the Member States, but the Community through its various organizations also has certain responsibilities, e.g. to ensure that transport regulations are harmonised, to carry out safeguards checks, to provide standards for health and safety of workers and the public, and to cooperate with Member States in developing guidelines for transport safety. (U.K.)

  16. Technical and economical aspects of the wind energy development in the french and european energy context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agator, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    In the context of the wind power use increase in the european union, the average wind turbines power increases also. These turbines are more adapted to little wind conditions. The offshore wind power is certainly the more adapted to the problem of implementation sites, meanwhile the offshore project costs are more expensive. More competitive costs are a challenge for the offshore wind channel. The author presents also the main technological evolutions, the french wind power industry and the future of this energy in France. (A.L.B.)

  17. Possible development of nuclear energy in the European Community and consequences of different reactor strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decressin, A.; Haytinck, B.; Orlowski, S.

    1974-01-01

    The Commission of the European Communities recommended to stimulate the development of the nuclear energy, in order to ensure in the middle or long term, a diversification of the energy supply sources of the Community. According to such a policy, nuclear energy could cover nearly 80% of the Community needs in electrical power in the year 2000 - these being estimated at 50% of total energy needs of the Community - and correspond to 1,3 billion tep for that year alone. In the year 2000, the installed nuclear capacity in the Community (i.e. nearly 1000 GWe) would imply the consumption of roughly 150.000 metric tons of natural uranium and necessitate 90.000 tons of SWU in enrichment services, whatever ''average'' strategy is considered for the period 1980 - 2000. The choices between these various strategies made by public or industrial decision centers, will be the result of a complex assessment of many factors. In any case, the flow of nuclear material between countries will remain very important and a Community nuclear self sufficiency based on breeding is not conceivable before the time at which new energy sources could be brought in effective uses

  18. Can the European Central Bank Create a European identity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn Sørensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    In what ways do central banks construct community, and how may the European Central Bank (ECB) contribute to a supranational European identity? In this paper I seek to answer these two questions by developing a conceptual framework for the ways that central banks construct national identities and...

  19. The Earth Observing System (EOS) Ground System: Leveraging an Existing Operational Ground System Infrastructure to Support New Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardison, David; Medina, Johnny; Dell, Greg

    2016-01-01

    The Earth Observer System (EOS) was officially established in 1990 and went operational in December 1999 with the launch of its flagship spacecraft Terra. Aqua followed in 2002 and Aura in 2004. All three spacecraft are still operational and producing valuable scientific data. While all are beyond their original design lifetime, they are expected to remain viable well into the 2020s. The EOS Ground System is a multi-mission system based at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center that supports science and spacecraft operations for these three missions. Over its operational lifetime to date, the EOS Ground System has evolved as needed to accommodate mission requirements. With an eye towards the future, several updates are currently being deployed. Subsystem interconnects are being upgraded to reduce data latency and improve system performance. End-of-life hardware and operating systems are being replaced to mitigate security concerns and eliminate vendor support gaps. Subsystem hardware is being consolidated through the migration to Virtual Machine based platforms. While mission operations autonomy was not a design goal of the original system concept, there is an active effort to apply state-of-the-art products from the Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) to facilitate automation where possible within the existing heritage architecture. This presentation will provide background information on the EOS ground system architecture and evolution, discuss latest improvements, and conclude with the results of a recent effort that investigated how the current system could accommodate a proposed new earth science mission.

  20. CONSTRAINING POLARIZED FOREGROUNDS FOR EoR EXPERIMENTS. I. 2D POWER SPECTRA FROM THE PAPER-32 IMAGING ARRAY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, S. A.; Aguirre, J. E.; Moore, D. F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Nunhokee, C. D.; Bernardi, G. [Department of Physics and Electronics, Rhodes University, Grahamstown (South Africa); Pober, J. C. [Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence, RI (United States); Ali, Z. S.; DeBoer, D. R.; Parsons, A. R. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bradley, R. F. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Carilli, C. L. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM (United States); Gugliucci, N. E. [Saint Anselm College, Manchester, NH (United States); Jacobs, D. C. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); Klima, P. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA (United States); MacMahon, D. H. E. [Radio Astronomy Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Manley, J. R.; Walbrugh, W. P. [SKA South Africa, Pinelands (South Africa); Stefan, I. I., E-mail: saulkohn@sas.upenn.edu [Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-01

    Current generation low-frequency interferometers constructed with the objective of detecting the high-redshift 21 cm background aim to generate power spectra of the brightness temperature contrast of neutral hydrogen in primordial intergalactic medium. Two-dimensional (2D) power spectra (power in Fourier modes parallel and perpendicular to the line of sight) that formed from interferometric visibilities have been shown to delineate a boundary between spectrally smooth foregrounds (known as the wedge ) and spectrally structured 21 cm background emission (the EoR window ). However, polarized foregrounds are known to possess spectral structure due to Faraday rotation, which can leak into the EoR window. In this work we create and analyze 2D power spectra from the PAPER-32 imaging array in Stokes I, Q, U, and V. These allow us to observe and diagnose systematic effects in our calibration at high signal-to-noise within the Fourier space most relevant to EoR experiments. We observe well-defined windows in the Stokes visibilities, with Stokes Q, U, and V power spectra sharing a similar wedge shape to that seen in Stokes I. With modest polarization calibration, we see no evidence that polarization calibration errors move power outside the wedge in any Stokes visibility to the noise levels attained. Deeper integrations will be required to confirm that this behavior persists to the depth required for EoR detection.

  1. HTR-TN a European network for the development of HTR technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Lensa, W.

    2001-01-01

    A network called High-temperature reactor technology network (HTR-TN) has been created at a European level to coordinate works and knowledge on the subject with a long-term perspective and to serve as a channel for international collaboration. An analysis confirmed that the obvious economic penalty of HTR due to its low density power could be compensated by the combination of recent advances that may completely change the positioning of HTR on the energy market: -) the modular concept allowed to get a reactor free from core melt risk without intervention of any active safety system, implying a drastic simplification of the design of the reactor and the safety systems as well as a standardisation and potential for shop fabrication in series; -) the development of gas turbines, the efficiency of which increased, in 10 years, from 35% till 50% and more, enabling to consider suppression of the secondary system; -) the ultra high burn-up potential of HTR fuel and the possibility for direct disposal of spent HTR fuel elements that may reduce cost of the fuel cycle and contribute to the reduction of civil and military plutonium stockpiles. (A.C.)

  2. DEVELOPMENTS FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN UNION IN THE SERVICE OF URBAN DESIGN IN THE NORTH GREAT PLAIN REGION (HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bence MONYÓK

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important elements of place marketing is the creation of an attractive urban landscape which require significant financial resources. For this reason local authorities of Central Europe use regional policy grants from European Union for this purpose. In the light of the above, the aim of this paper is to examine the role of European Union grants in the improvement of the built environment in North Great Plain Region (Hungary, one of the least developed regions of Hungary. In the course of the above, on the one hand, we intend to provide a general overview of the situation in Hajdú-Bihar County, also located in this region, and on the other hand, through the example of a specific settlement, we will also present the processes in detail.

  3. Target development and transmutation experiments in the frame of the EFTTRA European collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prunier, C.; Salvatores, M.; Muehling, G.; Rome, M.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the EFTTRA collaboration between CEA (France), ECN (The Netherlands), EDF (France), FZK (Germany), IAM and ITU (European Commission), is to organize joint experiments for the study of materials for transmutation in reactors. The work is focused on the transmutation of 99 Tc (metal), of 129 I (compound), and of Am (in an inert matrix). Irradiation experiments are taking place in parallel in the Phenix fast reactor in France, and in the high flux thermal reactor HFR in the Netherlands. Examination of iodine compounds and Tc samples, following irradiation in HFR, has started. (authors). 10 refs., 2 figs

  4. Have Anglo-Saxon Concepts Really Influenced the Development of European Qualifications Policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Linda; Winch, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers how far Anglo Saxon conceptions of vocational education and training have influenced European Union vocational education and training policy, especially given the disparate approaches to vocational education and training across Europe. Two dominant approaches can be identified: the dual system (exemplified by Germany); and…

  5. Geography, Economic Education and Global Education: European and Austrian Aspects of the "Fifobi--Developing Business Competencies in School" Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The EU-funded research project "Fifobi--Fit for Business--developing business competencies in school" (2009-2012) focused on the implementation of economic education in seven European countries. The purpose of the project and this paper is to investigate the current programmes that exist within the final two years of compulsory…

  6. Post-Institutionalized Chinese and Eastern European Children: Heterogeneity in the Development of Emotion Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camras, Linda A.; Perlman, Susan B.; Fries, Alison B. Wismer; Pollak, Seth D.

    2006-01-01

    Post-institutionalized Chinese and Eastern European children participated in two emotion understanding tasks. In one task, children selected facial expressions corresponding to four emotion labels (happy, sad, angry, scared). The second task required children to match facial expressions to stories describing situations for these emotions. While…

  7. Occupational and patient exposure as well as image quality for full spine examinations with the EOS imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damet, J.; Fournier, P.; Monnin, P.; Sans-Merce, M.; Verdun, F. R.; Baechler, S.; Ceroni, D.; Zand, T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: EOS (EOS imaging S.A, Paris, France) is an x-ray imaging system that uses slot-scanning technology in order to optimize the trade-off between image quality and dose. The goal of this study was to characterize the EOS system in terms of occupational exposure, organ doses to patients as well as image quality for full spine examinations. Methods: Occupational exposure was determined by measuring the ambient dose equivalents in the radiological room during a standard full spine examination. The patient dosimetry was performed using anthropomorphic phantoms representing an adolescent and a five-year-old child. The organ doses were measured with thermoluminescent detectors and then used to calculate effective doses. Patient exposure with EOS was then compared to dose levels reported for conventional radiological systems. Image quality was assessed in terms of spatial resolution and different noise contributions to evaluate the detector's performances of the system. The spatial-frequency signal transfer efficiency of the imaging system was quantified by the detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Results: The use of a protective apron when the medical staff or parents have to stand near to the cubicle in the radiological room is recommended. The estimated effective dose to patients undergoing a full spine examination with the EOS system was 290μSv for an adult and 200 μSv for a child. MTF and NPS are nonisotropic, with higher values in the scanning direction; they are in addition energy-dependent, but scanning speed independent. The system was shown to be quantum-limited, with a maximum DQE of 13%. The relevance of the DQE for slot-scanning system has been addressed. Conclusions: As a summary, the estimated effective dose was 290μSv for an adult; the image quality remains comparable to conventional systems

  8. Occupational and patient exposure as well as image quality for full spine examinations with the EOS imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damet, J., E-mail: jerome.damet@chuv.ch; Fournier, P.; Monnin, P.; Sans-Merce, M.; Verdun, F. R.; Baechler, S. [Institute of Radiation Physics, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne 1007 (Switzerland); Ceroni, D. [Department of Paediatrics, Division of paediatric orthopaedic, University Hospitals of Geneva, Geneva 1205 (Switzerland); Zand, T. [Department of Radiology, Division of paediatric radiology, University Hospitals of Geneva, Geneva 1205 (Switzerland)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: EOS (EOS imaging S.A, Paris, France) is an x-ray imaging system that uses slot-scanning technology in order to optimize the trade-off between image quality and dose. The goal of this study was to characterize the EOS system in terms of occupational exposure, organ doses to patients as well as image quality for full spine examinations. Methods: Occupational exposure was determined by measuring the ambient dose equivalents in the radiological room during a standard full spine examination. The patient dosimetry was performed using anthropomorphic phantoms representing an adolescent and a five-year-old child. The organ doses were measured with thermoluminescent detectors and then used to calculate effective doses. Patient exposure with EOS was then compared to dose levels reported for conventional radiological systems. Image quality was assessed in terms of spatial resolution and different noise contributions to evaluate the detector's performances of the system. The spatial-frequency signal transfer efficiency of the imaging system was quantified by the detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Results: The use of a protective apron when the medical staff or parents have to stand near to the cubicle in the radiological room is recommended. The estimated effective dose to patients undergoing a full spine examination with the EOS system was 290μSv for an adult and 200 μSv for a child. MTF and NPS are nonisotropic, with higher values in the scanning direction; they are in addition energy-dependent, but scanning speed independent. The system was shown to be quantum-limited, with a maximum DQE of 13%. The relevance of the DQE for slot-scanning system has been addressed. Conclusions: As a summary, the estimated effective dose was 290μSv for an adult; the image quality remains comparable to conventional systems.

  9. Development of a double containment concept for the European pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costaz, J.L.; Bonhomme, N.; L'Huby, Y.; Sidaner, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    This paper addresses the development of a double containment concept for the European Pressurized Water Reactor. Specification of containment leak tightness during severe hazards resulting from core melt scenarios is part of the safety goals defined for the EPR project. These safety goals include retention of molten core, mitigation of hydrogen deflagration or explosion risks and decay heat removal. The main new containment structural design loads which have been defined, including containment pressure and temperature conditions following possible postulated-core melt events, are recalled in the paper. The feasibility of a double containment with a prestressed concrete inner containment taking into account these new design loads but based upon experience gained within the well tested concept of concrete double wall containment used in 1400 MW nuclear power plants which have already been built in France, is presented. The main characteristics of such a prestressed inner containment are described. Limits and further possible optimization for even more severe design loads (including liner option) are indicated. Experimental works including a large scale mock up are already under way. (author). 2 refs., 4 figs

  10. Historical Development of NATO Stanag 6001 Language Standards and Common European Framework (CEF) and the Comparison of Their Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solak, Ekrem

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the article is to shed light on the historical development of language studies in military and social context and to compare the current status of NATO Stanag (Standard Agreement) 6001 language scale with Common European Framework (CEF). Language studies in military context date back to World War II and the emergence of Army Specialized…

  11. Economic development, place-based development strategies and the conceptualization of proximity in European urban regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dogaru, Dora; van Oort, Frank; Thissen, M.

    2014-01-01

    The discussion on proximity has evolved in various theoretical, conceptual and empirical directions since the seminal contributions by Torre and Rallet (2005) and Boschma (2005). One of the main arguments for conceptualizing proximities other than physical proximities is embedded in the ever-growing

  12. Inside the Mechanics of Network Development: How Competition and Strategy Reorganize European Air Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Air transport forms complex networks that can be measured in order to understand its structural characteristics and functional properties. Recent models for network growth (i.e., preferential attachment, etc.) remain stochastic and do not seek to understand other network-specific mechanisms that may account for their development in a more microscopic way. Air traffic is made up of many constituent airlines that are either privately or publicly owned and that operate their own networks. They follow more or less similar business policies each. The way these airline networks organize among themselves into distinct traffic distributions reveals complex interaction among them, which in turn can be aggregated into larger (macro-) traffic distributions. Our approach allows for a more deterministic methodology that will assess the impact of airline strategies on the distinct distributions for air traffic, particularly inside Europe. One key question this paper is seeking to answer is whether there are distinct patterns of preferential attachment for given classes of airline networks to distinct types of European airports. Conclusions about the advancing degree of concentration in this industry and the airline operators that accelerate this process can be drawn.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF REGIONS AND MUNICIPALITIES OF THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC BY APPLICATION OF EUROPEAN COHESION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Rentkova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Slovak republic, entering the European Union on the 1st May 2004, got the impulse on the improvement and growth also via the application of the Cohesion policy. For the programming period 2007-2013, the amount of 11.3 milliards Euros for the application of the Cohesion policy have been provided to the Slovak republic. In the present time, the programming period is finished and the Slovak republic meets the critical reviews in the area of the effective use and maintenance of projects and application of the Cohesion policy on its territory. Many specialists, economists and analysts try to reveal the errors, identify the subjects that enter into the project cycle wrongly or to identify the bodies that have the most important influence on the low level of the financial instruments use and they also try to deal with the criticism of the European Commission as to the project realization. From this point of view, the theme of the research is very actual and imperative because the research tries to enlighten and to analyze the application of the cohesion policy within the territory of the Slovak republic and so, to state recommendations for more effective application for the following programming period. The article is created by analyzing the application of the European cohesion policy in the programming period 2007 - 2013 in the Slovak Republic. The main objective of the article is to analyze and define the cohesion policy of the European Union and one of the partial objectives is to execute the analysis on the implementation state of the Cohesion policy on the level of the chosen regions in the Slovak republic and then, to propose and to create recommendations and techniques for its effective functioning.

  14. Structural change in Europe's gas markets: three scenarios for the development of the European gas market to 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, A.; Bowitz, E.; Roland, K.

    2000-01-01

    Against the background of the European Union's Gas Directive, and the emergence of new players and markets in Europe's gas sector, this paper explores how company actions could shape the future for the gas industry. Starting with an examination of company strategies this paper develops three scenarios for the future: a 'Gradual Transformation' scenario where a single European gas market develops that is essentially oligopolistic in nature; a 'Vertical Integration' scenario, where upstream and downstream gas companies merge to form a vertically integrated gas supplier; and a 'Pull the Plug' scenario, where the current market structure decomposes into a competitive market. These scenarios are examined in terms of their impact on gas prices, demand and the distribution of gas rent along the supply chain. The paper highlights the fact that the EU's gas Directive is not sufficient for the introduction of competition into Europe's gas markets, but that company actions will be the key determinant, and they may favour alternative market structures. (Author)

  15. Internationally Adopted Children from Non-European Countries: General Development during the First Two Years in the Adoptive Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Dalen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Internationally adopted children are often delayed in their development and demonstrate more behaviour problems than nonadopted children due to adverse preadoption circumstances. This is especially true for children adopted from Eastern European countries. Few studies have focused on children adopted from non-European countries. This paper presents results from an ongoing longitudinal study of 119 internationally adopted children from non-European countries during their first two years in Norway. Several scales measuring different aspects of the children’s development are included in the study: communication and gross motor development, temperamental characteristics, and behaviour problems. The results show that internationally adopted children are delayed in their general development when they first arrive in their adoptive families. After two years the children have made significant progress in development. However, they still lag behind in communication and motor skills compared to non-adopted children. The temperamental characteristics seem very stable from time of adoption until two years after adoption. The children demonstrate a low frequency of behaviour problems. However, the behaviour problems have changed during the two years. At time of adoption they show more nonphysically challenging behaviour while after two years their physically challenging behaviour has increased.

  16. Internationally adopted children from non-European countries: general development during the first two years in the adoptive family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalen, Monica; Theie, Steinar

    2012-01-01

    Internationally adopted children are often delayed in their development and demonstrate more behaviour problems than nonadopted children due to adverse preadoption circumstances. This is especially true for children adopted from Eastern European countries. Few studies have focused on children adopted from non-European countries. This paper presents results from an ongoing longitudinal study of 119 internationally adopted children from non-European countries during their first two years in Norway. Several scales measuring different aspects of the children's development are included in the study: communication and gross motor development, temperamental characteristics, and behaviour problems. The results show that internationally adopted children are delayed in their general development when they first arrive in their adoptive families. After two years the children have made significant progress in development. However, they still lag behind in communication and motor skills compared to non-adopted children. The temperamental characteristics seem very stable from time of adoption until two years after adoption. The children demonstrate a low frequency of behaviour problems. However, the behaviour problems have changed during the two years. At time of adoption they show more nonphysically challenging behaviour while after two years their physically challenging behaviour has increased.

  17. Effect of benzo[a]pyrene on the production of vascular endothelial growth factor by human eosinophilic leukemia EoL-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jie; Chan, Lai-Sheung; Wong, Chris Kong-Chu; Wong, Ngok-Shun; Wong, Chun-Kwok; Leung, Kok-Nam; Mak, Naiki K

    2011-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) has been shown to affect both the development and response of T and B cells in the immune system. However, the effect of BaP on other immune cells, such as eosionophils, is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of BaP on the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) using an in vitro eosinophilic EoL-1 cell and human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) co-culture system. EoL-1-conditioned medium was found to promote the growth of HUVEC in a time-dependent manner. The growth stimulating activity was due to the production of VEGF by the EoL-1 cells. The production of VEGF was correlated with the enhanced expression of the phosphorylated form of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (p-ERKs) and the upregulated expression of VEGF mRNA. Furthermore, BaP-induced expression of VEGF mRNA was reduced by the ERK inhibitor PD98059. Results from this study suggested that BaP might affect the growth of endothelial cells through the modulation of VEGF production by eosinophils.

  18. Development of European regulations on radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristensen, K.

    1990-01-01

    Separate regulatory systems are being developed on the use of radiopharmaceuticals including radiation protection of patients and personnel and on the quality including safety and efficacy of radiopharmaceuticals. Radiation protection legislation has been introduced in most western European Economic Community (EEC). Within the drug field radiopharmaceuticals have been excepted up till now. However, new EEC directive on radiopharmaceuticals will soon come into force. The work done on the preparation of regulations and guidelines will be discussed. This discussion will focus on the problems faced when radiation protection aspects shall be balanced to traditional requirements of pharmaceutical aspects

  19. The roles of MCP-1 and protein kinase C delta activation in human eosinophilic leukemia EoL-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Sook; Yang, Eun Ju; Kim, In Sik

    2009-12-01

    Idiopathic hypereosinophilc syndrome is a disorder associated with clonally eosinophilic proliferation. The importance of FIP1-like-1-platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha (FIP1L1-PDGFRA) in the pathogenesis and classification of HES has been recently reported. In this study, we investigated the contribution of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)/CCL2 to chemotactic activity and protein kinase C delta (PKC delta in the human eosinophilic leukemia cell line EoL-1. These cells express CCR2 protein among the CC chemokine receptors (CCR1-5). MCP-1 induces strong migration of EoL-1 cells and the chemotaxis signal in response to MCP-1 involves a G(i)/G(o) protein, phospholipase C (PLC), PKC delta, p38 MAPK and NF-kappaB. MCP-1 activates p38 MAPK via G(i)/G(o) protein, PLC and PKC delta cascade. MCP-1 also induces NF-kappaB translocation and the activation is inhibited by PKC delta activation. The increase in the basal expression and activity of PKC delta in EoL-1 cells, compared to normal eosinophils, inhibits apoptosis in EoL-1 cells. Anti-apoptotic mechanism of PKC delta is related to inhibition of caspase 3 and caspase 9, but not to FIP1L1-PDGFRA. PKC delta functions as an anti-apoptotic molecule, and is involved in EoL-1 cell movement stimulated by MCP-1. This study contributes to an understanding of MCP-1 in eosinophil biology and pathogenic mechanism of eosinophilic disorders.

  20. An empirical study of cultural evolution: the development of European cooking from medieval to modern times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindenfors, Patrik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We have carried out an empirical study of long-term change in European cookery to test if the development of this cultural phenomenon matches a general hypothesis about cultural evolution: that human cultural change is characterized by cumulativity. Data from seven cookery books, evenly spaced across time, the oldest one written in medieval times (~1200 and the most recent one dating from late modernity (1999, were compared. Ten recipes from each of the categories “poultry recipes”, “fish recipes” and “meat recipes” were arbitrarily selected from each cookery book by selecting the first ten recipes in each category, and the numbers (per recipe of steps, separate partial processes, methods, ingredients, semi-manufactured ingredients, compound semi-manufactured ingredients (defined as semi-manufactured ingredients containing no less than two raw products, and self-made semi-manufactured ingredients were counted. Regression analyses were used to quantitatively compare the cookery from different ages. We found a significant increase in the numbers (per recipe of steps, separate partial processes, methods, ingredients and semi-manufactured ingredients. These significant increases enabled us to identify the development of cookery as an example of the general trend of cumulativity in long-term cultural evolution. The number of self-made semi-manufactured ingredients per recipe, however, may have decreased somewhat over time, something which may reflect the cumulative characteristics of cultural evolution at the level of society, considering the accumulation of knowledge that is required to industrialize food production.

  1. Assessment of the waste electrical and electronic equipment management systems profile and sustainability in developed and developing European Union countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanescu, Dumitrita; Cailean Gavrilescu, Daniela; Teodosiu, Carmen; Fiore, Silvia

    2018-03-01

    The assessment of waste management systems for electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) from developed economies (Germany, Sweden and Italy) and developing countries (Romania and Bulgaria), is discussed covering the period 2007-2014. The WEEE management systems profiles are depicted by indicators correlated to WEEE life cycle stages: collection, transportation and treatment. The sustainability of national WEEE management systems in terms of greenhouse gas emissions is presented, together with the greenhouse gas efficiency indicator that underlines the efficiency of WEEE treatment options. In the countries comparisons, the key elements are: robust versus fragile economies, the overall waste management performance and the existence/development of suitable management practices on WEEE. Over the life cycle perspective, developed economies (Germany, Sweden and Italy) manage one order of magnitude higher quantities of WEEE compared to developing countries (Romania and Bulgaria). Although prevention and reduction measures are encouraged, all WEEE quantities were larger in 2013, than in 2007. In 2007-2014, developed economies exceed the annual European collection target of 4 kg WEEE/capita, while collection is still difficult in developing countries. If collection rates are estimated in relationship with products placed on market, than similar values are registered in Sweden and Bulgaria, followed by Germany and Italy and lastly Romania. WEEE transportation shows different patterns among countries, with Italy as the greatest exporter (in 2014), while Sweden treats the WEEE nationally. WEEE reuse is a common practice in Germany, Sweden (from 2009) and Bulgaria (from 2011). By 2014, recycling was the most preferred WEEE treatment option, with the same kind of rates performance, over 80%, irrespective of the country, with efforts in each of the countries in developing special collection points, recycling facilities and support instruments. The national total and the

  2. Neutron Measurement Instrumentation Development at KIT for the European ITER TBM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klix, A.; Fischer, U.; Raj, P.; Reimann, Th.; Szalkai, D.; Tian, K. [Association KIT-EURATOM, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Angelone, M. [Associazione ENEA-EURATOM sulla Fusione, ENEA C.R., I-00044 Frascati (Italy); Gehre, D. [Technical University of Dresden, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Lyoussi, A. [CEA, DEN, DER, Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2015-07-01

    Fusion power reactors will rely on the internal production of the fuel tritium from lithium in the tritium breeding blanket. Test Blanket Modules (TBM) will be installed in ITER with the aim to investigate the nuclear performance of different breeding blanket designs. Currently there is no fully qualified nuclear instrumentation available for the measurement of neutron fluxes and tritium production rates which would be able to withstand the harsh environment conditions in the TBM such as high temperature (>400 deg. C) and, depending on the operation scenario, intense radiation levels. As partner of the European Consortium on Nuclear Data and Measurement Techniques in the framework of several F4E specific grants and contracts, KIT and ENEA have jointly studied the possibility to develop and test detectors suitable to operate in ITER-TBMs. Here we present an overview of ongoing work on three types of neutron flux monitors under development for the TBMs with focus on the KIT activities. A neutron activation system (NAS) with pneumatic sample transport could provide absolute neutron flux measurements in selected positions. A test system for investigating activation materials with short half-lives was constructed at the DT neutron generator laboratory of Technical University of Dresden to investigate the neutronics aspects. Several irradiations have been performed with focus on the simultaneous measurement of the extracted activated probes. An engineering assessment of a TBM NAS in the conceptual design phase has been done which considered issues of design requirements and integration. Last but not least, a mechanical test bench is under construction at KIT which will address issues of driving the activation probes, solutions for loading the system etc. experimentally. Self-powered neutron detectors (SPND) are widely applied in fission reactor monitoring, and the commercially available SPNDs are sensitive to thermal neutrons. We are investigating novel materials for

  3. Developments on the European energy market. Part 1. Natural gas supply. Extra import covers growing natural gas demand in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gelder, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    This first part of a series on developments in the European gas market features the growth in gas supply. 35% of the gas demand must be covered from sources outside Europe. For the future additional imports are required from countries such as the Russian Federation, Algeria and Nigeria. Over the next few years the artificial link between ga and oil prices will disappear, bringing the gas price to a structurally lower level. It will be of crucial importance that gas suppliers will not be able to form cartels to keep prices high. All competing projects will curb price increases on the European market, but will definitely result in more freedom of choice for European natural gas consumers

  4. The European populist challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannis Stavrakakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s Europe, the word ‘populism’ usually refers to right-wing populism or the populist extreme right. Is, however, the concept of ‘populism’ the proper theoreticopolitical instrument through which such identifications should be perceived, categorized and debated? What are the implications (direct and indirect of such a naming? And what are the risks for critical analysis and for democratic politics in the European context? The hypothesis explored in this essay is that sticking to a restrictive association between ‘populism’ and the extreme right poses certain dangers that have to be seriously taken into account, especially in times of crisis. For a start, it is often premised on a rather simplistic euro-centrism that reduces the broad conceptual spectrum covered by the category ‘populism’ in its global use to a very particular European experience and then essentializes the resulting association, over-extending its scope. In addition, the category ‘populism’ is aften used to describe political forces, identities and discourses in which the role of ‘the people’ is only secondary or peripheral, to the extent that it has to coincide with strongly hierarchical and elitist visions of society. What complicates things even further is that, within the context of the European (economic and political crisis, whoever questions/ resists the austerity agenda – especially on the left – is increasingly discredited and denounced as an irresponsible populist. Indeed, it is not by coincidence that doubts are increasingly voiced both in the theoretical and in the political literature regarding the rationale behind such a strong association between populism and the extreme right. A series of points will thus be raised that may help us develop a plausible theoretico-political strategy in the new emerging conditions from a discursive perspective.*

  5. Survey of Regulatory and Technological Developments Concerning Smart Metering in the European Union Electricity Market

    OpenAIRE

    VASCONCELOS, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Smart metering is a crucial factor for the efficient functioning of the Internal Electricity Market, as well as for the successful implementation of European Union policies related to energy efficiency, renewable energy and security of supply. The report first outlines the potential benefits of smart meters for consumers, suppliers, metering companies, distribution network operators and public interest. Next the report provides a short overview of the legal framework governing metering activi...

  6. Orion European Service Module (ESM) Development, Integration and Qualification Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthe, Philippe; Over, Ann P.; Picardo, Michelle; Byers, Anthony W.

    2017-01-01

    ESA and the European Industry are supplying the European Service Module for Orion. An overview of the system and subsystem configuration of the Orion European Service Module (ESM) as designed and built for the EM-1 mission is provided as well as an outline of its development, assembly, integration and verification process performed by ESA and NASA in coordination with their respective Industrial prime contractors, Airbus Defence and Space and Lockheed Martin.

  7. Development and application of the european cold chain database as a tool for cold chain management

    OpenAIRE

    Gogou , E.; Katsaros , G.; Derens , E.; Li , L.; Alvarez , G.; Taoukis , P.

    2013-01-01

    2nd IIR International Conference on Sustainability and the Cold Chain, Paris, FRA, 02-/04/2013 - 04/04/2013; International audience; Storage and distribution are the weakest links in the food management. Their effective control is important for their commercial viability, since they often deviate from specifications. FRISBEE (http://frisbee - project.eu) is a Food Refrigeration Innovation for Cold Chain research IP European project. Within FRISBEE a web - based platform (hosted in the link ht...

  8. Development and validation of the European Cluster Assimilation Techniques run libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facskó, G.; Gordeev, E.; Palmroth, M.; Honkonen, I.; Janhunen, P.; Sergeev, V.; Kauristie, K.; Milan, S.

    2012-04-01

    The European Commission funded the European Cluster Assimilation Techniques (ECLAT) project as a collaboration of five leader European universities and research institutes. A main contribution of the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) is to provide a wide range global MHD runs with the Grand Unified Magnetosphere Ionosphere Coupling simulation (GUMICS). The runs are divided in two categories: Synthetic runs investigating the extent of solar wind drivers that can influence magnetospheric dynamics, as well as dynamic runs using measured solar wind data as input. Here we consider the first set of runs with synthetic solar wind input. The solar wind density, velocity and the interplanetary magnetic field had different magnitudes and orientations; furthermore two F10.7 flux values were selected for solar radiation minimum and maximum values. The solar wind parameter values were constant such that a constant stable solution was archived. All configurations were run several times with three different (-15°, 0°, +15°) tilt angles in the GSE X-Z plane. The result of the 192 simulations named so called "synthetic run library" were visualized and uploaded to the homepage of the FMI after validation. Here we present details of these runs.

  9. Limited Range Sesame EOS for Ta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greeff, Carl William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Crockett, Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rudin, Sven Peter [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Burakovsky, Leonid [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-30

    A new Sesame EOS table for Ta has been released for testing. It is a limited range table covering T ≤ 26, 000 K and ρ ≤ 37.53 g/cc. The EOS is based on earlier analysis using DFT phonon calculations to infer the cold pressure from the Hugoniot. The cold curve has been extended into compression using new DFT calculations. The present EOS covers expansion into the gas phase. It is a multi-phase EOS with distinct liquid and solid phases. A cold shear modulus table (431) is included. This is based on an analytic interpolation of DFT calculations.

  10. RURAL DEVELOPMENT AND AGRICULTURAL POLICY IN THE CONTEXT OF NEGOTIATING THE EUROPEAN UNION ACQUIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Spiridon

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Elaborated during the first half of 2004 as an UNDP-financed project and never published in a complete form before, this study documents the failures of prolonged and significant state interference in the agricultural sector in Romania, focusing on the post-communist period. Given the unavoidable facts that in the absence of private property it is impossible to have either a rational allocation of resources and the right incentives, we reach the conclusion that the failures of the Romanian agriculture were not at all accidental, but inherent in its statist design. An assessment of the European Common Agricultural Policy and its potential impact on our agricultural sector is provided in the last part of the study.

  11. The European Utility Requirement Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, I.I.

    1999-01-01

    The major European electricity producers work on a common requirement document for future LWR plants since 1992. They aim at requirements acceptable together by the owners, the public and the authorities. Thus the designers can develop standard LWR designs acceptable everywhere in Europe and the utilities can open their consultations to vendors on common bases. Such a standardisation promotes an improvement of generation costs and of safety : public and authorities acceptance should be improved as well ; significant savings are expected in development and construction costs. Since the early stages of the project, the EUR group has grown significantly. It now includes utilities from nine European countries. Utilities from two other European countries are joining the group. Specific cooperation agreements are also in progress with a few extra-European partners

  12. Patient-family EoL communication and its predictors: Reports from caregivers of Latino patients in the rural U.S.-Mexico border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Eunjeong; Lee, Jaehoon; Ramirez, Carlos; Lopez, Denicka; Martinez, Stephanie

    2017-10-26

    Family caregivers play an important role in end-of-life (EoL) decision making when the patient is unable to make his/her own decisions. While communication about EoL care between patients and family is perhaps a first step toward advance care planning (ACP)/EoL decisions, not every culture puts great value on open communication about this topic. The aims of the present study were to explore EoL communication and the aspects of communication among caregivers of Latino patients in the rural United States (U.S.)-Mexico border region. This study analyzed data from a hospice needs assessment collected from 189 family caregivers of Latino patients at a home health agency in a rural U.S.-Mexico border region. Bivariate tests and logistic regression were used to address our aims. About half of the family caregivers (n = 96, 50.8%) reported to have ever engaged in EoL discussion with patients. Significant predictors of EoL discussion included life-sustaining treatment preference (odds ratio [OR] = 0.44, p EoL communication. Also, caregivers who worried that physicians might want to stop treatments (i.e., "pull the plug") too soon were less likely to do so. Conversely, caregivers who had knowledge about ADs were more likely to engage in EoL communication. EoL communication is a complex process influenced by individual, social, and cultural values and the beliefs of both the patient and his/her family. Inclusion of family caregivers in the ACP process and facilitating culturally tailored EoL communication between patients and family caregivers is important.

  13. The European nanometrology landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Richard K; Boyd, Robert; Burke, Theresa; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Dirscherl, Kai; Dziomba, Thorsten; Gee, Mark; Koenders, Ludger; Morazzani, Valérie; Pidduck, Allan; Roy, Debdulal; Unger, Wolfgang E S; Yacoot, Andrew

    2011-02-11

    This review paper summarizes the European nanometrology landscape from a technical perspective. Dimensional and chemical nanometrology are discussed first as they underpin many of the developments in other areas of nanometrology. Applications for the measurement of thin film parameters are followed by two of the most widely relevant families of functional properties: measurement of mechanical and electrical properties at the nanoscale. Nanostructured materials and surfaces, which are seen as key materials areas having specific metrology challenges, are covered next. The final section describes biological nanometrology, which is perhaps the most interdisciplinary applications area, and presents unique challenges. Within each area, a review is provided of current status, the capabilities and limitations of current techniques and instruments, and future directions being driven by emerging industrial measurement requirements. Issues of traceability, standardization, national and international programmes, regulation and skills development will be discussed in a future paper.

  14. The European nanometrology landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Richard K.; Boyd, Robert; Burke, Theresa; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Dirscherl, Kai; Dziomba, Thorsten; Gee, Mark; Koenders, Ludger; Morazzani, Valérie; Pidduck, Allan; Roy, Debdulal; Unger, Wolfgang E. S.; Yacoot, Andrew

    2011-02-01

    This review paper summarizes the European nanometrology landscape from a technical perspective. Dimensional and chemical nanometrology are discussed first as they underpin many of the developments in other areas of nanometrology. Applications for the measurement of thin film parameters are followed by two of the most widely relevant families of functional properties: measurement of mechanical and electrical properties at the nanoscale. Nanostructured materials and surfaces, which are seen as key materials areas having specific metrology challenges, are covered next. The final section describes biological nanometrology, which is perhaps the most interdisciplinary applications area, and presents unique challenges. Within each area, a review is provided of current status, the capabilities and limitations of current techniques and instruments, and future directions being driven by emerging industrial measurement requirements. Issues of traceability, standardization, national and international programmes, regulation and skills development will be discussed in a future paper.

  15. The European nanometrology landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, Richard K; Boyd, Robert; Gee, Mark; Roy, Debdulal; Yacoot, Andrew; Burke, Theresa; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Dziomba, Thorsten; Koenders, Ludger; Dirscherl, Kai; Morazzani, Valerie; Pidduck, Allan; Unger, Wolfgang E S

    2011-01-01

    This review paper summarizes the European nanometrology landscape from a technical perspective. Dimensional and chemical nanometrology are discussed first as they underpin many of the developments in other areas of nanometrology. Applications for the measurement of thin film parameters are followed by two of the most widely relevant families of functional properties: measurement of mechanical and electrical properties at the nanoscale. Nanostructured materials and surfaces, which are seen as key materials areas having specific metrology challenges, are covered next. The final section describes biological nanometrology, which is perhaps the most interdisciplinary applications area, and presents unique challenges. Within each area, a review is provided of current status, the capabilities and limitations of current techniques and instruments, and future directions being driven by emerging industrial measurement requirements. Issues of traceability, standardization, national and international programmes, regulation and skills development will be discussed in a future paper. (topical review)

  16. The European nanometrology landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, Richard K; Boyd, Robert; Gee, Mark; Roy, Debdulal; Yacoot, Andrew [National Physical Laboratory (United Kingdom); Burke, Theresa [European Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology (United Kingdom); Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Dziomba, Thorsten; Koenders, Ludger [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany); Dirscherl, Kai [Danish Fundamental Metrology (Denmark); Morazzani, Valerie [Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d' Essais (France); Pidduck, Allan [QinetiQ (United Kingdom); Unger, Wolfgang E S, E-mail: richard.leach@npl.co.uk [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (Germany)

    2011-02-11

    This review paper summarizes the European nanometrology landscape from a technical perspective. Dimensional and chemical nanometrology are discussed first as they underpin many of the developments in other areas of nanometrology. Applications for the measurement of thin film parameters are followed by two of the most widely relevant families of functional properties: measurement of mechanical and electrical properties at the nanoscale. Nanostructured materials and surfaces, which are seen as key materials areas having specific metrology challenges, are covered next. The final section describes biological nanometrology, which is perhaps the most interdisciplinary applications area, and presents unique challenges. Within each area, a review is provided of current status, the capabilities and limitations of current techniques and instruments, and future directions being driven by emerging industrial measurement requirements. Issues of traceability, standardization, national and international programmes, regulation and skills development will be discussed in a future paper. (topical review)

  17. The European Crisis Management: An Organizational Narrative

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Kaplánová

    2016-01-01

    The debate of scholars in the field of international relations in last years has put the European Union’s role into the consideration. The European Foreign and Security Policy has positioned itself through its development to the constructive and normative line of research of world politics. With this respect, this article examines a character of crisis management of the European Common Foreign Policy based on the institutional development. Besides the European Union does not po...

  18. Analysis of the European Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Banse, Martin; McDonald, Scott; Joint Research Centre; Institute for Prospective Technological Studies; Kaditi, Eleni

    2008-01-01

    This report is based on a study assigned to the Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS) by the European Commission¿s Joint Research Centre, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (JRC-IPTS) to investigate recent developments in the European food industry and the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) and trade flows on the food industry in the EU-25. The report illustrates trends in and the structure of the European food industry. Past and possible future developments are ana...

  19. Centre of the European gas market. The European Autumn Gas Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hasselt, F.; Van der Wal, W.; Ruinen, H.

    1998-01-01

    From the results of the 1997 European Autumn Gas Conference in Barcelona, Spain, it appears that the European gas industry is mainly focused on the liberalization of the European energy market. The main topic of the Conference was 'dealing with surplus'. A brief overview is given of the natural gas trade developments in the European countries. 1 ill., 1 tab. 2 ills

  20. The interplay between money market development and changes in monetary policy operations in small European countries, 1980 - 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Forssbæck, Jens; Oxelheim, Lars

    2007-01-01

    We study the interplay between money market development and changes in monetary policy operating procedures in 11 European countries from c. 1980 up to the launch of EMU. Aspects of money market development such as the size and structure of different market segments, and institutional and regulatory changes, are addressed. We recount and empirically examine the extent of reorientation of monetary policy instruments away from quantitative direct control instruments toward indirect market-based...

  1. The European XFEL project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floettmann, K.

    2005-01-01

    The European XFEL project is a 4th generation synchrotron radiation facility based on the SASE FEL concept and the superconducting TESLA technology for a linear accelerator. In February 2003 the German government decided that the XFEL should be realized as a European project and be located at DESY in Hamburg. The paper will give an overview of the overall layout and parameters of the facility, with emphasis on the accelerator design, technology and physics. (author)

  2. European wind turbine procedure development blade test methods and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulder, B H; Dam, J J.D. van; Delft, D R.V. van [and others

    1999-03-01

    In this paper the preliminary results obtained by performing the second task of the `European Wind Turbine Testing Procedure Development` project are presented. This project is performed within and with financial support of the Standards, Measurements and Testing programme of the European Commission. (au)

  3. ASI-Volcanic Risk System (SRV): a pilot project to develop EO data processing modules and products for volcanic activity monitoring, first results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, M.; Musacchio, M.; Buongiorno, M. F.; Dini, L.

    2009-04-01

    The Project called Sistema Rischio Vulcanico (SRV) is funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) in the frame of the National Space Plan 2003-2005 under the Earth Observations section for natural risks management. The SRV Project is coordinated by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) which is responsible at national level for the volcanic monitoring. The project philosophy is to implement, by incremental versions, specific modules which allow to process, store and visualize through Web GIS tools geophysical parameters suitable for volcanic risk management. The ASI-SRV is devoted to the development of an integrated system based on Earth Observation (EO) data to respond to specific needs of the Italian Civil Protection Department (DPC) and improve the monitoring of Italian active volcanoes during all the risk phases (Pre Crisis, Crisis and Post Crisis). The ASI-SRV system provides support to risk managers during the different volcanic activity phases and its results are addressed to the Italian Civil Protection Department (DPC). SRV provides the capability to manage the import many different EO data into the system, it maintains a repository where the acquired data have to be stored and generates selected volcanic products. The processing modules for EO Optical sensors data are based on procedures jointly developed by INGV and University of Modena. This procedures allow to estimate a number of parameters such as: surface thermal proprieties, gas, aerosol and ash emissions and to characterize the volcanic products in terms of composition and geometry. For the analysis of the surface thermal characteristics, the available algorithms allow to extract information during the prevention phase and during the Warning and Crisis phase. In the prevention phase the thermal analysis is directed to the identification of temperature variation on volcanic structure which may indicate a change in the volcanic activity state. At the moment the only sensor that

  4. Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A2 (EOS/AMSU-A): EOS Software Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This document describes the results of the formal qualification test (FQT)/ Demonstration conducted on September 10, and 14, 1998 for the EOS AMSU-A2 instrument. The purpose of the report is to relate the results of the functional performance and interface tests of the software. This is the final submittal of the EOS/AMSU-A Software Test report.

  5. Experiences and challenges in developing European soil hydrological databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lilly, A.; Nemes, A.; Wösten, J.H.M.; Hiederer, R.

    2014-01-01

    Development of the Hydraulic Properties of European Soils (HYPRES) database began in 1995 and was funded by the European Commission. The main aims of the project were to collate existing soil hydrological data held by Universities and Research Institutes into a single database and to use these data

  6. Development of Normalization Factors for Canada and the United States and Comparison with European Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lautier, Anne; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Margni, Manuele

    2010-01-01

    In Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), normalization calculates the magnitude of an impact (midpoint or endpoint) relative to the total effect of a given reference. The goal of this work is to calculate normalization factors for Canada and the US and to compare them with existing European normalization...... factors. The differences between geographical areas were highlighted by identifying and comparing the main contributors to a given impact category in Canada, the US and Europe. This comparison verified that the main contributors in Europe and in the US are also present in the Canadian inventory. It also...

  7. Development of an online tool for public health: the European Public Health Law Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, P

    2011-09-01

    The European Public Health Law Network was established in 2007 as part of the European Union (EU) co-funded Public Health Law Flu project. The aims of the website consisted of designing an interactive network of specialist information and encouraging an exchange of expertise amongst members. The website sought to appeal to academics, public health professionals and lawyers. The Public Health Law Flu project team designed and managed the website. Registered network members were recruited through publicity, advertising and word of mouth. Details of the network were sent to health organizations and universities throughout Europe. Corresponding website links attracted many new visitors. Publications, news, events and a pandemic glossary became popular features on the site. Although the website initially focused only on pandemic diseases it has grown into a multidisciplinary website covering a range of public health law topics. The network contains over 700 publications divided into 28 public health law categories. News, events, front page content, legislation and the francophone section are updated on a regular basis. Since 2007 the website has received over 15,000 views from 156 countries. Newsletter subscribers have risen to 304. There are now 723 followers on the associated Twitter site. The European Public Health Law Network has been a successful and innovative site in the area of public health law. Interest in the site continues to grow. Future funding can contribute to a bigger site with interactive features and pages in a wider variety of languages to attract a wider global audience. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Quality practices in the field of regional development policy in the Member States of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Lupăncescu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Regional issues, by their nature and content, vary widely from one country to another, being the result of specific conditions and factors that characterize each state. As a result, their resolution, in addition to common elements, has many features, both in terms of regional policy objectives, organizational means and spatial structure, zoning and / or regionalization of territory, to create the framework necessary to materialize and implement these objectives .Regional development policy is one of the most important policies of the European Union. At the same time, this socio-economic cohesion policy is one of the most complex in the whole spectrum of Community policies as it interacts with a number of sectoral areas such as agriculture, transport, economic development, environmental protection, employment and vocational training , equal opportunities and gender Thus, regional development policy is indispensable for the achievement of the Union's constitution and activity objectives.Cohesion policy (Dragan G., 2003 includes both regional policy (geared to reducing territorial disparities, regenerating declining industrial areas, providing rural development assistance, social policy issues (such as combating long-term unemployment and supporting the process education and lifelong learning as well as a part of the common agricultural policy (rural development assistance.Article 174 (ex Article 158 TEC of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (consolidated version refers to the harmonious development of the whole of the Union, which is achieved through its actions designed to strengthen its economic, social and territorial cohesion, in particular, to reduce disparities between the levels of development of the various regions and the backwardness of disadvantaged regions, including rural areas.

  9. EURAC: the JRC proposal for an European fusion reactor materials test and development facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kley, W.; Bishop, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    For the last 7 years we examined the use of a Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) as an altenative European Option to FMIT. For an optimized spallation neutron source design we find now for the same beam power the following design parameters: - Linear Accelerator: 600 MeV, 6 m-A-proton beam on liquid lead target - irradiation parameters: 320 dpa/year in 20 cm 3 or 274 dpa/year in 31.5 cm 3 6 -1 sec -1 in order to simulate the Pulsed Mode of Tokamak Power Reactors. The deflected beam can be used for other experiments

  10. EOS: A project to investigate the design and construction of real-time distributed Embedded Operating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R. H.; Essick, Ray B.; Johnston, Gary; Kenny, Kevin; Russo, Vince

    1987-01-01

    Project EOS is studying the problems of building adaptable real-time embedded operating systems for the scientific missions of NASA. Choices (A Class Hierarchical Open Interface for Custom Embedded Systems) is an operating system designed and built by Project EOS to address the following specific issues: the software architecture for adaptable embedded parallel operating systems, the achievement of high-performance and real-time operation, the simplification of interprocess communications, the isolation of operating system mechanisms from one another, and the separation of mechanisms from policy decisions. Choices is written in C++ and runs on a ten processor Encore Multimax. The system is intended for use in constructing specialized computer applications and research on advanced operating system features including fault tolerance and parallelism.

  11. Flow and spectra for light fragments from Au+Au collisions in the EOS TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisa, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    We study the effects of the collective motion (flow) on distributions and yields of light fragments produced in heavy ion collisions at the Bevalac/SIS energy range. p, d, t, 3 He and α fragments emitted from Au+Au collisions at 0.25 - 1.15 AGeV bombarding energy were measured with the EOS TPC. The TPC has high and seamless acceptance in the forward hemisphere of the CM system, and excellent particle identification for light fragments. Analyses of the sidewards flow, squeeze-out, and radial flow signals are presented as a function of bombarding energy and centrality of the collision. The fragment mass systematics of the flow signals are seen to be consistent with a simple coalescence picture for the light particles studied. A unifying framework for describing many of the systematic features of the different types of flow (e.g. the p T dependence of squeeze-out) in terms of 3 parameters is discussed. Consistent with previous studies, the parameter describing squeeze-out is seen to be most sensitive to the Equation of State within a Quantum Molecular Dynamics (QMD) model. The effect on extracted temperature of various radial flow profiles is discussed. Finally, a preliminary study of light particle yields in terms of the Quantum Statistical Model (QSM) is presented. It is found that the beam energy dependence of the 'chemical' temperature obtained from the yields tracks with the 'kinetic' temperature obtained from the spectral fits, if one accounts for a flow profile. However, discrepancies between different implementations (computer codes) of the QSM must be resolved before drawing final conclusions about agreement. (authors)

  12. SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT QUALITIES AND HUMAN CAPITAL EXPANDED REPRODUCTION IN THE REPUBLIC OF KARELIA AND THE RUSSIA EUROPEAN NORTH ARCTIC REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kekkonen A. L.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studies of the spatial development qualities and the human capital expanded reproduction of the Republic of Karelia and the Arctic regions of Russia’s European North. The aim of the article is the identification of characteristics, opportunities and threats of human capital reproduction in terms of region spatial development. The application of the research results is to provide recommendations for improving reproduction of the human capital and development of the education and vocational guidance systems, human capital management in the region. The study of spatial development and reproduction of the human capital used methods of logical, statistical and comparative analysis and SWOT- analysis principles. The results of the study allowed revealing the peculiarities of spatial development and human capital expanded reproduction of the Republic of Karelia in comparison with the Russian Arctic regions of the European North (Arkhangelsk Oblast, Murmansk Oblast, Komi Republic and Nenets Autonomous District. The Republic of Karelia has a special geographical position, and based on many socio-economic indicators is considered to be a «depressive» region. The expanded reproduction of human capital will bring the Republic of Karelia to the next level of development, taking into consideration external and internal factors as well as opportunities and threats. The results obtained in the study will expand the existing system of knowledge about reproduction of the human capital in the framework of spatial development, and the review of the expanded reproduction of human capital on the regional level will allow the government authorities to develop objective measures of quality formation of the region's human resources. It is proved that the introduction of the vocational guidance system in the region could lead to minimization of the threats associated with depopulation and the gap between education system and the

  13. ASI-Sistema Rischio Vulcanico SRV: a pilot project to develop EO data processing modules and products for volcanic activity monitoring based on Italian Civil Protection Department requirements and needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buongiorno, Maria Fabrizia; Musacchio, Massimo; Silvestri, Malvina; Spinetti, Claudia; Corradini, Stefano; Lombardo, Valerio; Merucci, Luca; Sansosti, Eugenio; Pugnagli, Sergio; Teggi, Sergio; Pace, Gaetano; Fermi, Marco; Zoffoli, Simona

    2007-10-01

    The Project called Sistema Rischio Vulcanico (SRV) is funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) in the frame of the National Space Plan 2003-2005 under the Earth Observations section for natural risks management. The SRV Project is coordinated by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) which is responsible at national level for the volcanic monitoring. The objective of the project is to develop a pre-operative system based on EO data and ground measurements integration to support the volcanic risk monitoring of the Italian Civil Protection Department which requirements and need are well integrated in the GMES Emergency Core Services program. The project philosophy is to implement, by incremental versions, specific modules which allow to process, store and visualize through Web GIS tools EO derived parameters considering three activity phases: 1) knowledge and prevention; 2) crisis; 3) post crisis. In order to combine effectively the EO data and the ground networks measurements the system will implement a multi-parametric analysis tool, which represents and unique tool to analyze contemporaneously a large data set of data in "near real time". The SRV project will be tested his operational capabilities on three Italian Volcanoes: Etna,Vesuvio and Campi Flegrei.

  14. Socioeconomic impact assessment in ex ante evaluations: a case study on the rural development programs of the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidueira, Pablo; Díaz-Puente, José M; Rivera, María

    2014-08-01

    Ex ante impact assessment has become a fundamental tool for effective program management, and thus, a compulsory task when establishing a new program in the European Union (EU). This article aims to analyze benefits from ex ante impact assessment, methodologies followed, and difficulties encountered. This is done through the case study on the rural development programs (RDPs) in the EU. Results regarding methodologies are then contrasted with the international context in order to provide solid insights to evaluators and program managing authorities facing ex ante impact assessment. All European RDPs from the period 2007 through 2013 (a total of 88) and their corresponding available ex ante evaluations (a total of 70) were analyzed focusing on the socioeconomic impact assessment. Only 46.6% of the regions provide quantified impact estimations on socioeconomic impacts in spite of it being a compulsory task demanded by the European Commission (EC). Recommended methods by the EC are mostly used, but there is a lack of mixed method approaches since qualitative methods are used in substitution of quantitative ones. Two main difficulties argued were the complexity of program impacts and the lack of needed program information. Qualitative approaches on their own have been found as not suitable for ex ante impact assessment, while quantitative approaches-such as microsimulation models-provide a good approximation to actual impacts. However, time and budgetary constraints make that quantitative and mixed methods should be mainly applied on the most relevant impacts for the program success. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. How Is European Governance Configuring the EHEA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, António; Veiga, Amélia; Sousa, Sofia; Ribeiro, Filipa

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the interaction between the European dimension driven by the creation of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) and the development of national reforms to fulfil that objective. On the basis of data gathered in eight countries involved in EuroHESC project TRUE (Transforming European Universities), the curricular and the…

  16. An Observation Capability Metadata Model for EO Sensor Discovery in Sensor Web Enablement Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuli Hu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and fine-grained discovery by diverse Earth observation (EO sensors ensures a comprehensive response to collaborative observation-required emergency tasks. This discovery remains a challenge in an EO sensor web environment. In this study, we propose an EO sensor observation capability metadata model that reuses and extends the existing sensor observation-related metadata standards to enable the accurate and fine-grained discovery of EO sensors. The proposed model is composed of five sub-modules, namely, ObservationBreadth, ObservationDepth, ObservationFrequency, ObservationQuality and ObservationData. The model is applied to different types of EO sensors and is formalized by the Open Geospatial Consortium Sensor Model Language 1.0. The GeosensorQuery prototype retrieves the qualified EO sensors based on the provided geo-event. An actual application to flood emergency observation in the Yangtze River Basin in China is conducted, and the results indicate that sensor inquiry can accurately achieve fine-grained discovery of qualified EO sensors and obtain enriched observation capability information. In summary, the proposed model enables an efficient encoding system that ensures minimum unification to represent the observation capabilities of EO sensors. The model functions as a foundation for the efficient discovery of EO sensors. In addition, the definition and development of this proposed EO sensor observation capability metadata model is a helpful step in extending the Sensor Model Language (SensorML 2.0 Profile for the description of the observation capabilities of EO sensors.

  17. A watershed model to integrate EO data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauch, Eduardo; Chambel-Leitao, Pedro; Carina, Almeida; Brito, David; Cherif, Ines; Alexandridis, Thomas; Neves, Ramiro

    2013-04-01

    MOHID LAND is a open source watershed model developed by MARETEC and is part of the MOHID Framework. It integrates four mediums (or compartments): porous media, surface, rivers and atmosphere. The movement of water between these mediums are based on mass and momentum balance equations. The atmosphere medium is not explicity simulated. Instead, it's used as boundary condition to the model through meteorological properties: precipitation, solar radiation, wind speed/direction, relative humidity and air temperature. The surface medium includes the overland runoff and vegetation growth processes and is simulated using a 2D grid. The porous media includes both the unsaturated (soil) and saturated zones (aquifer) and is simulated using a 3D grid. The river flow is simulated through a 1D drainage network. All these mediums are linked through evapotranspiration and flow exchanges (infiltration, river-soil growndwater flow, surface-river overland flow). Besides the water movement, it is also possible to simulate water quality processes and solute/sediment transport. Model setup include the definition of the geometry and the properties of each one of its compartments. After the setup of the model, the only continuous input data that MOHID LAND requires are the atmosphere properties (boundary conditions) that can be provided as timeseries or spacial data. MOHID LAND has been adapted the last 4 years under FP7 and ESA projects to integrate Earth Observation (EO) data, both variable in time and in space. EO data can be used to calibrate/validate or as input/assimilation data to the model. The currently EO data used include LULC (Land Use Land Cover) maps, LAI (Leaf Area Index) maps, EVTP (Evapotranspiration) maps and SWC (Soil Water Content) maps. Model results are improved by the EO data, but the advantage of this integration is that the model can still run without the EO data. This means that model do not stop due to unavailability of EO data and can run on a forecast mode

  18. EOS9nT: A TOUGH2 module for the simulation of flow and solute/colloid transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moridis, G.J.; Wu, Y.S.; Pruess, K.

    1998-04-01

    EOS9nT is a new TOUGH2 module for the simulation of flow and transport of an arbitrary number n of tracers (solutes and/or colloids) in the subsurface. The module first solves the flow-related equations, which are comprised of (a) the Richards equation and, depending on conditions, may also include (b) the flow equation of a dense brine or aqueous suspension and/or (c) the heat equation. A second set of transport equations, corresponding to the n tracers, are then solved sequentially. The low concentrations of the n tracers are considered to have no effect on the liquid phase, thus making possible the decoupling of their equations. The first set of equations in EOS9nT provides the flow regime and account for fluid density variations due to thermal and/or solute concentration effects. The n tracer transport equations account for sorption, radioactive decay, advection, hydrodynamic dispersion, molecular diffusion, as well as filtration (for colloids only). EOS9nT can handle gridblocks or irregular geometry in three-dimensional domains. Preliminary results from four 1-D verification problems show an excellent agreement between the numerical predictions and the known analytical solutions

  19. Towards our Common Future: Comparative Assessment of the Sustainable Development Strategies of the European Union, the Mediterranean and Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaz DEŽELAN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses three sustainable de- velopment strategies – the European Union’s Sustainable Development Strategy in its revised version, the Mediterranean Strategy for Sustain- able Development and Slovenia’s Development Strategy – according to the level of sustainability these strategies provide. Deriving from three di- verse sustainable development regimes, select- ed strategies are scrutinised for the presence of the five general principles of effective sustainable development strategies promoted by the United Nations and the Organization for Economic Co- operation and Development. Building on George and Kirkpatrick’s (2006 framework for analysis, we concentrate on principles of strategic planning and sustainable development, and a coordinated set of measures to ensure their implementation. The results reveal that the major differences be- tween the assessed strategies are present in the sophistication of the theoretical bases and the integration of three main pillars of sustainable development (i.e. environmental, economic and social. In general, the assessed strategies re- flect a high degree of inclusiveness of a variety of interests. However, there is a common weak- ness among them in terms of implementation, be it in the provision of adequate resources, the guarantee of adequate implementing capacity of the institutions designated for implementation or the precise definition of the institutional frame- work responsible for the implementation of the strategy.

  20. Light impacts embryonic and early larval development of the European eel, Anguilla anguilla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Politis, Sebastian Nikitas; Butts, Ian; Tomkiewicz, Jonna

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the natural ecology of European eel during early life history. Weextend our understandings on the ecology of this species by studying howearly life stages perform under various light regimes.We assessed the effects of intensity, photoperiod (12:12 and 24:0 h light/dark) and ......Little is known about the natural ecology of European eel during early life history. Weextend our understandings on the ecology of this species by studying howearly life stages perform under various light regimes.We assessed the effects of intensity, photoperiod (12:12 and 24:0 h light...... stages. In particular, for the 12:12 h photoperiod, embryonic survival, until 26 h post-fertilization was significantly higher when reared under low (62 ± 13%) than those reared under high intensity light (42 ± 13%). Furthermore, embryos reared in low light had a higher hatch success (16 ± 7%) than those...... in high intensity light (12 ± 7%). Larval yolk-sac area was significantly affected by photoperiod and body area was significantly affected by the interaction between intensity × photoperiod. The highest incidence of deformities (75%) occurred when embryos were reared in high intensity white light under...

  1. The renewable energy development framework - II. The foundations of renewable energy development: Economic foundations of renewable energies; International foundations of renewable energies; European foundations of renewable energy development; Foundations of renewable energy development in internal law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combes Motel, Pascale; Thebaut, Matthieu; Loic Grard; Michallet, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    A first article analysis the reasons for the development of renewable energies (economic and environmental reasons, European commitments in terms of production objectives), how these renewable energies can be developed (acceptation by the population, administrative, technological, and financial constraints, political instruments related to market, taxes and purchase prices). A second article proposes a discussion about the way international law deals with renewable energies as far as texts as well as actors are concerned. The third article describes the European ambitions regarding renewable energies as a product of national perspectives (national action plans and projects) as well as of European perspectives (financing, integrated actions). The last article presents and comments various legal texts dealing with the development of renewable energies in France (texts concerning the right to energy, the environment law, planning tools, incentive measures)

  2. Meeting the challenge of funding and allocating resources to mental health across Europe: developing the Mental Health Economics European Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaid, David; Knapp, Martin; Curran, Claire

    2006-01-01

    There is growing demand for economic analysis to support strategic decision-making for mental health but the availability of economic evidence, in particular on system performance remains limited. The Mental Health Economics European Network (MHEEN) was set up in 2002 with the broad objective of developing a base for mental health economics information and subsequent work in 17 countries. Data on financing, expenditure and costs, provision of services, workforce, employment and capacity for economic evaluation were collected through bespoke questionnaires developed iteratively by the Network. This was augmented by a literature review and analysis of international databases. Findings on financing alone suggest that in many European countries mental health appears to be neglected while mechanisms for resource allocation are rarely linked to objective measure of population mental health needs. Numerous economic barriers and potential solutions were identified. Economic incentives may be one way of promoting change, although there is no 'one size fits all solution. There are significant benefits and synergies to be gained from the continuing development of networks such as MHEEN. In particular the analysis can be used to inform developments in Central and Eastern Europe. For instance there is much that can be learnt on both how the balance of care between institutional and non-institutional care has changed and on the role played by economic incentives in ensuring that resources were used to develop alternative community-based systems.

  3. Converting from XML to HDF-EOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Richard; Bane, Bob; Yang, Jingli

    2008-01-01

    A computer program recreates an HDF-EOS file from an Extensible Markup Language (XML) representation of the contents of that file. This program is one of two programs written to enable testing of the schemas described in the immediately preceding article to determine whether the schemas capture all details of HDF-EOS files.

  4. Exploration of plant growth and development using the European Modular Cultivation System facility on the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittang, A-I; Iversen, T-H; Fossum, K R; Mazars, C; Carnero-Diaz, E; Boucheron-Dubuisson, E; Le Disquet, I; Legué, V; Herranz, R; Pereda-Loth, V; Medina, F J

    2014-05-01

    Space experiments provide a unique opportunity to advance our knowledge of how plants respond to the space environment, and specifically to the absence of gravity. The European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) has been designed as a dedicated facility to improve and standardise plant growth in the International Space Station (ISS). The EMCS is equipped with two centrifuges to perform experiments in microgravity and with variable gravity levels up to 2.0 g. Seven experiments have been performed since the EMCS was operational on the ISS. The objectives of these experiments aimed to elucidate phototropic responses (experiments TROPI-1 and -2), root gravitropic sensing (GRAVI-1), circumnutation (MULTIGEN-1), cell wall dynamics and gravity resistance (Cell wall/Resist wall), proteomic identification of signalling players (GENARA-A) and mechanism of InsP3 signalling (Plant signalling). The role of light in cell proliferation and plant development in the absence of gravity is being analysed in an on-going experiment (Seedling growth). Based on the lessons learned from the acquired experience, three preselected ISS experiments have been merged and implemented as a single project (Plant development) to study early phases of seedling development. A Topical Team initiated by European Space Agency (ESA), involving experienced scientists on Arabidopsis space research experiments, aims at establishing a coordinated, long-term scientific strategy to understand the role of gravity in Arabidopsis growth and development using already existing or planned new hardware. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  5. European structural materials development for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaaf, B. van der E-mail: vanderschaaf@nrg-nl.com; Ehrlich, K.; Fenici, P.; Tavassoli, A.A.; Victoria, M

    2000-09-01

    Leading long term considerations for choices in the European Long Term Technology programme are the high temperature mechanical- and compatibility properties of structural materials under neutron irradiation. The degrees of fabrication process freedom are closely investigated to allow the construction of complex shapes. Another important consideration is the activation behaviour of the structural material. The ideal solution is the recycling of the structural materials after a relatively short 'cooling' period. The structural materials development in Europe has three streams. The first serves the design and construction of ITER and is closely connected to the choice made: water cooled austenitic stainless steel. The second development stream is to support the design and construction of DEMO relevant blanket modules to be tested in ITER. The helium cooled pebble bed and the water cooled liquid lithium concept rely both on RAFM steel. The goal of the third stream is to investigate the potential of advanced materials for fusion power reactors beyond DEMO. The major contending materials: SiCSiC composites, vanadium, titanium and chromium alloys hold the promise of high operating temperatures, but RAFM has also a high temperature potential applying oxide dispersion strengthening. The development of materials for fusion power application requires a high flux 14 MeV neutron source to simulate the fusion power environment.

  6. How have the Eastern European countries of the former Warsaw Pact developed since 1990? A bibliometric study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozak, M.; Bornmann, L.; Leydesdorff, L.

    2015-01-01

    Did the demise of the Soviet Union in 1991 influence the scientific performance of the researchers in Eastern European countries? Did this historical event affect international collaboration by researchers from the Eastern European countries with those of Western countries? Did it also change

  7. New Developing Methodologies for Strategic and Operational Limits in the European and Romanian Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stratulat Angelica

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The most important recommendations of the de Larosiere report and subsequently implemented in the Union were to create a single regulatory framework and a European framework for macro-prudential supervision, both elements conjugated are designed to ensure financial stability. The single regulatory framework ensures a uniform and robust regulatory framework that facilitates the functioning of the single market and prevents regulatory arbitrage opportunities. However, in the internal market for financial services, macro-prudential risks can exhibit several types of differences, with a number of national peculiarities that lead to variations that can be seen, for example, in terms of structure and size of the banking sector compared to economy and credit cycle in a wider sense.

  8. European Union and Romanian Tourism – ß and σ Convergence in the Economic Development Regions of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Ionela Butnaru

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available At present, both in Romania and in Europe, tourism tends to become one of the biggest industries, with great development possibilities in the future. The economic development of Romania including tourism benefits from the support of the European Union, and has the purpose to reduce the gaps in this concern, compared to both the European Union average and more developed countries. The purpose of this paper is to analyse β and σ convergence in the 8 Economic Development Regions of Romania by a tourism approach. The concept of β-convergence represents the process of quicker development of poor regions than the rich ones, and σ-convergence is evaluating the process of decrease of regional economic disparities in time. The analysis based on β-convergence was performed using econometric modelling techniques of linear correlation. For σ-convergence, we measured the dispersion of real GDPT per in habitant by the use of the variation coefficient t  . The purpose is to check the hypothesis according to which the β-convergence approach and the σ- convergence concept can lead to different results for the Economic Development Regions of Romania. The period analysed is between 2007 and 2013.

  9. The European Regional Development Fund and Island Regions: An Evaluation of the 2000-06 and 2007-13 Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey W. Armstrong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results from a regional policy evaluation study conducted for the European Commission. The study examined the impact of the European Regional Development Fund and Cohesion Fund on EU regions with ‘specific geographical characteristics’, namely islands, mountain regions and sparsely populated areas. These types of regions have been attracting increasing EU regional policy attention and their economic development is considered important in helping the EU to attain its important ‘territorial cohesion’ objective. The focus of this paper is on the island regions. Evaluation of island regions in their own right has not been undertaken before by the EU. The study focuses on the 2000-06 and (still on-going 2007-13 EU regional policy programs. The paper presents the methodology adopted by the study before turning to the main findings concerning the types of policy initiatives adopted in the island regions, and the appropriateness of the policies used for the economic situation faced by the islands. The islands encompassed by the study are all normal sub-national regions of EU member states. Islands with an unusual degree of administrative autonomy (e.g. the Outermost Regions were excluded.

  10. The Potential Application of Qualitative Evaluation Methods in European Regional Development : Reflections on the Use of Performance Story Reporting in Australian Natural Resource Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanclay, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Vanclay F. The potential application of qualitative evaluation methods in European regional development: reflections on the use of Performance Story Reporting in Australian natural resource management, Regional Studies. This paper argues that qualitative evaluation methods potentially have a useful

  11. THE EUROPEAN UNION AND PARTNERSHIPS WITH DEVELOPING COUNTRIES – THE CASE OF ACP REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viera Dobošová

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The EU has developed a wide cooperation network with developing countries based on trade, cooperation, aid and other aspects. These bilateral and regional agreements serve various and specific interests of the EU and the concerned countries and cover not only trade, but also other broad issues. However, above those remain the main goals of the EU in the area of the common commercial policy, development policy and external relations policy. The trend of regional integration and regional trade agreements proliferation has influenced these relations as well. The article will examine this trend in the network of EU trade agreements with developing countries, specifically with the African, Caribbean and Pacific region. Some critical issues of the EU – ACP cooperation will be identified.

  12. The European wind energy programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beurskens, H.J.M.; Lalas, D.

    1993-01-01

    A general review is given of national wind energy programmes in European countries. First, tendencies of the past wind energy programmes are described and linked to the present developments. Not only the separate aspects are reviewed (R+D, wind turbine development, market stimulation, utility involvement, regulatory issues and operational experiences), but also the synergetic aspects of their integration is addressed. The main conclusion is that the integration of R+D, industrial development and market stimulation works. 4 ills., 3 tabs

  13. Natural gas in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalim, Z.

    1991-01-01

    A report is presented on 'Natural Gas in the European Community'. Aspects discussed include the challenges facing the gas industry in the EC, the development of the European gas industry, the structure and role of European gas companies, the sources of European supply, gas contracts and the influences that operate on sales into end markets, electricity generation from natural gas, evolving markets for natural gas in the EC, life in the private sector using British Gas as a role model and country profiles for eleven European countries. (UK)

  14. The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development in partnership with Lithuania targeting full technical and industrial participation in the development of the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnke, J.

    2000-01-01

    Policy of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) in Lithuanian energy sector is described. Since 1994 EBRD take active part in financing of safety upgrades of Ignalina NPP. When in 1999 political decision was made to shut down unit 1 of Ignalina NPP EBRD is prepared to take part in co-financing of decommissioning of unit 1. A special fund - International Ignalina decommissioning support fund - was established under the auspice of EBRD recently. Developed countries, international organisation will be contributors to this fund and EBRD will be managing this fund

  15. Validation of an instrument for measuring psychosocial and organisational work constraints detrimental to health among hospital workers: the NWI-EO questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneterre, Vincent; Ehlinger, Virginie; Balducci, Franck; Caroly, Sandrine; Jolivet, Anne; Sobaszek, Annie; de Gaudemaris, Régis; Lang, Thierry

    2011-05-01

    Quality of care, job satisfaction and the health of registered nurses (RNs) are associated with their exposure to psychosocial and organisational work factors (POWFs). To develop and validate an extended version of the Revised Nursing Work Index (NWI-R), the NWI-EO (Extended Organisation) tool specifically designed for occupational physicians and those involved in prevention programmes in healthcare institutions to assess the perception of POWFs, and then to determine priorities for preventive action to improve work organisation at the hospital staff level. The tool was validated in the ORSOSA study, a multicentre French cohort of RNs and NAs (n=4085) recruited in 214 work units of 7 French university hospitals. A total of 34 items (19 candidate items developed by a focus group and 15 items from the NWI-R) were analysed using principal component analysis (PCA) based on a randomised split-half of the data. In addition, construct validity, test-retest reliability, internal consistency and concurrent validity were assessed. Response rate was 91%. Twenty-two items were selected (9 of the 15 NWI-R items and 13 of the 19 candidate items) by PCA, resulting in an 8-factor solution that explained 53% of the common variance. The stability of the factorial structure of this 22-item NWI-EO questionnaire was confirmed by PCA on the other half-sample as well as by PCA on subgroups (age, gender, occupational group, specialty area, hospital). Reliability, assessed by internal consistency and test-retest, was satisfactory. Concurrent validity with two external measurements of organisational characteristics of work units was also observed. The NWI-EO was found to have good psychometric properties. Several POWFs accessible to prevention programmes can be evaluated with this tool: poor communication in the work unit, lack of support from senior nurses, inadequate staffing to perform duties, poor relationships between workers, frequency of interruptions during tasks, low level of

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF THE E-GOVERNMENT MARKET IN THE EUROPEAN UNION: AN ANALYSIS OF THE SUPPLY VERSUS DEMAND SIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veghes Calin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available E-government represents one of the most palpable results of the dynamic development of the information and communication technology. Defined mostly as an intensive use of information technologies to provide public services, e-government has been approached in the literature rather from a technological perspective, with a significant importance given to the supply and a lower attention paid to the demand side. The increasing interest in taking into consideration the demand side in the development of the e-government initiatives and projects has created the foundation for a shift in the way the conceptual framework for e-government planning and implementation is defined, from the technology infrastructure and costs to the customer-centric character of all the efforts done. The European Union put e-government on its agenda aiming to improve access to the public information and services, increase transparency of public administration, exploit effectively the information technology within public administration, and establishing e-procurement. The development of the e-government services in the Member States, as it is expressed by the data regarding the supply and demand side, has been conducted in a more or less different manner that led, at the Unions level, to a relatively high availability but a rather low usage of the specific services. The paper explores the relationship between the e-government supply and demand based on the secondary data referring to the public services available to the citizens (as these are defined by the Eurostat methodology and the usage of these services by the individuals, integrating them through an analytical matrix inspired by the BCG model. Probably the most important conclusion of this analysis states that development of the e-government services has not been accompanied by measures meant to stimulate their usage in the most of the European Union Member States. The analytical matrix allowed also the identification

  17. PREFACE: Proceedings of the 11th European Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 11th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis which took place from 10-14 May 2009 in the Hotel Faltom, Gdynia, Poland. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on careers in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a very distinct format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field. For this workshop EMAS invited speakers on the following topics: EPMA, EBSD, fast energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, three-dimensional microanalysis, and micro-and nanoanalysis in the natural resources industry. The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 69 posters from 16 countries were on display at the meeting and that the participants came from as far away as Japan and the USA. A number of participants with posters were invited to give short oral presentations of their work in two dedicated sessions. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. Small cash prizes were awarded for the three best posters and for the best oral presentation by a young scientist. The prize for the best poster went to the contribution by G Tylko, S Dubchak, Z Banach and K Turnau, entitled Monte Carlo simulation for an assessment of standard validity and quantitative X-ray microanalysis in plant. Joanna Wojewoda-Budka of the Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Krakow, received the prize for the best oral presentation by a

  18. Mining in the European Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Kim; Scheepstra, Annette; Gille, Johan; Stępień, Adam; Koivurova, Timo

    The European Arctic is currently experiencing an upsurge in mining activities, but future developments will be highly sensitive to mineral price fluctuations. The EU is a major consumer and importer of Arctic raw materials. As the EU is concerned about the security of supply, it encourages domestic

  19. The european ALARA network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croueail, P.; Lefaure, C.; Croft, J.

    2000-01-01

    Throughout the 1980s and early 1990s the European Commission sponsored projects on the understanding and practical implementation of the ALARA principle. These projects helped ensure that ALARA was integrated into many organisations radiation protection programmes, particularly in the nuclear industry. However there was still much to be done in the non-nuclear sector, as well as for the management of internal exposure. Therefore, the European Commission decided to set up, as of the first January 1996, a European ALARA Network (EAN) whose main goals are to: Further promote ALARA within non nuclear industry, research and the nuclear cycle; Provide a means for feedback experience and the exchange and dissemination of good radiological protection practices in these areas; Initiate proposals for research projects and workshops on topics dealing with optimisation of radiological protection for all types of occupational exposure. The Network has a Steering Committee of experts from 11 countries, with CEPN being the co-ordinator. Twice yearly, the EAN products for the international community a European ALARA Newsletter that reaches several thousand individuals or institutions, mainly in Europe. Each year since 1997, the EAN has organised an ALARA workshop attended by 60 to 80 experts from about ten countries. The first three Workshops were devoted to: ALARA and Decommissioning (1997, Saclay, France), Good Radiation Practices in Industry and Research (1998, Chilton, United Kingdam), and ALARA and Internal Exposure (1999, Munich, Germany). Each of these Workshops gave rise to sets of recommendations to the European Commission which included proposals for further research, modification of regulations, and actions to support feedback experience within the member states. (author)

  20. Monitoring of environmental radioactivity in the European Communities inventory of methods and development of data quality objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raes, F.

    1991-01-01

    A review is given of the procedures for environmental monitoring in the 12 Member States of the European Community. Detailed information of sampling and measuring methods for radioactivity in air, deposition, water, milk and for ambient gamma dose rate are presented in tables and figures. Some sample results of environmental radioactivity monitoring indicate problems with intercomparability of data reported by different EC countries. A review is given of international and national programmes and proposals for Quality Assurance and Control. There is a large but rather uncoordinated activity in this field; only a few countries within the EC have a well structured and comprehensive approach to QA and regularly join international programmes. Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) are developed for environmental radioactivity monitoring. They include the definition of the accuracy and repeatability of the measurements, and the definition of recording and detection levels. The recording levels, are based on a de minimis annual dose of 0.005 mSv. Based on these DQO's, the current problems with intercomparability are put into perspective, and proposals for future integration of national data into an overall European picture made. There is a need to improve quality of environmental monitoring in order to arrive at a meaningful and transparent picture of the overall radiological situation in the EC. Proposals are made for CEC initiatives in the field of QA/QC. The three most important deal with: - reporting of national data in a European context, - intercomparisons of analytical techniques among the 12 EC countries, - organization of a European network for monitoring levels actually prevailing in the environment

  1. La salle de cinéma comme attraction spectacle : le cas Captain Eo à Disneyland Paris The Movie theater as attraction: The Case of Captain Eo at Disneyland Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Massuet

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cet article a pour ambition d’interroger le rapport du public à une salle de cinéma précise, au cœur du parc Disneyland Paris à Marne-La-Vallée. Cette salle projette à nouveau depuis juin 2010 l’attraction Captain Eo, film de science-fiction en 3D relief réalisé par Francis Ford Coppola en 1986, avec Michael Jackson dans le rôle-titre. Remplacé depuis 1998 par une autre attraction, Captain Eo fait son retour un an après le décès de la star, et implique dès lors un rapport très particulier à son public, par son statut d’hommage post-mortem. Il s’agira de comprendre la façon dont l’attraction structure son public, et la façon dont celui-ci peut construire à son tour le sens du film qu’il est en train de voir. C’est donc une approche sémio-pragmatique que nous convoquons ici, en nous référant à Roger Odin, afin d’envisager, à partir du film lui-même et de son mode de diffusion, ce que l’attraction Captain Eo révèle théoriquement du lien entre le spectateur et l’image d’une star comme Michael Jackson, qui plus est un an après son décès. Il s’agira de comprendre de quelle manière le film de Coppola ainsi que son contexte de diffusion – le parc d’attraction Disneyland Paris – permettent de penser ou d’interroger un type de pratique spectatorielle différent de celles engendrées par d'autres salles de cinéma.This article tries to question the link between the public and a precise movie theater, in Disneyland Paris Marne-La-Vallée, proposing again since june 2010 the attraction Captain Eo, science-fiction 3D movie by Francis Ford Coppola in 1986, starring Michael Jackson. Replaced since 1998 by another attraction, Captain Eo comes back one year after the death of the star, and implies un specific link with its public, being a post-mortem tribute. We have to understand the way the attraction builds its public, and the way this one can build the movie signification in return. We have

  2. Culture and end of life care: a scoping exercise in seven European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gysels, M.; Evans, N.; Meñaca, A.; Andrew, E.; Toscani, F.; Finetti, S.; Pasman, H.R.; Higginson, I.; Harding, R.; Pool, R.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Culture is becoming increasingly important in relation to end of life (EoL) care in a context of globalization, migration and European integration. We explore and compare socio-cultural issues that shape EoL care in seven European countries and critically appraise the existing research evidence

  3. Culture and End of Life Care: A Scoping Exercise in Seven European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gysels, M.; Evans, N.C.; Menaca, A.; Andrew, E.; Toscani, F.; Finetti, S.; Pasman, H.R.W.; Higginson, I.; Harding, R.; Pool, R.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Culture is becoming increasingly important in relation to end of life (EoL) care in a context of globalization, migration and European integration. We explore and compare socio-cultural issues that shape EoL care in seven European countries and critically appraise the existing research evidence

  4. Seeing the People’s Republic of China through the Eyes of Montesquieu: Why Sino-European Collaboration on Eco City Development Suffers from European Misinterpretations of “Good Governance”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin de Jong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available China faces a number of impressive challenges in dealing with climate change: rising energy use, growing emission levels of greenhouse gases, dangerous levels of air pollution over cities and low resilience against flood and drought. Sustainable urbanization has been adopted as a keyword in handling these challenges. The Chinese central government has undertaken a variety of measures, including the launch of large Sino-European programs to learn from ‘developed nations’. In the wake of these partnerships, a great variety of cross-national and cross-city agreements were signed. Sino-European cooperation does not often run as smoothly as initially hoped because of diverging interests, cultural misunderstandings and practical limitations. In the background, a mismatch in normative conceptions Chinese and European participants have of ‘good governance’ plays a role. In this contribution, insights taken from Montesquieu’s ‘The Spirit of Laws’ regarding checks and balances and trias politica (updated to ‘sextas politica’ for the 21st century are used to comprehend how the exertion of power is distributed and expected to be distributed differently in Chinese than in European administrative traditions. The article will end with conclusions on how European misconceptions of Chinese governance complicate Sino-European collaboration in sustainable urbanization policies.

  5. The Evolution of the European Security Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilica Negrut

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of development of the European Union’s security dimension has known a spectacular evolution in the past years, passing from political consultation to establishing objectives, then commonactions and positions; at a practical level, the Petersburg measures, carried on initially by the Western European Union as an armed branch of the European Union, have been replaced by actions of implication ofthe Union in managing some conflicts. The Lisbon Treaty confirms the commitments of the member states and mentions the fact that the European Union will dispose of the necessary measures for the defense of its objectives and to contribute to world peace and stability.

  6. A covenant of halflings? developing a roadmap for the european urban transport goal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Schippl, Jens; Anderton, Karen

    2015-01-01

    ; and to phase them out by 2050; and “To achieve ‘essentially CO2- free city logistics’ in major urban centres by 2030.” This paper describes how the EU FP7 project TRANSFORUM conducted a stakeholder-driven process to produce a roadmap for the urban transport goal. A main conclusion was that the implementation......In the 2011 Transport Policy White Paper, the European Commission introduced ten goals for a more competitive and resource efficient transport system. One of the goal concerns urban transport, with the dual targets: “To halve the use of ‘conventionally-fuelled’ cars in urban transport by 2030...... of a roadmap for urban transport needs to adopt a broad and open approach, given the diversity among member states and cities across Europe. Also it was found that replacing conventional vehicles and fuels is an important but not sufficient strategy to reach the goal. A roadmap to reach towards the ‘halving...

  7. The European Approach to Privacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoboken, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically assesses the character of European (Union’s) privacy law and policy in the field of online media and electronic communications. Contrary to current understanding, this field of law is more fragmented and ill-developed than is often assumed, in particular by those discussing

  8. Competence development: Key issues and trends in European competence policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella

      In recent years there has been a rising political attention on competence development both at national and international level. At European level in particular, since 2000, with the set of the Lisbon Agenda, different bodies representing the Union have been very productive in generating working...... papers, reports, and communications that led to directives and resolutions concerning the development and recognition of skills and competences in a lifelong learning perspective. In 2005 this process led to the definition of a European Framework on Key Competences for Lifelong Learning - covering those...... competences that are given priority within the Union - as well as a European Qualification Framework, a reference tool for making qualifications - here described in terms of progressive levels of competence - transparent and transferable within the European borders. The aim of the paper is to investigate...

  9. The development of biocommodities and the role of North West European ports in biomass chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, J.P.M.; Annevelink, B.; Hoeven, van der D.A.

    2009-01-01

    Biomass-derived commodities will compete with commodities derived from fossil fuels in 20 years' time. This perspective will explore the economic conditions that will govern the development of, and the trade in these biocommodities. Markets for biocommodities will open up new revenues for both the

  10. European Master in Innovation in Nuclear Energy (EMINE). Developed in the frame work of the European Institut of Innovation and Technology, KIC InnoEnergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrié, E.; Carreira, M.; Gudowski, W.; Garrido, F.; Reynier, B.; Dies, J.; Batet, Ll.; Otic, I.; Patte, C.; Darrigues, I.; Fernandez-Olano, P.; Leon, P.T.; Coste-Leconte, S.; Fanjas, Y.; Henriksson, H.

    2014-01-01

    KIC InnoEnergy SE is a European company fostering the integration of education, technology, business and entrepreneurship and strengthening the culture of innovation. The strategic objective is to become the leading engine of innovation in the field of sustainable energy. It has been designated as a one of the first three Knowledge and Innovation Communities by the EIT's Governing Board on 16 December 2009 in Budapest. KIC InnoEnergy addresses sustainable energy as its priority area. KIC InnoEnergy is a world class alliance of top European players with a proven track record. The Consortium consists of 30+ shareholders and additional 50+ partners - companies, research institutes, universities and business schools covering the whole energy mix. They are organised around six regional units, the Co-Location Centres (CC): France, Benelux, Germany, Iberia, Poland Plus and Sweden. On completion of the EMINE programme, a Master of Science degree will be awarded from the universities where studies were performed during year one and year two, i.e. a double-degree. A diploma from KIC InnoEnergy related to innovation and entrepreneurship will also be presented

  11. Mission operations concepts for Earth Observing System (EOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Taylor, Thomas D.; Hawkins, Frederick J.

    1991-01-01

    Mission operation concepts are described which are being used to evaluate and influence space and ground system designs and architectures with the goal of achieving successful, efficient, and cost-effective Earth Observing System (EOS) operations. Emphasis is given to the general characteristics and concepts developed for the EOS Space Measurement System, which uses a new series of polar-orbiting observatories. Data rates are given for various instruments. Some of the operations concepts which require a total system view are also examined, including command operations, data processing, data accountability, data archival, prelaunch testing and readiness, launch, performance monitoring and assessment, contingency operations, flight software maintenance, and security.

  12. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AS A SOLUTION TO AGRICULTURAL COMPETITIVENESS: THE CASE OF GREECE IN THE ERA OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION

    OpenAIRE

    PAPAGEORGIOU, Athanassios

    2012-01-01

    The liberalization of international trade, due to the elimination of market barriers between countries within the context of economic unions, like the European Union (EU) and the expansion of globalization have caused increased competitiveness, at both geographical and sector level. European Commission documents state competitiveness as a continuous rise in the standards of living of a nation or region, a definition which combines competitiveness with sustainability and social goals. Although...

  13. The European electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The creation of a single European market also will have its effects on the power and electricity sector. Expectations tied to this abandonment of borders on the electricity market are different: some hope for a reduction of energy costs, others fear safeguarded supplies to be at risk. It cannot be fully judged at present what the situation will be on a strongly integrated, European power and electricity market, and the brochure in hand is intended to present a first survey of the situation from the perspective of the power industry and energy policy, concentrating on main aspects. The survey is compiled in the form of reprints of journal articles written on this topic by a number of well-known German experts in the field. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Fusion for Energy: The European joint undertaking for ITER and the development of fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diegele, E.

    2009-01-01

    Materials development in nuclear fusion for in-vessel components, i.e. for breeder blankets and divertors, has a history of more than two decades. It is the specific in-service and loading conditions and the consequentially required properties in combination with safety standards and social-economic demands that create a unique set of specifications. Objectives of Fusion for Energy (F4E) include: 1) To provide Europe's contribution to the ITER international fusion energy project; 2) To implement the Broader Approach agreement between Euratom and Japan; 3) To prepare for the construction and demonstration of fusion reactors (DEMO). Consequently, activities in F4E focus on structural materials for the first generations of breeder blankets, i.e. ITER Test Blanket Modules (TBM) and DEMO, whereas a Fusion Materials Topical Group implemented under EFDA coordinates R and D on physically based modelling of irradiation effects and R and D in the longer term (new and /or higher risk materials). The paper focuses on martensitic-ferritic steels and (i) reviews briefly the challenges and the rationales for the decisions taken in the past, (ii) analyses the status of the main activities of development and qualification, (iii) indicates unresolved issues, and (iv) outlines future strategies and needs and their implications. Due to the exposure to intense high energy neutron flux, the main issue for breeder materials is high radiation resistance. The First Wall of a breeder blanket should survive 3-5 full power years or, respectively in terms of irradiation damage, typically 50-70 dpa for DEMO and double figures for a power plant. Even though the objective is to have the materials and key fabrication technologies needed for DEMO fully developed and qualified within the next two decades, a major part of the task has to be completed much earlier. Tritium breeding test blanket modules will be installed in ITER with the objective to test DEMO relevant technologies in fusion

  15. Concerns of European Commission for small and medium size enterprises development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Muntean

    2009-12-01

    by means of national programs, will support the SMEs development by offering the possibility of attendance to cross-border transactions with European Single Market. European Commission’s programs were supported by European Council and approved by European Parliament, following that every Member State will establish programs and initiatives on national level. European Commission’s strategy concerning SMEs  development is the increase of their number, labour force absorption and a faster economic and financial crisis traversing.

  16. A new imaging 2D and 3D for musculo-skeletal physiology and pathology with low radiation dose and standing position: the EOS system; Une nouvelle imagerie osteo-articulaire basse dose en position debout: le systeme EOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubousset, J. [Academie Nationale de Medecine, et Hopital Saint Vincent de Paul, Service de Chirurgie Orthopedique, 75 - Paris (France); Charpak, G.; Dorion, I. [Biospace, Instruments, 75 - Paris (France); Skalli, W.; Lavaste, F. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Arts et Metiers, 75 - Paris (France); Deguise, J. [Laboratoire de Recherche en Imagerie Orthopedique, Montreal (Canada); Kalifa, G.; Ferey, S. [Hopital Saint Vincent de Paul, Service de Radiologie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-06-01

    Very precise combined work between multidisciplinary partners (radiation engineers in physics, engineers in bio-mechanics, medical radiologists and orthopedic pediatric surgeons) lead to the concept and development of a new low dose radiation device named EOS. This device allows 3 main advantages: (1) thanks to the invention of Georges Charpak (Nobel Price 1992) who designed gaseous detectors for X-rays, the reduction of dose necessary to obtain a good image of skeletal system was 8 to 10 times less for 2D imaging, compared to the dose necessary to obtain a 3D reconstruction from CT scan cuts the reduction factor was 800 to 1000. (2) The accuracy of 3D reconstruction obtained is as good as a 3D reconstruction from CT scan cuts. (3) The patient in addition get its imaging in standing functional position thank to the X-rays obtained from head to feet simultaneously AP and lateral. This is a big advantage compared to CT scan used only in lying position. From this simultaneous AP and lateral X-rays of the whole body thanks to the 3D bone external envelop technique, the engineers in bio-mechanics allowed to obtain 3D reconstruction of every level of osteo-articular system in standing position with an acceptable period of time (15 to 30 minutes). This (in spite of the evolution of standing MRI) allows more precise bone reconstruction in orthopedics especially at the level of spine, lower limbs, etc. In addition the fact to study the entire skeleton in standing functional position instead of small segmented studies given by CT scan in lying position produce a real improvement as well for physiology as for pathology of bone and joints disorders and especially for spinal pathology. (author)

  17. The development of the northern European fishery for north Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus during 1900-1950

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Myers, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    North Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, used to migrate to northern European waters (Norwegian Sea, North Sea, Skagerrak, Kattegat, and Øresund) where it supported important commercial and sportfisheries. The species disappeared from the region in the early 1960s and the species is now still...... increasing. The species was frequently sighted while fishermen were targeting other species (herring, mackerel) and occasionally was caught as bycatch with these and other species. Information from scientifically trained observers demonstrate that tuna schools were common in the North Sea for 2–3 months...... during the summers of 1923–1931. As fishermen realized that the species had market value, new catch methods were developed and employed. These included harpoon-rifle, improved hook and line methods, and hydraulically operated purse seines. Landings rose sharply as did the number of vessels...

  18. Anti-proliferative and differentiation-inducing activities of the green tea catechin epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on the human eosinophilic leukemia EoL-1 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, H L; Ip, W K; Wong, C K; Mak, N K; Chen, Z Y; Leung, K N

    2002-12-06

    A novel approach for the treatment of leukemia is the differentiation therapy in which immature leukemia cells are induced to attain a mature phenotype when exposed to differentiation inducers, either alone or in combinations with other chemotherapeutic or chemopreventive drugs. Over the past decade, numerous studies indicated that green tea catechins (GTC) could suppress the growth and induce apoptosis on a number of human cancer cell lines. However, the differentiation-inducing activity of GTC on human tumors remains poorly understood. In the present study, the effect of the major GTC epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on the proliferation and differentiation of a human eosinophilc leukemic cell line, EoL-1, was examined. Our results showed that EGCG suppressed the proliferation of the EoL-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner, with an estimated IC(50) value of 31.5 microM. On the other hand, EGCG at a concentration of 40 microM could trigger the EoL-1 cells to undergo morphological differentiation into mature eosinophil-like cells. Using RT-PCR and flow cytometry, it was found that EGCG upregulated the gene and protein expression of two eosinophil-specific granule proteins, the major basic protein (MBP) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO), in EoL-1 cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that EGCG can exhibit anti-leukemic activity on a human eosinophilic cell line EoL-1 by suppressing the proliferation and by inducing the differentiation of the leukemia cells.

  19. Low vitamin D and the risk of developing chronic widespread pain: results from the European male ageing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Paul S; Pye, Stephen R; Beth, John Mc; Lee, David M; Tajar, Abdelouahid; Bartfai, Gyorgy; Boonen, Steven; Bouillon, Roger; Casanueva, Felipe; Finn, Joseph D; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Kula, Krzysztof; Pendleton, Neil; Punab, Margus; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Wu, Frederick C; O'Neill, Terence W

    2016-01-16

    The association between low levels of vitamin D and the occurrence of chronic widespread pain (CWP) remains unclear. The aim of our analysis was to determine the relationship between low vitamin D levels and the risk of developing CWP in a population sample of middle age and elderly men. Three thousand three hundred sixty nine men aged 40-79 were recruited from 8 European centres for a longitudinal study of male ageing, the European Male Ageing Study. At baseline participants underwent assessment of lifestyle, health factors, physical characteristics and gave a fasting blood sample. The occurrence of pain was assessed at baseline and follow up (a mean of 4.3 years later) by shading painful sites on a body manikin. The presence of CWP was determined using the ACR criteria for fibromyalgia. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-(OH) D) was assessed by radioimmunoassay. Logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between baseline vitamin D levels and the new occurrence of CWP. Two thousand three hundred thirteen men, mean age 58.8 years (SD = 10.6), had complete pain and vitamin data available and contributed to this analysis. 151 (6.5%) developed new CWP at follow up and 577 (24.9%) were pain free at both time points, the comparator group. After adjustment for age and centre, physical performance and number of comorbidities, compared to those in upper quintile of 25-(OH) D ( ≥36.3 ng/mL), those in the lowest quintile (BMI (OR = 1.67; 95% CI = 0.93-3.02) or depression (OR = 1.77; 95% CI = 0.98-3.21), however rendered the association non-significant. Low vitamin D is linked with the new occurrence of CWP, although this may be explained by underlying adverse health factors, particularly obesity and depression.

  20. Arguments for Polycentricity in Romanian Regional Development in the Context of European Union Cohesion Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clipa Raluca Irina

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Our study aims at analysing the monocentric/polycentric trends in Romanian regional developmentand formulating the recommendations regarding public policy for the attenuation of present developmentdisparities. In order to achieve this goal, we used as variables the annual GDP rates of each region, viewed asrepresentations of their development level, for the period of 2008-2013, ba